Recipes for Healthy Kids
and a Healthy Environment
  Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
                         «»EPA

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      EPA Off ice of Children's Health Protection
           Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
               Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Topics and Structure

Lesson 1: Environmental Health 101

Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards

Lesson 3: Breathing Easy: Keeping the Inside of Our Homes Healthy and Clean

Lesson 4: Be Sun Smart

Lesson 5: Climate Change and You

Lesson 6: Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean

Lesson 7: Healthy Water Inside

Lesson 8: Sustainable Eating, Healthy Foods, and Community Gardens

Lesson 9: All Together Now—Air, Water, Food, and Shelter
           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
March 2013
www.epa.gov

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                                            Recipes for Healthy Kids
                                            and a Healthy Environment
                                            Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
 Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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v>EPA

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           Lesson  1: Environmental  Health 1O1
Snapshot
This lesson introduces the broad concept of environmental health and why children may be
particularly at risk from environmental health hazards by focusing on the differences between
adults and children. These differences will be highlighted by examining the four things that all
living beings need in order to survive (air, water, food, and shelter).

Preparation and Materials:
• Posters 1-3, Visual Cards 1-6, Take-Home Talk
• Flip chart and markers
• Black or white board
• Large sheets of paper for each child to make a poster
• Markers or crayons

Objectives—Students will be  able to:
• define environment and environmental health;
• list the four things that all living beings need;
• understand why children are often more at risk from environmental health hazards; and
• understand that their actions  can help to create a healthier environment for themselves
  and for everyone around them.

Vocabulary: environment, living beings, health, and impact

Procedure:
1. Introduction—The Earth and Our Club: A Comparison (5 minutes)
2. Define Vocabulary—Environment, Living Beings, Health, and Impact (5 minutes)
3. Stayin'Alive—Air, Water, Food, and Shelter (10 minutes)
4. The Big Four Search Activity (10-15 minutes)
  Optional Activity: The Big  Four Poster Creation (10-15 minutes)
5. Close and Take-Home Talk (10 minutes)
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
April 2013
www.epa.gov

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          Lesson 1: Environmental Health  1O1
1,    Introduction:
     The Earth and Our Club: A Comparison (5 minutes)
         [Show Poster #1 (Earth).] Pass it around and ask what the class knows about the Earth.
         Prompts: What is the Earth made of? Who uses it? How is it used? How do you take
         care of it? What happens if it's not taken care of?
         [Show Poster #2 (Building).] Pass it around and ask the class to think about the building
         that they are in now. What do they know about the building?
         Prompts: What is it made it? Who uses it? How is it used? How do you take care of it?
         What happens if it's not taken care of?
         The Earth and the building that the class is sitting in are alike. What do they have in
         common?
         Prompts: People use them both. People use the resources of the Earth and the
         resources of the building we are in today. Both the Earth and this building can get dirty
         and need to be cleaned. They both need to be cared for (cleaned/not polluted) in very
         specific ways. There are lots of people in some areas and not a lot in others—some
         locations and activities are in higher demand than others.
                                                                    «»EPA

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                                          Lesson T
                                          ^—V***^?^? \^ I  I  I •
                                          Environmental Health 1O1
                                                            oster #1
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
 Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks


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SEPA

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                                                     Lesson T
                                                     ^—V***^?^? \^ I I  I •
                                                     Environmental Health 1O1
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
  Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks


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E

 SEPA

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          Lesson 1: Environmental Health 1O1
2,   Define Vocabulary:  Environment,
      Living Beings, Health, and Impact (5 minutes)
.xplain
Today we're going to talk about how our Earth, our city, our community spaces, our schools,
and our homes are all connected and impact each other.
          When you hear the word environment, what comes to mind? What does the word
          environment make you think of?

          Prompts: Do you think about basketballs or animals? Ice cream or water? Mountains orTVs?
 xplain
.xplain
When we hear the word environment, we often think about nature, right? Things that are
outdoors—plants, animals, wind, rain, water, sun, and different types of land—forests and
desserts, mountains and jungles, rainforests and fields. Well, the environment is all of these
things and a lot more—environment means everything that affects the life, development,
and survival of living things.


We hear the word pollution connected to the environment sometimes. What is pollution?


Pollution is when our air, water, or food has things in it that are not good for us. Pollution
might be poisonous chemicals or other things that make us sick (such as when we drink
from  a river or stream). The water may look clean, but there could be dangerous chemicals
in the water. When it rains and trash and debris pool together in the road it ends up going
down the storm drain and flowing into the streams and lakes that we use for our drinking
water. And this trash and debris can contaminate it. We call this rainwater runoff. There's
also runoff from farms contain pesticides,  and runoff from homes and residential areas
such  as malls that use chemicals to treat lawns and gardens, or parasites  and microbes
from  animals. When we breathe, drink, or  eat something that is polluted or contaminated
with something that is not healthy for us, scientists describe that as being exposed to an
environmental hazard.
          Now, can you name some living things? [Encourage a lot of answers.] All of these things that
          you named are living things and all of them are impacted by the environment around them.
                                                                        «»EPA

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          Lesson 1:  Environmental  Health 1O1
3,   StayirV Alive:
      Air, Water, Food, and Shelter (10 minutes)
 xplain
.xplain
 xplain
If the environment is everything that affects a living thing and helps that living
being survive, we need to figure out what we need in order to survive. [Pass out
Visual Cards #1-6 to six students and ask them to represent that living thing—for
each of the four necessary things, ask the student if it applies to the living thing on his
or her card (e.g., What do frogs eat to stay alive? Do bees have shelters? Do whales
need air?).]
          [Take a deep exaggerated breath./What am I doing? Breathing! We need air to stay alive.
          Who breathes more air, a child or an adult?
Children breathe more air then adults because they breathe more rapidly.
          What did you do at lunch time? Eat and drink! We need food and water to stay alive.
          Who eats and drinks more, adults or children?
Adults might eat more food, but children eat and drink more in relation to their body
weight than adults. If a baby drinks a bottle of water and an adult drinks the same
amount of water, the water takes up a much greater percentage of the baby's total
weight than the adult's. [Show Poster #3 (Graphic of Baby and Adult).]
          That's a big difference isn't it? How else are the bodies of adults and children or
          babies different?

          Prompts:Think about the changes that a kid goes through between ages 2 and 7.
                                                                  (continued on other side)
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3. Stayin' Alive (continued - page 2)
 xplain
A lot happens to a kid in the 5 years between ages 2 and 7! The toddler grows taller,
learns tons of new words, goes from walking just a little to running and playing games.
And those are just the things that we can see. Inside, his or her organs and bones are
growing and changing; the toddler's brain changes as he or she continues to learn.
           Now think about an adult who matures from ages 30 to 35. Does an adult grow during
           this 5-year period as much as a child grows from ages 2 to 7?
 xplain
Children develop and their bodies change in ways that adults don't. In fact, your brain
and body is developing at a fast rate up until you're in your twenties. Some changes
you can see and others you cannot. And remember, the environment includes
everything around a child as he or she grows. If there are harmful chemicals or
pollution in  the environment, they will impact a child's development.
           When was the last time you saw an adult playing in a sandbox? Or in the mud? Who
           plays on the ground more—adults or kids?
 xplain
Children, your age and younger and older, play outside and they live closer to the
ground. They also pick stuff up from the ground all the time, which can increase
their chances of getting sick from the environment. Now this doesn't mean that kids
shouldn't play outside! It just means that we need to be aware of harmful things
around us so that we know how to avoid them. And it means that we all need to
understand the causes of pollution and how we can help to prevent them.
           Could you survive and thrive if you lived outside all the time? In winter? In
           thunderstorms during the summer? We need shelter from these things in order to
           live. And we need to think about the shelters that we create because in our homes,
           schools, or other places that provide shelter, there can be environmental hazards that
           can harm us.
 .xplain
Living things, like you and me and cats and insects and fish and the President, need
four key things to stay alive: air, water, food, and shelter.

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3. Stayin' Alive (continued - page 3)
           Are there other things that help us stay alive? [Respond to the students' answers.
           They will likely give some answers that fall into the categories of air, water, food, and
           shelter.] Are they things that we need or things that we want?
           So, we need air, water, food, and shelter to stay alive, right? But what happens if we
           have water, but it's dirty? Or if we have air, but it's polluted? Or if we have food, but it's
           not nutritious? Or if we have shelter, but it makes us unhealthy? Do we still live?
 xplain
Humans can adapt a lot and we can survive in the short term in environments that
aren't healthy for us in the long term. We will spend the next couple of months
learning how we can make our environment healthier. And we'll be focusing on the
four big things you determined that we need to live today: air, water, food, and shelter.
Let's start with the one we're standing in now—shelter!
                                                                                 «»EPA

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    Lesson 1: Environmental Health 1O1
Visual Card #1
Frog


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    Lesson 1: Environmental Health 1O1
Visual Card #2
People
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   Lesson 1: Environmental Health 1O1
Visual Card #3
Bumble Bees
               A
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   Lesson 1: Environmental Health 1O1
Visual Card #4
Panda Bears

         v

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    Lesson 1: Environmental Health 1O1
Visual Card #5
Bald  Eagle

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    Lesson 1: Environmental Health 1O1
Visual Card #6
Orca Whale

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                                         Lesson T
                                         ^—V***^?^? \^ I  I  I •
                                              onmental Health 1O1
                                                           oster #3
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
 Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks


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SEPA

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          Lesson 1: Environmental Health 1O1
4,   The  Big Four Search Activity
      (10-15 minutes)
          [Take the students on a search to answer the following questions: Where do we
          see the four things that we need to live right here in our building? Where do we see
          examples in our area?]

          [Keep a running list of all of the items that the class identifies. Start in the space that
          you're in and tell the students to start big: bricks, linoleum tiles, glass windows, metal
          supports,  etc. Then go smaller: paint (How many layers? How do  you know?), plastic
          molding, glass bulbs, wires, cables, etc. Smaller still: Open some cabinets; go into
          other rooms. Remind the students to think about the toddler—what would he or she
          put in his or her mouth? Encourage the students to get on their hands and knees so
          that they can see the world as a  toddler might. Where does the water come from?
          Does this building store any food? Where? And how? How does air come into the
          building and go out?]
 .xplain
All of these things that you identified are part of our environment—we are in contact
with them every day. This shelter helps us survive and thrive, but we usually don't
stop to think about it and the things inside of it that we use every day.  Just like the air
we breathe, the water we drink, and the food we eat, we need to stop and ask if the
places where we live and play and learn are healthy for us and, if not, we need to ask
how we can change that.
Optional Activity:The Big Four Poster Creation (10-15 minutes)
 .xplain
Now that we know the four things that all living beings need, let's spread the word!
Each of you (or in pairs) will make a poster that explains the four things we need to
stay alive. Think about including drawings of different examples of these four things.
          [Pass out large sheets of paper and markers or crayons.]
                                                                         «»EPA

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          Lesson 1:  Environmental Health 1O1
5,   Close and Take-Home Talk
      (10 minutes)
 xplain
Close your eyes and take a nice deep breath. We've covered a lot today and I want to
review it, but first let's talk about food!
          If we want to make brownies, what things do we need?
          Prompts: What ingredients do we need? Do we need to heat them? What would
          happen if we didn't include chocolate? Or if we didn't heat the ingredients?
 xplain
All of the different ingredients come together to create delicious brownies. We can
think about our environment in the same way—we need certain ingredients in order to
live in a healthy way. Open your eyes. Can someone raise your their and tell me one of
the four ingredients that we need to live?
          Making sure that our environment is healthy—and has all of the ingredients that we
          need—is important to everyone, but it's especially important that the environment is
          healthy for babies and kids. Why?
 xplain
Think about how big a baby is and how big an adult is. If a baby drinks a bottle of water
and an adult drinks the same amount of water, the water takes up a much greater
percentage of the baby's total weight than in the adult. [Show Poster #3 (Graphic
of Baby and Adult).Hh\s is true for all of the things that we eat and the air that we
breathe as well. And let's  think about those babies; they are growing so fast and their
bodies—all of their organs and muscles and their brains—are developing. If they don't
get the healthy ingredients that they need, their growth and development can suffer.
                                                                 (continued on other side)
                                                                         «»EPA

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5. Close and Take-Home Talk (continued - page 2)
           The coolest part about learning something new is sharing the knowledge. Tonight,
           when you get home, I want you to talk with your family about the things that we
           learned today. What will you tell them? Will you talk about the four big things that we
           all need in order to live? What are they again? [Wait for the students to name them.]
           Conduct a search of your shelter, your home—what materials can you see by looking
           closely? Where did those materials come from? How did they get there?
 xplain
[Pass out Take-Home Talk nh\s Take-Home Talk Sheet has some things that you can
share with your family, and some activities that you can do at home. See what you can
accomplish and we'll talk about it the next time we meet. We'll be talking more about
shelter next time!

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          Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
          Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Take-Home Talk
Lesson 1: Environmental Health 1O1


To Share:

• The environment is everything that affects a living thing and helps it survive.

• All living things need air, water, food, and shelter to survive.

• Kids and babies can be more heavily impacted by unhealthy environments because their bodies
  are growing and developing at a faster rate than that of adults.
To Do and Talk About:

• Alive andThrive Search! Can you and your family think of 20 living beings in your neighborhood?
  Can you think of 100 living beings that you know?

• So Many Shelters! What kind of shelter has your family spent time in before? Apartment buildings?
  Houses? Trailers? Hotels? Mote Is? Tents? Cabins? Campers? Condos? What else?
  What are your favorite stories from these places?

• Get the Straight Scoop! We all need food to survive and luckily there are lots of different kinds of
  food and everyone likes something a little different. Interview people you know to find out what their
  favorite food is and the strangest thing that they have ever eaten.
  Person:

  Person:

  Person:
Favorite Food:

Favorite Food:

Favorite Food:
Strangest Food:.

Strangest Food:.

Strangest Food:.
To Take Back:

• What was the coolest thing that you learned from talking about this topic with your family and friends?
                                                                        «»EPA

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   o
Lesson  2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
Snapshot
This lesson examines environmentally friendly ways to keep our homes and schools pest-free. We
define pests, pesticides, household hazards, chemicals, and toxic, and explores strategies for keeping
common household hazards out of reach.

Preparation and Materials:
• Posters 1-3, Visual Cards 1-5, Household  Hazards Hunt Handout, Take-Home Talk
• Poison Control stickers (call your local poison control center to receive these)
• Flip chart and markers
• Blacker white board
• Large sheets of paper for each child to make a poster
• Markers or crayons
• Select up to five students to read and speak in front of the class

Suggested Giveaways: Poison Control stickers or magnets

Objectives—Students will  be able to:
• define pests, pesticides, household hazards, hazardous, and toxic;
• list the steps to take if you ingest or touch a household hazard; and
• name three household pests and explain how to safely get rid of them.

Vocabulary: pests, pesticides, household hazards, chemicals, toxic

Procedure:
1. Introduction (8 minutes)
2. Define Vocabulary—Pests, Pesticides, and Household Hazards (5 minutes)
3. Safely Getting Rid of Pests and Pest Detectives Activity (15-25 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Pest Free Poster Creation (10-15 minutes) Note: If you do the Pest Free Poster
  Creation, you can end the lesson there and pick it back up in the next session.
4. Keeping Household Hazards Out of Reach and Find the Household Hazards Activity (5-15 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Creating Household Hazards Warning Signs (10 minutes)
5. Close and Take-Home Talk (5 minutes)
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Office of Children's Health Protection
                                         EPA-100-K-13-002
                                         April 2013
www.epa.gov

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   0
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household  Hazards
1,    Introduction
      (8 minutes)
          Review previous lesson: Ask several students to share something that they
          remember from the previous lesson.
          Prompts: What did you learn that you didn't know before? What did we talk about
          that you already knew? What surprised you from our last lesson? What are some of
          the new words that you learned from our last lesson? What can you do to positively
          impact the issue we learned about?
          [Show Poster #1 (photographs of mouse, housefly, raccoon, aphids, roach, rat, mold,
          and ant).]
          What are these things? What do they have in common? What else do they have in
          common? Which ones are most like each other?
          Prompts: All are alive; all need air, water, food, and shelter; sometimes these living
          organisms are where we don't want them to be (e.g., in our homes!).
          All of these are commonly called household pests. What is a pest?
          Prompts: Are they alive? Do we like them? Why not? Why might they be a problem
          for us?
 xplain
Pests are living things that can hurt us by making us sick, damage our homes or other
property, or destroy plants or agricultural products. Pests are everywhere—in our
schools, homes, and our cities, suburbs, and in the country. There are pests in the
White House, in the  Empire State Building, and in [insert celebrity's namel's home.
          Why do you think they want to get into our homes and schools?
          Prompts: What do all living beings need to survive? If you've got water and food and
          shelter, pests may try to hang out with you.
                                                                 (continued on other side)
                                                                        «»EPA

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1.  Introduction (continued - page 2)
 xplain
A pest is any living organism that annoys humans or causes damage to people, their
health, or their property. In nature, there are no pests, just different types of relationships,
such as predator and prey or parasite and host. A pest can be a plant, an animal, or a
disease. Insects are just one kind of pest that people may encounter. The world has more
insects than all other living things combined. It's estimated that there are 10 quintillion
(10,000,000,000,000,000,000) insects alive at any one time! Now, not all of them are
pests. In fact, less than 1 percent of all insects are considered to be pests.
           [Write 10 quintillion (10,000,000,000,000,000,000) on the board or flip chart and then
           ask the students for other numbers to compare it to so that the students can see how
           massive this number truly is. Try numbers such as  100, 1,000, 10,000, or 1,000,000.]
           [Show Poster #2 (Earth divided into insects, mammals, and other animals).]


           Have you heard the saying "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder?" What does it mean?
           Prompts: Does everyone agree when something or someone is beautiful?
 .xplain
We all have different ideas about what is beautiful. Well, pests can also be beautiful in
the eye of the beholder. What we think of as pests—roaches, mice, and raccoons—
might not be pests to everyone or at all times or in all settings.
           When is a pest a pest? If you're in a different environment, or you're a different animal,
           might these things be good to have around? When would one of these household pests
           not be considered a pest?
           Prompt: What if you're an owl and you're hungry—would that mouse be a pest or
           lunch? What if you're in a forest with fallen trees—would that termite be a pest or just
           part of the life cycle?
 xplain
So, while these may be pests to us, in another environment and in another situation,
they are just part of the food chain or a life cycle, or may actually be beneficial. Now
we're going to focus on how to keep our homes pest-free.

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                                          Lesson 21
                                          i—\~*+*j+*jv^ i i ^_i
                                          Pesky Pests and Household Hazards

                                                            oster #1
                                                                 c,

v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
 Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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                         ' i.



	
                           •
 •
••
                 SEPA

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                                                  Lesson  21
                                                  i—\~*+*j+*jv^ i i  ^_i
                                                  Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
 Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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Number
of humans
compared
to number
of insects:
humans =
6,913,811,533
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10,000,000,000,000,000,000
                                 oEPA

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   0
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
2,   Define Vocabulary: Pesticides, Household
      Hazards, Hazardous, and Toxic (5 minutes)
         What are the best things that we can do to help keep our homes and schools pest-free?
         Prompts: Keep these places clean, tidy, and in good repair.
.xplain
Even when we keep our homes and schools clean and tidy, pests can still get in. For
example, roaches and mice can come in through cracks and crevices, or even walk
under the front door. Everyone has to deal with pests at some point in his or her life.
          How can we prevent pests from coming in? What do we do when pests come in?
          How do we get rid of them?
          Prompts: Insect spray, roach spray, mouse poison, exterminator, plug up holes where
          they are getting in, repair leaky pipes and faucets, keep things clean and clutter-free.
 xplain
Some of the things that you mentioned that get rid of pests have chemicals in them.
These products are called pesticides and they are used to kill or repel pests. More
often, we can use a little bit of planning to prevent pests from getting in to begin with;
then, we won't need to use pesticides at all!
         Why might it be better to get rid of pests without the use of pesticides?
         Prompts: Some chemicals may negatively impact human health; they often smell bad;
         they can be expensive; and they may be ineffective, especially if not used properly.
         These chemicals can also hurt the environment and cause harm or kill non-targeted
         plants or animals. There are easier ways to get rid of pests that we'll learn about in a
         moment.
                                                              (continued on other side)
                                                                     «»EPA

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2. Define Vocabulary (continued - page 2)
 xplain
If a pesticide is strong enough to kill pests, do you think that it might be strong enough
to hurt you, too? Some of these products are fox/cand can be hazardous if we
accidentally spill them; breathe them in; or get them on our fingers, in our eyes, or in
our mouths. Things that are hazardous or toxic can hurt us as we develop and grow.
Remember that hazardous chemicals and toxic products can especially impact children
since kids are developing and growing at a much faster rate than adults.
           [Act these out/While you might not be interested in tasting window cleaner, do any
           of you have little brothers or sisters, cousins, or neighbors who put everything in
           their mouths? Or do you know small children who spend a lot of time crawling on the
           floor or getting into drawers and cabinets? Have you ever used a chemical, such as an
           antibacterial cleaner or insect spray, and accidentally breathed some in? Did  it make it
           hard to breath or make your eyes water? Could you "taste" it in the back of your throat?
           A lot of these pesticides are hazardous and/or toxic. What does hazardous mean?
           What does toxic mean?
 xplain
Hazardous means that the item is dangerous if used in the wrong way. Toxic means
that something is poisonous or deadly if you're exposed to it at certain concentrations.
So, let's talk about how we can prevent the pest problem rather than trying to stop an
infestation by using a pesticide that might also hurt us.

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   0
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and  Household Hazards
3,  Safely Getting  Rid of Pests and
     Pest Detectives Activity (15-25 minutes)
 xplain
In order to prevent a pest problem or to rid our homes or schools of pests, we need to
use what we know about the pests and we need to think like the pest. We need to plot
and plan.
          Ask one student to volunteer to be a pest and another student to volunteer to be a
          pest detective. At the front of the room, give the detective Visual Card#7 (Detective
          Card) and the pest Visual Card #2 (Mouse Pest Card). Tell the students to review their
          cards quickly. Tell them not to  tell the class what the pest is. Tell the students that
          they will need to get into character and really think and act like a pest and a detective,
          respectively. Ask the student playing the pest what he/she would like his/her name to
          be. Ask the detective the same question.
          Optional Activity: There are a total of four Pest Cards (Mouse, Cockroach, Ant, and
          Fly). You can decide to do just the Mouse or you can do several Pest Cards at the same
          time or one after the other.
.xplain
Here's the situation. Detective [insert name] has been called in because we have a
pest in our space. We've seen some signs of a pest, but we're not sure what kind of
pest it is or how to get rid of it. The detective is going to help.
          If you have a pest in your home, what's the first thing that you need to know? You have
          to know what you're dealing with, right? Step 1: Properly identify the pest.
          Why do we need to know what kind of pest it is?
          Prompts: Would we treat a roach and a termite infestation in the same way? A mouse
          and a raccoon infestation in the same way?
          So, let's ask the detective. What have you observed about the pest? [Detective uses
          Visual Card #7 to answer.]
                                                               (continued on other side)
                                                                      «»EPA

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3. Safely Getting Rid of Pests and Pest Detectives Activity (continued - page 2)
 .xplain
So, the detective has used his/her powers of observation and interviewing people to
get some answers.
           What type of pest do we think this is?
           Answer: A mouse. How do you know it is a mouse? Gnaw marks? Nibbled food?
           Feces? Mice sightings? Smell?
 .xplain
So, we know that we have a mouse because the detective has observed clues that lead
us to a mouse, right? Since we have the mouse right here, let's interview [him/her],


Mouse, why are you in our space? [Mouse uses Visual Card#2 to answer.]
           What four things do all living beings need to survive? [Air, water, food, and shelter.]
           Which of these four needs is the mouse getting from our space? [Air, water, food,
           and shelter.]
           What happens if you take away something that the mouse needs? Would our space
           still be an attractive place to be?
           Prompts: The mouse would need to look elsewhere in order to meet its needs.
 xplain
Step 2: Take away food and Step 3: Take away water.
           How would we do that?
           Prompts: Store food in hard plastic or glass containers with tight-fitting lids, or in the
           refrigerator; clean up crumbs and spills when they happen; don't walk around the
           house eating food, eat only in the kitchen; use a trash can with a tight-fitting lid and
           take it out as needed; tell your parents about dripping faucets and pipes that need to
           be repaired; keep surfaces clean and dry; put away pet food when the pet isn't eating.
           Mouse, what would you do if we took away these things?

