402-R-02-012
ENVIRONMENTAL




RADIATION




DATA
                      REPORT 112



                  October - December 2002
         United States Environmental Protection Agency




              Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

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                                     Contents


                                                                                 Page

List of Tables	v

Preface	  vii

Acknowledgments	ix

Data Reporting Conventions 	xi

1.  Air Program 	1
      Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	1
      Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates	12

2.  Drinking Water Program	17

3.  Milk Program 	35
      Pasteurized Milk 	35
                                          in

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                                List of Tables


Table                                                                        Page

    1  Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations	xiii

    2  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: October 2002 	2

    3  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: November 2002  	4

    4  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: December 2002  	6

    5  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  October 2002	8

    6  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  November 2002	9

    7  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  December 2002	10

    8  Tritium in Precipitation: October - December 2002	11

    9  Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates:  January - December 2002
       Composites	13

   10  Tritium in Drinking Water: October - December 2002  	16

   11  Plutonium and Uranium Analyses of Selected Drinking Water Composite Samples:
       January - December 2002	18

   12  Iodine-131 in Drinking Water: January - December 2002	19

   13  Alpha, Beta, and Sr-90 Concentrations in Drinking Water:
       January - December 2002 Composites	22

   14  Radium-226, -228 and Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides in Drinking Water:
       January - December 2002 Composites	25

   15  Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: October - December 2002	30

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                                      Preface
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is compiled and published quarterly by the Office of
Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in
Montgomery, Alabama, and contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient
Monitoring System (ERAMS). ERD is published in both hard-copy and electronic formats.
Electronic reports are available online at www.epa.gov/narel.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency established ERAMS in 1973 with an
emphasis on identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the
environment. ERAMS is comprised of a nationwide network of sampling stations that provide
air particulate, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples.

Sampling locations are selected to provide population and geographic coverage for the United
States. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta
analysis, gamma analyses, and radionuclide-specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium,
iodine, radium, and tritium.  This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural
background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary
sources.

The radiochemical procedures used by NAREL to analyze the ERAMS samples are contained in
the NAREL Radiochemistry Procedures Manual. Station operation and sample collection are in
accordance with procedures  contained in the ERAMS Manual (EPA 520/5-84-007, 008, 009).
                                          vn

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                               Acknow ledgmen ts
All sampling for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) is
performed by volunteer collectors who are frequently members of health departments or related
environmental agencies of their respective states. The National Air and Radiation Environmental
Laboratory (NAREL), on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, would like to
acknowledge the time and effort of these volunteer collectors, who are so essential to the
successful operation of ERAMS. The efforts of the sample collectors are especially appreciated
during times of emergency operation when sampling frequencies are increased and schedules are
sometimes demanding.
                                          IX

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                         Data Reporting Conventions
Every laboratory measurement involves uncertainty.  When there is little or no radioactivity in a
sample, one consequence of measurement uncertainty is the possibility of obtaining a measured
value that is less than zero. Such a negative result occurs when random effects in the
measurement process cause the measured value for the sample to be less than that of the blank or
background, which is subtracted from it. From April 1991 to December 1995, negative results
were reported as "not detected" or "ND," and gamma analysis results that were less than their
estimated measurement uncertainties were also reported as "ND." In January 1996, both of these
practices were discontinued. Although negative activities are physically impossible, the
inclusion of negative results in the report allows better statistical analysis of the data.

Results of gamma analyses are still reported as "ND" when gamma-emitting radionuclides are
not detected.
                               Measurement Uncertainty

Each measured valuey is reported with an expanded uncertainty U=k uc(y), which is determined
from the combined standard uncertainty uc(y) and the coverage factor h = 2.  The interval from
y - Utoy + Uis estimated to have a level of confidence of approximately 95%.
                                   Significant Figures

Expanded uncertainties are reported to two significant figures.  Measurement results are rounded
to the corresponding number of decimal places.
                                  Detection Capability

The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for each radionuclide are shown in Table 1.
The MDC is defined as the minimum concentration that gives a 95% probability of detection
when the detection criteria are chosen to give only a 5% probability of false detection in a blank
sample.
                                           XI

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                                   Table 1

     Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations
                        for Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
Gross B eta
Tritium
* Plutonium-238, 239/240
f Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Strontium-90
t Iodine-131
Cesium-137
t Barium- 140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation
Water
Milk
Air
Water
Air
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk (gamma)
Water (gamma)
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
Reporting
Unit
pCi/L
pCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
g/L
g/L
pCi/L
Minimum
Detectable
Concentration
2
0.0015
2
2
150
150
0.75
0.1
0.75
0.1
0.02
2
1
4
4
0.3
5
5
15
15
0.06
0.06
50
* The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 nf.  Measurement by alpha
spectrometry includes combined activities of 239Pu and 240Pu, since the relative contributions of these two
isotopes cannot be determined.
f The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3.
J Activity as of the day of counting.
                                      Xlll

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                                  1. Air Program
                     Airborne Participates and Precipitation

Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air
particulates and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general
(national) impact of all contributing sources on environmental levels of radiation.  Airborne
particulates are collected continuously at field stations representing wide geographic coverage
throughout the United States.

Filters (10-cm diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed twice weekly and field
measurements are made with a G-M survey meter 5 hours after collection to allow natural radon
isotopes and their progeny to decay. Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA officials by
telephone or mail depending on the activity levels found.

The filters are sent to NAREL for more sensitive analysis in a low background beta counter.
Gamma scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta activity greater than 1 pCi/m3. The
laboratory obtained values are usually lower than the field estimates because of the decay of
naturally occurring radionuclides during the time between the two measurements.

Precipitation samples are collected at most field stations that collect air filters. These samples
are also sent to NAREL where they are composited monthly for gamma scans, tritium, and gross
beta activity measurements.

