402-R-11-006
ENVIRONMENTAL



RADIATION



DATA
                      REPORT 146




                     April-June 2011
         United States Environmental Protection Agency




              Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

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               11

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                                     Contents
                                                                                 Page

List of Tables	v
Preface	vii
Acknowledgments	ix
Data Reporting Conventions	xi
1. Air Program	1
  Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	1
  Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates	18
2. Water Program	19
3. Milk Program	21
  Pasteurized Milk	21
                                          in

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               IV

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                                 List of Tables

Table                                                                         Page
     1  Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations                     xiii
     2  Gross Beta in Airborne Participates: April 2011                               2
     3  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: May 2011                                6
     4  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: June 2011                               10
     5  Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  April 2011                                 14
     6  Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  May 2011                                 15
     7  Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  June 2011                                 16
     8  Tritium in Precipitation:  April - June 2011                                   17
     9  Tritium in Drinking Water: April - June 2011                                20
    10  Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk:  April - June 2011                         22

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               VI

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                                       Preface
Environmental Radiation Data(EKD) is compiled and published quarterly by the Office of
Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in
Montgomery, Alabama, and contains data from the RadNet monitoring system (formerly
ERAMS). ERD is published in both hard-copy and electronic formats.  Electronic reports are
available online atwww.epa.gov/narel.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency established RadNet in 1973 with an
emphasis on identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the environ-
ment. RadNet is comprised of a nationwide network of sampling stations that provide air
particulate, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples.

Sampling locations are selected to provide population  and geographic coverage for the United
States. The radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta
analysis, gamma analyses, and radionuclide-specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium,
iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural
background levels and on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary
sources.

The radiochemical procedures used by NAREL to analyze the RadNet samples are contained in
the NAREL Radiochemistry Procedures Manual. Station operation and sample collection  are in
accordance with procedures contained in the ERAMSManital(EPA 520/5-84-007, 008, 009).
                                          vn

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              Vlll

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                               Acknowledgments
All sampling for the RadNet monitoring system (formerly ERAMS) is performed by volunteer
collectors who are frequently members of health departments or related environmental agencies
of their respective states. The National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL),
on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, would like to acknowledge the time and
effort of these volunteer collectors, who are so essential to the successful operation of RadNet.
The efforts of the sample collectors are especially appreciated during times of emergency
operation when sampling frequencies are increased and schedules are sometimes demanding.
                                         IX

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                          Data Reporting Conventions
Every laboratory measurement involves uncertainty. When there is little or no radioactivity in a
sample, one consequence of measurement uncertainty is the possibility of obtaining a measured
value that is less than zero. Such a negative result occurs when random effects in the measure-
ment process cause the measured value for the sample to be less than that of the blank or back-
ground, which is subtracted from it. From April  1991 to December 1995, negative results were
reported as "not detected" or "ND," and gamma analysis results that were less than their
estimated measurement uncertainties were also reported as "ND."  In January  1996, both of these
practices were discontinued. Although negative activities are physically impossible, the inclusion
of negative results in the report allows better statistical analysis of the data.

Results of gamma analyses are still reported as "ND" when gamma-emitting radionuclides are
not detected.
                               Measurement Uncertainty

Each measured valuers reported with an expanded uncertainty U=k uc(y), which is determined
from the combined standard uncertainty uc(y) and the coverage factor k=2. The interval from
y - Utoy + Uis estimated to have a level of confidence of approximately 95 %.
                                   Significant Figures

Expanded uncertainties are reported to two significant figures. Measurement results are rounded
to the corresponding number of decimal places.
                                  Detection Capability

The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for each radionuclide are shown in Table 1.
The MDC is defined as the minimum concentration that gives a 95 % probability of detection
when the detection criteria are chosen to give only a 5 % probability of false detection in a
sample that is analyte-free.
                                           XI

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              xn

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                                   Table 1

     Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations
                        for Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
Gross Beta
Tritium
* Plutonium-23 8,23 9/240
f Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Strontium-90
{ Iodine-131
Cesium- 137
{ Barium-140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation
Water
Milk
Air
Water
Air
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk (gamma)
Water (gamma)
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
Reporting Unit
pCi/L
pCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
g/L
g/L
pCi/L
Minimum
Detectable
Concentration
2
0.0015
2
2
150
150
0.75
0.1
0.75
0.1
0.02
2
1
4
4
0.3
5
5
15
15
0.06
0.06
50
* The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3. Measurement by alpha
spectrometry includes combined activities of 239Pu and 240Pu, since the relative contributions of these two
isotopes cannot be determined.
f The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3.
J Activity as of the day of counting.
                                      Xlll

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              xiv

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                                  1. Air Program
                      Airborne Particulates and Precipitation

Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air partic-
ulates and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general (national)
impact of all contributing sources on environmental levels of radiation. Airborne particulates are
collected continuously at field stations representing wide geographic coverage throughout the
United States.

