402-R-99-015
ENVIRONMENTAL



RADIATION



DATA
                       REPORT 98




                     April - June 1999
         United States Environmental Protection Agency




              Office of Radiation and Indoor Air

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                                       Preface
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is compiled and published quarterly by the Office of Radiation
and Indoor Air's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery,
Alabama,  and contains  data  from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System
(ERAMS).  ERD is published in both hard-copy and electronic formats.  Electronic reports are
available online atwww.epa.gov/narel.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency established ERAMS in 1973 with an emphasis
on identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the environment. ERAMS
is comprised of a nationwide network of sampling stations that provide air, precipitation, surface
water, drinking water, and milk samples.

Sampling locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning to monitor
fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The
radiation analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta analyses, gamma
analyses, and radionuclide-specific analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium, iodine, radium, and
tritium.  This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural background levels and
on routine and accidental releases into the environment from stationary sources.

The radiochemical procedures used by NAREL to analyze the ERAMS samples are contained in the
Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility Radiochemistry Procedures Manual (EPA 520/5-84-006).
Station operation and sample collection are in accordance with procedures contained in the ERAMS
Manual (EPA 520/5-84-007, 008, 009).
                                           vn

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                               Acknowledgments
All sampling for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) is performed
by volunteer collectors who  are frequently  members  of the  health departments or related
environmental agencies of their respective states.  The National Air and Radiation Environmental
Laboratory (NAREL) on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency would like  to
acknowledge the time and effort of these volunteer collectors, who are so essential to the successful
operation of ERAMS. The efforts of the sample collectors are especially appreciated during times
of emergency operation when sampling frequencies are increased  and schedules are sometimes
demanding.
                                          IX

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                         Data Reporting Conventions
Every laboratory measurement involves uncertainty. When there is little or no radioactivity in a
sample, one consequence of measurement uncertainty is the possibility of obtaining a measured value
that is less than zero. Such a negative result occurs when random effects in the measurement process
cause the measured value for the sample to be less than that of the blank or background, which is
subtracted from it. From April  1991 to December 1995, negative results were reported as "not
detected" or "ND," and gamma analysis results that were less than their estimated measurement
uncertainties were also reported as "ND." In January 1996 both of these practices were discontinued.
Although negative activities are physically impossible, the inclusion of negative results in the report
allows better statistical analysis of the data.

Results of gamma analyses are still reported as "ND" when gamma-emitting radionuclides are not
detected.
                               Measurement Uncertainty

Each measured value y is reported with an expanded uncertainty U=k uc(y), which is determined
from the combined standard uncertainty uc(y) and the coverage factor k = 2. The interval from^ - U
toy+Uis estimated to have a level of confidence of approximately 95%.
                                   Significant Figures

Expanded uncertainties are reported to two significant figures. Measurement results are rounded to
the corresponding number of decimal places.
                                  Detection Capability

The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) for each radionuclide are shown in Table 1.  The
MDC is defined as the minimum concentration that gives a 95% probability of detection when the
detection criteria are chosen to give only a 5% probability of false detection in a blank sample.
                                           XI

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                                   Table 1

     Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations
                        for Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
Gross Beta
Tritium
* Plutonium-23 8,23 9/240
f Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Strontium-90
{Iodine-131
Cesium- 137
{ Barium-140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation
Water
Milk
Air
Water
Air
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk (gamma)
Water (gamma)
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
Reporting
Unit
pCi/L
pCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
aCi/m3
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
pCi/L
g/L
g/L
pCi/L
Minimum
Detectable
Concentration
2
0.0015
2
2
150
150
0.75
0.1
0.75
0.1
0.02
2
1
4
4
0.3
5
5
15
15
0.06
0.06
50
* The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3.  Measurement by alpha
spectrometry includes combined activities of 239Pu and 240Pu, since the relative contributions of these two
isotopes cannot be determined.
f The MDC for air is based on an assumed total sample volume of 120,000 m3.
J Activity as of the day of counting.
                                      Xlll

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                                  1.  Air Program
                      Airborne Participates and Precipitation

Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air particulates
and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general (national) impact of all
contributing sources on environmental levels of radiation.

Airborne particulates are collected continuously  at field stations representing wide geographic
coverage, including present and potential sources of environmental radioactivity.  Sampling sites are
located throughout the United States.

