United States       Solid Waste and
        Environmental Protection   Emergency Response EPA^530-SW-91-075
        Agency         (OS-305)      October 1991
SEPA  National Survey Of
        Hazardous Waste
        Generators and Treatment,
        Storage, Disposal, and
        Recycling Facilities in 1986

        Hazardous Waste Generation
        and Management

-------

-------
1272-101
SEPORT DOCUMENTATION 1. REPORT NO. 2.
PAGE EPA/530-SH-91-075
4 ,
Title-and subtitle
NATIONAL SURVEY OF HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATORS AND TREATMENT, STORAGE,
ulaPQSHL, AND RECYCLING FACILITIES IN 1986: HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION
AND MANAGEMENT
7, fluthcKs)
D. UFDIKE/OSW
:. Performing Organization Name and Address
U.S. EPft
Office of Solid Waste
.-ful fi. Street 5W
toshi™ ton. CC 20460
T
sponsoring Organization fame and Adaress

7
PB92- 123325
5. Report Oats
OCTOBES 1991
A.
8. Pe'-fcruinq Organization Sept. No
10. Project/Task/Work Unit No.
11. Contract iC) or Grant (6) No.
iC)
(GJ
13. Typs of Report & Period Covereo
SURVEY
14.
  5.   Supplenentary  Notes
  .   Abstract  iLiiiit: 200 woros)

  is report presents comprehensive  information  describing the entire universe of hazarous waste .naraqeuent activities,
  :lijding detailed inroraiatian about  each  .najor category of hazardous wast? .Danaqeaient cperations.  This report also
  j"°s=es the  significant quantities  of hazardous wastes that are managed :n trsataient and recovery units that qualify
  at qualify for exemptions  ;ro(n  RCRA-permitting requirements.
     Document Analysis    a.   Descriptors
    b.   Identifiers/Dpen-Erded  Terns
    c.  COSATI Field/Group
Availability Stateaent
ILEASE UNLIMITED
19. Secur: :, .'.us
IJNCLASS:F:=:
20. Secun ty Class
UNCLASSIFIED
WSI-Z39.1B)
'This Repcrt)
(This Page)
OPT!
(For
21. .No. of Pages
0
22. Price
0
ONAL FORK 272 (4-77)
Ťerly NTIS-35)

-------

-------
  National Survey Of Hazardous
Waste Generators and Treatment,
Storage, Disposal, and Recycling
         Facilities in 1986
    Hazardous Waste Generation
         and Management
              October1991
             Office of Solid Waste
         U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Washington, DC 20460

-------

-------
                          1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management	///
CONTENTS
         INTRODUCTION AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 	1
         1.1  Overview	;	1
         1.2  Background	3
         1.3  Hazardous Waste Generation and Management in 1986:
             Overview of Survey Findings	4
         SURVEY OVERVIEW	9
         2.1  Survey Objectives	9
         2.2  Survey Scope	 10
             Sites Included	10
             Wastes Included	11
         2.3  Survey Methodology	11
             Phase I: Sample Design	11
             Phase II: Generator and TSDR Surveys	12
             Phase III:  Data Management	13
         2.4  Statistical Issues	14
             Adjustments to the Weights	14
             Confidence Intervals	15
         HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION IN 1986: SUMMARY	17
         3.1  Number of Hazardous Waste Generators	17
         3.2  Quantities of Hazardous Waste Generated	20
         TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATED	29
         4.1  RCRA and Non-RCRA Hazardous Waste	29
         4.2  Hazardous Wastewater and Non-Wastewater	31
         4.3  Physical/Chemical Characteristics	33
         4.4  Hazardous Characteristics	41
         4.5  RCRA Waste Codes	45

-------
 tv       1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 CONTENTS (continued)

 5        SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATED	49
         5.1  Location of Hazardous Waste Generators	49
         5.2  Industries Generating Hazardous Waste	56
         5.3  Ownership Type	69
         5.4  Activities Generating Hazardous Waste	71

 6        HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT	83
         6.1  Hazardous Waste Management by RCRA-Permitting Status	83
         6.2  Onsite, Captive, and Commercial Management of Hazardous
             Waste	86
         6.3  Hazardous Waste Management by Location	90
         6.4  Types of Hazardous Waste Management	95

7        HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODS: RECYCUNG	97
         7.1  Solvents	97
         7.2  Metals	103
         7.3  Reuse as Fuel	-	109
         7.4  Fuel Blending	115
         7.5  Other Recycling	120

8        HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODS: TREATMENT	127
         8.1  Incineration	127
             Solidification	133
             Wastewater Treatment	139
         8.4  Other Treatment	146

9        HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODS: STORAGE	151
         9.1  Geographic Distribution	151
         92  Types of Storage Units	156

-------
                          1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
CONTENTS (continued)

10       HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT METHODS: DISPOSAL	157
         10.1   Landfills	157
         10.2   Land Treatment	162
         10.3   Disposal Impoundments	167
         10.4   Injection Wells	172
11       UNITS SUBJECT TO THE LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTION RULE	 177
         11.1   Waste Piles	177
         11.2   Surface Impoundments	 182

12       CHANGES SINCE 1986 AFFECTING HAZARDOUS WASTE
         MANAGEMENT	189
         12.1   Land Disposal Restriction Rules	189
         12.2   Surface Impoundment Regulations	191
         12.3   Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)	 191
         12.4   Boiler and Industrial Furnace Regulations	192
         12.5   Pollution Prevention Policies	193
APPENDIXES

A        Detailed Outline of the Generator and TSDR Surveys
B        Definitions of Waste Codes
C        Generator and TSDR Survey Questions Referenced in This Report

-------
 vl	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 CHARTS

 1.1-1      Definition of Selected Terms Used In This Report	2
 1.3-1      Estimated Number of Hazardous Waste Generators in 1986	5
 1.3-2     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated in 1986 (million tons)	5
 1.3-3     Number of Hazardous Waste Generators in 1981,1985, and 1986	6
 1.3-4     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated in 1986, by RCRA-
          Permittlng Status of Management Units	7
 1.3-5     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in RCRA TSOR Units in 1981,
          1985, and 1986 (million tons)	8
 3.1-1      Estimated Number of Hazardous Waste Generators in 1986	18
 3.1-2     Number of Hazardous Waste Generators in 1981,1985, and 1986	19
 3.2-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 (million tons)	20
 3.2-2     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated in 1986, by RCRA-
          Permitting Status of Management Units	22
 3.2-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In RCRA TSDR Units in 1981,
          1985, and 1986 (million tons)	23
 3.2-4a    Cumulative Distribution of the Quantity of Hazardous Waste
          Generated In 1986	24
 3.2-4b    Cumulative Distribution of the Quantity of Hazardous Waste
          Generated In 1986 for the Top 25 Percent of Generators	25
 3.2-5      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by Generators:  Key
          Statistics—	26
 3.2-6      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 by the Fifty Largest
          Generators	27
4.1-1      Quantity of RCRA Hazardous Waste in 1986	30
4.2-1      Quantity of Hazardous Wastewater Generated in 1986	31
4.2-2      Number of Facilities Generating Hazardous Wastewater in 1986	32

-------
                             1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management        vll
CHARTS (continued)
4.3-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated in 1986 by
          Physical/Chemical Characteristics	33

4.3-2      Industries Generating the Largest Quantities of Inorganic Liquid
          Hazardous Waste in 1986	34

4.3-3      Industries Generating the Largest Quantities of Organic Liquid
          Hazardous Waste in 1986	35

4.3-4      Industries Generating the Largest Quantities of Organic Solid/Sludge
          Hazardous Waste in 1986	35

4.3-5      Industries Generating the Largest Quantities of Inorganic Sludge
          Hazardous Waste in 1986	36

4.3-6      Industries Generating the Largest Quantities of Inorganic Solid
          Hazardous Waste in 1986	36

4.3-7      Number of Generators in 1986 by the Physical/Chemical
          Characteristics	37

4.3-8      Industries with the Largest Numbers of Facilities Generating Organic
          Liquid Hazardous Waste In 1986	38

4.3-9      Industries with the Largest Numbers of Facilities Generating Inorganic
          Liquid Hazardous Waste in 1986	39

4.3-10    Industries with the Largest Numbers of Facilities Generating Organic
          Solid/Sludge Hazardous Waste In 1986	39

4.3-11     Industries with the Largest Numbers of Facilities Generating Inorganic
          Solid Hazardous Waste in 1986	40

4.3-12    Industries with the Largest Numbers of Facilities Generating Inorganic
          Sludge Hazardous Waste in 1986	40

4.4-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 by RCRA Hazard
          Characteristic	42

4.4-2      Number of Hazardous Waste Generators In 1986 by RCRA Hazard
          Characteristic of Wastes Generated	44

-------
 vlll	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 CHARTS (continued)
 4.5- 1     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated in 1 986 by RCRA Waste
          Code [[[ 46
 4.5-2     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1 986 by RCRA Waste
          Code Groups [[[ 47
 5.1-1     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated per EPA Region in 1 986 (In
          million tons) [[[ 50
 5.1 -2     Number of Hazardous Waste Generators per EPA Region in 1986 ................... 51
 5.1-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by State In 1986 .............. . .................. 52
 5.1-4     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by State in 1986, In
          Descending Order [[[ 53
 5.1-5     Number of Hazardous Waste C-inerators by State In 1986 ............................... 54
 5.1-6     Number of Hazardous Waste Generators by Slate in 1986, In
          Descending Order ...................... „ ................................. „ .................................... 55
 5.2-1     Largest General Industries by the Quantity of Hazardous Waste
          Generated [[[ 56
 5.2-2     Most Common Specific Industries In the Chemical Products Industry
          (SIC 28) by the Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated in 1986 (by
          4-DigltSIC) [[[ 57
 5.2-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by the Chemical Products
          Industry (SIC 28) In 1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristics ........................ 57
 5.2-4     Most Common Specific Industries in the Electronics Industry (SIC 36)
          by the Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 (by 4-Dlgft
                   ~ ......... _______ ...... ____ ......... - ..................... . ......................................... 58

-------
                            7986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management	ix
CHARTS (continued)
5.2-8      Most Common Specific Industries in the Primary Metals Industry
          (SIC 33) by the Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated in 1986 (by
          4-DigitSIC)	60

5.2-9      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by the Primary Metals
          Industry (SIC 33) in 1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristics	60

5.2-10    Most Common Specific Industries in the Transportation Equipment
          Industry (SIC 37) by the Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated in
          1986 (by 4-Digit SIC)	61

5.2-11     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by the Transportation
          Equipment Industry (SIC 37) in 1986 by Physical/Chemical
          Characteristics	61

5.2-12    Largest General Industries by the Number of Hazardous Waste
          Generi tors in 1986	62

5.2-13    Most Common Specific Industries in the Chemical Products Industry
          (SIC 28) by the Number of Hazardous Waste Generators in 1986 (by
          4-Digit SIC)	64

5.2-14    Number of Facilities in the Chemical Products Industry (SIC 28)
          Generating Hazardous Waste in 1986 by Physical/Chemical
          Characteristics	64

5.2-15    Most Common Specific Industries In the Metal Fabrication Industry
          (SIC 34) by the Number of Hazardous Waste Generators in 1986 (by
          4-Digit SIC)	65

5.2-16    Number of Facilities In the Metal Fabrications Industry (SIC 34)
          Generating Hazardous Waste In 1986 by Physical/Chemical
          Characteristics	65

5.2-17    Most Common Specific Industries in the Electronics Industry (SIC 36)
          by the Number of Hazardous Waste Generators in 1986 (by 4-Digit
          SIC)	66

5.2-18    Number of Facilities In the Electronics Industry (SIC 36) Generating
          Hazardous Waste in 1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristics	66

5.2-19    Most Common Specific Industries in the Transportation Equipment
          Industry (SIC 37) by the Number of Hazardous Waste Generators in
          1986 (by 4-Digit SIC)	67

-------
          1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 CHARTS (continued)
 5.2-20    Number of Facilities in the Transportation Equipment Industry
          (SIC 37) Generating Hazardous Waste in 1986 by Physical/Chemical
          Characteristics	67

 5.2-21    Most Common Specific Industries in the Primary Metals Industry
          (SIC 33} by the Number of Hazardous Waste Generators in 1986 (by
          4-DigitSIC)	68

 5.2-22    Number of Facilities in the Primary Metals Industry (SIC 33)
          Generating Hazardous Waste in 1986 by Physical/Chemical
          Characteristics	68

 5.3-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated in 1986 by Ownership Type	69

 5.3-2      Number of Hazardous Waste Generators in 1986 by Ownership Type	70

 5.4-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 19Łti by the Activity
          Generating the Waste (million tons)	71

 5.4-2      Most Common Sources of Primary/Routine Hazardous Waste
          Generation by Quantity Generated in 1986	—	„	72

 5.4-3      Most Common Sources of Secondary/Routine Hazardous Waste
          Generation by the Quantity Generated in 1986	73

 5.4-4      Most Common Sources of Primary/Non-Routine Hazardous Waste
          Generation by the Quantity Generated in 1986	74

 5.4-5      Most Common Sources of Secondary/Non-Routine Hazardous Waste
          Generation by the Quantity Generated In 1986	75

 5.4-6      Most Common Unknown Sources of Non-Routine Hazardous Waste
          Generation by the Quantity Generated In 1986...	„.—	76

 5.4-7      Number of Generators in 1986 by the Source of their Hazardous
          Waste-	77

 5.4-8      Most Common Sources of Primary/Routine Hazardous Waste
          Generation by the Number of Generators per Source in 1986.	78

 5.4-9      Most Common Sources of Secondary/Routine Hazardous Waste
          Generation by the Number of Generators per Source in 1986	79

5.4-10    Most Common Sources of Primary/Non-Routine Hazardous Waste
          Generation by the Number of Generators per Source in 1986	80

-------
                            7986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management	  xl
CHARTS (continued)
5.4-11     Most Common Sources of Secondary/Non-Routine Hazardous Waste
          Generation by the Number of Generators per Source in 1986	81

5.4-12     Most Common Unknown Sources of Non-Routine Hazardous Waste
          Generation by the Number of Generators per Source in 1986	82

6.1-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986. by RCRA-Permitting
          Status of Management Units	84

6.1-2     Number of Hazardous Waste Management Facilities by RCRA Permit
          Status of Management Units in 1986	85

6.2-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste that was Managed Onsite,
          Commercially, and Captively in 1986	86

6.2-2     Number of Hazardous Waste Management Facilities by the Origin of
          the Hazardous Waste Managed in 1986: Commercial. Captive, and
          Onsite-Only	87

6.2-3a     Number of Generators by Location of Their Hazardous Waste
          Management In 1986	88

6.2-3b     Number of Generators by Location of Their Hazardous Waste
          Management In 1986: Onsite. Commercial, and Captive	89

6.3-1      Number of Hazardous Waste Management Facilities per EPA Region
          in 1986	91

6.3-2      Number of Hazardous Waste Management Facilities by State In 1986	93

6.3-3      Number of Hazardous Waste Management Facilities by State in 1986.
          in Descending Order	94

6.4-1      Number of Management Facilities Treating, Storing, Disposing of. and
          Recycling Hazardous Waste in 1986	....95

7.1-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Solvent Recovery
          Processes per EPA Region in 1986 (In million tons)	98

7.1-2      Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Solvent Recovery
          Processes per EPA Region in 1986	99

7.1-3      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Solvent Recovery
          Processes by State in 1986	100

-------
 xll       1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
CHARTS (continued)
7.1-4     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Solvent Recovery
          Processes by State in 1986	101
7.1-5     Types of Solvent Recovery Processes and Quantity Managed in 1986	102
7.1 -6     RCRA-Permitting Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in
          Solvent Recovery Processes in 1986	103
7.2-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Metal Recovery Processes
          per EPA Region in 1986 (In million tons)	104
7.2-2     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Metal Recovery
          Processes per EPA Region in 1986	105
7.2-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Metal Recovery Processes
          by State in 1986	106
7.2-4     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Metal Recovery
          Processes by State In 1986	107
7.2-5     Types of Metals Recovery Processes and Quantity of Hazardous
          Waste Managed in 1986	108
7.2-6     RCRA-Permltting Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In
          Metal Recovery Processes in 1986	109
7.3-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Reuse-as-Fuel Processes
          per EPA Region In 1986 (in million tons)	110
7.3-2     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Reuse-as-Fuel
          Processes per EPA Region In 1986....			~	111
7.3-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Reuse-as-Fuel Processes
          by State In 1986	-	-	112
7.3-4     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Reuse-as-Fuel
          Processes by State In 1986			113
7.3-5      Types of Reuse-as-Fuel Processes and Quantity Managed In 1986	114

-------
                            1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management	xlll
CHARTS (continued)
7.3-6      RCRA-Permitting Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in
          Reusing Hazardous Waste as Fuel in 1986	115

7.4-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Fuel Blending Processes
          per EPA Region in 1986 (in million tons)	116

7.4-2      Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Fuel Blending
          Processes per EPA Region in 1986	117

7.4-3      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Fuel Blending Processes
          by State in 1986	118

7.4-4      Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Fuel Blending
          Processes by State in 1986	119

7.4-5      RCRA-Permitting Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in
          Fuel Blending Processes in 1986	120

7.5-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Other Recycling Processes
          per EPA Region in 1986 (in million tons)	121

7.5-2      Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Other Recycling
          Processes per EPA Region in 1986	122

7.5-3      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Other Recovery Processes
          by State in 1986	123

7.5-4      Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Other Recovery
          Processes by State In 1986	124

7.5-5      RCRA-Permitting Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in
          Other Recycling Processes in 1986	125

8.1-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Incinerators per EPA
          Region in 1986 (in million tons)	128

8.1-2      Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Incinerators per
          EPA Region in 1986	129

8.1 -3      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Incinerated by State in 1986	130

-------
xhf	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
CHARTS (continued)


8.1-4     Number of Facilities Incinerating Hazardous Waste by State in 1986	131

8.1-5     Types of Incinerators and Quantity Managed in 1986	132

8.2-1     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Solidification Processes
          per EPA Region in 1986 (in million tons)	134

8.2-2     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Solidification
          Processes per EPA Region in 1986	135

8.2-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Solidification by State in
          1986	136

8.2-4     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Solidification
          Processes by State in 1986	137

8.2-5     Types of Solidification Processes and Quantity Managed in 1986	138

8.3-1     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Wastewater Treatment
          Processes per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)	140

8.3-2     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Wastewater
          Treatment Processes per EPA Region in  1986	~	141

8.3-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Wastewater Treatment
          Processes by State in 1986	-	142

8.3-4     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Wastewater
          Treatment Processes by State in 1986	~	143

8.3-5     Types of Wastewater Treatment Processes and Quantity Managed in
          1986..-..	144

8.3-6     RCRA-Permftting Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In
          Wastewater Treatment Processes in 1986	~	145

8.3-7     Number of Facilities by Type of Unit Used for Wastewater Treatment	146

-------
                            1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management	xv
CHARTS (continued)
8.4-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Other Treatment
          Processes per EPA Region in 1986 (in million tons)	147
8.4-2      Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Other Treatment
          Processes per EPA Region in 1986	148
8.4-3      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Other Treatment
          Processes by State in 1986	149
8.4-4      Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Other Treatment
          Processes by State in 1986	150
9.1-1      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Stored per EPA Region in 1986 (in
          million tons)	152
9.1 -2      Number of Facilities Storing Hazardous Waste per EPA Region in
          1986	153
9.1-3      Quantity of Hazardous Waste Stored per State in 1986	154
9.1-4      Number of Facilities Storing Hazardous Waste per State in 1986	155
9.2-1      Types of Storage Units and Quantity Stored in 1986	156
10.1-1     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Landfills per EPA Region in
          1986 (in million tons)	158
10.1 -2     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Landfills per EPA
          Region in  1986	159
10.1-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Landfills by State In 1986	160
10.1 -4     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Landfills by State
          in 1986	161
10.2-1     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Land Treatment Areas per
          EPA Region in 1986 (in million tons)	163
10.2-2     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Land Treatment
          Areas per EPA Region in 1986	 164
10.2-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Land Treatment Areas by
          State in 1986	165
10.2-4     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Land Treatment
          Areas by State in 1986	166

-------
 xvl	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 CHARTS (continued)
 10.3-1     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Disposal Impoundments
          per EPA Region in 1986 (In million tons).	168

 10.3-2     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Disposal
          Impoundments per EPA Region in 1986	169

 10.3-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Disposal Impoundments by
          State in 1986.	170

 10.3-4     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Disposal
          Impoundments by State in 1986	171

 10.4-1     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Injection Wells per EPA
          Region In  1986 (in million tons)	173

 10.4-2     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste hi Injection Wells
          per EPA Region in 1986	174

 10.4-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Injection Wells by State in
          1986	175

 10.4-4     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Injection Wells by
          State In 1986.	176

 11.1-1     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Waste Piles per EPA
          Region In  1986 (in million tons)	178

 11.1-2     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Waste Piles per
          EPA Region In 1986	_	179

 11.1-3     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Waste Piles by State In
          1986	180

 11.1-4     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Waste Piles by
          State in 1986.—	181

 11.1-5     Types of Waste Management Conducted In Waste Piles in 1986, by
          Number of Facilities	~	182

 11.2-1     Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Surface Impoundments per
          EPA Region in 1986 (in million tons)	183

11.2-2     Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Surface
          Impoundments per EPA Region In 1986	184

-------
                           1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management	xvll
CHARTS (continued)
11.2-3    Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Surface Impoundments by
         State in 1986	185

11.2-4    Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Surface
         Impoundments by State in 1986	186

11.2-5    Types of Waste Management Conducted in Surface Impoundments in
         1986, by Number of Facilities	187

12.1-1    Schedule for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Restriction Rules
         Under HSWA	190

-------
 xvlll
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 ACRONYMS
BDAT      Best Demonstrated Available Technology



CBI        Confidential Business Information



EP         Extraction Procedure



EPA        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency



HSWA      Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984



HWDMS    Hazardous Waste Data Management System



LDR        Land Disposal Restrictions



LQG        Large Quantity Generator



NPDES      National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System




OSW        Office of Solid Waste



PCS        Polychlorinated Biphenyl



POTW      Publicly Owned Treatment Works




RCRA      Resource Conservation and Recovery Act



RIA        Regulatory Impact Analysis



SQG        Small Quantity Generator




TCLP       Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure




TSDR       Treatment, Storage, Disposal, and Recycling Facilities

-------
                                            1. Introduction and Executive Summary
          1
INTRODUCTION AND EXECUTIVE
SUMMARY
                   This report presents the findings of two extensive national surveys conducted
                   by mail over a three-year period to obtain detailed information concerning
                   hazardous waste generation and management practices occurring in calendar
                   year 1986. The two surveys—the National Survey of Hazardous Waste
                   Generators (Generator Survey) and the National Survey of Hazardous Waste
                   Treatment, Storage, Disposal, and Recycling Facilities (TSDR Survey)—
                   focused on hazardous waste handlers regulated under Subtitle C of the
                   Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended in 1984 by the
                   Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (hereafter referred to as RCRA).
1.1    OVERVIEW
                   Information developed through the Generator and TSDR Surveys is being
                   released in two phases:

                         • The first report presented the surveys' major findings concerning the
                          total quantity of hazardous waste generated in 1986 and a portion of
                          the surveys' findings concerning 1986 hazardous waste management
                          activities:  management of hazardous wastes in treatment, storage,
                          disposal, and recycling (TSDR) units that are subject to RCRA-
                          permitting requirements.  The report was released by EPA in July,
                          1991.

                         • This second report presents comprehensive information describing the
                          entire universe of hazardous waste management activities, including
                          detailed information about each major category of hazardous waste
                          management operations.  This report also addresses the significant
                          quantities of hazardous wastes that are managed in treatment and
                          recovery units that qualify for exemptions from RCRA-pcrmitting
                          requirements.

                   Chart 1.1-1 defines selected key terms used throughout these reports.
                   Appendix A outlines the content of the Generator and TSDR Surveys.

-------
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
         Chart 1.1-1   Definition of Selected Terms Used In This Report
          Generator
          Facility
          Hazardous waste
          RCRATSDR units
         Non-RCRA TSDR units
         RCRATSDR facilities
         Non-RCRA TSDR facilities
Facilities that generate in one month or
accumulate at any one time more than
1,000 kg RCRA hazardous waste or more
than 1 kg RCRA acutely hazardous waste
(sometimes referred to as "large" quantity
generators).

Facilities treating, recycling, disposing of, or
storing hazardous waste, regardless of their
permit status. Does not include accumulation
exempt from  RCRA-permitting requirements.

Wastes considered hazardous under RCRA
(regardless of how they are managed), under
other federal  regulations, or by the state in
which it is generated or managed.

Hazardous waste management  units subject
to RCRA-permrttlng  requirements (sometimes
referred to as RCRA units).

Hazardous waste management  units exempt
from RCRA-permlttlng requirements
(sometimes referred to as non-RCRA units).

Facilities that manage hazardous waste in
RCRA TSDR units.

Facilities that only manage hazardous waste
in non-RCRA TSDR units.
         These data have been used extensively since their collection, and this report
         documents some of the findings. However, any data analysis must take into
         account the significant changes that have occurred in hazardous waste
         management practices since these data were collected. Among other actions,
         EPA has

               • implemented restrictions on the land disposal of hazardous wastes,

               • expanded the toxicity characteristic testing procedures and standards
                 to capture an expanded universe of hazardous wastes under the
                 RCRA Subtitle C regulatory umbrella, and

               • implemented pollution prevention policies designed to reduce
                 hazardous waste generation.

-------
                                             1.  Introduction and Executive Summary
                   Chapter 12 describes these program changes in more detail.
1.2   BACKGROUND
                   The 1986 Generator and TSDR Surveys comprise EPA's third effort to
                   develop reliable national information describing hazardous waste generation
                   and management activities in the United States. EPA's April 1984 report,
                   National Survey of Hazardous Waste Generators and Treatment, Storage, and
                   Disposal Facilities Regulated Under RCRA in 1981 (1981 Mail Survey),
                   presented the first picture of the hazardous waste system that RCRA was
                   enacted to control, based on an extensive mail survey conducted directly by
                   EPA. EPA's March 1989 report, ^985 National Biennial Report of Hazardous
                   Waste Generators and Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities Regulated
                   Under RCRA (1985 National Biennial Report), updated the  1981 Mail Survey
                   based on EPA's compilation of data reported by generators  and facilities to
                   states and EPA regional offices through the RCRA Biennial Reporting
                   System.

                   The major finding of the 1981 Mail Survey was that annual hazardous waste
                   generation was approximately six times greater than previously estimated,
                   with slightly more than 14,000 generators producing approximately
                   290 million tons of hazardous waste in 1981. The 1981  Survey found for the
                   first time that large quantities of RCRA hazardous wastes are managed outside
                   the scope of the RCRA-permitting program in units that qualify for
                   exemptions from RCRA-permitting requirements. Most prominent among
                   such units are tank treatment systems used to treat hazardous wastewaters
                   prior to discharge to surface waters under the National Pollutant Discharge
                   Elimination System (NPDES). The 1981 Mail Survey was  unable to estimate
                   the total quantity generated of hazardous wastes that were managed outside
                   the scope of the RCRA-permitting system.

                   In the 1985  National Biennial Report, EPA reported that in 1985 almost
                   22,000 generators generated 271 million tons of RCRA hazardous waste that
                   were managed in RCRA-regulated TSDR units. In addition, data received by
                   states and EPA regional offices in 1985 again indicated that additional large
                   volumes of RCRA hazardous waste were being managed outside the scope of
                   the RCRA-permitting system. Again, EPA was unable to develop a reliable
                   estimate of the national quantities of these hazardous wastes.

-------
          1988 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                   The 1986 Generator and TSDR Surveys differ from the previous EPA
                   hazardous waste data collections described above in that, in addition to data
                   on wastes managed in RCRA TSDR units, they also include hazardous wastes
                   managed in units that qualify for exemptions from RCRA-pennitting
                   requirements.

1.3   HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT IN 1986: OVERVIEW
      OF SURVEY RNDINGS

                   Based on the survey procedures and methodologies described in
                   Chapter 2, EPA estimates that 12,478 generators generated 747.4 million
                   tons of hazardous waste in 1986. The 747.4 million ton quantity of
                   hazardous waste generated in 1986 is considerably greater than previous
                   estimates for 1981 and 1985 because it includes the large volumes of
                   hazardous waste that are managed outside the scope of the RCRA-pennitting
                   system in TSDR units that qualify for RCRA-pennitting exemptions (non-
                   RCRA TSDR units).

                   Charts 1.3-1 and 1.3-2 present these statistical estimates along with their
                   confidence intervals, corresponding to the 95 percent confidence levels. The
                   confidence interval is the range of values within which the actual number of
                   generators and quantity of hazardous waste is likely to be, based on the
                   statistical design of the survey and the response rates obtained. A 95 percent
                   confidence level means that if a survey was conducted 100 times, the
                   estimates would fall within the range 95 percent of the time. Chan 1.3-1
                   shows that the 95 percent confidence interval for the number of generators in
                   1986 is plus or minus 4.6 percent, or 575 generators. This means that there is
                   a 95 percent certainty that the actual number of generators in 1986 was
                   between 11,903 and 13,053. The 95 percent confidence interval for the
                   quantity of hazardous waste generated in 1986 is plus or minus 75 million
                   tons, or plus or minus 10 percent of the estimate.

                   Chart 13-3 compares the estimates of the number of hazardous waste
                   generators for 1981,1985, and 1986.  EPA believes that the 1985 estimate of
                   21,700 provided by the RCRA Biennial Reporting System overstates the
                   actual number of generators in that year because many states include small
                   quantity generators (SQGs) in their reporting systems and were unable to
                   remove them when reporting to EPA on the number of generators (i.e., "large"
                   quantity generators) within their borders. When the overcounting factor is
                   considered, the three estimates of hazardous waste generators shown in Chart
                   1.3-3 are thought to be similar.

-------
                                                 1. Introduction and Executive Summary
Chart 1.3-1   Estimated Number of Hazardous Waste Generators In 1986
                    14,000  -.

                    12,000  -•

                    10,000  ..


                     8.000  ..

                     6,000  ..

                     4,000  ..

                     2,000  •-


                         0  -
      12,478
                 ] 95% Confidence Interval
                     (ą 575 generators)
                          {ą 4.6%)
Source: (GA1, 2.3, 4.5. and 27] (The letters Indicate the questionnaire and the numbers Indicate the
        question on which the data are based.)
Chart 1.3-2   Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 (million tons)*
                   1,000  T


                    800  •-


                    600  ••


                    400  ••


                    200  ••
747.4 million tons
                  95% Confidence Interval
                     (ą75milBontons)
                         (ą10%)
a For the purpose ol this report, quantities reported in gallons have been converted to U.S. tons using the
  following standard conversion factor:  1 U.S. ton • 2,000 - 240 gallons.

Source: (GA27)

-------
          1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
Chart 1.3-3   Numbw of Hazardous Wasto Generators In 1981,1985, and 1986
             25.000 j

             20.000 • •

             15,000 • •

             10.000 • •

              5,000 • •
                  21.7008
14.100
                                     12,478
                           1981
                   1985
1986
a The 1985 Biennial Report System estimate overstates the actual population of hazardous waste generator*
 because some states Included small quantity generators.
Source:  1981 Mall Survey. 1985 Biennial Report. (GA1,2.3.4,5, and 27)
                    Chart 1.3-4 disaggregates the 1986 generation estimate of 747.4 million tons
                    according to the RCRA-permitting status of the TSDR units in which these
                    wastes were subsequently managed and according to the type of facility that
                    managed the hazardous waste. The chart shows three categories of hazardous
                    waste:

                          • waste managed in at least one RCRA TSDR unit,

                          • waste managed onfy in non-RCRA TSDR units at facilities that also
                            manage hazardous wastes in RCRA TSDR units, and
                          • waste managed onfy in non-RCRA TSDR units at facilities that do
                            not have any RCRA TSDR units.

-------
                                              1. Introduction and Executive Summary
Chart 1.3-4   Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986, by RCRA-Permtttlng Status of
            Management Units
          Managed In Non-RCRA
          TSDR Units at Facilities
           with No RCRA Units
            260.4 million tons
                 (35%)
Managed in RCRA
  TSDR Units
289.5 million tons
     (39%)
              Managed Exclusively in Non-RCRA
                TSDR Units at Facilities with
                       RCRA Units
                     197.5 million tons
                          (26%)
                        Total Quantity Generated = 747.4 million tons
Source: (A3.A8, GA27)
                   An example of a RCRA TSDR facility that manages hazardous waste in
                   RCRA and non-RCRA TSDR units is a facility that has a RCRA permit for
                   hazardous waste storage tanks and also treats hazardous waste in a RCRA-
                   exempt wastcwater treatment system governed by a National Pollutant
                   Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge permit under the Clean
                   Water Act An example of a non-RCRA TSDR facility that manages
                   hazardous waste only in non-RCRA units is a RCRA large quantity generator
                   that treats its hazardous waste in a RCRA-exempt wastewater treatment
                   system and ships the hazardous sludge residual from the treatment system
                   offsite every other month. (Generators are allowed to accumulate hazardous
                   waste onsite for up to 90 days without obtaining a RCRA storage permit)

-------
 8
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                    Only 289.5 million tons (39 percent) of the 747.4 million tons of hazardous
                    waste generated in 1986 were managed in RCRA TSDR units. An
                    additional 197.5 million tons (26 percent) of hazardous waste were
                    managed in non-RCRA TSDR units at facilities with RCRA units. The
                    remaining 260.4 million tons (35 percent) of hazardous waste generated in
                    1986 were managed in non-RCRA TSDR units at facilities with no RCRA
                    units.

                    Disaggregating the 747.4 million tons of hazardous waste generated in 1986
                    according to the RCRA regulatory status of management units enables
                    comparison of 19S6 generation estimates with the previously described 1981
                    and 1985 estimates.  Chart 1.3-5 presents hazardous waste generation
                    estimates for all three years. The estimates for 1981 and 1985 are limited (as
                    described in Section 1.2 above) to hazardous waste quantities that are
                    subsequently managed in RCRA TSDR units.  The estimates for 1981 and
                    1985 are very similar to the 1986 generation estimate of quantities
                    subsequently managed in the RCRA-pcrmitting system.
Chart 1.3-5    Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In RCRA TSDR Units In 1981,1985, and 1986
             (million tons)
   800  -r

   700  -•

   600  ••

   500  ••

   400  ••

   300  ••

   200  • >

   100  ••

     0
                                      747.4
                                       289.5
                                                        457.9 million ions
                                                     • Managed In Units Exempt
                                                       from RCRA-Permitting
                                                          Requirements
               1981
                      1985
1986
Source: 1981 Mail Survey, 1985 Biennial Report. (A3. GA27)

-------
                                                           2. Survey Overview
          2
SURVEY OVERVIEW
                   This chapter discusses the objectives of the 1986 Generator and TSDR
                   Surveys and the approach used to develop and conduct the surveys. The
                   information discussed in this chapter should help the reader understand the
                   nature and application of survey data.
2.1   SURVEY OBJECTIVES
                   The Generator and TSDR Surveys were an effort to develop comprehensive
                   hazardous waste information for use by the Office of Solid Waste (OSW) and
                   other EPA offices, the regulated community. Congress, and the general public
                   for rulemaking and related analyses. This section outlines the objectives of the
                   Generator and TSDR Surveys.

                   The Generator and TSDR Surveys were conducted to support the development
                   of a variety of regulations and analyses, including

                         • the land disposal restriction rules, including developing treatment
                           standards based on Best Demonstrated Available Treatment (BD AT)
                           technologies, and setting effective dates based on the capacity of
                           BDAT technologies;

                         • regulations for corrective action for solid waste management units at
                           facilities with RCRA permits;

                         • analyses of pollution prevention activities to support EPA pollution
                           prevention outreach efforts;

                         • permitting standards for tanks used to treat, store, or recycle
                           hazardous waste;

                         • Regulatory Impact Analyses (RIAs) for regulations associated with
                           RCRA and HSWA;

-------
 10        1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                           • revisions of the organic toxicity characteristic and other additional
                            waste characteristics used to classify wastes as "hazardous" under
                            RCRA;

                           • the revised list of wastes considered hazardous under RCRA; and

                           • testing procedures for wastes with hazardous characteristics.

2.2    SURVEY SCOPE

                    This section describes the types of generators and facilities and the types of
                    wastes included in the Generator and TSDR Surveys.


                    Sites Included
                    The facilities surveyed in the TSDR Survey include a census of facilities that
                    treated, disposed of, or recycled hazardous waste onsite and a random sample
                    of facilities that only stored hazardous waste and did not treat, dispose, or
                    recycle any hazardous waste onsite. The findings presented in Chapter 3
                    address only those facilities with RCRA TSDR units that were operational (or
                    temporarily idle) in 1986.

                    The data collected in the Generator Survey represent "large" quantity
                    generators of hazardous wastes (referred to in this report as "generators")- A
                    generator is a facility that generated in any one month more than 1,000 kg of
                    hazardous waste or more than 1 kg of waste considered acutely hazardous
                    under RCRA that was subsequently shipped offrite or managed onsite in
                    RCRA TSDR units. Acutely hazardous wastes are wastes described by any of
                    the following RCRA waste codes: F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, F027, and
                    all of the codes beginning with P.

                    The Generator Survey employed a stratified sample. All facilities included in
                    the TSDR Survey were also surveyed in the Generator Survey. The stratified
                    sample design provided greater precision in the findings and produced
                    statistically significant estimates at national, regional, and state levels.

                    It is important to note that both the Generator and TSDR Surveys  are statistical
                    samples.  All the data presented in this report have been weighted to represent
                    the total population of RCRA TSDR facilities and generators nationwide.

-------
                                                             2. Survey Overview	11
                   Wastes Included
                   RCRA defines a specific subset of solid wastes as "hazardous wastes"; these
                   wastes are subject to RCRA regulations concerning hazardous wastes.
                   Definitions of solid wastes and hazardous wastes are provided in the code of
                   Federal Regulations (see 40 CFR 260-261).  Many states regulate hazardous
                   wastes in addition to those regulated under RCRA (e.g., waste oil). The
                   Generator and TSDR Surveys include data on wastes considered hazardous
                   under RCRA, other federal regulations, and state regulations.

                   The following wastes are included in the Generator and TSDR Surveys:

                          • Waste considered hazardous under RCRA. This includes hazardous
                            wastewater pretreated prior to discharge under a NPDES permit or to
                            a publicly owned treatment works (POTW); hazardous waste
                            generated in a production process or a waste treatment process; and a
                            hazardous waste that is a characteristic hazardous waste even though
                            it may lose its hazardous characteristic through mixing with other
                            waste or by treatment

                          •  Waste considered hazardous by the state in which it was generated or
                            managed.

                          •  Waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos, or
                            dioxins/furans.

                          •  Hazardous waste mixed with radioactive waste.

2.3   SURVEY METHODOLOGY

                   The 1986 Generator and TSDR Surveys were designed and developed over a
                   two-year period.  Because of the size and complexity of this project and of the
                   survey instruments themselves, this section briefly explains the methodology
                   used to develop the surveys.

                   Phase): Sample Design

                   The initial phase of the TSDR Survey development was the  National
                   Screening Survey conducted from January through November 1986. The
                   Screening Survey identified and collected summary information from all
                   facilities in the United States that had filed a Pan A permit under RCRA and
                   were listed in the Hazardous Waste Data Management System (HWDMS) as
                   of November 1985. Because a large number of the facilities that filed a Part A
                   permit did not ultimately manage RCRA hazardous waste in units that require
                   a permit, one objective of the Screening Survey was to determine which

-------
12        19B6 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                   facilities operated waste management units subject to RCRA-pennitting
                   requirements during 1986. Of the 5,600 facilities surveyed, approximately
                   3,000 were determined to be active TSDR facilities requiring or otherwise
                   subject to permits under RCRA. A second objective of the Screening Survey
                   was to gather information to determine the best method for surveying TSDR
                   facilities in a more detailed follow-up survey.

                   In January and February of 1987, a computer-assisted telephone interview
                   followed up the approximately 3,000 active TSDR facilities identified in the
                   Screening Survey. These facilities were asked to verify and update the data
                   they had provided for the Screening Survey. With this information, EPA
                   determined the approximate number of waste management units for each
                   waste management activity operated at each facility.  This information served
                   as the basis for distributing detailed  questionnaires for the subsequent TSDR
                   Survey.

                   For the Generator Survey, the population to be surveyed included all
                   identified generators of hazardous waste.  A population of 41,000 potential
                   hazardous waste generators was identified using information from several
                   sources:

                          • the 1985 Biennial Hazardous Waste Report,
                          • the 1986 National  TSDR Screening Survey.
                          • the HWDMS,
                          • state regulatory officials, and
                          • EPA regional offices.

                   From this population, a stratified random sample of approximately 10,000
                   facilities was selected and surveyed. The sample was stratified by state, by
                   whether the facility was a TSDR facility, and by the quantity of hazardous
                   waste generated.


                   Phase II:  Generator and TSDR Surveys

                   The Generator and TSDR Survey instruments were developed over a two-year
                   period in consultation with government officials and industry trade
                   associations. Both survey instruments were evaluated in field pretests and
                   revised based on the results of the pretests. The TSDR Survey was mailed in
                   August 1987, and the Generator Survey was mailed in December 1987.

-------
                                          2. Survey Overview	13
Approximately 99 percent of the TSDR Survey instruments and 90 percent of
the Generator Survey instruments were completed and returned.  After
adjusting for nonresponses, the Generator and TSDR Survey samples reflect
the complete populations of Generators and RCRA TSDR facilities,
respectively.

Because of the highly technical nature of the Generator and TSDR Surveys,
two services were provided to respondents to improve the accuracy and
completeness of responses:

       • A toll-free telephone Survey Helpline was established for
        respondents. The helpline handled more than 15,000 calls.

       • A Survey Update newsletter was mailed periodically to all facilities
        that received the questionnaires. The Update provided additional
        information for completing complex questions, suggestions for
        easing the burden of completing the instruments, and any corrections
        to the questionnaires.

Phase III: Data Management
After receiving the completed questionnaires, selected portions of each
questionnaire were reviewed for technical accuracy. If necessary, telephone
follow-up calls were made to the facility. After editing, the data were entered
into a dedicated, secure computer. To ensure accurate keying, data were
keyed twice.

Information collected in the surveys was organized into two databases. The
TSDR  Survey database contained 61 distinct files, and the Generator Survey
database contained 41 distinct files.  In addition, each database included notes
Mies for each facility, which contained explanatory comments submitted by
facilities in their survey questionnaires.

Due to the nature of some of the data collected in the Generator and TSDR
Surveys, some responses were claimed as EPA Confidential Business
Information (CBI) by respondents.  A separate set of stringent security
requirements was followed for managing CBI data. Because  it was
determined that the CBI data did not significantly  affect any of the
information presented in this report, CBI data are not included in this report.

-------
14	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
2.4    STATISTICAL ISSUES
                    Adjustments to the Weights
                    In the TSDR and Generator Surveys, weights are used to make estimates
                    about the entire population of generators and TSDR facilities based on
                    responses by facilities included in the sample. A weight is a factor used to
                    escalate from a sample measurement to an estimate for the total population.
                    For example, if one facility was sampled from a population of ten facilities,
                    multiplying (or weighting) the responses of the facility surveyed by ten gives
                    an estimate of the quantity for the total population.

                    Initially, weights were defined based on the relative sizes of the total
                    population and the sample of facilities that were surveyed.  However, weights
                    were statistically adjusted based on the results of the survey for two reasons:
                    multiplicity and nonresponse.

                    First, weights had to be adjusted to correct for multiplicity in the sample frame
                    (the list of facilities thought to be large quantity generators in 1986).
                    Multiplicity occurs if a single facility is included more than once in the sample
                    frame.  In this case, a facility may have been included more than once under
                    different EPA identification numbers if the owner or the name  of the facility
                    changed and a new number was assigned.  Facilities surveyed were asked to
                    indicate any identification numbers that had previously been assigned to that
                    facility. This information was used to identify multiplicity in the sample
                    frame, and weights were adjusted so  that each facility is represented only
                    once.

                    The second adjustment to the weights was due to nonresponse  (facilities that
                    received a survey but did not return a completed survey). Ninety percent of
                    facilities receiving a Generator Survey questionnaire responded, and
                    98 percent of facilities receiving a TSDR Survey questionnaire responded.
                    Weights for facilities that did respond to the Surveys were adjusted so that the
                    responding facilities represent the total population of facilities.

                    All data presented in this report use these adjusted weights to obtain estimates
                    for the total population of TSDR facilities and large quantity generators during
                    1986.

-------
                                            2. Survey Overview	T5
Confidence Intervals
By weighting the data from a sample survey, estimates can be made about the
total population of facilities.  Confidence intervals are used to measure the
accuracy of these estimates. The confidence interval is the range of numbers
within which the true value of an estimated number will fall with a certain
known probability, based on the statistical design of the survey and the
response rates obtained. A 95 percent confidence interval means that if a
survey was conducted 100 times, the estimates would fall within the range
95 percent of the time.

For the Generator Survey, the 95 percent confidence interval for the  total
number of large quantity generators nationwide in 1986 is plus or minus
575 generators, or plus or minus 5 percent of the estimate of 12,478. This
means that there is a 95 percent certainty that the actual number of generators
was between 11,903 and 13,053.

Generally, regional- and state-level estimates are less certain than the national
estimates (i.e., these estimates have larger confidence intervals in percentage
terms).  This is because, all else being equal, the confidence interval increases
as the number of facilities surveyed decreases. The exception to this are
estimates for North  Dakota and South Dakota. These states were censused
rather than sampled (i.e., every facility in these states received a survey) and a
100 percent response rate was achieved.  Therefore, there is no sampling error
for these states, and the totals for these states are not estimates but actual
numbers reported.

-------
16	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                                      (This page is intentionally blank)

-------
                        3. Hazardous Waste Generation in 1986: Summary	17
3
                  HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION  IN
                  1986:  SUMMARY


                  The Generator Survey contains data on "large" quantity generators
                  (generators) of RCRA hazardous waste in 1986. As described in Chapter 2,
                  generators are facilities that generated in any one month or accumulated at any
                  time more than 1,000 kg of RCRA hazardous waste or 1 kg of RCRA acutely
                  hazardous waste that was subsequently shipped offsite or managed onsite in
                  RCRA TSDR units.  Although there are also large numbers of smaller
                  generators of hazardous waste that generated less than these threshold
                  quantities, in aggregate these small quantity generators typically account for
                  less than one percent of all hazardous waste generated. Throughout this
                  report, the term "generator" is used to refer to "large" quantity generators
                  only, and the data represent only hazardous waste generated by these "large"
                  quantity generators.


