402-R-07-016
ENVIRONMENTAL



RADIATION



DATA
                      REPORT 132




                  October - December 2007
         United States Environmental Protection Agency




              Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

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               11

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                                      Contents
                                                                                  Page

List of Tables	v
Preface	vii
Acknowledgments	ix
Data Reporting Conventions	xi
1. Air Program	1
  Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	1
  Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates	14
  Beta Activity in Precipitation	14
2. Water Program	17
3. Milk Program	29
  Pasteurized Milk	29
                                          in

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               IV

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                                List of Tables

Table                                                                       Page
     1  Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations                    xiii
     2  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: October 2007                            2
     3  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: November 2007                          5
     4  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: December 2007                          7
     5  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  October 2007                 9
     6  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  November 2007              10
     7  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  December 2007              11
     8  Tritium in Precipitation:  October - December 2007                           13
     9  Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates:  January - December
        2007 Composites                                                        15
    10  Tritium in Drinking Water:  October - December 2007                        18
    11  Plutonium and Uranium Analyses of Selected Drinking Water Composite
        Samples: January - December 2007                                        20
    12  Iodine-131 in Drinking Water: January - December 2007                      20
    13  Alpha, Beta, and Sr-90 Concentrations in Drinking Water: January -
        December 2007 Composites                                               22
    14  Radium-226, -228 and Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides in Drinking Water:
        January - December 2007 Composites                                      25
    15  Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: October - December 2007                  30

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               VI

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                                       Preface
Environmental Radiation Data(EKD) is compiled and published quarterly by the Office of
Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in
Montgomery, Alabama, and contains data from the RadNet monitoring system (formerly
ERAMS). ERD is published in both hard-copy and electronic formats. Electronic reports are
available online at www.epa.gov/narel.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency established RadNet in 1973 with an
emphasis on identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the environ-
ment. RadNet is comprised of a nationwide network of sampling stations that provide air
particulate, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples.

Sampling locations are selected to provide population and geographic coverage for the United
States. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta
analysis, gamma analyses, and radionuclide-specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium,
iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural
background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary
sources.

The radiochemical procedures used by NAREL to analyze the RadNet samples are contained in
the NAREL Radiochemistry Procedures Manual. Station operation and sample collection  are in
accordance with procedures contained in theERAMSManual(EPA 520/5-84-007, 008, 009).
                                          vn

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              Vlll

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                               Acknowledgments
All sampling for the RadNet monitoring system (formerly ERAMS) is performed by volunteer
collectors who are frequently members of health departments or related environmental agencies
of their respective states. The National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL),
on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, would like to acknowledge the time and
effort of these volunteer collectors, who are so essential to the successful operation of RadNet.
The efforts of the sample collectors are especially appreciated during times of emergency
operation when sampling frequencies are increased and schedules are sometimes demanding.
                                         IX

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                          Data Reporting Conventions
Every laboratory measurement involves uncertainty. When there is little or no radioactivity in a
sample, one consequence of measurement uncertainty is the possibility of obtaining a measured
value that is less than zero. Such a negative result occurs when random effects in the measure-
ment process cause the measured value for the sample to be less than that of the blank or back-
ground, which is subtracted from it. From April  1991 to December 1995, negative results were
reported as "not detected" or "ND," and gamma analysis results that were less than their
estimated measurement uncertainties were also reported as "ND." In January 1996, both of these
practices were discontinued. Although negative activities are physically impossible, the inclusion
of negative results in the report allows better statistical analysis of the data.
Results of gamma analyses are still reported as "ND" when gamma-emitting radionuclides
not detected.
are
                               Measurement Uncertainty

Each measured valuers reported with an expanded uncertainty U=kuc(y), which is determined
from the combined standard uncertainty uc(y) and the coverage factor k=1. The interval from
y - Utoy+ Uis estimated to have a level of confidence of approximately 95 %.
                                   Significant Figures

Expanded uncertainties are reported to two significant figures. Measurement results are rounded
to the corresponding number of decimal places.
                                  Detection Capability

The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for each radionuclide are shown in Table 1.
The MDC is defined as the minimum concentration that gives a 95 % probability of detection
when the detection criteria are chosen to give only a 5 % probability of false detection in a
sample that is analyte-free.
                                           XI

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              xn

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                                    Table 1

     Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations
                        for Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
Gross Beta
Tritium
* Plutonium-23 8,23 9/240
f Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Strontium-90
{ Iodine-131
Cesium- 137
{ Barium-140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation
Water
Milk
Air
Water
Air
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk (gamma)
Water (gamma)
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
Reporting Unit
pCi/L
pCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
g/L
g/L
pCi/L
Minimum
Detectable
Concentration
2
0.0015
2
2
150
150
0.75
0.1
0.75
0.1
0.02
2
1
4
4
0.3
5
5
15
15
0.06
0.06
50
* The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3. Measurement by alpha
spectrometry includes combined activities of 239Pu and 240Pu, since the relative contributions of these two
isotopes cannot be determined.
f The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3.
J Activity as of the day of counting.
                                      Xlll

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              xiv

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                                  1. Air Program
                      Airborne Particulates and Precipitation

Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air
particulates and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general
(national) impact of all contributing sources on environmental levels of radiation.  Airborne
particulates are collected continuously at field stations representing wide geographic coverage
throughout the United States.

Filters (10-cm diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed twice weekly and field
measurements are made with a G-M survey meter 5 hours  after collection to allow natural radon
isotopes and their progeny to decay. Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA officials by
telephone or mail  depending on the activity levels found.

The filters are sent to NAREL for more sensitive analysis in a low background beta counter.
Gamma scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta activity greater than 1 pCi/m3. The
laboratory obtained values are usually lower than the field estimates because of the decay of
naturally occurring radionuclides during the time between  the two measurements.

Precipitation samples are collected at most field stations that collect air filters. These samples are
also sent to NAREL where they are composited monthly for gamma scans, tritium, and gross beta
activity measurements.

A compilation of individual measurements is available from the National Air and  Radiation
Environmental Laboratory, 540 South Morris Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36115-2601.