Filters (10-cm diameter synthetic fiber)  from air samplers are  changed twice weekly and field
measurements are made with a G-M survey meter at 5 hours after collection to allow for decay of
natural radon isotopes and their progeny.  Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA officials
by telephone or mail depending on the activity levels found.

The filters are sent to NAREL for more sensitive analyses in a low background beta counter. Gamma
scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta counts greater than 1 pCi/m3. The laboratory
obtained values are usually lower than the field estimates due to the decay of naturally occurring
radionuclides between the times of the two measurements.

Precipitation samples are collected at most field stations collecting air filters. These samples are also
sent to NAREL where they are composited monthly for gamma scans, tritium, and gross beta activity
measurements.

A compilation of individual  measurements  is available from  the National Air and  Radiation
Environmental Laboratory, 540 South Morris Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36115-2601.

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             Table 2
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
           April 1999
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Topeka
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Paine sville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
Number
of
Samples
2
9
8
4
9
9
7
9
8
9
4
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
2
5
9
6
1
3
9
9
4
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
1
8
5
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.2 0.4
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.2 0.4
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.9 0.1 0.3
0.7 0.2 0.4

0.6 0.0 0.2
1.3 0.1 0.5
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.7 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1

0.1 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.016 0.009 0.012
0.034 0.012 0.023
0.018 0.010 0.012
0.022 0.007 0.013
0.010 0.003 0.005
0.022 0.004 0.008
0.018 0.005 0.011
0.010 0.004 0.007
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.014 0.007 0.011
0.013 0.007 0.010
0.007 0.003 0.005
0.015 0.010 0.012
0.012 0.005 0.007
0.011 0.006 0.008
0.012 0.007 0.009
0.015 0.007 0.010
0.010 0.004 0.006
0.012 0.005 0.008
0.011 0.011 0.011
0.015 0.005 0.009
0.017 0.008 0.012
0.016 0.013 0.014
0.011 0.011 0.011
0.012 0.008 0.009
0.010 0.003 0.006
0.020 0.005 0.011
0.013 0.006 0.010
0.010 0.006 0.008
0.010 0.005 0.007
0.012 0.003 0.009
0.016 0.007 0.011
0.009 0.003 0.005
0.012 0.007 0.010
0.013 0.006 0.009
0.005 0.005 0.005
0.018 0.005 0.013
0.010 0.007 0.008

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        Table 2 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
           April 1999
Location
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN:OakRidge/Y12W
TX: Austin
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
WI: Madison
Number
of
Samples
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
7
9
5
9
4
3
9
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
1.0 0.0 0.5
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.6 0.0 0.4
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.3
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.037 0.009 0.018
0.016 0.008 0.011
0.016 0.007 0.012
0.016 0.006 0.011
0.015 0.007 0.010
0.016 0.007 0.011
0.016 0.007 0.012
0.013 0.006 0.009
0.024 0.008 0.016
0.014 0.006 0.009
0.015 0.007 0.009
0.008 0.003 0.005
0.005 0.003 0.004
0.014 0.007 0.011

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             Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            May 1999
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Topeka
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Paine sville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
Number
of
Samples
8
6
3
6
7
6
7
8
8
4
7
7
6
7
8
8
8
8
4
8
3
4
9
7
3
8
8
7
8
6
8
8
1
7
4
7
8
8
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.2 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.7 0.1 0.4
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.6 0.0 0.3
0.8 0.1 0.5

0.5 0.0 0.2
1.4 0.2 0.4
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.4 0. 0.2
0.2 0. 0.2
0.4 0. 0.2
0. 0.0 0.1
0. 0. 0.1
0.2 0. 0.1
0. 0. 0.1
0. 0.0 0.0
0. 0.0 0.1
0. 0.1 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.2 0.4
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.3
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.033 0.012 0.021
0.010 0.007 0.009
0.017 0.011 0.013
0.006 0.003 0.004
0.012 0.007 0.009
0.013 0.003 0.008
0.006 0.003 0.005
0.009 0.006 0.008
0.015 0.005 0.008
0.009 0.003 0.006
0.005 0.002 0.004
0.014 0.006 0.009
0.010 0.004 0.007
0.014 0.005 0.008
0.014 0.007 0.008
0.009 0.005 0.007
0.008 0.002 0.005
0.014 0.005 0.008
0.014 0.006 0.010
0.014 0.008 0.011
0.012 0.009 0.011
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.009 0.002 0.006
0.013 0.006 0.010
0.011 0.005 0.007
0.012 0.004 0.007
0.009 0.003 0.006
0.011 0.006 0.008
0.014 0.007 0.009
0.005 0.002 0.004
0.010 0.006 0.008
0.013 0.007 0.009
0.004 0.004 0.004
0.015 0.005 0.010
0.008 0.004 0.006
0.033 0.010 0.017
0.012 0.009 0.011
0.011 0.007 0.008

