402-R-06-019
ENVIRONMENTAL



RADIATION



DATA
                      REPORT 127




                   July - September 2006
         United States Environmental Protection Agency




              Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

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               11

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                                      Contents
                                                                                  Page

List of Tables	v
Preface	vii
Acknowledgments	ix
Data Reporting Conventions	xi
1. Air Program	1
  Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	1
  Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates	12
  Beta Activity in Precipitation	12
2. Water Program	13
3. Milk Program	17
  Pasteurized Milk	17
                                          in

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               IV

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                                List of Tables

Table                                                                         Page
     1  Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations                     xiii
     2  Gross Beta in Airborne Participates: July 2006                                2
     3  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: August 2006                             4
     4  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: September 2006                          6
     5  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation: July 2006                    8
     6  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation: August 2006                 9
     7  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation: September 2006              10
     8  Tritium in Precipitation:  July - September 2006                               11
     9  Tritium in Drinking Water: July - September 2006                            14
    10  Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: July - September 2006                     18
    11  Strontium-90 in Pasteurized Milk:  July - September 2006                      19

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               VI

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                                       Preface
Environmental Radiation Data(EKD) is compiled and published quarterly by the Office of
Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in
Montgomery, Alabama, and contains data from the RadNet monitoring system (formerly
ERAMS). ERD is published in both hard-copy and electronic formats. Electronic reports are
available online at www.epa.gov/narel.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency established RadNet in 1973 with an
emphasis on identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the environ-
ment. RadNet is comprised of a nationwide network of sampling stations that provide air
particulate, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples.

Sampling locations are selected to provide population and geographic coverage for the United
States. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta
analysis, gamma analyses, and radionuclide-specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium,
iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural
background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary
sources.

The radiochemical procedures used by NAREL to analyze the RadNet samples are contained in
the NAREL Radiochemistry Procedures Manual. Station operation and sample collection  are in
accordance with procedures contained in theERAMSManual(EPA 520/5-84-007, 008, 009).
                                          vn

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              Vlll

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                               Acknowledgments
All sampling for the RadNet monitoring system (formerly ERAMS) is performed by volunteer
collectors who are frequently members of health departments or related environmental agencies
of their respective states. The National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL),
on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, would like to acknowledge the time and
effort of these volunteer collectors, who are so essential to the successful operation of RadNet.
The efforts of the sample collectors are especially appreciated during times of emergency
operation when sampling frequencies are increased and schedules are sometimes demanding.
                                         IX

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                          Data Reporting Conventions
Every laboratory measurement involves uncertainty. When there is little or no radioactivity in a
sample, one consequence of measurement uncertainty is the possibility of obtaining a measured
value that is less than zero. Such a negative result occurs when random effects in the measure-
ment process cause the measured value for the sample to be less than that of the blank or back-
ground, which is subtracted from it. From April  1991 to December 1995, negative results were
reported as "not detected" or "ND," and gamma analysis results that were less than their
estimated measurement uncertainties were also reported as "ND." In January 1996, both of these
practices were discontinued. Although negative activities are physically impossible, the inclusion
of negative results in the report allows better statistical analysis of the data.
Results of gamma analyses are still reported as "ND" when gamma-emitting radionuclides
not detected.
are
                               Measurement Uncertainty

Each measured valuers reported with an expanded uncertainty U=kuc(y), which is determined
from the combined standard uncertainty uc(y) and the coverage factor k=1. The interval from
y - Utoy+ Uis estimated to have a level of confidence of approximately 95 %.
                                   Significant Figures

Expanded uncertainties are reported to two significant figures. Measurement results are rounded
to the corresponding number of decimal places.
                                  Detection Capability

The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for each radionuclide are shown in Table 1.
The MDC is defined as the minimum concentration that gives a 95 % probability of detection
when the detection criteria are chosen to give only a 5 % probability of false detection in a
sample that is analyte-free.
                                           XI

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              xn

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                                    Table 1

     Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations
                        for Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
Gross Beta
Tritium
* Plutonium-23 8,23 9/240
f Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Strontium-90
{ Iodine-131
Cesium- 137
{ Barium-140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation
Water
Milk
Air
Water
Air
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk (gamma)
Water (gamma)
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
Reporting Unit
pCi/L
pCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
g/L
g/L
pCi/L
Minimum
Detectable
Concentration
2
0.0015
2
2
150
150
0.75
0.1
0.75
0.1
0.02
2
1
4
4
0.3
5
5
15
15
0.06
0.06
50
* The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3. Measurement by alpha
spectrometry includes combined activities of 239Pu and 240Pu, since the relative contributions of these two
isotopes cannot be determined.
f The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3.
J Activity as of the day of counting.
                                      Xlll

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              xiv

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                                  1. Air Program
                      Airborne Particulates and Precipitation

Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air
particulates and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general
(national) impact of all contributing sources on environmental levels of radiation.  Airborne
particulates are collected continuously at field stations representing wide geographic coverage
throughout the United States.

Filters (10-cm diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed twice weekly and field
measurements are made with a G-M survey meter 5 hours  after collection to allow natural radon
isotopes and their progeny to decay. Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA officials by
telephone or mail  depending on the activity levels found.

The filters are sent to NAREL for more sensitive analysis in a low background beta counter.
Gamma scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta activity greater than 1 pCi/m3. The
laboratory obtained values are usually lower than the field estimates because of the decay of
naturally occurring radionuclides during the time between  the two measurements.

Precipitation samples are collected at most field stations that collect air filters. These samples are
also sent to NAREL where they are composited monthly for gamma scans, tritium, and gross beta
activity measurements.

A compilation of individual measurements is available from the National Air and  Radiation
Environmental Laboratory, 540 South Morris Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36115-2601.

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             Table 2
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
             July 2006
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Topeka
MA: Boston
MI: Detroit
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas/9 13
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
Number
of
Samples
9
4
4
7
4
4
4
9
9
7
8
9
8
o
3
9
9
6
8
9
9
9
9
5
6
8
2
4
8
7
1
4
9
8
6
8
8
9
8
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.0 0.4 0.7
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.2 0.5

0.5 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.1
1.8 0.6 1.2
0.4 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0

0.8 0.2 0.5
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.0
7.5 0.0 1.6
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.0 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.022 0.008 0.014
0.017 0.012 0.014
0.013 0.009 0.010
0.016 0.006 0.009
0.004 0.002 0.003
0.011 0.003 0.006
0.003 0.001 0.002
0.016 0.008 0.012
0.012 0.006 0.008
0.020 0.005 0.013
0.016 0.010 0.013
0.010 0.003 0.006
0.011 0.004 0.006
0.016 0.008 0.011
0.026 0.010 0.015
0.009 0.007 0.008
0.012 0.007 0.010
0.012 0.006 0.010
0.020 0.008 0.014
0.013 0.005 0.008
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.015 0.007 0.010
0.016 0.010 0.012
0.016 0.010 0.014
0.019 0.009 0.012
0.009 0.008 0.008
0.012 0.008 0.010
0.011 0.005 0.009
0.018 0.009 0.012
0.010 0.010 0.010
0.010 0.006 0.009
0.021 0.009 0.014
0.009 0.004 0.007
0.011 0.006 0.008
0.045 0.009 0.018
0.005 0.001 0.003
0.020 0.009 0.015
0.020 0.008 0.015

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        Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
             July 2006
Location
SC: Barn-well
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
Number
of
Samples
1
3
8
7
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
6
9
8
6
6
9
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.1 0.3
1.0 0.4 0.7
1.8 0.7 1.1
1.4 0.7 0.9
1.2 0.3 0.7
0.6 0.3 0.4
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.3 0.3
0.9 0.3 0.6
0.5 0.0 0.3
0.8 0.2 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.2 0.4
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.014 0.014 0.014
0.018 0.008 0.013
0.012 0.009 0.010
0.023 0.015 0.019
0.021 0.011 0.015
0.019 0.009 0.015
0.022 0.010 0.016
0.021 0.008 0.015
0.021 0.010 0.016
0.019 0.010 0.015
0.018 0.005 0.010
0.016 0.001 0.008
0.015 0.010 0.013
0.015 0.009 0.012
0.018 0.010 0.013
0.004 0.001 0.003
0.017 0.007 0.011