A compilation of individual measurements is available from the National Air and  Radiation
Environmental Laboratory, 540 South Morris Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36115-2601.

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             Table 2
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
          October 2002
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa C ity
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch/510
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
Number
of
Samples
8
7
5
9
9
9
8
9
9
3
4
9
3
10
7
9
6
9
4
3
9
9
5
7
8
8
7
5
7
9
7
9
8
9
9
1
7
9
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.1 0.6
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.1
2.0 0.5 1.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1

1.4 0.1 0.4
0.7 0.2 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.1 0.4
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.6 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
2.1 0.3 0.9
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.0 0.1 0.4

0.3 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.3
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.017 0.005 0.011
0.020 0.009 0.015
0.037 0.012 0.024
0.017 0.006 0.011
0.029 0.009 0.020
0.019 0.010 0.015
0.016 0.003 0.007
0.018 0.005 0.011
0.016 0.004 0.009
0.006 0.005 0.006
0.005 0.002 0.003
0.019 0.006 0.014
0.026 0.010 0.018
0.021 0.004 0.014
0.023 0.007 0.016
0.016 0.006 0.011
0.010 0.003 0.007
0.022 0.010 0.013
0.018 0.010 0.014
0.017 0.008 0.012
0.019 0.005 0.012
0.019 0.008 0.013
0.016 0.006 0.010
0.018 0.008 0.013
0.019 0.004 0.009
0.014 0.004 0.009
0.026 0.010 0.017
0.018 0.009 0.011
0.017 0.005 0.009
0.013 0.001 0.004
0.018 0.007 0.012
0.018 0.008 0.014
0.018 0.005 0.009
0.020 0.004 0.011
0.017 0.008 0.012
0.007 0.007 0.007
0.017 0.007 0.012
0.013 0.006 0.009

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       Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
          October 2002


Location


TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: OakRidge/Y12 E
TN: OakRidge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane

Number
of
Samples

8
3
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
7
8
5 -hour Field
Estimate

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.8 0.1 0.3
0.5 0.2 0.3
0.8 0.0 0.3
1.0 0.0 0.4
1.0 0.0 0.4
0.8 0.0 0.3
0.8 0.0 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.1
1.7 0.3 0.9
0.7 0.0 0.5
1.6 0.2 0.6
0.3 0.0 0.2
1.5 0.4 0.8
NAREL Lab
Measurement

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.021 0.010 0.016
0.013 0.012 0.012
0.020 0.005 0.014
0.018 0.006 0.013
0.019 0.006 0.014
0.020 0.006 0.014
0.024 0.006 0.015
0.016 0.003 0.009
0.023 0.010 0.016
0.028 0.010 0.020
0.018 0.006 0.012
0.012 0.003 0.007
0.031 0.005 0.015

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            Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
         November 2002
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AL: Montgomery /4 1 1
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch/510
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
Number
of
Samples
8
6
3
4
9
8
6
9
8
7
4
6
8
2
7
4
8
4
8
4
1
7
7
4
7
9
8
7
4
6
8
9
8
7
8
8
4
4
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.5 0.6
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.2 0.3
1.3 0.2 0.8
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.1 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.0 0.3

0.6 0.1 0.3
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.5 0.3 0.8
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.2 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.2

0.3 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.3
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.019 0.012 0.014
0.022 0.014 0.017
0.019 0.014 0.017
0.035 0.017 0.024
0.033 0.003 0.015
0.035 0.006 0.020
0.023 0.006 0.011
0.014 0.004 0.009
0.017 0.009 0.014
0.014 0.008 0.011
0.008 0.005 0.006
0.004 0.002 0.004
0.045 0.011 0.021
0.107 0.030 0.081
0.033 0.005 0.015
0.016 0.011 0.013
0.024 0.009 0.014
0.009 0.005 0.007
0.029 0.007 0.016
0.040 0.012 0.025
0.014 0.014 0.014
0.036 0.012 0.019
0.022 0.005 0.012
0.013 0.008 0.010
0.040 0.007 0.023
0.014 0.006 0.009
0.015 0.004 0.011
0.026 0.005 0.015
0.022 0.012 0.017
0.016 0.007 0.013
0.004 0.002 0.003
0.027 0.006 0.015
0.027 0.009 0.016
0.049 0.002 0.016
0.019 0.006 0.015
0.025 0.009 0.017
0.014 0.011 0.012
0.020 0.014 0.017

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       Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
         November 2002


Location


TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: OakRidge/Y12 E
TN: OakRidge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane

Number
of
Samples

8
7
6
6
6
6
6
7
8
9
6
7
9
5 -hour Field
Estimate

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.2 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
1.6 0.3 1.1
0.8 0.1 0.5
0.7 0.1 0.3
0.5 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.2 0.5
NAREL Lab
Measurement

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.026 0.010 0.018
0.020 0.010 0.016
0.020 0.009 0.014
0.019 0.008 0.013
0.018 0.008 0.013
0.021 0.009 0.014
0.020 0.009 0.014
0.013 0.008 0.011
0.026 0.009 0.018
0.037 0.005 0.021
0.013 0.006 0.011
0.031 0.002 0.012
0.061 0.003 0.021

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             Table 4
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
         December 2002
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AL: Montgomery /4 1 1
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch/510
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas
NV: Las Vegas/906
NV: Las Vegas/913
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
Number
of
Samples
9
9
5
5
9
9
9
9
9
9
3
8
9
1
9
3
9
6
9
5
1
7
8
2
4
9
8
9
1
1
5
6
8
6
9
8
9
9
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.0 0.2 0.8
0.8 0.0 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.2
2.1 0.5 1.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.8 0.0 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.2 0.1 0.6
0.2 0.2 0.2

0.9 0.1 0.4
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.2 0.3
1.2 1.2 1.2
1.8 0.1 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.0
2.0 0.1 1.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1