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       Table 3 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            May 1999
Location
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN:OakRidge/Y12W
TX: Austin
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
WI: Madison
Number
of
Samples
8
8
8
8
6
7
4
8
3
7
5
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.5 0.0 0.3
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.6 0.3 0.5
0.4 0.0 0.1
1.0 0.2 0.5
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.3
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.012 0.007 0.009
0.011 0.005 0.008
0.014 0.007 0.009
0.012 0.007 0.009
0.017 0.008 0.011
0.021 0.008 0.013
0.013 0.006 0.009
0.010 0.006 0.008
0.003 0.002 0.003
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.012 0.006 0.009

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             Table 4
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            June 1999
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Topeka
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: New York City
NY: Yaphank
OH: Paine sville
OH: Ross
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Pittsburgh
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SD: Pierre
TN: Knoxville
Number
of
Samples
2
9
8
5
9
9
8
9
9
9
4
8
9
9
8
9
8
9
9
5
2
9
8
4
8
9
4
9
9
8
9
8
8
9
1
9
3
7
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.3 0.4
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.1 0.4
0.3 0.2 0.2

0.7 0.0 0.3
1.4 0. 0.4
0.3 0. 0.1
0.4 0. 0.2
0.4 0. 0.2
0.1 0. 0.1
0.6 0. 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.7 0. 0.3
0.3 0. 0.2
0.1 0. 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2

0.1 0.0 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.8 0.1 0.4
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.005 0.005 0.005
0.026 0.008 0.017
0.015 0.007 0.010
0.015 0.009 0.013
0.004 0.001 0.002
0.007 0.005 0.006
0.013 0.007 0.009
0.010 0.005 0.008
0.016 0.007 0.010
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.004 0.002 0.003
0.017 0.006 0.010
0.009 0.003 0.006
0.011 0.005 0.007
0.015 0.005 0.010
0.012 0.003 0.008
0.013 0.003 0.008
0.013 0.004 0.008
0.014 0.009 0.011
0.007 0.006 0.007
0.030 0.009 0.014
0.020 0.005 0.011
0.009 0.004 0.006
0.014 0.005 0.009
0.015 0.007 0.010
0.012 0.007 0.009
0.022 0.005 0.010
0.013 0.005 0.008
0.014 0.004 0.010
0.014 0.007 0.011
0.003 0.001 0.003
0.012 0.007 0.009
0.017 0.007 0.011
0.001 0.001 0.001
0.014 0.005 0.010
0.007 0.004 0.005
0.022 0.009 0.015

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        Table 4 (continued)
Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
            June 1999
Location
TN: Nashville
TN: Oak Ridge/Bethel
TN: Oak Ridge/K25
TN: Oak Ridge/Melton
TN: Oak Ridge/Y12 E
TN:OakRidge/Y12W
TX: Austin
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WA: Spokane
WI: Madison
Number
of
Samples
9
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
3
8
4
9
7
5 -hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.8 0.2 0.6
1.0 0.1 0.6
1.0 0.1 0.6
0.8 0.1 0.6
0.5 0.1 0.3
0.2 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.3 0.5
0.1 0.0 0.1
1.0 0.2 0.6
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.5 0.1 0.3
NAREL Lab
Measurement
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.029 0.008 0.015
0.016 0.005 0.011
0.017 0.006 0.012
0.016 0.006 0.011
0.018 0.006 0.012
0.019 0.005 0.012
0.012 0.005 0.009
0.015 0.009 0.011
0.010 0.007 0.008
0.015 0.005 0.009
0.003 0.002 0.002
0.010 0.002 0.006
0.015 0.005 0.009

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                        Table 5
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       April 1999
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix

CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NM: Santa Fe
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Paine sville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WI: Madison
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2u
1.95
1.41
1.57