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             Table 2
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           October 2007
Location
AL: Birmingham
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
AZ: Phoenix/956
CA: Anaheim
CA: Fresno
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: Riverside
CA: San Bernardino Cty.
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CA: San Jose
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
FL: Orlando
GA: Atlanta
IA: Des Moines
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
MA: Boston
MD: Baltimore
MI: Detroit
MN: St. Paul
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
Number
of
Samples
9
9
5
3
9
9
9
9
5
7
9
6
5
6
8
10
8
8
9
7
9
5
7
9
9
8
6
7
9
5
5
10
5
8
9
5
5
9
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
1.4 0.0 0.6
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.9 0.2 0.5
1.1 0.1 0.4
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.9 0.1 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.1 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 -0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.0 0.2
1.9 0.3 0.8

0.2 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.5 0.2 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1

2.8 0.2 1.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.012 0.003 0.008
0.010 0.004 0.007
0.017 0.008 0.012
0.014 0.007 0.011
0.047 0.014 0.020
0.018 0.004 0.011
0.022 0.005 0.010
0.031 0.007 0.014
0.009 0.003 0.006
0.011 0.006 0.008
0.018 0.007 0.012
0.034 0.006 0.013
0.009 0.003 0.005
0.007 0.004 0.005
0.009 0.002 0.006
0.010 0.002 0.005
0.010 0.002 0.006
0.013 0.006 0.008
0.008 0.002 0.005
0.007 0.002 0.004
0.017 0.002 0.007
0.009 0.005 0.007
0.011 0.004 0.008
0.013 0.005 0.010
0.014 0.003 0.007
0.033 0.003 0.011
0.010 0.005 0.008
0.026 0.003 0.012
0.011 0.003 0.007
0.007 0.002 0.004
0.016 0.007 0.012
0.020 0.002 0.009
0.011 0.004 0.007
0.020 0.005 0.009
0.018 0.004 0.009
0.010 0.006 0.007
0.021 0.005 0.012
0.016 0.003 0.008

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        Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           October 2007
Location
NJ: Edison
NJ: Trenton
NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
NY: Lockport
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OH: Columbus
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OK: Oklahoma City
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Austin/Concordia
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
TX: Ft. Worth
TX: Houston
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
VA: Richmond
VA: Virginia Beach
Number
of
Samples
7
9
6
5
9
7
9
9
9
9
7
9
1
8
9
5
7
1
2
4
7
4
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
6
9
1
9
9
9
9
8
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.1 0.2
3.0 0.1 1.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1

0.1 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.1 0.3
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.2 0.2 0.6
0.7 0.2 0.4
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.9 0.2 0.6
1.0 0.4 0.7
1.1 0.3 0.7
0.8 0.2 0.5
0.7 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.3 0.7
0.1 0.1 0.1
2.7 0.0 0.4
0.6 0.0 0.3
1.9 0.2 0.8
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.007 0.003 0.005
0.013 0.005 0.009
0.019 0.006 0.013
0.011 0.004 0.008
0.014 0.004 0.008
0.022 0.007 0.013
0.007 0.002 0.004
0.011 0.003 0.007
0.025 0.006 0.014
0.019 0.005 0.012
0.015 0.003 0.009
0.033 0.005 0.015
0.006 0.006 0.006
0.012 0.004 0.007
0.017 0.006 0.011
0.013 0.005 0.009
0.013 0.002 0.007
0.010 0.010 0.010
0.012 0.010 0.011
0.016 0.007 0.010
0.023 0.010 0.014
0.011 0.006 0.007
0.018 0.007 0.011
0.017 0.007 0.010
0.019 0.008 0.013
0.015 0.007 0.009
0.016 0.007 0.010
0.015 0.006 0.010
0.015 0.004 0.008
0.008 0.003 0.006
0.012 0.008 0.010
0.004 0.004 0.004
0.011 0.004 0.007
0.024 0.004 0.013
0.022 0.004 0.011
0.013 0.003 0.006
0.011 0.004 0.007

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        Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           October 2007
Location
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
WI: Milwaukee
Number
of
Samples
9
8
7
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.4 0.1 0.4
0.9 0.0 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.007 0.002 0.004
0.019 0.004 0.009
0.032 0.012 0.021

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             Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
          November 2007
Location
AL: Birmingham
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
AZ: Phoenix/956
CA: Anaheim
CA: Fresno
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: San Bernardino Cty.
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CA: San Jose
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
FL: Orlando
GA: Atlanta
IA: Des Moines
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
MD: Baltimore
MI: Detroit
MN: St. Paul
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Edison
NJ: Trenton
Number
of
Samples
8
9
5
3
6
8
9
5
4
6
4
4
7
9
7
9
7
6
7
9
3
7
8
9
7
1
7
8
4
7
3
7
7
4
8
7
5
9
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.4 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.3 0.4
3.6 0.0 1.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.9 0.2 0.6
0.9 0.1 0.4
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.3 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.4 0.6
4.2 0.6 2.4

0.3 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.3 0.3
0.8 0.0 0.4
2.1 0.4 1.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.1 0.4
0.3 0.0 0.2

2.0 0.6 1.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.030 0.007 0.014
0.029 0.009 0.016
0.020 0.012 0.016
0.026 0.023 0.024
0.035 0.017 0.029
0.049 0.015 0.025
0.067 0.015 0.030
0.055 0.023 0.037
0.015 0.003 0.012
0.039 0.019 0.025
0.026 0.018 0.021
0.016 0.003 0.010
0.036 0.003 0.013
0.014 0.009 0.012
0.031 0.001 0.009
0.012 0.004 0.006
0.011 0.009 0.010
0.012 0.009 0.010
0.013 0.006 0.008
0.014 0.006 0.010
0.013 0.007 0.010
0.016 0.007 0.012
0.022 0.007 0.013
0.027 0.006 0.016
0.016 0.005 0.011
0.007 0.007 0.007
0.017 0.006 0.011
0.018 0.006 0.012
0.013 0.011 0.012
0.016 0.006 0.009
0.014 0.006 0.009
0.022 0.006 0.014
0.030 0.009 0.015
0.014 0.008 0.011
0.014 0.007 0.012
0.014 0.004 0.007
0.011 0.004 0.007
0.022 0.007 0.011

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        Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
          November 2007
Location
NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
NY: Lockport
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OH: Columbus
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OK: Oklahoma City
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
PR: San Juan
RI: Providence
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Austin/Concordia
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
TX: Ft. Worth
TX: Houston
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
VA: Richmond
VA: Virginia Beach
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
WI: Milwaukee
Number
of
Samples
7
4
9
6
9
8
8
9
7
9
7
7
9
7
5
6
6
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
9
6
7
3
8
7
7
7
8
8
8
5
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
5.2 0.0 1.8
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1

