Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and
Fuel Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2013
        United States
        Environmental Protection
       k Agency
EPA-420-R-13-011 December 2013

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NOTICE:

This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or positions. It is
intended to present technical analysis of issues using data that are currently available.  The
purpose in the release of such reports is to facilitate  the exchange of technical information
and to inform the public of technical developments.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction	1
2. Fleetwide Trends Overview	3
  A. Overview of Final MY 2012 Data	3
  B. Overview of Preliminary MY 2013 Data	3
  C. Overview of Long-Term Trends	5
3. Vehicle Class, Type, and Attributes	12
  A. Vehicle Class	12
  B. Vehicle Type	13
  C. Vehicle Attributes	20
4. Manufacturers and Makes	30
  A. Manufacturer and Make Definitions	30
  B. Manufacturer and Make Trends	32
5. Powertrain Technologies	43
  A. Trends in Engine Power and Size (cylinders and displacement)	43
  B. Trends in Fuel Delivery Methods and Valvetrains	47
  C. New Powertrain Strategies: Turbo Downsizing, Hybrids, and Diesels	50
  D. Trends in Transmission Types	64
  E. Trends in Drive Types	68
6. Techology Adoption Rates	74
  A. Industry-Wide Technology Adoption Since 1975	74
  B. Technology Adoption By Manufacturers	76
  C. Technology Adoption In the Last 5 Years	81
7. Alternative Fuel Vehicles	83
  A. Methodology	83
  B. Historical Trends	84
  C. MY 2013 Vehicles	87
8. High Fuel Economy and Low CO2 Choices	96
  A. Methodology	96
  B. High Fuel Economy Vehicle Offerings	98
  C. High Fuel Economy Ranges within Models	99
  D. Advanced Technology Vehicle Offerings	100
9. Regulatory Context	101
  A. Personal Vehicle Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards	101
  B. Current Vehicles That Meet Future EPA CO2 Emissions Compliance Targets	102
  C. Comparison  of EPA and NHTSA Fuel Economy Data, 1975-2013	104
  D. Comparison of MY 2012 Unadjusted, Laboratory and Estimated CAFE Data by Manufacturer	106
10. Additional Database and Report Details	108
  A. Sources of Input Data	108
  B. Harmonic Averaging  of Fuel Economy Values	109
  C. Adjusted vs.  Unadjusted, Laboratory Values	Ill
  D. Other  Database Methodology Issues	118
  E. Comparison  of Preliminary and Final Fleetwide Fuel Economy Values	121
  F. Definitions and Acronyms	123
  G. Links for More Information	125
  H. Authors and Acknowledgements	126
11. References...                                                                             ...127

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Adjusted CO2 Emissions for MY 1975-MY 2013	5
Figure 2.2 Adjusted Fuel Economy for MY 1975-MY 2013	6
Figure 2.3 Adjusted Fuel Economy,  Weight, and Horsepower for MY 1975-2013	7
Figure 2.4 Production-Weighted Adjusted Fuel Economy Distribution for MY 1975-MY 2013	9
Figure 3.1 Car and Truck Production Share for MY 1975-2013	13
Figure 3.2 Adjusted Fuel Economy vs. Interior Volume for High Volume Manufacturers  MY 1978 and MY 2013
  Car Type Only	15
Figure 3.3 Vehicle Type Production Share by Model Year	17
Figure 3.4 Adjusted CO2 Emissions, Adjusted Fuel Economy and Other Key Parameters by Vehicle Type
  MY 1975-2013	24
Figure 3.5 Car and Truck Production Share by Vehicle Inertia Weight Class	25
Figure 3.6 Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Consumption vs. Footprint Cars and Trucks, MY2012	26
Figure 3.7 Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Consumption vs. Inertia Weight Cars and Trucks, MY 1975 and2012 ... 27
Figure 3.8 Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Consumption vs. 0-60 Acceleration  Time Cars and Trucks MY 1975	28
Figure 3.9 Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Consumption vs. Car Interior Volume Cars, MY 1978 and 2012	29
Figure 4.1 Adjusted Fuel Economy and Percent Truck by Manufacturer for MY 1975-2013	42
Figure 5.1 Engine Displacement and Power	44
Figure 5.2 Percent  Change for Specific Engine Metrics	45
Figure 5.3 Production Share by Number of Cylinders	46
Figure 5.4 Production Share by Engine Technology	48
Figure 5.5 Engine Metrics for Different Engine Technology Packages	49
Figure 5.6 Market Share of Gasoline Turbo  Vehicles	51
Figure 5.7 Distribution of Gasoline  Turbo Vehicles by Displacement and Horsepower, MY 2010 - MY 2013	52
Figure 5.8 Hybrid Production MY 2000 - MY2013 (With 3-Year Moving Average)	53
Figure 5.9 Hybrid Adjusted Fuel Economy Distribution by Year	55
Figure 5.10 Highway/City Fuel Economy Ratio for Hybrids and Non hybrids	56
Figure 5.11 Percent Improvement in Adjusted Fuel Consumption for Hybrid Vehicles, MY 2012	57
Figure 5.12 Percent Improvement in Adjusted Fuel Consumption for Diesel Vehicles, MY 2012	59
Figure 5.13 Percent Improvement in CO2 Emissions for Diesel Vehicles, MY 2012	60
Figure 5.14 Transmission Production Share by Model Year	65
Figure 5.15 Average Number of Transmission Gears for New Vehicles (excluding CVTs)	66
Figure 5.16 Comparison of Manual and Automatic Transmission Adjusted Fuel Economy, MY 1980 - MY 2013. 67
Figure 5.17 Front, Rear, and Four Wheel Drive Usage - Production Share by Vehicle Type	69
Figure 5.18 Differences in Adjusted Fuel Consumption Trends for FWD, RWD, and 4WD/AWD Vehicles	70
Figure 6.1 Industry- Wide Car Technology Penetration After First Significant Use	75
Figure 6.2 Manufacturer Specific Technology Adoption over Time for Key Technologies	77
Figure 6.3 Maximum Three and Five Year Adoption for Key Technologies	79
Figure 6.4 VVT Adoption Details by Manufacturer	80
Figure 6.5 Five Year Change in Light Duty Vehicle Technology Penetration Share	82
Figure 7.1 Historical Production ofEVs, PHEVs, and Dedicated CNG Vehicles	86
Figure 8.1 Number of Models Meeting Fuel Economy Thresholds in MY 2008 and MY 2013	98
Figure 8.2 Number of Models Meeting Fuel Economy Spread Thresholds in MY 2008 and MY 2013	99
Figure 8.3 Advanced  Technology and Alternative Fueled Vehicle Models in MY 2008 and MY 2013	100
Figure 9.1 MY 2013 Vehicle Production Share (Projected) That Meets Future CO2 Emissions Targets	103

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Adjusted CO2 Emissions, Adjusted Fuel Economy, and Key Parameters for MY 1975-2013	4
Table 2.2 Comparison of MY 2012 with MY 2008 and MY 2004	9
Table 2.3 Top Ten Highest Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Economy Gasoline/Diesel Vehicles for MY 1975-MY 2013
   	11
Table 3.1 Vehicle Type Production Share by Model Year	18
Table 3.2 Car-Truck Classification ofSUVs with Inertia Weights of 4000 Pounds or Less	19
Table 3.3.1 Car Adjusted CO2 Emissions, Adjusted Fuel Economy, and Key Parameters for MY 1975-2013	22
Table 3.3.2 Truck Adjusted CO2 Emissions, Adjusted Fuel Economy, and Key Parameters for MY 1975-2013	23
Table 4.1 Manufacturers and Makes for MY 2011-2013	31
Table 4.2 Adjusted Fuel Economy (MPG) by Manufacturer and Make for MY 2011-2013	33
Table 4.3 Adjusted CO2 Emissions (g/mi) by Manufacturer and Make for MY 2011-2013	35
Table 4.4 Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Economy (MPG) by Manufacturer and Make for MY 2011—2013	37
Table 4.5 Unadjusted, Laboratory CO2 Emissions (g/mi) by Manufacturer and Make for MY 2011-2013	38
Table 4.6 Footprint (square feet) by Manufacturer for MY 2011—2013	39
Table 4.7 Adjusted Fuel Economy and Production Share by Vehicle Classification and Type for MY 2012	40
Table 4.8 Vehicle Footprint, Weight, and Horsepower by Manufacturer for MY 2012	41
Table 5.1 Distribution of MY 2013 Turbocharged Engines (Excludes Diesel)	51
Table 5.2.1 Engine Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013 Both Cars and Trucks	61
Table 5.2.2 Engine Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013 Cars Only	62
Table 5.2.3 Engine Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013 Trucks Only	63
Table 5.3.1 Transmission and Drive Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013 Both Cars and Trucks	71
Table 5.3.2 Transmission and Drive Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013 Cars Only	72
Table 5.3.3 Transmission and Drive Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013 Trucks Only	73
Table 7.1 MY 2013 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Classification and Size	87
Table 7.2 MY 2013 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Powertrain and Range	88
Table 7.3 MY2013 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fuel Economy Label Metrics	90
Table 7.4 MY2013 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Label Tailpipe CO2 Emissions Metrics	92
Table 7.5 MY2013 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Upstream CO2 Emission Metrics	95
Table 9.1 EPA Adjusted, EPA Unadjusted Laboratory, and CAFE Values by Model Year	105
Table 9.2 Comparison of MY 2012 EPA Unadjusted, Laboratory and Estimated CAFE (MPG) Values by
  Manufacturer	107
Table 10.1 Unadjusted, Laboratory and Adjusted Fuel Economy (MPG) for MY 1975-MY 2013 Cars and Trucks 113
Table 10.2 Four Different Fuel Economy Metrics for the MY 2005 Honda Insight	118
Table 10.3 Factors for Converting Industry-wide Fuel Economy Values from this Report to Carbon Dioxide
  Emissions Values	120
Table 10.4 Comparison of Preliminary and Final Adjusted and Unadjusted Fuel Economy Values Both Cars and
  Trucks...                                                                                     ..122
IV

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                Introduction
    This annual report (often referred to as the "Trends" report) is the authoritative reference on
    new light-duty (or personal) vehicle carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy, and
    powertrain technology trends in the United States. These vehicles include passenger cars, sport
    utility vehicles, minivans, and all but the largest pickup trucks and vans. This report uses the most
    comprehensive database of its kind, both  because it is comprised of detailed new vehicle test
    data provided, under statute, to EPA by automobile manufacturers,  and because the database
    has been rigorously maintained since 1975.  Since major methodological changes  are propagated
    backwards through the historical database in order to maintain the integrity of long-term trends,
    this report supersedes all previous versions in the series and should  not be
    compared to past reports.
                                                                      Trends uses the term
                                                                      "fleetwide" to represent
                                                                      gasoline and diesel fueled
                                                                      vehicles, which represent
                                                                      99+% of all vehicles
                                                                      produced since 1975.
     Except where noted, all data in this report reflect the 99+ percent of all
     new personal vehicles that are dedicated to or are expected to operate
     primarily on gasoline or diesel fuel (including flexible fuel and conventional
     hybrid vehicles). Section 7 provides relevant data from the increasing
     number of electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and compressed natural gas vehicles produced for the
     U.S. market in 2013.
Trends uses harmonic
averaging for fuel economy,
which is essential to maintain
mathematical integrity.
                       The CO2 emissions and fuel economy data in this report are generated
                       from the longstanding EPA test procedures that were first developed in
                       the 1970s and refined in the subsequent decades. The CO2 emissions
                       data in this report reflect the sum of the vehicle tailpipe emissions of
                       CO2, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons, with the latter two converted
                       to equivalent CO2 levels on a mass basis. While carbon monoxide and
hydrocarbon emissions add, on average, less than one percent to overall CO2 emissions values,
these compounds are included here because they are converted to CO2 relatively quickly in the
atmosphere, and to maintain consistency with the methods used for greenhouse gas  (GHG)
emissions standards compliance. The CO2 emissions data do not reflect other vehicle greenhouse
gases (such as methane, nitrous oxide, or air conditioner refrigerants) or CO2 emissions associated
with vehicle production and disposal, or fuel production and distribution.

The data presented in this report are tabulated on a model year (MY), not calendar year, basis and
reflect MY 1975-2013. Data through MY 2012 are final (at the time of publication, EPA is in the
process of submitting final manufacturer-specific CAFE values to NHTSA and the manufacturers),
while data for MY 2013 are preliminary and will be finalized in next year's report. Vehicle
population data represent production volumes delivered for sale in the U.S. market, rather than
actual sales data.
     Most of the data in this report reflect arithmetic production-weighted
     averages of individual CO2 emissions values and harmonic production-
     weighted averages of individual fuel economy values (see Section 10 for
     details on harmonic averaging). The data in Sections 7 and 8 reflect
     individual models independent of production volumes.
                                                                     Trends uses vehicle production
                                                                     data, not vehicle sales data,
                                                                     and aggregates production
                                                                     data for model years, not
                                                                     calendar years.

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Unless noted, the CO2 emissions and fuel economy values in this report are expressed as adjusted
values based on EPA's 5-cycle test methodology (reflecting urban commuting, rural highway, high
speed/acceleration, high temperature/air conditioning, and cold temperature operation).  These
adjusted values use a 43 percent city/57 percent highway weighting in order to be consistent with
the national driving activity analysis underlying the development of the 5-cycle test methodology,
and therefore yield EPA's best estimate of real world CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. See
Section 10 for a more detailed explanation of the methodology for how these adjusted values are
calculated.
    Type of CO2 and Fuel
       Economy Data
          Adjusted
     Unadjusted, Laboratory
       Purpose
Best estimate of real world
      performance
   Basis for automaker
compliance with standards
City/Highway
  Weighting
   43%/57%
   55%/45%
Test Basis
   5-cycle
  (see text)
   2-cycle
  (see text)
This report occasionally provides unadjusted, laboratory CO2 emissions and fuel economy values
based on EPA's 2-cycle test methodology (reflecting urban commuting and rural highway operation
only). These unadjusted values are weighted 55 percent city/45 percent highway when used as the
basis for automaker compliance with GHG emissions and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE)
standards. Adjusted CO2 emissions values are, on average, about 25% higher than unadjusted CO2
values, and adjusted fuel economy values are about 20% lower than unadjusted fuel economy
values. While the unadjusted values form the starting point for GHG emissions and CAFE standards
compliance, they do not reflect various credits, incentives, and adjustments available to
automakers.

In early 2014, EPA intends to publish a separate, annual GHG Report at epa.gov/otaq/regs/ld-
hwv/greenhouse/ld-ghg.htm that will summarize individual manufacturer performance relative to
the MY 2012 GHG emissions standards. The Department of Transportation's National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA, at nhtsa.dot.gov/fuel-economy) also publishes a  separate
document entitled "Summary of Fuel Economy Performance" and will update this document after
receiving final CAFE compliance data from EPA for all manufacturers.

This report has been extensively rewritten this year to focus on those trends and themes that we
believe are the most important to a wide range of readers and users.
             Imaortant chanaes to this vear's reaort:
                    It includes several new sections and many new tables and figures
                    The vehicle classification schema has been simplified
                 ->   There is no longer a separate CO2 emissions section
                    The Executive Summary is now a separate document
                    A few Appendices have been deleted

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This section provides an overview of important fleetwide data for MY 1975-2013, including a reference table for
CO2 emissions, fuel economy, and several other key parameters. As discussed above, fleetwide refers to the
production-weighted analysis of the 99+% of new vehicles that are dedicated to or are expected to operate
primarily on gasoline or diesel fuel. Unless otherwise noted, all CO2 emissions and fuel economy data are
adjusted values that reflect real world performance, and are not comparable to unadjusted, laboratory values
used for EPA emissions and NHTSA fuel economy standards compliance. Subsequent sections of the report
analyze the Trends data in more detail.

          A. OVERVIEW OF FINAL MY 2012 DATA

          Table 2.1 shows that the fleetwide average real world CO2 emissions rate for new vehicles
          produced in MY 2012 is 376 grams per mile (g/mi), a 22 g/mi decrease from MY 2011. The
          MY 2012 fuel economy value is 23.6 miles per gallon (mpg), a 1.2 mpg increase from MY
          2011.  These MY 2012 values, which represent an all-time record low for CO2 emissions and
          record high for fuel economy, are based on final data. Both CO2 emissions and fuel
          economy have improved in seven of the last eight years. The 1.2 mpg annual fuel economy
          increase is the  fourth highest ever, exceeded only by the increases from MY 1979-1980, MY
          1980-1981, and MY 2008-2009. It is likely that the CO2 emissions and fuel economy
          improvements in MY 2012 are slightly larger than they otherwise would have been due to
          the impacts of the earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear tragedy in Japan  in March 2011, which
          lowered MY 2011 car and car parts production in Japan.

          Car production share of the overall personal vehicle market increased by 6 percentage points
          in MY 2012. Car-truck production share has been very volatile in recent years, and the
          increased car share in MY 2012 had significant impacts on other parameters. Average
          personal vehicle weight fell by 150 pounds (4%) in MY 2012, to its second lowest level in the
          last decade.  Power decreased by 8 horsepower (3%), though it remains at its second highest
          level ever. Average vehicle footprint fell by 0.7 square foot (1%), remaining within a fairly
          narrow band over the last few years.

          Tables 3.3.1 and 3.3.2, shown later in this report, disaggregate the data in Table 2.1 for the
          individual car and truck fleets, respectively, for MY 1975-2013.

          B. OVERVIEW OF PRELIMINARY MY 2013  DATA

          Preliminary values for MY 2013 are 370 g/mi CO2 emissions and 24.0 mpg and are based
          on projected vehicle production values provided to EPA by manufacturers prior to the
          beginning of the model year. Final values for MY 2013 will be published in next year's
          report. The preliminary data suggest that truck production share will remain unchanged
          and that vehicle weight, horsepower, and footprint will all increase somewhat in MY 2013,
          with power levels tying an all-time high.

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Table 2.1
Adjusted CO2 Emissions, Adjusted Fuel Economy, and Key Parameters for MY 1975-2013
New Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Production
(000)
10,224
12,334
14,123
14,448
13,882
11,306
10,554
9,732
10,302
14,020
14,460
15,365
14,865
15,295
14,453
12,615
12,573
12,172
13,211
14,125
15,145
13,144
14,458
14,456
15,215
16,571
15,605
16,115
15,773
15,709
15,892
15,104
15,276
13,898
9,315
11,110
12,003
13,438

Adj
C02
(g/mi)
681
625
590
562
560
466
436
425
426
424
417
407
405
407
415
420
418
427
426
436
434
435
441
442
451
450
453
457
454
461
447
442
431
424
397
394
398
376
370
Adj Fuel
Economy
(MPG)
13.1
14.2
15.1
15.8
15.9
19.2
20.5
21.1
21.0
21.0
21.3
21.8
22.0
21.9
21.4
21.2
21.3
20.8
20.9
20.4
20.5
20.4
20.2
20.1
19.7
19.8
19.6
19.5
19.6
19.3
19.9
20.1
20.6
21.0
22.4
22.6
22.4
23.6
24.0
Weight
(Ib)
4060
4079
3982
3715
3655
3228
3202
3202
3257
3262
3271
3238
3221
3283
3351
3426
3410
3512
3519
3603
3613
3659
3727
3744
3835
3821
3879
3951
3999
4111
4059
4067
4093
4085
3914
4002
4127
3977
4041
HP
137
135
136
129
124
104
102
103
107
109
114
114
118
123
129
135
138
145
147
152
158
164
169
171
179
181
187
195
199
211
209
213
217
219
208
214
230
222
230
O-to-60
Footprint Time
(sqft) (sec)
14.1
14.3
13.8
13.6
13.9
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.1
14.0
13.5
13.4
13.1
12.8
12.5
12.2
12.1
11.8
11.8
11.7
11.3
11.1
11.0
10.9
10.7
10.6
10.5
10.2
10.2
9.9
9.9
9.8
9.7
48.9 9.7
48.1 9.7
48.6 9.6
49.5 9.4
48.8 9.4
49.1 9.3
Car
Production
80.7%
78.9%
80.1%
77.5%
77.9%
83.5%
82.8%
80.5%
78.0%
76.5%
75.2%
72.1%
72.8%
70.9%
70.1%
70.4%
69.6%
68.6%
67.6%
61.9%
63.5%
62.2%
60.1%
58.3%
58.3%
58.8%
58.6%
55.3%
53.9%
52.0%
55.6%
57.9%
58.9%
59.3%
67.0%
62.7%
57.8%
64.4%
64.4%
Truck
Production
19.3%
21.1%
19.9%
22.5%
22.1%
16.5%
17.2%
19.5%
22.0%
23.5%
24.8%
27.9%
27.2%
29.1%
29.9%
29.6%
30.4%
31.4%
32.4%
38.1%
36.5%
37.8%
39.9%
41.7%
41.7%
41.2%
41.4%
44.7%
46.1%
48.0%
44.4%
42.1%
41.1%
40.7%
33.0%
37.3%
42.2%
35.6%
35.6%
Gasoline and
Diesel Share
of All Vehicle
Production
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.6%
-

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          C.  OVERVIEW OF LONG-TERM TRENDS

          While the most recent annual changes often receive the most public attention, the greatest
          value of the Trends database is to document long-term trends. This is because:  1) year-to-
          year variability can reflect short-term trends (recent examples include the economic recession
          and Cash for Clunkers rebates in 2009, the impact of the tsunami aftermath on Japan-based
          manufacturers in 2011, and changes in gasoline prices) that may not be meaningful from a
          long-term perspective, and 2) the magnitude of year-to-year changes in annual CO2 emissions
          and fuel economy tend to be small relative to longer, multi-year trends.

          Figures 2.1 and 2.2 show fleetwide adjusted CO2 emissions and fuel economy from Table
          2.1 for MY 1975-2013. For both figures, the individual data points represent annual values,
          and the curves represent 3-year moving averages (where each year represents the average of
          that model year, the model year prior, and the model year following, e.g., the value for MY
          2012 represents the average of MY 2011-2013) which "smooth out" the year-to-year volatility.
          The two curves are essentially "inversely proportional" to each other, i.e., vehicle tailpipe
          CO2 emissions (grams per mile) are proportional to fuel consumption (gallons per mile),
          which is the reciprocal of fuel economy (miles per gallon).

Figure 2.1
Adjusted CO2 Emissions for MY 1975-MY 2013
               690-
          ^   640'
          a
          c/>   590'
          O
          «   540 -
          E
          LJJ
          O
          O
          T3

          I
          f
               490-
440-
390-
               340-
                     1975    1980   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005   2010   2015
                                             Model Year

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Figure 2.2
Adjusted Fuel Economy for MY 1975-MY2013
          CD
          Q_
           O
           8
          LJJ
          "CD
          f
               26-
               24-
               22-
20-
               18-
               16-
               14-
               12-
                    1975   1980   1985   1990    1995   2000    2005    2010   2015
                                             Model Year
          These two figures show that fleetwide adjusted CO2 emissions and fuel economy have
          undergone four clearly defined phases since 1975. Figure 2.3 shows fleetwide adjusted fuel
          economy, weight, and horsepower data for MY 1975-2013 from Table 2.1.  All of the data in
          Figure 2.3 are presented as percentage changes since 1975. Vehicle weight and horsepower
          are critical vehicle attributes in that higher values, other things being equal, will increase
          CO2 emissions and decrease fuel economy.
 Lona-Term CO? Emissions and Fuel Economv Phases:
        Rapid improvements from MY 1975 through MY 1981, with fleet-wide adjusted CO2 emissions decreasing by
        36% and fuel economy increasing by 56% over those six years
        Slower improvements from MY 1982 through MY 1987
        A slow, but steady reversal of improvements from MY 1988 through MY 2004, with CO2 emissions increasing by
        14% and fuel economy decreasing by 12%, even as technology innovation continued to evolve
        A very favorable trend beginning in 2005, with annual CO2 emissions and fuel economy improvements in seven
        of the eight individual years, and with CO2 emissions decreasing by 18% and fuel economy increasing by 22%
        since MY 2004

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Figure 2.3
Adjusted Fuel Economy, Weight, and Horsepower for MY 1975-2013
           LO
           8
           0
           0)
           O
               100%-
                80%-
                60%-
                40%-
                20%-
               -20%-
               -40%-
Adjusted Fuel Economy (MPG)
                      1975   1980   1985   1990   1995   2000   2005   2010   2015

                                              Model Year

           Figure 2.3 shows some very significant long-term trends.  Both average vehicle weight and
           horsepower decreased in the late 1970s as fuel economy increased. During the two decades
           from the mid-1980s to the mid-2000s, vehicle weight and horsepower rose consistently and
           significantly, while fuel economy steadily decreased. It is clear from Figure 2.3 that the
           considerable technology innovation during these two decades, on a fleet-wide basis,
           supported attributes such as vehicle weight and power (and associated utility functions such
           as vehicle size, acceleration performance, safety features and content), but did not improve
           fuel economy. Since MY 2005, new automotive technology has improved both fuel
           economy and power, while keeping vehicle weight relatively constant. As a result, recent
           vehicles have greater acceleration performance, higher fuel economy, and lower CO2
           emissions.

           Table 2.1 shows data for vehicle footprint and estimated 0-60 miles per hour acceleration
           time. Footprint is a critical vehicle attribute since it is the basis for current and future GHG
           emissions and fuel economy standards. The Trends database includes footprint data from
           external sources beginning in MY 2008, but because footprint data has only been provided
           by automakers since MY 2011, it is impossible to discern any long-term footprint trends at
           this time. Estimated 0-60  acceleration times are calculated based on a relationship between
           acceleration, horsepower, and weight (see Section 10).  For more detail on weight,

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          horsepower, footprint, and 0-60 acceleration times, see Section 3.

          Table 2.1 also shows that truck share increased consistently from 1980 through 2004. The
          truck share increases from 1988 through 2004 were a critical underlying factor in the
          increase in fleet-wide weight and power discussed above, as well as in the higher fleet-wide
          CO2 emissions and lower fleet-wide fuel economy over that same period. Since 2004, truck
          share has been volatile, affected by factors such as the economic recession of 2009, the Car
          Allowance Rebate System (also known as Cash for Clunkers) in 2009, and the aftermath of
          the earthquake and tsunami in Japan in 2011. For more data and discussion of relative
          car/truck production share, as well as data for the separate car and truck fleets, see Section
          3.

          Table 2.2 shows  a comparison, for fuel economy and several other key attributes, of final MY
          2012 data with MY 2008 and MY 2004 data, all taken from Table 2.1.

          MY 2008 is selected for comparison  for three reasons: 1) four years provide a sufficient time
          to see meaningful multi-year trends,  2) it preceded a multi-year period of variability
          beginning in MY 2009, and 3) there have only been relatively minor changes  in key vehicle
          attributes that influence fuel economy in the four years that followed. From MY 2008 to
          MY 2012, weight decreased by 2.6% (which would be expected to result in a slight increase
          in fuel economy, other things being equal), while horsepower increased by 1.4% (which
          would be expected to result in a slight decrease in fuel economy), so these two impacts
          counter balance  to some degree. Footprint remained  essentially unchanged.  Fuel economy,
          on the other hand, increased by 2.6 mpg, or 12%, from MY 2008 to MY 2012.

          MY 2004 is shown in Table 2.2 primarily because it is the "valley year," i.e., it is the year with
          the lowest adjusted fuel economy since MY 1980 and therefore now represents a 32-year low.
          As with the comparison of MY 2008 and MY 2012 above, the changes in weight and
          horsepower from MY 2004 to MY 2012 have gone in opposite directions—weight has
          decreased by 3.3% and horsepower has increased by 5.2%. We do not have footprint data
          for MY 2004. From MY 2004 to MY 2012, fuel economy has increased by 4.3 mpg, or 22%.

          These fuel economy increases of 12% since MY 2008 and 22% since MY 2004 are
          unprecedented over the last 30 years. As shown in Table 2.1, the only other period with a
          greater and more rapid fuel economy increase was from MY 1975 through MY 1981.
8

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Table 2.2
Comparison of MY 2012 with MY 2008 and MY 2004
                        MY 2012 Relative to MY 2008
Fuel Economy
MPG %
+2.6 +12
Weight
%
-2.6
Horsepower
+1.4
Footprint
%
-0.2
                        MY 2012 Relative to MY 2004
Fuel Economy
MPG %
+4.3 +22
Weight
%
-3.3
Horsepower
+5.2
Footprint
%
-
          Figure 2.4 shows the production-weighted distribution of adjusted fuel economy by model
          year, for gasoline (including conventional hybrids) and diesel vehicles (no electric or natural
          gas fuel vehicles are included in Figure 2.4). It is important to note that the methodology
          used in this report for calculating adjusted fuel economy values has changed over time (see
          Section 10 for a detailed explanation). For example, the adjusted fuel economy for a 1980s
          vehicle in the Trends database is somewhat higher than it would be if the same vehicle were
          being produced today. These changes are small for most vehicles, but larger for very-high fuel
          economy vehicles.  For example, the "Best Car" line in Figure 2.4 for MY 2000 through MY
          2006 represents the original Honda Insight hybrid, and the several miles per gallon decrease
          over that period is primarily due to the change in methodology for adjusted fuel economy
          values, with just a 1 mpg decrease due to minor vehicle design changes during that time.

Figure 2.4
Production-Weighted Adjusted Fuel Economy Distribution for MY 1975-MY 2013
                                   Car
Truck
          CD
                 1975 1980  1985 1990  1995 2000  2005 2010  2015  1975 1980  1985  1990  1995  2000 2005  2010 2015
                                                    Model Year

-------
Since 1975, half of car production has consistently been within several mpg of each other.
The fuel economy difference between the least efficient and most efficient car increased
from about 20 mpg in MY 1975 to nearly 50 mpg in MY 1986 (when the most efficient car
was the General Motors Sprint ER) and in MY 2000 (when the most efficient car was the
original Honda Insight hybrid), and is now about 40 mpg. Hybrids have defined the "Best
Car" line since MY 2000. The ratio of the highest-to-lowest fuel economy has increased
from about three-to-one in MY 1975 to nearly five-to-one today, as the fuel economy of the
least fuel efficient cars has remained roughly constant in comparison to the most fuel
efficient cars whose fuel economy has nearly doubled since MY 1975.

The overall fuel economy distribution for trucks is narrower than that for cars, with a peak
in the fuel  economy of the most efficient truck in the early 1980s when small pickup trucks
equipped with diesel engines were sold by Volkswagen and General Motors. As  a result, the
fuel economy range between the most efficient and least efficient truck peaked at about 25
mpg in the early 1980s. The fuel economy range for trucks then narrowed, and is now less
than 20 mpg. Like cars, half of the trucks built each year have always been within a few mpg
of each year's average fuel economy value.

All of the above data are adjusted, combined city/highway CO2 emissions and fuel economy
values for the combined car and truck fleet.  Table 10.1 provides, for the overall car and
truck fleets, adjusted and  unadjusted, laboratory values for city, highway, and combined
city/highway. Appendices B and C provide more detailed data on the distribution of
adjusted fuel economy values by model year.

Finally,  Table 2.3  shows the highest fuel economy gasoline and diesel vehicles for the MY
1975-2013  time frame (while the Trends report database began in MY 1975, we are
confident that these are also the highest fuel economy values of all time for mainstream
vehicles in  the U.S. market). Note that alternative fuel vehicles, such as electric and plug-in
hybrid electric vehicles, are excluded from this table. See Appendix A for a listing of the
highest  and lowest fuel economy vehicles, based on unadjusted fuel economy values, for each
year since 1975.

Unadjusted, laboratory fuel economy (weighted 55% city/45% highway) values are used to
rank vehicles in Table 2.3, since the test procedures and methodology for determining
unadjusted, laboratory fuel economy values have been unchanged since 1975. Accordingly,
unadjusted, laboratory values provide a more equitable fuel economy metric,  from a vehicle
design perspective, over the historical time frame, than the adjusted fuel economy values
used throughout most of this report, as the latter also reflect changes in real world driving
behavior such as speed, acceleration, and use of air conditioning.

For Table 2.3, vehicle models with the same powertrain and essentially marketed as the same
vehicle to consumers are shown only once.  Models are typically sold for several years before
being redesigned,  so the convention for models with the same fuel economy for several years
is to show MY 2013, if applicable, and otherwise to show the first year when the  model

-------
           achieved its maximum fuel economy. Data are also shown for number of seats, inertia
           weight class, and projected 0-60 acceleration time.

Table 2.3
Top Ten Highest Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Economy Gasoline/Diesel Vehicles for MY 1975-MY
2013

Model
Year
2000
2013
2013
1986
1989
2013
1986
2013
2013
1994

Manufacturer
Honda
Toyota
Toyota
GM
GM
Ford
Honda
Honda
VW
Honda

Model
Insight
Prius
Priusc
Sprint ER
Metro XFi
Fusion
Civic CRX HF
Civic
Jetta
CivicHBVX

Power-train
Gasoline Hybrid
Gasoline Hybrid
Gasoline Hybrid
Conv. Gasoline
Conv. Gasoline
Gasoline Hybrid
Conv. Gasoline
Gasoline Hybrid
Gasoline Hybrid
Conv. Gasoline
Unadjusted,
Laboratory
Combined
Fuel Economy
(MPG)
76
71
71
67
66
66
64
63
61
60

Number
of Seats
2
5
5
4
4
5
2
5
5
5
Inertia
Weight
Class (Ibs)
2000
3500
2750
1750
1750
4000
2000
3000
3500
2250

O-to-60
Accel (sec)
11
10
11
16
14
8
15
10
9
12
          As expected, all of the vehicles listed in Table 2.3 are cars.  The top fuel economy vehicle is
          the MY 2000 Honda Insight, a two-seater that was the first hybrid vehicle sold in the U.S.
          market. The MY 2000 Insight had an unadjusted, laboratory value of 76 mpg, 5 mpg higher
          than the MY 2013 Prius and Prius c vehicles, which are the second and third highest fuel
          economy vehicles, both of which have unadjusted, laboratory fuel economy values of 71
          mpg.

          Five of the highest ten fuel economy gasoline and diesel vehicles of all time are on the
          market in MY 2013, and all of these are conventional hybrids.  In addition to the MY 2000
          Insight, the remaining four vehicles in Table 2.3 are non-hybrid gasoline vehicles from the
          late  1980s and early 1990s.

          One of the most important lessons from Table 2.3 is that there are important differences
          between the highest fuel economy vehicles of the past and those of today.  All but one of the
          pre-MY 2013 vehicles in Table 2.3 had 2 or 4 seats, while the MY 2013 vehicles  all seat 5
          passengers.  The pre-MY 2013 vehicles had inertia weight class values of 1750-2250 pounds,
          while the  MY  2013  vehicles are in inertia weight classes of 2750-4000 pounds, or 1000-2000
          pounds heavier.  While the MY 2013 vehicles have 0-60 acceleration times of 8-11 seconds,
          three of the pre-MY 2013 vehicles have 0-60 acceleration times of 14 seconds or greater.
          Though not shown  in Table 2.3, MY 2013 vehicles were also required to meet more
          stringent DOT safety standards than vehicles produced in the earlier model years. One clear
          conclusion from Table 2.3 is that conventional hybrid technology has  enabled
          manufacturers to offer high fuel economy vehicles with much greater utility than the high
          fuel economy vehicles of the past.

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                                       s,Type,
 and Anributes
A. VEHICLE CLASS

We use "class" to refer to the overall division of light-duty (or personal) vehicles into the two
classes of "cars" and "trucks." This car-truck distinction has been recognized since the
database was originated in the 1970s, though the precise definitions associated with these
two classes have changed somewhat over time.  Car-truck classification is important both
because of functional differences between the design of many cars and trucks, and because
there are now separate footprint-based CO2 emissions and fuel economy standards curves for
cars and trucks. The regulatory challenge has been where to draw the line between the
highest-utility cars and the lowest-utility trucks, and this has been why car-truck definitions
have evolved over time.

Car and truck classifications in this report are based on the current regulatory definitions
used by both EPA and NHTSA for COz emissions and fuel economy standards. These
current definitions are somewhat different than those used in older versions of this report.
The most important recent change was re-classification of many small and mid-sized, 2-wheel
drive sport utility vehicles (SUVs) from the truck category to the car category.  As with other
such changes in this report, this change has been propagated back throughout the entire
historical database. This re-classification reduced the absolute truck share by approximately
10% for recent years. A second recent change was the inclusion of medium-duty passenger
vehicles (MDPVs), those SUVs and passenger vans with gross vehicle weight ratings between
8500 and 10,000 pounds and which previously had been treated as heavy-duty vehicles, into
the light-duty truck category. But, this is a far less important change, since the  number of
MDPVs is much smaller than it once was (e.g., only 6500 MDPVs were sold in MY 2012).
In this report, "cars" include passenger cars and most small and mid-sized, 2 wheel-drive
SUVs, while "trucks" include all other SUVs, minivans and vans, and pickup trucks below
8500 pounds gross vehicle weight rating.

Figure 3.1 shows the car and truck production volume shares for MY 1975-2013 using the
current car-truck definitions throughout the database.

-------
Figure 3.1
Car and Truck Production Share for MY 1975-2013
           CO
          .c
          C/3
           c
           g
          "o
           ^
          •a
           o
               100%-
                75% -
50% -
                25% -
                       1975   1980  1985  1990  1995  2000  2005  2010  2015

                                              Model Year

          Truck share was around 20% from MY 1975-1982, and then started to increase steadily
          through MY 2004, when it peaked at 48%.  The truck share increases from MY 1988-2004, a
          period during which inflation-adjusted gasoline prices remained at or near historical lows,
          were a critical factor in the increased fleetwide CO2 emissions and decrease in fleetwide fuel
          economy over that same period. Since 2004, truck share has been volatile, affected by
          factors such as the economic recession of 2009, the Car Allowance Rebate System (also
          known as Cash for Clunkers) in 2009, and the earthquake and tsunami aftermath in Japan
          in 2011.

          The final truck share value for MY 2012 is 36%, a 6 percentage point decrease relative to
          MY 2011 and 12 percentage points lower than the peak truck share of 48% in MY 2004.
          The MY 2013 truck market share is projected to remain at 36%.
          B. VEHICLE TYPE
          We use vehicle "tyPe" to refer to secondary divisions within the car and truck classes.
          Vehicle type is not relevant to standards compliance, as all cars (and, separately, all trucks)
          use the same footprint-CO2 emissions and footprint-fuel economy target curves, but we
          believe that certain vehicle type distinctions are illustrative and meaningful from both
          vehicle design and marketing perspectives.

-------
          This report breaks the car class into two types—cars and car SUVs. The truck class is split
          into three types—truck SUVs, pickups, and minivans/vans. This is a simpler approach than
          that used in previous versions of this report.
          For cars, previous versions of this report generally divided the car class into 9 types/sizes
          (cars, Wagons, and car SUVs, each further subdivided into small, medium, and large sizes
          based on interior volume).  We no longer use wagons as a car type in this report.  Wagons
          only represent 3% of fleet-wide production in MY 2012.

          More importantly, we believe that interior volume (the sum of passenger volume and cargo
          volume, typically measured in cubic feet), the metric that has historically been used to
          differentiate various  car types and sizes, is not as informative as it once was.  For example,
          Figure 3.2 shows fuel economy versus interior volume for the car type for two years, MY
          1978 and MY 2013,  for high-volume manufacturers.
14

-------
Figure 3.2

Adjusted Fuel Economy vs. Interior Volume for High Volume Manufacturers: MY 1978 and MY 2013:

Car Type Only
          O
          Q_
o
c
o
o
LJJ

ID
3
LL

T3

-------
range from about 80 cubic feet to about 130 cubic feet, with just a few outliers at about 55
and 140 cubic feet.  The compression is even greater when considering production volumes.
We reviewed the data for one high-volume make that offered seven car type models in MY
2012. The interior volume of these seven models ranged from 97-124 cubic feet, with 75%
of sales within a very narrow interior volume range of 104-111  cubic feet, and about 50% of
production (representing 3 models) with essentially the same interior volume (110-111 cubic
feet).

Based on the above  figures and data, we believe that  interior volume is no longer useful as a
differentiator for the car types in the Trends database, and we will no longer use the
small/medium/large vehicle size metric based on interior volume. We believe that vehicle
footprint is a more appropriate indicator of car size because it is the basis for both CO2
emissions and fuel economy standards (and it is relevant to both cars and trucks).  Interior
volume data for car  type vehicles will still be included in the Trends database.

As a result, this report now divides the car class into  two types:  1) a car SUV type for those
SUVs that must meet the car GHG emissions and fuel economy standards, and 2) a car type
for all other vehicles in the car class, including the fueleconomy.gov designations of
minicompact, subcompact, compact, midsize, large, two-seater cars, and station wagons. For
propagating back in the historical database, station wagons are generally  allocated to the car
type.

For trucks,  previous versions of this  report divided the truck class into 9  types/sizes (SUVs,
Pickups, and Vans (including minivans), each further subdivided into small, medium, and
large sizes based on vehicle wheelbase).  This report retains the three truck types because we
believe that there continue to be meaningful functional and marketing differences between
truck SUVs (those SUVs that must meet the truck GHG emissions and fuel economy
standards),  pickups, and minivans/vans. See Section 10 for the definitions for SUVs,
pickups, minivans, and vans and for more information about car-truck classifications. We
use engineering judgment to allocate the very small number of special purpose vehicles (as
designated  on fuel economy.gov) to the three truck types.

It is important to note that this report no longer uses wheelbase to differentiate between
truck type sizes. The rationale for this change, similar to that for car interior volume above,
is that the wheelbase metric is not as informative as it once was.  For example, under the
wheelbase thresholds that were used in  the 2012 report, 99% of MY 2011 pickups are
"large" and 99% of MY 2011 minivans/vans are "medium." In addition, since wheelbase is
one of the two factors associated with vehicle footprint (wheelbase times average track
width), we believe that vehicle footprint is a more appropriate indicator of truck size.

Figure 3.3 shows the car and truck production volume shares for MY 1975-2013, subdivided
into the two car types and three truck types. Table 3.1 shows the same data in tabular form.

-------
Figure 3.3

Vehicle Type Production Share by Model Year
           100%-
            75% -
        CO
       .c
       C/3

        c
        g

       "o
        ^
       •a
        o
50% -
            25% -
                                     Cars
   Car SUVs


       x
^M   Truck SUVs
                 1975 1980  1985  1990  1995 2000 2005 2010  2015


                                  Model Year

-------
Table 3.1
Vehicle Type Production Share by Model Year
Model
Year Cars
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
80.6%
78.8%
80.0%
77.3%
77.8%
83.5%
82.7%
80.3%
77.7%
76.1%
74.6%
71.7%
72.2%
70.2%
69.3%
69.8%
67.8%
66.6%
64.0%
59.6%
62.0%
60.0%
57.6%
55.1%
55.1%
55.1%
53.9%
51.5%
50.2%
48.0%
50.5%
52.9%
52.9%
52.7%
60.5%
54.5%
47.7%
54.9%
53.8%
Car
SUVs
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.3%
0.4%
0.6%
0.4%
0.6%
0.7%
0.7%
0.5%
1.8%
2.0%
3.6%
2.3%
1.5%
2.2%
2.5%
3.1%
3.2%
3.7%
4.8%
3.7%
3.6%
4.1%
5.1%
5.0%
6.0%
6.6%
6.5%
8.2%
10.1%
9.4%
10.6%
Truck
All Cars SUVs
80.7%
78.9%
80.1%
77.5%
77.9%
83.5%
82.8%
80.5%
78.0%
76.5%
75.2%
72.1%
72.8%
70.9%
70.1%
70.4%
69.6%
68.6%
67.6%
61.9%
63.5%
62.2%
60.1%
58.3%
58.3%
58.8%
58.6%
55.3%
53.9%
52.0%
55.6%
57.9%
58.9%
59.3%
67.0%
62.7%
57.8%
64.4%
64.4%
1.7%
1.9%
1.9%
2.5%
2.8%
1.6%
1.3%
1.5%
2.5%
4.1%
4.5%
4.6%
5.2%
5.6%
5.7%
5.1%
6.9%
6.2%
6.3%
9.1%
10.5%
12.2%
14.5%
14.7%
15.4%
15.2%
17.3%
22.3%
22.6%
25.9%
20.6%
19.9%
21.7%
22.1%
18.4%
20.8%
25.6%
20.6%
21.0%
Pickups
13.1%
15.1%
14.3%
15.7%
15.9%
12.7%
13.6%
14.8%
15.8%
14.6%
14.4%
16.5%
14.4%
16.1%
15.4%
14.5%
15.3%
15.1%
15.2%
18.9%
15.0%
14.9%
16.7%
16.7%
16.7%
15.8%
16.1%
14.8%
15.7%
15.9%
14.5%
14.5%
13.8%
12.9%
10.6%
11.5%
12.3%
10.1%
10.6%
Minivans/
Vans
4.5%
4.1%
3.6%
4.3%
3.5%
2.1%
2.3%
3.2%
3.7%
4.8%
5.9%
6.8%
7.5%
7.4%
8.8%
10.0%
8.2%
10.0%
10.9%
10.0%
11.0%
10.7%
8.8%
10.3%
9.6%
10.2%
7.9%
7.7%
7.8%
6.1%
9.3%
7.7%
5.5%
5.7%
4.0%
5.0%
4.3%
4.9%
4.0%
All Trucks
19.3%
21.1%
19.9%
22.5%
22.1%
16.5%
17.2%
19.5%
22.0%
23.5%
24.8%
27.9%
27.2%
29.1%
29.9%
29.6%
30.4%
31.4%
32.4%
38.1%
36.5%
37.8%
39.9%
41.7%
41.7%
41.2%
41.4%
44.7%
46.1%
48.0%
44.4%
42.1%
41.1%
40.7%
33.0%
37.3%
42.2%
35.6%
35.6%
          The data from Table 3.1 show that car type market share has dropped from around 80% in
          the MY 1975-1985 timeframe to about 50% today.  Pickups accounted for most of the
          remaining market share in MY 1975-1985. In the late 1980s, both minivans/vans and truck
          SUVs began to erode car type market share, with truck SUV market share reaching as high
          as 26%, before declining to about 20% today. More recently, car SUVs have increased

-------
          market share to about 10%.  Total SUVs, including both car SUVs and truck SUVs, have
          achieved market share in the 30% range over the last few years. Pickup market share was
          approximately 15% from MY 1975 through MY 2005, but has declined to about 10% today.

          One particular comparison of interest is the trend associated with small SUVs that are
          classified as cars if they have 2-wheel drive and as trucks if they have 4-wheel drive.  For this
          analysis summarized in Table 3.2, we reviewed MY 2000-2013 SUVs with inertia weights (see
          below for more detail about inertia weight) of 4000 pounds or less (SUVs with inertia
          weights in excess of 4000 pounds are typically categorized as trucks regardless  of whether
          they are 2-wheel or 4-wheel drive). Note that we have propagated the current car-truck
          definitions back to previous years in  the Trends database in order to maintain the integrity
          of historical trends (i.e., some vehicles that were defined as trucks in past years are now
          defined as cars in the Trends database).

Table 3.2
Car-Truck Classification of SUVs with Inertia Weights of 4000 Pounds or Less
Model
Year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Car SUV
Production
617
743
603
575
599
753
691
761
748
539
659
985
1,043
-
Truck SUV
Production
796
920,
928
994
1,116
867
758
843
799
575
854
1,044
869
-
Total SUV
Production
1,413
1,663
1,531
1,569
1,715
1,620
1,449
1,604
1,547
1,115
1,512
2,029
1,912
-
Percent
Car SUV
43.7%
44.7%
39.4%
36.6%
34.9%
46.5%
47.7%
47.4%
48.4%
48.4%
43.5%
48.5%
54.6%
55.5%
Percent
Truck SUV
56.3%
55.3%
60.6%
63.4%
65.1%
53.5%
52.3%
52.6%
51.6%
51.6%
56.5%
51.5%
45.4%
44.5%
          Table 3.2 shows that the fraction of SUVs with curb weights less than 4000 pounds that are
          classified as trucks, using the current car-truck definitions propagated back in time, has been
          declining somewhat over the last decade, from around 60% in the early 2000s to less than
          50% in recentyears and to about 45% in MY 2012-2013.

          Appendix D gives additional data stratified by vehicle type.

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          C. VEHICLE ATTRIBUTES

          This section focuses on four key attributes that impact CO2 emissions and fuel economy
          (footprint, weight, horsepower, and 0-60 acceleration time) that are relevant to all light-duty
          vehicles and that were included in the Table 2.1 fleetwide data presented in Section 2.

          Vehicle footprint is a very important attribute since it is the basis for the current CO2
          emissions and fuel economy standards. Footprint is the product of wheelbase times average
          track width (or the area defined by where the centers of the tires touch the ground). We
          provide footprint data beginning with MY 2008, though it is important to highlight that we
          have higher confidence in the data beginning in MY 2011.  Footprint data from MY 2008-
          2010 were aggregated from various sources,  some independent of formal automaker data,
          and EPA has less confidence in the consistency and precision of this data. Beginning in MY
          2011, automakers began to formally submit reports to EPA with footprint data. With these
          caveats, Table 2.1 above shows that average  fleetwide footprint has hovered around 49
          square feet since MY 2008, with MY 2012 footprint of 48.8 square feet representing a 0.7
          square feet decrease relative to MY 2011. The preliminary MY 2013 footprint value is 49.1
          square feet, which if realized would be a slight increase relative to MY 2012. Future
          footprint trends will be a major topic of interest in future Trends reports as we continue to
          add to the more consistent and precise data that we began to collect in MY 2011.

          Vehicle weight is a fundamental vehicle attribute, both because it can be related to utility
          functions such as vehicle size and features, and because higher weight, other things being
          equal, will increase CO2 emissions and decrease fuel economy.  All Trends vehicle weight
          data are based on inertia weight class. Each inertia weight class represents a range of loaded
          vehicle weights, or vehicle curb weights plus 300 pounds. Vehicle inertia weight classes are
          in 250-pound increments for inertia weight classes that are less than 3000 pounds, while
          inertia weight classes over 3000 pounds are  divided into 500-pound increments.  Table 1
          above shows that average fleetwide vehicle weight decreased from nearly 4100 pounds in MY
          1976 to 3200 pounds in MY 1981, likely driven by both increasing fuel economy standards
          (which, at that time, were universal standards, and not based on any type of vehicle attribute)
          and higher gasoline prices. Average vehicle weight then grew slowly but steadily over the
          next 23 years (in part because  of the increasing truck share), essentially returning to its mid-
          1970s levels in MY 2004. Since 2004, average vehicle weight has stayed fairly constant in the
          range of 4000 to 4100 pounds.  Average MY 2012 weight was 3977 pounds, a 150 pound
          decrease relative to MY 2011.  The preliminary MY 2013 value for weight is 4041 pounds,
          which if realized would represent a 64 pound increase compared to MY 2012.

          Horsepower (hp) is of interest as a direct measure of vehicle power. All else equal, higher
          power generally increases CO2 emissions and decreases fuel economy.  Trends horsepower
          data for all gasoline (including conventional hybrids) and diesel vehicles in the Trends
          database reflect engine rated horsepower. Average fleetwide horsepower dropped from 137
          hp in MY 1975 to 102 hp in MY 1981. Since MY 1981, horsepower values have increased
20

-------
just about every year (again, in part due to the increasing truck share through 2004), and
current levels are over twice those of the early 1980s. Average MY 2012 horsepower was 222
hp, an 8 hp decrease relative to MY 2011. The preliminary value for MY 2013 is 230 hp,
which, if achieved, would tie the all-time high set in MY 2011.