1.02
5.28
3.55
1.04
1.69
1.02
1.60
1.21
4.05
0.93
1.82
0.73
2.18
2.19
3.25
2.35
1.97
4.05
3.84
2.00
1.37
3.03
4.29
2.56
5.06
1.24
1.30
1.45
1.20
0.74
0.36
0.37
0.40

0.33
0.56
0.47
0.35
0.36
0.36
0.39
0.36
0.53
0.29
0.39
0.26
0.41
0.43
0.49
0.42
0.41
0.54
0.47
0.37
0.37
0.46
0.47
0.39
0.53
0.31
0.36
0.40
0.35
0.27
Specific Gamma
Activity
Nuclide pCi/L  2u

K40
Pb212

Be7
Be7






Be7

Be7
T1208
Be7
Bi212
Be7
Be7
Be7
T1208





K40
ND
ND
20 41
3.9 6.6
ND
132 44
88 53
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
40 33
ND
ND
58 42
2.2 3.2
78 37
30 24
68 41
ND
64 42
68 24
1.8 2.8
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
21 43
Note:
ND = Not Detected

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                        Table 6
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       May 1999
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
CA: Berkeley
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville

FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Idaho Falls
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch
NC: Charlotte

NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Paine sville

OR: Portland
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WI: Madison
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2u
2.40
1.20
2.26
0.11
1.49
3.14
2.54

3.41
3.46
0.75
3.52
1.56
1.92
0.83
1.97
5.00

0.78
0.86
2.75
0.53
9.80
1.57
2.82
1.39

1.99
1.68
1.17
2.20
2.58
1.73
0.62
5.51
0.63
1.31
0.39
0.31
0.39
0.22
0.32
0.42
0.40

0.46
0.44
0.28
0.45
0.32
0.37
0.29
0.36
0.50

0.28
0.29
0.40
0.33
0.71
0.33
0.40
0.32

0.36
0.33
0.31
0.37
0.40
0.34
0.26
0.53
0.27
0.32
Specific Gamma
Activity
Nuclide pCi/L  2u
Be7




Pb212
Be7
T1208


Be7
T1208

K40


Be7
Pb212

K40

T1208


Be7
Be7
T1208


K40

Be7
Ra224

K40

Pb212
92 42
ND
ND
ND
ND
6.3 7.5
49 35
3.5 4.1
ND
ND
33 31
2.1 2.3
ND
35 43
ND
ND
99 56
3.6 6.6
ND
23 42
ND
3.9 4.1
ND
ND
61 32
39 43
3.8 5.3
ND
ND
27 40
ND
43 32
35 40
ND
41 62
ND
5.9 7.0
Note:   ND = Not Detected

-------
                        Table 7
     Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation
                       June 1999
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock

CO: Denver
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NM: Santa Fe

NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Paine sville
PA: Harrisburg
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville

TX: Austin

TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WI: Madison
Gross Beta
Activity
pCi/L 2u
1.28
1.03

2.78
2.25
1.32
0.96
1.21
0.95
2.39
1.35
4.44
1.46
1.16
5.53
2.20
1.32
1.57
2.04
4.71

6.01
9.20
1.33
3.48
4.77
1.16
1.50
4.84

0.74

1.32
2.92
21.3
0.87
0.82
0.36
0.36

0.41
0.38
0.37
0.33
0.31
0.37
0.39
0.32
0.48
0.38
0.36
0.66
0.42
0.31
0.36
0.35
0.55

0.55
0.68
0.38
0.44
0.52
0.36
0.38
0.55

0.33

0.38
0.41
1.5
0.29
0.36
Specific Gamma
Activity
Nuclide pCi/L  2u
Be7
Be7
T1208
Be7
Be7
Pb212
Be7
K40

T1208

Be7


Be7
Be7
Pb212
Pb212
Be7
Be7

K40
Be7
K40
K40
T1208
Pb212
Be7
K40
K40
68 35
30 29
2.6 3.4
85 21
38 29
4.5 6.0
16 17
36 44
ND
2.5 3.7
ND
88 28
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
30 23
34 34
6.8 6.8
4.1 7.1
ND
42 28
84 23
ND
ND
20 38
35 29
24 35
33 40
2.6 3.5
7.4 7.7
49 30
21 35
ND
29 50
Note:
ND = Not Detected
                           10