3.1   NUMBER OF HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATORS

                  In 1986,12,478 facilities generated quantities of hazardous waste over
                  the thresholds specified above. Chart 3.1-1 shows the estimate of 12,478
                  generators and its confidence interval, corresponding to the 95 percent
                  confidence level (see Section 2.4.2 for an explanation of confidence
                  intervals). As the chart shows, the 95 percent confidence interval for the
                  number of generators is plus  or minus 575 generators, or plus or minus 4.6
                  percent of the estimate of 12,478 generators. This means that there is a 95
                  percent certainty that the actual number of generators in 1986 is between
                  11,903 and 13,053.

-------
 18
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
Chart 3.1-1   Estimated Number of Hazardous Waste Generators In 1986
                   14.000 ..

                   12.000 ..

                   10.000 -•

                    8,000 ..

                    6.000 - -

                    4,000 ..

                    2.000 ..

                        0 L
                            12.478
                                        95% Confidence Interval
                                           (ą 575 generators)
                                               (ą 4.6%)
Source:  (GA1, 2,3,4.5, and 27)

-------
                                     3. Hazardous Waste Generation in 1986: Summary
                                         19
                    The 1986 Generator Survey, in combination with the TSDR Survey,
                    comprise EPA's third effort to develop national estimates of hazardous
                    waste generation. Chart 3.1-2 compares the 1986 estimate with the two
                    previous estimates:  the 1981 Mail Survey and the 1985 Biennial Report In
                    1981, there were an estimated 14,100 generators and an estimated
                    21,700 generators in 1985. EPA believes that the 1985 estimate, provided by
                    the RCRA Biennial Reporting System, overstates the actual number of
                    generators in that year because many states include small quantity generators
                    in their reporting systems and were unable to remove them when reporting to
                    EPA on the number of generators (i.e., "large" quantity generators) within
                    their borders. When the overcounting factor is considered, the three
                    estimates of hazardous waste generators shown in Chart 3.1-2 are thought to
                    be similar.
Chart 3.1-2   Number of Hazardous Wast* Generators in 1961,1985, and 1986
                                              21.700*
                                                                  12.478
                            1981
1985
1986
a The 1985 Biennial Report System estimate overstates the actual population of hazardous waste generators
 because some states included small quantity generators.
Source:  1981 Mail Survey, 1985 Biennial Report. (GA1,2.3,4,5. and 27)

-------
 20
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 3.2   QUANTITIES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATED

                    Large quantity generators generated an estimated 747.4 million tons of
                    hazardous waste in 1986. This quantity includes RCRA hazardous waste,
                    waste considered hazardous under federal regulations other than RCRA, and
                    waste considered hazardous in the state in which it was generated.
                    Non-RCRA hazardous waste accounted for approximately 3 percent of the
                    total quantity of hazardous waste generated.

                    Chart 3.2-1 shows the estimated total quantity of hazardous waste generated in
                    1986 and its associated 95 percent confidence interval. The 95 percent
                    confidence interval for the quantity of hazardous waste generated is plus or
                    minus 75 million tons, or plus or minus 10 percent of the estimate. Thus,
                    there is a 95 percent certainty that the actual quantity of hazardous waste
                    generated in 1986 is between 672 million and 822 million tons.
Chart 3.2-1    Quantity of Hazardous Wast* Generated In 1988 (million tons)
                                                95% Confidence Interval
                                                   (ą 75 mifflon tons)
                                                       (ą10%)
Source: (GA27)

-------
                3. Hazardous Waste Generation in 1986: Summary	21
Chart 3.2-2 depicts the total quantity of hazardous waste generated in 1986
divided according to the RCRA-permitting status of the TSDR units in which
these wastes were subsequently managed and according to the type of facility
that managed the hazardous waste. The chart shows three categories of
hazardous waste:

      • waste managed in at least one RCRA TSDR unit,

      • waste managed onfy in non-RCRA TSDR units at facilities that also
        manage hazardous waste in RCRA TSDR units, and
      • waste managed onfy in non-RCRA TSDR units at facilities that do
        not have any RCRA TSDR units.

An example of a RCRA TSDR facility that manages hazardous waste in
RCRA and non-RCRA TSDR units is a facility that has a RCRA permit for
hazardous waste storage tanks and also treats hazardous waste in a
RCRA-exempt wastewater treatment system governed by a NPDES discharge
permit under the dean Water ACL An example of a non-RCRA TSDR
facility that manages hazardous waste only in non-RCRA units is a RCRA
large quantity generator that treats its hazardous waste in a RCRA-exempt
wastewater treatment system and ships the hazardous sludge residual from the
treatment system off site every other month. (Generators are allowed to
accumulate hazardous waste onsite for up to 90 days without obtaining a
RCRA storage permit)

Only 39 percent of the 747.4 million tons of hazardous waste generated in
1986 was managed in RCRA TSDR units. An additional 26 percent of the
hazardous waste was managed in non-RCRA TSDR units at facilities
with RCRA units. The remaining 35 percent of hazardous waste
generated in 1986 was managed in non-RCRA TSDR units at facilities
with no RCRA units.

-------
           1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chan 3.2-2   Quantity ol Hazardous Wasto Generated In 1986, by RCRA-Permlttlng Status of
             Management Units
          Managed In Non-RCRA             	
          TSDR Units at FatiUtfes        m^lfflffH>^            Managed In RCRA
           with No RCRA Units       X^WFrl^^^^-           TSDR Units
            260.4 milOon tons      ^^^HfiH^^^Bk.       289.5 milGon tons
                 (35%)         Jll^HHBranK;           (39%)
              Managed Exclusively In Non-RCRA
                 TSDR Units at Facilities with
                       RCRA Units
                     197.5 million tons
                          (26%)
                        Total Quantity Generated • 747.4 maiton ton*
Source: (A3. AS, GA27)

-------
                                     3. Hazardous Waste Generation in 198$: Summary
                                                                       23
                    Disaggregating the 747.4 million tons of hazardous waste generated in 1986
                    according to the RCRA regulatory status of management units enables
                    comparison of 1986 generation estimates with the previously described 1981
                    and 198S estimates. Both the 1981 and the 1985 estimates of the quantities of
                    hazardous waste generated include only hazardous wastes that were
                    subsequently managed in RCRA TSDR units. Chart 3.2-3 presents hazardous
                    waste generation estimates for 1981,1985, and 1986. The estimates for 1981
                    and 1985 are very similar to the 1986 generation estimate of quantities
                    subsequently managed in the RCRA-permitting system.
Chart 3.2-3   Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In RCRA TSDR Untts In 1981,1985, and 1986
             (million tons)
  800  j

  700  ••

  600  ••

  500  ••

  400  ••

  300  ••

  200  ••

  100  ••

     0
                                  747.4
290
289.5
                                                     457.9 mllDon tons
                                                 • Managed in Units Exempt
                                                   from RCRA Permitting
                                                       Requirements
               1981
                 1985
 1986
Source:  1981 Mall Survey, 1985 Biennial Report. (A3, GA27)

-------
 24
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                     A small percentage of the 12,478 generators accounted for most of the   .
                     hazardous waste generation in 1986. Chart 3.2-4a illustrates the highly
                     skewed distribution of hazardous waste generation. The chart shows the
                     cumulative distribution of the quantity of hazardous waste generated in 1986
                     and is constructed by ranking generators in descending order by the quantity
                     of hazardous waste generated. As indicated in the chart, the top 10 percent
                     of generators generated 96.1 percent of the total quantity of hazardous
                     waste generated, or 71&2 million tons.
Chart 3.2-4a  Cumulative Distribution of the Quantity of Hazardous Wast* Generated In 1986
                100% T
          96.1%
    Percentage
      of Total
      Quantity
    Generated
                 25%-
                  0%
                                                                       -\
                      0%  10%
                          25%
50%
75%
100%
                                            Percentage of Generators
                               (Ranked In descending order by quantity generated)
Source:  (GA27)

-------
                                      3. Hazardous Waste Generation in 1986: Summary
                                         25
                     Chan 3.2-4b shows a close-up of the top 25 percent of generators ranked in
                     descending order by the quantity of hazardous waste generated, indicating the
                     following:

                            • The top 3 percent of generators generated 83.4 percent of the
                             hazardous waste (623.3 million tons).

                            • The top 5 percent of generators generated 89.7 percent of the
                             hazardous waste (670.4 million tons).
Chart 33-4b  Cumulative Distribution of the Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 for the
             Top 25 Percent of Generators*
                   100% T
             96.1%
  Percentage 99.7%
    of Total
    Quantity  83.4%
   Generated
                         0%    3%   5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
                                               Percentage of Generators
                                   (Ranked In descending order by quantity generated)
a This chart Is an enlargement of the top 25 percent of generators from Chart 3.2-4a to provide greater detail.
Source: (GA27)

-------
 26	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                     Chart 3.2-5 provides further detail of the skewness of hazardous waste
                     generation. The largest generator of hazardous waste generated 48.9 million
                     tons of hazardous waste, although the smallest generator generated less than
                     one ton.  One-fourth of generators each generated 33 tons or less, half of the
                     generators generated 147 tons or less, and three-fourths generated 2,683 tons
                     or less.
Chart 342-5   Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by Generators:  Key Statistics
                                                              Quantity Generated
                                                                 per Facility
                                                                    (tons)
    Smallest                                                             <1
    First Quartite*                                                        33
    Median (Second Quartile)b                                            147
    Third Quartile0                                                     2,683
    Average                                                         62,431
    Largest                                                      48.941,295
8 25 percent of generators each generated 33 tons or less.
b 50 percent of generators each generated 147 tons or less.
c 75 percent of generators each generated 2,683 tons or less.
Source: QG-178(QA27)

-------
                                      3. Hazardous Waste Generation in 1986:  Summary	27
                     Chart 3.2-6 shows the quantities of hazardous waste generated by the largest
                     generators in 1986.  As the chart illustrates, the top 10 generators ranked by
                     the quantity of hazardous waste generated Gess then 0.1 percent of all
                     generators) generated over 25 percent of all hazardous waste. The top SO
                     facilities, representing only 0.4 percent of all generators, generated half of all
                     the hazardous waste generated in 1986.
Chan 3.2-6   Quantity of Hazardous Wast* Generated In 1986 by the Rtty Largest Generators
   Top 10 Generators

   Top 20 Generators

   Top 30 Generators

   Top 40 Generators

   Top 50 Generators8
                    0%             25%            50%             75%            100%

                Additional quantity of hazardous waste managed by the additional 10 generators indicated
• The top 50 generators represent the top 0.4 percent of the 12,478 generators. These 50 facilities generated
  50 percent of the total quantity of hazardous waste generated In 1986.
Source: (GA27)

-------
28	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                                     (This page is intentionally blank)

-------
                                4. Types of Hazardous Waste Generated	29
4
                  TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE
                  GENERATED

                  The Generator and TSDR Surveys contain data on the following types of
                  hazardous waste:

                        • Waste considered hazardous under RCRA. This includes hazardous
                          wastewater pretreated prior to discharge under a NPDES permit or to
                          a POTW; hazardous waste generated in a production process or a
                          waste treatment process; and a hazardous waste that is a
                          characteristic hazardous waste even  though it may lose its hazardous
                          characteristic through mixing with other waste or by treatment

                        • Waste considered hazardous by the state in which it was generated or
                          managed

                        • Waste containing PCBs, asbestos, or dioxins/furans.

                        • Hazardous waste mixed with radioactive waste.

                  This chapter characterizes the types of hazardous waste generated in 1986.

4.1   RCRA AND NON-RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE

                  Generators generated 747.4 million tons of hazardous waste in 1986.  This
                  quantity includes both RCRA and non-RCRA hazardous wastes. Non-RCRA
                  hazardous wastes are wastes considered hazardous under state laws or under
                  federal laws other than RCRA. If a single hazardous waste stream has both
                  RCRA and non-RCRA hazardous constituents, the entire waste stream is
                  considered a RCRA hazardous waste and is subject to RCRA regulations
                  (based on the "mixture rule" in effect in 1987 when the surveys were
                  conducted).

                  Chart 4.1-1 shows the quantities of RCRA and non-RCRA hazardous waste
                  generated in 1986. Only 3.2 percent of the total quantity of hazardous waste
                  generated, or 23.9 million tons, is non-RCRA. An additional 3.4 percent of
                  hazardous waste generated, or 25.8 million tons, could not be classified
                  because no hazardous waste description codes were reported in the Generator
                  Survey.

-------
 30        1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 4.1-1  Quantity of RCRA Hazardous Waste In 1986
                                    Non-RCRA
                       Unknown   23.9 milOon tons
                    25.8 million tons      3-2%
                         3.4%
                                                       RCRA Hazardous
                                                       697.7 million tons
                                                            93.4%
                         Total quantity * 747.4 million ton*
Source: GG-186(QB10)

-------
                                            4. Types of Hazardous Waste Generated	31
4.2    HAZARDOUS WASTEWATER AND NON-WASTEWATER

                   According to RCRA regulations, whenever hazardous wastes are introduced
                   into nonhazardous wastes or materials, the resulting mixture is to be managed
                   as a hazardous waste.  In many instances, the hazardous materials amount to
                   extremely small portions when mixed with nonhazardous wastewaters.
                   Nonetheless, release of these wastes into the environment is a concern
                   prompting their regulation under the RCRA program.

                   Hazardous wastewater is water mixed with hazardous waste. Chart 4.2-1
                   shows that 684.4 million tons of hazardous wastewater were generated in
                   1986. Over 90 percent of all hazardous waste generated was wastewater.
                   However, less than half of the generators (43.5 percent) generated
                   hazardous wastewater in 1986 (see Chart 4.2-2).
Chart 42-1   Quantity of Hazardous Wastewater Generated In 1980
                                                                    Hazardous
        Hazardous Wastewater     j^fl^                          Non-Wastewater
          684.4 million tons      JiiS|j|i|^                        63.0 million tons
              (91.6%)         /.•~.yy.--.Kt^*>!ffi^Pgi^!^S^^^          (8.4%)
                          Total Quantity Generated ť 747.4 million tons
Source: GG-196 (GA27, GB1, GB2)

-------
 32
1960 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
Chart 4.2-2  Number of Facilities Generating Hazardous Wastewater In 1986
          Generated Hazardous
              Wastewater
             5,426 faciCties
                (43.5%)
                                                           Generated
                                                      Non-wastewater Only
                                                         7.052 facilities
                                                            (56.5%)

                                                               I
                                  Total generators Ť12,478 facilities
Source:  GG-178(GA20)

-------
                                               4.  Types of Hazardous Waste Generated
                                                                   33
4.3   PHYSICAUCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
                     Hazardous wastes can be characterized based on their physical characteristics
                     (e.g., solid, liquid, or sludge) and chemical characteristics (organic or
                     inorganic). Chart 4.3-1 shows the quantities of hazardous waste generated
                     with different combinations of physical and chemical characteristics.  Over
                     80 percent of the hazardous waste generated (608.2 million tons) was
                     inorganic liquid. Inorganic liquids include caustic or acidic solutions, often
                     containing metals. The next largest category (12 percent) of hazardous waste
                     is organic liquids, which include organic solvents, waste oils, and petroleum
                     products.
Chart 4.3-1   Quantity of Hazardous Wast* Generated In 1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristics
       Inorganic liquid

        Organic liquid

            Unknown

  Organic solid/sludge

      Inorganic sludge

        Inorganic solid

               Other"
                                                      6082 million tons
        89.1 million tons
   31.3 million tons
 7.9 million tons
 6.9 million tons
3.7 million tons
0.2 million tons
                   0%
              25%
50%
75%
100%
aindudes mixtures and gases.
Source: GG-195 (GB1, GB2.GB10)

-------
 34	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                     Chans 4.3-2 to 4.3-6 show the industries generating the largest quantities of
                     each type of hazardous waste, based on the physical/chemical characteristics
                     of the waste.  The chemical products industry (Standard Industrial
                     Classification [SIC] 28) generated the largest quantities of inorganic liquid,
                     organic liquid, and organic solid/sludge waste. The metal fabrications
                     industry (SIC 34) generated the largest quantity of inorganic sludge waste, and
                     the water transportation industry (SIC 44) was the largest generator of
                     inorganic solid waste.
Chart 4.3-2   Industries Generating the Largest Quantities of Inorganic Liquid Hazardous Waste
             In 1986
SIC
Cod*
28
36
29
33
37


Description
Chemical Products
Electronics
Petroleum & Coal Products
Primary Metals
Transportation Equipment
All Other Industries
Total Inorganic Liquid
Quantity Generated
(million tons)
294.03
67.88
62.09
52.67
42.85
88.71
608.24
Percentage of Total Quantity
of Inorganic Liquid
Hazardous Waste Generated
48.3
112
102
8.7
7.0
14.6
100.0
Source: GG-195 (GB1, GB2, GB10)

-------
                                              4. Types of Hazardous Waste Generated
35
 Chart 4.3-3   Industries Generating the Largest Quantities of Organic Liquid Hazardous waste in 1986
SIC
Code
28
32
34
29
45


Percentage of Total Quantity
Quantity Generated of Organic Liquid
Description (million tons) Hazardous Waste Generated
Chemical Products
Stone. Clay, and Glass Products
Metal Fabrications
Petroleum & Coal Products
Air Transportation
All Other Industries
Total Organic Liquid
78.48
3.97
1.38
1.05
0.89
3.36
89.14
88.1
4.5
1.5
1.2
1.0
3.8
100.0
Source:  GG-195 (GB1, GB2.GB10)
Chart 4.3-4   Industrie* Generating the Largest Quantities of Organic Solid/Sludge Hazardous Waste
             in 1986
SIC
Cod*
28
29
25
38


Description
Chemical Products
Petroleum & Coal Products
Furniture and Fixtures
nauullWiiUf
Unknown
All Other Industries
Total Organic Solid/Sludge
Percentage of Total Quantity
Quantity Generated of Organic Solid/Sludge
(million tons) Hazardous Waste Generated
2.44
2.39
2.30
0.19
0.14
0.48
7.94
30.8
30.0
29.0
2.3
1.8
6.1
100.0
Source: GG-195 (GB1.GB2.GB10)

-------
 36
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 4.3-5   Industries Generating the Largest Quantities of Inorganic Sludge Hazardous Wast*
             in 1980
SIC
Cod*
34
36
28
33
37


Description
Metal Fabrications
Electronics
Chemical Products
Primary Metals
Transportation Equipment
All Other Industries
Total Inorganic Sludge
Quantity Generated
(million tons)
2.70
1.21
1.11
0.82
0.24
0.79
6.87
Percentage of Total Quantity
of Inorganic Sludge
Hazardous Waste Generated
39.3
17.6
16.2
11.9
3.5
11.5
100.0
 Source: GG-195 (GB1. GB2.GB10)
Chart 4.3-6   Industrie* Generating the Largest Quantities of Inorganic Solid Hazardous Wast*
             In 1988
SIC
Cod*
44
34
33
49
28


Description
Water Transportation
Metal Fabrications
Primary Metals
Electrical, Gas, and Sanitary
Service*
Chemical Products
All Other Industries
Total Inorganic Sold
Percentage of Total Quantity
Quantity Generated of Inorganic Solid
(million tons) Hazardous Wast* Generated
1.55
0.84
0.35
0.30
0.22
0.49
3.75
41.3
225
9.4
8.0
5.8
13.0
100.0
Source: GG-195 (GB1, GB2, GB10)

-------
                                                4.  Types of Hazardous Waste Generated
                                                       37
                     Chart 4.3-7 shows the numbers of facilities generating different types of
                     hazardous waste based on the physical/chemical characteristics of the waste.
                     Over 75 percent of generators, or 9,600 facilities, generated organic liquid
                     waste. Although inorganic liquid comprised over 80 percent of the total
                     quantity of hazardous waste generated, less than SO percent of generators
                     (5,978 facilities) generated inorganic liquid waste.
Chart 4.3-7   Number of Generators In 1986 by the Physical/Chemical Characteristics
        Organic liquid

       Inorganic liquid

  Organic solid/sludge

       Inorganic solid

      Inorganic sludge

            Unknown
                                      9.600
               Other 1230
                    0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
Note:  A single facility may generate more than one type of hazardous waste. Adding the numbers of
       facilities shown results In multiple counting.
Source: GG-195 (G81.GB2)

-------
 38
1936 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                     Chans 4.3-8 to 4.3-12 show the industries with the largest numbers of
                     facilities generating each type of hazardous waste based on the waste's
                     physical and chemical characteristics. The chemical products industry
                     (SIC 28) had the largest number of facilities generating organic liquid, organic
                     solid/sludge, and inorganic solid wastes. The metal fabrications industry
                     (SIC 34) had the largest number of facilities generating inorganic liquid and
                     inorganic sludge wastes in 1986.
Chart 4.3-8  Industries with the Largest Numbers of Facilities Generating Organic Liquid Hazardous
            waste in 1986
SIC
Code
28
34
36
37
35


Description
Chemical Products
Metal Fabrications
Electronics
Transportation Equipment
Nonelectrical Machinery
Ail Other Industries
Total
Percentage of Total Generators
Number of of Organic Liquid
Generators Hazardous Waste
1,683
1,122
1.027
735
602
4.431
9,600
17.5
11.7
10.7
7.7
6.3
46.2
100.0
Source:  GG-195 (GB1, GB2)

-------
                                              4.  Types of Hazardous Waste Generated
39
Chart 43-9  Industries with the Largest Numbers of Facilities Generating Inorganic Liquid Hazardous
            Waste lni98fr
SIC
Code
34
28
36
37
33


Description
Metal Fabrications
Chemical Products
Electronics
Transportation Equipment
Primary Metals
All Other Industries
Total
Percentage of Total Generators
Number of of Inorganic Liquid
Generators Hazardous Waste
1.008
942
875
527
448
4.970
5.978
16.9
15.8
14.6
8.8
7.5
83.1
100.0
Source:  GG-195 (GB1, GB2)
Chart 4.3-10  Industries with the Largest Numbers of Facilities Generating Organic Solid/Sludge
             Hazardous Waste In 196ft
SIC
Code
28
36
34
37
35



escnption
Chemical Products
Electronics
Metal Fabrications
Transportation Equipment
Nonelectrical Machinery
All Other Industries
Total
Percentage of Total Generators
Number of of Organic Solid/Sludge
Generators Hazardous Waste
939
359
338
284
263
2.138
4.319
21.7
8.3
7.8
6.6
6.1
49.5
100.0
Source:  GG-195 (GB1, GB2)

-------
 40
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 4.3-11   Industrie* with the Largest Numbers of Facilities Generating Inorganic Solid Hazardous
              Waste hi 1986
SIC
Code
28
36
34
49
33


Description
Chemical Products
Electronics
Metal Fabrications
Electrical, Gas, and Sanitary
Services
Primary Metals
All Other Industries
Total
Percentage of Total Generators
Number of of Inorganic Solid
Generators Hazardous Waste
639
508
461
432
270
1,899
4,209
15.2
12.1
11.0
10.3
6.4
45.1
100.0
Source: GG-195 (GB1, GB2)
Chart 4.3-12  Industries with the Largest Numbers of Facilities Generating inorganic Sludge
             Hazardous Wast* in 1986
SIC
Code
34
36
33
37
28


Description
Metal Fabrications
Electronics
Primary Metals
Transponauon equipment
Chemical Products
All Other Industries
Total
Percentage of Total Generators
Number of of Inorganic Sludge
Generator* Hazardous wast*
639
418
263
221
181
797
2,519
25.4
16.6
10.4
8.8
7.2
31.6
100.0
Source: GG-195 (GB1, GB2)

-------
                                             4. Types of Hazardous Waste Generated	41
4.4    HAZARDOUS CHARACTERISTICS
                    RCRA regulations classified wastes as hazardous based on four hazard
                    characteristics:

                          • toxic,
                          • ignitable,
                          • reactive, and
                          • corrosive.

                    A single waste can exhibit more than one hazard characteristic. For example,
                    certain organic solvents regulated under RCRA are both toxic and ignitable.

                    Chart 4.4-1 shows the quantities of hazardous wastes generated in 1986
                    exhibiting each RCRA hazard characteristics. As the chart indicates, the
                    largest quantities of hazardous waste are corrosive and toxic.  Over 60 percent
                    of hazardous wastes generated were  corrosive, toxic, or corrosive and toxic.

-------
 42
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 4.4-1   Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 by RCRA Hazard Characteristic
   CerrMlw, IgnJUbto. mo**, lode
         CarrMK*. i
                     1 toxic
                      ton*
      Corrortv*.
                            t.4
                            0.6
                            04
                            0.2
                          0%
                                      10%
                                        20%
30%
                                                                             40%
                                                                                          50%
Note:  Numbers next to bars Indicate the quantity of hazardous waste generated in million tons.
Source: GG-186 (GB1, GB10)

-------
                          4.  Types of Hazardous Waste Generated	43
Chart 4.4-2 shows the numbers of generators by the hazard characteristics of
their hazardous waste. Over 62 percent of generators generated toxic
hazardous wastes. Ignitable wastes and wastes that are ignitable and toxic
were also common, generated by 41 percent and 38 percent of generators,
respectively.

-------
 44
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 4.4-2   Number of Hazardous Waste Generators In 1966 by RCRA Hazard Characteristic of
              Waste* Generated
                     Toxic
                                                                               7.S81
   Cwrafcw. Ignfefcte, rMetiM. toxfe
                         o%
                                  25%
50%
75%
Notes: A single laa'fity may generate more than one type of hazardous waste. Adding the numbers of
       facilities shown results in multiple counting.

       Numbers next to bars indicate the number ol hazardous waste generators.

Source: GG-186(GB1)

-------
                                             4. Types of Hazardous waste Generated	45
4.5    RCRA WASTE CODES
                   The RCRA regulations assign a four-digit code to each type of RCRA
                   hazardous waste (40 CFR 261.3). A single hazardous waste can have more
                   than one RCRA waste code if, for example, it contains more than one
                   hazardous constituent or the waste is both specifically listed as hazardous and
                   exhibits a hazard characteristic. Charts 4.5-1 and 4.5-2 show the quantities of
                   hazardous waste generated in  1986 by these RCRA waste codes. Chart 4.5-1
                   highlights some of the largest categories of RCRA waste codes, including
                   D002 (corrosive)  and mixtures of D001, D002, and D003 (ignitable,
                   corrosive, and reactive, respectively).  Appendix B defines the RCRA waste
                   codes used in the surveys.

-------
            1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 4.5-1    Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 by RCRA Waste Code*
                         Unknown
                      117.7 million tons
                          (15.7%)
    D001
10.1 million tons
    (1.4%)
         All other mixtures   /
         47.7 million tons
             (6.4%)

    All other single codes
      40.8 million tons
          (5.5%)
                                D002
                           216.1 million tons
                                (28.9%)
         Mixtures with D001-D003
             211.0 million tons
                (28.2%)
                                              0003
                                          5.2 million tons
                                              (0.7%)
                                              D007
                                         29.9 million tons
                                              (4.0%)

                                            0008
                                        12.3 million tons
                                            (1.6%)

                                           F001
                                       4.5 million tons
                                           (0.6%)
                                             K048-K052
                                           243 million tons
                                               (3.3%)
                      K062
                  14.8 million tons
                      (2.0%)
    Fooe
12.8 million tons
    (1.7%)
                                      Total • 747.4 million tons
a See Appendix B for a definition of RCRA waste codes.
Source: GG-193(GB10)

-------
                                                     4. Types of Hazardous Waste Generated
47
 Chart 4.5-2  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 by RCRA Waste Code Groups
                                 ggaumm^ii^tusiSS **-' M. •..-.-~ -KM'-.',.. •>-,,.! TO.^ y'MH ťť., mlltonloni (21 J%)
                                                                     ie7.imllonBni|23.0Ť)
                                  DOOllra 10.1 mBomon>(1^Ť)
                                              4t.7mlloniontia.ni)
                                  0003 H u mWen torn (fl.7*>
                                         i7JmBanmp.4%)
                                                           12UnŤM1oni(1&Ť%)
                              FM4; FOlfU'a H7nUŤe
-------
43	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                            (This page is intentionally blank)

-------
                              5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated	49
5
                  SOURCES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE
                  GENERATED

                  In 1986,12*478 generators were large" quantity generators (generators)
                  of hazardous waste. This chapter describes these generators, including their
                  locations, the industries they represent, their ownership type, and their
                  activities that generate hazardous waste.

5.1    LOCATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATORS

                  Hazardous waste generation is concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico, the
                  Great Lakes, and the East Coast, although every region of the United
                  States had at least some hazardous waste generation in 1986. Chart Ł1-1
                  shows the quantity of hazardous waste generated in each EPA region in 1986.
                  Regions V and VI generated the largest quantities of hazardous waste—-*
                  generating 146 million tons and 147 J million tons, respectively. Other regions
                  generating large quantities of hazardous waste include Region n (122.3 million
                  tons) and Region ffl (121.9 million tons).

                  Chart 5.1-2 shows the number of hazardous waste generators in each region
                  in 1986. Region V had the largest concentration of generators with
                  2,727 generators, or over 20 percent of the total number of generators.
                  Regions IV and K had the next largest number of generators, each having
                  about 14 percent of the total number of generators.

                  Chans 5.1-3 to 5.1-6 show the quantity of hazardous waste generated and the
                  number of hazardous waste generators for each state in 1986. Texas generated
                  the largest quantity of hazardous waste, generating 106.19 million tons or over
                  14 percent of the total quantity generated. California had the largest number
                  of hazardous waste generators, with 1,672 generators or over 13 percent of the
                  national totaL

-------
Chart 5.1-1  Quantity ol Hazardous Waste Generated per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)
    Total quantity generated - 747.4 million tons
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
         Region IX todudes Hawaii and Guam
         Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages in parentheses indicate the
    percentage ol aU hazardous waste generated
    that was generated in the region indicated.
                                                                                                                                 1

                                                                                                                                 3
                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                 I
Source:  GG-184(GA27)

-------
Chart 5.1 -2  Number of Hazardous Waste Generators per EPA Region In 1986
   Total -12.478 generators
   Note:  Region II Includes Puerto Rico
                 and the Virgin Islands
         Region IX Includes Hawaii and Guam
         Region X indudas Alaska

   Percentages in parentheses indicate the percentage
   of aH hazardous waste generators that are located in
   the region indicated.
Region VI
                                                                                                                               i
                                                                                                                               10
                                                                              I
                                                                              10
Source: GG-184 (GA2. GAS. GA27. GB10)

-------
 52
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 5.1 -3   Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by State In 1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
' : CotohidcM:-:.:i?:;!' ••^f^Vjoy
- :: , Connecticut: :. 3 ;; :; \ '^, \ • ;. :; ;;;i g :-i [ I \
' :Disttk*of Columl&p;; -;f ^i-0
A i Florkteii.: ;.;;.; iU^i;i!ii^i; ^I^ K
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana ' ' • ' :
. towa •' . ' ••• :
, Kansas :
Kentucky
Louisiana: :
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
': MlJMitfiinfr'5—"'1"^^ •''•••':: •"'•••:: : • i
1 rr* ••:;'::.. ':.::: .• .. : •.••;•;:.' I1::!':-1; .':!::'1:
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Caroline
North Dakota^"-'" -T- :<Ł^
Onto ;<: ;;• ;;: : ;: ::•!;;:•• :;;v :;V W^\
• Oregon.:-: '•••'^•^ AjVA;.;:"" ••";
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
' Texas ";" -:'::;'^I^..r
UlfilV ' • ' •'"•"' "v'*^"*** '• '"
Vermont • . ' •• ^ . $%/lj$Ł-- x '
Virgin tetand : •; ,-^^^". •'':•
Vlrglnie. . . :l!:..' :':.-! "'..:
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total
Quantity Generated
(million tone)
9.10
<0.01*
e!e9
0.96
41.56
• :-: ; •.;.;-• ;; :;'' :.-;:•; ';j .SO-' ;- : ' :-' '••'*•'• i: * *• ^
:i::;:yi;:V:^'1S^.:.:viA?'..fK'-: :&• !\
HBiSHBii
:'^.-:::.':^.::-' €;.fft^":^--''";' :?'^ ::
""'""""""""16.62"""""""""""""""""
0.00
0.04
1.78
28.34
: 16.55.'
: 2.42.
: 4.oo
. • 19.22: • -
36.19
13.38
5.76
5.61
6Z99
2.90
j:.;'\::':i>'::" .• : • JT 3t:-::i:-:'l':--:':' ": .'.••??-/': :"':
:BlS^
4'48::'"<"""::':'";'":":"::'::'":
87.36
1.07
33.60
2.13
1 1;;;.;: s^; .;. , 0 J g.;: r ;|; S f •• • ^ ::;.;;r~
\^::^&&^gM^
::;;|;f::;;;!"Hr:H:;t9);f;:;::l-:::;|^r:;)::
"""'"" '::"":':"'"1.30'""K':'""':':'::"":"":'
4.72
6.98
0.03
28.33
'.. ,: 106.19::;:; '.:.:
2^4
0.88
o.oa
.;! .. 4t.07::;:v- .. . . .
3.33
34.80
3.89
0.01
747.39
Percentage of
Total Quantity
1.2
<0.1b
0.9
0.1
5.6
. ; •" • •; < ;:-;: : • :; :•;•; -; ;:" ^g™ '; ;:" : "; :i ;: :; :; ;:;. °s '- ?" •.. :: .; ;: • '•":: '•:.-.''•
!;K V&. I li ^ •' i i f- .t,8:.:;; *Ł; P ^! '-I .j: i ^ :: ? > .' "^ ?;; .- :': •.. ;; •;• I
i,|n^p:?;'^^fe|^/;:U^i:^|^
:;:;:Ť:.:•:! i;i; -iv; ' aj^fis^ilf fiis v"::".:'-:-;.':!;;,.?':
""""""""""""""""" 2.2"""""'""""""""" """"""""""""""
0.0
<0.1b
0.2
3.8
' 2-g- ' ' '
05 •
.. 0.5-''- '. .
; '. 2A , • ', • '-. ':.
...''• 4.6., ..'. .'...- - ' .
1.8
0.8
0.8
8.4
0.4
':':••'•'•• ;. : '. .•;;..: .•; ^ -'A Btix:/?'^:.;;.':^1::; '?-. '• ;:.:: ''-':'.': •';: . :-: 1:1"1! :":':|

,.:,,::,:,,,.-,.,,. ^g:.,:,f,,:,:.:Ť.o:,,,,,:,.. ,:-..:,.,,-.,:
11.7
0.1
4.5
0.3
^?^r 1 ; ilil^ '<&&a$$3it* :': :i i •• i ; :; - ? " ': : if C:
^^^Pl^^^S^IM^^^S

...^^^..^..^.a^^^^: „Ť„„=. r:^=::K,
0.6
0.9
<0.1*
3.8
•:.;•• ; '.: . l4i!^I?'"-H.';:.:;-..' ';C •'•';: '.'.'.
..•'•'• .: '.. -O.S'''"'''' ' v :'" '•- -: ' •
•'•; ', '' . :•:'••••<: Oit^-^,*^^ ;..-:--:. • "-':';.
;:- : O.OA* . -. •. ' • '.'.: • .': •
-••••- • . &d::y;.::.';:;- ':..::,.;.•-:•.',, ; ':' :
	 0.4 	
4.7
0.5
<0.1b
100.0
state
Rank
18
51
22
41
4
'•'•:• ;.3JS:i::'i;::;'v:i'-::';" .':; :- .
::^.:16;ij.:i:;:J::;. .:' V>- '••
3'-^?-^'' ••-• •
:"-;2i:::::;::;f:;-::. "• '::' :
"""14""""""
53
46
37
11
15.
33.. ' •
28
• ' 13 .' .:'.
T. - . -.
17
23
24
3
32
'•:: '.:2T: -""'^••':'-:'-:.::'-: '':':"'?t'"
lilll
:'"::""'26":'K:'"':" '
2
40
9
35
• '• '•• ' •ieUS"''-' ": '' :" '•" ' '•'
.'•''.'•'•'< \ty '•'"•' '-••'."' i"" .• ' •. . '
^i^SSC
,:,:... ^ „,,,.•.. :,,..,,
25
20
48
12
'•'••\ •
• '34.': .
..•:.•; 43-v./
54
:' - 9. : ,
30
8
29
50

•Loss then 10,000 tons of hazardous waste were generated in these states In 1986.
'lass than 0.1 percent of the total quantity ol hazardous waste generated In 1986 was generated in these states.
Source: GG-184(GA27)

-------
                                                   5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
                                                                                                   S3
 Chart 5.1-4  Quantity of Hazardous Wast* Generated by State In 1986, In Descending Order
  State
                                        Quantity Generated
                                           (mllllo
lion tons!
Percentage of
Total Quantity
  Texas
  New Jersey
  Michigan
  California
  Virginia
                                              106.19
                                               87.36
                                               62.99
                                               41.56
                                               41.07
                                   11.7
                                    8.4
                                    5.6
                                    5.5
  Illinob
  Tennesse*
  Kentucky
  Georgia
  Indiana
                                        .:-;-:^-:
 '. Nť*Muit~""—  *
  Arkansas
  Delaware
  Vermont
  Nebraska
  North Dakota
  Nevada
Wahoii
Alaska
District of Columbia
Guam
Virgin bland	
                                                 -
                                                 <0.01*
                                                  0.00
                                                  0.00
                                                                      & JH^% vŤip:; ^ •*?•-.:?
                                                                      -:.•••;•,•;; • •:.:• i^^fOilff^"^ :" •:- • ->
                                                                      -:^:-'-'Ť'-''.-.-;.'••:::.':•• J.v'^T'iiWvjJ.i.s.-. •••.-.• . • ..
                                                                       .^•.<--~ -:• .... '.4tXŁ&i:""-'.--W'--;-
                                       Ľ*%•
                         •• .'-;•'..•';'-<Ť4*^i% w?-^.,:-"
                         ifi'; i-Vikiisiii-.^fcl^^cli i; .iiiK&iX*;
                                   <0.1b
                                   <0.1"ť
                                     0.0
                                     0.0
  Total
                                                747.39
                                                                                 100.0
•Lew than 10.000 tons of hazardous wast* were geiwatsd In OMM statas In 1986.
IMS than 0.1 parcant of In* total quantity of hazardous wast* gŤnŤntad bi 1986 was gtnaratad In thŤM state*.
Souroa: GG-134(GA27)

-------
 54
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart s.1-5  Number of Hazardous Waste Generators by State In 1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
^^'^"Sf^siP^^iK^^ffi^.
H' Defan^^liti: ?ttli$M+
^Dtoriciofaaiu^^
' ;": . Flortdalsia;;: J::i:: $$%?< > ? :! S ;! Ł :.,;. :; jr /; ; ] U ': / ;. r -: •: 1 i ^
Louisiana; s.'.1?;'?^ ••>:•• :: j-: :; ;; ' V ••• : ! :•' -";
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
;:: -Uttmi*^Hilru&*f''*!'" P*'* ' -'' "'•'•••' •''•'.' >'f ^\":;

M&SOUti i-: .:; • ? '•':• *'&& ' 1 ;: ••• •• "': ; : . ?X ; ' *v
:- MontaflKJ-i:^^^'"' ''irV^.^.v
.'; •NebjaskaoilV-v*'^-? • ^H?.-ti:;;
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
•' Nortfr Dakota^ ^ os : ^ '• •" ' •: ri-1*''' v; :- : ' ' : :' ' :~
g^-x:-,-: :;•.;••;•;;;;.; ^^2'^
Qfegofi::.-.'- •••' :.. -•:.'' :v. •••••••*• • ••• -<•
PenruyfvardK^::^ : •'••• ••**•• •*••:•'
Puerto Rico "" """ "" 	 ""
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas, ''""""•Tt^P^^^ *!"'<
Utah" : - ' ' ? •Ss*$$$$$$$Ł, '•'. -.- •
Vermont :- • : .•'. 1*iŤ^^^^'!-''
Virgin (stand !.- •-i&:••:/;.;;;:::,:'•. .v.
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyomino
Total
Number of Percentage of State
Generators Total Number Rank
162
9
88
106
1,672
^&^$'$:W;ty?MK
i i * :: 4i I •- -2F :--:;!: • :- 1 iv i: *'! ^ ^* i;l ?. ;: :! i; ? ;; ; ;:
!•; * :; f:*:?;"-! 1 :-• S^lP it? ^s %! ?i ;?'-: 1.5; 1 ; 1 H ^ * ^
:•" S:'::.: i ;: i.'244^^ ;: *'' •: :;: -: ': ;- :::iS*:- '; :• '• '• :' :: :^ ^
,,,,,,..,2o2,,,:,,:-:,,-:H,-,,,:.,::,,,..,,:,,.;,,:.
0
17
13
685
i'::':i '^ 37f :-'-. '; • : •'•":•'
•>M:: 106 :':. . .
•H"'-.'::?' '95-: •.••'.:.' : .' ': '.
.'•••"; ; • 167;:-.' • •
••::•- .':' 149 •-: • . ' '
58'"
156
678
474
.:^,N:.,214W,,.,, :,....,..,„,.„,.„

•'', \ '.'- ^: '• :: V^:"1,1'-' ''•;•:•:• ^' '-:'i'-':v :..-': i :
.-l;-;'^-''^ > 4 Oft?*:^'^::" f "' ••• •'•''• *$'*•'• ' :• '
^0 ^; : -|:t sl;?;; :':';. '.:-.;: •! J;\'i-:|''>; .'^w
r'Sii^i-'sW^^^^Jr^t^}^
:...:.,,.. ^rs^^,,:^,.,^^ >„>,Ť-
864
24
540
406
••"^••'1 ..^'•T&'-^/^.'^X?:- ^*?=v
,;•:: .v^; 654^:.K ,-:;;••::;• ^ j-. '.; |f.;: .'.| ::^
^ : %i • 1:ŤS^;- V; • Vv::^.^:^
' -^iii : 838'-%ii-'- : - ' . : ' -:' '' :: --i' .':ii ^
ť..^.Ť ,,.,„,. :,...,.,1^..x,^ť
112
173
8
298
••;;;;'; 84d-:.-:. • ''' ' ' •
:'"••; :- 6fi::;-
'•'•'•" 3Ť... ' .
0
224-:- -
171
65
329
7
12.478
1.3
0.1
0.7
0.8
13.4
^vfcSl^;
:l''^.-all::li
:;•:;•:> i^Oijiifi
'^"••'•i.id^fe
"""" 1.6":':""'
0.0
0.1
0.1
5.5
••.'• 3.0- ':.'-
0.8 •
' ': Q.& ' •
•• 1.3.' •
1.2"."
0.5
1.3
5.4
3.8
•>,.- ..1'7,x^


'•;j?;i;^ ^j1;?:::;:-
.U"Jj:(Ł|Ł^,^
|E:-VO^^|
"" ':" o.7":B:'i:
6.9
0.2
4.3
3.3
.K:'?;'.: ft|?^r
5t^:*%|;
i^oSlf
iiifz'i' 9j%-**'>a,
X*VKI"0.5""
0.9
1.4
0.1
2.4
' . 6.S.v..:-
05-:. '•.
as
ao
13
1.4
0.5
Z6
0.1
100.0
23
48
33
28
1
•^•^'^^•^•^^••/.fi^.
^^•f^'^-^^'--^^'^'-.
^^^^;-.:y^'=52feX-A -:i-.f •.. :• ^ -.•.;• ..> '.>••• ' '• Ť)X: : "..-;••'• : ' ^^

viv^1::^'::'1^' -''-^' -::- :\' ^j: -^t^:' ^ :. "••
;: : .:.: ... •-.;. . , '.:•••••: •' •• :' ' .' :. ' aytf •-.'..•
'• ' '.''''."•'•• :: : i^y- '"''••- ".•:*••;' •"•'•' :

: .,-,,. ^
2
43
8
10
$Ł-•;?..• •^•'- '.•••'••• ttf-. -•. •'
•• •',' .'.'-."•'•'• • ' . -f., : • • •. 7 ' ' •
'$&AŁ :••-- :'-;:'=.|If ==•'••;•='•,
•::•', -: ' •?:•:': '•'•'• • ': '"•"•'•• -''I':' "' ': '

ť*.*:„.,.,„ ;,,,,.:. ..:,,^.. :..::.. ....
27
20
49
14
'. •" •' '•' 3 '
" • '. ' 3ft
41
5*
ie .
21
37
12
51

Source: GG-184(GAZ GA5.GA27.GB10)

-------
                                               5.  Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
                    55
 Chart 5.14  Nuntter of Hazardous Wast* Generators by State In 1986, In Descending Order
                                           NumlMr of
                                           Generators
Percentage of
TotilNumtw
  California
  New Jersey
  Texas
  Pennsylvania
  Illinois
  !**
  Vermont
  Delaware
  New Mexico
  Hawaii
  Nevada
  Idaho:
  Montana^
  District of Columbia
  Guam
  virgin Island
Source: GG-184 (GAZ GAS. GA27. GB10)

-------
 56
1988 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 5.2   INDUSTRIES GENERATING HAZARDOUS WASTE

                     Chan 5.2-1 shows the five industries (based on two-digit SIC codes) that
                     generated the largest quantities of hazardous waste in 1986.  The chemical
                     products industry (SIC 28) generated 383 million tons of hazardous
                     waste, over half of all hazardous waste generated in the U.S. in 1986.  The
                     other industries in Chart 5.2-1 (electronics, petroleum and coal products,
                     primary metals, and transportation equipment) each generated between 7 and
                     9 percent of the total quantity of hazardous waste.

 Chart 5.2-1 Largest General Industries by the Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated
        SIC 28 Chemical Products
             SIC 36  Electronic*
  SIC 29 Petroleum a Coal Products
           SIC 33  Primary Metals
   SIC 37 Transportation Equipment
              Al Other Industrie*
                                                                                      -I
                           0%
                              25%
50%
75%
                                                                                     100%
Note:  Numbers following bars indcale the quantity of hazardous waste generated In million tons.
Source:  GG-190(GA6,GA27)
                    Charts 5.2-2 to 5.2-11 provide greater detail on the quantities of hazardous
                    waste generated by the five largest industries.  Charts 5.2-2,5.2-4,5.2-6,
                    5.2-8, and 5.2-10 show the specific industries (defined by four-digit SIC code)
                    generating the largest quantities of hazardous waste in each of the top five
                    general industries (two-digit SIC codes) specified in Chart 5.2-1. These charts
                    provide more specific information on the types of activities that generate
                    hazardous waste.

