Hydrocarbon Composition of Gasoline

            Vapor Emissions from Enclosed Fuel Tanks
&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency

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       Hydrocarbon Composition of Gasoline
    Vapor Emissions from Enclosed Fuel Tanks
                      Assessment and Standards Division
                     Office of Transportation and Air Quality

                                  and

                 Human Exposure & Atmospheric Sciences Division
                      Office of Research and Development

                      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
      NOTICE

      This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
      positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
      that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
      facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
      technical developments.
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA-420-R-11-018
December 2011

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Introduction

The purpose of this report is for EPA OTAQ (Office of Transportation and Air Quality) to give a
summary of EPA ORD (Office of Research and Development) work on the composition of
hydrocarbon emissions from gasoline, specifically the head space components above gasoline in
an enclosed fuel tank.  These profiles were used in EPA's proposed Tier 3 rule and anti-
backsliding study. The profiles were used to speciate hydrocarbon emissions from onroad
vehicle and nonroad engine gasoline refueling, portable fuel container emissions, and vapor
losses during storage and transport.

Overview and Prior Work

Headspace vapors are those hydrocarbon compounds in gaseous form  above a gasoline sample in
an enclosed space such as a vehicle fuel tank or frequently a fuel storage tank used in the
distribution for gasoline. Some of these vapors are emitted to the atmosphere in transport,
storage, and utilization of gasoline. The numerous hydrocarbon compounds (about 120
individual hydrocarbons) represent the more volatile and lower molecular weight components of
the gasoline.

For EPA's RFS2 rule,  EPA ORD measured headspace emissions for an EO base gasoline and an
E10 sample splash-blended from the EO gasoline For EPA's RFS2 rule, EPA ORD measured
headspace emissions for an EO base gasoline and an E10 sample splash-blended from the EO
gasoline.l

However, the anti-backsliding and Tier3 analyses also required modeling an El 5 blend, since in
January, 2011, EPA granted partial waivers that allow the introduction into commerce of
gasoline that contains greater than 10 volume percent (vol%) ethanol and up to 15 vol% ethanol
(El5) for use in model year (MY) 2001 and newer light-duty motor vehicles, subject to certain
conditions.2 On October 13, 2010, EPA granted the first partial waiver for E15 for use in
MY2007 and newer light-duty motor vehicles (i.e., cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty
passenger vehicles). On January 21, 2011, EPA granted the second partial waiver for E15 for use
in MY2001-2006 light-duty motor vehicles. These decisions were based on test results provided
by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other test data and information regarding the
potential effect of El 5 on vehicle emissions.
In order to ensure consistency between headspace profiles for EO, E10 and E15 fuels, new
profiles were developed using fuel samples from the EPAct test program.3 Properties of the six
fuels tested are summarized in Table 1. Fuels 13 and 14 are EO fuels, fuels 6 and 10 are E10, and
1 U. S. EPA. 2009. Hydrocarbon Composition of Gasoline Vapor Emissions from Enclosed Fuel Tanks. Office of
Transportation and Air Quality, Ann Arbor, MI, and Office of Research and Development, RTF, NC. EPA-420-D-
10-011, January 2010.

2 Federal Register. 2011.  Partial Grant of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy to
Increase the Allowable Ethanol Content of Gasoline to 15 Percent; Decision of the Admininstrator. 76(17):4662-
4683.

3 Add reference: Phase 3 EPAct/V2?E-89 Test Program.

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fuels 27 and 28 are E15.  One fuel in each pair is low in aromatics (15-17 volume percent) and
one is high in aromatics (about 34-35 percent). Olefin levels range from 6-9 percent, and
volatilities are similar, with DVPEs of about 7 percent.

Sample Preparation

The 6 gasoline samples tested for headspace and whole composition were received from
Southwest Research Institute in amber-tinted quart bottles via FedEx shipment. To prepare for
testing, these bottles were placed in large cooler containing ice. After a 20 - 30 min period 25 ml
aliquots were withdrawn using Pasteur pipettes and put into 50 ml Erlenmeyer flasks then placed
into a constant water-temperature bath maintained at 25C.  Similar 25 ml aliquots of each
sample were placed into 20 x 150 mm Pyrex culture bottles, capped and stored in the ice bath.

Triple distilled water (70 ul) was injected into recently cleaned and vacuum evacuated six liter
SUMMA canisters to condition the canister surface. This small volume of water vaporizes to
coat the internal surfaces of the canister with a monolayer of water vapot.  This deactivates and
conditions active surface sites, allowing the storage of the VOC vapors obtained from the
gasoline and gasoline head space injections at 25 C. Without this deactivation, significant losses
of these compounds from benzene to the higher molecular weight hydrocarbons would be
observed during the sample storage period.

.After a 20 min equilibration time,  100 uL aliquots of the headspace vapors were taken from the
Erlenmeyer flask and injected into the SUMMA canisters.  The canisters were then filled with
UHP helium to 40 psig. The prepared canisters were allowed to equilibrate for a 12 to 15 h
period before performing both GC/FID and GC/MS analyses. Whole fuel samples were prepared
by injecting 0.02 uL aliquots of the cooled liquid into the 6-L canisters, then filled with UHP
helium to 40 psig. More details of these procedures are published elsewhere. Likewise more
detail concerning the GC/FID and GC/MS methodology are published elsewhere.4

The results obtained for two each EO, E10, and El 5 fuels sent to RTF for headspace analysis are
provided in the attached tables. Results for both the headspace at 25 C and whole fuel analyses
of EO, E10 and E15 gasolines are included.  About 140 compound peaks are presented from the
more than 200 compound peaks observed representing approximately 98% of total VOC
concentration.  Compound name, VOC type (paraffin, olefm, aromatic, oxygenate, unknown),
and RTINDEX5 for each compound are provided  in the first 3 columns to the left.
4 Harley, R. A., S. A. McKeen, M.O. Rodgers, and W.A. Lonneman, Analysis of motor vehicle emissions during the
Nashville/Middle Tennessee Ozone Study, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 3559-3567, 2001

5 RTINDEX is a technique used to place the elution order and/or location of various VOCs on the GC column. The
most common approach is to determine the retention time of a mixture of the C2-Ci5 normal paraffins (i.e., ethane
through pentadecane) then place other VOCs by retention time where these compounds elute in reference to the
normal paraffins. For example, the retention time of benzene on an EPA GC column with an RTINDEX value of
651.21 is about halfway between the centerary retention times of the C6 and C7 nornal alkanes - n-hexane being
defined with an RTINDEX value of 600.00 and n-heptane with a defined RTINDEX value of 700.00.

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Table 1. Properties of EPAct fuels tested.
PROPERTY
Density, 60F
API Gravity,
60F
Ethanol
Total Content
of Oxygenates
Other Than
Ethanol
Distillation
IBP
5% evap
10% evap
20% evap
30% evap
40% evap
50% evap
60% evap
70% evap
80% evap
90% evap
95% evap
FBP
DVPE (EPA
equation)
Aromatics
Olefins
Saturates
Benzene
S
RON
MON
(RON+MON)/2
C
H
0
Net Heat of
Combustion
Water
Lead
Copper Strip
Corrosion
Solvent Washed
Gum Content
Oxidation
Stability
UNIT
g/cm
API
vol. %
vol. %
OF
OF
op
op
op
op
"F
op
op
op
"F
op
op
psi
vol. %
vol. %
vol. %
vol. %
mg/kg
-
-
-
mass %
mass %
mass %
MJ/kg
mass %
g/1
-
mg/lOOml
min.
TEST METHOD
D4052
D4052
D5599
D5599
D86 (OptiDist or
equivalent for E10,
E15 and E20 fuels)
D5191
D1319
D1319
100-D1319Aromatics
-D1319Olefins-
D5599Ethanol
D3606
D5453
D2699
D2700
-
D5291 mod.
D5291 mod.
D5599
D4809
E-1064
D3237
D130
D381
D525
EPAct Phase 3 Fuel
6
0.7342
61.1
10.56
0.10
106.7
130.4
135.9
142.6
148.3
153.4
188.5
228.2
267.7
310.1
340.4
352.7
369.2
7.24
15.0
8.8
65.6
0.68
23
96.3
86.6
91.5
81.52
14.21
4.0
41.785
0.073
-
1A
0.5
>240
10
0.7644
53.4
9.82
0.10
104.7
130.0
136.3
144.3
151.0
161.6
217.1
261.5
290.4
317.5
340.2
354.3
372.4
7.11
34.0
6.1
50.1
0.52
25
98.5
87.2
92.9
83.47
12.83
3.6
41.210
0.067
0.003
1A
0.5
>240
13
0.7540
56.0
<0.10
0.10
96.6
127.0
139.8
158.7
178.2
199.9
222.5
245.2
269.8
303.5
337.9
354.4
377.5
6.92
34.1
6.3
59.6
0.51
23
95.8
85.8
90.8
86.76
13.15
O.I
43.171
0.014
0.001
1A
1.5
>240
14
0.7223
64.2
<0.10
0.10
100.4
126.5
135.5
147.3
160.0
175.1
192.8
212.0
237.3
280.1
338.5
354.5
377.5
7.14
16.9
8.5
74.6
0.52
24
91.5
84.6
88.1
85.28
14.29
O.I
43.519
0.015
0.001
1A
0.5
>240
27
0.7434
58.6
14.91
0.10
104.8
135.3
142.3
152.0
158.0
163.8
221.5
265.1
274.9
311.3
340.3
351.9
372.2
6.97
14.9
7.4
62.9
0.56
26
100.8
89.2
95.0
80.27
14.01
5.5
41.062
0.090
0.003
1A
0.5
>240
28
0.7699
52.1
14.98
0.10
103.9
136.3
144.2
154.0
160.2
165.8
216.6
240.2
251.6
268.4
298.8
327.3
363.2
6.87
34.5
7.0
43.5
0.59
24
102.7
89.4
96.1
81.78
12.62
5.4
40.383
0.091
0.003
1A
0.5
>240