Filters (10-cm diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed twice weekly and field
measurements are made with a dual-phosphor scintillation counter 5 hours after collection to
allow natural radon isotopes and their progeny to decay. Field estimates are reported to appro-
priate EPA officials by telephone or mail depending on the activity levels found.

The filters are sent to NAREL for more sensitive analysis in a gas proportional counter. Gamma
scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta activity greater than 1 pCi/m3. The labora-
tory-obtained values are usually lower than the field estimates because of the decay of naturally
occurring radionuclides during the time between the two measurements.

All stations routinely submit precipitation samples as rainfall, snow, or sleet occurs. The precip-
itation samples are composited at NAREL into single monthly samples for each station. Each
month that precipitation occurs, an aliquant of the composited sample is analyzed for tritium and
gamma-emitting radionuclides. NAREL discontinued gross beta analysis of precipitation in
January 2010.

A compilation of individual measurements is available from the National  Air and Radiation
Environmental Laboratory, 540 South Morris Avenue, Montgomery, AL  36115-2601.

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             Table 2
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            April 2011
Location
AK: Anchorage
AK: Fairbanks
AK: Juneau
AL: Birmingham
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Fort Smith
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
AZ: Phoenix/956
AZ: Tucson
CA: Anaheim
CA: Bakersfield
CA: Eureka
CA: Fresno
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: Riverside
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Bernardino Cty.
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CA: San Jose
CO: Colorado Springs
CO: Denver
CO: Grand Junction
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Dover
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
FL: Orlando
FL: Tallahassee
FL: Tampa
GA: Atlanta
GA: Augusta
HI: Hilo
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
Number
of
Samples
7
7
6
6
7
3
7
6
6
8
7
6
4
6
6
6
7
7
7
3
7
5
4
7
4
6
7
7
6
4
6
4
5
4
7
7
7
6
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
1.3 0.4 0.8
0.6 0.2 0.4
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.0 0.2 0.5
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.1

0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1

0.6 0.2 0.3
0.3 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 -0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.010 0.001 0.006
0.034 0.002 0.013
0.008 0.002 0.005
0.047 0.011 0.018
0.016 0.008 0.012
0.013 0.006 0.009
0.017 0.007 0.011
0.017 0.007 0.013
0.111 0.010 0.049
0.071 0.009 0.020
0.021 0.006 0.012
0.085 0.005 0.032
0.007 0.000 0.004
0.022 0.006 0.013
0.023 0.006 0.012
0.016 0.004 0.009
0.022 0.007 0.012
0.020 0.003 0.008
0.092 0.008 0.024
0.013 0.006 0.010
0.011 0.004 0.006
0.029 0.005 0.014
0.020 0.010 0.015
0.017 0.004 0.009
0.036 0.008 0.015
0.017 0.006 0.012
0.008 0.003 0.005
0.015 0.005 0.008
0.009 0.002 0.007
0.005 0.003 0.004
0.019 0.003 0.010
0.020 0.013 0.016
0.010 0.004 0.008
0.016 0.008 0.012
0.031 0.002 0.014
0.006 0.004 0.005
0.006 0.003 0.004
0.049 0.006 0.015

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        Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
             April 2011
Location
IA: Mason City
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Aurora
IL: Chicago
IN: Fort Wayne
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
KS: Wichita
KY: Lexington
KY: Louisville
LA: Baton Rouge
LA: Shreveport
MA: Boston
MA: Worcester
MD: Baltimore
ME: Orono
ME: Portland
MI: Bay City 48708
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Duluth
MN: St. Paul
MO: Jefferson City
MO: Springfield
MO: St. Louis
MS: Jackson/Deq
MT: Billings
NC: Charlotte
NC: Raleigh
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NE: Kearney
NE: Lincoln
NE: Omaha
NH: Concord
NJ: Edison
NJ: Trenton
Number
of
Samples
4
7
5
4
2
7
7
7
6
5
7
7
6
7
6
6
5
5
6
6
7
5
5
7
6
2
6
4
7
3
5
6
1
7
4
4
7
6
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.9 0.1 0.4
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 -0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
-0.0 -0.0 -0.0
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1