-------
                                             5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
57
                     Chans 5.2-3,5.2-5,5.2-7,5.2-9, and 5.2-11 indicate the types of hazardous
                     waste generated by the top five industries from Chart 5.2-1. The charts
                     classify hazardous wastes based on their physical (i.e., liquid, solid, or sludge)
                     and chemical (i.e., organic or inorganic) characteristics. For each of the top
                     five industries, inorganic liquid waste was the largest quantity of hazardous
                     waste generated.
Chart 5.2-2  Most Common Specific Industries In the Chemical Products Industry (SIC 28) by the
            Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 (by 4-Dlgtt SIC)
SIC
2869
2821
2892
2865
2812


Description
Organic Chemical
Plastics and Resins
Explosives
CycSc Crudes
AJkales and Chlorine Chemical Products
All Other Chemical Products Industries
Total Chemical Products Industry
Quantity
Generated
(million tons)
160.55
69.99
28.08
27.98
18.80
77.99
383.39
Percentage of
Total Quantity
for Industry
(SIC 28)
41.9
18.3
7.3
7.3
4.9
20.3
100.0
Number
of
Generators
266
258
24
63
37
1.485
2.133
Source: GG-190(GA6,GA27)
Chan 5.2-3   Quantity of Hazardous waste Generated by the Chemical Products Industry (SIC 28) In
             1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Physical/Chemical Characteristic
Inorganic Liquid
Organic Liquid
Organic Sold/Sludge
Unknown
Inorganic Sludg*
Inorganic SoDd
Other*
Total Chemical Products Industry
Quantity Generated
(million tons)
294.03
78.48
2.44
2.31
1.11
022
0.01
383.39
Percentage of Total Quantity
for SIC 28
76.7
20.5
0.6
0.6
0.3
0.1
<0.1
100.0
alndudes mixtures and gases.
Source:  GG-195 (GB1, GB2, GB10)

-------
           1966 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 5.2-4  Most Common Specific Industries In the Electronics Industry (SIC 36) by the Quantity of
            Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 (by 4-Dlglt SIC)
SIC
3674
3679
3639
3672
3661


Description
Semiconductors
Electronic Components
Household Appflances
TV Pictures Tubes
Telephone Apparatus
All Other Electronics Industries
Total Electronics Industry
Quantity
Generated
(million tons)
34.20
12.49
4.23
2.73
2.23
12.25
68.13
Percentage of
Total Quantity
for Industry
(SIC 36)
50.2
18.3
6.2
4.0
3.3
18.0
100.0
Number
of
Generators
168
263
11
10
34
715
1,201
Source: GG-190 (GA6, GA27)
Chart 5.2-5   Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by the Electronics Industry (SIC 36) in 1986 by
             Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Physical/Chemical Characteristic
Inorganic Liquid
Inorganic Sludge
Organic Liquid
Inorganic SoOd
Unknown
Organic Sold/Sludge-
Other*
Total Electronics Industry
Quantity Generated
(million tons)
67.88,
1.21
0.49
0.06
0.03
0.01
0.01
68.13
Percentage of Total Quantity
for SIC 39
99.6
1.8
0.7
0.1
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
100.0
alndudes mixtures and gases.
Source:  GG-195 (GB1, GB2. GB10)

-------
                                            5.  Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
59
Chart 52-6  Most Common Specific Industrie* In the Petroleum and Coal Industry (SIC 29) by thr
            Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated in 1966 (by 4-Dlgit SIC)
SIC
2911
2999
2992


Description
Petroleum Refining
Petroleum and Coal Products
Lubricating Oils and Greases
All Other Petroleum and Coal Industries
Total Petroleum and Coal Industry
Quantity
Generated
(million tons)
65.18
1.25
0.10
0.01
66.54
Percentage of
Total Quantity
for Industry
(SIC 29)
98.0
1.9
0.2
<0.1
100.0
Number
of
Generators
203
30
24
4
261
Source: GG-190 (GA6, GA27)
Chart S.2-7   Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by the Petroleum and Coal Industry (SIC 29) In
             1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Physical/Chemical Characteristic
Inorganic Liquid
Organic SoBd/Sludge
Organic Liquid
Other*
Inorganic Sludge
Inorganic Solid
Unknown
Total Petroleum and Coal Industry
Quantity Generated
(million tons)
62.09
2.39
1.05
0.14
0.13
0.09
0.05
66.54
Percentage of Total Quantity
for SIC 29
93.3
3.6
1.6
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
100.0
•includes mixtures and gases.
Source:  GG-195(G81,GB2,GB10)

-------
 60
1988 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 5.2*  Moat Common Specific Industries In the Primary Metals Industry (SIC 33) by the Quantity
            of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 (by 4-Dlgtt SIC)
SIC
3312
3321
3361
3315
3317


Description
Blast Furnaces and Steel Mills
Gray Iron Foundries
Aluminum Foundries
Steel Wire
Steel Pipe and Tubes
All Other Primary Metal Industries
Total Primary Metal Industries
Quantity
Generated
(million tons)
30.46
5.78
5.44
3.04
2.20
10.35
57.27
Percentage of
Total Quantity
for industry
(SIC 33)
53.2
10.1
9.5
5.3
3.8
18.1
100.0
Number
of
Generators
107
66
5
57
48
448
731
Source: GG-190(GA6, GA27)
Chart 5.2-9   Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by the Primary Metals Industry (SIC 33) In 1989
             by Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Physical/Chemical Characteristic
Inorganic Liquid
Unknown
Inorganic Sludge
Inorganic SoDd
Organic Liquid
Organic Sold/Sludge
Other*
Total Primary Metals Industry
Quantity Generated
(million tons)
52.67
0.95
0.82
0.35
0.03
0.02
<0.01
57.27
Percentage of Total Quantity
for SIC 33
92.0
1.7
1.4
0.6
0.1
<0.1
<0.1
100.0
"Includes mixtures and gases.
Source:  GG-195 (GB1, GB2. GB10)

-------
                                            5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
61
Chart 5.2-10  Most Common Specific Industries In the Transportation Equipment Industry (SIC 37) by
             the Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 (by 4-Dlglt SIC)
SIC
3721
3711
3714
3724


Description
Aircraft
Motor Vehicle Bodies
Motor Vehicle Parts
Aircraft Parts
All Other Transportation Equipment
Industries
Total Transportation Equipment Industry
Quantity
Generated
(million tons)
15.31
12.79
9.92
5.49
7.57
51.08
Percentage of
Total Quantity
for Industry
(SIC 37)
30.0
25.0
19.4
10.7
14.9
100.0
Number
of
Generators
62
98
256
52
320
788
Source: GG-190 (GA6, GA27)
Chart 5.2-11   Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated by the Transportation Equipment Industry
             (SIC 37) In 1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Physical/Chemical Characteristic
Inorganic Liquid
Unknown
Organic Liquid
Inorganic Sludge
Inorganic Solid
Organic SoOd/Sludge
Other*
Total Transportation Equipment
Industry
Quantity Generated
(million tons)
42.85
1.81
0.64
0.24
0.07
0.03
0.01
51.08
Percentage of Total Quantity
for SIC 37
83.9
3.5
1.3
0.5
0.1
0.1
<0.1
100.0
alndudes mixtures and gases.
Source:  GG-195 (GB1, GB2. GB10)

-------
 62
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                     Chart 5.2-12 indicates the industries with the largest numbers of hazardous
                     waste generators in 1986. The chemical products industry (SIC 28), which
                     generated the largest quantity of hazardous waste in 1986 (see Chart 5.2-1)
                     also had the largest number of hazardous waste generators. Although the
                     chemical products industry generated over half of all hazardous waste, it
                     included only 17 percent of all generators.  Other industries with large
                     numbers of generators include the metal fabrications (SIC 34) and electronics
                     (SIC 36) industries, with 14 percent and 10 percent of all hazardous waste
                     generators, respectively.
 Chart 52-12  Largest General Industries by the Number of Hazardous Waste Generators In 1986
        SIC 28 Chemical Product*

        SIC 34 Matal Fabrications

              SIC 36 Electronic*

   SIC 37 Tranaportaflan Equipment

           SIC 33 Primary Matal*

    SIC 35 Nonalacafcal MacMnwy

       SIC49 Electrical, Qaa, and
               Sanitary Sarvtca*

             All Ottw induŤtrlŤ*
                            0%
                                       2.133
                                                               4.560
                                              25%
                                                                                         50%
Note: Numbers following bars Indfcate number of hazardous waste generators.
Source:  GG-190(QA6>-

-------
                         5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated	63
Chans 5.2-13,5.2-15,5.2-17, 5.2-19, and 5.2-21 provide additional
information on industries with the largest numbers of hazardous waste
generators. For each of the top five general industries (defined by two-digit
SIC codes) from Chan 5.2-12, the specific industries (four-digit SIC codes)
with the largest numbers of generators are shown.

Charts 5.2-14,5.2-16, 5.2-18, and 5.2-20 indicate the types of hazardous
waste generated by the top five industries from Chart 5.2-12. The charts
classify hazardous wastes based on their physical  (i.e., liquid, solid, or sludge)
and chemical (i.e., organic or inorganic) characteristics. For the chemical
products, metal fabrications,  electronics, and transportation equipment
industries, organic liquid waste was generated by  the largest number of
facilities.  Inorganic liquid was generated by the largest number of facilities in
the primary metals industry.

-------
 64
1966 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 5.2-13  Moat Common Specific Industrie* In the Chemical Products Industry (SIC 28) by the
             Number ol Hazardous Waste Generators In 1986 (by 4-Dlglt SIC)
SIC
2851
2869
2821
2899
2893


Description
Paints
Industrial Organic Chemicals
Plastics and Resins
Chemical Preparations
Printing Ink
All Other Chemical Products Industries
Total Chemical Products Industry
Number
of
Generators
441
266
258
168
131
839
2,133
Percentage of
Total Generators
for industry
(SIC 28)
20.7
12.5
12.1
7.9
6.1
40.7
100.0
Quantity
Managed
(million tons)
0.49
160.55
69.99
1.04
0.01
151.31
383.39
Source: GG-190(GA6. GA27)
Chart 52-14  Number of Facilities In the Chemical Products Industry (SIC 28) Generating Hazardous
             Waste In 1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristic*
Physical/Chemical Characteristic
Organic Uquid
Inorganic Liquid
Organic Sold/Sludge
Inorganic Solid
Unknown
Inorganic Sludge*
Other*
Number
of Generators
1,683
942
939
639
235
181
62
Percentage of Total
Generators for SIC 28
78.9
44.2
44.0
30.0
11.0
8.5
2.9
"includes mixtures and gases.
Note:  A single fadfty can generate more than one type of hazardous wastes. Therefore, adding the
       numbers of generators results In multiple counting.
Source: GQ-195 (GB1. GB2, GB10)

-------
                                             5.  Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
65
 Chart 5.2-15  Most Common Specific Industries In the Metal Fabrication Industry (SIC 34) by the
             Number of Hazardous Waste Generators In 1986 (by 4-Dlgtt SIC)
SIC
3471
3499
3479
3451


Description
Plating and Polishing
Fabricated Metal Products
Metal Coating
Screw Machine Products
All Other Metal Fabrication Industries
Total Metal Fabrication Industry
Number
of
Generators
427
139
138
114
878
1.696
Percentage of
Total Generators
for Industry
(SIC 34)
25.2
8.2
8.1
6.7
51.8
100.0
Quantity
Managed
(million tons)
14.72
1.67
4.83
0.27
26.48
47.97
Source: GG-190 (GA6, GA27)
Chan 5.2*16  Number of Facilities In the Metal Fabrications Industry (SIC 34) Generating Hazardous
             Waste In 1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Physical/Chemical Characteristic
Organic Liquid
Inorganic Liquid
Inorganic Sludge
Inorganic Solid
Organic SoBd/Sludge
Unknown
Other*
Number
of Generators
1,122
1.008
639
461
338
137
9
Percentage of Total
Generators for SIC 34
66.2
59.4
37.7
27.2
19.9
8.1
0.5
"Includes mixtures and gases.
Note:  A single fadlty can generate more than one type of hazardous wastes. Therefore, adding the
       numbers of generators results in multiple counting.
Source: GG-195 (GB1. GB2, GB10)

-------
 66
1966 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 3.2-17  MOM Common Specific Industrie* In the Electronic* Industry (SIC 36) by the Numbs? of
             Hazardous Waste Generator* In 1986 (by 4-DlgK SIC}
SIC
3679
3674
3629
3662
3621


Description
Electronic Components
Semiconductors
Electrical Industrial Apparatus
Radio and TV Equipment
Motors and Generators
All Other Electronics Industries
Total Electronics Industry
Number
Of
Generator*
263
16S
90
66
54
560
1.201
Percentage of
Total Generator*
for Industry
(SIC 36)
21.9
14.0
7.5
5.5
4.5
46.6
100.0
Quantity
Managed
(million ton*)
12.49
34.20
0.16
1.40
0.49
19.39
68.13
Source: GG-190(GA6. GA27)
Chart 52-18  Number of Facilities in the Electronic* Industry (SIC 38) Generating Hazai
             1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristic*
                                                                     j* Waste In
Physical/Chemical Characteristic
Organic Liquid
Inorganic Liquid
Inorganic So Dd
Inorganic Sludge
Organic Sold/Sludge
Unknown
Other*
Numb*?
of Generator*
1,027
875
508
418
359
122
34
Percentage of Total
Generators hx SIC 36
85.5
723
423
344
29.9
10.2
2.8
aindudes mixtures and gases.
Note:   A single fadMy can generate more than one type of hazardous wastes. Therefore, adding the
       numbers of generators results In multiple counting.
Source: GG-195 (GB1.GB2 GB10)

-------
                                            5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
67
 Chan 52*19  Most Common Specific Industries In the Transportation Equipment Industry (SIC 37) by
             the Number of Hazardous Waste Generators In 1986 (by 4-Dlglt SIC)
SIC
3714
3728
3711
3721
3724


Description
Motor Vehicle Parts
Aircraft Equipment
Motor Vehicle Bodies
Aircraft
Aircraft Parts
All Other Transportation Equipment
Industries
Total Transportation Equipment
Industry
Number
of
Generators
256
124
98
62
52
196
788
Percentage of
Total Generators
for Industry
(SIC 37)
32.5
15.7
12.4
7.9
6.6
24.9
100.0
Quantity
Managed
(million tons)
9.92
1.74
12.79
15.31
0.00
11.32
51.08
Source: GG-190 (GA6, GA27)
Chart 52-20  Number of Facilities in the Transportation Equipment Industry (SIC 37) Generating
             Hazardous Waste In 1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristics
Physical/Chemical Characteristic
Organic Liquid
Inorganic Liquid
Organic SoloVSIudge
Inorganic Solid
Inorganic Sludge
Unknown
Other*
Number
of Generators
735
527
284
267
221
79
11
Percentage of Total
Generators for SIC 37
93.3
66.9
36.0
33.9
28.0
10.0
1.4
alndudes mixtures and gases.
Note:   A single fadity can generate more than one type of hazardous wastes. Therefore, adding the
       numbers of generators results In multiple counting.
Source: GG-195 (GB1, GB2, GB10)

-------
 68
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 5.2-21   Most Common Specific Industries In the Primary Metals Industry (SIC 33) by ths-
              Nurnbetol Hazardous Waste Generators In 1986 (by 4-Dlglt SIC)
SIC
3312
3321
3399
3341
3315


Description
Blast Furnace and Steel Mills
Gray Iron Foundries
Primary Metal Products
Secondary Nonferrous Metals
Steel Wire
All Other Primary Metals Industries
Total Primary Metal Industry
Number
of
Generators
107
66
62
60
57
379
731
Percentage of
Total Generators
for Industry
(SIC 33)
14.6
9.0
8.5
8.2
7.8
51.9
100.0
Quantity
Managed
(million tons)
30.46
5.78
1.62
0.93
3.04
15.44
57.27
 Source: GG-190 (GA6. GA27)
Chart 52-22  Number of Facilities In the Primary Metals Industry (SIC 33) Generating Hi
             waste in 1986 by Physical/Chemical Characteristic*
                                                                     irdous
Physical/Chemical Charactertstte.
Inorganfc Liquid
Organic Liquid
Inorganic SoOd
Inorganic Sludge
Organic SoBd/Sludge
Unknown
Other*
Number
of Generator*
448
378
270
263
136
71
5
Percentage of Total
Generators for SIC 33
61.3
51.7
36.9
36.0
18.6
9.7
0.7
alndudes mixtures and gases.
Note:   A single fadlty can generate more than one type of hazardous wastes. Therefore, adding the
       numbers of generators results In multiple counting.
Source: GG-195 (GB1,GB2,GB10)

-------
                                           5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
                                                                     69
5.3    OWNERSHIP TYPE
                    Over 93 percent (11,662) of the generators of hazardous waste in 1986
                    were privately owned companies. These facilities generated 693.5 million
                    tons of hazardous waste in 1986,93 percent of all hazardous waste
                    generated. Federally owned facilities was the the next most common type
                    of generator. Over 300 federally owned facilities (2.6 percent of
                    generators) generated 47 million tons of hazardous waste in 1986, or
                    6.3 percent of all hazardous waste.  Charts 5.3-1 and 5.3-2 present these
                    findings.
Chart 5.3-1  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 by Ownership Type
         Private
        Federal
          Local
       Unknown
          State
                                                           693.5
    47.0
2.8
2.3
1.8
               0%
             25%
50%
75%
100%
Note:  Numbers following, bars indicate quantity of hazardous waste generated in million tons.
Source: GG-188(GA8. GA27)

-------
 70
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
Chart 5.3-2 Number of Hazardous Waste Generators In 1986 by Ownership Type •
         Private
       Unknown
        Federal
          State
          Local
        359
        323
       68
       66
               0%
                    25%
50%
75%
                                                                  11,662
—I
 100%
Note:  Numbers following bars indicate number of hazardous waste generators.
Source: GQ-188(QA8)

-------
                                            5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
71
5.4    ACTIVITIES GENERATING HAZARDOUS WASTE
                    Activities generating hazardous waste can be grouped as primary or secondary
                    and as routine or nonroutine. Primary sources of hazardous waste include all
                    production-related activities at a facility.  Secondary sources are waste
                    management activities (e.g., ash generated from incineration of hazardous
                    waste). Routine sources are activities that occur regularly as pan of business
                    activity, including waste from process operations and routine cleaning and
                    maintenance activities. Non-routine sources are activities that occur
                    sporadically, such as a the closure of a tank or the discontinuation of a
                    production line.

                    Chan 5.4-1 sorts the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the type of
                    activity that generated the waste. Over 70 percent of all hazardous waste
                    (528.8 million tons) was generated through primary/routine activities.
                    Charts 5.4-2 to 5.4-6 show the most common waste-generating activities (by
                    the quantity of hazardous waste  generated) for each category of wastes  in
                    Chart 5.4-1.
Chan 5.4-1 Quantity of Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986 by the Activity Generating the Waste
           (million tons)
Waste Source
Category
Primary
Secondary
Unknown
Total
Routine
528.8
126.7
0.0
655.5
Non-Routine
11.1
5.2
4.1
20.4
Unknown
0.0
0.0
71.5
71.5
Total
539.9
131.9
75.6
747.4
Note:   Primary sources ol hazardous waste are production-related activities.  Secondary sources are waste
       management activities. Routine sources are activities that occur regularly as part ol business activity.
       Non-routine sources are activities that occur sporaoTcally (e.g.. spills, closure of a tank, etc.).
Source:  GG-187 (QB4.QB10)

-------
 72
1960 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
Chart 5.4-2   Most Common Sources of Primary/Routine* Hazardous Wast* Generation by Quantity
             Generated In 1988
      Other Production Processes

                  Electroplating

                 Hydrogenation

      Distillation and Fractionation

                      Nitration

                       Rckilng

                  Spray Rinsing

                         Other
                               106.1
                                      168.1
                                                                                     H
                             0%
                               25%
50%
75%
100%
Note: Bars show the percentage of the total quantity of hazardous waste from primary/routine sources that-
      was generated by trie type of source indicated.  Numbers following bars Indicate quantity of hazardous
      waste generated In mUlon tons.
aPrimary/reutJne sources of hazardous waste are production-related activities that occur regularly as part of
  business activity.
Source: GG-187(GB4,GB10)

-------
                                              5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
                                                          73
Chart 5.4-3  Most Common Sources of Secondary/Routine1 Hazardous Waste Generation by the
            Quantity Generated In 1986
       Wastewater Treatment
                 Incineration
             Quench Cooling
               Regenerating
                      Other
                                                               78.5
 11
8.1
 10
                            0%
        25%
50%
75%
100%
Note: Bars show the percentage of the total quantity of hazardous waste from secondary/routine sources
      that was generated by the type of source indicated. Numbers following bars indicate quantity of
      hazardous waste generated In million tons.
aSecondary/routine sources of hazardous waste are waste management activities that occur routinely as pan
  of business activity.
Source:  GG-187 (GB4. GB10)

-------
 74
1966 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 544   Moat Common Source* of Prlmary/Non-RoutliM* Hazardous Wast* Generattorv by tho
             Quantity Generated In 1986
            Clean Out of Production
      Discarding of Off-Spec Material
    Discarding of Out-of-Date Material
                                                                                       10.9
                        0.2
                                             25%
                                               50%
75%
100%
Note: Bars show the percentage of the total quantity of hazardous waste from primary/non-routine sources.
      that was generated by the type of source Indicated. Numbers following bars indicate quantity of
      hazardous waste generated In million tons.
aPrlmary/non-routine sources of hazardous waste are production-related activities that occur sporacfically
  (e.g.. accidental or one-time activities).
Source:  GG-187(GB4,GB10)

-------
                                              5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
                                                    75
Chart 54-5  Moat Common Sources of Secondary/Non-Routlne* Hazardous Waste Generation by the
            Quantity Generated in 1986
            Clean-up Spill Residues
             Other Remedial Action
    Closure of Surface Impoundments
0.4
                                 0%
       25%
50%
75%
100%
Note: Bars show the percentage of the total quantity of hazardous waste from secondary/non-routine
      sources that was generated by the type of source Indicated. Numbers following bars indicate quantity
      of hazardous waste generated in million tons.
aSecondary/non-routlne sources of hazardous waste are waste management activities for wastes that occur
  sporadically (e.g., from accidental or one-time activities).
Source: GG-187 (GB4. GB10)

-------
 76
1988 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 5.4-6  Most Common Unknown Sources of Non-Routine* Hazardous Wast* Generation by the
             Quantity Generated In 1986
                Accidental Spills
      Other Clean Out or Closure
        Other One-Time Activities
                                    0.3
                              0%
                               25%
50%
75%
100%
Note: Bars show the percentage of the total quantity of hazardous waste from unknown/non-routine sources
      that was generated by the type of source indicated.  Numbers following bars indicate quantity of    i
      hazardous waste generated in million tons.
aUnknown/non-routine sources of hazardous waste are activities that occur sporadfcally and cannot be
  categorized as primary (production-related) or secondary (waste management).
Source:  GG-187(GB4, GB10)

-------
                                              5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
77
                     Chart 5.4-7 shows the number of generators by the source of the hazardous
                     waste they generated: primary or secondary and routine or non-routine.  Over
                     80 percent of generators (10,221 facilities) generated hazardous waste
                     from primary/routine sources. Charts 5.4-8 to 5.4-12 show the waste
                     generating activities conducted by the largest numbers of generators for each
                     category of generators in Chart 5.4-7.
Chart 5.4-7  Number of Generators in 1986 by the Source of their Hazardous Waste
Waste Source
Category
Primary
Secondary
Unknown
Routine
10,221
2,983
0
Non-Routine
3,842
1,548
1,993
Unknown
0
0
2,191
Notes: Primary sources of hazardous waste are production-related activities. Secondary sources are waste
       management activities. Routine sources are activities that occur regularly as part of business activity.
       Non-routine sources are activities that occur sporadically (e.g.. spills, closure of a tank, etc.).
       A single facility can generate hazardous waste from more than one source.  Adding the numbers
       results In multiple counting.
Source: GG-187(GB4)

-------
 79
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 5.4-S   Most Common Sources of Primary/Routine1 Hazardous Waste Generation by the Number
             of Generators per Source In 1986
       Other Production Processes


                 Surface Coating


               Vapor Oegreasing

       Other Cleaning/Decreasing


                     Dip Rinsing


                   Electroplating


                       Stripping
                                           25%
                                             50%
75%
100%
Notes: Bars show the percentage of aD fadBties generating hazardous waste from primary/routine sources
       that had the type of source Indicated.  Numbers following bars InoTcate number of generators.
       A single fadlty can generate hazardous waste from more than one source.  Adding the numbers
       results In multiple counting.
•Primary/routine sources of hazardous waste are production-related activities that occur regularly as part of
  business activity.
Source: QG-187(GB4)

-------
                                              5.  Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
                                                     79
Chart 5.4-9   Most Common Sources of Secondary/Routine* Hazardous Wast* Generation by the
             Number of Generators per Source In 1986
            Wastewater Treatment
   Other Pollution Control/Treatment
                Filtering/Screening
                      Dewatering
                          1,631
    439
202
                                                                                       H
                                             25%
                     50%
75%
100%
Notes: Bars show the percentage of all facilities generating hazardous waste from secondary/routine sources
       that had the type of source indicated. Numbers following bars indicate number of generators.
       A single facility can generate hazardous waste from more than one source. Adding the numbers
       results In multiple counting.
aSecondary/routine sources of hazardous waste are waste management activities that occur routinely as part
  of business activity.
Source: GG-187(GB4)

-------
 80
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 54-10  Most Common Sources of Primary/Non-Routine* Hazardous Waste Generation by the-
             Number of Generators per Source In 1986
            Clean Out of Production
      Discarding of Off-Spec Material
   Discarding of Qut-of-Date Material
                                                     2,062
                                           1.405
                                         1.252
                                o%
                                  25%
50%
75%
100%
Notes: Bars show the percentage of all fatiBties generating hazardous waste from primary/non-routlne
       sources that had the type of source Indicated. Numbers following bars Indicate number of generators.
       A single fatilty can generate hazardous waste from more than one source. Adding the numbers
       results In multiple counting.
aPrlmary/non-routJne sources of hazardous waste are production-related activities that occur sporadically
  (e.g.. from accidental or one-time activities}.
Source: GG-137(GB4>

-------
                                              5. Sources of Hazardous Waste Generated
                                                    81
Chart 5.4-11 Most Common Sources of Secondary/Non-Routlne* Hazardous Waste Generation by the
            Number of Generators per Source In 1986
        Clean-up of Spill Residue
          Other Remedial Action
        Discarding Contaminated
            Clean-up Equipment
                                                             857
            560
212
                              0%
   25%
50%
75%
100%
Notes: Bars show the percentage of all facilities generating hazardous waste from seoondary/non-routine
       sources that had the type of source Indicated. Numbers following bars indicate number of generators.
       A single fadfty can generate hazardous waste from more than one source. Adding the numbers
       results In multiple counting.
aSecondary/non-routine sources of hazardous waste are waste management activities for wastes that occur
  sporadically (e.g., from accidental or one-time activities).
Source: GG-187(GB4)

-------
 82
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 5.4-12 Most Common Unknown Sources of Non-Routine1 Hazardous Waste Generation by the
            Numbs* of Generators per Source Ini986
     Other One-Time Processes
     Other Clean-out Processes
              Accidental Spills
                           0%
                                                    1.198
                                     673
                              25%
50%
75%
100%
Notes: Bare show the percentage of all facilities generating hazardous waste from unknown/non-routlne
       sources that had the type of source Indicated. Numbers following bars indicate number of generators.
       A single fadtty can generate hazardous waste from more than one source. Adding the numbers
       results In multiple counting.
aUnknowrVnon-routine sources of hazardous waste are activities that occur sporadcally and cannot be
  categorized as primary (production-related) or secondary (waste management).
Source: GGM87(GB4)

-------
                                    6. Hazardous Waste Management	33
6
                  HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

                  In 1986,8^66 facilities treated, stored, disposed of, or recycled hazardous
                  waste. This number includes facilities that treated or recycled hazardous
                  waste in units exempt from RCRA-permitting requirements but does not
                  include facilities that only accumulated hazardous waste for less than 90
                  days in RCRA-exempt units. Also, the number only includes waste
                  management facilities that are also large quantity generators (and
                  therefore included in the Generator Survey) or have a RCRA permit (and
                  therefore are included in the TSDR Survey). This chapter describes waste
                  management facilities, as defined by the above criteria, and their hazardous
                  waste management in 1986.

6.1    HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT BY RCRA PERMITTING STATUS

                  RCRA regulations require permits for most units used to treat or dispose of
                  hazardous wastes. Units used for certain recycling and recovery activities and
                  units used to treat hazardous wastewater subject to the Clean Water Act are
                  generally exempt from RCRA-permitdng requirements. Chart 6.1-1 shows
                  the quantities of hazardous waste by the RCRA-permitting status of the TSDR
                  units in which the waste was subsequently managed and the type of facility
                  that managed the hazardous waste.lf a hazardous waste was managed
                  consecutively in a RCRA and a non-RCRA TSDR unit, the waste is included
                  in the RCRA TSDR category of Chan 6.1-1. For further explanation of the
                  chart, see Section 3.2 of this report

-------
 84	1988 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
Chart 6.1-1   Quantity* Hazardous Waste Generated In 1986, by RCRA-PerrnlttJng Status of
             Management Units
          Managed In Non-RCRA            	
          TSDR Units at Facilities          111TTTIBllllai             Managed in RCRA
           with No RCRA Units       j^^^^^MMUXlL            TSDR Units
            260.4 milflon tons      yJliiiii^aHsMsV        289.5 milDon tons
                 (35%)         fflillli^                        (39%)
              Managed Exclusively in Non-RCRA
                TSDR Units at Facilities with
                       RCRA Units
                     197.5 million tons
                          (26%)
                        Total Quantity Generated • 7474 mutton ton*
Source: (A3.A8.QA27)

-------
                                                 g. Hazardous Waste Management
                      as
                   Chart 6.1-2 shows the number of hazardous waste management facilities by
                   the regulatory status of their hazardous waste management units. Over 70
                   percent of the facilities (6,357 facilities) managed hazardous waste only in
                   non-RCRA TSDR units. The remaining 28 percent of facilities had RCRA
                   TSDR units, although about half of these facilities also managed hazardous
                   waste in non-RCRA TSDR units.
Chart 6.1-2   Number of Hazardous Waste Management Facilities by RCRA Permit Status of
            Management Units In 1986
                 Managed in RCRA and
                   Non-RCRA Units
                        1,185
                       (13.4%)
      Managed In RCRA
          Units Only
            1,324
           (14.9%)
              I
Managed in Non-RCRA
     Units Only
       6.357
      (71.7%)
         I
                        Total Number of Management FadUlM ť 8,866
Source: TQ-048, TG-043, TG-044

-------
 86	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 6.2   ONSITE, CAPTIVE, AND COMMERCIAL MANAGEMENT OF HAZARDOUS
       WASTE
                    Hazardous waste can be managed by three types of facilities:

                           • onsite: at the facility where the waste was generated,

                           • offsite/captive:  at a facility other than where the waste was generated
                            by a company under the same ownership as the generator, or

                           • offsite/commercial: at a facility other than where the waste was
                            generated by a company under different ownership than the
                            generator.

                    Chart 6.2-1 shows the quantity of hazardous waste managed onsite,
                    offsite/captively, and off site/commercially. Over 96 percent of all
                    hazardous waste generated (719 million tons) was managed onsite by the
                    generator of the waste.  Of the 28.4 million tons of hazardous waste
                    managed offsite, roughly half was managed by commercial facilities and
                    half by captive facilities.

Chan 6.2-1    Quantity of Hazardous Wast* that was Managed Onsite, Commercially, and Captlvely ki
             1986
          11 '6!?'Ł!!t0nS      ire                       719.0 rrtlfion tons
              (     }
               I
         Off site/Commercial
          16.8 mi Don tons
              (2.2*)
                           Total Quantity Managed • 7474 million tons
Notes:  Hazardous waste managed onsite was managed by the generator of the waste.
       Hazardous waste managed commercially was managed off site by a company under Different
       ownership than the generator of the waste.
       Hazardous waste managed captJvely was managed offsite by a company under the same ownership
       as the generator of the waste.
Source: TG-048 (AS, GA27)

-------
                                                    S. Hazardous Waste Management	87
                    Chart 6.2-2 shows the numbers of hazardous waste management facilities by
                    the origin of the hazardous waste they managed Over 90 percent of
                    hazardous waste management facilities managed only hazardous waste that
                    was generated onsite. Approximately 6 percent of the facilities managed
                    hazardous waste generated offsite by another company and 3.5 percent
                    managed hazardous waste generated offsite but only by the same company.
Chart 6.2-2   Number ol Hazardous Waste Management Facilities by the Origin of the Hazardous
             Waste Managed In 1986: Commercial, Captive, and Onslte-Only
        Managed Waste
         Commercially
             526
            (5.9%)
                         Total Number of Management Faculties • 8,866
Notes:  Onsite-only management fadOtles managed only hazardous waste that was generated onsite.
       Captive management facilities managed hazardous waste generated by other facilities under the
       same ownership In addition to managing hazardous waste generated onsite.
       Commercial management facilities managed hazardous waste generated by other facilities under
       different ownership In adoption to waste from other sources.
Source:  TG-048(A8>

-------
 88        1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                    Chart 6.2-3a shows where generators managed their hazardous waste. Almost
                    63 percent of generators (7,817 facilities) managed their hazardous waste
                    onsite and offsite. Thirty-four percent of generators (4,268 facilities) sent all
                    their hazardous waste offsite for management, and only 3 percent of
                    generators (393 facilities) managed all their hazardous waste onsite.
Chart 6i-3a  Number of Generators by Location of Their Hazardous Waste Management In 1986
           All Waste Generated wa&
               Managed Onsile
                    393
                   (3.1%)
      All Waste Generated was JJH^^HBB i^^^^ffi^R    Waste was Managed
          Managed Offsite    lalBB^UHHHilH    Onsite and Offsite
              4.268        llj^^BHBiflnHraB         7>817
             (342%)       j^^^HH^HIHB         (62-7%)
                              Total Number of Generators • 12,478
Notes:  Hazardous waste managed onsite was managed by the generator.
       Hazardous waste managed off site was shipped to another fadlty for management.
Source: TG-049 (GA23, GB18, A11)

-------
                                                    6. Hazardous Waste Management	89
                    Chart 6.2-3b provides greater detail on where generators manage then-
                    hazardous waste.  For generators sending their hazardous waste offsite for
                    management, the chart indicates whether the generator sent its waste to a
                    facility under the same ownership (captive) or different ownership
                    (commercial). Most generators sending their hazardous waste offsite sent
                    their waste to a commercial facility. Over half of the generators managed part
                    of their hazardous waste onsite and sent the rest to a commercial facility.
Chart 6Ł-3b  Number of Generators by Location of Their Hazardous Waste Management In 1986:
             Onsite, Commercial, and Captive
Type of Management
Onslta Only
Onsite and Ottslte
Captive Only
Captive and Commercial
Commercial Only
Unknown
Oftstta Only
Captive Only
Captive and Commercial
Commercial Only
Unknown
Total
Number of Generators
393

188
366
6.822
440

128
115
3,560
465
12.478
Percentage of Generators
3.1

1.5
2.9
54.7
3.5

1.0
0.9
28.5
3.7
100.0
Notes:  Hazardous waste managed onsite was managed by the generator of the waste.
       Hazardous waste managed captively was managed offsite by a company under the same ownership
       as the generator of the waste.
       Hazardous waste managed commercially was managed offsite by a company under different
       ownership than the generator of the waste.
Source: TG-049 (GA23, GB18. A11)

-------
90	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
6.3   HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT BY LOCATION
                   In general, the geographic distribution of hazardous waste management
                   facilities is similar to the distribution of hazardous waste generators (see
                   Section 5.1). This is due in part to the high cost of transporting hazardous
                   waste and in pan to the large number of generators managing their own
                   hazardous waste onsite (see Section 62).

                   Chan 6.3-1 shows the numbers of hazardous waste management facilities in
                   each EPA region in 1986.  Region V had the largest number of management
                   facilities, with 2,029 facilities or 22.9 percent of all hazardous waste
                   management facilities. Other regions with large numbers of hazardous waste
                   management facilities include Region IV and Region EX, with  13.9 and 13.1
                   percent of hazardous waste management facilities, respectively.

-------
Chart 6.3-1  Number of Hazardous Waste Management Facilities per EPA Region In 1986
   Total number ol hazardous waste management facilities - 8.866
           Region IX
Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
              and the Virgin Islands
      Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
      Region X inckides Alaska

Percentages in parentheses indicate the percentage
ol all hazardous waste generators that are located in
the region indicated.
                                                  Reg,onVI
                                                                                                                                 u
                                                                                                                                 •4
                                                                                                                                 II
                                                                                                                                 a
                                                                                                                                 D

                                                                                                                                 U

                                                                                                                                I
Source: TG-048

-------
92	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                    Charts 6.3-2 and 6.3-3 show the number of hazardous waste management  .
                    facilities in each state (in alphabetical order and descending order,
                    respectively). California had the largest number of hazardous waste
                    management facilities, with 1,046 facilities.  Texas and Pennsylvania also had
                    large numbers of facilities, with 622 and 547 facilities, respectively.

-------
                                                   g. Hazardous Waste Management
93
 Chart 6.3-2   Number of Hazardous Waste Management Facilities by State In 1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
.v/Conrwelle^iipUp!
-•tSSK^U^
Georgia •'"
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
.Indiana,.
,•• Iowa. ./'•.'
Kansas ••' . - :
•Kentucky :
; Louisiana* J:.-- :- '?. .
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
.;-; Niwada^yiifi IsMtt;
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
':; North Oakota:f;;rv;i
• - : +rt W.1 ; . .' • ..- .:. :- . '•_•. . . • '\ [• \ '., - •'
S?r"flPOITHf :i:':'''' '•••'''' • •'• • ::" :'
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas- .,•': ;-:~$jjŁi!%
§!*:
if?
",
' Virginia • :>;-.: ; .'•••: ^ ? • -
Washington "
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total
Number of Percentage of Hazardous
Facilities Waste Management Facilities
127
9
89
84
. 1,046 	
••!'.:-: '.'_.•:, • :; !- '' • .• • ''• :' ;. ; :: '•'..- • '. '. ::i . ZOO ; '•?: :-: :- : :;: :-• :-•': ;!-: :; •'•/ : .'• -• ':•-.' .'. • :-.'' •;'-: > |:
:'::'".-.^::V ;' •• '•'•'" !' \ '• . '•.'••>•:'.' .'• -1 ft: '• '.". '•'"'• ';: :'; ' '•'.'. .-'..'•: ^ :: . .: '.•-..•'"':'• '•
:'v J ';• ; '. :V' " '- .i •". '' ' j ! ,' \ '5 1 • '•[ '' ! Ť '! y ^ '. 5 ^ :\ ; .'. S.i > i " i ; ' : i : :: '•'• ', . ''.' \ •: :i ':'
'Ktf.fi.t'Ci ; '••'.-. :' ; I ."•;•• ':: i : ' : v -• '; } :: . :: .:: :: '' ;; :; '. f" ':':.;'' ; :v:; •'.• f'-i ;: .? * ! • : |-
	 " ' 162'" ••"•••
1
13
8
490
287
86 . . .
• - • • 70 . " '
' '123\ -'
: . • . 108. '
39
110
431
375
.. ... 	 	 177 	
?•?/: ;'.' / i^J: '^K-i ^ i'i? '•••• j ?: i't *";-.;?.?;:' i '•&' '- 'i^ r'-i •& ?*<$?!& t&
'' ';•'• : ;•:. '- '••- : t '' ':': j'1;: i ;/: •:-. ' '•: :•• i" ' . '40^* :";: : * - n i :'V:Sj'.S \: '-'f ?%?ff; :;S; :
I*l*Mi^^lil!i^liM^^i!SI^
79
500
19
411
224
; :- :••.::• >: • ; ;: ;. ; ;-• j ;;;:-:.:'•:.;••. : ••: g : j; ;: ; : •.; '; ;; ;y ; Ľ#Ł K ": J.-JJ--5 ;! >|?
v ' ;' '''V? : v : V ' : ;-. ?'.! : v ;• i •• '• SQS:;:f j •' f • " ' ' -i ^ ; 'i - :.-< :.:;: s-S'?: ?:;.;: :-'.:: :•'*
|;S5;-j-':^;|!i^v5::^:vS'S
,,,. ,,,.,:,,„:Ť:•.• ,• ;. ..,-:',:,. 7Q, ,....,,,:•:,,, ,:,,,,,,,„.,•.,, ,::•..
76
126
5
198
r. -;:;: ••x-/.-:: '.-- 522^ . ' '
:,:.: -•.-.•.. 43"
;::.-.: ..•-.'• a\
r; •; ' -0 •,:•:,, \ 0 .' ', ' •:: -.,. ;•
" ' ,.....--: ^ 167 , :•.'•. ':' •,.
116
65
195
7
8,866
1.4
0.1
1.0
0.9
11.8
:^Sfey^^vSij^
!=^SS^f^M'--;t':'^
'"1.3"
<0.1
o.'i
0.1
5.-S
32 ' ••
i.'o' • ' •' •.-•'•• •:
0.9 . ' • " ' .
U- " . • •
\2 •• •
0.4
1.2
4.9
4.2
2.0
.•:':•:[•]: -'|J^'^::.:;:.:.'^.!":.:".i;.V ;.•.• -•;• -~y '; ' .•'.• •'. ,• •• \ '.'• ''.- ?•'.' ''. '-.• •' ;|
•5S :':::j*:-Jt^'':- ^ '"• :' '!'!•'•••''" '•••' '^'•'••: •: '•' : - • ' :•'• '• •"• •'•'•''•'• •"•'•
S^iSS 'M&& lilcili
0.9
5.6
0.2
4.6
2.5
;•••:• ^^j!;." :'•: ';:';;;:-';:^'-': '.;•':••'•::;•" : :;'•'".;;
••lr'^lyif:-:'^''-'P\^:\-:^--^
^8^?Ž:'!5S?
:,..,. ^ :,,.,,..,:.
0.9
1.4
0.1
2.2
7.0
0~5'
0^
'• • 0.0 .• ' •'••', .' :'
^.ft'-- . • • • •
'"""'1*3' "'""" 	 ''"'"'
0.7
2.2
0.1
100.0
State
Rank
20
47
27
29
1 	
(;m;5:rą:;;;
-52;"::V'i.^':-:
" "19"' '
53
44
48
6
10: :
2ft
35
22;
25 .
40
24
7
9
16
iiE
•,*,:.Ł ..,,,-,::.,.
5
42
8
12
;"••. 50;:'f-;' .;". "•'•'"'•
!i:' •• = 4: V/:'.^ ?'•:•''
:":. Uftf ';S • -
38 ' ••""•••'
33
21
51
13
. z: • • .
38
41
54'' " '
IB
23
37
14
49

Source: TG-048

-------
 94
           1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 6.3-3    Number of Hazardous Wast* Management Facilities by State In 1986, In Descending
   State
                                            NumbŤr of
                                             Facilities
                      Percentage of Hazardous Waste
                      	Management Facilities)
   California
   Texas
   Pennsylvania
   Ohio
   New Jersey
             '
1.046
  622
  547
  505
  500
   Connecticut
   North Carolina
   Tennessee
   Wisconsin
   Florida
 266
 224
 198
 195
 177
                                                                                  11.6
                                                                                   7.0
                                                                                   6.2
                                                                                   5.7
                                                                                   5.6
                                                                                      .
                                                                                   3.0
                                                                                   2.5
                                                                                   2.2
                                                                                   22
                                                                                   2.0
   SOUth QŁffiŁ~™-""™"-	•"-" ••-"->'••••••••>••"Ť	•-"•-• -	•---••• .•.-..•.-^-.•.•.•:.-.:....-..-.-^.x:o;,,,,..,,,.... ,,,,,.,.

   Kentucky                                        123
   Washington                                     116
   Maryland                                        110
   Louisiana]                                        108
  Colorado
  New Hampthlra
  Rhode Island
  OWahoma
  Kansas
  Vermont
  New Mexico
  Delaware
  Hawaii
  Nevada
Alaska
Wato "ŤX:..-. ,--i-,::::
Wyoming  :r--"iV*
North Dafcot*
South Dakota
District of Columbia
Guam
Virgin bland	
                                                                                      0.0
  Total
                                              8,866
                                   100.0
Source: TG-048

-------
                                                  6. Hazardous Waste Management
                                                          95
6.4    TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
                    Chart 6.4-1 shows the types of hazardous waste management activities
                    conducted by waste management facilities in 1986. It is important to note that
                    a single facility could conduct more than one type of waste management
                    activity. Over half of the waste management facilities (5,176 facilities)
                    treated hazardous waste in 1986.
Chart 6.4-1    Number ol Management Facilities Treating, Storing, Disposing of, and Recycling
             Hazardous Waste In 1986
  Treatment
   Recycling
    Storage
    Disposal
                           5.176
 1.902
1.785
          0%
 25%
50%
75%
100%
Note:   A single management facility can have more than one waste management activity. Therefore, adding
       the numbers of facilities results in multiple counting.
Source: TG-Q5O

-------
96	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                                      (This page is intentionally blank)

-------
                               7. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Recycling	97
          7
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
METHODS:  RECYCLING

EPA has established a pollution prevention hierarchy that encourages reducing
or eliminating the generation of waste and recycling wastes that are generated.
This chapter summarizes Generator and TSDR Survey data on hazardous
waste recycling. Units used to recycle hazardous wastes are generally exempt
from RCRA-peimitting requirements. This chapter includes data on all
hazardous waste recycling activities regardless of permitting status.

Much of the data on recycling activities are process-specific—that is, facilities
reported recycling information for each recovery process they operated.
Because a single hazardous waste is often managed sequentially in several
recycling processes, aggregating process-specific data presented in this
chapter is not appropriate.
7.1   SOLVENT AND LIQUID ORGANIC RECOVERY
                  Solvent and liquid organic recovery (solvent recovery) is the most
                  common type of recycling in terms of the number of facilities engaged in
                  recycling.  Seventeen percent of all hazardous waste management
                  facilities, or 1,470 facilities, managed 1.18 million tons of hazardous waste
                  in solvent recovery processes in 1986.

