402-R-12-013
ENVIRONMENTAL



RADIATION



DATA
                      REPORT 152




                  October-December 2012
         United States Environmental Protection Agency




              Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

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               11

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                                     Contents
                                                                                 Page

List of Tables	v
Preface	vii
Acknowledgments	ix
Data Reporting Conventions	xi
1. Air Program	1
  Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	1
  Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates	17
2. Water Program	19
3. Milk Program	25
  Pasteurized Milk	25
                                          in

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               IV

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                                List of Tables

Table                                                                        Page
     1  Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations                    xiii
     2  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: October 2012                            2
     3  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: November 2012                          6
     4  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: December 2012                         10
     5  Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  October 2012                             14
     6  Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  November 2012                           15
     7  Specific Gamma in Precipitation:  December 2012                           16
     8  Tritium in Drinking Water:  October-December 2012                         20
     9  Iodine-131 in Drinking Water: January-December 2012                      22
    10  Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk:  October-December 2012                  26

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               VI

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                                       Preface
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) contains data from the RadNet monitoring system
(formerly ERAMS), which is operated by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National
Analytical Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama. ERD is
published in both hard-copy and electronic formats. Electronic reports are available online at
http://www.epa.gov/radnet/radnet-data/erd.html. RadNet data are also available in a searchable
database at:
                          http://epa.gov/enviro/facts/radnet

The United States Environmental Protection Agency established RadNet in  1973 with an
emphasis on identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the environ-
ment. RadNet is comprised of a nationwide network of sampling stations that provide air
particulate, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples.

Sampling locations are selected to provide population and geographic coverage for the United
States. The radiation analyses performed on RadNet samples may include gross alpha and gross
beta analysis, gamma analyses, and radionuclide-specific analyses for isotopes of uranium,
plutonium, strontium, iodine, radium, and tritium. This monitoring effort also provides informa-
tion on natural background levels and possible accidental releases into the environment.
                                           vn

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              Vlll

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                               Acknowledgments
All sampling for the RadNet monitoring system (formerly ERAMS) is performed by volunteer
collectors who are frequently members of health departments or related environmental agencies
of their respective states. The National Analytical Radiation Environmental Laboratory
(NAREL), on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, would like to acknowledge
the time and effort of these volunteer collectors, who are so essential to the successful operation
of RadNet. The efforts of the sample collectors are especially appreciated during times of
emergency operation when sampling frequencies are increased and schedules are  sometimes
demanding.
                                         IX

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                          Data Reporting Conventions
Every laboratory measurement involves uncertainty. When there is little or no radioactivity in a
sample, one consequence of measurement uncertainty is the possibility of obtaining a measured
value that is less than zero. Such a negative result occurs when random effects in the measure-
ment process cause the measured value for the sample to be less than that of the blank or back-
ground, which is subtracted from it. From April  1991 to December 1995, negative results were
reported as "not detected" or "ND," and gamma analysis results that were less than their
estimated measurement uncertainties were also reported as "ND." In January 1996, both of these
practices were discontinued. Although negative activities are physically impossible, the inclusion
of negative results in the report allows better statistical analysis of the data.
Results of gamma analyses are still reported as "ND" when gamma-emitting radionuclides
not detected.
are
                               Measurement Uncertainty

Each measured valuey is reported with an expanded uncertainty U=k uc(y\ which is determined
from the combined standard uncertainty uc(y) and the coverage factor k=1. The interval from
y Uioy + C/is estimated to have a level of confidence of approximately 95 %.
                                   Significant Figures

Expanded uncertainties are reported to two significant figures. Measurement results are rounded
to the corresponding number of decimal places.
                                  Detection Capability

The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for each radionuclide are shown in Table 1.
The MDC is defined as the minimum concentration that gives a 95 % probability of detection
when the detection criteria are chosen to give only a 5 % probability of false detection in a
sample that is analyte-free.
                                           XI

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              xn

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                                    Table 1

     Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations
                        for Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
Gross Beta
Tritium
* Plutonium-23 8,23 9/240
f Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Strontium-90
{ Iodine-131
Cesium-137
{ Barium-140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation
Water
Air
Water
Air
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk (gamma)
Water (gamma)
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
Reporting Unit
pCi/L
pCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
g/L
g/L
pCi/L
Minimum
Detectable
Concentration
2
0.0015
2
2
150
0.75
0.1
0.75
0.1
0.02
2
1
4
4
0.3
5
5
15
15
0.06
0.06
50
* The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3. Measurement by alpha
spectrometry includes combined activities of 239Pu and 240Pu, since the relative contributions of these two
isotopes cannot be determined.
f The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3.
J Activity as of the day of counting.
                                      Xlll

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              xiv

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                                  1.  Air Program
                      Airborne Particulates and Precipitation

Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air partic-
ulates and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general (national)
impact of all contributing sources on environmental levels of radiation. Continuous air samplers
collect airborne particulates at field stations representing wide geographic coverage throughout
the United States.