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             Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
            August 2006
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
MA: Boston
MI: Detroit
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas/9 13
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
Number
of
Samples
8
5
5
9
5
7
5
9
8
9
8
8
9
4
9
9
7
9
1
9
3
9
8
4
7
9
5
2
8
9
2
4
5
7
8
7
9
9
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.0 0.3 0.7
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.1 0.4
0.7 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.2 0.4

0.4 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.1
1.0 1.0 1.0
1.5 0.4 0.8
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1

1.6 0.3 0.9
0.4 0.2 0.3
0.5 0.1 0.3
1.3 0.1 0.7

0.1 0.0 0.0
9.4 0.0 2.4
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.0
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.020 0.008 0.012
0.021 0.008 0.015
0.009 0.006 0.008
0.014 0.006 0.010
0.004 0.002 0.004
0.009 0.006 0.008
0.004 0.002 0.003
0.013 0.009 0.011
0.009 0.005 0.006
0.023 0.008 0.013
0.026 0.010 0.015
0.011 0.004 0.008
0.014 0.005 0.010
0.018 0.009 0.013
0.023 0.009 0.014
0.016 0.007 0.012
0.016 0.007 0.010
0.014 0.007 0.010
0.016 0.016 0.016
0.026 0.008 0.015
0.005 0.004 0.004
0.013 0.004 0.007
0.019 0.008 0.011
0.013 0.011 0.012
0.020 0.003 0.014
0.019 0.011 0.014
0.013 0.008 0.010
0.012 0.012 0.012
0.009 0.005 0.007
0.017 0.007 0.010
0.005 0.005 0.005
0.010 0.006 0.008
0.010 0.005 0.008
0.022 0.010 0.015
0.012 0.005 0.007
0.013 0.007 0.010
0.096 0.011 0.026
0.004 0.001 0.003

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        Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
            August 2006
Location
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
Number
of
Samples
8
3
8
2
4
8
10
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
7
8
7
8
8
6
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.6 0.2 0.4
0.4 0.4 0.4
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.2 0.3
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.2
1.4 0.4 0.8
1.6 0.5 1.0
1.9 0.6 1.1
1.0 0.4 0.6
0.8 0.2 0.4
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.0 0.3
0.8 0.2 0.6
0.4 0.0 0.2
1.9 0.3 1.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.1 0.4
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.024 0.009 0.013
0.016 0.009 0.013
0.030 0.011 0.016
0.013 0.010 0.011
0.016 0.011 0.013
0.018 0.007 0.011
0.035 0.007 0.017
0.020 0.009 0.014
0.020 0.008 0.014
0.020 0.008 0.014
0.022 0.008 0.015
0.023 0.009 0.016
0.019 0.009 0.014
0.013 0.009 0.010
0.014 0.002 0.008
0.016 0.006 0.011
0.015 0.008 0.011
0.021 0.009 0.015
0.005 0.002 0.003
0.017 0.005 0.011

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             Table 4
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
          September 2006
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
MA: Boston
MI: Detroit
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas/9 13
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
Number
of
Samples
8
2
4
9
4
5
2
7
9
8
9
9
2
4
8
7
3
10
8
8
8
8
9
5
9
9
4
4
9
8
1
1
4
7
3
8
9
9
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.3 0.4
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.9 0.3 1.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
1.2 0.4 0.7

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.0 0.1
6.7 0.9 2.2
4.1 0.3 1.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0