0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
3.0 0.0 0.5
2.9 0.5 1.5
0.7 0.2 0.4
0.8 0. 0.4
0.9 0. 0.5
1.3 0. 0.5
0.8 0. 0.4
0.4 0. 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.3 0.2 0.2
1.7 0.7 1.0
0.6 0.0 0.2
3.1 0.0 0.5
0.6 0.1 0.4
1.1 0.2 0.5
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.9 0.1 0.4
0.6 -0.0 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.026 0.007 0.019
0.010 0.005 0.007
0.015 0.005 0.009
0.022 0.018 0.021
0.009 0.003 0.005
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.022 0.007 0.013
0.030 0.010 0.015
0.017 0.007 0.012
0.020 0.009 0.015
0.017 0.005 0.010
0.011 0.003 0.007
0.019 0.009 0.013
0.015 0.005 0.010
0.008 -0.001 0.002
0.006 0.004 0.005
0.022 0.008 0.015
0.029 0.015 0.021
0.018 0.011 0.013
0.016 0.010 0.012
0.018 0.012 0.014
0.016 0.008 0.012
0.014 0.010 0.012
0.030 0.010 0.017
0.024 0.006 0.013
0.014 0.009 0.012
0.039 0.013 0.027
0.008 0.006 0.007
0.021 0.005 0.012
0.031 0.013 0.020
0.018 0.010 0.013
0.013 0.004 0.008
0.016 0.005 0.008
0.014 0.003 0.006
0.033 0.010 0.017
0.035 0.012 0.023

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             Table 4
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           December 2007
Location
AL: Birmingham
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
AZ: Phoenix/956
CA: Anaheim
CA: Fresno
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CA: San Jose
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
FL: Orlando
GA: Atlanta
IA: Des Moines
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Chicago
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
MD: Baltimore
MI: Detroit
MN: St. Paul
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NJ: Edison
NJ: Trenton
NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
Number
of
Samples
9
8
6
4
6
7
8
3
4
4
4
2
9
2
9
7
9
8
8
4
7
8
8
8
6
7
4
8
3
5
7
3
4
9
6
6
7
4
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.9 0.2 0.5
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.5 -0.0 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 -0.0 0.1
0.9 0.0 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.7 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.1
1.2 0.2 0.7
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
7.0 0.0 1.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.028 0.008 0.012
0.020 0.010 0.014
0.030 0.016 0.021
0.022 0.015 0.019
0.026 0.008 0.014
0.018 0.003 0.010
0.044 0.004 0.016
0.006 0.002 0.004
0.007 0.004 0.005
0.019 0.006 0.011
0.005 0.002 0.004
0.004 0.003 0.003
0.016 0.004 0.010
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.024 0.006 0.011
0.014 0.005 0.011
0.021 0.006 0.010
0.016 0.003 0.007
0.015 0.004 0.008
0.012 0.008 0.010
0.035 0.015 0.022
0.039 0.014 0.023
0.022 0.006 0.011
0.026 0.007 0.017
0.022 0.013 0.017
0.032 0.016 0.023
0.015 0.011 0.013
0.084 0.010 0.024
0.223 0.010 0.132
0.016 0.006 0.011
0.021 0.005 0.013
0.012 0.008 0.010
0.024 0.018 0.021
0.016 0.005 0.010
0.010 0.003 0.007
0.016 0.009 0.012
0.022 0.008 0.014
0.011 0.006 0.009

-------
       Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           December 2007
Location
NY: Lockport
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OH: Columbus
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OK: Oklahoma City
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
PR: San Juan
RI: Providence
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Austin/Concordia
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
TX: Ft. Worth
TX: Houston
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
VA: Richmond
VA: Virginia Beach
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
WI: Milwaukee
Number
of
Samples
9
6
8
10
9
9
7
9
6
7
9
8
2
5
1
1
6
6
5
7
7
7
7
7
7
9
5
8
7
8
7
6
8
7
9
9
4
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.7 0.7 0.7
0.6 0.2 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.0

0.4 0. 0.2
0.6 0. 0.3
0.4 0. 0.2
0.4 0. 0.2
0.3 0. 0.2
0.2 0. 0.1
0.3 0. 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.2
1.4 0.0 0.8
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.1 0.5
0.2 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.2 -0.1 0.0
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.021 0.003 0.011
0.028 0.007 0.020
0.015 0.005 0.007
0.019 0.005 0.010
0.024 0.008 0.016
0.018 0.008 0.013
0.019 0.006 0.014
0.023 0.009 0.016
0.015 0.009 0.011
0.028 0.002 0.008
0.026 0.007 0.016
0.015 0.005 0.012
0.002 0.001 0.001
0.008 0.004 0.006
0.016 0.016 0.016
0.017 0.017 0.017
0.033 0.011 0.019
0.011 0.006 0.008
0.013 0.004 0.009
0.018 0.010 0.013
0.020 0.009 0.012
0.021 0.011 0.013
0.020 0.009 0.012
0.019 0.010 0.013
0.017 0.006 0.011
0.013 0.006 0.009
0.017 0.007 0.012
0.024 0.005 0.015
0.012 0.006 0.009
0.025 0.005 0.011
0.025 0.006 0.017
0.019 0.009 0.013
0.012 0.006 0.008
0.007 0.001 0.006
0.010 0.001 0.003
0.025 0.003 0.010
0.039 0.017 0.027

-------
                         Table 5
      Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       October 2007
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa City
KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
NC: Charlotte

NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck


NH: Concord
NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TX: Austin
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2
0.64 0.33
0.38 0.31
0.99 0.38
2.22 0.48
1.25 0.40
0.48 0.32
0.50 0.32
0.39 0.31
0.37 0.31
0.32 0.29
1.79 0.44
0.66 0.33
0.67 0.33
0.59 0.32

0.32 0.30
1.03 0.37


1.30 0.39
0.80 0.34
1.01 0.37
9.0 1.2
0.86 0.34
0.02 0.27
0.42 0.32
0.74 0.34
0.57 0.32
0.65 0.34
0.78 0.35
1.34 0.40
4.41 0.70
0.18 0.29
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2
K40
T1208
Be7
Be7
Be7
Pb212
Be7
Be7
Be7
Be7
K40
Be7
Bi212
K40
Pb212
Ra224
Be7

Be7
K40
Be7
Be7

Be7
Be7
K40
Be7
K40
8 12
ND
1.6 1.4
12.3 9.7
38 19
17 14
1.5 2.5
27 15
15 14
ND
30 19
91 21
27 12
ND
28 29
29 42
ND
33 40
5.1 6.8
34 38
24 17
ND
51 20
26.7 7.8
20 16
59 36
ND
ND
29 22
25 19
ND
13 12
ND
21 18
9 12
Note:   ND = Not Detected

-------
                         Table 6
      Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                      November 2007
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock


CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls

KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
NC: Charlotte

NC: Wilmington
NH: Concord
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville

TN:OakRidge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TX: Austin
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2
0.64 0.58
0.12 0.54