0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.031 0.008 0.017
0.033 0.012 0.021
0.027 0.012 0.021
0.050 0.012 0.036
0.059 0.002 0.021
0.032 0.003 0.015
0.034 0.007 0.017
0.014 0.005 0.009
0.018 0.008 0.011
0.017 0.004 0.010
0.008 0.003 0.006
0.006 0.003 0.004
0.035 0.015 0.023
0.006 0.006 0.006
0.070 0.006 0.027
0.022 0.017 0.020
0.018 0.009 0.013
0.014 0.011 0.013
0.035 0.006 0.018
0.041 0.012 0.026
0.017 0.017 0.017
0.037 0.011 0.020
0.018 0.008 0.014
0.014 0.011 0.013
0.023 0.018 0.020
0.016 0.005 0.011
0.012 0.007 0.010
0.040 0.004 0.020
0.018 0.018 0.018
0.019 0.019 0.019
0.016 0.010 0.012
0.014 0.006 0.010
0.003 0.001 0.002
0.019 0.008 0.013
0.023 0.010 0.015
0.026 0.001 0.008
0.017 0.008 0.012
0.021 0.009 0.015

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       Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
         December 2002


Location


SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: OakRidge/Y12 E
TN: OakRidge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane

Number
of
Samples

3
8
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
9
7
9
7
9
9
5 -hour Field
Estimate

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.2 0.3
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
2.4 0.6 1.1
0.9 0.0 0.4
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.018 0.013 0.015
0.031 0.007 0.016
0.044 0.011 0.022
0.023 0.010 0.017
0.025 0.008 0.015
0.025 0.010 0.015
0.022 0.009 0.015
0.025 0.009 0.016
0.028 0.010 0.018
0.024 0.010 0.016
0.046 0.011 0.022
0.057 0.005 0.028
0.014 0.009 0.011
0.026 0.001 0.010
0.061 0.002 0.023

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                        Table 5
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                     October 2002
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington

ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Gross B eta
Activity
pCi/L 2w
0.65
0.69
1.77
1.76
0.45
0.53
0.96
0.29
0.54
0.54
0.79
1.10
0.81
1.14
0.30
1.81
0.17

7.24
3.92
0.53
4.46
2.13
0.21
1.18
0.76
2.91
0.27
0.31
1.10
1.67
4.71
0.50
0.33
0.28
0.37
0.36
0.33
0.33
0.35
0.34
0.29
0.28
0.29
0.35
0.35
0.32
0.26
0.41
0.30

0.63
0.50
0.34
0.54
0.41
0.25
0.38
0.34
0.46
0.32
0.26
0.33
0.37
0.55
0.28
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L2w
Be7


Be7
Pb212
Be7
Be7
T1208

K40


Be7


Be7
Be7
T1208

Be7

K40
Be7


T1208
K40
Be7


T1208
K40

62 17
ND
ND
52 43
6.8 4.9
26 26
50 19
1.3 1.5
ND
33 28
ND
ND
17 15
ND
ND
53 17
13 14
1.1 1.4
ND
55 29
ND
10 14
42 16
ND
ND
2.1 1.5
12 13
26 16
ND
ND
2.6 2.7
10 14
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected

-------
                        Table 6
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                    November 2002
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
CA: Berkeley
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville


FL: Miami

HI: Honolulu
ID: Idaho Falls
MI: Lansing
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland

PA: Harrisburg
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville

TX: Austin
UT: Salt Lake City
WA: Olympia
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L  2w
0.28
0.25
0.32
0.79
1.01
1.45
0.48


0.55
0.16
0.55
2.76
1.41
0.89
0.24
0.27
3.31
3.66
0.21

1.01
0.98
8.30
0.54

0.47
1.80
0.21
0.25
0.25
0.27
0.31
0.31
0.34
0.28


0.55
0.32
0.28
0.45
0.35
0.29
0.25
0.25
0.45
0.45
0.24

0.31
0.31
0.66
0.27

0.27
0.39
0.24
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L2w
Be7
K40
Be7
Be7
Be7
K40
Be7
K40
T1208


T1208

Be7
Be7
Be7
K40
T1208

Be7
Bi212
K40
K40
Be7
T1208

K40
Pb212
28 15
ND
21 32
95 28
40 14
53 17
19 11
33 15
10 13
2.1 1.3
ND
ND
1.8 3.4
ND
ND
37 14
28 15
37 15
19 13
1.8 1.3
ND
25 21
27 36
ND
16 11
20 15
22 16
1.1 1.4
ND
23 36
4.4 7.1
Note:  ND = Not Detected

-------
                        Table 7
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                    December 2002
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock

AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CT: Hartford
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
IA: Iowa C ity
ID: Idaho Falls
MN: Minneapolis
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NY: Albany
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L  2w
0.82
0.50

1.08
0.25
2.26
0.80
0.41
1.94
1.12
3.44
1.03
0.17
1.45
0.13
2.66
0.23
0.83
1.07
2.14
1.43
0.41
1.29
1.63
4.17
0.37
-0.01
0.36
0.33

0.38
0.30
0.45
0.37
0.37
0.46
0.38
0.65
0.37
0.33
0.52
0.35
0.46
0.31
0.36
0.38
0.43
0.39
0.33
0.40
0.44
0.53
0.31
0.30
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L2w
Be7
Be7
K40

Be7
Be7

Be7
Be7
Be7
T1208
Be7
Be7
Pb212
Be7
Be7

Be7

Be7

Pb212
Be7
T1208
K40
K40
34 15
15 12
11 13
ND
ND
21 16
33 13
ND
44 31
33 23
146 37
2.5 3.6
30 15
34 36
3.9 6.2
22 14
120 34
ND
29 13
ND
ND
46 17
ND
4.2 6.5
52 31
3.6 3.7
26 35
17 28
ND
Note:  ND = Not Detected
                          10

