402-R-01-902
ENVIRONMENTAL



RADIATION



DATA
                      REPORT 106




                     April-June 2001
         United States Environmental Protection Agency




              Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

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                                     Contents


                                                                                  Page

List of Tables	v

Preface	 vii

Acknowledgments	ix

Data Reporting Conventions  	xi

1.  Air Program   	1
      Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	1
      Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	15

2.  Drinking Water Program	17

3.  Milk Program 	21
      Pasteurized Milk 	21
                                          in

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                                 List of Tables

Table                                                                          Page
    1  Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations	xiii
    2  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: April 2001  	2
    3  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: May 2001	4
    4  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: June 2001	6
    5  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  April 2001	8
    6  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  May 2001  	10
    7  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  June 2001  	12
    8  Tritium in Precipitation:  April - June 2001  	14
    9  Tritium in Drinking Water: April - June 2001 	18
   10  Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: April - June 2001	22

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                                      Preface
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is compiled and published quarterly by the Office of
Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in
Montgomery, Alabama, and contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient
Monitoring System (ERAMS). ERD is published in both hard-copy and electronic formats.
Electronic reports are available online at www.epa.gov/narel.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency established ERAMS in 1973 with an
emphasis on identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the
environment. ERAMS is comprised of a nationwide network of sampling stations that provide
air paniculate, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples.

Sampling locations are selected to provide population and geographic coverage for the United
States. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta
analysis, gamma analyses, and radionuclide-specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium,
iodine, radium, and tritium.  This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information  on
natural background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from
stationary sources.

The radiochemical procedures used by NAREL to analyze the ERAMS samples are contained in
the NAREL Radiochemistry Procedures Manual.  Station operation and sample collection are in
accordance with procedures contained in the ERAMS Manual (EPA 520/5-84-007, 008, 009).
                                          vn

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                               Acknowledgments
All sampling for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) is
performed by volunteer collectors who are frequently members of health departments or related
environmental agencies of their respective states.  The National Air and Radiation
Environmental Laboratory (NAREL), on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
would like to acknowledge the time and effort of these volunteer collectors, who are so essential
to the successful operation of ERAMS. The efforts of the sample collectors are especially
appreciated during times of emergency operation when sampling frequencies are increased and
schedules are sometimes demanding.
                                         IX

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                         Data Reporting Conventions
Every laboratory measurement involves uncertainty. When there is little or no radioactivity in a
sample, one consequence of measurement uncertainty is the possibility of obtaining a measured
value that is less than zero. Such a negative result occurs when random effects in the
measurement process cause the measured value for the sample to be less than that of the blank or
background, which is subtracted from it. From April 1991 to December 1995, negative results
were reported as "not detected" or "ND," and gamma analysis results that were less than their
estimated measurement uncertainties were also reported as "ND." In January 1996, both of these
practices were discontinued.  Although negative activities are physically impossible, the
inclusion of negative results in the report allows better statistical analysis of the data.

Results of gamma analyses are still reported as "ND" when gamma-emitting radionuclides are
not detected.
                               Measurement Uncertainty

Each measured valuey is reported with an expanded uncertainty U=k uc(y), which is determined
from the combined standard uncertainty uc(y) and the coverage factor k = 2.  The interval from
y - Utoy + Uis estimated to have a level of confidence of approximately 95%.
                                   Significant Figures

Expanded uncertainties are reported to two significant figures.  Measurement results are rounded
to the corresponding number of decimal places.
                                  Detection Capability

The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for each radionuclide are shown in Table 1.
The MDC is defined as the minimum concentration that gives a 95% probability of detection
when the detection criteria are chosen to give only a 5% probability of false detection in a blank
sample.
                                           XI

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                                   Table 1

     Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations
                        for Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
Gross Beta
Tritium
* Plutonium-23 8,23 9/240
f Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Strontium-90
{Iodine-131
Cesium- 137
{ Barium-140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation
Water
Milk
Air
Water
Air
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk (gamma)
Water (gamma)
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
Reporting
Unit
pCi/L
pCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
g/L
g/L
pCi/L
Minimum
Detectable
Concentration
2
0.0015
2
2
150
150
0.75
0.1
0.75
0.1
0.02
2
1
4
4
0.3
5
5
15
15
0.06
0.06
50
* The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3. Measurement by alpha
spectrometry includes combined activities of 239Pu and 240Pu, since the relative contributions of these two
isotopes cannot be determined.
f The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3.
J Activity as of the day of counting.
                                      Xlll

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                                  1. Air Program
                     Airborne Particulates and Precipitation

Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air
particulates and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general
(national) impact of all contributing sources on environmental levels of radiation.  Airborne
particulates are collected continuously at field stations representing wide geographic coverage
throughout the United States.

Filters (10-cm diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed twice weekly and field
measurements are made with a G-M survey meter 5 hours  after collection to allow for decay of
natural radon isotopes and their progeny. Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA
officials by telephone or mail depending on the activity levels found.

The filters are sent to NAREL for more sensitive analysis in a low background beta counter.
Gamma scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta activity greater than 1 pCi/m3. The
laboratory obtained values are usually lower than the field estimates because of the decay of
naturally occurring radionuclides during the time between the two measurements.

Precipitation samples are collected at most field stations that collect air filters. These samples
are also sent to NAREL where they are composited monthly for gamma scans, tritium, and gross
beta activity measurements.

A compilation of individual  measurements is available from the National Air and Radiation
Environmental Laboratory, 540 South Morris Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36115-2601.

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            Table 2
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           April 2001
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL : Montgomery /4 1 1
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Topeka
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Syracuse
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
Number
of
Samples
1
9
6
4
7
8
7
9
9
8
7
7
9
7
9
8
8
6
9
5
6
2
4
5
9
8
4
8
4
8
6
8
7
9
9
1
7
6
5 -hour Fie Id
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
2.2 0.3 0.8
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.1 0.1

0.6 0.1 0.3

0.4 0.1 0.3
0.8 0.2 0.4
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.2 0.4
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.3
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.017 0.017 0.017
0.019 0.004 0.011
0.021 0.010 0.014
0.013 0.007 0.009
0.005 0.003 0.004
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.017 0.005 0.011
0.011 0.003 0.007
0.014 0.004 0.009
0.013 0.007 0.010
0.010 0.004 0.008
0.004 0.003 0.003
0.014 0.009 0.011
0.013 0.003 0.007
0.013 0.003 0.007
0.014 0.008 0.011
0.013 0.007 0.010
0.012 0.005 0.009
0.013 0.005 0.010
0.014 0.007 0.010
0.014 0.008 0.011
0.014 0.008 0.011
0.012 0.008 0.010
0.010 0.007 0.009
0.011 0.003 0.008
0.015 0.005 0.009
0.015 0.008 0.010
0.015 0.005 0.010
0.014 0.005 0.010
0.015 0.003 0.009
0.013 0.008 0.010
0.013 0.008 0.010
0.005 0.002 0.004
0.015 0.004 0.010
0.015 0.004 0.010
0.004 0.004 0.004
0.014 0.008 0.011
0.018 0.008 0.014

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       Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           April 2001


Location


TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN:OakRidge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN:OakRidge/Y12E
TN:OakRidge/Y12W
TX: Austin
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane

Number
of
Samples

8
8
8
8
8
8
6
9
9
8
7
9
5 -hour Fie Id
Estimate

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.5 0.0 0.3
0.4 0.0 0.3
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.5 0.0 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.3 0.6
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.7 0.1 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.1 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.016 0.010 0.013
0.015 0.007 0.011
0.013 0.006 0.010
0.014 0.008 0.011
0.014 0.006 0.011
0.016 0.008 0.013
0.018 0.008 0.010
0.019 0.009 0.014
0.014 0.005 0.009
0.015 0.003 0.009
0.005 0.002 0.004
0.010 0.004 0.006