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3. Safely Getting Rid of Pests and Pest Detectives Activity (continued - page 3)
           What if we took away one more thing? What is it? Step 4:Take away their hiding
           places/shelter/entrance place. How would we take away shelter?
           Prompts: Fill in holes, cracks, and crevices (a mouse can fit through a hole the size of
           a pencil). Investigate how the mouse got into the building. Get rid of clutter such as
           piles of papers or clothing. Keep things tidy.
 xplain
Finally, after taking all these steps we want to make sure they worked. Step 5:
Monitor the situation. We need to watch to see if the pest returns. If the pest
returns, we want to go back and make sure steps 1-4 were done correctly.
           [Show Poster #3 (Steps).] By taking these steps:
           1.   Identify the pest,
           2.   Remove food,
           3.   Remove water,
           4.   Take away shelter, and
           5.   Monitor the situation
           you're encouraging the pest to move on and find somewhere else to live. These steps
           might not always work,  but it is important to get rid of those things that pests need to
           survive first. That way, you might not have to use pesticides that can hurt you and the
           environment.
 xplain
We can use the same steps that we used to get rid of the mouse in our space to get
rid of pests in our homes.
Optional Activity: Pest Free Poster Creation (10-15 minutes)
 .xplain
Optional Activity: Now that we know how to keep our spaces clean, we want to
advertise to pests and to everyone else that this is a pest-free place. This will also help
teach other people how to keep pests away. Each of you (or in pairs) will make a poster
that announces this is a pest-free space. Remember to include the three ways we keep
pests away on the poster.
           [Pass out large sheets of paper and markers or crayons.]
                                                                               &ERA

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  to
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
Visual Card #1
            Detective
What have you observed about the pest?

• There are scratches on the floor and
 baseboards.

• There is a hole in the back of the room
 that is a couple of inches in size. (Mice
 can fit through a hole the size of a pencil!)

• There are little droppings.

• Several pieces of food have had small
 bites taken out of them recently.

• Someone in the building saw a mouse a
 few days ago.

                                           v»EPA

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  to
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
Visual Card #2
              Mouse
Why are you in our space?

• It's warm in the winter and cool in the summer
  in here. No rain, wind, or snow.

• I like snacks and there is lots of food around.

• After I have a snack, I like a drink of water and
  there's always fresh water here.
Mouse, what would you do if we took away
these things?

• I'd look for another place that has these things.

• But I might still live in this space and get my
  food and water someplace else. It's cozy here!

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  to
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
Visual Card #3
            Cockroach
Why are you in our space?
• There are always snacks around here and I really like to munch on people food.
• After a snack I like to take a sip of water and there's usually water to be found around here.
• I'm nice and small and there are lots of tiny cracks in the floors and walls where I can build nests
 and have lots of babies.

                  Cockroach, what would you do if we took away these things?
                  • I might look for another place that had these things.
                  • I'm pretty small though so people would need to be really
                    careful about the food they left out if they wanted me to leave.

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  to
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
Visual Card #4
                Fly
Why are you in our space?
• I like room to roam and this is a nice big space.
• Plus there's food left in trashcans and on the floor that
  I can eat.
• It can get really cold or really hot outside; in here it's a
  nice constant temperature.
Fly, what would you do if we took away these things?
• Well if the food was gone I'd have to look for another
  way to eat.
• I'd probably head out in search of another spot.

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  to
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
Visual Card #5
              Ant
Why are you in our space?
• I have a very large family that I live with so we need a place with
  little cracks we can squeeze through. We are teeny tiny but there
  are a lot of us.
• There is plentiful food. We don't have large stomachs, so a little
  goes a long way with us.
• There's also water to drink whenever we want it.
Ant, what would you do if we took away these things?
• My family and I might look for another place that had these things.
• But we also might stick around and look for food farther away.

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                                         Lesson 21
                                         i—\~*+*j+*jv^ i i ^_i
                                         Pesky Pests and Household Hazards

                                                           oster #3
                                                                c,

v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
 Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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psto
Rid of
                   SEPA

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   0
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
4,   Keeping  Household Hazards Out of Reach
      and  Find the  Household  Hazards Activity
      (5-15 minutes)
 xplain
Some situations may require the use of pesticides even after we've gone through all of
the preventative and nontoxic steps.
         When do we use these pesticides and chemical cleaners? What can we do to make sure
         that they are used safely? Should children use them?
         Prompts: Young children shouldn't use these products. Use products that are the least
         toxic and the most specific for the situation. Parents should read the label and use
         accordingly. Keep these products locked up, up high, and out of reach of children.
         Break the class up into five groups and give each group a copy of the Household Hazards
         Hunt Handout. Ask each group to find the household hazards in each picture. For each
         hazard that they identify, they should also determine a way to make it safer.
.xplain
It's important to keep these household hazards out of reach so that children (ourselves
included) don't accidentally touch them, breathe them in, or drink them.
         If you accidentally touch or drink a pesticide or a household chemical, what should you do?
         Prompts: Tell an adult and call the poison control center at 1-800-222-1222, or call 911.
         Who knows what the Poison Control Center does?
         Prompts: There are Poison Control Centers all over the country and you can call them
         24 hours a day.
 xplain
If you accidentally swallow an adult's medicine or your little brother or sister accidentally
drinks some of the cleaners we saw in our Household Hazards Hunt, you can call a Poison
Control Center and they will be able to tell you if you should go to the hospital or not.

                                                   (continued on other side)
                                                                   «»EPA

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4. Keeping Household Hazards Out of Reach (continued - page 2)
Optional Activity: Creating Household Hazards Warning Signs (10 minutes)
 .xplain
We want to be sure we keep what we learned in mind when we're at home, so we're
going to create flyers to bring home that remind us to keep household hazards out of
reach of kids and who to call if someone accidentally uses a household hazard product
incorrectly.
           [Pass out large sheets of paper and markers or crayons.]


           What are some good reminders about what we just learned?
           Prompts: Kids shouldn't touch cleaners. If a cleaner spills, let an adult know; keep
           cleaners and other household hazards out of reach.


           [Pass out Poison Control stickers.]

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  0
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
Household Hazards Hunt
Can you identify which items are household hazards in the image below?
Hint:There are 8 things in the bathroom. But only 5 are household products that contain
pesticides or toxic substances.
                                               (continued on other side)
                                                     vvEPA

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Household Hazards Hunt (continued - page 2)
Can you identify which items are household hazards in the image below?
Hint:There are 11 things in the kitchen. But only 7 are household products that
contain pesticides or toxic substances.

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Household Hazards Hunt (continued - page 3)
Can you identify which items are household hazards in the image below?
Hint:There are 8 things in the laundry room. But only 5 are household products that
contain pesticides or toxic substances.
                                                                 (continued on other side)
                                                                         vvEPA

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Household Hazards Hunt (continued - page 4)
Can you identify which items are household hazards in the image below?
Hint:There are 10 things in the garage. But only 6 are household products that
contain pesticides or toxic substances.

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       0
Lesson  2: Pesky Pests and  Household  Hazards
    Household  Hazards  Hunt Answers
    Bathroom
    Air Fresheners
    What is it?
    These products are used to freshen the air in various places
    throughout the home, including kitchens, bathrooms,
    bedrooms, and living rooms. Air fresheners are usually stored
    in the kitchen, bathroom, or laundry room.

    What's in it?
    There are four basic ingredients in air fresheners:
    formaldehyde, petroleum distillates, p-dichlorobenzene, and
    aerosol propellents.

    What health and safety precautions do you need to
    think about when using air fresheners?
    Air fresheners are usually highly flammable and also are
    strong irritants to the eyes, skin, and throat. Additionally, solid
    fresheners usually cause death if eaten by people or pets.

    Please take precautions when using these products. You also need to be sure to always " Read the Label First" so that you know
    how to properly use these products and for safety information. Don't use them near open flames like candles or gas stoves. Use
    only in a well-ventilated area.  Baking soda, which is nontoxic, can also be used to freshen the air in your home.
O Toilet Cleaners
    What is it?
    Toilet cleaners clean and disinfect toilets and kill germs. You probably wouldn't think that these cleaners have pesticides in them,
    but they do. The pesticide is the disinfectant. This type of pesticide is known as an antimicrobial pesticide.

    If cleaning the bathroom is one of your chores around the house, you may be using toilet cleaners to do the job. If so, you need to
    be sure to always "Read the Label First" so that you know how to properly use these products and for safety information. Also,
    be sure that your parents/guardians know what household products you are using. They can make sure that you use them safely.

    What's in it?
    The pesticide chemical usually found in toilet cleaners is bleach, which contains sodium hypochlorite.

    What health and safety things do you need to think about when using toilet cleaners?
    Toilet cleaners also have other chemicals in them, too, like hydrochloric acid. Never mix a toilet cleaner with any other household
    or cleaning products. Doing so can result in poisonous gases being released and can cause very serious breathing problems.
    Always be sure when cleaning a bathroom that the room has plenty of ventilation. Leave the door open and use the exhaust fan, if
    you have one.

    Most disinfectant cleaners are very irritating to your eyes and skin and will burn your throat. It's a good idea to wear latex
    dishwashing gloves to help protect your skin from splashes when using toilet cleaners. If you splash some on your skin, wash it
    off immediately. Because toilet cleaners can be harmful, it is important to protect yourself from exposure to them.


    Mold and Mildew Removers
    What is it?
    Have you seen black spots on your shower curtain? Have you seen black, brown, or pinkish slimy stuff growing between
    bathroom tiles, the corner area where your tub meets the walls, or under your bathtub mat? These spots and slimes are molds
    and mildew. Molds and mildew are kinds of funguses. What's a fungus? A fungus is a plant that has no leaves, flowers, roots,

                                                                                   (continued on other side)
                                                                                            «»EPA

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Household Hazards Hunt Answers (continued - page 2)

or chlorophyll. (Chlorophyll is a chemical that allows plants to make their own food. It makes plants green.) A mushroom is an
example of a fungus.

Mildew is also the name of the discoloration that is caused by a fungus. Maybe you have heard of "mildew stains." Molds and
mildew like to grow in damp, dark places with little air circulation, like in bathrooms and basements.

Household products that contain mold and mildew removers usually come as a liquid in a spray container. If you are old enough
to do cleaning chores around the house, you've probably used a cleaner with a mold and mildew remover to  do the job. If so,
you need to be sure to always "Read the Label First" so that you know how to properly use these products and for safety
information. Also, be sure that your parents/guardians know what household products you are using. They can make sure that
you use them safely.

What's in it?
The pesticide chemicals found in mold and mildew removers are chlorine and alkyl ammonium chlorides. These pesticides are
known as fungicides.

What health and safety things do you need to think about with mold and mildew removers?
The chemicals in mold and mildew removers can be very caustic. That  is, these cleaners can  be corrosive to objects and harmful
to humans. It's a good idea to wear latex dishwashing gloves to help protect your skin when  using these products. If you get
some on your skin, wash it off immediately.

Cleaners with mold and mildew removers may also cause breathing problems and, if swallowed, they will burn your throat.
Because mold and mildew removers can be harmful, it is important to  protect yourself from exposure to them.


Drain Cleaners
What is it?
These types of cleaners are used to unclog drains in sinks or in the bathroom. These cleaners are usually stored in the kitchen or
bathroom cabinets, or in the basement.

What's in it?
The main ingredients that cause the drain to become unclogged are lye and sulfuric acid.

What health and safety precautions do you need to think about with drain cleaners?
Lye and sulfuric acid have dangerous fumes. They can cause skin burns and, in some cases, blindness if they come in contact
with your eyes. They can cause death if they are swallowed. Because of the toxicity of these products, only an adult should use
them. Remind your parents/guardians to always " Read the Label First" so that they know how to properly use these products
and for safety information. They should always use protective gloves and wear goggles when using these products. Also, make
sure that when these cleaners are used, there is good air circulation in the room.


Antibacterial Cleaner
What is it?
Cleaners are used to remove dirt. Antibacterial cleaners remove dirt and kill bacteria. Bacteria are organisms that are too small to
be seen with just your eyes. Some bacteria cause diseases or make you sick; others do not do so.

Antibacterial cleaners come in a spray can, pump bottle, or other container. They are commonly used in the kitchen to clean
things that come  in contact with food, like cutting  boards and counter tops. Keeping these areas clean will help prevent harmful
bacteria from contaminating your food.  It is especially important to clean areas that come in contact with raw meat. Raw meat
can also carry bacteria. Use an antibacterial kitchen cleaner or wash the area with hot soapy water.

If helping to clean the  kitchen is one of your chores around the house,  you may be using antibacterial cleaners to do the job. If
so, you need to be sure to always "Read the Label First" so that you know how to properly use these products and for safety
information. Also, be sure that your parents/guardians know what household products you are using. They can make sure that
you use them safely.

What's in it?
Antibacterial cleaners usually contain water, a fragrance, a surfactant, and a pesticide. The surfactant breaks up the dirt, the
pesticide kills the bacteria, the fragrance makes it  smell good, and the  water holds the cleaner together. In antibacterial cleaners,
the pesticides are commonly quaternary ammonium or phenolic chemicals. They are known as antimicrobial  pesticides.

What health and safety things do you need to think about with antibacterial cleaners?
Antibacterial cleaners are very irritating to your eyes and skin and will burn your throat. It's a good idea to wear latex
dishwashing gloves to help protect your skin when using these cleaners. If you get some on your skin, wash it off immediately;
if you get some in your eyes, flush your eyes with cool water. Because antibacterial cleaners can be harmful, it is important to
protect yourself from exposure to them.

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    Household Hazards Hunt Answers (continued - page 3)

0 Petroleum Jelly
    This is just an ordinary jar of petroleum jelly. Nothing toxic here.

O Baby Oil
    Nope! You won't find any pesticides or toxic chemicals in baby oil.

O Colloidal Oatmeal  Bath Soak
    Colloidal oatmeal is used for soaking in your bathtub. No problem with pesticides or toxic ingredients here. People add colloidal
    oatmeal to bath water to soothe dry or irritated skin. If you have had a bad case of poison ivy, hives, or chicken pox, your Mom
    might have added some to your bathwater to make your skin feel better.
    Kitchen

    Baits for Ant, Cockroaches and Crickets
    What is it?
    Insect baits are used to kill ants, cockroaches, and crickets
    inside your home. Baits work by enticing the insect to eat a
    food that contains an insecticide. An insecticide is a pesticide
    that kills insects.

    For insect baits to work, the areas where food is stored,
    prepared, or eaten need to be kept clean. If there are other
    foods around that the insect likes better, or finds first, it will
    probably not eat the bait at all.

    So do baits kill just one insect at a time? No. Baits work
    by tricking the insect into eating something  poisonous and
    spreading the poison to others. How do they spread the
    poison? Both ants and cockroaches leave a scent trail for
    others to follow to find the bait. Also, ants may carry some of
    the bait back to their colony to share with the other ants. In a short time, the insecticide kills the insects that have eaten the
    bait. But how fast a  bait works depends on several things. It depends on the kind of pesticide in the bait, whether the insect
    likes the taste of the bait, and whether there is other food around for the insect to eat instead of the bait.

    You may have seen  insect bait on countertops, in cabinets, hidden behind stoves or refrigerators, or on the floor near cracks
    or crevices where insects go in and out. They are usually square or round, with a flat top, and are about half an inch high.
    They may also be sort of dome shaped, like an igloo. The containers are about 2 inches across in size and may be plastic or
    metal. The bait inside the container is usually a solid or a gel. Some bait isn't in a container at all. They can be tablets  or gels
    that are put out for insects, like cockroaches, to eat. Your parents/guardians can decide the best location for insect bait so
    that it will work well. Remind them to always "Read the Label First" so that they know how to properly use these products
    and for safety information.

    What's in it?
    The insecticides commonly found in insect baits include abarmectin, propoxur, trichlorfon, sulfluramid, chlorpyrifos, and
    boric acid.

    What health and safety things do you need to think about with insect baits?
    Because the majority of insect baits are enclosed in containers, it is not likely that you will be exposed to the pesticides. But if
    you find them, leave them alone. Do not move them, open them, or put them in your mouth. Keep your pets away from them,
    too. Let your parents/guardians know that you found them. If you should touch one, wash your hands with plenty of soap
    and water to be sure that none of the  pesticides that insects might have carried out of the container got on your skin. And
    remember to never  put anything in your mouth unless you know for sure what it is and that it is safe to do so.
                                                                                            (continued on other side)
                                                                                                      «»EPA

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Household Hazards Hunt Answers (continued - page 4)

All-Purpose Cleaner
What is it?
All-purpose cleaners can be used for many different kinds of cleanup jobs around the house. All-purpose cleaners are used to
clean windows, floors, and kitchen and other appliances in your house. All-purpose cleaners are usually kept in the kitchen, but
they can also be found in other parts of the house, such as the bathroom, basement, or garage.

What's in it?
All-purpose cleaners may use many different kinds of ingredients, such as detergents, grease-cutting agents, solvents, and
disinfectants.

All-purpose cleaners can contain hazardous chemicals such as ammonia, ethylene glycol monobutyl acetate, sodium
hypochlorite, and trisodium phosphate.

If you " Read the Label First," it should tell you if any of these chemicals are found in the all-purpose cleaners used in your home.

What health and safety precautions do you have to think about when using all-purpose cleaners?
Depending upon the ingredients used, all-purpose cleaners can irritate the skin, eyes, nose, and throat. They can be highly
poisonous if swallowed.  Some of these chemicals have a sweet smell, which attracts animals and can poison them, too.

When using all purpose cleaners, follow these safety steps:
1. Wear rubber gloves to  protect your skin.

2. Be sure that there is good air circulation in the room. Open several windows or keep a fan running.

3. NEVER mix two cleaners of different types together, especially if one contains ammonia and the other contains chlorine. This
can produce a gas called chloramine and the breathing of its fumes could be fatal.


Insect Sprays
What is it?
Insect sprays are used to get rid of ants, bees, flies, roaches, spiders, wasps, and many other insects, even lice. Insect sprays
are  pesticides known as  insecticides. There are many different  kinds of insecticides. The kind to use depends on the type of
insect and where you want to use it. Read the product label to  find out about the insecticide. Not all insecticides can be used
in your house. Some can only be used outside. Some can be used on your dog, cat, or parakeet - even on your pet goat, if you
have one. Others can only be used on items such as bedding, rugs, lawns, or plants.

Insecticides used around your home usually come in the form of liquids, sprays, or powders. Sometimes they are mixed with
other products that are used around your house. Sometimes they are mixed with other pesticides. For example, a fertilizer for
your grass may have an insecticide in it. It could even have both an insecticide and an herbicide (weed killer) in it.

What's in it?
Examples of pesticide chemicals that are commonly found in insecticides are permethrin, diazinon, propoxur, and chlorpyrifos.

What health and safety things do you need to think about with insecticides?
When you use an insecticide, especially indoors, make sure that it doesn't get on food or things that come in contact with
food, like dish towels, dishes, silverware, or countertops. Insecticides can come in a spray can, bottle, or other container.
Some insecticides that you buy from the store have to be mixed with water first before they can be used. Be sure that you
and your parents/guardians always "Read the Label First" so that you know how to properly use these products and for safety
information.

Insecticides can hurt your eyes. They can make you really sick if you breathe their fumes, get some in your mouth, or on your
skin and you don't wash  it off right away. They can also be fatal. How you are affected depends on your exposure.


Window or Glass Cleaners
What is it?
These cleaners are used to clean windows throughout the house, glass tables, mirrors, and the screens of TVs  and computers.
These cleaners are usually kept in the kitchen,  bathroom, or basement.

What's in it?
The basic ingredients in window and glass cleaners are ammonia and isopropanol.

What health and safety precautions do you have to think about when using window/glass cleaners?
These products are irritating to the eyes, skin, nose, and throat. If swallowed, they may cause drowsiness, unconsciousness,
or death. If you need to use these products, you need to be sure to always " Read the Label First" so that you know how to
properly use these products and for safety information. Always wear protective gloves when using these products and use them
in a well-ventilated area.

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    Household Hazards Hunt Answers (continued - page 5)

    Antibacterial Cleaner
    What is it?
    Cleaners are used to remove dirt. Antibacterial cleaners remove dirt and kill bacteria. Bacteria are organisms that are too small to
    be seen with just your eyes. Some bacteria cause diseases or make you sick; others do not do so.

    Antibacterial cleaners come in a spray can, pump bottle, or other container. They are commonly used in the kitchen to clean
    things that come in contact with food, like cutting  boards and counter tops. Keeping these areas clean will help prevent harmful
    bacteria from contaminating your food. It is especially important to clean areas that come in contact with raw meat.  Raw meat
    can also carry bacteria. Use an antibacterial kitchen cleaner or wash the area with hot soapy water.

    If helping to clean the kitchen is one of your chores around the house, you may be using antibacterial cleaners to do  the job.  If
    so, you need to be sure to always "Read the Label First" so that you know how to properly use these  products and for safety
    information. Also, be sure that your parents/guardians know what household products you are using. They can make sure that
    you use them safely.

    What's in it?
    Antibacterial cleaners usually contain water, a fragrance, a surfactant, and a pesticide. The surfactant breaks up the dirt, the
    pesticide kills the bacteria, the fragrance makes it  smell good, and the water holds the cleaner together. In antibacterial cleaners,
    the pesticides are commonly quaternary ammonium or phenolic chemicals. They are known as antimicrobial pesticides.

    What health and safety things do you need to think about with antibacterial cleaners?
    Antibacterial cleaners are very irritating to your eyes and skin and will burn your throat. It's a good idea to wear latex  dishwashing
    gloves to help protect your skin when using these cleaners. If you get some on your skin, wash it off immediately; if you  get
    some in your eyes, flush your eyes with cool water. Because antibacterial cleaners can be harmful, it is important to  protect
    yourself from exposure to them.
O Dishwashing Detergent
    What is it?
    These products are used to wash dishes primarily in the kitchen. These detergents are divided into two categories: automatic
    dishwashing detergents and hand dishwashing detergents. These cleaners are usually kept in the kitchen.

    What's in it?
    Both of these contain cleaning agents with cationic, anionic, or non-ionic in their names. The main ingredient usually used in
    these detergents is phosphate.

    What health and safety precautions do you need to think about when using dishwashing detergent?
    Automatic dishwashing detergents have been known to produce skin irritations or burns. They are poisonous if swallowed.
    Hand dishwashing detergents are milder than automatic dishwashing detergents. If swallowed, they may cause irritation to the
    mouth and throat, and nausea, but not death. They are generally safe for people and the environment. If you need to use these
    products, you need to be sure to always " Read the Label First" so that you know how to properly use these products and for
    safety information. Keep them away from small children to minimize the risk of accidental poisoning.