Filters (10 cm diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed routinely, and generally
field measurements are made with a dual-phosphor scintillation counter at least 5 hours after
collection to allow 222Rn progeny to decay. Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA
officials by telephone or mail depending on the activity levels found; however, as of the first
quarter of 2012, NAREL no longer reports field estimates in Environmental Radiation Data.

The filters are sent to NAREL for more sensitive analysis in a gas proportional counter. Gamma
scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta activity greater than 1 pCi/m3.

All stations routinely submit precipitation samples as rainfall, snow, or sleet occurs. The precip-
itation samples are composited at NAREL into single monthly samples for each station. Each
month that precipitation occurs, an aliquant of the composited sample is  analyzed for gamma-
emitting radionuclides. NAREL discontinued gross beta analysis of precipitation in January 2010
and discontinued tritium analysis of precipitation in January 2012.

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             Table 2
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           October 2012
Location
AK: Anchorage
AK: Fairbanks
AK: Juneau
AL: Birmingham
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Fort Smith
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
AZ: Phoenix/956
AZ: Tucson
CA: Anaheim
CA: Bakersfield
CA: Eureka
CA: Fresno
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: Riverside
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CA: San Jose
CO: Colorado Springs
CO: Denver
CO: Grand Junction
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Dover
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
FL: Orlando
FL: Tallahassee
FL: Tampa
GA: Atlanta
GA: Augusta
HI: Hilo
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
IA: Mason City
Number
of
Samples
8
8
6
8
9
4
6
7
8
9
9
4
3
4
5
5
8
2
3
7
9
4
9
6
9
8
6
9
4
9
4
6
4
8
9
9
5
6
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.008
0.012
0.004
0.018
0.026
0.018
0.014
0.023
0.021
0.018
0.018
0.028
0.006
0.019
0.015
0.008
0.014
0.012
0.009
0.007
0.013
0.016
0.020
0.024
0.008
0.015
0.009
0.014
0.004
0.010
0.017
0.012
0.012
0.018
0.004
0.005
0.016
0.014
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.007
0.012
0.011
0.006
0.007
0.009
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.003
0.007
0.007
0.004
0.005
0.011
0.008
0.001
0.004
0.011
0.008
0.008
0.002
0.005
0.002
0.003
0.002
0.002
0.009
0.007
0.008
0.007
0.002
0.002
0.009
0.007
Avg
0.004
0.005
0.002
0.013
0.019
0.014
0.011
0.015
0.014
0.011
0.011
0.016
0.004
0.013
0.011
0.006
0.009
0.011
0.008
0.004
0.007
0.013
0.011
0.014
0.005
0.009
0.007
0.007
0.003
0.006
0.012
0.009
0.010
0.011
0.003
0.003
0.013
0.011

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        Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           October 2012
Location
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Aurora
IL: Champaign
IL: Chicago
IN: Fort Wayne
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
KS: Wichita
KY: Lexington
KY: Louisville
LA: Baton Rouge
LA: Shreveport
MA: Boston
MA: Worcester
MD: Baltimore
ME: Orono
ME: Portland
MI: Bay City 48708
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MI: Lansing
MN: Duluth
MN: St. Paul
MO: Jefferson City
MO: Springfield
MO: St. Louis
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NE: Kearney
NE: Lincoln
NE: Omaha
NH: Concord
NJ: Edison
NM: Albuquerque
NM: Carlsbad
NM: Navajo Lake St Park
Number
of
Samples
5
8
8
8
4
9
3
9
6
9
6
9
8
9
9
8
2
7
9
9
4
9
9
5
9
8
5
9
4
5
8
9
3
o
3
7
4
5
5
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.011
0.014
0.016
0.013
0.019
0.016
0.016
0.020
0.014
0.020
0.015
0.021
0.015
0.009
0.011
0.020
0.008
0.010
0.015
0.016
0.011
0.032
0.011
0.013
0.024
0.023
0.012
0.013
0.013
0.015
0.021
0.020
0.020
0.014
0.012
0.015
0.024
0.012
0.004
0.008
0.007
0.005
0.009
0.007
0.013
0.008
0.008
0.005
0.007
0.004
0.006
0.002
0.004
0.008
0.004
0.001
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.011
0.005
0.008
0.010
0.009
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.012
0.002
0.004
0.007
0.017
0.010
Avg
0.009
0.011
0.012
0.009
0.013
0.011
0.014
0.013
0.011
0.013
0.011
0.013
0.010
0.005
0.007
0.011
0.006
0.006
0.008
0.009
0.009
0.020
0.007
0.010
0.015
0.014
0.009
0.011
0.012
0.010
0.012
0.012
0.017
0.007
0.007
0.011
0.019
0.011