1.4 0.1 0.5
0.6 0.2 0.3
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.0
7.6 0.0 2.0
5.7 0.0 2.0
0.3 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.027 0.005 0.015
0.026 0.018 0.022
0.011 0.007 0.009
0.018 0.009 0.013
0.007 0.003 0.005
0.010 0.006 0.008
0.005 0.004 0.005
0.019 0.008 0.013
0.009 0.002 0.006
0.018 0.003 0.010
0.015 0.003 0.010
0.015 0.003 0.009
0.008 0.008 0.008
0.020 0.009 0.014
0.016 0.004 0.010
0.021 0.006 0.013
0.013 0.007 0.011
0.016 0.004 0.008
0.034 0.009 0.017
0.016 0.008 0.012
0.010 0.003 0.006
0.013 0.005 0.009
0.015 0.005 0.010
0.012 0.008 0.010
0.024 0.009 0.014
0.021 0.005 0.011
0.011 0.004 0.009
0.022 0.007 0.012
0.009 0.003 0.007
0.013 0.004 0.009
0.018 0.018 0.018
0.012 0.012 0.012
0.009 0.004 0.007
0.018 0.006 0.013
0.005 0.003 0.004
0.013 0.005 0.009
0.029 0.005 0.014
0.007 0.002 0.004

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        Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
          September 2006
Location
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
Number
of
Samples
8
3
8
1
4
9
5
8
7
6
7
7
7
8
9
9
9
6
9
9
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.7 0.2 0.3

0.5 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
1.3 0.1 0.4
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.2
1.3 0.3 0.8
1.3 0.4 0.9
1.7 0.4 0.9
1.4 0.2 0.7
0.7 0.1 0.4
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.0 0.3
1.6 0.2 0.7
0.4 0.0 0.2
1.2 0.1 0.5
0.1 0.1 0.1
1.3 0.1 0.6
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.018 0.007 0.012
0.041 0.008 0.021
0.018 0.007 0.012
0.010 0.010 0.010
0.019 0.011 0.014
0.024 0.006 0.014
0.028 0.011 0.019
0.022 0.006 0.014
0.021 0.008 0.015
0.021 0.009 0.013
0.023 0.009 0.014
0.023 0.009 0.015
0.022 0.008 0.014
0.021 0.008 0.013
0.020 0.006 0.012
0.018 0.008 0.014
0.017 0.006 0.011
0.015 0.004 0.010
0.006 0.002 0.004
0.038 0.005 0.014

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                         Table 5
      Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                         July 2006
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul

NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord

NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany

NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton

TX: El Paso
VA: Lynchburg
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2
1.53 0.38
1.13 0.34
2.91 0.44
1.77 0.39
0.66 0.32
0.33 0.29
2.69 0.43
0.69 0.32
2.83 0.44
0.64 0.31
3.79 0.51

1.96 0.40
0.76 0.32
4.80 0.60
1.46 0.37

2.66 0.43
1.57 0.38

7.65 0.67
1.61 0.37
2.23 0.42
0.92 0.33
3.34 0.50
2.77 0.46
1.85 0.38

1.32 0.37
3.17 0.47
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2
Be7
Be7
Be7
T1208
Be7

Be7

Be7
Be7
Pb212
Be7
Pb212
Be7
Bi212
Be7
Be7
K40
T1208
Be7
K40


Be7

Be7
Pb212
T1208
Be7

45 32
ND
95 19
48 22
1.7 3.0
50 23
ND
54 25
ND
58 39
ND
52 31
4.1 6.8
69 31
ND
3.2 5.3
45 30
25 38
46 26
89 40
30 61
3.7 3.6
19 16
9 13
ND
ND
40 28
ND
ND
47 10
1.3 1.1
0.53 0.59
63 43
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected

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                         Table 6
      Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                        August 2006
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford

DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord

NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City

VA: Lynchburg
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2
1.81 0.38
1.19 0.37
1.23 0.38
1.14 0.36
1.45 0.36

2.60 0.45
1.39 0.37
0.51 0.30
2.85 0.45
0.26 0.31
0.59 0.31
1.42 0.36
1.76 0.41
0.54 0.30
2.43 0.42
1.33 0.36
1.29 0.37
1.69 0.37

3.40 0.48
1.63 0.38
2.57 0.44
1.48 0.37
6.36 0.62
5.44 0.59
0.63 0.30
2.33 0.42
1.05 0.35
0.44 0.31
8.39 0.83