-------
                             Table 8
                     Tritium in Precipitation
                     October - December 2002
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
October 2002
pCi/L  2w
-22 73
23 75
-21 75
NS
-9 74
100 80
23 77
-35 73
-27 73
-68 73
5 75
5 76
15 77
74 77
-15 74
32 75
-40 72
-24 73
-2 75
-8 76
28 77
-45 75
9 75
-24 75
NS
292 88
34 76
22 75
-17 74
-55 72
-24 73
-25 74
7 76
-30 74
November 2002
pCi/L  2w
0 70
-16 70
NS
-11 70
74 74
70 74
90 75
2 70
18 73
60 75
NS
37 74
NS
21 71
NS
NS
23 72
33 72
NS
NS
40 73
25 72
57 73
42 74
59 73
NS
61 73
-13 70
-16 69
-11 70
NS
45 72
NS
11 73
December 2002
pCi/L  2w
95 82
71 80
105 77
41 75
NS
72 77
NS
63 82
63 82
NS
91 81
34 74
NS
NS
140 82
NS
82 84
131 82
105 83
NS
63 83
NS
112 82
64 75
62 79
NS
47 79
37 79
48 81
52 81
48 77
45 74
100 83
37 74
Note:   NS = No Sample
                                11

-------
                Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates

Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined by the analysis of
annually composited samples (air filters) collected from the continuously operating airborne
particulate samplers.

Concentrations of plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and
238 are determined by alpha spectrometry following chemical separation. The volume of air
represented by the annual composite typically ranges from 120,000 to 500,000 cubic meters.

Plutonium and uranium results are published when they become available.
                           Beta Activity in Precipitation

All stations routinely submit precipitation samples as rainfall, snow, or sleet occurs. The
precipitation samples are composited at the NAREL into single monthly samples for each station.
Each month that precipitation occurs, an aliquant of the composited sample is analyzed for gross
beta, tritium, and gamma-emitting nuclides.
                                          12

-------
                  Table 9
Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates
     January - December 2002 Composites
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Montgomery/408
AL: Montgomery /4 1 1
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa C ity
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch/510
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas/906
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
Noie: NA  No Analysis
238Pu
aCi/m3  2w
0.08 0.40
0.0 1.2
-0.08 0.46
0.6 1.3
-1.1 3.3
1.1 1.2
1.3 1.6
0.9 1.2
0.43 0.93
0.8 1.2
0.1 1.2
-0.22 0.56
0.60 0.87
2.3 3.2
-0.1 1.5
0.7 1.6
0.5 2.2
0.5 1.0
-0.1 1.5
0.1 1.2
1.3 1.4
0.00 0.92
0.59 0.89
-0.1 1.4
-0.48 0.55
1.8 1.9
0.22 0.94
0.53 0.80
-1.3 5.1
0.3 1.2
0.4 1.0
1.1 2.7
-0.22 0.75
1.3 3.2
0.54 0.60
-0.5 1.1
0.8 1.0
0.17 0.35
239 240pu
aCi/m3  2w
0.05 0.24
-0.17 0.42
0.08 0.34
0.41 0.72
-0.2 1.8
0.43 0.59
0.00 0.42
0.30 0.65
0.09 0.42
0.61 0.76
0.18 0.52
0.13 0.35
0.14 0.39
0.0 1.2
0.00 0.47
0.31 0.66
0.5 2.2
0.08 0.72
0.13 0.60
-0.09 0.59
0.42 0.65
-0.20 0.68
0.10 0.44
-0.15 0.51
-0.03 0.20
0.42 0.91
-0.09 0.31
0.09 0.39
1.3 3.3
-0.08 0.50
0.00 0.37
1.0 1.6
-0.07 0.72
-0.1 1.3
0.06 0.25
0.37 0.65
-0.05 0.33
0.28 0.39
234U
aCi/m3  2w
11.0 2.7
9.6 2.1
8.7 1.9
21.8 4.6
91 19
10.8 2.9
28.1 5.8
30.2 6.0
8.0 2.0
13.7 3.7
20.5 4.4
11.7 2.7
3.9 1.5
21.2 4.7
34.2 7.3
20.8 4.8
67 15
22.1 4.8
23.5 5.1
22.8 5.4
18.5 3.8
12.9 4.4
8.3 2.3
16.1 4.1
9.2 2.1
27.2 6.3
9.4 1.9
16.1 3.2
73 14
26.1 5.4
12.2 3.2
7.5 2.3
15.4 3.1
21.6 5.2
5.8 1.7
10.1 2.5
20.2 3.9
14.4 2.6
235U
aCi/m3  2w
0.37 0.66
0.51 0.51
0.37 0.40
1.1 1.1
3.0 3.5
1.2 1.1
1.6 1.3
1.8 1.4
0.26 0.46
1.3 1.3
2.1 1.6
1.04 0.83
0.26 0.66
1.0 1.1
1.1 1.5
1.8 1.5
4.1 4.1
1.1 1.2
1.9 1.8
0.7 1.1
1.25 0.96
1.8 2.0
0.80 0.84
0.9 1.3
0.72 0.75
1.9 1.7
0.71 0.62
0.79 0.79
4.6 3.1
0.8 1.5
1.0 1.1
0.68 0.84
0.60 0.60
0.6 1.3
0.38 0.52
0.60 0.69
1.3 1.2
1.02 0.58
238U
aCi/m3  2w
9.7 2.5
11.6 2.4
8.7 1.9
24.0 4.9
65 15
7.7 2.4
25.1 5.3
32.3 6.3
6.4 1.8
16.3 4.0
19.2 4.3
10.1 2.5
4.7 1.7
19.1 4.4
33.7 7.2
18.4 4.5
71 15
20.7 4.5
18.1 4.4
25.0 5.7
19.2 3.9
21.4 5.8
7.7 2.2
18.7 4.5
9.1 2.1
23.9 5.8
10.1 2.0
14.0 2.9
57 12
18.2 4.4
13.7 3.4
10.3 2.7
13.7 2.9
31.3 6.6
6.1 1.8
10.1 2.5
18.1 3.7
11.9 2.2
            Table 9 (continued)
                    13