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        Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           October 2012
Location
NV: Las Vegas/913
NV: Reno
NY: Albany
NY: Lockport
NY: New York City
NY: Rochester
NY: Syracuse
NY: Yaphank
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OH: Paine sville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OK: Tulsa
OR: Corvallis
OR: Portland
PA: Bloomsburg
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
PR: San Juan
RI: Providence
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
SD: Rapid City
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN:OakRidge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN:OakRidge/Y12E
TN:OakRidge/Y12W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
TX: Ft. Worth
TX: Harlingen
TX: Houston
Number
of
Samples
9
8
8
9
4
7
4
6
7
9
6
8
9
9
8
8
5
4
6
9
4
4
9
9
5
5
5
9
9
9
9
9
4
9
8
7
4
9
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.016
0.034
0.012
0.016
0.009
0.019
0.013
0.009
0.014
0.016
0.012
0.010
0.022
0.019
0.008
0.014
0.024
0.015
0.015
0.004
0.007
0.019
0.021
0.022
0.019
0.016
0.017
0.019
0.021
0.020
0.019
0.017
0.027
0.026
0.038
0.023
0.012
0.028
0.005
0.005
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.003
0.007
0.008
0.007
0.004
0.009
0.008
0.001
0.002
0.007
0.006
0.005
0.002
0.003
0.011
0.007
0.006
0.009
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.009
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.013
0.009
0.015
0.008
0.006
0.011
Avg
0.009
0.017
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.009
0.005
0.009
0.010
0.009
0.007
0.015
0.014
0.004
0.005
0.013
0.010
0.010
0.003
0.005
0.014
0.013
0.012
0.016
0.011
0.011
0.014
0.016
0.014
0.015
0.013
0.021
0.016
0.022
0.014
0.010
0.016

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        Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           October 2012
Location
TX: Laredo
TX: Lubbock
TX: San Angelo
TX: San Antonio
UT: Salt Lake City
UT: St. George
VA: Harrisonburg
VA: Lynchburg
VA: Richmond
VA: Virginia Beach
VT: Burlington
WA: Olympia
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
WA: Spokane
WI: Madison
WI: Milwaukee
WI: Shawano
WV: Charleston
Number
of
Samples
7
5
6
8
7
4
9
8
5
9
9
9
8
4
9
7
5
9
6
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.018 0.005
0.019 0.011
0.021 0.007
0.020 0.007
0.029 0.006
0.017 0.007
0.019 0.009
0.019 0.009
0.015 0.009
0.014 0.002
0.015 0.003
0.014 0.001
0.020 0.004
0.014 0.001
0.015 0.003
0.016 0.005
0.009 0.005
0.015 0.004
0.023 0.008
Avg
0.010
0.015
0.014
0.011
0.016
0.012
0.014
0.015
0.012
0.008
0.007
0.004
0.010
0.005
0.007
0.010
0.007
0.008
0.015

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             Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
          November 2012
Location
AK: Anchorage
AK: Fairbanks
AK: Juneau
AL: Birmingham
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Fort Smith
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
AZ: Phoenix/956
AZ: Tucson
AZ: Yuma
CA: Anaheim
CA: Bakersfield
CA: Fresno
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: Riverside
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Bernardino Cty.
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CA: San Jose
CO: Colorado Springs
CO: Denver
CO: Grand Junction
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Dover
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
FL: Orlando
FL: Tallahassee
FL: Tampa
GA: Atlanta
GA: Augusta
HI: Hilo
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
Number
of
Samples
4
8
5
9
9
o
3
7
7
5
8
1
7
7
4
3
4
8
7
6
o
3
9
6
2
9
5
7
9
4
8
4
6
4
6
4
5
9
9
8
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.010
0.012
0.006
0.025
0.026
0.020
0.020
0.026
0.029
0.021
0.010
0.016
0.050
0.018
0.019
0.011
0.024
0.023
0.022
0.015
0.007
0.008
0.012
0.016
0.020
0.011
0.016
0.012
0.014
0.008
0.012
0.014
0.015
0.014
0.016
0.004
0.003
0.041
0.007
0.004
0.004
0.010
0.011
0.009
0.008
0.014
0.018
0.006
0.010
0.005
0.007
0.015
0.016
0.005
0.007
0.006
0.008
0.003
0.001
0.002
0.012
0.005
0.009
0.001
0.002
0.009
0.007
0.003
0.006
0.008
0.006
0.011
0.013
0.001
0.002
0.012
Avg
0.009
0.008
0.005
0.015
0.020
0.015
0.014
0.021
0.023
0.012
0.010
0.010
0.026
0.016
0.017
0.008
0.015
0.013
0.015
0.008
0.004
0.005
0.012
0.011
0.013
0.006
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.005
0.009
0.011
0.010
0.012
0.014
0.002
0.003
0.019