The most commonly reported measure of vehicle acceleration performance in the
automotive press is O-to-60 miles per hour acceleration time (in seconds).  Generally, for a
given vehicle, lower 0-60 acceleration times will increase CO2 emissions and decrease fuel
economy. EPA does not receive 0-60 acceleration time data directly from automakers, so
Trends 0-60 acceleration times for non-hybrid gasoline vehicles are calculated based on a
relationship between 0-60 acceleration time, horsepower, and vehicle weight (see Section 10
for more detail). For diesel and conventional hybrid vehicles, EPA uses published values
from trade press sources.  Table 2.1 above shows that the average 0-60 acceleration times
were fairly stable at about 14 seconds from MY 1975 through MY 1984, but have steadily
declined  since. Average 0-60 acceleration times have been around 9.5 seconds for the last
few years, and the MY 2012 value is 9.4 seconds. The preliminary MY 2013 value is 9.3
seconds, which if realized, would be an all-time low.

The following two tables provide the key attribute data for the car and truck classes
separately (these data are shown for the entire fleet in Table 2.1 above).

Table 3.3.1 shows that car adjusted fuel economy reached an all-time record of 27.0 mpg in
MY 2012, which is exactly twice the MY 1975 level of 13.5 mpg. The  1.4 mpg increase from
MY 2011 to MY 2012 is the largest for car fuel economy since MY 1981.  Car weight,
horsepower and  footprint all decreased in MY 2012, but are projected to increase in MY
2013, as is car fuel economy.  The interior volume data shown in Table 3.3.1 is only for car
type vehicles, as EPA does not collect interior volume data for car SUVs.

 Table 3.3.2 shows, for trucks only, the same data provided for cars in Table 3.3.1 above and
 for the overall light vehicle fleet in Table 2.1. Truck adjusted fuel economy was also a record
 high in MY 2012 at 19.3 mpg, which was a 0.2 mpg increase over MY 2011. Truck weight
 was slightly lower in MY 2012,  while truck horsepower and footprint were slightly higher.
 Truck fuel economy, weight, horsepower, and footprint are all projected to increase in MY
 2013.

-------
Table 3.3.1
Car Adjusted CO2 Emissions, Adjusted Fuel Economy, and Key Parameters for MY 1975-
2013

Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gasoline and
Diesel
Production
(000)
8,247
9,734
11,318
11,191
10,810
9,444
8,734
7,832
8,035
10,730
10,879
11,074
10,826
10,845
10,126
8,875
8,748
8,350
8,929
8,747
9,616
8,177
8,695
8,425
8,865
9,742
9,148
8,904
8,496
8,176
8,839
8,744
9,001
8,243
6,244
6,969
6,934
8,648
9,257
Car
Production
Share
80.7%
78.9%
80.1%
77.5%
77.9%
83.5%
82.8%
80.5%
78.0%
76.5%
75.2%
72.1%
72.8%
70.9%
70.1%
70.4%
69.6%
68.6%
67.6%
61.9%
63.5%
62.2%
60.1%
58.3%
58.3%
58.8%
58.6%
55.3%
53.9%
52.0%
55.6%
57.9%
58.9%
59.3%
67.0%
62.7%
57.8%
64.4%
64.4%

Adj CO2
(g/mi)
661
598
570
525
517
446
418
402
403
397
387
375
374
369
376
382
382
389
386
386
382
384
384
386
392
395
393
390
386
389
384
386
375
372
356
346
348
329
325
Adj Fuel
Economy
(MPG)
13.5
14.9
15.6
16.9
17.2
20.0
21.4
22.2
22.1
22.4
23.0
23.7
23.8
24.1
23.6
23.3
23.3
22.9
23.0
23.0
23.3
23.1
23.2
23.0
22.7
22.5
22.6
22.8
23.0
22.9
23.1
23.0
23.7
23.9
25.0
25.7
25.6
27.0
27.4

Weight
(Ib)
4057
4059
3944
3588
3485
3101
3076
3053
3112
3101
3096
3043
3035
3051
3104
3178
3168
3254
3241
3268
3274
3297
3285
3334
3390
3401
3411
3415
3437
3492
3498
3563
3551
3569
3502
3536
3617
3516
3578

Footprint
HP (sqft)
136
134
133
124
119
100
99
99
104
106
111
111
113
116
121
129
133
141
140
144
153
155
156
160
164
168
169
173
176
184
183
194
191
194 45.3
186 45.1
190 45.4
200 46.0
192 45.7
201 45.9
O-to-60
Time
(sec)
14.2
14.4
14.0
13.7
13.8
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.0
13.8
13.3
13.2
13.0
12.8
12.4
12.1
11.9
11.5
11.5
11.4
10.9
10.8
10.7
10.6
10.5
10.4
10.3
10.2
10.0
9.8
9.9
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.8
9.6
9.5
9.6
9.4
Interior
Volume
(cuft)*
-
-
110
109
109
104
106
106
109
108
108
107
107
107
108
107
107
108
108
108
109
109
109
109
109
110
109
110
110
110
111
112
110
110
110
110
111
111
110
            * Interior volume calculated using Car type only.
22

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Table 3.3.2
Truck Adjusted CO2 Emissions, Adjusted Fuel Economy, and Key Parameters for MY 1975-2013

Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Gasoline and
Diesel
Production
(000)
1,977
2,600
2,805
3,257
3,072
1,863
1,821
1,901
2,267
3,289
3,581
4,291
4,039
4,450
4,327
3,740
3,825
3,822
4,281
5,378
5,529
4,967
5,762
6,030
6,350
6,829
6,458
7,211
7,277
7,533
7,053
6,360
6,275
5,656
3,071
4,141
5,069
4,791
5,114

Truck
Production
Share
19.3%
21.1%
19.9%
22.5%
22.1%
16.5%
17.2%
19.5%
22.0%
23.5%
24.8%
27.9%
27.2%
29.1%
29.9%
29.6%
30.4%
31.4%
32.4%
38.1%
36.5%
37.8%
39.9%
41.7%
41.7%
41.2%
41.4%
44.7%
46.1%
48.0%
44.4%
42.1%
41.1%
40.7%
33.0%
37.3%
42.2%
35.6%
35.6%

Adj CO2
(g/mi)
764
726
669
687
711
565
523
516
504
512
509
489
486
498
506
512
500
512
507
518
524
518
528
521
535
528
538
539
533
538
526
518
512
499
480
474
466
461
452

Adj Fuel
Economy
(MPG)
11.6
12.2
13.3
12.9
12.5
15.8
17.1
17.4
17.7
17.4
17.5
18.2
18.3
17.8
17.6
17.4
17.8
17.3
17.5
17.2
17.0
17.2
16.8
17.1
16.6
16.8
16.5
16.5
16.7
16.5
16.9
17.2
17.4
17.8
18.5
18.8
19.1
19.3
19.7

Weight
(Ib)
4073
4155
4136
4152
4257
3869
3806
3813
3773
3787
3803
3741
3718
3850
3932
4014
3961
4078
4098
4149
4201
4255
4394
4317
4457
4421
4543
4612
4655
4783
4763
4758
4871
4837
4753
4784
4824
4809
4878

HP
142
141
147
146
138
121
119
120
118
118
124
123
131
141
146
151
150
155
160
166
168
179
189
188
199
199
212
223
224
240
242
240
254
254
252
253
271
276
282

O-to-60
Footprint Time
(sqft) (sec)
13.6
13.8
13.3
13.4
14.3
14.5
14.6
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.1
14.0
13.4
13.0
12.8
12.6
12.5
12.5
12.2
12.0
12.0
11.6
11.4
11.2
11.0
11.0
10.6
10.3
10.4
10.1
10.0
10.0
9.8
54.0 9.7
54.0 9.7
53.8 9.7
54.4 9.2
54.5 9.1
54.9 9.1
23

-------
           Figure 3.4 includes summary charts showing long-term trends for adjusted CO2 emissions,
           adjusted fuel economy, footprint, weight, horsepower, and 0-60 acceleration time for the five
           vehicle types discussed above. Most of the long-term trends are similar across the various
           vehicle types, with the major exception being pickups, for which CO2 emissions and fuel
           economy have not reached all-time records in recent years (unlike the other vehicle types)
           due to considerably greater increases in weight and horsepower relative to the other vehicle
           types.

Figure 3.4
Adjusted CO2 Emissions, Adjusted Fuel Economy and Other Key Parameters by Vehicle
Type: MY 1975-2013
          700-
          500-
          400-
          300
           25-
           20-
           15-
           10
           65-
           55-
           50-
           45-
         5500-
         5000-
         4500-
         4000-
         3500-
         3000-
         2500
          300-
          250-
          200
          150-
          100-

           14-
           12
           10-
                                                              Pickup
                                                                                       Adjusted CO2
                                                                                       Emissions (g/mi)
Adjusted Fuel
Economy (MPG)
                                                                                       Footprint (sq ft)
Weight (Ib)
Horsepower
O-to-60 Time
(sec)
                      i CJl O CJl CJ1 I
                                                                  i CJl O CJl CJl i
                                            Model Year
           Figure 3.5 shows the annual production share of different inertia weight classes for cars and
           trucks.  This figure again shows the "compression" on the car side that was also discussed
           with respect to interior volume—in the late 1970s there were significant car sales both in the
           <2750 pound class as well as in the 5500 pound  class (interestingly, there were more 5500
           pound cars sold in the late 1970s than there were 5500 pound trucks).  Today, both the
           lightest and heaviest cars have largely disappeared from the market, and over 95% of all cars
           are in just three inertia weight classes (3000, 3500, and 4000 pounds). Conversely, the
           heavy end of the truck market has expanded markedly such that 4500 pounds and greater
           trucks now account for over 80% of the truck market.

-------
Figure 3.5
Car and Truck Production Share by Vehicle Inertia Weight Class
                                    Car
                                                           Truck
               100%-
0)    75% -
ro
O    50% -
"o
T3
2
Q.    25% -
                                                                                            Weight
                                                                                              | <2750
                                                                                              | 2750
                                                                                              | 3000
                                                                                              | 3500
                                                                                                4000
                                                                                                4500
                                                                                              | 5000
                                                                                              | 5500
                                                                                              | 6000
                                                                                              I >6000
CDCDCDCDCD
^JOOOOCDCD
cnocnocn
                               OOOOCDCDCDCDCD
                               OO->-->-^JOOOOCDCD
                               ocnocncnocnocn
                                                                           OOOO
                                                                           OO->-->-
                                                                           ocnocn
                                                 Model Year

           The final four figures in this section, Figures 3.6 through 3.9, address the engineering
           relationships between efficiency and four key vehicle attributes: footprint, weight, 0-60
           acceleration time, and interior volume (car type only).  It is important to emphasize that, in
           order to best reflect the engineering relationships involved, these figures differ from most of
           the figures and tables presented so far in three important ways. One, they show fuel
           consumption (the inverse of fuel economy) rather than fuel economy, because fuel
           consumption represents a linear relationship while fuel economy is non-linear (i.e., a  1 mpg
           difference at a lower fuel economy represents a greater change in fuel consumption than a 1
           mpg difference at a higher fuel economy).  The metric used for fuel consumption is gallons
           per 100 miles, also shown on new vehicle Fuel Economy and Environment Labels. Fuel
           consumption is an excellent surrogate for CO2 emissions, as well.  Two, Figures 3.6 through
           3.9 show unadjusted, laboratory values (for fuel consumption), rather than the adjusted
           values shown up to this point, in order to exclude the impact of non-technology factors
           associated with the adjusted fuel economy values (e.g., changes in driving speeds or use of air
           conditioning over time).  Three, there is no sales weighting in either the calculations of the
           individual data points or the regression lines as the purpose of these figures is to illustrate
           the technical relationships between fuel consumption and key vehicle attributes, rather than
           market success of the attributes. The non-hybrid gasoline, diesel, and gasoline hybrid  data
           points in these figures are averages for each integer footprint value, and are plotted
           separately to illustrate the differences between these technologies, and the regression lines
           are based on the non-hybrid gasoline data points only. As would be expected, the
25

-------
           conventional hybrid and diesel data points almost always reflect lower fuel consumption that
           the regression line representing non-hybrid gasoline vehicles.

           Figure 3.6 shows unadjusted, laboratory fuel consumption as a function of vehicle footprint
           for the MY 2012 car and truck fleets (a full set of historical footprint data is not available).
           On average, higher footprint values are correlated with greater fuel consumption.  Car fuel
           consumption is more  sensitive to footprint (i.e., greater slope for the regression line based on
           conventional gasoline vehicles) than truck fuel consumption, though this relationship may
           be exaggerated somewhat by the fact that the very high footprint cars are extremely low-
           volume luxury cars with very high fuel consumption. Most cars have footprint values below
           50 square feet, and at these footprint levels, the average car has lower fuel consumption than
           the average truck. For the much smaller number of cars that have footprint values greater
           than 55 square feet (typically performance or luxury cars), these cars generally have higher
           fuel consumption than trucks of the same footprint.

Figure 3.6
Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Consumption vs. Footprint: Cars and Trucks, MY 2012
                                Car                            Truck
JD
E
o
o
           CD
           CD
                6 -
                5 -
                4 -
                2 -
                1  -I
• Gasoline (Non-Hybrid)
A Diesel
n Hybrid
                     30    40   50    60    70   80  30    40   50   60    70   80

                                         Footprint (sq ft)
26

-------
          Figure 3.7 shows unadjusted, laboratory fuel consumption as a function of vehicle inertia
          weight for the MY 1975 and MY 2012 car and truck fleets. On average, fuel consumption
          increases linearly with vehicle weight, and the regressions are particularly tight for the data
          points representing non-hybrid gasoline vehicles. In 1975, trucks consistently had higher fuel
          consumption than cars for a given weight, but in 2012, the differences were much smaller,
          and at 5000 pounds and above, the average car had higher fuel consumption than the
          average truck, again likely due to the fact that very heavy cars are typically luxury and/or
          performance vehicles with high fuel consumption.  At a given weight, most cars and trucks
          have reduced their fuel consumption by about 50% since 1975, with the major exception
          being the heaviest cars which have achieved more modest reductions in fuel consumption.

Figure 3.7
Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Consumption  vs. Inertia Weight: Cars and Trucks: MY 1975
and 2012
                                Car
                                                              Truck
           c/j
           o>
          o
          o
               10-
                8-
6-
                4-
                2-
• Gasoline (Non-Hybrid)
A Diesel
n Hybrid

• 1975
• 2012
                  2000     4000
                                   6000     8000 2000     4000
                                           Weight (Ib)
                                                                 6000
                                                          8000

-------
          Figure 3.8 shows unadjusted, laboratory fuel consumption as a function of 0-60 mph
          acceleration time for the MY 1975 and 2012 car and truck fleets. Lower acceleration times
          are correlated with greater fuel consumption, and this relationship has strengthened over
          time. The regressions are much tighter for the 2012 data than for the  1975 data. While the
          slopes of the car and truck regression lines were considerably different in MY 1975, they are
          much more similar today.  The range of acceleration times has also diminished:  there were
          cars and trucks in MY 1975 with 0-60 acceleration times in the 15-25 second range, while
          today there are no vehicles with 0-60 times greater than 12-13 seconds.

Figure 3.8
Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Consumption vs. 0-60 Acceleration Time: Cars and Trucks, MY 1975
and 2012
                             Car
                                                Truck
   12-

   10-


1  '
E
8  (

"ro  4-
O
    2-

    0-
                                                                             • Gasoline (Non-Hybrid)
                                                                             A Diesel
                                                                             D Hybrid

                                                                             • 1975
                                                                             • 2012
                           10    15    20   25  0    5    10    15    20   25
                                    O-to-60 time (sec)
28

-------
          Finally, Figure 3.9 shows unadjusted, laboratory fuel consumption as a function of interior
          volume for MY 1978 and 2012 for the car type only. This figure excludes two-seater cars, as
          interior volume data is not reported for two-seaters.  The data for MY 1978 is much more
          scattered than that for MY 2012. The slope of the regression line for non-hybrid gasoline
          vehicles in 2012 is nearly flat, suggesting that there is no longer much of a relationship
          between interior volume and fuel consumption within the car type.  This MY 2012 data
          further confirm the point made in Section 3.B that interior volume is no longer a good
          attribute for differentiating within the car type.

Figure 3.9
Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Consumption vs. Car Interior Volume: Cars, MY 1978 and 2012

                              1978                          2012
             10.0H
              7.5-
          o
          o
          CD
          CD  2.5
              0.0-
                         •  •
• Gasoline (Non-Hybrid)
A Diesel
n Hybrid

• 1978
• 2012
                  50    75   100   125   150    50   75    100   125  150
29

-------
                Manufacturers and Makes
This section groups vehicles by "manufacturer" and "make." Manufacturer definitions are those used by both
EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for purposes of implementation of GHG
emissions standards and the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) program, respectively. Each year, the
authors ensure that the manufacturer definitions in the Trends database are consistent with those used for
regulatory compliance.

Most of the tables in this section, consistent with the rest of the report, show adjusted CO2 emissions and fuel
economy data which are the best estimates for real world CO2 emissions and fuel economy performance, but
are not comparable to regulatory compliance values. Two tables in this section show unadjusted, laboratory
fuel economy and CO2 emissions values, which form the basis for regulatory compliance values, though they do
not reflect various compliance credits, incentives, and flexibilities available to automakers. Adjusted CO2 values
are, on average, about 25% higher than the unadjusted CO2 values that form the starting point for GHG
standards compliance, and adjusted fuel economy values are about 20% lower, on average, than unadjusted
fuel economy values (note that these values differ because CO2 emissions are proportional to fuel consumption,
both expressed in units of "per mile," while fuel economy is the mathematical inverse of fuel consumption).

In early 2014, EPA intends to publish a separate, annual GHG Report at epa.gov/otaq/regs/ld-
hwy/greenhouse/ld-ghg.htm that will summarize individual manufacturer compliance with the MY 2012 GHG
emissions standards. The Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
(NHTSA, at nhtsa.dot.gov/fuel-economy) also publishes a separate document entitled "Summary of Fuel
Economy Performance" and will update this document after receiving final CAFE compliance data from EPA for
all manufacturers.
         A. MANUFACTURER AND MAKE DEFINITIONS

         Table 4.1 lists the 13 manufacturers which had production of 100,000 or more gasoline
         and/or diesel vehicles in MY 2011 and/or MY 2012, which together accounted for
         approximately 98% of total industry-wide production. There are no changes in the list of
         manufacturers in Table 4.1 included in this year's report.  Make is typically included in the
         model name and is generally equivalent to the "brand" of the vehicle. Table 4.1 also lists the
         29 makes for which data are shown in subsequent tables. The production threshold for
         makes to be included in Tables 4.2 through 4.5 is 40,000 vehicles in MY 2012, though the
         Smart was included as well because of the high interest in this make. The  Mercury make no
         longer exists, but is included since these tables also provide data for MY 2011.

-------
Table 4.1
Manufacturers and Makes for MY 2011-2013
Manufacturer
General Motors
Toyota
Ford
Honda
Chrysler-Fiat
Nissan
Hyundai
Kia
BMW
Volkswagen
Subaru
Daimler
Mazda
Others*
Makes Above Threshold Makes Below Threshold
Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick, GMC
Toyota, Lexus, Scion
Ford, Lincoln, Mercury Roush, Shelby
Honda, Acura
Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep, Ram, Fiat Ferrari, Maserati
Nissan, Infiniti
Hyundai
Kia
BMW, Mini Rolls Royce
Volkswagen, Audi Lamborghini, Bentley, Bugatti
Subaru
Mercedes-Benz, Smart Maybach
Mazda

            *Note: Other manufacturers below the manufacturer threshold are Mitsubishi, Volvo, Rover,
            Porsche, Suzuki, Jaguar, Spyker (Saab), Aston Martin, Lotus, VPG, and Tesla (which only produces
            EVs).

           It is important to note that when a manufacturer or make grouping is modified to reflect a
           change in the industry's current financial structure, EPA makes the same adjustment to the
           entire historical database.  This maintains consistent manufacturer and make definitions
           over time, which allows a better identification of long-term trends.  On the other hand, this
           means that the current database does not necessarily reflect the actual corporate
           arrangements of the past.  For example, the 2013 database no longer accounts for the fact
           that Chrysler was combined with Daimler for several years, and includes Fiat, Ferrari, and
           Maserati in the Chrysler-Fiat manufacturer grouping for the entire database even though
           these other companies have been financially connected to Chrysler only recently.

           Automakers submit vehicle production data, rather than vehicle sales data, in formal end-of-
           year CAFE and GHG emissions compliance reports to EPA.  These vehicle production data
           are tabulated on  a model year basis.  Accordingly, the vehicle production data presented in
           this report often differ from similar data reported by press sources, which typically are based
           on vehicle sales data reported on a calendar basis.  In years past, manufacturers  typically used
           a more consistent approach for model year designations, i.e., from  fall of one year to the fall
           of the following year. More recently, however, many manufacturers have used a more
           flexible approach, and it is not uncommon to see a new or redesigned model introduced
           with a new model year designation in the spring or summer, rather than the  fall. This
           means that a model year for an individual vehicle can be either shortened  or lengthened.
           Accordingly, year-to-year comparisons can be affected by these model year anomalies, though
           the  overall trends even  out over a multi-year period.

-------
          B. MANUFACTURER AND  MAKE TRENDS

          Tables 4.2 through 4.5 provide comparative manufacturer- and make-specific data for fuel
          economy and CO2 emissions for the three years from MY 2011-2013. Data are shown for
          cars only, trucks only, and cars and trucks combined. By including data from both MY 2011
          and 2012, with formal end-of-year data for both years, it is possible to identify meaningful
          changes from year-to-year. Because of the uncertainty associated with the preliminary MY
          2013 projections, changes from MY 2012 to MY 2013 are less meaningful.

          For the first time in this report, tables are presented with both adjusted (Tables 4.2 and 4.3)
          and unadjusted, laboratory (Tables 4.4 and 4.5) data. Tables 4.2 and 4.3  provide adjusted
          data for fuel economy and CO2 emissions, and therefore are consistent with tables presented
          earlier in the report. The data in these tables are very similar to the data used to generate
          the EPA/DOT Fuel Economy and Environment Labels and represent EPA's best estimate of
          nationwide real world fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

          It is important to note that Tables 4.2 and 4.3 show rows with adjusted fuel economy and
          CO2 emissions  data for 11 manufacturers and 27 makes, while the table footnotes provide
          similar data for two additional manufacturers, Hyundai and Kia. On November 2, 2012,
          EPA announced that Hyundai and Kia would lower their Fuel Economy and Environment
          Label estimates for many vehicle models as the result of an EPA investigation of test data.
          Hyundai  and Kia submitted corrected MY 2011-2013 fuel economy and CO2 emissions data
          to  EPA and re-labeled many of their model year 2012 and 2013 vehicles on the market. This
          report uses the  corrected fuel economy values submitted by Hyundai and  Kia for four MY
          2011 vehicles and for many of Hyundai and Kia vehicles for MY 2012 and 2013.  The
          magnitude of the changes between the original label values and the corrected label values
          ranges from 1 mpg to 6 mpg. For the changes in the label values for individual vehicles, see
          epa.gov/fueleconomy/labelchange.htm.  Since EPA's investigation into Hyundai and Kia
          data submissions is  continuing, Hyundai and Kia-specific values are not shown  in rows in
          the following tables that list the fuel economy and CO2 emissions performance for various
          manufacturers,  but  are provided in footnotes to the tables with adjusted fuel economy and
          CO2 emissions.  Hyundai and Kia data are included in industry-wide values, including the
          "All" rows in the following tables, throughout this report.

          Of the 11 manufacturers shown in the body of Table 4.2,  10 manufacturers increased
          adjusted fuel economy from MY 2011 to MY 2012, and Mazda had the highest adjusted fuel
          economy in MY 2012 of 27.1 mpg.  Honda had the second highest adjusted fuel economy of
          26.6 mpg, followed  by Volkswagen at 25.8 mpg. Chrysler-Fiat had the lowest adjusted fuel
          economy of 20.1 mpg, followed by Daimler and General Motors.  Honda achieved the
          largest increase in adjusted fuel economy from MY 2011-2012 of 2.5 mpg, followed by
          Mazda at 2.1 mpg and Daimler at 2.0 mpg.
32

-------
Table 4.2
Adjusted Fuel Economy (MPG) by Manufacturer and Make for MY 2011-2013
Manufacturer
Mazda
Honda
Honda
Honda
VW
vw
VW
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Subaru
Nissan
Nissan
Nissan
BMW
BMW
BMW
Ford
Ford
Ford
Ford
GM
GM
GM
GM
GM
Daimler
Daimler
Daimler
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Other
All
Make
All
Honda
Acura
All
VW
Audi
All
Toyota
Lexus
Scion
All
All
Nissan
Infiniti
All
BMW
Mini
All
Ford
Lincoln
Mercury
All
Chevrolet
GMC
Buick
Cadillac
All
Mercedes-Benz
Smart
All
Jeep
Dodge
Chrysler
Ram
Fiat
All
All
All
MY 2011
Cars
26.3
28.3
23.8
27.9
28.9
24.1
27.3
28.9
23.6
26.1
28.1
23.9
26.8
21.7
26.1
22.4
30.3
23.3
25.2
22.0
21.5
24.8
24.9
23.6
22.4
20.5
24.0
20.1
36.5
20.2
-
22.8
23.0
-
-
22.7
23.8
25.6
Trucks
19.6
21.4
18.6
21.1
22.1
21.4
21.7
19.8
20.3
-
19.8
23.9
19.1
17.0
19.0
20.3

20.3
18.4
17.7
21.1
18.4
17.8
17.7
19.2
15.6
17.8
16.9
-
16.9
19.1
19.3
20.8
16.0

18.6
18.0
19.1
Cars
and
Trucks
25.0
24.5
20.5
24.1
27.7
23.2
26.0
24.2
22.4
26.1
24.1
23.9
23.7
20.4
23.3
21.9
30.3
22.7
21.1
18.9
21.4
21.1
21.3
18.7
21.2
19.5
20.7
19.0
36.5
19.1
19.1
20.6
21.9
16.0
-
19.4
21.0
22.4
MY 2012
Cars
29.3
29.9
24.5
29.3
27.2
24.0
26.4
31.8
24.8
27.2
30.7
27.5
27.5
21.9
26.9
23.3
29.9
25.3
27.2
22.6

26.9
25.7
23.7
24.0
20.5
24.8
22.4
35.7
22.6
22.2
22.7
23.8

31.5
23.7
23.9
27.0
Trucks
21.9
22.8
18.4
22.2
22.8
21.5
21.9
19.7
20.7
-
19.7
24.0
18.9
17.0
18.8
20.1
-
20.1
18.5
17.6
-
18.5
18.0
18.0
19.6
15.5
18.1
18.4
-
18.4
18.7
20.2
20.9
16.1
-
18.6
18.5
19.3
Cars
and
Trucks
27.1
27.2
21.8
26.6
26.9
23.1
25.8
25.7
23.5
27.2
25.6
25.2
24.5
20.5
24.1
22.0
29.9
23.7
22.9
20.9

22.8
22.4
19.3
22.1
19.6
21.7
20.9
35.7
21.1
19.2
21.4
22.6
16.1
31.5
20.1
21.6
23.6
MY 2013
Cars
29.2
30.5
26.3
29.9
27.9
23.7
26.8
32.7
24.8
27.3
30.3
28.4
29.6
21.7
28.5
24.8
29.6
26.0
27.6
24.4

27.4
26.5
24.2
24.8
21.8
25.6
23.4
36.5
23.6
24.7
24.9
23.4

31.6
24.7
22.9
27.4
Trucks
23.6
23.0
19.6
22.6
23.1
22.7
22.9
19.3
21.0
-
19.6
25.0
20.9
18.9
20.7
20.2

20.2
19.2
19.6

19.2
17.7
17.8
20.4
17.6
17.9
19.3
-
19.3
19.1
20.0
20.6
17.4

19.2
19.1
19.7
Cars
and
Trucks
27.5
27.5
23.8
27.0
27.5
23.4
26.2
25.5
23.5
27.3
25.2
26.2
25.9
20.7
25.3
23.2
29.6
24.4
22.6
21.9
-
22.6
22.6
19.3
23.8
21.0
22.0
22.1
36.5
22.2
19.5
23.0
22.2
17.4
31.6
21.6
21.2
24.0
             *Note: Two manufacturers, Hyundai and Kia, are not included in rows in the table above due to a continuing
             investigation. On November 2, 2012, EPA announced that Hyundai and Kia would lower their fuel economy estimates for
             many vehicle models as the result of an EPA investigation of test data. This report uses the corrected fuel economy
             values submitted by Hyundai and Kia for four MY 2011 vehicles and for a majority of Hyundai and Kia vehicles for MY
             2012 and MY 2013. Based on these corrected data, Hyundai's 2011 Cars and Trucks value is 27.2 mpg, Hyundai's 2012
             Cars and Trucks value is 28.3 mpg, and Hyundai's preliminary 2013 Cars and Trucks value is 28.3 mpg, Kia's 2011 Cars
             and Trucks value is 25.8 mpg, Kia's 2012 Cars and Truck values is 26.5 mpg, and Kia's preliminary 2013 Car and truck
             value is 27.3 mpg. These corrected data are included in industry-wide or "AN" values.
33

-------
For MY 2012 cars only, of the 11 manufacturers shown in Table 4.2, Toyota achieved the
highest adjusted fuel economy of 30.7 mpg, while Daimler reported the lowest adjusted car
fuel economy of 22.6 mpg.  For MY 2012 trucks only, Subaru had the highest adjusted fuel
economy of 24.0 mpg,  while General Motors had  the lowest at 18.1 mpg.

In terms of the makes shown in Table 4.2 for MY 2012, the Smart make had the highest
adjusted fuel economy at 35.7 mpg. The Smart Fourtwo is the smallest and lightest car in
the U.S. market and has relatively low production. The make with the second-highest
adjusted fuel economy in MY 2012 was Fiat, which also produces a relatively low number of
small cars, at 31.5 mpg. Of the makes with higher production, for the 11 manufacturers
shown, Honda had the highest adjusted fuel economy at 27.2 mpg.

Preliminary projections suggest that 9 of the 11 manufacturers shown will improve adjusted
fuel economy further in MY 2013, though EPA will not have final data for MY 2013 until
next year's report.

Table 4.3 shows manufacturer-specific values for adjusted CO2 emissions for the same
manufacturers, makes and model years as shown in Table 4.2 for adjusted fuel economy.  Of
the 11 manufacturers shown, 10 manufacturers decreased adjusted fuel CO2 emissions from
MY 2011 to MY 2012.  Manufacturer rankings for CO2 emissions are generally similar to
those for fuel economy, though there can be some differences due to diesel vehicle
production share (since diesel has a higher carbon content per gallon than gasoline). Table
4.3 shows that Mazda had the lowest adjusted CO2 emissions in MY 2012 of 328 g/mi,
followed by Honda at 334 g/mi and Toyota at 347 g/mi.  Chrysler-Fiat had the highest
adjusted CO2 emissions of 442 g/mi, followed by  Daimler and General Motors. Daimler
achieved the largest decrease in adjusted CO2 emissions from MY 2011-2012 of 43 g/mi,
followed by Honda at 35 g/mi and Ford at 32 g/mi.  Preliminary values suggest that 9
manufacturers will likely improve  in MY 2013.  The make rankings for adjusted CO2
emissions in Table 4.3  are also similar to those for adjusted fuel economy in Table 4.2.

-------
Table 4.3
Adjusted CO2 Emissions (g/mi) by Manufacturer and Make for MY 2011-2013
35
Manufacturer
Mazda
Honda
Honda
Honda
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
VW
vw
VW
Subaru
Nissan
Nissan
Nissan
BMW
BMW
BMW
Ford
Ford
Ford
Ford
GM
GM
GM
GM
GM
Daimler
Daimler
Daimler
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Other
All
Make
All
Honda
Acura
All
Toyota
Lexus
Scion
All
VW
Audi
All
All
Nissan
Infiniti
All
BMW
Mini
All
Ford
Lincoln
Mercury
All
Chevrolet
GMC
Buick
Cadillac
All
Mercedes-Benz
Smart
All
Jeep
Dodge
Chrysler
Ram
Fiat
All
All
All
Final MY 2011
Cars
338
315
373
319
308
377
340
317
318
371
333
372
331
409
340
398
293
383
352
404
414
359
357
377
397
433
371
444
243
440
-
391
386


392
373
348
Trucks
453
415
478
422
450
437
-
449
407
423
415
371
464
522
469
447

447
484
503
422
484
501
503
463
570
501
533
-
533
465
460
428
554

477
493
466
Cars
and
Trucks
356
363
434
369
366
397
340
369
330
387
349
372
374
436
381
408
293
393
421
471
414
422
417
475
419
456
429
472
243
469
465
431
405
554

458
423
398
Final MY 2012
Cars
304
298
362
303
280
358
326
290
334
372
343
323
323
406
330
382
297
352
327
393
-
330
346
375
371
434
358
398
249
394
401
392
373
-
282
376
372
329
Trucks
406
390
482
400
452
429
-
450
405
419
414
371
470
524
474
452

452
479
505

480
494
493
454
574
492
495
-
495
474
439
425
553

478
480
461
Cars
and
Trucks
328
327
407
334
345
378
326
347
338
388
351
352
363
434
369
407
297
377
389
425
-
390
396
461
401
453
410
430
249
426
463
416
393
553
282
442
412
376
Preliminary MY 2013
Cars
305
291
337
297
272
359
326
293
327
376
339
313
300
409
312
358
300
342
322
365

324
335
367
358
407
348
380
244
377
359
357
379

282
359
389
325
Trucks
376
386
452
394
459
423
-
454
400
392
394
356
424
469
429
440

440
463
454

463
501
498
436
505
498
467
-
467
466
444
432
510

462
468
452
Cars
and
Trucks
324
323
373
329
349
378
326
352
332
381
346
339
343
429
351
383
300
364
393
406
-
394
394
460
373
423
404
405
244
402
456
386
400
510
282
411
419
370
             *Note: Two manufacturers, Hyundai and Kia, are not included in rows in the table above due to a continuing
             investigation. On November 2, 2012, EPA announced that Hyundai and  Kia would lower their fuel economy estimates for
             many vehicle models as the result of an EPA investigation of test data. This report uses the corrected fuel economy
             values submitted by Hyundai and Kia for four MY 2011 vehicles and for  a majority of Hyundai and Kia vehicles for MY
             2012 and MY 2013. Based on these corrected data, Hyundai's 2011 Cars and Trucks value is 327 g/mi C02, Hyundai's
             2012 Cars and Trucks value is 314 g/mi C02, and Hyundai's preliminary 2013 Cars and Trucks value is 315 g/mi C02, Kia's
             2011 Cars and Trucks value is 345 g/mi C02, Kia's 2012 Cars and Truck values is 336 g/mi C02, and Kia's preliminary 2013
             Car and truck value is 326 g/mi C02. These corrected data are included  in industry-wide or "AN" values.

-------
Tables 4.4 and 4.5 provide unadjusted, laboratory data for both fuel economy and CO2
emissions on a manufacturer-specific basis.  Unadjusted, laboratory data is relevant in a
manufacturer-specific context because it is the foundation for EPA CO2 emissions and
NHTSA CAFE regulatory compliance, and  because it provides  a basis for comparing long-
term trends from the perspective of vehicle design only, apart from the factors that affect real
world performance that can change over time (i.e., driving behavior such as acceleration
rates or the use of air conditioning).  Note that EPA has not released corrected unadjusted,
laboratory values for some Hyundai and Kia models for MY 2011-2013.

In general, manufacturer rankings based on the unadjusted, laboratory values in Tables 4.4
and 4.5 are very similar to those for the adjusted values  in Tables 4.2 and 4.3. On average,
in recent years, unadjusted, laboratory fuel economy values are  about 25% greater than
adjusted fuel economy values (slightly greater at higher absolute mpg levels), and average
unadjusted, laboratory CO2 emissions values are about 20% less than adjusted CO2
emissions (slightly greater at lower CO2 emissions levels).

-------
Table 4.4
Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Economy (MPG) by Manufacturer and Make for MY 2011—2013
Manufacturer
Mazda
Honda
Honda
Honda
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
VW
vw
VW
Subaru
Nissan
Nissan
Nissan
BMW
BMW
BMW
Ford
Ford
Ford
Ford
GM
GM
GM
GM
GM
Daimler
Daimler
Daimler
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Other
All
Make
All
Honda
Acura
All
Toyota
Lexus
Scion
All
VW
Audi
All
All
Nissan
Infiniti
All
BMW
Mini
All
Ford
Lincoln
Mercury
All
Chevrolet
GMC
Buick
Cadillac
All
Mercedes-Benz
Smart
All
Jeep
Dodge
Chrysler
Ram
Fiat
All
All
All
Final MY 2011
Cars
33.4
35.9
29.9
35.4
37.0
29.7
33.5
35.9
35.4
29.7
33.5
30.2
34.4
27.1
33.3
27.8
39.3
29.1
31.8
27.6
26.7
31.2
31.0
29.6
27.6
25.5
29.8
24.9
48.7
25.1
-
28.4
28.4
-
-
28.2
29.9
32.3
Trucks
24.6
26.9
23.4
26.4
24.9
25.6
-
24.9
27.7
26.6
27.1
30.4
24.0
21.0
23.8
25.3
-
25.3
23.0
22.0
26.8
23.0
22.0
22.0
23.8
19.9
22.0
21.1
-
21.1
23.9
24.0
25.7
19.8
-
23.2
22.4
23.9
Cars
and
Trucks
31.7
30.9
25.7
30.4
30.8
28.3
33.5
30.6
34.1
28.7
32.1
30.4
30.1
25.4
29.6
27.3
39.3
28.4
26.5
23.6
26.7
26.5
26.5
23.3
26.2
24.3
25.7
23.6
48.7
23.7
23.9
25.7
27.1
19.8

24.2
26.3
28.1
Final MY 2012
Cars
37.4
38.1
30.9
37.3
41.4
31.5
35.2
39.8
34.2
29.5
33.0
35.2
35.3
27.4
34.4
29.4
38.7
32.2
34.5
28.4
-
34.1
32.2
29.8
29.7
25.4
31.1
27.8
49.5
28.2
28.2
28.1
29.5
-
41.1
29.6
30.1
34.3
Cars
and
Trucks Trucks
27.8
28.6
23.3
27.8
24.8
26.1
-
24.9
28.9
26.7
27.4
30.5
23.7
20.9
23.5
25.0
-
25.0
23.2
21.9
-
23.1
22.3
22.4
24.5
20.1
22.4
23.1
-
23.1
23.5
25.1
25.9
19.8
-
23.1
23.1
24.1
34.6
34.5
27.5
33.6
33.0
29.8
35.2
32.8
33.9
28.5
32.3
32.2
31.1
25.5
30.5
27.7
38.7
30.0
28.8
26.1

28.7
28.0
24.1
27.5
24.6
27.0
26.1
49.5
26.3
24.1
26.5
28.0
19.8
41.1
25.0
27.0
29.8
Preliminary MY 2013
Cars
37.4
39.3
33.3
38.4
43.0
31.5
35.1
39.4
34.4
29.2
33.0
36.4
38.9
27.2
37.2
31.2
38.3
32.9
34.9
30.6
-
34.7
33.4
30.9
31.1
27.1
32.1
29.2
50.3
29.6
31.7
31.2
29.0
-
41.2
31.0
28.8
34.8
Trucks
30.2
28.9
24.7
28.3
24.4
26.6
-
24.7
27.1
28.4
28.0
31.9
26.5
23.7
26.2
25.1

25.1
24.0
24.4

24.0
21.7
21.4
25.6
20.2
21.7
24.3
-
24.3
24.0
24.8
25.4
21.6

23.9
23.9
24.5
Cars
and
Trucks
35.2
35.1
30.1
34.3
32.8
29.8
35.1
32.3
33.9
28.9
32.3
33.6
33.5
25.9
32.6
29.1
38.3
30.8
28.4
27.4

28.3
28.1
23.6
29.9
25.7
27.3
27.7
50.3
27.9
24.5
28.7
27.5
21.6
41.2
27.0
26.7
30.3
            *Note: Two manufacturers, Hyundai and Kia, are not included in rows in the table above due to a continuing investigation. On
            November 2, 2012, EPA announced that Hyundai and Kia would lower their fuel economy estimates for many vehicle models as
            the result of an EPA investigation of test data. EPA has not yet released formal, corrected unadjusted, laboratory values for
            Hyundai and Kia.
37

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Table 4.5
Unadjusted, Laboratory CO2 Emissions (g/mi) by Manufacturer and Make for MY 2011-2013
Manufacturer
Mazda
Honda
Honda
Honda
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Subaru
VW
vw
VW
Nissan
Nissan
Nissan
BMW
BMW
BMW
Ford
Ford
Ford
Ford
GM
GM
GM
GM
GM
Daimler
Daimler
Daimler
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Other
All
Make
All
Honda
Acura
All
Toyota
Lexus
Scion
All
All
VW
Audi
All
Nissan
Infiniti
All
BMW
Mini
All
Ford
Lincoln
Mercury
All
Chevrolet
GMC
Buick
Cadillac
All
Mercedes-Benz
Smart
All
Jeep
Dodge
Chrysler
Ram
Fiat
All
All
All
Final MY 2011
Cars
266
247
297
251
240
299
266
248
294
258
300
271
258
327
267
320
226
306
279
321
332
285
287
301
322
348
298
358
182
354
-
313
313
-
-
315
298
276
Trucks
361
331
380
336
357
347
-
357
292
324
340
332
370
423
374
358

358
387
403
332
387
404
405
373
447
404
427

427
372
371
345
449

383
396
373
Cars
and
Trucks
281
287
345
293
289
314
266
291
293
268
313
283
295
350
301
328
226
315
335
377
332
336
336
382
339
365
345
379
182
377
372
346
327
449

368
338
317
Final MY 2012
Cars
238
233
288
238
215
282
252
223
252
266
303
274
252
325
258
303
230
276
258
313
-
261
276
298
299
350
286
320
180
316
315
316
301
-
216
301
296
259
Trucks
319
311
382
319
358
340
-
357
292
319
337
331
375
425
378
363
-
363
384
406
-
384
399
396
363
443
396
394
-
394
379
354
343
448
-
384
385
369
Cars
and
Trucks
257
258
323
264
269
299
252
271
276
268
314
280
286
348
291
324
230
299
309
340
-
310
318
369
323
362
329
344
180
341
369
335
318
448
216
355
329
298
Preliminary MY 2013
Cars
238
226
266
231
207
282
253
226
244
265
305
275
232
327
242
285
232
270
254
290
-
256
266
287
286
328
277
304
177
301
280
285
306

216
287
308
256
Trucks
294
308
360
314
364
335
-
360
278
343
313
324
335
376
339
353

353
371
364
-
370
409
415
347
439
409
369

369
371
359
349
412

371
374
363
Cars
and
Trucks
253
254
296
259
271
298
253
275
265
270
308
281
267
343
275
305
232
289
313
324
-
314
317
377
297
346
326
323
177
320
362
310
323
412
216
329
334
294
            *Note: Two manufacturers, Hyundai and Kia, are not included in rows in the table above due to a continuing investigation.
            On November 2, 2012, EPA announced that Hyundai and Kia would lower their fuel economy estimates for many vehicle
            models as the result of an EPA investigation of test data. EPA has not yet released formal, corrected unadjusted,
            laboratory values for Hyundai and Kia.
38

-------
          Table 4.6 shows footprint by manufacturer for MY 2011-2013. In recent years, industry-
          wide footprint has been fluctuating around 49 square feet.  GM, Ford, and Chrysler-Fiat had
          the largest footprint values in MY 2011 in the 51-52 square feet range, and Subaru and
          Mazda had the lowest footprint values of 45 square feet. The remaining manufacturers had
          average footprint values in the 46-48 square feet range.

Table 4.6
Footprint (square feet) by Manufacturer for MY 2011—2013
Manufacturer
GM
Toyota
Ford
Honda
Chrysler-Fiat
Nissan
Hyundai
VW
Kia
Mazda
Subaru
BMW
Daimler
Other
All
Final MY 2011
Cars
47.2
45.5
46.1
45.1
49.0
45.0
47.0
44.4
45.4
44.3
44.2
45.9
46.4
45.2
46.0
Trucks
61.0
53.4
58.2
49.7
52.6
51.2
46.7
47.8
48.3
50.5
44.8
51.1
51.9
48.2
54.4
Cars
and
Trucks
53.4
48.6
52.1
47.4
51.8
47.0
47.0
45.1
45.9
45.3
44.6
46.8
48.1
46.4
49.5
Final MY 2012
Cars
47.0
45.1
45.3
45.1
47.2
45.0
46.4
45.0
45.6
43.9
44.3
45.9
46.5
45.5
45.7
Trucks
60.1
53.4
59.4
50.5
53.7
51.6
46.4
49.0
52.0
48.1
44.7
51.4
51.8
48.5
54.5
Cars
and
Trucks
52.1
48.1
50.9
46.8
51.4
46.8
46.4
45.5
46.2
44.9
44.5
47.3
48.2
46.6
48.8
Preliminary MY 2013
Cars
46.4
44.8
46.9
45.1
47.3
45.9
46.3
45.5
45.8
43.5
44.2
46.2
47.2
45.0
45.9
Trucks
61.9
53.9
58.9
49.7
52.2
51.1
46.2
48.8
46.0
47.7
44.6
51.2
51.2
48.3
54.9
Cars
and
Trucks
52.2
48.2
52.9
46.6
49.8
47.7
46.3
45.9
45.8
44.6
44.5
47.4
48.3
46.3
49.1
           Manufacturer-specific MY 2012 car footprint values varied little, within 44-47 square feet.
           MY 2012 truck footprint values were much more variable, ranging from 45 (Subaru) to 60
           (General Motors) square feet.

           In terms of change in footprint values from MY 2011 to MY 2012, four manufacturers
           (BMW, VW, Kia, and Daimler) slightly increased footprint, all equal to or less than 0.5
           square feet. The remaining nine manufacturers decreased footprint, with the biggest
           decreases reported by General Motors (1.3 square feet) and Ford (1.2 square feet).  In Ford's
           case, truck footprint increased in MY 2012, but its overall fleet decreased in footprint
           because of a major decrease in truck production share.

           Industry-wide footprint is projected to increase slightly in MY 2013.

           Table  4.7 shows manufacturer-specific values for adjusted fuel economy and production
           share for the two classes (cars and trucks) and the five vehicle types (cars, car SUVs, truck
           SUVs, pickups, and minivans/vans) for MY 2012.  Toyota had the highest adjusted fuel
39

-------
          economy for the car type, while Honda led for car SUVs. For the truck types, Subaru
          reported the highest adjusted fuel economy for truck SUVs, General Motors and Toyota had
          the highest pickup furl economy among manufacturers that make a significant number of
          pickups, and Mazda had the highest adjusted fuel economy for minivans/vans. VW had the
          highest car share, at 89%, with Mazda, BMW, and Nissan having car shares in the 73-77%
          range.  Chrysler-Fiat had the highest truck share of 65%, followed by Subaru at 61% and
          Ford, General Motors, and Toyota in the 36-40% range.

          Industry-wide, car type vehicles averaged 4.4 mpg higher than car SUVs in MY 2012.
          Among truck types, minivans/vans had the highest adjusted fuel economy of 21.4 mpg,
          followed by truck SUVs at 20.0 mpg, and pickups at 17.2 mpg. Notably, the car type, at 27.8
          mpg, was the only one of the five vehicle types to exceed the fleetwide average of 23.6 mpg in
          MY 2012.
Table 4.7
Adjusted Fuel Economy and Production Share by Vehicle Classification and Type for MY 2012

Manufacturer
GM
Toyota
Ford
Honda
Chrysler-Fiat
Nissan
VW
Mazda
Subaru
BMW
Daimler
Other
All
Cars
Adj FE Prod
(MPG) Share
25.7 43.1%
31.4 59.3%
27.8 48.9%
29.8 60.6%
24.0 29.5%
27.4 65.2%
26.5 85.3%
29.5 73.7%
27.5 39.3%
25.3 74.4%
22.9 63.5%
23.9 55.5%
27.8 54.9%
Car SUVs
Adj FE Prod
(MPG) Share
23.0 17.9%
23.6 4.7%
23.4 11.1%
25.5 7.3%
22.0 5.7%
23.6 7.5%
24.0 3.2%
23.2 2.8%
-
-
18.9 4.6%
24.2 7.4%
23.4 9.4%
All Cars
Adj FE Prod
(MPG) Share
24.8 61.0%
30.7 64.0%
26.9 60.0%
29.3 67.9%
23.7 35.2%
26.9 72.7%
26.4 88.5%
29.3 76.5%
27.5 39.3%
25.3 74.4%
22.6 68.1%
23.9 62.9%
27.0 64.4%
Truck SUVs
Adj FE Prod
(MPG) Share
18.6 19.8%
20.9 18.8%
19.8 17.0%
22.3 21.7%
18.9 34.1%
19.7 17.4%
21.9 11.5%
19.6 11.9%
24.0 60.7%
20.1 25.6%
18.4 31.9%
18.6 35.7%
20.0 20.6%
Pickups
Adj FE Prod
(MPG) Share
17.6 18.3%
17.6 11.5%
17.3 20.7%
18.1 0.9%
16.0 14.3%
16.6 8.1%
-
-
-
-
-
17.5 0.9%
17.2 10.1%
Minivans/Vans
Adj FE Prod
(MPG) Share
16.2 0.9%
21.2 5.6%
22.6 2.3%
22.4 9.5%
20.9 16.4%
21.7 1.8%
-
24.7 11.7%
-
-
-
14.9 0.5%
21.4 4.9%
All Trucks
Adj FE Prod
(MPG) Share
18.1 39.0%
19.7 36.0%
18.5 40.0%
22.2 32.1%
18.6 64.8%
18.8 27.3%
21.9 11.5%
21.9 23.5%
24.0 60.7%
20.1 25.6%
18.4 31.9%
18.5 37.1%
19.3 35.6%
All
Adj FE Prod
(MPG) Share
21.7 100.0%
25.6 100.0%
22.8 100.0%
26.6 100.0%
20.1 100.0%
24.1 100.0%
25.8 100.0%
27.1 100.0%
25.2 100.0%
23.7 100.0%
21.1 100.0%
21.6 100.0%
23.6 100.0%
          Table 4.8 shows average MY 2012 manufacturer-specific values, for all cars and trucks, for
          three important vehicle attributes:  footprint, weight, and horsepower. The footprint data in
          Table 4.8 were also shown in Table 4.6 and discussed above.  Daimler had the highest
          average weight of 4450 pounds, followed by General Motors and Chrysler-Fiat.  Mazda
          reported the lowest average weight of 3330 pounds,  followed by Hyundai and Kia.  Daimler
          also had the highest average horsepower level of 282 hp, followed by Chrysler-Fiat and
          BMW.  Mazda also reported the lowest horsepower level of 171 hp, followed by Subaru and
          Hyundai.
40

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Table 4.8
Vehicle Footprint, Weight, and Horsepower by Manufacturer for MY 2012
Manufacturer
GM
Toyota
Ford
Honda
Chrysler-Fiat
Nissan
Hyundai
VW
Kia
Mazda
Subaru
BMW
Daimler
All
Footprint
(sqft)
52.1
48.1
50.9
46.8
51.4
46.8
46.4
45.5
46.2
44.9
44.5
47.3
48.2
48.8
Weight
(Ib)
4395
3863
4152
3646
4361
3748
3375
3734
3485
3330
3663
4071
4450
3977
HP
245
196
241
192
271
204
189
196
191
171
176
264
282
222
          Finally, Figure 4.1 provides a historical perspective, for both adjusted fuel economy and
          truck share, for each of the top 13 manufacturers. Adjusted fuel economy is presented for
          cars only, trucks only, and cars and trucks combined.  One noteworthy result in Figure 4.1 is
          that there is very little difference between the adjusted fuel economy values for Subaru cars
          and trucks, the only manufacturer for which this is the case.