0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.3 0.3
0.7 0.1 0.4
0.6 0.0 0.4
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.019 0.008 0.012
0.074 0.006 0.020
0.081 0.007 0.025
0.011 0.004 0.008
0.031 0.011 0.021
0.029 0.006 0.012
0.072 0.003 0.019
0.025 0.006 0.014
0.022 0.006 0.012
0.010 0.004 0.007
0.011 0.004 0.008
0.007 0.005 0.006
0.010 0.004 0.008
0.018 0.005 0.010
0.022 0.006 0.012
0.017 0.007 0.010
0.021 0.003 0.012
0.016 0.005 0.009
0.017 0.008 0.012
0.023 0.007 0.013
0.013 0.005 0.010
0.014 0.005 0.010
0.013 0.007 0.010
0.036 0.005 0.013
0.019 0.005 0.010
0.009 0.005 0.007
0.020 0.007 0.010
0.013 0.009 0.010
0.015 0.003 0.008
0.009 0.004 0.007
0.014 0.007 0.010
0.010 0.006 0.008
0.007 0.007 0.007
0.044 0.005 0.013
0.065 0.005 0.034
0.013 0.005 0.010
0.022 0.003 0.009
0.022 0.006 0.014

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        Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
             April 2011
Location
NM: Albuquerque
NM: Carlsbad
NM: Navajo Lake St Park
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas/9 13
NV: Reno
NY: Albany
NY: Lockport
NY: New York City
NY: Rochester
NY: Yaphank
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OH: Columbus
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OK: Tulsa
OR: Corvallis
OR: Portland
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
PR: San Juan
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
SD: Rapid City
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
TX: Amarillo
TX: Austin
Number
of
Samples
7
8
3
4
6
7
6
7
4
6
6
7
6
2
6
6
6
6
7
7
4
5
7
3
2
5
7
4
5
3
6
5
5
5
5
5
4
5
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.5 -0.5 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0

0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.017 0.007 0.013
0.011 0.004 0.008
0.012 0.007 0.009
0.035 0.009 0.018
0.048 0.010 0.024
0.031 0.005 0.014
0.009 0.006 0.008
0.015 0.008 0.012
0.008 0.004 0.007
0.012 0.003 0.007
0.022 0.006 0.011
0.011 0.005 0.007
0.013 0.011 0.012
0.019 0.007 0.011
0.023 0.009 0.014
0.012 0.006 0.009
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.009 0.001 0.004
0.008 0.001 0.004
0.014 0.004 0.008
0.019 0.005 0.011
0.007 0.002 0.004
0.014 0.007 0.010
0.035 0.007 0.021
0.043 0.004 0.019
0.033 0.006 0.011
0.070 0.006 0.028
0.070 0.007 0.023
0.009 0.009 0.009
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.046 0.008 0.025
0.058 0.008 0.029
0.048 0.007 0.022
0.035 0.008 0.020
0.027 0.007 0.015
0.014 0.008 0.011
0.028 0.008 0.014

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        Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
             April 2011
Location
TX: Corpus Christ!
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
TX: Ft. Worth
TX: Harlingen
TX: Houston
TX: Laredo
TX: Lubbock
TX: San Angelo
TX: San Antonio
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Harrisonburg
VA: Lynchburg
VA: Richmond
VA: Virginia Beach
VT: Burlington
WA: Olympia
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
WA: Spokane
WI: Madison
WI: Milwaukee
WV: Charleston
Number
of
Samples
5
7
6
6
7
6
3
6
8
6
6
6
6
5
6
3
5
7
5
7
7
5
6
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.8 0.4 0.5
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.0 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 -0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.022 0.007 0.014
0.061 0.006 0.016
0.045 0.011 0.023
0.024 0.009 0.013
0.062 0.007 0.023
0.051 0.004 0.016
0.017 0.008 0.012
0.026 0.011 0.018
0.016 0.007 0.012
0.056 0.007 0.022
0.025 0.014 0.020
0.016 0.005 0.010
0.037 0.007 0.014
0.009 0.005 0.007
0.013 0.004 0.009
0.024 0.009 0.017
0.007 0.001 0.004
0.024 0.002 0.010
0.005 0.002 0.003
0.012 0.002 0.007
0.030 0.002 0.012
0.011 0.008 0.010
0.015 0.006 0.011

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             Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            May 2011
Location
AK: Anchorage
AK: Fairbanks
AK: Juneau
AL: Birmingham
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Fort Smith
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
AZ: Phoenix/956
AZ: Tucson
CA: Anaheim
CA: Bakersfield
CA: Eureka
CA: Fresno
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: Riverside
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Bernardino Cty.
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CA: San Jose
CO: Colorado Springs
CO: Denver
CO: Grand Junction
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Dover
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
FL: Orlando
FL: Tallahassee
FL: Tampa
GA: Atlanta
GA: Augusta
HI: Hilo
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
Number
of
Samples
9
9
9
6
9
1
7
9
7
9
9
8
5
7
6
4
9
9
8
5
8
9
3
9
4
9
8
7
9
4
9
3
9
4
9
9
9
9
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
3.0 0.3 1.0
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.9 -0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.1 0.0 0.4
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0

