402-R-04-902
ENVIRONMENTAL




RADIATION




DATA
                      REPORT 118




                     April - June 2004
         United States Environmental Protection Agency




               Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

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                                     Contents


                                                                                  Page

List of Tables	v

Preface	 vii

Acknowledgments	ix

Data Reporting Conventions  	xi

1.  Air Program  	1
      Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	1
      Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	13

2.  Drinking Water Program	15

3.  Milk Program 	19
      Pasteurized Milk 	19
                                          in

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                                 List of Tables








Table                                                                           Page



    1  Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations	xiii



    2  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates:  April 2004  	2



    3  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates:  May 2004	4



    4  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates:  June 2004	6



    5  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation: April 2004	8



    6  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation: May 2004	10



    7  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation: June 2004  	11



    8  Tritium in Precipitation: April - June 2004  	12



    9  Tritium in Drinking Water:  April - June 2004  	16



   10  Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: April - June 2004	20

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                                      Preface
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is compiled and published quarterly by the Office of
Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in
Montgomery, Alabama, and contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient
Monitoring System (ERAMS). ERD is published in both hard-copy and electronic formats.
Electronic reports are available online at www.epa.gov/narel.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency established ERAMS in 1973 with an
emphasis on identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the
environment. ERAMS is comprised of a nationwide network of sampling stations that provide
air particulate, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples.

Sampling locations are selected to provide population and geographic coverage for the United
States. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta
analysis, gamma analyses, and radionuclide-specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium,
iodine, radium, and tritium.  This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural
background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary
sources.

The radiochemical procedures used by NAREL to analyze the ERAMS samples are contained in
the NAREL Radiochemistry Procedures Manual. Station operation and sample collection are in
accordance with procedures  contained in the ERAMS Manual (EPA 520/5-84-007, 008, 009).
                                          vn

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                               Acknow ledgmen ts
All sampling for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) is
performed by volunteer collectors who are frequently members of health departments or related
environmental agencies of their respective states. The National Air and Radiation Environmental
Laboratory (NAREL), on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, would like to
acknowledge the time and effort of these volunteer collectors, who are so essential to the
successful operation of ERAMS. The efforts of the sample collectors are especially appreciated
during times of emergency operation when sampling frequencies are increased and schedules are
sometimes demanding.
                                          IX

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                         Data Reporting Conventions
Every laboratory measurement involves uncertainty.  When there is little or no radioactivity in a
sample, one consequence of measurement uncertainty is the possibility of obtaining a measured
value that is less than zero. Such a negative result occurs when random effects in the
measurement process cause the measured value for the sample to be less than that of the blank or
background, which is subtracted from it. From April 1991 to December 1995, negative results
were reported as "not detected" or "ND," and gamma analysis results that were less than their
estimated measurement uncertainties were also reported as "ND." In January 1996, both of these
practices were discontinued. Although negative activities are physically impossible, the
inclusion of negative results in the report allows better statistical analysis of the data.

Results of gamma analyses are still reported as "ND" when gamma-emitting radionuclides are
not detected.
                               Measurement Uncertainty

Each measured valuey is reported with an expanded uncertainty U=k uc(y), which is determined
from the combined standard uncertainty uc(y) and the coverage factor h = 2.  The interval from
y - Utoy + Uis estimated to have a level of confidence of approximately 95%.
                                   Significant Figures

Expanded uncertainties are reported to two significant figures.  Measurement results are rounded
to the corresponding number of decimal places.
                                  Detection Capability

The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for each radionuclide are shown in Table 1.
The MDC is defined as the minimum concentration that gives a 95% probability of detection
when the detection criteria are chosen to give only a 5% probability of false detection in a blank
sample.
                                           XI

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                                   Table 1

     Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations
                        for Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
Gross B eta
Tritium
* Plutonium-238, 239/240
f Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Strontium-90
t Iodine-131
Cesium-137
t Barium- 140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation
Water
Milk
Air
Water
Air
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk (gamma)
Water (gamma)
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
Reporting
Unit
pCi/L
pCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
g/L
g/L
pCi/L
Minimum
Detectable
Concentration
2
0.0015
2
2
150
150
0.75
0.1
0.75
0.1
0.02
2
1
4
4
0.3
5
5
15
15
0.06
0.06
50
* The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 nf.  Measurement by alpha
spectrometry includes combined activities of 239Pu and 240Pu, since the relative contributions of these two
isotopes cannot be determined.
f The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3.
J Activity as of the day of counting.
                                      Xlll

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                                  1. Air Program
                     Airborne Participates and Precipitation

Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air
particulates and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general
(national) impact of all contributing sources on environmental levels of radiation.  Airborne
particulates are collected continuously at field stations representing wide geographic coverage
throughout the United States.

Filters (10-cm diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed twice weekly and field
measurements are made with a G-M survey meter 5 hours after collection to allow natural radon
isotopes and their progeny to decay. Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA officials by
telephone or mail depending on the activity levels found.

The filters are sent to NAREL for more sensitive analysis in a low background beta counter.
Gamma scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta activity greater than 1 pCi/m3. The
laboratory obtained values are usually lower than the field estimates because of the decay of
naturally occurring radionuclides during the time between the two measurements.

Precipitation samples are collected at most field stations that collect air filters. These samples
are also sent to NAREL where they are composited monthly for gamma scans, tritium, and gross
beta activity measurements.

A compilation of individual measurements is available from the National Air and  Radiation
Environmental Laboratory, 540 South Morris Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36115-2601.

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             Table 2
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
           April 2004
Location
AL: Montgomery
AL: Montgomery /4 1 1
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas
NV: Las Vegas/913
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
Number
of
Samples
9
9
7
4
9
5
8
9
9
9
8
5
9
9
9
9
8
5
9
4
5
9
2
4
9
9
4
4
4
7
9
8
9
8
9
9
1
3
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.3
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.9 0.2 0.5
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.3
4.3 1.1 2.3
2.5 0.6 1.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
2.2 0.3 0.9
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.013 0.006 0.010
0.017 0.007 0.011
0.014 0.010 0.012
0.020 0.009 0.013
0.016 0.004 0.010
0.013 0.008 0.011
0.009 0.003 0.006
0.013 0.002 0.008
0.010 0.003 0.007
0.011 0.005 0.008
0.016 0.006 0.012
0.006 0.003 0.004
0.022 0.007 0.012
0.015 0.006 0.009
0.010 0.006 0.008
0.017 0.008 0.013
0.019 0.008 0.013
0.010 0.005 0.008
0.015 0.006 0.010
0.014 0.008 0.011
0.018 0.009 0.014
0.019 0.005 0.012
0.011 0.006 0.008
0.017 0.012 0.014
0.010 0.002 0.006
0.011 0.003 0.007
0.014 0.009 0.010
0.011 0.008 0.009
0.007 0.004 0.006
0.010 0.005 0.008
0.012 0.003 0.008
0.015 0.004 0.008
0.017 0.007 0.011
0.009 0.002 0.004
0.017 0.004 0.010
0.014 0.004 0.009
0.009 0.009 0.009
0.015 0.011 0.013

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       Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
           April 2004


Location


SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: OakRidge/Y12 E
TN: OakRidge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane

Number
of
Samples

7
7
9
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
9
7
8
9
9
5 -hour Field
Estimate

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.5 0.0 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
1.1 0.3 0.6
0.7 0.0 0.2
0.9 0.0 0.4
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.2 0.5
NAREL Lab
Measurement

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.014 0.003 0.009
0.021 0.010 0.015
0.013 0.007 0.010
0.015 0.005 0.010
0.013 0.005 0.010
0.014 0.004 0.010
0.015 0.004 0.010
0.016 0.006 0.011
0.016 0.007 0.011
0.021 0.007 0.014
0.019 0.006 0.013
0.016 0.007 0.011
0.013 0.003 0.009
0.006 0.001 0.003
0.019 0.003 0.009