                  Charts 7.1-1 and 7.1-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste managed and the
                  number of facilities managing hazardous waste in solvent recovery processes
                  in each EPA region in 1986. Chans 7.1-3 and 7.1-4 show the same
                  information for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 7.1-1  Quantity ol Hazardous Waste Managed In Solvent Recovery Processes per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)
    Total quantity managed -1.18 million tons
    Note: Region II Includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
         Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
         Region X inchxfes Alaska

    Percentages in parentheses indicate the percentage
    of all hazardous waste managed in solvent recovery
    processes that was managed in the region indicated.
                                                                                                                                CO
                                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                                ft
                                                                                                                                I
Source:  TT-140 (F3). GG-170 (GG3), TT-140II (F3)

-------
Chart 7.1-2  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Solvent Recovery Processes per EPA Region In 1986
    Total number ol facilities - 1.470
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X Includes Alaska

    Percentages in parentheses indicate the
    percentage ol al facilities with solvent recovery
    processes that are located in the region indicated.
Region VI
                                                                                                                                  I
I
I
8
1
I
1
I
Source: TT-140 (F3). GG-170 (GG3). TT-140II (F3)
                                                                                                                                  <0

-------
  100
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chan 7.1-3  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Solvent Recovery Processes by Stats In 1986
   State
Quantity Managed
  (million tons
                                            Percentage of
                                        Total Quantity Manaaed
State
Rank
   Alabama
   Alaska
   Arizona
   Arkansas
   California
                        0.08
                        0.00
                       <0.01Ť
                        0.01
                        0.08
                       <0.01*
  .Florida^.
   Georgia
   Guam
   Hawaii
   Idaho
   Illinois
   tew*
   Maine
   Maryland
   Mflssflcti usotte
   Michigan
   Minnesota
  Vermont
  Virgin
  Virginia
  Washington
  West Virginia
  Wisconsin
  Wyoming
  New Hampshire
  New Jersey
  New Mexico
  New York
  North Carolina
  Puerto Rico
  Rhode Island
  South Carolina
  South Dakota
  Tennessee
  Texaa
  Total
                                    1.18
                                                100.0
•Lass than 10.000 tons of hazardous waste were generated In these states in 1986.
^ess than 0.1 percent of the total quantity of hazardous waste generated in 1986 was generated in these stales.
Source:  TT-140 (F3), GO-170 (GG3), TT-140II (F3)

-------
                                    7. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Recycling
101
 Chart 7.1-4   Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Solvent Recovery Processes by
             State In 1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
• '; ^CpjpiadosiS; i; s* • :;•;? ;• • i ;i ;
:--":. **•"'* '•^^""***ť- :;':-:. :•::'•:•'•: '.';-; •:'••: '; '"
' " •'•'•• Ofl 1 flttfflflBt" !•&•• ••• ••'•••' •" '••• •'•••'•'• '•• '"'• f '••'•'• ''•
••• • DiSinCt W GwUnttliw!: >; ;!

• |" i |~iwnD4- :;'.:•.•'• :•:.::.•.'.-: .•:•:• .•';_:••"!; :!•;!•:. .-
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
•.. '..Indiana^'-' :-'- -'"'
". '''kJWaV:' :-:' ' : : - •- ''•
-: Kansas :::":''-' /
i.; 'Kentucky^ -.;:;; ;•; '
Louhitana :' • •
'Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
•-1 :• •: 'fcjfii^^-*iťj'::2::.;lj:;'::'::'.: :v:''::"::'":;'-:'
- ': • UlA^HUfltoi'''"'./'^'''.'1 • .•:•:•: •"'••' .i1:'."'1.
:} •• ••• will SlMHIwfr^'Kv??"::? :!•>;?::•:>
;: !; MOOtanaiS^:;:?:^:':' ;: :;'? • ;:- : ,"
;'•; i NebrtUfcafeit:??::1;;;?;?-;;;:1. :" •'
• •• .• Nevada: Ťf Its i :^: <$$. '. f
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
' Nioirttt p jnujjdjf^sj"*?"'1^ ??
• • ;OW*M!?!iii!'|;
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South CaroDna
South Dakota
Tennessee
..Texar-^n'fllli
Utah .; :-
Vermont-^"^^1

..Vbglnia \,:*t'&
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyornino
Total
Number of
RCRA TSDR Facll
17
0
9
21
111
^'0:i ::-':.^.1i:; •^'•;:;':'^N 9^i: ••"• i'.!
•;;;\::;-:! •:;;;'::; ;-:;.'.;•::;•:• •:;:41:.-:.:'.;."'1
^t^d!sl^l^iy?'.'-*1^;:^
i::::::::1'':..:.:;1::'::''.::".:^1. 'S::;^;: : 0. ^ii: 5:: '

.••!- .iv!.; • . '!'.•! !-,!'•!! '^ '•-.-: '•'. :- '!: .; ,- ':• ,' VV' .' ',', ', i: /.
	 24 	
0
2
2
45
• - • : . 67.
. • : •••• • • u.
.14:
. . . • • • 20; •
'/•'' 13 ' .
'"" ' ' 4'
40
85
30
46
"!: :' ••• iy;?:.!--': ::•:':" -: "' ': : ; :' ': !:; ? '•!:" '! ft:;!'.'!-'"';!1!'1
llli!S^;^K
: 1^'1i:'^%.:!:.::.!'.".^:. ' '1'4:!': •'
. f.,!:-,..;,::;.:,:..;.;:.^..;:-,..:-:- .- jj.-:, -
.,,„.„.,,..,,..„ ^
60
3
76
55
v:Ť ?(•Ť;Ľ•?!;::•::• ;;•:;;:'•: ^ t.^i Ť|Si ; :> :; ::'
';8M.?^.-:|^.::-i:S * i^'.Iij^:^:-'
^,,,,,;<.,,..,,,,,,, ,.,,,, 10.,,,,.,
24
19
0
48
Ł*.;.;!?;•;•••.•••-:•: QQ
!!&*:• ' '. . :io
;K::-- : '••• • 8
'?-:- - ' o
4; :;.'., at
33
7
67
0
1.470
Percentage of RCRA
Itles TSDR Facilities
1.2
0.0
0.6
1.4
7.6

'^'J-'y.'^ ':""': .'w/l:" • 'f^--' ZS-l^^<\.-: v'.",.\.;
V;; ':}!!:; ^;'|^;:;- : / ^^OJif'^ "'{:*<: ''•
;-:•:. •:•::•- 1. :•••• . ;.-..;- •:-;:. ,.: ;-••;.•': Q^Q ;. .:;•:-:;.:.••• - •;;.-;.; ';

: . ^ .'•'.': .••'"'' '":" ' ' !•-.'."" ^Utf -. '•:•':• '. X ':' \ "' "' ' •'"•''
......-.....,,,,...... ,....,.... ^g •-•--"- --••-••-•
0.0
0.1
0.1
3.1
4.6
1.0:
1.0
: ' ' . '1.4--'
• ... ... 0X9.-.. .
0.3
2.7
5.8
2.0
3.1
- ,,-;;;:.; -.;,,.,.,.,,.,.,,,>. .,,.<;;;;.,,,. , ?;. ,;;,.. .; • . , .. . J , .
. • . •- • ;. :•......,: . .. ;-•':.- W.^;. ; .- •••:••.•. '
••'••'.;;::': v:: ;:':::-::"'?;: ''-;;^ 0.o|-.-:-- •:;-';~ ' . :'
: '• !--:" :"-.-.! i'-;- : .:i.i •-.'-• '•' 1JJ::'::: ' :
'"•.'••' '•• '"*'!':: '-'"-:i:-V;;""'(X(jj'.:-:.: " '
1.5
4.1
0.2
5^
3.7
•T? "•' i ''?"''! 'r' S: i •' ;"'r^' : 1' f - f ' 0^'S :s '• ' :- • • -' t '''•''- :
ft;'i? • :;t; J-i-i'l??!"*? :5!'-:> ;:.;.';i:. ''dCTf?'^ ;:*::;;•Ł' *.'' •" ••
:'v i';;Ľ!::liV:V.^f'::'V;kC; ^.ftT^-^i'S''- *'-••••: '•
";'":'::;i"""":': -:-i-^0y":";:':--"- -
1.6
1.3
0.0
3.3
'-' : ' -''''• ; 4 I;'-. •
0.7
014
•: . • • 0.0-: ' '
.' .. ..' ;.;..; . •; zt":.:..'. :- '-.
2.2
0.5
4.6
0.0
100.0
State
Rank
27
46
36
24
2
•,:.;•.•;,;.•.. ::;.,; .37:- ••• .. •;•
..•'. ' "'-: :-,..15-:' .- '. •".
:;•;;.•: •;•; ::.: 42 v^. .•:,:, ;
..... : . .._.; ; 47 •' " ' = ' " '"

."•'' :'•:-'"' : : 	 	 | f ' . ' •
"""""" """"""" "'21'""""
48
44
45
13
6
••28;
29
25:
31
41
16
3
20
12
':' !""•:,. :"i"! !:''- : : ;;; •"- *1Q :° ~: :•' : : :' '•'"'""' -: :. •
.:;::'"'::^:f-;;:;^;;r -;-.'.
.'•'". :' 30'i
• --/•;•••' 51- '
23
8
43
5
10
.v;-?:^..;?.:^v:.i:-a0;.^; .:-:-. -; •
:BiSS§- S>- -
	 34 "
22
26
52
11
9
35
40
53
'• : 19
18
38
7
54

Source/. TT-140 (F3). GG-170 (GG3). TT-140II (F3)

-------
 102
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                     Chart 7.1-5 shows the types of solvent recovery processes operated in 1986.
                     For each type of process, the chart shows the quantity of hazardous waste
                     managed and the number of facilities operating that type of process.
Chart 7.1-5  Types of Solvent Recovery Processes and Quantity Managed In 1986
Process Type
Batch Still Distillation
Phase Separation
Thin Rim Evaporation
FracflonatJon
Missing
Other
nitration
Desiccation
Solvent Extraction
Total
Quantity
Managed
(million tons)
0.39
0.35
0.34
0.28
0.17
0.17
0.11
0.02
0.02
1.1 8a
Percentage of
Total Quantity
Managed
33.3
29.7
28.6
23.3
14.6
14.5
9.4
1.4
1.3
100.0*
Number
of
Facilities
1.209
107
98
102
14
95
61
9
39
1.4706
Percentage
of
Facilities
822
7.3
6.7
6.9
1.0
6.5
4.1
0.6
2.7
lOO.Ob
8 A single waste may be managed In more than one solvent recovery process. Therefore, adcflng the
  quantities managed In each type of process results In double-counting. The number shown is the total
  quantity managed in solvent recovery processes without double-counting.
b A single fadity may have more than one type of solvent recovery process. Therefore, adding the number of
  facilities with each type of process results In double-counting. The number shown Is the total number of
  facilities with solvent recovery processes without double-counting.
Source: TT-141. GG-171, TT-141II (GG4, GG21, F4, F25a)

-------
                                                        ament Methods: Recycling
103
                    Chart 7.1-6 shows the regulatory status of facilities that recover solvents. The
                    chart shows the numbers of facilities that recovered solvents and were subject
                    to RCRA-permitting requirements or exempt from RCRA-penrritting
                    requirements.  The chart does not refer to the permitting status of the facilities'
                    recovery operations.  Instead, the chart indicates whether any operation at the
                    facility is subject to RCRA-permitting requirements.
Chart 7.1-6  RCRA-Pormlttlng Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Solvent Recovery
            Processes In 1986
RCRA-Permtttlng status
Exempt from permitting requirements8
Subject to permitting requirement
Total
Number
of
Facilities-
1.152
318
1.470
Quantity Managed
In Solvent Recovery
(million tons)
0.19
0.99 .;
1.18
8 Factfties managing hazardous waste only in units exempt from RCRA-penrttting requirements.
b Fadlties managing hazardous waste in at least one unit subject to RCRA-perrrttting requirements.
Source: TT-140 (F3), GG-170 (GG3), TT-140II (F3)
7.2    METAL RECOVERY
                    Metal recovery is the most common type of recycling in terms of the
                    quantity of hazardous waste recycled. Approximately L44 million tons of
                    hazardous waste was managed in metal recovery processes by 330
                    facilities in 1986.
                    Charts 7.2-1 and 7.2-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste managed and the
                    number of facilities managing hazardous waste in metal recovery processes in
                    each EPA region in 1986. Charts 72-3 and 72-4 show the same information
                    for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 7.2-1  Quantity ol Hazardous Waste Managed In Metal Recovery Processes per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)
    Total quantity managed - 1.44 million Ions
    Note:  Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages in parentheses indicate the percentage
    of all hazardous waste managed in metal recovery
    processes that was managed in the region indicated.
                                                                                                                                2
Source: TT-140 (G3). GG-170 (GF3). TT-140II (G3)

-------
Chart 7.2-2  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Metal Recovery Processes per EPA Region In 1986
    Total number ol facilities - 330
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages in parentheses indicate the
    percentage of all facilities with metal recovery
    processes that are located in the region indicated
                                                                                                                                S

                                                                                                                                I

                                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                                Ql
Source: TT-140 (G3), GG-170 (GF3), TT-140II (G3)

-------
  106
          1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 7.2-3  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Metal Recovery Processes by State In 1986
   State
                            Quantity Managed
                              (million tonal
    Percentage of
Total Quantity Managed
State
Rank
   Alabama
   Alaska
   Arizona
   Arkansas
   California
                                  0.14
          9.9
   Comtactteuf^
   Georgia
   Guam
   HawaJi
   Idaho
   Illinois
Kansas ••'•'-i*-*'
Kentucky     :
LouWanŤ:.<: ::i
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
                                     0.03
                                                                                  •mv%x:^
                                                                                 mm:T$zm^:i
                                                                                  '.::::*:::?.M::.)•"; :••:?:•".'• ••.••. • .:
                                                                                 i^iT^SrW^:;.':::.^-.;:--
                                                                                 v :is:-;?%::•••$::• •^fcs.^Vv^ - ?.:-.:| .; . |
                                                                          ^•^^l"'^^'"-^'^^!':.'-1^ :':.-"?:-
                                                                          '•~ ;•••••••,.''.. : •"...;...'"•'. ' . *. • .-:  '   ::
  New Hampshire
  New Jersey
  New Mexico
  New York
  North Carolina
  Puerto Rico
  Rhode Island
  South Carolina
  South Dakota
  Tennessee
  Texas
  Vermont*
  Vkglrt
                                 <0'.01*
                                  0.04
                                  0.14
                                  0.00
  Washington
  West Virg^ia
  Wisconsin
  Wyoming
  Total
                                                           100.0
•Less than 10.000 tons of hazardous waste were generated in these states In 1986.
bLess than 0.1 percent of the total quantity of hazardous waste generated In 1986 was generated in these states.
Source: TT-140 (G3). GG-170 (GF3), TT-140II (G3)

-------
                                     7.  Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Recycling
                                                                  107
 Chart 7.2-4  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Wast* in Metal Recovery Processes by State
             In 198*
  State
     Number of
RCRA TSDR FacllHlea
Percentage of RCRA
  TSDR Facilities
State
Rank
  Alabama
  Alaska
  Arizona
  Aricansas
  California
  Virginia,,  *.;
  Washington
  West Virginia
  Wisconsin
  Wyoming	
                                                         16
                                                         35
                                                         12
                                                         29
                                                          1
                                                                                   22
                                                                                   47
                                                                                   48
                                                                                   42
                                                                                    4
                                                                                  - 3V: :
                                                                                   25
                                                                                   24
                                                                                   19
                                                                                    5
                                                                                   11

                                                                                   20
                                                                                   49

                                                                                   45
                                                                                   44
                                                                                   14
                                                                                   32
                                                                                    9
                                                                                   43
                                                         38
                                                         39
                                                          6
                                                         52
                                                         34

                                                         27
                                                         46
                                                         53
                                                         28
                                                         15
                                                         21
                                                          8
                                                         54
  Total
        330
       100.0
Source: TT-140 (G3). GG-170 (GF3). TT-140II (G3)

-------
 108
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                     Chart 7.2-5 shows the types of metal recovery processes operated in 1986.
                     For each type of process, the chart shows the quantity of hazardous waste
                     managed and the number of facilities operating that type of process.

 Chart 72-5 Types of Metals Recovery Processes and Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In 1986
Process Type
Other
Secondary Smelting
nitration
Electrolytic
Ion Exchange
Evaporation
Reverse Osmosis
Solvent Extraction
Sodium Borohydrtoe
Missing
Liming
Total
Quantity
Managed
(million tons)
0.63
0.38
0.22
0.16
0.16
0.15
0.02
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
1.44Ť
Percentage of
Total Quantity
Managed
43.9
26.6
15.0
10.9
10.8
10.3
1.6
0.1
0.1
0.1
<0.1
100.0*
Number
of
Facilities
102
26
22
140
64
31
6
4
6
4
3
330&
Percentage
of
Facilities
30.9
7.9
6.7
42.4
19.4
9.4
1.8
1.2
1.8
1.2
0.9
lOO-O5
a A single waste may be managed In more than one metals recovery process. Therefore, adding the
  quantities managed in each type of process results In double-counting. The number shown Is the total
  quantity managed in metals recovery processes without double-counting.
b A single faciity may have more than one type of metals recovery process. Therefore, addng the number of
  facilities with each type of process results In double-counting. The number shown Is the total number of
  facilities with metals recovery processes without double-counting.
Source: TT-141, GQ-171, TT-141II (04, G25a, GF4, GF21)

-------
                                  7. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Recycling	109
                    Chart 7.2-6 shows the regulatory status of facilities that recover metals. The
                    chan shows the numbers of facilities that recovered metals and were subject to
                    RCRA-permitting requirements or exempt from RCRA-permitting
                    requirements. The chan does not refer to the permitting status of the facilities'
                    recovery operations. Instead, the chan indicates whether any operation at the
                    facility is subject to RCRA-permitting requirements.
Chart 7.24  RCRA-Permlttlng Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Metal Recovery
            Processes In 1986
RCRA-Permlttlng Status
Exempt from permitting requirements8
Subject to permitting requirements6
Total
Number
of
Facilities
207
123
330
Quantity Managed
In Metal Recovery
(million tons)
0.78
0.65
1.44 '
8 Fadlties managing hazardous waste only In units exempt from RCRA-permitting requirements.
b Fadlties managing hazardous waste In at least one unit subject to RCRA-permtttfng requirements.
Source: TT-140 (Q3). GG-170, TT-140II (G3)
7.3    REUSE AS FUEL

                    Reusing hazardous waste as fuel involves the burning of hazardous waste as
                    an energy source. In 1986,1.44 million tons of hazardous waste were
                    reused as fuel by 295 facilities. The quantity of hazardous waste reused as
                    fuel is only slightly less than the quantity managed in metals recovery
                    processes, making reusing hazardous waste as fuel the second most common
                    type of recycling (in terms of the quantity of hazardous waste managed).

                    Charts 7.3-1 and 7.3-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste managed and the
                    number of facilities managing hazardous waste in reuse as fuel processes in
                    each EPA region in 1986. Charts 7.3-3 and 7.3-4 show the same information
                    for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 7.3-1  Quantity ol Hazardous Waste Managed In Reuse-as-Fuel Processes per EPA Region In 1986 (in million tons)
    Total quantity managed - 1.44 million tons
                                        <0.01
                                        (01%)

                                      Region VIII
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
         Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
         Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages In parentheses indicate the percentage
    ol al hazardous waste managed in reuse-as-fuel
    processes that was managed in the region indicated.
                                                                                                                               i
8
1
Source: TT-140 (C3). GG-170 (GD3). TT-140II (C3)

-------
Chan 7.3-2  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Reuse-as-Fuel Processes per EPA Region In 1986
    Total number ol facilities • 295
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages in parentheses indicate the
    percentage of all facilities with reuse-as-tue!
    processes that are located in the region indicated.
Region VI
                                                                                                                                  u
                                                                                                                                  a
                                                                                                                                  0

                                                                                                                                  to


                                                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                                                 I
I
3
Source: TT-140 (C3). GG-170 (GD3). TT-140II (C3)

-------
  112
1966 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 73-3   Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Reuse-as-Fuel Processes by State In 1986
Quantity Manaj
State (million tons
Alabama 0.02
Alaska <0.01*
Arizona 0.00
Arkansas 0.03
California 0.04
^•^^gf^jyjj^l
'" Georgia 	 	 ' "<6.01*""
Guam 0.00
Hawaii 0.00
Idaho 0.00
Illinois 	 v 	 !•'<:'' '•'. ' ^K- :ii- -• '.":i " "
•••••'(j^ ••••"•"•••••••'•"•— "'•••••-"••-•'- --•--•• •^•-••" •-
0.0 45
0.0 46
0.0 47
0.2 ... 25
. ': ':o- < ^•xftClSl^
''''NewHampshirT"""^
New Jersey 0.01
New Meifco 0.00
New York 0.05
North Carolina 0.03
' " ' Nortlj Oakotssi&: w'J '. ''•'• ~~> •**& ••••' •••-•* ••'Ł :~t * •. 0.00 $& i;:
OnlaHU^^lv^.;;:;§:'-;/^'':;^:^r::.::k:^;.:*^^
Puerto Rico """" '"" 0.01
Rhode Island <0.01*
South Carolina 0.01
South Dakota 0.00
Tennessee 0.14
Texas:- • i "* ^S^^^^- ? -••••"' i:f' OX53^: '•
Utah ;. • ^]jjiijj?''f'''' •' <0.01*
Vermont-' • .$:JI$jjj&?'^-''-' ' 0.00'
Virgin bland- ' .^':!?K^'-W 0.00 -
Vbglnt* ''. -::'. ' 0.04
Washington 0.02
West Virginia 0.03
Wisconsin <0.01Ť
Wyomina 0.00
Total 1.44
SMS^fflllWS^P^^:^
:,,,,ť.^:.,,::^^,x1x,:m..,,:^|)b.,,::,....,,,. : -,- ,,,„,,:, ,,,, ,.,,,,, ._ ,.„:-:,:
0.9 19
0.0 49
3.3 6
2.4 11
:r .:..:|...:.:,;:..,-:-;.:|.HVI: y ;fi^'.'yQjfc^S.. ]:•;.'• : ^-••'. ': :••••-•'.'- '!. ;: 48^:'.; ' '. ...!'':
•":.":?':•-..••• •••' :': '' :. "•-':- :'.'.'::, :: •:••": ::'. .: ft^'ft'^ft ••'•''•'•• '•'•'• iff..-.?.- ..• :•'•:•'•'.''.. '•'•':•' •. • ~ • •^^'••'- - '• -• • "•
........ . . . . .^ ; .; ; _ . _ - ...-. . . . \|*U> :'iV •• -:;w. .;.;.• .-.;.;,; . ^; -.-.^ • ;,.,.•;.. • . .. .'.... • ; 9 !•' :••.:•-
• " '"'. '• • • ;•'.!.-,'• '. -••:••''.:•': .•.".•: r- ' ; " H,^^':-; .vK-i1;-:1. '•' ^ '•',''.: •",-;' .• . • •".- "' ':.' •" . • • .e^-.^,'1 • - ' .. .- ' •
0.4 23
0.1 29
0.7 20
0.0 52
9.4 2
'"" : • ' ' : ' • ''' . 36.0:"::f;. '"' '" '•- . '"' '•' ' • 'f '•';•'' •- ".
• ' . • . 0.1-: ..- •-••...- - SO:-;-,-.. ' . -•
•'"'•' O.'0:''':: - • - ' ... ! .,. : 42-. :" ' -•. •• •
'• ' - " - 0.0>- .' - ' ' S3 • "-: - * -
..••••. - -:• ' 3.0.' ' :, - . • • •: . 7- '-•••'..
1.3 17
i1 13
0^ 26
0.0 54
100.0
•Less than 10.000 tons of hazardous waste were generated in these states in 1936.
"Less than 0.1 percent erf the totsJ quantity of hazardous waste generated in 1986 was generated in these states.
Source: TT-140 (C3). GG-170 (GD3), TT-140II (C3)

-------
                                   7. Hazardous Waste Management Methods:  Recycling
113
 Chart 7.3-4  Numbor of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Reuse-as-Fuel Processes by State In
            1966
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
v'sc^hactlcult^'-Sfl.V
- iDelawar*..?^.:-'--';;'?:-'-::'
;; 'District of Columbia;
Georgia 	
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
y.. Indiana 1 :; . ' "
Iowa ••":••
Kansas ••
Kentucky :
.Louisiana:
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
-•M^liill
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
": NorfliDakotarf;;;:^^;;
.SJ5^IŁSI:
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas • ' '''" --v^^
•Utah • " '•'. r^f-
Vermont. :'}':";> *•*
Virgin Island:: *
Vtrginfa
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total
Number of
RCRA TSDR Facilities
4
1
0
4
6
'•^?fa&VJ^\^tf^ ,;HVi-v^:*i.-
&^^M<<& : *l S!&&

.,,,,,,.,,,,.:,,.,:,,:,,.:-: ._,,,,.:.. ,.,„„.,:
0
0
0
7
'•' .- 4
• • ' • 1
7
5
11
8
7
5
3
8
:^g^^y^
'•: :: :: .-,•:• :: :'''':••':• -. '• . .•' '-. ; .:: '.- ':• '. •' !• •'. -i .•:• - ''. ••• :' ':'• '-. ''. •' ': • '••••'. .": • •'•.-.
:" '! '' ;- : '.•'. •:'•'•• •' :• •-. •: '.-••'. '•: '-: ' ': !'• • •'-' : •-' V '• ''••Qf-S''.* ''•'• •'.' •': '" ::: -::'!'••"-: ''
..,...,,,,,.,,.-,,,..,.- ,,,-3, :,.,:,.,.„ ....,
30
0
8
18
SR8^?tjSSISSS
'jiil^s&gij^.
..,,.,,,,:. ^,..,,,,,:,,..,,,,,,.,,
4
14
0
	 	 11
T •&'••• '' ' 30
':'.• "' '• ' s
j
0
17
2
8
5
0
295
Percentage of RCRA
TSDR Facilities
1.4
0.3
0.0
1.4
2.0
•'•.•:'•' !^l^ ^$7^ ''.'" '.
: - :: '; i. ." V; :;:.:i i '' :: -: i QJ S:'f ? \ : • :' . •' • ' : :'
I- : •• :- ': -'. *'': .- :.' '. '• 0.0 ^ '? ^ t *' ': '• ' '•
.-.••.:••! ;'••-:;.::::::-! '.- ••.•*: A-:-'. yo '!!::-. :• ..•!•.-.•.--
-•' ; .•:•:'"' -:'. !: '!,'::•. I..*?1:1.':!'.1; - ;. - . • /
	 0.7 	
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.4
1.4
0.3
2.4'. : ,
1.7
3:7
2.7
2.4
1.7
1.0
2.7
1||||S|||
""""""""""""""'"1.0" "'"""""
10.2
0.0
2.7
6.1
;?SSfiŁSSS^
llllll^S^^^^
'l.4!""" '
1.4
4.7
0.0
3.7
: '•''.'•''. •' 10J!;:.:'
'•'• :•'' I.T -
03
0.0
: '•-. -• 5.8':' -
0.7
2.7
1.7
0.0
100.0
State
Rank
23
38
43
24
18
:•-' :.' :.; :'•.•. ';';'- 6y;:;"'-.:-':'-: '••
'•- '• ••- '-•' -'."':'::i '34:':'1:1:: ' •' : •'•" •
'.:^':^:>;:r/-'-'^.:^^--
.,, ...,...,,..,:..:,: ^
45
46
47
15
. - :.- ::•-.- jj*/.1 ''f " '' ' ; • .'
. : ":'-''-:V'L'":''1. .40vii':.;i: -'•i:::;: :
''.•'. ••'.-;. : •\'.::--.-.16- -::i':: : '-.': >'-'•'• •'•
'••- .• ' .;;.: : ••'.:•< .:19.:'".h:r''':-':: :'' ;';
• -; '" . •.' . ' .' . 7'.-' ..• ••'.•• :. .
"""""iV"
17
20
30
12
miiiijjffs
.:..,-. ,,.-,,...,, 32-,,.., -.,,..,,,,
1
49
13
3
PSIS;:^3?^
s^ii^issK
-,,.:.,-,,,,,,,. ,.:,,.-28 ,.,-:,,,,: ,
29
5
52
8
• ': . ••' '' 2 -' :-...
21! • •
: • ' ' 42
- •-.. . '• •" -S3:'- : • .
- -' . 4 ,:
37
14
22
54

Source: TT-140(C3). GG-170(GD3).TT-140II (C3)

-------
 114
1988 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                     Chart 7.3-5 shows the types of reuse as fuel processes operated in 1986. For
                     each type of process, the chart shows the quantity of hazardous waste
                     managed and the number of facilities operating that type of process.
 Chart 73-5 Types of Reuse-as-Fuel Processes and Quantity Managed In 1986
Process Type
Industrial Boiler
Cement Kiln
Other Industrial Furnace
Aggregate Kiln
Process Heater
Sulfur Recovery Furnace
Utiity Boiler
Other
Coke Oven
Smelting Furnace
Blast Furnace
Asphalt Kiln
Other (Gin
Unknown
Total
Quantity
Managed
(million tons)
0.86
0.23
0.13
0.13
0.06
0.02
0.01
0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
0.00
0.12
1.44
Percentage of
Total Quantity
Managed
59.8
15.8
9.1
9.0
3.9
1.2
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
100.0
Number
of
Facilities
195
18
5
9
18
3
34
15
1
3
1
1
2

295Ť
Percentage
of
Facilities
66.1
6.1
1.7
3.1
6.1
1.0
11.5
5.1
0.3
1.0
0.3
0.3
0.7

100.0*
• A single fadlty may have more than one type ol reuse-as-fuel process. Therefore, adding the number of
 f acuities with each type of process results In double-counting. The number shown Is the total number of
 facilities with reuse-as-Aiel processes without double-counting.
Source:  TT-141. GG-171. TT-141II (C4, Cl7a. GD4, GD17)

-------
                                   7. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Recycling	115
                    Chart 7.3-6 shows the regulatory status of facilities that reuse hazardous waste
                    as fuel. The chart shows the numbers of facilities that reused hazardous waste
                    as fuel and were subject to RCRA-permitting requirements or exempt from
                    RCRA-permitting requirements. The chart does not refer to the permitting
                    status of the facilities' recovery operations. Instead, the chart indicates
                    whether any operation at the facility is subject to RCRA-permitting
                    requirements.
Chart 7.3-6  RCRA-Permrttlng Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Reusing Hazardous
            Waste as Fuel in 1986
RCRA-Permlttlng Status
Exempt from permitting requirements8
Subject to permitting requirements'*
Total
Number
of
Facilities
102
193
295
Quantity Managed
In Reuse as Fuel
(million tons)
0.04
1.41
1.44
a FadGties managing hazardous waste only In units exempt from RCRA-permitting requirements.
b Facilities managing hazardous waste in at least one unit subject to RCRA-permitting requirements.
Source:  TT-140(C3). GG-170. TT-140II (C3)
7.4    FUEL BLENDING
                    Prior to reusing hazardous wastes as fuel, facilities can blend the hazardous
                    waste with other types of fuel (e.g., nonhazardous waste or petroleum) to
                    obtain the desired characteristics. In 1986,177 facilities managed 0.75
                    million tons of hazardous waste in fuel blending processes.

                    Charts 7.4-1 and 7.4-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste managed and the
                    number of facilities managing hazardous waste in fuel blending processes in
                    each EPA region in 1986. Charts 7.4-3 and 7.4-4 show the same information
                    for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 7.4-1  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Fuel Blending Processes per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)
   Total quantity managed - 0.75 million tons
                                        <0.01
                                        (0.3%)
                                      Region VIII
                                                                                                                                I
I
                                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                                i
                                                                                                                                1
   Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                 and the Virgin Islands
         Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
         Region X includes Alaska
   Percentages in parentheses indicate the percentage
   ol all hazardous waste managed in fuel blending
   processes that was managed in the region indicated.
Source: TT-140 (D10A). GG-170 (GC10). TT-140II (D10A)

-------
Chart 7.4-2  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Fuel Blending Processes per EPA Region In 1986
    Total number ol facilities - 177
    Nole: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages in parentheses indicate the
    percentage ol all facilities with fuel blending
    processes that are located in the region indicated.
Region VI
                                                                                                                                  a
                                                                                                                                  i
                                                                                                                                  I
                                                                                !
Source: TT-140 (D10A). GG-170 (GC10). TT-140II (D10A)

-------
 118
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 7.4-3  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Fuel Blending Processes by State In 1986
   State
Quantity Managed
  (million tons
                                            Percentage o<
                                        Total Quantity Managed
                         State-
                         Rank
   Alabama
   Alaska
   Arizona
   Arkansas
   California
   GotoradO:!
  ; 'Delaware^
   Georgia
   Guam
   Hawaii
   Idaho
   Illinois
   Kentucky
   Maine
   Maryland
   Massachusetts
   Michigan
   Minnesota
  New Hampshire
  New Jersey
  New Mexico
  New York
  North Carolina
  Puerto Rico
  Rhode Island
  South Caroflrw
  South Dakota
  Tennessee
  Texas,
  Vermont
  Washington
  West Virginia
  Wisconsin
  Wyoming
                        0.02
                        0.00
                        0.00
                       <0.01"
                        0.03
  Total
                       0.75
100.0
•Less than 10,000 tons of hazardous waste were generated in these states In 1986.
'lass than 0.1 percent d the total quantity of hazardous waste generated In 1986 was generated in these states.
Source:  TT-145 (D10A). GG-170 (GC10). TT-140II (010A)

-------
                                    7. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Recycling
119
 Chart 7.4*4 Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Fuel Blending Processes by State in
           1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
"''ColbmbOH^sH'1.':1;?/?';.::
::,;; Connecticut:.-;;;,:; i;!y^T.
• ' . r\ŁJ\'ftttIBt A '- ''; ' '•• • : ' • • ••: • • ' ••
• •.- WHKMPf CUV-1 '•" ': • — •"••: "•• •'•••'
OfetfttirfColumbiS;;;
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
- Indiana i . -: :
•-'Iowa-: •.-••• ••• .:
Kansas: ::
Kentucky
• •' Louisiana . : .>'-,,: , .
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
• •' Montan*y:ii;ŁiH-
;': Nebraska N;SP::::::':V
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
••sil
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
" Texas ''-"SPI^
Utah •'•• ..•,$&&
\Sarmnnt ' " ^it'ifS^''
• v ermont = .- • - '•-.- ^ ??^ **s •
Virgin Hfrntf •&*•" '***>•?•
Virginia •;.:•• -''^Ł'
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total
Number of
RCRA TSDR Facilities
3
0
0
2
5
; ••• :; ••. -; : • : ': •:-.:.' !;. :| O .; . ''•'<;•'.* ^. > '' ;' i .'; { •; '•' : '• :;;;•;•;: ", i J
.:••':;-.!;.•; v;:. i : ; i; ':. ; x !; ;: ' |(J ; \ ' ': ' • \ ''': ':', ; .•;•••". ': '• •.
-;''H:::::I ^: j'J;. ^f-'I'^l^'!: 05 -^"V •;.'• j-:: -: '.'>;':•;•.!
g||l^iyy^;j^^%3^. l;^/llli;;
K^-^y-^S^^mf',^f^>^:.i-f..Ky:--..
0
0
0
e
4
0
2
3
11'- .-.
0
7
1
4
	 	 1 	 r 	 	
:i'i"l :: •? -" ;:-v'"- "' " : ' •' • ' •' :": •" •:• :-. •'. '••' • '• •Ł'•'•''.• ••Ł'.• '.• .-:-•• -•"•'• •'' -,"•:•••• •• !•;
''•"•••.••-•:. ' '. '."-•.-•:.•• ' . •-•.'" ^ ' ": .:• '' •!- .; *'': ''. : -.••' ... '. '_••
•'''M^,'^---/'^^:- -::; -'^im '"•.
....-.,,,,,,,,,:,.-,,,,....... ^ :,....,,..,,,.,...,,,.,..,
8
0
17
4 	
.. -.•: v.'v'' •.•'" ••:i-.:;-:1' : :';;.:.':''"'.".: • • •* . .;•. '-. ,.• ."'..•.. •••.•.''•. .•'•••'••: '.-$•.
-. •.'.-.•.; . ...:- ..?•:;•:•.• .•• >.V :-:••- -..•*-.."- A- .• :.\\'.:.; .,.:":• ::.. :••/!, -?';:•. ,:-:
" """"'"' '•"-""* ' 	 1 --"--
8
8
0
7
?;•;•; -. "-^ - 13
:*."!: :"; ' ' 4
"'3-jfc ' •; -' •". •:•'•<••• Q .••
•*'• ..-..".. - Q-
•:•':. •• ;;.. =,./ 2 . ,.,,,,
4
1
2
0
177
Percentage of RCRA
TSDR Facilities
1.7
0.0
0.0
1.1
2.9.
'• ':• ** " j:: J ! ;- J " OX0?:i *^ •'•' :i '; •: •' .: ?'" ' '
.'?:'••-:;,; '--.' &B;''--.'i:-:'' ' • ' "''''.
::^.,;;i^: ;;.;.•;• 'DJJ.V;-;';:::'-;"-'-:.'''
^•sl^K^Mi^sS;':'.'^^-
'':;'"':":'":;:"2.8''::;:":
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.5
Ł3
0.0

\,7
• •••-. 8Ł.ii'- •: •
0.0
4.0
0.8
^3
v0.6 	
;|||||^||||j3!JJ
;;:;^::g;;;:^:.;D^3||i;;;;:::,:-;.:;;;
	 -•--••••••••'••0_Q----0'-'
4.5
0.0
9.6
,.,,..,...,,...,,,2-3,.,. 	
•':• :-: • ?.:i -' .-! :' ::*'*":v:: ^i^ aK ':' '• .:. ' -: •• •:'•••
•':•.•. ;;:;.;!:::.:: . :"•• i^^vi;:;^1"'^1;.:;:!;1/''1^;/! :!"
;• i :! : .M: :' :. • : ^1 •-! - 0*6- !S:!j: ;• !: ;: •. ix :!':.,: •• '•
":'"":'"""'*""'"g.6""'v"'""":""'
4.5
4.5
0.0
4.0
7.3V '
^^ .
• ' .'. Q.O-. •"
': -•:. PtO'h:-'^-':.- ..-
• •-', - • fťt-
2.3
0.8
1.1
0.0
100.0
State
Rank
23
36
37
26
13
.„.,. ••••;•;•;.:.::••: JJ^- :;..'- .: -'. •"";• '.
': : "''''.. '-•'. '-'-; : 5-.V -- '''•• ''-'', '
••;:•"- :.:?::-' 39 4/;';::- ':••-.
::;;;:;;;!;:,;:;;;:;;;;;:;;38;;;:;;:-::.::;.;,;;'
...:;-:-.,:- ..,.,,.,,.1^. ,,,..,....-
40
41
43
8
16
- 42
27
22
4. '•
44
11
35
15
.........33 ' ;"•••;• • • . . ; -- •
:;;;/•Ť;;:: Q;:::,;;;34:;;:; ;:::;;:';-p-: -
47'''""
6
48
1
17
•• Pi: >•:• • >:..••>•'• .: i-':;.'1 :' >: :: jtf ? ''^ i''1-: - ' ": .ll-'' •:-:;".
:!^!. :• ;-':::':i. :';; ••• .;'.;:;:.,..:; ..^^;:'.".i;i '. : . ••-._- .;•
. ' V.1 :| ••"'.=•;- 1". :..'':1' ' 30 ;: ' .^^ : "' >^''- "
""'"' '"""29':"'"""" "
10
9
51
12
Z
21
53
. '. ' ' 62-.
,.: '•: • 24l:
20
28
25
54

Source: TT-140 (D10A), GG-170 (GC10). TT-140II (D10A)

-------
 120       1966 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                    Chan 7.4-5 shows the regulatory status of facilities that blend hazardous waste
                    for fuel. The chart shows the numbers of facilities that managed hazardous
                    waste in fuel blending processes and were subject to RCRA-pennitting
                    requirements or exempt from RCRA-permitting requirements. The chart does
                    not refer to the permitting status of the facilities' recovery operations. Instead,
                    the chart indicates whether any operation at the facility is subject to RCRA-
                    pennitting requirements.
Chan 7.4-5  RCRA-Permlttlng Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Fuel Blending
            Processes in 1986
RCRA-Permtttlng Status
Exempt from permitting requirements9
Subject to permitting requirements6
Total
Number
of
Facilities
49
128
177
Quantity Managed
In Fuel Blending
(million tons)
0.02
0.73
0.75
a Facilities managing hazardous waste only in units exempt from RCRA-permitting requirements.
b Facilities managing hazardous waste in at least one unit subject to RCRA-permitting requirements.
Source:  TT-140(D10A),GG-170.TT-140II(D10A)
7.5    OTHER RECYCUNG
                    Respondents to the Generator and TSDR Surveys reported data on any
                    recycling activities in 1986 other than those specifically mentioned in the
                    surveys (Le,, solvent recovery, metals recovery, reusing hazardous waste as
                    fuel, and fuel blending).  In 1986,243 facilities managed 0.96 million tons
                    of hazardous waste in other recycling processes.

                    Charts 7.5-1 and 7.5-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste managed and the
                    number of facilities managing hazardous waste in other recovery processes in
                    each EPA region in 1986. Charts 7.5-3 and 7.5-4 show the same information
                    for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 7.5-1  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Other Recycling Processes per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)
    Total quantity managed - 0.% million tons
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages in parentheses indicate the percentage
    of all hazardous waste managed in other recycling
    processes that was managed in the region indicated.
                                                                                                                                 N

                                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                                                  I

                                                                                                                                  a
                                                                                                                                  a
                                                                                                                                  I

                                                                                                                                  t>

Source: TT-140 (I26). GG-170 (GH3). TT-140II (126)

-------
Chart 7.5-2   Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Other Recycling Processes per EPA Region In 1986
l-t
    Total number of facilities - 243
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
         Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
         Region X includes Alaska
    Percentages in parentheses indicate the percentage of
    all facilities with other recycling processes that are
    located in the region indicated.
                                                                                                                                  o>
                                                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                                                   (o

                                                                                                                                   I

                                                                                                                                   I
Source: TT-140 (I26), GG-170 (GH3). TT-140II (126)

-------
                                      7.  Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Recycling
123
 Chart 75-3  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Other Recovery Processes by State In 1986
Quantity Manag
State (million tons"
Alabama 0.00
Alaska 0.00
Arizona <0.01a
Arkansas <0.01*
California 0.07
" V. Colorado:-: :i-.-:i;'":::; '":""- -' ":VV:'; Ť:-!- ':- :i::?:;; : • 0.1 1..::::-:.:.:
:.. ConMgltlai^!-^!ff^-\:;'i^^:l '•:• :.;:': :::"::s!;:::'^0.01-i::':::::
. ':Delawaf*:!H;;.?;;U:;l;S::;:;:': :':'''-::; t.:;:--^^^ -. •- 0;00^i
'..:' FtofWais*.:? ť^y :*;?•: <;P^!x V' l^^fMdcaoiMii
Georgia 	 ' 	 0.01 	
Guam 0.00
Hawaii 0.00
Idaho 0.00
Illinois 0.04
Indiana • 0.10..:
": towa ... 0.00
Kansas : . 0.03
Kentucky : 0.05:
Louisiana: . 0.02
Maine <0.01Ť
Maryland <0.01*
Massachusetts 0.01
Michigan 0.03
Minnesota 0.03
• ;:: MiswuSSj:: BMSffi 'ift >' JS:l:°^il
; Nebnttkaisii ^^|^||i::::^^;.^?^;oiotC-C
. ' - Nevada5*:?:':1-^?;' ::':;:;l;:; is;-1; ::::';'• :: ::;. ?;.'Ł? ;>':;'&? 3^ •'.JsOjO'.QOi^ii -
New Hampshire "" " '" """"'' 	 """ 0.00 	
New Jersey 0.05
New Mexico 0.00
New York <0.01*
North Carolina <0.01*
•' North Dakola ;T \- .'•. '.:'•. •;• '• ;: " '^i^:^ ; :: . 0,OCp:;i:: :-':
Ohio*.':.1' •• ;:::•'•:" .: :•,::"•'• :.; : /':: ; ; •: : /: •' '• i:i I1:*1:'*:;. Y; :.: :•; ••' i- i;:..- . ;i;. 0 Oft-' '• •' < ••
• Oklahoma*;?? ::•:. :: -: f-i $•• t ••• t :! :;!r • •:: ^::it l?-:sl. ;:^o!otĽ:.?:: ^
• ' Oregon •v-;M^:;i^?:-K'?)':l^^; :;;S;I ;;:::-OJXj::^K ;
- Pennsyltfania;:-?:::.:i:':i::.:::'::.-: o'fvjf T:-:-1' .^.^S? sliO^ft^v.:-
Puerto Rico """"" •l"""-"—""™--™--aoo"'™-
Rhode Island 0.01
South Carolina 0.01
South Dakota 0.00
Tennessee <0.01*
Texas •" "^.r^;- ' '•' ; . . ; Q.19
Utah ••'•$%vl*:-i, " •••" ' 0-00
Vermont ." .^;^;.;'.:- . • 0.00 '
. Virgin bland v '* . 0.00
Virginia "'-.'.:,. . :. . . 0^00
Washington' 	 -"•"'"•••-•• • 	 QW
West Virginia <0.01Ť
Wisconsin 0.01
Wyoming 0.00
Total 0.96
ed Percentage of State
Total Quantity Menaced Rank
0.0 34
0.0 37
0.3 23
<0.1b 29
7.6 4
•.-•;•-:•••;••./,••.:;..:.•.:•.•:;•: ^-JJ";:. •; -: •:.'i'i" ' • . :.:'::: ' :' • / .'. '.• ; Ł ';.; '] .V- '."'••
:i :• ,|| •; ;: :? I -. : :l ;:' \ • ;3 :• ;H; Ť !. '•'. :-  • ;; • • :- - : ;; -1 ;: '•••^ • : " • 47 • • •
OJ) """" '"' " ''" """" " ' ":"' 35:
5.3 7
0.0 46
0.1 25
<0.1b 28
;UT:;vs;;;; ;;:•::; !fftf?:Łf';rteQ-i9:':i^':^-:-[>-':.'';.':':' :'-'•:•(_: 45-;.,,:.... • ; •'
:: :::::.:•,•::•:;.-; O':'.'-: : :: := \, j: ą1 ::v. :' • '-. /. Ł ^> . j:: •, '- - ••' • ; :' :;••:'•. ': ;::.; • •-•':'•••' [•'.' ft:-.---.
:<;::t!:I;::S 'Mij%^^^w^: ^ j$$Ł& % .:r 'ť^.V'- v : '•-
; ;: i ';: i: .;: i;; '::-'::;:.:;.;; :;: ::';: $S!v?.: i ^-fto?!^ ) • :. "' '; '; .-': : •' ' ' '^ ': '••• : '• '• •• ; ;: ; ': • : • :; :- • 48::; ' - ' . • "
: .: . i :i :-.::':: ::::: J i :; .: •: l^t. ; ;: ;' '..ij? J ; 6^7 ^ 'i1:- ''•• '••. !• :' ^ v ' .'• V • •• ~: ;' : .• ' -: ' '- ' : ::' ; -: • ' : : ' S : . . • • •
,,,,,,,,,, ,,,.,,.,,,,,., ,,,,o^,,,,.,,,..,,... ...,..,..,. .,,...,,....:: . :^...:
1.1 17
1.1 18
0.0 50
<0.1b 31
19.6 t
0-0 36
• ..•- ( ' 0.0- • ' ' ' ':~ ' . 53 ': -•
/..:: '"•;:•. , 0.0.-: ... ..•.'. .'• •;•• .';.. 52;
• '': . ..':.••.:'•-- ''•••'"-' '" Q&; •••'•'••': '.' '•••''•''.•'.•'••'•: .."• St-:
0.9 20
0.2 24
1.3 15
0.0 54
100.0
•Less than 10.000 tons of hazardous wast* were generaled in these state* In 1986.
'less than 0.1 percent o( the total quantity oi hazardous waste generaled in 1986 was generated in these states.
Source: TT-140 (126). GG-170 (GH3). TT-140II (126)

-------
 124
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 7.54  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Other Recovery Processes by State
Source: TT-140 (E6), GG-170 (GH3). TT-140II (126)

-------
                                   7.Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Recycling	125
                    Chart 7.5-5 shows the regulatory status of facilities that operated other
                    recovery processes. The chart shows the numbers of facilities that managed
                    hazardous waste in other recovery processes and were subject to RCRA-
                    perrnitting requirements or exempt from RCRA-permitting requirements. The
                    chart does not refer to the permitting status of the facilities' recovery
                    operations. Instead, the chart indicates whether any operation at the facility is
                    subject to RCRA-permitting requirements.
Chart 7.5-5  RCRA-Permfttlng Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Other Recycling
            Processes In 1986
RCRA-Permlttlng Status
Exempt from permitting requirements3
Subject to permitting requirements'1
Total
Number
of
Facilities
173
70
243
Quantity Managed
In Other Recycling
(million tons)
0.22
0.75
0.96
a Facifities managing hazardous waste only In units exempt Irom RCRA-permitting requirements.
b Facilities managing hazardous waste in at least one unit subject to RCRA-permitting requirements.
Source:  TT-140 (I26). GG-170, TT-140II (I26)

-------
126       1986 Hazardous Waste Generation ana Management
                                      (This page is intentionally blank)

-------
                              8. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Treatment	127
          s
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
METHODS:  TREATMENT

Regulations promulgated under RCRA, the Clean Water Act, and the Toxic
Substances Control Act prescribe treatment standards that must be met prior to
disposal or release of a hazardous waste into the environment  This chapter
summarizes data on hazardous waste treatment activities. As with recycling
(Chapter 7), some of the data reported in the Generator and TSDR Surveys are
process-specific. For waste treatment activities that are typically sequential
(i.e., a single waste is treated sequentially in several different processes),
aggregating process-specific data is not appropriate.
8.1    INCINERATION
                  Hazardous wastes are sometimes incinerated to break down hazardous
                  constituents into less hazardous components. In 1986,197 facilities
                  incinerated 1.09 million tons of hazardous waste.