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The columns labeled HS and Whole provide the fraction that the observed peak concentration
obtained as parts-per-billion carbon (ppbC) is to the sum of all observed peaks obtained as ppbC.
At the bottom of the spreadsheet column is the ratio that the sum of listed peaks is of all the
observed peaks. This value is typically 98 - 99%. Also included are tables with the percent sum
of the various compound groups to the total VOC. The concentration of ethanol was corrected
for the reduced FID response due to the presence of an oxygen atom. For ethanol, the carbon
atom attached to the hydroxyl (OH) group has about 50% reduced response with the FID
compared to the other carbon in the compound. Consequently the correction for the 2 carbons in
ethanol is given as 2/1.5 or 1.33.

Precision and Accuracy of Results

In past analyses of whole gasoline and gasoline headspace samples at 25 C, ORD has measured
both precision and accuracy for these analyses. Repeat analysis for instrumental precision is
more commonly performed with repeatability of 5% or better.

      National Institute of Standards and Technology/Standard Reference Material
(NIST/SRM)  propane in air standard cylinder is used to determine accuracy. The assumption is
made (as it is in EPA measurements of motor vehicle exhaust) that all hydrocarbons respond in
the flame ionization detector (FID) with a uniform per carbon response. However, ethanol, as
well as any other oxygenated hydrocarbons in gasoline, does not respond in this way. As
discussed earlier, an adjustment was made for the presence of oxygen in the FID response.

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Table 2. Headspace (HS) and whole fuel composition of Fuel 13.  Compound type: p = paraffin,
                  o = olefin, a = aromatic, ox = oxygenate, u = unknown.
Fuel #13 Headspace@25C and Whole Fuel Composition
Compound
Propane
Isobutane
Butene-1
Isobutylene
n-Butane
t-Butene-2
2, 2-Dimethyl propane*
c-Butene-2
3-Methyl-1-Butene
Ethanol
Isopentane
Pentene-1
2-Methyl-1-Butene
n-Pentane
Isoprene
trans-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-2-Pentene
2-Methyl-2-Butene
2,2-Dimethyl butane
Cyclopentene
3-Methyl-1 -pentene
Cyclopentane
2,3-Dimethyl butane
2-Methylpentane
3-Methylpentane
2-Methyl-1 -Pentene
Hexene-1
n-Hexane
trans-3-Hexene
trans-2-Hexene
2-Methyl-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-3-Hexene
4-Methylcyclopentene*
cis-2-Hexene
cis-3-Methyl-2 -pentene*
2,2-DiMethylpentane
Methylcyclopentane
2,4-Dimethylpentane
2,2,3-TriMethylbutane
2,4-DiMethyl-1 -Pentene
1 -Methylcyclopentene
Benzene
3,3-DiMethylpentane
Cyclohexane
4-Me-1 -Hexene
2-Methylhexane
2,3-Dimethyl pentane
1,1-DiMeCyclopentane
3-Methylhexane
5-Methyl-2-hexene*
c-1 ,3-DiMeCyclopentane
t-1 ,3,-DiMeCyclopentane
Type
P
P
o
0
P
0
p
o
0
ox
p
o
o
p
o
0
u
o
0
p
0
o
p
p
p
p
o
o
p
o
0
o
u
0
o
0
0
p
p
p
p
0
o
a
p
p
0
p
p
p
p
0
p
p
RTINDEX
300.00
361.88
389.97
390.92
400.00
411.64
413.35
425.94
457.43
461.50
474.54
489.36
496.17
500.00
504.19
508.72
513.67
516.35
521.04
535.47
551.84
557.98
562.82
565.46
570.09
583.52
588.52
589.36
600.00
602.80
604.98
607.37
608.87
610.49
612.17
614.50
620.74
625.13
627.20
631.38
637.00
647.79
651.00
651.21
657.00
660.96
665.23
668.68
670.80
674.11
677.22
680.55
684.41
687.12

HS
0.029
0.355
0.147
0.167
9.555
0.729
0.075
0.551
0.249
0.000
21.286
0.873
1.361
6.190
0.024
1.950
0.015
1.045
2.276
0.336
0.343
0.195
0.500
1.917
4.769
3.376
0.322
0.186
5.275
0.348
0.488
0.458
0.135
0.281
0.069
0.258
0.386
0.191
2.443
0.992
0.103
0.014
0.309
0.784
0.093
1.783
0.003
0.788
0.557
0.066
0.599
0.008
0.133
0.149

Whole
0.025
0.060
0.055
0.000
1.906
0.155
0.073
0.128
0.070
0.000
8.590
0.356
0.630
3.070
0.011
1.000
0.012
0.547
1.255
0.213
0.221
0.138
0.340
1.450
3.764
2.807
0.271
0.147
4.786
0.320
0.451
0.429
0.112
0.262
0.062
0.238
0.376
0.201
2.342
1.051
0.105
0.015
0.331
0.842
0.120
1.891
0.017
0.952
0.666
0.082
0.746
0.010
0.160
0.188

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2,2,4-TriMethylpentane
3-Methyl-3-hexene
trans-3-Heptene
n-Heptane
3-Me-cis-3-Hexene
2,4,4-TriMethyM-Pentene
MethylCyclohexane
2, 5-Di Methyl hexane
2,4-DiMethylhexane + EthylCyclopentane
3,3-DiMethylhexane + 1,2,4-TriMeCyclopentane
ctc-1 ,2,3-TriMeCyclopentane
2,3,4-TriMethylpentane
Toluene
2,3-Di Methyl hexane
2-Methyl-3-Ethylpentane
2-Methyl heptane
4-Methyl heptane
3, 4-Di Methyl hexane
3-Methyl heptane
ctc-1 ,2,4-TriMeCyclopentane
t-1 ,4-Di MeCyclohexane
2,2,5-Trimethylhexane
1,1 -Di MethylCyclohexane
2,2,4-TriMethylhexane
n-Octane
cis-2-Octene
2,3,5-TriMethylhexane
2, 4-Di Methyl heptane
2,6-DiMethyl heptane
1c2-DiMethylcyclohexane n-Propylcyclopentane
2,5-DiMeHeptane
Ethyl benzene
ctt-1,2,4-Tri MeCyclohexane
m-& p-Xylene
3-Methyloctane
ctc-1 , 2, 4-Tri MeCyclohexane
o-Xylene
Nonene-1
Nonane
trans-2-Nonene
cis-2-Nonene
Isopropylbenzene
3,5-DiMethyloctane
2,6-DiMethyloctane
n-Propyl benzene
m-Ethyltoluene
p-Ethyltoluene
1 ,3,5-TriMethyl benzene
3-Methyl nonane
o-Ethyltoluene
Unknown
Unknown
1 ,2,4-TriMethyl benzene
n-Decane
Isobutylbenzene + 1-Me-2-Propylcyclohexane
sec-Butyl benzene
m-Cymene
1 ,2,3-TriMethyl benzene
Unknown
Indane
Unknown
P
0
o
P
0
o
P
P
P
P
P
P
a
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
o
P
P
P
P
P
a
P
a
P
P
a
o
P
0
o
a
P
P
a
a
a
a
P
a
u
u
a
P
a
a
a
a
u
n
u
690.72
695.08
697.82
700.00
701.44
712.30
724.30
733.56
735.91
743.87
751.44
753.56
758.58
762.98
765.00
767.55
769.28
772.50
775.34
781.70
783.92
785.98
790.50
794.85
800.00
812.37
819.44
825.88
831.77
834.70
838.60
855.40
860.26
863.65
873.73
881.42
887.56
889.31
900.00
902.49
912.37
920.34
927.97
937.70
950.95
957.45
960.02
964.32
973.55
976.97
986.65
988.06
991.48
1000.00
1008.16
1010.39
1018.22
1022.13
1031.59
1036.98
1040.81
4.010
0.005
0.007
0.370
0.032
0.008
0.671
0.452
0.613
0.018
0.007
1.203
10.681
0.243
0.000
0.049
0.015
0.048
0.047
0.037
0.017
0.418
0.008
0.004
0.051
0.010
0.063
0.015
0.016
0.000
0.036
0.479
0.012
1.654
0.004
0.037
0.319
0.000
0.007
0.017
0.006
0.026
0.007
0.022
0.041
0.163
0.106
0.094
0.003
0.069
0.037
0.000
0.250
0.036
0.013
0.012
0.013
0.117
0.094
0.017
0.040
5.261
0.011
0.011
0.508
0.000
0.011
0.947
0.758
1.021
0.031
0.013
2.127
18.840
0.632
0.000
0.123
0.038
0.101
0.122
0.082
0.034
0.909
0.017
0.023
0.153
0.021
0.142
0.023
0.029
0.005
0.091
1.765
0.036
6.945
0.017
0.113
1.582
0.000
0.024
0.047
0.008
0.071
0.010
0.029
0.313
1.364
0.702
0.934
0.016
0.561
0.033
0.000
2.578
0.117
0.065
0.055
0.066
0.619
0.428
0.138
0.164