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             Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            May 2004
Location
AK: Anchorage
AL: Montgomery
AL: Montgomery /4 1 1
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa C ity
ID: Idaho Falls
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas
NV: Las Vegas/913
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
Number
of
Samples
1
7
8
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
6
7
8
8
8
7
5
4
8
4
6
8
2
6
8
8
5
5
4
5
8
8
8
8
8
8
5
7
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.2 0.3
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
2.2 0.5 1.2
1.1 0.3 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.9 0.1 0.8
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.003 0.003 0.003
0.013 0.007 0.010
0.018 0.008 0.012
0.012 0.008 0.010
0.021 0.010 0.016
0.013 0.006 0.010
0.010 0.003 0.007
0.019 0.007 0.011
0.016 0.007 0.011
0.013 0.006 0.009
0.024 0.008 0.014
0.005 0.002 0.004
0.018 0.005 0.011
0.009 0.003 0.007
0.013 0.005 0.008
0.013 0.005 0.010
0.013 0.008 0.010
0.009 0.004 0.007
0.016 0.003 0.009
0.013 0.008 0.010
0.015 0.009 0.012
0.015 0.007 0.013
0.014 0.008 0.011
0.014 0.008 0.010
0.011 0.002 0.008
0.019 0.004 0.011
0.016 0.009 0.012
0.011 0.008 0.010
0.011 0.006 0.009
0.017 0.009 0.014
0.017 0.004 0.010
0.017 0.007 0.009
0.017 0.007 0.011
0.006 0.002 0.004
0.019 0.008 0.012
0.020 0.007 0.011
0.020 0.009 0.016
0.014 0.004 0.009

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       Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            May 2004


Location


TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: OakRidge/Y12 E
TN: OakRidge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane

Number
of
Samples

4
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
8
7
8
8
8
5 -hour Field
Estimate

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.7 0.2 0.5
0.9 0.3 0.6
1.0 0.3 0.6
0.9 0.2 0.5
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.8 0.5 0.6
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.7 0.1 0.4
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.7 0.1 0.3
NAREL Lab
Measurement

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.021 0.009 0.017
0.021 0.008 0.012
0.018 0.009 0.012
0.017 0.009 0.012
0.018 0.009 0.013
0.018 0.008 0.013
0.016 0.008 0.012
0.014 0.007 0.009
0.020 0.009 0.012
0.020 0.010 0.013
0.017 0.007 0.010
0.019 0.008 0.011
0.005 0.002 0.004
0.012 0.005 0.008

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             Table 4
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            June 2004
Location
AK: Anchorage
AL: Montgomery
AL: Montgomery /4 1 1
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa C ity
ID: Idaho Falls
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas
NV: Las Vegas/913
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Columbia
Number
of
Samples
1
10
8
6
5
8
1
9
7
9
9
7
6
9
9
9
7
6
4
9
5
6
9
5
5
9
9
6
4
5
6
9
8
9
9
9
9
3
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.2 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.2 0.4

0.3 0.0 0.2
1.6 0.1 1.0
1.0 0.2 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.1 0.2 0.6
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.9 0.1 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.2

0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.004 0.004 0.004
0.012 0.006 0.008
0.013 0.006 0.010
0.011 0.006 0.009
0.017 0.007 0.011
0.012 0.007 0.009
0.003 0.003 0.003
0.010 0.004 0.007
0.012 0.004 0.008
0.011 0.005 0.008
0.013 0.004 0.007
0.014 0.007 0.011
0.004 0.002 0.003
0.015 0.004 0.009
0.010 0.004 0.007
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.013 0.008 0.009
0.008 0.003 0.006
0.017 0.004 0.008
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.014 0.006 0.009
0.016 0.007 0.010
0.011 0.007 0.009
0.010 0.005 0.007
0.008 0.003 0.006
0.015 0.006 0.009
0.015 0.010 0.012
0.010 0.007 0.008
0.008 0.006 0.007
0.019 0.004 0.010
0.012 0.004 0.008
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.016 0.006 0.010
0.010 0.001 0.004
0.015 0.006 0.010
0.013 0.004 0.007
0.015 0.008 0.011

