402-R-05-013
ENVIRONMENTAL




RADIATION




DATA
                      REPORT 123




                   July- September2005
         United States Environmental Protection Agency




               Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

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                                     Contents


                                                                                 Page

List of Tables	v

Preface	  vii

Acknowledgments	ix

Data Reporting Conventions 	xi

1.  Air Program  	1
      Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	1
      Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates	8

2.  Drinking Water Program	9

3.  Milk Program 	11
      Pasteurized Milk 	11
                                          in

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                                 List of Tables








Table                                                                          Page



    1  Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations	xiii



    2  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: July 2005 	2



    3  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: August 2005	4



    4  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: September 2005	6



    5  Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: July - September 2005	12



    6  Strontium-90 in Pasteurized Milk:  July - September 2005	13

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                                      Preface
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is compiled and published quarterly by the Office of
Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in
Montgomery, Alabama, and contains data from the RadNet monitoring system (formerly
ERAMS). ERD is published in both hard-copy and electronic formats. Electronic reports are
available online at www.epa.gov/narel.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency established RadNet in 1973 with an
emphasis on identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the
environment. RadNet is comprised of a nationwide network of sampling stations that provide air
particulate, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples.

Sampling locations are selected to provide population and geographic coverage for the United
States. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta
analysis, gamma analyses, and radionuclide-specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium,
iodine, radium, and tritium.  This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural
background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary
sources.

The radiochemical procedures used by NAREL to analyze the RadNet samples are contained in
the NAREL Radiochemistry Procedures Manual.  Station operation and sample collection are in
accordance with procedures  contained in the ERAMS Manual (EPA 520/5-84-007, 008, 009).
                                          vn

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                               Acknow ledgmen ts
All sampling for the RadNet monitoring system (formerly ERAMS) is performed by volunteer
collectors who are frequently members of health departments or related environmental agencies
of their respective states. The National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL),
on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, would like to acknowledge the time and
effort of these volunteer collectors, who are so essential to the successful operation of RadNet.
The efforts of the sample collectors are especially appreciated during times of emergency
operation when sampling frequencies are increased and schedules are sometimes demanding.
                                          IX

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                         Data Reporting Conventions
Every laboratory measurement involves uncertainty.  When there is little or no radioactivity in a
sample, one consequence of measurement uncertainty is the possibility of obtaining a measured
value that is less than zero. Such a negative result occurs when random effects in the
measurement process cause the measured value for the sample to be less than that of the blank or
background, which is subtracted from it. From April 1991 to December 1995, negative results
were reported as "not detected" or "ND," and gamma analysis results that were less than their
estimated measurement uncertainties were also reported as "ND." In January 1996, both of these
practices were discontinued. Although negative activities are physically impossible, the
inclusion of negative results in the report allows better statistical analysis of the data.

Results of gamma analyses are still reported as "ND" when gamma-emitting radionuclides are
not detected.
                               Measurement Uncertainty

Each measured valuey is reported with an expanded uncertainty U=k uc(y), which is determined
from the combined standard uncertainty uc(y) and the coverage factor h = 2.  The interval from
y - Utoy + Uis estimated to have a level of confidence of approximately 95%.
                                   Significant Figures

Expanded uncertainties are reported to two significant figures.  Measurement results are rounded
to the corresponding number of decimal places.
                                  Detection Capability

The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for each radionuclide are shown in Table 1.
The MDC is defined as the minimum concentration that gives a 95% probability of detection
when the detection criteria are chosen to give only a 5% probability of false detection in a blank
sample.
                                           XI

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                                   Table 1

     Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations
                        for Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
Gross B eta
Tritium
* Plutonium-238, 239/240
f Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Strontium-90
t Iodine-131
Cesium-137
t Barium- 140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation
Water
Milk
Air
Water
Air
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk (gamma)
Water (gamma)
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
Reporting
Unit
pCi/L
pCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
g/L
g/L
pCi/L
Minimum
Detectable
Concentration
2
0.0015
2
2
150
150
0.75
0.1
0.75
0.1
0.02
2
1
4
4
0.3
5
5
15
15
0.06
0.06
50
* The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 nf.  Measurement by alpha
spectrometry includes combined activities of 239Pu and 240Pu, since the relative contributions of these two
isotopes cannot be determined.
f The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3.
J Activity as of the day of counting.
                                      Xlll

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                                  1. Air Program
                     Airborne Participates and Precipitation

Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air
particulates and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general
(national) impact of all contributing sources on environmental levels of radiation.  Airborne
particulates are collected continuously at field stations representing wide geographic coverage
throughout the United States.