    Oven Cleaners
    What is it?
    Oven cleaners are used to help break up the baked-on food stuck to the inside of the oven. Oven cleaners are usually kept in the
    kitchen.

    What's in it?
    The basic ingredient in oven cleaners is lye (either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide).

    What health and safety precautions do you have to think about when using oven cleaners?
    Lye is extremely corrosive and can burn your skin and eyes. It is usually fatal if swallowed.

    Because of the toxicity of these products, only an adult should use them. Remind your parents/guardians to always "Read the
    Label First" so that they know how to properly use these products and for safety information. They should always wear an apron,
    gloves, and safety goggles, and they should not breathe the fumes. Make sure that there is plenty of fresh air and ventilation
    when using these products.

    Nontoxic oven cleaners without lye are available.


    Flour Canister
    This canister contains flour. It looks like white powder and is used for baking. Although flour is nontoxic, there are several other
    products that look a bit like flour, such as laundry detergent or talcum powder. If you are unsure, check with an adult.

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    Household Hazards Hunt Answers (continued - page 6)

O House Plant
    No toxic pesticides in these houseplants. But the leaves or sap from some plants can be poisonous to animals and humans.
    Poisonous plants don't always cause death, but they can make you very sick or cause you to have a severe reaction to them.
    Here are a few examples of poisonous houseplants:
    Mums: The leaves and stalks are poisonous.
    Common English Ivy: The leaves are poisonous.
    Dumbcane, Giant Dumbcane, and Spotted Dumbcane: All parts are poisonous.
    If these plants are in your house, make sure that your parents/guardians know that parts or all of the plant are poisonous. Keep
    them away from places where kids  or pets could get into them.

Q Vinegar
    Vinegar is commonly used in certain foods, like salad dressings and vinaigrettes, pickles, and even candy. But did you know that
    vinegar can also be used for cleaning?
    Vinegar has been used for several generations and perhaps your grandparents or great-grandparents may have used it to clean
    items from windows to pots and pans. Today, vinegar is sometimes used instead of household cleaning products because it is
    nontoxic.

Q Baking Soda
    Some people use baking soda for baking cakes and pastries. Some people use baking soda for cleaning and others use it to
    absorb or eliminate mild odors. Perhaps you will find an open box of baking soda being used in your refrigerator to eliminate
    odors because it is nontoxic and it doesn't contaminate your food. Baking soda is also an ingredient in some products like
    toothpaste and  deodorant.
    Laundry  Room
O Insect Sprays
    What is it?
    Insect sprays are used to get rid of ants, bees, flies, roaches,
    spiders, wasps, and many other insects, even lice. Insect
    sprays are pesticides known as insecticides. There are many
    different kinds of insecticides. The kind to use depends on the
    type of insect and where you want to use it. Read the product
    label to find out about the insecticide. Not all insecticides can
    be used in your house. Some can only be used outside. Some
    can be used on your dog, cat, or parakeet - even on your pet
    goat, if you have one.  Others can only be used on items such
    as bedding, rugs, lawns, or plants.

    Insecticides used around your home usually come in the form
    of liquids, sprays, or powders. Sometimes they are mixed with
    other products that are used around your house.  Sometimes they are mixed with other pesticides. For example, a fertilizer for
    your grass may have an insecticide in it. It could even have both an insecticide and an herbicide (weed killer) in it.

    What's in  it?
    Examples of pesticide chemicals commonly found in insecticides are permethrin, diazinon, propoxur, and chlorpyrifos.

    What health and safety things do you need  to think about with insecticides?
    When you use an  insecticide, especially indoors,  make sure that it doesn't get on food or things that come in contact with
    food, like dish towels, dishes, silverware, or countertops. Insecticides can come in a spray can, bottle, or other container.
    Some insecticides that you buy from the store have to be mixed with water first before they can be used. Be sure that you
    and your parents/guardians always "Read the Label First" so that you know how to properly use these products and for safety
    information.

    Insecticides can hurt your eyes. They can make you really sick if you breathe their fumes, get some in your mouth, or on your
    skin and you don't wash it off right away. They can also be fatal. How you are affected depends on your exposure.

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Household Hazards Hunt Answers (continued - page 7)

All-Purpose Cleaner
What is it?
All-purpose cleaners can be used for many different kinds of cleanup jobs around the house. All-purpose cleaners are used to
clean windows, floors, and kitchen and other appliances in your house. All-purpose cleaners are usually kept in the kitchen, but
they can also be found in other parts of the house, such as the bathroom, basement, or garage.

What's in it?
All-purpose cleaners may use many different kinds of ingredients, such as detergents, grease-cutting agents, solvents, and
disinfectants.

All-purpose cleaners can contain hazardous chemicals such as ammonia, ethylene glycol monobutyl acetate, sodium
hypochlorite, and trisodium phosphate.

If you " Read the Label First," it should tell you if any of these chemicals are found in the all-purpose cleaners used in your home.

What health and safety precautions  do you have to think about when using all-purpose cleaners?
Depending upon the ingredients used, all-purpose cleaners can irritate the skin, eyes, nose, and throat. They can be highly
poisonous if swallowed.  Some of these chemicals have a sweet smell, which attracts animals and can poison them, too.

When using all purpose cleaners, follow these safety steps:
1. Wear rubber gloves to  protect your skin.

2. Be sure that there is good air circulation in the room. Open several windows or keep a fan running.

3. NEVER mix two cleaners of different types together, especially if one contains ammonia and the other contains chlorine. This
  can produce a gas called chloramine and the breathing of its fumes could be fatal.


Laundry Detergents
What is it?
Laundry detergents are used to clean stains and loosen dirt from the household laundry. Laundry detergents are usually found in
the laundry room or the kitchen.

What's in it?
Laundry detergents contain cleaning agents with cationic, anionic, or non-ionic  in their names. Laundry detergents also contain
enzymes that are used to loosen stains and ground-in dirt.

What health and safety precautions  do you need to think about when  using laundry detergents?
These products may irritate  skin or make people more sensitive to other chemicals. They might also cause asthma; however,
this is usually when used in extremely large quantities. If you need to use these products, you need to be sure to always "Read
the Label  First" so that you  know how to properly use these products and for safety information. Detergents are responsible for
many household poisonings by accidental swallowing. Keep these boxes and bottles out of reach of small children and only use
as directed.


Chlorine Bleach
What is it?
Did you know that  a pesticide is added to your washing  machine to  help keep your white clothes white? This pesticide is also
found  in many household cleaning products that contain a disinfectant to kill germs. And it is found in household products used
to clean mold  and mildew from your shower or tub. Can you guess what this pesticide is? Chlorine Bleach!

You wouldn't think  that ordinary chlorine bleach is a pesticide - but it is. Because it kills bacteria and viruses, it is called a
disinfectant or an antimicrobial pesticide. And because it kills fungi and molds, it is also known as a fungicide.

If you are responsible for doing laundry or other types of cleaning as some of your chores around the house, you may be using
liquid chlorine bleach to do the job. If so, you need to be sure to always " Read the Label First" so that you know how to properly
use this product and for safety information. Also, be sure that your parents/guardians know what household products you are
using. They can make sure that you use them safely.

What's in it?
Standard household bleach contains the chemical sodium hypochlorite.

What health and safety things do you need to think about with chlorine bleach?
Liquid bleach in a bottle is a  5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution. This means that 5.25% of the liquid is the chemical sodium
hypochlorite and the rest is mostly water. The number 5.25% tells you the strength of the concentration of the chemical. Look
at the labels of other household cleaning products that contain bleach. Some contain sodium hypochlorite or chlorine bleach in
concentrations of 0.7%,  1.8%, or 2.4%.

                                                                                          (continued on other side)
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    Household  Hazards Hunt Answers  (continued - page 8)

    Never mix chlorine bleach with any other household or cleaning products. Doing so can result in different types of harmful
    acids being formed. Poisonous gases can also be released that will cause very serious breathing problems or death.
    Always be careful when using chlorine bleach. Because it comes in 1-gallon jugs, the container can be a little hard to handle.
    Spills and splashes can happen. Not only will the bleach damage your clothing, but it is irritating to your skin and can cause
    serious damage to your eyes, even blindness. As with any chemical, it is important to protect yourself from exposure.
    Wood Stains and Finishes
    What is it?
    Stains and finishes are used to change the color of wood. A stain is a pigment that is dissolved in a solvent.

    What's in it?
    The solvent can be water or volatile organic chemicals, such as mineral spirits (naphtha). Read the label to find out about the
    ingredients and safety precautions.

    What health and safety precautions do you need to think about with stains/finishes?
    Many of these products contain chemicals that can irritate your skin, eyes, nose, and throat when they are being used because
    of the vapors that are given off. Before using these products, you need to be sure to always "Read the Label First" so that you
    know how to properly use these products and for safety information. If at all possible, use the stain or finish outside. If that is
    not practical, open the windows and doors fully and put a box fan in the window to direct the air and fumes outdoors. Keep the
    fan on while painting and for about 48 hours afterwards. Keep small children away from the room where the stain or finish is
    being applied and away from the open cans of stain or finish. Do not use stain or finish  indoors that is labeled "for exterior use
    only." If the room you are painting does not have a window, consider using a water-based product.
O Milk Jug
    This is an empty milk jug. So what's it doing in the laundry room? It could be that someone was going to use it to store
    something other than milk in it. Never use food containers to mix or store pesticides or any other household cleaning products.
    Not even if you write over the label and store them for later use or disposal. Why? Because kids or others can mistake it for
    something to eat or drink. Little kids can't read, so writing over the label won't help to tell them that a food container does not
    contain food. Unfortunately, many household poisoning accidents are caused by people not safely using or storing chemicals.

    If you see a food container somewhere other than the kitchen or pantry, ask you parents/guardians what's in it. Ask them why
    it is there. Tell your parents/guardians to always store pesticides and other household products in their original containers. That
    way the label, with its list of ingredients and directions for use, is always with the household product.


O Package  of Cheesecloth
    Most people use cheesecloth like a rag in order to apply stains and finishes. By itself, cheesecloth does not contain anything
    toxic. However, if you find a piece of cheesecloth that has already been used for stains or finishes,  ask an adult to properly
    throw it away.


O Case of Soda Pop
    This is just a case of soda pop or, depending on where you live in the United States, just soda or pop or soft drinks.

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Household Hazards Hunt Answers  (continued - page 9)
Garage
"Spot-ons"
What is it?
Fleas and ticks are pretty annoying to dogs and cats. These
insects bite your pets and can carry diseases. They bite people,
too! If your dog or cat is in and out of the house a lot, they may
be giving fleas and ticks a free ride into your home. What can
you use to keep these pests off of your pets? Spot-ons.

A spot-on is an insecticide product that is named  for the way
in which it is applied. It's applied to a small area, or spot, on
your dog or cat. It comes in liquid form. The pesticide in the
spot-on works by spreading out over your pet to kill and repel
fleas and ticks.

Your parents/guardians  should be the ones to apply a spot-on
product on your pet. Remind them to always "Read the  Label
First" so that they know how to properly use these products and for safety information.

What's in it?
Examples of the pesticides found in spot-ons are chemicals called imidacloprid, fipronil, pyrethrins, permethrin, and methoprene.

What health and safety things do you need to think about with "Spot-ons?
If a spot-on is used on your dog or cat, be sure not to pet them for at least 24 hours. If you forget and do pet them, or you get
any of the spot-on on your hands or skin, wash it off immediately with lots of soap and water. Whether or not you get sick from
pesticides depends on your exposure to them. It is important to  protect yourself from exposure to these chemicals.


Wet-Cell Batteries
What are they?
Wet-cell batteries are used in cars, trucks, tractors, and other motor vehicles to provide the spark to start the vehicle. They are
usually about twice the size of a shoe box.

What's in them?
Wet-cell batteries contain lead and a solution of  sulfuric acid.

What health and safety precautions do you need to think about with wet-cell batteries?
Most wet-cell  batteries  today are sealed so that  you cannot be exposed to the sulfuric acid and the lead. However, when
activated, the electrolyte solution in the battery produces explosive gases that are easily ignited. Manufacturers of batteries
that contain sulfuric acid must use labels that warn consumers about the dangers from battery acid and accumulated gases.
Sulfuric acid is extremely caustic, which means that it burns. The fumes are strongly irritating and contact can cause burning
and charring of the skin; it can cause blindness if you get it in your eyes. Lead is poisonous in all forms and accumulates in our
bodies  and in the environment.

It is important never to  break the seal of wet-cell batteries. If you do so accidentally, do not attempt to clean it up yourself, get
an adult right away. If an adult is not available, you can call the fire department. Keep other children and pets away from the area
until the battery's acid is cleaned up. Wash your  hands after you  have any contact with wet-cell batteries.


Latex Paint

What is it?
Latex paint can be used indoors or outdoors on walls, wood, and ceilings. The label on the can will say where the  paint should
be used. It is also called water-based paint.

What's in it?
The main solvent used in latex paint is water. The other ingredients are pigments and fillers. The term "latex" refers to the resin
that is contained in the  paint. Paints that are used outdoors  may  have larger amounts of biocides in them.

What health and safety precautions do you need to think about with latex paint?
Indoor water-soluble latex paints may be of low toxicity unless ingested in large quantities. Some interior latex paint can emit
formaldehyde when it is drying. Latex paints that give  off high  levels of formaldehyde when drying can give you a headache and
can irritate your eyes, nose, and throat.
                                                                                         (continued on other side)
                                                                                                   «»EPA

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Household Hazards Hunt Answers (continued - page 10)

Before using these products, you need to be sure to always "Read the Label First" so that you know how to properly use these
products and for safety information. In the room that is being  painted, open the windows and doors fully. Put a box fan in the
window to direct the air and fumes outdoors. Keep the fan on while painting and for about 48 hours afterwards.  Keep small
children  away from the room where the painting is being done and away from the  open cans of paint.  Do not use paint indoors
that is labeled "for exterior use only."


Oil-Based Paints
What is it?
This type of paint is most often used to paint the outside of the house because it dries very hard and withstands harsh weather
conditions for a long time. Sometimes people may use oil-based paint indoors in areas that have a lot of moisture such as in
kitchens and bathrooms.

What's in it?
The solids in the oil-based paint are kept suspended by a number of chemicals  that are organic solvents. The solvents commonly
used in oil-based paints include mineral spirits (naphtha), toluene, xylene, and other petroleum distillate solvents. Oil-based
paints are sometimes called alkyd paints. Alkyd refers to the resin type that is used in the paint.

What health and safety precautions do you need to think about with oil based paint?
Oil-based paint contains organic solvents that can be irritating to eyes and skin, and can cause cracking of the skin. Inhaling
paint fumes can  result in headaches, nausea, and  dizziness, and can make you very tired if you breathe in the fumes for too long
without  good air circulation. Most of these symptoms will go  away if you remove yourself from the area being painted and get
some fresh air. Let an adult know if you continue not to feel well. If you  are exposed to the chemicals in these types of products
often, you may experience other long-term problems such as  kidney, liver, or blood effects. Breathing in paint fumes from cans
of spray paint on purpose is a very bad idea. It can lead to irreversible  brain damage and death even after the first time.

Before using these products, you need to be sure to always "Read the Label First" so that you know how to properly use these
products and for safety information. In the room that is being  painted, open the windows and doors fully. Put a box fan in the
window to direct the air and fumes outdoors. Keep the fan on while painting and for about 48 hours afterwards.  Keep small
children  away from the room where the painting is being done and away from the  open cans of paint.  Do not use paint indoors
that is labeled "for exterior use only." If the room you are painting does not have a  window, consider using a latex paint.


Motor Oil
What is it?
Motor oil is used in the engines of vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and tractors to make sure that the pistons don't rub against the
metal in the engine block.

What's in it?
Motor oil is made up of many unique chemicals that come mainly from crude oil, the same source from which we get gasoline.
Used oil or waste motor oil may be contaminated  with magnesium, copper, zinc, and  other heavy metals that are picked up
from the engine.

What health and safety precautions do you need to think about with motor oil?
Motor oil can contain some chemicals that are suspected to cause cancer (that is,  carcinogens). If disposed of improperly (for
example, if you pour it in the storm sewer or down the drain), used motor oil poses a very serious threat to the environment
because it is toxic to fish and birds. When poured  into water, one quart of motor oil can form an oil slick almost 9,680 square
yards. That is more than two football fields! Always take used motor oil to the recycling center; never pour it on the ground,  in
the storm sewer, or down the drain.

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    Household Hazards Hunt Answers (continued - page 11)

    Antifreeze
    What is it?
    Antifreeze is a bright yellow or green liquid that has a slightly sweet smell. It is used in the radiators of cars, trucks, and other
    motor vehicles. Antifreeze works to keep the vehicle from overheating in the summer or freezing in the winter. When it's
    added to the water in a radiator,  it changes the water's boiling and freezing points. How much it changes these points depends
    on the ratio or concentration of antifreeze to water.

    What's in it?
    The main hazardous ingredient of antifreeze is ethylene glycol.

    What health and safety precautions do you need to think about with antifreeze?
    Ethylene glycol is very poisonous when swallowed.  It will cause severe damage to your heart, kidneys, and brain. It can
    cause death.

    Antifreeze can be spilled on the ground or leak from the radiators of cars and trucks. Because of its sweet smell, animals may
    be attracted to it. Antifreeze is very poisonous, so licking or drinking the fluid can kill an animal. If you see a bright green  or
    yellow liquid on the ground in the garage or on a driveway, parking lot, or street, keep your dog and other pets away from the
    puddle and let an adult know about it.

    When cleaning up antifreeze, all  adults need to wear protective gloves because ethylene glycol can cause damage to internal
    organs through skin absorption.  Inhalation of the fumes can also cause dizziness.

    There is a new type of antifreeze available that contains propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is much less toxic than ethylene
    glycol. An animal would have to consume a lot more of this type of antifreeze (a quantity that is unlikely to be available) to get
    sick or to die. The bottle's label should tell you what type of antifreeze it is.

    Some people who have vacation homes that they close up for the winter will  pour antifreeze into the toilets so that the water
    doesn't freeze. In this case, these people should always use the less toxic antifreeze (the one with propylene glycol in it)
    because pets can drink out of the toilets and can be poisoned.
O Toolbox
    Besides your Dad's tools, toolboxes sometimes contain products that are used to fix things around the house. These products
    could contain toxic chemicals. You should be careful with anything that you find in there. When in doubt, ask an adult.


    Paint Roller and Pan
    There may be some leftover paint on the roller and/or the pan and this  may be toxic. Check with an adult before handling a
    used paint roller and pan (especially if there is paint on it, no matter how old or dry the paint is). Make sure that you wear
    protective gloves and wash your hands thoroughly after you handle paint.
0 Flashlight
    Normally, flashlights are safe and nontoxic to use. However, be careful when handling the batteries and bulb in a flash light.
    Better yet, let an adult take care of these things.

    Bucket
    This is an empty bucket. No pesticides or toxic chemicals in here.
                                                                                                        «»EPA

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   0
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
5,   Close and Take-Home Talk
      (5 minutes)
          Close your eyes and take a nice deep breath. We've covered a lot today. We talked
          about pests. Raise your hand if you know what a pest is. [Call on a student to give
          the definition.]\Ne talked about pesticides—chemicals and cleaners that kill or repel
          pests—and learned that some can be hazardous and/or toxic. We also talked about
          how we can make our homes and our space a less inviting place for pests to live.
          You can open your eyes now. What is the first thing that the detective did when we
          thought that we had a pest?
          Answer: 1. Identify the pest. You have to know what kind of pest it is first.
          Our mouse told us that this space was a nice place to live because it had what it
          needed to live. What three things was it looking for?
          Answer:  Food, water, and shelter.
.xplain
When we are using our plot and plan method to get rid of pests instead of using
pesticides, we want to make the environment undesirable for pests. So, we take
away their food and water and shelter. Finally, we talked about how to stay safe from
household hazards by locking them up and putting them up high where they are out
of reach.
          The coolest part about learning something new is sharing the knowledge. Tonight,
          when you get home, I want you to talk with your family about the things that we
          learned today. What do we need to do to make our homes pest-free? Look for clues
          about which pests may be in your home. What can you do to safely eliminate them?
          Discuss this with your family.
          [Pass out Take-Home Talk.] This Take-Home Talk Sheet has some things that you can
          share with your family and some activities that you can do at home. See what you can
          accomplish on the sheet and we'll talk about it the next time we meet.
                                                                        «»EPA

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   0
Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Take-Home Talk
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and  Household Hazards
To Share:

• Pests are living things that can hurt us by making us sick, damage our homes or other property, or
  destroy plants or agricultural products. A pest can be a plant, an animal, or a disease.

• Pests are everywhere—in our schools, homes, and clubs, and our cities, suburbs, and in the country.
  There are pests in the White House, theTaj Mahal, and Buckingham Palace. They are everywhere!

• Insects are just one kind of pest that people may encounter. The world has more insects than all other
  living things combined. It's estimated that there are 10 quintillion (10,000,000,000,000,000,000) insects!

• Instead of using chemicals that can be toxic in order to get rid of pests, we can remove the things that
  they need to survive. Take these steps:
  1. Identify the pest.
  2. Take away food.
  3. Take away water.
  4. Take away shelter.
  5. Monitor the situation

To Do and Talk About:

• Household Hazard Hunt! With the adults in your family, walk around your home and locate all of the
  pesticides and chemical cleaners that you use. Are they being kept in a safe place, out of reach? Do
  you know what each of them is used for? Are there some chemicals that you don't really use or need?

• Become a Pest! Imagine that you're an ant. Get down low to the ground. What would an ant see?
  Where could they go that you can't go? Where is the best place in your neighborhood to live if you're
  an ant? What would be amazing about being an ant? What would be not so great about being an ant?

To Take Back:

• What was the coolest thing that you learned from talking about this topic with your family and friends?
                                                                        «»EPA

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ODD
(DCQ
Q.(Q
Ort

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           Lesson 3: Breathing Easy: Keeping the Inside
           of Our Homes  Healthy and  Clean
Snapshot
This lesson looks at our homes and the steps to take to keep the air healthy and avoid chemical
exposure. We explore the makeup of the air that we breathe, how to keep it clean, and how to reduce
asthma triggers in our homes. We also explore what lead is and where it might be found in our homes.

Preparation and Materials:
• Posters 1-3, Asthma Triggers Hunt Handout, Take-Home Talk
• Stirring (coffee) straws - enough for each child to have several
• Flip chart and markers
• Black or white board
• Large sheets of paper or the coloring page for each child to make a poster
• Markers  or crayons
  Note: This lesson includes an activity that is not suitable for children with asthma or other breathing
  issues. In order to prepare for the activity, do the following:
  •  Review your list of students with asthma.
  •  Make sure that each of them has a quick-relief bronchodilator inhaler.
  •  Discuss with your organization's health care professional the appropriateness of this exercise for any
     students with health conditions. Students with asthma should not participate in this activity.
  •  Consider co-teaching the exercise with your organization's health care professional.

Objectives—Students will be able to:
• define asthma, breathing, secondhand smoke, and other triggers;
• list three asthma  triggers and how to avoid them;
• list three things that they can do to keep the air in their homes healthy;
• explain how lead  can impact children negatively; and
• list steps to avoid exposure to lead in our homes.