0.4 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.005 0.001 0.003
0.010 0.003 0.006
0.006 0.000 0.003
0.015 0.007 0.012
0.019 0.009 0.012
0.007 0.007 0.007
0.013 0.005 0.010
0.015 0.007 0.010
0.011 0.005 0.008
0.018 0.006 0.010
0.010 0.003 0.006
0.080 0.003 0.017
0.003 0.001 0.002
0.010 0.003 0.006
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.006 0.003 0.004
0.010 0.002 0.006
0.009 0.002 0.005
0.012 0.004 0.008
0.009 0.005 0.007
0.003 0.002 0.002
0.008 0.003 0.005
0.014 0.007 0.010
0.015 0.005 0.009
0.012 0.004 0.007
0.014 0.001 0.006
0.005 0.003 0.004
0.009 0.003 0.005
0.012 0.005 0.007
0.007 0.002 0.005
0.011 0.004 0.008
0.014 0.012 0.013
0.014 0.003 0.008
0.014 0.007 0.011
0.017 0.002 0.009
0.005 0.003 0.004
0.004 0.002 0.003
0.013 0.005 0.009

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        Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
             May 2011
Location
IA: Mason City
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Aurora
IL: Chicago
IN: Fort Wayne
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
KS: Wichita
KY: Lexington
KY: Louisville
LA: Baton Rouge
LA: Shreveport
MA: Boston
MA: Worcester
MD: Baltimore
ME: Orono
ME: Portland
MI: Bay City 48708
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Duluth
MN: St. Paul
MO: Jefferson City
MO: Springfield
MO: St. Louis
MS: Jackson/Deq
MT: Billings
NC: Charlotte
NC: Raleigh
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NE: Kearney
NE: Lincoln
NE: Omaha
NH: Concord
NJ: Edison
NJ: Trenton
Number
of
Samples
8
9
6
5
1
9
8
9
8
8
7
7
8
9
9
8
4
9
9
9
9
4
5
7
8
4
9
6
8
6
4
8
3
6
5
1
7
9
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.8 0.1 0.3
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.6 -0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1

0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.7 0.0 0.2
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
-0.0 -0.0 -0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.0 0.1

0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.2 0.4
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.0 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.011 0.003 0.007
0.008 0.003 0.006
0.015 0.007 0.010
0.011 0.004 0.007
0.010 0.010 0.010
0.013 0.005 0.009
0.009 0.003 0.006
0.011 0.005 0.009
0.014 0.005 0.010
0.010 0.003 0.007
0.010 0.003 0.007
0.008 0.004 0.005
0.008 0.002 0.007
0.009 0.001 0.004
0.012 0.001 0.005
0.013 0.004 0.008
0.004 0.002 0.003
0.008 0.001 0.003
0.006 0.002 0.005
0.009 0.004 0.005
0.007 0.002 0.005
0.005 0.003 0.005
0.006 0.004 0.006
0.009 0.006 0.007
0.011 0.004 0.008
0.009 0.006 0.007
0.014 0.006 0.009
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.011 0.002 0.008
0.011 0.007 0.009
0.009 0.006 0.007
0.008 0.003 0.005
0.008 0.004 0.006
0.009 0.005 0.006
0.010 0.005 0.007
0.004 0.004 0.004
0.007 0.002 0.004
0.013 0.003 0.007

-------
        Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
             May 2011
Location
NM: Albuquerque
NM: Carlsbad
NM: Navajo Lake St Park
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas/9 13
NV: Reno
NY: Albany
NY: Lockport
NY: New York City
NY: Rochester
NY: Yaphank
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OK: Tulsa
OR: Corvallis
OR: Portland
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
PR: San Juan
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
SD: Rapid City
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
TX: Amarillo
TX: Austin
TX: Corpus Christi
Number
of
Samples
5
9
5
4
8
9
9
9
4
7
6
9
8
8
9
5
7
3
9
4
5
9
1
2
5
9
8
8
5
9
8
8
8
8
8
5
5
5
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 -0.0 0.0