Filters (10-cm diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed twice weekly and field
measurements are made with a G-M survey meter 5 hours after collection to allow natural radon
isotopes and their progeny to decay. Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA officials by
telephone or mail depending on the activity levels found.

The filters are sent to NAREL for more sensitive analysis in a low background beta counter.
Gamma scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta activity greater than 1 pCi/m3. The
laboratory obtained values are usually lower than the field estimates because of the decay of
naturally occurring radionuclides during the time between the two measurements.

Precipitation samples are collected at most field stations that collect air filters. These samples
are also sent to NAREL where they are composited monthly for gamma scans, tritium, and gross
beta activity measurements.

A compilation of individual measurements is available from the National Air and  Radiation
Environmental Laboratory, 540 South Morris Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36115-2601.

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             Table 2
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            July 2005
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa C ity
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Topeka
MA: Boston
ME: Augusta
MI: Detroit
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas/913
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
ON: Ottawa
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
Number
of
Samples
8
6
4
9
4
7
9
8
7
8
2
4
2
8
7
6
9
3
8
2
9
8
3
7
9
6
9
8
4
3
4
8
8
8
9
4
9
8
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.2 0.3
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.2 0.4 0.8
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.5 0.2 0.5

0.4 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.1 0.2
1.7 0.8 1.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.1 0.1
1.5 0.0 0.9
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.6 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.0 0.3 0.6
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.2
1.1 0.0 0.7
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.1 0.3

0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.2 0.3
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.019 0.004 0.009
0.025 0.007 0.017
0.024 0.013 0.016
0.014 0.005 0.009
0.004 0.001 0.002
0.017 0.009 0.014
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.018 0.008 0.011
0.017 0.008 0.012
0.012 0.004 0.007
0.016 0.011 0.013
0.012 0.006 0.008
0.003 0.002 0.002
0.019 0.004 0.011
0.014 0.008 0.010
0.015 0.006 0.010
0.013 0.005 0.008
0.009 0.008 0.009
0.011 0.006 0.009
0.007 0.005 0.006
0.020 0.004 0.009
0.015 0.006 0.010
0.022 0.006 0.014
0.025 0.006 0.011
0.027 0.006 0.011
0.014 0.008 0.012
0.010 0.005 0.007
0.017 0.005 0.010
0.009 0.004 0.007
0.011 0.007 0.009
0.011 0.007 0.009
0.016 0.006 0.009
0.010 0.003 0.006
0.022 0.006 0.012
0.015 0.008 0.012
0.006 0.003 0.005
0.005 0.002 0.003
0.016 0.008 0.011

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       Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            July 2005
Location
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: OakRidge/Y12 E
TN: OakRidge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
Number
of
Samples
7
8
1
5
5
7
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
9
9
7
5
9
9
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.7 0.2 0.4
1.1 0.2 0.6
1.0 0.2 0.5
0.9 0.2 0.5
0.5 0.2 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.7 0.2 0.5
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.9 0.3 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.010 0.005 0.007
0.013 0.009 0.011
0.008 0.008 0.008
0.017 0.005 0.009
0.016 0.009 0.012
0.027 0.006 0.013
0.017 0.006 0.013
0.023 0.007 0.012
0.027 0.007 0.014
0.024 0.005 0.013
0.022 0.007 0.013
0.025 0.005 0.014
0.015 0.005 0.009
0.011 0.006 0.008
0.016 0.006 0.011
0.017 0.008 0.012
0.013 0.007 0.010
0.005 0.001 0.003
0.012 0.004 0.006