Vocabulary: asthma, secondhand smoke, asthma triggers, lead

Procedure:
1. Introduction (10 minutes)
2. Asthma and Breathing Difficulties Activity (10 minutes)
3. Stopping Triggers at Home and at School (15-20 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Creating Smoke-free Signs (10-15 minutes)
4. Lead (10 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Asthma and Lead Exposure Patrol (10-15 minutes)
5. Close and Take-Home Talk (10 minutes)
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
April 2013
www.epa.gov

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          Lesson 3:  Breathing Easy: Keeping the
          Inside of Our Homes Healthy and Clean
1,    Introduction
      (10 minutes)
         Ask several students to share something that they remember from the previous lesson.
         Prompts: What did you learn that you didn't know before? What did we talk about that
         you already knew? What surprised you from our last lesson? What are some of the
         new words you learned from our last lesson? What can you do to positively impact the
         issue that we learned about?
         [Take an exaggerated deep breath.Hake a deep breath. What did we just do?
         Prompts: As the air entered our lungs, what did it accomplish? Why do we need to
         breathe?
         When we take air in, the oxygen in the air passes throughout our body through our
         blood and allows us to live. Remember that air is one of the four things that we need
         to stay alive. What are the other three? [Food, water, and shelter.]
          Is the air that we breathe 100 percent oxygen?
          Prompts: When we breathe out, do we breathe oxygen out?
 xplain
The air that we breathe in is only about 20 percent oxygen. [Show Poster #1
(illustration of the makeup of air).] Most of the rest of our air is nitrogen, which is
another invisible, odorless gas, like oxygen.
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                                                                    «»EPA

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1.  Introduction (continued - page 2)
           What else is in our air?
           Prompts: When you see trucks on the road that send out black smoke, does that
           become part of our air? What comes out of a car's tailpipe? What about after it rains on
           a hot day and you see steam rising off of the sidewalk? What about when you spray
           something from an aerosol can and it creates a fine mist? What about when there are
           huge fires—is that smoke part of our air? What about smokers who send smoke out
           into our air? Do you think some of the  things entering our air can harm us?
 .xplain
All of these things create changes in our air and those changes can impact us
significantly. Today, we're going to talk about the air in our homes and our schools and
how we can make sure that it's as healthy as it can be.
           Can we see all of these things in the air?
           Prompts: Can you see car exhaust? Or smoke? Can you see aerosol mist? You can
           sometimes see it for a second, but it lingers in the air and becomes invisible to us.
 xplain
           How can we tell that these things are there?
One of the ways that we can tell that these things are in the air is that they irritate our
lungs—we cough, our throats feel scratchy, and some people can even have a hard
time breathing. But sometimes we don't know that these irritants and pollutants are in
the air.

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                                                     Breathing Easy: Keeping the Inside
                                                     of Our Homes Healthy and Clean
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
  Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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       Composition of Air
                     Oxygen 20%
Nitrogen 78%
Carbon Dioxide and
other gasses .03%

Inert Gasses
(mainly argon) .97%

Water Vapor 1%
                                        SEPA

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          Lesson 3: Breathing Easy: Keeping the
          Inside of Our Homes Healthy and Clean
2,  Asthma and Breathing Difficulties Activity
      (10 minutes)
          More than 25 million people in the United States have asthma, including 1 out of every
          10 school-aged children. Do any of you know someone with asthma? A lot of people
          have breathing difficulties and problems other than asthma.
          Most of us know someone with asthma. Raise your hand if you have or know
          someone who has asthma. Asthma is a serious, sometimes life-threatening,
          respiratory disease. Although there is no cure for asthma yet, asthma can be
          controlled through medical treatment and management of environmental triggers.
          What's an environmental trigger?
          Prompts: If you trigger something, what do you do? An environmental trigger is
          something our body takes in that can cause a response,  like coughing or having
          trouble breathing.
 xplain
[Show Poster #2 (illustration of the lungs of an asthmatic and non-asthmatic)./This
image shows the inside of our lungs. When a person has asthma, the muscles in the
pathways that send air into his or her lungs become inflamed and it can be difficult for
him or her to breathe.
Limiting exposure to the things in our environment that trigger asthma and other
breathing difficulties, there are medicines that can be used to help control the
symptoms of asthma and make breathing easier.
 xplain
We're going to do a quick exercise so that we can get a sense of what an asthma
attack might feel like. This is important: IFYOU HAVE ASTHMA, YOU SHOULD NOT
PARTICIPATE IN THIS ACTIVITY. We are going to do a burst of exercise and then
try to breathe through restricted "lungs." [Pass out a stirring straw to each child.
Have everyone stand up and run in place or do jumping jacks for a full minute. It's
important to do this for a minute in order for heart rates to rise. At the 1-minute mark,
tell students to place the stirring straws in their mouths and pinch their noses closed.
They should try to breathe only through the stirring straw. Comment on the breathing
difficulties that you see in the group.]                         (continued on other side)
                                                                       «»EPA

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2. Asthma and Breathing Difficulties Activity (continued - page 2)
 xplain
           How did you feel? [Respond to the answers.]
           So, who knows what causes asthma?
We don't actually know what causes asthma, but we do know what can trigger an
asthma attack. There are certain things in the air that we breathe that can trigger an
asthma attack.
 xplain
While you can't control what's in the air everywhere, you can control much of what is in
the air in your home and school. What do you think might trigger someone's asthma?
Prompts: What might make breathing difficult for someone with asthma or even
without? What about smoke?
 xplain
           [Show Poster #3 (list of asthma triggers). /Dust and dust mites, pollen, mold, mildew,
           cold air, exercise, pet dander, secondhand smoke, and cockroaches are the most well-
           known triggers.
 xplain
           How can we avoid some of these triggers?
Dust mites are teeny tiny little insects that are nearly impossible to see. We can use
protective covers for pillows and mattresses to reduce our exposure to dust mites
while we sleep. We spend one-third of their lives sleeping! And stay indoors when
the pollen count is really high in the spring. Remember how we learned about limiting
pests in Lesson 2? Well some of the most common pests, like cockroaches, can also
be an asthma trigger. Here's the thing, it's hard to avoid all of these things. It gets cold
in most places for at least part of the year. And most places have pollen.
           Of these triggers, which things can you avoid most easily?
           Prompts: Can you avoid pets? What is pet dander? When pets shed their fur, they
           also shed skins cells called dander, which can irritate our lungs when we breathe it
           in. Can you avoid secondhand smoke? Can we create a home that is free of mold and
           cockroaches?

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2. Asthma and Breathing Difficulties Activity (continued - page 3)
Teacher Note: The issue of secondhand smoke may be a sensitive one for students who have a
family member who smokes. As you are leading this discussion be aware that this issue may cause
some tension and refer to your organization's policy and practices for addressing sensitive issues.
           What is secondhand smoke?
           Prompts: Have any of you ever experienced secondhand smoke?
 xplain
Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke given off by the burning end of a
cigarette, pipe, or cigar, and the smoke exhaled by smokers. Exposure to secondhand
smoke is sometimes called involuntary or passive smoking because if you're breathing
secondhand smoke it's like you're smoking. Secondhand smoke contains more than
4,000 substances, several of which are known to cause cancer in humans and animals.
           What can you do if you're around secondhand smoke?
           Prompts: Ask the smoker to go outside; leave the home.
 .xplain
We have just learned how to reduce or eliminate pests in our homes, and we'll learn
how to control moisture and avoid excess mold in our homes in the coming weeks. We
can avoid secondhand smoke by encouraging anyone we know who smokes to stop. If
someone in your family smokes and isn't interested in quitting, he or she should smoke
outside, away from children. No one should ever smoke in the car.  Even the smoke
odor that lingers in the upholstery in our cars or homes and on our clothes can damage
our health.  Let's look at some ways that we can avoid some of these triggers  in our
homes and schools.
                                                                             «»EPA

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                                                     Breathing Easy: Keeping the Inside
                                                     of Our Homes Healthy and Clean
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
  Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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         The Pathology of Asthma
                                     *   *
                                      * * *
                Relaxed
                smooth
                muscles
                              Wall inflamed
                              and thickened
Normal airway
Asthmatic airway
Asthmatic airway
 during attack
                                                     Air trapped
                                                     in alveoli
                                  Tightened
                                  smooth
                                  muscles
                                                    SEPA

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                                                     Breathing Easy: Keeping the Inside
                                                     of Our Homes Healthy and Clean
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
  Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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                Asthma Triggers
  Dust Mites
  -

                  Pollen
                                          Cold Air
                                Mold
               Pet Dander
Cockroaches
Secondhand
Smoke

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         Lesson 3: Breathing Easy: Keeping the
         Inside of Our Homes Healthy and Clean
3,   Stopping Triggers at Home and at School
     (15-20 minutes)
         [Break the class up into five groups and give each group a copy of the Asthma
         Triggers Hunt Handout Ask each group to find the triggers in the picture. For each
         trigger that they identify, they should also determine a way to make the air cleaner.
         Bring the class back together and review the Handout. The answers can be found at
         the end of this Lesson.]
         Prompts: How do we keep pollen out? What about secondhand smoke?
Optional Activity: Creating Smoke-free Signs (10-15 minutes)
 xplain
Coloring or creating Smoke-free signs for use in the teaching space or at home. Now
that we know how important it is to keep our spaces smoke free, we want to share
that knowledge. Each of you (or in pairs) will make a poster that announces this is a
smoke-free space.
         Pass out large sheets of paper or the coloring page and markers or crayons.
                                                              «»EPA

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       Lesson 3: Breathing Easy: Keeping the Inside
       of Our Homes Healthy and Clean
Asthma Triggers Hunt
Can you identify the asthma triggers in the image below?
Hint:There are 3 asthma triggers in the kitchen.
                                          (continued on other side)
                                               «»EPA

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Asthma Triggers Hunt (continued - page 2)
Can you identify the asthma trigger in the image below?
Hint:There is 1 asthma trigger in the bathroom.


                          i.O.


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Asthma Triggers Hunt (continued - page 3)
Can you identify the asthma triggers in the image below?
Hint:There are 3 asthma triggers in the living room.
                                                              (continued on other side)
                                                                     «»EPA

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Asthma Triggers Hunt (continued - page 4)
Can you identify the asthma triggers in the image below?
Hint:There are 2 asthma triggers in the bedroom.

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         Lesson 3: Breathing Easy:  Keeping the Inside
         of Our Homes Healthy and Clean
Asthma Triggers Hunt Answers
Kitchen

Cleaners used to clean the kitchen and
pesticides used to keep pests away from
produce can irritate your lungs and cause
breathing difficulties.
 • Some things you can do: Keep the
   kitchen clean and free of food crumbs. If
   you are using cleaners or pesticides, be
   sure to ventilate the room. Buy produce
   that is organic and pesticide free.

Stoves that use gas create a risk for
carbon monoxide poisoning.
 • Some things you can do: Adults should
   ensure that stoves vent to the outside
   and that all appliances are used properly.
 II
 fl
                                        Bathroom
Bathrooms are a common source of
mold and mildew that can cause asthma
or allergy attacks.
 • Some things you can do: Install
  and use a bathroom fan to control
  moisture and help stop mold growth.
                                                       (continued on other side)
                                                             «»EPA

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Asthma Triggers Hunt Answers (continued - page 2)
Living  Room

Pets can trigger asthma and allergy attacks
because of the dander in their fur.
  • Some things you can do: Keep pets
   out of sleeping areas and off furniture,
   vacuum carpets, and clean upholstered
   furniture often.

Secondhand smoke can trigger asthma
attacks and other breathing illnesses.
  • Some things you can do: Encourage
   smokers to quit; adults shouldn't
   smoke inside.

Fireplaces and leaking chimneys are
sources of carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Some things you can do: Rooms with
   fireplaces should be well ventilated and
   adults should be sure to open the flue
   damper and properly seal the chimney.
                                               Bedroom

                                               Dust mites are found in pillows, blankets
                                               and other bedding, stuffed animals,
                                               carpets, and furniture and can trigger an
                                               asthma attack.
                                                • Some things you can do: Wash your
                                                  bedding once a week in hot water,
                                                  keep  stuffed animals off of your bed,
                                                  use an allergen-free mattress cover,
                                                  keep  the humidity in your house low
                                                  (between 30% and 50%), vacuum
                                                  once  a week, and wipe down hard
                                                  surfaces with a damp cloth.

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           Lesson 3: Breathing Easy: Keeping the
           Inside of Our Homes Healthy and Clean
4,   Lead (10 minutes)
Teacher Note:There is a belief that lead is only an issue in "old homes." In reality, there are many
sources of lead in our daily lives. Yes, lead can be found in the paint and pipes of older homes, but
it can also be found in schools, dirt and soil, water and toys, to name a few places that children may
come into contact with lead every day. While this topic might not at first glance seem to relate to
your organization's population, everyone can be impacted  by lead.
 .xplain
 xplain
We can easily see and take action to prevent some things that are dangerous in our
homes. We can easily see secondhand smoke and we know that we need to keep
chemicals, such as cleaning products,  locked up and out of reach of small children. But
there are some things that can harm us that we can't see.
           What is lead? Where have you heard about it? What is it used for?
Lead is a metal that has many uses and is in a lot of places that we might not realize—
like paint in older homes and soil in cities. But lead can be dangerous for humans if it's in
our air, water, or food. It's especially dangerous for babies and children under age 6. We
are not talking about the lead in your pencil. Pencils are safe for kids and adults to use.
           Why do you think that might be?
           Prompts: Remember that we talked about how children can be more easily affected
           than adults by the environment because they are still growing and developing.
 xplain
When babies, toddlers, and kids are exposed to lead, it can have some serious effects
on their brain development and lead to learning problems.
 xplain
In our shelters—our homes and schools—we might find lead in two main places.
First, in paint. Lead used to be an ingredient in household paint. About 30 years ago,
the laws changed so that lead isn't in the paints that we buy today. But if you're in a
building that was built before 1978, it probably has some lead paint in it and the lead
from paint can get into the air.
                                                                    (continued on other side)
                                                                           «»EPA

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4. Lead (continued-page 2)
            Let's think about paint for a second. When you paint a room, what happens to the old
            paint? Do you take the old paint off?
 xplain
Because we put a new coat of paint over the old one, many homes built before 1978 still
have some paint with lead in it. As paint chips or flakes off the wall, the dust from lead
paint is released and can get into the air and onto the floors and other surfaces nearby,
like window sills and toys.  One of the most common ways that lead dust gets into
the air is from windows sliding open and shut. Lots of very small particles of lead are
released that we can't see. So, what do you think happens when sandpaper is used on
surfaces with  lead paint? Will there be dust? What do you think is contained in the dust
and how will humans be exposed? Babies  and toddlers, who love to put their hands and
things in their mouths,  might also eat the paint chips. And sometimes lead dust even
gets on our food, pillows, and other things  that affect us.
           What about outside the home? Lead paint was used on porches, railings, and on houses
           and buildings, and it can chip off and fall on the ground near homes and schools where
           children play in the dirt. How can we make sure that we keep our homes safe from lead?
 .xplain
Here are some easy ways that we can stay safe from lead at home:

1.  Find out how old your home is, and if it is older than 1978, tell your parents that
   there is a good chance that there is lead paint in your home.

2.  Make sure that any paint that is chipping or wearing and paint dust are cleaned
   up right away—look around window sills and baseboards inside, and around the
   house outside. Parents and guardians should always be in charge of cleaning up
   any paint or lead dust.

3.  Change air filters regularly so that you don't breathe in lead.

4.  When old homes are being renovated or workers come in to repair walls in homes,
   there is a danger of  lead paint chips and dust being scattered. Be sure to stay away
   from areas where construction  is being done.

5.  Wash hands,  bottles, pacifiers, and toys often.
6.  Eat foods rich in calcium, iron, and vitamin C. These foods help the body absorb
   less lead.

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4. Lead (continued-page 3)
           Can you think of anywhere else that we might find lead in our homes?
           Prompts: What are the four things that we need to live? [Air, water, food, and shelter.]
 xplain
Lead can also be in the water that comes from our taps, especially in older buildings,
because pipes used to be made out of lead. There are simple ways to test for lead in tap
water, and states and counties run quality control checks for lead in the water.
           Are there any other ways that we can protect ourselves from lead?
 xplain
We can eat foods that are rich in calcium, iron, and vitamin C. These foods help the body
absorb less lead.
           What are some calcium-rich foods?
  k^vjk^
 xplain
Milk, yogurt, cheese, and spinach.
           What are some iron-rich foods?
  k^vjk^
 xplain
Lean red meat, chicken, fish, raisins, beans, eggs, spinach, broccoli, and kale.
           How about some foods that are rich in vitamin C?
  k^vjk^
 xplain
Oranges, orange juice, and grapefruit.
                                                                         (continued on other side)
                                                                                 «»EPA

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4. Lead (continued-page 4)
Optional Activity: Asthma and Lead Exposure Patrol (10-15 minutes)

           We know that pollutants like secondhand smoke and car exhaust can harm our lungs.
           And we know that older buildings have a greater chance of having issues with lead.
           Where do we find these things more often—in cities or suburbs, or in the country?
 .xplain
Because cities house more people in a smaller space, pollution and pests and older
homes with lead can be more commonly found in cities than in the country. This
means that if you live in a city, you need to be especially aware of these pollutants and
take extra precautions. There are wonderful things about living in a city, but pollutants
are something you need to be vigilant about in a city environment.
           Take the students on a search to answer the question: How can we make the air we
           breathe healthier? Start in the space you're in and tell the students to look around.
           Prompts: How do we keep cold air out? How do we keep pollen out? Do you see layers
           of paint? Is there a lot of dust in the building? How do we identify if there are pests like
           cockroaches here? Ask the students where lead might be an issue in the building.
           Prompts (if the facility is older than 1978): Do you see any chipping or peeling
           paint, especially around the windows or doors?  Is there any repair work going on in
           the building?

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          Lesson 3: Breathing Easy: Keeping the
          Inside of Our Homes Healthy and Clean
5,   Close and Take-Home Talk
      (10 minutes)
 xplain
Close your eyes and take a nice deep breath. We've covered a lot today. We talked
about what is in our air and how our lungs work. Go ahead and open your eyes. We
learned what asthma is—who can raise your hand and tell me what asthma is?
          We also learned the key triggers for asthma and how to avoid them. Who can name a
          trigger and how to avoid it? [Go through as many triggers as the class can remember
          and supply the ones that they m/ssJWe learned about the dangers of lead. Who can
          name an effect of lead poisoning that may happen to children? Lead exposure can lead
          to health problems  and learning disabilities.
          The coolest part about learning something new is sharing the knowledge. Tonight,
          when you get home, I want you to talk with your family about the things we learned
          today. What will you tell them? Will you talk about how our air is only 20 percent
          oxygen? Will you explain the triggers for asthma and how to keep the air in our homes
          nice and clean? Look around your home and see if there are any triggers and work
          with your family to clean them up. Ask your parents if your house was built before
          1978 and tell them about the possible risks from lead paint. Look for any peeling paint
          in your home, especially if you have young brothers or sisters. Talk to your parents
          about the  importance of cleaning  those areas to avoid spreading harmful lead dust.
 xplain
[Pass out Take-Home Talk.] This Take-Home Talk sheet has some things that you can
share with your family and some activities that you can do at home. See what you can
accomplish on the sheet and we'll talk about it the next time we meet.
                                                                     «»EPA

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          Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
          Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Take-Home Talk
Lesson 3: Breathing Easy: Keeping the  Inside of Our
Homes Healthy and Clean
To Share:

• When we take air in, the oxygen in the air passes throughout our bodies through our blood.

• The air we breathe in is only about 20 percent oxygen. Most of the rest of our air is nitrogen,
  which is another invisible, odorless gas, like oxygen.

• Lead is a metal that has many uses and is in a lot of places that we might not realize—like paint
  in older homes and soil in cities. But lead can be dangerous for humans if it's in our air, water, or
  food. It's  especially dangerous for babies and children under age 6.
To Do and Talk About:

• Get the Straight Scoop! More than 25 million people in the United States have asthma,
  including 1 out of every 10 school-aged children. Many more people have breathing difficulties and
  problems other than asthma. Does anyone in your family or someone you know have asthma?
  Interview them about what they do to stay healthy. Do they have special precautions that they
  take? Do they take medicine? Have they had to change their lifestyle at all?

• Asthma Triggers Tracking! Even if you don't have asthma, it's important to keep the air in your
  home healthy and clean. There are a few things that you and your family can look for and can do
  to breathe a little easier. Below is a list of the most well-known asthma triggers and some steps
  to take to avoid them. Once you've talked about these triggers and investigated ways your family
  can address them, check it off!
   Q  Dust and Dust Mites - Keep your space clean and consider covering mattresses and pillows
      with airtight bedding. Wash sheets  and bedding regularly.
   Q  Pollen - On days when the pollen count is very high, stay indoors and close the windows.
                                                                (continued on other side)
                                                                       «»EPA

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   Q  Mold and Mildew - Clean up mold and mildew in bathrooms and keep it away by
       running the fan in the bathroom during and after showers.
   a  Pet Dander - Many folks are allergic to pets and find it difficult to breathe around them.
       If you have pets, brush them outside instead of inside.
   Q  Secondhand Smoke - Smoking and secondhand smoke are bad for everyone. If
       someone in your family smokes, encourage them to stop.

• Lead Paint Patrol! Find out if your  home was built before 1978. If it was, be extra careful
  with flaking paint. Get an adult's help to clean up dust and paint chips right away.
To Take Back:
• What was the coolest thing that you learned from talking about this topic with your family
  and friends?

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v>EPA

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           Lesson 4:  Be Sun Smart
Snapshot
Moving outside, this lesson explores how we both need the sun and need to protect ourselves from its rays.
Preparation and Materials:
• Posters 1-3, Take-Home Talk
• Flip chart and markers
• Blacker white board
• Large sheets of paper for each child to make a poster
• Markers or crayons
• Print a dozen different maps of heat, UV, and humidity from different locations on the same day from
  online weather sites
Note: If it's sunny out, think about teaching some or all of this lesson outside, but be sure to practice the
sun smarts you will be teaching about!

Suggested Giveaways: UV bracelets that change color when the UV rays are at high levels,
sunscreen, sun visors or hats that can be decorated, anything to protect from the sun.
Objectives—Students will  be able to:
• define sunscreen, sunburn, vitamin D, and ultraviolet (UV) light',
• explain what the sun is;
• list three things which the sun provides that we need; and
• list three ways that they can protect themselves from too much sun.
Vocabulary: sunscreen, sunburn, vitamin D, and ultraviolet (UV) light
Procedure:
1. Introduction (8 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Sun Sing Off (10-20 minutes)
2. DefiningTerms and Sun Smarts (20 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Heat and UV Around the Country  (10-15 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Group Work on Animal Sunscreen (10-15 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Sun Smarts  Posters (10-15 minutes)
3. Close and Take-Home Talk (8 minutes)
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
April 2013
www.epa.gov

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          Lesson 4: Be Sun Smart
1,    Introduction and the Earth's Orbit
      (8 minutes)
          Ask several students to share something that they remember from the previous lesson.
          Prompts: What did you learn that you didn't know before? What did we talk about that
          you already knew? What surprised you from our last lesson? What are some of the new
          words you learned from our last lesson? What can you do to positively impact the issue
          that we learned about?
          [Show Poster #1 (four photos—extreme close-up images of the sun or sun flares).]
          What does this look like? What do you see? Who knows what this is? [Take some time
          with the photos. This may be the first time that some of the kids have seen images of
          the sun this close.]
.xplain
This is our sun. Have you ever seen a picture of the sun like this? We usually see the
sun drawn as a big yellow ball. These photos were taken by NASA.
          What is the sun?The sun is the star at the center of our Solar System.The sun is
          109 times larger than the Earth and primarily consists of hydrogen and helium (gases).
 xplain
Think of the sun as a humongous power plant that is throwing off heat energy. We feel
the heat energy of the sun when we walk outside, and it's hot out even though it is
93 million miles away from the Earth because most of the space between the Earth
and the sun is empty, which allows the sun's energy to reach us easily.
                                                                (continued on other side)
                                                                       «»EPA

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1.  Introduction and the Earth's Orbit (continued - page 2)
           How hot does the temperature get in [insert your city name] at its hottest?
           Prompts: In August, what is the temperature? When you are baking a cake or making
           chicken, what temperature is the oven usually at? 350 or 400 degrees Fahrenheit,
           right? Well, we're able to experience the sun's energy from 93 million miles away
           because the core of the sun is more than 28 million degrees!
 xplain
Today, we will talk about an environmental health issue that involves the sun: sun
safety. But before we talk about climate and how we need to protect ourselves from
the sun, let's think about the sun a little more.
Optional Activity: Sun Sing Off (10-20 minutes)

           Divide the group into smaller groups of 3-4 students and explain that you will have a
           Sing Off between groups. Each song or rap has to have one of the following words in
           it: Sun, Sunshine, Rays, Star, Light or Heat.