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Unknown
n-Butylbenzene + p-Diethylbenzene
1-Me-4-isoPropyl benzene
Unknown
1 -Me-2-n-Propylbenzene
1,4-DiMe-2-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
1 ,2-Di Me-4-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
1,3-DiMe-2-Ethylbenzene
Unknown
n-Undecane
1 ,2-Di Me-3-Ethyl benzene
1 ,2,4,5-Tetra-Me-Benzene
Unknown
t-1 -But-2-MeBenzene
Unknown
Methylindane
n-Pentylbenzene + t-1-Me-2-(4MP)cyclohexane
t-1-But-3,5-DiMeBenzene
Unknown
t-1 -But-4-Ethylbenzene
Naphthalene
n-Dodecane

% Listed Peaks are of Total VOC
u
a
a
u
a
a
u
a
u
a
u
P
a
a
u
a
u
n
a
a
u
a
n
P


1048.17
1054.69
1059.44
1062.68
1067.27
1075.98
1078.46
1084.27
1086.66
1092.85
1094.62
1100.00
1107.49
1119.01
1123.00
1139.52
1144.96
1156.53
1158.21
1174.77
1175.94
1183.89
1189.56
1200.00


0.129
0.000
0.020
0.009
0.020
0.081
0.017
0.021
0.000
0.087
0.017
0.004
0.010
0.016
0.026
0.056
0.005
0.019
0.017
0.000
0.079
0.000
0.000
0.000

99.02
0.772
0.271
0.042
0.109
0.423
0.134
0.175
0.289
0.339
0.050
0.038
0.072
0.126
0.220
0.326
0.027
0.143
0.142
0.069
0.030
0.000
0.023
0.000
0.000

98.25

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Table 3. Summary statistics for the hydrocarbon composition of Fuel 13.
Summary Statistics for Fuel #13


%Ethanol
%Paraffins
%Olefins
%Aromatics
%Unknowns
%Fused Rings


HS
0.000
70.10
13.12
15.15
0.60
0.04


Whole
0.00
48.96
7.57
38.81
2.64
0.28

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Table 4. Headspace and whole fuel composition of Fuel 14.
Fuel #14 Headspace@25C and Whole Fuel Composition
Compound
Propane
Isobutane
Butene-1
Isobutylene
n-Butane
t-Butene-2
2,2-Di methyl propane*
c-Butene-2
3-Methyl-1-Butene
Ethanol
Isopentane
Pentene-1
2-Methyl-1-Butene
n-Pentane
Isoprene
trans-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-2-Pentene
2-Methyl-2-Butene
2,2-Di methyl butane
Cyclopentene
3-Methyl-1 -pentene
Cyclopentane
2,3-Di methyl butane
2-Methylpentane
3-Methylpentane
2-Methyl-1 -Pentene
Hexene-1
n-Hexane
trans-3-Hexene
trans-2-Hexene
2-Methyl-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-3-Hexene
4-Methylcyclopentene*
cis-2-Hexene
cis-3-Methyl-2-pentene*
2,2-DiMethylpentane
Methylcyclopentane
2,4-Di methyl pentane
2,2,3-Tri Methyl butane
2,4-DiMethyl-1 -Pentene
1 -Methylcyclopentene
Benzene
3,3-DiMethyl pentane
Cyclohexane
4-Me-1-Hexene
2-Methylhexane
2,3-Di methyl pentane
1,1-DiMeCyclopentane
3-Methylhexane
5-Methyl-2-hexene*
c-1,3-DiMeCyclopentane
t-1,3,-DiMeCyclopentane
2,2,4-Tri Meth yl pentane
3-Methyl-3-hexene
trans-3-Heptene
n-Heptane
3-Me-cis-3-Hexene
2,4,4-Tri Meth yl -1 -Pentene
MethylCyclohexane
2,5-DiMethylhexane
Type
P
P
o
o
P
o
P
o
o
ox
P
o
o
P
o
o
u
o
o
P
o
o
P
P
P
P
o
o
P
o
o
o
u
o
o
o
o
P
P
P
P
o
o
a
P
P
o
P
P
P
P
o
P
P
P
o
o
P
o
o
P
P
RTINDEX
300.00
361.88
389.97
390.92
400.00
411.64
413.35
425.94
457.43
461.50
474.54
489.36
496.17
500.00
504.19
508.72
513.67
516.35
521.04
535.47
551.84
557.98
562.82
565.46
570.09
583.52
588.52
589.36
600.00
602.80
604.98
607.37
608.87
610.49
612.17
614.50
620.74
625.13
627.20
631.38
637.00
647.79
651.00
651.21
657.00
660.96
665.23
668.68
670.80
674.11
677.22
680.55
684.41
687.12
690.72
695.08
697.82
700.00
701.44
712.30
724.30
733.56

HS
0.006
0.139
0.090
0.111
1.329
0.386
0.127
0.439
0.242
0.000
27.892
0.987
1.513
6.924
0.027
2.296
0.020
1.247
2.739
1.142
0.442
0.246
2.766
1.313
5.353
4.147
0.375
0.200
6.840
0.354
0.503
0.462
0.154
0.281
0.073
0.268
0.379
0.181
2.741
0.490
0.055
0.012
0.290
0.760
0.077
2.520
0.023
0.581
0.639
0.049
0.466
0.007
0.093
0.109
7.510
0.004
0.006
0.275
0.024
0.190
0.423
0.328

Whole
0.02
0.05
0.00
0.03
0.39
0.15
0.09
0.12
0.07
0.00
10.72
0.35
0.62
3.03
0.01
1.00
0.01
0.54
1.28
0.65
0.22
0.15
1.65
0.93
4.11
3.51
0.30
0.15
6.87
0.36
0.49
0.46
0.13
0.28
0.06
0.25
0.41
0.22
3.00
0.67
0.08
0.02
0.39
0.86
0.12
3.46
0.00
1.04
1.13
0.07
0.86
0.01
0.17
0.21
15.87
0.01
0.01
0.65
0.00
0.41
0.95
0.84