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        Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
          November 2012
Location
IA: Mason City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Aurora
IL: Champaign
IL: Chicago
IN: Fort Wayne
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
KS: Wichita
KY: Lexington
KY: Louisville
LA: Baton Rouge
LA: Shreveport
MA: Boston
MA: Worcester
MD: Baltimore
ME: Portland
MI: Bay City 48708
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MI: Lansing
MN: Duluth
MN: St. Paul
MO: Jefferson City
MO: Springfield
MO: St. Louis
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NE: Kearney
NE: Lincoln
NE: Omaha
NH: Concord
NJ: Edison
NM: Albuquerque
NM: Carlsbad
Number
of
Samples
6
2
9
8
7
7
3
8
7
8
5
7
7
8
8
9
9
8
6
8
7
4
9
7
4
8
6
4
8
5
4
9
9
o
J
5
6
3
5
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.020
0.011
0.021
0.037
0.027
0.027
0.031
0.031
0.030
0.027
0.028
0.020
0.025
0.016
0.018
0.028
0.021
0.021
0.025
0.024
0.022
0.024
0.073
0.034
0.022
0.040
0.028
0.021
0.016
0.013
0.023
0.027
0.025
0.022
0.025
0.017
0.019
0.022
0.010
0.004
0.006
0.009
0.009
0.008
0.006
0.006
0.012
0.009
0.013
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.006
0.001
0.002
0.005
0.006
0.002
0.004
0.005
0.007
0.005
0.011
0.012
0.009
0.009
0.004
0.008
0.007
0.008
0.010
0.014
0.004
0.007
0.010
0.018
Avg
0.013
0.008
0.013
0.021
0.018
0.015
0.017
0.018
0.021
0.018
0.020
0.015
0.015
0.013
0.012
0.013
0.011
0.012
0.014
0.013
0.015
0.012
0.037
0.017
0.016
0.022
0.020
0.014
0.012
0.011
0.017
0.017
0.018
0.018
0.017
0.011
0.014
0.019

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        Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
          November 2012
Location
NM: Navajo Lake St Park
NV: Las Vegas/913
NV: Reno
NY: Albany
NY: Lockport
NY: New York City
NY: Rochester
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OH: Paine sville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OK: Tulsa
OR: Corvallis
OR: Portland
PA: Bloomsburg
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
PR: San Juan
RI: Providence
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
SD: Rapid City
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN:OakRidge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN:OakRidge/Y12W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
TX: Ft. Worth
TX: Harlingen
TX: Houston
Number
of
Samples
4
9
7
6
9
2
5
4
9
9
7
9
8
9
8
8
8
5
5
9
4
5
8
6
7
o
3
7
7
7
7
7
7
4
7
1
4
5
9
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.017
0.015
0.023
0.032
0.022
0.013
0.016
0.019
0.017
0.030
0.021
0.018
0.027
0.030
0.007
0.008
0.021
0.016
0.016
0.003
0.009
0.016
0.036
0.020
0.023
0.020
0.020
0.017
0.017
0.027
0.018
0.018
0.026
0.026
0.035
0.026
0.016
0.023
0.009
0.007
0.006
0.001
0.001
0.010
0.001
0.004
0.004
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.008
0.010
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.001
0.002
0.006
0.008
0.013
0.012
0.015
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.004
0.009
0.009
0.015
0.010
0.035
0.012
0.007
0.009
Avg
0.012
0.011
0.014
0.012
0.011
0.012
0.008
0.012
0.012
0.015
0.014
0.010
0.019
0.020
0.003
0.003
0.015
0.010
0.011
0.002
0.006
0.013
0.021
0.015
0.018
0.018
0.013
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.018
0.019
0.035
0.018
0.011
0.016

-------
        Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
          November 2012
Location
TX: Laredo
TX: Lubbock
TX: San Angelo
TX: San Antonio
UT: Salt Lake City
UT: St. George
VA: Harrisonburg
VA: Lynchburg
VA: Richmond
VA: Virginia Beach
VT: Burlington
WA: Olympia
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
WA: Spokane
WI: Madison
WI: Milwaukee
WI: Shawano
WV: Charleston
Number
of
Samples
5
8
6
9
7
o
3
8
8
2
7
8
8
8
5
8
7
8
9
6
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.012 0.008
0.025 0.012
0.021 0.012
0.021 0.008
0.019 0.007
0.017 0.010
0.017 0.004
0.020 0.001
0.014 0.011
0.011 0.004
0.024 0.002
0.005 0.001
0.017 0.002
0.003 0.001
0.010 0.002
0.026 0.012
0.027 0.005
0.040 0.006
0.020 0.007
Avg
0.010
0.018
0.016
0.014
0.013
0.014
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.008
0.008
0.003
0.008
0.002
0.005
0.017
0.014
0.016
0.014