          More information for the historic Trends database stratified by manufacturer can be found
          in Appendices J and K.

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Figure 4.1

Adjusted Fuel Economy and Percent Truck by Manufacturer for MY 1975-2013
         ;   20-
           20-
        (/)



        f   15H
        0)  20% -
                     GM
                    Nissan
                   Subaru
Toyota
                                                    Ford
                                   Hyundai
                                                    VW
                                    BMW
                                                   Daimler
     N/U
                                                                   Honda
                                                                     Kia
                                                                    Other
                                                                                 Chrysler-Fiat
                                                                                    Mazda

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Technological innovation is a major driver of vehicle design in general, and vehicle fuel economy and CO2
emissions in particular. Since its inception, this report has tracked the usage of key technologies as well as
many major engine and transmission parameters.  This section of the report will focus on the larger technology
trends in engine and transmission production and the impact of those trends on vehicle fuel economy and CO2
emissions.

Over the last 35 years, one trend is strikingly clear; automakers have consistently developed and
commercialized new technologies that have provided more benefits to consumers. As discussed previously in
Sections 2 and 3, the benefits provided by new technologies have varied over time. New technologies have
been introduced for many reasons, including to increase fuel economy, reduce CO2 emissions, increase vehicle
power and performance, increase in vehicle content and weight, or some  combination of all the above.

          A. TRENDS IN ENGINE  POWER  AND SIZE

          (CYLINDERS AND DISPLACEMENT)

          One of the most remarkable trends over the course of this report is the increase in vehicle
          power since the early 1980s. From 1975 through the early 1980s, average horsepower
          decreased, in combination with lower vehicle weight (see Table 2.1 and Figure 2.3) and
          smaller engine displacement (see below). Since the early 1980s, the average new vehicle
          horsepower has more than doubled, from just over 100 hp to over 230 hp in MY 2011.
          Average horsepower climbed consistently from MY1982 to MY 2008, and, after falling
          slightly in MY 2009, set a new all-time high of 230 hp in MY 2011.  The trend in
          horsepower is mainly attributable to improvements in engine technology, but increasing
          sales of larger vehicles and an increasing percentage of truck sales have also influenced the
          increase of average new vehicle horsepower. The trend in average new vehicle horsepower is
          shown in Figure 5.1.

          Engine size, as measured by total displacement, is also shown in Figure 5.1. Three general
          phases in engine displacement are discernible. From MY 1975 to 1987, the average engine
          displacement of new vehicles dropped dramatically by nearly 40%. From MY 1988 to 2004,
          displacement generally grew slowly, but the trend reversed in 2005 and engine displacement
          has been slowly decreasing since. In MY 2012, engine displacement is projected to be just
          slightly higher than the lowest average displacement in  MY 1987.

          The contrasting trends in horsepower (near an all-time  high) and engine displacement (near
          an all-time low) highlight the continuing improvement  in engines due to introduction of
          new technologies (e.g. port fuel injection) and smaller engineering improvements that are
          not tracked by this report (e.g. reduced internal friction). One additional way to examine
          the relationship between engine horsepower and displacement is to look at the trend in
          specific power, which is a metric to compare the power output of an engine relative to its size.
          Here, engine specific power is defined as horsepower divided by displacement.

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Figure 5.1
Engine Displacement and Power
           0.
           I
    225
    200
    175
    150
    125
    100

co  275
CD
O  250
           s   225
           3
           O   200
175

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6
CD

_CD
Q.
                                                    Horsepower
                                                                   Displacement
                                                                  Average Specific
                                                                  Power
                   1975  1980  1985 1990  1995  2000  2005 2010  2015
                                    Model Year
          Since the beginning of this report, the average specific power of engines across the new
          vehicle fleet has increased at a remarkably steady rate, as shown in Figure 5.1.  Over the 37
          years covered by this report, the specific power of new vehicle engines has increased, on
          average, by 0.02 horsepower per cubic inch every year. Considering the numerous and
          significant changes to engines over this time span, changes in consumer preferences, and the
          external pressures on vehicle purchases, the long standing linearity of this trend is
          noteworthy. The roughly linear increase in specific power does not appear to be slowing (if
          anything the last few years of data suggest a slight increase above the historical norm.

          Figure 5.2 summarizes three important engine metrics, each of which has  shown a
          remarkably linear change over time. Specific power, as discussed above, has increased more
          than 150% over the 3 7 years of this report at a very steady rate. The amount of fuel
          consumed by an engine, relative to the total displacement, has fallen about 15% since MY
          1975, and fuel consumption relative to engine horsepower has fallen nearly 65% since MY
          1975. Taken as a whole, the trend lines in Figure 5.2 very clearly show that engine
          improvements over time have been steady, continual, and have resulted in impressive
          improvements to internal combustion engines.
44

-------
Figure 5.2
Percent Change for Specific Engine Metrics
           10
8
c
'to
CD
D5
C
cc
o
"c
CD
O
CD
Q_
               150%-
               100%-
                50% -
                                                          HP/Displacement
               -50% -
                                                    Fuel Consumption/Displacement
                                             Fuel Consumption/HP
                      1975   1980   1985   1990  1995  2000   2005   2010   2015

                                             Model Year

          Another basic engine design parameter that is useful to explore is the number of engine
          cylinders.  Since 1975, there have been significant changes to the number of cylinders in
          new vehicles, as shown in Figure 5.3. In the mid and late 1970s, the 8-cylinder engine was
          dominant, accounting for over half of new vehicle production.  In MY 1980 there was a
          significant change in the market, as 8-cylinder engine production share dropped from 54%
          to 26% and 4-cylinder production share increased from 26% to 45%.  The 4-cylinder engine
          then continued to lead the market until they were overtaken by 6-cylinder engines in MY
          1992.  Model year 2009 marked a second major shift in engine production, as 4-cylinder
          engines once again became the production leader with 51% of the market (an increase of
          13% in a single year), followed by 6-cylinder engines with 35%, and 8-cyinder engines at an
          all-time low of 12%. Production of four cylinder engines decreased slightly in MY 2010 and
          MY 2011, but increased back above 50% in MY 2012 and is projected to keep climbing in
          MY 2013. Engine displacement per cylinder has been relatively stable over the time of this
          report (around 35 cubic inches per cylinder since 1980), so the reduction in overall new
          vehicle engine displacement shown in Figure 5.1 is almost entirely due to the shift towards
          engines with fewer cylinders.
45

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Figure 5.3
Production Share by Number of Cylinders
             100%
                                                                                 Number of
                                                                                 Cylinders

                                                                                    Other
              0%
                   1975   1980    1985    1990    1995    2000

                                           Model Year
                                                           2005
                                                                  2010
                                                                         2015
46

-------
B. TRENDS IN  FUEL DELIVERY METHODS AND

VALVETRAINS

One aspect of engine design that has changed significantly over time is how fuel is delivered
into the engine. In the 1970s and early 1980s, nearly all engines used carburetors to meter
fuel delivered to the engine. Carburetors were replaced over time with throttle body
injection systems (TBI) and port fuel injection systems.  More recently, engines with gasoline
direct injection (GDI) have begun to replace engines with port fuel injection. Engines using
GDI were first introduced into the market in very limited amounts in MY 2007, and only 6
years later GDI engines are projected to be installed on nearly 31% of new vehicles in MY
2013.

Another key aspect of engine design is the valvetrain. The number of valves per cylinder and
the ability to alter valve timing during the combustion cycle can result in significant power
and efficiency improvements. This report began tracking multi-valve  engines (i.e., engines
with more than 2 valves per cylinder) for cars in MY 1986, and since that time nearly the
entire fleet has converted to multi-valve design.  While some three and five valve engines
have been produced, the vast majority of multi-valve engines are based on 4 valves per
cylinder. In addition to the number of valves per cylinder, engine designs have evolved that
allow engine valves to vary the timing when they are opened or closed with respect to the
combustion cycle,  creating more flexibility to control engine efficiency, power, and
emissions. This report began tracking variable valve timing (WT) for cars in MY 1990, and
since then nearly the entire fleet has adopted this technology. Figure 5.4 shows the
evolution of engine technology, including fuel delivery method and the introduction of WT
and multi-valve engines.

As clearly shown in Figure 5.4, fuel delivery and valve-train technologies have often
developed over the same time frames. Nearly all carbureted engines relied on fixed valve
timing and had two valves per cylinder,  as did early port injected engines. Port injected
engines largely developed into engines with both multi-valve and WT technology.  Engines
with GDI are almost exclusively using multi-valve and WT technology. These four engine
groupings, or packages, represent a large share of the engines produced  over the last 37 years
of this report.

Figure 5.5 shows the changes in specific power and fuel  consumption between each of these
engine packages over time.  There is a very clear increase in specific power of each engine
package, as engines moved from carbureted engines, to two valve port fixed engines, to multi
valve port WT engines, and finally to GDI engines. Some of the increase for GDI engines
may also be due to the fact that GDI engines are often paired with turbochargers to further
increase power. Figure 5.5 additionally shows the reduction in fuel consumption, per
horsepower, for each of the four engine packages.

-------
Figure 5.4

Production Share by Engine Technology
         CO
        .c
        C/)

         c
        T3
             100% -
              75% -
              50% -
              25% -
             100% -
              75% -
              50% -
              25% -
Car
Truck
                   1975   1980   1985  1990  1995  2000  2005  2010  2015


                                        Model Year
Fuel Delivery
Carbureted
Throttle Body Injection
Port Fuel Injection
Gasoline Direct Injection
(GDI)
Diesel
Valve Timing
Fixed
Variable
Fixed
Fixed
Fixed
Variable
Fixed
Variable
—
Number of Valves
Two-Valve
Multi-Valve
Two-Valve
Multi-Valve
Two-Valve
Multi-Valve
Two-Valve
Multi-Valve
Multi-Valve
Multi-Valve
—
Key
=
6
8
9
10
11
48

-------
Figure 5.5
Engine Metrics for Different Engine Technology Packages
            0)
            E
           _
            o.
            en
           b
           Si
            I
            o
            Q_
            O
            01
            Q.
                1.6-
1.2-
                0.8-

                                                      GDI
Variable and
 Multi-Valve
Technology
                                         Fixed and
                                         Two-Valve
                                        Technology
                           Carb
                    1975  1980  1985  1990  1995  2000  2005  2010  2015

                                       Model Year
                0.06 H
            •|   0.05-
            o
            o
            ro
            O)
            9=   0.04-
            CL
            E
            in
            o   0.03-
            O
                0.02-
                                       Carb
                                        Fixed and Two-Valve
                                           Technology
                              Variable and
                              Multi-Valve
                              Technology
                                                        GDI
                     1975  1980  1985  1990  1995  2000 2005  2010 2015

                                       Model Year
49

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C. NEW POWERTRAIN STRATEGIES: TURBO
DOWNSIZING, HYBRIDS, AND DIESELS
Two powertrain strategies that are relatively new to this report are turbo-downsizing and
hybridization. Vehicles that employ turbo downsizing use a smaller displacement engine
with a turbocharger in place of a larger naturally aspirated engine.  Hybrid vehicles feature
larger batteries that provide a second source of on-board power. Diesel engines, while
certainly not new to the market or to this report, are also included in this section of the
report due to the  increased interest in diesel vehicles.
Turbo-downsizing

Nearly all manufacturers have introduced (or have plans to introduce) engines that are
considered "turbo downsized" engines.  This group of engines generally has three common
features: a smaller displacement than the engines they are replacing, turbochargers, and
(often, but not always) GDI.  Turbo downsized engines are an approach to engine design
that provides increased fuel economy by using a smaller engine for most vehicle operation,
while retaining the ability to garner more power via the turbocharger, when needed.

Turbocharged engines are projected to capture approximately 15% of new vehicle
production in MY 2013. This is a significant increase in market penetration over the last
decade, and it is a trend that appears to be accelerating rapidly, as shown in Figure 5.6.
Prior to the last few years, turbochargers (and superchargers) were available, but generally
only on high performance, low volume vehicles. It is only in the last few years that
turbochargers have been available as part of a downsized turbo vehicle package, many of
which are now available in more mainstream vehicles.  The sales of these vehicles are driving
the increase in turbochargers across new vehicles.  Both cars and trucks are rapidly adding
turbocharged engine packages, as shown in Figure 5.6.

Turbochargers are most frequently combined with 4-cylinder engines.  Excluding diesel
engines, over 75% of all turbocharged engines are combined with 4-cylinder engines and
about 18% are combined with 6-cylinder engines.  Nearly 60% of all turbocharged engines
are projected to be installed in 4-cylinder cars in MY 2013. The overall breakdown of
turbocharger distribution in the new vehicle fleet is shown in Table 5.1.

In current engines, turbochargers are often being used  in combination with GDI to allow for
more efficient engine operation and to increase the resistance to engine knock (the use of
variable valve timing also helps to reduce turbo lag). In MY 2013,  over 70% of cars with
gasoline turbocharged engines also use GDI, and nearly 98% of gasoline turbocharged trucks
also use GDI.

-------
Figure 5.6
Market Share of Gasoline Turbo Vehicles
             15%-
         ro
         1
         Q.
             10%-
                                                       Trucks
                   1995
2000
   2005

Model Year
2010
2015
Table 5.1
Distribution of MY 2013 Turbocharged Engines (Excludes Diesel)
Category
Car
4 cylinder Car
6 cylinder Car
8 cylinder Car
Other Car
Truck
4 cylinder Truck
6 cylinder Truck
8 cylinder Truck
Turbo Share
60.1%
3.4%
3.4%
1.4%
15.2%
14.7%
1.8%

-------
Figure 5.7
Distribution of Gasoline Turbo Vehicles by Displacement and Horsepower, MY 2010 - MY 2013
                               Horsepower             Displacement (cubic inches)
52
1,000-
750-
500-
250-
-
1,000-
750-
500-
| 250-
? o-
"G 1,000-
T3
S. 750-
CL
500-
250-
n -

1,000-
750-
500-
250-
n -
Mean HP,
all cars



Mean HP,
all cars

•
Mean HP,
all cars

I

Mean HP
all cars
^™
	 Mean HP,
all trucks

+_

	 Mean HP,
all trucks

-1_
	 Mean HP,
all trucks
_
•

Q
all trucks
IL
Mean
Displacement,
all cars

•_

Mean
Displacement,
all cars

L
Mean
Displacement,
all cars
-
I


1
1
Mean
— Displacement,
all trucks



Mean
— Displacement,
all trucks

-• -
Mean
— Displacement,
all trucks

^ 	

Mean
all cars
HMean
Displacement,
all trucks
J_

o
o



o


o
K3




O
CO
                                                                                       .
Car
Truck
                      0  100200300400500600700800   50  100150200250300350400

          Figure 5.7 examines the distribution of engine displacement and power of turbocharged
          engines for MY 2010 to MY 2013. Note that the production values for cars and trucks in
          each bar are additive, e.g., there are projected to be nearly 750,000 gasoline cars with
          turbochargers in the 200-300 horsepower range in MY 2013, with another 250,000 gasoline
          trucks with turbochargers in the same horsepower range. In MY 2010, turbochargers were
          used mostly on cars, and were available on engines both above and below the average engine
          displacement. The biggest increase in turbocharger use over the last few years has been in
          cars with engine displacement well below average displacement. In addition, many more
          engines with turbochargers are at or below the new vehicle average horsepower, for both cars
          and trucks. This trend towards adding turbochargers to smaller, less powerful engines

-------
          reinforces the conclusion that most turbochargers are currently being used for turbo
          downsizing, and not simply just to add power for performance vehicles.

          Hybrids

          Hybrid vehicles utilize larger battery packs, electric motor(s), and other hardware that
          increase vehicle fuel economy for several reasons including:  1) regenerative braking can
          capture energy that is otherwise lost in conventional friction braking to charge the battery, 2)
          two sources of on-board power can allow the engine to be operated at or near its peak
          efficiency more often,  and 3) the engine can be shut off at idle. The introduction of the first
          hybrid into the U.S. marketplace occurred in MY 2000.  Since then, hybrids have slowly
          increased market share and are projected to reach 4.2% of all new vehicles produced in MY
          2013.  The market share of hybrids has fluctuated from year to year, but the general trend
          has been a clear increase in overall market penetration as shown in Figure 5.8. A large factor
          in the fluctuating hybrid sales is the fact that hybrid sales are still largely dominated by one
          vehicle, the Toyota Prius.  Production of the Toyota Prius, like many other vehicles
          produced in Japan, was impacted by the earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in 2011, and
          a shortened model year in MY 2009 due to the introduction of a redesigned vehicle.

Figure 5.8
Hybrid Production MY2000 - MY2013 (With 3-Year Moving Average)
                600,000-
                400,000-
           T3
           Q.   200,000
           Q-
                      o-
                                                          Hybrids
                                                Truck Hybrids
                        2000         2005         2010
                                       Model Year
2015
53

-------
Hybrid vehicles were introduced into the market in MY 2000 as low production, specialty
vehicles with very high fuel economy. Over time, more hybrids models were introduced into
the market, and hybrids were introduced over a broader range of vehicle types, including
larger vehicles and even some vehicles that were more performance oriented.  Hybrid
powertrains are now frequently offered as options on many popular models and are nearly
indistinguishable from their non-hybrid relatives. Most hybrids provide higher fuel economy
than comparable vehicles, although some hybrids have been offered as more performance-
oriented vehicles with more minor fuel economy improvements.

Figure 5.9 shows the production-weighted distribution of fuel economy for all hybrid
vehicles by year. The average hybrid fuel economy is well above the new vehicle average in
all model years, even as hybrid systems have been introduced into a wide range of larger and
more powerful vehicles. The production-weighted average hybrid car fuel economy shown in
Figure 5.9 does actually fall from MY 2000 until MY 2003, but this is a reflection of the
widening availability of hybrid models, not of the technology. Hybrid truck fuel economy
has been less variable; however there have been fewer hybrid truck models introduced and
less production, compared to hybrid cars.

-------
Figure 5.9
Hybrid Adjusted Fuel Economy Distribution by Year
           o
           0.
           E
           o
           c
           o
           o
                60-
                40-
                20-
0-
                20-
                 0-
                                         Highest Hybrid Fuel Economy
                                             Average Hybrid Fuel Economy
                    Average Car Fuel Economy
                                              Lowest Hybrid Fuel Economy
                          Highest Hybrid Fuel Economy
                                                       Average Hybrid
                                                       Fuel Economy
                    Average Truck Fuel Economy     Lowest HVbrid Fuel Economy
                                                                   Car
                                                                   Truck
                   2000
                2005          2010
                    Model Year
2015
           One significant design aspect of hybrids is the ability to use regenerative braking to capture
           some of the energy lost by a vehicle during braking. The recaptured energy is stored in a
           battery and is then used to help propel the vehicle, generally during vehicle acceleration.
           This process results in significantly higher city fuel economy ratings for hybrid vehicles
           compared to non-hybrid vehicles, and in fact the city fuel economy of many hybrids is about
           equal to their highway fuel economy. Figure 5.10 below shows the ratio of highway to city
           fuel economy for hybrid cars and trucks. Hybrid models have a ratio of highway to city fuel
           economy of near 1.0 (meaning the city and highway fuel economy are nearly equivalent)
           which is much lower than the 1.4 ratio of highway to city fuel economy for non-hybrid
           models. This is one aspect of operating a hybrid that is fundamentally different from  a
           conventional vehicle and appears to be relatively steady over time.
55

-------
Figure 5.10
Highway/City Fuel Economy Ratio for Hybrids and Non hybrids
           b
           T3
           <:    1.2
           ro
           O)
           ±
           S
           "GO
           f
                0.8-
                          Non-Hybrid Car
  "X""
Non-Hybrid Truck
                    2000
 2005               2010
       Model Year
2015
          Hybrid cars, on average, have fuel economy nearly 60% higher than all other non-hybrid
          vehicles.  As a production weighted average, hybrid cars achieved 42 mpg for MY 2012,
          while non-hybrid cars averaged about 27 mpg. However, hybrids are often smaller and less
          powerful than the average non-hybrid. The relationship between hybrids and non-hybrids is
          clearer if vehicles of the same footprint are compared directly. As shown in Figure 5.11, the
          fuel consumption of vehicles increases as the footprint increases at about the same rate for
          both hybrid and non-hybrid vehicles. Hybrids do however achieve a higher percentage
          improvement in smaller vehicles, and achieve 32% lower fuel consumption, on average, for
          vehicles with a footprint of 45 square feet, which is about the size of a standard midsize
          sedan. The percent improvement figure at the bottom of Figure 5.11 describes the fuel
          consumption improvement for hybrid vehicles as compared to conventional vehicles over
          the range of footprints for which both hybrid and conventional vehicles are available.  It
          depicts the percentage difference between the 'best fit' lines for hybrid vehicles and
          conventional vehicles shown in the upper part of Figure 5.11.
56

-------
Figure 5.11

Percent Improvement in Adjusted Fuel Consumption for Hybrid Vehicles, MY 2012
                 6-
             w
             CD
            O
            O
             CD
            --
             Q.

             E
            5   4

             0
                    Conventional
                      Vehicles
                 2-
                                40              60

                                      Footprint (sq ft)
                               80
CD
E
CD
>
o
Q.
E
-!-•
1
100%-

75% -
50% -
25% -
0%-





* 	 . 	

          CD
          Q.
40              60

     Footprint (sq ft)
80
57
          Diesels


          While diesel engines are not a new technology, interest in diesel engines for light duty

          passenger applications has grown in recent years.  Light duty diesel vehicles increased to

          about 1% of new vehicle production for MY 2012 and MY 2013. As with hybrid vehicles,

          diesels generally achieve higher fuel economy than other non-diesel vehicles.  However, for

-------
diesel vehicles available in MY 2012, the percent improvement is more pronounced in
vehicles with a smaller footprint than in vehicles with a larger footprint. This is partly
explained due to the fact that MY 2012 larger footprint diesel offerings are limited to higher
power offerings from luxury manufacturers. The relationship between diesel vehicles and all
new vehicles is shown in Figure 5.12.

While diesel engines generally achieve higher fuel economy than comparable gasoline
vehicles, there is less of an advantage in terms of COz emissions. Some of the fuel economy
benefit of diesel engines is negated by the fact that diesel fuel contains about 15% more
carbon per gallon, and thus emits more CO2 per gallon burned than gasoline.  Figure 5.13
shows the impact of diesel vehicles on CO2 emissions by  comparing the fuel consumption of
MY 2012 diesel gasoline vehicles by footprint.
Other Technologies

Table 5.2.1 presents comprehensive annual data for the historic MY 1975-2013 database for
all of the engine technologies and parameters discussed above and several additional
technologies. This is the first year that this report has included engine stop-start technology
(for non-hybrid vehicles), and already stop-start technology is projected to be included on over
2% of new non-hybrid vehicle production in MY 2013 (note that total use of stop-start is over
6% of the market since hybrids typically utilize stop-start as well).  Cylinder deactivation,
another technology not discussed above, has also grown to capture a projected 8.3% of
production in MY 2013.  Tables 5.2.2 and 5.2.3 provide the same data for cars only and
trucks only, respectively.  This data, and additional  data, is further broken down in
Appendices E through I.

-------
Figure 5.12
Percent Improvement in Adjusted Fuel Consumption for Diesel Vehicles, MY 2012
                6-
            JD
            E
            o
            o

            "ro
            --
            Q.
            E
   o
   O   4-
   "0
                2-
0
Q_
                   Conventional
                     Vehicles
                                             Diesel
                                            Vehicles
                              40             60

                                   Footprint (sq ft)
40             60

     Footprint (sq ft)
                                                  80
0
E
0
>
Q.
E
"c
0

100%-

75%-
50%-
25%-
o%-




^^-^x^^^^

                                                           80
59

-------
Figure 5.13

Percent Improvement in CO2 Emissions for Diesel Vehicles, MY 2012
          o
              800-
              600
          E
          LU
          _-      Conventional
          ^  400-  Vehicles
              200-
                             40
                                           60
                                  Footprint (sq ft)
80
c
0
b
0
o
Q_
E
"r
0
ri
0
LL


1 00% -

50% -



-50% -




^-•^^^^^^








40 60 80


                                  Footprint (sq ft)
60

-------
Table 5.2.1
Engine Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013: Both Cars and Trucks
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Powertrain
Gasoline
99.8%
99.8%
99.6%
99.1%
98.0%
95.7%
94.1%
94.4%
97.3%
98.2%
99.1%
99.6%
99.7%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.8%
99.8%
99.6%
99.5%
99.4%
98.6%
98.1%
97.7%
97.4%
97.2%
95.6%
97.1%
96.0%
94.9%
Gasoline
Hybrid
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.3%
0.5%
1.1%
1.5%
2.2%
2.5%
2.3%
3.8%
2.2%
3.1%
4.2%
Diesel
0.2%
0.2%
0.4%
0.9%
2.0%
4.3%
5.9%
5.6%
2.7%
1.8%
0.9%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
-
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.3%
0.4%
0.1%
0.1%
0.5%
0.7%
0.8%
0.9%
0.9%
Fuel Delivery Method
Carbureted
95.7%
97.3%
96.2%
95.2%
94.2%
89.7%
86.7%
80.6%
75.2%
67.6%
56.1%
41.4%
28.4%
15.0%
8.7%
2.1%
0.6%
0.5%
0.3%
0.1%
-



-

-

-


-

-

-
-
-

GDI Port
4.1%
2.5%
3.4%
3.9%
3.7%
5.2%
5.1%
5.8%
7.3%
11.9%
18.2%
32.5%
39.9%
50.6%
57.3%
70.8%
70.6%
81.6%
85.0%
87.7%
91.6%
99.3%
99.5%
99.8%
99.9%
99.8%
99.9%
99.8%
99.8%
99.9%
99.7%
99.6%
99.8%
2.3% 97.6%
4.2% 95.3%
8.3% 91.0%
15.4% 83.8%
22.7% 76.4%
30.8% 68.3%
TBI Diesel
0.0% 0.2%
0.0% 0.2%
0.0% 0.4%
0.0% 0.9%
0.1% 2.0%
0.8% 4.3%
2.4% 5.9%
8.0% 5.6%
14.8% 2.7%
18.7% 1.8%
24.8% 0.9%
25.7% 0.4%
31.4% 0.3%
34.3% 0.1%
33.9% 0.1%
27.0% 0.1%
28.7% 0.1%
17.8% 0.1%
14.6%
12.1% 0.0%
8.4% 0.0%
0.7% 0.1%
0.5% 0.1%
0.1% 0.1%
0.1% 0.1%
0.0% 0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.3%
0.4%
0.1%
0.1%
0.5%
0.7%
0.8%
0.9%
0.9%
Avg.
No. of
Cylinders
6.82
6.87
6.94
6.69
6.53
5.59
5.50
5.43
5.54
5.49
5.46
5.26
5.17
5.31
5.36
5.39
5.32
5.50
5.50
5.58
5.59
5.59
5.65
5.63
5.75
5.74
5.76
5.77
5.79
5.90
5.75
5.73
5.64
5.56
5.21
5.27
5.35
5.12
5.13
CID HP
293 137
294 135
287 136
266 129
252 124
198 104
193 102
188 103
193 107
190 109
189 114
180 114
175 118
180 123
185 129
185 135
184 138
191 145
191 147
197 152
196 158
197 164
199 169
199 171
203 179
200 181
201 187
203 195
204 199
212 211
205 209
204 213
203 217
199 219
183 208
188 214
192 230
180 222
179 230
Multi-
Valve


-

-

-

-

-
3.4%
10.6%
14.0%
16.9%
23.1%
23.1%
23.3%
23.5%
26.7%
35.6%
39.3%
39.6%
40.9%
43.4%
44.8%
49.0%
53.3%
55.5%
62.3%
65.6%
71.7%
71.7%
76.4%
83.8%
85.5%
86.4%
91.9%
92.2%
WT CD Turbo
_
-
_
-
_
-
_
-
_
-
_
_
-
_
-
_
-
_
-
_
_
0.2%
0.4%
0.8%
1.4%
15.0% - 1.3%
19.6% 2.0%
25.3% - 2.2%
30.6% 1.2%
38.5% - 2.3%
45.8% 0.8% 1.7%
55.4% 3.6% 2.1%
57.3% 7.3% 2.5%
58.2% 6.7% 3.0%
71.5% 7.3% 3.3%
83.8% 6.4% 3.3%
93.1% 9.5% 6.8%
96.7% 8.1% 8.4%
97.6% 8.2% 14.8%
Non-
Hybrid
Stop/
Start


-

-

-

-

-
-

-

-

-

-
-



-

-

-


-

-

-
-
0.6%
2.1%

-------
Table 5.2.2
Engine Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013: Cars Only
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Power-train
Gasoline
99.8%
99.7%
99.5%
99.1%
97.9%
95.6%
94.1%
95.3%
97.9%
98.3%
99.1%
99.7%
99.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.8%
99.8%
99.7%
99.7%
99.3%
99.1%
98.9%
97.6%
97.9%
96.7%
96.7%
96.4%
93.6%
95.6%
94.4%
92.8%
Gasoline
Hybrid
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.1%
0.0%
0.3%
0.6%
0.9%
1.9%
1.5%
3.2%
3.3%
2.9%
5.5%
3.4%
4.6%
6.0%
Diesel
0.2%
0.3%
0.5%
0.9%
2.1%
4.4%
5.9%
4.7%
2.1%
1.7%
0.9%
0.3%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%

0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0.4%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0.6%
0.9%
0.9%
1.0%
1.2%
Fuel Delivery Method
Carbureted
94.6%
96.6%
95.3%
94.0%
93.2%
88.7%
85.3%
78.4%
69.7%
59.1%
46.0%
34.4%
26.5%
16.1%
9.6%
1.4%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
-

-

-

-


-
-
-

-

-

-


GDI Port TBI Diesel
5.1% - 0.2%
3.2% - 0.3%
4.2% 0.5%
5.1% - 0.9%
4.7% 2.1%
6.2% 0.7% 4.4%
6.1% 2.6% 5.9%
7.2% 9.8% 4.7%
9.4% 18.8% 2.1%
14.9% 24.3% 1.7%
21.3% 31.8% 0.9%
36.5% 28.7% 0.3%
42.4% 30.8% 0.2%
53.7% 30.2% 0.0%
62.2% 28.1% 0.0%
77.4% 21.2% 0.0%
77.2% 22.6% 0.1%
88.9% 11.0% 0.1%
91.5% 8.5%
94.8% 5.2% 0.0%
98.6% 1.3% 0.1%
98.8% 1.1% 0.1%
99.2% 0.8% 0.1%
99.7% 0.1% 0.2%
99.8% 0.1% 0.2%
99.7% 0.1% 0.2%
99.8% - 0.2%
99.6% - 0.4%
99.7% 0.3%
99.7% 0.3%
99.6% 0.4%
99.4% - 0.6%
99.7% 0.0%
3.1% 96.9% - 0.1%
4.2% 95.2% 0.6%
9.2% 89.9% - 0.9%
18.4% 80.7% 0.9%
27.8% 71.2% - 1.0%
37.8% 60.9% - 1.2%
Avg.
No. of
Cylinders
6.71
6.75
6.85
6.52
6.38
5.48
5.36
5.23
5.39
5.34
5.29
5.09
4.98
5.02
5.07
5.05
5.05
5.23
5.19
5.20
5.23
5.18
5.10
5.15
5.21
5.22
5.19
5.12
5.13
5.16
5.08
5.17
5.00
4.97
4.70
4.70
4.74
4.54
4.56
CID HP
288 136
287 134
279 133
251 124
238 119
188 100
182 99
175 99
182 104
179 106
177 111
167 111
162 113
161 116
163 121
163 129
164 133
171 141
170 140
169 144
168 153
167 155
165 156
167 160
168 164
168 168
167 169
167 173
166 176
170 184
168 183
173 194
167 191
166 194
157 186
158 190
161 200
151 192
150 201
Multi-
Valve
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4.7%
14.6%
19.7%
24.1%
32.8%
33.2%
34.0%
34.8%
39.9%
51.4%
56.4%
58.4%
59.6%
63.2%
63.2%
65.3%
69.9%
73.4%
77.1%
77.2%
81.3%
84.6%
88.0%
92.2%
93.8%
94.6%
98.2%
98.3%
WT
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.6%
2.4%
4.4%
4.5%
7.7%
9.6%
11.3%
10.8%
17.4%
16.4%
22.2%
26.9%
32.8%
39.8%
43.7%
49.4%
58.2%
63.3%
62.7%
79.1%
91.8%
94.9%
97.7%
98.0%
CD Turbo
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.3%
0.7%
1.4%
2.5%
2.2%
3.3%
3.9%
2.0%
3.6%
1.0% 2.4%
2.0% 3.2%
0.9% 3.6%
2.0% 4.5%
1.8% 4.0%
2.1% 4.1%
1.3% 8.2%
1.7% 9.7%
2.3% 16.0%
Non-
Hybrid
Stop/
Start


-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-


-

-

-

-


-
-
-

-

-

-
0.9%
2.7%
62

-------
Table 5.2.3
Engine Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013: Trucks Only
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Power-train
Gasoline
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.2%
98.2%
96.5%
94.4%
90.6%
95.2%
97.6%
98.9%
99.3%
99.7%
99.8%
99.8%
99.8%
99.9%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.8%
98.4%
99.1%
98.5%
98.8%
98.8%
99.1%
98.9%
98.6%
Gasoline
Hybrid


-

-

-

-

-
-

-

-

-

-
-



-

-

-
0.0%
0.1%
1.5%
0.8%
1.3%
0.9%
0.9%
0.4%
0.4%
1.0%
Diesel


-
0.8%
1.8%
3.5%
5.6%
9.4%
4.8%
2.4%
1.1%
0.7%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
-
-
-
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

-
-
-
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.5%
0.7%
0.4%

Carbureted
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.1%
97.9%
94.9%
93.3%
89.9%
94.6%
95.0%
86.5%
59.4%
33.6%
12.4%
6.5%
3.8%
1.7%
1.6%
1.0%
0.4%
-

-
-
-

-
-
-


-
-
-

-
-
-

GDI Port
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.0%
8.9%
22.1%
33.3%
43.2%
45.9%
55.0%
55.3%
65.7%
71.5%
76.2%
79.4%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
1.1% 98.7%
4.2% 95.5%
6.8% 92.9%
11.3% 88.1%
13.5% 85.8%
18.0% 81.6%
TBI
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
1.7%
1.1%
0.7%
0.6%
0.6%
3.5%
17.8%
32.8%
44.3%
47.5%
40.9%
42.8%
32.6%
27.5%
23.4%
20.6%
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

Diesel


-
0.8%
1.8%
3.5%
5.6%
9.4%
4.8%
2.4%
1.1%
0.7%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%

-
-
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

-

-
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.5%
0.7%
0.4%
Avg.
No. of
Cylinders
7.28
7.31
7.28
7.25
7.05
6.15
6.15
6.26
6.07
5.99
5.97
5.71
5.69
6.00
6.04
6.17
5.95
6.09
6.13
6.19
6.22
6.25
6.47
6.30
6.50
6.48
6.58
6.57
6.56
6.70
6.58
6.50
6.57
6.42
6.23
6.22
6.18
6.16
6.17
CID HP
311 142
320 141
318 147
315 146
299 138
248 121
247 119
244 120
232 118
225 118
225 124
212 123
211 131
228 141
234 146
237 151
229 150
236 155
235 160
241 166
245 168
245 179
251 189
244 188
252 199
245 199
249 212
249 223
248 224
258 240
251 242
247 240
253 254
246 254
236 252
237 253
236 271
234 276
233 282
Multi-
Valve
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5.2%
8.0%
11.2%
11.1%
14.8%
15.7%
18.6%
25.9%
32.8%
34.6%
46.2%
51.1%
58.4%
53.3%
59.5%
66.6%
71.5%
75.2%
80.6%
81.1%
Non-
Hybrid
Stop/
WT CD Turbo Start
_
-
_
-
_
-
_
-
_
-
_
_
-
_
-
_
-
_
-
_
_
-
_
-
_
4.6%
9.3%
16.0%
19.7% 0.2%
32.9% - 0.8%
41.2% 0.5% 0.7%
51.5% 5.9% 0.6%
48.7% 16.4% 1.0%
51.6% 13.5% 1.0%
56.0% 18.4% 1.7%
70.5% 13.8% 1.8%
90.7% 20.6% 4.9%
94.9% 19.6% 6.1% 0.2%
96.8% 19.0% 12.8% 0.9%
63

-------
D. TRENDS IN TRANSMISSION TYPES

Transmission technologies have been rapidly evolving in new light duty vehicles. New
transmission technologies have been gaining market share, and nearly all transmission types
have been increasing the number of gears. Dual clutch transmission (DCTs), continuously
variable transmissions (CVTs), and automatic transmissions with greater numbers of gears
are increasing production share  across the fleet.

Figure 5.14 shows the evolution of transmission production share for cars and trucks since
MY 1980. For this analysis, transmissions are separated into manual transmissions, CVTs,
and automatic transmissions. Automatic transmissions  are further seperated into those with
and without lockup mechanisms, which can lock up the torque converter in an automatic
transmission under certain driving conditions and improve efficiency.

Dual clutch transmissions are relatively new to the light duty vehicle market.  DCTs  are
essentially automatic transmissions that operate internally much more like traditional
manual transmissions.  The two main advantages of DCTs are that they can shift very
quickly and they can avoid some of the internal resistance of a traditional automatic
transmission by eliminating the  torque converter. Currently, automaker submissions to EPA
do not explicitly identify DCTs as a separate transmission category.  Thus, the introduction
of DCTs  shows up in Table 14 as a slight increase in automatic transmissions without torque
converters (although some DCTs may still be reported as traditional automatic
transmissions).  EPA's long-term goal is to improve DCT data collection, and to be able to
quantify DCTs in future Trends reports.

Figure 5.14 shows transmission production share for the individual car and truck fleets, and
begins with MY 1980 because EPA has incomplete data on the number of transmission gears
for MY 1975 through 1978.  In  the early 1980s, 3 speed automatic transmissions, both with
and without lockup torque converters (shown as L3 and A3 in Figure 5.14) were the most
popular transmissions, but by MY 1985, the 4 speed automatic transmission with  lockup
(L4) became the most popular transmission, a position it would hold for 25 years. Over
80% of all new vehicles produced in MY 1999 were equipped with an L4 transmission.
After MY 1999, the production  share of L4 transmissions slowly decreased as L5 and L6
transmissions were introduced into the market. Production of L5 and L6 transmissions
combined passed the production of L4 transmissions in MY 2007). Interestingly,  5 speed
transmissions were never the leading transmission technology in terms of production share.
Currently, L6 transmissions are  projected to be installed in nearly 60% of new vehicles
produced in MY 2013, and the percentage of vehicle with L6 transmissions is still trending
upwards.

-------
Figure 5.14
Transmission Production Share by Model Year

               100%-
65
cc
w
.g
"o

o
CL
               75% -
               50% -
               25% -
              100%-
               75% -
               50% -
               25% -
                         \
                                                                     Car
                                                                    Truck
                                                                    CVT
                     1980    1985   1990    1995    2000   2005   2010

                                          Model Year
                                                              2015
                            Transmission
                            Automatic
                            Semi-Automatic
                            Automated Manual

-------
           Continuously variable transmissions have shown a large increase in production. In MY
           2012, 11.8% of new vehicles were produced with CVTs, and production is expected to reach
           14.3% in MY 2013. This is a significant increase considering that as recently as MY 2006
           CVTs were installed on less than 3% of vehicles produced. Automatic transmissions with 7
           or more speeds have also been increasing, and are expected to be over 7% of production for
           MY 2013. Manufacturers are publicly discussing the development of transmissions with as
           many as 10 or more gears, so this is a trend that the authors also expect to continue.

           Figure 5.15 shows the average number of gears in new vehicle transmissions since MY 1980,
           regardless of transmission type. In MY 1980, the average number of gears in a new vehicle
           transmission was 3.5.  As 4 speed transmissions became more popular, the average number
           of gears increased to 4.0 by MY 1990, and then stayed relatively constant until MY 2000,
           largely due to the dominance of 4 speed transmissions. After MY 2000, the average number
           of gears began to increase much more rapidly until reaching its current level of 5.7 in MY
           2012.

Figure 5.15
Average Number of Transmission Gears for New Vehicles (excluding CVTs)
                6-
            .
           ro
           CD
D
~z.
CD
O)
CD
                5-
                4-
                    1980
                  1985
1990
1995    2000
Model Year
2005
2010
2015
          The production of manual transmissions has generally continued to decrease from the peak
          of nearly 35% of production in MY 1980.  In MY 2012, manual transmissions accounted for
          only 3.6% of total production.  Today, manual transmissions are used primarily in small
          vehicles, some sports cars, and a few pickups.
66

-------
          Generally, automatic transmissions have been less efficient than manual transmissions,
          largely due to inefficiencies in the automatic transmission torque converter. Figure 5.16
          examines this trend over time by comparing the fuel economy of automatic and manual
          transmission options where both transmissions were available in one model with the same
          engine. The fuel economy of vehicles with automatic transmissions appears to have
          increased to a point where it is now approximately the same as the fuel economy of vehicles
          with manual transmissions. Two contributing factors to this trend are that automatic
          transmission design has become more efficient  (using earlier lockup and other strategies),
          and the number of gears used in automatic transmissions has increased much quicker than
          in manual transmission.
Figure 5.16
Comparison of Manual and Automatic Transmission Adjusted Fuel Economy, MY 1980 - MY 2013
          o
          8
          LJJ
         T3
         I
         f
               28'
               26'
               24-
22-
               20-
18-
               16-
                           Manual
                   1980    1985    1990     1995     2000    2005    2010    2015
                                           Model Year
67

-------
E. TRENDS IN DRIVE TYPES

There has been a long and steady trend in new vehicle drive type away from rear wheel drive
vehicles towards front wheel drive and four wheel drive vehicles, as shown in Figure 5.17.  In
MY 1975, over 91% of new vehicles were produced with rear wheel drive. During the
1980s, production of rear wheel drive vehicles fell rapidly, to 26% in MY 1990.  Since then,
production of rear wheel drive vehicles has continued to decline, albeit at a slower rate, to a
projected 13% for MY 2013.  Current production of rear wheel drive vehicles is mostly
limited to pickup trucks and some performance vehicles.

As production of rear wheel drive vehicles declined, production of front wheel drive vehicles
increased. Front wheel drive vehicle production was only 5.3% of new vehicle production in
MY 1975, but it became the most popular drive technology across new vehicles in MY 1985,
and has remained so for the last 28 years.  Since MY 1986, production of front wheel drive
vehicles has remained, on average, at approximately 55% of production.

Four wheel drive vehicles (including all wheel drive), have  slowly but steadily grown across
new vehicle production. From 3.3% in MY 1975 to a projected 26% in MY 2013, four
wheel drive production has steadily grown at approximately 0.6% per year, on average. The
majority of four wheel drive vehicles are pickup trucks and truck SUVs, but there is also a
small but slowly growing number of cars featuring four wheel drive (or more likely) all wheel
drive systems.

-------
Figure 5.17
Front, Rear, and Four Wheel Drive Usage - Production Share by Vehicle Type
                              Car                          Car SUV
69
           1 00% -
            75% -
            50% -
            25% -
                  m  o  in  o  in
                  r-  oo  oo  CD  en
                  O)  O)  O)  O)  (J>
o  in  o  in
o  o  T-  T-
o  o  o  o
CM  CM  CM  CM
in  o  in  o   in
r-  oo  oo  CD   en
O)  O)  O)  O)   CJ>
o  in  o  in
o  o  T-  T-
o  o  o  o
CM  CM  CM  CM
                          Minivan/Van
                        Truck SUV
           100% -

            75% -

            50% -

            25% -
                                                Drive
                                                     Four Wheel Drive
                                                     Front Wheel Drive
                                                     Rear Wheel Drive
                 inoinomoinoin   inoinoinomoin
                 r^oooororoooi-i-   i^oooororoooi-i-
                 rororororooooo   rororororooooo

                                            Pickup
                          100% -

                           75% -

                           50% -

                           25% -
                                 inoinoinomoin
                                 O5O5O5O5O5OOOO
           There are noticeable differences in fuel economy between vehicles with different drive types.
           Figure 5.18 shows the fuel consumption of MY 2012 vehicles separated by drive type and
           footprint.  Rear wheel drive vehicles and four wheel drive vehicles have on average the same
           fuel consumption for equivalent footprint vehicles.  Front wheel drive vehicles have much
           lower fuel consumption than rear wheel drive or four wheel drive vehicles of the same
           footprint.  For 45 square foot vehicles, front wheel drive vehicles have fuel consumption
           about 22% lower. There are  certainly other factors involved (the rear wheel drive vehicles
           are likely more performance oriented, for example),  but this is a noticeable trend across new
           vehicle production. The points in Figure 5.18 are generated for each combination of
           adjusted fuel consumption and footprint; if there are multiple vehicles with the same

-------
          combination, the points will overlay, and the color will be darker.
          Tables 5.3.1, 5.3.2, and 5.3.3 summarize transmission and drive technology production data

          by year for the combined car and truck fleet, cars only, and trucks only, respectively.