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             Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
            May 2001
Location
AL : Montgomery/4 1 1
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Topeka
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch/510
MS: Jackson
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Syracuse
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
Number
of
Samples
9
8
5
7
9
8
8
8
8
4
7
9
7
8
9
10
9
9
4
1
9
5
6
7
1
9
5
8
3
7
8
8
4
8
9
1
6
7
5 -hour Fie Id
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.3 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.1 0.1
2.1 0.1 0.6
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1

0.9 0.1 0.3

0.8 0.1 0.3
1.7 0.1 0.7
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.2
1.3 0.0 0.8
0.3 0.1 0.1

0.2 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.033 0.007 0.013
0.018 0.007 0.013
0.018 0.010 0.012
0.008 0.003 0.005
0.012 0.008 0.010
0.012 0.005 0.009
0.015 0.003 0.008
0.019 0.004 0.010
0.015 0.006 0.011
0.011 0.005 0.008
0.006 0.003 0.004
0.015 0.002 0.008
0.014 0.006 0.010
0.011 0.005 0.008
0.019 0.004 0.009
0.013 0.005 0.010
0.017 0.004 0.008
0.018 0.004 0.009
0.010 0.005 0.008
0.007 0.007 0.007
0.023 0.007 0.016
0.013 0.009 0.010
0.013 0.004 0.007
0.017 0.006 0.009
0.006 0.006 0.006
0.012 0.007 0.010
0.024 0.005 0.012
0.016 0.004 0.009
0.013 0.006 0.010
0.015 0.006 0.009
0.014 0.006 0.010
0.021 0.004 0.011
0.006 0.003 0.005
0.018 0.004 0.010
0.016 0.004 0.009
0.013 0.013 0.013
0.012 0.009 0.011
0.023 0.008 0.016

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       Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
            May 2001


Location


TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN:OakRidge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN:OakRidge/Y12E
TN:OakRidge/Y12W
TX: Austin
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane

Number
of
Samples

9
8
8
8
8
8
9
7
8
7
7
9
5 -hour Fie Id
Estimate

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.1 0.1
1.0 0.2 0.4
1.1 0.3 0.5
1.0 0.3 0.5
1.3 0.3 0.5
0.7 0.2 0.3
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.8 0.3 0.5
0.5 0.2 0.3
1.1 0.1 0.5
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.018 0.007 0.013
0.018 0.007 0.012
0.017 0.007 0.012
0.021 0.007 0.012
0.023 0.007 0.013
0.022 0.007 0.014
0.016 0.007 0.009
0.015 0.009 0.012
0.015 0.005 0.010
0.014 0.005 0.009
0.005 0.001 0.003
0.013 0.001 0.008

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             Table 4
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
            June 2001
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL : Montgomery /4 1 1
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Topeka
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch/510
MS: Jackson
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Syracuse
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
Number
of
Samples
1
8
6
4
9
9
8
9
9
8
3
7
8
6
9
9
7
9
8
4
3
8
4
7
9
2
8
4
9
2
7
7
9
9
9
8
1
6
5 -hour Fie Id
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.3 0.4
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
1.0 0.2 0.6
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.1

0.4 0.0 0.2

1.3 0.1 0.4
1.4 0.1 0.5
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.1
1.6 0.0 0.4
0.3 0.0 0.1

0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.009 0.009 0.009
0.017 0.007 0.010
0.019 0.009 0.012
0.014 0.010 0.012
0.007 0.002 0.004
0.010 0.006 0.008
0.011 0.006 0.008
0.010 0.003 0.007
0.014 0.005 0.009
0.011 0.006 0.009
0.013 0.005 0.009
0.005 0.002 0.003
0.015 0.004 0.008
0.008 0.004 0.006
0.010 0.004 0.006
0.018 0.003 0.010
0.018 0.005 0.009
0.010 0.003 0.007
0.012 0.004 0.009
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.008 0.004 0.006
0.019 0.008 0.010
0.011 0.008 0.009
0.012 0.005 0.007
0.012 0.003 0.008
0.006 0.005 0.005
0.010 0.005 0.007
0.012 0.004 0.008
0.013 0.004 0.008
0.008 0.005 0.006
0.011 0.004 0.007
0.015 0.004 0.009
0.019 0.004 0.011
0.005 0.001 0.003
0.014 0.006 0.009
0.011 0.006 0.009
0.009 0.009 0.009
0.012 0.007 0.010