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                              Table 8
                      Tritium in Precipitation
                          April - June 1999
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
AZ: Phoenix
CA: Berkeley
CO: Denver
CT: Hartford
DE: Wilmington
FL: Jacksonville
FL: Miami
HI: Honolulu
IA: Iowa City
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
ME: Augusta
MI: Lansing
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Welch
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NH: Concord
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: Yaphank
OH: Painesville
OR: Portland
PA: Harrisburg
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
TN: Knoxville
TN: Nashville
TX: Austin
TX: El Paso
UT: Salt Lake City
VA: Lynchburg
WA: Olympia
WI: Madison
April 1999
pCi/L 2u
21 73
27 77
48 78
NS
59 79
52 75
84 76
14 73
34 74
7 76
32 77
-7 75
35 77
NS
40 74
2 76
71 76
75 76
35 74
19 76
114 78
65 78
NS
74 76
34 74
64 76
-31 74
41 74
257 84
67 76
29 74
40 74
NS
NS
96 80
62 75
10 76
26 73
May 1999
pCi/L 2u
34 77
24 76
NS
34 70
-2 75
-19 75
33 77
-50 73
-65 72
39 71
-39 73
NS
72 72
-21 74
-26 74
2 75
15 76
22 76
-5 75
64 78
3 76
-4 76
91 73
-2 75
7 76
9 76
61 71
NS
79 78
51 77
51 77
2 75
-19 74
NS
57 78
5 75
50 71
9 76
June 1999
pCi/L 2u
-42 75
-96 75
NS
NS
46 81
NS
-25 76
-41 75
24 77
-80 75
22 80
-36 77
-22 77
33 78
27 78
-14 78
13 77
58 79
-24 76
-2 79
77 80
14 79
NS
-36 75
31 78
8 77
NS
6 77
195 84
78 80
6 77
60 79
-39 77
50 81
9 79
30 78
2 79
46 79
Note:   NS = No Sample
                                 11

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      Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates and Precipitation

Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined by the analysis of annually
composited samples (air filters) collected from the continuously operating airborne paniculate
samplers.

Concentrations of plutonium-23 8, combined plutonium-239 and 240, anduranium-234,235, and 23 8
are determined by alpha spectrometry following chemical separation. The volume of air represented
by the annual composite ranges from 120,000 to 500,000 cubic meters.

Plutonium and uranium results are published when they become available.
                                          12

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                                2. Water Program
The ERAMS water program provides data on radionuclide concentrations in the nation's  rivers,
streams, and drinking water supplies.
                                    Surface Water

Quarterly grab samples are taken downstream from nuclear facilities in as many as 58 stations.
Surface water samples are analyzed for tritium quarterly and gamma-emitting radionuclides annually.
Tritium is a primary potential radioactive pollutant from nuclear power plants and weapons
production activities.
                                           13

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        Table 9
Tritium in Surface Water
    April - June 1999
Location
AL: Decatur
AL: Gordon
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Clay Station
CA: Eureka
CO: Platteville
CT: E. Haddam
CT: Waterford
FL: Crystal River
FL: Ft. Pierce
FL: Homestead
GA: Baxley
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Buhl
IL: Morris
KS: Le Roy
LA: New Orleans
MA: Plymouth
MD: Conowingo
MD: Lusby
ME: Wiscasset
MI: Bridgman
MI: Charlevoix
MI: Monroe
MI: S. Haven
MN: Monticello
MN: Red Wing
MS: Port Gibson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Southport
NV: Boulder City
NY: Chelsea
NY: Croton-On-Hudson
NY: Oswego
OH: Toledo
OR: Bradwood
PA: Danville
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Philadelphia
Source
Tennessee River
Chattahoochee River
Tennessee River
Arkansas River
Folsom S. Canal
Humboldt Bay
South Platte River
Connecticut River
Long Island Sound
Gulf Of Mexico
Atlantic Ocean
Biscayne Bay
Altamaha River
Cedar River
Snake River
Illinois River
Neosho River
Mississippi River
Cape Cod Bay
Susquehanna River
Chesapeake Bay
Montseway Bay
Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan
Lake Erie
Lake Michigan
Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Mississippi River
Catawba River
Atlantic Ocean
Colorado River
Hudson River
Hudson River
Lake Ontario
Lake Erie
Columbia River
Susquehanna River
Delaware River - Baxter
Schuylkill River - Queen
Date
Collected
04/15/99
04/01/99
04/15/99
04/08/99
04/19/99
04/07/99
04/14/99
04/09/99
04/08/99
04/19/99
04/20/99
04/14/99
04/23/99
04/19/99
04/14/99
04/12/99
06/24/99
04/28/99
04/27/99
04/13/99
04/13/99
04/12/99
04/12/99
04/10/99
04/12/99
04/12/99
04/26/99
04/19/99
04/06/99
04/23/99
04/08/99
05/26/99
04/12/99
04/16/99
06/11/99
06/29/99
04/20/99
04/14/99
04/15/99
04/15/99
3H
pCi/L 2u
-9 80
21 75
18 82
27 74
-32 80
22 75
-27 80
62 76
1290 120
-54 78
-63 77
-16 81
14 80
-6 80
-10 81
0 76
105 78
29 79
57 81
5 76
44 78
-7 73
14 80
100 78
49 78
98 81
-35 80
-25 80
43 75
323 92
-16 73
77 80
-7 76
69 83
181 84
8 74
-27 80
54 78
34 82
9 81
           14