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             Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
          August 2005
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: San Francisco
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa C ity
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Topeka
MA: Boston
ME: Augusta
MI: Detroit
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas/913
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
ON: Ottawa
OR: Portland
Number
of
Samples
9
8
5
6
5
1
8
9
9
9
8
5
5
9
9
9
8
6
10
5
8
9
5
8
9
4
5
9
8
2
7
5
7
9
9
9
5
8
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.2 0.4
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.9 0.1 0.5
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.3
0.8 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.1 0.4

0.5 0.0 0.2
0.5 0.2 0.3
3.4 0.2 1.0
0.6 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1
1.7 0.2 0.8
0.5 0.2 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.0 0.2
1.3 0.4 0.8
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.3 0.1 0.2
2.1 1.5 1.8
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.4

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.013 0.005 0.009
0.029 0.007 0.015
0.013 0.006 0.011
0.013 0.008 0.011
0.006 0.003 0.004
0.002 0.002 0.002
0.017 0.008 0.011
0.015 0.003 0.009
0.022 0.006 0.014
0.022 0.006 0.013
0.015 0.004 0.009
0.014 0.005 0.009
0.016 0.007 0.012
0.025 0.005 0.012
0.014 0.007 0.010
0.020 0.005 0.010
0.017 0.005 0.010
0.025 0.009 0.013
0.019 0.004 0.009
0.009 0.006 0.007
0.013 0.003 0.007
0.024 0.004 0.012
0.022 0.007 0.012
0.018 0.007 0.011
0.021 0.008 0.015
0.011 0.005 0.009
0.016 0.008 0.011
0.013 0.004 0.008
0.021 0.005 0.010
0.008 0.007 0.007
0.006 0.004 0.005
0.015 0.007 0.011
0.019 0.006 0.013
0.011 0.003 0.007
0.020 0.006 0.012
0.025 0.008 0.015
0.006 0.003 0.004
0.006 0.003 0.004

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       Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
          August 2005
Location
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: OakRidge/Y12 E
TN: OakRidge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
Number
of
Samples
9
7
9
6
8
5
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
9
9
9
9
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.7 0.2 0.5
3634.0 0.0 519.2
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.3
1.3 0.0 0.3
0.4 0.0 0.2
1.1 0.4 0.8
1.9 0.5 1.1
1.8 0.6 1.1
1.8 0.5 0.9
0.8 0.4 0.5
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.6 0.2 0.4
0.3 0.0 0.2
1.5 0.0 0.9
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.7 0.0 0.4
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.029 0.005 0.015
0.013 0.003 0.009
0.024 0.003 0.013
0.016 0.008 0.012
0.014 0.008 0.012
0.029 0.019 0.023
0.020 0.009 0.015
0.021 0.012 0.016
0.023 0.012 0.017
0.026 0.010 0.016
0.028 0.013 0.020
0.025 0.012 0.018
0.013 0.005 0.010
0.011 0.004 0.009
0.015 0.006 0.009
0.012 0.007 0.010
0.021 0.009 0.014
0.006 0.002 0.003
0.013 0.006 0.009

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             Table 4
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
         September 2005
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: San Francisco
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa C ity
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Topeka
MA: Boston
ME: Augusta
MI: Detroit
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas/913
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
ON: Ottawa
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia
Number
of
Samples
8
4
9
4
5
9
9
9
8
9
4
9
8
7
9
4
10
4
8
9
4
6
6
3
7
9
8
5
6
4
9
9
7
9
4
4
9
5
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.4 0.4
0.5 0.2 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.0