-------
            Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates
                 January - December 2002 Composites
Location
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: OakRidge/Y12E
TN: OakRidge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
238Pu
aCi/m3  2w
0.8 1.1
0.4 1.3
0.2 1.6
-0.7 1.1
0.3 1.1
0.08 0.34
0.6 1.0
0.00 0.84
-0.15 0.87
0.0 1.8
1.0 5.0
1.5 1.5
0.0 2.9
0.69 0.88
0.3 1.9
0.5 1.1
239 240pu
aCi/m3  2w
0.17 0.48
-0.24 0.82
0.8 1.2
0.11 0.50
0.17 0.98
-0.04 0.25
0.08 0.48
0.36 0.98
0.15 0.65
0.09 0.87
0.7 2.2
0.35 0.74
0.00 0.84
-0.05 0.31
-0.25 0.60
0.15 0.42
234U
aCi/m3  2w
29.5 4.9
35.0 7.1
20.9 4.3
11.5 3.2
14.5 2.8
24.6 4.2
7.7 1.7
49.6 8.1
72 10
12.9 3.6
103 23
27.0 5.6
27.0 5.6
57.8 6.8
3.9 1.3
12.2 3.1
235U
aCi/m3  2w
3.4 1.7
4.5 2.5
1.5 1.2
0.80 0.91
2.7 1.1
1.61 0.84
0.40 0.39
4.6 2.0
6.7 1.9
1.1 1.1
-0.7 2.3
1.0 1.2
1.0 1.2
3.9 1.5
0.43 0.49
0.9 1.0
238U
aCi/m3  2w
32.3 5.1
35.8 7.2
19.9 4.1
12.0 3.2
12.5 2.5
44.2 6.7
8.4 1.7
25.1 5.0
66.8 9.4
10.7 3.2
99 22
24.4 5.3
24.4 5.3
11.2 2.4
4.1 1.3
12.3 3.1
Note:  NA = No Analysis
                                 14

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                         2.  Drinking Water Program
The ERAMS drinking water program provides data on radionuclide concentrations in the
nation's drinking water supplies. Samples are taken at 78 sites which are either major population
centers or selected nuclear facility environs.

Drinking water data are used to assess trends and anomalies in concentrations, and to compare
with standards set forth in the EPA "National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations."
These regulations provide for approval of supplies when the combined radium-226 and
radium-228 levels do not exceed 5 pCi/L, when the gross alpha (excluding radon and uranium)
levels do not exceed 15 pCi/L, when tritium levels do not exceed 20,000 pCi/L, when the
strontium-90 levels do not exceed 8 pCi/L, and when the gross beta levels do not exceed
50 pCi/L.

The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross beta, strontium-90,
and gamma on annual composites; (c) radium-226 if the gross alpha exceeds 2 pCi/L and
radium-228 if the radium-226 falls between 3 and 5 pCi/L;  (d) iodine-131  on one quarterly
sample per year for each station; and (e) an annual composite  for plutonium-238, combined
plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and 238 for stations that demonstrate gross alpha
levels greater than 2 pCi/L.
                                          15

-------
        Table 10
Tritium in Drinking Water
 October - December 2002
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CT: Hartford
DE: Dover
FL: Miami
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
HI: Honolulu
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: W. Chicago
KS: Topeka
MA: Lawrence
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
ME: Augusta
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Red W ing
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson - 10/8/2002 0700
MT: Helena
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
NH: Concord
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Niagara Falls
Date
Collected
10/22/02
10/08/02
10/07/02
10/02/02
10/03/02
10/22/02
11/04/02
10/23/02
10/07/02
10/10/02
10/14/02
12/10/02
10/10/02
11/07/02
10/23/02
10/10/02
10/23/02
10/08/02
11/26/02
10/07/02
11/04/02
10/09/02
10/16/02
10/10/02
11/04/02
10/28/02
10/04/02
10/09/02
10/08/02
10/17/02
12/03/02
12/16/02
10/07/02
10/08/02
10/08/02
12/10/02
12/19/02
10/08/02
10/29/02
10/17/02
3H
pCi/L 2w
47
-35
5
108
102
-42
40
16
-62
-44
-57
24
15
-33
-26
73
-42
-40
54
8
49
-23
138
-6
15
-37
0
-47
-29
46
510
84
50
-68
10
18
87
-37
5
56
79
75
78
82
82
75
77
77
75
75
74
73
78
74
76
80
75
76
78
78
78
76
82
77
77
74
78
75
76
79
94
75
79
74
78
72
76
76
77
78
           16

-------
   Table 10 (continued)
Tritium in Drinking Water
 October - December 2002
Location
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OR: Portland
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter
PA: Philadelphia/Belmont
PA: Philadelphia/Queen
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge - Knox Co. #371
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co. #768
TN: Oak Ridge - RoaneCo. #360
TN: Oak Ridge - RoaneCo. #4442
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co. #772
TX: Austin
VA: Ashland
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
Date
Collected
12/06/02
12/11/02
12/04/02
10/10/02
10/08/02
10/22/02
10/07/02
11/01/02
11/01/02
12/09/02
12/09/02
12/09/02
12/04/02
10/17/02
10/14/02
10/15/02
10/17/02
10/15/02
10/04/02
10/03/02
12/02/02
12/02/02
12/06/02
12/09/02
12/09/02
10/21/02
10/08/02
10/15/02
10/12/02
10/07/02
3H
pCi/L  2w
58
33
25
67
11
-10
-78
-65
49
73
33
31
-11
18
-27
45
37
-31
73
16
-19
46
19
255
7
0
1660
-37
24
-87
75
74
76
80
78
76
75
74
79
75
74
73
74
78
75
79
78
76
79
79
74
77
75
84
73
77
130
75
78
74
           17