5.09 0.57
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2
Be7

Be7
Be7
K40
Be7
Be7

Be7
T1208

Be7
Pb212
Be7
Be7
Be7
Be7
K40
Be7
Be7
Be7

Be7
Be7

Be7
Pb212
Pb212
57 26
ND
ND
28 30
46 28
20 33
61 32
31 18
ND
47 24
2.5 3.7
ND
37 29
3.8 6.3
ND
29 34
39 23
32 29
68 30
15 32
37 31
36 24
ND
ND
133 31
ND
ND
62 43
26 19
ND
28 25
6.6 6.4
5.9 6.4
Note:   ND = Not Detected

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                         Table 7
      Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                      September 2006
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CO: Denver


CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa City
KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck

NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2
0.33 0.28
0.71 0.31
0.46 0.30
2.22 0.43


0.66 0.31
0.45 0.29
1.20 0.35
0.27 0.29
0.50 0.30
0.66 0.31
0.85 0.32
1.05 0.33
0.94 0.33
2.25 0.43
1.07 0.32
0.42 0.31
12.57 0.94

1.45 0.36
1.45 0.38
5.22 0.57
1.18 0.34
0.67 0.30
0.74 0.30
4.47 0.54
1.24 0.35
2.17 0.40
0.69 0.31
0.67 0.31
0.57 0.30
3.70 0.52
2.78 0.44
2.11 0.42
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2

T1208
Be7
Pb212
T1208

Be7


Be7
Pb212
Be7
Be7

K40
Pb212
Be7
Bi212
Be7

K40

Be7
T1208


Be7
T1208
K40
T1208
ND
ND
1.8 2.7
50 28
9.1 6.0
4.9 3.5
ND
ND
32 23
ND
ND
ND
39 33
4.5 5.8
31 15
29 30
ND
33 50
5.8 7.8
103 32
28 50
70 19
ND
39 42
ND
ND
15.5 7.6
3.7 4.5
ND
ND
ND
53 31
3.1 3.1
ND
ND
19 31
2.6 3.6
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                            10

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                               Table 8
                       Tritium in Precipitation
                        July - September 2006
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
July 2006
pCi/L 2M
14 82
NS
NS
51 83
-47 82
16 84
-32 80
9 82
-16 81
-5 81
NS
NS
-29 82
14 82
2 82
4 84
-14 83
55 84
4 83
-20 81
25 84
-45 81
28 82
-5 81
-4 83
25 83
5 82
99 86
NS
NS
9 82
NS
40 85
NS
August 2006
pCi/L 2u
-4 80
8 80
-16 79
18 81
41 84
-5 82
-2 82
-41 80
-49 80
4 80
78 83
NS
-14 82
63 83
83 84
21 83
-28 81
18 81
69 85
22 81
5 83
-18 82
10 80
NS
-5 82
55 83
-11 82
77 84
NS
-12 79
24 81
92 84
49 84
NS
September 2006
pCi/L 2
-10 78
40 80
56 84
78 85
-20 80
43 81
54 81
37 80
28 80
50 80
NS
65 85
14 81
98 83
5 79
56 81
23 79
21 79
NS
47 81
62 82
86 82
24 79
51 83
-22 79
33 80
32 80
14 79
-47 76
74 85
7 79
4 81
56 81
21 82
Note:   NS = No Sample
                                  11

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                Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates

Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined by the analysis of
annually composited samples (air filters) collected from the continuously operating airborne
particulate samplers.

Concentrations of plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and
238 are determined by alpha-particle spectrometry following chemical separation. The volume of
air represented by the annual composite typically ranges from 120,000 to 500,000 cubic meters.

Plutonium and uranium results are published when they become available.
                           Beta Activity in Precipitation

All stations routinely submit precipitation samples as rainfall, snow, or sleet occurs. The
precipitation samples are composited at NAREL into single monthly samples for each station.
Each month that precipitation occurs, an aliquant of the composited sample is analyzed for gross
beta, tritium, and gamma-emitting radionuclides.
                                          12

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                         2.  Drinking Water Program
The RadNet drinking water program provides data on radionuclide concentrations in the nation's
drinking water supplies. Samples are taken at 78 sites which are either major population centers
or selected nuclear facility environs.