1.3 0.5 0.8
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.6 0.2 0.6

0.6 0.1 0.2
0.7 0.2 0.4
1.1 0.5 0.9
0.7 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
1.7 0.2 0.8
0.9 0.1 0.4
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
2.7 0.2 1.2
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.7 0.1 0.3
1.6 1.2 1.4
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.9 0.1 0.5
0.1 0.0 0.0
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.028 0.006 0.014
0.014 0.011 0.013
0.021 0.008 0.014
0.008 0.003 0.005
0.005 0.002 0.004
0.017 0.008 0.011
0.017 0.005 0.007
0.021 0.005 0.012
0.019 0.007 0.010
0.023 0.004 0.010
0.021 0.012 0.016
0.031 0.008 0.015
0.011 0.006 0.008
0.026 0.007 0.013
0.026 0.005 0.013
0.029 0.011 0.018
0.015 0.003 0.008
0.009 0.007 0.008
0.021 0.004 0.010
0.024 0.007 0.013
0.020 0.010 0.013
0.016 0.009 0.012
0.021 0.010 0.016
0.013 0.009 0.011
0.018 0.010 0.014
0.015 0.004 0.007
0.014 0.006 0.009
0.008 0.006 0.007
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.018 0.008 0.011
0.037 0.005 0.012
0.015 0.003 0.006
0.020 0.006 0.013
0.095 0.007 0.025
0.007 0.005 0.006
0.019 0.003 0.008
0.018 0.009 0.013
0.008 0.003 0.006

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       Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
         September 2005
Location
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: OakRidge/Y12 E
TN: OakRidge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Pa so
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
Number
of
Samples
9
5
9
4
9
8
8
8
8
8
9
6
8
7
7
7
9
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.2 0.4
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.9 0.1 0.3
1.9 0.4 1.0
2.4 0.6 1.4
2.3 0.5 1.3
2.3 0.5 1.1
1.0 0.2 0.5
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
1.4 0.2 0.7
0.4 0.0 0.2
1.3 0.0 0.7
0.2 0.0 0.1
1.0 0.3 0.5
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.029 0.008 0.014
0.020 0.009 0.015
0.017 0.006 0.010
0.026 0.017 0.023
0.041 0.010 0.018
0.034 0.010 0.018
0.031 0.010 0.018
0.034 0.010 0.018
0.042 0.011 0.021
0.040 0.011 0.021
0.020 0.006 0.014
0.014 0.004 0.010
0.018 0.010 0.015
0.010 0.006 0.009
0.017 0.007 0.012
0.004 0.002 0.004
0.011 0.006 0.008

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                Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates

Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined by the analysis of
annually composited samples (air filters) collected from the continuously operating airborne
particulate samplers.

Concentrations of plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and
238 are determined by alpha spectrometry following chemical separation. The volume of air
represented by the annual composite typically ranges from 120,000 to 500,000 cubic meters.

Plutonium and uranium results are published when they become available.
                           Beta Activity in Precipitation

All stations routinely submit precipitation samples as rainfall, snow, or sleet occurs. The
precipitation samples are composited at the NAREL into single monthly samples for each station.
Each month that precipitation occurs, an aliquant of the composited sample is analyzed for gross
beta, tritium, and gamma-emitting nuclides.

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                         2.  Drinking Water Program
The RadNet drinking water program provides data on radionuclide concentrations in the nation's
drinking water supplies. Samples are taken at 78 sites which are either major population centers
or selected nuclear facility environs.

Drinking water data are used to assess trends and anomalies in concentrations, and to compare
with standards set forth in the EPA "National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations."
These regulations provide for approval of supplies when the combined radium-226 and
radium-228 levels do not exceed 5 pCi/L, when the gross alpha (excluding radon and uranium)
levels do not exceed 15 pCi/L, when tritium levels do not exceed 20,000 pCi/L, when the
strontium-90 levels do not exceed 8 pCi/L, and when the gross beta levels do not exceed
50 pCi/L.

The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross beta, strontium-90,
and gamma on annual composites; (c) radium-226 if the gross alpha exceeds 2 pCi/L and
radium-228 if the radium-226 falls  between 3 and 5 pCi/L; (d) iodine-131  on one quarterly
sample per year for each station; and (e) an annual composite for plutonium-238, combined
plutonium-239 and  240, and uranium-234, 235, and 238 for stations that demonstrate gross alpha
levels greater than 2 pCi/L.

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                                 3.  Milk Program
                                  Pasteurized Milk

Milk is a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of certain radionuclides since it is
consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain several of the biologically
significant radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities. A
primary function of this program is to obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current
radionuclide concentrations and determine any long-term trends.

