Alternative Refrigerants
   HFO-1234yf(R-1234yf)
   HFO-1234yf is a refrigerant being introduced
   by many automobile manufacturers. There are
   cars on the road today using this alternative.
   HFO-1234yf is mildly flammable, but can be
   used safely.

   Carbon Dioxide (C02, R-744)
   C02 is a high pressure refrigerant being
   considered by automobile manufacturers.
   C02 systems operate at 5 to 10 times higher
   pressure than other MVAC systems.

   HFC-152a(R-152a)
   HFC-152a  is a refrigerant that may be pursued
   in the future. HFC-152a is flammable, but can
   be used safely.
EPA's Ozone Layer Protection Website
     http://www.epa.gov/ozone/strathome.html


  Learn More about CAA Section 609
  and How to Become 609 Certified
      http://www.epa.gov/ozone/title6/609/


         EPA's SNAP Program
        http://www.epa.gov/ozone/snap/

New Climate-Friendly
Motor Vehicle Air
Conditioning  Refrigerants
Environmental Impacts of MVAC Refrigerants
Refrigerant
CFC-12
HFC-134a
HFC-152a
HFO-1234yf
C02 (R-744)
Global Warming
Potential (GWP)
10,900
1,430
124
4
1
Ozone Depleting?
Yes
No
No
No
No
 *GWP values are from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
 Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
               430-F-13-041
              September 2013

              &EFA
    Disclaimer: EPA does not endorse any particular
            company or its products.
                                                                                        SEFft
                United States
                Environmental Protection
                Agency

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Protecting the Ozone  Layer
and Climate  System
In the past your car was cooled by
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12, a substance
that destroys the stratospheric ozone layer
that shields the Earth from the sun's harmful
ultraviolet radiation. Automobile manufacturers
transitioned to the non-ozone depleting alternative
hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-134a in the mid-1990s.
HFC-134a, like its predecessor, is a potent
greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change.
Today, automobile manufacturers are beginning
the transition to new, climate-friendly alternative
refrigerants.

Section 609 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) establishes
requirements to prevent the release of refrigerant
during the servicing of motor vehicle air
conditioning (MVAC) systems through proper
servicing  procedures.
EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP)
Program ensures the smooth transition to
alternatives that pose lower overall risk to human
health and the environment. Under SNAP, EPA
recently listed three low global warming potential
(GWP) MVAC refrigerants as acceptable subject
to use conditions: hydrofluoroolefin (HFO)-1234yf,
carbon dioxide, and HFC-152a. None of these
alternatives deplete the ozone layer and all have
significantly lower impacts to the climate system
thanCFC-12orHFC-134a.

In the United States and globally, many automobile
manufacturers are transitioning to these low GWP
alternatives. It is important for both consumers
and technicians to be aware of these alternative
refrigerants, their properties, and proper servicing
procedures.


Clean Air Act Requirements
AS REQUIRED BY FEDERAL LAW

  MVAC systems may only be serviced for consideration
   (payment or bartering) by technicians trained and
   certified under CAA Section 609.

  It is illegal for any person to knowingly release or vent
   refrigerants (except C02) during service, maintenance,
   repair and disposal. Such actions pose a risk to human
   health and the environment.

  Technicians must use certified service equipment
   designed for recovery only or  recovery, recycling and
   recharging of MVACs.

  MVAC systems, service equipment and containers
   have unique fittings for each refrigerant to prevent the
   dangerous mixing of refrigerants. An adapter should not
   be used to convert a fitting.

  Refrigerant must be properly recycled before recharging
   it into an MVAC system.

  Hydrocarbons are not approved for use in MVAC systems.

 SAMPLE LABELS LOCATED UNDER VEHICLE HOOD
                     HFO-1234yf
      Use Caution Refrigerant Type  Flammable   Requires Certification
  Lubricant
  Type
                         C02
      Use Caution Refrigerant Type
                              Total
                              Charge
                              Amount

                              Relevant
                              Standards
                    Requires Certification
                        L
  Lubricant
  Type
                              Total
                              Charge
                              Amount

                              Relevant
                              Standards
Copyright  SAE International. Reprinted with permission.
MVAC Servicing  Best Practices
SERVICING TIPS

  Locate and repair leaks before topping off a system.
   Failing to repair leaks may result in MVAC system
   damage or failure.

  Do not add more refrigerant than necessary. This
   can cause system damage and decrease system
   performance.

  Never mix refrigerants or use a refrigerant not
   intended for an MVAC system. Mixing refrigerants,
   even accidentally, can lead to higher than expected
   system  pressures, component and system damage,
   diagnostic errors and hazards to human health and
   the environment.

  Beware of contaminated refrigerants. Consider
   purchasing certified refrigerant identification
   equipment.

  Read and comply with all specifications on refrigerant
   containers, vehicle  manufacturers' manuals, and
   lubricants.

  Do not replace system components with salvaged
   parts, or parts from a system meant for another
   refrigerant.


MAKE SAFETY A PRIORITY

  Review and practice safety procedures and use
   protective equipment.

  When servicing MVACs, particularly systems with
   HFO-1234yf and HFC-152a, avoid sparks or flames in
   the work area.

  Wear safety glasses and insulated gloves, and avoid
   direct contact of refrigerant with skin.

  Work in a well-ventilated area. Acute exposure to any
   refrigerant can lead to harm to your personal safety
   and health, including asphyxiation.

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