0.32 0.56
10.2 3.7
1.77 0.71
1.57 0.69
1.19 0.65
7.8 3.5
1.35 0.68

-0.6 2.6
1.0 1.4
1.95 0.74
12.0 3.9
1.09 0.65

0.60 0.58
1.35 0.65
1.02 0.61
5.0 1.0
1.74 0.69
1.40 0.68
2.03 0.71
3.01 0.81

1.07 0.64
1.89 0.70
0.27 0.57
1.26 0.65
1.47 0.68
2.98 0.80
0.8 1.4
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2
Be7
K40
Pb212
T1208

Be7
Be7
Be7
Be7
T1208
Be7
Bi212
Be7
Be7
Be7
Be7
K40
Be7
Be7
Be7
Bi212
Be7
Be7
Be7
T1208
Be7
Pb212
Be7
Be7
K40

K40
Be7
10.7 7.9
18 28
3.4 4.3
3.3 3.7
ND
270 44
63 17
75 17
23 24
12 11
42 29
42 45
ND
74 27
52 33
155 96
39 29
28 47
ND
78 18
73 18
12 11
17 16
50 15
49 45
66 29
2.6 2.6
20 17
3.9 4.3
36 15
38 16
21 33
ND
ND
50 28
17 12
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                            10

-------
                         Table 7
      Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                      December 2007
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta

IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston

MN: St. Paul
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck


NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville

OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN:OakRidge/K25

TN: Oak Ridge/Melton

TX: Austin
UT: Salt Lake City
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2
0.63 0.58
0.44 0.30
1.42 0.41
0.51 0.31
1.43 0.40
2.20 0.74
2.22 0.74
0.46 0.59
-0.22 0.50

0.81 0.34
1.42 0.42
0.30 0.29
0.77 0.60

0.89 0.36
1.7 1.5
0.5 1.3
3.91 0.95


1.52 0.42
0.94 0.61
3.1 1.6
2.07 0.46

0.42 0.29
1.10 0.64
0.35 0.57
0.61 0.58
1.34 0.39

1.15 0.63

1.97 0.72
0.74 0.34
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2
Be7
Be7
K40

Be7
Be7
Be7
Be7
Be7
T1208
Be7

K40
Be7
T1208
Be7
Be7
Pb212
Be7
K40
Pb212

Be7
Be7
Pb212
Be7

Be7
Be7
K40
Be7
K40
Pb212
K40
Bi212
37 16
34 15
38 34
ND
22 14
47 15
67 14
15.2 8.5
31 24
1.8 2.2
17 15
ND
23 33
42 14
1.0 1.4
19.0 8.3
37 27
3.3 6.5
66 35
27 35
4.7 6.1
ND
27 16
ND
41 14
1.8 2.4
74 31
ND
ND
67 19
43 16
10 12
46 17
9 12
1.9 2.3
25 36
29 37
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                            11

-------
                   Table 7 (continued)
      Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                      December 2007
Location
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2
15.0 2.8
0.48 0.30
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2
ND
Be? 15 15
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                            12

-------
                              Table 8
                      Tritium in Precipitation
                      October - December 2007
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TX: Austin
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
October 2007
pCi/L 2u
-18 82
-29 85
NS
-36 84
-33 86
-58 85
-57 81
-52 82
-6 83
-81 80
NS
11 87
-16 83
-75 80
-12 82
-49 81
-61 80
-42 85
-12 83
-70 83
24 85
-55 81
8 84
-86 83
-34 82
4 84
NS
-56 81
-21 82
-31 85
NS
-48 85
-56 81
-64 84
November 2007
pCi/L 2
0 77
-12 82
NS
6 82
54 85
73 81
42 79
NS
23 78
2 77
10 82
15 82
46 79
4 77
40 79
57 80
21 78
NS
-2 77
NS
11 77
23 78
29 79
48 78
11 78
35 79
NS
-17 76
31 79
-19 76
-10 81
-17 80
-4 78
-8 81
December 2007
pCi/L 2
70 77
79 79
33 77
29 77
42 77
71 78
15 75
31 76
17 75
31 76
69 78
13 76
95 79
NS
31 76
35 77
50 77
69 78
NS
157 83
84 78
82 78
38 76
71 79
69 77
44 77
82 79
61 77
122 80
132 81
NS
94 80
-10 74
76 79
Note:   NS = No Sample
                                 13

-------
                Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates

Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined by the analysis of
annually composited samples (air filters) collected from the continuously operating airborne
particulate samplers.

Concentrations of plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and
238 are determined by alpha-particle spectrometry following chemical separation. The volume of
air represented by the annual composite typically ranges from 120,000 to 500,000 cubic meters.

Plutonium and uranium results are published when they become available.
                           Beta Activity in Precipitation

All stations routinely submit precipitation samples as rainfall, snow, or sleet occurs. The
precipitation samples are composited at NAREL into single monthly samples for each station.
Each month that precipitation occurs, an aliquant of the composited sample is analyzed for gross
beta, tritium, and gamma-emitting radionuclides.
                                          14