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                              Table 11
                   Plutonium and Uranium Analyses
              Selected Drinking Water Composite Samples
                      January - December 2002
Location
GA: Baxley
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
MN: RedWing
MS: Port Gibson
NE: Lincoln
NM: Santa Fe
SC: Jenkinsville
238Pu
pCi/L  2w
0.020 0.037
0.003 0.034
0.020 0.033
-0.005 0.034
0.023 0.043
-0.034 0.031
0.034 0.038
-0.001 0.027
0.032 0.046
239 240pu
pCi/L  2w
0.002 0.018
0.005 0.014
-0.0022 0.0076
-0.002 0.011
-0.005 0.013
-0.001 0.017
0.003 0.012
-0.003 0.010
0.023 0.025
234U
pCi/L  2w
0.110 0.053
0.74 0.15
0.52 0.11
1.07 0.20
0.304 0.086
0.143 0.054
4.03 0.47
10.5 1.0
0.87 0.15
235U
pCi/L  2w
0.018 0.032
0.033 0.043
0.016 0.028
0.015 0.032
0.021 0.029
0.004 0.016
0.160 0.077
0.37 0.13
0.035 0.037
238U
pCi/L  2w
0.102 0.049
0.37 0.10
0.055 0.036
0.094 0.056
0.055 0.037
0.066 0.037
2.38 0.32
5.64 0.63
0.43 0.10
Note:  NA = No Analysis
                                 18

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         Table 12
Iodine-131 in Drinking Water
  January - December 2002
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CT: Hartford
DE: Dover
FL: Miami
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
KS: Topeka
LA: New Orleans
MA: Lawrence
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
ME: Augusta
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Minneapolis
MN: RedWing
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
MT: Helena
NC: Charlotte
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
Date
Collected
10/22/02
10/08/02
01/07/02
07/18/02
07/19/02
04/10/02
11/04/02
01/10/02
04/03/02
01/11/02
07/13/02
06/13/02
07/24/02
03/05/02
11/07/02
07/05/02
04/08/02
10/10/02
03/15/02
06/14/02
04/05/02
03/19/02
07/24/02
01/07/02
11/04/02
01/07/02
10/16/02
04/09/02
11/04/02
10/28/02
07/03/02
04/09/02
04/09/02
10/17/02
03/21/02
05/06/02
12/16/02
01/14/02
04/04/02
04/03/02
03/06/02
pCi/L
0.03
-0.10
-0.03
0.13
0.03
0.19
0.06
0.06
0.10
0.04
0.01
0.13
0.15
-0.10
0.5
-0.01
0.13
0.03
0.12
0.12
0.17
0.16
0.45
0.08
-0.20
0.05
0.02
-0.04
0.05
-0.21
0.08
0.00
0.00
0.05
0.43
0.06
0.20
0.11
0.18
0.05
0.35
2w
0.97
0.22
0.10
0.24
0.20
0.17
0.42
0.22
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.15
0.18
0.17
1.0
0.14
0.27
0.17
0.23
0.16
0.26
0.15
0.16
0.20
0.32
0.15
0.15
0.18
0.16
0.65
0.17
0.18
0.17
0.15
0.19
0.19
0.54
0.12
0.15
0.16
0.19
    Table 12 (continued)
            19

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Iodine-131 in Drinking Water
  January - December 2002
Location
NJ: Waretown
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Niagara Falls
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OR: Portland
PA: Co lumbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter
PA: Philadelphia/Belmont
PA: Philadelphia/Belmont
PA: Philadelphia/Queen
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge - RoaneCo. #4442
TN: Oak Ridge - Knox Co. #371
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co. #786
TN: Oak Ridge - RoaneCo. #360
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co. #768
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co. #768
TN: Oak Ridge - Knox Co.#371
TN: Oak Ridge - Knox Co.#371
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co. #772
TX: Austin
VA: Ashland
Date
Collected
03/06/02
08/29/02
12/19/02
04/03/02
07/16/02
10/17/02
12/06/02
05/01/02
02/27/02
01/09/02
04/11/02
10/08/02
01/10/02
10/07/02
05/10/02
05/10/02
12/09/02
12/09/02
12/09/02
12/09/02
05/01/02
02/27/02
10/17/02
07/04/02
04/03/02
07/19/02
10/17/02
10/15/02
01/08/02
01/07/02
06/04/02
08/12/02
08/12/02
08/23/02
12/02/02
12/02/02
12/02/02
12/02/02
12/09/02
04/23/02
04/10/02
13
pCi/L
0.16
0.04
0.23
0.02
0.05
0.09
1.0
0.03
0.28
0.21
0.12
-0.05
0.07
0.32
0.10
0.05
1.25
1.18
1.16
1.67
1.28
0.52
-0.04
0.10
0.01
0.09
0.02
-0.10
0.05
-0.16
0.05
0.05
-0.16
-0.05
-0.05
0.27
0.15
0.01
-0.16
0.11
0.06
2w
0.24
0.19
0.50
0.15
0.19
0.97
1.6
0.16
0.17
0.28
0.14
0.20
0.18
0.26
0.23
0.30
0.21
0.20
0.32
0.23
0.17
0.12
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.29
0.13
0.17
0.14
0.19
0.15
0.17
0.18
0.17
0.21
0.20
0.17
0.19
0.32
0.17
0.15
    Table 12 (continued)
            20

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Iodine-131 in Drinking Water
  January - December 2002
Location
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
Date
Collected
10/15/02
10/12/02
10/07/02
13
pCi/L
-0.06
0.04
0.22
2w
0.16
0.22
0.27
            21