-------
             Table 4
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           December 2012
Location
AK: Anchorage
AK: Fairbanks
AK: Juneau
AL: Birmingham
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Fort Smith
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
AZ: Phoenix/956
AZ: Tucson
AZ: Yuma
CA: Anaheim
CA: Bakersfield
CA: Eureka
CA: Fresno
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CA: Riverside
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Bernardino Cty.
CA: San Diego
CA: San Francisco
CA: San Jose
CO: Colorado Springs
CO: Denver
CO: Grand Junction
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Dover
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
FL: Orlando
FL: Tallahassee
FL: Tampa
GA: Atlanta
GA: Augusta
HI: Hilo
HI: Honolulu
Number
of
Samples
9
9
4
8
8
1
2
9
6
5
1
1
8
2
5
o
3
4
8
9
8
3
9
7
4
9
5
4
9
4
8
1
5
4
7
3
7
9
9
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.008
0.017
0.007
0.017
0.022
0.012
0.015
0.025
0.021
0.016
0.007
0.005
0.028
0.009
0.023
0.018
0.005
0.016
0.015
0.013
0.014
0.004
0.005
0.022
0.040
0.030
0.006
0.018
0.024
0.007
0.004
0.005
0.010
0.008
0.011
0.015
0.004
0.004
0.001
0.005
0.000
0.007
0.008
0.012
0.012
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.005
0.004
0.001
0.004
0.008
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.003
0.004
0.001
0.002
0.004
0.005
0.012
0.003
0.003
0.010
0.004
0.004
0.003
0.006
0.003
0.007
0.007
0.001
0.001
Avg
0.005
0.011
0.004
0.012
0.015
0.012
0.013
0.017
0.012
0.011
0.007
0.005
0.010
0.005
0.012
0.015
0.004
0.008
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.002
0.003
0.012
0.012
0.021
0.004
0.010
0.014
0.005
0.004
0.004
0.008
0.006
0.009
0.011
0.002
0.002
                10

-------
       Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           December 2012
Location
IA: Des Moines
IA: Mason City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Aurora
IL: Champaign
IL: Chicago
IN: Fort Wayne
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Kansas City
KS: Topeka
KS: Wichita
KY: Lexington
KY: Louisville
LA: Baton Rouge
LA: Shreveport
MA: Boston
MA: Worcester
MD: Baltimore
ME: Portland
MI: Bay City 48708
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MI: Lansing
MN: Duluth
MN: St. Paul
MO: Jefferson City
MO: Springfield
MO: St. Louis
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NE: Kearney
NE: Lincoln
NE: Omaha
NH: Concord
NJ: Edison
NM: Albuquerque
Number
of
Samples
6
4
5
9
7
o
3
7
2
9
6
7
5
5
8
7
8
9
8
7
8
7
6
3
8
6
4
9
6
3
7
4
7
5
8
5
4
6
o
3
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.041
0.028
0.005
0.014
0.038
0.025
0.039
0.024
0.035
0.043
0.044
0.040
0.020
0.024
0.015
0.015
0.020
0.015
0.024
0.015
0.025
0.026
0.020
0.067
0.028
0.036
0.039
0.030
0.017
0.013
0.014
0.036
0.022
0.034
0.046
0.017
0.016
0.012
0.009
0.012
0.003
0.004
0.011
0.002
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.004
0.005
0.009
0.012
0.007
0.004
0.006
0.002
0.003
0.011
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.014
0.022
0.010
0.012
0.013
0.007
0.011
0.007
0.006
0.011
0.006
0.007
0.014
0.009
0.005
0.007
Avg
0.024
0.022
0.004
0.008
0.022
0.016
0.017
0.015
0.017
0.029
0.026
0.024
0.016
0.015
0.010
0.009
0.011
0.009
0.016
0.010
0.015
0.014
0.017
0.036
0.018
0.021
0.022
0.020
0.014
0.011
0.009
0.022
0.014
0.018
0.025
0.013
0.007
0.009
                11

-------
       Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           December 2012
Location
NM: Carlsbad
NM: Navajo Lake St Park
NV: Las Vegas/913
NV: Reno
NY: Albany
NY: Lockport
NY: New York City
NY: Rochester
NY: Syracuse
NY: Yaphank
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Cleveland
OH: Paine sville
OH: Toledo
OK: Oklahoma City
OK: Tulsa
OR: Corvallis
OR: Portland
PA: Bloomsburg
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
PR: San Juan
RI: Providence
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
SD: Rapid City
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN:OakRidge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN:OakRidge/Y12E
TN:OakRidge/Y12W
TX: Austin
TX: Dallas
TX: El Paso
TX: Ft. Worth
Number
of
Samples
4
3
6
9
6
9
2
9
3
7
9
9
7
8
7
9
5
9
6
4
2
8
4
5
9
5
6
5
6
7
7
7
7
6
5
8
1
7
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.020
0.013
0.011
0.014
0.016
0.022
0.009
0.018
0.017
0.010
0.027
0.029
0.023
0.019
0.039
0.031
0.005
0.004
0.023
0.015
0.018
0.002
0.009
0.013
0.047
0.056
0.023
0.019
0.014
0.018
0.020
0.025
0.018
0.019
0.023
0.033
0.017
0.021
0.003
0.001
0.003
0.003
0.005
0.007
0.005
0.005
0.008
0.002
0.006
0.010
0.008
0.005
0.010
0.010
0.001
0.001
0.010
0.008
0.008
0.001
0.004
0.010
0.010
0.006
0.010
0.009
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.006
0.010
0.010
0.017
0.008
Avg
0.009
0.009
0.006
0.006
0.011
0.011
0.007
0.009
0.012
0.006
0.013
0.016
0.014
0.011
0.022
0.021
0.002
0.002
0.016
0.011
0.013
0.002
0.005
0.012
0.025
0.018
0.018
0.013
0.010
0.013
0.014
0.016
0.014
0.013
0.016
0.018
0.017
0.014
                12