-------
                                  Table 9
              Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates
                      January - December 2007 Composites
Location
AL: Birmingham
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
FL: Orlando
GA: Atlanta
IA: Des Moines
IA: Iowa City
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
MA: Boston
MD: Baltimore
MI: Detroit
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
MO: St. Louis
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NH: Concord
NJ: Edison
NJ: Trenton
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas/9 13
NY: Albany
238pu
aCi/m3 2
1.0 3.2
-0.07 0.92
-0.9 2.5
0.9 4.0
3.7 5.0
3.0 4.1
-0.22 0.77
-1.0 2.0
0.1 1.4
0.20 0.79
0.00 0.58
-0.73 0.71
0.1 2.2
-0.26 0.88
1.1 1.8
0.16 0.88
0.9 1.2
0.5 1.0
0.2 1.0
-1.1 3.5
-0.7 1.4
-0.5 1.2
0.11 0.63
1.0 1.5
0.8 1.3
0.00 0.60
-0.32 0.59
0.08 0.66
0.77 0.91
-0.7 1.3
0.6 1.6
-0.1 1.1
0.9 1.7
5.2 2.0
0.1 1.1
0.24 0.90
-0.2 1.3
0.49 0.86
-1.3 1.3
2.0 1.9
239-240pu
aCi/m3 2w
0.0 1.2
0.40 0.71
0.3 1.6
-0.7 1.6
-0.7 1.7
0.2 1.6
-0.05 0.36
-0.1 1.2
0.00 0.77
0.20 0.54
0.28 0.80
0.08 0.75
0.2 1.0
0.09 0.81
0.2 1.1
-0.05 0.36
0.6 1.0
0.27 0.59
0.06 0.53
1.1 2.3
-0.08 0.56
0.22 0.82
0.11 0.50
0.14 0.64
0.15 0.67
0.04 0.41
-0.09 0.32
0.40 0.56
-0.06 0.37
0.52 0.93
-0.23 0.78
0.19 0.54
-0.39 0.61
0.84 0.84
0.38 0.67
0.00 0.39
0.25 0.73
0.09 0.39
-0.3 1.0
0.00 0.57
234U
aCi/m3 2
44 11
13.8 3.9
93 18
64 18
64 18
39 13
9.6 3.2
21.8 6.3
9.6 4.2
18.2 3.9
15.6 4.4
13.1 3.8
16.9 5.2
14.5 4.4
21.0 6.1
11.8 3.6
26.3 6.4
16.0 3.2
18.6 4.1
43 11
29.5 6.3
26.7 5.9
20.8 4.4
8.8 2.4
14.4 4.1
16.7 3.8
12.5 2.9
12.7 2.7
10.0 2.4
14.5 5.1
20.9 6.2
12.0 3.5
23.3 4.8
10.2 2.9
10.2 2.9
10.7 3.0
15.5 4.3
19.4 4.0
55 12
11.3 3.9
23SU
aCi/m3 2
2.3 2.8
1.3 1.3
7.4 4.5
0.7 3.3
0.7 3.3
1.7 3.7
1.0 1.2
3.0 2.7
1.7 2.1
3.7 1.7
0.5 1.0
0.00 0.56
1.9 2.0
0.8 1.4
0.9 1.6
2.5 1.8
3.1 2.2
1.9 1.2
2.6 1.5
7.2 4.6
2.5 1.9
2.4 1.9
2.7 1.5
0.37 0.66
0.19 0.85
2.0 1.4
0.92 0.85
1.10 0.92
0.75 0.73
-0.15 0.98
1.8 2.0
0.00 0.78
2.3 1.9
1.1 1.0
1.1 1.0
0.53 0.82
1.7 1.5
0.67 0.79
4.4 3.2
1.2 1.5
238-jj
aCi/m3 2
29.4 8.6
6.8 2.6
88 17
42 14
42 14
26 11
4.1 2.0
26.1 7.0
6.9 3.5
16.4 3.6
10.7 3.5
9.9 3.3
13.8 4.7
9.6 3.5
17.4 5.5
8.6 3.0
18.4 5.2
16.0 3.2
16.1 3.7
38 10
28.1 6.1
27.4 5.9
17.0 3.9
5.9 1.9
8.9 3.2
19.7 4.2
11.3 2.7
13.2 2.8
11.3 2.6
11.9 4.5
20.5 6.1
13.3 3.7
21.4 4.6
9.2 2.7
9.2 2.7
9.0 2.7
12.3 3.8
18.7 3.9
36.1 8.9
10.0 3.6
Note:   NA = No Analysis
                                     15

-------
                            Table 9 (continued)
              Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates
                      January - December 2007 Composites
Location
NY: Lockport
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OH: Columbus
OH: Painesville
OH: Ross
OK: Oklahoma City
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
PR: San Juan
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
TX: Austin
TX: Austin/Concordia
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
TX: Ft. Worth
TX: Houston
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
VA: Richmond
VA: Virginia Beach
WA: Spokane
WI: Milwaukee
238pu
aCi/m3 2
-0.65 0.95
1.7 2.5
0.83 0.79
-0.24 0.40
-0.06 0.88
0.6 1.0
-0.21 0.29
-0.3 .2
0.7 .0
0.6 .4
0.28 0.80
0.1 .1
0.1 .7
2.9 2.7
-0.32 0.58
-0.42 0.88
0.7 1.2
0.4 1.2
1.4 1.9
0.9 1.5
-0.05 0.72
-0.33 0.61
-0.07 0.44
-1.0 1.4
0.55 0.95
0.08 0.43
0.28 0.69
0.05 0.69
-0.4 2.2
0.21 0.98
0.0 1.2
0.5 1.6
-0.1 1.3
0.89 0.99
-0.10 0.95
-1.2 1.1
-0.25 0.88
239-240pu
aCi/m3 2w
0.14 0.65
0.2 1.1
0.29 0.51
0.03 0.28
0.23 0.63
0.16 0.48
0.07 0.32
-0.14 0.68
-0.09 0.42
0.15 0.66
0.00 0.58
-0.15 0.51
0.00 0.65
0.8 1.3
0.12 0.35
0.56 0.86
0.60 0.81
1.7 1.9
0.9 1.4
0.7 1.2
0.16 0.46
0.12 0.36
0.00 0.23
0.18 0.81
0.12 0.54
0.08 0.34
0.09 0.42
0.10 0.46
-0.14 0.92
0.10 0.68
-0.42 0.79
0.3 1.1
0.00 0.49
0.00 0.30
0.05 0.48
0.4 1.3
0.30 0.54
234U
aCi/m3 2
4.0 1.7
18.5 5.5
7.9 2.3
11.5 2.5
24.0 5.0
19.7 4.2
13.3 2.8
17.8 4.3
12.6 2.9
9.1 3.8
8.1 2.9
18.3 4.8
6.2 2.8
13.1 3.8
7.7 2.1
32.0 7.9
19.3 4.4
26.9 7.6
20.7 6.6
12.6 4.5
12.3 3.3
25.5 4.8
9.9 3.2
65 12
13.0 3.6
12.7 2.9
12.2 3.0
13.7 3.0
66 13
12.2 3.0
22.4 5.2
33.5 7.6
47.9 8.1
15.3 3.8
10.9 2.9
17.8 6.7
11.5 3.0
23SU
aCi/m3 2
0.69 0.78
1.8 2.0
0.16 0.47
0.54 0.54
0.83 0.94
1.9 1.3
0.37 0.51
3.1 1.8
0.99 0.81
0.4 1.2
1.7 1.4
0.9 1.3
0.32 0.94
1.2 1.3
0.40 0.55
2.7 2.5
1.2 1.2
5.5 3.6
3.7 3.2
0.3 1.2
1.1 1.1
3.0 1.5
0.7 1.0
6.6 3.2
1.1 1.2
0.15 0.64
0.74 0.79
1.07 0.86
4.0 3.1
1.03 0.95
1.1 1.2
2.3 2.0
1.3 1.1
0.75 0.95
0.37 0.78
0.4 1.9
0.48 0.75
238-jj
aCi/m3 2
5.7 2.0
21.4 6.0
3.7 1.5
9.2 2.2
22.7 4.9
20.6 4.4
11.2 2.5
18.1 4.3
9.0 2.4
9.2 3.8
10.1 3.2
14.1 4.1
5.6 2.7
10.1 3.3
7.9 2.2
26.3 7.0
18.9 4.4
20.1 6.4
21.3 6.6
11.7 4.3
12.4 3.4
52.6 8.3
8.3 2.9
20.1 5.5
9.1 2.9
8.6 2.3
12.3 3.0
12.7 2.9
48 11
13.3 3.1
22.6 5.1
27.2 6.6
9.8 2.8
13.6 3.5
10.5 2.9
18.1 6.7
11.5 3.0
Note:   NA = No Analysis
                                     16

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                         2.  Drinking Water Program
The RadNet drinking water program provides data on radionuclide concentrations in the nation's
drinking water supplies. Samples are taken at 78 sites which are either major population centers
or selected nuclear facility environs.