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   Table 9 (continued)
Tritium in Surface Water
    April - June 1999
Location
SC: Allendale
SC: Broad River
SC: Hartsville
TN: Daisy
TN: Kingston
TN: Oak Ridge
TX: Matagorda
VA: Doswell
VA: Newport News
VT: Vernon
WA: Northport
WA: Richland
WI: Two Creeks
WI: Victory
WV: Wheeling
Source
Savannah River
Broad River
Lake Robinson
Tennessee River
Clinch River
Clinch River
Colorado River
North Anna River
James River
Connecticut River
Columbia River
Columbia River
Lake Michigan
Mississippi River
Ohio River
Date
Collected
04/07/99
04/06/99
04/21/99
04/12/99
04/13/99
05/17/99
04/12/99
04/07/99
04/21/99
04/26/99
04/05/99
05/19/99
04/14/99
04/13/99
04/06/99
3H
pCi/L 2u
910 110
190 82
4090 180
217 83
2740 160
1030 110
12 76
3590 170
37 79
14 81
86 77
-17 76
16 82
27 82
-22 72
           15

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                                   Drinking Water

This program monitors ambient radiation levels in drinking water in as many as 78 sites. These data
serve to assess trends and anomalies in concentrations, and to compare with standards set forth in the
EPA "National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations." These regulations provide for approval
of supplies when the combined radium-226 and radium-228 levels do not exceed 5 pCi/L, when the
gross alpha (excluding radon and uranium) levels do not exceed 15 pCi/L, when tritium levels do not
exceed 20,000 pCi/L, when the strontium-90 levels do not exceed 8 pCi/L, and when the gross beta
levels do not exceed 50 pCi/L.

Grab samples are taken at the 78 sites which are either major population centers or selected nuclear
facility environs.

The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross beta, strontium-90, and
gamma on annual composites; (c) radium-226 if the gross alpha exceeds 2 pCi/L and radium-228 if
the radium-226 falls between 3 and 5 pCi/L; (d) iodine-131 on one quarterly sample per year for each
station; and (e) an annual composite for plutonium-238, combined plutonium-239 and 240, and
uranium-234, 235, and 238 for stations that demonstrate gross alpha levels greater than 2 pCi/L.
                                           16

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        Table 10
Tritium in Drinking Water
    April - June 1999
Location
AK: Fairbanks
AL: Dothan
AL: Montgomery
AL: Muscle Shoals
AL: Scottsboro
AR: Little Rock
CA: Berkeley
CA: Los Angeles
CO: Denver
CO: Platteville
CT: Hartford
DC: Washington
DE: Dover
FL: Miami
FL: Tampa
GA: Baxley
GA: Savannah
HI: Honolulu
IA: Cedar Rapids
ID: Boise
ID: Idaho Falls
IL: Morris
IL: W. Chicago
KS: Topeka
LA: New Orleans
MA: Lawrence
MD: Baltimore
MD: Conowingo
ME: Augusta
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MN: Minneapolis
MN: Red Wing
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
MS: Port Gibson
NC: Charlotte
NC: Wilmington
ND: Bismarck
NE: Lincoln
Date
Collected
05/17/99
04/01/99
04/01/99
04/16/99
04/15/99
04/08/99
04/09/99
04/06/99
04/14/99
04/14/99
04/05/99
04/29/99
04/30/99
04/14/99
06/21/99
04/20/99
06/11/99
04/07/99
04/19/99
04/07/99
04/26/99
05/03/99
04/23/99
04/05/99
04/13/99
05/19/99
04/05/99
04/13/99
04/22/99
04/06/99
05/18/99
05/03/99
05/03/99
04/05/99
04/06/99
04/06/99
04/23/99
04/08/99
04/07/99
04/07/99
3H
pCi/L 2u
30
-60
6
26
57
-10
-24
-56
37
22
-6
21
-43
-50
16
-27
3
-36
-51
3
70
-63
-63
64
132
54
-19
24
-62
135
52
49
-68
-40
-42
-30
400
39
46
-5
78
75
79
78
80
74
73
71
78
77
78
78
75
75
77
79
77
76
74
74
83
75
74
81
83
80
78
75
78
80
79
80
74
77
72
72
94
76
76
74
           17