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v>EPA
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Office of Children's Health Protection
 EPA-100-K-13-002
 www.epa.gov
 April 2013
     Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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Photographs courtsey of NASA (www.nasa.gov)

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          Lesson 4:  Be Sun Smart
2,   Defining Terms and Sun Smarts
      (20 minutes)
          Why do we need the sun? What does it provide us?
          Prompts: Would we have plants without the sun? Food? Would we be able to live if the
          weather got extremely cold or extremely hot?
 xplain
The Earth and all of its animals and plants work together as a system to sustain all of
the trillions of living things. It's a careful balance and if one thing changes, it's going to
have a ripple effect across the entire system.
          What are some words that you think of when you think about the sun? Or being out in
          the sun?
          Prompts: Light, sweat, heat, hot, warm, happy, sunscreen, sunglasses, sunburn.
 xplain
The sun is essential for life on Earth. Just as plants need the sun to grow, humans and
other animals need it as well. What else do we get from the sun?
Prompts: Do sunny days make you happier? In the middle of winter, don't you long for
summer? What would you eat if the sun didn't help plants and animals to grow?
 xplain
The sun helps our bodies make vitamin D, which helps us to have strong bones and
teeth. But certain foods and vitamins are excellent, safer sources of vitamin D.
 xplain
The sun also helps to regulate our sleeping rhythms. We have evolved over millions of
years along with the sun.
                                                                (continued on other side)
                                                                       «»EPA

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2. Defining Terms and Sun Smarts (continued - page 2)
           So, the sun provides us with a lot of things. But if we're not careful, it can also cause a
           lot of damage. What are some of the harmful things that the sun can do?
           Prompts: Have any of you ever had a sunburn? Or have you seen plants that got too
           much sun and not enough water?
           Teacher Note: The issue of sunburns and the need for sunscreen may be a sensitive
           one for students whose families either don't use sunscreen or believe that sunscreen
           is only necessary for light-skinned people. As you are leading this discussion, be aware
           that this issue may cause some tension and refer to your organization's policy and
           practices for addressing sensitive issues.
 xplain
And sunburn is exactly what it sounds like—some of the energy of the sun is in the
form of ultraviolet rays that can burn our skin cells, and the skin gets red and feels
warm. Did you know that you can get a sunburn on a cloudy day? Up to 80 percent
of the sun's ultraviolet rays can get through on a cloudy day. Remember that even if
you don't burn, any change to your natural skin color is a sign of damage to your skin.
Sunburns can lead to  skin cancer.
 .xplain
While we need the sun, we also need to protect ourselves from its strong ultraviolet
radiation. We need to protect our body's largest organ, our skin.
 xplain
           What are ultraviolet or UV rays?
Remember when we said that the sun was like a giant power plant throwing off
energy? Well, some of the energy is in the form of light and some is heat, and it's also
sending energy down in the form of ultraviolet rays that are invisible—the same way
that heat is invisible. We can't see heat and we can't see ultraviolet rays.
 xplain
Have you ever heard of the UV Index? What is it?The UV Index assigns a number to the
next day's UV—or ultraviolet ray—levels and highlights the level of exposure for people
who plan to be outdoors. Just like the air quality code you hear about on TV, you should
pay attention to the UV levels and plan your activities to protect yourself from getting
too much sun by using shade and covering up with sunglasses, a hat, and protective
clothing, and using sunscreen. The higher the number on the scale of 1 to 11 +, the more
careful you need to be.

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2. Defining Terms and Sun Smarts (continued - page 3)
Optional Activity: Heat and UV Around the Country (10-20 minutes)
F5
Share heat and UV Maps from around the country with the class. Print a dozen
different maps of heat, UV, and humidity for the same day from online weather sites
to allow students to see the range of temperatures around the country or the world.
Have students call out the location (which you can find on a map) and the numbers
and record them on the board.
 .xplain
Different parts of the country or world experience temperature and UV differently, but
everyone experiences UV.
 .xplain
Since we can't separate the potential bad effects of the UV rays (wrinkles, eye
damage, sunburn, skin cancer, and immune system suppression) from the good, like
vitamin D, experts recommend that you eat foods with vitamin D and take vitamin D
supplements rather than seeking the sun for vitamin D.
           What are some foods that are high in vitamin D?
           Answer: Salmon, tuna fish, fortified milk and orange juice, eggs, and lots of cereals
           and yogurts have added vitamin D.
 xplain
 .xplain
But doesn't the sun feel good sometimes? Don't you want to go out and feel it on your
face? You certainly can; but remember to wear sunscreen, sunglasses, and protective
clothing, like hats and shirts with sleeves, long pants or long shorts with high socks, to
prevent damage to your skin and eyes.
           Children are particularly at risk from the sun. Why might this be?
Children's skin is more sensitive and is growing more rapidly than that of adults (the
cells are multiplying at a much faster rate). And children often spend a lot more time
outside in the sun than adults do.
                                                                       (continued on other side)
                                                                               «»EPA

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2. Defining Terms and Sun Smarts (continued - page 4)
 xplain
 xplain
Childhood sunburns increase the risk for skin cancer later in life and can also increase
the risk for skin cancer as early as the late teen years and early to mid-20s. A significant
amount of sun exposure occurs before age 18. Protecting the skin and eyes during the
first 18 years of life can reduce the risk of some types of skin cancer by up to 78 percent.
Similarly, wearing sunglasses helps to prevent problems with your eyes later in life.
           How can we protect ourselves from the sun?
[Show Poster #2 (photos of turtle, muddy pig, camel's face, meerkat, and lions in the
shade).Hhere are some simple steps that you can take and some animals can show
us how. Check out these animals—they are all either using a strategy or their bodies
have evolved to help protect them from the sun's powerful rays.
Optional Activity: Group Work on Animal Sunscreen (10-15 minutes)

           Divide the class into groups to determine how each animal is protecting itself from
           the sun.
           [Review each an/ma/JWhat do you think each one is doing to be sun smart?
           Prompts: Which animal looks like it's wearing sunglasses? Has any animal here
           layered something on to protect itself? Which one has "clothes" on?
 .xplain
• The turtle wears a shell like a shirt—its skin can't be burnt if it's not exposed to the
  sun. You can wear clothing to protect your skin from the sun.
• The pig covers itself in mud as a sunscreen. You should wear sunscreen of at least
  SPF 15 whenever you are outside.
• The bumps over the camel's eyes act like a hat. You should wear a hat to protect
  your face, neck, and head from the sun.
• The black rings around the meerkat's  eyes act as sunglasses. You should wear
  sunglasses if you're going to be outside for long periods.
• These lions are using the shadow rule—when your shadow is shorter than you are,
  seek shade!

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2. Defining Terms and Sun Smarts (continued - page 5)
           Do all people need to protect themselves from too much sun? Do dark-skinned people
           need to do things like wearing hats, sunglasses, and sunscreen?
           Prompts: Have you ever heard that African Americans or Native Americans or
           Hispanic Americans don't need to protect themselves because their skin is darker?
 xplain
ALL people need to be sun smart and wear hats and sunglasses, seek shade, and
wear sunscreen! Ultraviolet rays can damage everyone's skin and eyes.
Optional Activity: Sun Smarts Posters (10-15 minutes)
 xplain
Coloring or creating Sun Smarts signs for use in the teaching space or at home. Now
that we know how important it is to be sun smart, we want to share that knowledge.
Each of you (or in pairs) will make a poster that explains one way to be sun smart.
Think back to all the things we discussed.
           Pass out large sheets of paper or the coloring page and markers or crayons.
                                                                             «»EPA

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v>EPA
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Office of Children's Health Protection
 EPA-100-K-13-002
 www.epa.gov
 April 2013
     Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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'*>'•
                              oEPA

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          Lesson 4: Be Sun Smart
3,   Close and  Take-Home Talk
      (8 minutes)
 xplain
Close your eyes and take a nice deep breath. We've covered a lot today. We talked
about the sun and why we need it.
 xplain
Remember how we talked about needing certain ingredients to make our
environments healthy a little while back? The sun is a key ingredient in our
environment, but we need to be sun smart. We looked at some animals that were
practicing sun smarts. There are five things that we can do to be sun smart—who
can name one? [Go through all five: Wear clothing to protect your skin from the sun;
wear sunscreen of at least SPF 15 when you are outside; wear a hat to protect your
face, next and head from the sun; wear sunglasses outside; and when your shadow is
shorter than you are, seek shade./You can open your eyes now.
 xplain
For the next few weeks, we're going to chart the UV Index each day. We're going to
chart the temperature and the UV Index and take a few notes on the weather. Let's see
if we notice anything about ultraviolet rays. [Show Poster #3 (Charting the UV Index).]
          The coolest part about learning something new is sharing the knowledge. Tonight,
          when you get home, I want you to talk with your family about the things that we
          learned today. Talk with your family about why is it important to protect your skin and
          eyes while outside and discuss the steps that you can all take to be sun smart.
 xplain
[Pass out Take-Home Talk.]Th\s Take-Home Talk sheet has some things that you can
share with your family and some activities that you can do at home. See what you can
accomplish on the sheet and we'll talk about it the next time we meet.
                                                                         «»EPA

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v>EPA
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Office of Children's Health Protection
 EPA-100-K-13-002
 www.epa.gov
 April 2013
     Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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           Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
           Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Take-Home Talk

Lesson 4: Be Sun Smart



To Share:

• The sun is the star at the center of our Solar System. The sun is 109 times larger than the Earth and
  primarily consists of hydrogen and helium (gases).

• We feel the heat energy of the sun when we walk outside, and it's hot out even though the sun is
  93 million  miles away from the Earth because the core of the sun is more than 28 million degrees!

• The sun is essential for life on Earth. Just as plants need the sun to grow, humans and other animals
  need it as well. We have evolved over millions of years along with the sun.

• While we  need the sun, we also ALL need to protect ourselves from its strong ultraviolet radiation,
  which can cause sunburns and, sometimes, cancer.

• People of all complexions  need to practice sun smarts. The sun's ultra violet rays can damage us all.
To Do:

• Sun Smarts Spotting! We saw that a lot of animals use natural sun smarts to protect themselves:
         Turtles wear their shells like a shirt—its skin can't be burnt if it's not exposed to the sun. You
         can wear clothing to protect your skin from the sun.
         Pigs cover themselves in mud as a sunscreen. You should wear sunscreen of at least SPF 15
         whenever you are outside.
         The bumps over the camel's eyes act like a hat. You should wear a hat to protect your face,
         neck, and head from the sun.


                                                                  (continued on other side)

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          The black rings around the meerkat's eyes act as sunglasses. You should wear
          sunglasses if you're going to be outside for long periods.
          Lions use the shadow rule—when your shadow is shorter than you are, seek shade!
          Where do you see these same kinds of ideas being used by people every day in your
          community? Where is there extra shade? Who wears sunglasses? How many different
          kinds of hats are out there? Is anyone using an umbrella for shade?
To Take Back:

•  What was the coolest thing that you learned from talking about this topic with your family
   and friends?

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v>EPA

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           Lesson 5: Climate Change and You
Snapshot
This lesson explores climate change. Students learn what causes climate change and how we can
participate in reducing the harmful effects of climate change.

Preparation and  Materials:
• Posters 1-5, Take-Home Talk
• Flip chart and markers
• Black or white board
• Select six students  for this activity: five to act as the sun, one to act as the Earth. You will need a
  relatively large space for this activity.
• Two dozen removable circular stickers to represent gases
• Read Walrus Case Study located under Additional  Resources and print enough copies for the class

Objectives—Students will be able to:
• explain what the sun is;
• explain the rotation  and revolution of the earth around the sun;
• explain what our atmosphere is and what it does; and
• explain how climate change impacts them and the simple steps that they can take to help reduce
  greenhouse gases.

Vocabulary: climate change, greenhouse gases, and atmosphere

Procedure:
1. Introduction and the Earth's Orbit Activity (18 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Planting Seeds or Seedlings (15-25 minutes)
2. Defining Terms and Greenhouse Effect (18 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Walrus Case Study (20-25 minutes)
3. Close and Take-Home Talk (8 minutes)
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
April 2013
www.epa.gov

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          Lesson  5: Climate Change and You
1,    Introductic                           :hfs Orbit
      Activity (18 minutes)
          Ask several students to share something that they remember from the previous lesson.
          Prompts: What did you learn that you didn't know before? What did we talk about that
          you already knew? What surprised you from our last lesson? What are some of the new
          words that you learned from our last lesson? What can you do to positively impact the
          issue we learned about?
          [Show Poster #1 (four photos—extreme c/oseup images of the sun or sun flares).]
          We looked at these when we talked about sun smarts—who can tell me what this is?
 xplain
This is our sun. Someone remind the class what the sun is and some cool facts about it.
Prompts:The sun is the star at the center of our Solar System. The sun is 109 times
larger than the Earth and primarily consists of hydrogen and helium (gases).
.xplain
We want to think of the sun as a humongous power plant that is throwing off heat
energy. We can experience the sun's energy because the core of the sun is more than
28 million degrees. Today, we will talk about another environmental health issue that
involves the sun: climate change. Before we talk about climate change and how we need
to protect ourselves from the sun, let's think about our Solar System a little more.
 xplain
[Ask for six volunteers: five to represent the sun, one to represent the Earth. Show
Poster #2 (image of the planets and their orbits)../The sun is the center and the anchor
of our Solar System and, like the other seven planets in our system, the Earth moves, or
orbits, around it along a pathway. It takes a full year for the Earth to travel this pathway
one time. Let's see if we can demonstrate this.
                                                                  (continued on other side)
                                                                         «»EPA

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1.  Introduction and the Earth's Orbit Activity (continued - page 2)
 xplain
Tell the class that the five students representing the sun will link arms and act as the
sun. The student representing the Earth will revolve around the sun using the orbit
image as a guide. Ask the student representing the Earth to start revolving around the
sun students.
           [Let the student revolve around the sun one time.] If the Earth went around the sun
           this way, wouldn't [insert child's namel's arm always be getting the sun's rays and
           wouldn't [his or her] other arm always be in the dark?
           Prompts: What about night and day? If the rays are streaming toward the Earth, can
           they curve around the Earth?
 xplain
While the Earth is moving along this pathway, it's also spinning, or rotating, extremely
fast. And as it spins, the sun hits different parts of it, giving us night and day. It takes
24 hours for the Earth to spin around completely. [Tell the Earth student to continue on
the pathway, but to now spin/rotate while doing it.]
           [Let the student revolve around the sun once while rotating for night and day.] What
           about the seasons? If the Earth is revolving and rotating, we should have the same
           weather all the time, right?
           Prompts: Do we have the same weather all the time here? Does any part of the world
           have the same weather all of the time?
 xplain
Well, the Earth doesn't stay straight up and down, it tilts throughout the year, and as
it tilts, some parts of the Earth get more sun. During which season does the Earth get
more sun? [Summer.] Less sun? [Winter.] [Tell the Earth student to continue on the
pathway while spinning and tilting.]
            How many times would the earth need to rotate/spin for each one revolution around
            the sun?
 xplain
365 times! A rotation is 1 day, which gives us night and day, and a revolution is 1 year,
which gives us the seasons.
 xplain
The heat energy we get from the sun as we orbit and rotate and tilt is part of a
delicate balance.

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1.  Introduction and the Earth's Orbit Activity (continued - page 3)
Optional Activity: Planting Seeds or Seedlings (15-25 minutes)
 .xplain
We just learned about how important the sun is to life here on earth and how our
planet is constantly changing in relation to the sun. Now let's see the sun in action. We
are going to decorate these planters and then plant [insert what you will be planting] in
them. We will set the plants in the sun and watch them grow and respond to the sun.
We'll be able to see the plants actually seek out the sun by how they move.
           Pass out planters and decoration supplies, including crayons, markers, paint, stickers,
           glue, etc.
           As students are decorating the planters, lead a loose discussion on growing things.
           Prompts: How many of you keep plants at home? Have you ever grown anything to
           eat? How big/tall do you think these plants will get? Why will we be able to see them
           move toward the sun?
           Help students put potting soil and seedlings or seeds in their pots and place them in a
           sunny window.
                                                                             &ERA

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v>EPA
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Office of Children's Health Protection
 EPA-100-K-13-002
 www.epa.gov
 April 2013
     Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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Photographs courtsey of NASA (www.nasa.gov)

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v>EPA
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Office of Children's Health Protection
 EPA-100-K-13-002
 www.epa.gov
 April 2013
     Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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     Our Solar

     Mercury

  Venus

Earth

                                    Uranus
)   }
\   \
       Mars
              Jupiter
                          Saturn
      Neptune
       Pluto
                                        SEPA

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           Lesson 5:  Climate Change and You
2,   Defining  Terms
      (18 minutes)
          Why do we need the sun? What does it provide us?
          Prompts: Would we have plants without the sun? Food? Would we be able to live if
          the weather got extremely cold or extremely hot?
 xplain
The Earth and all of its animals and plants work together as a system to sustain all of
the trillions of living things. It's a careful balance and if one thing changes, it's going
to have a ripple effect across the entire system. The warming of the Earth's overall
temperature is one big ripple!
          Have you heard of the Greenhouse Effect? What does this mean?
          Prompts: Have you ever seen a greenhouse before? What do they do? Or think about
          what happens to a car on a hot summer day. When you get inside, what is it like?
          Often it's hotter inside the car then outside, right?
 xplain
[Show Poster #3 (photos of a greenhouses).JMosl greenhouses look like small glass
houses and are used to grow plants, especially in the winter. Greenhouses trap heat
from the sun. The glass panels of the greenhouse let in light energy but keep heat
energy from escaping. This causes the greenhouse to heat up, much like the inside of
a car parked in sunlight, and keeps the plants warm enough to live in the winter. The
Earth is kind of like a giant greenhouse.
 xplain
[Show Poster #4 (The Greenhouse Effect #1 - overview).Hhe sun sends heat and
light energy our way and it enters our atmosphere. The Earth and crops and people
absorb the energy. The heat is also absorbed by our atmosphere.
          What does atmosphere mean?
          Prompts: Can you see it? Can you taste it? Can you hear it?
                                                                   (continued on other side)
                                                                          «»EPA

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2. Defining Terms (continued - page 2)
 xplain
The atmosphere is the air that we breathe, the molecules bouncing off each other. It's
all around us and it helps protect us from the sun. This giant sun powerhouse sends
so much energy our way that it would be extremely dangerous if it came directly to
the Earth's surface. The gases that make up the atmosphere act like the glass on a
greenhouse and let most of the light and the heat in, but filter out some of it so that
it's safer for us. These gases also help to keep the Earth warm when one part of the
Earth is rotating away from the sun—at night. Our atmosphere is a mix of gases that
do different things. If we change the mixture of gases, how could our planet change?
 xplain
[Show Poster #5 (The Greenhouse Effect #2 - detail of the rays hitting the atmosphere
and use removable stickers to represent gases).] Since it's difficult to see the
atmosphere we're going to use these stickers to represent different gases in the
atmosphere that are all around us. [Place the removable stickers on the Greenhouse
Effect #2 Poster and tell students what gases they represent.] Explain that the gases
help keep the heat around us like a blanket.
 .xplain
These gases also help to keep the Earth warm when one part of the Earth is rotating
away from the sun at night. Our atmosphere is a mix of gases that do different things.
           If we change the mixture of gases, how could our planet change?
           Prompts: Different gases do different things. What if we had a lot of gases in the
           atmosphere that made it really, really hot or blocked the sun's good effects? If the
           temperature rises, what might happen to plants?To snow?To ice?To fish in the ocean?
 .xplain
Remember, we said that this system of ours is a balance. Well, what happens if we
have more and more of these greenhouse gases in our atmosphere?
Prompts: Would it get hotter or colder? More greenhouse gases in our atmosphere
means that more heat stays close to the Earth and the temperature rises. The
temperature of the  Earth has risen 1  degree Fahrenheit over the last 100 years, and it's
projected to get hotter.
 xplain
So, when people talk about the Greenhouse Effect, they mean the rise in temperature
that the Earth is experiencing because gases in the atmosphere trap the energy—the
heat—from the sun. What is good about this? What is bad about it? Have you heard
people talking about this issue?

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2. Defining Terms (continued - page 3)
           Why do we have more greenhouse gases than we used to?
           Prompts: What do we use more of today that we didn't use 100 or 200 years ago?
 xplain
Greenhouse gases are released when we burn gas and oil and coal to power our cars,
factories, planes, and trains, and provide power/energy to the places where we live
and go to school and work.
           What happens if the Earth gets warmer? What or who would be affected?
           Prompts: Would ice stick around if it got hotter? Would ocean temperatures rise?
           What about our seasons, would they be impacted?
 .xplain
If the temperature continues to rise, it can have a huge ripple effect. One of the big
things that would be impacted would be weather. A hotter Earth would mean more
rain and more severe weather like hurricanes, snowstorms, and even droughts. This
would happen because melting ice would make more water in the oceans and they
would rise. The hotter air would create more precipitation that would collect in the
clouds and cause more rain in some areas. And what happens if the oceans rise?
Have you seen a beach?Think about all the people who live by the water—what would
happen to their homes? Everyone and everything would have their environment
changed drastically.
 xplain
What would be the impact on children? Remember that we talked about how
children and adults interact with their environments differently. Well, climate change
also affects children and adults  differently. As the Earth gets warmer, and we create
more greenhouse gases, air pollution increases from these greenhouse gases and
ground-level ozone—that's another name for smog—increases. Young children's
lungs, and your lungs, too, are still developing, so exposure to this pollution can have
long-term effects. We get ground-level ozone when vehicle exhaust, fumes from
factories, pollution from power  plants, and other chemicals in the air mix with high
temperatures.
           During the summer, when it gets really hot, have you ever heard the newscaster say
           that it's a Code Orange day or a Code Red day? That's a measure of how healthy the
           air is to breathe. On days when air pollution is high, it is good to stay inside and not do
           a lot of exercise outside.
                                                                        (continued on other side)
                                                                                «»EPA

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2. Defining Terms (continued - page 4)
Optional Activity: Walrus Case Study (20-25 minutes)

           Read the case study included in this lesson to the students and lead a discussion about
           the impact of climate change on the walrus.
           Prompts: A moment ago, I said that climate change had a ripple impact. Let's think
           about these walruses and this idea of a ripple impact. Have any of you ever thrown a
           stone into some water? What happens? One action, you throwing a stone, causes all
           these ripples, all these  other actions, that are connected. What happens if there are
           fewer walruses?
           So, what can we do to make sure that our system stays in balance? [Make a list of all
           of the suggestions. Be sure to prompt students to think of local examples of saving
           energy.]
           Prompts: What are some ways that we can reduce the amount of greenhouse gases
           that we generate daily and help to reduce ground-level ozone?
           •  Turn off lights at home and at school.
           •  Walk, carpool, or take public transportation to get where you need to go.
           •  Buy things that  are locally made or grown and don't have to travel very far to get
              to you.
           •  Turn off and  unplug your appliances—like computers,TVs, cell phones, and MP3
              players—when you're not using them.
           •  And recycle, recycle, recycle!  All of our trash in landfills mingles and releases
              greenhouse  gases as well. The less you put in, the better.
           •  Take a short shower instead of a bath—a 10-minute shower uses less water, and
              thus less energy, than a bath.
           •  Tell your friends and family about saving energy. Encourage them to use
              ENERGY STAR® products, like CFL (compact fluorescent lightbulbs), and other
              products that save energy.