                  Charts 8.1-1 and 8.1-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste managed and the
                  number of facilities managing hazardous waste in incinerators in each EPA
                  region in 1986. Charts 8.1-3 and 8.1-4 show the same information for each
                  state or territory.

-------
Chart 8.1-1  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Incinerators per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)
    Total quantity managed -1.09 million tons
                                                                                                                                  0>

                                                                                                                                  II
                                                                                                                                  4
                                                                                                                                  a
                                                                                                                                 !
    Note:  Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X Includes Alaska

    Percentages Indicate the percentage of all
    hazardous waste managed In Incinerators that was
    managed in the region Indicated.
Source: TT-140(B3)

-------
Chart 8.1-2   Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Incinerators per EPA Region in 1986
    Total number ol facilities - 197
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                   and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X incfcdes Alaska
    Percentages indicate the percentage ol all
    facilities with incinerators that are located in the
    region indicated.
I
o
CD
!
                                                                                                                                    M
                                                                                                                                    Ť0
Source: TT-140(B3)

-------
 130
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 8.1-3  Quantity Of Hazardous Waste incinerated by State In 1986
Quantity Manas led Percentage of
State f million tons i Total Quantity Manaaed
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Connecfleut^;r'"?v - >:.•;• ;-"::r:,; -'-••;
Delaware:;.:, ;;,•%••;; :• -;.: :; .-• •.• ;':.:;.;:
District of CdlumbTi: ;?• ;::- \j~\- *t'>:::: \ ; '•• • •:/*<ť •• . :
  Nevwfe
  New Hampshire
  New Jersey
  New Mexico
  New York
  North Carolina
  Nortb Dakota
   Georgia
   Guam
   Hawaii
   Idaho
   Illinps
  . Indiana-";
  ..teWftrHlii.:::;
   Kansas ŁŁ• '> I * I i s. -?|; < ? P. j
  ; Kirtujigr^r^i^

   Maine
   Maryland
   Massachusetts
   Michigan
   Minnesota
      i •j-^Vf.--'- '-^
  OWahoma ;
  Puerto Rico
  Rhode Island
  South CaroRna
  South Dakota
  Tennessee

  Utah'
  Washington
  West Virginia
  Wisconsin
  Wyoming
           . -:' •:*  •:i';:1ui,.O.MEl^.Ť;-;^-':;;:':,.t 1 ^^^^••^^••^'^;•;'::
            '  .. o:  •;-. :^ftWtrr": .:••;:'. • I;.:-;.r:">- <0l^ri:.;.:: .•--•- ,M: ••* "*'
            ;.,  .=  ^;v^o.cŤŤ>--::''V;-:!;H;::;-^vtj^r^:-';>!tr="r- '•
            v,;.*.v,,^1^x,i.^^,,,.v.,i,:,..;,,,,™,,,,f,,ixW,.^L^x.^ ••„ ^,, ^,,:.,, ,

                                                0.0
                                                33
                                                0.0
                                                2.7
                                 ,r..,.. •  ,. - fr™'--iHtl&tv.'W^.'•••'•:••'••'••••;  :'•''••. r
                                 •>     ,..  •. •• aw*:- •;•-. ••>••„• ; •  ..;•., >  ••
                                 : i   ...    . •  jŤ •:. -'-j >:.'/••••..• :v •:. 4.-. ,  .

                                •••::.:^--:r^1it;,;,J^,;,,M^..:
                                     :  ':.  '•'••".."•.'  : QJf^-^fit^ .;.,: •.:- •• •: •••;•
                                               : Q>fr*&m fesŤ.s^
                                               <0.1ťť
                                                1J
                                                0.4
                                                0.0
                            49
                             5
                            19
                            30
                            Ť
                            3?:
                            3ff
                            18
                            10
                            50
                             7
                            51
                             9
                             1
                            34
                            53
                           .52.;
                            20
                            33
                            15
                            26
                            54
  Total
                       1.09
100.0
•Less than 10.000 tons ol hazardous wmste were generated in these states in 1986.
'less than 0.1 percent of the totaJ quantity of hazardous waste generated in 1986 was generated In these states.
Source:  TT-140 (B3)

-------
                                   8. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Treatment
131
 Chart 8.1-4   Number of Facilities Incinerating Hazardous Waste by State In 1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
: ':. ' ^Conriectlduti ; 1 i 1 ^ <: ' ; ; ':' :- -: ;: ; : : ;; K
'•':• :D8laWare.*;.i::i:::;.;:;::-;; ^ ii 'i 1 ;^:^;;.-!:;
,:;:Dis^;^f^ui^a!^|i;|^;||:i ;;;';•
::':'• Ftofkffl ; %;:.;;.:; j :••;! j ;;;:•;:.;;•.:; j ;:; j .,'.:: i; \ ;..!;.; ; !;;;; i; v
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
^•^iKiii 11
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
:; ;Mbsisa^!iH5;;:;r:;(.:::i :'.•• .:P W;;-
:,-• ux2^fl|^:-i:fi^^^^S
\'ltobriŤkťvlu:'if^^j^3j-'^|
1 ' Nevada;1 ;"*';' 1; ^ ' '-^ '• •; • ' : • :~ ^ • '• ;; ^ :^.^.^
New Hampshire "
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
Nor*; OakolŤfc i ; ^'r| ;: ; j : j ? |||;
SSS^2S?fttf;r|j:
... Pennsyhrtuita >.?:"•.. .^..::^-;'^.;.;
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
: Texa* ' • i: ::i- 'i^i^M^r*5' :'? J ^
Utah ' ••|J^^^&*c^';
Vermont, ."p^lf^1^^-
Vffyui isJanQ1;^?'.' v^^. ••- -. :;,
. Virflinia" • -''.•',• ^;::' "\ .,<,-. :."••.
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyomina
Total
Number of
RCRA TSDR Faell
7
0
1
5
8
'^^•iii^^ifilSI^
ii!4rt:i.:.::ii'2s^M:'i':
:J;:;i::?;J;;::::;:.O:;?^';/:;'
l^::iy^jt:^:;l;.!;::
2
0
0
2
.. 7 ........
i|ill|l§:
"""'"""""""""""o"""
3
2
2
1
;§::;, ::|i:: Oj'. 1j:;;':;;: ;;:..;:;.:'
•^:Ł:.;;f^S
l^^^f'^P;!^
i:ii':"!-i"i-f!:\: ••••••: '.'• ]'•'•'••• JM- ':(••• '•• •
,.„„.„:„„: .:, ,,,,::,„
8
1
10
6
ilxl^^r^^r'o
HS'S??
;!'::;'^?K::;::Ťiv -'•••:'
„,,,,,,„ ,.,,,.^..,:...,.
0
7
0
2
s^'cT-v 31 "" '
".? '• : . 2 • • .
'<.'*<'. r 0
., • . 0
••;• : -. 2. .
2
5
4
0
197
Percentage of Ł
Hies RCRA TSDR FacllHlee F
3.6
0.0
0.5
2.5
^ 	 .4.1 	
^?^^^^^\^^S^^^f:^'^'-^^
'• d I '^ ) ! ? f ? ! !! 1 i ? ?ls i •? /:'1 J3>: ; ; :': ;; .? ^ -i ;' ;''•' •. : •• •' : ' : ; • V ;. :• :;. -.' ';. '•: ' ? ! :'
:5::;-::-;n;!;::;j:;;:'^o;t^:;?:-!;:-^sV;.;: ij;i ::•;• : :'• i;::H:::.;:'' :-' I:' •'!' f'^
ii^^HC^^tj^ri'^i^^;^^^"1^';-^-::;/^.1^:-^?:^
1.0
0.0
0.0
1.0
.................. ...3.6 [[[
lS!iiili^iXii9
^ :,,,,.,,,,,...,,,,,,......
1.5
1.0
1.0
0.5
;;:;^;;:;::Hi;AlJP;W:l^ :;H;
^^li^^^^^^^^i^!^^
^•^j^^^^^iiije^^y^^^^^
':•••. ••Ł ••• •:•!•: ii I:'!: ^.'^ |:.1 ŁŁŁŁ!'•:• ^ ^ ^'OJS^-- ^::'i'.^ '•• ^ i-.^ :i-^ -^^'^ :: '-: ^.Ľ.:" :v'= := :W ^ ^ :- •: :::'
^SW.^^^™™™^^,^...^^™,:^^^^,,,^::,^^:.,.
4.1
03
5.1
3.0
• *D J; ? ;: '; ff S;; ' ^^ • I N':; :<^^F- N? "' ^! IS ^^?^
2Ľv^S!S?Sl^^S^ffiP^-S
A;.';;^'^;^:^-S-^ci:'^-:'H;v;^
,.,,,,. :,,„:,,,:,:ť,,, .,,, , g'^^'
0.0
3.6
0.0
1.0
- ••••; - --'".iKr^ ".•'-,.. '-•'. -•. 	 .'•
• : '• 1.0 '' ' •
' 0,0- .'. • '. 	 ' •
o.o;. . •'••''
' '• 1.0;.'' '• •
	 1.0
2.5
2.0
0.0
100.0
State
lank
13
42
38
16
7
asP.'-K"'1 -?:- '•"
285 S ;;.v-::: .-.' •'/•'• ':
•43;:;;i-:i;;;:::J .;•/;.'
. ^7;:'': ' ' " ' ;i.:: • '
24"
44
45
32
10
i^ll^l!
45"
19
26
23
34
•'^•^HPu •;:"•'
•'•^:^MW^,,
,'48^:/'.-.Y:'' •
• 37-;:' '"'• '''• '"" '".:
"49" "":"::'"":"';":"
5
41
4
15
.'36;:;::J;V:.::-.;.';.:
.'29; -.;;V ';.:..
:.u'.^::':'- ^--:
"12'"'""":
50
11
51
22
. t,;:. .:;... ....
$\: • •••• ' ••'
53^' ..:.. '"'

-------
 132
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                     Chart 8.1-5 shows the types of incinerators that were operated in 1986. For
                     each type of incinerator, the chart shows the quantity of hazardous waste
                     managed and the number of facilities operating that type of incinerator.
Chart 8.1-5 Types of Incinerators and Quantity Managed in 1986
Type of Incinerator
Liquid Injection
Rotary Kiln with Liquid
Injection
Multiple Hearth
Undisclosed
Rotary Kiln
Rxed Hearth
Pyrolytta Destructor
FlukJized Bed
Other
Two Stage
Fume/Vapor
Total
Quantity
Managed
(million tons)
0.65
0.30
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
<0.01
<0.01
1.09
Percentage of
Total Quantity
Managed
59.4
280
3.1
2.2
1.9
1.7
1.7
1.3
1.1
0.1
<0.1
100.0
Number
of
Facilities
99
21
6
11
23
17
7
7
15
17
2
197
Percentage
of
Facilities
50.3
10.7
3.0
5.6
11.7
8.6
3.6
3.6
7.6
8.6
1.0
100.0
Souica: TT-141 (B4, B17A)

-------
                                 8. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Treatment	733
8.2    SOLIDIFICATION
                    Hazardous wastes are often solidified or encapsulated to prevent hazardous
                    constituents from entering the environment during land disposal. In 1986,
                    122 facilities solidified 0.77 million tons of hazardous waste.

                    Chans 8.2-1 and 8.2-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste managed and the
                    number of facilities managing hazardous waste in solidification processes in
                    each EPA region in 1986. Charts 8.2-3 and 82-4 show the same information
                    for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 8.2-1 Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Solidification Processes per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)
   Total quantity managed • 0.77 million tons
                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                 a

                                                                                                                                 I

                                                                                                                                 I
   Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                 and the Virgin Islands
         Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
         Region X Includes Alaska

   Percentages indicate the percentage of all hwardous
   waste managed in solidification processes that was
   managed hi the region indicated.
Source: TT-140(E3)

-------
Chart 8.2-2   Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Solidification Processes per EPA Region In 1986
    Total number ol facilities - 122
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                   and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages indicate the percentage of al
    facilities with solidification processes thai are
    located in the region indicated.
                                                                                                                                    en

                                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                                    a
I

I
Source: TT-140 (E3)

-------
  136
1936 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 8.2-3  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Solidification by State in 1988
   State
Quantity Managed
  (million tons	
                                            Percentage of
                                        Total Quantity Manaaed
State
Rank
   Alabama
   Alaska
   Arizona
   Arkansas
   California
                        0.05
                        0.00
                        0.00
                        0.02
                        0.01
                      t&x^mzm^-
  • District of Columbia
   Georgia
   Guam
   Hawaii
   Idaho
   Illinois
   Kansas
   Kentucky:
   Maine
   Maryland
   Massachusetts
   Michigan
   Minnesota
  Puerto Rico
  Rhode Island
  South Carolina
  South Dakota
  Tennessee
  Texas,-::,:". '*••:%::
  Vermorti
  Virgin
  Washington
  Wast Virginia
  Wisconsin
  Wyoming
  New Hampshire
  New Jersey
  New Mexico
  New York
  North Carolina
  Total
                       0.77
                                                            100.0
•Less than 10,000 tons of hazardous waste were generated in these states In 1986.
'loss than 0.1 percent of the total quantity of hazardous waste generated In 1986 was generated in these states.
Source:  TT-140(E3)

-------
8.  Hazardous Waste Management Methods:  Treatment
                                                                                         137
Chart 82-4 Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Solidification Processes by State in
198*
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
.• ;• '• Colorado;!; m Ť1 i? ill ?:i ;;
.".! CjbrirteCilc^lH'S;;':;.;
:.;;:''pB)awaiii|f;||;:i|iPJ5;:
': :;i : District of CoJurnbiis Ł
i t Rbrtdaslill^j*^ |
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
';•- tow*;t^:dS-;:^:- :*:::
' ': • KansasVS t\ :| ': ;! ".' ' : ; \ ••-'-. -\ •>
'•••• /Kantticki^^lsB^:.^
'"' Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
••'""MfcWiW^illlf^-i'T
•• ?. •• MlssourfiSsii M i:#ifi:;U vsi-i :
: -: : ' ^rtana$li:S' ' ••• •: § tf;
' - NsbraSkBiSi':'-'" -:s::'; "!:>::
"'-Nevada:?01?:PrS^
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
:"'"8SSSIS1E
'• Otdahoffniy'^1:5^ :!-i'i:'::i
. Qragor* •: >.;-.-? * •: V :; r ;'•; * :' '; :: '
:: -Piflnsylvanla^i^i
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texaas-.;:'!i*J^^MB
^^jj^'^-Pil^H
Virgin bhindW^I
• V&Binl*:,;.;:x:lMO
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyomino
Total
Number of
RCRA TSDR FacllHle*
2
0
0
1
7
.., .; ............. ,,. ...... ;..;,j.., ... , ... ., .. .. ... .. , ... ..... ... , ... ..
: ;::;;• i •; i : ::';; '•.? .s1': :'• :•-:.:.', ; S. ;• s? :•Ť•*; i ;*•! :SB s ;j:>i;.-:; **; .;; i

: ?; :i ;:|i:;i !^| \ I ji:| :; ^|| ;^OJ5| 11? * 1 !;||Ť ?; || *;
'^i j: :; > i-^i: •::•:! ? t-:! ::i > v.:i ,,,,,,,,:,:.,.K,;o,:,:,:x,,,,i,,, :<,:,,,,,,„ ,*„:<..<,::,,
6
0
3
2
1 • • 7;:';: f j '; ;; ' "•;•( .; rt;?! :?>' :;":; i- 1 ; ?::; ; fj^T? f ;^i? ;• W;
;-?;i:;i:si:; i^: * ;is i w/^ ; i* •;•* -Oifeo;--? ^ ^iS'iS ii s-; ;;--
; : -; : s •• i ;: * ; < '?f S ^ ^ *1 ^ :•' J ': ?0 :^ :^ ^ f- ^].1 ?t-^l ; '-
:' •• " !^:- 5 S > 4;S JS 1 -i :;•' • t ii ^v ;-:•; :k? i;..' ^ 5 ; '•:::':• ^'i? " '.
Poroontfifl^ of
RCRA TSDR FacllHles
1.6
0.0
0.0
0.8
5.7
2%Łi%X*J&%WW*-:^''^&W
m;m*xmm^.-ii •:>•-::-,
mm$$ *? i ! i ';'.' '' •''.'.;.•' \ '•.'• •:
•• vj; ifl .5 |:':;i i:i:-f *%^f ^; :i 'i-;: i; ; ii i :;.:: jV'-' IJ :'.; ;:.< ji i:.:: ; . '-. S ':
.,,,:.,.::,:.,,,.2^.,,,,,,,,,,,:,, :........,,.,.:.:. .,
0.0
0.0
1.6
4.9
^•^//.^Q&^^
^^i^^^^''^lf-'^/---'\
•J.: :-;..:::•••;: s. :; • A Ť* & i -• :: :• '• ii :•• tf. 5 '.'.•.>.;.. > .. ;. , :, ::;••.;
;:;:.::•: •ids.y ?•: :T^::::-:; ^i?^^?^:;.?'1: ; : :•• ••-;: ::
™Ť.:,,J.:,J,.,:..i^,.,,H,,:,,,,,,,,,,:ť,,v.,,,.,,,
4.9
0.0
2.5
1.6
'^:rm:^mm^^w^^:
'$ iSS *:!Ť! -! SŤ :^'0i:ij::: Sftii 4 5 S :•! : ': '-: :: •. .;. * 5 ! .'. :: :• '.-I :•:•.:
'j^^^^fl&tti^''^*!^^^*:'.-^^-'.:'
<^^5^'^a^/?i?iris?ll^"=?:?r^;'
^ /:: •'. K:: *3*i t* ^ f?*:?*^ ' A^'V ^'^^:^ ^ ': >;-;^ -:;^i;; ^^V^ ^ :^^ ^. rtjti^i^ ^fi'"^^^ ^'i- •^•l1'^ ^ :^i: :;' :
.., ..,-.,,,,,,,,..,,,.,:,,,o,.,: .,.,.,,:.„,,:.„
2
1
3
1
: •-•: :-::sW*1^>'S^:>x'r.^: v ^r'^ ••;•*••;:•; *jtť>? ^> ::.'::-^ ťy:^^^ .^r^^'1
.: •>'? .: ?i > :: "S /: :: •;;::': • ;; ss ;• vs ?: w: ; ;- ? : :.i w; *s s ./-::; ;: W- :: •
.. ••"ii.'v'iM ::-:-.H5T>:-:-:.-i'iji..;.'jŤ:: i.-;;-1-:- ">•:.:•;• ?''":•;•! -s^:
:: - fi ?! ,i ; ESiV'W'- -i sŤ-J :i;:.:; ;>.;!* •.• :; ;;- K 5 ••• :-::;.;,:; :::;. :: yfyK ;
: i^i? : x S :!:-;•; J ;i? ; S iiS:i:'i S:i!--; j: : 'i si-;:': ; :/ ••? ^; & ?:-• ; ; li: - ::
:' ; ••Ľ ?? :'.? ? V -i :: .: .;?':wi::i;': J: :1 n ?:::-i';:: ;\.;- : ••!: ; ?*''!' : ;i ::;;;•-
:.•.; Ť• :• '; '• > :. "'? J; Sir ;?:&;?; y.sh*-; :: :'i.:: - •• S Hw ? : -:-': : X:i
:'.:; ::/.' • o >: .•.•:-.p;./:X'>i-:: ^^>; v .":•:•.-> A i:':'1*^.'.' •. ,•:•:'.•: . : :••'••;:•:•:- -•••.Ť.•', :'.-.:I':::;>A*:^
1
0
3
0
3
^IMppftv-:; ;.:;:. t4. .-:.;::,,:; •;••;- •;••-::.
ifeS^^l'iX' /.-- "::.':;:':::::
§^§'^111- 1?-^^..;,:- :":": ;%
:::':;^-1:>;.sH;::h'>:::'';::; :!:i.'jj.::::::- : '•'• ••"'>•:'•:':'
	 7
0
1
1
122
8JZ
1.6
0.8
U
0.8
Ť!~wmi:immŽ!^: :: :: :- '-: '•• ••;<-• •••-•-.
•: J 3 iSlK E fJ •: •'. :• ť*• '• 'f 3S -•;:-::•;•; :"': •: :;' :' V '- : ! .:,:•, :, - .' ,' •
^i^S?oa1isil!^.r?:^:^^S.^;:-
-.:;:. ; ;"yi;: J" V:"j — ^ji^1^;1'!".' f .y •S/i^:- '';--' :; ':•;.;
;•.•;•;:•;!: Jv |: :;•:;: :: ;1 4l'.i:;i;i-:: ••: ? :; ::;.:' :;' ! |::':: :;..^:: i :•: ': •'• .•;.;•; ..:. - :.'.:
',',, '(3. :n ''wfc :-• :&fVti i • i; |i :i%"?^: ;' • '- ; :': :: Ł*'. '
'"0.8 	 ' 	 " 	 """
0.0
2.5
0.0
2.5
;.r ':' /' :-ii:3^;ii- '•-:';•:' • •..::'' ':'." '•' • • :
.^;.^k:^-w^^lf^;%-^-':?::-'A-':;^
:;;':V^^r:Ťť^;;i-r:^;^.- '''"?;••:
: •-.': - ; ; ; ? ' J • :' :' .'1 .8>!' i:;: ••>•••: :: .:'..•;;.•:'- :: ''. i* : •':;•::
	 "" 5.7 	
0.0
0.8
0.8
100.0
State
Rank
17
35
36
25
5
:;;.:-:tr':-:- S:../::-"
":V;..-1SŤ..:':: . '-. •
^^38^'^-. :-.-
•^nar^.'.-'-'V1-:-1''5'-
:,:.:;:,::,39:::;;: .,,;-•,. ,:•/
	 13 	
40
41
24
7
>:-;;:-'42:::",;-;';' • -,- ' -
sk43.:::.-:--:::-: ;••••'. '
.!..:\i.e:;;': :-;;;:;.;.; ;'-:;
'"":;""i;"32":;'""::"""
8
44
12
22
v-,,; -3t, ,..;-; ;;:•,,,,;,:,-
:;?;:;:;4S^..;;:....:;.;.

H::::^':48i' ' - ".
Wwfcr.'S'-'-1:
3
18
33
14
29
T:p-47;x ••..:'.' ••••••-
::-i;K'-:2^/.^ .
•:?& '•ť:•;•: .\v: -. -
••::;;;; it."- .•:••• • •.
•"••:.i.;::'-;4C ::..•, ' .
34
50
11
51
15
: ••/••• ^-.:-
••i,? 27: • . '-
'•••:.:;: 52:1 •
20
6
54
30
28

Source: TT-140 (E3)

-------
 138
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                      Chan 8.2-5 shows the types of solidification processes operated in 1986.. For
                      each type of solidification process, the chart shows the quantity of hazardous
                      waste managed and the number of facilities operating that type of
                      solidification process.

Chan 8.2-5 Types of Solidification Processes and Quantity Managed In 1986
Solidification Type
Pozzotonlc
Cement or Cement/Silicate
Other
Jacketing
Undisclosed
Organic Polymer
Aspnaltfc
Thermoplastic
Unknown
Total
Quantity
Managed
(million tons)
0.45
0.12
0.03
<0.01
<0.01
<0.01
0.00
0.00
0.17
0.77
Percentage of
Total Quantity
Managed
59.0
16.0
4.0
0.4
0.1
<0.1
0.0
0.0
20.5
100.0
Number
of
Facilities
53
65
10
4
5
2
1
1
-
122Ť
Percentage
of
Facilities
43.4
53.3
8.2
3.3
4.1
1.6
0.8
0.8
-
100.08
• A single facility may have more than on* type of solidification process. Tharafora. adding the number of facilities with
  each type of process results in double-counting. The number shown Is the total number of facilities with solidification
  procassas without double-counting.
Source: TT-141 (E4, E21a)

-------
                                8. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Treatment	139
8.3   WASTEWATER TREATMENT
                   Wastewater treatment is the most common hazardous waste treatment
                   activity. Generally, wastewater treatment is regulated by the Clean
                   Water Act and does not require a RCRA permit In 1986,4,399 facilities
                   managed 731.98 million tons of hazardous waste (98 percent of all
                   hazardous waste generated) in wastewater treatment processes.

                   Charts 8.3-1 and 8.3-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste managed and the
                   number of facilities managing hazardous waste in wastewater treatment
                   processes in each EPA region in 1986. Charts 8.3-3 and 8.3-4 show the same
                   information for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 8.3-1 Quantity ol Hazardous Waste Managed In Wastewater Treatment Processes per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)
   Total quantity managed - 731.98 million Ions
   Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                 and the Virgin Islands
         Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
         Region X includes Alaska

   Percentages indicate the percentage ol all
   hazardous waste managed in wastewater treatment
   processes that was managed in the region indicated
                                                                                                                                8
                                                                                                                                O>

                                                                                                                                II
                                                                                                                                4
                                                                                                                                II
                                                                                                                                U

Source: TT-140 (H3). GG-170 (GE3). TT-140II (H3)

-------
Chart 8.3-2  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Wastewater Treatment Processes per EPA Region In 1986
    Total number ol facilities - 4.399
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska

    Percentage indicate the percentage of all facilities
    with wastewater treatment processes that are
    located to the region indicated.
I
I
Dl
Source: TT-140 (H3). GG-170 (GE3). TT-140II (H3)

-------
 142
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 8.3-3  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managsd In Wastowater Treatment Processes by Stats In 1986
Stats
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
';' ': CoJoraoow!::'-!! - :> ™-' - : ':
: : :.: ' /*'n fri.i' "i i /^ f livi't'''''''" •"•':: '' •''•• •:
'•• ; *^OniieC*lCUl:^|x:.r: >:;:.•-..:: ::
:: ? Dataware s: !Ł;.!?• ;;.?V!::?: !o

;: :j. ?' Floridar?;:?:!?™!;?;;; ii^j^ji
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
!: : ^Indiana:1 ::* ' '••' •'• ' '•• ''•'• - ' :-:;-
•" towa;;.-:-.-:.:--::" :-::-:;:::;;:|:
: 'KariBas;.!;:::::i?:;?!;;: ^^'
:. Kentucky**-:*:;!!? -i;:--
' Louislaiia: ! ;•'••:•
Mains
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnssota
Quantity Managsd
'million tons)
9.18
<0.01'
7.12
1.99
70.29
'"':." ; ' ''. '"'• '! •'•: :" ?.?;.:;?:: 'i Tf&$. ?! ^jjHj?*?;:';::;;!1 :?!::;;::;
:• ': ; :;.•. • :'-::.:•'••: ;•,'::•''•: ;:. ' -! !:'4' ',.':' j . i::':!: •.••'':• :?.:! : . : :-: '.'•
: : ' ."'" ! i f ::V v = •' ':' '. ^ ': •? '.'.'. : ''3 4^ 4:'';: -;1 :| ;::;:•:: *\ ';'•'•
:; ':•:- if'.'"f^ y:^,-:i';.>ff:V;i'.ijl3i;&:(& &
'? l^-i^ ^I^M^y^wit^lliits :::|;
•:•:-: fc! ^ i.!.1.: •: v'! 5 ::'.:: ?.'..• *:-;S !? If? i %'T-^^^ > ^i ':: &
	 16.92 	
0.00
0.04
1.98
35.71
.. -..;.•; -. ..... :...:. .: ..; -.-.- ,; -. .. .. :.:_•...;.: •-• : • v gVg>:; ; '•: "i :-:-|: ;i; :| [; ;
;l:^H^'-il^:^t^:-^^^"^:1^
• . ' ? !: :: :i..:-;- :; :;: t :!: ;;; :.!: :;. : !; .- ::. '; '"' :: ': ;1 ;86& ;• : '•' :: - ': ^ '• '
:••" :: :•• - ; •:'::••'.•::•:''; .!• ;; • : !;. s :• 16i83;i- i; :-! ; L :"i 5 . '•
; s ;.; v :?.: <:• ;: .: i :;::;;:;•"•; i :>/.: 'l^JQif. .:! !;. !. i. : J ':
	 13.32 	
3.95
5.96
53.90
3.36
Percentage of
Total Quantity Managed
1.3
<0.1b
1.0
0.3
9.6
:?;?::::? K? J. -i^*;: ^S^^^S:^::;^!-^; ::-
:'i:::'-:: :::'•':"•'. .:: '•-••::;:::.: '. ^.:^.:. '•'.:.':. : :! ';'.:;:••.-' :i •:::..•:'•:':••::!-•;':
:i!':::i:i:; '.•• /•'. ••: ••'• ::.!::: '•'•TrT?'^::;11::1::! ::•'::: :•: • ;':!'v:-. . :- -.-•;-:
1 1;;:-;!; fi :;' •:;' :;<& '^Q^ViKiiix^i '•;; !:.:;: ;:.'-. .;'??:1::-1:-
I?:!?-?' 1^: 1 !?• Ill --(UJ^II^S^I^:^:?!^
j?:?;':;: m .5 S si is ?. jO;?*-^^^"^^^''^.!^:
	 	 ' 	 23 	
0.0
<0.1b
0.3
4.9
- ;_; ... ;. ; . . -. .;. . .- •-• • -_- •.; -. ; •_: .;;.-.-.. y^'v'C'''?^-. \.'A \- '-: - ^ '.'t P.: ??'^ '': "' '~
•^{3ly^>4$ ^oja^Mti&t^i ••
?: <'f '•'. :i :? ': ': :: * ^ ' s ^i. ;: (J^KJ--^;: ' ^!f.* ?S ! i 'ji i Ji I- :? ;
: .: ;;:; :: •! 'i :! • .i;i '" :. '. ;!:.||: ^-^gjj <; i-if ?:•!; ;; ';! ;:•;: ;::j ;: • •': !; ^ ', 1 .;
• ;:-..': :..;.:•:: • ;:.;;: :•• . i ?. .?: j. ;- ^ ^^ :;::?;!; j: ;! :::!??:-??; s si S :: :; *
	 ""i.8" 	 ' 	 "'""""
0.5
0.8
7.4
0.5
State
Rank
16
50
20
35
3
;..••: :; J' ' :: j j :; ''3JJV ? '! ?' J.' j; :i:": •":''"
':•..:".::•-.;.: :. ;i * —:-'.:• ":::'.::: ::. ;;•:.• ;'':.':
..:••;•':' ::-::'-1:'.: IO-::-!-;:":!-;-;': ':.:'•-:••'. :
; : ;; ?.? :: ? ; -. '• " 40^:-! : :! !??;?• ^ L-:- :; -' : :'- •
^i^:;^;.-'S2|1;^::: !;";?•; -ijv
I'1? .;'•* S i. ? :: i j 25 i! ^?^ ^ ':• -' f ••! ^ " : :'
""13
53
46
37
8
"1::':::,1-'::::-": '•''•' i?'-,-:'' '''••''•'.:•%'•':•' :•'• :"
:;;•:;••;? i;','^^';!^'':';:-.
':' : ': ;- i'38s?.1:^!S:;V:--: ••'-:' :/-'
'•-, v:.;'; ltw\&U: ;:.';,''.::
!•.; -:,::. :: ;:"i7^u-:.i';:-:.,:--"::
""" 	 16 "' 	 '
28
22
4
30
  New Hampshire
  New Jersey
  New Mexico
  New York
  North Carolina
  Worth Dakota
  Oh'b. :•.
  Oklahoma; -;
  Oregon:
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Teiať.i:-: ^^:':"K.l!::^^^^^^?s$ff;fgf
• Utah.-- .'• :':.:• -!^^^^^^^xf^
Vermont :-:- ,-•. -li-i.-.';^^^^?;^:^}.-./''-'--1-
Virg in Island: : si ; • ^^"^l^j-;;^; r ; :: ;!
Vlrainta •'•:•'•• ''•v<-'-v^Uj:,&;i":;-::- :'• :
ť*^"^ - • •'>.• ••. . .v/^.vvI-.-^'^.4!>.vŤ.v:v^.-.v:s'.-. ,v >. : ^
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total
1.99 	
5.79
6.12
<0.01*
24.60
>::!;A83Ť!s :!.:'.:SJ!:.:.
5 ^: 2,94s :!':':;'';: .:-'':
•;;!.'' :0.96i:;:;.' '•• -'^
'•"''OJXm. .,' ".; ;
^SWi^^^-1'1
'' 3.57 	
31.18
5.25
0.00
731.98
< >AV ^^.v. . Ť. ,v. ,w* .'Ť^.*. .•*•:- >: , ^T — ^^K-> 'ťŤŤvi^K*^. ť.v. ' Jtf.-f.: •.•/•:
o!a
0.8
<0.1*
3.4
; -.^ , ::;- .-.•;• ;.:. ^ ^"^^^Si^-jffH:-^; -^;: .i:.!
.: .i -: ; : : : . :," -^ .^ QASK .-;-.•- :: .;- •- ?'.-•:• >::-:-';
''..:';:;:: ^•'^•"^^ Qit!>- :;' V^-*-'-; ::";-;:: ;-:;-: -r--
i ' ;'•'• ' ':-':-.::: ;;;' 0^i::;>i:??:-/: '.::Ť:••::•:"''' -:
L..L. .„.•!:•.. ••:. :.,..:. i-M.:,.:!:;. Silgs;';^;;^;:^:^ .:,:-
0^
4.3
0.7
0.0
100.0
36
23
21
49
11
^.'.i^i-riT.^ivr&V?''--.-1. :;-
I-:'*?:' i- ":32.-:.:;;:;;:::-.::.:::';?'-:- ':
'.;;:!•: f';-- ' :4t;:;: :;': •':;•;. : .'..'•••
i :?";:;:.-:; 54':-::'::'::''. :'vH •'
;:'":'"::.i.:-'?:. ' fl?'^ '': '• " ' - •' :- S :> :' -'l
29 	
10
24
51

•Loss than 10,000 tons of hazardous wasts wsrs gsnsratsd in thsss statss in 1986.
loss than 0.1 percent of the total quantity of hazardous wasts gsnsratsd In 1986 was generated In these stata
Source: TT-140 (H3). GG-170 (GE3). TT-140II (H3)

-------
                                  8. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Treatment
143
 Chart 83-4  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Wastewater Treatment Processes by
            State in 198ft
Number of
Slate RCRA TSDR Facllttto*
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
:;|C6nneŤ^g|jj-J5g3gJJ^I
^^Otorirt'ol^UmttialilpS^Ilt
1 . ' :- Roritfa f y '$Łj ;j ;; ; i. ; .; ;.;,; !i ;: ;f | :i:i ';;| ; .3 ;; ; ;i;:: ;.
Georgia 	
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
: fnHftnfi : : ' :• '- '•'• '•'• '' '' '' • :.' '- ' •-• • '"'' " ' • -= ':'-:'? -• *' :: ''^ ''• * -
•:.!^SS^77:::-
'i'iSS^^&X''^^9
"""Maine •••''•'-•"•™"-'~"::-"M™™^"'-
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
... iji^:.— *^t '•''-'' *'• • '' " • ''''•' '•• •':•:••''
.-••, MISSOlin ••;; ?:".• :• . i;-: v..-. ;: ". ; . .'• .; • '; :,'.: <; •• ;'••-.
... : Montana..1 •-:'•. :}••••.' . '•.]' '•••'-'• -:':- .'•. :'
•: Nebraska!'-.-; --v1.'". ••.• --'^ ^?^':i:'
•;..Nevadť-:;.-:.:;-.i"';\ :. •:•:•. ,-.;^..^..
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
Nortti Datotav ;:- •' :- .•'"' ^.f'--
Ohto / ...:•. ' ..• '•': ;; ^ •)•;,
'•Oklahonai:! -: •. • . '•*""'' :::
••Oregon:: ••" ..' •""•" .^•'*^^
	 Penrnytvania,;:. ; . :;.JuŁjŁ^iLŁ.
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas • •' ^i-^^^^^^P-^TP'^
Utah: • : . . Ji^^^^^*hv>'V:::-:": •
Vermont, -.":!"":': *•-'. '.y.\.'-. .
V&gin Island ;<::.:: ';.*: *•*'.',•?'••'-'•
: .V&ginia • ..... .:•.;.. ,,;..' --.
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total
81
1
61
32
625
SlWSSS
;?;i1§?rMPiS3
:;lv !: ':•• :! .:• !-t (j'ft--:--.:: *'••' •• "• : • '^ '^ ^:
,:.:.,„.,. 6_,,:K.-:,,, .. .,:
0
3
6
234
•: '-•' ."• :. * "1'jl!"1"' • • !'• :" :' ''• '' ''"'• "
Sw^S'S:'
BSS^fc^S-i
,:,,,.,,:,,.._,:,,,,„,,.,,:,,,,
47
215
210
v.,...vv..Ť5
• ::B/; : -ao J:: ;:•*•;;;.;
>.:.. ::;.j' '. 2- ': 'f ^f 'i '•'•'' \
; . -.;-S !••:•• '22, ;:"?•; ^ ' ,': :'..;<
. "' • ' ' 6'-' ' ' •'•• •''•'• •'
'53'""' 	 "
153
7
187
105
". :':. '2'!-'i;::r?-r.'r-;-
'\.^;:. 253^- : ' -:'.
':<:'."'; 31;:-.;>' -s. :;-i.
.':^"v3t-| ::., ".'',""'
^iii^ j 302^'v ť ': - -1 •
31 	
61
6S
1
91
:;f ;2*7- ••'<••- v.
•i ••"••.•.• 1 9 '
':'< •- 14:
•''•'.'; ".•''.'-• 0^'
',; -'-67-
58
40
104
1
4.399
Percentage of
RCRA TSDR Facilities
1.8
0.0
1.4
0.7
14.2 	
iliSlJ^^^I':;^^-.^?'
WS^J^mmK^-^^:^
K-. .-,.;,...... ; •..;•-- ..; :.:.-...:,...:.:^.:. Ťjť |: : ;>•:;• :::;;r ;^: :•••: ••:••••••; •; |: •;• ;^\: ;
:,.,,,.,..,, •.,,,:,:,,,.^.5,,,:.,,::,,:..,, ,:.•,,,,:,
0.0
0.1
0.1
5.3
'• '::-'-.-."-"-. •': ;'.' '••• '' "::'i;-"::^ilfl:;.':":":"i": "; :""''" ::''.":':':::- ^i1-
IvvSS^^SSSII
ffi^SlS^SiiPiKSl!
..,..,,.,:,,,.,, ,™,^ ,,,,,.,,.,,.,-,.
1.1
4.9
4.8
,w^....,OT^,2.2
v^y.H'i|[vi3^i^i3:;S^M.
.: .' :'f::: l.?;'';^^^-;-.1 ••"•;:' ••.''• •'•
''.-'}'•Ť:>*:•:*'•. Jf&'ftJBfe&ft1'-- '*!*'.'. '••''•': ' :••
''', :.; v:i;:.::::'U^. '{fcl- Ji-'- :^ ' ' iO: ': "V^.: !'.'
1^ 	 '
33
0.2
4J3
2.4
••.;;•,.••: ";r-^ť^0j|^/".""''; '" •' •:
'". • '•••, .•''• -:"y . 5JJk-;^ *.'•'• :-'':-'"i!"'. -
' . 1J5^~ '.':.V : .I-;' :^' 'i.
	 1.3'
0.9
2.4
0.0
100.0
State
Rank
17
49
23
32
1
•'^.7:7^,*;.;.:: :'•': %. •'
%0fl^'-::.,Z'^

:.-:,, ,:,:.,,:,,,.:,:_1 :,-:,,::,,,,...,.
53
46
44
5
:| :',;:::: "•'-; '.::.:':;:." •* <'•":'' : ;', "!'
Slfel^K;Ľ^:-
S;J-^K'^-':.
:„„„„.. ,:,;,3y,:.,,.
29
6
7
v 	 15
;^:^' '=-'Ť:-.:'
::: :-:-:-':. -47:
:;u= -•:;-. 38-.
'•.'•- :..'::" :!'4S:
	 " 26
10
43
9
13
'•';•-. . . <•;••.-':, 48 ^j.- . . • '
-''!. • 3~ : '
.•7, '.'••'•' 33 -V •' "
"~ '."'""T-.:3*':

""""""""""""35"'
24
22
50
18
	 	 " '.'. - A ' '
*:':'VT'' . 740,, .
;, '..,, '"::... 41 .
'•'' '.' ''•" ' S4'-
v!.--i. ',••>??: ''2flt;---
25
30
14
51

Source: TM40(H3).GG-170(GE3).TM40II(H3)

-------
 144
1936 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                     Chart 8.3-5 shows the types of wastewater treatment processes operated in
                     1986. For each type of process, the chart shows the quantity of hazardous
                     waste managed and the number of facilities operating that type of process.
 Chart 8.3-5 Types of Wastewater Treatment Processes and Quantity Managed In 1986
Type of Wastewater
Treatment Process
Chemical Precipitation
Equalization
Biological Treatment
nitration
Oil Skimming
Adsorption
Sludge Dewaterlng
Chromium Reduction
Air Flotation
General Oxidation
Unknown
Stripping
Cynide Oxidation
Comptexed Metals Treatment
Other Liquid Phase Separation
Emulsion Breaking
Evaporation
Total
Quantity
Managed
(million tons)
329.94
238.33
200.60
133.97
119.49
77.26
73.23
52.47
30.34
25.76
2053
13.93
12.56
9.35
8.64
8.32
7.04
731.98*
Percentage of
Total Quantity
Managed
45.1
32.6
27.4
18.3
16.3
10.6
10.0
7.2
4.1
3.5
2.3
1.9
1.7
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
100.0*
Number
of
Facilities
2.121
971
173
709
585
292
1.929
1.354
111
202
197
127
707
275
309
188
195
4.399b
Percentage
of
Facilities
48.2
22.1
3.9
16.1
13.3
6.6
43.9
30.8
2.5
4.6
4.5
2.9
16.1
6.2
7.0
4.3
4.4
100.0"
Ť A single waste may be managed In more than one wastewater treatment process. Therefore, adding the
  quantities managed In each type of process results In double-counting. The number shown Is the total
  quantity managed in wastewater treatment processes without double-counting.
b A single facility may have more than one type of wastewater treatment process. Therefore, adding the
  number of faculties with each type of process results in double-counting. The number shown is the total
  number of facilities wtth wastewater treatment processes without double-counting.
Source: TG-045 (H4. H21. GE4, GE17)

-------
                                  8.  Hazardous Waste Management Methods:  Treatment
145
                    Chart 8.3-6 shows the regulatory status of facilities that manage hazardous
                    waste in waste-water treatment processes. The chart shows the numbers of
                    facilities that operated wastewater treatment processes and were subject to
                    RCRA-permitring requirements or exempt from RCRA-permitting
                    requirements. The chart does not refer to the permitting status of the facilities'
                    wastewater treatment operations. Instead, the chart indicates whether any
                    operation at the facility is subject to RCRA-permitting requirements.
Chart 8.3-6  RCRA-Permrttlng Status of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Wastewater
            Treatment Processes In 1986
RCRA-Permlttlng Status
Exempt from permitting requirements8
Subject to permitting requirements11
Total
Number
of
Facilities
3.323
1.076
4,399
Quantity Managed
in Wastewater Treatment
(million tons)
266.21
465.77
731.98
a Facilities managing hazardous waste only In units exempt from RCRA-permitting requirements.
b Facilities managing hazardous waste in at least one unit subject to RCRA-permitting requirements.
Source: TT-140(H3),GG-170,TT-140II(H3)

-------
 14$
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                    Facilities can conduct wastewatcr treatment in tanks, surface impoundments,
                    or both.  Generally, surface impoundments are subject to RCRA-permitting
                    requirements but tanks can be subject to or exempt from RCRA-permitting
                    requirements. Chan 8.3-7 shows the types of units that facilities used to
                    conduct wastewater treatment in 1986.  Over 92 percent of facilities used
                    only tanks to conduct wastewater treatment
Chart 8.3-7  Number of Facilities by Type of Unit Used for Wastewater Treatment
                        Unknown
                          16
                         (0.3%)
         Tanks and Surface
           Impoundments
               276
              (6.3%)
                 I
            Surface Impoundments Only
                      38
                     (0.9%)
                                                             Tanks Only
                                                               4,069
                                                              (92.5%)
                                                                  I
                                   Total number of facUntos • 4,399
Source:  (H14)
8.4   OTHER TREATMENT
                    Respondents to the Generator and TSDR Surveys also reported data on any
                    treatment activities in 1986 other man those specifically mentioned in the
                    surveys (Le., incineration, solidification, and wastewater treatment).  In 1986,
                    128 facilities managed 1.98 million tons of hazardous waste in other
                    recycling processes.