Drinking water data are used to assess trends and anomalies in concentrations, and to compare
with standards set forth in the EPA "National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations."
These regulations provide for approval of supplies when the combined radium-226 and
radium-228 levels do not exceed 5 pCi/L, when the gross alpha (excluding radon and uranium)
levels do not exceed 15 pCi/L, when tritium levels do not exceed 20,000 pCi/L, when the
strontium-90 levels do not exceed 8 pCi/L, and when the gross beta levels do not exceed
50 pCi/L.

The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross beta, strontium-90,
and gamma on annual composites; (c) radium-226 if the gross alpha exceeds 2 pCi/L and
radium-228 if the radium-226 falls between 3 and 5 pCi/L; (d) iodine-131 on one quarterly
sample per year for each station; and (e) an annual composite for plutonium-238, combined
plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and 238 for stations that demonstrate gross alpha
levels greater than 2 pCi/L.
                                          17

-------
         Table 10
Tritium in Drinking Water
  October - December 2007
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery/408
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Dover
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: W. Chicago
LA: New Orleans
MA: Lawrence
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Red Wing
MN: St. Paul
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
MT: Helena
NC: Charlotte
NC: Raleigh
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NJ: Waretown
NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
Date
Collected
10/23/07
10/11/07
10/03/07
10/04/07
10/03/07
10/03/07
10/02/07
10/01/07
10/05/07
10/02/07
10/16/07
10/03/07
11/29/07
12/11/07
11/13/07
10/02/07
12/10/07
11/08/07
10/29/07
12/06/07
11/26/07
10/02/07
11/20/07
10/02/07
10/10/07
10/10/07
10/31/07
10/16/07
10/01/07
10/01/07
10/02/07
10/05/07
10/25/07
10/05/07
10/03/07
10/04/07
10/03/07
10/10/07
10/31/07
10/17/07
3H
pCi/L 2
6 79
-32 72
48 78
157 84
203 88
27 77
43 78
-31 74
-25 68
30 77
12 80
25 77
-36 84
56 89
-84 82
35 81
-24 85
-17 86
64 78
83 90
-27 85
82 80
37 85
57 79
6 74
45 81
83 78
8 79
-32 75
22 77
93 80
960 110
10 78
45 85
21 77
2 75
37 78
54 81
70 78
27 80
            18

-------
   Table 10 (continued)
Tritium in Drinking Water
  October - December 2007
Location
NY: New York City
NY: Niagara Falls
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OR: Portland
OR: Portland
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia - Baxter Control Lab.
PA: Philadelphia - Belmont
PA: Philadelphia - Queen Lane Lab.
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge/#360
TN:OakRidge/#371
TN:OakRidge/#4442
TN:OakRidge/#768
TN:OakRidge/#772
TN:OakRidge/#772
TX: Austin
VA: Ashland
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
Date
Collected
10/22/07
12/27/07
12/31/07
12/31/07
10/31/07
10/24/07
10/03/07
09/28/07
12/28/07
11/21/07
11/19/07
10/22/07
10/22/07
10/22/07
10/31/07
10/02/07
10/15/07
10/17/07
10/11/07
10/08/07
10/02/07
11/13/07
10/03/07
10/03/07
10/04/07
10/03/07
10/03/07
10/03/07
10/04/07
10/05/07
10/09/07
10/22/07
10/01/07
3H
pCi/L 2
35 80
66 85
21 83
-11 80
129 81
24 81
48 77
146 82
13 82
-7 86
-9 86
88 79
109 80
4 79
68 77
-13 75
6 79
62 82
66 82
16 80
174 84
-31 85
19 76
83 79
73 78
33 76
960 110
84 80
81 79
47 76
-4 79
31 80
77 80
            19

-------
          Table 12
Iodine-131 in Drinking Water
   January - December 2007
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Dover
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
KS: Topeka
MA: Lawrence
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Red Wing
MN: St. Paul
MO: Jefferson City
NC: Charlotte
NC: Raleigh
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NJ: Waretown
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Niagara Falls
Date
Collected
10/23/07
04/11/07
01/05/07
01/10/07
07/11/07
01/05/07
10/02/07
10/01/07
01/10/07
01/05/07
01/17/07
04/04/07
11/29/07
03/14/07
02/21/07
04/04/07
03/08/07
01/16/07
03/09/07
04/17/07
01/18/07
11/26/07
04/04/07
11/20/07
01/04/07
01/31/07
10/10/07
01/31/07
04/02/07
02/07/07
02/14/07
04/03/07
01/08/07
01/05/07
04/04/07
01/05/07
01/05/07
04/26/07
07/05/07
10/22/07
12/27/07
131j
pCi/L  2u
0.04 0.18
0.00 0.14
0.06 0.13
0.28 0.33
-0.05 0.24
0.01 0.14
-0.10 0.36
-0.16 0.39
-0.06 0.28
0.01 0.17
0.04 0.30
0.05 0.17
0.18 0.33
-0.07 0.18
0.02 0.19
0.09 0.17
-0.07 0.37
-0.02 0.16
-0.06 0.22
0.06 0.14
-0.04 0.29
-0.06 0.22
0.10 0.15
0.15 0.47
-0.01 0.15
0.02 0.18
-0.01 0.19
0.12 0.24
0.17 0.18
0.05 0.16
-0.04 0.18
0.09 0.15
0.03 0.12
0.02 0.13
-0.07 0.17
0.04 0.15
0.08 0.16
0.03 0.15
0.21 0.35
-0.12 0.21
0.4 1.6
             20