-------
2,4-DiMethylhexane + EthylCyclopentane
3,3-DiMethylhexane + 1,2,4-TriMeCyclopentane
ctc-1,2,3-TriMeCyclopentane
2,3,4-Tri Meth yl pentane
Toluene
2,3-DiMethylhexane
2-Methyl-3-Ethyl pentane
2-Methylheptane
4-Methylheptane
3,4-DiMethylhexane
3-Methylheptane
ctc-1 ,2,4-Tri MeCyclopentane
t-1 ,4-DiMeCyclohexane
2,2,5-Trimethylhexane
1,1-DiMethylCyclohexane
2,2,4-TriMethylhexane
n -Octane
cis-2-Octene
2,3,5-TriMethylhexane
2,4-DiMethylheptane
2,6-DiMethylheptane
1c2-DiMethylcyclohexane n-Propylcyclopentane
2,5-DiMeHeptane
Ethyl benzene
ctt-1 ,2,4-TriMeCyclohexane
m-& p-Xylene
3-Methyl octane
ctc-1 ,2,4-Tri MeCyclohexane
o-Xylene
Nonene-1
Nonane
trans-2-Nonene
cis-2-Nonene
I sopropyl benzene
3,5-DIMethyl octane
2,6-DIMethyl octane
n-Propyl benzene
m-Ethyltoluene
p-Ethyltoluene
1 ,3,5-Tri Methyl benzene
3-Methylnonane
o-Ethyltoluene
Unknown
Unknown
1 ,2,4-Tri Meth yl benzene
n-Decane
Isobutyl benzene + 1 -Me-2-Propylcyclohexane
sec-Butyl benzene
m-Cymene
1 ,2,3-Tri Methyl benzene
Unknown
Indane
Unknown
Unknown
n-Butylbenzene + p-Diethylbenzene
1 -Me-4-isoPropyl benzene
Unknown
1 -Me-2-n-Propyl benzene
1,4-DiMe-2-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
1,2-DiMe-4-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
1,3-DiMe-2-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
n-Undecane
1,2-DiMe-3-Ethyl benzene
1 ,2,4,5-Tetra-Me-Benzene
Unknown
P
P
P
P
a
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
o
P
P
P
P
P
a
P
a
P
P
a
o
P
o
o
a
P
P
a
a
a
a
P
a
u
u
a
P
a
a
a
a
u
n
u
u
a
a
u
a
a
u
a
u
a
u
P
a
a
u
735.91
743.87
751.44
753.56
758.58
762.98
765.00
767.55
769.28
772.50
775.34
781.70
783.92
785.98
790.50
794.85
800.00
812.37
819.44
825.88
831.77
834.70
838.60
855.40
860.26
863.65
873.73
881.42
887.56
889.31
900.00
902.49
912.37
920.34
927.97
937.70
950.95
957.45
960.02
964.32
973.55
976.97
986.65
988.06
991.48
1000.00
1008.16
1010.39
1018.22
1022.13
1031.59
1036.98
1040.81
1048.17
1054.69
1059.44
1062.68
1067.27
1075.98
1078.46
1084.27
1086.66
1092.85
1094.62
1100.00
1107.49
1119.01
1123.00
0.411
0.012
0.005
0.529
3.049
0.119
0.008
0.041
0.015
0.020
0.038
0.029
0.012
0.108
0.007
0.004
0.044
0.004
0.016
0.005
0.006
0.003
0.021
0.359
0.007
1.229
0.005
0.010
0.270
0.000
0.009
0.008
0.002
0.024
0.006
0.026
0.063
0.241
0.133
0.147
0.004
0.110
0.024
0.000
0.409
0.061
0.021
0.015
0.020
0.156
0.196
0.022
0.075
0.284
0.000
0.067
0.022
0.048
0.168
0.033
0.047
0.064
0.123
0.023
0.019
0.031
0.023
0.042
1.06
0.03
0.01
1.43
7.86
0.35
0.00
0.10
0.03
0.05
0.10
0.08
0.04
0.33
0.02
0.02
0.16
0.01
0.06
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.05
1.15
0.02
4.01
0.02
0.04
0.88
0.00
0.03
0.03
0.00
0.09
0.02
0.08
0.20
0.75
0.37
0.45
0.01
0.35
0.07
0.00
1.33
0.19
0.07
0.05
0.06
0.41
0.57
0.07
0.22
0.87
0.18
0.05
0.13
0.49
0.10
0.15
0.19
0.32
0.03
0.04
0.07
0.06
0.14
0.20
10

-------
t-1 -But-2-MeBenzene
Unknown
Methylindane
n-Pentyl benzene + t-1-Me-2-(4MP)cyclohexane
t-1 -But-3,5-Di MeBenzene
Unknown
t-1 -But-4-Ethyl benzene
Naphthalene
n-Dodecane

% Listed Peaks are of Total VOC
a
u
n
a
a
u
a
n
P


1139.52
1144.96
1156.53
1158.21
1174.77
1175.94
1183.89
1189.56
1200.00


0.060
0.005
0.027
0.025
0.011
0.005
0.000
0.000
0.000

98.95
0.02
0.09
0.08
0.05
0.09
0.00
0.05
0.00
0.00

97.27
11

-------
Table 5. Summary statistics for the hydrocarbon composition of Fuel 14.
Summary Statistics for Fuel #14


Ethanol
%Paraffins
%Olefins
%Aromatics
%Unknowns
%Fused Rings


HS
0.000
76.11
14.23
7.61
0.95
0.05


Whole
0.000
65.81
8.17
20.35
2.79
0.15
                                   12

-------
Table 6. Headspace and whole fuel composition of Fuel 6.
Fuel # 6 Headspace@25C and Whole Fuel Composition
Compound
Propane
Isobutane
Butene-1
Isobutylene
n-Butane
t-Butene-2
2,2-Di methyl propane*
c-Butene-2
3-Methyl-1-Butene
Ethanol
Isopentane
Pentene-1
2-Methyl-1-Butene
n-Pentane
Isoprene
trans-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-2-Pentene
2-Methyl-2-Butene
2,2-Di methyl butane
Cyclopentene
3-Methyl-1 -pentene
Cyclopentane
2,3-Di methyl butane
2-Methylpentane
3-Methylpentane
2-Methyl-1 -Pentene
Hexene-1
n-Hexane
trans-3-Hexene
trans-2-Hexene
2-Methyl-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-3-Hexene
4-Methylcyclopentene*
cis-2-Hexene
cis-3-Methyl-2-pentene*
2,2-DiMethylpentane
Methylcyclopentane
2,4-Di methyl pentane
2,2,3-Tri Methyl butane
2,4-DiMethyl-1 -Pentene
1 -Methylcyclopentene
Benzene
3,3-DiMethyl pentane
Cyclohexane
4-Me-1-Hexene
2-Methylhexane
2,3-Di methyl pentane
1,1-DiMeCyclopentane
3-Methylhexane
5-Methyl-2-hexene*
c-1,3-DiMeCyclopentane
t-1,3,-DiMeCyclopentane
2,2,4-Tri Meth yl pentane
3-Methyl-3-hexene
trans-3-Heptene
n-Heptane
3-Me-cis-3-Hexene
2,4,4-Tri Meth yl -1 -Pentene
MethylCyclohexane
2,5-DiMethylhexane
Type
P
P
o
o
P
o
P
o
o
ox
P
o
o
P
o
o
u
o
o
P
o
o
P
P
P
P
o
o
P
o
o
o
u
o
o
o
o
P
P
P
P
o
o
a
P
P
o
P
P
P
P
o
P
P
P
o
o
P
o
o
P
P

RTINDEX
300.00
361.88
389.97
390.92
400.00
411.64
413.35
425.94
457.43
461.50
474.54
489.36
496.17
500.00
504.19
508.72
513.67
516.35
521.04
535.47
551.84
557.98
562.82
565.46
570.09
583.52
588.52
589.36
600.00
602.80
604.98
607.37
608.87
610.49
612.17
614.50
620.74
625.13
627.20
631.38
637.00
647.79
651.00
651.21
657.00
660.96
665.23
668.68
670.80
674.11
677.22
680.55
684.41
687.12
690.72
695.08
697.82
700.00
701.44
712.30
724.30
733.56

HS
0.009
0.126
0.076
0.085
4.886
0.371
0.026
0.376
0.247
6.487
11.796
1.071
1.602
2.463
0.032
2.477
0.018
1.347
2.910
0.250
0.507
0.260
0.345
2.701
10.877
7.087
0.268
2.287
5.932
0.367
0.523
0.471
0.159
0.293
0.078
0.281
0.387
0.162
2.043
0.763
0.074
0.013
0.316
0.949
0.073
1.597
0.016
0.655
0.611
0.032
0.519
0.010
0.095
0.117
7.197
0.007
0.013
0.279
0.045
0.145
0.356
0.441

Whole
0.02
0.06
0.00
0.03
1.34
0.10
0.17
0.09
0.07
8.76
4.37
0.37
0.63
1.02
0.01
1.03
0.01
0.57
1.30
0.12
0.25
0.15
0.17
1.81
7.81
5.65
0.24
1.91
5.27
0.35
0.48
0.44
0.13
0.28
0.07
0.26
0.40
0.18
1.89
1.03
0.09
0.02
0.39
1.15
0.09
1.32
0.00
0.93
0.70
0.03
0.70
0.02
0.12
0.16
6.82
0.01
0.03
0.28
0.11
0.02
0.12
0.82
                            13