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v>EPA
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Office of Children's Health Protection
 EPA-100-K-13-002
 www.epa.gov
 April 2013
     Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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Greenhouses


-------
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
 Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

                                                           Climate Change and You





                                                           Poster #4


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The Greenhouse Effect
        Heat and light energy
                 Some heat is absorbed
                 by the atmosphere
                 Atmosphere
Most heat and energy
are absorbed by the
Earth, crops, and people

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v>EPA
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Office of Children's Health Protection
 EPA-100-K-13-002
 www.epa.gov
 April 2013
     Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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The Greenhouse Effect
    Atmosphere

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          Lesson  5: Climate Change and You
3,  Close and Take-Home Talk
      (8 minutes)
 xplain
Close your eyes and take a nice deep breath. We've covered a lot today. We talked about
the sun and why we need it. We had a demonstration of the orbit, rotation, and tilt of
the Earth. We talked about greenhouse gases. Raise your hand if you can tell the class
what greenhouse gases do and how they are created. [Call on a student./We talked
about what might happen if the Earth continues to warm. And we talked about some
simple things that you can do to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases. Who can
name a few of these things? [Call on a student.] You can open your eyes now.
          The coolest part about learning something new is sharing the knowledge. Tonight,
          when you get home, I want you to talk with your family about the things we learned
          today. Look for ways that you can use less energy in your home and talk with your
          family about how you can all help generate less greenhouse gases. Can you and your
          family commit to making some simple changes to help reduce greenhouse gases?
 xplain
[Pass out Take-Home Talk nb\s Take-Home Talk sheet has some things that you can
share with your family and some activities that you can do at home. See what you can
accomplish on the sheet and we'll talk about it the next time we meet.
                                                                      «»EPA

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          Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
          Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Take-Home Talk
Lesson 5: Climate Change and You
To Share:

• The sun is the center and the anchor of our solar system and, like the other seven planets in our
  system, the Earth moves, or orbits, around it along a pathway. The earth needs to rotate/spin
  365 times for each one revolution around the sun! A rotation is  1 day, which gives us night and
  day, and a revolution is 1 year, which gives us the seasons.

• This giant sun powerhouse sends so much energy our way that it would be extremely dangerous
  if it came directly to the Earth's surface. The gases that make up the atmosphere act like the glass
  on a greenhouse and let most of the light and the heat in, but filter out some of it so that it's safer
  for us.
• These gases also help keep the Earth
  warm when one part of the Earth is
  rotating away from the sun—at night.

• Our atmosphere is a mix of gases
  that do different things. If we change
  the mixture of gases, our planet
  will change. Greenhouse gases are
  released when we burn gas, oil, and
  coal to power our cars, factories,
  planes, and trains, and provide power/
  energy to the places where we live
  and go to school and work.
Heat and light energy
        Some heat is absorbed
        by the atmosphere
                 Most heat and energy
                 are absorbed by the
                 Earth, crops, and people.
                                                                  (continued on other side)
                                                                         &EFVX

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To Do:

•  Energy Everywhere! We use energy so often throughout the day that we rarely think about it.
   Ask your family to track all of the times throughout the day that they use energy—have each
   member of your family keep a running log. By learning when we use energy, we can see where
   we can easily save energy.

   Just a few daily activities that use energy:Turning on lights, watching TV, using a computer,
   listening  to music, taking a shower/bath (energy to heat the water), driving somewhere, cooking,
   and using anything with batteries.

•  Who in your family had the most activities that used energy? Who had the least?

•  What are some simply ways in which you can all cut back on your energy usage?
To Take Back:

•  What was the coolest thing that you learned from talking about this topic with your family
   and friends?

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v>EPA

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           Lesson 6: Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean
Snapshot
Looking outside, this lesson explores waterways (streams, rainwater runoff, drainage pollution) with
a focus on urban waterways. Students learn about the water cycle and how to keep pollution out of
waterways. Mercury in fish is also addressed.
Preparation and Materials:
• Poster 1, Take-Home Talk
• Flip chart and markers
• Black or white board
• You will take your students on a walk to see the nearest road with a storm drain. Storm drains are used
  to allow excess water from paved roads to drain away. They take many shapes and sizes. If you do not
  have a storm drain close by, you will walk along a road or path that often has some trash scattered.
  You will focus on all of the items—trash, leaves, pet waste, etc.—that you see on your walk.  Be sure
  to follow your organization's guidelines on traveling with children and be cautious around roads.
• Large sheets of paper for each child to make a poster
• Markers or crayons
Objectives—Students will be able to:
• define rainwater runoff, drainage pollution, freshwater, saltwater, and potable;
• identify three different types of waterways;
• explain three ways to stop drainage pollution; and
• explain how keeping our waterways clean benefits the entire community.
Vocabulary: rainwater runoff, drainage pollution, freshwater, saltwater, aquifer, precipitation,
evaporation, water cycle
Procedure:
1. Introduction (8 minutes)
2. Water Cycle (10 minutes)
  Optional Online Interactive: EPA Interactive Water Cycle (5 minutes)
3. Drainage and Storm Drain/Community Walk (15-20 minutes)
4. Reducing Pollution in Our Water (5 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Coloring or Creating No Littering Signs  (10 minutes)
  Optional Activity: Community Clean-Up Planning (10 minutes)
5. Close and Take-Home Talk (5 minutes)
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
April 2013
www.epa.gov

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           Lesson 6: Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean
1,    Introduction
      (8 minutes)
          Ask several students to share something that they remember from the previous lesson.
          Prompts: What did you learn that you didn't know before? What did we talk about that
          you already knew? What surprised you from our last lesson? What are some of the new
          words that you learned from our last lesson? What can you do to positively impact the
          issue we learned about?
          Close your eyes. I want you to travel back in time, slowly, to the start of your day. See
          everything you've done up until now in reverse. Think about all the things that you came
          into contact with—all the people you talked to, the things you've eaten and drunk, the
          stuff you've read, all of the things you've done. Reverse through the door to this room,
          reverse through coming  into the building, slowly  reverse through getting here, reverse
          through breakfast, slowly reverse through getting dressed, and reverse all the way back
          to being asleep. You are  lying down and you're asleep. Now, let's play back your day with
          this question in mind: Which of the things in your day required water?
          Go ahead and open your eyes. Who can tell me the first thing in his or her day that
          required water?
          Prompts: Did any of you go to the bathroom when you got up? Brush your teeth?
          Have something to  drink? What was the next thing?The vast majority of your activities
          require water—from the food you eat (plants need water to grow, animals that become
          meat need water) to exercising  (your bodies need water), from the building you are in
          (buildings that are made of concrete require water to be mixed with the cement during
          construction) to electricity (which is used for lights, stoplights, walk signs, MP3 players,
          TVs, radios, and cable) that comes from hydropower, etc. [Relate the actions to water as
          much as possible.]
                                                                           «»EPA

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           Lesson 6: Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean
2,   Water Cycle
      (10 minutes)
          About 70 percent of the Earth is covered with water. That's a lot of water! Where is
          most of that water?
          Prompt: If we look at a map, there's a lot of what color? [Blue.] Blue represents the
          oceans.
 xplain
But did you know that less than 1 percent of all the water on Earth can be used by
people? The rest is saltwater (the kind you find in the ocean) or is permanently frozen
and we can't drink it, wash with it, or use it to water plants. As our population grows,
more and more people are using up this limited resource. Therefore, it is important that
we understand where our water comes from and how to use our water wisely and not
waste it.
          So, where do we find the 1 percent of water that we can use? Where do we find
          freshwater? [In lakes, streams, rivers, and rain.]
           Let's take a look at the life cycle of a drop of freshwater—the kind we can drink—when
           it starts as a raindrop. Rain is also called precipitation, something I'm sure you've
           heard the weather reporter say. Well, precipitation happens when there's too much
           water in the air and it can't hold onto it anymore. It will rain, sleet, snow, or hail. How
           can there be water in the air?
           Prompts: Have you ever gone outside and noticed that the air felt heavy or wet? We
           call that humidity—this is a good example of water in the air. When the water in the air
           and the clouds gets to be too heavy, it rains.
          [Show Poster #1 (life cycle of water).] So, the rain or snow or hail comes down and fills
          up our lakes, streams, and oceans. Where else does the precipitation go?
          Prompts: Does the rain just fill up the streets? Does it stay on top of the soccer fields?
          It soaks into the Earth and drains through our sewer systems.
                                                                    (continued on other side)

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2. Water Cycle (continued - page 2)
Optional Online Interactive: EPA Interactive Water Cycle (5 minutes)
           Share the EPA Interactive Water Cycle - Interactive Tool at
           www.epa.gov/safe water/kids/flash/f lash_watercycle.htm I
 .xplain
The water that soaks into the ground is stored there until it is needed. The water
stored way underground is called an aquifer/ground water. Many people pump water
directly from the aquifer through a well and use it for their drinking water.
 xplain
           So, water falls and gets soaked up by the ground or added to lakes. What happens next?
Remember those humid days, the days when the air feels muggy? Do those days
happen in the summer or the winter? In the summer. As the sun's rays heat up the
lakes and streams and oceans and the ground where the water is stored, vapor is
formed.
           Think about when you're cooking and you boil a pot of water—as the temperature of
           the water increases, what happens?
           Prompts: How do you know it's hot? The water starts to boil and steam comes off of it.
           This steam is vapor. And the vapor goes into the air. This is called evaporation.
 .xplain
The sun is heating up all this water and the vapor is traveling upward because it's hot.
When it cools and moves higher up, it turns into a liquid again and gathers in clouds.
           What happens next?
           Prompts:This is a cycle: We started with rain—so we have to end up there again.
 .xplain
The clouds send down precipitation and the cycle starts all over again.

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                                                                  Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
  Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.

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                Wate r Cyc I e

              Condensation
Evaporation from
lakes, rivers, oceans
    Precipitation as
  \ rain, snow, hail, fog
»*
                                Runoff and Groundwater
                                                  SEPA

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          Lesson 6: Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean
3,   Drainage and Storm Drain/Community Walk
      (15-20 minutes)
 xplain
In a city, where does the rain go when it comes down? Does it soak into the Earth?
What is covering a lot of cities? [Roads, asphalt, and concrete.]

Water can't soak into the roads and sidewalks, so it pools on the concrete or it runs
along the surface. After a really hard rainfall, what do you see? In the roads?
Prompt: Have you seen a storm drain before?
          Storm drains are openings on the sides of roads that allow water to drain. The water
          goes down the drain and into a pipe system, which brings that water to a body of water
          close by. Storm drains will often have painted on them " [insert name of body of water]
          drainage." All of the rainwater rushes down these storm drains. After a big storm, it
          sometimes looks like a river flowing to the drain.
 xplain
What is in the river flowing to the drain?
Prompts: What have you seen? What is in the road that could get swept into the drain?

All of the things that pool together when it rains and go down the storm drain end up
flowing into the streams and lakes that we use for our drinking water. And they can
contaminate it. We call this rainwater runoff. We're going to take a walk down to the
closest storm drain and take a look at everything we spot along the way that might end
up in the [insert name of closest body of water (could be a dam, river, etc.)]. As we're
walking, call out the items that might be swept into the storm drain as you see them.
 xplain
Not all communities have a lot of storm drains. But the same way that trash gets swept
into storm drains it gets swept other places as well by rain and wind. Trash and oil from
cars and household chemicals will often make it into the water system through storm
drains or streams.
Teacher Note: Be sure to take a pen and paper with you to note everything that the
children see. Depending on how busy the area by the storm drain is, you can finish the
lesson outside or resume it when you return to the classroom.
                                                       (continued on other side)
                                                                        «»EPA

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3. Drainage and Storm Drain/Community Walk (continued - page 2)
           Review the list of items noted. Ask what else is often in the street that the students
           didn't see today.  Be sure that they note the following: cans, bottles, paper trash,
           cigarette butts, food trash, oil from cars, and pet waste. Remind students that people
           sometimes dump chemicals like paint or oil on the road and those things can be added
           to the rainwater runoff as well.
           Imagine a bathtub full of all these things that you just saw on the street—would you
           want to get into the bathtub to wash? Or would you want to drink that water? While
           much of the water we drink goes through a treatment process to make it safe for us,
           let's think about the rivers and lakes and bays that these storm drains feed into. How
           would all this garbage impact the life in that lake?
           Prompts: How would this impact fish and plants? The animals that drink that water?
           What animals would be impacted?  Might we end up eating fish from that lake?
           One of the big concerns with water pollution is mercury. What is mercury? Mercury
           is a toxic metal that is found naturally in coal and is released when coal is burned by
           power plants. When it's released, it falls to the ground and enters our waterways.
           When mercury mixes with water, it becomes very toxic and can end up in the fish that
           we eat.  If we ingest mercury, in can harm us by impacting our brain development and
           functioning.  Pregnant women have to be especially careful  about mercury because it
           can impact the baby they are carrying.
 xplain
So, should we avoid fish altogether? No!  Fish is a great part of a healthy diet. So, what
do we do?

If you are buying fish, be aware of which fish your local health department recommends
that you avoid in your area. If you are catching your own fish, check to make sure that
the waters you are fishing in are clean—again, your local health department will know.
When you cook the fish you caught, remove the skin, head, tail, and organs before
cooking. Mercury can be concentrated in these areas. Avoid frying fish or eating fried
fish—frying locks in the pollutants.
           We've talked about everything being connected and about balance. How does polluted
           water impact our health?
           Prompts: If the water is polluted, will it take more work at a water treatment plant to
           clean it? We'll talk about the water treatment process in our next lesson. Will it take
           more energy to do this? Where will we get this energy—will we need to burn more
           fossil fuels and thus create more greenhouse gases? Will this impact air quality and
           climate change? All of these elements are interconnected. How will it impact you?

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         Lesson 6: Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean
4,   Reducing Pollution in Our Water
      (5 minutes)
 xplain
         How do we keep these things out of our waterways? What can we do?
Put garbage where it belongs. Never pour chemicals or pesticides on the ground. Pick
up after our pets. Pick up litter. Don't throw things down the storm drain. Recycle used
car oil at landfills or garages. Educate people about how litter can hurt our waterways.
Optional Activity: Coloring or Creating No Littering Signs (10 minutes)
.xplain
Color or create No Littering signs for use in the teaching space or at home. Now that
we know how important it is to keep our roadways and parks clean, we want to share
that knowledge. Each of you (or in pairs) will make a poster that lets others know how
important it is to clean up after pets or put trash where it belongs.
         Pass out large sheets of paper and markers or crayons.
                                                            (continued on other side)
                                                                  «»EPA

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4. Reducing Pollution in Our Water (continued - page 2)
Optional Activity: Community Clean-Up Planning (10 minutes)
 .xplain
We just saw all the trash and pet waste and leaves on our walk and that was a
relatively small area we covered. Now that we know how harmful these items can be
to our waterways, I think we should do something about it.
           What can we do?
           Prompts: Not litter, tell others not to litter, pick up trash.
 .xplain
What if we organized a community clean-up day of [insert local park or road that
needs to be cleaned up]? How would we do it?
Prompts: Who would we want to involve?  How would we tell folks about it? When
should we do it?
           Guide the students through the process of planning a clean-up day for the near future.

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          Lesson  6: Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean
5,   Close and  Take-Home Talk
      (5 minutes)
 xplain
Close your eyes and take a nice deep breath. We've covered a lot today. We talked
about the water cycle. Raise your hand if you can tell the class about the four steps
of the water cycle—where do we start? [Call on a student. Go through all four steps:
precipitation, runoff and groundwater, evaporation, and condensation]
          We also discussed storm drains and went on a trip to see what gets into our
          waterways through the storm drains. What are some ways that we can stop the
          pollution of our waterways? You can open your eyes now.
          The coolest part about learning something new is sharing the knowledge. Tonight,
          when you get home, I want you to talk with your family about the things that we
          learned today. Look around your neighborhood to see if there is trash by the storm
          drains. Be sure not to litter, and pick up trash and put it in the garbage when you see it.
          Challenge your family to think of ways that you can all help to protect the waterways
          around us.
 xplain
[Pass out Take-Home Talk.]Th\s Take-Home Talk sheet has some things that you can
share with your family and some activities that you can do at home. See what you can
accomplish on the sheet and we'll talk about it the next time we meet.
                                                                      «»EPA

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          Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
          Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Take-Home Talk
Lesson 6: Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean
To Share:

• About 70 percent of the Earth is covered with water! Most of that water is in the oceans.

• But less than 1 percent of all of the water on Earth can be used by people. The rest is saltwater
  (the kind you find in the ocean) or is permanently frozen and we can't drink it, wash with it, or use
  it to water plants.

• As our population grows, more and more people are using up this limited resource. Therefore, it is
  important that we understand where our water comes from and how to use our water wisely and
  not waste it.
                         Water Cycle

   Evaporation from
   lakes, rivers, oceans
                                             Precipitation as
                                           \ rain, snow, hail, fog
                                   Runoff and Groundwater
                                                            (continued on other side)
                                                                   «»EPA

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To Do:

•  Rescuing Rainwater Runoff! You learned that all of the trash that we see on the streets and in
   our neighborhoods can too easily end up in our lakes and our streams, hurting fish and plants
   and animals. You and your family can do your part to stop this pollution! As a family, walk around
   your neighborhood and pick up trash. Be sure to wear protective gloves and go with an adult.

   Where did you find the most trash? What was the trash—food waste? Bottles? Cans? Paper?

•  Getting the Word Out! How can you let others know that they shouldn't litter? Would a letter
   to your local newspaper be helpful? What about posting signs in your community? How can you
   spread the word?
To Take Back:
• What was the coolest thing that you learned from talking about this topic with your family
  and friends?

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v>EPA

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           Lesson  7: Healthy Water Inside
Snapshot
This lesson examines water in our homes with a focus on how our tap water is treated and how to
conserve water. Avoiding mold and mildew is also addressed.
Preparation and Materials:
• Posters 1-4, Visual Card 1, Take-Home Talk
• 6 magnifying glasses
• 6 clear plastic cups
• Flip chart and markers
• Black or white board
• Pond, puddle, or aquarium water—some water in which the students will be able to see things (dirt, sticks,
  etc.) with and without the magnifying glasses. Teacher Note: this activity isn't effective with tap water or
  bottled water. The students need to see unfiltered water from outside—a puddle or a bucket filled with
  water and left outside for a week or so will work if you don't have access to a stream, pond, or lake.
• 6 Report-Out sheets
• 6 pencils
Suggested Giveaways: Stickers to remind students to turn off the water, a water canteen
Objectives—Students will be able to:
• define mold, mildew,  and fluoride',
• list three ways to stop mold and mildew from growing;
• explain  how water is treated; and
• explain  some ways to conserve water at home.
Vocabulary: mold, mildew, fluoride, and potable
Procedure:
1. Introduction (5 minutes)
2. Water Detective Activity (15 minutes)
3. Water Travels (10 minutes)
4. Conserving Water (5 minutes)
5. Avoiding Mold and Mildew (5 minutes)
6. Close and Take-Home Talk (5 minutes)
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
April 2013
www.epa.gov

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          Lesson 7: Healthy Water Inside
1,    Introduction
      (5 minutes)
          Ask several students to share something that they remember from the previous lesson.
          Prompts: What did you learn that you didn't know before? What did we talk about that
          you already knew? What surprised you from our last lesson? What are some of the new
          words that you learned from our last lesson? What can you do to positively impact the
          issue we learned about?
          We've talked about how we need water to live. But how important is it really? If you
          had to guess, what percentage of our bodies do you think is water?
          [Hold up Poster #1 (illustration—outlines of people with the different percentages filled
          in with water).] Are we 33 percent, 60 percent, or 95 percent water? (Taken from
          http://ga. water, usgs.gov/edu/propertyyou.html.)
 xplain
Are you ready for this? We are more than 60 percent water! 60 percent! Close your
eyes for a moment and let's think about the water in our bodies being slowly sucked
out of our skin and bones and our organs, out of all of our cells. What would be left?
We're at least 60 percent water, so we'd be less than half of our size! We need water.
          So, where do we get this water that we need?
          Prompts: Faucets/taps, bottled water, the ocean, lakes.
 xplain
Today we're going to concentrate on the water in our homes that comes to us through
pipes to our sinks and showers. This water takes a long journey to get to you and some
unusual things happen before you use it.
                                                                          «»EPA

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                                                            lesson 71
                                                            ^•V^^J^J V,x I I  / •
                                                            Healthy Water Inside
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
  Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks

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What percentage of
our bodies is water?

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           Lesson 7:  Healthy Water Inside
2,   Water Detective Activity
      (15 minutes)
          Let's think about the trip that a drop of water takes. Let's say it starts in a lake
          200 hundred miles away from where we are now. How do you think it gets to us?
          Prompts: Do we drink it right from the lake? What might be in the water if we drank it
          right from a lake? Dirt? Fish? Parasites? Insects? Is it driven to us in trucks?
          If we were to drink water directly from a lake, what might happen?
          Prompts: Would we get sick? Would we all have to live close to lakes?
 xplain
The freshwater—from lakes and streams and rivers—needs to be filtered before we can
drink it in order to remove dirt, bacteria, small fish, and other things that could harm us.
Even when water from these sources looks clear and clean, there are things that we
can't see that could harm us. [Show Poster #2 (photos of water treatment plants).]
 xplain
We're going to take a closer look at what might be in the water in a lake or stream or
that might go down our storm drains. [Divide the class into six groups and give two cups
of water and a magnifying glass to each group. Cup 1 should be the unfiltered water
from the outside and Cup 2 can be bottled or tap water. Assign one person in each
group to record the group's observations.  Depending on each group's size and dynamics,
you may need to give each child a set amount of time to use the magnifying glass.]
          What does a magnifying glass do? It allows you to see things in more detail. You will
          be looking at your water sample to see what you can find with both your eyes and
          with the magnifying glass.
 xplain
[Hand out Visual Card #1 (questions for observation)./The group recorders will write
down the answers to the questions on the card. You have 10 minutes.
                                                                   (continued on other side)
                                                                          «»EPA

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2. Water Detective Activity (continued - page 2)
           Circulate among the groups asking prompting questions, such as Where do you
           think that came from? Would you want to drink that? If you saw something with the
           magnifying glass that you didn't see with your eyes, what do you think you could see
           with a microscope? After the allotted time, bring the groups together.
 xplain
           Would the group reporters please read their findings to everyone?
Respond to the groups' findings. Most groups will see more with the magnifying
glass. Use some of the same prompting questions again, such as Where do you
think the things in the water came from? Would you want to drink that? If you saw
something with the magnifying glass that you didn't see with your eyes, what do you
think you could see with a microscope?
 xplain
So, now that we know what might be in the lake that our water comes from, let's see
the trip our water takes.