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             Table 13
          Drinking Water
Alpha, Beta, and Sr-90 Concentrations
January - December 2002 Composites
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CT: Hartford
DE: Dover
FL: Miami
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
KS: Topeka
LA: New Orleans
MA: Lawrence
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
ME: Augusta
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Minneapolis
MN: RedWing
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
MT: Helena
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
Total
Solids
(mg/L)
79.3
77.5
31.8
39.5
43.8
15.0
29.7
42.1
22.0
101.6
52.0
108.3
68.4
72.0
82.7
64.4
32.2
63.0
64.9
91.1
88.1
62.3
85.1
72.2
71.7
44.6
43.3
61.0
46.4
76.6
98.5
50.0
107.2
64.3
28.0
101.4
98.4
Gross
Beta
pCi/L  2w
3.43 0.98
2.11 0.85
1.40 0.61
1.82 0.78
2.18 0.67
0.70 0.54
0.51 0.71
3.7 3.6
0.67 0.54
5.0 1.4
3.20 0.91
2.4 1.2
5.53 0.95
1.60 0.68
1.7 1.1
2.38 0.73
0.37 0.69
1.5 1.3
10.2 2.7
13.1 2.2
7.3 1.7
2.85 0.90
2.25 0.75
2.25 0.72
2.56 0.89
1.99 0.66
1.96 0.68
2.22 0.71
3.13 0.76
15.1 2.0
6.1 1.5
3.33 0.75
7.0 1.8
3.14 0.93
2.03 0.64
4.21 0.90
3.6 1.6
Gross
Alpha
pCi/L  2w
0.0 1.6
-0.2 1.8
0.50 0.91
0.1 1.2
0.4 1.1
-0.03 0.60
0.22 0.87
1.4 5.7
0.26 0.74
-0.3 3.0
0.5 1.6
-0.2 3.0
6.4 2.2
0.1 1.4
0.0 2.1
0.6 1.4
-0.08 0.90
2.0 2.7
12.5 6.2
22.7 6.3
0.2 3.3
0.3 1.6
1.1 1.8
0.0 1.4
0.4 1.8
0.0 1.0
0.4 1.1
0.0 1.2
0.2 1.1
26.3 5.4
1.8 3.1
0.0 1.1
2.1 4.1
1.1 1.6
0.56 0.85
0.4 1.8
0.5 3.2
90Sr
pCi/L  2w

-0.35 0.30
0.12 0.26
0.17 0.32





0.20 0.23













0.08 0.32
0.07 0.27












               22

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       Table 13 (continued)
          Drinking Water
Alpha, Beta, and Sr-90 Concentrations
January - December 2002 Composites
Location
NE: Lincoln
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NJ: Waretown
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: N iagara Falls
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Columbus
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OR: Portland
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter
PA: Philadelphia/Belmont
PA: Philadelphia/Queen
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co.
#768
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co.
#772
TN: Oak Ridge - RoaneCo. #4442
TN: Oak Ridge - RoaneCo. #360
TN: Oak Ridge - Knox #371
TX: Austin
VA: Ashland
Total
Solids
(mg/L)

67.0
68.6
50.5
30.4
111.1
77.8
54.3
39.4
55.7
51.6
82.2
132.4
71.3
51.9
54.0
31.7
10.3
76.8
12.3
78.6
68.2
87.4
91.9
39.7
14.8
48.6
31.6
18.9
38.9
61.3
57.7
56.4
58.9
47.4
59.1
39.5
71.1

Gross
Beta
pCi/L  2w

11.9 1.9
2.00 0.69
1.08 0.60
2.52 0.69
11.2 1.9
4.2 2.8
1.14 0.61
1.44 0.61
1.71 0.66
1.71 0.66
2.95 0.96
4.4 1.2
2.74 0.91
2.04 0.83
1.59 0.66
2.29 0.67
-0.13 0.62
2.32 0.73
-0.12 0.57
3.5 1.2
2.8 1.1
4.3 1.3
2.84 0.96
2.82 0.73
1.37 0.57
2.64 0.73
3.55 0.88
0.79 0.53
1.71 0.64
2.15 0.69
1.31 0.81
1.31 0.82
3.77 0.92
0.89 0.76
1.69 0.84
3.67 0.92
4.7 1.0

Gross
Alpha
pCi/L  2w

6.3 3.7
0.2 1.4
0.4 1.2
0.94 0.96
12.1 4.9
1.4 5.6
0.3 1.2
0.6 1.0
0.4 1.3
0.9 1.3
0.1 1.9
1.6 2.9
0.3 1.8
0.4 1.5
0.0 1.1
0.08 0.80
0.05 0.64
0.2 1.5
-0.22 0.70
0.0 2.4
0.4 2.3
1.1 2.9
0.0 2.1
1.2 1.2
0.49 0.68
0.3 1.2
2.2 1.4
0.02 0.65
-0.01 0.96
0.0 1.2
0.1 1.4
0.3 1.3
-0.1 1.4
0.0 1.2
0.1 1.4
0.3 1.2
1.3 1.9

90Sr
pCi/L  2w



-0.10 0.30
0.10 0.31


0.28 0.32
0.08 0.22
0.43 0.27
0.14 0.26







0.25 0.25
0.16 0.25
0.15 0.21
-0.1 1.1
0.20 0.23
0.13 0.23







-0.06 0.37
0.24 0.38
0.68 0.32
0.07 0.23
0.16 0.31

0.07 0.29

                23

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       Table 13 (continued)
          Drinking Water
Alpha, Beta, and Sr-90 Concentrations
January - December 2002 Composites
Location

VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
Total
Solids
(mg/L)
52.7
28.2
1.2
Gross
Beta
pCi/L  2w
1.46 0.65
0.45 0.71
0.02 0.59
Gross
Alpha
pCi/L  2w
0.5 1.3
0.29 0.86
-0.14 0.54
90Sr
pCi/L  2w
0.13 0.31