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       Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            June 2004


Location


SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: OakRidge/Y12 E
TN: OakRidge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane

Number
of
Samples

10
6
9
8
8
8
8
8
7
8
8
8
8
9
9
5 -hour Field
Estimate

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.1 0.3
0.6 0.2 0.4
0.9 0.2 0.4
0.7 0.1 0.3
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.3 0.6
0.2 0.0 0.2
0.9 0.1 0.5
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.7 0.1 0.3
NAREL Lab
Measurement

Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.013 0.004 0.008
0.018 0.009 0.012
0.015 0.007 0.010
0.016 0.005 0.010
0.014 0.007 0.010
0.016 0.005 0.010
0.018 0.006 0.010
0.018 0.007 0.011
0.016 0.004 0.009
0.015 0.005 0.009
0.016 0.007 0.010
0.013 0.006 0.009
0.011 0.005 0.008
0.008 0.001 0.003
0.017 0.003 0.008

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                        Table 5
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       April 2004
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford

DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
HI: Honolulu

IA: Iowa City
KS: Kansas City
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
NC: Charlotte

NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NV: Las Vegas

NY: Albany

NY: Yaphank


OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville

TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
Gross B eta
Activity
pCi/L  2w
1.11
1.17
1.30
0.66
1.28
2.42

1.37
0.87
0.98

0.51
0.94
2.02
0.99
1.49

1.24
1.23
3.00
1.28

0.88

1.24


0.74
0.32
0.51
54.5

1.12
0.69
1.14
0.69
1.34
0.33
0.32
0.35
0.30
0.34
0.41

0.34
0.33
0.34

0.29
0.32
0.41
0.31
0.35

0.34
0.34
0.43
0.34

0.31

0.34


0.30
0.26
0.29
1.9

0.33
0.30
0.34
0.31
0.36
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L2w
Be7
Be7


Be7
Be7
Pb212
Be7

K40
Pb212
Be7
Be7


Be7
T1208
Be7
T1208
Be7
Be7
Pb212
Be7
Pb212
Be7
K40
T1208
Be7
K40

Be7
K40
Be7

T1208
Pb212
Be7
43 19
29 19
ND
ND
18 17
74 11
1.3 1.2
37 16
ND
7 11
1.8 1.2
13.4 8.2
24 16
ND
ND
38 14
1.1 1.4
27 22
1.8 2.9
73 29
54 24
2.4 4.2
30.2 8.7
1.3 1.3
41 14
16 12
1.0 1.2
50 10
28 40
ND
37 17
55 14
57 18
ND
3.5 4.7
4.7 5.3
14 13
Note:   ND = Not Detected

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                   Table 5 (continued)
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       April 2004
Location
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Gross B eta
Activity
pCi/L 2w
1.34 0.36
1.90 0.38
1.96 0.38
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L2w
Pb212 1.2 1.3
T1208 0.82 0.76
ND
K40 11 14
Note:   ND = Not Detected

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                         Table 6
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       May 2004
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock

CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford

DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Kansas City
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland

PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Gross B eta
Activity
pCi/L  2u
0.73
0.86

6.4
0.94
1.49

1.37
0.26
1.40
0.67
1.68
0.39
0.98
1.28
1.21
0.27
1.88
2.19
1.29
2.12
1.08
0.97

0.88
3.96
0.98
0.52
0.86
4.02
3.65
3.57
0.70
0.30
0.31

5.4
0.32
0.35

0.34
0.27
0.37
0.30
0.38
0.28
0.32
0.34
0.33
0.26
0.39
0.39
0.35
0.39
0.32
0.32

0.31
0.49
0.32
0.29
0.32
0.53
0.55
0.47
0.31
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L2w
Be7
Be7
Pb210
T1208
Pb212
Be7
K40
Be7