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       Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
            June 2001


Location


TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN:OakRidge/Y12E
TN:OakRidge/Y12W
TX: Austin
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane

Number
of
Samples

5
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
8
7
8
5 -hour Fie Id
Estimate

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.9 0.1 0.2
1.2 0.2 0.6
1.1 0.2 0.6
1.2 0.2 0.6
1.2 0.2 0.6
0.9 0.1 0.4
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.7 0.3 0.5
0.5 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.0 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.020 0.010 0.014
0.026 0.005 0.013
0.019 0.006 0.012
0.016 0.006 0.010
0.017 0.006 0.011
0.017 0.006 0.012
0.019 0.008 0.013
0.013 0.005 0.009
0.013 0.010 0.011
0.016 0.005 0.009
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.004 0.001 0.002
0.008 0.002 0.004

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                        Table 5
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       April 2001
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville

FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City



ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Topeka
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck

NY: Albany
NY: Syracuse
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg


Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2u
1.32
2.12
0.15
0.68
1.15
2.67
2.47
1.17

0.48
2.17
0.90



0.31
4.12
2.85
0.96
1.48
3.20
0.65

1.50
0.93
1.83
1.32
0.59
3.92


0.36
0.52
0.41
0.39
0.41
0.44
0.43
0.35

0.30
0.51
0.34



0.37
0.57
0.46
0.34
0.37
0.47
0.31

0.37
0.35
0.39
0.36
0.43
0.51


Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  1u
K40
K40
K40
T1208
Pb212
Be7
Be7
Pb212
Pb212
T1208

Bi214
Bi214
K40
Pb212
Pb214
T1208

T1208
K40
Ra224
Be7
Pb212
T1208
K40
Pb212
Bi214
Be7
K40

Be7
Bi214
Pb212
T1208
58 35
ND
26 35
24 37
2.6 3.5
5.8 6.9
56 43
50 43
5.1 6.5
7.5 6.6
3.5 4.2
ND
6.6 6.5
38.7 7.8
31 40
5.8 6.4
29.7 7.1
2.6 3.7
ND
3.7 4.1
ND
ND
26 37
57 80
82 63
6.5 6.3
2.4 3.8
33 37
5.7 6.2
5.7 7.3
88 56
26 40
ND
81 45
12.6 7.0
7.4 6.0
2.7 3.6
Note:   ND = Not Detected

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                   Table 5 (continued)
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       April 2001
Location
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2u
36.5 1.4
0.84 0.33
1.83 0.41
1.52 0.47
3.31 0.48
0.02 0.37
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2u
K40 39 36
ND
ND
K40 27 37
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected

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                        Table 6
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       May 2001
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
CO: Denver

CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls


KS: Topeka
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NY: Albany
NY: Syracuse
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville



OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville

Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2u
1.52
0.80
3.22

0.77
1.73
0.55
0.67
1.65
1.35
0.89
0.63


1.82
0.85
0.68
0.83
1.72
1.58
1.03
0.43
3.78
1.93



0.43
1.26
3.72
2.55
8.91

0.37
0.33
0.47

0.33
0.40
0.31
0.34
0.40
0.37
0.34
0.32


0.40
0.34
0.31
0.34
0.40
0.37
0.35
0.30
0.49
0.40



0.30
0.36
0.49
0.44
0.72

Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  1u
Be7
Bi214
K40
Be7
T1208
Be7
Pb212
T1208


T1208
K40
Be7
Bi214
K40
Pb212
Pb212
Be7
Be7
Be7
Pb212
Be7
Pb212
Be7
Bi214
K40
T1208