                    Charts 8.4-1 and 8.4-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste managed and the
                    number of facilities managing hazardous waste in other treatment processes in
                    each EPA region in 1986. Charts 8.4-3 and 8.4-4 show the same information
                    for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 8.4-1 Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Other Treatment Processes per EPA Region In 1966 (In million tons)
  Total quantity managed • 1.98 million tons
                                         <0.01
                                         (02%)
                                      Region VIII
  Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                and the Virgin Islands
       Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
       Region X includes Alaska

  Percentages indicate the percentage ol all hazardous
  waste managed in other treatment processes thai was
  managed in the region indicated.
Region VI
                                                                                                                                 CO
                                                                                                                                 *
                                                                                                                                 s
                                                                              I
                                                                              o
&
a
                                                                                                                                 •u
                                                                                                                                 VI
Source:  TT-140 (I26). TT-140II (I26)

-------
Chart B.4-2   Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Other Treatment Processes per EPA Region In 1986
    Total number ol facilities - 128
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages indicate the percentage ol all facilities
    with other treatment processes that are located in
    the region indicated.
                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                   s
Source: TT-140 (126). TT-140II (126)

-------
                                     8. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Treatment
                                                                                                 149
Chart 8.4-3  Quantity of Hazardous Wast* Managed In Other Treatment Processes by State in 1989
                             Quantity Manag
                                      tons)
                                                        Parcantaga of
                                                    Total Quantity Manaoad
  Alabama
  Alaska
  Arizona
  Arkansaa
  California
                                   .OiOft^i-P^i;^;^1;-
                                   •ť.;jfcjj|-: \. :' :•.•":•:•/'-: '••'. ::"::. |. •;•:';.':•.••" .."-:.:.
  DlstricititOolumbfe
  Florida ;: i ; :;,: :;,;.; i ;.• •..; :; i '. ;: ;
  Georgia
  Guam
  Hawaii
  Idaho
  Illinois
                               !•,'&&&&*& >
  Main*
  Maryland
  Massachusetts
  Michigan
  Minnesota
  '
  .   .
 Naw Hampshira
 New Jarsay
 NawMaxIco
 Naw York
 North Carolina
 V**BŤ*^$>&y&&
 Puerto Rico
 Rhoda Island
 South Carolina
 South Dakota
 Tanna
 Washington
 Wast Virginia
 Wisconsin
 Wyoming
                                                              in1986i
•Lass than 10,000 tona of hazardous waste wara generated In thasa sta	
bLass than 0.1 percant of tha total quantity of hazardous wasta generated In 1986 was generated In these statea.
Source:  77-140(126),TT-140II(Ed)

-------
 750
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chan 84-4  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Other Treatment Processes by State
             In 1983-
   State
                   Number ol
               RCRA TSDR Facllttlea
   Percentage of
RCRA TSDR FacllKlea
Slat*
Rank
   Alabama
   Alaska
   Arizona
   Ajfcansas
   California
  Virginia
  Washington
  West Virginia
  Wisconsin
  Wyoming
  Total
                                 128
                                            100.0
Source: TT-140 (KB). TT-140II (Q6)

-------
                                 9. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Storage	151
          9
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
METHODS:  STORAGE

Under RCRA regulations, hazardous waste generally can be accumulated by
the generator for less than 90 days without a RCRA permit Hazardous waste
stored by the generator over 90 days or by a facility other than the generator of
the waste is generally subject to RCRA-permitting requirements. This chapter
describes this latter type of storage—storage subject to RCRA-pcrmimng
requirements. Throughout this chapter, the term "storage" is used to refer to
storage activities subject to RCRA-penrritting requirements ("accumulation"
refers to exempt storage).  In 1986,1,785 facilities stored 188.8 million tons
of hazardous waste in units subject to RCRA-permitting requirements.
9.1   GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
                  Chart 9.1-1 shows the quantity of hazardous waste stored in each EPA region
                  in 1986. Region n stored the largest quantity of hazardous waste—
                  56.82 million tons, or approximately 30 percent of all hazardous waste stored.
                  Chart 9.1-2 shows the number of facilities storing hazardous waste in each
                  EPA region in 1986. Region V had the largest number of facilities storing
                  hazardous waste, with 474 facilities or over one-fourth of all facilities storing
                  hazardous waste.

                  Charts 9.1-3 and 9.1-4 show, respectively, the quantity of hazardous waste
                  stored and the number of facilities storing hazardous waste in each state in
                  1986. The largest quantity of hazardous waste stored was in New Jersey, with
                  almost 55 million tons of hazardous waste stored, or 29 percent of all
                  hazardous waste stored. California had the largest number of facilities storing
                  hazardous waste—158 facilities or 8.9 percent of all facilities storing
                  hazardous waste.

-------
Chart 9.1-1  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Stored per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)
    Total quantity stored - 188.80 million tons
 Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
               and the Virgin Islands
      Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
      Region X includes Alaska
 Quantity of hazardous waste stored In permitted or Interim status      7
 units. Including tanks, surface Impoundments, and waste piles.
 Percentages Indteale the percentage ol al hazardous waste stored
 that was In the region Indicated.
                                                                                                                                        1
                                                                                                                                        I
                                                                                                                                        I
                                                                                                                                        I
                                                                                                                                        I
Source: TT-148 (J29. K49. O8)

-------
Chart 9.1-2  Number ol Facilities Storing Hazardous Waste per EPA Region In 1986
     Total number of facilities • 1.785
                                                                                                                                      It
                                                                                                                                      4
                                                                                                                                      o
                                                                                                                                      *
  Note:  Region II includes Puerto Rico
                and the Virgin Islands
        Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
        Region X includes Alaska

  Number ol ladUtles storing hazaidous waste In permitted or
  Interim status units. Including tanks, surface Impoundments, and
  waste plea.  Peicentages Indtoate the percentage ol all lacUWes
  storing hazardous waste that were In the region Indicated.
(n
y
a
Source: TT-148(J29.K49.O8)

-------
 154
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 9.1*3  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Stored par State In 1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Quantity Stored
/.million tons)
0.21
o!oi
0.11
3.53
Percentage ol
Total Quantity Stored
0.1
<0.lb
0.1
1.9
State
Rank
21
45
36
26
8
  Washington
  West Virginia
  Wisconsin
  Wyoming
  Total
                                  186.80
                                                100.0
•Less than 10,000 tons of hazardous waste were generated in these states In 1986.
"Less than 0.1 percent of the total quantity of hazardous waste generated In 1986 was generated In these states.
Source:  TT-148 (J29. K49,08)

-------
                                         9.  Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Storage
                                                                 755
 Chart 9.1-4   Number of Facilities Storing Hazardous Wast* par State In 198ft
   State
Number of
 Facilities
Percentage of
Total Number
        Stat*
        Rank
  Alabama
  Alaska
  Arizona
  Arkansas
  California
 '
                  .
  DelaŤaiŤ .:;::'!•:'.:• i '-.V
  District Columbia?
  Georgia
  Guam
  Hawaii
  Idaho
  Illinois
            *W| '•Ľ:•Ľ '• 'f '•'?
  Maine
  Man/land
  Massachusetts
  Michigan
  Minnesota
   , 40':,:v:. ••;.,;: ^ ^.- •< ;••:,; •; ',;s,&i<..Ł
     3                       0.2
    30                       1.7
    24                       1.3
    83                       4.6
    38                       2.1
                                                       12
                                                       43
                                                       22
                                                       31
                                                        1
                                                       11
                                                       52
                                                       42
                                                       41
                                                        5
                                                        *'::
                                                       30
                    r-: ,-*t1^*?:,>'
                    ;.:;:,•:: ::-:^ :•••-••
                    "••"••.::.>? Vx  ae".--:i'f ?•:• ::•.
                    ..! :;.i":\?-'-;:'-^~%::.:.;il;ii;:.\ ':

                             "'"^ "••<•"'•"" "'"'

                               19      4
                               28      ;
                                7
                               15
  New Hampshire
  New Jersey
  New Mexico
  New York
  North CareOna
  Puerto Rioo
  Rhode Island
  South Carolina
  South Dakota
  Tennessee
                                ^^^E^J^^^^K^^

                            ;^rfl ?. o- -   :- •   .:;; ? •"'^r^;ŤN^.:C:^:-::
                            ^i-^laS.'^.;:.2€<-'." :^ .•:'?.^^:::ksSii:l^j.^^:.*!vlJ^gSK8;!:j^;!i;^'^i
  Washington
  West Virginia
  Wisconsin
  Wyoming	
   ,•28!
    29
    26
    34
     4
      1.6
      1.5
      1.9
      0.2
"fZ^W:'-^'*%:::.:'•T'" :":?:
'^V;.;.L>:::-:'??:'-$*i.'J;:>;:  '', '.•
r*7^:^; :47^:?'-,--.
^•.iCi^.'a*;.:': •
<:•:;• .!>:••;  .'• J . <%.••'''    . •  •
iťifc:;*s^>-:-:*ťi.;.::::s,.:y;-:; ,,
          21
          24
          18
          44
  Total
 1,785
    100.0
Source:  TT-148 (J29. K49,06)

-------
 156	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 9.2   TYPE OF STORAG E UNITS
                    Hazardous waste can be stored in tank systems, surface impoundments, or
                    waste piles.  Chan 9.2-1 shows the quantity of hazardous waste stored and the
                    number of facilities storing hazardous waste in each type of facility. Tank
                    systems were used most often for storage.  Over 97 percent of all facilities
                    storing hazardous waste did so in tank systems. These facilities stored
                    109.07 million tons of hazardous waste in tanks.
Chan 9.2-1  Types of Storage Units and Quantity Stored in 1986
Quantity Stored
State (million tons)
Tank Systems
Surface Impoundments
Waste Piles
Total
109.07
79.30
0.43
188.80
Percentage of
Total Quantity
57.8
42.0
0.2
100.0
Number
of Facilities
1,740
141
55
1,785a
Percentage
of Facilities
97.5
7.9
3.1
100.0a
aA single facility can have more than one type of storage. The totals shown are without double-counting.
Source:  TT-148 (J29, K49.08)

-------
                             10. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Disposal	157
    10
HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
METHODS: DISPOSAL

Hazardous waste can be permanently disposed of in landfills, land treatment
areas, underground injection wells, or disposal impoundments. This chapter
describes hazardous waste disposal operations in these units in 1986. Each of
these units is subject to the land disposal restriction rules under HSWA.
Chapter 12 discusses the effects these rules may have on the hazardous waste
disposal activities described in this chapter.
10.1   LANDFILLS
                 Landfllling was the disposal method used by the largest number of
                 facilities in 1986. During that year, 118 facilities disposed of 3.17 million
                 tons of hazardous waste in landfills.

                 Charts 10.1-1 and 10.1-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste disposed of
                 and the number of facilities disposing of hazardous waste in landfills in each
                 EPA region in 1986. Charts 10.1-3 and 10.1-4 show the same information for
                 each state or territory.

-------
Chart 10.1-1  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Landfills per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)
    Total quantity managed - 3.17 million Ions
                                                                                                                                 i
    Note:  Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages indicate the percentage of aB
    hazardous waste managed in landfifcs that was
    managed in the region indicated.
Region VI
Source: TT-140 (L3)

-------
Chart 10.1-2   Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Landfills per EPA Region In 1986
    Total number ol facilities -118
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages indicate (he percentage ol all
    facilities with landfills that are located in the
    region indicated.
                                                                                                                                   s
i
i
I
o
to
in
to
Source: TT-140(L3)
                                                                                                                                   Ol

-------
 160
           1936 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 10.1-3 Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Landfills by State in 1986
   State
                            Quantity Managed
                              (million tons)
    Percentage of
Total Quantity Managed
Slat*
Rank
   Alabama
   Alaska
   Arizona
   Arkansas
   California
  '
   Connecticut:  •:•?.!:•.•
  •' Delaware; :::;.^-';-;. •:'•:
   DtstrfctofColwmWa
   Georgia
   Guam
   Hawaii
   Idaho
   Illinois
  IndiariaW^::-!
   Kansas
   Kentucky1:'	
  'Louislaifcli^ll?^::';
   Maine
   Maryland
   Massachusetts
   Michigan
   Minnesota
  Nebfaska^H^
  Nevada?
  New Hampshire
  New Jersey
  New Mexico
  New York
  North Carolina
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South CaroBna
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas - -  "••? ~"
Utah    .
Vermont i
Virgin Wanrf:-
Vkglntafc..-  •
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
                                            !Ť;i^^= ^i^rirOSfe^:^-^
                                            ;J.:;:,^::>::!: .•;:•:;•; ::
-------
                                    10. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Disposal       161
 Chart 10.1-4  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Landfills by State In 1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
: Colorado : .
Connecticut •
:V Delaware : . .
: District of Columbia : .
;;, Florida-.. .:' ,. : :.. .';•;
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
'•'Indiana".' 	 :
Iowa .
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri .:
Montana
. Nebraska:
...Nevada-. .: ''
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota:
Ohio:
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas1.- : . ''::rq; •::>":Ł : ^;^';'-
Utah - • ' . ':• .E^Ii™;;' 'I. /'Ł•• ::
If 	 .- 	 * ' .'''•I.'/::'* ~sf ''''''*'•'$' "•••'!
Vermoni: •• ;.'::':" '.••--:--• o :-•
..:..::..:. ,:,- 2
1
3
1
1
118
Percentage of
RCRA TSDR Facilities
3.4
0.8
0.8
1.7
6.8

• • 2J&
.". ••*'•' -o.a •:' :
• .. ., .'. .0-* " • . ' :

o!o"
0.0
0.0
1.7
4.2
S.8-'
.' •• •• ' 0.0--: • .
1.7 .
' 3.4 ' ' •
5.9. ...
0.0
1.7
0.0
2.5
0.8

' .' • ./ > t!7 .'•',';; '. . • ,. .:.
' *Xu:- -•••••
0LQ~' : "'••
0.4> .:'
o'o
1.7
1.7
4.2
0.0
' '" 0.0^ :• " :
:•••• 2J&-: ' '-
• M. •!:•.••
0 $ : •'
.. ... o.ť.' • . .
2.5
0.0
1.7
0.0
1.7
' . • : • ' . • ' ' 23.7 :'
'• ,./.-;.';-; ;...Ť• ••
• •' '" '• .'•' 0.8"- ••'•
: •- " '- '--'.•- "00^
•-.•:. ••••;'::••;- 1.7 • . •
0.8
2.5
0.8
0.8
100.0
State
Rank
8
35
32
16
3
36
1t
31
33
39
40
41
42
17
5
2.
43
> 22.
. '. . . . ^ . .
' '• . • 4 . . • :.'.
45
20
44
9
30
• • 37
18:" • ' '
• ''. 46 .
49
26
50
15
23
6
47
48
• 10
.27
24
29
13 	
51
14
52
19
' ' T ; '
: 25: ...-:
• 54 ;-;.• '

21, .
28
12
34
33

Source: TT-140(L3)

-------
162	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
10.2  LAND TREATMENT
                   A land treatment area is a section of land in which hazardous waste is
                   applied to or incorporated into the soil surface for disposal Facilities
                   commonly use this method to manage petroleum wastes. The wastes are
                   spread over the surface and then tilled under the soil, where micro-
                   organisms help to break down the petroleum residues.  During 1986,58
                   facilities operated 98 land treatment areas. These land treatment areas
                   received 038 million tons of hazardous waste during that year.

                   Charts 10.2-1 and 10.2-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste disposed of
                   and the number of facilities disposing  of hazardous waste in land treatment
                   areas in each EPA region in 1986.  Charts 10.2-3 and 10.2-4 show the same
                   information for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 10.2-1 Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Land Treatment Areas per EPA Region In 19B6 (In million tons)
   Total quantity managed - 0.38 million tons
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
         Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
         Region X Includes Alaska

    Percentages indicate the percentage of all
    hazardous waste managed in land treatment
    areas that was managed in the region indicated
                                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                                5
                                                                                                                                tu
                                                                                                                                n
                                                                                                                                6

                                                                                                                                U
                                                                                                                                u
i
••ť
i
q
i
Source:  TT-140(M3)

-------
Chart 10.2-2  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Land Treatment Areas per EPA Region In 1966
    Total number ol facilities - 58
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X Includes Alaska

    Percentages indicate the percentage ol all
    facilities with land treatment areas that are
    located in the region indicated.
                                                                                                                                 i
                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                 !
                                                                                                                                 i
                                                                                                                                1
Source: TT-140(M3)

-------
                                      10. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Disposal
165
 Chart 10.2-3 Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Land Treatment Areas by State In 1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
•VCdnnectkart:!^;'':?^::::
::. Delaware &fr.i/^
: District o<:CpJumbla
.;; Rbrfitfa-;:;;:1;:..;^;:-:.::1'-:;::'.-:' :'.:..::
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana : '
: tcrwa : :
Kansas:
Kentucky
Louisiana '..
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
'--. Mlssiswppiir W. y '•<
.-• '.MiSSOUri;:;; M Ť;;:; P'
: ' Nebraska* r- t^-1^
:s Nevada;;;'; ^,^-\.
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota K
' Oregoiife^vV: :-H:"
Pennsylvania;;
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas.-: ;-*.?.3
Utah--, • •-;.&Ł
Vermont :.:"/.-"-^
Virgin Island -^i~
Virginia-: ..^i;.
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total
Quantity Managed Percentage of
(million tons) Total Quantity Manaaed
<0.01a
0.00
0.00
<0.01*
	 .....0.02
;:;:;:;;•:•:.:• 'f.^ il^il^^^^
'• : :-;:;:;; ;: :-: ; :; ;;; S; };: ^-^0.01*^1^
t/di/iv :-:'-::/:i:^-::r:-::;^^::::i.|::::
::••••' :: :; r.'!1--11- :- '! : .:.;::;..;• :r: :;:''::.:::::.' -'O.OO: :: "•: :; : •• •'
0.00 '""
0.00
<0.01*
0.00
0.01
•^O-'OI*:
0.00V
<0.0l*:
- ..-' , 0.00 :
. • . ... ..OJ>2.:; •
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
[[[ 0.01...^... v

^"Z^^^'^iQM^^t-j
S'^^^-^;1/^':!:^^^^-
•'. :''.:;:-:-::-:ii'':' •:"'r':.::? :'0joo^: •'-'
	 : :o.oo :': :
<0.01^
<0i01 *
0.00
	 0.00
'..- ::---":' :': :: • •' "•••-": -•;'• •'•:'. ' ^f.Qť)':: :v"' '.':": !-!•-
', '. "' : ^'.i1 ;: ;'o ;! !••; |::':: :! :; : ;: :':^ ^: ''•: .- '• 'ft 0^!'::j:'J: ;:•••: '••
:?JitiillS^2D^Jl
.,:,.:,< ,,:.,,:^,:^,.,,:,ť:.,. o^,,;,,o:.^
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
":::.:.:: - :•:• •""" . 0.1 9; .
°---'"'-: '-. • ' • ' <0.01*:
•M^" ' . ' • QM '
•;-"->-: . • • . " • ojo- •
':. '.]'. .-.•••.- :•.. •'. ^WW*'i.:
<0.01'
0.00
0.00
<0.01*
0.38
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.6
5.7
H;Ł;: ii^;:^::^:^^
••:';• :i' 1 'i; -; :: i; !.! ; : : •: • : ;; :;: i; x ; 1 :" -- ;.0i6 ^ :•: ; :";: J •:• : • ''. • • ;^ ' :•'•"• s ;-0 -i !:
:;::l!:> §1:^:i?^^!^^:^^^Hv:::'':<^^..:::
>:; :; :: ^ :• :: :• . !' ' ; :; .: --V ••••:! :': ::'v ^ :• : Oj.Q.:' ^ [. '! / -!1 .: '-i .;••'..:• i1 '" V "' :': > , :! !
,,.,,,,.,,,.,,,,.,,,,,,,-,,..,_,..,, ,.,,,.,.....,,.,.,.

0.0
<0.1b
o!o
1.9
• 0.4': •• ' • '
• " • • O.Q- • • • • •
' " : ' • • : ' OX': ' .; : ' : ' -: ' :
• •: O.O:.-:'.
... .-' '/•: 4.0-:'. ; . •: : •:.•:.
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
„,„,,.,.,,...,,„,,,,, .....v..,,...2.5.. ................ ,......,.,

• :;:; i;:; i > :- 1 ;! % li.: : :|: || • f |^.0||| 5 1; 1 1Ť ?.;:|; |: ? || | ;| 'iv
^•:^*J^^HIf|f^^^§W^^F^.^
" : • •• -: ' :: '• -:' ! :- .4 ;: . : :'::•!• ::'::;; : . ~o&S- :: • ' • • i; ': '•••'-•:, >. ''.-• "'-. " ', '• '-• . -
:, :...,,..-.-•...:.,::...,,:,,. ,^-, ,:•:-:,,.,,,,:,: ...<:,: v
0.1
0.5
0.0
0.0


^^^,^™^ťťť^...o.^.^ť.
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
50.6 :
••. t.o , •
. • O.OT- :; • ••
0.0 ;.-• . .- .
'• ;" • ' • ••:^;-:uX2:;:.v.?;- •• . .. •• • ,..:-
	 0.9 	
0.0
0.0
0.4
100.0
State
Rank
19
23
24
12
4
^;C-''||-::W':;;.:;:; '
::Ł.;/'-''i3x''i. :::;;..•:'' '
;::::n:.;'\'27:::--;.;:;:-::.-:'. :•
••;:•../;: ;l; -28; ::•-':•' -.-•• '. •: '• -:
,,,..,.,, 2g,.,..
30
22
32
8
17
•31 /
• -" 16
:' •• 33 . :
• -5 .
36
35
34
37
	 7 	
:.:;•;; :::v:'3-:;::.:; ;: V; J ^ ' " -
i.:::;:j:;;;;::.::-38^:-.:.-.:'-:: '•:..•'.,.
Z:-'^$-y^. : •-•-.
'••:':. •i:'':"'43;::'.i :. : '•• .-'
':':':'":':'42'" : 	
21
14
44
39
WSiff?:
|l;|§|;::v;
,.,,,,.,,:^,,:. :,,,,, 	
47
48
49
50
• t '•.'•'
9
52
51
::' • 2Q-, • • ;
11
54
53
15

•Lass than 10,000 tons of hazardous waste were generated in these states in 1986.

-------
 166
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 10.2-4  Numberol FacllHlM Managing Hazardous Wast* In Land Treatment Areas by State In
   State
   Alabama
                    Number ot
               RCRA TSDR FaellrHaa
   Percentage of
RCRA TSDR Facllrttos
           State
           Rank
        na
   Alaska
   Arizona
   Arkansas
   California
  Dtstritt:ofC^iarrjyi,Jh;'i;;-
            ••:r-:-:V ' :':'•:. ^A1*' .-':'::- * '••i-::'^ :•:>:•'-'-:. •.'' • .•-•'. .' : '•-'••'-• '."'••'•'.'•'• '• '•
           -.•I::';:;..::;;•; fr*:.;::';.Ť.?.; i:-;s; ;•::.::: t-. \^.\ :-• ^ :•:•::.;;; •;.:;;::.; <.;
         1.7
         0.0
         0.0
         1.7
         3.4
         CtOK!
         atf^^l
        •itd^lifl
         •flea^r
                                                                         19
                                                                         23
                                                                         24
                                                                         15
                                                                          8
:::i:.::::Ii:?;;;Pl!i|.;1:ieJ.:;l
^MliHl;^^?17^:
  Georgia
  Guam
  Hawaii
  Idaho
  Illinois
  Maine	"  ' "b	"""	
  Maryland                          0
  Massachusetts                      0
  Michigan                          0
  Minnesota                         1
  IvUUaUI Sis R:iEii!s*>iM>'-<:v •:••• :j: .5 .•:•:. •*Ť>>:•: -.:• J.Wiit.- •• *ť*;•-•;ť• ^;- t'-CC.'1"'••>•••: v ^"-; -:- -^
  MŤS!|i|fef;t^!|
  Now Hampshire
  Puerto Rico
  Rhode Island
  South Carolina
  South Dakota
  Tennes
  Taxas
          ^mmm^^'^-
          ť|Ť;':-\i.j.-:j-'.. ^;"p..;•;•;• '
          ^^•^^-Ml-'ffe^.:-;-;' '
  Washington
  West Virginia
  Wisconsin
  Wyoming
  Total
                       58
       100.0
Source: TT-140(M3)

-------
                                10. Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Disposal	767
10.3  DISPOSAL IMPOUNDMENTS
                   Disposal impoundments are surface impoundments used to permanently
                   dispose of hazardous waste, generally liquid waste or waste containing
                   free liquids. In 1986,4.61 million tons of hazardous waste entered surface
                   impoundments for permanent disposal. Seventy facilities operated these
                   disposal impoundments in 1986.

                   Cham 10.3-1 and 10.3-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste disposed of
                   and the number of facilities disposing of hazardous waste in disposal
                   impoundments in each EPA region in 1986. Charts 10.3-3 and 10.3-4 show
                   the same information for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 10.3-1 Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Disposal Impoundments per EPA Region In 1986 (in million tons)
   Total quantity managed - 4.61 million tons

                                                                                                                                A

                                                                                                                                a
                                                                                                                               |
   Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                 and the Virgin Islands
         Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
         Region X includes Alaska

   Percentages Indicate the percentage of all hazardous
   waste managed in disposal impoundments that was
   managed in the region indicated.
Source:  T7-140(K43)

-------
Chart 10.3-2  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Disposal Impoundments per EPA Region In 1986
    Tola! number of facilities • 70
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and (he Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X Includes Alaska
    Percentages Indicate the percentage of all
    facilities with disposal Impoundments that are
    located in the region indicated.
                                                                                                                                 u
                                                                                                                                 u

                                                                                                                                 I
n

o
u
                                                                                                                                 O)
                                                                                                                                 <0
Source: TT-140(K43)

-------
 170
          1988 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 10.3-3 Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Disposal Impoundments by State In 1986
   State
                           Quantity Managed
                             (million tons
                           Percentage of
                       Total Quantity Managed
 State
 Rank
   Alabama
   Alaska
   Arizona-
   Arkansas
   California
  '
                                  0.00
                                  0.00
                                  0.00
                                  0.01
                                  0.04
   Connecticut*
Florida,:;
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indianasi;
                                    1.57
                                    0.00
                                    0.00
                                    0.00
                                    0.69
                               0.0
                               0.0
                               0.0
                               0.1
                               0.9
                        :,::.:.:\-:: octff-":/'.
                       : :•;::' ,H.-Y.O,Oi?-::<--!.;-
                              33.9
                               0.0
                               0.0
                               0.0
                              15.0
   Kentucky';:: ^$:
  "Loulaiaoai&iiS:
   Maine
   Man/land
   Massachusetts
   Michigan
   Minnesota
                           mmww^
                           &*&*>%&
                                                    • •;:. :-:i'.s,f;"-'! •••*•
                                                    ; ',;;<•:• ii::-!t •.: .<0;t^S^.:; S <; i. ^ ^ i!; '•: '•. '• :• ••:•
                                                               >iMMj^lj:P^I:':
   19
   18
   20
   13
    9
   21-:'-'
   22:^:
   t2
   23
  ..24=:;..
    1
   25
   26
   27
    4
  :'2rm;;
  MS?;;;::?'?
::;;:;:;:^94:;
 ;. MMaouŤ^^Ji;?;-;rf ::'-f^:;fefFR^
  'Montanť^'^i-:;:.;?':y.;:;::s5;;;jriiy:v.j-f
  tf nileMiai!•••''•' : '"" j:":':' ' -^' " ' '" " -^-': "' " ' "'
  NOOTUlCv>-;^ •' •:•• ••••-•;••
  \Nei*a4a^^i^Ł;
  New Hampshire
  New Jersey
  New Mexico
  New York
  North Carolina
  North
          ^M^;:^^^^;'-''>^^^^'iť5epťs^^:^;=r^ m'^wm:
     ^fl t*tlKK\":f:::>.;.,. f^*;™.;-*;:-'^-^)^
                                                                                     32
                                                                                     31
                                                                                     30
                                                                                     33
                                                                                     34
                                                                               ;•-:••:•:. • :.- '•*: -•.•:• •••••:
                                                                             ,..  .•*:&"*<$-:j<.&frA
                                                                           *m:^ir'^::
                                                                     &i:':Ľ&&%>V-'3S?&.---
                                                                     Tv:.r-:;.;-^,.:; •'••'.sv^';-'
                                                                                    :*%.&.
                                                                                     39
  Puerto Rico
  Rhode Island
  South Carolina
  South Dakota
  Tennessee
  Tsxaar:  •-.-. '••':'
  Utah
  Vermont
  Virgin (stand.
  Virginia,'....
  Washington
  West Virginia
  Woconsin
  Wyoming
  Total
                                 4.61
                              100.0
*Less than 10.000 tons of hazardous waste were generated in these stales in 1988.
•less than 0.1 percent of the total quantity of hazardous waste generated in 1986 was generated in these states.
Source:  TT-140(K43)

-------
                                   10. Hazardous Waste Management Methods:  Disposal
171
 Chart 10.3-4 Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Disposal Impoundments by State In
            1966
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
•;• Colorado ••• '
: Connecticut.: •
..; Delaware • •
District d Columbia
: Florida.
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas:
Kentucky ; •••
.•;, Louisiana;; ;;:,,•;::. :.-•••••
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
•'. •MiS80urt-:::::.;;":ť..::.:'?..:'.'::.
Montarť::;p::::;'':;.'-v-;::
^' Nevada;-;^:.: ^;:..,^.\.:
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Oklahoma :
Oregon; : ; ; :.. ' ', ..;
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
TexaB1 -:-1:.1: v'%fi-ťŁ\- • ~tt . ''
•Utah-;.—-;.; :3C;:;
Vermont:; ;; -^ "; '•• •'•• '•
Virgin Island; ::;i :;:;
Virginia ','.'
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total
Number of
RCRA TSDR Facilities
3
0
0
1
7
•o
•' • ' 1
t
0
: ft
5
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
• • ' • 1
.:.-. ' •'•': • ••-•••4
0
0
0
2
0 	
:i'.:^ Y:::::;:' . ::x::-:;.:;t.:::.. \-'-'.\:/C:-
x-:':.-:.:. 'h'.^'::'0-''^' '-v-;-
:.;.-:'-'-v;.'''V:. 'Ł>":! ' ,::.
""':' "o" "''" ""
0
1
1
0
••':' ;"': '.';"-; -::.'°': ':'••• •••.-.
"•'.'•-•• :'"::':; •;;;••:'. 2 •"•'• -'.':\.
•'. ... ..".'.':': :,, '• ; . •'• Q . - '-
..'.. :^:,":^: :•-:';-. 3. ;.:;:' ,.,:.:
1
0
3
0
0
:.::.: "• v:-:--. ;• •'' '• 13; .'
.;.:•-. :-:.":""'-:" •'•'• •' 4'
••':•• v: • ; . : - o-
-....-.-.•;. •,...-• o
'• • 1
0
3
0
0
70
Percentage of
RCRA TSDR Facilities
4.3
0.0
0.0
1.4
10.0
'..'"•: ' ' O^Q L
' . •' : - .1.4' '
' . . 1.4; . •
•. ' " ' '• 0.0.
O.O
7.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.9
. • :• ftQVL .' '•.•••
•1.4
0.0;
1.4
S.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.9
0.0
:. .'; •' ;: \:l '•• '-••• "'-j. \ &M; . i#A ( 11 ^ Ul &:. 1
-^'•••i-^^i^^^^ii^ ^yi-
..:^:^---;:l'M'.^ff^-l:^ ;:••-::;.
,:.,,,,,..,..,,,,..,,:.,, o^;:,.,,,., „....,...,.,
0.0
1.4
1.4
0.0
.-. ;-V:;--;:>. ::.;•;;;: :0^i:;:;; -••;:.•;; ••/;::: ;;:.;
V:^-::^'^::;XlŁťfe'fe.::''A.
' :••: ",' •j.3'.-;' v-;> DJ>;:;-:K;.M':':!;:::.::'.'::.;.
'"'..'.>. •-.;-'.'';:'':';. :.4&'i^i<:.'if:f •";''-'
"""""" "1.4 """""'""""
0.0
4.3
0.0
0.0
•'•'•; ' .•• -.':' :lft.5'::;::,:" -": ."-. ;-:.-;
:'. : ' •• • -: 5.T. •'..'•• ' '•''•''.'
- •'- 0X0 '::'. - •
- " 0X0 '•' '•'••••
'. \A '•'" -"- -- . -
0.0
4.3
0.0
0.0
100.0
State
Rank
10
25
26
18
3
27

17
28
29
4
30
31
32
11
• : ' ' 33
19.
34
15 :
5
37
36
35
13
38
l;:T:;.:feJ::;;.:::' 20: '^ •• '• • . •
i;';:;;:r:^:.':;; !•:•: :.'38;^-.-:: / .';'.- ..
wt!;.^^:V; .4^:::;::.;::- .-,.
,.:,:.,:,:. ,,,,,.,. ^ ,:..,, :.•
44
22
23
40
•. :v: :::;: .' .'^- 4i" "'-""-'' '•"'
:^'::-:.:-::.::-::::::v-t2.-;;';.. -'-
^KSi^-^---'-

..,,,,, ^, ..........
47
9
48
49
..•';' .'.' ;,'".' . • '.!';.. -,;1.;' '
.'.'•'• :'''- . !:': 6-'
. ••'•••.-. '".•• 51- • • -
•:;V". -,':• 50 - -
18".
52
8
53
54

Source: TT-140(K43)

-------
172	1968 Hazardous Wasť Generation and Management
10.4  INJECTION WELLS
                   Underground injection of hazardous waste is a land disposal method
                   whereby hazardous waste is introduced into the subsurface through:
                   drilled deep wells.  Underground injection wells were operated by 63
                   facilities in 1986 and received 28.73 million tons of hazardous waste for
                   disposal. Underground injection was the most common method of
                   hazardous waste disposal in 1986 based on the quantity of hazardous
                   waste disposed of.

                   Charts 10.4-1 and 10.4-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste disposed of
                   and the number of facilities disposing of hazardous waste in injection wells in
                   each EPA region in  1986. Charts 10.4-3 and 10.4-4 show the same
                   information for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 10.4-1  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Injection Wells per EPA Region In 1986 (in million tons)
    Total quantity managed - 28.73 million tons
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska
    Percentages indicate the percentage ol all
    hazardous waste managed in injection wells that
    was managed in the region indicated.

                                                                                                                                  c
                                                                                                                                  la
                                                                                                                                 I
1
D

I
o
'fl
8
Source: TT-140(N3)

-------
Chart 10.4-2   Number ol Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Injection Wells per EPA Region In 1986
    Total number ol facilities - 63
    Note: Region II Includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX Includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X Includes Alaska

    Percentages indicate the percentage ol al
    facilities with injection wels that are located in
    the region indicated.
Source: TT-140(N3)

-------
                                      10.  Hazardous Waste Management Methods: Disposal
175
 Chart 10.4-3 Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In ln|ectlon Wells by State In 1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
: '. Connecticut: •'. • • • .
•Delaware :-:i: :: - ••' •
• Dlstiirtof Columbia
•'. .Florida.-:.'.: .;. :..... .. '..'
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
' Indiana *';W]:~^ :••; V:;::'" .'-•
'' Kansas. . I::'::.:."-:: :.;-. '. 'C^-'^
•'Kentucky:.:,.^?/:;:.'' /•'^^•'.\
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
'•' Mississippi-.: ::'-.;:'K' ---:- -:';'.:'::-;i.v:
' '_• NeonMtef :fe;4:H:-'':: :••:; -•;:••;: ;.;.!•.::• ;:
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
. onto; -.:•-;.. >v:-;:;;: ;': :? -;•••- '+
Pennsytvam* ..V..-?-' . .'-' : h;i - ..-•
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
TŤťŤŤ . •'•1ĽiH1f?KSfJJ8J'S!Wťf*-."i
leXaS. ••• .;. :•"-.'• •(*$Ł9%%Z:.-'-;> : >\. > |v: '
Utah'.'. .-.'^:^l||i|^|iph:;:
Vermont. : ' -:. . : "•" ^^;f-^:' :: ;i ? i; ; : :: :'
virgin lalaoQvft':.:-:':':'y.\':'p?'""v'..:''' ~ '• -,
VirBinia.::-..,4;:i2v?i^;'..'-':':.J::
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Total
Quantity Managed
(million tons)
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.03
0.00
: , Q.oo • : •
0.00 :
'•• '...:" Q.OO- ..•• ••
0.00 : :
0.11.
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.61
:-,"JV::;:::.fli:8*s:-;v:T:^':
?M^'$J&&^ :•;'•:
.^::];l:--;::r;:a2^1!;i;- ;.•>•'
	 0.00
0.00
0.00
0.10
.....p.oo ....
• • . ,\ . • ". i ;• " fi 00 '"• "; •• " ' •
•. . .'• .• :: ,:: ,••-;;.'.•:"."•" . ;
:"•:" = :'":^::.:-' '• 'ULOv1--^'"- "' :'"':'
:: •': • -;•; :•, ': .:: ;! :":. \ :] .fliOft1-1 ^: :V:: !•• •: '-''V '" '-':
.,,,,,.,,,,.,,::. -^, :,:,,,.,,.:..,,
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
illl^slK:
""""""" •"•'••:-0>00:^' -'"•••
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
ffi'vi'^F: tTi74^'^-:-' " ^
;i;it:?;^";;^iO.OO;;:-';:.': : '
'' :: '•'/:• •••:.:i: :.0.00'' v- '
• '•• • \:'- OM'^ '
.. ::' •-;..;' 0.00 •-.- ••
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
28.73
Percentage of
Total Quantity Manaoed
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
-' •' '• : ': TO.O,".:' '' " • '".'"
• •' . . 0,0'-: •„• • ' • ' •
• : • o.o-.'- ' '
'•• • o.o- • .•••
. • . 6.4 ': ;
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.1
' •.:":::{p'^'-':^:^liz]>l':'-^-"^---:
i^^^/\/^^^^^-.^^&
c':-:^::-:^:^;:^:-^^;^./^;^1:-^;^;:
.,....,. ......„,..,..,,„. QQ, ... .,,..,...,.,....,,
0.0
0.0
0.4
..,,.,.,,,,,., P.O. ..... . .. ............... ...

^Mi^^^^^^^^^;^.^,,^^^^
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
l:3ijjjj^JiSm
,,..,>,,,„ 1,,,1,^,,,:^;;;.:..5^i:j-;:'''. .'.
;;;:;::j;;.;;*:: .:.:•:;"• :; ..-•:
'•'•'"•"•'" 27*"'"-
26
25
10
.......28..
ffi^ws---:'
.^iyg";::.,;:;;: ....-.;:,.
36
37
39
32
II§II|::,^
,:,.-.,-,. 42|,,,,,f,.,:.
43
44
45
46
'\"v:;'>f:.:: ':'"•: -V": •'• '
.;.;:::;'.;,47:".;:;':'.;'. -;.-'
:-- ' ..,' 50:::. • •''•-.: ••• •
••;••/." -'49;:;:: ''. .. :.
:':..:..';: '•48:.:;-, '..•.':; • • • .
51 	
53
52
54

•Less than 10,000 tons of hazardous waste were generated in these states in 1986.
bLess than 0.1 percent of the total quantity of hazardous waste generated in 1986 was generated in these states.
Source: TT-140(N3)

-------
 176
          1986 Hazardous Waste Generation art Management
 Chart 1CU-4  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Injection Wells by State In 198*
   State
                              Number of
                         HCRA TSDR Facilities
       Percentage of
   RCRATSDRFaclltttes
State
Rank
   Alabama
   Alaska
   Arizona
   Arkansas
   California
                                   0
                                   0
                                   0
                                   2
                                   0
           0.0
           0.0
           0.0
           3.2
           0.0
  DtstrictofColumWt
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana'
                                  *:.vv:Ť-ft:-v!:K=1'".i-:: !-o.:> '.• :••::•• •.•: •: •••: $ ?$?.'- '.<:
                                                            0.0
                                                            0.0
                                                            0.0
                                                            0.0
                                                            4.8
  13
  12
  14
   e
  15
                                     20
                                     21
                                     22
                                     24
                                      7

  Main*
  Maryland
  Massachusetts
  Michigan
  Minnesota
                                   0
                                   0
                                   0
                                   4
                                   0
           0.0
           0.0
           0.0
           6.3
  	IVWM o.o

••'i !:"??'' V:4?S;'S.4
.:?,.• .;.. lii?;;;^^1:
  New Hampshire
  New Jersey
  New Mexico
  New York
  North Carolina
                                   0
                                   0
                                   0
                                   0
                                   0
  Puerto Rico
  Rhode Island
  South Carolina
  South Dakota
  Tennessee
  Texaavi?.
  Vermont: >:
  Virgin btantf:
  Vbginte:.^
  Washington
  West Virginia
  Wiseonsin
  Wyoming
                                                                    ffi$'-:^''^'s?&':l<&V^'"\^ ' '•''

                                                                    y?^-;^;;;.;/;;: 4^^:^'-''-•'
                                                                    ^^•:;::m^:4^m^^.
                                                                                    42
                                                                                    43
                        >?ť •: •• y-- .• ••if-^y. :•"• . • ff>v.-J-- :-./>-. ^
                        ir^^5ťx^i-f':
                        -^••^•'&;y:^ '•'
                         •:• *? '.yť/..,/"., V,: 1 ss*.. ••': •
                         •'.-•^'••^^l^^';-;'..
  Total
                                  63
          100.0
Source: TT-140(N3)

-------
                                1 1. Units Subject to the Land Disposal Restriction Rule	777
    11
UNITS SUBJECT TO THE LAND DISPOSAL
RESTRICTION  RULE
                   Regulations authorized by HSWA and promulgated by EPA since 1986
                   prohibit the land disposal of hazardous waste unless hazardous chemicals and
                   characteristics have been removed, reduced, or stabilized to the greatest extent
                   possible or unless EPA determines on a site-specific basis that there will be no
                   migration of hazardous constituents from the land disposal unit. Land
                   disposal units covered by these restrictions include landfills, land treatment
                   areas, surface impoundments, waste piles, and underground injection wells.
                   The regulations apply to all waste management activities (including storage
                   and treatment) conducted in these units.

                   Chapter 10 included a discussion of land disposal in landfills, land treatment
                   areas, surface impoundments used for disposal, and underground injection
                   wells during 1986. This chapter describes the remaining units subject to the
                   land disposal restrictions—waste piles and surface impoundments (including
                   those used for treatment or storage).  Section 12.1 describes the potential
                   effects of the land disposal restrictions, using the 1986 data as a baseline by
                   which to evaluate these effects.
11.1  WASTE PILES
                   A waste pile is an uncontained accumulation of solid or nonflowing
                   hazardous waste. In 1986,71 facilities managed 0.677 million tons of
                   hazardous waste in waste piles.

                   Charts 11.1-1 and 11.1-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste managed and
                   the number of facilities managing hazardous waste in waste piles in each EPA
                   region in 1986. Charts 11.1-3 and 11.1-4 show the same information for each
                   state or territory.