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.2 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.7 0.1 0.4
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 -0.0 0.0
0.7 0.1 0.4
1.0 0.2 0.6
0.7 0.1 0.4
0.8 0.1 0.4
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.2 -0.0 0.0
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.009 0.006 0.008
0.017 0.009 0.013
0.007 0.004 0.006
0.010 0.006 0.008
0.011 0.004 0.007
0.014 0.004 0.009
0.013 0.003 0.007
0.007 0.003 0.005
0.006 0.003 0.004
0.005 0.002 0.003
0.003 0.002 0.002
0.014 0.003 0.009
0.007 0.003 0.006
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.010 0.003 0.008
0.009 0.002 0.007
0.010 0.003 0.008
0.003 0.001 0.002
0.005 0.001 0.003
0.008 0.003 0.005
0.008 0.006 0.007
0.014 0.002 0.005
0.006 0.006 0.006
0.009 0.008 0.008
0.013 0.010 0.012
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.010 0.002 0.006
0.017 0.006 0.012
0.009 0.005 0.007
0.011 0.004 0.007
0.018 0.005 0.011
0.015 0.005 0.011
0.015 0.005 0.011
0.015 0.005 0.011
0.015 0.005 0.010
0.014 0.006 0.011
0.015 0.006 0.010
0.011 0.002 0.008

-------
        Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
             May 2011
Location
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
TX: Ft. Worth
TX: Harlingen
TX: Houston
TX: Laredo
TX: Lubbock
TX: San Angelo
TX: San Antonio
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Harrisonburg
VA: Lynchburg
VA: Richmond
VA: Virginia Beach
VT: Burlington
WA: Olympia
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
WA: Spokane
WI: Madison
WI: Milwaukee
WV: Charleston
Number
of
Samples
7
9
6
9
8
7
7
7
8
9
8
7
7
9
1
9
9
4
9
9
6
5
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.0 0.1
1.0 0.4 0.6
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.3
1.8 0.0 1.0
0.2 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.2 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.1
0.9 -0.1 0.3
0.5 0.0 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1

0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.1 0.3
0.1 -0.0 0.0
0.0 -0.0 0.0
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.008 0.002 0.006
0.024 0.011 0.016
0.011 0.005 0.009
0.013 0.007 0.009
0.009 0.000 0.005
0.013 0.007 0.011
0.021 0.008 0.012
0.014 0.005 0.011
0.010 0.005 0.007
0.020 0.004 0.011
0.012 0.005 0.009
0.012 0.005 0.009
0.010 0.003 0.006
0.013 0.004 0.008
0.003 0.003 0.003
0.005 0.001 0.003
0.006 0.002 0.004
0.004 0.002 0.003
0.006 0.003 0.004
0.009 0.003 0.006
0.010 0.003 0.005
0.011 0.002 0.008

-------
             Table 4
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            June 2011
Location
AK: Anchorage
AK: Fairbanks
AK: Juneau
AL: Birmingham
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Fort Smith
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
AZ: Phoenix/956
AZ: Tucson
CA: Anaheim
CA: Bakersfield
CA: Eureka
CA: Fresno
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: Riverside
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Bernardino Cty.
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CA: San Jose
CO: Denver
CO: Grand Junction
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Dover
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
FL: Tallahassee
FL: Tampa
GA: Atlanta
GA: Augusta
HI: Hilo
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
IA: Mason City
ID: Idaho Falls
Number
of
Samples
8
8
6
8
8
1
9
9
8
8
6
8
4
4
4
5
8
8
8
4
9
8
8
5
6
7
6
8
6
4
9
3
7
9
8
9
4
9
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
1.9 0.3 1.0
0.7 -0.0 0.4
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.0 0.3
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.3 0.3 0.8

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.0
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.002 0.000 0.001
0.008 0.001 0.003
0.004 0.001 0.003
0.038 0.010 0.017
0.064 0.011 0.023
0.007 0.007 0.007
0.024 0.007 0.012
0.021 0.008 0.014
0.015 0.007 0.011
0.014 0.007 0.011
0.008 0.003 0.005
0.010 0.004 0.006
0.002 0.001 0.002
0.006 0.004 0.005
0.008 0.005 0.006
0.005 0.000 0.003
0.009 0.005 0.007
0.005 0.002 0.004
0.011 0.005 0.008
0.006 0.003 0.005
0.004 0.001 0.002
0.005 0.001 0.003
0.022 0.011 0.016
0.013 0.008 0.011
0.010 0.003 0.006
0.014 0.004 0.008
0.012 0.005 0.007
0.011 0.003 0.008
0.007 0.004 0.005
0.014 0.009 0.011
0.012 0.004 0.008
0.018 0.010 0.014
0.014 0.006 0.010
0.004 0.002 0.003
0.003 0.001 0.002
0.025 0.004 0.010
0.008 0.004 0.006
0.010 0.005 0.008
                10