Pb212

Bi214
K40
52 36
8.0 6.6
33 59
28 32
2.1 3.4
54 39
5.9 6.1
3.4 4.2
ND
ND
2.4 3.6
62 32
ND
60 48
11.9 8.1
32 46
8.3 4.2
5.1 6.2
ND
ND
ND
64 31
44 31
49 33
5.7 6.7
48 35
10.0 7.1
59 37
7.1 7.0
87 29
2.8 3.6
ND
ND
6.3 5.9
ND
8.5 6.7
74 31
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                           10

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                   Table 6 (continued)
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       May 2001
Location
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
UT: Salt Lake City
WA: Olympia
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2u
8.91 0.72
0.96 0.33
0.70 0.33
1.76 0.41
0.48 0.30
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2u
Pb212 11.2 6.0
Be7 74 36
K40 24 43
Pb212 5.0 6.6
K40 76 33
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                           11

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                        Table 7
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       June 2001
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
CO: Denver

CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington

FL: Jacksonville

FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu

IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Topeka
ME: Augusta

MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: Syracuse
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2u
1.36
0.60
1.85

5.78
4.30

0.41

0.57
1.12

0.67
2.07
0.67
2.83

0.83
0.90
0.83
0.66
0.70
3.46
3.89
1.73
0.89
10.20
4.20
0.61
4.83
1.20
3.04
0.44
1.02
0.37
0.41
0.44

0.60
0.52

0.30

0.31
0.45

0.33
0.44
0.37
0.45

0.34
0.43
0.33
0.33
0.37
0.49
0.56
0.39
0.34
0.75
0.53
0.36
0.56
0.35
0.46
0.31
0.38
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  1u

Be7
Bi214
Be7
Be7
K40
Pb212
K40
Pb212
K40
Pb212
T1208
Pb212
Be7
Bi214
Pb212
Bi214
T1208
T1208
Pb214
Pb212


Pb212
Be7
K40


Pb212

ND
ND
140 54
12.2 7.2
91 47
68 44
65 26
9.3 4.3
48 26
4.1 3.8
27 36
6.6 6.7
3.3 3.6
ND
5.5 5.9
ND
45 39
8.1 7.1
6.3 6.3
10.8 6.9
ND
ND
3.2 4.9
ND
4.5 5.0
5.2 5.6
7.1 5.6
ND
ND
ND
6.1 6.0
78 38
20 37
ND
ND
4.8 6.6
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                           12

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                   Table 7 (continued)
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       June 2001
Location
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2u
2.80 0.50
22.2 1.1
0.36 0.40
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2u
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                           13

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                               Table 8
                       Tritium in Precipitation
                          April - June 2001
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Topeka
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: Syracuse
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
April 2001
pCi/L 2u
17 82
-43 78
-9 80
-15 80
43 82
-19 81
26 83
-7 81
-30 80
2 80
-44 80
211 89
-22 78
51 84
NS
17 81
-9 82
NS
7 82
26 82
NS
NS
-14 81
9 82
51 84
69 84
-19 79
33 82
NS
NS
-16 80
-9 81
-5 81
17 81
10 82
-36 78
May 2001
pCi/L 2u
-19 79
11 79
NS
NS
24 80
-54 76
6 79
-26 77
45 81
-36 78
-13 78
-17 78
51 82
0 79
NS
36 81
26 80
NS
4 79
-19 79
-4 79
NS
43 81
7 79
42 80
2 79
-28 78
37 81
-26 78
43 81
-30 78
-13 78
15 80
-26 78
NS
-32 78
June 2001
pCi/L 2u
-4 73
9 75
NS
NS
60 79
105 79
13 74
39 76
17 74
0 75
71 77
NS
48 77
37 77
58 76
71 77
77 79
69 77
-9 73
69 79
28 76
7 76
43 75
124 80
6 74
121 79
28 76
32 75
NS
30 75
32 75
7 74
-40 72
35 77
34 75
0 75
Note:   NS = No Sample
                                  14

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      Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates and Precipitation

Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined by the analysis of
annually composited samples (air filters) collected from the continuously operating airborne
particulate samplers.