Figure 5.18

Differences in Adjusted Fuel Consumption Trends for FWD, RWD, and 4WD/AWD Vehicles
             7.5 -
             5.0 -
           n
          0
          0
          03
          Q.
          E
          co

          o
          O
               c
              .5 -
             7.5 -
             5.0 -
             2.5 -
                   20
40               60

     Footprint
80
                                                                            Car
                                                 Four-Wheel Drive and
                                                 All-Wheel Drive

                                                 Front-Wheel Drive

                                                 Rear-Wheel Drive
                                                                            Truck
70

-------
Table 5.3.1
Transmission and Drive Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013: Both Cars and Trucks
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Manual
23.0%
20.9%
19.8%
22.7%
24.2%
34.6%
33.6%
32.4%
30.5%
28.4%
26.5%
29.8%
29.1%
27.6%
24.6%
22.2%
23.9%
20.7%
19.8%
19.5%
17.9%
15.2%
14.0%
12.8%
10.1%
9.7%
9.0%
8.2%
8.0%
6.8%
6.2%
6.5%
5.6%
5.2%
4.8%
3.8%
3.2%
3.6%
4.7%
Automatic
with
Lockup
0.2%


5.5%
7.3%
18.1%
33.0%
47.8%
52.1%
52.8%
54.5%
53.5%
55.4%
62.2%
65.5%
71.2%
71.6%
74.8%
76.5%
77.6%
80.7%
83.5%
85.5%
86.7%
89.4%
89.5%
90.3%
91.4%
90.8%
91.8%
91.5%
90.6%
87.1%
86.8%
85.5%
84.1%
86.6%
83.7%
79.9%
Automatic
without
Lockup
76.8%
79.1%
80.2%
71.9%
68.1%
46.8%
32.9%
19.4%
17.0%
18.8%
19.1%
16.7%
15.5%
10.2%
9.9%
6.5%
4.5%
4.5%
3.7%
3.0%
1.4%
1.3%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.7%
0.6%
0.3%
0.1%
0.3%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.2%
1.2%
0.3%
1.1%
1.3%
CVT











-
-
-
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
-
-
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
1.1%
1.2%
2.3%
2.8%
7.2%
7.9%
9.4%
10.9%
10.0%
11.6%
14.2%
4
Gears
of
Fewer
-
-
-
-
93.8%
87.9%
85.6%
84.4%
80.9%
81.3%
80.7%
76.8%
76.2%
76.8%
78.5%
79.9%
77.3%
80.8%
80.9%
80.8%
82.0%
84.7%
82.4%
82.1%
84.4%
83.7%
80.7%
77.1%
69.2%
63.9%
56.0%
47.7%
40.5%
38.8%
31.3%
24.6%
14.2%
8.0%
5.0%
5 6
Gears Gears
-
-
-
-
6.2%
12.1%
14.4%
15.6%
19.1%
18.7%
19.3%
23.2%
23.8%
23.2%
21.4% 0.0%
20.0% 0.1%
22.6% 0.0%
19.2% 0.1%
19.0% 0.1%
19.0% 0.2%
17.7% 0.2%
15.1% 0.2%
17.3% 0.2%
17.7% 0.2%
15.3% 0.3%
15.8% 0.5%
18.5% 0.7%
21.6% 1.1%
28.1% 1.7%
31.8% 3.0%
37.3% 4.1%
39.2% 8.8%
36.1% 14.4%
31.9% 19.4%
32.2% 24.5%
23.5% 38.1%
18.7% 52.4%
18.2% 56.7%
12.6% 60.7%
7
Gears
or
More CVT
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
-
-
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
1.1%
0.2% 1.2%
0.2% 2.3%
1.4% 2.8%
1.8% 7.2%
2.0% 7.9%
2.6% 9.4%
2.8% 10.9%
4.8% 10.0%
5.5% 11.6%
7.5% 14.2%
Average
Number
of Gears




3.3
3.5
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.9
3.9
3.9
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.8
4.8
5.0
5.2
5.6
5.7
5.9
Front
Wheel
Drive
5.3%
4.6%
5.5%
7.4%
9.2%
25.0%
31.0%
37.0%
37.0%
42.1%
47.8%
52.6%
57.7%
60.0%
60.2%
63.8%
59.6%
58.4%
59.9%
55.6%
57.6%
60.0%
56.1%
56.4%
55.8%
55.5%
53.8%
52.7%
50.7%
47.7%
53.0%
51.9%
54.3%
54.2%
62.9%
59.5%
53.8%
61.4%
58.7%
Rear
Wheel
Drive
91.4%
90.6%
89.8%
86.0%
86.5%
70.1%
65.0%
58.4%
54.8%
49.8%
42.9%
38.0%
32.8%
29.5%
29.3%
26.1%
28.1%
30.4%
28.8%
29.2%
26.3%
24.3%
24.9%
23.5%
22.9%
24.3%
24.2%
22.3%
24.3%
22.4%
20.2%
22.3%
19.6%
18.5%
13.6%
13.8%
13.8%
10.9%
12.5%
Four
Wheel
Drive
3.3%
4.8%
4.7%
6.6%
4.3%
4.9%
4.0%
4.6%
8.1%
8.2%
9.3%
9.3%
9.6%
10.5%
10.5%
10.1%
12.3%
11.2%
11.3%
15.2%
16.2%
15.7%
19.0%
20.1%
21.3%
20.2%
22.0%
25.0%
25.0%
29.8%
26.8%
25.8%
26.1%
27.3%
23.5%
26.7%
32.4%
27.7%
28.8%

-------
Table 5.3.2
Transmission and Drive Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013: Cars Only
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Manual
19.7%
17.2%
16.9%
19.9%
21.1%
30.9%
29.9%
29.2%
26.0%
24.1%
22.8%
24.7%
24.8%
24.3%
21.1%
19.8%
20.6%
17.6%
17.5%
16.9%
16.3%
14.9%
13.9%
12.2%
10.8%
10.8%
11.0%
10.9%
10.9%
9.8%
8.8%
8.8%
7.8%
7.2%
6.2%
5.0%
4.6%
4.9%
6.5%
Automatic
with
Lockup
0.3%
-
-
7.1%
8.8%
16.8%
33.3%
51.3%
56.7%
58.3%
58.9%
58.1%
59.7%
66.2%
69.3%
72.8%
73.7%
76.4%
77.6%
78.9%
81.9%
83.6%
85.2%
87.4%
88.6%
88.1%
88.0%
88.4%
87.7%
88.2%
88.4%
88.4%
82.5%
81.7%
82.4%
79.5%
83.0%
78.8%
74.7%
Automatic
without
Lockup
80.0%
82.8%
83.1%
73.0%
69.6%
51.6%
36.2%
19.1%
16.8%
17.5%
18.4%
17.1%
15.5%
9.5%
9.5%
7.4%
5.7%
6.0%
4.9%
4.1%
1.8%
1.5%
0.8%
0.3%
0.6%
1.0%
0.8%
0.2%
-
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.3%
0.3%
1.6%
0.5%
1.7%
2.0%
CVT
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
-
-
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.4%
1.4%
1.7%
2.8%
2.7%
9.7%
10.8%
11.1%
13.9%
11.9%
14.6%
16.7%
4
Gears
or
Fewer

-

-
93.1%
87.6%
85.5%
84.6%
80.8%
82.1%
81.4%
79.7%
78.4%
80.2%
81.9%
82.4%
81.0%
83.6%
83.2%
83.4%
83.4%
84.9%
84.1%
82.8%
83.4%
81.3%
78.5%
77.4%
67.5%
64.5%
57.3%
47.5%
36.8%
39.3%
35.1%
29.5%
15.8%
6.7%
5.0%
5 6
Gears Gears
-
-
-
-
6.9%
12.4%
14.5%
15.4%
19.2%
17.9%
18.6%
20.3%
21.6%
19.8%
17.9% 0.0%
17.5% 0.1%
18.9% 0.1%
16.3% 0.1%
16.6% 0.2%
16.3% 0.3%
16.2% 0.4%
14.7% 0.3%
15.5% 0.3%
16.8% 0.3%
16.1% 0.5%
17.9% 0.8%
20.2% 1.2%
20.3% 1.9%
27.9% 3.1%
28.4% 5.0%
33.7% 5.8%
35.4% 12.5%
34.7% 16.5%
28.2% 19.0%
31.4% 19.3%
20.2% 33.0%
12.9% 53.8%
14.8% 57.8%
9.0% 61.3%
7
Gears
or
More CVT

-

-




-

-

-

0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
-

0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.4%
1.4%
0.4% 1.7%
0.4% 2.8%
1.9% 2.7%
2.3% 9.7%
2.6% 10.8%
3.1% 11.1%
3.4% 13.9%
5.5% 11.9%
6.0% 14.6%
8.0% 16.7%
Average
Number
of Gears
-
-
-
-
3.3
3.5
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.8
3.9
3.9
3.9
3.9
4.0
4.0
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.7
4.8
4.8
4.9
5.1
5.6
5.8
5.9
Front
Wheel
Drive
6.5%
5.8%
6.8%
9.6%
11.9%
29.7%
37.0%
45.6%
47.1%
53.5%
61.1%
70.7%
76.4%
80.9%
81.6%
84.0%
81.1%
78.4%
80.6%
81.3%
80.1%
83.7%
83.8%
82.9%
83.2%
80.4%
80.3%
82.9%
80.9%
80.2%
79.2%
75.9%
81.0%
78.8%
83.5%
82.5%
80.1%
83.8%
80.8%
Rear
Wheel
Drive
93.5%
94.2%
93.2%
90.4%
87.8%
69.4%
62.2%
53.6%
49.9%
45.5%
36.8%
28.2%
22.6%
18.3%
17.4%
15.0%
17.5%
20.5%
18.3%
18.3%
18.8%
14.8%
14.5%
15.0%
14.7%
17.7%
16.7%
13.5%
15.9%
14.5%
14.2%
18.0%
13.4%
14.1%
10.2%
11.2%
11.3%
8.8%
10.6%
Four
Wheel
Drive

-

-
0.3%
0.9%
0.7%
0.8%
3.1%
1.0%
2.1%
1.0%
1.1%
0.8%
1.0%
1.0%
1.3%
1.1%
1.1%
0.4%
1.1%
1.4%
1.7%
2.1%
2.1%
2.0%
3.0%
3.6%
3.2%
5.3%
6.6%
6.0%
5.6%
7.1%
6.3%
6.3%
8.6%
7.4%
8.7%

-------
Table 5.3.3
Transmission and Drive Characteristics of MY 1975 to MY 2013: Trucks Only
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Manual
36.9%
34.7%
31.6%
32.1%
35.1%
53.0%
51.6%
45.9%
46.3%
42.5%
37.6%
43.0%
40.5%
35.8%
32.8%
28.1%
31.5%
27.5%
24.7%
23.7%
20.7%
15.6%
14.1%
13.6%
9.2%
8.2%
6.3%
4.7%
4.6%
3.5%
2.9%
3.3%
2.6%
2.2%
2.0%
1.8%
1.3%
1.4%
1.2%
Automatic
with
Lockup
-
-
-
-
2.1%
24.5%
31.1%
33.4%
36.0%
34.6%
41.1%
41.5%
43.8%
52.5%
56.4%
67.5%
66.8%
71.3%
74.2%
75.3%
78.5%
83.4%
85.8%
85.8%
90.4%
91.5%
93.4%
94.9%
94.4%
95.6%
95.3%
93.7%
93.8%
94.1%
92.0%
91.9%
91.4%
92.4%
89.2%
Automatic
without
Lockup
63.1%
65.3%
68.4%
67.9%
62.8%
22.4%
17.3%
20.7%
17.4%
22.9%
21.2%
15.5%
15.7%
11.7%
10.8%
4.4%
1.7%
1.2%
1.1%
1.0%
0.9%
1.0%
0.1%
0.6%
0.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
-
-
-
-
-
0.4%
0.0%
-

CVT
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.0%
0.6%
0.6%
1.8%
3.1%
3.7%
3.6%
6.0%
5.9%
7.3%
6.2%
9.5%
4
Gears
or
Fewer
-
-
-
-
96.0%
89.2%
86.1%
83.8%
81.6%
78.6%
78.6%
69.1%
70.1%
68.4%
70.3%
74.1%
69.0%
74.6%
76.0%
76.7%
79.6%
84.4%
79.9%
81.1%
85.8%
87.3%
84.0%
76.7%
71.1%
63.2%
54.3%
48.0%
45.8%
37.9%
23.5%
16.4%
11.9%
10.3%
5.2%
5 6
Gears Gears

-

-
4.0%
10.8%
13.9%
16.2%
18.4%
21.4%
21.4%
30.9%
29.9%
31.6%
29.7%
25.9%
31.0%
25.4%
24.0%
23.3%
20.4%
15.6%
20.1%
18.9%
14.2%
12.7%
16.0%
23.3%
28.2%
35.5% 0.8%
41.9% 2.1%
44.3% 3.8%
38.0% 11.5%
37.4% 19.9%
33.7% 35.1%
29.1% 46.7%
26.5% 50.5%
24.4% 54.6%
19.0% 59.7%
7
Gears
or
More CVT
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.0%
0.6%
0.6%
1.8%
0.8% 3.1%
1.0% 3.7%
1.2% 3.6%
1.6% 6.0%
1.9% 5.9%
3.9% 7.3%
4.4% 6.2%
6.6% 9.5%
Average
Number
of Gears
-
-
-
-
3.3
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.9
3.9
3.8
4.0
4.0
4.1
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
5.2
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.8
Front
Wheel
Drive

-

-

1.4%
1.9%
1.7%
1.4%
5.0%
7.3%
5.9%
7.6%
9.2%
10.1%
15.8%
10.3%
14.5%
16.8%
13.8%
18.4%
20.9%
14.2%
19.3%
17.5%
20.0%
16.3%
15.4%
15.4%
12.5%
20.1%
18.9%
16.1%
18.4%
21.0%
20.9%
17.7%
20.9%
18.8%
Rear
Wheel
Drive
82.8%
77.0%
76.2%
70.9%
81.9%
73.6%
78.0%
78.1%
72.5%
63.5%
61.4%
63.4%
60.2%
56.7%
57.1%
52.4%
52.3%
52.1%
50.6%
47.0%
39.3%
39.8%
40.6%
35.5%
34.4%
33.8%
34.8%
33.1%
34.1%
31.0%
27.7%
28.0%
28.4%
24.8%
20.5%
18.0%
17.3%
14.8%
16.1%
Four
Wheel
Drive
17.2%
23.0%
23.8%
29.1%
18.1%
25.0%
20.1%
20.2%
26.1%
31.5%
31.3%
30.7%
32.2%
34.1%
32.8%
31.8%
37.3%
33.4%
32.7%
39.2%
42.3%
39.2%
45.2%
45.1%
48.1%
46.3%
48.8%
51.6%
50.4%
56.5%
52.2%
53.1%
55.5%
56.8%
58.4%
61.0%
65.0%
64.4%
65.1%
73

-------
Technology available in new vehicles is continually changing and evolving. Innovative new technologies are
regularly being introduced, replacing older and less effective technologies. This continuous cycle of
improvement and re-invention has been the driving force behind nearly all of the trends examined in this
report. Section 5 detailed many specific technological changes that have taken place since 1975. This section
provides a detailed look at the rate at which the automotive industry as a whole has adopted new technology,
the rate at which individual manufacturers have adopted technology, and the differences between the overall
industry and manufacturer adoption rates.

It is important to note that this section focuses on "successful" technologies, those technologies that have
achieved widespread use by multiple manufacturers and, in some cases, by all or nearly all manufacturers. This
section does not look at "unsuccessful" technologies which never achieved widespread use. One consequence
of a competitive and technology-driven enterprise like the automobile industry is that there will certainly be a
number of unsuccessful technologies. A technology may prove to be unsuccessful for one or more of many
reasons: cost, effectiveness, tradeoffs with other vehicle attributes, consumer acceptance, or, in some cases,
the technology may be successful for a time but simply be displaced by a newer and better technology. The
Trends database does not provide data  on why technologies fail,  but it does provide data on how quickly
successful technologies can penetrate the marketplace, and the latter is the subject of this section.

One inherent limitation in using the Trends database to track the introduction of new technologies is that there
is often a lag between the introduction  of a new technology and the modifications to the formal EPA vehicle
compliance information system that are necessary to ensure proper tracking of the new technology.
Accordingly, for many of the technologies discussed in this section, the Trends database did not begin tracking
production share data until after the technologies had achieved some limited market share. For example, as
shown in Tables 5.2.2 and 5.2.3, Trends did not begin to track multi-valve engine data until MY  1986 for cars and
MY 2004 for trucks, and in both cases multi-valve engines had captured  about 5% market share by that time.
Likewise, turbochargers were not tracked in Trends until MY 1996 for cars and MY 2003 for trucks, and while
turbochargers had less than a 1% market share in both cases at that time, it is likely that turbochargers had
exceeded 1% market share in the late 1980s. Cylinder deactivation was utilized by at least one  major
manufacturer in the 1980s, well before  being tracked by Trends.

Accordingly, this section best addresses the question, "How quickly have successful technologies moved from
limited use to widespread use," for both industry-wide and for individual manufacturers, and does not address
other issues such as how long it takes for technologies to be developed or achieve limited market share, or why
many technologies fail to ever achieve widespread use.

          A.  INDUSTRY-WIDE TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION

          SINCE 1975

          As explored in Section 5, automotive technology has continually evolved since 1975,
          resulting in vehicles that have better fuel economy, more power, and more content. One of
          the most notable examples of this continual improvement is the evolution of fuel delivery in
          gasoline engines. Carburetors, the dominant fuel delivery system in the late 1970s and early

-------
           1980s, were replaced by port fuel injection systems, which in turn are being replaced by
           direct injection systems. This trend, and the substantial impact on engine fuel economy and
           performance, is explored in Figures 5.4 and 5.5.

           Figure 6.1 has been published in this report for many years, and has been widely cited in the
           literature. This figure shows industry-wide adoption rates for five mature technologies in
           passenger cars that have achieved wide adoption across the entire industry. To provide a
           common scale, the adoption rates are plotted in terms of the number of years after the
           technology was first introduced into the market (in some cases very limited use of the
           technology may have occurred before being tracked in this report). The five technologies
           included in Figure 6.1 are fuel injection (including throttle body, port, and direct injection),
           front wheel drive, multi-valve engines (i.e., engines with more than two valves per cylinder),
           engines with variable valve timing, and lockup transmissions.  For each of these
           technologies, it took at least a decade to attain an industry wide production fraction of 60%
           after first use, and another five to ten years to reach maximum penetration.  While some of
           these technologies may eventually be adopted in 100% of new vehicles, there may be design
           reasons that other technologies, like front-wheel drive, will likely never be adopted in all
           vehicles. Figure 6.1 shows that it has historically taken about 20 years for the industry to
           fully adopt a new technology after it was first introduced into the marketplace.

Figure 6.1
Industry-Wide Car Technology Penetration After First Significant Use
              100%-
               75% -
           ro
           .c
           C/3
               50%
           D
           T3
           O
               25% -
                                                                  Fuel Injection
Lockup
  Front
 Wheel
  Drive
                                     10            20            30
                                          Years after First Use
40
75

-------
B. TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION BY MANUFACTURERS

The rate at which the overall industry adopts technology, as shown in Figure 6.1, is actually
determined by how quickly, and at what point in time, individual manufacturers adopt the
technology. While it is important to understand the industry wide adoption rates over time,
the trends in Figure 6.1 mask the fact that not all manufacturers introduced these
technologies at the same time, or at the same rate. The "sequencing" of manufacturers
introducing new technologies is an important aspect of understanding the overall industry
trend of technology adoption.

Figure 6.2 begins to disaggregate the industry-wide trends shown in Figure 6.1 to examine
how individual manufacturers have adopted new technologies. The first four technologies
shown in Figure  6.2, which are also shown in Figure 6.1, have reached (or are near) full
market penetration for all manufacturers. Also included in Figure 6.2 are three additional
technologies that are quickly increasing penetration in new vehicle production, and are
projected to be installed on at least 15% of all MY 2013 vehicles. These technologies are
advanced transmissions (defined here as transmissions with 6 or more speeds and CVTs),
gasoline direct injection (GDI) systems, and turbocharged engines. Figure 6.2 shows the
percent penetration of each technology over time for the industry as a whole, and
individually for the top seven manufacturers by sales. Figure 6.2 focuses on the length of
time  each manufacturer required to move from initial introduction to 80% penetration for
each  technology. After 80% penetration, the technology is assumed to be largely
incorporated into the manufacturer's fleet changes between 80% and 100% are not
highlighted.

-------
Figure 6.2

Manufacturer Specific Technology Adoption over Time for Key Technologies
             0)

            i
                            GM-
                          Toyota
                            Ford
                          Honda
                      Chrysler-Fiat —
                          Nissan —
                         Hyundai —
                   All Manufacturers —
                            GM
                          Toyota
                            Ford
                          Honda
                      Chrysler-Fiat
                          Nissan
                         Hyundai
                   All Manufacturers
                             GM
                          Toyota
                            Ford
                          Honda
                      Chrysler-Fiat
                          Nissan
                         Hyundai
                   All Manufacturers
         GM
       Toyota
         Ford
       Honda
   Chrysler-Fiat
       Nissan
      Hyundai
All Manufacturers
                             GM
                          Toyota
                            Ford
                          Honda
                      Chrysler-Fiat
                          Nissan
                         Hyundai
                   All Manufacturers
                             GM-
                          Toyota •
                            Ford •
                          Honda-
                      Chrysler-Fiat-
                          Nissan •
                         Hyundai •
                   All Manufacturers-
GM-

Honda —
Chrysler-Fiat-
Hyundai —
All Manufacturers —








                                                                          Fuel Injection
                                                                          Lockup
                                                                          Multi-Valve
Variable Valve
Timing
                                                                          Advanced
                                                                          Transmissions
                                                                          Gasoline Direct
                                                                          Injection
                                                                                             Turbocharged
                                        1980         1990         2000

                                                       Model Year
                                                                               2010
                                                    Percent of Production
                                         20% to 25%

                                     10% to 15% '
                                        15% to 20%

                                     5% to 10%
                                                                           80% to 100%
77

-------
The technologies shown in Figure 6.2 vary widely in terms of complexity, application, and
when they were introduced into the market. For each technology, there are clearly variations
between manufacturers, both in terms of when they began to adopt a technology, and the
rate with which they adopted the technology. The degree of variation between the
manufacturers also varies by technology.

The data for variable valve timing, for example, shows that several manufactures were able to
adopt the technology much faster than the overall industry rate might suggest. As shown in
Figure 6.1, it took a little over 20 years for WT to reach 80% penetration across the
industry as a whole. However, Figure 6.2 shows that of the top 7 manufacturers, several
were individually able to implement at least 80% WT in significantly less time than the
overall industry. Therefore, it was not the rate of technology adoption, but rather the
staggered implementation timing between manufacturers that resulted in the  longer industry
average.

Fuel injection systems show the least amount of variation in initial adoption timing  between
manufacturers, which when combined with the rapid rates of adoption resulted in a faster
adoption by the industry overall (see Figure 6.1) than technologies like WT.  One
important driver for adoption of fuel injection was increasingly stringent emissions
standards. Advanced transmissions, and turbocharged engines, have been available  in small
numbers for some time, but have very rapidly increased market penetration in recent years.
Turbocharged engines and GDI systems are only recently beginning to reach significant parts
of the market, and while both technologies are showing variation in adoption between
manufacturers, it is too early to tell how, and if, they will ultimately be adopted by the
industry.

A different way to look at technology adoption patterns is to look at the maximum rate of
change that manufacturers have been able to achieve for each technology. Figure 6.3 uses
this approach to look at technology adoption for the same manufacturers and technologies
examined in Figure 6.2. For each technology and manufacturer, Figure 6.3 shows the
maximum change in technology penetration that each manufacturer achieved over any 3
year and 5 year period.

There are many examples of manufacturers that were able to apply new technology to a large
percentage of their new vehicles in only 3 to 5 years. For example, each of the 7
manufacturers was able to increase the percentage of their new vehicles with fuel injection
systems by over 50% in 5 years, and 3 were able to increase the penetration of WT  by more
than 85% in that time.  For WT, all 7 of the manufacturers achieved close to or above a
70% penetration change in a 5 year period, but the industry as a whole only achieved a 40%
change over any 5 years. This data reinforces the conclusion that the staggered timing of
WT adoption by individual  manufacturers resulted in an overall industry adoption period
that is longer than actually required by many (if not  most) manufacturers.

One important note for Figure 6.3 is that, in some cases, individual manufacturers were

-------
           already at extremely high rates of adoption of some technologies before Trends started

           collecting data for that technology (for example, Honda was using multi-valve engines

           throughout its fleet when EPA starting monitoring multi-valve data in the mid-1980s). Data

           for "rates of increase" in these and similar cases are artificially low.


Figure 6.3

Maximum Three and Five Year Adoption for Key Technologies
                     GM
                  Toyota
                    Ford-
                  Honda -
             Chrysler-Fiat -
                  Nissan -
                 Hyundai -
          All Manufacturers -

                     GM -
                  Toyota -
                    Ford -
                  Honda -
             Chrysler-Fiat -
                  Nissan -
                 Hyundai -
          All Manufacturers -

                     GM -
                  Toyota -
                    Ford -
                  Honda -
             Chrysler-Fiat -
                  Nissan -
                 Hyundai -
          All Manufacturers -

                     GM-
                  Toyota -
                    Ford-
                  Honda -
             Chrysler-Fiat -
                  Nissan -
                 Hyundai -
          All Manufacturers -

                     GM-
                  Toyota -
                    Ford-
                  Honda -
             Chrysler-Fiat -
                  Nissan -
                 Hyundai -
          All Manufacturers -

                     GM-
                  Toyota -
                    Ford-
                  Honda -
             Chrysler-Fiat -
                  Nissan -
                 Hyundai -
          All Manufacturers

                     GM -
                  Toyota -
                    Ford-
                  Honda -
             Chrysler-Fiat -
                  Nissan -
                 Hyundai -
          All Manufacturers -
                                3-Year Increase
5-Year Increase

                        Fuel Injection
                        Lockup
                        Multi-Valve
                        Variable Valve
                        Timing
                        Advanced
                        Transmission
                        Gasoline Direct
                        Injection
                        Turbocharged
                          0%    25%   50%   75%   100% 0%   25%   50%   75%   100%

                              Fastest Multi-Year Penetration  Increase
79

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           Figure 6.4 takes a more detailed look at the introduction of WT by manufacturers by
           combining aspects of both Figure 6.2 and Figure 6.3.  For each manufacturer, Figure 6.4
           shows the actual percent penetration of WT over time (solid red line) versus the average for
           all manufacturers (dotted grey line), and compared to the maximum penetration by any
           manufacturer (solid grey line) over time. Figure 6.4 also shows when the largest increase in
           WT penetration over any 1, 3, and 5 year period occurred as green, orange, and yellow
           boxes.
Figure 6.4
WT Adoption Details by Manufacturer
           I
           CD
           O
100%-

 75%-

 50%-

 25%

  0%

100%

 75%

 50%

 25%

  0%

100%

 75%

 50%

 25%

  0%
                               Chrysler-Fiat
                                          Ford
                               GM
                                 Honda
    Hyundai
Nissan
                                 Toyota
All Manufacturers
       en   en   o   o   T—   •*—  en   en
       cncnoooocncn
       T-T-(S|(S|(S|(S|T-T-
                                                          o   o   •*—   •*—
                                                          oooo
                                                          (S|(S|(S|(S|
                    O   If)   O   If)   O  IO
                    en   en   o   o   T-  T-
                    cn   en   o   o   o  o
                    i-   i-   CN   CN   CN  CN
                              Best 1-year increase

                              Best 3-year increase

                              Best 5-year increase

                              Highest
                         	  Manufacturer
                              Fleet Average
                             Model Year
80

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8
          WT was first tracked in this report for cars in MY 1990 and for trucks in MY 2000.
          Between MY 1990 and MY 2000, there may be a small number of trucks with WT that are
          not accounted for in the data. However, the first trucks with WT produced in larger
          volumes (greater than 50,000 vehicles) were produced in MY 1999 and MY 2000, so the
          discrepancy is not enough to noticeably alter the trends in the previous figures.

          As shown in Figure 6.2, each manufacturer clearly followed a unique trajectory to adopt
          WT. It took over 20 years for all new vehicles to adopt WT; however it is also very clear
          that individual manufacturers were able to adopt WT across their own vehicle offerings
          much faster. All of the manufacturers shown in Figure 6.4 were able to adopt WT across
          the vast majority of their new vehicle offerings in under 15 years, and many accomplished
          that feat in under 10 years. As indicated by the yellow rectangles in Figure 6.4, several
          manufacturers increased their penetration rates of WT by 75% or more over a 5-year
          period. It is also important to note that every manufacturer shown was able to adopt WT
          into new vehicles at a rate faster than the overall industry data would imply. As noted
          earlier, the industry average represents both the rate that manufacturers adopted WT and
          the effect of manufacturers adopting the technology at different times. Accordingly, the
          industry average shown in Figure 6.1 and Figure 6.4 does not represent the average pace at
          which individual manufacturers adopted WT, which is considerably faster.

          Figures 6.2 through 6.4 examine manufacturer specific technology adoption in different
          ways, but all three clearly support the conclusion that some  manufacturers  have been able to
          adopt technology much faster than industry wide data suggests, and that there is significant
          variation in how individual manufacturers have adopted technology.
          C. TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION IN THE LAST 5 YEARS
          Over the last five years, engines and transmissions have continued to evolve and adopt new
          technologies.  Figure 6.5 shows the penetration of several key technologies in MY 2008 and
          the projected penetration for each technology in MY 2013 vehicles. Over that five year span,
          WT is projected to increase almost 40%, GDI by almost 30%, and 6 speed transmissions by
          over 40% across the entire industry.  These are large changes taking place over a relatively
          short time.  As discussed in the previous section, there are likely manufacturer specific
          changes in this timeframe that are even more impressive.

-------
Figure 6.5
Five Year Change in Light Duty Vehicle Technology Penetration Share
              100%-
               75% -
           £
           ro
           O  50% -
           Q_
               25% -
                       VVT    Multi-    GDI    Turbo    CD    Hybrid   Diesel     6      7+     CVT
                               Valve                                          speed   speed
          There are many factors outside the scope of this report that influence the rate and timing of
          when technology is adopted by individual manufactures (e.g. price, manufacturing
          constraints, regulatory drivers, etc.) While no attempt is made here to identify the underlying
          causes, it is important to recognize that any variation between manufacturers for given
          technologies can be masked when only evaluating industry-wide trends. As the data in this
          section suggest, adoption by individual manufacturers is generally more rapid than has
          previously been reported for the overall industry, and it is clear that the penetration of
          important technologies has grown significantly over the last 5 years.
82

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This section addresses original equipment manufacturer (OEM)1 vehicles that are dedicated to, or are designed
and expected to frequently operate on, alternative fuels. The main focus of this section will be preliminary data
on MY 2013 vehicles that are designed and expected to operate on electricity and natural gas. OEM vehicles
that operate predominantly on other alternative fuels, including ethanol, methanol, propane, hydrogen, etc.,
will be included in future reports if they become available to the public (the great majority of current ethanol
flexible fuel vehicles are operated primarily on gasoline and therefore are not included in this section).
Increasing interest in these alternative fuel vehicles is being driven by several factors: sustained high oil prices,
concerns about future oil supplies and greenhouse gas emissions, and economic and national security issues
associated with oil imports.  This is an emerging area, with several new OEM alternative fuel vehicle models
introduced in MY 2013 and more planned for subsequent model years. Often, alternative fuel vehicle models
are initially introduced in selected areas of the country, but we  expect that many alternative fuel vehicle models
will be available on  a nationwide basis in  the next few years.

          A. METHODOLOGY

          The Trends analyses provided in Sections 2-6 includes vehicle data from 1975 to the present
           only for  vehicles that are dedicated to or are expected  to operate primarily on petroleum
           fuels, i.e., gasoline and diesel fuel. The primary reason for this is simply that the small
           number  of OEM vehicles that predominantly use alternative fuels would have a very small
           impact on the analyses in Sections 2-6.  In addition, complexities arise when analyzing trends
           of certain alternative fuel vehicles, particularly for those  fuels that are not sold by the gallon.


          Vehicles that can operate on both a petroleum-based fuel and an alternative fuel pose
           another  analytical challenge. There are currently a large  number of "flexible fuel vehicles"
           (FFVs) in the market that are capable of using either gasoline or E85 (a mixture of 85%
           ethanol and 15% gasoline, by volume), or any blend in between.  Historically, these vehicles
          have operated predominantly on gasoline (and ethanol-gasoline blends with low levels of
           ethanol) only.2 EPA believes that there are many reasons why most consumers use gasoline
           in their FFVs: limited E85 fuel availability, greater vehicle range on gasoline, and E85 fuel
          pricing such that the fuel cost per mile is typically cheaper on gasoline. Accordingly, this
          report continues to assume that ethanol FFVs operate primarily on gasoline, with the
           analysis in Sections 2-6 including data from FFV operation  on gasoline and excluding data
           from FFV operation on E85. If, in the future, FFVs operate more often on E85 fuel, EPA
          will consider adding FFVs to this alternative fuel vehicle analysis.

          Two other technologies that can use both a petroleum-based fuel and an alternative fuel are
          plug-in hybrid electric vehicles  (PHEVs) and dual-fuel compressed natural gas (DF-CNG)
          vehicles. While it is almost certain that PHEVs and DF-CNG vehicles will use at least some
1This section, like the rest of the report, focuses only on OEM produced vehicles. There are aftermarket converters who modify OEM
gasoline vehicles to operate on alternative fuels, but those vehicles are not accounted for in this section.
 Based on data from the Energy Information Administration, EPA projects that FFVs were fueled with E85 less than 1 percent of the time
in 2008; see 75 Federal Register 14762 (March 26, 2010).

-------
         gasoline, there are two factors that strongly suggest that most owners of these vehicles will
         seek to use the alternative fuel as much as possible:  1) they have paid a substantial premium
         to buy a vehicle that can use the alternative fuel, and 2) the alternative fuel is considerably
         cheaper than gasoline, and provides an opportunity for the vehicle owner to recover the
         higher upfront cost of the vehicle through ongoing fuel savings.  Because we expect PHEVs
         and DF-CNG vehicles to operate frequently on alternative fuels, they are included in this
         section and not in the primary Trends analysis in Sections 2-6.

         With respect to other vehicles that may be introduced in the future that can operate on both
         petroleum and alternative fuels, EPA will determine on a case-by-case basis whether it is
         more appropriate to include them in the primary petroleum fuel analysis or in this separate
         alternative fuel vehicle section.

         The number of alternative fuel vehicles produced is still too small (less than 0.5 percent of
         MY 2012 production) to have a large impact on the overall technology, CO2 emissions, and
         fuel economy trends; however, many additional alternative fuel vehicle models are expected
         to enter the market over the next few years.3  At some point in the future, as the sales of
         alternative fuel vehicles continue to  increase, EPA will consider merging this alternative fuel
         vehicle data into the primary Trends analysis.

         This section (and sections 8 and 9) reports combined fuel economy and  CO2 values based on
         the 55% city/45% highway weighting used on the Fuel Economy and Environment  labels
         and for GHG emissions and fuel economy standards compliance, and not on the 43%
         city/57% highway weighting used for adjusted fuel economy values throughout sections 2-6
         of this report.

         B. HISTORICAL TRENDS

         Gasoline and diesel vehicles  have long dominated new light vehicle sales. OEM vehicles that
         operate frequently on alternative fuels have historically been available only in  small numbers,
         though those limited production vehicles have in some cases created significant consumer
         and media interest.4 From MY 1995 (which  is as far back as reliable alternative fuel vehicle
         data was available for  this report) to  MY 2010, over 99.9% of all new OEM vehicles were
         petroleum fueled, with annual production of alternative fuel vehicles less than 4,000 per
         year.  In MY 2011, several new alternative fueled vehicles were introduced into the market.
         The combined production of these vehicles led to an increase of alternative fuel vehicles
         from less than 1,200 in MY 2010 to well over 15,000 in MY 2011. While these vehicles  still
         represented a very limited portion of overall new vehicle production (approximately  12
         million in MY 2011),  this change is  notable.  This upward trend continued in MY 2012. In
         MY 2012 there were even more alternative fuel vehicle models offered, and the  combined
         production  of these vehicles was about 55,000. Although this still only represents 0.4%  of
For example, see list of potential future EVs and PHEVs at fueleconomv.eov/fee/evnews.shtml
Millions of ethanol FFVs have been sold in recent years, but these vehicles have operated primarily on gasoline.

-------
           total vehicle sales for MY 2012 (approximately 13.5 million), the continued increase in
           alternative fuel vehicle production is impressive.

           In the mid-1990s, the state of California passed legislation creating the (Zero Emission
           Vehicle) ZEV mandate. In response to the ZEV mandate, OEMs began to produce limited
           numbers of electric vehicles.  Most of these vehicles were leased, rather than sold, in the state
           of California. The majority of these electric vehicles were small passenger cars, SUVs, or
           pickup trucks, including the GM EV1, the Toyota RAV4 EV, and  the Ford Ranger EV.
           Dedicated CNG vehicles have been available in limited numbers for the last twenty years,
           most commonly during and after periods of rising gasoline prices.  CNG vehicles have
           spanned a wider range of vehicles, from work trucks and vans to the Honda Civic Natural
           Gas, which has been available in select markets since MY 1998.

           In MY 2000, five electric vehicles (EVs), seven dedicated CNG vehicles, and one DF-CNG
           vehicle were available in the U.S. market.  Chrysler-Fiat, Ford, GM, Honda, Nissan, and
           Toyota all produced at least one alternative fuel vehicle in MY 2000, with total production
           of about 3,500 vehicles.  Most of these vehicles were produced in small volumes and only for
           a few model years. However, by MY 2006, only one alternative fuel vehicle was available,  the
           Honda Civic Natural Gas.  The Tesla Roadster, a dedicated electric vehicle, was introduced
           with limited production in MY 2008. From MY 2008 through MY 2010, the Civic Natural
           Gas and the Tesla Roadster were the only two alternative fuel vehicles produced by OEMs
           and available in some retail markets.

           Two high profile OEM alternative fuel vehicles were introduced into the  retail market in MY
           2011, with much higher production volumes  than previous alternative fuel vehicles: the
           Nissan Leaf EV and the Chevrolet Volt PHEV. The Volt and Leaf had combined
           production of nearly 13,000 vehicles in MY 2011, so production of these two vehicles alone
           tripled the total number of alternative fuel vehicles produced in MY 2011 relative to any
           model year since 1995.  Production of the Volt and Leaf continued to climb in MY 2012, to
           nearly 30,000 combined vehicles.

           In MY 20125, there were numerous additional entries into the electric vehicle and plug-in
           hybrid electric vehicle market. In addition to the Nissan Leaf, new electric vehicle models
           included the Ford Focus EV and Transit Connect EV, the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, the Tesla
           Model S, and the Toyota RAV4 EV. In addition to the Chevy Volt, new PHEVs introduced
           in MY 2012 included the Fisker Karma and the Toyota Prius Plug-in.  Over 50,000 EVs and
           PHEVs were produced in MY 2012, compared to just 278 in MY 2010.

           The Honda Civic Natural Gas model also set  a production record  in MY 2012, with
           production of over 3,300, or nearly triple the  production of any other year. When it was
           initially introduced,  the Honda Civic Natural Gas was available only to fleet customers, but
           it subsequently became available for retail in California, New York, Utah, and Oklahoma.
5 Two fuel cell vehicles were also offered in MY 2012, the Honda PCX Clarity and Mercedes-Benz F-Cell. These vehicles were available in
limited lease and/or demonstration programs.

-------
           Availability of the MY 2012 Civic Natural Gas was increased to 36 states, with more
           possible.6 While the production trend of the Civic Natural Gas is positive, other OEMs
           have been reluctant to directly offer CNG vehicles, and the Civic Natural Gas is once again
           the only OEM natural gas vehicle on the market.

           Figure 7.1 shows the historical sales of EVs, PHEVs, and CNG vehicles over the last  18 years
           (we do not have reliable data on alternative fuel vehicles back to 1975). This figure was
           compiled from  several data sources, including manufacturer CAFE reports, Ward's, and
           publically available production data. Figure 7.1 includes dedicated CNG vehicles,  but not
           dual fuel CNG  vehicles as sales data were not available for dual fuel vehicles.  The data only
           includes offerings from manufacturers, and does not include data on vehicles converted to
           alternative fuels in the aftermarket.
Figure 7.1
Historical Production of EVs, PHEVs, and Dedicated CNG Vehicles
Production
DU.UUU -
50,000 -


m nnn -
n -
• PHEVs
• Electric Vehicles
• CNG Vehicles










                      1995 1996 1997  1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011  2012
 Ward's Automotive, http://wardsauto.com/sales-amp-marketine/honda-forecasts-steadv-sales-pioneerine-cne-civic, last accessed
December 2013.
86

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           C. MY 2013 VEHICLES

           Since sales of alternative fuel vehicles have historically been limited, this section of the report
           will focus on currently available alternative fuel vehicles produced by OEMs and introduce
           several metrics that are important for alternative fuel vehicles, instead of analyzing aggregated
           data about new vehicles sales.  Table 7.1 shows the alternative fuel vehicles available from
           OEMs in MY 2013, as well as the powertrain type of each vehicle, inertia weight class
           (IWT)7, and footprint. These vehicles constitute a wide array of vehicle design, size, and
           function.

Table 7.1
MY 2013 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Classification and Size 8
Make
Fiat
Ford
Honda
Mitsubishi
Nissan
Scion
Smart
Tesla
Tesla
Toyota
Chevrolet
Ford
Ford
Toyota
Honda
Model
500e
Focus
Fit
i
Leaf
id
Fortwo
Model S (85kW-hr)
Model S (60kW-hr)
RAV4
Volt
C-MAX
Fusion
Prius
Civic
Fuel or
Powertrain
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
PHEV
PHEV
PHEV
PHEV
CNG
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
IWT
(Ibs)
3000
4000
3500
2750
3500
2750
2250
4500
4500
4000
4000
4000
4000
3500
3000
Footprint
(sqft)
34.9
43.5
39.6
38.4
44.7
31.6
26.8
53.5
53.5
44.6
44.6
43.8
45.9
44.2
43.5
           As shown in Table 7.1, there are nine EVs available in MY 2013 (the two Tesla S variants are
           considered one model, as explained in Section 8), four PHEVs, and one dedicated CNG
           vehicle. The footprint of the largest vehicle, the Tesla S, is double that of the smallest
           vehicle, which is the Smart Fortwo. The weight of these vehicles also significantly varies,
           from an IWT of 2750 to 4500. For each of the vehicles listed in Table 7.1, Table 7.2 shows
           the label driving range, and introduces the concept of a utility factor for PHEVs (explained
           below).
 Each inertia weight class represents a range of loaded vehicle weights, or vehicle curb weights plus 300 pounds. Vehicle inertia weight
classes are in 250-pound increments for inertia weight classes that are less than 3000 pounds, while inertia weight classes over 3000
pounds are divided into 500-pound increments.
 There are several other non-petroleum fueled vehicles that have been in limited lease and/or demonstration programs, including the
Honda Clarity PCX fuel cell vehicle, Mercedes F-Cell vehicle, etc. But, these vehicles have not been available to the general public at
large.
87

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Table 7.2
MY 2013 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Powertrain and Range

Make
Fiat
Ford
Honda
Mitsubishi
Nissan
Scion
Smart
Tesla
Tesla
Toyota
Chevrolet
Ford
Ford
Toyota
Honda

Model
500e
Focus
Fit
i
Leaf
iQ
Fortwo
Model S (85kW-hr)
Model S (60kW-hr)
RAV4
Volt
C-Max
Fusion
Prius
Civic

Fuel or
Powertrain
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
PHEV
PHEV*
PHEV*
PHEV*
CNG
Alternative
Fuel Range
miles
87
76
82
62
75
38
68
265
208
103
38
21
21
11**
-
Total
Range
miles
87
76
82
62
75
38
68
265
208
103
380
620
620
540
-

Utility
Factor
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.66
0.48
0.48
0.29
-
           * PHEVs that operate in blended mode.
           ** The Prius required a small amount of gasoline during the alternative fuel range.
88
           PHEVs blend EV technology with more familiar powertrain technology from petroleum-
           fueled vehicles.  Current PHEVs feature both an electric drive system designed to be charged
           from an electricity source external to the vehicle (like an EV), and a gasoline internal
           combustion engine. There are generally three ways that a PHEV can operate:

               1.  Electric only mode - In electric only mode the vehicle operates like an EV, using
                  only energy stored in the battery to propel the vehicle.

               2.  Blended mode - In blended mode the vehicle uses both energy stored in the battery
                  and energy from the gasoline tank to propel the vehicle.

               3.  Charge sustaining mode - In charge sustaining mode, the PHEV has exhausted the
                  external energy from the electric grid that is stored in the battery and relies on the
                  gasoline internal combustion engine. In charge sustaining mode, the vehicle will
                  operate much like a traditional hybrid.

           The presence of both an electric drive system and an internal combustion engine results in a
           complex system that can be used in many different combinations, and manufacturers are
           each choosing to operate PHEV systems in different ways.  This complicates direct
           comparisons among PHEV models  in this report. For each MY 2013 PHEV, Table 7.2
           shows the estimated range on alternative fuel and estimated total range.  For PHEVs like the

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           Chevrolet Volt, which cannot operate in blended mode, the alternative fuel range represents
           the estimated range operating in electric only mode. However, for PHEVs that operate in a
           blended mode, the alternative fuel range represents the estimated range of the vehicle
           operating in both electric only and blended mode, due to the design of the vehicle. For
           example, the Prius uses electricity stored in its battery and a small amount of gasoline to
           achieve an alternative fuel range of 11 miles.  The C-Max and Fusion PHEVs did not use any
           gasoline to achieve an alternative fuel range of 21 miles on EPA test cycles; however driving
           conditions outside those represented on the EPA test cycles (e.g., more aggressive
           accelerations, higher speeds, and air conditioning or heater operation) would likely cause
           these vehicles to operate in a blended mode instead of an all electric mode. Table 7.2 also
           introduces the concept of a utility factor.  The utility factor is directly related to the
           alternative fuel range for PHEVs, and is a projection, on average, of the percentage of miles
           that will be driven using the alternative fuel (in electric only and blended modes) by an
           average driver.

           The one vehicle that operates on CNG has a traditional internal combustion engine.  Many
           internal combustion engines designed to run on CNG are  based on gasoline engines, with
           upgraded fuel systems and tanks designed specifically for natural gas. Therefore,
           specifications for CNG engines such as engine displacement and engine horsepower are
           essentially the same as those for traditional petroleum-based engines.

           This report has not previously tracked or analyzed data on  the range of vehicles using
           petroleum fuels because gasoline and diesel vehicles can generally travel at least 300 miles
           without refueling,  and gasoline and diesel fuel stations are  common and well distributed
           across the United States (although there are some rural areas where range may in fact be an
           important consideration). Most alternative fuel vehicles are expected to have lower vehicle
           range than gasoline and diesel vehicles, and all alternative fuel vehicles are likely to have
           more limited public refueling infrastructure.  Range is of particular concern with electric
           vehicles, as today's battery technology limits the range of EVs to considerably less than that
           of comparable petroleum-fueled vehicles.  The availability of dedicated EV charging stations
           is also currently limited,  especially for stations powerful enough to be capable of "fast"
           charging.9 Table 7.2 includes range data for the alternative fuel vehicles when operating on
           the alternative fuel, as well as total electricity plus gasoline  range for PHEV vehicles.

           Table 7.3 shows four energy-related metrics for the MY 2013 alternative fuel vehicles (no
           entry is shown if the metric is not applicable to that vehicle technology).  These data are
           generally included on the EPA/NHTSA Fuel Economy and Environment labels beginning
           in MY 2013  .  Comparing the energy or fuel efficiency performance from alternative fuel
           vehicles raises complex issues of how to compare different  fuels. For example, consumers
           and OEMs are familiar and comfortable with evaluating gasoline and diesel vehicle fuel
9 While dedicated EV charging stations are currently limited, electricity is available in nearly all but the most remote parts of the country.
EVs can generally be recharged from a standard llOv outlet, though charging will be slower than at a dedicated 220v charging station.
10 These values represent a 55% city/45% highway weighting, consistent with the methodology used for labeling vehicles.

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           economy in terms of miles per gallon, and it is the primary efficiency metric in this report.
           To enable this comparison for alternative fuel vehicles, the fuel efficiency of vehicles
           operating on CNG and electricity are evaluated in terms of miles per gallon of gasoline
           equivalent (an energy metric described in more detail below).

Table 7.3
MY 2013 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Fuel Economy Label Metrics
Make
Fiat
Ford
Honda
Mitsubishi
Nissan
Scion
Smart
Tesla
Tesla
Toyota
Chevrolet
Ford
Ford
Toyota
Honda
Model
500e
Focus
Fit
i
Leaf
iQ
Fortwo
Model S(85kW-hr)
Model S (60kW-hr)
RAV4
Volt
C-Max
Fusion
Prius
Civic
Fuel or
Powertrain
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
PHEV
PHEV
PHEV
PHEV
CNG
Consumption
(kW-hrs/
100 miles)
29
32
29
30
29
28
32
38
35
44
35
34
34
29*
-
Electric Only
Fuel
Economy
(MPGe)
116
105
118
112
115
121
107
89
95
76
98
100
100
95**
-
Gasoline Only
Fuel Economy
(MPG)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
37
43
43
50
-
Overall
Fuel Economy
(MPGe)
116
105
118
112
115
121
107
89
95
76
62
58
58
58
31
            * Note: Electric consumption only.
             range of 11 miles, at a rate of 29
            ** Prius PHEV mpge value reflects
 Overall, the Prius PHEV consumes both electricity and gasoline over the alternative fuel
kW-hrs/100 miles and 0.2 gal/100 miles.
blended operation on both electricity and gasoline.
           The fourth column in Table 7.3 gives consumption rates for vehicles operating on electricity,
           which includes EVs and PHEVs. The units for electricity consumption are kilowatt-hours
           per 100 miles (kW-hrs/100 miles).  The values for all of the EVs and PHEVs, with the
           exception of the Toyota Prius PHEV, reflect electric-only operation.  The Toyota Prius
           PHEV electric consumption value represents the tested electric consumption of the vehicle
           during both electric only and blended modes.  The Prius PHEV also consumes 0.2 gallons of
           gasoline per 100 miles during this combination of electric-only and blended modes.

           The fifth column  simply converts the electricity consumption data in the fourth column to
           miles per gallon of gasoline-equivalent (mpge), i.e., the miles the vehicle can travel on an
           amount of electricity that has the same amount of energy as a gallon of gasoline. For a
           vehicle operating  on electricity, mpge is simply calculated as 33.705 kW-hrs/gallon divided
           by the vehicle electricity consumption in kW-hrs/mile.  For example, for the Leaf, 33.705
           kW-hrs/gallon divided by 0.29 kW-hrs/mile (which is equivalent to 29 kW-hrs/100 miles) is
           115 mpge.  Because the Prius PHEV consumes both electricity and gasoline over the
           alternative fuel range of 11 miles, the electric consumption value of 95 mpge includes both
90

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           the electricity and gasoline consumption, at a rate of 29 kW-hrs/100 miles of electricity and
           0.2 gal/100 miles of gasoline.

           The sixth column gives label fuel economy values for vehicles operating on gasoline only,
           which is relevant here only for the PHEVs  operating in charge sustaining mode.  For
           PHEVs, the EPA/NHTSA label shows both electricity consumption in kW-hrs/100 miles
           and mpge, when the vehicle operates exclusively on electricity, and gasoline fuel economy in
           mpg, when the vehicle operates exclusively on gasoline.

           The final column gives the overall mpge values reflecting the overall energy efficiency of the
           vehicle on all of the fuels on which vehicle can operate. While mpge does not reflect how all
           alternative fuels are sold (natural gas is in fact sold in gallons of gasoline equivalent, but
           electricity is not), it does provide a common metric with which to compare fuels that are sold
           in different units, and mpge is generally included on the EPA/NHTSA labels for that
           reason.  For PHEVs, the mpge metric can also be used to determine the overall equivalent
           fuel economy for a vehicle that operates on two unique fuels.  In addition to the energy
           metrics in the previous columns, the one key additional parameter necessary to calculate a
           combined electricity/gasoline mpge value for a PHEV is the utility factor that was
           introduced in Table 7.2. The MY 2013 Volt, for example, has a utility factor of 0.66, i.e., it
           is expected that the Volt will operate 66% of the time on electricity and 34% of the time on
           gasoline. Utility factor calculations are based on an SAE methodology that EPA has adopted
           for regulatory compliance.11  For EVs and natural gas vehicles, the last column simply reports
           the mpge values that are on the EPA/NHTSA label. CNG vehicle mpge values are based on
           the energy equivalency assumption that a gallon of gasoline contains the same energy as
           121.5 standard cubic feet of natural gas.

           Tables 7.4 and 7.5 show several key CO2 emissions metrics for MY 2013  alternative fuel
           vehicles.

           Table 7.4 gives vehicle tailpipe CO2 emissions values. EPA and vehicle manufacturers have
           been measuring tailpipe emissions since the early 1970s using  standardized laboratory tests.
           Table 7.4 gives tailpipe CO2 emissions values that are included on the new EPA and
           NHTSA Fuel Economy and Environment labels (and reflected in the label's Greenhouse
           Gas Rating) that are currently used for advanced technology vehicles.  These label values
           reflect EPA's best estimate of the CO2 tailpipe emissions that these vehicles will produce, on
           average, in real world operation based  on the EPA 5-cycle label methodology and using a
           55% city/45% highway weighting.  EVs, of course, have no tailpipe emissions. For the
           PHEVs, the label CO2 emissions values utilize the same utility factors discussed above to
           weight the CO2 emissions on electric and gasoline operation.  For natural gas vehicles, these
           values are based on vehicle test data and our 5-cycle methodology. It is important to note
           that, to be consistent withCO2 emissions data elsewhere in this report, the tailpipe  CO2
11 See http://www.SAE.ore, specifically SAE J2841 "Utility Factor Definitions for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Travel Survey Data,'
September 2010.

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           emissions values given in Table 7.4 for CNG vehicles do not account for the higher global
           warming potency associated with methane emissions, which have the potential to be higher
           for some CNG vehicles.

Table 7.4
MY 2013 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Label Tailpipe CO2 Emissions Metrics
Make
Fiat
Ford
Honda
Mitsubishi
Nissan
Scion
Smart
Tesla
Tesla
Toyota
Chevrolet
Ford
Ford
Toyota
Honda
Model
500e
Focus
Fit
i
Leaf
id
Fortwo
Model S (85kW-hr)
Model S (60kW-hr)
RAV4
Volt
C-Max
Fusion
Prius
Civic
Fuel or
Powertrain
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
PHEV
PHEV
PHEV
PHEV
CNG
Tailpipe CO2
(g/mile)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
81
110
110
133
218
           Table 7.5 accounts for the "upstream" CO2 emissions associated with the production and
           distribution of electricity used in EVs and PHEVs.  Gasoline and diesel fuels also have CO2
           emissions associated with their production and distribution, but these upstream emissions
           are not reflected in the tailpipe CO2 emissions values discussed elsewhere in this report.
           Combining vehicle tailpipe and fuel production/distribution sources, gasoline vehicles emit
           about 80 percent of total CO2 emissions at the vehicle tailpipe with 20 percent associated
           with upstream fuel production and distribution.  Diesel fuel has a similar approximate
           relationship between tailpipe and upstream CO2 emissions. CNG vehicle upstream CO2
           emissions data is not included in Table 7.5.12  On the other hand, vehicles using electricity
           emit no CO2 (or other emissions) at the vehicle tailpipe; therefore all CO2 emissions
           associated with powering the vehicle are due to fuel production and distribution.
           Depending on how the electricity is produced, these fuels can have very high fuel
           production/distribution CO2 emissions (for example, if coal is used with no CO2 emissions
           control) or  very low CO2 emissions (for example, if renewable processes with minimal fossil
           energy inputs are used).

           An additional complicating factor in Table 7.5 is that electricity production in the United
           States varies significantly from region to region.  Hydroelectric plants provide a large
12 There is considerable uncertainly and ongoing research on the topic of GHG emissions from natural gas production, particularly with
respect to hydraulic fracturing ("tracking") processes.
92

-------
           percentage of electricity in the northwest, coal-fired power plants produce the majority of
           electricity in the Midwest, and natural gas has increased its electricity market share in many
           regions of the country. Nuclear power plants and renewable energy make up the balance of
           U.S. electricity production. In order to bracket the possible GHG emissions impact (there
           are additional complicating factors that are beyond the scope of this analysis and can only be
           addressed by sophisticated powerplant modeling), Table 7.5 provides ranges with the low
           end of the range corresponding to the California powerplant emissions factor, the middle of
           the range represented by the national average powerplant emissions factor, and the upper
           end of the range corresponding to the powerplant emissions factor for the Rockies.