-------
2,4-DiMethylhexane + EthylCyclopentane
3,3-DiMethylhexane + 1,2,4-TriMeCyclopentane
ctc-1,2,3-TriMeCyclopentane
2,3,4-Tri Meth yl pentane
Toluene
2,3-DiMethylhexane
2-Methyl-3-Ethyl pentane
2-Methylheptane
4-Methylheptane
3,4-DiMethylhexane
3-Methylheptane
ctc-1 ,2,4-Tri MeCyclopentane
t-1 ,4-DiMeCyclohexane
2,2,5-Trimethylhexane
1,1-DiMethylCyclohexane
2,2,4-TriMethylhexane
n -Octane
cis-2-Octene
2,3,5-TriMethylhexane
2,4-DiMethylheptane
2,6-DiMethylheptane
1c2-DiMethylcyclohexane n-Propylcyclopentane
2,5-DiMeHeptane
Ethyl benzene
ctt-1 ,2,4-TriMeCyclohexane
m-& p-Xylene
3-Methyl octane
ctc-1 ,2,4-Tri MeCyclohexane
o-Xylene
Nonene-1
Nonane
trans-2-Nonene
cis-2-Nonene
I sopropyl benzene
3,5-DIMethyl octane
2,6-DIMethyl octane
n-Propyl benzene
m-Ethyltoluene
p-Ethyltoluene
1 ,3,5-Tri Methyl benzene
3-Methylnonane
o-Ethyltoluene
Unknown
Unknown
1 ,2,4-Tri Meth yl benzene
n-Decane
Isobutyl benzene + 1 -Me-2-Propylcyclohexane
sec-Butyl benzene
m-Cymene
1 ,2,3-Tri Methyl benzene
Unknown
Indane
Unknown
Unknown
n-Butylbenzene + p-Diethylbenzene
1 -Me-4-isoPropyl benzene
Unknown
1 -Me-2-n-Propyl benzene
1,4-DiMe-2-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
1,2-DiMe-4-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
1,3-DiMe-2-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
n-Undecane
1,2-DiMe-3-Ethyl benzene
1 ,2,4,5-Tetra-Me-Benzene
Unknown
P
P
P
P
a
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
o
P
P
P
P
P
a
P
a
P
P
a
o
P
o
o
a
P
P
a
a
a
a
P
a
u
u
a
P
a
a
a
a
u
n
u
u
a
a
u
a
a
u
a
u
a
u
P
a
a
u
735.91
743.87
751.44
753.56
758.58
762.98
765.00
767.55
769.28
772.50
775.34
781.70
783.92
785.98
790.50
794.85
800.00
812.37
819.44
825.88
831.77
834.70
838.60
855.40
860.26
863.65
873.73
881.42
887.56
889.31
900.00
902.49
912.37
920.34
927.97
937.70
950.95
957.45
960.02
964.32
973.55
976.97
986.65
988.06
991.48
1000.00
1008.16
1010.39
1018.22
1022.13
1031.59
1036.98
1040.81
1048.17
1054.69
1059.44
1062.68
1067.27
1075.98
1078.46
1084.27
1086.66
1092.85
1094.62
1100.00
1107.49
1119.01
1123.00
0.582
0.011
0.004
0.973
4.071
0.235
0.012
0.045
0.016
0.040
0.043
0.027
0.011
0.279
0.007
0.008
0.049
0.007
0.038
0.008
0.008
0.001
0.026
0.415
0.015
1.430
0.005
0.034
0.327
0.000
0.008
0.020
0.003
0.051
0.015
0.062
0.084
0.324
0.174
0.187
0.004
0.165
0.049
0.000
0.529
0.115
0.035
0.023
0.029
0.219
0.288
0.022
0.100
0.368
0.000
0.039
0.018
0.054
0.212
0.033
0.046
0.051
0.135
0.018
0.015
0.022
0.016
0.033
1.19
0.01
0.00
2.92
9.04
0.82
0.00
0.05
0.02
0.14
0.06
0.01
0.00
1.19
0.00
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.19
0.04
0.03
0.00
0.08
0.98
0.04
3.53
0.01
0.15
0.75
0.10
0.01
0.09
0.01
0.16
0.06
0.24
0.23
0.86
0.41
0.47
0.01
0.46
0.16
0.00
1.27
0.40
0.11
0.06
0.08
0.45
0.89
0.03
0.30
1.10
0.15
0.06
0.16
0.57
0.08
0.11
0.13
0.34
0.04
0.05
0.08
0.05
0.12
0.18
14

-------
t-1 -But-2-MeBenzene
Unknown
Methylindane
n-Pentyl benzene + t-1-Me-2-(4MP)cyclohexane
t-1 -But-3,5-Di MeBenzene
Unknown
t-1 -But-4-Ethyl benzene
Naphthalene
n-Dodecane

% Listed Peaks are of Total VOC
a
u
n
a
a
u
a
n
P


1139.52
1144.96
1156.53
1158.21
1174.77
1175.94
1183.89
1189.56
1200.00


0.047
0.004
0.018
0.019
0.009
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000

98.40
0.02
0.06
0.06
0.04
0.06
0.00
0.03
0.00
0.00

94.49
15

-------
Table 7. Summary statistics for the hydrocarbon composition of Fuel 6.
Summary Statistics for Fuel # 6


%Ethanol
%Paraffins
%Olefins
%Aromatics
%Unknowns
%Fused Rings


HS
6.49
64.21
16.91
9.61
1.14
0.04


Whole
8.76
50.90
9.87
21.36
3.51
0.09
                                   16

-------
Table 8. Headspace and whole fuel composition of Fuel No 10.
Fuel #10 Headspace@25C and Whole Fuel Composition
Compound
Propane
Isobutane
Butene-1
Isobutylene
n-Butane
t-Butene-2
2, 2-Dimethyl propane*
c-Butene-2
3-Methyl-1-Butene
Ethanol
Isopentane
Pentene-1
2-Methyl-1-Butene
n-Pentane
Isoprene
trans-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-2-Pentene
2-Methyl-2-Butene
2,2-Dimethyl butane
Cyclopentene
3-Methyl-1 -pentene
Cyclopentane
2,3-Dimethyl butane
2-Methylpentane
3-Methylpentane
2-Methyl-1 -Pentene
Hexene-1
n-Hexane
trans-3-Hexene
trans-2-Hexene
2-Methyl-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-3-Hexene
4-Methylcyclopentene*
cis-2-Hexene
cis-3-Methyl-2 -pentene*
2,2-DiMethylpentane
Methylcyclopentane
2,4-Dimethylpentane
2,2,3-TriMethylbutane
2,4-DiMethyl-1 -Pentene
1 -Methylcyclopentene
Benzene
3,3-DiMethylpentane
Cyclohexane
4-Me-1 -Hexene
2-Methylhexane
2,3-Dimethyl pentane
1,1-DiMeCyclopentane
3-Methylhexane
5-Methyl-2-hexene*
c-1 ,3-DiMeCyclopentane
t-1 ,3,-DiMeCyclopentane
2, 2,4-TriMethyl pentane
3-Methyl-3-hexene
Type
P
P
0
o
P
0
P
0
o
ox
P
o
0
P
o
0
u
0
o
P
0
o
P
P
P
P
o
0
P
o
0
o
u
0
o
0
o
P
P
P
P
o
0
a
P
P
o
P
P
P
P
o
P
P
P
0
RTMDEX
300.00
361.88
389.97
390.92
400.00
411.64
413.35
425.94
457.43
461.50
474.54
489.36
496.17
500.00
504.19
508.72
513.67
516.35
521.04
535.47
551.84
557.98
562.82
565.46
570.09
583.52
588.52
589.36
600.00
602.80
604.98
607.37
608.87
610.49
612.17
614.50
620.74
625.13
627.20
631.38
637.00
647.79
651.00
651.21
657.00
660.96
665.23
668.68
670.80
674.11
677.22
680.55
684.41
687.12
690.72
695.08

HS
0.008
0.076
0.055
0.058
4.024
0.269
0.047
0.266
0.170
6.406
8.787
0.762
1.140
3.817
0.022
1.823
0.016
0.991
2.197
0.618
0.396
0.229
0.601
2.063
11.190
6.106
0.364
0.290
6.388
0.384
0.549
0.498
0.159
0.306
0.082
0.297
0.414
0.209
2.235
0.449
0.062
0.014
0.367
0.793
0.081
1.548
0.018
0.712
0.316
0.037
0.547
0.012
0.110
0.135
3.599
0.009