-------
    Table 12 (continued)
Iodine-131 in Drinking Water
   January - December 2007
Location
NY: Syracuse
OH: Columbus
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Paine sville
OH: Toledo
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia -Baxter Control Lab
PA: Philadelphia -Queen Lane Lab
PA: Philadelphia -Queen Lane Lab
PA: Philadelphia -Queen Lane Lab
PA: Philadelphia -Belmont
PA: Pittsburgh
PJ: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN:OakRidge/#360
TN:OakRidge/#371
TN:OakRidge/#4442
TN: Oak Ridge/#768
TN:OakRidge/#772
TX: Austin
VA: Ashland
VA: Lynchburg
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
Date
Collected
12/31/07
03/01/07
04/25/07
04/25/07
07/26/07
01/04/07
03/14/07
03/15/07
10/22/07
10/22/07
10/22/07
10/22/07
10/22/07
04/25/07
04/18/07
04/18/07
04/20/07
10/11/07
10/11/07
10/11/07
10/08/07
04/02/07
01/04/07
07/10/07
07/10/07
07/10/07
07/10/07
07/10/07
01/25/07
07/27/07
04/16/07
10/09/07
03/06/07
04/09/07
02/05/07
131j
pCi/L  2
-0.4 1.2
0.10 0.16
0.30 0.21
0.35 0.18
-0.01 0.15
0.09 0.13
0.24 0.19
0.19 0.17
0.26 0.34
3.20 0.42
2.71 0.78
3.34 0.38
2.33 0.39
0.05 0.18
0.00 0.14
-0.17 0.17
0.25 0.28
1.40 0.68
0.8 1.7
2.50 0.59
-0.15 0.65
0.01 0.17
-0.03 0.15
0.00 0.27
-0.13 0.24
-0.03 0.28
-0.02 0.33
-0.17 0.30
0.07 0.16
0.08 0.15
0.04 0.16
-0.12 0.21
0.00 0.18
-0.10 0.16
0.04 0.22
             21

-------
              Table 13
          Drinking Water
Alpha, Beta, and Sr-90 Concentrations
            Composites
        January - December 2007
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Dover
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
KS: Topeka
LA: New Orleans
MA: Lawrence
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Red Wing
MN: St. Paul
MO: Jefferson
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
MT: Helena
NC: Charlotte
NC: Raleigh
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
Total
Solids
(mg/L)
49.7
58.8
56.8
63.3
106.4
34.2
67.4
54.9
98.7
37.9
97.8
100.1
77.4
78.0
68.7
90.9
38.9
57.8
167.8
41.6
88.0
99.9
15.5
56.6
81.6
119.7
131.0
183.8
27.5
81.9
48.3
61.7
52.5
48.7
87.7
59.7
84.3
Gross
Beta
pCi/L  2
4.5 2.3
3.7 2.2
2.08 0.77
2.24 0.79
3.0 1.1
1.09 0.64
4.1 2.3
0.90 0.81
2.25 0.96
0.54 0.61
8.7 2.9
2.8 1.8
2.0 1.7
6.1 1.8
4.3 2.3
3.9 1.6
1.5 1.4
2.2 3.0
19.7 3.9
10.5 3.8
9.1 2.9
5.5 2.0
8.7 3.5
1.6 1.1
2.4 1.4
1.59 0.76
2.3 1.0
14.6 4.8
4.1 3.1
8.8 2.3
1.71 0.71
5.9 3.4
3.1 1.4
1.96 0.81
3.63 0.93
3.4 2.2
11.1 3.1
Gross
Alpha
pCi/L  2u
-1.0 4.7
2.5 5.5
0.8 1.6
0.4 1.7
-0.1 3.1
0.0 1.0
-1.7 5.8
1.3 2.1
0.9 2.9
-0.1 1.1
0.6 8.0
1.7 5.8
3.0 5.2
-1.1 3.8
-0.3 5.5
-0.9 3.9
9.0 4.2
0.3 7.5
28 14
1.6 6.3
0.5 7.2
1.9 5.8
0.4 3.2
0.2 2.6
0.6 3.9
-0.2 2.5
-0.1 3.5
4 18
0.7 4.5
1.3 5.3
0.3 1.4
6.9 9.4
0.2 3.0
5.0 2.3
0.1 2.0
1.6 5.5
8.1 8.4
90Sr
pCi/L  1u





0.15 0.25












-0.15 0.23
0.22 0.24

0.29 0.27



0.13 0.26
0.30 0.34
-0.04 0.25
0.09 0.30








                 22

-------
        Table 13 (continued)
          Drinking Water
Alpha, Beta, and Sr-90 Concentrations
            Composites
        January - December 2007
Location
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NJ: Waretown
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Niagara Falls
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Columbus
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OR: Portland
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter PA:
Philadelphia/Belmont
PA: Philadelphia/Queen
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge/#360
TN:OakRidge/#371
TN: Oak Ridge/#4442
TN:OakRidge/#768
TN: Oak Ridge/#772
TX: Austin
VA: Ashland
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
Total
Solids
(mg/L)
67.2
67.2
55.4
69.9
87.0
50.1
42.5
71.4
74.6
114.4
144.6
116.2
91.5
132.5
27.7
75.1
61.9
79.6
102.0
103.1
118.5
66.0
20.8
61.4
56.8
36.1
113.3
81.8
58.4
92.2
79.3
82.3
81.6
111.0
78.1
76.7
66.0
Gross
Beta
pCi/L  2
1.1 1.0
1.4 1.1
2.54 0.82
2.0 1.2
9.1 3.8
1.6 1.1
0.48 0.62
1.8 1.3
1.7 1.3
1.9 1.2
5.4 1.2
2.8 1.3
2.1 1.2
2.76 0.89
0.10 0.57
2.6 1.4
1.9 1.3
1.7 1.2
3.1 1.8
4.3 1.9
3.2 1.3
1.17 0.69
1.42 0.69
2.22 0.81
3.94 0.96
1.66 0.71
2.21 0.85
2.4 1.0
2.6 1.4
3.1 1.5
2.7 1.5
3.5 1.5
2.2 1.4
5.0 1.3
4.13 0.99
2.45 0.83
1.10 0.86
Gross
Alpha
pCi/L2
29.4 7.4
-0.5 2.8
0.5 1.6
4.7 3.9
8 11
-0.3 2.3
0.6 1.4
-0.2 3.4
-0.1 3.7
0.4 4.3
0.4 2.9
1.4 4.5
-0.4 3.6
0.1 2.7
0.4 1.0
0.3 3.8
-0.5 3.0
-0.3 3.2
-1.3 5.6
-0.2 5.8
2.8 4.6
-0.1 1.7
0.28 0.82
1.5 2.2
3.0 2.2
0.1 1.0
2.2 4.1
1.4 3.7
1.7 3.8
-0.3 6.3
0.3 4.8
-0.2 5.5
0.4 5.2
0.4 4.6
1.2 2.7
0.1 2.3
1.5 2.9
90Sr
pCi/L  2u