Concentrations of plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and
238 are determined by alpha spectrometry following chemical separation.  The volume of air
represented by the annual composite typically ranges from 120,000 to 500,000 cubic meters.

Plutonium and uranium results are published when they become available.
                                         15

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               16

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                         2.  Drinking Water Program
The ERAMS drinking water program provides data on radionuclide concentrations in the
nation's drinking water supplies. Samples are taken at 78 sites which are either major population
centers or selected nuclear facility environs.

Drinking water data are used to assess trends and anomalies in concentrations, and to compare
with standards set forth in the EPA "National  Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations."
These regulations provide for approval of supplies when the combined radium-226 and
radium-228 levels do not exceed 5 pCi/L, when the gross alpha (excluding radon and uranium)
levels do not exceed 15 pCi/L, when tritium levels do not exceed 20,000 pCi/L, when the
strontium-90 levels do not exceed 8 pCi/L, and when the gross beta levels do not exceed
50 pCi/L.

The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross beta, strontium-90,
and gamma on annual composites; (c) radium-226 if the gross alpha exceeds 2 pCi/L and
radium-228 if the radium-226 falls between 3  and 5 pCi/L; (d) iodine-131 on one quarterly
sample per year for each station; and (e) an annual composite for plutonium-238, combined
plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and 238 for stations that demonstrate gross alpha
levels greater than 2 pCi/L.
                                          17

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         Table 9
Tritium in Drinking Water
    April - June 2001
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CO: Platteville
CT: Hartford
DE: Dover
FL: Miami
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
KS: Topeka
LA: New Orleans
MA: Lawrence
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
ME: Augusta
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Red Wing
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
MT: Helena
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
NH: Manchester
NJ: Trenton
Date
Collected
05/18/01
04/10/01
04/02/01
04/03/01
04/04/01
04/10/01
04/16/01
04/10/01
06/01/01
06/01/01
04/05/01
04/10/01
04/03/01
05/08/01
04/16/01
04/12/01
05/01/01
05/25/01
04/12/01
04/30/01
04/03/01
06/29/01
04/04/01
04/06/01
05/01/01
04/04/01
04/13/01
04/13/01
04/30/01
04/16/01
04/06/01
04/11/01
04/11/01
04/20/01
04/11/01
04/09/01
04/04/01
04/05/01
04/11/01
04/18/01
3H
pCi/L 2u
-17
-48
-44
24
-17
-47
-41
-42
-5
-15
-29
-45
-50
61
-68
-25
23
-40
-10
13
-37
5
-26
8
26
-8
102
31
-43
-34
-24
-40
-43
38
810
-29
-8
-40
o
-6
-28
80
75
70
73
72
75
80
75
80
75
76
80
69
79
80
82
77
79
82
76
70
80
76
77
77
78
85
83
74
80
70
75
79
81
110
76
79
75
77
81
           18

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   Table 9 (continued)
Tritium in Drinking Water
    April - June 2001
Location
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: Niagara Falls
NY: Syracuse
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OR: Portland
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter
PA: Philadelphia/Queen
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co. #768
TN: Oak Ridge - Roane Co. #360
TN: Oak Ridge - Knox Co. #371
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co. #772
TN: Oak Ridge - Roane Co. #4442
TX: Austin
VA: Ashland
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
Date
Collected
05/30/01
04/11/01
04/09/01
04/19/01
05/29/01
05/02/01
04/04/01
06/11/01
04/05/01
04/18/01
04/05/01
04/30/01
05/01/01
05/01/01
05/01/01
05/02/01
04/09/01
04/27/01
04/05/01
04/26/01
04/26/01
04/03/01
04/09/01
05/04/01
05/04/01
05/04/01
05/04/01
05/21/01
05/01/01
04/10/01
04/03/01
04/09/01
05/21/01
3H
pCi/L 2u
2
-17
-46
24
65
75
104
2
117
-13
-13
50
71
71
54
35
26
7
3
61
31
24
5
0
137
18
81
271
15
2
-14
40
-10
80
81
75
82
83
79
76
80
83
80
76
78
79
79
77
77
78
76
77
78
77
73
77
76
82
77
80
92
76
78
71
79
80
           19

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               20

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                                 3. Milk Program
                                  Pasteurized Milk

Milk is a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of certain radionuclides since it is
consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain several of the biologically
significant radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities. A
primary function of this program is to obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current
radionuclide concentrations and determine any long-term trends.