           Based on data from EPA's eGRID powerplant database, and accounting for additional
           greenhouse gas  emissions impacts for feedstock processing upstream of the powerplant, EPA
           estimates that the electricity GHG emission factors for various regions of the country vary
           from 404 g CO/kW-hr in California to 976 g CO/kW-hr in the Rockies, with a national
           average of 651 g CO^kW-hr.13  Emission rates for the region encompassing New York City
           are approximately equal to those in California, and small regions in upstate New York and
           Alaska have lower electricity upstream CO2 emission rates than California.  However,
           California is a good surrogate for the "low" end of the range because California is a leading
           market for current EVs and PHEVs.  Initial sales of electric vehicles have been largely,
           though not exclusively, focused in regions of the country with powerplant CO2 emissions
           factors lower than the national average, such as California, New York,  and other coastal
           areas. In addition, sales of hybrid vehicles have also been disproportionately higher in these
           same areas. Accordingly, in terms of CO2 emissions, EPA believes that the current "sales-
           weighted average" vehicle operating on electricity in the near term will likely fall somewhere
           between the low end of this range and the  national average.14

           The fourth through sixth columns in Table 7.5 provide the range of tailpipe plus total
           upstream CO2 emissions  for EVs and PHEVs based on regional electricity emission rates.
           For comparison, the average MY 2013 car is also included in Table 7.5. The methodology
           used to calculate the range of tailpipe plus  total upstream CO2 emissions for EVs, is  shown
           in the following example  for the  MY  2013  Nissan Leaf:

               •  Start with the label (5-cycle values weighted 55% city/45% highway) vehicle
                  electricity consumption in kW-hr/mile, which for the Leaf is 29 kW-hr/100 miles,
                  or 0.29 kW-hr/mile

               •  Determine the regional powerplant emission rate, regional losses during electricity
                  distribution, and the additional regional emissions due to fuel production upstream
13 TranSystems | E.H. Pechan (2012).The emissions & generation resource integrated database for 2012 (eGRID2012) technical support
document, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, April 2012; Argonne National Laboratory, 2012,
GREET web site, http://ereet.es.anl.eov/ last accessed October 2012.
  For an individual who wants to know the upstream greenhouse gas emissions associated with operating an EV or PHEV in his or her
geographical area, use the emissions calculator at fueleconomv.BOv/fee/Find.do?action=bt2

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        of the powerplant (for California, these numbers are 299 g/kW-hr, 8.2%, and
    •   Determine the regional upstream emission factor (for California 299 g/kW-hr / (1-
        0.082) * (1+0.24) = 404 gCO/kW-hr)

    •   Multiply by the range of Low (California = 404 gCO^kW-hr), Average (National
        Average = 651 g CO/kW-hr), and High (Rockies = 976 g CO/kW-hr) electricity
        upstream GHG emission rates, which yields a range for the Leaf of 118-285
        grams/mile.

The tailpipe plus total upstream CO2 emissions values for PHEVs include the upstream CO2
emissions associated with electricity operation and both the tailpipe and upstream CO2
emissions associated with gasoline operation, using the utility factor discussed above to
weight the values for electricity and gasoline operation. The tailpipe plus total upstream
CO2 emissions values for the average car are the average MY 2013 car tailpipe CO2 emissions
(from Table 4.3) multiplied by 1.25 to account for upstream emissions due to gasoline
production.

The values in columns four through  six are tailpipe plus total upstream CO2 emissions. But,
all of the gasoline and diesel vehicle CO2 emissions data in the rest of this report refer to
tailpipe only emissions and do not reflect the upstream emissions associated with gasoline or
diesel production and distribution. Accordingly, in order to equitably compare the overall
relative impact of EVs and PHEVs with tailpipe emissions of petroleum-fueled vehicles, EPA
uses the metric "tailpipe plus net upstream emissions" for EVs and PHEVs (note that this
same approach has been adopted for EV and PHEV regulatory compliance with the 2012-
2025 light-duty vehicle GHG emissions standards for sales of EVs and PHEVs that exceed
sales thresholds). The net upstream emissions for an EV is equal to the total upstream
emissions for the EV minus the upstream emissions that would be expected from a
comparable-sized (size is a good first-order measure for utility and footprint is the size-based
metric used for standards compliance) gasoline vehicle. The net upstream emissions for
PHEVs are equal to the net upstream emissions of the PHEV due to electricity consumption
in electric or blended mode multiplied by the utility factor.  The net upstream emissions for
a gasoline vehicle are zero.

For each EV or PHEV, the upstream emissions  for a comparable gasoline vehicle are
determined by first using the footprint based compliance curves to determine the CO2
compliance target for a vehicle with the same footprint. Since upstream emissions account
for approximately 20% of total CO2  emissions for gasoline vehicles, the upstream emissions
for the comparable gasoline vehicle are equal to one fourth  of the tailpipe-only compliance
target.

The final three columns of Table 7.5 give the tailpipe plus net upstream CO2 values for the
EVs and PHEVs using the same Low, Average, and High electricity upstream CO2 emissions

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           rates discussed above. These values bracket the possible real world net CO2 emissions that
           would be associated with consumer use of these vehicles. For the Leaf, these values are
           simply the values in columns three through five minus the upstream GHG emissions of a
           comparably sized gasoline vehicle.  Based on the MY 2013 CO2-footprint curve, the 5-cycle
           tailpipe GHG emissions for a Leaf sized vehicle meeting its compliance target would be
           approximately 318 grams/mile, with upstream emissions of one-fourth of this value, or 80
           g/mile. The net upstream emissions are determined by subtracting this value, 80 g/mile,
           from the total upstream emissions for the Leaf. The result  is a range for the tailpipe plus net
           upstream value of 38-205 g/mile as shown in Table 7.5, with a more likely typical value in
           the 38-111 g/mile range.

           For PHEVs, the tailpipe plus net upstream emissions values use the utility factor values
           discussed above to weight the individual values for electric operation and gasoline operation.

Table 7.5
MY 2013 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Upstream CO2 Emission Metrics
Make
Fiat
Ford
Honda
Mitsubishi
Nissan
Scion
Smart
Tesla
Tesla
Toyota
Chevrolet
Ford
Ford
Toyota

Model
500e
Focus
Fit
i
Leaf
iQ
Fortwo
Model S (85kW-hr)
Model S (60kW-hr)
RAV4
Volt
C-Max
Fusion
Prius
Average Car
Fuel or
Powertrain
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
EV
PHEV
PHEV
PHEV
PHEV
Gasoline
Tailpipe + Total Upstream CO2
Low
(g/mile)
118
130
115
121
118
113
127
153
143
179
194
203
203
200
406
Avg
(g/mile)
190
209
186
196
190
181
205
247
230
288
250
243
243
221
406
High
(g/mile)
285
313
278
293
285
272
307
370
345
432
324
295
295
248
406
Tailpipe + Net Upstream CO2
Low
(g/mile)
44
52
41
47
38
39
53
61
50
99
121
138
136
144
325
Avg
(g/mile)
116
131
112
121
111
107
131
154
137
209
177
178
176
165
325
High
(g/mile)
211
235
204
219
205
198
233
277
252
353
252
230
229
192
325
          While there are still relatively few OEM alternative fuel vehicles in MY 2013, this represents
          a significant increase in both the number of models available and the total production of
          alternative fuel vehicles.  Based on manufacturer announcements and projected sales, this
          segment of the market will continue to grow in MY 2014 and beyond. This report will
          continue to track the metrics presented in this section and report on trends in alternative
          fuel vehicle CO2 emissions and fuel economy as more models are introduced and more data
          becomes available in future years.
95

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                   002 Choices
Consumers shopping for vehicles with comparatively high fuel economy and low tailpipe CO2 emissions had
more vehicles to choose among in MY 2013 than in MY 2008. These choices reflect both a more diverse range
of technology packages on conventional gasoline vehicles as well as more advanced technology and alternative
fuel vehicles.  Section 5 analyzes important trends for a number of conventional gasoline and diesel vehicle
technologies and for advanced technologies like hybrid vehicles.  Section 7 provides data on individual
alternative fuel vehicle models such as electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and compressed natural
gas vehicles. This section focuses specifically on trends related to the new vehicle purchase choices available to
consumers.
96
          A. METHODOLOGY

          There are some important methodological differences in the analysis in this section relative
          to Sections 1-6. First, the data in this section are not weighted by vehicle production levels,
          but instead reflect "model counts," which is more appropriate for evaluating vehicle choices
          for consumers. This is because, to an individual consumer in the market for a new vehicle,
          it makes little or no difference if a particular model has high or low production.  Second,
          this section includes alternative fuel vehicles, whereas sections 1-6 generally analyze only
          gasoline and diesel vehicles. Third, the analysis in this section focuses on the changes
          between MY 2008 and MY 2013, rather than trends over multiple decades. These two
          model years are used because a 5-year period is long enough to identify meaningful multi-
          year trends.

          This "model count" analysis requires assumptions about how to define a model. Our
          objective in this analysis is to count models that are generally marketed and perceived by
          consumers to be unique vehicle choices, but not to count multiple  configurations that are
          generally marketed and perceived by consumers to be the same  model. The application of
          this approach requires considerable judgment,  and we have made every effort to be
          consistent for both MY 2008 and MY 2013.  The most important guidelines used to classify
          vehicle configurations into unique "models" for this analysis are:

          •   Vehicles with the same name are generally counted as one model (e.g., all Honda Civics
             are counted as one model), with exceptions noted below. Vehicle options included as
             one model include:
                  o  Engine and transmission options  (including hybrid, diesel, CNG, EV, PHEV,
                     turbo, and ECO variants)
                     2WD and 4WD versions
                     Trim levels
                     Convertible, hatchback,  and wagon body styles
                     FFV and non-FFV models
                     BMW series.  For example, all BMW 5 series variants are included as one
                     model, including the ActiveHybrid 5
o
o
o
o
o

-------
•   Vehicles that are substantially similar, but are sold in multiple divisions, (often called
    "twins") are counted as separate models. For example:
         o  Ford Escape and Mercury Mariner are counted as separate models
         o  Chevrolet Equinox and GMC Terrain are counted as separate models

 •   Vehicles that are generally marketed as distinct models are counted as separate models.
     For example:
         o  Prius, Prius v and Prius c are counted as distinct models

 •   Mini Cooper vehicles are grouped and counted as three models (Mini Cooper, Mini
     Cooper Clubman, and Mini Cooper Countryman), based on wheelbase, with multiple
     trim models within each wheelbase  counted as the same model

 •   If at least one variant of an individual model meets a threshold defined in the analysis
     (e.g., cars with fuel economy greater than 30 mpg), the model is counted only once,
     regardless of the  number of model variants that meet the threshold. For instance, if
     hybrid, CNG, and gasoline variant Honda Civics exceed 30 mpg, only one Civic is
     counted as exceeding 30 mpg

These "model count"  guidelines resulted in approximately 300 models for both MY 2008
and MY 2013.

Finally, the last methodological difference in this section relative to most other sections is
that two key parameters -vehicle classifications and combined city/highway fuel economy
values- are  aligned with the Fuel Economy and Environment label in order to be consistent
with the information available to consumers when they are considering new vehicle
purchases.  The vehicle classifications in  Figure 8.1 are based on Fuel Economy and
Environment label classifications which differ slightly from the definitions  of cars and light
trucks used in Section 1-6  in this report (for example, in Figure 8.1, all SUVs are combined
into a single category consistent with fuel economy labels and are not split into car SUVs
and truck SUVs as is done for compliance with standards and elsewhere in this report). The
label classes are simplified into four broader categories: cars, SUVs, pickups and
minivans/vans. If variants of a model were in more than one of these four broader
categories,  then the variant was counted  once in each relevant category. The combined fuel
economy values used in Figure 8.1 and Figure 8.2 are based on the 55% city/45% highway
weighting used on fuel economy labels, and not on the 43% city/57% highway weighting
used for adjusted fuel economy values  presented elsewhere in this report.

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          B. HIGH FUEL ECONOMY VEHICLE OFFERINGS
          Figure 8.1 shows the change from MY 2008 to MY 2013 in the number of models where at
          least one model variant meets various fuel economy thresholds. The threshold values for
          EVs, PHEVs, and CNG vehicles that are represented in Figure 8.1 all use miles per gallon of
          gasoline-equivalent (mpge), i.e., the miles the vehicle can travel on an  amount of electricity
          that has the same amount of energy as a gallon of gasoline. See Section 7 for a detailed
          discussion of EVs, PHEVs, CNG vehicles, and mpge.

Figure 8.1
Number of Models Meeting Fuel Economy Thresholds in MY 2008 and MY 2013
          T3
           O
           CD
          .0
           E
60
50
40
Includes city/hwy combined
label MPG estimates tor
gasoline, diesel and hybrid
vehicles, and MPGe estimates
for EVs and PHEVs
                     Pickups and
                 minivans/vans > 20 MPG
                                     SUVs > 25 MPG
                                                       Cars > 30 MPG
                                                                         Cars > 40 MPG
          Figure 8.1 shows that there are 15 pickup and minivans/van models for which at least one
          variant of the model has a combined city/highway label fuel economy rating of 20 mpg or
          more, compared with nine models five years ago. Furthermore, the majority of the MY 2008
          vehicles meeting the 20 mpg threshold were small pickups (pickups with a gross vehicle
          weight rating of less than 6000 pounds). Only two minivans and no standard-sized pick-up
          trucks met or exceeded a 20 mpg threshold in MY 2008, but in MY 2013 10 minivans/vans
          and three standard pickup trucks met the 20 mpg threshold. Twenty MY 2013 SUV models
          achieve 25 mpg or above, compared to nine models in 2008. It is interesting to note that, of
          the SUVs that achieved 25 mpg, there were five hybrids in MY 2008 and just three hybrids
          in MY 2013. Accordingly, the number of non-hybrid SUVs that achieved 25 mpg increased
          from four in MY 2008 to 17 in MY 2013, more than a four-fold increase. There are now 53
          car models available where at least one variant has a combined city/highway label fuel
          economy of 30 mpg or more, compared to just ten in MY 2008, more than a five-fold
          increase.  In addition, 22 of the MY 2013 cars achieve 40 mpg or higher, and  13 of the MY
          2013 cars have at least one variant that  achieves 50 mpg or higher. The cars achieving at
          least 40 mpg consist exclusively of hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid
          electric vehicles, but of the car models that achieve  at least 30 mpg, more than 60% reach
          this threshold with conventional gasoline or diesel variants.
98

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          C. HIGH FUEL ECONOMY RANGES WITHIN

          MODELS

          Within individual models, the number of models with a high mpg spread is also growing.
          Historically, models may have offered several engine and transmission choices with some
          variation in fuel economy, but some recent model year vehicles offer variants providing an
          even wider range of fuel economy choices.  While high fuel economy variation is often due
          to hybrid and diesel variants, there is also increasing fuel economy variation for some
          conventional gasoline models due to the availability of optional packages that include low
          rolling resistance tires, aerodynamic improvements, turbochargers, and other technologies.
          These choices are allowing customers to choose among a wider range of fuel economy within
          an individual model.

          The analysis for Figure 8.2 does not include alternative fuel vehicles, such as EVs, PHEVs,
          and CNG vehicles.  The  fuel economy variations within some models would be much higher
          if these vehicles and their mpge values were included. There are nearly twice as many MY
          2013 models with at least a 5 mpg spread than there are MY 2008 models, and nearly three
          times as many MY 2013 models with at least a 10 mpg spread.
Figure 8.2
Number of Models Meeting Fuel Economy Spread Thresholds in MY 2008 and MY 2013
          o>
          T3
          o
          CD
          .a
          E
                                                       MY 2008
                                                       MY 2013
Includes city/hwy combined
label MPG estimates for
gasoline, diesel and hybrid
vehicles, and MPGe estimates
for EVs and PHEVs
                       > 5 mpg spread
     > 10 mpg spread
99

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          D. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLE OFFERINGS

          Figure 8.3 shows that consumers also have many more alternatives to conventional gasoline
          vehicles. In MY 2008, the only advanced technology for which there were meaningful
          choices was hybrids, with a small number of diesels, one EV, and one dedicated compressed
          natural gas (CNG) vehicle. In MY 2013, there are three times as many hybrid offerings as
          there were in MY 2008 (from 13 in MY 2008 to 39 in MY 2013). In addition, the number
          of diesel offerings has more than doubled (from 6 in MY 2008 to 14 in MY 2013), and there
          are growing numbers of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as well. In MY
          2013 there are nine EVs, four PHEVs, and one dedicated CNG vehicle.15 Production share
          is also increasing for advanced technology vehicles though not as fast as the number of
          models is increasing. For a more detailed discussion of hybrids and diesel vehicles, see
          section 5, and see section 7 for more information about alternative fuel vehicles.

          For Figure 8.3, the  "model count" methodology is modified slightly to allow models that
          have more than one alternative fuel variant to be counted in each alternative fuel category
          (e.g., a Ford Fusion is available as both an HEV and PHEV,  so the model was counted once
          in each category).

Figure 8.3
Advanced Technology and Alternative Fueled Vehicle Models in MY 2008 and MY 2013
           (K
           
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          A.  PERSONAL VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY AND

          GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS STANDARDS

          National fuel economy standards have been in place in the United States for cars and light
          trucks since 1978.  The Department of Transportation, through the National Highway
          Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), has the responsibility for setting and enforcing fuel
          economy standards through the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program. Since
          the inception of fuel economy standards, EPA has been responsible for establishing fuel
          economy test procedures and calculation methods, and for collecting data used to determine
          vehicle fuel economy and manufacturer CAFE levels.

          For MY  2012 through 2025, EPA and NHTSA have jointly developed a historic and
          harmonized National Program, which established EPA greenhouse gas emissions standards
          and NHTSA CAFE standards that allow manufacturers to build a single national fleet to
          meet requirements of both programs while ensuring that consumers have a full range of
          vehicle choices.  The standards have been supported by a wide range of stakeholders: most
          major automakers, the United Auto Workers, the State of California, and major consumer
          and environmental groups.

          In 2010, the agencies finalized the first coordinated standards for MY 2012-2016 (75 Federal
          Register 25324, May 7, 2010). By MY 2016, the average industry-wide compliance levels for
          these footprint-based standards are projected to be 250 g/mi CO2 and 34.1 mpg CAFE.  The
          250 g/mi CO2 compliance level would be equivalent to 35.5 mpg if all CO2 emissions
          reductions are achieved through fuel economy improvements. In 2012, the agencies
          finalized additional coordinated standards for MY 2017-2025 (77 Federal Register 62624,
          October 15, 2012). By MY 2025, the average industry-wide compliance levels are projected to
          be 163 g/mi CO2 and 48.7-49.7 mpg CAFE.16 " The 163 g/mi CO2 compliance level would
          be equivalent to 54.5 mpg if all CO2 emissions reductions are achieved solely through
          improvements in fuel economy.18 For both MY 2012-2016 and MY 2017-2025, the agencies
          expect that a portion of the required CO2 emissions improvements will be achieved by
          reductions in air conditioner refrigerant leakage, which would not contribute to higher fuel
          economy.  These coordinated and harmonized standards are expected to yield "continuous
          improvement" reductions in CO2 emissions and increases in fuel economy levels through
          MY 2025.
16 The final rule establishing these standards requires EPA to conduct a midterm evaluation of the MY 2022-2025 standards.
17 NHTSA CAFE standards for model years 2022-2025 are not final, and are augural. NHTSA is required by Congress to set CAFE
standards for no more than five years at a time. NHTSA will conduct a new and full rulemaking in the future to establish standards for
model years 2022-2025. NHTSA projects the augural standards would require a combined fleetwide fuel economy of 48.7-49.7 mpg.
18 While many assumptions must be made to convert from projected standards compliance levels to projected adjusted (real world) levels.
EPA has projected that MY 2025 standards compliance levels, with no over compliance, would result in adjusted levels of 223 g/mi CO2
and 40 mpg (77 Federal Register 62773, October 15,2012).

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Automaker compliance with the above CO2 and CAFE standards is based on unadjusted,
laboratory CO2 and fuel economy values, along with various regulatory incentives and
credits, rather than on the adjusted CO2 and fuel economy values that are used throughout
most of this report.  Neither unadjusted, laboratory nor adjusted CO2 and fuel economy
values reflect various incentives (e.g., for flexible fuel vehicles for both CO2 and CAFE
standards) and credits (air conditioner and other off-cycle technologies for CO2 standards)
that are available to manufacturers for regulatory compliance.  Fleetwide CAFE standards
compliance values are a minimum of 25% higher than adjusted fuel economy values and
fleetwide CO2 emissions standards compliance values are a minimum of 20% lower than
adjusted CO2 emissions values (these offsets can be greater due to alternative fuel vehicle, air
conditioner, and/or other compliance credits). EPA (at epa.gov/otaq/regs/ld-
hwv/greenhouse/ld-ghg.htm) and NHTSA (at nhtsa.dot.gov/fuel-economy) publish separate
documents summarizing formal automaker compliance with GHG  emissions and CAFE
standards. NHTSA will prepare an updated report after EPA provides NHTSA with
complete and final data through MY 2012.

B. CURRENT VEHICLES THAT MEET FUTURE EPA

CO2 EMISSIONS  COMPLIANCE TARGETS

This section evaluates MY 2013 vehicles against future footprint-based CO2 emission targets
to determine which current vehicles could meet or exceed their targets in model years 2016-
2025, based on current powertrain designs and only assuming credits for future
improvements in air conditioner refrigerants and efficiency. EPA assumed the addition of
air conditioning improvements since these are considered to be among the most
straightforward and least expensive technologies available to reduce CO2 and other
greenhouse gas  emissions.

It is important to note there are no CO2 emissions standards for individual vehicles. Rather,
there are manufacturer-specific compliance levels for both passenger car and light truck
fleets. The compliance levels are derived from the footprint-based CO2 emissions target
curves, and the  production volume-weighted distribution of vehicles produced for sale in the
U.S. by each manufacturer.

Figure 9.1 shows that 28% of projected MY 2013 vehicle production  already meets the MY
2016 CO2 targets, or can meet these targets with the addition of expected air conditioning
improvements.  The bulk of current vehicle production that meets  the MY 2016 targets is
accounted for by non-hybrid gasoline vehicles, although other technologies, including
diesels, hybrids, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, electric vehicles and compressed natural gas
vehicles, are also represented.

Looking ahead, nearly 5% of projected 2013 production already meets the MY 2025 CO2
targets. Vehicles meeting the MY 2025 CO2 targets are comprised  solely of hybrids, plug-in

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          hybrids, and electric vehicles. Since the MY 2025 standards are over a decade away, there's
          considerable time for continued improvements in gasoline vehicle technology.


Figure 9.1

MY 2013 Vehicle Production Share (Projected) That Meets Future CO2 Emissions Targets
         35% -


         30% -


         25% -


         20% -


         15% -


         10% -
                                            Fuel
                                                CNG*
                     2016
2017          2020

   Target Year
2025
         * There is one MY 2013 CNG vehicle that meets the standards through 2020, however
         it only represents 0.03% of MY 2013 vehicles and may not be visible on this graph.
         ** There are no CO2 emissions standards applicable to individual vehicles.

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C. COMPARISON OF EPA AND NHTSA FUEL

ECONOMY DATA,  1975-2013

Table 9.1 compares CAFE performance data reported by NHTSA ("Summary of Fuel
Economy Performance" report dated April 25, 2013 and available at nhtsa.dot.gov/fuel-
economy) with the adjusted and unadjusted, laboratory fuel economy data in this report.
With only minor exceptions over 30 years ago, the NHTSA values are higher than the EPA
unadjusted, laboratory values, due primarily to alternative fuel vehicle credits, and
secondarily to test procedure adjustment factors for cars. In recent years for which both
Agencies report final data, the NHTSA values are typically 0.6-1.0 mpg higher than the EPA
unadjusted, laboratory values. MY 2011 is the most recent year for which both agencies
report final data, and NHTSA's  final CAFE performance value is 0.9 mpg higher than EPA's
final unadjusted, laboratory value. For MY 2012, NHTSA's mid-model year value is 1.0 mpg
higher than EPA's final unadjusted, laboratory value. For MY 2013, both agencies report
preliminary values, and NHTSA's preliminary value is 0.5 mpg higher (1.2 mpg for cars and
0.8 mpg higher for trucks) than EPA's unadjusted, laboratory value. These preliminary MY
2013 projections are based on different data sets.  The EPA MY 2013 value is based on
automaker submissions in the spring and summer of 2012 to  support vehicle fuel economy
labels. The NHTSA MY 2013 value is based on automaker pre-model year CAFE reports
later in 2012.  Final MY 2013 results will be reported in next year's report.

The EPA car and truck fuel economy values shown in Table 9.1 for years prior to MY 2011
differ from the values found elsewhere in this report. Beginning with the 2011 report, EPA
reclassified many small and mid-sized, 2-wheel drive SUVs from trucks to cars for the entire
historical database. This reflects a regulatory change made by NHTSA for CAFE standards
beginning in MY 2011 and which will apply for the joint EPA/NHTSA greenhouse gas
emissions and CAFE standards that have been finalized for MY 2012-2025.  These changes
were not in effect for years prior to MY 2011, and accordingly NHTSA's CAFE fuel
economy values prior to MY 2011 are based on the previous car and truck definitions. To
enable an apples-to-apples comparison to the NHTSA values, the  EPA car and truck values
in Table 9.1 through model year 2010 were calculated using the previous car and truck
definitions, which is not consistent with the rest of this report. While the individual car and
truck values in Table 9.1 are unique, the car and truck definitions do not affect the overall
(car plus truck) fuel economy values, which are consistent with the rest of this report.

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Table 9.1
EPA Adjusted, EPA Unadjusted Laboratory, and CAFE Values by Model Year
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cars
EPA
Adj.
(MPG)
13.5
14.9
15.6
16.9
17.2
20.0
21.4
22.2
22.1
22.4
23.0
23.7
23.8
24.1
23.7
23.3
23.4
23.1
23.5
23.3
23.4
23.3
23.4
23.4
23.0
22.9
23.0
23.1
23.2
23.1
23.5
23.3
24.1
24.3
25.4
25.8
25.6
27.0
27.4
EPA
Unadj.,
Lab
(MPG)
15.8
17.5
18.3
19.9
20.3
23.5
25.1
26.0
25.9
26.3
27.0
27.9
28.1
28.6
28.1
27.8
28.0
27.6
28.2
28.0
28.3
28.3
28.4
28.5
28.2
28.2
28.4
28.6
28.9
28.9
29.5
29.2
30.3
30.5
32.1
32.7
32.3
34.3
34. 8
NHTSA
CAFE
(MPG)
N/A
N/A
N/A
19.9
20.3
24.3
25.9
26.6
26.4
26.9
27.6
28.2
28.5
28.8
28.4
28.0
28.4
27.9
28.4
28.3
28.6
28.5
28.7
28.8
28.3
28.5
28.8
29.0
29.5
29.5
30.3
30.1
31.2
31.5
32.9
33.9
33.1
35.2
36.0
Diff.
(NHTSA -
Lab)
(MPG)
-
-
-
0.0
0.0
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.0
0.8
1.2
0.8
0.9
-
Trucks
EPA
EPA Unadj
Adj. Lab
(MPG) (MPG;
11.6 13.7
12.2 14.4
13.3 15.6
12.9 15.2
12.5 14.7
15.8 18.6
17.1 20.1
17.4 20.5
17.8 20.9
17.4 20.5
17.5 20.6
18.2 21.4
18.3 21.6
17.9 21.2
17.6 20.9
17.4 20.7
17.8 21.3
17.4 20.8
17.5 21.0
17.2 20.8
17.0 20.5
17.2 20.8
17.0 20.6
17.1 20.9
16.7 20.5
16.9 20.8
16.7 20.6
16.7 20.6
16.9 20.9
16.7 20.8
17.2 21.4
17.5 21.8
17.7 22.1
18.2 22.7
19.0 23.8
19.1 23.8
19.1 23.9
19.3 24.1
19.7 24.5
NHTSA
CAFE
(MPG)
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
18.2
18.5
20.1
20.5
20.7
20.6
20.7
21.5
21.7
21.3
21.0
20.8
21.3
20.8
21.0
20.8
20.5
20.8
20.6
21.0
20.9
21.3
20.9
21.4
21.8
21.5
22.1
22.5
23.1
23.6
24.8
25.2
24.7
25.0
25.3
Diff.
(NHTSA -
Lab)
(MPG)
-
-
-
-
3.5
-0.1
-
-
-0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.1
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.8
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.7
1.0
0.9
1.0
1.4
0.8
0.9
-
Both Cars and Trucks
EPA
Adj.
(MPG)
13.1
14.2
15.1
15.8
15.9
19.2
20.5
21.1
21.0
21.0
21.3
21.8
22.0
21.9
21.4
21.2
21.3
20.8
20.9
20.4
20.5
20.4
20.1
20.1
19.7
19.8
19.6
19.5
19.6
19.3
19.9
20.1
20.6
21.0
22.4
22.6
22.4
23.6
24.0
EPA
Unadj.,
Lab
(MPG)
15.3
16.7
17.7
18.6
18.7
22.5
24.1
24.7
24.6
24.6
25.0
25.7
25.9
25.9
25.4
25.2
25.4
24.9
25.1
24.6
24.7
24.8
24.5
24.5
24.1
24.3
24.2
24.1
24.3
24.0
24.8
25.2
25.8
26.3
28.2
28.4
28.1
29.8
30.3
NHTSA
CAFE
(MPG)
N/A
N/A
N/A
19.9
20.1
23.1
24.6
25.1
24.8
25.0
25.4
25.9
26.2
26.0
25.6
25.4
25.6
25.1
25.2
24.7
24.9
24.9
24.6
24.7
24.5
24.8
24.5
24.7
25.1
24.6
25.4
25.8
26.6
27.1
29.0
29.3
29.0
30.8
30. 8
Diff.
(NHTSA -
Lab)
(MPG)
-
-
-
1.3
1.4
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.3
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.0
-

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D.  COMPARISON OF MY 2012 UNADJUSTED,

LABORATORY AND ESTIMATED CAFE DATA BY

MANUFACTURER

The primary differences between EPA unadjusted, laboratory fuel economy data and EPA
estimated CAFE values are flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) credits that are available to
manufacturers that produce vehicles capable of operation on an alternative fuel (E85, a
blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline), and test procedure adjustment (TPA)
credits that apply to manufacturers of passenger cars. Any remaining offsets are due to
production of alternative fuel vehicles, which are not included in the unadjusted, laboratory
fuel economy values provided in this report (see Section 7, Alternative Fuel Vehicles).

Table 9.2 shows how the unadjusted, laboratory fuel economy values in this report, the
production of alternative fueled vehicles (AFVs), FFV credits, and TPA credits "add up" to
estimated CAFE values for each of the eleven highest volume manufacturers (excluding
Hyundai and Kia) for cars, trucks, and cars plus trucks. The FFV credits, TPA credits,  and
estimated CAFE values in Table 9.2 were obtained directly from EPA's fuel economy
compliance program (at the time of publication, EPA was in the process of submitting  the
manufacturer-specific CAFE values to NHTSA and individual manufacturers). The data is
from the annual manufacturer CAFE Reports,  and based on data provided to EPA and
NHTSA by automakers.  The authors calculated the impact of AFVs on CAFE levels for
those manufacturers that produce AFVs. For some manufacturers, the numbers in Table 9.2
do not add up exactly due to rounding.

The CAFE program recognizes three categories, domestic passenger vehicles, import
passenger vehicles, and light trucks. The passenger car FFV, TPA, and estimated CAFE
numbers in Table 9.2 are calculated from the domestic and import passenger vehicle
categories.  The truck values were obtained directly (trucks are not eligible for TPA credits).
The combined car and truck FFV and TPA credits were generated using car and truck  sales.
This  column is shown for illustrative purposes only, since there are no CAFE  standards for
combined cars and trucks.

For MY 2012, five manufacturers earned FFV credits for cars and six manufacturers did so
for trucks. All manufacturers were eligible for the TPA credits for cars.

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Table 9.2
Comparison of MY 2012 EPA Unadjusted, Laboratory and Estimated CAFE (MPG) Values by
Manufacturer*
Manufacturer
General Motors
Toyota
Ford
Honda
Chrysler-Fiat
Nissan
vw***
Mazda
Subaru
BMW
Daimler
Passenger Car
EPA
Unadj.,
Lab
31.1
39.8
34.1
37.3
29.6
34.4
33.0
37.4
35.2
32.2
28.2
FFV TPA
AFVs Credit Credit
0.3 1.2 0.2
0.2 0.0 0.3
0.0 1.2 0.3
0.1 0.0 0.4
0.0 1.2 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.3
0.0 0.1 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.5
0.0 0.0 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.3
0.0 0.9 0.2
Est.
CAFE"
32.8
40.4
35.7
37.9
30.9
35.2
33.4
37.9
35.5
32.4
29.3
Light Truck
EPA
Unadj.,
Lab
22.4
24.9
23.1
27.8
23.1
23.5
27.4
27.8
30.5
25.0
23.1
FFV TPA
AFVs Credit Credit
0.0 1.2 0.0
0.0 0.6 0.0
0.0 1.2 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 1.2 0.0
0.0 0.9 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.9 0.0
Est.
CAFE"
23.7
25.5
24.3
27.8
24.3
24.4
27.4
27.8
30.5
25.0
23.9
Both Cars and Trucks
EPA
Unadj.,
Lab
27.0
32.8
28.7
33.6
25.0
30.5
32.3
34.6
32.2
30.0
26.3
AFVs
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
FFV
Credit
1.2
0.4
1.2
0.0
1.2
0.4
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
TPA
Credit
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.2
0.1
Est.
CAFE"
28.5
33.4
30.1
34.0
26.3
31.4
32.6
34.9
32.3
30.1
27.3
 * Two manufacturers, Hyundai and Kia, are not included in the table above due to a continuing investigation. On November 2, 2012,
 EPA announced that Hyundai and Kia would lower their fuel economy estimates for many vehicle models as the result of an EPA
 investigation of test data.
 ** EPA calculates the CAFE value for each manufacturer and provides to NHTSA per EPCA. NHTSA publishes the final CAFE values in its
 annual "Summary of Fuel Economy Performance" reports at nhtsa.dot.gov/fuel-economy.
 *** Values for VW in this table and elsewhere in the report do not include Porsche. VW acquired Porsche in 2012; the MY 2012
 combined VW-Porsche estimated CAFE values are 33.2 mpg for passenger cars, 27.3 mpg for light trucks, and 32.3 mpg for combined
 cars and trucks.

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                 Details
This section addresses several Trends database topics in greater detail. While the key parameters of the Trends
database that are of the most importance to users were highlighted in Section 1, this section will help those
readers who want to further understand how the database is developed and various nuances associated with
the database.


          A.  SOURCES OF INPUT DATA

          Nearly all of the recent model year input for the Trends database is extracted from EPA's
          current vehicle compliance information system, VERIFY, into which automakers submit
          data required by congressional statute and EPA regulations. Prior to the beginning of each
          model year, automakers submit General Label information required to support the
          generation of the joint EPA/NHTSA Fuel Economy and Environment Labels that appear on
          all new personal vehicles. Automakers report pre-model year vehicle production projections
          for individual models to EPA in the General  Label submissions; these projections are
          considered by EPA and automakers to be confidential business information. A few months
          after the end of each model year, automakers submit Final GHG/CAFE data, which EPA
          and NHTSA use to determine compliance with GHG emissions and CAFE standards.
          These end-of-the-year submissions include final production volumes. The production volume
          levels automakers provide in their Final CAFE reports may differ slightly from their Final
          GHG reports (less than 0.1%) because the EPA emissions certification regulations, including
          GHG regulations,  require emission compliance in the 50 states, the District of Columbia,
          Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa and the Commonwealth of the
          Northern Mariana Islands, whereas the CAFE program requires data from the 50 states, the
          District of Columbia and Puerto Rico only. To maintain consistency with previous versions
          of this report, the Trends database will continue to use the production volumes for CAFE
          reporting. Both the General Label and Final GHG/CAFE data submissions contain a broad
          amount of data associated with CO2 emissions and fuel economy, vehicle and engine
          technology, and vehicle performance metrics. The Trends database extracts only a portion
          of the data in the VERIFY database.

          This report reflects data from VERIFY as of August 2013. Through MY 2012, all Trends
          data is considered  final since it is based on the Final GHG/CAFE compliance reports.  For
          MY 2013, all Trends data is preliminary since it is based on confidential pre-model year
          production projections.  Final MY 2013 values will be published in next year's report. See
          Section 10.E below for a historical comparison of preliminary and final values.

          While nearly the entire Trends database comes from formal automaker submissions, it also
          contains a small amount of data from external sources.  For example, label fuel economy
          data for Sections 7 and 8 are from fueleconomy.gov. As another example, we rely on

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           published data from external sources for certain parameters of pre-MY 2011 vehicles, which
           are not universally available through automaker submissions:  (1) engines with variable valve
           timing (WT); (2) engines with cylinder deactivation; and (3) vehicle footprint, which is the
           product ofwheelbase times average track width and upon which CO2 emissions and CAFE
           standards are based. Beginning with MY 2011, automaker submissions have included data
           on these parameters.

           In addition, automaker submissions do not include zero-to-sixty (O-to-60) miles per hour
           acceleration time (in seconds) so we estimate this parameter (for vehicles with conventional
           powertrains with gasoline-fueled engines) using this equation:

                       t = F (HP/wry

           where t is acceleration time; HP and WT reflect Trends data for horsepower and weight,
           respectively; and the coefficients F and f are empirical parameters determined in  the
           literature by obtaining a least-squares fit for available test data.  This report uses .892  and
           .805 for the F and f coefficients, respectively, for vehicles with automatic transmissions and
           .967 and .775, respectively, for those with manual transmissions.19  Other authors20 have
           evaluated the relationships between weight, horsepower, and O-to-60 acceleration time and
           have calculated and published slightly different values for the F and f coefficients. Since the
           equation form and coefficients were developed for vehicles with conventional gasoline
           powertrains, we  use published values from external sources to estimate O-to-60 acceleration
           time for vehicles with hybrid powertrains or diesel engines.

           We recognize that the above equation for acceleration time was initially developed in the
           1970s and that more updated and sophisticated approaches for estimating acceleration time
           are available. For example, we are aware of a recent report21  by the Massachusetts Institute of
           Technology that uses a broader set of inputs for estimating acceleration time. We intend to
           review this and other relevant papers and expect to revise the approach for estimating
           acceleration time for the entire Trends database in future reports.


           B. HARMONIC AVERAGING OF  FUEL ECONOMY VALUES

           Averaging multiple fuel economy values must be done harmonically in order to obtain a
           correct mathematical result.  Since fuel economy is expressed in miles per gallon  (mpg), one
           critical assumption with any harmonic averaging of multiple fuel economy values is whether
  "Concise Description of Auto Fuel Economy and Performance in Recent Model Years," SAE Paper 760045, Malliaris, Hsia and Gould,
February 1976.
20 "Automotive Engine — A Future Perspective," SAE Paper 891666, Amann, 1989; "Regression Analysis of Acceleration Performance of
Light-Duty Vehicles," DOT HS 807 763, Young, September 1991; and "Determinates of Multiple Measures of Acceleration," SAE Paper
931805, Santini and Anderson, 1993.
21 MacKenzie, D., Heywood, J. (2012). Acceleration performance trends and the evolving relationship among power, weight, and
acceleration in U.S. light-duty vehicles: A linear regression analysis. Transportation Research Board, Paper No. 12-1475, TRB 91st Annual
Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2012.

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the distance term (miles, in the numerator of mpg) is fixed or variable. This report makes the
assumption that the distance term in all mpg values is fixed, i.e., that for purposes of
calculating a harmonically averaged fuel economy value, it is assumed that the distance term
(representing miles travelled) is equivalent across various vehicle fuel economies. This
assumption is the standard practice with harmonic averaging of multiple fuel economy
values (including, for example, in calculations for CAFE standards compliance), and
simplifies the calculations involved.

Mathematically, when assuming a fixed distance term as discussed above, harmonic
averaging of multiple fuel economy values can be defined as the inverse  of the average of the
reciprocals of the individual fuel economy values. It is best illustrated by a simple example.

Consider a round trip of 600 miles. For the first 300-mile leg, the driver is alone, with no
other passengers or cargo, and, aided by a tailwind, uses 10 gallons of gasoline, for a fuel
economy of 30 mpg.  On the return 300-mile trip, with several  passengers, some luggage, and
a headwind, the driver uses 15 gallons of gasoline, for a fuel economy of 20 mpg.  Many
people will assume that the average fuel economy for the entire 600-mile trip is 25 mpg, the
arithmetic (or simple) average of 30 mpg and 20 mpg. But, since the driver consumed 10 +
15 = 25 gallons of fuel during the trip,  the actual fuel economy is 600 miles divided  by 25
gallons, or 24 mpg.

Why is the actual 24 mpg less than the simple average of 25 mpg? Because the driver used
more gallons while (s)he was getting 20 mpg than when (s)he was getting 30 mpg.

This same principle is often demonstrated in elementary school mathematics when an
airplane makes a round trip, with a speed of 400 mph one way  and  500  mph the other way.
The average speed of 444 mph is less than 450 mph because the airplane spent more time
going 400 mph than it did going 500 mph.

As in both  of the examples above, a harmonic average will typically yield a result that is
slightly lower than the arithmetic average.

The following equation illustrates the use of harmonic averaging  to  obtain the correct
mathematical result for the fuel economy example above:

                                            2
                        Average mpg = — - - — = 24 mpg
The above example was for a single vehicle with two different fuel economies over two legs
of a single round trip. But, the same mathematical principle holds for averaging the fuel
economies of any number of vehicles. For example, the average fuel economy for a set of 10
vehicles, with three 30 mpg vehicles, four 25 mpg vehicles, and three 20 mpg vehicles would
be (note that, in order to maintain the concept of averaging, the total number of vehicles in
the numerator of the equation must equal the sum of the individual numerators in the

-------
denominator of the equation):

                                         10
                   Average mpg = —^	^	j- = 24.4 mpg
                                   bo + 25 + 20 J
Note that arithmetic averaging, not harmonic averaging,  provides the correct mathematical
result for averaging fuel consumption values (in gallons per mile, the inverse of fuel
economy) and CO2 emissions (in grams per mile). In the first, round trip, example above,
the first leg had a fuel consumption rate of 10 gallons over 300 miles, or 0.03333 gallons per
mile. The second leg had a fuel consumption of 15 gallons over 300 miles, or 0.05 gallons
per mile. Arithmetically averaging the two fuel consumption values, i.e., adding them up and
dividing by two, yields 0.04167 gallons per mile, and the inverse of this is the correct fuel
economy average of 24 mpg. Arithmetic averaging also works for CO2 emissions values, i.e.,
the average of 200 g/mi and 400 g/mi is 300 g/mi CO2 emissions.

In summary, fuel economy values must be harmonically averaged to maintain mathematical
integrity, while fuel consumption values (in gallons per mile) and CO2 emissions values (in
grams per mile) can be arithmetically averaged.


C. ADJUSTED  vs.  UNADJUSTED, LABORATORY VALUES

Change in Emphasis from Unadjusted, Laboratory Data to Adjusted Data

Prior to 2001, EPA's Trends reports only included unadjusted, laboratory fuel economy
values, which are used as the basis for compliance with standards and passenger car gas
guzzler taxes. Beginning in 2001, Trends reports also included adjusted values which are
EPA's best estimate of real world CO2 emissions and fuel economy performance. Now, most
of the tables and figures in this report exclusively show adjusted CO2 emissions and fuel
economy values.

One important distinction between the adjusted values and the unadjusted, laboratory
values is that the methodology for determining the former has evolved over time to better
reflect real world performance (see the proceeding section for more details). Some of the
changes to the  adjusted value methodology are intended  to account for changes in consumer
driving behavior over time (e.g., higher speeds, higher acceleration rates, greater use of air
conditioning).  Since adjusted Trends values are intended to represent real world
performance at any given time, modifications to the adjusted value  methodology that reflect
changes in consumer driving behavior have not been "propagated back" through the
historical Trends database. We note that this is an exception to our general policy of
"propagating back" changes throughout the historical Trends database, but in this case doing
so would skew the historical data (for example, by assuming that drivers in 1975 used air
conditioning much more frequently, or traveled at higher speeds, than they did).

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On the other hand, the methodology for determining unadjusted, laboratory values has not
changed since this series began in the mid-1970s. Unadjusted values therefore provide an
excellent basis with which to compare long-term trends in vehicle design, apart from the
factors that affect real world performance that are reflected in the adjusted values.

Table 10.1 shows both unadjusted, laboratory and adjusted fuel economy values, for the
overall new car and truck fleet for MY 1975-2013,  for city, highway, and combined
city/highway. It also shows how the ratio of adjusted-to-unadjusted fuel economy has
changed over time, reflecting that the methodology for adjusted fuel economy values has
changed over time, while the methodology for unadjusted fuel economy values has not
changed.

In addition to Table 10.1, the following tables also include unadjusted, laboratory values:
Tables 2.3, 4.4, 4.5, 9.1, 9.2, 10.2, and 10.4.

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Table 10.1
Unadjusted, Laboratory and Adjusted Fuel Economy (MPG) for MY 1975-MY 2013: Cars and Trucks
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Unadjusted
City
(MPG)
13.4
14.6
15.6
16.3
16.5
19.6
20.9
21.3
21.2
21.2
21.5
22.1
22.2
22.1
21.7
21.4
21.6
21.0
21.2
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.6
20.6
20.3
20.5
20.5
20.4
20.6
20.2
21.0
21.2
21.8
22.1
23.8
24.1
23.6
25.1
25.5
Unadjusted
Highway
(MPG)
18.7
20.2
21.3
22.5
22.3
27.5
29.5
30.7
30.6
30.8
31.3
32.2
32.6
32.7
32.3
32.2
32.5
32.1
32.4
31.6
32.1
32.2
31.8
31.9
31.2
31.4
31.1
30.9
31.3
31.0
32.1
32.6
33.4
34.0
36.4
36.6
36.4
38.6
39.3
Unadjusted
Combined
(55/45)
(MPG)
15.3
16.7
17.7
18.6
18.7
22.5
24.1
24.7
24.6
24.6
25.0
25.7
25.9
25.9
25.4
25.2
25.4
24.9
25.1
24.6
24.7
24.8
24.5
24.5
24.1
24.3
24.2
24.1
24.3
24.0
24.8
25.2
25.8
26.3
28.2
28.4
28.1
29.8
30.3
Adjusted
City
(MPG)
12.0
13.2
14.0
14.7
14.9
17.6
18.8
19.2
19.0
19.1
19.3
19.8
19.8
19.6
19.1
18.7
18.8
18.2
18.2
17.8
17.7
17.6
17.4
17.2
16.9
16.9
16.8
16.6
16.7
16.3
16.8
17.0
17.4
17.7
18.9
19.1
18.8
19.9
20.2
Adjusted
Highway
(MPG)
14.6
15.7
16.6
17.5
17.4
21.5
23.0
23.9
23.9
24.0
24.4
25.0
25.3
25.2
24.8
24.6
24.7
24.4
24.4
23.8
24.1
24.0
23.6
23.6
23.0
23.0
22.8
22.5
22.7
22.4
23.1
23.4
24.0
24.4
26.0
26.2
26.1
27.6
28.1
Adjusted
Combined
(43/57)
(MPG)
13.1
14.2
15.1
15.8
15.9
19.2
20.5
21.1
21.0
21.0
21.3
21.8
22.0
21.9
21.4
21.2
21.3
20.8
20.9
20.4
20.5
20.4
20.2
20.1
19.7
19.8
19.6
19.5
19.6
19.3
19.9
20.1
20.6
21.0
22.4
22.6
22.4
23.6
24.0
Ratio of
Adjusted
Combined to
Unadjusted
Combined
85.2%
85.1%
85.1%
85.1%
85.1%
85.2%
85.2%
85.2%
85.3%
85.3%
85.3%
85.0%
84.7%
84.4%
84.2%
83.9%
83.6%
83.4%
83.1%
82.9%
82.7%
82.4%
82.2%
81.9%
81.7%
81.3%
81.0%
80.7%
80.4%
80.2%
79.8%
79.8%
79.6%
79.5%
79.1%
79.0%
79.4%
78.9%
78.8%

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          Methodological Approaches for Adjusted Fuel Economy Values

          EPA has improved its methodology for estimating adjusted (or real world) fuel economy and
          CO2 emissions performance over time and is committed to continuing to do so in the
          future.  Most recently, EPA revised the methodology by which EPA calculates city, highway,
          and combined fuel economy label estimates  for cars and light-duty trucks in a December
          2006 rulemaking.

          This current methodology incorporates equations that directly account for several important
          factors that affect fuel economy and CO2 emissions performance in the real world, such as
          high speeds, aggressive accelerations and decelerations, the use of air conditioning, and
          operation in cold temperatures, and indirectly account for a number of other factors that are
          not reflected in EPA laboratory test data such as changing fuel composition, road
          conditions, etc. While some of these factors may not have changed (or may not have
          changed much) over time and therefore new estimation methods that account for these
          factors could be "propagated back" throughout the historical Trends database, we believe
          that many of the factors have changed significantly over time (e.g., highway speeds,
          acceleration rates, use of air conditioning), and therefore new estimation methods could not
          be fully "propagated back"  through the historical Trends database without impacting the
          integrity of the historical database with respect to real world fuel economy and CO2
          emissions performance.

          There are two important consequences of this approach  for users of this report. First, every
          adjusted fuel economy value in this report for 1986 and  later model years is lower than
          shown in pre-2007 reports. Second, we employed unique approaches for generating
          adjusted fuel economy and CO2 emissions values in the historical Trends database for three
          distinct time frames. The following discussion will first address the MY 1975-1985 time
          frame, then the MY 2005-2013 time frame, and then, finally, the approach for the MY 1986-
          2004 time frame that represents a "phased-in" approach from the former to the latter time
          frame.

          For the MY 1975-1985 time frame, the adjusted values in the Trends database are calculated
          using the methodology adopted by EPA in an April 1984 rulemaking that established
          universal fuel economy label adjustment factors of 0.9 for city fuel economy and 0.78 for
          highway fuel economy that took effect for MY 1985 vehicles.23 A single, combined adjusted
          fuel economy value is based on a 55% city/45% highway weighting  factor We believe that
          these adjustment factors are appropriate for  new vehicles through the 1985 model year.

          For the MY 2005-2013 time frame, the adjusted city and highway values in the Trends
          database for vehicles that undergo full "5-cycle" fuel economy and CO2 emissions testing
          (Federal Test Procedure for urban stop-and-go driving, Highway Fuel Economy Test for rural
          driving, US06 test for high speeds and aggressive driving, SCO3 test for air conditioning
12 71 Federal Register 77872 (December 27, 2006).
23 49 Federal Register 13832 (April 6, 1984).

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           operation, and cold FTP test for cold temperature operation) are calculated by weighting the
           5-cycle test data according to the "composite" 5-cycle equations.24 The combined
           city/highway adjusted value for these vehicles is based on a 43% city/57% highway
           weighting. In MY 2013, about 13% of all vehicle data were generated from the full 5-cycle
           test protocol.

           It is important to emphasize that the 43% city/57% highway weighting used for adjusted 5-
           cycle values beginning in MY 2005 is different from the 55% city/45% highway weighting
           used to generate adjusted fuel economy values for MY 1975-1985 in the Trends database.
           EPA's analysis of real world driving activity underlying the 5-cycle fuel economy
           methodology assumed a "speed cutpoint" of 45 miles per hour to differentiate between (and
           "bin" the amount of) city and highway driving.25  Based on this speed cutpoint, the correct
           weighting for correlating the new city and highway fuel economy values with real world
           driving,  on a miles driven basis, is 43% city/57% highway, and therefore this weighting is
           necessary in  order to maintain the integrity of projections of fleetwide fuel economy and
           CO2 emissions performance based on Trends data.  The 55% city/45% highway weighting is
           still used for both Fuel Economy and Environment Labels and the CAFE and GHG
           emissions compliance programs.

           Most current vehicles do not undergo full 5-cycle testing; instead manufacturers derive 5-
           cycle values from 2-cycle fuel economy test results (EPA Federal Test Procedure and Highway
           Fuel Economy Test) based  on the relationship between 2-cycle and 5-cycle fuel economy data
           for the industry as a whole. Beginning with MY 2011, manufacturers are required to
           evaluate whether the fuel economy estimates for certification vehicles from 5-cycle tests are
           comparable to results from the less resource-intensive "derived 5-cycle" method.  If the
           results are comparable, manufacturers can use the derived 5-cycle method for all vehicle
           models represented by the  certification vehicle. If the full 5-cycle method yields significantly
           lower fuel economy estimates than the derived 5-cycle method, then the manufacturer must
           use the full 5-cycle method for all models represented by the certification vehicle.