Be7
Be7
Be7
Pb212
Be7
Be7

Be7
Be7
Be7
Be7
Be7
Pb212
Be7
Pb212

Be7
K40

Be7

24 17
15 11
16 19
9 15
3.7 4.5
57 17
12 13
50 16
ND
ND
22 20
ND
35 16
40 10
1.4 1.2
14 16
35 19
ND
ND
67 18
47 17
23.3 9.4
50 19
194 41
5.2 7.1
37 36
4.5 6.1
ND
68 20
52 54
ND
95 32
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                           10

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                        Table 7
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       June 2004
Location
AL: Montgomery





AR: Little Rock

CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu


IA: Iowa C ity
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Kansas City
MI: Lansing

MN: Minneapolis
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: O lympia
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L  2u
0.73





0.72

1.97
0.81
0.84
1.73
0.92


0.67
0.85
0.74
0.69

0.97
2.04
1.39
0.75
2.53
1.07
5.31
1.36
2.39
1.47
1.46
0.34
0.43
0.86
1.28
5.87
0.24
0.31





0.30

0.38
0.32
0.31
0.37
0.32


0.30
0.31
0.31
0.30

0.32
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.41
0.33
0.55
0.35
0.40
0.37
0.35
0.29
0.28
0.30
0.36
0.58
0.27
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L2w
Be7
K40
Pb212
Ra224
Ra228
T1208
Be7
Pb212
Be7
Be7
Be7
Be7
K40
Pb212
T1208
Be7

Be7
Be7
K40
Be7
Be7
Be7
K40
Be7
Be7
T1208
Be7
Be7


Be7





39 39
69 25
11.2 3.4
40 42
14.3 6.6
5.2 2.0
42 20
1.9 2.5
41 18
28 18
47 19
49 33
51 26
10.0 3.0
4.1 2.0
22 15
ND
30 16
24 27
22 37
43 19
51 19
47 12
10 12
55 17
43 18
3.9 3.6
47 21
85 37
ND
ND
29 29
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                           11

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                              Table 8
                      Tritium in Precipitation
                         April - June 2004
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa C ity
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
April 2004
pCi/L  2w
54 81
85 82
-8 78
-12 79
20 79
25 82
37 82
49 81
NS
-10 78
23 80
NS
105 83
NS
90 82
64 81
73 82
77 83
62 81
56 83
108 84
-5 80
28 81
13 79
122 84
-2 80
-62 76
-21 78
-36 77
85 82
-2 79
62 81
31 80
35 81
May 2004
pCi/L  2w
-35 79
56 87
NS
-12 84
-84 80
31 84
-5 81
2 81
NS
-74 80
36 82
208 93
38 86
NS
-26 80
26 81
-38 79
3 81
48 82
22 82
NS
10 81
38 82
5 81
16 84
-12 80
-2 81
-40 79
-22 80
103 89
20 81
62 87
-46 79
66 87
June 2004
pCi/L  2w
82 84
115 85
NS
NS
NS
119 87
44 83
-76 76
-58 79
-4 82
30 82
6 83
4 82
NS
-87 75
133 86
-18 79
56 83
50 83
150 88
NS
134 87
68 84
56 83
-24 81
18 82
20 81
50 83
88 85
56 84
NS
-10 82
8 81
4 82
Note:   NS = No Sample
                                 12

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                Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates

Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined by the analysis of
annually composited samples (air filters) collected from the continuously operating airborne
particulate samplers.

Concentrations of plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and
238 are determined by alpha spectrometry following chemical separation. The volume of air
represented by the annual composite typically ranges from 120,000 to 500,000 cubic meters.