-------
       Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
           December 2012
Location
TX: Harlingen
TX: Houston
TX: Lubbock
TX: San Angelo
TX: San Antonio
UT: Salt Lake City
UT: St. George
VA: Harrisonburg
VA: Lynchburg
VA: Richmond
VA: Virginia Beach
VT: Burlington
WA: Olympia
WA: Richland
WA: Seattle
WA: Spokane
WI: Madison
WI: Milwaukee
WI: Shawano
WV: Charleston
Number
of
Samples
5
6
4
2
9
7
3
7
6
5
7
9
8
7
4
8
8
4
8
6
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min
(pCi/m3)
0.017 0.001
0.015 0.011
0.014 0.007
0.021 0.017
0.025 0.006
0.011 0.005
0.017 0.007
0.022 0.008
0.044 0.014
0.021 0.004
0.032 0.005
0.012 0.002
0.036 0.001
0.008 0.002
0.002 0.001
0.024 0.001
0.035 0.006
0.027 0.004
0.034 0.008
0.021 0.010
Avg
0.010
0.012
0.011
0.019
0.015
0.008
0.012
0.014
0.021
0.013
0.011
0.007
0.006
0.005
0.001
0.006
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.015
                13

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           Table 5
Specific Gamma in Precipitation
         October 2012
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
NH: Concord
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Paine sville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN:OakRidge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN:OakRidge/Y12E
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Nuclide
Be-7

K-40
Be-7

Be-7
Be-7


Be-7


Be-7






Be-7

Be-7
Be-7

Be-7



pCi/L
9.9
ND
16
38
ND
46
30
ND
ND
107
ND
ND
29
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
18.7
ND
25
42
ND
32
ND
ND
ND
2u
8.9

11
12

18
17


26


15






9.1

12
12

11



              14

-------
           Table 6
Specific Gamma in Precipitation
        November 2012
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AR: Little Rock
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
FL: Jacksonville
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston
MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
MN: Welch/510
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Nuclide
Be-7


Be-7
Be-7


Be-7


Be-7

Be-7





Be-7

Be-7


Be-7
Be-7
Be-7

K-40

pCi/L
28
ND
ND
38
33
ND
ND
45
ND
ND
81
ND
29
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
58
ND
27
ND
ND
45
41
20
ND
21
ND
2u
18


17
19


23


23

17





25

17


19
12
18

13

              15

-------
           Table 7
Specific Gamma in Precipitation
         December 2012
Location
AL: Montgomery/408
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
FL: Jacksonville
HI: Honolulu
ID: Idaho Falls
KS: Kansas City
MA: Boston

MI: Lansing
MN: St. Paul
MN: Welch/510
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN:OakRidge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN:OakRidge/Y12E
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
Nuclide
Be-7



Be-7




Be-7
K-40
Be-7



Be-7
K-40




Be-7
Be-7
Be-7
Be-7



pCi/L
21
ND
ND
ND
62
ND
ND
ND
ND
70
9.2
23
ND
ND
ND
35
12
ND
ND
ND
ND
39
25
34
33
ND
ND
ND
2u
14



20




22
8.8
19



17
11




17
18
18
12



              16

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                Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates

Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined by the analysis
of annually composited samples (air filters) collected from the airborne particulate
samplers. Plutonium and uranium results are published in the ERD for the third quarter of the
following year.

Concentrations of plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239 and 240, and uranium-234,
235, and 238 are determined by alpha-particle spectrometry following chemical
separation. The volume of air represented by the annual composite typically ranges from
120,000 to 500,000 cubic meters.
                                       17

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               18

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                         2.  Drinking Water Program
The RadNet drinking water program provides data on radionuclide concentrations in the nation's
drinking water supplies. Sampling sites are either major population centers or selected nuclear
facility environs.

Drinking water data are used to assess trends and anomalies in concentrations. The analysis
scheme for RadNet samples is similar to that of EPA's "National Interim Primary Drinking
Water Regulations." The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross
beta, and gamma on annual composites; (c) radium-226 if the gross alpha exceeds 2 pCi/L and
radium-228 if the radium-226 falls between 3 and 5 pCi/L on annual composites; (d) iodine-131
on one quarterly sample per year for each station; (e) plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239
and 240, and uranium-234, 235, and 238 for stations that demonstrate gross alpha levels greater
than 2 pCi/L on annual composites; and (f) strontium-90 on one-fourth of the annual composites
on a four year rotating schedule. Composite results are published in the ERD for the third quarter of
the following year.