Quarterly samples are collected at approximately 55 sampling sites. The samples are
composited, according to production, from the major milk suppliers representing more than 80
percent of the milk consumed in a given population center.

The samples are analyzed for gamma-emitting nuclides, including iodine-131, barium-140,
cesium-137, and potassium-40. Total potassium concentrations in g/L are determined from
potassium-40 activities assuming natural isotopic abundances.  During the third quarter
collection, one-fourth of the samples are also analyzed for strontium-90 on a four year rotating
schedule.
                                           21

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                                Table 10
                    Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                            April - June 2001
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Francisco
DE: Wilmington
FL: Tampa
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Wichita
KY: Louisville
MA: Boston
MD: Baltimore
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
NJ: Trenton
NJ: Trenton
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Buffalo
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OR: Portland
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TX: Ft. Worth
TX: San Antonio
VA: Norfolk
VT: Montpelier
WA: Spokane
WA: Tacoma
Date
Collected
04/10/01
06/04/01
04/23/01
05/14/01
04/03/01
04/30/01
04/09/01
05/04/01
04/10/01
05/02/01
04/03/01
04/23/01
04/16/01
04/13/01
04/06/01
04/10/01
04/11/01
04/04/01
04/09/01
04/16/01
05/11/01
06/01/01
04/03/01
04/06/01
04/04/01
05/21/01
04/05/01
04/06/01
04/04/01
04/04/01
04/03/01
04/09/01
04/17/01
04/17/01
04/10/01
04/14/01
06/22/01
05/14/01
04/23/01
K
g/L 2u
1.50 0.12
1.60 0.13
1.70 0.11
1.66 0.13
1.55 0.12
.60 0.13
.61 0.17
.67 0.17
.72 0.11
.45 0.12
.66 0.11
.66 0.13
.76 0.14
.70 0.11
.51 0.16
.57 0.17
.66 0.11
.66 0.11
.61 0.13
.66 0.13
.64 0.12
.61 0.13
.70 0.13
.75 0.11
.70 0.11
.64 0.12
.70 0.11
.53 0.12
.69 0.11
.68 0.11
.67 0.11
.60 0.17
.57 0.12
.68 0.13
.60 0.13
.68 0.11
.51 0.12
.49 0.13
.79 0.11
137Cs
pCi/L 2u
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
1.2 1.2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
140Ba
pCi/L 2u
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
131j
pCi/L 2u
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                                   22

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                              For More Information
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is published quarterly by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.
Requests for information concerning the operation of ERAMS and the data that are generated
should be directed as follows:

For System Operations                   For Analytical Information and Data-

Rhonda Sears                           John Griggs
National Air and Radiation Environmental  National Air and Radiation Environmental
  Laboratory                             Laboratory
540 South Morris Avenue                 540 South Morris Avenue
Montgomery, Alabama  36115-2601       Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
e-mail:  sears.rhonda@epa.gov            e-mail: griggs.john@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                   Charles M. Petko
                                 Office of the Director
                   National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                               540 South Morris Avenue
                           Montgomery, Alabama  36115-2601
                             e-mail:  petko.charles@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning policies of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air should be
directed to:

                                  Frank Marcinowski
                                   USEPA - ORIA
                  Center for Emergency Preparedness and Clean Materials
                        Radiation Protection Division (MC66085)
                                501 Third Street,  N.W.
                                Washington, DC 20001
                           e-mail: marcinowski.frank@epa.gov

                                         ***

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