Quarterly samples are collected at approximately 55 sampling sites. The samples are
composited, according to production, from the major milk suppliers representing more than 80
percent of the milk consumed in a given population center.

The samples are analyzed for gamma-emitting nuclides, including iodine-131, barium-140,
cesium-137, and potassium-40. Total potassium concentrations in g/L are determined from
potassium-40 activities assuming natural isotopic abundances. During the third quarter
collection, one-fourth of the samples are also analyzed for strontium-90 on a four year rotating
schedule.
                                           11

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                                Table 5
                    Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                         July - September 2005
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Francisco
DE: Wilmington
FL: Tampa
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Wichita
KY: Louisville
MA: Boston
MD: Baltimore
ME: Portland
MO: Jefferson City
NJ: Trenton
NM: Albuquerque
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Buffalo
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OR: Portland
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TX: San Antonio
VT: Montpelier
WA: Spokane
WA: Tacoma
WV: Charleston
Date
Collected
07/12/05
08/02/05
09/30/05
07/07/05
08/18/05
07/05/05
07/27/05
07/06/05
07/13/05
07/07/05
07/11/05
07/27/05
07/13/05
07/11/05
09/22/05
07/01/05
07/13/05
07/06/05
08/11/05
07/11/05
07/19/05
07/07/05
07/07/05
09/06/05
08/01/05
08/01/05
07/06/05
07/05/05
08/18/05
08/15/05
07/18/05
07/18/05
09/01/05
07/22/05
09/28/05
07/07/05
K
g/L  2w
1.63 0.11
1.62 0.13
1.66 0.12
1.62 0.12
1.72 0.13
1.64 0.12
1.67 0.13
1.54 0.12
1.73 0.13
1.53 0.12
1.63 0.13
1.66 0.13
1.69 0.13
1.60 0.12
1.54 0.17
1.60 0.13
1.62 0.12
1.62 0.17
1.63 0.13
1.47 0.13
1.39 0.13
1.51 0.17
1.67 0.12
1.58 0.12
1.56 0.13
1.70 0.13
1.44 0.11
1.61 0.12
1.68 0.13
1.74 0.13
1.60 0.13
1.44 0.11
1.61 0.11
1.54 0.12
1.57 0.12
1.58 0.12
137Cs
pCi/L  2w
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
140Ba
pCi/L  2w
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
131j
pCi/L  2w
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:
ND = Not Detected
                                   12

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           Table 6
Strontium-90 in Pasteurized Milk
     July - September 2005
Location
CA: San Francisco
CA: San Francisco
GA: Atlanta
IA: Des Moines
IA: Des Moines
ME: Portland
NM: Albuquerque
NY: Buffalo
OH: Cleveland
OR: Portland
PA: Pittsburgh
Date
Collected
07/05/05
07/05/05
07/13/05
07/11/05
07/11/05
07/13/05
07/11/05
07/07/05
08/01/05
08/01/05
07/05/05
90Sr
pCi/L 2u
0.32
0.9
0.05
0.46
1.9
1.36
0.48
0.85
1.07
0.35
0.97
0.69
1.4
0.66
0.62
1.5
0.55
0.52
0.66
0.56
0.51
0.68
              13

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                              For More Information
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is published quarterly by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.
Requests for information concerning the operation of RadNet and the data that are generated
should be directed as follows:

For System Operations-                  For Analytical Information and Data-

Rhonda Sears                           John Griggs
National Air and Radiation Environmental  National Air and Radiation Environmental
  Laboratory                             Laboratory
540 South Morris Avenue                 540 South Morris Avenue
Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601       Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
e-mail:  sears.rhonda@epa.gov            e-mail: griggs.john@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                   Charles M. Petko
                                 Office of the Director
                   National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                               540 South Morris Avenue
                          Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
                             e-mail: petko.charles@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning policies of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air should be
directed to:

                                     Bonnie Gitlin
                                    USEPA - ORIA
                        Radiation Protection Division (MC6608J)
                              1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW
                                Washington, DC 20460
                             e-mail: gitlin.bonnie@epa.gov

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