-------
Chart 11.1-1  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Waste Piles per EPA Region In 1986 (In million tons)
    Total quantity managed - 0.677 million tons
    Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
         Region IX Includes Hawaii and Guam
         Region X includes Alaska

    Percentages in parentheses Indicate the percentage oi
    all hazardous waste managed in waste piles that was
    generated in the region indicated.
u
                                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                 q>
                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                 I
Source: TT-149 (J3)

-------
Chart 11.1-2   Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Waste Piles per EPA Region In 1986
   Total number ol facilities - 71
    Note:  Region II includes Puerto Rico
                  and the Virgin Islands
          Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
          Region X includes Alaska
    Percentages in parentheses Indicate the percentage
    ol all facilities managing hazardous waste in waste
    piles that are located in the region indicated.
                                                   Region VI
                                                                                                                                   5j
                                                                                                                                   S?
                                                                                                                                   ra-
                                                                                                                                   ft
                                                                                                                                   r-
I
t
Source: TT-149 (J3)

-------
  180
           1988 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 11.1-3  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Waste Piles by State In 1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
i^^i^-A^'-'
'••'•• District of Coiumbia^H'
Quantity Managed Percentage of
(million tons! Total Quantity
0.046 6.8
0.000 0.0
0.000 0.0
0.006 0.9
0.000 0.0
:^.J^,^^^-:^:-
''"'':' ' '•' :' O :.: '••' 0 000^ ' ' '' •'• '•'• ''' -'
^ ..;'-...::.;•.. ;0jQ3ft.:': ••:•; ••.. •• :.
i"::"-:.>?
. 1:;;*? ::
'••,
-------
                                     11.  Units Subject to the Land Disposal Restriction Rule
181
 Chart 11.1-4   Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Waste Piles by State In 1986
State
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California
:; Colorado -: •
Connecticut . : '
":: Delaware ''•'." ••-•<•••
District ol Columbia: . : :
,:Ftarfda- . •:... •.. . .'• •• ' '
Georgia
Guam
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana •• •'
towa
• Kansas • .
Kentucky:
Louisiana ...
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
:^^^l|li1Ž|S;
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Onto
Oklahoma?^' .:.'• .
Oregon: :
Pennsylvania:;
Puerto Rico
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas ' ;' ^^i^l^^^^'i^-P'^^s;
: Utahr ' •' .:':JI;Sm. .!:-•>- '' ':
Vermont ••: •••^(sfsl!:';"? •••• •••-':•
Virgin blawf :f j^rS? ' ir • ;•; .. -:, - .
Virginia'..',-:' l.-;-"'.:/.^-..-:' •' .'''• .' ' .'
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
TotaJ
Number of
Facilities
2
0
0
1
0
'. . z
• . 2 • :• . •
" • ' '0 "
. ." o
.3 ..
2
0
0
0
2
o • '•'• •'. " •
0
:o .-.:
t
0 ': ••-:'.
0
1
0
4
............ 3.. ...
fl:i^--;;5;:;
0
2
0
3
0
o -..;••
10
'•": 2 ' :
.'•'•• 1 .
9
0
0
1
0
1
i'A-':'-* -'•• ft"':' :'• : •:::-••
, , . ,..Q .... .. , ...
0
-.' ':•'- 0
... ;.' 5 -.-..,.•
2
1
1
1
71
Percentage of
Total Number
2.8
0.0
0.0
1.4
0.0
2.B

: 0.0
QJO
42
2.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.8
- ' •'•': /.- '0.0
0.0
•• ••. :. o.o
: •• • • '•'': 1A * • •'".'" •
• . • . QJO '. . ' .••'•' '
o!o
1.4
0.0
5.6
..,4.2..............
^S^Sii-v?Ž^
0.0
2.8
0.0
0.0
. ' = '• : '0.0:: ' '• ' '' ' : • '
'.'••• 14.1
• • •- • .: 2A '"" • ' • •
'•• \. " 1.4 •:<•;..:. '. :.: :•-'...
12.T " '' •
0.0
0.0
1.4
0.0
1.4
.;.-; ,-::-.::':.: :::: BA'vt'v. ''• •':'•• •'.•• -:: - '''-'.
'-- '- - ; 0^0.' :::' ' ' :
•:-: "'' ''' " '' ; OJJ' ;::'-': : " • :'-:-;;' '.'.'• '
. '•• ,- 0.0-.:::-. ..': -. • -.
• T.0" •''.'..-. . . ' . •
2.8
1.4
1.4
1.4
100.0
State
Rank
9
29
30
19
31
12;
13 .
32
33
6
15
34
35
36
11
37
38
•' . '.39.
26
40.
41
22
42
5
.... .....:......7.

45
16
46
8
47
. . . . 48 '
. r "
'•. ' -io . -
' -. 27:... :
" ' •' . ': ' -2-:' :
49
50
17
51
28
• "" . -3
52
• - ' 53 •'
' ": ,54.. :
4.'
14
18
25
20

Source: TT-149(J3)

-------
 182
1988 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                   Chart 11.1-5 shows the hazardous waste management activities conducted in
                   waste piles in 1986.  Over 70 percent of facilities with waste piles used the
                   units to store hazardous waste in 1986.
Chan 11.1 -5   Types ol Waste Management Conducted In Waste Piles In 1986, by Number of Facilities
        Storage
      Treatment
       Unknown
                                                                            -I
              0%
                  25%
50%
75%
100%
Source: TT-149 (J3. J27, J29)
11.2  SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS
                   Surface impoundments are pits, ponds, or lagoons designed to hold liquid
                   wastes or wastes containing free liquids. Surface impoundments can be
                   used to accumulate, store, treat, recycle, or dispose of hazardous waste.
                   In 1986,298 facilities managed 23L7 million tons of hazardous waste in
                   surface impoundments.

                   Charts 11.2-1 and 11.2-2 show the quantity of hazardous waste managed in
                   and the number of facilities managing hazardous waste in surface
                   impoundments in each EPA region in 1986. Cham 11.2-3 and 112-4 show
                   the same information for each state or territory.

-------
Chart 11.2-1  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed In Surface Impoundments per EPA Region in 1986 (in million tons)
  Total quantity managed - 231.70 million tons
  Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                and the Virgin Islands
       Region IX Includes Hawaii and Guam
       Region X includes Alaska
  Percentages in parentheses indicate the percentage of
  all hazardous waste managed In surface impoundments"
  that was generated in the region indicated.
                                                                                                                               !
                                                                                                                               5
                                                                                                                                ť
                                                                                                                                to
                                                                                                                               a
                                                                                                                               o
I
?
S"
                                                                                                                                CD
Source:  TT-150(K3)

-------
Chart 11.2-2  Number ol Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste In Surface Impoundments per EPA Region In 1986
   Total number ol facilities - 298
                                                                                                                                01
                                                                                                                                i
                                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                                >>
                                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                                i
   Note: Region II includes Puerto Rico
                 and the Virgin Islands
        Region IX includes Hawaii and Guam
        Region X includes Alaska
   Percentages in parentheses indicate the percentage
   of all facilities managing hazardous waste in surface
   impoundment that are located in the region indicated
Source: TT150(K3)

-------
                                       11.  Units Subject to the Land Disposal Restriction Rule
185
 Chart 11.2-3  Quantity of Hazardous Waste Managed in Surface Impoundments by State in 1986
Quantity Manaj
State (million tons
Alabama 4.96
Alaska 0.00
Arizona 0.02
Arkansas 0.03
California 2.67
"• '""Cbiorado I?-;?'1' if'';''^'-" ' ;' - '• V: ' : ' ;•:: ]'" " "•• I • 0:02: '• "if
;Distn^of:Co1umblai:; l&ll &>%&&?^WQ&!'Ł
. ' Bon^^MK^,^] :ąM l"ni;i \M 0.31; i' v.::
Georgia 9.23
Guam 0.00
Hawaii 0.00
Idaho <0.01Ť
Illinois 5.39
!ndlana:: 0.47
towa. :.. .. 0.02
Kansas. : <0.01B
Kentucky:.- 0.7B
Louisiana^. .; : ' : : . . fl.OO
Maine 0.00
Maryland 0.25
Massachusetts 0.09
Michigan 36.81
Minnesota 0.00
.,• Mississippi; III! '!•; X* :? ^ P;: :: •::;;? WZ :':i, 37;!; "
-.;.Missotrt:;|;.|::|ri;:;;>::i % ;; ^ ^|;U ^li^JO^
MOJuBfl*'^:1 ;:••?•:•;:] ji; •'. ':::. JS •; U:;! ;•••'• ^H;:-!"'*"^^
. . [j8?'*^?*^ ••%% ^ ' ; !:<: li!:-^! .j:-if:.i- '^f?'''
• NeVaOa1::^!''':1::-:1"1-':.:^.: v.: .:. .../: '. i; ••}.-. ::.•:::'•.•:' :vi: V;. '..';', V^0':i;:'; ;:'••;
New Hampshire 6.00 	
New Jersey 53.47
New Mexico <0.01*
New York 5.81
North Carolina 0.36
North Dakota -:^f, ''. • '• ."..;• '*';> • :: :: : • ' ' '! ' : :- :'. -: : ':: • ' ! ' ' 0. OO'1: :: . •; .
Ohto-.f ;;;• •- :••;,;:.;;•;.':;:•;;.;:: . ;:; • .;: '^!:fy^ I :;;i:.;::3JH:.?:.::.;::
'• Qriflo^SNLvSf^H.i^i^l^ilftljB^1
Pennsyfvart{a::;;|;:;: :':;'• i!.\':^ ••^'•^{sx-^^-'^ OiSZS^;/
Puerto Rico'"" 	 —'•v-lv~""v""'-" --' ""••0.12""""
Rhode Island 0.00
South Carolina 2.62
South Dakota 0.00
Tennessee 2221
Texas . . • •'' 'Zl&g&Z:^ -•-•' '•''. 38^ft"
Utah: -:'.;ť§t: -• • ' ' 0.11
Vermont. • ••'fjljjjg'''" • • • ' 0-.00.
Vkginbland^W'r^: -••:••.•• : 04ť
Virginia • :,'^:'^'Ť , '•':",-.. ' • '• . .'1241
Washington 0.54
West Virginia 22.48
Wisconsin <0.01*
Wyoming <0.01§
Total 231.70
ed Percentage of State
Total Quantity Rank '
Ł1 11
0.0 40
<0.1b 30
<0.1b 29
1.2 13
, -- ;:; ,-••;, :- y •,• : • .. j- j ^gftl^:":^ •-••: ^: '^' ^•:.:;.y^- :p^--; • •• :; ;:; v .;; ". '
'SiKKSi^K^
:-X"? ' J •• •••! ? !: •??. J i; 0 :i • i • S --f- :::'O^i; S •• ^ -^ ; ' '• :'- • • :- •••• •'• ' ' '' ' '• • '• ••• "•• •• •'• •' ^••••••-: %$• ? ;" .'• ' • •' :- .: • v ' ' -
"""""""""":""""""""":"';":' id""'"' :':----:"i":"" '*•""•"""' "''•""" -j- •'••••••••••-"•
0.0 42
0.0 43
<0.1b 34
23 10
0.2" ' ' : 19'
• : •  •^:-. •::••-:••-:•:::.:•• •-ULo:i:..:;::::::.;.:.:.:o. •:.:..;: -..': v •:.-•:.: ••.• ••. • • -. ^q-- • :' • •- '•
,:,x,,,,:,,,.,:,:.,^ .::.,.,:,,,,,. .^^::,..,..i.,,^::.,,,1,.,,^,:..,
23.1 1
<0.1b 38
25 9
0.2 20
^'-^-::--::-::KEP!::R:ir^ -.,V"
^^.vN^riM^il'iijiltilll^l;!;;;^';;^ '
^^^^^^^^^^M^M^^Sf^^: :• •
; i: :*... j^ :• v & i- -•. '-. h!S>i^ L*H ?• ? iWfsij: ; ^ ;^5-?iN ; : : .' *r ! i :.•;• ;;:••>•; >:i K'i'l :' •; fg. ;.': , ;' •; •:•: '•••.- •'•'
,,,,,^,,Ť*,,,,,Ť,x,, ,,,,^.,,^,,,,,,^:x.,,,^.,,,,.,,,.,,.,,i!^.,u,,,,,....,,
0.0 51
1.1 14
0.0 52
9.6 5
' ' ' -'16.T- ' 2
• : Ť5.1ťv- •• - 25
••'••• -aa .-:.-.. . . 53 .
; . :'.0.0:..- -.•••:•:.••• 54- - -
." . ;; -5.4- • . 6
0.2 18
9.7 4
<0.1b 39
<0.1b 37
100.0
•Less than 10.000 tons of hazanJous waste ware generated in these states in 1986.
^ess than 0.1 percent of the total quantity of hazardous waste generated in 1986 was generated in these states.
Source: TT-150 
-------
 186
          1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
 Chart 11.2-4  Number of Facilities Managing Hazardous Waste in Surface Impoundments by State in
Number of
 Facilities
                                                   Percentage ef
                                                   Total Number
                                                                            State
                                                                            Rank
  Georgia
  Guam
  Hawaii
  Idaho
  Illinois
  Maine
  Maiyland
  Massachusetts
  Michigan
  Minnesota
 : Nevadat
  New Hampshire
  New Jersey
  New Mexico
  New York
  North Carolina
  North DakŤŤ:
                                                         •vyf'-f
                                                   •Si.:*;;- •Itit&tvSXjft** "-'' '•• ť ::
                                                   .:.!.:•"'•;fM
-------
                                   11. Units Subject to the Land Disposal Restriction Rule
                                                      187
                    Chart 11.2-5 shows the hazardous waste management activities conducted in
                    surface impoundments in 1986.  Most facilities (63 percent) used their
                    surface impoundments to treat hazardous waste in 1986. Section 10.3
                    further describes hazardous waste disposal in surface impoundments.
Chart 11.2-5 Types of Waste Management Conducted In Surface Impoundments In 1986, by Number
            of Facilities
         Treatment
       Storage Only
          Disposal
          Unknown
                 0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
Source: TT-150 (K3. K31, K46, K49)

-------
183	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                                     (This page is intentionally blank)

-------
                                                    12. Changes Since 1936	189
    12
CHANGES SINCE 1986 AFFECTING
HAZARDOUS WASTE  MANAGEMENT
                  The Generator and TSDR Survey data cover the calendar year 1986 and can
                  be used as a baseline by which to evaluate changes in hazardous waste
                  management activities since 1986. Several factors affect hazardous waste
                  management activities.  One important factor is the level and type of
                  production or other business activity that facilities generate. These economic
                  factors vary from year to year and industry to industry, and their effects are
                  difficult to assess.

                  A second factor that affects hazardous waste management activities is changes
                  in the regulatory environment Because such changes apply uniformly to
                  particular waste management activities, the overall effect of these changes can
                  be assessed. Among the major regulatory changes affecting hazardous waste
                  management activities since 1986 are the implementation of the following:

                       • land disposal prohibitions authorized by HSWA,

                       • minimum technical requirements for surface impoundments
                         authorized by HSWA,

                       • the toxicity characteristic leachate procedure (TCLP) test to
                         determine if a waste is toxic and therefore hazardous under RCRA,
                         and

                       • EPA and state activities to encourage industrial pollution prevention.

                  This chapter examines each of these changes in the regulatory environment
                  since 1986 and suggests their probable effects on hazardous waste
                  management activities.
12.1   LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTION RULES
                  In enacting HSWA, Congress required EPA to develop regulations prohibiting
                  the land disposal of hazardous waste unless hazardous chemicals and
                  characteristics have been removed, reduced, or stabilized to the greatest extent

-------
190
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation ana Management
                   possible, or unless EPA determines on a site-specific basis that there will be
                   no migration of hazardous constituents from the land disposal unit for as long
                   as the wastes remain hazardous. Concern for potential groundwater and soil
                   contamination from hazardous waste disposed of in land-based activities
                   prompted these legislative changes. Land disposal units covered by these
                   prohibitions include landfills, land treatment areas, surface impoundments,
                   waste piles, and underground injection wells. These restrictions apply to all
                   waste management activities (including storage or treatment) conducted in
                   these land disposal units.

                   HSWA imposes a schedule on EPA, including provisions for two-year delays
                   in national implementation based on capacity shortfalls in BDAT
                   technologies, for determining conditions under which a particular hazardous
                   waste may be disposed of in land disposal units. This schedule is outlined in
                   Chart 12.1-1.
                   Chart 12.1-1. Schedule for Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Restriction
                                Rules Under HSWA
                   Date Effective
                            RCRA Hazardous Wastes Subject to Land Disposal
                            Restriction
                   November 1986
                   July 1987


                   August 1988

                   June 1990

                   May 1991
                            Dloxins and solvents
                            Hazardous wastes banned from land disposal in
                            California (-California list") Including liquids, metals,
                            acids, PCBs, and halogenated organic compounds
                            Most hazardous third of RCRA hazardous wastes
                            ("1st third")
                            Next most hazardous third of RCRA hazardous wastes
                            ("2nd third")
                            Final third of RCRA hazardous wastes ("3rd third")
                  Effect of Land Disposal Restriction Rides, The land disposal restriction rules
                  directly affect hazardous waste management activities. To meet Land
                  Disposal Restrictions (LDR) treatment standards for land disposal, TSDR
                  facilities are required to increase their treatment of hazardous waste prior to
                  disposal Land disposal restriction regulations will decrease the quantity of
                  waste managed in land disposal units for some wastes, while increasing

-------
                                                         12. Changes Since 1986	191
                   disposal quantities for other wastes. For example, requirements to incinerate
                   waste decrease disposal volume because only the residual incinerator ash will
                   be landfilled.  On the other hand, requiring wastes to be solidified to stabilize
                   hazardous constituents will increase disposal volume due to the added
                   quantities of stabilizing materials (e.g., cement).

                   Meeting BD AT standards and finding alternative methods of disposing of
                   hazardous waste will increase the costs of hazardous waste management To
                   avoid these costs, facilities might attempt to reduce the quantity of hazardous
                   waste generated and subsequently treated or disposed of. Such pollution
                   prevention activities are described in greater detail below.

12.2   SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT REGULATIONS

                   Concern over groundwater contamination from hazardous waste also
                   prompted the inclusion in HSWA of new requirements concerning surface
                   impoundments. Under HSWA, EPA developed new minimum technical
                   requirements for surface impoundments to prevent groundwater
                   contamination. With limited exemptions, surface impoundments were
                   required to be retrofitted to meet these minimum technical requirements by
                   November 8,1988.  Minimum technical requirements include installing
                   double liners, leachate collection systems, and groundwater monitoring.

                   Effect of Surface Impoundment Regulations.  Because of the expense of
                   retrofitting surface impoundments, many TSDR facilities chose instead to
                   close surface impoundments that did not meet the minimum technical
                   requirements. Cosing surface impoundments is expected to temporarily
                   increase the quantity of hazardous waste managed due to contaminated soils
                   removed by the dredging of surface impoundments.

123   TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC  LEACHING PROCEDURE (TCLP)

                   Beginning September 25,1990, facilities are required to use the TCLP test to
                   determine if a waste is toxic and therefore subject to RCRA regulations. The
                   test approximates the leaching of toxic constituents of waste from land
                   disposal units. If the estimated concentration of the toxic constituent in the
                   leachate is above regulatory thresholds established by EPA, the waste is
                   considered hazardous under RCRA.

                   TCLP replaces the extraction procedure (EP) leaching test The most notable
                   distinction between these two is that the EP test estimates the leaching of
                   metals only, whereas TCLP also tests the leaching of organic compounds.

-------
 192	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
                    Twenty-five organic chemicals will be added to the toxicity characteristic
                    when the TCLP test becomes effective. Thirteen additional chemicals may be
                    added to this list at a later date, and other organic chemicals are also under
                    consideration for future inclusion under the TCLP test

                    Effect of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Implementing the
                    TCLP test is expected to increase the number of wastes that fall under RCRA
                    regulatory requirements. Facilities managing these wastes are required to
                    obtain a permit or cease handling these hazardous wastes.  Thus,
                    implementation of the TCLP rules could increase the number of TSDR
                    facilities with RCRA permits in addition to increasing the quantity and
                    number of RCRA hazardous wastes managed.

12.4   BOILER AND INDUSTRIAL FURNACE REGULATIONS

                    Prior to 1991, burning hazardous waste as fuel was less stringently regulated
                    than burning hazardous waste for destruction (incineration). Regulations
                    promulgated by EPA in 1991 require boilers and industrial furnaces used to
                    reuse hazardous waste as fuel to comply with essentially the same standards as
                    hazardous waste incinerators. These new regulations will require operators of
                    most boilers and industrial furnaces reusing hazardous waste as fuel to do the
                    following:

                          • Meet destruction and removal efficiency standards.

                          • Use controls on products of incomplete combustion.

                          • Meet emission standards for heavy metals, hydrogen chloride,
                           chlorine gas, and particulates.

                          • Obtain RCRA permits.

                   Effect of Boiler and Industrial Furnace Regulations. The requirement that
                   boilers and industrial furnaces have RCRA permits will increase both the
                   quantity of hazardous waste managed in RCRA-perrm'tted units and the
                   number of facilities with RCRA permits. To avoid the compliance costs of
                   the regulations, some operators of boilers and industrial furnaces may choose
                   to discontinue burning hazardous waste. The quantity of hazardous waste
                   reused as fuel may therefore decline.

-------
                                                          12. Changes Since 1986	193
12.5   POLLUTION PREVENTION POLICIES
                    EPA has established a hierarchy of preferred waste management practices.
                    Under this hierarchy, facilities are encouraged to use pollution prevention
                    techniques to reduce the quantity or toxicity of the waste they generate.
                    Pollution prevention techniques include using fewer hazardous materials in
                    industrial processes (toxics use reduction) and reducing the quantity or
                    toxicity of the waste those processes generate (source reduction).  For those
                    wastes that are generated, EPA encourages facilities to use environmentally
                    sound recycling practices.

                    Both the federal and state governments have established programs to
                    encourage the implementation of pollution prevention practices. HSWA
                    includes provisions that require large quantity generators of hazardous waste
                    to certify that the quantity and toxicity of any hazardous waste shipped offsite
                    for waste management has been mim'mi'7rd to the extent economically and
                    technically feasible. Waste minimization techniques that may be used to -t
                    satisfy this requirement include pollution prevention and recycling.  Other
                    programs established to encourage pollution prevention include the following:

                          • EPA's Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (PPIQ,
                            designed to educate facilities on pollution prevention techniques and
                            their benefits;

                          • state technical assistance programs, also designed to educate
                            facilities on pollution prevention opportunities; and

                          • state laws that require facilities to develop pollution prevention plans
                            or to achieve some level of reduction in waste generation.

                    Effect of Pollution Prevention Policies. As facilities learn more about
                    pollution prevention opportunities and as new pollution prevention techniques
                    are developed, the quantity of hazardous waste generated should decline.
                    Using pollution prevention techniques to reduce the quantity of hazardous
                    waste generated will reduce the quantity of hazardous waste subsequently
                    treated, stored, or disposed of. Also, increasing the recovery and reuse of
                    hazardous waste will reduce the quantity of hazardous waste to be disposed of.

-------

-------
        APPENDIX A

   DETAILED OUTLINE OF THE
GENERATOR AND TSDR SURVEYS

-------

-------
    Appendix A: Detailed Outline of the Generator and TSDR Surveys	A-1
DETAILED OUTLINE OF THE GENERATOR SURVEY
QUESTIONNAIRE GA: GENERAL FACILITY INFORMATION
   1:  GENERAL FACILITY DATA
   2:  HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATION
   3:  WASTE MINIMIZATION (Facility-wide procedures)
   4:  HYDROGEOLOGIC AND EXPOSURE INFORMATION
   5:  SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNITS (SWMUS)
   6:  CLOSURES
   7:  ACCUMULATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE IN CONTAINERS
     REGULATED UNDER 90-DAY RULE
   8:  FACILITY-WIDE SCHEMATIC (155)

QUESTIONNAIRE GB: HAZARDOUS WASTE
CHARACTERIZATION
   1:  DESCRIPTION CODES AND GENERATION
   2:  MANAGEMENT
   3:  PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL FORM, CHEMICAL
     CHARACTERISTICS, AND CONSTITUENTS
   4:  TESTING PROCEDURES
   5:  HAZARDOUS WASTE MINIMIZATION

QUESTIONNAIRE GC: FUEL BLENDING
   1:  IN-USE FUEL BLENDING ONSITE
   2:  PLANNED FUEL BLENDING ONSITE

QUESTIONNAIRE GD: REUSE AS FUEL
   1:  GENERAL FAOLITY DATA
   2:  SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE UNIT
   3:  TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANNED UNITS
   4:  SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH PLANNED UNIT

QUESTIONNAIRE GE: WASTEWATER TREATMENT
   1:  GENERAL FACILITY DATA
   2:  SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE PROCESS
   3:  TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANNED PROCESSES (27)
   4:  SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH PLANNED PROCESS

-------
A-2	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
              QUESTIONNAIRE GF: METALS RECOVERY FOR REUSE
                 1: GENERAL FACILITY DATA
                 2: SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE PROCESS
                 4: SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH PLANNED PROCESS

              QUESTIONNAIRE GG: SOLVENT AND LIQUID ORGANIC
              RECOVERY FOR REUSE
                 1: GENERAL FACILITY DATA
                 2: SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE PROCESS
                 3: TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANNED PROCESSES (32)
                 4: SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH PLANNED PROCESS

              QUESTIONNAIRE GH: OTHER RECOVERY PROCESSES
                 1: GENERAL FACILITY DATA
                 2: SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE PROCESS
                 3: TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANNED PROCESSES

              QUESTIONNAIRE GI: TANK SYSTEMS
                 1: GENERAL FACILITY DATA
                 2: TANKS REGULATED BY THE 90-DAY RULE
                 3: PIPING CONNECTED TO HAZARDOUS WASTE TANKS
                 4: TANK DESCRIPTIONS FOR EACH IN-USE TANK
                 5: TANK DESCRIPTIONS FOR EACH PLANNED TANK

-------
    Appendix A: Detailed Outline of the Generator and TSDR Surveys	A-3
DETAILED OUTLINE OF THE TSDR SURVEY
QUESTIONNAIRE A: GENERAL FACILITY INFORMATION
   1. GENERAL FACILITY INFORMATION
   2. WASTES MANAGED BY PERMIT STATUS
   3. HAZARDOUS WASTES GENERATION ONSITE
   4. WASTES RECEIVED FROM OFFSITE
   5. MANAGEMENT OF CERTAIN SPECIAL TYPES OF WASTES
   6. CONTAINER STORAGE AND ACCUMULATION OF
     HAZARDOUS WASTES
   7. FACILITY SCHEMATIC

QUESTIONNAIRE B: INCINERATION
   1. GENERAL FAdLTTY DATA
   2. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE INCINERATOR
   3. TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANNED INCINERATORS
   4. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH PLANNED INCINERATOR

QUESTIONNAIRE C: REUSE AS FUEL
   1. GENERAL FACILITY DATA
   2. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE UNIT
   3. TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANNED UNITS
   4. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH PLANNED UNIT

QUESTIONNAIRE D: FUEL BLENDING
   1. IN-USE FUEL BLENDING ONSITE
   2. PLANNED FUEL BLENDING ONSITE

QUESTIONNAIRE E: SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION
   1. GENERAL FACILITY DATA
   2. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE PROCESS
   3. TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANNED SOLIDIFICATION
     PROCESSES
   4. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH PLANNED PROCESS

-------
A-4	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
              QUESTIONNAIRE F: SOLVENT AND LIQUID ORGANIC
              RECOVERY FOR REUSE
                 1. GENERAL FACILITY DATA
                 2. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE PROCESS
                 3. TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANNED PROCESSES
                 4. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH PLANNED PROCESS

              QUESTIONNAIRE G: METALS RECOVERY FOR REUSE
                 1. GENERAL FACILITY DATA
                 2. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE PROCESS
                 3. TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANNED PROCESSES
                 4. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH PLANNED PROCESS

              QUESTIONNAIRE H: WASTEWATER TREATMENT
                 1. GENERAL FACILITY DATA
                 2. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE PROCESS
                 3. TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANNED PROCESSES
                 4. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH PLANNED PROCESS

              QUESTIONNAIRE I: OTHER PROCESSES (TREATMENT OR
              RECOVERY)
                 1. GENERAL FACILITY DATA
                 2. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE PROCESS
                 3. TYPE AND NUMBER OF PLANNED PROCESSES
                 4. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH PLANNED PROCESS

              QUESTIONNAIRE J: WASTE PILES
                 1. GENERAL FACILITY DATA
                 2. SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE WASTE PILE
                 3. HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATED IN WASTE PILES ONSITE
                 4. HAZARDOUS WASTE STORED ONLY IN WASTE PILES
                   ONSITE
                 5. PLANNED WASTE PILES TO STORE OR TREAT HAZARDOUS

-------
    Appendix A: Detailed Outline of the Generator ana TSDR Surveys	A-s
QUESTIONNAIRE K: SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS

   1.  GENERAL FACILITY DATA
   2.  SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE IMPOUNDMENT
   3.  HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATED IN SURFACE
     IMPOUNDMENTS ONSITE
   4.  HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSED OF IN SURFACE
     IMPOUNDMENTS ONSITE
   5.  HAZARDOUS WASTE STORED ONLY IN SURFACE
     IMPOUNDMENTS ONSITE
   6.  PLANNED SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS TO STORE, TREAT, OR
     DISPOSE OF HAZARDOUS WASTE ONSITE


QUESTIONNAIRE L: LANDFILLS

   1.  GENERAL FACILITY DATA
   2.  SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE LANDFILL
   3.  HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSED OF IN LANDFILLS ONSITE
   4.  PLANNED LANDFILLS TO DISPOSE OF HAZARDOUS WASTE
     ONSITE


QUESTIONNAIRE M: LAND TREATMENT

   1.  GENERAL FACILITY DATA
   2.  SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE LAND TREATMENT AREA
   3.  HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSED OF IN LAND TREATMENT
     AREAS ONSITE
   4.  PLANNED LAND TREATMENT AREAS TO DISPOSE OF
     HAZARDOUS WASTE ONSITE


QUESTIONNAIRE N: UNDERGROUND INJECTION WELLS

   1.  GENERAL FACILITY DATA
   2.  SPECIFIC DATA FOR EACH IN-USE UNDERGROUND
     INJECTION WELL
   3.  HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSED OF IN UNDERGROUND
     INJECTION WELLS ONSITE
   4.  PLANNED UNDERGROUND INJECTION WELLS TO DISPOSE
     OF HAZARDOUS WASTE ONSITE

-------
A-6	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
               QUESTIONNAIRE O: TANK SYSTEMS
                 1. GENERAL FACILITY DATA
                 2. TANKS REGULATED BY THE 90-DAY RULE
                 3. STORAGE OR ACCUMULATION IN RCRA PERMITTED OR
                   INTERIM STATUS TANKS
                 4. PIPING CONNECTED TO HAZARDOUS WASTE TANKS
                 5. TANK DESCRIPTIONS FOR EACH IN-USE TANK
                 6. TANK DESCRIPTIONS FOR EACH PLANNED TANK

-------
       APPENDIX B



DEFINITIONS OF WASTE CODES

-------

-------
                                                      Appendix B: Definitions of Waste Codes       8-1
 The following list of codes is provided to assist you in completing the questions which ask about the types of
 hazardous waste generated and managed onsite at your facility. This list of codes has two parts:

     • A list of X waste codes which was developed specifically for this survey to describe (1) Waste that is
       considered hazardous by some state or federal regulations, but not now considered hazardous by
       RCRA regulations and (2) Hazardous waste residuals from onsite hazardous waste management oper-
       ations.
     • A list of codes for the waste considered hazardous by federal RCRA regulations—RCRA D, F, K, P, anc
       U waste codes.

If you generated or managed a type of waste that is considered hazardous by regulations in your state and a
waste code is not provided or if you have any questions about this list of waste codes, please call the Survey
Helpline (1-800-635-8850).
X WASTE CODES
This list of X waste codes was developed specifically for this survey. These X codes are not official RCRA
waste codes and should be used ONLY for this survey.
  Cod*  Waste description
  Waste That Is Considered Hazardous by Some State and Federal Regulations,
  But Not by RCRA Regulations
  XPB1   Waste which has a concentration of polyehlohnated biphenyls less than SO parts per million
  XPB2   Waste which has a concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls greater than or equal to 50 parts per million but less
         than 500 pans per million
  XPB3   Waste which has a concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls greater than or equal to 500 parts per million
  XASB  Waste containing asbestos
  XOIL   Waste oil
  XOXN   Wasle containing dioxins/furans ('See Not* 1)

  Hazardous Wast* Residuals from Onstta Hazardous Waste Management Operations (See Note 2)
  XLEA   Leachate from hazardous waste landfills
  XASH   Hazardous incinerator, boiler, or furnace ash
  XSCR   Hazardous incinerator, boiler, or furnace scrubber water
  XWWS Hazardous wastewater treatment sludge (SeeNofe 3)
  XWWL Hazardous wastewater treatment liquid (See Noť 3)
  NOTES:
  1.    Oo not use XOXN to denote dioxin-containing wastes described by RCRA waste codes.

  2.    These waste codes were developed to describe hazardous waste residuals that result from the orwJte management of
       many individual RCRA coded wastes which are no longer individually identifiable.

  3.    Do not use XWWS or XWWL to denote hazardous wasiewater treatment sludges or liquids that contain wastes
       described by RCRA waste codes beginning with the letter F or K. Instead, list F or K waste codes separately and use
       XWWS and/or XWWL to denote all other constituents.

-------
  B-2
 RCRA WASTE CODES
   Cod*  Waste description
   Characteristic Hazardous Waste (A description of the characteristic hazardous wasns can fie fauna K 40 CFR 26:
   261.24, Jury 1, 7986. Listed in the box Mow is the maximum concentration of contaminants for the characteristic of EP toxic
   0001  Ignttafite waste
   0002  Corrosive waste
   0003  Reactive waste
   0004  Arsenic
   0005  Barium
   0009  Cadmium
   0007  Chromium
   0008  Lead
   0009  Mercury
   D010  Selenium
   D011   Silver
   D012
   D013  Undone (1 JA4&B^eť2i-bŤ (p^neiriaKyprwnylJetrtane)
   0018   Tanpnene (C,aHwCI9.te<*n)cai chkjrinated campheneŁ7-€9% chlorine)
   0016  2,4Ť(2,4^ichtoroprŤra(yaceticecid)
   0017  2.45TP Sirvw (2.45michkinJnhefiUKypiuniuniL acid)
MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION OF CONTAMINANTS FOR CHARACTERISTIC OF EP TOXICI
A solid vwsta exrtiDto the characaristtc of E
the wassi contains any at the contaminants
RCfU
Wast*
Code Contaminant
0004 Arsenic
0005 Barium
0008 Cadrrawi
0007 Chromium
0008 Lead
DOW Mercury
0010 Setertum
0011 Sflver
naphthalene)

LA7T4 MeUKXycraQr (1 ,1 ,>VKntOnKU-O


LWV i,4i>f p strew (eMjMncruoroQnoi

T* toncfly n, ustfiQ cr nucfly OR rnflinoHit uw gong iron A reprwoniouve win
listad betow at a uniceiitralioii aquil to or gnsatflr than me value given.

^pcgy-M^a^SAyftBa^Qatfiydfo-ld^ endg ando-Sfl-difrwtfvtno-


q.
1
-u-u_n_rLjij-i**iŤŤi*> eu^A
•UMyyi U^*M •ť* MIHUf
Maxlrr
concent
(mllllgr
peril)
SI
10W
11
SJ
OJ
SI
01
a*
10

-------
                                                                     ; Definn
 Cod*  Waste description
 Hazardous Waste from Nonspecific Sources
 F001  The following spent halogenated solvents used in degreasing: tetrachloroethylene, trichlorethylene, methylene chlo-
       ride, 1,1,1-trichloroethans. carbon tetrachlonde and chlorinated fluorocarbons and all spent solvent mixtures/blends
       used in degreasing containing, before use, a total of 10 percent or more (by volume) of one or more of the above
       halogenated solvents or those solvents listed in F002, F004, and F005; and still bottoms from the recovery of these
       spent solvents and spent solvent mixtures
 F002  The following spent halogenated solvents: tetrachloroethylene, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene,
       1,1,1-trichloroethane, chlorobenzene, 1,1.2-lriehloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, ortho-dichlorobenzene. trich-
       lorofluoromethane. and 1,1,2, trichloroethane, ortho-dichlorobenzene, and trichlorofluoromethane; all spent solvent
       mixtures/blends containing, before use, a total of 10 percent or more (by volume) of one or more of the above
       halogenated solvents or those solvents listed in F001. F004, and F005; and still bottoms from the recovery of these
       spent solvents and spent solvent mixtures
 F003  The following spent nonhalogenated solvents: xylene. acetone, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzene, ethyl ether, methyl
       isobutyl ketone. n-butyl alcohol, cyclohexanone, and methanol: all spent solvent mixtures/blends containing, before
       use, only the above spent nonhalogenated solvents; and all spent solvent mixtures/blends containing,  before use,
       one or more of the above nonhalogenated solvents, and a total of 10 percent or more (by volume) of one or more of
       those solvents listed in F001, F002.  F004, and F005; and still bottoms from the recovery of these spent solvents and
       spent solvent mixtures
 F004  The following spent nonhalogenated solvents: cresois and cresylic acid, and nitrobenzene; and the still bottoms Iron
       the recovery of these solvents; all spent solvent mixtures/blends containing before use a total of 10% or more (by
       volume) of one or more of the above nonhalogenated solvents or those solvents listed in FOOL F002, and FOOS; and
       still bottoms from the recovery of these spent solvents and spent solvent mixtures
 F009  The following spent nonhalogenated solvents: toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, carbon disulfide, isobutanot, pyridine,
       benzene, 2-ethoxyethanol. and 2-nitropropane: all spent solvent mixtures/blends containing, before use, a total of 1<
       percent or more (by volume) of one or more of the above nonhalogenated solvents or those solvents listed in FOOi.
       F002. or F004: and still bottoms from the recovery of these spent solvents and spent solvent mixtures
 FOOfl  Wastewater treatment sludges from certain electroplating operations except from the following processes; (1) Suifui
       acid anodizing of aluminum: (Z) tin plating on carbon steel; (3) zinc plating (segregated basis) on carbon steel: (4) all
       minum or zinc-aluminum plating on carbon steel; (5) cleaning/stripping associated with tin, zinc, and aluminum plat-
       ing on carbon steel; and (6) chemical etching and milling of aluminum
 FOOT  Spent cyanide plating bath solutions from electroplating operation*
 F004  Residues from electroplating operations where cyanides arc used in the process
 F009  Spent stripping and cleaning bath solutions from electroplating operation* where cyanides ase used in the process
 F010  Quenching bath residues and sludges from oil baths from metal heat treating operation* where cyanides are used li
       the process
 FOi i  Spent cyanide solutions from salt bath pot cleaning from metal heat treating operations (except tor precious metals
       heat treating spent cyanide solutions from salt bath pot cleaning)
 FOi 2  Quenching wastawatsr treatment sludges from metal heat treating operations where cyanides are used in the
       process (except for precious metals heat treating quenching wastewater treatment sludges)
 FOi 9  Waste* from the chemical conversion coating of aluminum
 F020  Wastes (except wastewater and spent carbon from hydrogen chtonde purification) from the production or manufacti
       ing use (as a resctant, chemical intermediate1, or component in a formulating process) of tri- or tetrachiorophenoi or
       intermediates used to product their pesticide derivatives. (This listing doss not induce wastes from the production >
       hexacMoropnene from highly purified 2.4,54richlorophsnol.)
F021  Wastes (except wastswatar and spent carton from hydrogen chloride) purification) from the production or manufacti
       ing use (as a reactant. chemical intermediate, or component in a formulating process) of psntachlorophenol, or of ir
       termediates used to produce derivatives
F022  Wastes (except wastewater and spent carbon from hydrogen chloride purification) from the manufacturing use (as i
       resctant. chemical intermediate, or component in a formulating process) of tetnv. pent* or hexachlorobenzenes ur
       der alkaline conditions
F023  Wastes (except wastswatsr and spent carbon from hydrogen chloride purification) from the production of materials
       equipment previously used for the production or manufacturing use (as a resctant, chemical intermediate, or compi
       nent in a formulating process) of tri- and tetrschtorophenols. (This listing does not include wastes from equipment
       used only for the production or use of hexachloropnene from highly punned 2.4,5-trtchlorophenol.)

                                                                                                         (conti

-------
 B-4
             1986 Hazardous Waste Generation ana Management
   Code  Waste description
   F024  Wastes, including but not limited to. distillation residues, heavy ends, tars, and reactor clean-out wastes Iron the
         production of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, having a carbon content from one to five, utilizing free radical
         catalyzed processes. (This listing does not include light ends, spent filters and filter aids, spent dessicanta,
         wastewater, wastewater treatment sludges, spent catalysts, and wastes listed in § 261.32.)
   F026  Wastes (except wastewater and spent carbon from hydrogen chloride purification) from the production of materials
         equipment previously used lor the manufacturing use (as a reactant. chemical intermediate, or component in a
         formulating process) of tetra-. penta-. or hexacnloroberuene under alkaline conditions.
   F027  Discarded unused formulations containing in-, letra-, or pentachtorophenol or discarded unused formulations
         containing compounds derived from these chlorophenols. (This listing does not include formulations containing
         haxacnloropnene synthesized from prepunfied 2.4,5-lhchlorophenol as the sole component.)
  F027  2,4.6-Trichlorophenol
  F027  2,3,4.6-Tetrachlorophenol
  F02T  Pentachlorophenol
  F027  Phenol,2.4,5-lrichloro
  F027  2,4.5-T
  F027  Phenol .peniachtore
  F027  Silvex
  F027  Phenol,2,3,4,5-tetrachloro
  F027  Ptwnoi,2,4.6-lrlcnloro
  F027  Propionic acid, 2-(2p4,5-trichJcfophenoxy)
  F027  2.4,5-TnchKxopnenot
  F027  2,4,5-TrichlorophenoxyaceUc acid
  F028   Residues resulting from the incineration or thermal treatment of soil contaminated with EPA hazardous waste nos.
         F020. F021. F022, F023. F026, and F027

Hazardous Waste from Specific Source*
  K001  Bottom sediment sludge from the treatment of wastewater from wood preserving processes that use creosote anoVc
        pentaehtorophenol
  K002  Wastewater treatment sludge from the production of chrome yellow and orange pigments
  K003  Wastewater treatment sludge from the production ofmotybdate orange pigmenta
  K004  Wastewater treatment sludge from the production of zinc yellow pigmenta
  K009  Wtatewater treatment sludge from the production of chrome green pigments
  KOOfl  Wastewater treatment sludge from the production of chrome oxide green pigmenta (anhydrous and hydrated)
  K007  Wastewater treatment sludge from the production of Iron blue pigmenta
  K008  OMn reaidue from tne produJitofl of chrome oxide greeri ptQmenti
 KOOfl  DMOatton bottoms from the production of icetaMehyde from etnytene
 K010  Diriflalicfls^ cuts frc
-------
                                                          AQoendix B: Definitions of Waste Codes         8-5
  Cod*  Watt* description
  Hazardous Watte from Specific Source*
  K019  Heavy ends from the distillation of ethyiene dichloride in ethylene dichloride production
  K020  Heavy ends from the distillation of vinyl chloride in vinyl chloride monomer production
  K021  Aqueous spent antimony catalyst waste Irom fluoromethanes production
  KQ22  Distillation bottom tars from the production of phenol/acetone from cumene
  K023  Distillation light ends Irom the production of phthalie anhydride from naphthalene
  K024  Distillation bottoms from the production ol phthalie anhydride from naphthalene
  K025  Distillation bottoms Irom the production ol nitrobenzene by the nitration of benzene
  K026  Stripping still tails from the production of methyl ethyl pyridines
  K027  Centrifuge and distillation residues from toluene diisocyanate production
  K028  Spent catalyst from the hydrochlorinator reactor in the production ol 1,1,1-trichloroethane
  K029  Waste from me product steam stripper in the production of 1,1,1 -trichloroethane
  K030  Column bottoms or heavy ends Irom the combined production ol trichloroethylene and perchloroelhylene
  K031  By-product salts generated in the production of MSMA and cacodylic acid
  K032  Wastewater treatment sludge from the production of chlordane
  K033  Wastewater and scrub water from the chlorination of cyclopentadiene in the production ol chlordane
  K034  Filter solids from the filtration ol hexachlorocyclopentadiene in the production of chlordane
  K035  Wastewater treatment sludges generated in the production of creosote
 K038  Still bottoms from toluene reclamation distillation in the production of dlsuKoton
 K037  Waateweter treatment sludges from the production of dlsulfoton
 K038  Waatewater from the washing and stripping of phorate production
 K039  Filter cake from the filtration of diethylphosphoredithioic acid in the production of phorate.
 K040  Wastewater treatment sludge from the production of phorate
 K041  Wastewater treatment sludge from the production of toxaphene
 KMJ  Heavy ends or distillation residues from the distillation of tetrachlorobenzene in the production of 2.4,5-T
 K043  2,6-Oichlorophenol waste from the production of 2,4-0
 K044  Wastewaier treatment sludges from the manufacturing and processing of explosive*
 K049  Spent carbon from the treatment of wastewater containing explosive*
 K046  Wastewater treatment sludges from the manufacturing, formulation, and loading of lead-based initiating compounds
 K047  Pink/red water from TNT operation*
 K048  Dissolved air flotation (DAF) float from the petroleum refining industry
 K049  Slop oil emulsion solids from the petroleum refining industry
 KOSO  Heat exchanger bundle cleaning sludge from the petroleum refining industry
 K051   API separator sludge from the petroleum refining industry
 K052  Tank bottoms (leaded) from tne petroleum refining industry
 K040  Ammonia still lime sludge from coking operation*
 K061   Emission control dust/sludg* from the primary production of steal in electric furnace*.
 K062  Spent pickle liquor from steel finishing operations of punts that produce iron or steel
 K069  Emission control dust/sludg* from secondary lead smelting
 K071   Brine purification muds from the mercury cell process in chlorine production, where separately prepurified brine is
        not used
 K073   Chlorinated hydrocarbon waste from the purification step of the diaphragm cell process using graphite anodes in
        chlohne production
 K0*3   Distillation bottoms from aniline production
 KOS4   Wastewater treatment sludges generated during the production of veterinary pharmaceutical* from arsenic or
	organc-araenic compound*	
                                                                                                        (continued)

-------
B-6	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
  Coda Wast* description
  K085  Distillation or fractionation column bottoms Irom the production of chlorobenzenes
  K086  Solvent washes and sludges, caustic washes and sludges, or water washes and sludges from cleaning tubs and
        equipment used in the formulation of ink from pigments, driers, soaps, and stabilizers containing chromium and le
  K087  Decanter tank tar sludge from coking operations
  K093  Distillation light ends from the production of phthalic anhydride from ortho-xyiene
  K094  Distillation bottoms from the production of phthalic anhydride from orthc-xylene
  K095  Distillation bottoms from the production of 1.1,1-trichloroethana
  K096  Heavy ends from the heavy ends column from the production of 1,1,1-trichioroethane
  K097  Vacuum stripper discharge from the chlordane chlorinator in the production of chlordane
  K098  Untreated process wastewater from the production of toxaphene
  K099  Untreated wastewater from the production of 2,4-0
  K100  Waste leaching solution from acid leaching of emission control dust/sludge from secondary lead smelting
  K101  Distillation tar residues from the distillation of aniline-based compounds in the production of veterinary
        Pharmaceuticals from arsenic or organo-arsenic compounds
  K102  Residue from the use of activated carbon  for decolonization in the production of veterinary pharmaceuticaJs from
        arsenic or organo-arsenic compounds
  K103  Process residues from aniline extraction from the production of aniline-
  K104  Combined wastewater streams generated from nitrobenzene/aniline production
 K105  Separated aqueous stream from the reactor product washing step in trie production of chiorobenzerta*>
 K106  Wastewater treatment sludge from the mercury call process in chlorine production
 K111  Product washwalers  from the production of dinitrotofutne via nitration of toluene
 K112  Reaction byproduct water from the drying column in the production of toluenediamine via hydrogenation ot
        dmrtrotoluene
 K113  Condensed liquid light ends from purification ot toluanadlamina in production of toluenediamine via hydrogenation
        dinitrotoluana.
 K114  vicinal* from the purification of toluenediamine in production of toJuenediamlne via hydrogenation of dlnitrotoluanc
 K115  Heavy end* from purification of toluenediamine in the production of toluenediamine via, hydrogenation of
        dmitrotoiuene)
 K116  Organic condensate from the solvent recovery column in tna production of toluene diisocyanate via phosgenation <
        toluenediamine
 K117  Wastewater from tna reactor vent gas scrubber in the production of etnytene dibromida via brominatkxi of ethene
 Kl 18  Spent adsorbent solids from purification of ettiytana dibromide In the production of ethylene dibromida via
        bromination of ethane.
 K136  StHI bottoms from tna purification of ethylene dibromida in tna production of ethytone dibromide via bromination of
       etnanel
Discarded Commercial Chemical Product*, Off-Specification Species, Container Residuals), and Spill
ResldumTTweo<-Ac*rte Hazardous Waste r>^a*y>Ť6efl^                                        m&)
P001  Wvfann. when present at concafflnrionsgrstiertr^
P001  tyWteetonyt-berayO-t^ydnxrycourrartn and salts, when preŤŤrit al coneemrattone greater than O3%
POC2  /Ťtamio* N-(arrtrŤWoxomethyl>
P002  i-Acetyl-2-thkxirea,
P003  2-PropanaJ
PO03  Acrolein
P004  i2A4,iaiO-Hexachkx>l,4,4a&a3a-hŤxahvdr>l,4:5^^
P004  AJdrin