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   Table 10 (continued)
Tritium in Drinking Water
    April - June 1999
Location
NH: Concord
NM: Santa Fe
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Albany
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OH: E. Liverpool
OH: Painesville
OH: Toledo
OR: Portland
PA: Columbia
PA: Harrisburg
PA: Philadelphia - Baxter
PA: Philadelphia - Queen
PA: Pittsburgh
PC: Corozal
RI: Providence
SC: Barnwell
SC: Columbia
SC: Jenkinsville
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Oak Ridge - Roane Co #4442
TN: Oak Ridge - Knox Co#371
TN: Oak Ridge - Roane Co#360
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co#768
TN: Oak Ridge - Anderson Co #772
TX: Austin
VA: Doswell
WA: Seattle
WI: Genoa
WI: Madison
Date
Collected
04/23/99
04/06/99
04/02/99
04/05/99
04/22/99
06/30/99
06/11/99
04/06/99
04/06/99
04/06/99
04/15/99
04/16/99
04/15/99
04/15/99
06/11/99
04/12/99
04/06/99
04/05/99
04/06/99
04/27/99
04/06/99
04/13/99
06/23/99
06/23/99
06/23/99
06/23/99
06/23/99
04/19/99
04/05/99
04/05/99
04/13/99
04/05/99
3H
pCi/L 2u
-2
13
56
11
53
36
850
183
73
-20
-17
-38
36
-19
46
2
14
-75
310
11
193
19
128
78
63
24
2
-32
40
15
-65
3
76
78
77
81
79
75
110
85
77
73
76
75
78
76
79
74
75
70
87
81
85
78
81
77
77
74
77
75
80
74
74
75
           18

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                                 3.  Milk Program
                                   Pasteurized Milk

Milk is a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of radionuclides since it is consumed
fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain several of the biologically significant
radionuclides that result from environmental releases from nuclear activities. A primary function of
this program is to obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current radionuclide concentrations and
determine any long-term trends.

In April,  1999, the collection of pasteurized milk samples was changed from monthly to quarterly.

Quarterly samples are collected at approximately 55 sampling sites. The samples are composited,
according to production, from the major milk suppliers representing more than 80 percent of the milk
consumed in a given population center.

The samples  are  analyzed for  gamma-emitting nuclides, including  iodine-131, barium-140,
cesium-137, and potassium-40.  Total potassium concentrations in g/L are determined from
potassium-40 activities assuming natural isotopic abundances.  All samples collected in July are
analyzed for strontium-90.

Iodine-131, barium-140, cesium-137, and potassium-40 are determined by gamma spectral analysis.
Strontium-90 is determined by beta counting a total strontium precipitate that has been chemically
separated by ion exchange.
                                           19