-------
        Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
             June 2011
Location
IL: Chicago
IN: Fort Wayne
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
KS: Wichita
KY: Lexington
KY: Louisville
LA: Baton Rouge
LA: Shreveport
MA: Boston
MA: Worcester
MD: Baltimore
ME: Orono
ME: Portland
MI: Bay City 48708
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Duluth
MN: St. Paul
MO: Jefferson City
MO: Springfield
MS: Jackson/Deq
MT: Billings
NC: Charlotte
NC: Raleigh
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NE: Kearney
NE: Lincoln
NE: Omaha
NH: Concord
NJ: Edison
NJ: Trenton
NM: Albuquerque
NM: Carlsbad
NM: Navajo Lake St Park
NM: Santa Fe
Number
of
Samples
8
2
8
9
9
7
9
7
7
6
8
9
7
4
8
7
9
9
7
4
8
2
7
8
6
6
5
8
8
8
o
J
2
8
6
o
J
6
2
3
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.0 0.1

0.4 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.0 0.2
0.6 0.0 0.3
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.1 -0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 -0.0 0.0

0.1 0.0 0.1
0.7 0.2 0.4
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.7 0.1 0.4
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 -0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.0
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.016 0.005 0.009
0.011 0.008 0.009
0.018 0.005 0.010
0.015 0.003 0.008
0.019 0.006 0.010
0.021 0.007 0.011
0.014 0.004 0.009
0.017 0.005 0.009
0.011 0.003 0.007
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.007 0.002 0.004
0.008 0.003 0.006
0.018 0.008 0.011
0.006 0.003 0.004
0.008 0.002 0.004
0.012 0.004 0.006
0.015 0.003 0.007
0.019 0.004 0.008
0.009 0.003 0.005
0.009 0.005 0.006
0.019 0.005 0.009
0.017 0.012 0.014
0.024 0.006 0.011
0.010 0.005 0.007
0.016 0.007 0.011
0.013 0.006 0.009
0.009 0.006 0.008
0.008 0.003 0.006
0.010 0.005 0.007
0.014 0.005 0.007
0.008 0.005 0.007
0.004 0.003 0.004
0.012 0.003 0.006
0.014 0.007 0.011
0.009 0.007 0.008
0.020 0.015 0.016
0.009 0.003 0.006
0.011 0.008 0.009
                11

-------
        Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
             June 2011
Location
NV: Las Vegas/9 13
NV: Reno
NY: Albany
NY: Lockport
NY: New York City
NY: Rochester
NY: Syracuse
NY: Yaphank
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OK: Tulsa
OR: Corvallis
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia
PR: San Juan
RI: Providence
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
SD: Rapid City
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 W
TX: Amarillo
TX: Austin
TX: Corpus Christi
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
TX: Ft. Worth
TX: Harlingen
Number
of
Samples
8
8
8
8
1
9
1
4
7
6
6
9
8
8
6
8
7
3
8
2
4
7
5
6
3
7
9
9
9
9
9
1
4
1
6
7
5
8
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0

0.2 0.0 0.1

0.0 0.0 0.0
1.0 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.9 0.0 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.0 0.1

0.0 -0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
1.2 0.0 0.3
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 -0.0 0.0
0.9 0.2 0.5
1.1 0.2 0.7
1.3 0.2 0.6
1.1 0.1 0.4
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.2 0.3
0.8 0.6 0.7
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.1 0.4
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.015 0.006 0.009
0.013 0.007 0.010
0.015 0.003 0.008
0.011 0.002 0.006
0.010 0.010 0.010
0.010 0.002 0.005
0.004 0.004 0.004
0.007 0.003 0.004
0.024 0.004 0.010
0.008 0.004 0.007
0.011 0.005 0.007
0.021 0.004 0.010
0.016 0.005 0.009
0.020 0.007 0.012
0.003 0.001 0.001
0.003 0.001 0.002
0.010 0.004 0.007
0.010 0.007 0.009
0.013 0.004 0.009
0.011 0.005 0.008
0.014 0.009 0.011
0.012 0.005 0.007
0.009 0.004 0.008
0.021 0.006 0.011
0.016 0.006 0.012
0.014 0.006 0.009
0.022 0.006 0.012
0.020 0.008 0.013
0.026 0.008 0.013
0.025 0.007 0.013
0.022 0.007 0.012
0.014 0.014 0.014
0.013 0.007 0.010
0.010 0.010 0.010
0.015 0.006 0.009
0.025 0.016 0.018
0.014 0.005 0.010
0.010 0.004 0.007
                12