                                                                                                      (cont

-------
                                                     Appendix B:  Definitions of Waste Codes
                                                                                     B-7
Code Waste description
  POOS
  POOS
  P006
  P007
  P007
  POOS
  POOS
  POOS
  POOfl
  P009
  P010
  P01 1
  P011
  P012
  P012
  P013
  P014
  POM
 P015
 P016
 P016
 P017
 P017
 P018
 P018
 P020
 P020
 P021
 P022
 P022
 P021
 P023
 P024
 P024
 P026
 P02fl
 P027
 P027
 POM
 P02ť
 POM
 POM
 P031
P033
POM
      2-Propen-1-oť.
      Allylalcoho*
      Aluminum phosphide (r,t)
      3<2H).|soxaa>tona.5-(aminomeihyl).
      5-
      Bis6K1-meihypropyl)-
     Calcium cyanide
     Cartoon bisulfide (t)
     Canťo disutfWe (t)
     AcetaWehyd*. chfcxo-
     Beruanainuw. 4-chJon>
     p-CNoraafiilin*
     Thiouree, (2-chtofOp04nyŤ>.
rto>chl
     Prop
     3-Chtorapreptonttrito
     Benzcnt. (cMorenMttiyO-
     Benzyl chtortd*
     Copper cyanidM
     Cyanide* (soluble cyanide salts), not elsewhere specified (t)
     Cyanogen
     Cyanogen chloride
     Chlorine cyanide
                                                                                                 (continued

-------
B-8
1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
   Cod* Waa*ede*crtptta
   P034 4,6^rťŤrc-c-cycloriexylphenol (t)
   P034 PherwŤ,2-cyclohexyM,6-dinrtro- (1)
   P038 Dichtoroprienylarsine
   P036 Phenyl dichloroarsine
   P037 Dietdrm
   P037 1,2,3,4,10.1(HHaxachloro6,7-Ťxpoxy-i.4,4a,5.6>7.8,Ba-octafiydro4ndo.exo-1,4:S,aHliniethanonaphtnalflnŤ
   POM Diethylarsine 
   POM Arsine,diethyt-(t)
   P039  0.0-Diethyl S-{2-(atriytthlo)ethyll phosphorodithioate (t)
   P039  Oisulfoton (t)
   P040  0,0-Olethyl 0-pyraxinyl phosphorolhioaM
   P040  Phosphorothioic acid, 0,0-diathy) 0- pyrazinyl ester
   P041  Diethyt-p-nrtrophenyi phosphate
   P041  Phosphoric acid, diethyl p-nitrophenyi ester
   P042  Epinephrtne
   P042  1,2-Beri2enediol. 4-( 1 -hydroxy-2-(methytamino)ethyl)-
   P043  Olisopropyt fluoroprtosphat*
   P043  Ruoridlc acid, bis(1-methytethyn ester
   P043  Phoeprwroftuoridic acid, bis(1-methytŤthy<) ester
  P044  Oimetftoate(t)
  P044  Phmphorodithloto add. 0.0-dimetftyt SK2-(metriy(amino>-2-oxoethy(]eater (t)
  P045  3,3-OimŤttiyM-oU'4-dinitro-6-^,7^xpcŤy.l,4,4a,5,67,8.8a^xtar>ydrc-Ťno^,efl,4:5,W
  P051  Endrtv
  POM  BhylenMn*
  P054  AUridJM
  POM  Huortn*
  POST  RuoroeeŤttm*dŤ
  POST  XcelsinWc^-fluor-
 POM  Ruoroacetle add. sodlurn satt
 POM  Acetic acid, fluoro-. sodium salt
 P039  Heptacftlor
 POS9
                                                                                                       (ce

-------
                                                        Appendix B: Definitions of Waste Codes        B-9
  Code  Waste description
  P060  HexacnJorehexahydro-Ťndo,endo-dirnethanonapthalene
  P060  1 ,2,3,4.10.10-Hexachlorc-1 ,4.4a,5,B,8a-hexahydrc-i ,4:5.8-Ťndo. endc-dimethanonaphthalene
  P062  Hexaethyt tetraphosphate
  P062  Tetraphosphoric acid, hexaethyl ester
  P063  Hydrocyanic acid
  P063  Hydrogen cyanide
  POM  Methyl isocyanate
  POM  Isocyanic acid, methyl ester
  P06S  Fulmintc acid, mercury(U) salt (r.t)
  P06S  Mercury fulminate (r,t)
 POM  Melhomyt
 POM  Acetimidic acid, N-|(methylcart>amoyl)oxy]thio-, methyl ester
 PM7  2-Methylaziridine
 P067  1,2-Propytemmine
 P068  Hydrazine.methyi-
 P0Ťa  Methyl hydrazine
 P0Ťť  2-Methytlactonrtrile
 P069  Propanenithle^-hydroxy-2-rnethyl-
 P070  Propanal, 2-methy(-2-(mŤtnytihio)-, 0|(mŤihylamino)cart)onyl)oxime
 P070  Aldlcarb
 P071   0,0-Dimeinyl CHwirtrophenyt phc4phorothioatc
 P071   Methyl parathion
 P072  o-Naphttiytthtourea
 P072  Thiourea, 1-naphthalenyt-
 P073  Nickel tetracarOony)
 P073   Nickel carbonyl
 P074   NicKeKIDcyaride
 P074   Nickel cyankle
 P07S  Nicotine and sails (I)
 POTS  Pyndine, (S)-3K1-methyV2-pyrnXidinyl>. and sattť
 P078  Nitrogen (H) oxide (t)
 P076  Nrtrtc oxide (t)
 P077  p-Nttroaniline (t)
 POTT  Benzenamirw, 4-nttn>
 P07B  Nitrogen (IV) oxid*
 P079  Nitrogen dtabd*
 POai  Nitrogh/Mrtn* (r.t)
 P
-------
fl-TO       1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
   Code Waste description
   P087  Osmium tetroxide
  • P087  Osmium oxide
   POM  Endothall
   P088  7-Oxabicyclo(2.2.1 |heptane-2,3-dicarooxylic acid
   P089  Parathion (t)
   P089  Phosphorothioic acid.O.O-diethyl 0-onŤ. and salts (t)
  P108  Strychnine and salts (t)
  P109  Dithlopyrophosptoric acid, tetraethyl ester
  P1M TetraetftyWItntopyrophoaphate
  P110  Plumoane.tetraetnyt-
  P110 Tetraetnyl lead
  P111  Tetraethytpyrophosphate
  P111  Pyrophesphoric add. tetraetnyl ester
  P112  Metnane.tetnuutro-(r)
  P112  Tetranitromethane (r)
  P113  ThalllunXUI) oxide
  P113  ThallicoxkJe
  P114  Thalliumfl) selenide
  P115  Sulturic acid, thaJlium
-------
                                                       Appendix B: Definitions of Waste Codes	B-11
 Code  Waťtt description
 P116  Hydrazinecartoothioamide
 P116  Thiosemicarbazide
 P118  Methanethiol.trichloro-
 P118  Trichloromethaneihiol
 P119  Vanadic acid, ammonium salt
 P119  Ammonium vanadale
 P120  Vanadium pentoxide
 P120  VanadiumfV) oxide
 P121   Zinc cyanide
 P122  Zinc phosphide (r,t)
 P122  Zinc phosphide, when present at concentrations greater than
 PI23  Toxaphene
 PI23   Camphene, octachloro-
 Discarded Commercial Chemical Products, Off-Specification Species, Container Residues, and Spill
 Residues Thereof—Toxic Waste (An alphabetized listing ca/i t* found at 40 CFR 261.33, July r, 1986.)
 U001  Ethanal (i)
 U001  Acetaidehyde (i)
 U002  2-Propanone (i)
 U002  Acetone (i)
 U003  Ethanenilrile (i,t)
 U003  Acetonitrile (i.t)
 U004  Etnanone.i-phenyi-
 U004  Acetophenone
 UOOS  2-Acetylaminofluorene
 UOOS  Acetamide, N-9H-fluoren-2-yl-
 U006  Elhanoyi chloride (c.r.t)
 U006  Acetyt chloride (c.r,t)
 U007  2-Propenamide
 U007  Acrylamide
 U008  2-Propenotc acid (i)
 UOOS  Acrylic aod (i)
 U009  2-PrepanenrtrUe
 UOOS  Acrytonitrtto
 U010  MitomycinC
 U010  A2JrirKX2'3':l4)pyTroto(1,2-a)indo(e-4,7-dione,
       methoxy-S-metfryt-,
U011   lH-1,2,4-Triazo4-3-ŤminŤ
U011   Amiirole
U012  Benzenarnine (i,t)
U012  Aniline (i,t)
U014  Auramine
U014  Benzenamirw. 4.4'
                                                                                                    (continue-

-------
B'12	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
  Code  WMť description
  U01S  L-Serine, diazoacetate (ester)
  U015  Azaserine
  U016  Benzfcjacridine
  U016  3.4-Benzacridine
  U017  Benzal chloride
  U017  Benezene, (dichtoromethyl)-
  U01B  8enz(a)anthracenŤ
  U018  1,2-Benzanihracene
  U019  Benzene (i,I)
  U020  Benzenesulfonyt chloride (c,r)
  U020  Benzenesulfonic acid chloride (c,r)
  U021   Benzidine
  U021  (i,V-BiphenyiH,4'-diamine
  U022  8enzo(a]pyrene
  U022  3.4-Benzopyrene
  U023  Benzotrichlonde (c,r,t)
  U023  Benzene. (tnehloromethy1Mc,r,t)
  U024  Bis(2-chloroŤihŤty) methane
  U024  Ethane.1,1 '•{methy(eneoia
  U025  Dichloroethyl ether
  U025  Ethane. 1,1 '-oaytois{2-chloro-
  U026  2-Naphthyctt
 U036  Chlordane. technical
 U037  Chtofooenzen*
 U037  Benzene, chloro-
                                                                                                      (com.

-------
                                                       Appendix B: Definitions of Waste Codes	B-13
  Cod*  Wast* description
  U038  Ethyl 4,4'-dichlorobennlale
  U038  Benzeneacetic acid, 4-chlon>a-<4-chlorc-phenyl)-cť-hydroxy, ethyl ester
  U039  Phenol,4-chloro-3-methyt-
  U039  4-Chlorc-nvcresol
  U041  Oxirane,2--
  U041  1-Chloro-2,3-expoxypropane
  U042  Elhene.2
 U048  o-Chlorophenol
 U049  4-ChlorcHXoluidin0.hydrochloridŤ
 U049  Benzenamine. 4-chlon>2-fnethyt-
 U050  1.2-Benzphenanthrenc
 U050  Chrysene
 U051   Creosote
 U052  Cresylicacid
 U052  Cresola
 UOS3 2-ButenaJ
 U053 Crotonaldehyd*
 U055 Cumen0(i)
 U055  Benzene, (1-methylethylMl)
 U056  Cyclohexane (i)
 U059  Benzene, hexahydro (i)
 UOS7  Cyclohexanona (I)
 U058  2H-1 A2-Oxuaphoaphohrw, 2-{bis(2-chloroathyl)aininoH*tranydre-2 oxide
 U058  Cydopftotptiamid*
 UOSť  5.12-,
       tetra^ydrc-6A11-trihydroxy-l-niethcory-
 U059  Daunomydn
 U060  Dichloro diphenyi dichkxoethifl*
 U060  ODD
 U061  DOT
 U061  Dichloro diphenyi thchloroethan*
U062  OiaJlatt
U0Ť2  S-(23-Oichloroalryl)diisopn>pytthiocarbajnatŤ
                                                                                                     (continue*

-------
 B~14	1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
  Code Waate description
  U063 Dibenzfa.h]anthracene
  U063 1,2:5.6-Dibenzantnracene
  U064 Dibenz(a.i|pyrene
  U064 1,27,8-Oibenzopyrene
  U066 Propane. 1-2-dibromo-3-chloro-
  U066 1,2-Oibromo-3-chloropropane
  U067 Ethytene dibromide
  U067 Elhane,  1,2-dibromo-
  U068  Methane, dibromo-
  U068  Methyiene bromide
  UG69  Oibutyl phthalate
  U069  1,2-Banzenedicarboxylic acid, dibutyl ester
  U070  o-Oichlorobenzene
  U070  Benzene, 1,2-dichloro
  U071  m-Oichlorobenzene
  U071  Benzene. 1,3-dichloro-
  U072  p-0ichlorobenzenŤ
  U072  Benzene. 1.4-dichloro
 U073  (I.V-BiphenylH^'-diamineJJ'-dicfiloro
 U073  aS'-OicMorobenzidine
 U074  2-BuienŤ,l,4Hjichlore-(i,t)
 U074  i,4-0!ctilofo-2-t)uierie(i,t)
 U075  Methane, dichkxodrHuoro-
 U075  Didilorodifluoromethane
 U078  Elhylldenedicrilarida
 U078  Ethtne,i,i-dicrilofO-
 U077  Ethyrtne dichlorid*
 U077  Ethane,1,2-dichloro-
 U07ť  Etnene,M-dicriloro-
 U07B   1,l-DichtoroŤhytŤne
 U079  Ethene, trans-i,2-dichloro-
 U079  1,2-Oichloroettiylenei
 UOM Mefwiw, dicrilofo-
 UOBO Metiylefwchlorid*
 U081
 U081
 U082
U082  2,Mfcntoreplwno<
U083  Prapytomdfcfdorid*
U043  1,2-Oicfikxoprepane
U084  Prop*nŤ,1J-diChlOfO-
U084  l^Olchlon
U085  2.7-BlocirarM O.t>
U089
                                                                                                      (con.

-------
                                                         Appendix B: Definitions of Waste Codes	B-15
  Code WŤ*tŤ description
  U08B  Hydrazin*. 1.2-dietnyt-
  U086  N.N-Diethylhydrazine
  U087  Phosphoroditnioic acid.O.O-diethyl-, S-methyl-ester
  U087  0,0-Diethyl-S-metnyl-dithiophosphate
  U088  Diethyl phthaJate
  UOBS  1 ,2-Banzanedicaitwxylic acid, diethyt ester
  U089  4,4'-Slilbenediol.a.a'-diethyl-
  U089  Diethylstilbestrol
  U090  Dihydrosafreto
  U090  Benzene, l,2-methylenediaxy-4-propyl-
  U091  (1,1 '-BiphenylH,4'-diamine,a3'-dimethc*y-
  U091  33'-Oimethoxybenzidine
  U092  Methanamine, N-tnethyHi)
 U092  Dimethylamine (i)
 U093  Dimethylaminoazobenzem
 U093  Benzenamina. N,N-dimethy1-*-phenylazo-
 U094  7,l2-Dimethy(ben2(a|anthracene
 U094  i,2-Benzanthracane.7.l2-dimethyf-
 U095  (1,1 '-Bipheny(}-4,4'-diamineA3'-climethyt.
 U095  U'-Oimethytbenzidirw
 UOM  HydropŤraxidŤ. 1-metnyt-pnŤny1eUiyHr)
 U096  a.orOimethylbenzylhydroparaxide (r)
 U097  Carbamoyl chloridedimethyl-
 U097  Dimetnylcarbainoyl ehlond*
 U098  HydrazinŤ,l,l-dlmŤhyW
 U098  1,1-Dimethylhydrazine
 UOM  Hydrazirw, 1,2-dinwthyt-
 U099  1,2-Oimethylhydnzine
 U101   PhŤnol,2,4-dimethyť-
 U101  2,4-Oimethyiphefxjl
 U102  Dimethyl pnthilfl*
 U102   1-2-Benzenedicartoxylic acid, dimethyl ester
 U103  Sulfuric acid, dimethyl
 U103  Dimethyl sultu*
 U105
U105  Benzen*.
U106  2,6-OlnttrotoluŤW
U106  Benzene. 1-metftyt-25-dinrtio
U107  OkvoOylphltwlM
U107  i-2-eenzŤoed*cartxBcyUc acid. dt-n-octy( eater
U1 08  1 ,4-Olethytone dtoide
U108  1,4-Oioxan*
U109  Hydnuine, 1^-diptwnyt.
U1M  1,2-Olphenylhydrtzine
                                                                                                       (continue

-------
 B-16	7956 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
  Code  Waate description
  U110  1-Propanamine,N-propyl-
U128  HexacMonbutidlne
U128
U12Ť  HexadKomcydotaane (7 iaomert
Ul2fl  IJndane
U130  HexactilorocycJopentadine
U130
U131   Hexadiloreethane
U131   EUiarť,l,1,1.2,2.2-hexachl
-------
                                                         Appendix B:  Definitions of Waste Codes	B-17
  Code  WMti description
  U132  Hexacriloroprien*
  U132  2,2-Memylenebia<3,4.6-trichlorophenol)
  U133  Hydrazine (r.t)
  U133  Oiamine(r.t)
  U134  Hydrogen fluoride (c.t)
  U 1 34  Hydrofluoric acid (c.t)
  U135  Sulfur hydride
  U135  Hydrogen aulfida
  U136  Hydroxydimethylarsine oxide
  U136  Cacodylic acid
  U137  l.iO-(l.2-Phenylene)pyrene
  U137  ldenotl,2,3-cd)pyrene
 U138  Methane, iodo-
 U138  Methyl iodide
 U139  Ferric dextran
 U139  Irondexiran
 U1 40  1 -PropŤnol,2-mathyt- (i.t)
 U140  Isobutyl alcohol (I.t)
 U141  Isosafrote
 U141  Benzen*.1.2-methylenedioxy-4-propenyV
 U142  Kepone
 U1 42  Decachlorooctahydro-1 ,3.4^netheno-2H-cyclobutaIc.d]-pentalen-2-one
 U143  Lasiocarpiiw
 U144  Leadaceute
 U144 Acetic acM. lead salt
 U145  Phosphoric acid, lead saH
 U145 Lead phosphate
 U146 Lead aubacatate
 U147 2,5-FurandioiM
 U147 MaJew anhydride
 U14B Maletc hydrazid*
 U14f  1,2-Dihydro-3.6-pyraduinedione
 U149  Propanedlnitrito
 U149  Malononitrfl*
 U150  Melphalan
 U1SO  AJantne. 3-{p*tŤ<2-cWoroetrťyf)Ťmirw| phenyKL-
 U151  Mercury
 U1S2  PropeneŤrtrito4!-mŤtriyt-(l,t)
 U152
U153  Trilonwttunoi 0.0
U153  Methantttifcl (I.t)
U154  MetlunolO)
U154  Methyl alcohol (I)
U155  PyrWine, 2^2-dlmethytamifxi)Ťlhyt|-2-phŤnylamino-
U155  Methapynlene
                                                                                                    (continued)

-------
  B-18	1 986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
  Code  WMM description
  U156  Methyl chlorocarbonate (i.t)
  U156  Carbonochloridic acid, methyl ester (i.t)
  U157  3-MeihyleholanthrenŤ
  U157  Benz(j]aceanthrylene, 1,2-dihydro-3-methyl-
  U158  4,4'.Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline)
  U158   Benzenamine,4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloro-
  U159   Methyl ethyl ketone (i,t)
  U159   2-Butanone (i,t)
  U160   Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (r.t)
  U160   2-Butanone peroxide (r,t)
  U161   4-Methyi-2-pentanone (i)
  U161   Methyl isobutyl ketone (i)
  U162   2-Propenoic acid. 2-methyl-. methyl ester (i.t)
  U162   Methyl methacrylate (i.t)
  U163   Guanidine,  N-nitroso-N-methyl-N'-niiro-
  U163   N-methyl-N'-nitre-N-nitrosoguanidine
  U164  4{iH)-Pyrimidinone12.3-N-nrtroso-
                                                                                                        (contir

-------
                                                         Appendix B: Definitions of Waste Codes	B-T9
  Cod*  Waata damlptlon
  U180  Nitrosopymriidin*
  U180  Pyrrole, tatrahydro-N-nitroso-
  U181  5-Nitro-o-toluidina
  U181  Benzenamine,2-methyt-5-.
 U188  Phenol
 U188  Benzene, hydroxy-
 U189  Phoaphorus sulfide (r)
 U189  Sulfur phosphide (r)
 U190  Phthalic anhydride
 U190  l.2-8enzenŤdicartMxy1ic acid anhydride
 U191   2-Picoiin*
 U191   Pyridine, 2-methyl-
 U192 Pronamid*
 U192 3,54>ichloro^(1,1-dimethyl-2s>ropynyl)banzBrnidŤ
 U193  i,2-OxathiolŤnŤ, 2^-dioxid*
 U193  i ,3-Propmne surtone
 U194  1-PropanajhinŤ(i,t)
 U194  N-Propytami'rw (1,1)
 U19Ť  Pyridirw
 U197  p-Bcnzoquinon*
 U197  1,4-CydolM)cadi*rwdlaM
 U200  ReMfpin*-
 U200  Yohlmb4i>1S-cartťo*yttc add, 11.17-dlrrwthoxy-l8K(3.4,5-iririMthoxy-b*nzoy
-------
 B-20        1986 Hazardous Waste Generation and Management
  Code Wast* description
  U206  Streptozotocin
  U206  D-Glucopyranose. 2-deoxy-2(3-methyi-3-nitrosoureido)-
  U207  1.2.4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene
  U207  Benzene. 1.2.4.S-ietrachloro-
  U208  1.1.1,2-Tetrachloroeihane
  U208  Ethane, 1,1,1,2-letrachloro-
  U209  1,1,2.2-Tetrachloroeihane
  U209  Ethane. 1-1-2-2-tetrachloro-
  U210  Tetrachloroethylene
  U210  Ethene.i.i,2.2-tetrachioro
  U211  Methane, teirachloro-
  U211  Caibon tetrachlonde
  U213  Tetrahydrofuran (i)
  U213  Furan. tetrahydro-
-------
                                                         ^Appendix B: Definitions of Waste Codes	B~2l
 Code  Waste description
 U235  1 -PropanoU.3-dibromo-.phosphate (3:1)
 U235  Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate
 U236  Trypan blue
 U236  2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid. 3.3'-|(33'-dimeihyHi ,1 '•biphenyl)-4,4'-diyl))-bis-4-hydraxy),
        tetrasodium salt
 U237  Uracil mustard
 U237  Uracil, 5-[bis<2-chloroethyl)-aminoh
 U238  Ethyl carbarmate (urethan)
 U238  Carbamic acid, ethyl ester
 U239  Xylene(i)
 U239  Benzene, dimethyl. (i,t)
 U240  2,4-0. salts and esters
 U240  2.4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, salts, and esters
 U243  l.Propene,1,1,2,33,3-hexachlorc-
 U243  Hexachloropropene
 U244 Thiram
 U244 Bis(dimethyl1hiocarbamoyl) disulfide
 U246 Bromine cyanide
 U246 Cyanogen bromide
 U247  Ethane. 1,1.1,4nchlofo2-2^is
-------

-------
           APPENDIX C

    GENERATOR AND TSDR SURVEY
QUESTIONS REFERENCED IN THIS REPORT

-------

-------
                           Appendix C. Survey Questions      C-f
GENERATOR AND TSDR SURVEY
QUESTIONS REFERENCED IN THIS
REPORT
Interpreting data from the Generator and TSDR Surveys often requires
knowledge of how the data were reported by respondents. As a reference to
readers, the survey questions from which data are derived are included in
parenthesis in the source information at the bottom of all applicable charts.

This appendix illustrates representative Generator and TSDR Survey
questions referenced in this report Questions are presented in numerical order
by the questionnaire from which the question originates. Questions repeated
in the surveys for each waste management activity are shown only once in this
appendix.

-------

-------
                                                      Appendix C. Survey Questions
C-3
QUESTIONNAIRE A:
GENERAL FACILITY  INFORMATION
 3.   What quantity of hazardous waste was managed onsite during 1986 in UNITS REQUIRING A RCRA
     PERMIT? What percentage of this quantity was hazardous wastewater?
     Report here the TOTAL quantity of hazardous waste that entered one or more of this facility's treatment,
     storage, accumulation, disposal, or recovery units during 7986. Include only hazardous waste that was
     managed in units for which you have a RCRA permit or interim status. Report hazardous waste that was
     accumulated ONLY if it was later stored, disposed, treated, or recovered for reuse onsite. COUNT ONLY
     ONCE any quantity of hazardous waste that entered more than one type of operation. For example,
     hazardous waste that was both treated and stored should be COUNTED ONLY ONCE. Similarly,  hazardous
     waste that was treated more than once should be COUNTED ONLY ONCE.
Quantity of Hazardous Waste
Managed Onsite in UNITS'
REQUIRING A RCRA PERMIT
Enter waste quantities that need to be reported in tons on row
a and waste quantities that need to be reported in gallons on
row b. Indicate the percentage of each quantity that was
hazardous wastewater.
Quantity

a i ; !


!







h ! i



I



I


Unit of
measure
. . . Tons . . .
. . Gallons . .

Percentage of quantity that
was hazardous wastewater















% . . .'. 	
% . . . .' 	
 8.   What quantity of hazardous waste In each of the following categories was managed onsite during
     1986?
     Report here the TOTAL quantity of hazardous waste that entered one or more of this facility's treatment, storage,
     accumulation, disposal, or recovery units during 1986—regardless of the permit status of the unit. Report hazardous
     waste that was accumulated ONLY if it was later stored, disposed, treated, or recovered for reuse. COUNTONLY
     ONCE any quantity of hazardous waste that entered more than one type of operation. For example, hazardous
     waste that was both treated and stored should be COUNTED ONLY ONCE. Similarly, hazardous waste that was
     treated more than once should be COUNTED ONLY ONCE.
Quantities of Hazardous
Waste MANAGED ONSITE
Enter waste quantities that need to be reported in tons on row a and waste
quantities that need to be reported in gallons on row b. If none, enter zero.
Quantity generated onsite
and managed onsite
a. i

hi


















i
-


Quantity received from
another facility under
the same ownership
and managed onsite
H
i

i




!
















Quantity received from
another facility NOT under
the same ownership
and managed onsite




























Unit of
measure
.... Tons ....
. . Gallons . .
 NOTE: The sum of all the quantities entered in Question 8 is equal to the TOTAL quantity of hazardous waste'
       managed onsite during 1986.
                                                          Preceding page blank

-------
 C-4
1986 Hazardous Waste Management in RCRA TSDR Units
11.  Of the hazardous waste GENERATED ONSITE during 1986, what quantity was shipped offslte to be
    managed by another facility under the same ownership? What quantity was shipped offsite to be
    managed by a facility not under the same ownership?
Quantities of Hazardous Waste
GENERATED ONSITE AND THEN
SHIPPED OFFSITE
Quantity generated onsite and
then shipped offsite to a facility
under the same ownership

a. i




• b. .



i

j


I



I
Enter waste quantities that need to be reported in tons on
row a and waste quantities that need to be reported in gal-
lons on row b. If none, enter zero.
Quantity generated onsite and
then shipped offsite to a facility
NOT under the same ownership
















;
i ;

; I I
! ]
Unit of measure
. . . . Tons ....
. . . Gallons . . .

-------
                                               Appendix C. Survey Questions
                             05
QUESTIONNAIRE  F:
SOLVENT AND LIQUID ORGANIC RECOVERY  FOR
REUSE
3.   What quantity of hazardous waste was managed onsite in solvent recovery processes during 1986?
    Report here the TOTAL quantity of hazardous waste that entered one or more of this facility's solvent recovery
    processes during 7955. COUNT ONLY ONCE any quantity of hazardous waste that entered more than one
    type of process. For example hazardous waste that underwent both filtration and fractionation would be
    COUNTED ONLY ONCE.
Quantity of Hazardous Waste
Managed in Solvent Recovery
Processes Onsite

Quantity
' ' i : ;
Enter the quantity and circle
Unit of met
Ton
	 01 	
a unit of measure.
usure (Circle one)
Gallon
	 02 	 	
Question
4. What type of solvent recovery process
is this? (Circle one)
Fractionation
Batch still distillation
Solvent extraction
Thin-film evaporation
Filtration
Phase separation
Dessication . .
Other (specify) . . .


Solvent Recovery
Process No. 1
... 01 ...
	 02 . . , .
. . 03 . . .
. . 04 ...
05
06 . .
... . 07 	
. ... 08 	

(specify)
Solvent Recovery
Process No. 2
	 01 . .
	 02 ...
	 03 	
. . 04
	 05 . .
06
	 07 	
	 08 	

(specify)
  25.  What quantity of HAZARDOUS waste in
      each of the following categories entered
      this solvent recovery process for
      management during 1986? (Enter the
      quantities and circle a unit of measure; if
      none, enter zero.  The sum of b, c, and d
      must equal a.)
      a. TOTAL quantity managed onsite
        i. Quantity  	
        ii. Unit of measure (Circle one)
          Tons 	
          Gallons	
01
02
01
02

-------
C-6
1986 Hazardous Waste Management in RCRA TSDR Units
Question
26. What quantity of NONHAZAROOUS
waste entered this solvent recovery
process for management during 1986?
'Enter the quantity and circle a unit of
measure, if none, enter zero.)
a. Quantity 	
b. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons
Gallons

Solvent Recovery
Process No. 1
,
;
01
02

Solvent Recovery
Process No. 2

! i ' '
01
02

 27.  What quantity of solvents and
     chemicals was recovered for reuse
     using this process during 1986? (Enter
     the quantity and circle a unit of measure: if
     none, enter zero.)
     a. Quantity    	
     b. Unit of measure (Circle one)
         Tons	            ...
         Gallons	
                                             01
                                             02
01
02
 30.  What quantity of residuals—solid,
     liquid, and sludge—was generated by
     this solvent recovery process during
     1986? What percentage of these
     residuals was hazardous? (Include
     residuals from air pollution control devices
     t'APCDs! as well as other treatment
     residuals. Do not include in your answer
     the recovered solvent or chemicals. Enter
     the quantities in the unit specified and
     indicate the percentage. If none, enter
     zero.)
     a. Solid Residuals
        i.  Total quantity generated, pounds .
        ii, Percentage of solid residuals that
          was hazardous	   	
     b. Liquid Residuals (including scrubber
       water)
        i.  Total quantity generated, gallons .
        ii. Percentage of liquid residuals that
          was hazardous	
     c. Sludge Residuals
        i.  Total quantity generated, pounds . .
        ii. Percentage of sludge residuals that
          was hazardous	

-------
                                                       Appendix C.  Survey Questions	C-7
QUESTIONNAIRE  GA:

GENERAL FACILITY INFORMATION


1.    Which of the following BEST DESCRIBES the status of the "hazardous waste generation activities"
     onsite at this facility? (Circle one)
     Carefully read all options and circle only one Do not base your answer on the quantity o/ hazardous waste
     ge::erated onsiie. Call the Survey Helpline (1-800-635-8850) if you are uncertain of the status ol your facility.
     01 Hazardous waste is currently generated onsite. CGo fo nexr question)
     02 Hazardous waste was generated onsite during 1986, but is no longer generated onsite.
       ('Go ro nexr question)
     03 Hazardous waste was generated onsite prior to 1986, but not during 1986, and will not be generated
       onsite in the future. (Skip to Question 156 on page 79)
     04 Hazardous waste was generated onsite in the past, but that hazardous waste has since been delisted
       and no other hazardous waste is generated onsite at this facility. (Skip to  Question 156 on page 79)
     05 No hazardous waste has ever been generated onsite at this facility. Notification of hazardous waste
       generation activities was submitted as a protective measure. Further evaluation showed that the waste
       generated onsite is not hazardous. (Skip to Question 156 on page 79)


2.    Did this facility generate, in ANY month during 1986, more than 1,000 kilograms of hazardous waste
     (Circie one)
     01 Yes (Skip  to Question 6)
     02 No (Go fo next question)


3.    Did this facility accumulate, AT ANY TIME DURING 1986, more'than 1,000 kilograms of hazardous
     waste? (Circle one)
     Co nor base your answer on when the hazardous waste was generated. For example. ť 600 ki/og'a^s c
     nazardcus waste were generated in one month and 500 kilograms of hazardous waste were generaiea .n :ne
     next month, and this total quantity was onsite at any time, you would answer 'Yes.
     01 Yes (Skip  to Question 6)
     02 No ("Go to next question)


4.    Did this facility generate, in ANY month during 1986, more than 100 kilograms of hazardous waste?
     (Circle one)
     01 Yes (Skip  to Question 6)
     02 No (Go to next question)


5.    Did this facility generate, in ANY month during 1986, more than one kilogram of acutely hazardous
     waste? (Circle one)
     The following are acutely hazardous wastes: F020, F021, F022, F023, F026,  F027, and all of the RCRA "P1
     wastes. See Appendix C of the Instructions booklet for a list of RCRA "P" wastes.
     01 Yes (Go to next question)
     02 No (Skip to Question 156 on page 79. DO NOT SKIP if your facility generated, in any month during 1986.
          more  than 100 kilograms of hazardous Ťvas;e)

-------
   C-8
1986 Hazardous Waste Management in RCRA TSDR Units
 6.   What is the primary four-digit SIC code for this facility?
 8.   Who owns this facility? (Circle one)
     01 Federal government
     02 State government
     03 Local government
     04 Private owner—sole proprietor, partnership, or corporation
     05 Other owner  	
20.  Of the quantity reported in Question 19, estimate the amount that was hazardous wastewater. This
     amount should include hazardous wastewater pretreated prior to discharge under a NPOES permit c
     prior to discharge to a POTW; hazardous wastewater generated in a production process or waste
     treatment process; and hazardous wastewater that is a characteristic waste, even though it may lose
     its hazardous waste characteristic through mixing with other wastewater or by treatment.
     include m ycur answer the total quantity of wastewater. not just the quantity of hazardous material in the
     .va::e.v3:e.'
Quantity of
Wastewater
HAZARDOUS
Generated
Enter the quantity and circle a unit of measure
Quantity

I
' I
I
Unit of measure
Tons
	 01 	
if none, enter
(Circle one)
Gallons
... 02 .
zero



  NOTE: Report an hazardous wastewater in Questionnaire GB,  "Hazardous Waste Characterization "
         Report any processes used to treat hazardous wastewater. including pretreatment processes, in
         Questionnaire GE  'Wastewater Treatment '
23.  What quantity of hazardous waste was shipped offsite during 1986 to be managed by another facility
    under the same ownership? What quantity of hazardous waste was shipped offsite during 1986 to be
    managed by a facility NOT under the same ownership?
Quantity of Hazardous Waste
Shipped Offsite
Quantity shipped offsite to a facility
under the same ownership

a. I :

I
I

i i
b. i I
1


1



|
1
|





Enter waste quantities that need to be reported in tons in row
a and waste quantities that need to be reported in gallons
in row b. If none, enter zero.
Quantity shipped offsite to a facility
NOT under the same ownership

i






















Unit of measure
. . . . Tons
. . . Gallons . . .

-------
                                                           Appendix C. Survey Questions
C-9
27.   What quantity of hazardous waste was generated onsite during 1986?
     Report here the TOTAL quantity of hazardous waste that was generated onsite during 1986. Include in your
     answer hazardous waste and hazaraous wastewater treated using exempt processes, /or example, wastewater
     meatmen: processes that discharge under a NPDES permit or discharge to a P07VV ana exempt recycling
     crocesses.
Quantity of Hazardous Waste
Generated Onsite
Enter waste Quantities that need to be reported in tons in row a
and waste Quantities that need to be reported in gallons :n
row P. The sum of the fwo quantities reported in this question eauai
the TOTAL quantity of hazardous waste generated onsite curing
1986.
Quantity

a



h. i : : ' i i ''• ' . 	 	

Unit of measure
. . . Tons

. . . . . Gallons


-------
  C-10
       1986 Hazardous Waste Management in RCRA TSDR Units
 QUESTIONNAIRE GB:
 HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION
                     Question
                                                Hazardous Waste
                                                    No. 1
                                                                Hazardous Waste
                                                                    No. 2
    What RCRA waste code or codes best describe
    this hazardous waste?
    See Appendix C of the instructions booklet for a list of
    PCRA ana other waste cooes, if you generate a waste
    that /s considered hazardous oy regulations m your state
    and a waste coae is not provided, call the Survey
    Helpline (1-800-835-8850).
                                                                a. I
                                                                b. L
                                               e.
                                                                c. [

                                                                d.

                                                                e.




















Use tne list of Waste Description Codes on the inside front
cover of this questionnaire to answer Questions 2 and 3. If a
code requires you to specify, do so in the space provided.
2.
What Waste Description Code best describes this
hazardous waste?	
                                                    'specify)
                                                                    isoeciry)
Use tne list of Waste Source Codes on the msice oacK cover
of this Questionnaire to answer Questions 4 ana 5 // a code
requires you to specify, do so in the space proviaed.

4.   What Waste Source Code best describes the
    process(es) at this facility that generate this
    hazardous waste? 	
                                                    (specify
                                                                    isoeciryi
10. What quantity of this hazardous waste
was generated onsite DURING 1986?
(Enter the quantity and circle a unit of
measure)
a. Quantity 	
b. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons
Gallons























01
fl?




























	 01 	
	 02 	


-------
Appendix C.  Survey Questions	C-11
Question
18. Of the quantity of this hazardous waste
that was generated onsite during 1986,
how much was or will be shipped offsite
for management? (Enter the Quantity and
arcle a unit of measure: if none, enter zero
and skip to the note on page 76 prior to
a. Quantity 	
b. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons
Gallons

Hazardous Waste
No. 1


01
. . 02 ...

Hazardous Waste
No. 2

I
01 	
.... . 02 .


-------
   C-12
1986 Hazardous Waste Management in RCRA TSDR Units
  QUESTIONNAIRE GG:
  SOLVENT AND LIQUID ORGANIC RECOVERY
  FOR REUSE
3.  What quantity of hazardous waste was managed onsite in solvent recovery processes during 1986?
   Report here the TOTAL quantity of hazardous waste that entered one or more of this facility s solvent recovery
   processes during 1986. COUNT ONLY ONCE any Quantity of hazardous waste that entered more than one type
   of process. For example, hazardous waste that underwent both filtration ana fractionation vvcu/o be COUNTED
   ONLY ONCE.
Quantity of Hazardous Waste
Managed in Solvent Recovery
Processes Onsite
Enter the Quantity and circle a unit of measure.
Quantity

i : ! I i







i

Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons Gallons
	 01 	 	 02 	
Question
4. What type of solvent recovery process
is this? (Circle one)
Fractionation 	
Batch still distillation
Solvent extraction
Thin-film evaporation
Filtration . . 	
Phase separation
Dessication
Other (specify)


Solvent Recovery
Process No. 1
	 01 	
02
	 03 	
04
	 05 	
	 06 	
07
. . 08 .

(specify)
Solvent Recovery
Process No. 2
	 01 	
02
	 03 	
	 04 .
	 05 	
	 06 	
07
	 08 	

(specify!

-------
Appendix C.  Survey Questions
C-13
Question
21 . What quantity of HAZARDOUS waste
entered this solvent recovery process
for management during 1986? (Enter the
quantity and circle a unit of measure: if none,
a. Quantity 	
b. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons 	
Gallons

22. What quantity of NONHAZARDOUS
waste entered this solvent recovery
process for management during 1986?
''Enter the quantity and circle a unit ot
a. Quantity 	
b. Unit of measure (Circle one}
Tons 	
Gallons 	

Solvent Recovery
Process No. 1

i
01
02


! i i ! \
01
02

Solvent Recovery
Process No. 2


.01
02



... 01 . . .
02

23. What quantity of solvents and
chemicals was recovered for reuse
using this process during 1986? (Enter
the quantity and circle a unit of measure: if
a. Quantity 	
b. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons 	
Gallons 	


01
	 02 	






01
	 02 	

-------
C-14
1986 Hazardous Waste Management in RCRA TSDR Units
Question
26. What quantity of residuals— solid,
liquid, and sludge— was generated by
this solvent recovery process during
1986? What percentage of these
residuals was hazardous? (Include
residuals from air pollution control devices
[APCDs] as well as other treatment residuals.
Do not include in your answer the recovered
solvent or chemicals. If this process was not
operational during 1986. estimate the
quantity of residuals that would be
generated if operated at full capacity. Enter
the quantities in the unit specified and
indicate the percentage. If none, enter zero.)
a. Solid Residuals
i. Total quantity generated, pounds . .

ii. Percentage of solid residuals that
was hazardous 	
b. Liquid Residuals (including scrubber
i. Total quantity generated, gallons . .

ii. Percentage of liquid residuals that
• was hazardous 	

c. Sludge Residuals
i. Total quantity generated, pounds . .

ii. Percentage of sludge residuals that
was hazardous . .

Solvent Recovery
Process No. 1


i
	 % ...

1

i %



o/o 	

Solvent Recovery
Process No. 2

|

	 O/o



	 O/o 	



	 %

27. Does this facility have plans to make any
changes to this solvent recovery
process before January 1992 that would
increase/decrease its capacity to
manage hazardous waste? (Circle one)
Yes (Go to next question) 	
No (Circle 02 and skip to Question 29 for
this so/vent recoverv orocess) 	
	 01 	
	 02 (Skic to Q.291 	


	 01 	
	 02 (Skio to Q.29) 	

-------
                                                Appendix C. Survey Questions
                                      C-15
 QUESTIONNAIRE H:
 WASTEWATER TREATMENT
                Question
Wastewater Treatment
   Process No. 1
Wastewater Treatment
   Process No. 2
14.  Which onsite tanks and/or surface
    impoundments are used with this
    wastewater treatment process? (Identify
    trie tariKS ana surface impoundments used
    witn tnis process Oy listing the identification
    numbers mat you entered on tne schematic
    of your wastewater treatment process(es)
    tnat you orew for Questionnaire A. "General
    racit.'ty Information.")
    a. Tank number  	
    b. Surface impoundment number
                                IV. L
                                                                    : v.
                                                                     VI.

-------
 C-16
1986 Hazardous Waste Management in RCRA TSDR Units
QUESTIONNAIRE J:
WASTE PILES
Question
L
27. What quantity of hazardous and
nonhazardous waste entered this waste
pile for TREATMENT during 1986?
(Include in your answer waste that entered
this waste pile for treatment, regardless of
whether it was also stored. Enter the
quantities and circle a unit of measure: if
none, enter zero.)
i. Quantity 	
ii. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons 	
Cubic yards 	

i. Quantity 	
ii. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons ....
Cubic 'vards 	
Waste Pile
No. 1

i
i
	 01 	
02


01
	 02 	
Waste Pile
No. 2


	 01 	
	 02

j
01
	 02 	
29. What quantity of hazardous and nonhazardous
waste entered this waste pile for STORAGE ONLY
during 1986? (Do not include in your answer waste
that was also treated in this waste pile. Enter the
quantities and circle a unit of measure: if none, enter
zero.)
i. Quantity 	
ii. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons 	
Cubic yards ...

b. Nonhazardous waste
i. Quantity 	
ii. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons
Cubic yards






























0
0


n
n



i
?


i
?





















	 01
02


. . . 01
02


-------
                             Appendix C. Survey Questions
C-17
QUESTIONNAIRE K:
SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS
Question
31. What quantity of hazardous and nonhazardous
waste entered this surface impoundment for
TREATMENT during 1986? (Include in your answer
waste that entered this surface impoundment for
treatment, regardless of whether it was also stored or
disposed of. Enter the quantities and circle a unit of
measure; if none, enter zero.)
a. Hazardous waste
i. Quantity 	
ii. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons
Gallons 	

b. Nonhazardous waste
i. Quantity 	
ii. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons
Gallons 	
Surface Impoundment
No. 1


01
	 02


01
	 02 	
Surface Impoundment
No. 2


01
02

! ! : : :
01
	 02 	
46. What quantity of hazardous and nonhazardous
waste entered this surface impoundment for
DISPOSAL but not for treatment during 1986?
(Include in your answer waste that entered this
surface impoundment for disposal including waste
that was stored prior to disposal. DO NOT INCLUDE
any waste that was treated in this surface
impoundment prior to disposal. Enter the quantities
and circle a unit of measure; if none, enter zero.)
i. Quantity . . 	 	
ii. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons 	
Gallons .

b. Nonhazardous waste
i. Quantity 	
ii. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons 	 	
Gallons 	 	

|
	 01
02


01
	 02 ........

i , , I i
01 	
02

I j
01
	 02 	

-------
C-18
1986 Hazardous Waste Management in RCPA TSDP Units
Question
49. What quantity of hazardous and nonhazardous
wast* entered this surface impoundment for
STORAGE ONLY during 1986? (DO NOT INCLUDE
in your answer waste that also entered this surface
impoundment for treatment or disposal. Enter the
quantities and circle a unit of measure; if none, enter
zero.)
i. Quantity . 	
ii. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons . . 	
Gallons . . 	

b. Nonhazardous waste
i. Quantity 	
ii. Unit of measure (Circle one)
Tons . 	
Gallons 	
Surface Impoundment
No. 1

I i
. . 01 .
. 02

I i
01
	 02 	
Surface Impoundmei
No. 2

i ; i i
01
02

I i i i
I I ! I
01
	 02 	

-------