RadNet drinking water data should not be used to monitor compliance with drinking water regu-
lations or for comparisons to those data since different procedures for collection and analysis
may be used.
                                          19

-------
         Table 8
Tritium in Drinking Water
   October-December 2012
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
LA: New Orleans
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
MI: Detroit
MI: Detroit
MN: St. Paul
MN: Welch
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
MT: Helena
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
NJ: Trenton
NJ: Waretown
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Niagara Falls
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Columbus
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
Date
Collected
10/22/12
10/02/12
10/11/12
10/10/12
10/03/12
10/02/12
10/09/12
10/01/12
10/02/12
10/09/12
10/15/12
12/07/12
11/01/12
10/05/12
10/04/12
12/03/12
10/15/12
10/04/12
10/01/12
10/02/12
11/07/12
11/26/12
10/02/12
10/02/12
10/04/12
10/23/12
10/23/12
10/10/12
10/02/12
10/03/12
11/28/12
11/27/12
12/17/12
10/10/12
10/30/12
10/02/12
10/30/12
12/05/12
11/15/12
12/28/12
3H
pCi/L 2
149 94
-49 77
570 110
295 99
58 82
-46 81
21 88
-56 81
-103 84
-78 81
37 89
14 80
-50 77
-76 77
-50 81
-43 78
47 81
9 84
-67 81
-25 87
82 91
50 86
-86 79
-106 80
-46 86
-52 77
-56 85
-44 84
-83 79
-107 80
-32 82
-53 77
-27 85
-54 85
6 88
-116 79
2 80
4 79
61 86
-53 76
            20

-------
   Table 8 (continued)
Tritium in Drinking Water
   October-December 2012
Location
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter
PA: Philadelphia/Belmont
PA: Philadelphia/Queen
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca
TN: Knoxville
TN:OakRidge/#360
TN:OakRidge/#371
TN:OakRidge/#4442
TN: Oak Ridge/#768
TN:OakRidge/#772
VA: Ashland
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WI: Madison
Date
Collected
10/05/12
10/04/12
10/17/12
10/17/12
10/17/12
12/05/12
10/02/12
10/10/12
10/17/12
10/11/12
10/08/12
10/04/12
10/02/12
10/02/12
10/02/12
10/02/12
10/02/12
11/13/12
10/03/12
10/16/12
10/03/12
3H
pCi/L 2
15 89
-80 80
12 88
-8 87
-66 84
-23 78
-47 82
-21 87
21 88
21 88
25 88
-29 87
-65 77
9 84
-81 80
-91 80
-48 86
1900 170
-21 87
70 90
-40 85
            21

-------
          Table 9
Iodine-131 in Drinking Water
    January-December 2012
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Richmond
CO: Denver
DE: Dover
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
KS: Topeka
LA: New Orleans
MD: Baltimore
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
MI: Detroit
MN: St. Paul
MN: St. Paul
MN: Welch
MN: Welch
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
MT: Helena
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
NJ: Trenton
NJ: Waretown
NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
Date
Collected
04/03/12
04/10/12
01/30/12
01/12/12
01/11/12
01/06/12
08/14/12
01/06/12
01/06/12
05/08/12
10/02/12
08/02/12
10/15/12
12/07/12
05/30/12
08/01/12
04/04/12
01/06/12
03/20/12
10/15/12
01/26/12
03/29/12
01/09/12
04/02/12
04/17/12
04/10/12
01/10/12
04/03/12
01/10/12
10/02/12
01/06/12
01/11/12
01/11/12
10/10/12
10/02/12
01/12/12
04/10/12
09/04/12
05/11/12
01/26/12
01/09/12
131j
pCi/L  2
0.12 0.20
0.12 0.15
-0.04 0.12
0.07 0.16
0.07 0.15
0.14 0.15
0.28 0.40
0.11 0.30
0.09 0.18
-0.03 0.12
0.20 0.37
0.33 0.31
-0.02 0.24
0.2 1.6
0.31 0.32
0.07 0.17
0.05 0.18
0.02 0.15
0.37 0.34
0.23 0.19
-0.02 0.17
0.17 0.26
0.04 0.12
0.16 0.32
-0.06 0.26
0.14 0.18
0.13 0.20
0.34 0.46
0.16 0.18
0.04 0.17
0.05 0.13
0.03 0.16
0.01 0.16
0.16 0.19
0.04 0.35
0.08 0.14
0.28 0.18
0.00 0.28
0.159 0.099
-0.05 0.17
0.06 0.12
             22