Whole
0.01
0.02
0.00
0.04
1.32
0.10
0.07
0.09
0.07
7.74
4.06
0.36
0.58
1.94
0.01
0.95
0.01
0.52
1.18
0.35
0.24
0.13
0.37
1.32
7.62
4.35
0.27
0.16
5.22
0.31
0.45
0.41
0.12
0.25
0.05
0.24
0.38
0.22
2.04
0.41
0.06
0.02
0.38
0.95
0.10
1.66
0.03
0.93
0.24
0.05
0.72
0.02
0.15
0.19
0.20
0.02
                          17

-------
trans-3-Heptene
n-Heptane
3-Me-cis-3-Hexene
2,4,4-TriMethyM-Pentene
MethylCyclohexane
2, 5-Di Methyl hexane
2,4-DiMethylhexane + EthylCyclopentane
3,3-DiMethylhexane + 1,2,4-TriMeCyclopentane
ctc-1 ,2,3-TriMeCyclopentane
2,3,4-TriMethylpentane
Toluene
2,3-Di Methyl hexane
2-Methyl-3-Ethylpentane
2-Methyl heptane
4-Methyl heptane
3, 4-Di Methyl hexane
3-Methyl heptane
ctc-1 ,2,4-TriMeCyclopentane
t-1 ,4-Di MeCyclohexane
2,2,5-Trimethylhexane
1,1 -Di MethylCyclohexane
2,2,4-TriMethylhexane
n-Octane
cis-2-Octene
2,3,5-TriMethylhexane
2, 4-Di Methyl heptane
2,6-DiMethyl heptane
1c2-DiMethylcyclohexane n-Propylcyclopentane
2,5-DiMeHeptane
Ethyl benzene
ctt-1,2,4-Tri MeCyclohexane
m-& p-Xylene
3-Methyloctane
ctc-1 , 2, 4-Tri MeCyclohexane
o-Xylene
Nonene-1
Nonane
trans-2-Nonene
cis-2-Nonene
Isopropylbenzene
3,5-DiMethyloctane
2,6-DiMethyloctane
n-Propyl benzene
m-Ethyltoluene
p-Ethyltoluene
1 ,3,5-TriMethyl benzene
3-Methyl nonane
o-Ethyltoluene
Unknown
Unknown
1 ,2,4-TriMethyl benzene
n-Decane
Isobutylbenzene + 1-Me-2-Propylcyclohexane
sec-Butyl benzene
m-Cymene
1 ,2,3-TriMethyl benzene
Unknown
Indane
Unknown
Unknown
n-Butylbenzene + p-Diethylbenzene
o
P
o
0
P
P
P
P
P
P
a
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
o
P
P
P
P
P
a
P
a
P
P
a
o
P
o
o
a
P
P
a
a
a
a
P
a
u
u
a
P
a
a
a
a
u
n
u
u
a
697.82
700.00
701.44
712.30
724.30
733.56
735.91
743.87
751.44
753.56
758.58
762.98
765.00
767.55
769.28
772.50
775.34
781.70
783.92
785.98
790.50
794.85
800.00
812.37
819.44
825.88
831.77
834.70
838.60
855.40
860.26
863.65
873.73
881.42
887.56
889.31
900.00
902.49
912.37
920.34
927.97
937.70
950.95
957.45
960.02
964.32
973.55
976.97
986.65
988.06
991.48
1000.00
1008.16
1010.39
1018.22
1022.13
1031.59
1036.98
1040.81
1048.17
1054.69
0.018
0.300
0.061
0.107
0.363
0.368
0.489
0.014
0.006
0.913
6.355
0.248
0.000
0.064
0.022
0.043
0.062
0.039
0.017
0.309
0.007
0.010
0.078
0.009
0.049
0.011
0.014
0.003
0.044
0.958
0.020
3.423
0.011
0.043
0.731
0.000
0.019
0.025
0.000
0.067
0.017
0.080
0.191
0.751
0.367
0.464
0.009
0.348
0.066
0.000
1.308
0.187
0.064
0.043
0.061
0.387
0.590
0.064
0.218
0.840
0.000
0.03
0.39
0.12
0.02
0.39
0.16
0.27
0.02
0.01
0.98
15.10
0.35
0.00
0.07
0.03
0.06
0.06
0.03
0.01
0.60
0.01
0.02
0.07
0.02
0.11
0.03
0.02
0.00
0.06
2.36
0.04
8.48
0.01
0.11
1.54
0.00
0.01
0.05
0.00
0.11
0.04
0.15
0.41
1.66
0.88
0.99
0.02
0.70
0.13
0.00
2.70
0.27
0.10
0.07
0.09
0.74
0.65
0.14
0.23
1.01
0.26
18

-------
1-Me-4-isoPropyl benzene
Unknown
1 -Me-2-n-Propylbenzene
1,4-DiMe-2-Ethylbenzene
Unknown
1 ,2-Di Me-4-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
1,3-DiMe-2-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
n-Undecane
1 ,2-Di Me-3-Ethyl benzene
1 ,2,4,5-Tetra-Me-Benzene
Unknown
t-1 -But-2-MeBenzene
Unknown
Methylindane
n-Pentylbenzene + t-1-Me-2-(4MP)cyclohexane
t-1-But-3,5-DiMeBenzene
Unknown
t-1 -But-4-Ethylbenzene
Naphthalene
n-Dodecane

% Listed Peaks are of TotalVOC
a
u
a
a
u
a
u
a
u
P
a
a
u
a
u
n
a
a
u
a
n
P


1059.44
1062.68
1067.27
1075.98
1078.46
1084.27
1086.66
1092.85
1094.62
1100.00
1107.49
1119.01
1123.00
1139.52
1144.96
1156.53
1158.21
1174.77
1175.94
1183.89
1189.56
1200.00


0.214
0.053
0.142
0.500
0.109
0.151
0.212
0.319
0.045
0.056
0.095
0.149
0.148
0.210
0.022
0.094
0.089
0.057
0.000
0.024
0.020
0.000

97.21
0.05
0.12
0.52
0.14
0.17
0.29
0.31
0.07
0.04
0.07
0.12
0.21
0.29
0.03
0.15
0.13
0.08
0.05
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.00

95.52
19

-------
Table 9. Summary statistics for the hydrocarbon composition of Fuel 10.
Summary Statistics for Fuel #10


%Ethanol
%Paraffins
%Olefins
%Aromatics
%Unknowns
%Fused Rings


HS
6.41
57.68
12.20
18.26
2.48
0.18


Whole
7.74
38.07
7.51
38.71
3.22
0.26
                                   20

-------
Table 10. Headspace and whole fuel composition of Fuel No 27.
Fuel # 27 Headspace@25C and Whole Fuel Composition
Compound
Propane
Isobutane
Butene-1
Isobutylene
n-Butane
t-Butene-2
2,2-Di methyl propane*
c-Butene-2
3-Methyl-1-Butene
Ethanol
Isopentane
Pentene-1
2-Methyl-1-Butene
n-Pentane
Isoprene
trans-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-2-Pentene
2-Methyl-2-Butene
2,2-Di methyl butane
Cyclopentene
3-Methyl-1 -pentene
Cyclopentane
2,3-Di methyl butane
2-Methylpentane
3-Methylpentane
2-Methyl-1 -Pentene
Hexene-1
n-Hexane
trans-3-Hexene
trans-2-Hexene
2-Methyl-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-3-Hexene
4-Methylcyclopentene*
cis-2-Hexene
cis-3-Methyl-2-pentene*
2,2-DIMethylpentane
Methylcyclopentane
2,4-Di methyl pentane
2,2,3-Tri Methyl butane
2,4-DiMethyl-1 -Pentene
1 -Methylcyclopentene
Benzene
3,3-DiMethyl pentane
Cyclohexane
4-Me-1-Hexene
2-Methylhexane
2,3-Di methyl pentane
1,1-DiMeCyclopentane
3-Methylhexane
5-Methyl-2-hexene*
c-1,3-DiMeCyclopentane
t-1,3,-DiMeCyclopentane
2,2,4-Tri Meth yl pentane
3-Methyl-3-hexene
trans-3-Heptene
n-Heptane
3-Me-cis-3-Hexene
2,4,4-Tri Meth yl -1 -Pentene
MethylCyclohexane
2,5-DiMethylhexane
Type
P
P
o
o
P
o
P
o
o
ox
P
o
o
P
o
o
u
o
o
P
o
o
P
P
P
P
o
o
P
o
o
o
u
o
o
o
o
P
P
P
P
o
o
a
P
P
o
P
P
P
P
o
P
P
P
o
o
P
o
o
P
P