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                                Table 11
                    Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                            April - June 1999
Location
AL: Montgomery
AR: Little Rock
CA: Los Angeles
CA: Sacramento
CA: San Francisco
CT: Hartford
FL: Tampa
GA: Atlanta
HI: Honolulu
IA: Des Moines
IL: Chicago
IN: Indianapolis
KS: Wichita
KY: Louisville
MA: Boston
MA: Boston
MD: Baltimore
ME: Portland
MI: Detroit
MI: Grand Rapids
MO: Jefferson City
MS: Jackson
NC: Charlotte
NJ: Trenton
NM: Albuquerque
NV: Las Vegas
NY: Buffalo
NY: Syracuse
OH: Cincinnati
OR: Portland
PA: Philadelphia
PA: Pittsburgh
PA: Pittsburgh
PR: San Juan
SD: Rapid City
TN: Chattanooga
TN: Knoxville
TN: Memphis
TX: Austin
Date
Collected
04/09/99
04/07/99
04/07/99
04/20/99
04/13/99
04/08/99
04/06/99
04/27/99
04/06/99
04/05/99
04/01/99
04/05/99
04/13/99
04/05/99
04/09/99
05/07/99
04/02/99
04/22/99
04/13/99
04/05/99
04/15/99
04/06/99
04/15/99
04/09/99
04/21/99
04/05/99
04/12/99
04/05/99
04/14/99
04/09/99
04/06/99
04/06/99
05/03/99
04/08/99
04/14/99
04/12/99
04/27/99
05/21/99
04/20/99
K
g/L 2u
1.54 0.15
1.51 0.12
1.50 0.17
1.58 0.11
1.64 0.12
1.60 0.17
1.67 0.11
1.61 0.15
1.58 0.12
1.61 0.15
1.63 0.13
1.50 0.12
1.61 0.13
1.55 0.15
1.51 0.14
1.49 0.13
1.58 0.13
1.63 0.13
1.57 0.12
1.62 0.13
1.72 0.14
1.57 0.12
1.67 0.13
1.64 0.17
1.81 0.13
1.62 0.11
1.44 0.17
1.61 0.11
1.49 0.13
1.56 0.12
1.69 0.12
1.60 0.12
1.51 0.15
1.66 0.14
1.58 0.12
1.47 0.12
1.57 0.13
1.57 0.15
1.45 0.16
137Cs
pCi/L 2u
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
4.4 1.6
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
140Ba
pCi/L 2u
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Blj
pCi/L 2u
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                                   20

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                          Table 11 (continued)
                    Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                            April - June 1999
Location
TX: Austin
TX: Ft. Worth
VA: Norfolk
VT: Burlington
WA: Seattle
WA: Spokane
WV: Charleston
WV: Charleston
Date
Collected
05/06/99
04/19/99
04/07/99
04/28/99
04/05/99
04/06/99
04/05/99
05/02/99
K
g/L 2u
1.49 0.13
1.56 0.14
1.62 0.12
1.68 0.14
1.57 0.12
1.60 0.12
1.58 0.12
1.58 0.12
137Cs
pCi/L 2u
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
140Ba
pCi/L 2u
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Blj
pCi/L 2u
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Note:   ND = Not Detected
                                   21

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               22

-------
                               For More Information
Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is published quarterly by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.
Requests for information concerning the operation of ERAMS and the data that are generated should
be directed as follows:

For System Operations                   For Analytical Information and Data-

Rhonda Sears                           John Griggs
National Air and Radiation Environmental  National Air and Radiation Environmental
  Laboratory                              Laboratory
540 South Morris Avenue                540 South Morris Avenue
Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601       Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
e-mail:  sears.rhonda@epa.gov            e-mail: griggs.john@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning publication and  distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                   Charles M. Petko
                                 Office of the Director
                   National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                                540 South Morris Avenue
                           Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601
                             e-mail: petko.charles@epa.gov

Requests for information concerning policies of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air should be
directed to:

                                  William C. Conklin
                                   USEPA - ORIA
                  Center for Emergency Preparedness and Clean Materials
                         Radiation Protection Division (MC66085)
                                 501  Third Street, N.W.
                                Washington, DC 20001
                              e-mail: conklin.craig@epa.gov

                                         ***

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                                      Contents


                                                                                   Page

List of Tables	v

Preface  	vii

Acknowledgments	  ix

Data Reporting Conventions 	  xi

1. Air Program	1
       Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	1
       Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulates and Precipitation	12

2. Water Program	13
       Surface Water 	13
       Drinking Water 	16

3. Milk Program	19
       Pasteurized Milk  	19
                                           in

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                                  List of Tables








Table                                                                            Page



    1  Reporting Units and Minimum Detectable Concentrations	xiii



    2  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates:  April 1999  	  2



    3  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates:  May 1999	  4



    4  Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates:  June 1999	  6



    5  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation: April 1999 	  8



    6  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation: May 1999	  9



    7  Gross Beta and Specific Gamma in Precipitation: June 1999	  10



    8  Tritium in Precipitation: April - June 1999  	  11



    9  Tritium in Surface Water: April - June 1999	  14



   10  Tritium in Drinking Water:  April - June 1999  	  17



   11  Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: April - June 1999  	  20

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