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v>EPA
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
 Office of Children's Health Protection
 EPA-100-K-13-002
 www.epa.gov
 April 2013
     Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks

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Water Treatment
     Pants

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      Lesson 7: Healthy Water Inside
Visual Card #1
            Observe with your eyes
            1. What color is the water?
            2. Is there anything floating in the water?
            3. Is there anything moving in the water?
            Observe with the
            magnifying glass
            1. What color is the water?
            2. Is there anything floating in the water?
            3. Is there anything moving in the water?
                                         «»EPA

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           Lesson 7: Healthy Water Inside
3,   Water Travels
      (10 minutes)
 xplain
Our little drop of water starts in the lake and goes through four steps before it's ready
for us to drink.
          After it goes through all of these steps, we call the water potable—have you heard this
          word before? What does it mean?
          Prompts: We wouldn't call water from a lake potable. Potable means that it is safe for
          humans to drink.
 xplain
          [Show Poster #3 (illustration of the water treatment cycle).Hhe water comes from the
          pond into the water treatment plant and goes through four main steps.
.xplain
First, the water goes through a step to remove dirt and particles that we can see;
next, it is filtered to remove even smaller particles that we can't see; finally, it's
disinfected to remove any bacteria or viruses or microbes. In most cities, a small
amount of fluoride is added to the water to help strengthen our teeth. Sometimes,
a small amount of a chemical called chlorine is added to drinking water to keep it
free of bacteria, viruses, and microbes.  (Taken from http://water.epa.gov/learn/kids/
drinkingwater/watertreatmentplantjndex.cfm.)
.xplain
The water is now ready for us to drink!
          Does all of the water that is used in homes go through the water treatment process?
          Prompts: What if you're very far away from a water treatment plant?
 xplain
Some people get water from private wells. Well water is a great source of water for
many families in our country.
                                                                   (continued on other side)
                                                                           «»EPA

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3. Water Travels (continued - page 2)
Teacher Note: If your group does not have exposure to or use well water, you can skip the following:
           If you get water from a well, what are some ways to make sure that the water is safe
           to drink and that it stays safe?
           Prompts: Would you know by looking at it?
 xplain
Well water should be tested at least every year. The well should be covered securely.
Don't use or mix cleaners or chemicals by the well.

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                                                            lesson 71
                                                            ^•V^^J^J V,x I I  / •
                                                            Healthy Water Inside
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
  Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks

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                     Water Treatment Cycle
 Lake or Reservoir
                      mil
 Sedimentation
 Heavy particles settle to the
 bottom; the clear water moves
 on to disinfection.
Disinfection
Chlorine and other disinfectants are
added to kill microorganisms	
Coagulation
This process removes dirt and other particles
suspended in the water; chemicals are added
to attract particles, which then become heavy
enough to sink.

Filtration
Water passes through filters made of
layers of sand, gravel or charcoal that
remove even smaller particles.
        Storage	'
        Disinfection occurs in a closed tank
        or reservoir before water flows to user.
                                                                     SEPA

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          Lesson 7:  Healthy Water Inside
4,   Conserving Water
      (5 minutes)
          Do you know how much water a family of four uses every day in the United States?
          [Show Poster #4 (family of four with three options: 50, WO, or 400 gallons of water).]
          Prompts: Think about what you use water for every day. Do you shower with it? Cook
          with it? Wash your clothes? Do you think that this family uses 50 gallons? 100 gallons?
          Or 400 gallons? Answer: 400 gallons!

          Let's think about where we use that water. What did you use water for today?
          Showering? Cooking? Washing clothes? Washing dishes? Drinking? Watering plants?
          How many gallons of water do you think a 10-minute shower uses?
          Answer: 16-20 gallons.

          So cutting your showering time down by a minute can save a lot of water. Here's a
          challenge—time how long you normally take a shower. Now, can you cut your shower
          down by a minute? By two? By three? Think of all the water you will save! Turn off the
          water while you soap up and turn it on to wash off.
 xplain
Running your dishwasher takes about 10 gallons of water, so make sure it's full when
you run it.
          We learned that the water we use to cook and clean and drink goes through a long
          process to ensure that it's safe for us. What are some ways that we can make sure
          that we're not wasting this precious resource?
          Prompts: How can we conserve/save water in our daily routines?
                                                                (continued on other side)
                                                                        «»EPA

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4. Conserving Water (continued - page 2)
 xplain
Don't let the water run when you're brushing your teeth. Take showers instead of
baths. If your sink leaks, let an adult know—a slow drip that runs all the time can add
up to a lot of wasted water!

Guess how much water a leaky faucet can waste? A leaky faucet that drips at a rate of
one drip per second can waste more than 3,000 gallons per year.

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                                           lesson 71
                                           ^•V^^J^J V,x I I  /  •
                                           Healthy Water Inside
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
 Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks
                                                         Poster #4

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       How much water does the average
          family of four use every day?
5O Gallons
10O Gallons  4OO Gallons
                                  SEPA

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          Lesson  7: Healthy Water Inside
5,  Avoiding Mold and Mildew
      (5 minutes)
 xplain
          The other thing that leaks and excessive water can do in our homes is cause mold and
          mildew to grow. What is mold? What is mildew?
 xplain
Mold and mildew are both types of fungus that grow in areas that are damp or have a
lot of moisture. Both grow on surfaces and they usually look like dark brown, green, or
black spots. Mold and mildew love showers and bathrooms because showers stay wet
after you get out of them.
          Where else do you think mold or mildew might grow?
          Prompts: Where else in our homes is often wet or damp? What areas of our house
          get warm?
.xplain
Kitchens, bathrooms, laundry areas, basements, and attics. The best way to get rid of
mold is to remove the source of moisture.
 xplain
 xplain
          Why do we want to keep our homes mold- and mildew-free? What can mold do to us?
Mold and mildew are irritants—they can cause allergies and asthma and can make
it difficult for some people to breathe. And remember, since children's lungs are still
developing, kids are especially at risk of being affected by mold and mildew.
          So, how do we avoid mold and mildew?
Keep areas that are often wet, dry—wipe down the shower after using it; be sure to
move clothes from the washer to the dryer quickly; get a dehumidifier for basements
and attics, increase your ventilation source (e.g., open a window in high-moisture areas).
                                                                         «»EPA

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          Lesson 7: Healthy Water Inside
6,   Close and  Take-Home Talk
      (5 minutes)
 xplain
Close your eyes and take a nice deep breath. We've covered a lot today. We examined
some water more closely and observed things that we can't see with our eyes alone.
We talked about how a drop of water goes from a stream all the way to our faucets.
We talked about mold and mildew in our homes—who can tell us what mold is? [Call
on a student.] How do we stop mold from growing in our homes?
 xplain
We also talked about how we need to take care to conserve water in our homes—it
takes so much to get water clean and safe and to us, we need to be sure to use only
what we need. What are some ways that we can conserve water? You can open your
eyes  now.
          The coolest part about learning something new is sharing the knowledge. Tonight,
          when you get home, I want you to talk with your family about the things that we
          learned today. Look around your house to make sure that there aren't any leaks or
          drips and work with an adult to fix any that you find. Think about taking super-fast
          showers instead of baths to conserve water. Go on a mold hunt. Challenge your family
          to think of ways to use less water!
 xplain
[Pass out Take-Home Talk nb\s Take-Home Talk sheet has some things that you can
share with your family and some activities that you can do at home. See what you can
accomplish on the sheet and we'll talk about it the next time we meet.
                                                                       «»EPA

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           Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
           Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Take-Home Talk
Lesson 7: Healthy Water Inside
To Share:

•  Humans are more than 60 percent water! 60 percent! We need water to live.

•  Freshwater—from lakes and streams and rivers—needs to be filtered before we can drink it to remove
   dirt, bacteria, small fish, and other things that could harm us. Even when water from these sources
   looks clear and clean, there are things that we can't see that could harm us.

•  In the United States, a family of four uses 400 gallons of water a day!

•  Mold and mildew can form easily in areas of your home where water is used often—in bathrooms,
   kitchens, and laundry rooms. Be sure to wipe away moisture and clean mildew.
                          Water Treatment Cycle
   Lake or Reservoir
  Sedimentation
  Heavy particles settle to the
  bottom; the clear water moves —
  on to disinfection.
  Disinfection
  Chlorine and other disinfectants are
  added to kill microorganisms	
Coagulation
This process removes dirt and other particles
suspended in the water; chemicals are added
to attract particles, which then become heavy
enough to sink.

Filtration
Water passes through filters made of
layers of sand, gravel or charcoal that
remove even smaller particles.
                                            Storage	
                                            Disinfection occurs in a closed tank
                                            or reservoir before water flows to user.
                                                                     (continued on other side)
                                                                             «»EPA

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To Do:

•  Water Everywhere! We use water so often throughout the day that we rarely think about it.
   Ask your family to track all of the times throughout the day that they use water—have each
   member of your family keep a running log. By learning when we use water, we can see where
   we can easily save water.

   Just a few daily activities that use water: Taking a shower or bath, using the toilet, cooking,
   washing your hands, drinking anything.

•  Who in your family had the most activities that used water? Who had the least?

•  What are some simply ways in which you can all cut back on your water usage?
To Take Back:
• What was the coolest thing that you learned from talking about this topic with your family
  and friends?

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                                          Q-0)
v>EPA

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          Lesson 8: Sustainable Eating, Healthy
          Foods, and Community Gardens
Snapshot
This lesson brings together ideas from the previous seven lessons and explains the concept
of sustainable food through discussion of how food travels and the importance of community
gardens, and how they are linked to healthy eating.

Preparation and Materials:

• Posters 1-3, Take-Home Talk
• Flip chart and markers
• Black or white board
Note: This lesson should be taught toward the end of the program in order to have
the most impact.
• If you or your students are interested in learning more about how to form a community garden,
  please visit the EPA Brownfield's site: www.epa.gov/brownfields/urbanag/steps.htm.

Suggested Giveaway: List of foods that are grown locally, list of local farmers markets,
maybe even bring in some local fruits (see EPA Healthy Kids Website for a list from your area of
foods that are grown locally)

Objectives—Students will be able to:

• define sustainable, local, community garden, and nutrition;
• explain  how air, water, food (soil), shelter, and sun impact gardens and food; and
• discuss the connection between climate change and food, and clean waterways and food.

Vocabulary: sustainable, local, community garden, nutrition
                                                                 (continued on other side)
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
April 2013
www.epa.gov

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Procedure:
1.  Introduction—Defining Nutrition (5 minutes)
   Optional Activity: Have You Ever Eaten ...? (5 minutes)
2.  Food Travels and Climate Connections (15 minutes)
Community Gardens and Surveying Walk (20-30 minutes)
   Optional Activity: Researching Locally Grown Foods (30 minutes)
   Teacher Note: How this activity is structured will depend on the resources available to you—
   computers with Internet access, local library, etc.
   Optional Activity: Invite a Local Farmer to Speak (20-30 minutes)
   Teacher Note: If a farmer comes to speak to the kids, this should likely be a separate session
   that could pair well with researching local foods.
   Optional Activity: Visit a Community Garden or Meet with a Community Gardener (30 minutes)
3.  Close and Take-Home Talk (5 minutes)

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          Lesson 8: Sustainable Eating,  Healthy Foods,
          and Community Gardens
1,    Introduction
      Defining  Nutrition (5 minutes)
Teacher Note: The issue of healthy eating may be a sensitive one for students whose diets are
not that nutritious through no fault of their own. Their family may not provide, or have the means
to provide, a balanced and nutritious diet. As you are leading this discussion, be aware that this
issue may cause some tension and refer to your organization's policy and practices for addressing
sensitive issues.
          Ask several students to share something that they remember from the previous lesson.
          Prompts: What have you learned that you didn't know before? What did we talk about
          that you already knew? What surprised you from our last lesson? What are some of the
          new words that you learned from our last lesson? What can you do to positively impact
          the issue we learned about?
          We know that all living things need four things in order to stay alive—what are these
          things? [Air, water, food, and shelter.]
 .xplain
Today, we're going to talk about food—how we get our food, what we need to eat
to ensure that we stay healthy, and how to eat food that helps both the Earth and
everyone on it to stay healthy.
          First things first: I know that you have all learned about how important it is to eat a
          balanced, nutritious diet full of healthy foods. What are healthy foods? And what makes
          up a balanced diet?
          Prompts: How many food groups are there? Can you eat only one thing and have a
          balanced diet?
                                                               (continued on other side)
                                                                      «»EPA

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1.  Introduction—Defining Nutrition (continued - page 2)
 xplain
In order to have a nutritious diet—one that gives us the energy, vitamins, and minerals
that we need—it needs to be varied and include healthy foods. Where does this food
come from?
Prompts: Do you grow it? Do we grow food here? Who grows food? Who raises
cattle? Traditionally, the food and animals that we eat have been raised on farms and
farther  out from the city and the suburbs. Let's look at this a little more closely.
Optional Activity: Have You Ever Eaten ...? (5 minutes)
 .xplain
Let's think of fruits and vegetables that we all love—the really yummy ones we like to
eat—and let's see who here has tried them before. I'll start—raise your hand if you've
ever eaten [insert fruit or vegetable]. Select a student who has eaten that food to ask
about the next fruit or vegetable.
Foods to prompt:
                      Oranges
                      Kiwi
                      Grapefruit
                      Pineapple
                      Spinach
                      Brussels Sprouts
                      Lettuce
                      Squash
                      Potatoes
                      Butternut Squash
              Apples
              Bananas
              Papaya
              Mango
              Broccoli
              Cauliflower
              Kale
              Zucchini
              Tomatoes
              Sweet Potatoes
              Collard Greens

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          Lesson 8: Sustainable Eating, Healthy Foods,
          and Community Gardens
2,   Food Travels and Climate Connections
      (15 minutes)
 xplain
We're talking about food, but I'm going to ask you to look at your clothes. Everyone
pair up with someone else.
         Where do our clothes come from?
         Prompts: Stores, companies, other states, other countries.
 xplain
Our clothes come from lots of different places, all over the world, and we sometimes
don't realize that when we buy them down the street from where we live. So, let's
find out where our clothes came from. Most shirts have a tag in the back of the collar
that tells us where the shirt was made. [Show Poster #1 (Clothing label).] If it's not in
the back of the collar, it might be on the side. Working with your partner, find the tag
and have the other person read where your shirt is from.
         [Show Poster #2 (map of the world).] Go around the room and have each pair of
         students tell the class where their shirts were made. Write the names of the countries
         on the board. Be sure to tell the class where your shirt was made. As the locations are
         called out, show the students on the map.
         We are wearing clothes from all over the world. [List some of the places where the
         shirts were made.] Our shirts should have passports!  How did these clothes get from
         all of these places to us?
         Prompts: Planes, trains, boats, trucks.
.xplain
Well, the same way that our clothes come from all over the world, so does our food.
When we go into grocery stores, we see food that was grown and processed all over
the world and shipped to us.
                                                             (continued on other side)
                                                                    «»EPA

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2. Food Travels and Climate Connections (continued - page 2)
           What might be good about having food from all over the world?
           Prompts: [Alter these prompts depending on what grows indigenously or is widely
           known to be farmed or raised in your location.] Are oranges grown here? What about
           grapes? Pineapples? Bananas? Do salmon live in the waters by us? What about cattle—
           are there a lot of these around?
 xplain
Remember how we talked about the rotation and revolution of the sun and how it
causes different seasons in different parts of the world? When it's summer here it's not
summer everywhere and when it's winter here it's not winter all over the world. So,
when it's cold here and we can't grow as many crops, it is warm in other places and
they can grow there. Different parts of the world have different growing seasons— the
part of the year during which rainfall and temperature allow plants to grow best.
 .xplain
One of the good things about having food grown in different parts of the country and
the world is that we get to eat new and interesting things. It also means that if a region
needs food, we can get it to them. Someone in another region might also be able to
grow the food better than we can here because of the climate in his or her area.
           What might be bad about having food brought in by planes and boats and trains from all
           over the country and all over the world?
 xplain
Moving the food (and the shirts) around the world uses a lot of resources. We get used
to eating things that don't naturally grow in our region and we want them.
           In the last few years, there's been a large movement to help our environment by eating
           locally. What does it mean to eat locally?
           Prompts: What can we grow locally? What grows well in our climate? Eating locally
           loosely means to eat the food that grows well close to you and animals that are raised
           in the surrounding area.
 xplain
           Why would eating locally help the environment?
If I buy an apple that was grown 2 miles away instead of on another continent, think
about all of the gas, time, and energy that can be saved in getting it to me.

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2. Food Travels and Climate Connections (continued - page 3)
 xplain
Do you remember that we talked about how greenhouse gases are released when we
use oil or coal? We would have to use a lot of oil or coal to get that apple from Europe
or Africa to here. Can someone remind us what greenhouse gases are and why we
want to generate less of them?
Prompts: Remember, they are released when we burn fossil fuels; they trap the sun's
heat in our atmosphere and are making the overall temperature of the planet rise.
 xplain
If the overall temperature of the planet rises, do you think that it will be easier or
harder to grow crops? Eating food that is grown or raised nearby helps to reduce the
amount of greenhouse gases.
           If we were going to focus on eating locally, what crops and animals do you think would
           grow well in our area? [Answers will vary depending on the area./What crops wouldn't
           grow well here?
 xplain
There's also a push to eat more sustainably. What does it mean to eat sustainably?
Prompts: If you can sustain something, you can keep it going. Eating sustainably
means eating food that is healthy for consumers and animals, and that does not harm
the environment or workers and farmers during the process of growing/raising it. It
also means treating  animals humanely and supporting farm communities. (Taken from
www.sustainabletable.org.)
           Does this mean that some crops aren't good for the environment?
           Prompts: What types of crops might not be good for the environment?
 .xplain
Sustainable farming means growing crops and raising animals that don't deplete the
Earth too much. Some crops pull a lot of nutrients from the soil, so they take more
resources to grow.
           Is being healthy just about what we eat?
           Prompts: What if we eat healthy food but just lie around watching TV all the time?
 xplain
Being healthy also means moving our bodies and that's exactly what we're about to do!
                                                                               «»EPA

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                                                  lesson 81
                                                  ^V^^J^JV^X I  I V^ •
                                                  Sustainable Eating, Healthy Foods,
                                                  and Community Gardens
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
 Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.


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-.3




                                         •
                                    »**.*•
                                               I

              • •**•
              :

             ,




                                                      SEPA

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                                                  lesson 81
                                                  ^V^^J^JV^X I  I V^ •
                                                  Sustainable Eating, Healthy Foods,
                                                  and Community Gardens
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
 Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.


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    Map of the World

            *^^
              1M*
                                    New
                                    Zeland
SOUTHERN OCEAN
SOUTHERN OCEAN
SOUTHERN OCEAN
              Antarctica
                                  SEPA

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          Lesson 8: Sustainable Eating, Healthy Foods,
          and Community Gardens
3,  Community Gardens and  Surveying Walk
     (20-30 minutes)
          Let's concentrate on growing food for a moment. What do crops need to grow?
          Prompts: Do you remember the four things that living beings need?: Air, water, food,
          and shelter. Do plants need special air? Special water? What kinds of food do plants eat?
          Plants get their nutrients from the Earth. Do plants need shelter? Not in a traditional
          sense, like a house, but lots of crops are grown in greenhouses or otherwise protected
          from the weather.
         A few minutes ago, we talked about how our food traditionally is raised by farmers in
         our area, around the country, and around the world. Can only farmers grow food?
         Prompts: Have you ever grown anything?  Have you grown a houseplant?
          One way that people are eating sustainably is by growing their own food in cities
          through community gardens. Have any of you ever seen a community garden? What is
          a community garden? [Show Poster #3 (photos of community gardens).]\Nhat do you
          think a community garden includes?
 xplain
Community gardens are set up in lots of different ways, but what they share in
common is that people come together to grow food, herbs, flowers, and other plants
on plots of land that they collectively take care of. They can also be in the middle of
cities—in fact, there are community gardens in some very surprising places.
 xplain
We are going to take a walk around our neighborhood and try to locate some spots
that would be good for a community garden. What do you think we are looking for?
Prompts: How much space do we need? Do we want a spot that is entirely shaded?
         Take the group on a walk to locate potential community garden spots or take a walk to
         a nearby community garden.
                                                              (continued on other side)
                                                                     «»EPA

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3. Community Gardens and Surveying Walk (continued - page 2)
Optional Activity: Researching Locally Grown Foods (30 minutes)
 .xplain
So now that we understand how much energy we save by eating locally grown foods,
we need to discover what foods are grown around us.
           Any ideas what foods farmers grow in our community and in our state? Have any of
           you seen signs in the grocery store that say "locally grown"? Or have you ever been
           to a farmers' market? What foods were the signs talking about? What foods don't we
           grow or raise here?
           Prompts: Do we grow pineapples or bananas here? Do we raise chickens here?  Do
           we grow apples?
           Let's use the computers/library to find out.
           Teacher Note: See the EPA Healthy Kids Website for a list of web resources on locally
           grown foods by region.
Optional Activity: Invite a Local Farmer to Speak (20-30 minutes)

Teacher Note: Having an actual farmer come to the class, or conversely visiting a local farm or farmers
market, makes this lesson far more tangible and real for the students. Local farmers markets can be a
good resource for locating a farmer who will talk to the students or whom the students can visit.
           Prior to the visit, review what the students have learned and talk about questions the
           students might want to ask the farmer, such as:
           • How long have you been a farmer?
           • Why did you become a farmer?
           • What do you grow or raise?
           • What's the coolest part about your job? What's the hardest part?
           • How does the weather impact you?
           • What do you think about climate change?
Optional Activity: Visit a Community Garden or Meet with a Community Gardener
(30 minutes)

           Find out if there is a community garden in your neighborhood. If there is, ask if one of
           the gardeners would be willing to take the kids on a tour or come to the organization
           to talk to the group.

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                                                  lesson 81
                                                  ^V^^J^JV^X I  I V^ •
                                                  Sustainable Eating, Healthy Foods,
                                                  and Community Gardens
v>EPA
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
 Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks.


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 Community Gardens

      \

        k




I
        .



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          Lesson 8: Sustainable Eating, Healthy Foods,
          and Community Gardens
4,  Close and Take-Home Talk
     (5 minutes)
 xplain
Close your eyes and take a nice deep breath. We've covered a lot today. We have
talked about what it means to eat locally and sustainably. Can someone please raise
their hand and tell us what eating locally means? Can someone tell us what eating
sustainably means?
 xplain
We discovered some of the places that our clothes—and our food—travels from in
order to get to us and we made the connection between climate change and food that
comes from faraway places. Finally, we talked about community gardens as a way to
eat locally.
         The coolest part about learning something new is sharing the knowledge. Tonight,
         when you get home, I want you to talk with your family about the things that we
         learned today. What will you tell them? I want you to look around your kitchen and read
         the labels on your food to find out where it came from. If it traveled from far away to
         get to your table, talk with your family about how you might be able to get the same
         food from a place that's closer. Investigate farmers markets nearby and ask your family
         what they think about eating more local foods.
 xplain
[Pass out Take-Home Talk nb\s Take-Home Talk sheet has some things that you can
share with your family and some activities that you can do at home. See what you can
accomplish on the sheet and we'll talk about it the next time we meet.
                                                                    «»EPA

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          Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
          Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Take-Home Talk
Lesson 8: Sustainable Eating, Healthy Foods,
and Community Gardens
To Share:

• In order to have a nutritious diet—one that gives us the energy, vitamins, and minerals that we need—
  it needs to be varied and include healthy foods like fruits and vegetables.