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                             Table 9 (continued)
                   Iodine-131 in Drinking Water
                        January-December 2012
Location
NY: New York City
NY: Niagara Falls
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: Columbus
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Paine sville
OH: Toledo
OR: Portland
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter
PA: Philadelphia/Baxter
PA: Philadelphia/Belmont
PA: Philadelphia/Belmont
PA: Philadelphia/Belmont
PA: Philadelphia/Queen
PA: Philadelphia/Queen
PA: Philadelphia/Queen
PA: Pittsburgh
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
SC: Seneca *
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge/#360
TN:OakRidge/#371
TN: Oak Ridge/#4442
TN:OakRidge/#768
TN:OakRidge/#772
TX: Austin
VA: Ashland
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Richland
WI: Madison
Date
Collected
10/10/12
10/30/12
05/07/12
10/02/12
02/03/12
02/01/12
07/19/12
02/08/12
12/28/12
04/10/12
04/04/12
05/23/12
07/18/12
10/17/12
05/23/12
07/18/12
10/17/12
05/23/12
07/18/12
10/17/12
12/05/12
10/02/12
01/25/12
01/17/12
10/11/12
10/08/12
05/18/12
10/04/12
10/02/12
10/02/12
10/02/12
10/02/12
10/02/12
01/26/12
11/13/12
10/03/12
01/10/12
10/03/12
131j
pCi/L  2
-0.03 0.17
-0.21 0.36
0.10 0.24
-0.09 0.20
0.13 0.11
0.08 0.26
0.07 0.36
0.38 0.32
-0.01 0.18
0.18 0.18
0.26 0.19
-0.01 0.29
0.62 0.22
0.74 0.41
0.37 0.28
2.83 0.41
5.46 0.75
0.13 0.34
3.65 0.45
3.28 0.52
0.79 0.33
0.02 0.20
0.29 0.32
-0.04 0.15
-0.15 0.63
2.2 1.9
0.06 0.25
0.14 0.29
0.13 0.23
0.08 0.19
0.15 0.19
0.00 0.19
0.07 0.41
0.10 0.25
0.14 0.16
0.17 0.33
0.21 0.36
0.50 0.37
*The sample from Seneca, SC, was received at NAREL 15 days after collection. The measurement uncertainty for this
sample is large because of the longer-than-usual decay time.
                                    23

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                                 3.  Milk Program
                                   Pasteurized Milk

Milk is a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of certain radionuclides since it is
consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain several of the biologically
significant radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities. A
primary function of this program is to obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current radio-
nuclide concentrations and determine any long-term trends.

Milk samples are collected quarterly at each of the sampling sites. The samples are analyzed for
gamma-emitting nuclides, including iodine-131, barium-140, cesium-137, and potassium-40.
Total potassium concentrations in g/L are determined from potassium-40 activities assuming
natural isotopic abundances. During the third quarter collection, one-fourth of the samples are
also analyzed for strontium-90 on a four year rotating schedule.
                                           25

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                                     Table 10

                       Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                              October-December 2012
Location
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Los Angeles
CA: San Francisco
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Plant City
HI: Hilo
IA: Des Moines
KS: Wichita
KY: Louisville
MA: Boston
MD: Baltimore
MI: Detroit
NJ: Trenton
NV: Las Vegas
NV: Reno
NY: Buffalo
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OR: Portland
PA: Pittsburgh
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TX: Dallas
VT: Montpelier
WA: Spokane
WA: Tacoma
WV: Charleston
Date
Collected
12/13/12
12/19/12
12/18/12
10/17/12
11/19/12
10/15/12
10/16/12
10/22/12
10/22/12
12/05/12
10/03/12
12/20/12
10/16/12
10/29/12
10/09/12
11/26/12
11/13/12
10/29/12
11/02/12
12/03/12
12/10/12
10/16/12
10/03/12
10/03/12
10/15/12
10/22/12
10/22/12
10/30/12
12/17/12
10/03/12
K
g/L 2w
1.59 0.18
1.70 0.19
1.66 0.20
1.88 0.22
1.72 0.21
1.61 0.20
1.66 0.19
1.71 0.20
1.63 0.19
1.68 0.20
1.70 0.20
1.62 0.20
1.62 0.19
1.76 0.20
1.73 0.20
1.72 0.20
1.66 0.20
1.64 0.19
1.61 0.20
1.68 0.19
1.68 0.20
1.57 0.19
1.68 0.19
1.58 0.19
1.62 0.19
1.70 0.20
1.70 0.21
1.66 0.19
1.63 0.19
1.60 0.18
137Cs
pCi/L 2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
140Ba
pCi/L 2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
mj
pCi/L 2
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not detected
      NR = No result (not analyzed within 5 half-lives of collection)
                                         26

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                              For More Information
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is published quarterly by the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.
Requests for information concerning the operation of RadNet and the data that are generated
should be directed as follows:

Requests for information concerning the operation of RadNet, the data that are generated, or
publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                   Charles M. Petko
                                 Office of the Director
                  National Analytical Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                               540 South Morris Avenue
                           Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
                             email: petko.charles@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning policies of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air should be
directed to:

                                   Jonathan Edwards
                                    USEPA - ORIA
                        Radiation Protection Division (MC6608J)
                             1200 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W.
                                Washington, DC 20460
                            email: edwards.jonathan@epa.gov

                                         ***
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