Plutonium and uranium results are published when they become available.
                           Beta Activity in Precipitation

All stations routinely submit precipitation samples as rainfall, snow, or sleet occurs. The
precipitation samples are composited at the NAREL into single monthly samples for each station.
Each month that precipitation occurs, an aliquant of the composited sample is analyzed for gross
beta, tritium, and gamma-emitting nuclides.
                                          13

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               14

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                         2.  Drinking Water Program
The ERAMS drinking water program provides data on radionuclide concentrations in the
nation's drinking water supplies. Samples are taken at 78 sites which are either major population
centers or selected nuclear facility environs.

Drinking water data are used to assess trends and anomalies in concentrations, and to compare
with standards set forth in the EPA "National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations."
These regulations provide for approval of supplies when the combined radium-226 and
radium-228 levels do not exceed 5 pCi/L, when the gross alpha (excluding radon and uranium)
levels do not exceed 15 pCi/L, when tritium levels do not exceed 20,000 pCi/L, when the
strontium-90 levels do not exceed 8 pCi/L, and when the gross beta levels do not exceed
50 pCi/L.

The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross beta, strontium-90,
and gamma on annual composites; (c) radium-226 if the gross alpha exceeds 2 pCi/L and
radium-228 if the radium-226 falls between 3 and 5 pCi/L;  (d) iodine-131  on one quarterly
sample per year for each station; and (e) an annual composite  for plutonium-238, combined
plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and 238 for stations that demonstrate gross alpha
levels greater than 2 pCi/L.
                                          15

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         Table 9
Tritium in Drinking Water
    April - June 2004
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Dover
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
KS: Topeka
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
ME: Augusta
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Minneapolis
MN: RedWing
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
MT: Helena
NC: Charlotte
NC: Raleigh
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NJ: Waretown
NM: Santa Fe
Date
Collected
04/13/04
04/07/04
04/09/04
04/01/04
04/02/04
04/14/04
04/13/04
05/10/04
04/14/04
04/15/04
04/14/04
06/03/04
05/20/04
06/23/04
04/13/04
04/20/04
05/03/04
04/19/04
04/13/04
04/20/04
04/09/04
04/09/04
05/11/04
04/09/04
04/15/04
04/21/04
04/13/04
04/12/04
04/13/04
04/13/04
04/13/04
04/12/04
05/05/04
04/14/04
04/14/04
04/16/04
04/13/04
04/22/04
04/28/04
04/15/04
3H
pCi/L  2w
112
92
83
17
73
7
56
-5
115
9
37
-34
-57
12
60
41
-8
13
4
7
114
-26
31
58
58
91
95
-24
-4
49
-6
35
287
-11
92
101
45
119
-50
49
77
77
77
74
77
73
74
80
78
72
73
77
76
85
76
73
80
72
72
71
78
71
80
76
75
76
78
71
73
75
72
73
91
71
76
76
75
77
78
74
            16

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   Table 9 (continued)
Tritium in Drinking Water
    April - June 2004
Location
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Niagara Falls
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OR: Portland
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia - Queen Lane
PA: Philadelphia - Baxter
PA: Philadelphia - Belmont
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TX: Austin
VA: Ashland
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WA: S eattle
Date
Collected
06/25/04
04/12/04
04/30/04
04/29/04
06/08/04
05/07/04
06/21/04
05/05/04
04/12/04
04/26/04
05/18/04
05/13/04
05/14/04
06/18/04
06/18/04
06/18/04
06/22/04
04/12/04
04/23/04
04/29/04
04/28/04
04/28/04
04/13/04
04/12/04
04/27/04
04/13/04
04/11/04
04/22/04
06/28/04
3H
pCi/L  2w
41
77
58
97
11
33
111
105
148
2
23
91
-34
0
29
3
62
-11
-86
7
-31
32
135
37
50
2090
9
112
24
80
76
83
84
79
81
83
84
80
80
80
82
77
78
80
79
80
72
78
81
79
82
79
73
83
140
72
77
79
            17

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               18

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                                 3.  Milk Program
                                  Pasteurized Milk

Milk is a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of certain radionuclides since it is
consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain several of the biologically
significant radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities. A
primary function of this program is to obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current
radionuclide concentrations and determine any long-term trends.