• When we go into grocery stores, we see food that was grown and processed all over the world and
  shipped to us. This means that we get to eat many new and interesting foods. But moving food (and
  other items) around the world uses a lot of resources. And we get used to eating things that don't
  naturally grow in our region and we want them.

• Eating locally and sustainably is becoming very popular.

• Eating locally means eating food that grows well nearby and animals that are raised in the
  surrounding area, so less energy is used to transport it to you.

• If you can sustain something, you can keep it going. Eating sustainably means eating food that is
  healthy for consumers  and animals, and that does not harm the environment or workers and farmers
  during the process of growing/raising it. It also means treating animals humanely and supporting farm
  communities.
                                                              (continued on other side)
                                                                     «»EPA

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To Do:

•  Well Traveled toYourTablelThe next time that you go to the grocery store, investigate where
   the food comes from. The backs of boxes and jars will tell you where the food comes from
   ("made in" or "product of") and fruits and vegetables should  have signs that tell you where they
   were grown.

•  Look in the produce aisle—what item has taken the longest trip to get to your store? Which
   canned food is from the farthest away? What box of cereal took the longest journey?
To Take Back:
• What was the coolest thing that you learned from talking about this topic with your family
  and friends?

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v>EPA

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           Lesson 9: All Together NONA/—
          Air, Water, Food, and Shelter
Snapshot
In this final lesson, the students will review the key concepts from the program and pledge, both as a
class and individually, to take action to create a healthier environment for themselves and their community.

Preparation and Materials:
• Group Pledge Poster 1, Individual Pledge Handout sheet, Take-Home Talk
• Flip chart and markers
• Black or white board
• Paper for group reporting
• Crayons or markers for decorating pledge sheets
Note: This lesson divides students into groups based on the number of total lessons you've done from
the entire curriculum; for some, that may be seven groups, for others, it will be fewer.
Note: Please consider sharing your students' pledges/ideas/songs/raps on the EPA Recipes for Healthy
Kids and a Healthy Environment Website at www.epa.gov/children/curriculum

Suggested Giveaways: Several organizations piloting this program found great success holding
a graduation  ceremony at the end of Lesson 9 and having the students present the individual and group
pledges to their families or other groups of students.

Objectives—Students will be able to:
• connect the previous lessons to their daily lives;
• commit to taking action as individuals to improve  their environment in a tangible way; and
• commit as a group to taking collective action to improve their environment in a tangible way.

Vocabulary: environment, climate change, pests, greenhouse gases, drainage pollution, sustainable,
local, pledge
                                                                    (continued on other side)
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
April 2013
www.epa.gov

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Procedure:
1.  Introduction and Pledges (5 minutes)
2.  Investigate in Groups (20 minutes)
3.  Present Options to Class (10 minutes)
4.  Vote on Class Pledge (5 minutes)
5.  Create Individual Pledges and Class Pledge Poster (10-15minutes)
   Optional Activity: Pledge Song or Rap Creation (15-20 minutes)
6.  Close and Take-Home Talk (5 minutes)

Some Activity Possibilities:
•  Brainstorming and presenting action ideas
•  Working with a  community garden longer term
•  Walking through the building to look for leaks, lights left on, potential pest sites, etc.
•  Walking through the community to pick up trash

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          Lesson 9: All Together NONA/—
          Air, Water, Food, and Shelter
1,    Introduction and  Pledges
      (5 minutes)
          We've spent the last [insert the amount of time spent on these lessons] working
          together to learn how we can create a safer environment for you and those around you.
          What have we learned about?
          Prompts: What four things do all living  being need? What did we learn about water?
          What about sustainable living? What did we learn about pests? What about chemical
          cleaners? How about sun smarts and greenhouse gases?
.xplain
One of the big ideas that we've talked about is how interconnected the earth truly is—
what happens to our water impacts plants, animals, and us! How we get our energy
impacts the atmosphere, which impacts the water and plants and animals and us. The
world we all share operates on a delicate balance and if we change only one thing, it
impacts many others.
          What is one thing that we can do that will impact the environment positively?
          Prompts: What if we pick up trash rather than letting it run into streams and rivers?
          How about turning off lights when we are not using them? What about walking instead
          of driving somewhere?
 xplain
It's one thing to talk about doing these things; it's another thing to actually do them!
We are going to determine which of these things we can do collectively, as a whole
group, and which we can do individually. And then we are going to pledge to take
specific steps to make our world a safer and healthier place. We're going to make this
pledge as a group and see if we can get others to join us.
          What's a pledge?
          Prompts: At school when you say the Pledge of Allegiance, what are you doing?
          A pledge is a promise to do or not do something.
                                                                       «»EPA

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          Lesson 9: All Together NONA/—
          Air, Water, Food, and Shelter
2,   Investigate in  Groups
      (20 minutes)
          [Break up the students into groups based on the number of lessons from this
          curriculum that you completed. Ideally, the groups will be 3-5 students, but the groups
          can be larger.]
.xplain
[Tell the students that each group will review some information from one of the weeks
and brainstorm some ideas about what the class might do as a whole and what
people could do individually.]V\/e want to think about big actions that we can take and
little actions that we can take. Your group should select one person to read the Review
Card out loud, one person to record the suggestions, and one  person to report on the
ideas.The person who reports will need to be persuasive and compelling—they might
even want to act out the actions that they are proposing. [Give each group a sheet of
paper/The class will vote on which idea is the best one. It will be the one that we will
all pledge to do. [Consider telling students that they cannot vote for their own group—
they must vote for another group.]
          Briefly review each of the seven lessons:
          • Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and Household Hazards
          • Lesson 3: Breathing Easy: Keeping the Inside of Our Homes Healthy and Clean
          • Lesson 4: Be Sun Smart!
          • Lesson 5: Climate Change and You!
          • Lesson 6: Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean
          • Lesson 7: Healthy Water Inside
          • Lesson 8: Sustainable Eating, Healthy Foods, and Community Gardens
                                                                (continued on other side)
                                                                       «»EPA

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2. Investigate in Groups (continued - page 2)
 xplain
Give each group one lesson Review Card and ask them to determine what actions
the class could take as a whole and what actions individuals could take to make the
community safer and healthier for everyone. Each group must recommend only one
group activity, but they may recommend up to three individual activities.
           Write on the board or flip chart:
           •  One action that the entire group can take to make the environment healthier
           •  Three actions that individuals can take to make the environment healthier
           Give the class 8-10 minutes to come up with their suggestions. Circulate around the
           room and help students with their ideas. While students are working on this, write the
           seven (or how ever many groups developed) group names on the board or flip chart for
           the tally.

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         Lesson 9: All Together NONA/—
         Air, Water, Food, and Shelter
3,  Present Options to Class
     (10 minutes)
         You want to persuade the rest of us to go along with your idea for how we can
         collectively and individually take action. So, you need to be confident and convincing
         when you present your ideas. Present them with some flourish; stand tall and speak
         loudly. Explain why your ideas are the best. Which brave person is going to go first?
         As students present their ideas, ask them prompting questions such as the following:
         Is this hard to do? Can everyone do this? Do you need any special tools or knowledge
         to do this? Can you do this every day or is this a once in a little while action?
4,  Vote on Class Pledge
     (5 minutes)
         After all of the groups have given their presentations, summarize each group's
         proposed action. Ask students to vote only once for the action that the whole group
         will take. Tally the votes and declare a winner or do a combination of all the actions.
         Note: You can also decide to have more than one pledge.
                                                                 «»EPA

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         Lesson 9: All Together NONA/—
         Air, Water, Food, and Shelter
5,  Create Individual Pledges and
     Class Pledge Poster ao-i5 minutes)
 xplain
[Give each student an Individual Pledge Handout sheet./We just heard some
wonderful ideas for individual actions that we could each take to make the community
a little safer and healthier.
         Which of these actions are you going to pledge to do today? Why did you pick this one?
         Give the students time to fill out their Individual Pledge sheets. Consider displaying
         the pledge sheets around the room or somewhere else in the building.
         While the students are completing their individual pledge sheets, write the class
         pledge on Poster#1 (class pledge). As the students finish their individual sheets,
         invite them to sign the pledge poster.
Optional Activity: Pledge Song or Rap Creation (15-20 minutes)
 xplain
Now that the class has decided on a group pledge, let's find a way to spread the word
about what we're going to do. While in your groups, I want you to work together to
create a song or a rap that explains the action we are taking as a group and why it's
so important.
         Have each group present their song or rap.
                                                                  «»EPA

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                                        ftffiN
        Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
             Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
m
Individual  Pledge
Name:
The world we share is interconnected and we all have to take action to make sure that
the environment is safe, clean, and healthy for everyone. In order to create a healthier
community, I pledge to:
                                                        «»EPA

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v>EPA
                                                                              9: All Together Now
                                                           Air, Water, Food, and Shelter
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Children's Health Protection
EPA-100-K-13-002
www.epa.gov
April 2013
  Printed on 100% recycled/recyclable paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer waste using vegetable-based inks


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          Lesson 9: All Together NONA/—
          Air, Water, Food, and Shelter
7,    Close and Take-Home Talk
      (5 minutes)
 xplain
Close your eyes and take a nice deep breath. We've covered a lot today. We reviewed
all that we have learned in the last several weeks about creating a healthy environment.
We thought about and brainstormed actions that we could take to make our community
safer and healthier. We created individual and group pledges to do our part to ensure
that the world we share stays in balance for generations to come.
 xplain
The difficult part now is keeping the pledges that we've made. We're going to hang
this poster up and keep the pledge sheets that you made around us so that we can be
reminded of the everyday actions that we have promised to take.
          The coolest part about learning something new is sharing the knowledge. Tonight, when
          you get home, I want you to talk with your family about the pledge that we created
          today. What will you tell them? Which of the topics that we've learned about was most
          interesting to you? What actions can your family take together? What actions would
          be easiest for you to do at home? What do you already do? Do you recycle? Do you
          conserve water by taking quick showers? Does your family keep chemical cleaners out
          of reach? Do you all wear sunscreen and practice sun smarts? What are you already
          doing that you can do more of?
 xplain
[Pass out Take-Home Talk.]Th\s Take-Home Talk sheet has some things that you can
share with your family and some activities that you can do at home. It also has a family
pledge. What can your family promise to do together to help make our world a little safer
and healthier?
 xplain
We've spent the last few weeks learning about ways we can take small steps to create
a safer and healthier community and world for ourselves and others. Thank you for
pledging to keep doing your part!
                                                                        «»EPA

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          Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
          Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Take Home Talk
Lesson 9: All Together NONA/—Air, Water, Food, and Shelter
To Share:

• All living things need four things to stay alive and thrive: air, water, food, and shelter.

• Our world is interconnected—what happens to our water impacts plants, animals, and us! How we
  get our energy impacts the atmosphere, which impacts the water and plants and animals and us.
  The world we all share operates on a delicate balance and if we change only one thing, it impacts
  many others.

• We can all take small, simple actions to positively impact the environment and our health.
To Do:

• We Pledge To... Think about all that we've shared with our families about environmental health, and
  talk with our families about some simple actions that we can pledge, or promise, to take altogether.

• Think about big actions that we can take and little actions that we can take.

• Ask for ideas from everyone and then vote on the one or two ideas that will be best for your family.
  You can all sign the pledge on the next page.
                                                              (continued on other side)
                                                                     «»EPA

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               Family  Pledge
Names:
The world we share is interconnected and we all have to take action to make sure that
the environment is safe, clean, and healthy for everyone. If we join together, our actions
will have a greater and more lasting impact. In order to create a healthier community,
we pledge to:

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Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Review
Lesson 2: Pesky Pests and  Household Hazards
Remember...

• Pests are living things that can hurt us by making us sick, damage our homes or other property,
  or destroy plants or agricultural products. A pest can be a plant, an animal, or a disease.

• Pests are everywhere—in our schools, and homes, and our cities, suburbs, and in the
  country. There are pests in the White House, theTaj Mahal, and Buckingham Palace. They are
  everywhere!

• Insects are just one kind of pest that people may encounter. The world has more
  insects than all other living things combined. It's estimated that there are 10 quintillion
  (10,000,000,000,000,000,000) insects!

• Insect pests like to come indoors because we have all the things inside that they need—air,
  water, food, and shelter

• Instead of using chemicals that can be toxic in order to get rid of pests, we can remove the
  things that they need to survive. Take these steps:

  1. Identify the pest.

  2. Take away food.

  3. Take away water.

  4. Take away shelter.

  5. Monitor the situation.

• Pesticides and cleaners can be dangerous or deadly if used the wrong way. It's important to
  keep these items locked up and out of reach.
                                                                   (continued on other side)
                                                                          «»EPA

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Brainstorming...
• A group pledge is something that the whole group can do—it is a daily or weekly action that
  addresses the environmental health issue of pests.
• What can we all do to ensure that pests don't come into our schools, homes, and community
  spaces?
  - What will we do?
  - When will we do this?
  - Where will we take this action?
  - Why will we take this action?
• What are some things that we could each do individually?
Pledge Proposals.
  Group:
• Individual:

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Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Review

Lesson 3: Breathing Easy:  Keeping the  Inside of
Our Homes Healthy and Clean


Remember...

• When we take air in, the oxygen in the air passes throughout our bodies through our blood.

• The air we breathe in is only about 20 percent oxygen. Most of the rest of our air is nitrogen,
  which is another invisible, odorless gas, like oxygen.

• Lead is  a metal that has many uses and is in a lot of places that we might not realize—like paint
  in older homes and soil in cities. But lead can be dangerous for humans if it's in our air, water, or
  food. It's especially dangerous for babies and children under age 6.

• Find out if your home was built before 1978. If it was, be extra careful with flaking paint. Get an
  adult's help to clean up dust and paint chips right away.

• More than 25 million people in the United States have asthma, including 1 out of every 10 school-
  aged children. Many more people have breathing difficulties and problems other than asthma.

• Even if you don't have asthma, it's important to keep the air in your home healthy and clean.
  There are a few things that you and your family can look for and can do to breathe a little easier.
  Below is a list of the most well-known asthma triggers and some steps to take to avoid them:

  - Dust And Dust Mites - Keep Your Space Clean And Consider Covering  Mattresses And Pillows
    With Airtight Bedding. Wash Your Sheets And  Bedding Regularly.

  - Pollen - On Days WhenThe  Pollen Count Is Very High, Stay Indoors And Close The Windows.

  - Mold And Mildew - Clean Up Mold And Mildew In Bathrooms And Keep  It Away By Running
    The Fan InThe Bathroom During And After Showers. Wipe Down The Shower And Bath After
    Using It.

  - Pet Dander - Many folks are allergic to pets and find it difficult to breathe around them. If you
    have pets, brush them outside instead of inside.

  - Secondhand Smoke - Smoking and secondhand smoke are bad for everyone. If someone in
    your family smokes, encourage them to stop,  or at least ask them to smoke outside, away
    from children and other family members.
                                                                   (continued on other side)
                                                                          «»EPA

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Brainstorming...
• A group pledge is something that the whole group can do—it is a daily or weekly action that
  addresses the environmental health issue of indoor air quality.
• What can we all do to ensure that the air in our schools, homes, and community spaces is
  healthy?
  -  What will we do?
  -  When will we do this?
  -  Where will we take this action?
  -  Why will we take this action?
• What are some things that we could each do individually?
Pledge Proposals.
  Group:
• Individual:

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Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Review
Lesson 4:  Be Sun Smart
Remember...

• The sun is the star at the center of our Solar System. The sun is 109 times larger than the Earth
  and primarily consists of hydrogen and helium (gases).

• We feel the heat energy of the sun when we walk outside, and it's hot out even though the sun is
  93 million miles away from the Earth because the core of the sun is more than 28 million degrees
  Fahrenheit!

• The sun is essential for life on Earth. Just as plants need the sun to grow, humans and other
  animals need it as well. We have evolved over millions of years along with the sun.

• While we need the sun, we also ALL need to protect ourselves from its strong ultraviolet
  radiation,  which can cause sunburns and, sometimes, cancer.

• People  of  all complexions need to practice sun smarts. The sun's ultra violet rays can damage us all.

• We saw that a lot of animals  use natural sun smarts to protect themselves:
         Turtles wear their shells like a shirt—its skin can't be burnt if it's not exposed to the sun.
         You can wear clothing to protect your skin from the sun.


       '.^ Pigs cover themselves in mud as a sunscreen. You should wear sunscreen of at least
         SPF 15 whenever you are outside.


         The bumps over the camel's eyes act like a hat. You should wear a hat to protect your
         face,  neck, and head from the sun.


         The black rings around the meerkat's eyes act as sunglasses. You should wear
         sunglasses if you're going to be outside for long periods.


         Lions use the shadow rule—when your shadow is shorter than you are, seek shade!

                                                                     (continued on other side)
                                                                            &EPA

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Brainstorming...
• A group pledge is something that the whole group can do—it is a daily or weekly action that will
  help us practice sun smarts.
• What can we all do to ensure that we use sun smarts when we are at our schools, homes, and
  community spaces?
  - What will we do?
  - When will we do this?
  - Where will we take this action?
  - Why will we take this action?
• What are some things that we could each do individually?

Pledge Proposals...
  Group:
• Individual:

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Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Review
Lesson 5: Climate Change and You
Remember...

• The sun is the center and the anchor of our Solar System and, like the other seven planets in our
  system, the Earth moves, or orbits, around it along a pathway. The earth needs to rotate/spin
  365 times for each one revolution around the sun! A rotation is 1 day, which gives us night and
  day, and a revolution is 1 year, which gives us the seasons.
• This giant sun powerhouse
  sends so much energy our
  way that it would be extremely
  dangerous if it came directly
  to the Earth's surface. The
  gases that make up the
  atmosphere act like the glass
  on a greenhouse and let most
  of the light and the heat in, but
  filter out some of it, so that it's
  safer for us.

• These gases also help keep the
  Earth warm when one part of
  the Earth is rotating away from
  the sun—at night.
Heat and light energy
         Some heat is absorbed
         by the atmosphere
                    Most heat and energy
                    are absorbed by the
                    Earth, crops, and people.
                        .A
• Our atmosphere is a mix of gases that do different things. If we change the mixture of gases,
  our planet will change. Greenhouse gases are released when we burn gas and oil and coal to
  power our cars, factories, planes, and trains, and provide power/energy to the places where we
  live and go to school and work.

• We use energy so often throughout the day that we rarely think about it. We use energy by
  turning on lights, watching TV, using a computer, listening to music, taking a shower/bath (energy
  to heat the water), driving somewhere, cooking, and using anything with  batteries.

                                                                     (continued on other side)
                                                                             oEPA

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Brainstorming...
• A group pledge is something that the whole group can do—it is a daily or weekly action that will
  help us conserve energy.
• What can we all do to ensure that we are using less energy in our schools, homes, and
  community spaces?
  -  What will we do?
  -  When will we do this?
  -  Where will we take this action?
  -  Why will we take this action?
• What are some things that we could each do individually?

Pledge Proposals...
  Group:
• Individual:

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Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Review
Lesson 6: Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean
Remember...

• About 70 percent of the Earth is covered with water! Most of that water is in the oceans.

• But less than 1 percent of all the water on Earth can be used by people. The rest is saltwater
  (the kind you find in the ocean) or is permanently frozen and we can't drink it, wash with it, or
  use it to water plants.

• As our population grows, more and more people are using up this limited resource. Therefore, it
  is important that we understand where our water comes from and how to use our water wisely
  and not waste it.

• You learned that all of the trash that we see on the streets and in our neighborhoods can too
  easily end up in our lakes and our streams, hurting fish and plants and animals.
                          Water Cycle

   Evaporation from
   lakes, rivers, oceans
                  Condensation
                                                Precipitation as
                                              '*. rain, snow, hail, fog
                                     Runoff and Groundwater
                                                                 (continued on other side)
                                                                         «»EPA

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Brainstorming...
• A group pledge is something that the whole group can do—it is a daily or weekly action that will
  help us keep our waterways cleaner.
• What can you do to let others know that they should not litter?
  -  What will we do?
  -  When will we do this?
  -  Where will we take this action?
  -  Why will we take this action?
• What are some things that we could each do individually?

Pledge Proposals...
  Group:
• Individual:

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Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community
Review
Lesson 7:  Healthy Water Inside
Remember...

•  Humans are more than 60 percent water! 60 percent! We need water to live.

•  Freshwater—from lakes and streams and rivers—needs to be filtered before we can drink it to
   remove dirt, bacteria, small fish, and other things that could harm us. Even when water from
   these sources looks clear and clean, there are things that we can't see that could harm us.

•  In the United States, a family of four uses 400 gallons of water a day!

•  Mold and mildew can form easily  in areas of your home where water is used often—in
   bathrooms, kitchens, and laundry  rooms. Be sure to wipe away moisture and clean  mildew.

•  We use water so often throughout the day that we rarely think about it. Just a few daily activities
   that use water: Taking a shower or bath, using the toilet, cooking, washing your hands, drinking
   anything.
                          WaterTreatment Cycle
   Lake or Reservoir
   Sedimentation
   Heavy particles settle to the
   bottom; the clear water moves	
   on to disinfection.
 Coagulation
 This process removes dirt and other particles
- suspended in the water; chemicals are added
 to attract particles, which then become heavy
 enough to sink.

 Filtration
 Water passes through filters made of
 layers of sand, gravel or charcoal that
 remove even smaller particles.
  Disinfection
  Chlorine and other disinfectants are
  added to kill microorganisms	fl
                                            Storage	
                                            Disinfection occurs in a closed tank
                                            or reservoir before water flows to user.
                                                                         (continued on other side)
                                                                                  «»EPA

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Brainstorming...
• A group pledge is something that the whole group can do—it is a daily or weekly action that will
  help us conserve water.
• What can we all do to ensure that we are using less water in our schools, homes, and
  community spaces?
  - What will we do?
  - When will we do this?
  - Where will we take this action?
  - Why will we take this action?
• What are some things that we could each do individually?
Pledge Proposals.
  Group:
• Individual:

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Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment
Kids Building a Safer and Healthier Community


Review

Lesson 8:  Sustainable Eating, Healthy Foods,
and Community Gardens


Remember...

• In order to have a nutritious diet—one that gives us the energy, vitamins, and minerals that we
  need—it needs  to be varied and include healthy foods like fruits and vegetables.

• When we go into grocery stores, we see food that was grown and  processed all over the world
  and shipped to us. This means that we get to eat many new and interesting things. But moving
  food (and other  items) around the world uses a lot of resources. And we get used to eating
  things that don't naturally grow in our region and we want them.

• Eating locally and sustainably is becoming very popular.

• Eating locally means eating food that grows well nearby and animals that are raised in the
  surrounding area, so less energy is used to transport it to you.

• If you can sustain something, you can keep it going. Eating sustainably means eating food that
  is healthy for consumers and animals, and  that does not harm the environment or workers and
  farmers during the process of growing/raising it. It also means treating animals humanely and
  supporting farm communities.
                                                                (continued on other side)
                                                                       «»EPA

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Brainstorming...
• A group pledge is something that the whole group can do—it is a daily or weekly action that will
  help us be more locally and sustainably focused.
• What can you do to eat locally and sustainably?
  -  What will we do?
  -  When will we do this?
  -  Where will we take this action?
  -  Why will we take this action?
• What are some things that we could each do individually?
Pledge Proposals.
  Group:
• Individual:

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