RTINDEX
300.00
361.88
389.97
390.92
400.00
411.64
413.35
425.94
457.43
461.50
474.54
489.36
496.17
500.00
504.19
508.72
513.67
516.35
521.04
535.47
551.84
557.98
562.82
565.46
570.09
583.52
588.52
589.36
600.00
602.80
604.98
607.37
608.87
610.49
612.17
614.50
620.74
625.13
627.20
631.38
637.00
647.79
651.00
651.21
657.00
660.96
665.23
668.68
670.80
674.11
677.22
680.55
684.41
687.12
690.72
695.08
697.82
700.00
701.44
712.30
724.30
733.56

HS
0.004
0.098
0.063
0.067
4.764
0.319
0.029
0.302
0.185
26.516
9.620
0.813
1.230
1.834
0.025
1.930
0.017
1.057
2.328
0.058
0.435
0.241
0.193
2.334
3.356
1.985
0.419
0.250
1.639
0.429
0.627
0.565
0.190
0.344
0.092
0.342
0.492
0.043
1.317
1.276
0.093
0.018
0.439
1.148
0.003
0.385
0.027
0.552
0.678
0.011
0.435
0.015
0.096
0.122
6.601
0.016
0.025
0.154
0.086
0.033
0.095
0.756

Whole
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.00
1.68
0.11
0.27
0.11
0.09
12.35
5.05
0.41
0.66
1.05
0.03
1.09
0.01
0.59
1.34
0.04
0.26
0.15
0.13
1.64
2.27
1.45
0.29
0.20
1.26
0.34
0.50
0.46
0.14
0.29
0.07
0.28
0.41
0.03
1.10
1.25
0.09
0.02
0.42
1.04
0.05
0.33
0.03
0.63
0.81
0.01
0.50
0.01
0.11
0.14
9.26
0.02
0.03
0.18
0.12
0.03
0.08
1.42
                          21

-------
2,4-DiMethylhexane + EthylCyclopentane
3,3-DiMethylhexane + 1,2,4-TriMeCyclopentane
ctc-1,2,3-TriMeCyclopentane
2,3,4-Tri Meth yl pentane
Toluene
2,3-DiMethylhexane
2-Methyl-3-Ethyl pentane
2-Methylheptane
4-Methylheptane
3,4-DiMethylhexane
3-Methylheptane
ctc-1 ,2,4-Tri MeCyclopentane
t-1 ,4-DiMeCyclohexane
2,2,5-Trimethylhexane
1,1-DiMethylCyclohexane
2,2,4-TriMethylhexane
n -Octane
cis-2-Octene
2,3,5-TriMethylhexane
2,4-DiMethylheptane
2,6-DiMethylheptane
1c2-DiMethylcyclohexane n-Propylcyclopentane
2,5-DiMeHeptane
Ethyl benzene
ctt-1 ,2,4-TriMeCyclohexane
m-& p-Xylene
3-Methyl octane
ctc-1 ,2,4-Tri MeCyclohexane
o-Xylene
Nonene-1
Nonane
trans-2-Nonene
cis-2-Nonene
I sopropyl benzene
3,5-DIMethyl octane
2,6-DIMethyl octane
n-Propyl benzene
m-Ethyltoluene
p-Ethyltoluene
1 ,3,5-Tri Methyl benzene
3-Methylnonane
o-Ethyltoluene
Unknown
Unknown
1 ,2,4-Tri Meth yl benzene
n-Decane
Isobutyl benzene + 1 -Me-2-Propylcyclohexane
sec-Butyl benzene
m-Cymene
1 ,2,3-Tri Methyl benzene
Unknown
Indane
Unknown
Unknown
n-Butylbenzene + p-Diethylbenzene
1 -Me-4-isoPropyl benzene
Unknown
1 -Me-2-n-Propyl benzene
1,4-DiMe-2-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
1,2-DiMe-4-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
1,3-DiMe-2-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
n-Undecane
1,2-DiMe-3-Ethyl benzene
1 ,2,4,5-Tetra-Me-Benzene
Unknown
P
P
P
P
a
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
o
P
P
P
P
P
a
P
a
P
P
a
o
P
o
o
a
P
P
a
a
a
a
P
a
u
u
a
P
a
a
a
a
u
n
u
u
a
a
u
a
a
u
a
u
a
u
P
a
a
u
735.91
743.87
751.44
753.56
758.58
762.98
765.00
767.55
769.28
772.50
775.34
781.70
783.92
785.98
790.50
794.85
800.00
812.37
819.44
825.88
831.77
834.70
838.60
855.40
860.26
863.65
873.73
881.42
887.56
889.31
900.00
902.49
912.37
920.34
927.97
937.70
950.95
957.45
960.02
964.32
973.55
976.97
986.65
988.06
991.48
1000.00
1008.16
1010.39
1018.22
1022.13
1031.59
1036.98
1040.81
1048.17
1054.69
1059.44
1062.68
1067.27
1075.98
1078.46
1084.27
1086.66
1092.85
1094.62
1100.00
1107.49
1119.01
1123.00
1.042
0.006
0.000
2.505
6.719
0.570
0.017
0.038
0.013
0.104
0.043
0.013
0.004
0.849
0.003
0.010
0.037
0.021
0.112
0.015
0.019
0.000
0.050
0.452
0.027
1.509
0.010
0.087
0.288
0.058
0.027
0.041
0.000
0.062
0.026
0.084
0.074
0.279
0.173
0.176
0.015
0.154
0.058
0.000
0.441
0.000
0.038
0.023
0.033
0.000
0.297
0.024
0.105
0.388
0.000
0.057
0.031
0.056
0.195
0.028
0.034
0.036
0.145
0.025
0.013
0.026
0.016
0.033
1.96
0.01
0.00
5.37
12.69
1.34
0.06
0.07
0.02
0.25
0.08
0.01
0.00
2.41
0.00
0.03
0.03
0.07
0.38
0.05
0.07
0.00
0.17
0.99
0.08
3.52
0.03
0.36
0.73
0.24
0.10
0.16
0.01
0.23
0.09
0.30
0.21
0.77
0.38
0.50
0.05
0.44
0.15
0.00
1.16
0.48
0.10
0.06
0.09
0.26
0.77
0.06
0.26
0.88
0.06
0.04
0.13
0.45
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.22
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.02
0.06
0.10
22

-------
t-1 -But-2-MeBenzene
Unknown
Methylindane
n-Pentyl benzene + t-1-Me-2-(4MP)cyclohexane
t-1 -But-3,5-Di MeBenzene
Unknown
t-1 -But-4-Ethyl benzene
Naphthalene
n-Dodecane

% Listed Peaks are of TotalVOC
a
u
n
a
a
u
a
n
P


1139.52
1144.96
1156.53
1158.21
1174.77
1175.94
1183.89
1189.56
1200.00


0.047
0.004
0.022
0.019
0.010
0.009
0.000
0.004
0.000

97.56
0.01
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.00

92.90
23

-------
Table 11. Summary statistics for the hydrocarbon composition of Fuel 27.
Summary Statistics for Fuel# 27


% Ethanol
%Paraffins
%Olefins
%Aromatics
%Unknowns
%Fused Rings


HS
26.52
44.27
13.33
12.17
1.22
0.05


Whole
12.35
44.76
8.87
24.02
2.79
0.10
                                   24

-------
Table 12. Headspace and whole fuel composition of Fuel 28.
Fuel # 28 Headspace@25C and Whole Fuel Composition
Compound
Propane
Isobutane
Butene-1
Isobutylene
n-Butane
t-Butene-2
2, 2-Dimethyl propane*
c-Butene-2
3-Methyl-1-Butene
Ethanol
Isopentane
Pentene-1
2-Methyl-1-Butene
n-Pentane
Isoprene
trans-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-2-Pentene
2-Methyl-2-Butene
2,2-Dimethyl butane
Cyclopentene
3-Methyl-1 -pentene
Cyclopentane
2,3-Dimethyl butane
2-Methylpentane
3-Methylpentane
2-Methyl-1 -Pentene
Hexene-1
n-Hexane
trans-3-Hexene
trans-2-Hexene
2-Methyl-2-Pentene
Unknown
cis-3-Hexene
4-Methylcyclopentene*
cis-2-Hexene
cis-3-Methyl-2 -pentene*
2,2-DiMethylpentane
Methylcyclopentane
2,4-Dimethylpentane
2,2,3-TriMethylbutane
2,4-DiMethyl-1 -Pentene
1 -Methylcyclopentene
Benzene
3,3-DiMethylpentane
Cyclohexane
4-Me-1 -Hexene
2-Methylhexane
2,3-Dimethyl pentane
1,1-DiMeCyclopentane
3-Methylhexane
5-Methyl-2-hexene*
c-1 ,3-DiMeCyclopentane
t-1 ,3,-DiMeCyclopentane
2, 2,4-TriMethyl pentane
3-Methyl-3-hexene
Type
P
P
0
o
P
0
P
0
o
ox
P
o
0
P
o
0
u
0
o
P
0
o
P
P
P
P
o
0
P
o
0
o
u
0
o
0
o
P
P
P
P
o
0
a
P
P
o
P
P
P
P
o
P
P
P
0