-------
        Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
             June 2011
Location
TX: Houston
TX: Laredo
TX: Lubbock
TX: San Angelo
TX: San Antonio
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Harrisonburg
VA: Lynchburg
VA: Richmond
VA: Virginia Beach
WA: Olympia
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
WA: Spokane
WI: Madison
WI: Milwaukee
WV: Charleston
Number
of
Samples
5
7
9
7
10
9
10
9
8
8
8
8
5
9
6
8
6
5-hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.4 0.2 0.3
0.9 0.2 0.4
3.6 0.1 0.9
0.3 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.1 0.2
2.0 0.2 0.8
1.4 0.2 0.5
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.012 0.002 0.008
0.010 0.005 0.007
0.021 0.010 0.014
0.016 0.006 0.010
0.011 0.004 0.007
0.015 0.007 0.011
0.016 0.008 0.012
0.018 0.006 0.012
0.013 0.004 0.008
0.012 0.006 0.009
0.005 0.001 0.002
0.005 0.002 0.004
0.003 0.001 0.002
0.006 0.002 0.005
0.012 0.004 0.007
0.009 0.003 0.006
0.016 0.005 0.011
                13

-------
           Table 5
Specific Gamma in Precipitation
          April 2011
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
CA: Richmond


CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
ID: Idaho Falls

KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
MN: Welch/510
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
NH: Concord
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN:OakRidge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN:OakRidge/Y12E
TX: Austin
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Nuclide

T1208
Csl34
Csl37
T1208


T1208

Pb212
Ra224
Rn220

T1208

T1208


T1208




Csl37



Csl37
Csl37


T1208
T1208

pCi/L
ND
0.71
5.1
6.6
1.4
ND
ND
1.25
ND
2.9
35
670
ND
1.3
ND
1.4
ND
ND
2.6
ND
ND
ND
ND
1.18
ND
ND
ND
1.02
1.23
ND
ND
1.2
1.3
ND
2u

0.71
1.3
1.5
1.4


0.69

2.5
24
600

1.3

1.3


2.6




0.97



0.89
0.94


1.1
1.3

              14

-------
           Table 6
Specific Gamma in Precipitation
           May 2011
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
MN: Welch/510
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN:OakRidge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN:OakRidge/Y12E

TX: Austin
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Nuclide pCi/L 
Pb212 2.9
ND
Csl37 2.3
T1208 1.5
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Pb212 1.9
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Pb212 2.9
T1208 1.3
ND
T1208 1.6
K40 13
ND
2u
2.8

1.0
1.3








1.9












2.7
1.3

1.3
12

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           Table 7
Specific Gamma in Precipitation
           June 2011
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
MN: Welch/510
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Nuclide pCi/L 
ND
ND
ND
Be? 96
ND
ND
Pb212 1.6
ND
T1208 0.72
ND
Pb212 5.2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
T1208 1.4
ND
Be? 88
ND
ND
ND
K40 13
ND
2u



84


1.3

0.56

2.5









1.3

61



12

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                              Table 8
                      Tritium in Precipitation
                          April-June2011
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
MN: Welch/510
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
NH: Concord
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TX: Austin
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
April 2011
pCi/L 2u
-54 91
-51 86
20 89
-8 87
49 97
-8 94
-19 93
-18 86
47 90
33 89
2 94
-82 92
-15 93
-8 94
-32 93
32 95
17 95
-4 93
-13 95
-49 92
-26 86
-40 93
-15 94
-30 93
61 97
180 100
-27 92
2 88
32 89
-28 87
-6 87
May 2011
pCi/L 2
-67 85
-30 86
262 99
34 89
26 88
-56 84
-40 86
6 88
24 89
64 90
6 87
-28 86
109 92
-34 85
10 88
-64 84
NS
-46 83
-26 86
-8 88
-16 86
-57 85
-62 84
-40 85
-42 85
215 97
11 87
73 90
70 90
-26 86
42 90
June 2011
pCi/L 2M
6 85
NS
36 91
79 92
90 89
104 90
108 91
19 90
123 96
52 91
44 87
143 93
138 92
480 110
116 90
143 91
NS
82 89
96 91
68 89
58 91
34 86
104 90
91 89
89 90
156 93
111 91
NS
11 90
70 89
82 93
Note:   NS = No Sample
                                 17

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                Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates

Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined by the analysis of
annually composited samples (air filters) collected from the continuously operating airborne
particulate samplers.

Concentrations of plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and
238 are determined by alpha-particle spectrometry following chemical separation. The volume of
air represented by the annual composite typically ranges from 120,000 to 500,000 cubic meters.

Plutonium and uranium results are published when they become available.
                                          18

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                         2.  Drinking Water Program
The RadNet drinking water program provides data on radionuclide concentrations in the
nation's drinking water supplies. Samples are taken at 78 sites which are either major
population centers or selected nuclear facility environs.

Drinking water data are used to assess trends and anomalies in concentrations, and to
compare with standards set forth in the EPA "National Interim Primary Drinking Water
Regulations." These regulations provide for approval of supplies when the combined
radium-226 and radium-228 levels do not exceed 5 pCi/L, when the gross alpha
(excluding radon and uranium) levels do not exceed 15 pCi/L, when tritium levels do not
exceed 20,000 pCi/L, when the  strontium-90 levels do not exceed 8 pCi/L, and when the
gross beta levels do not exceed 50 pCi/L.