           For vehicles  that can use the derived 5-cycle method, the following equations are used to
           convert unadjusted, laboratory values for city and highway to adjusted values.
                                   ADJ CITY =
                                  ADJ HWY =
                                                               1.1805
                                                            *" LAB CITY
                                                            1
                                                (0.001376+ OTT5WY)
           As above, these values are weighted 43% city/57% highway in order to calculate a single,
           adjusted combined fuel economy value.
24 71 Federal Register 77883-77886 (December 27, 2006).
25 71 Federal Register 77904 (December 27, 2006).

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           For more details on the specific equations that allow an automaker to calculate new label
           values using either the vehicle-specific 5-cycle test data or the derived 5-cycle approach, and
           the impact of these changes on average fuel economy label values, see the preamble to the
           2006 regulations.26

           How much of a difference, on average, are the fuel economy values based on the derived 5-
           cycle method from the values based on the universal adjustment factors for MY 1975-1985?
           These derived 5-cycle method values are lower than values based on he universal adjustment
           factors, and the differences are greater for higher fuel economy vehicles than for lower fuel
           economy vehicles. For example, compared to the use of the universal adjustment factors for
           MY 1975-1985, a 15 mpg city value will be reduced by an additional 10%, while a 50 mpg
           city value will be reduced by an additional  18%. Likewise, a 20  mpg highway value will be
           reduced by an additional 7%, while a 50 mpg highway value will be reduced by an additional
           11%.  In the 2006 rulemaking, EPA projected an overall average fleetwide adjustment of
           11% lower for city fuel economy and 8% lower for highway fuel economy, beyond that in
           the older label adjustment methodology. The appropriate fleetwide factors to convert
           adjusted MY 1975-1985 fuel economy values to the adjusted derived 5-cycle, 43% city/57%
           highway weighting, fuel economy values are dependent on the city fuel economy-to-highway
           fuel economy ratios in the fleet. On average, for the current fleet, combining the 11% lower
           adjustment for city fuel economy, the 8% lower adjustment for highway fuel economy, and
           the shift to the 43%  city/57% highway weighting, the combined city/highway fuel economy
           values are 7% lower than those based on the  older label adjustment methodology. This 7%
           lower value is the average impact for a fleet with the mpg and city  fuel economy-to-highway
           fuel economy characteristics of the  current fleet, and would not be the appropriate value for
           individual models, partial fleet segments, or for past or future fleets with different mpg and
           city fuel economy-to-highway fuel economy distributions.

           Finally, manufacturers have the option of voluntarily using lower fuel economy label
           estimates than those resulting from the full 5-cycle or derived 5-cycle approaches discussed
           above.  In the rare cases where automakers choose to do so, we base adjusted values on these
           voluntary lower fuel  economy labels, again using the 43% city/57% highway weighting.

           For the MY 1986-2004 time frame, we calculated adjusted fuel economy values based on the
           simplifying assumption that the impacts of the factors that have led to lower real world fuel
           economy, as outlined in the  2006 rulemaking discussed above, have occurred in a gradual
           (i.e., linear) manner over the 20 years from 1986 through 2005. We did not attempt to
           perform a year-by-year analysis to determine the extent to which the many relevant factors
           (including higher highway speed limits, more aggressive driving, increasing vehicle
           horsepower-to-weight ratios,  suburbanization, congestion, greater use of air conditioning,
           gasoline composition, et al) that have affected real world fuel economy since 1985 have
           changed over time. We simply assumed  1/20 of the fully phased-in downward adjustment
           for city and highway values would be reflected in the 1986 data, 2/20 of this adjustment
26 71 Federal Register 77881-77893 (December 27, 2006).

-------
would be reflected in the 1987 data, etc., up to 19/20 of this adjustment in 2004 and the
full adjustment in 2005 and later years.  Likewise, EPA has assumed the 55/45 city/highway
weighting changes to a 43/57 city/highway weighting in a linear fashion over the 1986 to
2005 time period as well.

One consequence of the approaches used in this report is  that the ratio of the adjusted-to-
unadjusted fuel economy values have been, and will likely continue, changing over time. As
shown in Table 9.1, the adjusted-to-unadjusted fuel economy ratio is around 0.85 for MY
1975-1985 data, and decreased during the phase-in period from MY 1986-2004, and has
been approximately 0.80 since MY 2005. The ratio is 0.79 in MY 2012, and is projected to
remain at 0.79 in MY 2013.
Illustrative Example of Multiple Fuel Economy Metrics and Values for One Vehicle

One potentially confusing element of any discussion of historical fuel economy values is the
various metrics by which fuel economy can be expressed. As an illustration to help the
reader understand the various fuel economy values that can be associated with an individual
vehicle, Table  10.2 shows four different ways to express the fuel economy of the MY 2005
Honda Insight.

Unadjusted, laboratory city and highway fuel economy values are direct fuel economy
measurements from the formal EPA 2-cycle city (Federal Test Procedure, or urban commute)
and highway laboratory tests. These values form the basis for automaker compliance with
CAFE standards, and are harmonically averaged, and weighted 55% city and 45% highway,
to generate a combined value. The 2005 Honda Insight had an unadjusted city value of 68
mpg, an unadjusted highway value of 84 mpg, and an unadjusted combined value of 74
mpg.

At the time, the MY 2005 Honda Insight had an original city label value of 61 mpg, which
was calculated by multiplying its unadjusted city test value of 68 mpg by 0.9. Likewise, its
original highway value was 66 mpg, calculated by multiplying  its unadjusted highway test
value of 84 mpg by 0.78.  Harmonically averaging these values, with a 55% city/45%
highway weighting, led to a combined original MY 2005 label value of 63 mpg.

Today, as a used car, the 2005 Honda Insight would have lower label values based on the 5-
cycle method (reflecting, in addition to 2-cycle urban commuting and rural highway
operation, additional conditions such as high speed/high acceleration, high temperature/air
conditioning, and cold temperature operation) for determining city and highway values, first
implemented in MY 2008, and discussed in the previous sub-section. For the 2005 Insight,
the 5-cycle method yields a city label value of 48 mpg and a highway value of 58 mpg.
Today's labels  continue to use a 55% city/45% highway weighting, and the harmonically
averaged, 55% city/45% highway weighted, combined value for the 2005 Insight is 52 mpg.

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          These current label values, based on the 5-cycle methodology, are considerably lower than
          the original label values.

          Finally, for the MY 2005 Honda Insight, this Trends report uses the adjusted fuel economy
          methodology discussed in the previous sub-section, that is used in the Trends report for all
          vehicles beginning in MY 2005. The adjusted Trends city and highway values are the same
          as those for the current label, since both the current label and the adjusted Trends approach
          use the same 5-cycle methodology. But, the adjusted Trends approach uses a city/highway
          weighting of 43% city/57% highway to best correlate with the driving activity studies
          underlying the 5-cycle methodology. This different city/highway weighting leads to a 53 mpg
          combined value, slightly higher than the 52 mpg combined value for the current label.

Table 10.2
Four Different Fuel Economy Metrics for the MY 2005 Honda Insight
Fuel Economy Metric
Unadjusted, Laboratory
Original MY 2005 Label
Current Label
Adjusted Trends
Fuel Economy Value (MPG)
Comb City
74 68
63 61
52 48
53 48
Hwy
84
66
58
58
Basis
Unadjusted 2-cycle city and highway test values
City test x 0.9
Highway test x 0.78
Adjusted 5-cycle methodology
Adjusted 5-cycle methodology
City/Highway Weighting
55%/45%
55%/45%
55%/45%
43%/57%
          D. OTHER DATABASE METHODOLOGY ISSUES

          CO2 Emissions Data and Approximating "Missing" CO2 Values

          CO2 emissions data were added to the entire historical Trends database beginning with the
          2009 report.  CO2 emissions values are calculated from corresponding fuel economy values
          using the fuel-specific emissions factors described below.

          While CO2 emissions data is included in several key summary tables and figures in the
          report, there are many tables and figures that present fuel economy values but not CO2
          emissions values. This section provides a simple method that a reader can use to estimate
          CO2 emissions values from any fuel economy value in the report.

          If a fuel economy value is given for a single gasoline vehicle, or a 100% gasoline vehicle fleet,
          one can calculate the corresponding CO2 emissions value by simply dividing 8887 (which is
          a typical value for the grams of CO2 per gallon of gasoline test fuel, assuming all the carbon
          is converted to CO2) by the fuel economy value in miles per gallon. For example, 8887
          divided by  a gasoline vehicle  fuel economy of 30 mpg would yield an equivalent CO2
          emissions value of 296 grams per mile. This is the methodology used to generate the

-------
adjusted CO2 emissions values for all of the gasoline vehicles in the Trends database.

Since gasoline vehicle production has accounted for 99+% of all light-duty vehicle
production for most of the model years since 1975, this simple approach yields very accurate
results for most model years.

Diesel fuel has 14.5% higher carbon content per gallon than gasoline.  To calculate a CO2
equivalent value for a diesel vehicle, one should divide 10,180 by the diesel vehicle fuel
economy value.  Accordingly, a 30 mpg diesel vehicle would have a CO2 equivalent value of
339 grams per mile.  This is the methodology used to generate the adjusted CO2 emissions
values for the relatively small number of diesel vehicles in the Trends database.

To make the most accurate conversions of industry-wide fuel economy values to CO2
emissions values, readers should divide model year-specific industry-wide values for grams of
CO2 per gallon in Table 10.3, which are based on actual light-duty gasoline and diesel
vehicle production in that year, by industry-wide fuel economy values in miles per gallon.

Readers must make judgment calls about how to best convert fuel economy values that do
not represent industry-wide values (e.g., just cars or vehicles with 5-speed automatic
transmissions).  If the user knows the gasoline/diesel production volume fractions for the
vehicles of interest, it is best to generate a weighted value of grams of CO2 per gallon based
on the 8887 (gasoline) and 10,180 (diesel) factors discussed above. Otherwise, the reader
can choose between the model year-specific CO2 emissions per gallon weightings in Table
10.3 (which implicitly assume that the diesel fraction for the vehicles of interest is similar to
that for the overall fleet in that year) or the gasoline value of 8887 (implicitly assuming no
diesels in that database component). In nearly all cases, any error associated with either of
these approaches will be negligible.

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Table 10.3
Factors for Converting Industry-wide Fuel Economy Values from this Report to Carbon Dioxide
Emissions Values
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013

Gasoline
Production Share
99.8%
99.8%
99.6%
99.1%
98.0%
95.7%
94.1%
94.4%
97.3%
98.2%
99.1%
99.6%
99.7%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.8%
99.8%
99.9%
99.7%
99.6%
99.9%
99.9%
99.5%
99.3%
99.2%
99.1%
99.1%

Diesel
Production Share
0.2%
0.2%
0.4%
0.9%
2.0%
4.3%
5.9%
5.6%
2.7%
1.8%
0.9%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
-
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.3%
0.4%
0.1%
0.1%
0.5%
0.7%
0.8%
0.9%


Weighted CO2 per
Gallon (grams)
8890
8890
8892
8899
8913
8943
8963
8959
8922
8910
8899
8892
8891
8888
8888
8888
8888
8888
8887
8887
8887
8888
8888
8888
8888
8888
8888
8890
8890
8888
8891
8892
8888
8888
8893
8896
8897
8899
8899
Changes in Car-Truck Classification Definitions

Car-truck definitions through the 2010 report were based EPA's engineering judgment.
Until recently, EPA and NHTSA had slightly different regulatory definitions for car-truck
classifications with respect to health-related emissions and fuel economy, respectively, and

-------
the Trends report followed a third approach, though in practice there was broad (though not
universal) agreement among the three approaches.

Beginning with the 2011 report, Trends car-truck classifications followed current regulatory
definitions used by both EPA and NHTSA for CO2 emissions and fuel economy standards.
See definitions for passenger automobiles (cars) and non-passenger automobiles (trucks) later
in this section. These current definitions differ from those used in older versions of this
report, and reflect a decision by NHTSA to reclassify many small, 2-wheel drive, sport utility
vehicles (SUVs) from the truck category to the car category, beginning with MY 2011. When
this re-classification was initiated in the 2011 report, the absolute truck share decreased by
approximately 10%.

The current car-truck definitions have been "propagated back" throughout the entire
historical Trends database to maintain the integrity of long-term trends of car and truck
production share. Since we did not have all of the requisite technical information on which
to make retroactive car-truck classifications, we used engineering judgment to classify past
models.
Inclusion of Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles

Beginning with the 2011 report, medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs), those SUVs and
passenger vans (but, not pickup trucks) with gross vehicle weight ratings between 8500 and
10,000 pounds, are included in the light-duty truck category. This coincided with new
regulations by NHTSA to treat these vehicles as light-duty, rather than heavy-duty, vehicles
beginning in MY 2011. This represents a minor change to the database, since the number
of MDPVs is much smaller than it once was (e.g., only 6500 MDPVs were sold in MY 2012).
It should be noted that this is one change to the database that has not been "propagated
back" through the historic database, as we do not have MDPV data prior to MY  2011.
Accordingly, this represents a small inflection point for the database-for the overall car and
truck fleet in MY 2011, the inclusion of MDPVs decreased average adjusted fuel economy by
0.01 mpg and increased average adjusted CO2 emissions by 0.3 g/mi, compared  to the fleet
without MDPVs. The impacts on the truck fleet only were about twice as high, but still very
small in absolute terms.
E. COMPARISON OF PRELIMINARY AND FINAL FLEETWIDE
FUEL ECONOMY VALUES
In recent years, the data for the last model year included in each report has been preliminary
(i.e., based on projected vehicle production volumes provided by automakers prior to the
beginning of the model year), while the data for all other model years has been final. This

-------
          leads to the logical question, how accurate have the preliminary projections been?
          Table 10.4 compares the preliminary and final fleetwide fuel economy values for recent years
          (note that the differences for CO2 emissions data would be similar, on a percentage basis).

          For the adjusted fuel economy data, values are only shown beginning in MY 2007, as final
          adjusted values in this report reflect the revised methodology for calculating adjusted fuel
          economy values beginning with the 2007 report and therefore the comparable preliminary
          values prior to MY 2007 would not reflect an apples-to-apples comparison.  Since MY 2007,
          the final adjusted fuel economy values have typically been a little higher than the preliminary
          adjusted fuel economy values. The major exceptions have been MY 2009, when the final
          value was  1.3 mpg higher, and MY 2011, when the final value was 0.4 mpg lower.

          Comparative unadjusted fuel economy data are shown back to MY 2000. For a majority of
          the years, the final unadjusted  fuel economy values have been higher than the preliminary
          fuel economy values, and typically the final value is within 0.5 mpg of the preliminary value.
          As with the adjusted data, the biggest outlier was MY 2009, when the final unadjusted value
          was 1.8 mpg higher than the preliminary value. There was considerable market turmoil in
          MY 2009 driven by the  economic recession.

Table 10.4
Comparison of Preliminary and Final Adjusted and Unadjusted Fuel Economy Values: Both Cars and
Trucks
Model
Year
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Adjusted Fuel Economy (MPG)
Preliminary
Value
-
-
-




20.2
20.8
21.1
22.5
22.8
23.8
24.0
Final
Value
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20.6
21.0
22.4
22.6
22.4
23.6
-
Final Minus
Preliminary
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+0.4
+0.2
+1.3
+0.1
-0.4
-0.2
-
Unadjusted Fuel Economy (MPG)
Preliminary
Value
24.0
23.9
24.0
24.4
24.4
24.6
24.6
25.3
26.0
26.4
28.3
28.6
30.0
30.3
Final
Value
24.3
24.2
24.1
24.3
24.0
24.8
25.2
25.8
26.3
28.2
28.4
28.1
29.8
-
Final Minus
Preliminary
+0.3
+0.3
+0.1
-0.1
-0.4
+0.2
+0.6
+0.5
+0.3
+1.8
+0.1
-0.5
-0.2
-

-------
F. DEFINITIONS AND ACRONYMS

Electric vehicle (EV) means a motor vehicle that is powered solely by an electric motor
drawing current from a rechargeable energy storage system, such as from storage batteries or
other portable electrical energy storage devices. For the Trends report, electric vehicles do
not generally include fuel cell vehicles.
Flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) means any motor vehicle engineered and designed to be operated
on a petroleum fuel and  on a methanol or ethanol fuel, or any mixture of the petroleum fuel
and methanol or ethanol. Methanol-fueled and ethanol-fueled vehicles that are only
marginally functional when using gasoline ( e.g., the engine has a drop in rated horsepower
of more than 80 percent) are not flexible fuel vehicles.

Footprint means the product of average track width (rounded to the nearest tenth of an
inch) and wheelbase (measured in inches and rounded to the nearest tenth of an inch),
divided by 144 and then rounded to the nearest tenth of a square foot, where the average
track width is the average of the front and  rear track widths, where each is measured in
inches  and rounded to the nearest tenth of an inch.

Fuel cell vehicle (FCV) means an electric vehicle propelled solely by an electric motor where
energy  for the motor is supplied by an electrochemical cell that produces electricity via the
non-combustion reaction of a consumable fuel, typically hydrogen.

Gasoline gallon equivalent means an amount of electricity or fuel with the energy
equivalence of one gallon of gasoline. For purposes of the  Trends report, one gallon of
gasoline is equivalent to 33.705 kilowatt-hours of electricity or 121.5 standard cubic feet of
natural gas.

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) means a motor vehicle which draws propulsion energy from
onboard  sources of stored energy that are both an internal combustion engine or heat
engine  using consumable fuel, and a rechargeable energy storage system such as a battery,
capacitor, hydraulic accumulator, or flywheel, where recharge energy for the energy storage
system  comes solely from sources on board the vehicle.

Light Truck means an automobile that is not a car or a work truck and includes vehicles
described in paragraphs (a) and (b) below:
     (a) An automobile designed to perform at least one of the following functions:
       (1) Transport more than 10 persons;
       (2) Provide temporary living quarters;
       (3) Transport property on an open bed;
       (4) Provide, as sold to the first retail purchaser,  greater cargo-carrying than passenger-
       carrying volume,  such as in a cargo van; if a vehicle is sold with a second-row seat, its
       cargo-carrying volume is determined with that seat installed, regardless of whether
       the manufacturer has described that seat as optional; or
       (5) Permit expanded use of the automobile for cargo-carrying purposes or other

-------
       nonpassenger-carrying purposes through:
            (i) For non-passenger automobiles manufactured in model year 2008 and
           beyond, for vehicles equipped with at least 3 rows of designated seating positions
           as standard equipment, permit expanded use of the automobile for cargo-
           carrying purposes or other nonpassenger-carrying purposes through the removal
           or stowing of foldable or pivoting seats so as to create a flat, leveled cargo surface
           extending from the forwardmost point of installation of those seats to the rear of
           the automobile's interior.
     (b) An automobile capable of off-highway operation, as indicated by the fact that it:
       (l)(i) Has 4-wheel drive; or
           (ii) Is rated at more than 6000 pounds gross vehicle weight; and
       (2) Has at least four of the following characteristics calculated when the automobile
       is at curb weight, on a level surface, with the front wheels parallel to the automobile's
       longitudinal centerline, and the tires inflated to the manufacturer's recommended
       pressure—
           (i) Approach angle of not less than 28 degrees.
           (ii) Breakover angle of not less than 14 degrees.
           (iii) Departure  angle of not less than 20 degrees.
           (iv) Running clearance of not less than 20 centimeters.
           (v) Front and rear axle clearances of not less than 18 centimeters each.
     * Please see Section  10. C for Changes in Car-Truck Classification Definitions over time.

Minivan means a light truck which is designed primarily to carry no more than eight
passengers, having an integral enclosure fully enclosing the driver, passenger, and load-
carrying compartments, and rear seats readily removed, folded, stowed, or pivoted to
facilitate cargo carrying. A minivan typically includes one or more sliding doors and a rear
liftgate. Minivans typically have less total interior volume or overall height than full sized
vans and are commonly advertised and marketed as "minivans."

Mpg means miles per gallon.

Mpge means miles per gasoline gallon equivalent (see gasoline gallon equivalent above).

Pickup truck means a light truck which has a passenger compartment and an open cargo
bed.

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) means a hybrid electric vehicle that has the capability
to charge the battery from an off-vehicle electric source, such  that the off-vehicle source
cannot be connected to the vehicle while the vehicle is in motion.

Special purpose vehicles means automobiles with GVWR less than or equal to 8,500
pounds and medium-duty passenger vehicles which possess special features and which the
Administrator determines are more appropriately classified separately from typical
automobiles.
  *For purposes of the Trends report, we used engineering judgment  to allocate the very small number of
vehicles, labeled as special purpose vehicles at fuel economy.gov, to the three truck types: truck S UV,

-------
van/minivan, or truck

Sport utility vehicle (SUV) means a light truck with an extended roof line to increase cargo
or passenger capacity, cargo compartment open to the passenger compartment, and one or
more rear seats readily removed or folded to facilitate cargo carrying. Generally, 2-wheel
drive SUVs equal to or less than 6000 Ibs GVWR are passenger cars for CAFE and GHG
standards compliance, but continue to be labeled as SUVs.

Station wagon means cars with an extended roof line to increase cargo or passenger capacity,
cargo compartment open to the passenger compartment, a tailgate, and one or more rear
seats readily removed or folded to facilitate cargo carrying.

Track width -means the lateral distance between the centerlines of the base tires at ground,
including the camber angle.

Van means any light truck having an integral enclosure fully enclosing the driver
compartment and load carrying compartment. The  distance from the leading edge of the
windshield to the foremost body section of vans is typically shorter than that of pickup
trucks and SUVs.

Wheelbase is the longitudinal distance between front and rear wheel centerlines.


G. LINKS FOR MORE INFORMATION

This report, Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy
Trends: 1975 through2013 (EPA-420-R-13-011) is available on the EPA's Office of
Transportation and Air Quality's (OTAQ) web site  at: epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm. The
Executive Summary of this report (EPA-420-S-13-002) is available at the same we site.

A copy of the Fuel Economy Guide giving city and highway fuel economy data for individual
models is available at: fueleconomy.gov or by calling the U.S. Department of Energy at (800)
423-1363.

The website fueleconomy.gov provides fuel economy and environmental information for
vehicles from model year 1984 through the present. The site has many tools that allow users
to search for vehicles and find information on vehicle fuel economy, fuel consumption,
estimated annual fuel cost, and CO2 emissions.  The site also allows users to personalize fuel
economy and fueling cost estimates based on personalized inputs for fuel cost, annual
mileage, and percentage of city versus highway driving.

EPA's Green Vehicle Guide (epa.gov/greenvehicles) is designed to help car buyers
identify the cleanest, most fuel-efficient vehicle that meets their needs.  The site
includes information on SmartWay certified vehicles, how advanced technology vehicles
work, and infographics and videos that provide tips on saving money and reducing

-------
emissions through smarter vehicle choices.

For detailed information about EPA's GHG emissions standards for motor vehicles, see:
epa.gov/otaq/climate/regulations.htm.

For detailed information about DOT's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program,
including a program overview, related rulemaking activities, and summaries of the formal
CAFE performance of individual manufacturers since 1978, see: nhtsa.dot.gov/fuel-
economy.
For more information about the EPA/Department of Transportation (DOT) Fuel Economy
and Environment Labels, see: epa.gov/otaq/carlabel.
H. AUTHORS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors of this year's Trends report are Jeff Alson, Aaron Hula, and Amy Bunker, all of
whom work for the EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality's (OTAQ) Transportation
and Climate Division, at the National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor,
Michigan.  Colleagues from OTAQ's Compliance Division, including Karen Danzeisen,
Robert Peavyhouse, and Rob French provided critical access and expertise pertaining to the
formal VERIFY data that comprise the Trends database. OTAQ colleagues William
Charmley,  Kevin Bolon, Andrew Moskalik, and Sarah Froman also provided helpful review
comments. The authors also want to thank Gwen Dietrich and David Levin of OTAQ for
greatly improving the design and layout of the report.  SRA International, under contract to
OTAQ (contract number EP-C-11-007), provided key support for database maintenance, and
table and figure generation, but the EPA authors take full responsibility for  the content and
any errors.

The authors also want to acknowledge those OTAQ staff who played key roles in creating
and maintaining the Trends database and report since its inception in the early 1970s. Karl
Hellman, who conceived of and developed the initial Trends reports with Thomas Austin in
the early 1970s, was the guiding force behind the Trends report for over 30  years. The late
Dill Murrell made significant contributions from the late 1970s through the early 1990s, and
Robert Heavenrich was a lead author from the early 1980s through 2006.

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                References
Historic Trends Reports
         1.  "U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy and Emission Control,"
         November 1972.

         2.  "Passenger Car Fuel Economy - Trends and Influencing Factors," SAE Paper 730790,
         Austin and Hellman, September 1973.

         3.  "Fuel Economy of the 1975 Models," SAE Paper 740970, Austin and Hellman, October
         1974.

         4.  "Passenger Car Fuel Economy Trends Through 1976," SAE Paper 750957, Austin and
         Service, October 1975.

         5.  "Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1977," SAE Paper 760795,
         Murrell, Pace, Service, and Yeager, October 1976.

         6.  "Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1978," SAE Paper 780036,
         Murrell, February  1978.

         7.  "Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1979," SAE Paper 790225,
         Murrell, February  1979.

         8.  "Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1980," SAE Paper 800853,
         Murrell, Foster and Bristor, June 1980.

         9.  "Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1981," SAE Paper 810386,
         Foster, Murrell and Loos, February 1981.

         10. "Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1982," SAE Paper 820300,
         Cheng, LeBaron, Murrell, and Loos, February 1982.

         11. "Why Vehicles Don't Achieve EPA MPG On the Road and How That Shortfall Can Be
         Accounted For," SAE Paper 820791, Hellman  and Murrell, June 1982.

         12. "Light-Duty Automobile Fuel Economy Trends through 1983," SAE Paper 830544,
         Murrell, Loos, Heavenrich, and Cheng, February 1983.

         13. "Passenger Car Fuel Economy - Trends Through 1984," SAE Paper 840499,
         Heavenrich, Murrell, Cheng, and Loos, February 1984.

         14. "Light Truck Fuel Economy - Trends through 1984," SAE Paper 841405, Loos, Cheng,
         Murrell and  Heavenrich, October 1984.

-------
15.  "Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy - Trends Through 1985," SAE Paper 850550,
Heavenrich, Murrell, Cheng, and Loos, March 1985.

16.  "Light-Duty Automotive Trends Through 1986," SAE Paper 860366, Heavenrich,
Cheng, and Murrell, February 1986.

17.  "Trends in Alternate Measures of Vehicle Fuel Economy," SAE Paper 861426, Hellman
and Murrell, September 1986.

18.  "Light-Duty Automotive Trends Through 1987," SAE Paper 871088, Heavenrich,
Murrell, and Cheng, May 1987.

19.  "Light-Duty Automotive Trends Through 1988," U.S. EPA, EPA/AA/CTAB/88-07,
Heavenrich and Murrell, June 1988.

20.  "Light-Duty Automotive and Technology Trends Through 1989," U.S. EPA,
EPA/AA/CTAB/89-04, Heavenrich, Murrell, and Hellman, May 1989.

21.  "Downward Trend in Passenger Car Fuel Economy-A View of Recent Data," U.S. EPA,
EPA/AA/CTAB/90-01, Murrell and Heavenrich, January 1990.

22.  "Options for Controlling the Global Warming Impact from Motor Vehicles," U.S. EPA,
EPA/AA/CTAB/89-08, Heavenrich, Murrell, and Hellman, December 1989.

23.  "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends through 1990," U.S.
EPA, EPA/AA/CTAB/90-03, Heavenrich and Murrell, June 1990.

24.  "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends through 1991," U.S.
EPA/AA/CTAB/91-02, Heavenrich, Murrell, and Hellman, May 1991.

25.  "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends through 1993," U.S.
EPA/AA/TDG/93-01, Murrell, Hellman, and Heavenrich, May 1993.

26.  "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends through 1996," U.S.
EPA/AA/TDSG/96-01, Heavenrich and Hellman, July 1996.

27.  "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends through 1999," U.S.
EPA420-R-99-018, Heavenrich and Hellman, September 1999.

28. "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2000,"
U.S. EPA420-R-00-008, Heavenrich and Hellman, December 2000.

29.  "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2001,"
U.S. EPA420-R-01-008, Heavenrich and Hellman, September 2001.

30.  "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2003,"

-------
U.S. EPA420-R-03-006, Heavenrich and Hellman, April 2003.

31. "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2004,"
U.S. EPA420-R-04-001, Heavenrich and Hellman, April 2004.

32. "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2005,"
U.S. EPA420-R-05-001, Robert M. Heavenrich, July 2005.

33. "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2006,"
U.S. EPA420-R-06-011, Robert M. Heavenrich, July 2006.

34. "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through  2007,"
U.S. EPA420-S-07-001, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, September 2007.

35. "Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through  2008,"
U.S. EPA420-R-08-015, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, September 2008.

36. "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy
Trends:  1975 Through 2009," U.S. EPA420-R-09-014, Office of Transportation and Air
Quality,  November 2009.

37. "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy
Trends:  1975 Through 2010," U.S. EPA-420-R-10-023, Office of Transportation and Air
Quality,  November 2010.

38. "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy
Trends:  1975 Through 2011," U.S. EPA-420-R-12-001, Office of Transportation and Air
Quality,  March 2012.

39. "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy
Trends:  1975 Through 2012," U.S. EPA-420-R-13-001, Office of Transportation and Air
Quality,  March 2013.

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Amann, Charles A. (1989).The automotive engine -- a future perspective. SAE, Paper 891666.
Argonne National Laboratory (2012). GREET web site, http://greet.es.anl.gov/ last accessed October 2012.

Argonne National Laboratory (2013). Vehicle technology deployment pathways: An examination of timing and
       investment constraints. U.S. Department of Energy Transportation Energy Futures Series, March 2013.

Department of Transportation and Environmental Protection Agency (2012). 2017 and later model year light-
       duty vehicle greenhouse gas emissions and corporate average fuel economy standards; Final rule." 77
       Federal Register, 62623-63200 (October 15, 2012).

Environmental Protection Agency (1984). Fuel economy of motor vehicles; Revisions to improve fuel economy
       labeling and the fuel economy data base. 49 Federal Register, 13832-13855 (April 6, 1984).

Environmental Protection Agency (2006).Fuel economy labeling of motor Vehicles; Revisions to improve
       calculation of fuel economy estimates; Final rule." 71 Federal Register, 77871-77969 (December 27,
       2006).

Environmental Protection Agency (2010). Regulation of fuels and fuel additives: Changes to renewable fuel
       standard program; Final rule. 75 Federal Register,  14669-15320 (March 26, 2010).

MacKenzie, D., Heywood, J. (2012). Acceleration performance trends and the evolving relationship among
       power, weight, and acceleration in U.S. light-duty vehicles: A linear regression analysis. Transportation
       Research Board, Paper No. 12-1475, TRB 91st Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 2012.

Malliaris, A.C., Hsia, H., and Gould, H. (1976). Concise description of auto fuel economy and performance in
       recent model years.  SAE, Paper 760045.

SAE (2010). Utility factor definitions for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using travel survey data. SAE J2841,
       September 2010.

Santini, Danilo J. and Anderson, John (1993). Determinates of multiple measures of acceleration. SAE, Paper
       931805.

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       cng-civic.

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       (eGRID2012) technical support document, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
       Washington, DC, April 2012.

Wards Automotive, 1996 - 2008 Annual Databooks.
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       September 1991.

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       Passenger. Cars - Electronic and Electrical. Systems, 5(2):541-552, 2012.

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                                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                                       Appendix A: Vehicles with Lowest and Highest Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Economy by Model Year
Rank
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Manufacturer
GM
Jaguar Land Rover
BMW
Chrysler-Fiat
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Peugeot
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
VW
VW
VW
VW
Aston Martin
Vector
Vector
Vector
VW
Chrysler-Fiat
VW
VW
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
VW
Chrysler-Fiat
VW
VW
VW
VW
VW
VW
VW
Chrysler-Fiat
VW
VW
Model Name
TORONADO
JENSEN
ROLLS ROYCE/
MONACO
ASTON MARTIN V8
7 9 ASTON MARTIN
604
QUATTROPORTE
QUATTROPORTE
QUATTROPORTE
QUATTROPORTE
COUNTACH
COUNTACH
COUNTACH
COUNTACH
LAG
VECTOR W8
VECTOR W8
VECTOR W8
DB132/DIABLO
FERRARI F50
AVTECHSC - Ml 2
DB132-144- DIABLO
FERRARI 550 MARANELLO
FERRARI 550 MARANELLO
FERRARI 550 MARANELLO
FERRARI 550 MARANELLO-BARCHE
L-147 MURCIELAGO
ENZO FERRARI
L-l 47-148 MURCIELAGO
L-l 47-148 MURCIELAGO
VEYRON
L-l 47-148 MURCIELAGO
VEYRON
MURCIELAGO ROADSTER
Veyron
Ferrari 61 2 SCAGLIETTI
Veyron
Veyron
Vehicle Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Inertia
Weight
5500
4500
5500
5000
4500
4500
3500
5000
5000
5000
5000
3500
3500
3500
3500
5000
4000
4000
4000
4000
3000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
3500
4000
4000
4500
4000
4500
4000
4500
4500
4500
4500
Drive
Front
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
4wd
Rear
Rear
4wd
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
4wd
Rear
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
Rear
4wd
4wd
Transmission
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Manual
Manual
Automatic
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Automatic with Lockup
Manual
Manual
Automatic with Lockup
Manual
Automatic with Lockup
Manual
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic with Lockup
Gears

3

3
5
5
3
3
3
3
3
5
5
5
5
3
3
3
3
5
6
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
6
7
7
Fuel
Delivery
Carb
Garb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Port
Port
Port
TBI
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
HP
175
250
170
240
60
275
132
288
288
288
288
420
420
420
420
240
450
450
450
492
510
492
492
475
475
475
475
580
646
580
580
1001
631
1001
631
1001
532
1200
1200
cro
455
440
412
440
326
326
174
301
301
301
301
315
315
315
315
326
365
365
365
348
287
348
348
334
334
334
334
378
366
378
378
488
396
488
396
488
348
488
488
Fuel Economy (MPG)
City
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.3
7.6
7.6
3.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
6.8
6.8
6.8
6.8
9.3
8.2
8.2
8.2
10.4
8.4
9.9
10.2
10.1
10.0
9.4
9.4
10.1
8.4
10.1
10.1
9.4
10.1
9.5
10.1
9.5
11.5
10.0
10.0
Hwy
12.1
12.8
11.4
11.2
12.4
12.4
7.7
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
13.4
13.4
13.4
13.4
13.9
13.7
13.7
13.7
18.1
14.1
16.2
18.1
18.9
18.0
16.7
16.7
16.3
15.8
17.1
17.1
18.9
17.5
17.8
17.5
17.8
21.8
17.9
17.9
Comb
9.8
10.1
9.7
9.4
9.2
9.2
5.0
9.9
9.9
9.9
9.9
8.7
8.7
8.7
8.7
10.9
10.0
10.0
10.0
12.8
10.3
12.0
12.7
12.8
12.5
11.7
11.7
12.2
10.7
12.4
12.4
12.1
12.5
12.0
12.5
12.0
14.6
12.5
12.5
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                               A-l
December 2013

-------
                                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                                       Appendix A: Vehicles with Lowest and Highest Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Economy by Model Year
Rank
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1985
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
1999
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Manufacturer
Honda
Honda
Honda
VW
VW
VW
VW
VW
Nissan
Honda
Suzuki
GM
GM
GM
GM
GM
Honda
GM
GM
GM
GM
GM
Honda
Suzuki
GM
GM
VW
VW
VW
Honda
Honda
Honda
Honda
Honda
Honda
Honda
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Model Name
CIVIC CVCC
CIVIC CVCC
CIVIC CVCC
RABBIT
RABBIT
RABBIT
RABBIT
RABBIT
NISSAN SENTRA
CIVIC COUPE
SA310
SPRINT
FIREFLY
SPRINT ER
SPRINT ER
SPRINT METRO
CIVIC CRX
METRO XFI
METRO XFI
METRO XFi
METRO XFi
METRO XFi
CIVIC HB VX
SWIFT
METRO
METRO
NEW IETTA
NEW GOLF
NEW BEETLE
INSIGHT
INSIGHT
INSIGHT
INSIGHT
INSIGHT
INSIGHT
INSIGHT
PRIUS
PRIUS
PRIUS
PRIUS
PRIUS
PRIUS
PRIUS c
Vehicle Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Inertia
Weight
2000
2000
2000
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2000
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
2000
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
2250
2000
2000
2000
3000
3000
3000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
3000
3000
3000
3500
3500
3500
2750
Drive
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Front
Transmission
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
Gears
5
3

4
5
5
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Fuel
Delivery
Carb
Garb
Carb
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Port
TBI
TBI
TBI
TBI
TBI
Port
TBI
TBI
TBI
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
HP
52
60
60
48
48
48
52
52
55
60
48
48
48
46
46
46
62
49
55
55
55
55
91
55
55
55
90
90
90
67
67
67
67
67
73
73
76
76
76
98
98
98
72
cro
90
91
91
90
90
90
97
97
103
82
61
61
61
61
61
61
91
61
61
61
61
61
91
61
61
60
116
116
116
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
91
91
91
110
110
109.7
91.35
Fuel Economy (MPG)
City
28.2
31.6
39.7
39.1
40.8
41.9
42.1
45.4
48.2
50.8
52.7
52.7
52.7
61.5
59.7
59.7
55.2
59.1
59.1
59.1
59.1
60.0
51.7
49.5
48.9
47.5
46.3
46.3
46.3
68.3
67.7
67.7
67.4
67.1
67.7
67.0
66.6
66.6
66.6
71.9
72.1
72.0
71.8
Hwy
42.3
42.8
51.6
52.2
54.6
56.5
58.2
57.8
61.3
65.7
67.5
67.5
67.5
76.4
74.5
74.5
70.6
74.8
74.7
74.8
74.8
74.7
72.0
63.1
63.2
63.5
62.8
62.8
62.8
89.4
88.1
87.2
87.2
84.1
84.4
84.2
64.8
64.8
64.8
69.6
69.7
69.7
69.6
Comb
33.2
35.8
44.3
44.1
46.0
47.4
48.1
50.2
53.4
56.5
58.5
58.5
58.5
67.4
65.6
65.6
61.2
65.3
65.3
65.3
65.3
65.8
59.2
54.8
54.4
53.6
52.5
52.5
52.5
76.4
75.6
75.3
75.1
73.8
74.3
73.8
65.8
65.8
65.8
70.8
71.0
71.0
70.8
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                               A-2
December 2013

-------
                                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                                       Appendix A: Vehicles with Lowest and Highest Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Economy by Model Year
Rank
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1982
1982
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1996
1997
1997
1998
1999
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Manufacturer
Ford
GM
Toyota
GM
GM
Ford
GM
Chrysler-Fiat
GM
GM
GM
GM
Ford
Chrysler-Fiat
Ford
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
GM
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
GM
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
GM
Chrysler-Fiat
GM
GM
GM
Chrysler-Fiat
Chrysler-Fiat
Ford
Daimler
Daimler
Daimler
Ford
Ford
Ford
Model Name
FORD F-250
CHEV P20 STEP
LAND CRUISER WAG
CHEV C20 SUBN
GMC C2500 SUBN
PICKUP
CAB CHAS.
B250 VAN CONVERS
G30 SPRTVN 2WD
G35 SPRTVN 2WD
G35 SPRTVN 2WD
G30 SPRTVN 2WD
E250 ECONOLINE 2
B350 WAGON 2WD
E250 ECONOLINE 2
B350 WAGON 2WD
AW1 50 RAMCHARGER
W100/W1 50 PICKUP
W250 PICKUP 4WD
B350 WAGON 2WD
C1500P/U2WD
W250 PICKUP 4WD
W250 PICKUP 4WD
W250 PICKUP 4WD
C1500P/U2WD
B150/B250 WAGON
B3500 WAGON 2WD
RAM 1500 PICKUP 4WD
RAM 2500 PICKUP 4WD
B3500 WAGON 2WD
B3500 WAGON_2WD
RAM 1500 PICKUP 4WD
RAM 1500 PICKUP 4WD
DURANGO 4WD
RAM 1500_PICKUP_4WD
K1500 SIERRA 4WD
RAM 1500 PICKUP 4WD
Gl 500-2500 CHEVY VAN 2WD
Gl 500-2500 SAVANA 2WD CARGO
Gl 500-2500 CHEVY VAN 2WD
RAM 1 500 PICKUP 2WD
RAM 1 500 PICKUP 2WD
STAGES F150 SUPERCREW 4WD
G55AMG
ML63AMG
ML63AMG
E350 WAGON
E350 WAGON
E350 WAGON
Vehicle Type
Pickup
Van
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Pickup
Pickup
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Truck SUV
Pickup
Pickup
Van
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Van
Van
Pickup
Pickup
Van
Van
Pickup
Pickup
Truck SUV
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Van
Van
Van
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Van
Van
Van
Inertia
Weight
5000
6500
4500
5500
5500
5500
6000
5500
5500
6000
5500
6000
5500
5500
5500
5500
5000
5000
5000
5500
4500
5500
5000
5500
4500
5500
5500
5500
5500
6000
5500
6000
5000
5000
6000
5500
5500
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6500
6000
5500
5500
7000
7000
7000
Drive
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
4wd
4wd
4wd
Rear
Rear
4wd
4wd
4wd
Rear
Rear
Rear
4wd
4wd
Rear
Rear
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
Rear
Rear
Rear
Transmission
Automatic
Automatic
Manual
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Automatic
Manual
Manual
Manual
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Gears





3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
7
7
5
5
5
Fuel
Delivery
Carb
Garb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
Carb
TBI
TBI
TBI
TBI
TBI
TBI
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
HP
150
245
125
185
185
270
155
170
165
165
165
165
143
175
154
170
175
175
175
145
230
190
203
203
255
230
230
230
230
230
230
235
245
245
230
300
245
300
300
300
500
500
445
493
503
503
305
305
305
cro
360
454
258
454
454
460
350
360
350
350
350
350
351
360
351
360
360
360
360
360
454
360
360
360
454
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
360
318
364
360
364
412
412
505
505
330
332
379
384
415
415
415
Fuel Economy (MPG)
City
8.4
8.1
8.2
8.9
8.9
9.0
9.0
9.9
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.9
9.7
10.6
10.9
10.3
10.4
10.4
11.0
10.6
10.4
10.3
10.3
10.6
12.7
12.5
12.2
12.2
12.1
12.1
12.8
13.0
13.0
12.8
12.4
12.7
10.7
10.2
10.2
10.0
10.0
12.9
13.2
12.8
12.8
11.5
11.3
11.8
Hwy
10.0
10.9
11.4
10.4
10.4
9.9
11.3
12.9
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.9
13.7
12.3
14.3
14.4
13.7
13.7
14.1
14.1
16.1
16.7
16.7
15.8
18.2
18.7
19.5
19.5
18.8
18.8
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.4
18.0
19.7
18.0
17.1
17.1
15.7
15.7
19.1
18.5
19.8
19.7
17.1
16.7
17.9
Comb
9.0
9.2
9.4
9.5
9.5
9.4
9.9
11.1
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
12.1
11.2
11.3
12.2
11.8
11.7
11.7
12.2
11.9
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.5
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.4
14.4
15.5
15.7
15.7
15.4
14.4
15.1
13.1
12.5
12.5
12.0
12.0
15.1
15.2
15.2
15.2
13.5
13.2
13.9
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                               A-3
December 2013

-------
                                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                                       Appendix A: Vehicles with Lowest and Highest Unadjusted, Laboratory Fuel Economy by Model Year
Rank
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1977
1977
1978
1978
1978
1979
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1996
1997
1997
1998
1999
2000
2000
2001
2001
2002
2002
2003
2003
2004
2004
2005
2006
2006
2006
2007
2007
2008
2008
2008
2009
2010
2011
2011
2012
2013
Manufacturer
Nissan
Ford
Ford
Mazda
Ford
Ford
Mazda
Ford
Mazda
Ford
VW
VW
VW
VW
GM
GM
GM
GM
Suzuki
Suzuki
Suzuki
Suzuki
Suzuki
Suzuki
Suzuki
Suzuki
GM
GM
GM
GM
Suzuki
GM
GM
Suzuki
Mazda
Ford
GM
Suzuki
Mazda
Ford
Ford
Mazda
Ford
Ford
Ford
Mazda
Ford
Ford
Ford
Mazda
Ford
GM
Mazda
Ford
Ford
Ford
Toyota
Model Name
PICKUP
COURIER PICKUP
COURIER CAB CHAS
MAZDA Bl 800 PICK
COURIER PICKUP
COURIER PICKUP
Bl 800 PICKUP
COURIER CAB CHAS
B2000 PICKUP
COURIER PICKUP
2WD
P/U2WD
P/U2WD
P/U2WD
P'UP P/U 2WD
P'UP P/U 2WD
P'UP2WD
P'UP-2WD
SAMURAI
SIDEKICK
SAMURAI
SAMURAI
SAMURAI
SAMURAI
SAMURAI
SAMURAI
SI 0 PICKUP 2WD
SONOMA 2WD
SI 0 PICKUP 2WD
SONOMA 2WD
X-90 4WD
TRACKER 4X4 CONVERTIBLE
TRACKER CONVERTIBLE 4X4
VITARA CONVERTIBLE 4WD
B2300 2WD
RANGER PICKUP 2WD
TRACKER 4WD HARDTOP
VITARA 4-DOOR 4WD
B2300 2WD
RANGER PICKUP 2WD
RANGER PICKUP 2WD
B2300 2WD
ESCAPE HEV 4WD
ESCAPE HYBRID 4WD
MARINER HYBRID 4WD
TRIBUTE HYBRID 4WD
ESCAPE HYBRID 4WD
MARINER HYBRID 4WD
MARINER HYBRID 4WD
TRIBUTE HYBRID 4WD
ESCAPE HYBRID 4WD
VUE HYBRID
TRIBUTE HYBRID 4WD
ESCAPE HYBRID 4WD
MARINER HYBRID 4WD
ESCAPE HYBRID AWD
RX 450h AWD
Vehicle Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Pickup
Pickup
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Inertia
Weight
2750
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
2250
2250
2250
2250
2750
2750
2750
3000
2250
2250
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
3000
3000
3000
3000
2750
3000
3000
3000
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4500
4000
4000
4000
4000
5000
Drive
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
Front
Front
Front
Front
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
Rear
Rear
4wd
4wd
Rear
Rear
Rear
Rear
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
Front
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
4wd
Transmission
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
Automatic with Lockup
Automatic with Lockup
Manual
Manual
Manual
Manual
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
Gears








5
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
4
5
5
5
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
Fuel
Delivery
Garb
Garb
Garb
Garb
Garb
Garb
Garb
Garb
Garb
Garb
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Garb
Garb
TBI
TBI
TBI
TBI
TBI
TBI
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
GDI
Port
Port
Port
Port
Port
HP
107
65
67
67
67
67
67
67
72
72
48
52
52
52
62
62
62
60
64
64
66
66
66
66
66
66
118
118
118
118
95
97
97
97
138
138
141
141
140
140
140
140
135
135
135
135
133
133
133
133
133
262
155
155
155
155
245
cro
119
109
110
110
110
110
110
110
120
120
90
97
97
97
137
137
137
137
81
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
134
134
134
134
97
97
97
97
140
140
118
118
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
140
218
153
153
153
152.6
210.9
Fuel Economy (MPG)
City
20.4
23.5
27.8
27.8
27.8
29.2
29.2
29.2
26.7
26.7
39.9
37.2
40.6
42.0
38.4
38.4
38.4
38.4
30.6
31.0
31.2
31.3
31.2
31.2
31.2
31.3
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
27.6
28.1
27.9
27.9
26.7
26.7
28.6
28.6
26.7
26.7
26.2
26.2
36.5
36.5
36.5
36.5
35.8
35.8
38.3
38.3
38.3
34.5
40.1
39.8
39.8
39.8
38.5
Hwy
31.7
33.3
39.8
39.8
39.8
38.4
38.4
38.4
36.8
36.8
53.3
50.8
48.0
49.6
49.1
49.1
49.1
49.8
37.2
36.9
36.8
36.7
36.8
36.8
36.8
36.8
39.8
39.8
39.8
39.8
35.9
35.8
35.0
35.0
35.0
35.0
39.5
39.5
36.5
36.5
37.1
37.1
36.7
36.7
36.7
36.7
37.3
37.3
37.7
37.7
37.7
41.7
38.3
38.1
38.1
38.1
38.6
Comb
24.3
27.0
32.2
32.2
32.2
32.7
32.7
32.7
30.5
30.5
45.0
42.3
43.6
45.1
42.6
42.6
42.6
42.8
33.2
33.4
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.6
31.3
31.3
31.3
31.3
30.8
31.1
30.7
30.7
29.9
29.9
32.7
32.7
30.4
30.4
30.2
30.2
36.6
36.6
36.6
36.6
36.5
36.5
38.0
38.0
38.0
37.4
39.3
39.0
39.0
39.0
38.6
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                               A-4
December 2013