RTINDEX
300.00
361.88
389.97
390.92
400.00
411.64
413.35
425.94
457.43
461.50
474.54
489.36
496.17
500.00
504.19
508.72
513.67
516.35
521.04
535.47
551.84
557.98
562.82
565.46
570.09
583.52
588.52
589.36
600.00
602.80
604.98
607.37
608.87
610.49
612.17
614.50
620.74
625.13
627.20
631.38
637.00
647.79
651.00
651.21
657.00
660.96
665.23
668.68
670.80
674.11
677.22
680.55
684.41
687.12
690.72
695.08

HS
0.009
0.099
0.065
0.092
6.827
0.319
0.024
0.340
0.202
27.854
8.310
0.868
1.305
1.951
0.029
2.025
0.015
1.107
2.425
0.060
0.439
0.247
0.198
1.336
3.393
2.261
0.401
0.248
2.724
0.416
0.607
0.551
0.179
0.334
0.090
0.331
0.472
0.082
1.480
0.706
0.057
0.017
0.433
1.021
0.061
0.595
0.031
0.541
0.367
0.012
0.412
0.014
0.090
0.112
2.981
0.012

Whole
0.02
0.04
0.00
0.03
1.98
0.11
0.04
0.11
0.07
11.10
3.58
0.38
0.61
0.95
0.01
1.00
0.01
0.55
1.24
0.03
0.24
0.14
0.12
0.83
2.20
1.54
0.27
0.18
2.03
0.31
0.45
0.41
0.12
0.25
0.06
0.25
0.38
0.07
1.18
0.62
0.05
0.02
0.37
0.95
0.05
0.55
0.03
0.60
0.38
0.01
0.47
0.02
0.10
0.14
3.53
0.02
                         25

-------
trans-3-Heptene
n-Heptane
3-Me-cis-3-Hexene
2,4,4-TriMethyM-Pentene
MethylCyclohexane
2, 5-Di Methyl hexane
2,4-DiMethylhexane + EthylCyclopentane
3,3-DiMethylhexane + 1,2,4-TriMeCyclopentane
ctc-1 ,2,3-TriMeCyclopentane
2,3,4-TriMethylpentane
Toluene
2,3-Di Methyl hexane
2-Methyl-3-Ethylpentane
2-Methyl heptane
4-Methyl heptane
3, 4-Di Methyl hexane
3-Methyl heptane
ctc-1 ,2,4-TriMeCyclopentane
t-1 ,4-Di MeCyclohexane
2,2,5-Trimethylhexane
1,1 -Di MethylCyclohexane
2,2,4-TriMethylhexane
n-Octane
cis-2-Octene
2,3,5-TriMethylhexane
2, 4-Di Methyl heptane
2,6-DiMethyl heptane
1c2-DiMethylcyclohexane n-Propylcyclopentane
2,5-DiMeHeptane
Ethyl benzene
ctt-1,2,4-Tri MeCyclohexane
m-& p-Xylene
3-Methyloctane
ctc-1 , 2, 4-Tri MeCyclohexane
o-Xylene
Nonene-1
Nonane
trans-2-Nonene
cis-2-Nonene
Isopropylbenzene
3,5-DiMethyloctane
2,6-DiMethyloctane
n-Propyl benzene
m-Ethyltoluene
p-Ethyltoluene
1 ,3,5-TriMethyl benzene
3-Methyl nonane
o-Ethyltoluene
Unknown
Unknown
1 ,2,4-TriMethyl benzene
n-Decane
Isobutylbenzene + 1-Me-2-Propylcyclohexane
sec-Butyl benzene
m-Cymene
1 ,2,3-TriMethyl benzene
Unknown
Indane
Unknown
Unknown
n-Butylbenzene + p-Diethylbenzene
o
P
o
0
P
P
P
P
P
P
a
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
o
P
P
P
P
P
a
P
a
P
P
a
o
P
o
o
a
P
P
a
a
a
a
P
a
u
u
a
P
a
a
a
a
u
n
u
u
a
697.82
700.00
701.44
712.30
724.30
733.56
735.91
743.87
751.44
753.56
758.58
762.98
765.00
767.55
769.28
772.50
775.34
781.70
783.92
785.98
790.50
794.85
800.00
812.37
819.44
825.88
831.77
834.70
838.60
855.40
860.26
863.65
873.73
881.42
887.56
889.31
900.00
902.49
912.37
920.34
927.97
937.70
950.95
957.45
960.02
964.32
973.55
976.97
986.65
988.06
991.48
1000.00
1008.16
1010.39
1018.22
1022.13
1031.59
1036.98
1040.81
1048.17
1054.69
0.023
0.133
0.080
0.019
0.056
0.562
0.806
0.004
0.000
2.393
10.859
0.581
0.024
0.038
0.016
0.116
0.041
0.006
0.002
0.963
0.000
0.012
0.018
0.024
0.127
0.017
0.024
0.000
0.047
0.750
0.028
2.515
0.005
0.088
0.401
0.061
0.008
0.031
0.001
0.019
0.005
0.016
0.047
0.168
0.093
0.090
0.002
0.064
0.011
0.000
0.235
0.022
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.000
0.048
0.012
0.019
0.074
0.000
0.03
0.18
0.11
0.02
0.07
0.96
1.38
0.01
0.00
4.73
23.35
1.26
0.05
0.08
0.03
0.25
0.07
0.01
0.00
2.59
0.00
0.03
0.03
0.08
0.42
0.06
0.07
0.00
0.18
2.88
0.11
10.26
0.01
0.43
1.69
0.27
0.01
0.15
0.01
0.08
0.01
0.02
0.19
0.76
0.46
0.43
0.01
0.28
0.05
0.00
1.23
0.00
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.37
0.12
0.07
0.05
0.26
0.13
26

-------
1-Me-4-isoPropyl benzene
Unknown
1 -Me-2-n-Propylbenzene
1,4-DiMe-2-Ethylbenzene
Unknown
1 ,2-Di Me-4-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
1,3-DiMe-2-Ethyl benzene
Unknown
n-Undecane
1 ,2-Di Me-3-Ethyl benzene
1 ,2,4,5-Tetra-Me-Benzene
Unknown
t-1 -But-2-MeBenzene
Unknown
Methylindane
n-Pentylbenzene + t-1-Me-2-(4MP)cyclohexane
t-1-But-3,5-DiMeBenzene
Unknown
t-1 -But-4-Ethylbenzene
Naphthalene
n-Dodecane
% Listed Peaks are of TotalVOC
a
u
a
a
u
a
u
a
u
P
a
a
u
a
u
n
a
a
u
a
n
P

1059.44
1062.68
1067.27
1075.98
1078.46
1084.27
1086.66
1092.85
1094.62
1100.00
1107.49
1119.01
1123.00
1139.52
1144.96
1156.53
1158.21
1174.77
1175.94
1183.89
1189.56
1200.00

0.018
0.006
0.010
0.038
0.007
0.008
0.011
0.020
0.003
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.006
0.019
0.000
0.004
0.005
0.000
0.000
0.010
0.000
0.000
99.18
0.04
0.04
0.14
0.06
0.08
0.29
0.08
0.00
0.01
0.03
0.04
0.09
0.14
0.01
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
98.46
27

-------
Table 13. Summary statistics for the hydrocarbon composition of Fuel 28.
Summary Statistics for Fuel# 28


%Ethanol
%Paraffins
%Olefins
%Aromatics
%Unknowns
%Fused Rings


HS
27.85
40.85
13.66
16.42
0.38
0.02


Whole
11.10
34.20
8.18
43.86
1.01
0.12
                                   28

-------