The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross beta, and
gamma on annual composites; (c) radium-226 if the gross alpha exceeds 2 pCi/L and
radium-228 if the radium-226 falls between 3 and 5 pCi/L on annual  composites; (d)
iodine-131 on one quarterly sample per year for each station; and (e) plutonium-238,
combined plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and 238 for stations that
demonstrate gross alpha levels greater than 2 pCi/L on annual composites; and (f)
strontium-90 on one-fourth of the annual composites on a four year rotating schedule.

Note: The protocol for drinking water collection and analysis changed in 2011 as a result
of the laboratory's response to the Fukushima Nuclear Incident (FNI) in March. An
aliquot of each drinking water sample collected during this quarter was shipped to
another laboratory for gamma analysis.  The results of those analyses are not reported in
this ERD. The aliquot retained by NAREL was analyzed for 131I but not for 3H, therefore
results are not available for this quarter. The results of the 131I analyses are reported in
ERD 148. Information on RadNet data analyzed as part of the FNI response can be found
at www.epa.gov/iapan2011.
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                                 3.  Milk Program
                                  Pasteurized Milk

Milk is a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of certain radionuclides since it is
consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain several of the biologically
significant radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities. A
primary function of this program is to obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current radio-
nuclide concentrations and determine any long-term trends.

Quarterly samples are collected at approximately 55 sampling sites. The samples are composited,
according to production, from the major milk suppliers representing more than 80 percent of the
milk consumed in a given population center.

The samples are analyzed for gamma-emitting nuclides, including iodine-131, barium-140,
cesium-137, and potassium-40. Total potassium concentrations in g/L are determined from
potassium-40 activities assuming natural isotopic abundances. During the third  quarter collec-
tion, one-fourth of the samples are also analyzed for strontium-90 on  a four year rotating
schedule.
                                           21

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                                      Table 10

                        Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                                   April-June 2011
Location
AR: Little Rock
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Oakland
CT: Hartford
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Plant City
HI: Hilo
KS: Wichita
KY: Louisville
MD: Baltimore
MI: E. Lansing
MO: Jefferson City
NJ: Trenton
NM: Albuquerque
NV: Las Vegas
NV: Reno
NY: Buffalo
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OR: Portland
PA: Pittsburgh
TN: Athens
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TX: Dallas
TX: San Antonio
WA: Spokane
WA: Tacoma
WV: Charleston
Date
Collected
04/13/11
04/13/11
04/13/11
04/12/11
04/20/11
04/18/11
04/13/11
04/13/11
04/12/11
04/13/11
04/15/11
04/12/11
04/13/11
04/15/11
04/12/11
04/13/11
04/18/11
04/13/11
04/13/11
04/13/11
04/14/11
04/13/11
04/05/11
04/14/11
04/14/11
04/11/11
04/12/11
04/19/11
04/12/11
04/24/11
04/13/11
K
g/L 2w
1.55 0.19
1.50 0.19
1.81 0.22
1.54 0.19
1.58 0.20
1.58 0.20
1.47 0.19
1.61 0.21
1.56 0.19
1.55 0.19
1.51 0.19
1.55 0.20
1.51 0.19
1.51 0.19
1.48 0.19
1.53 0.19
1.55 0.20
1.51 0.20
1.51 0.19
1.66 0.20
1.62 0.20
1.69 0.21
1.53 0.20
1.61 0.19
1.57 0.20
1.53 0.19
1.55 0.20
1.45 0.19
1.62 0.20
1.60 0.20
1.50 0.19
137Cs
pCi/L 2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
10.0 3.4
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
140Ba
pCi/L 2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
131j
pCi/L 2u
ND
4.0 2.7
3.7 1.9
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
3.0 2.2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
4.0 2.4
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not detected
       NR = No result (not analyzed within 5 half-lives of collection)
                                          22

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                              For More Information
Environmental Radiation Data(ERD) is published quarterly by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.
Requests for information concerning the operation of RadNet and the data that are generated
should be directed as follows:

Requests for information concerning the operation of RadNet, the data that are generated, or
publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                   Charles M. Petko
                                 Office of the Director
                   National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                               540 South Morris Avenue
                           Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
                             e-mail:  petko.charles@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning policies of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air should be
directed to:

                                  Jonathan Edwards
                                   USEPA - ORIA
                        Radiation Protection Division (MC6608J)
                              1200 Pennsylvania  Ave. N.W.
                                Washington, DC 20460
                           e-mail: edwards.jonathan@epa.gov

                                         ***
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