-0.08 0.29

0.25 0.34
-0.11 0.21
0.18 0.22
0.32 0.23
0.08 0.21




0.05 0.23
-0.04 0.21
0.00 0.21
0.01 0.23
-0.01 0.18
-0.02 0.25
0.04 0.22
0.21 0.26
-0.11 0.22
0.04 0.21
0.01 0.23


                 23

-------
        Table 13 (continued)
          Drinking Water
Alpha, Beta, and Sr-90 Concentrations
            Composites
        January - December 2007
Location
WA: Seattle
Total
Solids
(mg/L)
20.4
Gross
Beta
pCi/L  2
0.52 0.61
Gross
Alpha
pCi/L2
0.61 0.81
90Sr
pCi/L  2u

                 24

-------
                               Table 14
                            Drinking Water
              Radium and Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides
                              Composites
                         January - December 2007
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Dover
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
KS: Topeka
LA: New Orleans
MA: Lawrence
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Red Wing
MN: St. Paul
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
MT: Helena
NC: Charlotte
NC: Raleigh
226Ra
pCi/L 2
NA
0.19 0.12
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
2.16 0.39
NA
NA
NA
0.131 0.096
NA
5.13 0.66
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.40 0.17
NA
NA
NA
0.41 0.16
NA
0.013 0.058
NA
228Ra
pCi/L 2w
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
K40 12 13
ND
K40 18 35
ND
ND
ND
ND
K40 11 13
ND
K40 12 13
ND
ND
K40 9 13
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
      NA = No Analysis
                                  25

-------
                         Table 14 (continued)
                            Drinking Water
              Radium and Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides
                              Composites
                         January - December 2007
Location
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
NH: Concord
NJ: Trenton
NJ: Waretown
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Niagara Falls
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Columbus
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OR: Portland
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter
PA: Philadelphia/Belmont
PA: Philadelphia/Queen
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge/#360
TN:OakRidge/#371
TN:OakRidge/#4442
TN:OakRidge/#768
TN:OakRidge/#772
226Ra
pCi/L 2
NA
0.20 0.12
0.088 0.082
NA
NA
0.018 0.065
0.34 0.16
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0.070 0.067
NA
NA
NA
0.110 0.086
NA
0.062 0.087
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
228Ra
pCi/L 2w
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2
ND
ND
ND
K40 9 13
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Pb212 2.0 2.6
ND
ND
K40 9 13
K40 9 12
ND
ND
ND
ND
T1208 1.5 1.6
ND
ND
K40 10 12
ND
ND
Pb212 1.9 2.5
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
      NA = No Analysis
                                  26

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                            Table 14 (continued)
                            Drinking Water
              Radium and Gamma-Emitting Radionuclides
                              Composites
                         January - December 2007

Location
TX: Austin
VA: Ashland
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
226Ra
pCi/L 2
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
228Ra
pCi/L 2w
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
Gamma-Emitting
Radionuclides
Nuclide pCi/L  2
K40 10 12
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
      NA = No Analysis
                                  27

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                                 3.  Milk Program
                                  Pasteurized Milk

Milk is a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of certain radionuclides since it is
consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain several of the biologically
significant radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities. A
primary function of this program is to obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current radio-
nuclide concentrations and determine any long-term trends.

Quarterly samples are collected at approximately 55 sampling sites. The samples are composited,
according to production, from the major milk suppliers representing more than  80 percent of the
milk consumed in a given population center.

The samples are analyzed for gamma-emitting nuclides, including iodine-131, barium-140,
cesium-137, and potassium-40. Total potassium concentrations in g/L are determined from
potassium-40 activities assuming natural isotopic abundances. During the third quarter collec-
tion, one-fourth of the samples are also analyzed for strontium-90 on  a four year rotating
schedule.
                                           29

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                                 Table 15

                     Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                           October - December 2007
Location
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Francisco
DE: Wilmington
FL: Tampa
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
KS: Wichita
KY: Louisville
MA: Boston
MD: Baltimore
MI: Detroit
MO: Jefferson City
NJ: Trenton
NM: Albuquerque
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Buffalo
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cleveland
OR: Portland
PA: Pittsburgh
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TX: Austin
TX: Ft. Worth
VA: Norfolk
WA: Spokane
WA: Tacoma
WV: Charleston
Date
Collected
12/31/07
10/02/07
11/01/07
10/04/07
10/17/07
10/10/07
11/14/07
12/03/07
10/09/07
10/10/07
12/12/07
10/05/07
12/11/07
12/21/07
11/02/07
10/24/07
12/21/07
10/10/07
10/16/07
11/16/07
10/08/07
10/11/07
12/13/07
10/24/07
11/05/07
10/02/07
11/12/07
10/16/07
10/08/07
12/29/07
10/04/07
K
g/L 2w
1.55 0.20
1.57 0.23
1.69 0.22
1.86 0.24
1.55 0.23
1.56 0.23
1.55 0.20
1.56 0.20
1.68 0.21
1.57 0.20
1.62 0.20
1.54 0.19
1.66 0.21
1.61 0.20
1.50 0.19
1.47 0.19
1.51 0.20
1.57 0.21
1.62 0.20
1.62 0.21
1.67 0.21
1.53 0.19
1.68 0.21
1.62 0.20
1.62 0.23
1.41 0.18
1.55 0.20
1.61 0.20
1.45 0.19
1.63 0.21
1.67 0.20
137Cs
pCi/L 2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
140Ba
pCi/L 2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
mj
pCi/L 2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                                    30

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                              For More Information
Environmental Radiation Data(EKD) is published quarterly by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.
Requests for information concerning the operation of RadNet and the data that are generated
should be directed as follows:

For System Operations                   For Analytical Information and Data

Rhonda Sears                           John Griggs
National Air and Radiation Environmental  National Air and Radiation Environmental
Laboratory                             Laboratory
540 South Morris Avenue                 540 South Morris Avenue
Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601        Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
e-mail:  sears.rhonda@epa.gov            e-mail: griggs.john@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                   Charles M. Petko
                                 Office of the Director
                   National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                               540 South Morris Avenue
                           Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
                             e-mail: petko.charles@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning policies of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air should be
directed to:

                                  Jonathan Edwards
                                   USEPA - ORIA
                        Radiation Protection Division (MC6608J)
                             1200 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W.
                                Washington, DC 20460
                           e-mail: edwards.jonathan@epa.gov

                                         ***
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