                24

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                             Table 14
                          Drinking Water
             Radium and Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides
                January - December 2002 Composites
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CT: Hartford
DE: Dover
FL: Miami
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
KS: Topeka
LA: New Orleans
MA: Lawrence
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
ME: Augusta
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Minneapolis
MN: RedWing
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
MT: Helena
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
226Ra
pCi/L  2w
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
2.15 0.25
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.072 0.016
2.47 0.28
4.69 0.52
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
3.34 0.37
NA
NA
0.450 0.061
NA
NA
NA
228Ra
pCi/L  2w
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1.17 0.60
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
2.35 0.66
2.99 0.73
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
4.92 0.90
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L2w
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
K40 11 13
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Pb212 2.2 2.4
ND
ND
K40 11 13
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:  ND = Not Detected
     NA = No Analysis
                        Table 14 (continued)
                                25

-------
                          Drinking Water
             Radium and Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides
                January - December 2002 Composites
Location
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NJ: Waretown
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Niagara Falls
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Columbus
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OR: Portland
PA: Co lumbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter
PA: Philadelphia/Belmont
PA: Philadelphia/Queen
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co.
#768
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co.
#772
TN: Oak Ridge - RoaneCo. #4442
TN: Oak Ridge - RoaneCo. #360
TN: Oak Ridge - Knox Co. #371
226Ra
pCi/L 2w

NA
0.227 0.035
NA
NA
NA
0.202 0.032
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.354 0.048
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

228Ra
pCi/L 2w

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L2w

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
K40 12 11
ND
ND
ND
ND
T1208 1.7 2.0
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
K40 13 13
Pb212 1.2 1.2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

Note:  ND = Not Detected
     NA = No Analysis
                                26

-------
                        Table 14 (continued)
                          Drinking Water
             Radium and Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides
                 January - December 2002 Composites
Location

TX: Austin
VA: Ashland


VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
226Ra
pCi/L 2w
NA
NA


NA
NA
NA
228Ra
pCi/L 2w
NA
NA


NA
NA
NA
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L2w
ND
K40 13 13
Pb212 1.9 2.5
T1208 1.5 1.8
ND
ND
ND
Note:  ND = Not Detected
     NA = No Analysis
                                27

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                                 3.  Milk Program
                                  Pasteurized Milk

Milk is a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of certain radionuclides since it is
consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain several of the biologically
significant radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities. A
primary function of this program is to obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current
radionuclide concentrations and determine any long-term trends.

Quarterly samples are collected at approximately 55 sampling sites. The samples are
composited, according to production, from the major milk suppliers representing more than 80
percent of the milk consumed in a given population center.

The samples are analyzed for gamma-emitting nuclides, including iodine-131, barium-140,
cesium-137, and potassium-40. Total potassium concentrations in g/L are determined from
potassium-40 activities assuming natural isotopic abundances. During the third quarter
collection, one-fourth of the samples are also analyzed for strontium-90 on a four year rotating
schedule.
                                           29

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                               Table 15
                   Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                       October - December 2002
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Francisco
DE: Dover
FL: Tampa
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Wichita
KY: Louisville
MA: Boston
MD: Baltimore
ME: Portland
MI: Grand Rapids
MO: Jefferson City
NJ: Trenton
NM: Albuquerque
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Buffalo
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OR: Portland
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TX: Ft. Worth
TX: San Antonio
VA: Norfolk
VT: Montpelier
WA: Spokane
WA: Tacoma
WV: Charleston
Date
Collected
10/03/02
11/19/02
10/08/02
12/17/02
10/07/02
10/29/02
10/08/02
10/17/02
10/07/02
10/16/02
10/08/02
10/14/02
10/09/02
12/23/02
10/04/02
10/30/02
10/09/02
10/07/02
10/18/02
10/03/02
11/12/02
10/07/02
11/12/02
10/29/02
10/14/02
10/17/02
10/07/02
12/10/02
10/30/02
10/21/02
10/15/02
10/07/02
10/30/02
12/19/02
10/14/02
12/17/02
10/07/02
K
g/L  2w
1.39 0.11
1.58 0.12
1.58 0.12
1.55 0.12
1.35 0.11
1.54 0.12
1.56 0.12
1.50 0.12
1.47 0.13
1.47 0.12
1.60 0.12
1.38 0.16
1.61 0.12
1.51 0.13
1.63 0.17
1.56 0.13
1.61 0.11
1.60 0.13
1.55 0.15
1.50 0.15
1.64 0.11
1.57 0.12
1.43 0.11
1.55 0.12
1.45 0.15
1.57 0.12
1.42 0.11
1.54 0.12
1.58 0.12
1.51 0.12
1.56 0.12
1.35 0.16
1.66 0.13
1.43 0.11
1.58 0.13
1.45 0.12
1.60 0.17
137Cs
pCi/L  2w
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
140Ba
pCi/L  2w
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
131j
pCi/L  2w
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:
ND = Not Detected
                                  30

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                              For More Information
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is published quarterly by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.
Requests for information concerning the operation of ERAMS and the data that are generated
should be directed as follows:

For System Operations-                  For Analytical Information and Data-

Rhonda Sears                           John Griggs
National Air and Radiation Environmental  National Air and Radiation Environmental
  Laboratory                             Laboratory
540 South Morris Avenue                 540 South Morris Avenue
Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601       Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
e-mail:  sears.rhonda@epa.gov            e-mail: griggs.john@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                   Charles M. Petko
                                 Office of the Director
                   National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                               540 South Morris Avenue
                          Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
                             e-mail: petko.charles@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning policies of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air should be
directed to:

                                    Bonnie Gitlin
                                    USEPA - ORIA
                        Radiation Protection Division (MC6608J)
                              1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW
                                Washington, DC 20460
                             e-mail: gitlin.bonnie@epa.gov

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