Quarterly samples are collected at approximately 55 sampling sites. The samples are
composited, according to production, from the major milk suppliers representing more than 80
percent of the milk consumed in a given population center.

The samples are analyzed for gamma-emitting nuclides, including iodine-131, barium-140,
cesium-137, and potassium-40. Total potassium concentrations in g/L are determined from
potassium-40 activities assuming natural isotopic abundances. During the third quarter
collection, one-fourth of the samples are also analyzed for strontium-90 on a four year rotating
schedule.
                                           19

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                                Table 10
                    Radionuclides in Pasteurized Mlk
                            April - June 2004
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Francisco
DE: Dover
FL: Tampa
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Wichita
KY: Louisville
MA: Boston
MD: Baltimore
ME: Portland
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MO: Jefferson City
NJ: Trenton
NM: Albuquerque
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Buffalo
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OR: Portland
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TX: San Antonio
VA: Norfolk
VT: Montpelier
WA: Spokane
WA: Tacoma
WV: Charleston
Date
Collected
04/08/04
05/03/04
04/28/04
04/16/04
04/15/04
04/19/04
04/19/04
04/13/04
05/19/04
04/12/04
04/19/04
04/14/04
04/13/04
06/30/04
04/09/04
04/13/04
06/28/04
04/21/04
04/14/04
04/07/04
06/15/04
04/14/04
04/15/04
04/15/04
06/15/04
04/19/04
04/26/04
04/13/04
05/04/04
04/12/04
04/19/04
04/12/04
05/11/04
06/18/04
06/30/04
04/23/04
06/29/04
04/12/04
K
g/L  2w
1.54 0.12
1.55 0.13
1.56 0.11
1.60 0.14
1.62 0.13
1.57 0.12
1.62 0.12
1.45 0.16
1.50 0.12
1.55 0.13
1.60 0.12
1.53 0.12
1.58 0.12
1.66 0.12
1.55 0.17
1.56 0.12
1.73 0.12
1.66 0.13
1.58 0.12
1.48 0.11
1.57 0.12
1.50 0.12
1.60 0.12
1.55 0.11
1.60 0.12
1.50 0.12
1.56 0.11
1.51 0.11
1.62 0.12
1.57 0.12
1.63 0.11
1.55 0.12
1.42 0.11
1.58 0.12
1.61 0.13
1.55 0.12
1.79 0.12
1.49 0.13
137Cs
pCi/L  2w
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
140Ba
pCi/L  2w
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
131j
pCi/L  2w
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:
ND = Not Detected
                                   20

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                              For More Information
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is published quarterly by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.
Requests for information concerning the operation of ERAMS and the data that are generated
should be directed as follows:

For System Operations-                  For Analytical Information and Data-

Rhonda Sears                           John Griggs
National Air and Radiation Environmental  National Air and Radiation Environmental
  Laboratory                             Laboratory
540 South Morris Avenue                 540 South Morris Avenue
Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601       Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
e-mail:  sears.rhonda@epa.gov            e-mail: griggs.john@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                   Charles M. Petko
                                 Office of the Director
                   National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                               540 South Morris Avenue
                          Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
                             e-mail: petko.charles@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning policies of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air should be
directed to:

                                  Frank Marcinowski
                                    USEPA - ORIA
                  Center for Emergency Preparedness and Clean Materials
                        Radiation Protection Division (MC66085)
                                501 Third Street, N.W.
                                Washington, DC 20001
                          e-mail: marcinowski.frank@epa.gov

                                         ***

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