Drinking water data are used to assess trends and anomalies in concentrations, and to compare
with standards set forth in the EPA "National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations."
These regulations provide for approval of supplies when the combined radium-226 and
radium-228 levels do not exceed 5 pCi/L, when the gross alpha (excluding radon and uranium)
levels do not exceed 15 pCi/L, when tritium levels do not exceed 20,000 pCi/L, when the
strontium-90 levels do not exceed 8 pCi/L, and when the gross beta levels do not exceed
50 pCi/L.

The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross beta, strontium-90,
and gamma on annual composites; (c) radium-226 if the gross alpha exceeds 2 pCi/L and
radium-228 if the radium-226 falls between 3 and 5 pCi/L;  (d) iodine-131 on one quarterly
sample per year for each station; and (e) an annual composite for plutonium-238, combined
plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and 238 for stations that demonstrate gross alpha
levels greater than 2 pCi/L.
                                          13

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         Table 9
Tritium in Drinking Water
    July - September 2006
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Dover
FL: Miami
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
KS: Topeka
LA: New Orleans
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
ME: Augusta
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Red Wing
MN: St. Paul
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
MT: Helena
NC: Charlotte
NC: Raleigh
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
Date
Collected
07/26/06
07/12/06
07/06/06
07/03/06
07/03/06
07/11/06
07/03/06
07/05/06
07/20/06
07/05/06
07/11/06
08/17/06
09/26/06
08/23/06
09/13/06
07/14/06
07/12/06
08/21/06
07/28/06
07/25/06
08/02/06
07/10/06
09/05/06
07/06/06
08/29/06
07/03/06
07/06/06
07/21/06
07/18/06
07/31/06
07/11/06
07/11/06
07/11/06
07/05/06
07/31/06
07/13/06
07/03/06
07/07/06
07/21/06
07/12/06
3H
pCi/L 2
-19 82
-45 79
-40 82
165 89
173 89
-83 77
-62 80
-9 83
-59 80
2 85
-45 78
-9 81
26 79
14 83
25 81
-88 78
8 81
-2 80
-29 82
-14 83
12 84
-12 80
126 86
-31 82
44 84
38 86
42 85
-6 80
-53 80
-20 82
-39 79
-53 78
-29 80
-37 83
900 120
83 85
11 85
-16 82
15 81
6 81
            14

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      Table 9 (continued)
Tritium in Drinking Water
    July - September 2006
Location
NJ: Waretown
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Niagara Falls
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Columbus
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OR: Portland
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia - Queen Lane Lab.
PA: Philadelphia - Baxter Control Lab.
PA: Philadelphia - Belmont Lab.
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN:OakRidge/#360
TN:OakRidge/#371
TN:OakRidge/#4442
TN: Oak Ridge/#768
TN:OakRidge/#772
TX: Austin
VA: Ashland
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
Date
Collected
07/19/06
07/06/06
09/28/06
07/03/06
07/07/06
07/11/06
08/22/06
09/14/06
07/03/06
07/20/06
07/21/06
07/05/06
09/05/06
08/30/06
08/31/06
07/17/06
07/17/06
07/17/06
07/20/06
07/05/06
07/20/06
07/27/06
07/03/06
07/06/06
07/03/06
07/14/06
07/14/06
07/14/06
07/14/06
07/14/06
07/10/06
07/27/06
07/07/06
07/10/06
09/13/06
3H
pCi/L 2
-12 81
-16 83
26 79
-22 83
-14 82
100 85
14 81
41 82
5 84
53 83
18 81
13 86
-14 82
2 82
14 82
-14 82
18 83
-2 82
-56 80
-35 82
-45 81
-23 82
25 84
450 100
-28 83
-62 79
8 83
22 84
23 83
-72 79
-47 79
-4 83
45 85
38 85
11 82
            15

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                                 3.  Milk Program
                                  Pasteurized Milk

Milk is a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of certain radionuclides since it is
consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain several of the biologically
significant radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities. A
primary function of this program is to obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current radio-
nuclide concentrations and determine any long-term trends.

Quarterly samples are collected at approximately 55 sampling sites. The samples are composited,
according to production, from the major milk suppliers representing more than  80 percent of the
milk consumed in a given population center.

The samples are analyzed for gamma-emitting nuclides, including iodine-131, barium-140,
cesium-137, and potassium-40. Total potassium concentrations in g/L are determined from
potassium-40 activities assuming natural isotopic abundances. During the third quarter collec-
tion, one-fourth of the samples are also analyzed for strontium-90 on  a four year rotating
schedule.
                                           17

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                                 Table 10

                     Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                            July - September 2006
Location
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Francisco
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Tampa
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Wichita
MA: Boston
MD: Baltimore
MO: Jefferson City
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Buffalo
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OR: Portland
PA: Pittsburgh
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Memphis
TX: Austin
TX: Ft. Worth
VA: Norfolk
VT: Montpelier
WA: Spokane
WA: Tacoma
WV: Charleston
Date
Collected
09/18/06
08/29/06
07/07/06
07/19/06
07/06/06
07/07/06
08/16/06
07/10/06
08/28/06
07/10/06
08/11/06
07/24/06
09/19/06
07/07/06
07/17/06
07/31/06
07/17/06
07/17/06
07/13/06
07/24/06
08/30/06
08/14/06
07/11/06
08/17/06
07/10/06
07/25/06
08/15/06
09/20/06
09/26/06
07/06/06
09/13/06
07/12/06
K
g/L 2w
1.62 0.21
1.61 0.21
1.63 0.13
1.60 0.12
1.63 0.14
1.60 0.12
1.61 0.11
1.64 0.13
1.66 0.20
1.67 0.13
1.61 0.12
1.39 0.11
1.57 0.20
1.68 0.11
1.57 0.13
1.49 0.12
1.66 0.12
1.62 0.13
1.62 0.13
1.62 0.12
1.49 0.22
1.66 0.13
1.57 0.12
1.73 0.14
1.56 0.12
1.54 0.12
1.56 0.12
1.51 0.19
1.50 0.22
1.54 0.12
1.62 0.20
1.60 0.13
137Cs
pCi/L 2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
140Ba
pCi/L 2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
mj
pCi/L 2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                                     18

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               Table 11
Strontium-90 in Pasteurized Milk
       July - September 2006
Location
CA: Los Angeles
CT: Hartford
MO: Jefferson City
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
TN: Memphis
TX: Austin
WA: Spokane
WV: Charleston
Date
Collected
07/07/06
07/07/06
07/17/06
07/13/06
07/24/06
07/10/06
07/25/06
07/06/06
07/12/06
90Sr
pCi/L 2u
0.07 0.51
0.75 0.51
0.65 0.62
0.48 0.64
-0.16 0.64
0.93 0.57
0.19 0.52
0.96 0.54
0.71 0.63
               19

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              20

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                              For More Information
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is published quarterly by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.
Requests for information concerning the operation of RadNet and the data that are generated
should be directed as follows:

For System Operations                   For Analytical Information and Data-

Rhonda Sears                           John Griggs
National Air and Radiation Environmental  National Air and Radiation Environmental
Laboratory                             Laboratory
540 South Morris Avenue                 540 South Morris Avenue
Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601        Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
e-mail:  sears.rhonda@epa.gov            e-mail: griggs.john@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                   Charles M. Petko
                                 Office of the Director
                   National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                               540 South Morris Avenue
                           Montgomery, Alabama36115-2601
                             e-mail: petko.charles@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning policies of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air should be
directed to:

                                  Jonathan Edwards
                                   USEPA - ORIA
                        Radiation Protection Division (MC6608J)
                             1200 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W.
                                Washington, DC 20460
                           e-mail: edwards.jonathan@epa.gov
                                         ***
                                         21

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