-------
                                                          2013 FE Trends Report
                             Appendix B: Production-Weighted Percent Distribution of Adjusted Fuel Economy (MPG)
Car or Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Percentile Level
0%
8.4
8.6
8.3
8.0
7.9
7.9
4.0
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
9.2
8.5
8.5
8.5
10.9
8.7
10.1
10.7
10.8
10.5
9.9
9.8
10.1
9.0
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.4
10.1
10.4
10.1
12.2
11.0
11.2
1%
9.0
10.2
10.5
11.3
12.0
13.9
14.6
15.4
16.3
16.6
17.6
18.0
18.2
18.1
18.0
17.5
17.1
16.9
15.1
17.1
16.8
16.7
16.9
17.0
17.1
17.1
16.9
16.5
17.1
17.4
17.2
16.9
17.2
17.1
17.2
18.1
18.4
18.8
19.0
5%
9.8
11.3
11.6
12.6
13.1
14.8
15.8
16.6
16.5
17.1
17.8
18.8
18.6
19.2
19.3
19.0
18.8
18.3
18.2
18.8
18.9
19.3
19.3
18.6
18.7
17.7
18.3
18.8
19.1
18.5
18.6
18.6
18.7
18.6
19.6
20.1
20.0
20.5
20.9
10%
10.1
11.7
12.4
13.2
13.7
15.9
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.3
18.4
19.5
19.2
19.4
19.6
19.3
19.6
19.5
19.2
19.6
19.4
19.5
19.4
19.4
19.4
19.5
19.4
19.7
19.7
19.1
19.4
19.1
19.6
19.8
20.7
20.7
21.3
22.0
22.1
20%
11.0
12.3
13.6
14.2
14.7
17.3
18.3
18.2
17.8
18.1
19.5
20.3
20.6
21.2
20.7
21.3
20.3
20.6
20.3
20.1
21.0
20.9
20.7
21.0
21.0
20.9
20.8
20.8
20.8
20.6
20.3
20.4
20.7
20.9
21.8
22.0
22.4
23.5
23.7
25%
11.2
12.7
14.0
14.9
15.1
17.6
18.6
19.1
18.4
19.3
19.9
20.6
21.2
22.4
21.7
21.5
21.0
20.8
21.3
20.9
21.7
21.4
21.1
21.3
21.3
21.3
20.8
21.3
21.2
21.0
21.2
21.1
21.2
21.4
22.6
22.7
23.0
24.3
24.5
50%
13.1
14.6
15.0
16.9
16.9
19.8
21.6
23.4
22.3
22.9
22.8
24.5
23.8
24.1
23.2
23.1
22.8
22.4
22.7
22.7
22.7
22.6
23.0
22.7
22.3
22.1
22.3
22.5
23.0
22.9
23.3
23.0
23.6
23.6
25.4
25.9
26.5
27.6
27.6
75%
16.7
17.3
17.3
19.8
20.4
23.1
25.3
26.0
26.7
26.5
26.7
26.7
27.1
27.2
26.3
26.0
26.1
25.5
25.7
25.6
26.0
25.6
25.3
25.3
24.5
24.3
25.1
25.0
25.1
25.4
25.7
25.5
26.0
26.6
28.1
29.0
28.0
30.6
31.4
80%
17.9
18.9
18.9
21.3
21.9
24.0
26.1
27.2
28.0
27.3
27.7
27.6
27.6
27.7
27.2
26.4
26.3
25.9
26.9
26.3
27.1
26.1
26.4
26.1
25.2
25.0
25.6
25.3
25.6
25.8
25.8
25.8
27.5
27.9
29.1
30.2
29.2
32.1
32.1
90%
20.9
22.9
24.3
25.0
24.9
26.6
28.6
29.6
31.2
29.9
29.9
30.1
30.1
30.5
29.1
28.2
29.2
28.5
28.4
28.5
29.0
29.1
28.8
28.7
27.8
27.2
27.8
27.3
27.9
28.0
29.1
29.6
30.2
30.3
30.9
30.8
30.9
33.2
33.2
95%
23.3
24.5
28.0
28.2
26.5
29.1
31.6
32.6
33.4
32.8
33.6
33.7
31.3
32.1
31.0
30.9
31.2
31.2
31.1
30.6
31.4
30.5
29.8
29.8
29 2
28.5
30.9
29.4
29.6
29.6
29.8
30.9
31.3
31.3
31.0
35.1
33.2
35.6
37.2
99%
27.4
28.5
33.8
32.7
31.0
38.0
37.9
38.9
36.6
38.2
39.0
39.3
38.2
37.9
37.7
34.6
36.7
39.1
35.8
35.8
33.8
33.9
33.2
31.5
30.9
31.0
31.9
31.7
32.4
35.3
41.8
42.9
42.9
42.9
42.9
42.9
41.9
48.1
48.8
100%
28.3
30.5
37.6
37.5
39.1
40.3
40.9
42.7
45.3
48.0
49.6
56.8
54.8
54.4
50.6
53.4
53.0
52.6
52.2
52.2
47.3
43.3
42.8
42.0
41.0
57.4
56.3
55.6
55.0
53.5
53.3
53.0
46.2
46.2
46.2
49.3
49.4
49.4
49.2
Actual Average
13.5
14.9
15.6
16.9
17.2
20.0
21.4
22 2
22.1
22.4
23.0
23.7
23.8
24.1
23.6
23.3
23.3
22.9
23.0
23.0
23.3
23.1
23.2
23.0
22.7
22.5
22.6
22.8
23.0
22.9
23.1
23.0
23.7
23.9
25.0
25.7
25.6
27.0
27.4
EPA-420-B-13-011
                                                                  B-l
December 2013

-------
                                                          2013 FE Trends Report
                             Appendix B: Production-Weighted Percent Distribution of Adjusted Fuel Economy (MPG)
Car or Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Percentile Level
0%
7.6
7.8
8.0
8.0
7.9
8.4
9.4
10.1
10.3
9.5
9.6
10.4
10.0
9.8
10.2
10.0
10.4
10.4
10.5
12.2
12.2
12.2
12.0
12.9
13.0
12.6
11.8
12.4
10.9
10.4
9.8
9.8
12.2
12.2
12.4
12.2
11.0
10.8
11.4
1%
7.9
9.0
8.9
9.6
8.0
10.7
11.4
11.1
11.1
11.0
11.4
11.8
11.6
12.2
11.6
11.7
12.5
12.5
12.9
13.0
12.8
12.3
13.1
13.1
13.0
13.1
11.8
12.6
13.0
13.5
13.2
14.0
14.0
14.3
14.8
14.6
14.5
14.6
14.7
5%
8.9
9.7
10.3
10.4
9.2
11.4
12.5
12.1
12.0
12.1
12.4
13.5
13.7
13.8
13.7
13.6
13.8
14.0
13.9
13.8
13.7
13.8
13.8
13.6
13.6
13.8
13.4
13.8
13.8
13.8
14.2
14.2
14.6
14.8
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.4
10%
9.2
10.0
10.9
10.6
9.6
12.1
13.4
13.3
13.4
13.2
13.6
14.4
14.2
14.2
14.4
14.0
14.5
14.3
14.1
14.1
13.9
14.4
14.5
14.2
13.9
14.5
14.1
14.4
14.1
14.3
14.5
14.7
15.0
15.0
15.7
15.8
16.1
16.0
16.4
20%
9.6
10.4
11.5
11.0
10.4
13.2
14.9
14.8
14.9
14.7
14.0
15.1
15.1
15.3
15.2
14.9
15.6
15.2
15.4
14.9
14.9
14.8
15.0
14.7
14.7
15.3
14.9
15.0
14.8
14.8
14.9
15.3
15.8
16.1
16.6
16.5
17.3
17.4
17.5
25%
9.8
10.5
11.6
11.1
10.7
13.4
15.2
15.2
15.4
15.1
14.7
15.7
15.8
15.6
15.5
15.5
16.1
15.7
15.9
15.3
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.1
15.1
15.3
15.1
15.1
15.2
15.0
15.3
15.4
15.9
16.3
16.7
17.2
17.6
17.7
17.8
50%
11.7
11.9
12.5
12.2
12.1
16.1
16.1
17.1
18.2
18.3
18.5
18.5
18.7
18.5
18.5
17.6
18.2
17.6
17.8
17.4
16.9
17.4
16.8
17.2
16.8
16.8
16.3
16.2
16.3
16.3
16.7
17.1
17.1
17.6
18.9
18.9
19.2
19.4
19.6
75%
13.3
14.1
15.5
15.7
15.2
19.2
20.3
20.9
22.0
20.7
21.0
21.8
21.5
20.2
20.0
19.2
19.8
19.6
19.4
19.6
19.0
19.4
18.6
19.4
18.6
18.7
18.7
18.2
18.8
18.0
18.9
19.1
19.2
19.7
20.4
20.9
21.2
21.3
22.0
80%
15.4
15.6
15.8
16.3
16.1
20.3
21.6
22.8
22.8
21.5
21.8
22.9
22.8
21.5
20.4
20.8
20.4
20.2
19.9
19.6
19.3
19.6
19.3
19.8
19.3
19.5
19.1
18.9
19.4
18.9
19.1
19.7
19.5
20.0
20.9
21.3
22.2
22.2
23.1
90%
17.8
17.2
19.6
19.3
19.5
22.2
25.0
24.3
25.2
24.3
24.0
24.2
23.7
23.3
22.6
22.3
23.0
21.8
21.8
22.3
21.5
21.5
20.2
21.5
20.3
20.1
19.9
19.8
20.8
20.2
20.5
20.8
20.8
22.1
22.6
23.3
23.8
23.7
24.5
95%
19.0
19.7
21.7
22.5
20.7
23.1
26.6
26.4
26.5
25.9
25.2
25.4
25.9
25.0
24.0
24.1
24.0
23.3
23.7
23.4
23.5
22.7
22.0
22.5
21.7
21.6
21.1
20.9
21.7
20.8
21.4
22.1
22.4
22.7
23.4
23.9
24.3
24.8
26.0
99%
19.2
21.6
25.6
24.4
25.8
25.9
31.2
30.6
30.0
29.2
28.4
27.8
27.8
25.9
24.8
24.3
24.8
24.7
24.6
24.3
24.1
24.3
24.2
23.9
23.5
22.8
22.5
22.6
22.6
22.2
22.2
23.8
23.6
24.9
25.0
24.8
24.6
25.6
27.5
100%
20.8
23.0
27.4
27.8
25.9
38.3
36.0
37.0
38.2
36.1
36.1
36.0
36.0
27.8
27.7
27.6
27.5
27.3
27.2
27.0
26.9
25.6
25.5
25.1
24.7
24.8
23.6
25.8
23.9
23.8
27.0
27.0
27.1
27.9
28.3
28.7
28.5
28.5
29.4
Actual Average
11.6
12.2
13.3
12.9
12.5
15.8
17.1
17.4
17.7
17.4
17.5
18.2
18.3
17.8
17.6
17.4
17.8
17.3
17.5
17.2
17.0
17.2
16.8
17.1
16.6
16.8
16.5
16.5
16.7
16.5
16.9
17.2
17.4
17.8
18.5
18.8
19.1
19.3
19.7
EPA-420-B-13-011
                                                                  B-2
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined


Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined




Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined


Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined




Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined




Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined


Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980

1981
1982
1983

1984

1985
1986
1987
1988

1989
1990
1991

1992

1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003

2004

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

2012
2013
Oto
5







0.0%








































5 to
10
6.6%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.1%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%

0.0%




0.0%
0.0%

00%













10 to
15
57.4%
57.6%
44.0%
26.8%
24 2%
5 7%

2.6%
0.3%
03%

0 1%

0.1%
0.3%
0.3%
03%

0.3%
0.2%
02%

02%

0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0 1%

0 1%

0.2%
0.3%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0 1%

0.1%
0.1%
15 to
20
23.9%
24.4%
36.6%
48.4%
48.5%
447%

38.1%
31.1%
33 7%

26 9%

27.4%
16.7%
16.0%
14 4%

14.5%
14.1%
16 5%

14 1%

17.4%
18.8%
15.2%
12.9%
12.7%
13.8%
14.0%
14.2%
16.8%
12.8%
12 3%

14 8%

16.0%
16.1%
13.9%
11.5%
6.0%
4.7%
49%

3.2%
3.2%
20 to
25
9.0%
13.2%
10.2%
13.6%
17.9%
33 0%

33.6%
31.6%
29 6%

33 2%

29.3%
36.4%
40.0%
40 5%

46.3%
50.7%
49 1%

56 0%

50.8%
50.7%
51.7%
60.5%
59.1%
57.2%
62.9%
66.1%
58.0%
64.4%
60 4%

57 0%

48.7%
52.4%
44.6%
46.7%
38.6%
35.1%
36 1%

26.5%
25.2%
25 to
30
3.1%
3.8%
6.5%
6.9%
8.0%
1 2 7%

18.4%
27.9%
24 7%

30 7%

33.5%
36.6%
33.1%
33 8%

30.5%
28.7%
26 8%

22 1%

24.2%
23.5%
25 2%
20.6%
23.6%
25.3%
21.3%
17.8%
18.3%
16.6%
22 6%

25 1%

27.6%
21.6%
29.1%
29.9%
37.1%
38.4%
42 5%

39.8%
39.3%
30 to
35

0.7%
1.5%
3.6%
1.0%
27%

5.1%
7.0%
95%

55%

7.3%
7.3%
8.6%
8 1%

6.2%
5.2%
5 8%

50%

5.2%
4.9%
7.0%
5.1%
4.1%
3.2%
1.5%
1.5%
6.5%
5.5%
39%

20%

5.8%
8.1%
10.0%
9.0%
16.2%
16.0%
12 9%

25.3%
25.1%
35 to
40


0.8%
0.3%
0.4%
1 0%

1.5%
1.2%
1 9%

30%

1.5%
1.9%
1.5%
25%

1.8%
0.7%
09%

1 6%

1.5%
1 .4%
0.4%
0.4%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
00%

0 1%

0.1%
0.0%

0.3%
0.4%
1 .4%
1 2%

1.9%
2.9%
40 to
45





02%

0.8%
0.8%
04%

04%

0.4%
0.3%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.1%
06%

08%

0.6%
0.6%
0.4%
0.3%
0.2%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.4%
08%

03%

0.3%
0.4%
0.4%
0.4%
0.3%
0.7%
04%

1.2%
0.8%
45 to
50









00%

02%

0.5%
0.3%
0.3%
02%

0.3%
0.3%
0 1%

0 1%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%





0.0%
0.0%
00%

06%

1.4%
1.0%
1.8%
2.1%
1.3%
3.6%
1 9%

2.0%
3.4%
50 to
55














0.1%
0.2%
02%

0.1%
0.0%
00%

0 1%

0.1%
0.1%








00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%








55 to
60














0.2%
















0.1%
0.0%
0.0%














60 to
65
















































65 to
70
















































70 to
75
















































75 to
SO
















































SO to
85
















































85 to
90
















































90 to
95
















































95 to
100
















































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           c-i
December 2013

-------
                                                                  2013 FE Trends Report
                                             Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Oto
5







































5 to
10
27.7%
12.0%
3.7%
2.9%
14.4%
0.2%
0.0%


0.1%
0.0%


0.0%

0.3%














0.0%
0.0%







10 to
15
51.8%
66.1%
66.0%
68.6%
59.3%
40.7%
22.8%
21.9%
21.1%
24 2%
27.8%
19.7%
17.3%
17.8%
18.8%
21.8%
16.6%
19.2%
14.5%
23.1%
24.4%
22.0%
19.5%
23.5%
24 2%
17.1%
23.5%
19.9%
24.1%
25.5%
20.9%
13.8%
10.1%
9.7%
2.6%
3.0%
3.7%
3.9%
2.5%
15 to
20
18.0%
16.7%
19.9%
19.0%
18.4%
37.9%
50.7%
45.1%
41.3%
43.0%
40.8%
41 .4%
43.1%
53.0%
54.3%
55.5%
59.9%
60.0%
66.2%
60.7%
59.8%
61.0%
70.5%
62.0%
63.7%
72.0%
66.6%
71.3%
61.6%
63.4%
64.4%
69.9%
74.4%
70.5%
66.9%
63.3%
58.8%
55.2%
50.6%
20 to
25
2.5%
5.1%
9.2%
8.6%
6.8%
19.1%
16.1%
23.7%
26.7%
24.8%
26.3%
33.5%
33.4%
22 1%
24.3%
18.8%
21.4%
20.7%
19.2%
16.1%
15.8%
17.1%
10.1%
14.6%
12 2%
11.0%
9.9%
8.6%
14.4%
11.1%
14.6%
14.8%
14.7%
18.9%
29.5%
31.4%
34.8%
35.7%
37.9%
25 to
30


1.3%
0.9%
1.2%
1.5%
7.1%
8.0%
9.8%
7.1%
4.8%
5.3%
6.1%
6.9%
2.7%
3.6%
2.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%



0.2%


0.1%
1.5%
0.8%
0.9%
1.1%
2.4%
2.7%
5.3%
9.0%
30 to
35






2.6%
0.8%
0.9%
0.8%
0.3%
0.1%
0.0%


























35 to
40





0.6%
0.7%
0.6%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%


























40 to
45







































45 to
50







































50 to
55







































55 to
60







































60 to
65







































65 to
70







































70 to
75







































75 to
SO







































SO to
85







































85 to
90







































90 to
95







































95 to
100







































EPA-420-R-13-011
December 2013

-------
                                                                  2013 FE Trends Report
                                             Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway


Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway




Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway




Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway




Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway




Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway




Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway




Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

1980
1981
1982
1983

1984

1985
1986
1987

1988

1989
1990
1991

1992

1993
1994
1995

1996

1997
1998
1999

2000

2001
2002
2003

2004

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Oto
5




















































5 to
10
0.3%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%




































10 to
15
57.2%
38.9%
21.4%
8.1%
5 6%

0.7%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0 1%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%
15 to
20
91 9°/
38.8%
55.4%
59.2%
61 2%

30.0%
14.9%
9.3%
79%

3 7%

0.8%
0.8%
08%

07%

0.6%
0.5%
09%

1 2%

3.6%
2.1%
1 4%

1 0%

0.6%
1.6%
1 7%

3 2%

2.7%
2.3%
1 6%

1 0%

0.8%
1.2%
0.7%
0.8%
0.9%
0.4%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
20 to
25
12.8%
9.9%
8.5%
15.8%
179%

34.1%
39.4%
35.3%
38 7%

37 6%

41.3%
25.6%
22 3%

183%

17.3%
17.5%
21 2%

20 4%

19.7%
20.8%
175%

1 5 7%

17.8%
15.4%
160%

150%

20.9%
19.5%
22 1%

25 1%

24.8%
25.8%
23.3%
20.5%
12.8%
14.1%
10.0%
6.7%
5.5%
25 to
30
6.0%
8.4%
7.2%
9.5%
1 0 4%

23.9%
27.3%
32.1%
28 9%

24 6%

25.5%
47.4%
39 0%

50 3%

58.9%
63.4%
52 6%

56 4%

51.2%
52.1%
56 2%

61 5%

56.3%
58.5%
63 8%

66 4%

57.1%
60.5%
58 5%

50 9%

45.6%
47.1%
37.7%
43.3%
35.6%
30.7%
33.9%
25.0%
24.2%
30 to
35
2.6%
4.0%
5.5%
5.3%
4 1%

9.3%
13.6%
16.0%
15 7%

27 5%

23.4%
19.3%
31 2%

23 6%

18.3%
14.1%
20 4%

15 9%

19.6%
19.7%
17 1%

16 8%

20.9%
21.1%
170%

13 5%

14.4%
13.5%
15 9%

20 6%

26.4%
20.9%
31.4%
28.9%
44.0%
44.0%
43.8%
42.7%
36.5%
35 to
40


1 .4%
1.8%
06%

0.8%
3.1%
5.6%
68%

44%

6.7%
4.6%
5 1%

5 8%

3.9%
3.5%
3 6%

49%

4.7%
4.4%
72%

43%

4.1%
2.9%
1 2%

1 6%

4.4%
3.6%
1 0%

1 3%

0.6%
3.7%
4.7%
3.7%
4.7%
5.6%
9.1%
20.6%
27.7%
40 to
45


0.5%
0.3%
0 1%

1.1%
1.0%
0.8%
1 6%

1 7%

1.7%
1.7%
1 1%

1 0%

0.7%
0.7%
06%

05%

0.6%
0.2%
03%

03%

0.2%
0.1%
0 1%

0 1%

0.4%
0.6%
07%

04%

0.3%


0.3%
0.4%
1.5%
1.0%
2 9%
2.4%
45 to
50







0.7%
0.8%
03%

02%

0.2%
0.2%
03%

02%

0.1%
0.2%
06%

05%

0.5%
0.5%
03%

03%

0.2%
0.3%
0 1%

0 1%


0.0%
0 1%

06%

1.4%
1.4%
2.1%
2.5%
1.6%
3.7%
1.9%
2.0%
3.4%
50 to
55











02%

0.4%
0.0%


0 1%

0.3%
0.1%
0 1%

0 1%

0.0%
0.0%
00%









0.0%
0.0%
00%












55 to
60














0.3%
02%

0 1%


0.0%
00%

0 1%

0.1%
0.1%














00%

0.0%
0.0%







60 to
65



































0 1%

0.0%
0.0%
00%












65 to
70




















































70 to
75




















































75 to
SO




















































SO to
85




















































85 to
90




















































90 to
95




















































95 to
100




















































EPA-420-R-13-011
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Oto
5







































5 to
10
20.2%
6.2%
2.4%
1.0%
10.8%
0.1%



0.0%
0.0%




























10 to
15
54.7%
66.0%
58.7%
65.5%
56.3%
29.0%
12.0%
12.9%
10.1%
12.0%
11.7%
5.7%
8.2%
7.5%
5.0%
3.4%
2 4%
1.9%
1.0%
0.9%
2 4%
2 2%
0.6%
0.0%
0.2%
0.1%
2.2%
1 .4%
2.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
15 to
20
14.9%
19.3%
25.1%
21.6%
21.1%
41.1%
51.6%
42.4%
38.0%
39.7%
31.7%
33.3%
24.1%
35.4%
39.9%
42.6%
40.1%
43.6%
44.4%
50.7%
52.9%
48.2%
58.9%
55.0%
65.7%
64.9%
65.5%
70.7%
63.5%
64.8%
53.8%
55.1%
55.9%
46.4%
34.0%
27.7%
20.1%
20.3%
15.6%
20 to
25
10.2%
6.7%
8.1%
8.3%
8.2%
23.3%
21.0%
24.3%
28.6%
31.7%
40.0%
40.0%
46.4%
42 2%
41.7%
44.3%
45.2%
45.1%
45.2%
38.4%
38.4%
40.5%
35.6%
37.4%
29.7%
32.3%
28.4%
23.4%
31.8%
33.4%
43.4%
39.7%
38.5%
43.2%
49.1%
53.1%
55.6%
52 2%
52.7%
25 to
30

1.9%
4.8%
3.7%
3.5%
5.8%
11.1%
16.7%
19.3%
14.7%
14.7%
18.6%
19.4%
14.9%
13.4%
9.7%
i 9 907
9.4%
9.5%
10.1%
6.3%
9.1%
4.8%
7.6%
4.3%
2.7%
3.9%
4.5%
2 4%
1.5%
2.6%
4.9%
5.5%
10.1%
16.7%
19.1%
24.0%
27.4%
29.1%
30 to
35


0.9%



3.0%
3.1%
3.1%
1.5%
1.8%
2.2%
1.8%










0.0%

0.0%







0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%

2.6%
35 to
40





0.5%
1.3%
0.6%
0.9%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%


























40 to
45





0.1%

































45 to
50







































50 to
55







































55 to
60







































60 to
65







































65 to
70







































70 to
75







































75 to
SO







































SO to
85







































85 to
90







































90 to
95







































95 to
100







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           C-4
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City

Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City

Adjusted City

Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City


Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City


Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City


Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988

1989
1990
1991

1992

1993
1994
1995
1996

1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Oto
5






0.0%






































5 to
10
19.2%
3.2%
4.6%
0.8%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
10 to
15
52.1%
61.1%
60.1%
45.2%
43.8%
17.1%
9.8%
9.2%
13.6%
8.5%
0.4%
0.4%
0.7%
06%

0.5%
0.6%
08%

35%

5.0%
1.0%
1.1%
1 6%

1.5%
2.3%
1.2%
2 9%
3.2%
2.0%
1 9%

3.3%
3.3%
3.3%
3.1%
44%

2.4%
1.0%
1.6%
0.8%
0.8%
15 to
20
20.7%
99 9°/
20.0%
34.1%
36.0%
43.8%
44.3%
36.1%
37.1%
38.6%
47.7%
43.5%
40.5%
40 2%

46.1%
47.5%
49 3%

54 1%

47.2%
53.1%
54.9%
55 5%

51.3%
51.6%
60.8%
59.6%
60.9%
59.6%
56 7%

57.3%
54.5%
57.0%
48.2%
48 1%

34.6%
30.5%
32.6%
23.7%
22.6%
20 to
25
7.8%
11.0%
8.2%
11.1%
15.6%
28.8%
29.2%
36.8%
24.3%
31.5%
31.8%
35.7%
35.7%
37 4%

35.2%
37.7%
36 7%

31 3%

35.6%
35.9%
32 2%
31 1%

37.3%
34.5%
29.8%
32.1%
26.9%
31.0%
32 3%

30.7%
31.4%
28.6%
35.4%
34 1 %

41.6%
43.7%
47.8%
43.6%
41.6%
25 to
30
0.2%
2.5%
5.4%
7.0%
3.5%
8.1%
12.1%
12.7%
18.1%
15.1%
13.7%
15.0%
20.0%
175%

15.4%
11.3%
102%

78%

9.7%
7.6%
9.8%
1 0 1 %

8.5%
11.0%
7.8%
4.9%
8.3%
7.0%
8 2%

7.6%
9.0%
9.5%
10.2%
9 9%

18.4%
19.3%
14.6%
26.2%
26.9%
30 to
35


1.2%
1.5%
0.4%
1.1%
3.5%
3.5%
5.8%
5.0%
5.1%
3.3%
1.7%
2 2%

1.2%
2.4%
2 1%

23%

1.6%
1.5%
1.5%
1 2%

1.2%
0.3%
0.1%
0.3%
0.3%
0.0%
0 1%

0.2%
0.2%
0.3%
0.8%
09%

1.2%
0.4%
0.8%
1.6%
3.0%
35 to
40


0.5%
0.3%
0.4%
1.1%
1.0%
1.3%
0.9%
0.9%
0.8%
1.2%
0.9%
1 8%

1.1%
0.2%
02%

04%

0.2%
0.2%
0.3%
0 1%

0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
04%

0.3%
0.3%

0.1%
0 1%

0.2%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.5%
40 to
45







0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.5%
0.3%
02%

0.1%
0.2%
06%

06%

0.5%
0.5%
0.3%
03%





0.2%
0.3%
04%



0.4%
0.4%
04%

0.3%
1.2%
0.6%
1.9%
1.3%
45 to
50









0.1%
0.4%
0.0%

0 1%

0.3%
0.1%
0 1%

0 1%

0.1%
0.1%







0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.6%
1.4%
1.0%
1.8%
2 1%

1.3%



0.7%
50 to
55











0.3%
0.2%
0 1%


0.0%
00%











0.1%
0.0%
0.0%









3.6%
1.9%
2.0%
2.7%
55 to
60













































60 to
65













































65 to
70













































70 to
75













































75 to
SO













































SO to
85













































85 to
90













































90 to
95













































95 to
100













































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           C-5
December 2013

-------
                                                                  2013 FE Trends Report
                                             Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Oto
5







































5 to
10
35.3%
20.4%
6.4%
7.6%
17.7%
0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.8%
0.0%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%









0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%




0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
10 to
15
53.2%
60.9%
69.7%
70.8%
61.8%
48.0%
44.4%
32.3%
36.0%
36.9%
35.6%
31.5%
25.5%
34.3%
35.2%
36.2%
35.0%
44.6%
40.3%
47.0%
49.8%
46.8%
53.5%
47.3%
60.4%
59.7%
63.6%
66.8%
61.5%
70.6%
60.9%
58.9%
57.9%
50.4%
39.6%
38.5%
34.1%
30.8%
32.7%
15 to
20
11.5%
17.2%
18.2%
13.2%
16.0%
37.5%
35.6%
43.7%
39.3%
40.9%
41.2%
39.9%
48.9%
43.7%
48.8%
49.3%
51.1%
45.5%
50.4%
42.1%
41.0%
44.2%
39.6%
46.0%
34.4%
37.6%
34.4%
31.8%
37.3%
29 2%
38.8%
38.7%
38.5%
43.2%
53.9%
48.3%
50.4%
54.5%
49.1%
20 to
25

1.6%
4.7%
7.4%
4.4%
13.3%
15.6%
19.5%
21.6%
20.0%
20.3%
25.8%
22 7%
20.0%
15.2%
13.8%
13.8%
9.7%
9.2%
10.9%
9.1%
9.0%
7.0%
6.7%
5.2%
2.7%
2.0%
1.3%
1.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.9%
2.8%
5.3%
5.9%
12.4%
15.3%
14.4%
16.8%
25 to
30


0.9%
0.9%


2.3%
3.7%
2.0%
0.9%
2.6%
2.5%
2.8%
1.9%
0.6%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%









0.1%
1.5%
0.7%
1.2%
0.6%
0.6%
0.2%
0.2%
1.4%
30 to
35





0.5%
2.1%
0.2%
0.9%
0.5%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%






















0.1%
0.1%
0.0%

35 to
40





0.1%

0.6%
0.0%
0.0%





























40 to
45







































45 to
50







































50 to
55







































55 to
60







































60 to
65







































65 to
70







































70 to
75







































75 to
SO







































SO to
85







































85 to
90







































90 to
95







































95 to
100







































EPA-420-R-13-011
December 2013

-------
                                                                  2013 FE Trends Report
                                             Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

1980

1981
1982
1983

1984
1985
1986
1987

1988

1989
1990
1991

1992

1993
1994
1995
1996

1997
1998
1999

2000

2001
2002
2003

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

2012
2013
Oto
5








0.0%










































5 to
10
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%


0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%































10 to
15
47.9%
26.4%
15.8%
5.7%
35%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
15 to
20
29.0%
46.9%
56.8%
50.2%
47 6%

19 7%

10.3%
13.1%
11 6%

7.9%
0.8%
0.7%
07%

05%

0.5%
0.5%
05%

08%

3.4%
0.3%
1.0%
04%

0.5%
0.1%
0 1%

08%

0.2%
0.2%
02%

0.3%
0.3%
0.6%
0.5%
0.5%
0.4%
0.4%
02%

0.2%
0.1%
20 to
25
14.3%
12.3%
10.8%
23.8%
27 2%

39 1%

38.0%
27.4%
34 7%

33.7%
43.0%
28.0%
25 0%

193%

20.6%
17.2%
21 2%

27 6%

17.4%
24.4%
17.5%
175%

17.4%
15.9%
168%

174%

17.1%
15.1%
152%

16.4%
16.9%
16.4%
14.9%
12.3%
6.3%
5.4%
49%

3.9%
3.6%
25 to
30
6.4%
10.6%
8.6%
10.7%
140%

25 4%

26.7%
29.3%
18 8%

24.6%
15.1%
34.8%
31 2%

35 6%

41.0%
50.7%
44 2%

41 5%

46.7%
43.8%
47.8%
48 4%

46.0%
49.7%
54 7%

53 9%

50.7%
50.9%
46 8%

46.1%
41 .4%
42.1%
37.2%
40.9%
31.2%
26.0%
28 3%

18.7%
16.9%
30 to
35
2 4%
3.2%
5.6%
5.6%
63%

11 8%

16.9%
20.8%
22 0%

23.5%
30.9%
24.2%
32 0%

32 6%

28.2%
23.4%
23 7%

20 7%

22.9%
22.7%
21.6%
22 4%

24.3%
22.1%
18 2%

19 6%

21.9%
24.9%
26 2%

25.4%
26.8%
26.4%
27 2%
25 2%
34.8%
31.4%
37 4%

30.5%
30.5%
35 to
40

0.7%
1.0%
3.4%
1 0%

20%

5.3%
6.6%
99%

6.7%
7.8%
8.4%
8 8%

79%

7.1%
6.5%
75%

67%

7.1%
6.5%
9.8%
94%

10.2%
1 1 .4%
97%

76%

8.1%
7.3%
94%

9.9%
11.5%
11.9%
14.7%
15.5%
16.6%
28.1%
20 2%

21.8%
19.1%
40 to
45


1.3%
0.5%
03%

1 7%

1.7%
1.7%
2 2%

2.7%
1.2%
1.8%
09%

20%

1.1%
1.1%
2 1%

1 7%

1.7%
1.3%
1.5%
1 3%

1.2%
0.4%
02%

04%

1.6%
1.2%
1 4%

0.9%
1.1%
1.3%
2.5%
9 A°/
7.7%
2.6%
5 1%

18.9%
21.9%
45 to
50




0 1%

02%

1.0%
0.8%
06%

0.6%
0.9%
1.5%
09%

1 6%

1.1%
0.2%
0 1%

03%

0.1%
0.3%
0.4%
03%

0.2%
0.1%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.8%
0.7%
1.3%
1.4%
1 0%

1.9%
2.6%
50 to
55









0.3%
0 1%

0.2%
0.0%
0.2%
03%

02%


0.0%
0 1%

06%

0.2%
0.1%
0.4%
03%

0.2%
0.3%
02%

02%

0.1%
0.2%
0 2%







0.5%
06%

0.9%
0.8%
55 to
60












0.1%
0.4%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.3%
0.3%
06%

0 1%

0.5%
0.5%
0.0%








0.2%
0.3%
0 5%

0.3%
0.3%
0.4%
0.4%
0.4%
0.3%
0.7%
04%

1.1%
0.7%
60 to
65














0.1%
0 1%

0 1%

0.1%





























0.1%
0.2%
65 to
70














0.2%
0 1%

0 1%


0.0%
00%

0 1%

0.1%
0.1%









0.0%
0.0%
0 0%

0.6%
1 .4%
1.0%
1.8%
2.1%
1.3%




0.8%
70 to
75








































0.0%
0.0%
0.0%



3.6%
1 9%

2.0%
2.8%
75 to
SO


































0 1%

0.0%
0.0%
0 0%












SO to
85



















































85 to
90



















































90 to
95



















































95 to
100



















































EPA-420-R-13-011
December 2013

-------
                                                                  2013 FE Trends Report
                                             Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck

Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983

1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Oto
5








































5 to
10
2.5%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
1 .4%
0.0%


































10 to
15
68.1%
63.2%
53.2%
58.6%
55.1%
17.9%
7.4%
8.3%
69%

7.6%
7.2%
2.7%
2.7%
2 2%
3.0%
3.4%
1.1%
1 .4%
0.2%
0.1%
0.3%
1.1%
0.0%



0.1%

0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%




0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
15 to
20
18.4%
24.9%
31.5%
27.5%
30.3%
46.5%
47.6%
41.6%
36 0%

34.8%
32.6%
32.9%
26.5%
37.8%
35.8%
36.4%
31.0%
41.2%
35.0%
40.6%
46.7%
38.2%
42.7%
35.7%
44.0%
39.3%
45.7%
50.5%
45.4%
45.2%
40.4%
34.2%
27.5%
21.5%
13.5%
16.7%
10.8%
10.2%
9.2%
20 to
25
11.0%
9.9%
7.2%
5.8%
9.1%
21.7%
23.3%
26.3%
28 1%

36.2%
37.6%
36.3%
43.4%
36.9%
41.8%
43.2%
51.9%
43.5%
49.6%
45.9%
38.4%
48.4%
47.7%
51.6%
46.7%
50.0%
45.4%
40.6%
41.5%
43.5%
43.8%
48.8%
58.5%
60.1%
57.9%
50.9%
51.8%
48.2%
44.1%
25 to
30

1.9%
6.7%
7.2%
3.0%
11.8%
14.7%
14.9%
20 9%

14.6%
17.8%
22.8%
22 1%
16.2%
16.7%
13.4%
13.4%
12.9%
14.9%
13.0%
14.5%
12.3%
9.6%
12.7%
9 2%
10.7%
8.9%
8.2%
12.7%
11.1%
15.5%
15.3%
12.7%
14.6%
23.6%
21.7%
22.6%
29.6%
29.6%
30 to
35


1.3%
0.9%
1.1%
1.5%
3.7%
6.3%
60%

5.8%
4.4%
5.1%
5.1%
6.9%
2.7%
3.6%
2.5%
1.0%
0.3%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%

0.7%
0.4%
0.2%
0.2%
1.1%
1.0%
3.1%
4.4%
10.0%
14.5%
11.7%
15.8%
35 to
40






1.9%
2.0%
1 9%

0.9%
0.3%
0.2%
0.0%

















0.1%
0.5%
0.3%
0.7%
0.6%
0.8%
0.3%
0.3%
1.3%
40 to
45





0.6%
1.3%
0.6%
02%

0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%


























45 to
50








00%































50 to
55








































55 to
60








































60 to
65








































65 to
70








































70 to
75








































75 to
SO








































SO to
85








































85 to
90








































90 to
95








































95 to
100








































EPA-420-R-13-011
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City

Lab City
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

1985
1986
1987

1988
1989
1990
1991

1992

1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

2001
2002
2003

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

2009
2010
2011

2012

2013
Oto
5






0.0%









































5 to
10
7.1%
0.9%
0.4%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%

0.0%
0.0%


0.0%
00%

0.0%

00%



0.0%

00%


0.0%


00%

0.0%
10 to
15
53.8%
47.2%
38.9%
26.0%
18.6%
5.5%
2.5%
1.4%
0.3%
00%

0.1%
0.2%
0 1%

0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0 1%

02%

0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0 1%

0.1%
0.1%
0 1%

0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.3%
03%

0.2%
0.1%
0 1%

0 1%

0.1%
15 to
20
26.6%
35.6%
41.6%
49.0%
53.7%
41.6%
37.4%
27.6%
34.8%
26 7%

30.1%
19.3%
17 1%

16.4%
14.7%
14.0%
18 1%

21 1%

17.4%
18.1%
16.4%
15.1%
15.0%
13.6%
14.0%
14 7%

14.6%
11.5%
10 3%

12.8%
11.5%
11.3%
8.8%
77%

4.3%
3.7%
36%

27%

3.1%
20 to
25
10.0%
10.7%
9.5%
13.7%
15.1%
33.8%
29.3%
33.1%
26.9%
33 4%

25.1%
38.1%
35 2%

34.1%
42.6%
49.3%
43 4%

47 6%

46.5%
45.5%
46.4%
50.0%
48.3%
47.0%
53.3%
52 8%

50.7%
50.2%
48 3%

47.7%
44.1%
48.1%
40.7%
43 0%

29.8%
26.6%
28 7%

20 6%

19.1%
25 to
30
2.5%
4.9%
7.4%
6.1%
10.5%
12.8%
21.7%
25.8%
22 4%
28 7%

33.8%
29.5%
341%

34.7%
31.5%
26.2%
26 5%

20 7%

26.0%
27.1%
25.3%
23.1%
24.4%
27.7%
23.1%
74 7°/

24.7%
28.5%
30 4%

28.0%
30.5%
26.2%
30.6%
28 0%

37.6%
35.8%
41 4%

33 9%

30.9%
30 to
35

0.7%
1.0%
3.5%
1.7%
4.4%
5.9%
9.2%
12.6%
76%

8.2%
9.1%
11 1%

11.1%
8.3%
8.7%
9 2%

7 1%

7.4%
6.7%
9.7%
9.9%
10.7%
10.3%
8.8%
76%

7.7%
8.0%
90%

9.5%
11.0%
11.6%
14.1%
15 4%

21.3%
25.2%
177%

20 1%

24.8%
35 to
40


1.4%
1.3%
0.3%
0.8%
2.2%
1.8%
7 4°/
25%

1.4%
1.8%
09%

1.4%
1.1%
1.1%
1 8%

2 2%

1.7%
1.5%
1.2%
1.3%
1.3%
1.1%
0.5%
04%

1.9%
1.2%
1 1%

0.8%
0.9%
1.2%
2 4%
2 2%

3.8%
3.0%
5 1%

18 0%

15.8%
40 to
45




0.1%
1.1%
1.0%
0.8%
0.5%
08%

0.8%
1.3%
09%

1.8%
1.1%
0.2%
02%

03%

0.1%
0.3%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.8%
07%

1.0%
0.3%
04%

0 1%

1.1%
45 to
50







0.3%
0.1%
02%

0.1%
0.5%
03%

0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
06%

06%

0.2%
0.1%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
02%

0.1%
0.2%
02%

0.0%
0.0%

0.1%
03%

0.4%
0.4%
05%

06%

0.5%
50 to
55









0 1%

0.4%
0.0%



0.3%
0.3%
0 1%

0 1%

0.5%
0.5%
0.0%








04%

0.3%
0.3%
0.4%
0.4%
04%

0.3%
0.7%
02%

05%

0.1%
55 to
60












0.1%
02%

0.2%
0.1%
0.0%
00%

0 1%

0.1%
0.1%







0.2%
0.3%
02%








0.5%
04%

1 3%

0.9%
60 to
65












0.2%


















0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%







0 1%

0.1%
65 to
70





























0 1%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.6%
1 .4%
1.0%
1.8%
2 1%

1.3%





0.8%
70 to
75










































3.6%
1 9%

20%

2.8%
75 to
SO
















































SO to
85
















































85 to
90
















































90 to
95
















































95 to
100
















































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           C-9
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Oto
5







































5 to
10
11.3%
3.0%
1.9%
1.2%
7.2%
0.1%
0.0%


0.0%




















0.0%
0.0%







10 to
15
66.0%
72.4%
63.3%
64.3%
60.3%
30.5%
14.0%
14.8%
13.9%
16.8%
26.8%
8.3%
12.4%
13.4%
14.8%
16.8%
11.1%
12.4%
11.8%
14.0%
15.4%
15.6%
16.5%
18.5%
20.6%
11.3%
13.7%
7.2%
10.1%
9.7%
5.5%
3.6%
3.5%
2 9%
1.5%
0.7%
1.1%
0.9%
1.4%
15 to
20
20.2%
19.2%
24.2%
24.4%
21.7%
43.7%
56.9%
49.9%
46.5%
48.9%
36.8%
51.7%
46.4%
57.7%
55.7%
57.8%
58.3%
61.8%
62.7%
58.2%
66.0%
64.6%
66.7%
61.0%
62.7%
68.0%
69.9%
74.9%
68.1%
70.0%
68.1%
68.1%
71.8%
65.6%
56.2%
56.6%
48.9%
42.8%
38.9%
20 to
25
2.5%
5.4%
9.3%
8.3%
8.7%
21 2%
15.8%
23.0%
26.7%
24.5%
28.2%
29.4%
32.6%
19.7%
22.0%
17.2%
21.8%
22.0%
19.8%
23.8%
14.7%
16.7%
12.3%
16.3%
15.1%
20.1%
16.1%
17.2%
20.6%
20.1%
26.1%
25.1%
20.5%
24.6%
30.0%
27.1%
34.2%
41.3%
40.7%
25 to
30


1.3%
1.8%
2 2%
3.9%
9.1%
8.5%
10.9%
8.5%
7.8%
9.5%
6.9%
7.4%
7.1%
8.1%
8.8%
3.8%
5.7%
3.9%
3.8%
3.1%
4.6%
4.3%
1.6%
0.6%
0.3%
0.7%
1.2%
0.2%
0.3%
1.6%
3.4%
5.7%
11.7%
14.8%
15.3%
14.7%
15.8%
30 to
35






2.8%
3.0%
1.7%
0.8%
0.2%
1.1%
1.6%
1.9%
0.4%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%










0.9%
0.4%
0.5%
0.0%

0.2%

2.7%
35 to
40





0.6%
1.3%
0.5%
0.4%
0.4%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%

















0.1%
0.5%
0.3%
0.7%
0.6%
0.6%
0.3%
0.3%
0.5%
40 to
45







0.2%
0.0%
0.0%

























0.1%



45 to
50







































50 to
55







































55 to
60







































60 to
65







































65 to
70







































70 to
75







































75 to
SO







































SO to
85







































85 to
90







































90 to
95







































95 to
100







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           c-io
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C:  Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway




Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway


Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car

Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car

Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

1980

1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Oto
5










































5 to
10








0.0%

































10 to
15
9.1%
0.8%
0.1%
0.2%
0 1%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

0.0%



















15 to
20
53.2%
40.9%
31.9%
14.1%
12 3%

1 0%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%
20 to
25
15.2%
34.9%
41.8%
45.0%
46 0%

179%

11.0%
6.8%
5.3%
2 4%
0.8%
0.7%
0.7%
0.7%
0.6%
0.5%
0.8%
0.8%
1.5%
0.8%
0.6%
0.4%
0.4%
0.1%
0.0%
0.7%
0.6%
0.6%
0.1%
0 1%

0.1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
25 to
30
10.5%
6.4%
9.3%
19.0%
176%

33 7%

33.3%
25.6%
36.2%
29.1%
20.7%
13.2%
10.5%
8.4%
5.1%
7.9%
5.0%
4.4%
6.0%
4.3%
2 4%
3.0%
2.6%
5.3%
5.1%
5.9%
6.0%
4.1%
3.9%
5 1%

3.2%
3.1%
2 4%
2 4%
1.8%
0.7%
0.7%
0.5%
0.5%
30 to
35
7.5%
10.7%
5.9%
10.2%
12 2%

27 2%

25.6%
22.1%
18.8%
25.7%
32.7%
28.3%
32.4%
26.1%
30.4%
30.5%
34.2%
35.8%
27.9%
28.7%
21.3%
29.1%
26.3%
16.1%
17.6%
17.9%
27.3%
22.6%
23.1%
22 5%

23.1%
23.9%
21.6%
18.7%
12.0%
14.3%
9.9%
6.5%
4.6%
35 to
40
2.5%
3.8%
5.3%
5.4%
8 1%

12 0%

15.6%
28.8%
18.5%
23.5%
22.4%
37.7%
35.4%
41.8%
44.0%
45.3%
37.1%
39.8%
40.0%
41.7%
50.5%
45.2%
43.8%
50.8%
56.4%
55.0%
40.3%
43.9%
38.2%
39 5%

33.0%
37.3%
32.8%
33.4%
25.9%
20.5%
25 2%
16.5%
14.1%
40 to
45
2.0%
2.5%
3.6%
4.1%
2 9%

63%

9.9%
9.6%
13.1%
12.7%
14.8%
13.0%
14.0%
15.5%
12.9%
10.4%
15.7%
10.5%
16.2%
13.5%
14.8%
12.1%
19.0%
17.3%
14.1%
15.7%
16.0%
19.4%
25.3%
23 3%

29.7%
24.4%
26.6%
26.4%
33.0%
24.0%
21.1%
20.6%
26.3%
45 to
50


1.3%
1.8%
06%

07%

2.7%
4.7%
5.5%
3.3%
5.7%
3.3%
5.2%
4.6%
4.8%
4.2%
5.5%
6.0%
5.9%
8.5%
8.2%
7.7%
6.3%
9.4%
5.9%
4.0%
6.6%
6.7%
7.8%
8 0%

8.5%
5.9%
10.9%
12.4%
20.8%
29.7%
31.3%
30.9%
22.7%
50 to
55


0.6%
0.3%
0 1%

1 0%

0.5%
1.5%
2.0%
2.0%
1.7%
2.7%
1.1%
2.5%
1.7%
0.7%
0.9%
1.6%
1.6%
1.5%
1.5%
2.0%
1.1%
0.6%
0.6%
0.5%
2.8%
2.0%
0.7%
04%

0.5%
3.6%
3.3%
3.7%
4.0%
5.4%
8.1%
14.1%
16.3%
55 to
60






02%

1.3%
0.9%
0.4%
1.0%
0.8%
0.2%
0.2%

0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.3%
0.5%
0.3%
02%

0.2%
0.0%

0.3%
0.8%
0.9%
1.3%
8.5%
11.3%
60 to
65










0.1%
0.2%
0.0%
0.3%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0.6%
0.5%
0.5%
0.5%
0.3%
0.3%
0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.6%
09%

1.7%
1.4%
2.1%
2.5%
1.6%
0.7%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
65 to
70











0.2%
0.4%


0.0%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%

















3.6%
1.9%
2.1%
3.7%
70 to
75













0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%





0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%







75 to
SO













0.2%




























SO to
85































00%

0.0%
0.0%







85 to
90



























0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%











90 to
95










































95 to
100










































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           C-ll
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway


Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck

Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987

1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Oto
5








































5 to
10
0.0%



0.6%



































10 to
15
38.8%
32.8%
18.5%
31.4%
33.4%
3.2%
0.5%
2.2%
0.8%
0.9%
0.3%
0.2%
0 1%

0.1%
0.4%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%




















15 to
20
38.9%
42.7%
45.6%
37.1%
37.0%
31.8%
14.5%
14.0%
13.2%
12.6%
21.1%
12.6%
93%

7.6%
5.4%
5.0%
3.4%
2.0%
0.9%
2.9%
2.8%
2.3%
0.6%

0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.9%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
20 to
25
12.1%
15.9%
22.0%
19.0%
16.9%
33.5%
48.1%
38.0%
34.0%
33.5%
21.0%
23.6%
21 4%

31.5%
33.6%
36.2%
28.4%
38.2%
31.0%
36.9%
43.1%
38.0%
40.6%
33.9%
41.5%
38.3%
46.3%
47.2%
38.4%
43.5%
33.7%
30.0%
19.7%
15.4%
9.0%
11.0%
6.4%
5.9%
6.7%
25 to
30
7.7%
3.9%
5.0%
5.3%
7.7%
14.4%
16.2%
18.4%
21.4%
27.1%
30.3%
35.2%
39 1%

33.2%
39.1%
38.2%
47.6%
37.2%
44.8%
41.3%
27.1%
30.6%
37.9%
35.5%
35.7%
37.3%
30.4%
33.1%
36.3%
35.2%
38.2%
40.8%
49.3%
45.9%
39.1%
37.0%
36.8%
36.2%
33.5%
30 to
35
2.5%
4.7%
7.7%
6.3%
2.3%
12.8%
11.6%
18.5%
20.5%
15.0%
22.0%
21.2%
23 0%

19.1%
17.3%
15.6%
17.8%
18.2%
19.9%
16.9%
21.7%
26.3%
16.6%
28.3%
71 7°/
23.7%
22.4%
18.1%
24.4%
20.8%
25.4%
24.3%
5.3%
8.8%
6.0%
5.2%
5.9%
8.8%
1.7%
35 to
40


1.3%
0.9%
1.9%
3.8%
5.8%
6.7%
7.8%
9.9%
3.8%
7.1%
70%

8.5%
4.3%
4.5%
2.7%
4.3%
3.4%
2.0%
5.2%
2.7%
4.3%
2.3%
1.3%
0.6%
0.7%
0.7%
0.8%
0.4%
2.6%
4.9%
5.5%
9.7%
15.8%
15.3%
18.2%
23.7%
17.3%
40 to
45






1.9%
1.6%
1.5%
0.6%
1.3%
0.1%
00%











0.0%

0.0%






0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
1.5%
2 4%
5.6%
10.6%
45 to
50





0.5%
0.7%
0.6%
0.8%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
00%


























0.3%
50 to
55





0.1%
0.7%

































55 to
60








































60 to
65








































65 to
70








































70 to
75








































75 to
SO








































SO to
85








































85 to
90








































90 to
95








































95 to
100








































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           C-12
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C:  Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined




Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined




Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined




Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined


Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined




Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined


Adjusted Combined
Adjusted Combined
Car or
Truck
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All

All
All
All

All

All
All
All

All

All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All
All
All

All

All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All
All
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983

1984

1985
1986
1987

1988

1989
1990
1991

1992

1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000

2001
2002
2003

2004

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

2012
2013
Oto
5






0.0%










































5 to
10
10.7%
2.8%
0.9%
0.9%
3.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
0 0%

00%

0.0%
0.1%
00%

00%

0.0%

0.0%




00%

0.0%

00%



0.0%
0.0%








10 to
15
56.3%
59.4%
48.4%
36.2%
31.9%
1 1 .4%
6.1%
4.5%
49%

5 8%

7.0%
5.7%
49%

54%

5.8%
6.6%
5 2%

62%

4.8%
8.8%
9.0%
8.3%
7.8%
9.8%
10.1%
7 1%

9.8%
8.9%
11 1%

12 3%

9.3%
6.0%
4.3%
4.1%
1.0%
1.2%
1 6%

1.5%
0.9%
15 to
20
22 7%
22.8%
33.3%
41.7%
41.8%
43.6%
40.2%
33.9%
35 3%

30 7%

30.7%
23.6%
23 3%

25 7%

26.4%
26.4%
29 7%

28 5%

33.2%
34.7%
31.5%
31.1%
35.7%
33.9%
34.7%
38 0%

37.4%
39.0%
35 0%

38 1%

37.5%
38.8%
38.8%
35.5%
26.0%
26.5%
27 7%

21.7%
20.1%
20 to
25
7.8%
11.5%
10.0%
12.5%
15.5%
30.7%
30.6%
30.1%
28 9%

31 2%

28.6%
35.6%
38 2%

35 1%

39.7%
41.3%
40 7%

44 9%

40.6%
37.5%
38.6%
44.1%
39.6%
39.4%
41.7%
43 3%

38.1%
39.4%
39 1%

35 0%

33.6%
36.6%
32.3%
35.4%
35.6%
33.7%
35 6%

29.7%
29.7%
25 to
30
2.5%
3.0%
5.5%
5.6%
6.5%
10.8%
16.4%
24.0%
21 4%

25 1%

26.4%
27.8%
25 8%

26 0%

22.1%
21.2%
193%

152%

16.3%
14.6%
16.0%
12.8%
14.2%
14.8%
12.4%
105%

10.7%
9.3%
12 2%

130%

15.4%
13.1%
17.5%
18.1%
25.2%
25.0%
25 7%

27.5%
28.5%
30 to
35

0.5%
1.2%
2.8%
0.8%
2.3%
4.6%
5.8%
76%

44%

5.5%
5.3%
6 3%

57%

4.3%
3.7%
40%

34%

3.5%
3.0%
4.4%
3.2%
2.5%
1.9%
0.9%
09%

.8%
.0%
1%

1%

.2%
4.7%
5.9%
5.4%
10.9%
10.0%
74%

16.3%
16.2%
35 to
40


0.7%
0.3%
0.3%
1.0%
1.3%
1.1%
1 5%

23%

1.1%
1 .4%
1 1%

1 8%

1.3%
0.5%
06%

1 1%

1.0%
0.9%
0.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0 1%

0.1%
0.1%
00%

0 1%

0.1%
0.0%

0.2%
0.2%
0.9%
07%

1.2%
1.9%
40 to
45





0.2%
0.7%
0.6%
03%

03%

0.3%
0.2%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.1%
04%

05%

0.4%
0.4%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0 1%

0.2%
0.2%
04%

0 1%

0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.5%
02%

0.8%
0.5%
45 to
50








00%

0 1%

0.3%
0.2%
02%

02%

0.2%
0.2%
0 1%

0 1%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%






0.0%
0.0%
00%

03%

0.8%
0.6%
1.0%
1.2%
0.9%
2.3%
1 1%

1.3%
2.2%
50 to
55













0.1%
0 1%

0 1%

0.1%
0.0%
00%

0 1%

0.1%
0.1%









00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%








55 to
60













0.2%

















00%

0.0%
0.0%














60 to
65

















































65 to
70

















































70 to
75

















































75 to
SO

















































SO to
85

















































85 to
90

















































90 to
95

















































95 to
100

















































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           C-13
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway


Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway


Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway


Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway


Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway




Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway


Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway


Adjusted Highway
Adjusted Highway
Car or
Truck
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All
All
All
All

All
All
All
All

All
All
All

All
All
All
All

All

All
All
All

All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All
All
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

1985
1986
1987
1988

1989
1990
1991
1992

1993
1994
1995

1996
1997
1998
1999

2000

2001
2002
2003

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

2012
2013
Oto
5















































5 to
10
4.1%
1.3%
0.5%
0.2%
9 A°/
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

































10 to
15
56.7%
44.6%
28.8%
21.0%
16.8%
5.3%
2.1%
2.6%
2.3%
2 9%

2.9%
1.6%
2 2%
2 2%

1.5%
1.0%
0.8%
06%

0.3%
0.3%
09%

0.8%
0.2%
0.0%
0 1%

0 1%

0.9%
0.6%
1 1%

0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0 1%

0.0%
0.0%
15 to
20
19.9%
34.7%
49.4%
50.7%
52.3%
31.9%
21.2%
15.8%
14.6%
12 1%

8.5%
9.9%
7.1%
10 8%

12.3%
13.0%
12.9%
14 5%

16.8%
20.6%
20 2%

18.9%
23.8%
23.9%
28 4%

28 6%

28.7%
32.9%
30 2%

31.6%
24.3%
23.9%
23.4%
19.3%
11.8%
10.6%
8 6%

7.4%
5.7%
20 to
25
12.3%
9 2%
8.4%
14.1%
15.8%
32.4%
36.2%
33.1%
36.5%
36 2%

40.9%
29.7%
28.8%
25 2%

24.6%
25.4%
28.5%
28 1%

28.0%
27.5%
25 1%

25.1%
24.9%
24.6%
21 7%

22 1%

24.0%
21.2%
26 5%

29.1%
33.1%
31.7%
29.5%
29.8%
24.8%
28.6%
29 3%

22 9%
22.3%
25 to
30
4.8%
7.0%
6.7%
8.2%
8.9%
21.0%
24.5%
29.1%
26.8%
99 9°/

22.8%
39.3%
33.7%
40 0%

45.3%
47.5%
40.3%
41 6%

37.7%
36.1%
38 0%

41.7%
35.8%
37.3%
39 0%

40 1 %

35.1%
35.5%
32 6%

77 7°/
26.5%
29.3%
24.5%
29.8%
29.4%
26.4%
29 7%

25.9%
26.0%
30 to
35
2.1%
3.1%
4.6%
4.1%
3.2%
7.8%
11.7%
13.5%
13.0%
21 4%

18.1%
14.5%
23 2%
16 8%

12.8%
9.9%
14.2%
10 9%

13.3%
12.2%
10 9%

10.5%
12.5%
12.3%
99%

79%

8.4%
7.5%
86%

10.7%
14.7%
12.1%
18.5%
17.2%
29.5%
27.6%
25 3%

27.5%
24.4%
35 to
40


1.1%
1.4%
0.5%
0.7%
2.8%
4.6%
5.5%
35%

5.1%
3.3%
3.7%
41%

2.7%
2.5%
2.5%
33%

3.2%
2.7%
46%

2.7%
2.5%
1.7%
07%

09%

2.6%
2.0%
06%

0.7%
0.4%
2.1%
2.8%
2 2%
3.2%
3.5%
5 2%

13.2%
17.9%
40 to
45


0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
1.0%
0.8%
0.7%
1.2%
1 3%

1.2%
1.2%
0.8%
07%

0.5%
0.5%
0.4%
04%

0.4%
0.1%
02%

0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0 1%

0 1%

0.3%
0.3%
04%

0.2%
0.2%


0.2%
0.2%
1.0%
06%

1.9%
1.6%
45 to
50






0.6%
0.6%
0.2%
02%

0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0 1%

0.0%
0.2%
0.4%
03%

0.3%
0.3%
02%

0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0 1%

0 1%


0.0%
0 1%

0.3%
0.8%
0.8%
1.3%
1.5%
1.1%
2.3%
1 1%

1.3%
2.2%
50 to
55









0 1%

0.3%
0.0%

0 1%

0.2%
0.0%
0.1%
0 1%

0.0%
0.0%
00%








0.0%
0.0%
00%












55 to
60












0.2%
0.1%
0 1%


0.0%
0.0%
0 1%

0.1%
0.1%













0.0%
0.0%
0.0%








60 to
65






























00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%












65 to
70















































70 to
75















































75 to
SO















































SO to
85















































85 to
90















































90 to
95















































95 to
100















































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           C-14
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C:  Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City

Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City

Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Adjusted City
Car or
Truck
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988

1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Oto
5






0.0%


































5 to
10
22 3%
6.8%
4.9%
2.3%
4.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
10 to
15
52.3%
61.1%
62.0%
50.9%
47.8%
22 2%
15.8%
13.7%
18.5%
15.2%
9.2%
9.1%
7.4%
104%

10.9%
11.1%
11.2%
16.4%
16.4%
18.6%
18.9%
18.7%
22.2%
21.1%
25.9%
26.3%
28.2%
31.0%
29 4%

35.6%
28.8%
26.7%
25.6%
23.1%
14.7%
15.0%
15.3%
11.5%
12.1%
15 to
20
19.0%
21.1%
19.6%
29.4%
31.6%
42.7%
42.8%
37.6%
37.6%
39.1%
46.1%
42.5%
42.8%
41 2%

46.9%
48.0%
49.8%
51.4%
48.2%
48.9%
49.8%
51.2%
46.6%
49.3%
49.8%
50.5%
50.0%
47.1%
47 7%

43.8%
47.5%
49.3%
44.2%
46.1%
40.9%
37.1%
40.1%
34.7%
32.0%
20 to
25
6.3%
9.0%
7.5%
10.3%
13.2%
26.2%
26.9%
33.4%
23.7%
28.8%
28.9%
32.9%
32.1%
32 4%

29.2%
30.6%
29.8%
24.5%
27.1%
26.4%
23.8%
79 7°/
25.2%
22.9%
19.5%
20.0%
16.6%
17.7%
1 8 0%

16.1%
17.5%
16.9%
22.0%
22 4%
29.8%
32.1%
34.1%
33.2%
32.7%
25 to
30
0.2%
2.0%
4.5%
5.6%
2.8%
6.8%
10.4%
10.9%
14.6%
11.8%
11.0%
11.5%
15.3%
129%

11.0%
8.0%
7.1%
5.3%
6.6%
4.7%
6.2%
6.3%
5.1%
6.4%
4.6%
2 9%
4.8%
3.9%
44%

3.9%
5.0%
6.1%
6.3%
6.3%
12.5%
12.3%
8.5%
16.9%
17.8%
30 to
35


1.0%
1.2%
0.3%
1.0%
3.3%
2.8%
4.7%
4.0%
3.9%
2.4%
1.3%
1 5%

0.9%
1.7%
1.5%
1.5%
1.1%
0.9%
1.0%
0.7%
0.7%
0.2%
0.0%
0.2%
0.2%
0.0%
00%

0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.5%
0.5%
0.8%
0.3%
0.5%
1.1%
2.0%
35 to
40


0.4%
0.3%
0.3%
1.0%
0.8%
1.2%
0.7%
0.7%
0.6%
0.9%
0.7%
1 3%

0.8%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
02%

0.1%
0.2%

0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
40 to
45







0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.4%
0.2%
02%

0.1%
0.2%
0.4%
0.4%
0.4%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%




0.1%
0.1%
02%



0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.8%
0.4%
1.2%
0.8%
45 to
50









0.1%
0.3%
0.0%

0 1%

0.2%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%






0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.3%
0.8%
0.6%
1.0%
1.2%
0.9%



0.5%
50 to
55











0.2%
0.1%
0 1%


0.0%
0.0%








0.0%
0.0%
0.0%








2.3%
1.1%
1.3%
1.7%
55 to
60









































60 to
65









































65 to
70









































70 to
75









































75 to
SO









































SO to
85









































85 to
90









































90 to
95









































95 to
100









































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           C-15
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45
Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45

Lab 55/45
Car or
Truck
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All
All
All
All

All

All
All
All

All

All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All

All
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983

1984
1985
1986
1987

1988

1989
1990
1991

1992

1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011

2012

2013
Oto
5






0.0%








































5 to
10
0.5%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.3%
0.0%

0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%





























10 to
15
51.8%
34.1%
23.2%
17.6%
14.9%
3.0%
1.3%
1.6%
1 6%

1.8%
1.8%
0.8%
0 8%

07%

0.9%
1.0%
04%

04%

0.1%
0.0%
0.1%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
15 to
20
26.9%
42.3%
51.8%
45.1%
43.8%
24.1%
16.8%
18.7%
170%

14.2%
8.7%
9.7%
77%

1 1 4%

11.0%
11.2%
98%

13 5%

13.6%
15.6%
17.7%
14.7%
17.3%
15.0%
184%

16.7%
19.0%
22.7%
21.1%
21.8%
18.1%
14.8%
11.6%
9.1%
4.7%
6.4%
47%

3 8%

3.4%
20 to
25
13.7%
11.8%
10.1%
19.8%
23 2%
36.3%
35.4%
27.2%
33 3%

34.3%
41.7%
30.3%
30 0%

24 4%

27.0%
24.9%
30 5%

32 6%

27.8%
32.6%
25 2%
29 2%
29.5%
30.8%
29 3%

30.8%
28.8%
26.5%
27.3%
29.4%
28.8%
30.0%
32.8%
31.7%
23.3%
22.3%
24 7%

197%

18.0%
25 to
30
5.1%
8.8%
8.2%
9.9%
11.5%
9-3 9 o/
24.7%
26.5%
193%

22 3%
15.7%
31.5%
28 7%

29 9%

33.7%
39.7%
34 8%

32 5%

36.4%
32.0%
35.7%
34.7%
31.5%
34.3%
35 7%

36.1%
33.4%
31.8%
31.1%
29.3%
29.9%
30.8%
97 9°/
30.2%
28.7%
24.4%
25 9%

22 6%

21.4%
30 to
35
2.0%
2.5%
4.8%
4.5%
5.1%
10.1%
14.6%
18.0%
18 5%

19.3%
24.3%
18.9%
24 7%

25 1%

20.6%
17.5%
173%

14 5%

15.6%
14.2%
13.7%
13.9%
14.6%
12.9%
10 7%

11.5%
12.9%
14.1%
14.3%
13.3%
15.0%
15.7%
16.4%
16.2%
24.8%
23.4%
27 7%

23 8%

25.3%
35 to
40

0.5%
0.8%
2.6%
0.8%
1.7%
4.7%
5.7%
8 1%

5.3%
5.9%
6.1%
64%

5 6%

5.0%
4.5%
52%

46%

4.8%
4.0%
6.2%
5.9%
6.1%
6.6%
57%

4.5%
4.7%
4.0%
5.0%
5.1%
6.4%
7.1%
8.8%
9.5%
11.3%
17.9%
11 8%

14 1%

12.8%
40 to
45


1.1%
0.4%
0.2%
1.5%
1.6%
1.5%
1 7%

2.1%
0.9%
1.3%
07%

1 4%

0.8%
0.7%
1 4%

1 1%

1.1%
0.8%
0.9%
0.8%
0.7%
0.2%
0 1%

0.2%
0.9%
0.6%
0.8%
0.5%
0.6%
0.7%
1.5%
1.4%
5.2%
1.6%
2 9%

12 2%

14.1%
45 to
50




0.1%
0.2%
0.8%
0.6%
05%

0.5%
0.6%
1.1%
07%

1 1%

0.8%
0.1%
0 1%

02%

0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.5%
0.4%
0.9%
0.9%
06%

1 2%

1.7%
50 to
55







0.2%
0 1%

0.2%
0.0%
0.2%
02%

0 1%


0.0%
0 1%

04%

0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0 1%

0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%






0.3%
03%

06%

0.5%
55 to
60










0.1%
0.3%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.2%
0.2%
04%

0 1%

0.3%
0.3%
0.0%






0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.5%
02%

07%

0.4%
60 to
65












0.1%
0 1%

0 1%

0.1%


























0 1%

0.1%
65 to
70












0.2%
0 1%

0 1%


0.0%
00%

0 1%

0.1%
0.1%







0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
0.8%
0.6%
1.0%
1.2%
0.9%





0.5%
70 to
75



































0.0%
0.0%
0.0%



2.3%
1 1%

1 3%

1.8%
75 to
SO































0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%












SO to
85















































85 to
90















































90 to
95















































95 to
100















































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           C-16
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City
Lab City
Lab City

Lab City

Lab City
Car or
Truck
All
All
All
All
All
All

All
All
All

All

All
All
All
All

All
All
All

All

All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All

All
All
All

All
All
All
All
All

All
All
All

All

All
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980

1981
1982
1983

1984

1985
1986
1987
1988

1989
1990
1991

1992

1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

2000

2001
2002
2003

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

2009
2010
2011

2012

2013
Oto
5







0.0%











































5 to
10
7.9%
1 .4%
0.7%
0.5%
1.6%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

00%

0.0%

0.0%
0.0%


00%

00%

0.0%

00%


0.0%
0.0%

00%


0.0%


00%

0.0%
10 to
15
56.1%
52.5%
43.7%
34.7%
27.8%
96%

4.5%
4.0%
33%

40%

6.7%
2.4%
3.5%
40%

4.6%
5.1%
35%

40%

3.9%
5.4%
5.7%
6.0%
6.6%
7.7%
8 6%

47%

5.7%
3.3%
47%

4.7%
2.5%
1.7%
1.6%
1 4%

0.6%
0.3%
05%

04%

0.5%
15 to
20
25.3%
32 2%
38.1%
43.5%
46.6%
42 0%

40.7%
31.9%
37 4%

31 9%

31.8%
28.3%
25.1%
28 4%

27.0%
27.0%
30 3%

33 9%

32.1%
33.3%
34.5%
33.8%
35.6%
33.4%
34 3%

36 6%

37.5%
39.9%
36 9%

40.2%
36.6%
35.2%
34.7%
31 3%

21.4%
23.4%
22 7%

170%

15.8%
20 to
25
8.6%
9.6%
9.4%
12.5%
13.6%
31 7%

27.0%
31.1%
26 9%

31 3%

25.9%
35.7%
34.5%
29 9%

36.4%
39.8%
36 8%

39 6%

37.9%
37.2%
34.8%
37.4%
34.0%
34.2%
374%

39 3%

36.4%
35.5%
35 5%

34.5%
36.1%
38.4%
32.4%
35 5%

29.8%
26.8%
31 0%

28 0%

26.8%
25 to
30
2.0%
3.9%
6.2%
5.1%
8.6%
1 1 3%

19.5%
22.4%
198%

24 0%

27.4%
23.9%
26.7%
26 7%

24.2%
20.8%
21 1%

1 5 4%

19.4%
18.3%
17.5%
15.5%
16.5%
17.9%
14 1%

144%

14.6%
16.1%
169%

14.7%
17.1%
15.8%
19.4%
1 8 9%

29.1%
27.9%
30 4%

271%

25.5%
30 to
35

0.5%
0.8%
2.7%
1.3%
3 7%

5.3%
8.0%
10 2%

60%

6.2%
6.9%
8.5%
84%

5.9%
6.2%
64%

49%

5.0%
4.2%
6.2%
6.2%
6.4%
6.0%
5 1%

45%

4.5%
4.4%
49%

4.9%
6.1%
7.1%
8.5%
93%

14.3%
15.8%
10 3%

12 9%

16.9%
35 to
40


1.1%
1.0%
0.2%
07%

2.1%
1.5%
1 9%

20%

1.1%
1.3%
0.7%
1 0%

0.8%
0.7%
1 2%

1 5%

1.1%
0.9%
0.8%
0.8%
0.8%
0.6%
03%

02%

1.1%
0.6%
06%

0.4%
0.5%
0.9%
1.5%
1 6%

2.7%
2.1%
3 0%

11 7%

10.3%
40 to
45




0.1%
1 0%

0.8%
0.7%
04%

06%

0.6%
0.9%
0.7%
1 3%

0.8%
0.1%
02%

02%

0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0 1%

00%

0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.5%
04%

0.7%
0.3%
02%

0 1%

0.7%
45 to
50








0.2%
0 1%

0 1%

0.0%
0.3%
0.2%
02%

0.0%
0.0%
04%

04%

0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0 1%

0 1%

0.1%
0.1%
0 1%

0.0%
0.0%

0.0%
02%

0.2%
0.2%
03%

04%

0.3%
50 to
55











0 1%

0.3%
0.0%



0.2%
0.2%
0 1%

0 1%

0.3%
0.3%
0.0%









02%

0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
02%

0.2%
0.5%
0 1%

03%

0.1%
55 to
60














0.1%
0.1%
0 1%

0.1%
0.0%
00%

0 1%

0.1%
0.1%








0.1%
0.1%
0 1%








0.3%
02%

09%

0.6%
60 to
65














0.2%



















0.0%
0.0%
00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%







0 1%

0.1%
65 to
70
































00%

0.0%
0.0%
0 0%

0.3%
0.8%
0.6%
1.0%
1 2%

0.9%





0.5%
70 to
75













































2.3%
1 1%

1 3%

1.8%
75 to
SO



















































SO to
85



















































85 to
90



















































90 to
95



















































95 to
100



















































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           C-17
December 2013

-------
                                                                   2013 FE Trends Report
                                              Appendix C: Percent of 1975 to 2013 Production by Fuel Economy Band
MPG Variable
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway


Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway




Lab Highway
Lab Highway




Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Lab Highway
Car or
Truck
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All

All

All
All
All

All

All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983

1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995

1996

1997
1998
1999

2000

2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Oto
5












































5 to
10
0.0%



0.1%

0.0%





































10 to
15
14.8%
7.5%
3.8%
7.2%
7.5%
0.5%
0.1%
0.5%
02%

0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

0 0%






















15 to
20
50.4%
41.3%
34.7%
19.3%
17.8%
6.1%
2.5%
2.8%
2 9%

3.0%
5.2%
3.5%
2.6%
2 2%
1.6%
1.5%
1.0%
0.6%
0.3%
1.1%
1 0%

09%

0.2%
0.0%
0 1%

0 1%

0.1%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
20 to
25
14.6%
30.9%
37.9%
39.1%
39.6%
20.5%
17.4%
12.9%
1 1 6%

9.7%
5.8%
7.1%
6.3%
9.6%
10.5%
11.1%
9 2%
12.5%
11.0%
14.5%
1 6 1 %

146%

16.4%
14.2%
174%

162%

19.5%
21.4%
17.8%
20.9%
15.0%
12.8%
8.3%
6.4%
3.0%
4.2%
2.8%
2.1%
2.5%
25 to
30
10.0%
5.9%
8.4%
15.9%
15.4%
30.5%
30.3%
24.2%
32 9%

28.6%
23.1%
19.4%
18.3%
15.6%
15.3%
16.9%
17.9%
14.7%
18.6%
18.4%
1 1 4%

134%

16.7%
17.9%
179%

1 8 9%

16.1%
17.1%
18.8%
19.6%
18.8%
19.0%
21.7%
20.1%
14.1%
14.3%
15.9%
13.2%
12.2%
30 to
35
6.5%
9.5%
6.3%
9.3%
10.1%
24.8%
23.2%
21.4%
19 2%

23 2%
30.0%
26.3%
29.8%
24.1%
26.4%
26.1%
29 2%
30.3%
25.3%
24.2%
21 4%

28 0%

22.4%
21.2%
19 1%

20 3%

25.3%
20.6%
23.7%
21.7%
24.1%
24.1%
23.1%
22.8%
19.9%
22.1%
20.9%
14.4%
14.3%
35 to
40
2.0%
3.0%
4.5%
4.4%
6.8%
10.6%
13.9%
24.5%
16 1%

20.3%
17.8%
29.2%
27.7%
32.1%
32.1%
33.2%
26.7%
28.7%
28.1%
26.6%
34 0%

29 2%

28.1%
30.6%
33 4%

32 6%

23.9%
24.6%
21.0%
20.7%
19.5%
23.7%
21.6%
23.8%
22.5%
18.6%
22 3%
19.1%
15.3%
40 to
45
1.6%
2.0%
2.9%
3.2%
2.3%
5.2%
8.5%
8.0%
10 5%

9.9%
11.5%
9.4%
10.2%
11.0%
9.1%
7.3%
10.9%
7.2%
11.0%
8.4%
94%

76%

1 1 .4%
10.1%
82%

9 2%

9.4%
10.7%
13.6%
12.1%
16.5%
14.1%
15.7%
15.7%
22.2%
15.7%
13.2%
15.2%
20.7%
45 to
50


1.0%
1.4%
0.5%
0.6%
2.4%
3.9%
44%

2.6%
4.3%
2.4%
3.8%
3.3%
3.4%
3.0%
3.8%
4.1%
4.0%
5.3%
5 2%

48%

.8%
.5%
5%

3%

.8%
.7%
4 2%
4 2%
4.7%
3.4%
6.4%
7.4%
13.9%
18.6%
18.1%
19.9%
14.7%
50 to
55


0.5%
0.3%
0.1%
0.9%
0.5%
1.2%
1 6%

1.5%
1.3%
2.0%
0.8%
1.7%
1.2%
0.5%
0.6%
1.1%
1.1%
0.9%
1 0%

1 3%

0.7%
0.4%
03%

03%

1.7%
1.1%
0.4%
0.2%
0.3%
2.1%
1.9%
2 2%
2.7%
3.4%
4.7%
9.1%
10.5%
55 to
60





0.2%
1.1%
0.8%
03%

0.7%
0.6%
0.2%
0.1%

0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
02%

0 1%

0.1%
0.0%
00%

0 1%

0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%

0.2%
0.6%
0.6%
0.8%
5.5%
7.3%
60 to
65








0 1%

0.1%
0.0%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%
0.2%
0.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
02%

02%

0.1%
0.2%
0 1%

0 1%

0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
0.5%
0.9%
0.8%
1.3%
1.5%
1.1%
0.5%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
65 to
70










0.1%
0.3%


0.0%
0.2%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%




















2.3%
1.1%
1 .4%
2.4%
70 to
75












0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
00%









0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%







75 to
SO












0.2%































SO to
85


































0.0%
0.0%
0.0%







85 to
90





























00%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%










90 to
95












































95 to
100












































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                           C-18
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
8237
9722
11300
11175
10794
9443
8733
7819
8002
10675
10791
11015
10731
10736
10018
8810
8524
8108
8456
8415
9396
7890
8334
7971
8376
9125
8405
8301
7921
7537
8027
7993
8082
7319
5636
6055
5728
7379
7731
Frac
0.806
0.788
0.800
0.773
0.778
0.835
0.827
0.803
0.777
0.761
0.746
0.717
0.722
0.702
0.693
0.698
0.678
0.666
0.640
0.596
0.620
0.600
0.576
0.551
0.551
0.551
0.539
0.515
0.502
0.480
0.505
0.529
0.529
0.527
0.605
0.545
0.477
0.549
0.538
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
15.8
17.5
18.3
19.9
20.3
23.5
25.1
26.0
25.9
26.3
27.0
27.9
28.1
28.6
28.1
27.8
28.0
27.6
28.2
28.0
28.3
28.3
28.4
28.5
28.2
28.2
28.4
28.6
29.0
28.9
29.5
29.2
30.3
30.5
32.1
33.2
32.8
35.3
35.7
Adj
City
12.3
13.7
14.4
15.5
15.9
18.3
19.6
20.1
19.9
20.2
20.7
21.2
21.2
21.4
20.9
20.5
20.5
20.0
20.3
20.0
20.0
19.8
19.8
19.7
19.4
19.3
19.4
19.4
19.5
19.3
19.6
19.4
20.1
20.2
21.3
22.0
21.6
23.2
23.4
Adj
Hwy
15.2
16.6
17.4
19.1
19.2
22.6
24.2
25.5
25.5
26.0
26.8
27.6
27.7
28.2
27.9
27.5
27.6
27.5
27.9
27.7
28.1
28.0
28.0
28.0
27.5
27.3
27.3
27.2
27.5
27.4
27.6
27.5
28.3
28.5
29.6
30.5
30.8
32.6
32.9
Adj
Comb
13.5
14.9
15.6
16.9
17.2
20.0
21.4
22 2
22.1
22.4
23.0
23.7
23.8
24.1
23.7
23.3
23.4
23.1
23.5
23.3
23.4
23.3
23.4
23.4
23.0
22.9
23.0
23.1
23.3
23.1
23.5
23.3
24.1
24.3
25.3
26.2
26.0
27.8
28.0
Weight
(Ib)
4058
4059
3944
3588
3485
3101
3076
3054
3112
3099
3093
3041
3031
3047
3099
3176
3154
3240
3207
3250
3263
3282
3274
3306
3365
3369
3380
3391
3417
3462
3463
3534
3507
3527
3464
3474
3559
3448
3504
Vol
(Cu Ft)


110.4
109.0
108.9
104.2
106.5
106.1
108.7
107.5
108.2
107.3
106.6
107.0
107.7
107.1
106.8
108.4
108.4
108.2
108.7
109.0
108.7
108.6
109.1
109.6
109.3
110.0
109.6
110.4
111.4
111.5
110.2
109.9
110.0
110.5
111.1
110.7

Engine
cro
288
287
279
251
238
188
182
175
182
179
177
167
162
160
163
163
163
170
166
168
167
165
164
164
166
165
165
166
165
168
166
172
165
165
155
156
159
148
148
HP
136
134
133
124
119
100
99
99
104
106
111
111
112
116
121
129
132
141
138
143
152
154
156
159
164
168
168
173
176
183
182
194
189
193
184
187
199
189
199
0-60
Time
14.2
14.4
14.0
13.7
13.8
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.0
13.8
13.3
13.2
13.0
12.8
12.5
12.1
11.8
11.5
11.6
11.4
10.9
10.8
10.7
10.6
10.5
10.4
10.3
10.2
10.0
9.8
9.8
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.8
9.6
9.4
9.6
9.4
HP/
cro
0.515
0.502
0.516
0.538
0.545
0.583
0.594
0.609
0.615
0.637
0.671
0.701
0.732
0.759
0.783
0.829
0.851
0.868
0.865
0.884
0.945
0.958
0.974
0.993
1.009
1.032
1.042
1.066
1.087
1.106
1.115
1.146
1.157
1.178
1.190
1.197
1.252
1.279
1.343
HP/
WT
0.0331
0.0324
0.0335
0.0342
0.0338
0.0322
0.0320
0.0320
0.0330
0.0339
0.0355
0.0360
0.0365
0.0375
0.0387
0.0401
0.0413
0.0428
0.0425
0.0432
0.0460
0.0464
0.0469
0.0475
0.0481
0.0492
0.0492
0.0504
0.0510
0.0521
0.0518
0.0540
0.0531
0.0536
0.0520
0.0527
0.0548
0.0537
0.0555
Ton-MPG
(Lab 55/45)
32.3
35.5
36.4
35.9
35.4
36.6
38.9
40.1
40.7
41.1
42.0
42.6
42.8
43.7
43.8
44.2
44.3
44.9
45.4
45.7
46.4
46.5
46.7
47.3
47.5
47.6
48.4
48.9
49.9
50.5
51.8
52.4
54.2
54.9
56.5
59.8
59.9
62.4
64.7
Cu Ft-MPG
(Lab 55/45)


2091
2240
2258
2507
2744
2836
2904
2910
2992
3057
3051
3119
3080
3014
3040
3040
3107
3086
3130
3125
3127
3138
3106
3121
3159
3200
3237
3261
3384
3351
3468
3490
3645
3863
3795
4067

Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG
(Lab 55/45)


4021
3926
3878
3841
4161
4273
4426
4425
4551
4585
4569
4693
4723
4746
4746
4877
4929
4955
5045
5080
5076
5145
5191
5224
5292
5382
5481
5587
5790
5855
5994
6056
6228
6629
6665
6927

Drivetrain
Front
6.5%
5.8%
6.8%
9.6%
11.9%
29.7%
37.0%
45.6%
47.3%
53.7%
61.6%
71.1%
77.0%
81.7%
82.5%
84.6%
83.2%
80.8%
85.1%
84.4%
82.0%
86.5%
86.5%
87.0%
87.2%
84.9%
84.1%
84.9%
82.0%
80.8%
79.8%
75.8%
80.5%
77.7%
82.6%
81.6%
78.2%
84.2%
79.7%
4WD




0.3%
0.9%
0.7%
0.8%
3.1%
1.0%
2.1%
1.1%
1.1%
0.8%
1.0%
1.0%
1.4%
1.1%
1.2%
0.4%
1.2%
1.5%
1.7%
2.3%
2.2%
2.1%
3.2%
3.8%
3.5%
5.4%
5.8%
5.8%
5.7%
7.3%
6.7%
5.9%
8.4%
6.2%
8.0%
EPA-420-R-13-011
D-l
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Transmission
Manual
19.6%
17.1%
16.8%
19.8%
21.1%
30.9%
29.9%
29.2%
26.1%
24.1%
22.8%
24.8%
24.9%
24.3%
21.0%
19.6%
20.5%
17.4%
17.8%
16.7%
16.3%
14.9%
13.5%
12.3%
10.9%
11.2%
11.4%
11.2%
11.2%
10.2%
9.3%
9.4%
8.5%
8.0%
6.8%
5.7%
5.4%
5.6%
7.7%
Lockup
0.3%


7.1%
8.8%
16.8%
33.3%
51.4%
56.7%
58.3%
58.7%
58.0%
59.5%
66.1%
69.3%
72.9%
73.6%
76.4%
77.0%
79.3%
81.9%
83.6%
85.8%
87.3%
88.4%
87.7%
87.5%
88.2%
87.9%
88.2%
88.0%
88.1%
81.1%
80.2%
82.0%
77.7%
81.2%
87.8%
84.3%
CVT














0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%


0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.4%
0.9%
1.4%
2.6%
2.4%
10.4%
11.5%
10.8%
14.8%
12.8%
15.3%
18.3%
Fuel Metering
GDI
































0.3%
3.2%
4.5%
6.6%
16.4%
25.8%
35.9%
Port
5.1%
3.2%
4.2%
5.1%
4.7%
6.2%
6.1%
7.2%
9.5%
15.0%
21.4%
36.7%
42.5%
53.7%
62.4%
77.5%
78.0%
89.5%
91.6%
94.9%
98.8%
98.8%
99.1%
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
99.6%
99.6%
99.7%
99.6%
99.4%
99.6%
96.8%
94.8%
92.4%
82.4%
73.0%
62.6%
TBI





0.7%
2.6%
9.8%
18.9%
24.4%
32.0%
28.4%
30.5%
30.0%
27.8%
21.1%
21.8%
10.4%
8.4%
5.1%
1.2%
1.1%
0.8%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%













Diesel
0.2%
0.3%
0.5%
0.9%
2.1%
4.4%
5.9%
4.7%
2.1%
1.7%
0.9%
0.3%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%

0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0 3%

0.4%
0.4%
0.3%
0 4%

0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0 7%

1.0%
1.1%
1.2%
1.5%
Multi-
Valve











4.8%
14.7%
19.9%
24.4%
33.0%
34.1%
35.0%
36.7%
41.0%
52.2%
57.3%
58.6%
61.4%
64.7%
65.1%
67 3%

69.9%
73.8%
77.3%
78 2%

80.8%
84.8%
87.8%
92 0%

92.8%
93.5%
98.2%
97.9%
WT















0.6%
2.4%
4.6%
4.8%
8.0%
9.8%
11.7%
11.3%
18.4%
17.1%
23.4%
28 3%

33.9%
41.3%
44.2%
5 1 6%

60.6%
65.2%
63.5%
79 7%

90.5%
93.9%
97.6%
97.7%
Hybrid

























0.1%
00%

0.3%
0.6%
0.9%
2 1%

1.5%
3.4%
3.4%
3 0%

6.1%
4.1%
5.3%
7.1%
Vehicle Size
Small
55.4%
55.4%
51.9%
44.7%
43.7%
54.4%
51.5%
56.5%
53.1%
57.4%
55.7%
59.5%
63.5%
64.8%
58.3%
58.6%
61.5%
56.5%
57.2%
58.5%
57.3%
54.3%
55.1%
49.4%
47.7%
47.5%
50 8%

48.6%
50.6%
47.4%
44 2%

46.2%
44.6%
44.6%
47 6%

48.8%
38.5%


Midsize
23.3%
25.2%
24.5%
34.4%
34.2%
34.4%
36.4%
31.0%
31.8%
29.4%
28.9%
27.9%
24.3%
22.3%
28.2%
28.7%
26.2%
27.8%
29.5%
26.1%
28.6%
32.0%
30.6%
39.1%
39.7%
34.3%
32 3%

36.3%
33.5%
35.6%
38 9%

32.9%
40.0%
35.8%
35 4%

37.5%
43.4%


Large
21.3%
19.4%
23.5%
21.0%
22.1%
11.3%
12.2%
12.5%
15.1%
13.2%
15.4%
12.6%
12.2%
12.8%
13.5%
12.8%
12.3%
15.6%
13.3%
15.4%
14.0%
13.6%
14.3%
11.4%
12.6%
18.2%
16 8%

15.1%
15.9%
17.0%
16 9%

20.9%
15.4%
19.5%
17 0%

13.7%
18.2%


EPA-420-R-13-011
D-2
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
10
11
19
16
16
0
0
13
34
55
88
59
95
109
108
65
224
243
473
332
220
287
361
454
488
617
743
603
575
639
813
751
919
924
608
915
1207
1269
1526
Frac
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.003
0.004
0.006
0.004
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.005
0.018
0.020
0.036
0.023
0.015
0.022
0.025
0.031
0.032
0.037
0.048
0.037
0.036
0.041
0.051
0.050
0.060
0.066
0.065
0.082
0.101
0.094
0.106
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
13.1
12.4
14.3
13.6
16.8
17.2
17.3
23.4
24.3
22.6
23.5
22.3
22.9
22.7
22.7
22.5
21.8
21.4
20.4
21.8
21.5
22.4
23.5
22.3
22.7
22.0
23.3
24.0
24.8
24.9
25.4
25.7
25.9
26.6
27.8
29.1
29.9
29.6
31.2
Adj
City
10.1
9.4
11.2
10.4
13.9
13.9
13.7
20.2
19.5
17.5
17.6
17.1
17.1
17.1
17.1
16.9
16.4
16.1
15.0
16.1
15.7
16.2
17.1
16.0
16.3
15.7
16.4
16.8
17.2
17.0
17.3
17.5
17.6
18.1
18.8
19.6
20.0
19.8
20.7
Adj
Hwy
12.6
12.5
13.6
13.5
14.8
15.5
16.1
19.3
22.4
22.1
24.2
21.7
23.1
22.5
22.1
21.5
20.5
20.1
19.6
20.5
20.5
21.1
21.7
20.8
21.0
20.3
21.4
22.0
22.7
23.1
23 2
23.5
23.8
24.4
25.3
26.5
27.4
27.1
28.5
Adj
Comb
11.1
10.6
12 2
11.6
14.3
14.6
14.7
19.8
20.7
19.3
20.1
18.9
19.4
19.2
19.1
18.8
18.2
17.8
17.0
18.0
17.8
18.4
19.2
18.2
18.5
17.9
18.8
19.3
19.9
20.0
20.2
20.5
20.6
21.2
22.0
23.0
23.6
23.4
24.5
Weight
(Ib)
4000
3986
4000
4000
3271
4000
4000
2630
3124
3487
3469
3479
3492
3495
3497
3518
3733
3713
3848
3735
3763
3710
3549
3824
3831
3870
3765
3747
3716
3854
3848
3876
3935
3902
3846
3949
3890
3913
3951
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
262
263
261
262
185
280
318
159
163
179
171
170
179
199
226
209
215
210
238
209
214
215
190
218
211
211
194
183
181
191
186
184
185
179
175
172
166
167
159
HP
113
123
124
126
99
122
140
88
101
109
109
121
131
142
148
146
145
153
179
163
165
167
159
168
170
174
180
179
181
198
192
192
208
204
206
213
207
211
210
0-60
Time
15.6
14.6
14.4
14.2
14.9
15.1
13.3
13.7
14.1
14.5
14.4
13.3
12.7
11.9
11.4
11.7
12.6
12.0
10.8
11.3
11.4
11.0
11.0
11.1
11.1
11.0
10.5
10.4
10.3
9.9
10.1
10.2
9.7
9.8
9.6
9.5
9.7
9.6
9.8
HP/
cro
0.430
0.467
0.477
0.481
0.576
0.436
0.440
0.557
0.617
0.615
0.637
0.713
0.730
0.719
0.668
0.714
0.680
0.734
0.757
0.791
0.783
0.802
0.875
0.802
0.846
0.857
0.961
1.003
1.014
1.039
1.040
1.051
1.127
1.141
1.174
1.240
1.243
1.259
1.335
HP/
WT
0.0282
0.0309
0.0311
0.0315
0.0300
0.0305
0.0350
0.0335
0.0325
0.0313
0.0314
0.0348
0.0374
0.0405
0.0422
0.0415
0.0385
0.0409
0.0462
0.0434
0.0436
0.0448
0.0446
0.0439
0.0442
0.0448
0.0477
0.0479
0.0486
0.0511
0.0498
0.0493
0.0524
0.0518
0.0534
0.0538
0.0530
0.0536
0.0528
Ton-MPG
(Lab 55/45)
26.5
25.9
29.5
27.9
27.8
34.6
34.5
30.7
38.4
39.7
40.8
38.9
40.0
39.9
39.8
39.6
40.7
39.9
39.5
40.6
40.6
41.7
41.9
42.8
43.7
42.8
44.2
45.3
46.4
48.2
49.0
50.0
51.2
52.4
53.9
57.8
58.5
58.5
61.9
Cu Ft-MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Drivetrain
Front



















2.6%
0.1%
6.3%
20.3%
10.3%
15.4%
12.7%
37.1%
55.5%
65.9%
72.9%
74.0%
77.7%
85.4%
87.0%
92.2%
88.4%
88.8%
81.7%
86.1%
4WD





























3.4%
14.5%
8.6%
4.7%
5.3%
2.8%
8.9%
9.7%
14.5%
12.2%
EPA-420-R-13-011
D-3
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Transmission
Manual
68.3%
69.1%
82.5%
84.2%
37.7%
3.9%

4.6%
19.3%
19.4%
15.9%
18.1%
14.3%
24.6%
27.4%
35.1%
22.2%
24.6%
10.9%
21.5%
17.4%
15.4%
23.2%
11.1%
8.4%
5.7%
6.2%
7.5%
7.2%
5.8%
3.7%
3.1%
1.6%
0.7%
0.6%
0.2%
0.5%
0.4%
0.5%
Lockup




3.9%
86.8%
100.0%
8.9%
43.2%
64.8%
84.1%
81.9%
85.7%
75.4%
72.6%
63.0%
77.7%
75.4%
89.1%
70.9%
82.6%
84.6%
70.7%
88.9%
91.6%
94.3%
93.8%
92.3%
84.3%
87.9%
91.9%
91.7%
94.5%
93.6%
85.9%
91.5%
91.5%
98.5%
99.1%
CVT



























0.2%
8.5%
6.3%
4.5%
5.2%
3.9%
5.7%
13.5%
8.3%
8.0%
11.1%
8.6%
Fuel Metering
GDI

































2.2%
1.3%
26.2%
27.6%
39.4%
47.5%
Port











0.0%
32.8%
48.2%
44.7%
63.3%
49.3%
68.4%
90.6%
92.1%
90.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
97.8%
98.7%
73.8%
72.4%
60.6%
52.5%
TBI










5.3%
86.8%
67.2%
51.8%
53.9%
31.6%
49.9%
30.3%
8.7%
7.9%
9.2%


















Diesel











0.0%



























Multi-
Valve



















11.5%
19.1%
32.4%
54.6%
29.2%
38.4%
34.0%
43.1%
70.3%
68.1%
75.5%
67.5%
86.8%
82.7%
89.6%
94.1%
100.0%
100.0%
98.0%
100.0%
WT
























4.6%
5.0%
10.0%
18.2%
19.6%
37.9%
27.3%
33.4%
46.8%
56.4%
73.7%
99.9%
99.8%
98.0%
99.5%
Hybrid






























0.5%
1.1%
1.6%
2.3%
2.7%
1.4%
0.6%
0.4%
0.3%
Vehicle Size
Small
61.4%
63.1%
79.5%
81.6%
83.5%


86.5%
37.6%
5.6%

0.0%
24.1%
35.2%
32.0%
41.2%
20.9%
19.9%
10.2%
18.7%
11.5%
14.4%
41.3%
18.4%
13.5%
21.2%
18.7%
18.3%
10.0%
7.0%
5.0%

0.2%






Midsize
38.6%
36.9%
20.5%
18.4%
16.5%
100.0%
100.0%
13.5%
62.4%
94.4%
100.0%
100.0%
75.9%
64.8%
68.0%
58.8%
79.1%
80.1%
89.8%
81.3%
88.5%
85.6%
58.7%
81.6%
85.6%
78.1%
75.3%
75.3%
83.4%
78.4%
58.8%
65.8%
66.3%
72.8%
75.2%
58.9%
61.3%


Large
























0.9%
0.6%
6.0%
6.4%
6.6%
14.6%
36.2%
34.2%
33.4%
27.2%
24.8%
41.1%
38.7%


EPA-420-R-13-011
D-4
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Vehicle
Type
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
8247
9734
11318
11191
10810
9444
8734
7832
8035
10730
10879
11074
10826
10845
10126
8875
8748
8350
8929
8747
9616
8177
8695
8425
8865
9742
9148
8904
8496
8176
8839
8744
9001
8243
6244
6969
6934
8648
9257
Frac
0.807
0.789
0.801
0.775
0.779
0.835
0.828
0.805
0.780
0.765
0.752
0.721
0.728
0.709
0.701
0.704
0.696
0.686
0.676
0.619
0.635
0.622
0.601
0.583
0.583
0.588
0.586
0.553
0.539
0.520
0.556
0.579
0.589
0.593
0.670
0.627
0.578
0.644
0.644
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
15.8
17.5
18.3
19.9
20.2
23.5
25.1
26.0
25.9
26.3
26.9
27.9
28.0
28.5
28.1
27.7
27.8
27.4
27.6
27.7
28.1
28.0
28.2
28.1
27.8
27.7
27.9
28.3
28.7
28.5
29.1
28.9
29.8
30.1
31.6
32.6
32.3
34.3
34.8
Adj
City
12.3
13.7
14.4
15.5
15.9
18.3
19.5
20.1
19.9
20.2
20.6
21 2
21.2
21.4
20.8
20.4
20.4
19.8
19.9
19.8
19.8
19.7
19.7
19.5
19.2
19.0
19.1
19.2
19.3
19.1
19.4
19.2
19.8
20.0
21.0
21.7
21.3
22.6
22.9
Adj
Hwy
15.2
16.6
17.4
19.1
19.2
22.6
24 2
25.5
25.5
25.9
26.7
27.6
27.7
28.1
27.8
27.4
27.4
27.2
27.3
27.4
27.9
27.6
27.6
27.5
27.0
26.7
26.7
26.8
27.1
27.0
27 2
27.1
27.8
28.0
29.2
29.9
30.1
31.7
32.1
Adj
Comb
13.5
14.9
15.6
16.9
17.2
20.0
21.4
22 2
22.1
22.4
23.0
23.7
23.8
24.1
23.6
23.3
23.3
22.9
23.0
23.0
23.3
23.1
23 2
23.0
22.7
22.5
22.6
22.8
23.0
22.9
23.1
23.0
23.7
23.9
25.0
25.7
25.6
27.0
27.4
Weight
(Ib)
4057
4059
3944
3588
3485
3101
3076
3053
3112
3101
3096
3043
3035
3051
3104
3178
3168
3254
3241
3268
3274
3297
3285
3334
3390
3401
3411
3415
3437
3492
3498
3563
3551
3569
3502
3536
3617
3516
3578
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
288
287
279
251
238
188
182
175
182
179
177
167
162
161
163
163
164
171
170
169
168
167
165
167
168
168
167
167
166
170
168
173
167
166
157
158
161
151
150
HP
136
134
133
124
119
100
99
99
104
106
111
111
113
116
121
129
133
141
140
144
153
155
156
160
164
168
169
173
176
184
183
194
191
194
186
190
200
192
201
0-60
Time
14.2
14.4
14.0
13.7
13.8
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.0
13.8
13.3
13.2
13.0
12.8
12.4
12.1
11.9
11.5
11.5
11.4
10.9
10.8
10.7
10.6
10.5
10.4
10.3
10.2
10.0
9.8
9.9
9.6
9.6
9.6
9.8
9.6
9.5
9.6
9.4
HP/
cro
0.515
0.502
0.516
0.538
0.545
0.583
0.594
0.609
0.615
0.637
0.671
0.701
0.732
0.758
0.782
0.829
0.847
0.864
0.859
0.880
0.941
0.952
0.970
0.983
1.000
1.021
1.035
1.061
1.082
1.101
1.108
1.138
1.154
1.174
1.189
1.203
1.250
1.276
1.341
HP/
WT
0.0331
0.0324
0.0335
0.0342
0.0338
0.0322
0.0320
0.0320
0.0330
0.0338
0.0354
0.0360
0.0365
0.0375
0.0387
0.0401
0.0413
0.0427
0.0427
0.0432
0.0460
0.0463
0.0468
0.0473
0.0479
0.0489
0.0491
0.0502
0.0508
0.0520
0.0516
0.0536
0.0530
0.0534
0.0522
0.0528
0.0544
0.0537
0.0550
Ton-MPG
(Lab 55/45)
32.3
35.5
36.4
35.9
35.4
36.6
38.9
40.1
40.7
41.1
41.9
42.6
42.7
43.7
43.7
44.2
44.2
44.7
45.1
45.5
46.2
46.4
46.5
47.1
47.3
47.3
48.0
48.6
49.7
50.3
51.5
52.2
53.9
54.6
56.3
59.6
59.6
61.9
64.2
Cu Ft-MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Drivetrain
Front
6.5%
5.8%
6.8%
9.6%
11.9%
29.7%
37.0%
45.6%
47.1%
53.5%
61.1%
70.7%
76.4%
80.9%
81.6%
84.0%
81.1%
78.4%
80.6%
81.3%
80.1%
83.7%
83.8%
82.9%
83.2%
80.4%
80.3%
82.9%
80.9%
80.2%
79.2%
75.9%
81.0%
78.8%
83.5%
82.5%
80.1%
83.8%
80.8%
4WD




0.3%
0.9%
0.7%
0.8%
3.1%
1.0%
2.1%
1.0%
1.1%
0.8%
1.0%
1.0%
1.3%
1.1%
1.1%
0.4%
1.1%
1.4%
1.7%
2.1%
2.1%
2.0%
3.0%
3.6%
3.2%
5.3%
6.6%
6.0%
5.6%
7.1%
6.3%
6.3%
8.6%
7.4%
8.7%
EPA-420-R-13-011
D-5
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Vehicle
Type
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Transmission
Manual
19.7%
17.2%
16.9%
19.9%
21.1%
30.9%
29.9%
29.2%
26.0%
24.1%
22.8%
24.7%
24.8%
24.3%
21.1%
19.8%
20.6%
17.6%
17.5%
16.9%
16.3%
14.9%
13.9%
12.2%
10.8%
10.8%
11.0%
10.9%
10.9%
9.8%
8.8%
8.8%
7.8%
7.2%
6.2%
5.0%
4.6%
4.9%
6.5%
Lockup
0.3%


7.1%
8.8%
16.8%
33.3%
51.3%
56.7%
58.3%
58.9%
58.1%
59.7%
66.2%
69.3%
72.8%
73.7%
76.4%
77.6%
78.9%
81.9%
83.6%
85.2%
87.4%
88.6%
88.1%
88.0%
88.4%
87.7%
88.2%
88.4%
88.4%
82.5%
81.7%
82.4%
79.5%
83.0%
89.4%
86.8%
CVT














0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%


0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.4%
1.4%
1.7%
2.8%
2.7%
9.7%
10.8%
11.1%
13.9%
11.9%
14.6%
16.7%
Fuel Metering
GDI
































0.3%
3.1%
4.2%
9.2%
18.4%
27.8%
37.8%
Port
5.1%
3.2%
4.2%
5.1%
4.7%
6.2%
6.1%
7.2%
9.4%
14.9%
21.3%
36.5%
42.4%
53.7%
62.2%
77.4%
77.2%
88.9%
91.5%
94.8%
98.6%
98.8%
99.2%
99.7%
99.8%
99.7%
99.8%
99.6%
99.7%
99.7%
99.6%
99.4%
99.7%
96.9%
95.2%
89.9%
80.7%
71.2%
60.9%
TBI





0.7%
2.6%
9.8%
18.8%
24.3%
31.8%
28.7%
30.8%
30.2%
28.1%
21.2%
22.6%
11.0%
8.5%
5.2%
1.3%
1.1%
0.8%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%













Diesel
0.2%
0.3%
0.5%
0.9%
2.1%
4.4%
5.9%
4.7%
2.1%
1.7%
0.9%
0.3%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%

0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0 2%

0.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0 4%

0.6%
0.0%
0.1%
0 6%

0.9%
0.9%
1.0%
1.2%
Multi-
Valve











4.7%
14.6%
19.7%
24.1%
32.8%
33.2%
34.0%
34.8%
39.9%
51.4%
56.4%
58.4%
59.6%
63.2%
63.2%
65 3%

69.9%
73.4%
77.1%
77 2%

81.3%
84.6%
88.0%
92 2%

93.8%
94.6%
98.2%
98.3%
WT















0.6%
2.4%
4.4%
4.5%
7.7%
9.6%
11.3%
10.8%
17.4%
16.4%
22.2%
26 9%

32.8%
39.8%
43.7%
49 4%

58.2%
63.3%
62.7%
79 1%

91.8%
94.9%
97.7%
98.0%
Hybrid

























0.1%
00%

0.3%
0.6%
0.9%
1 9%

1.5%
3.2%
3.3%
29%

5.5%
3.4%
4.6%
6.0%
Vehicle Size
Small
55.4%
55.4%
52.0%
44.7%
43.7%
54.4%
51.5%
56.6%
53.0%
57.1%
55.3%
59.2%
63.2%
64.5%
58.0%
58.4%
60.4%
55.5%
54.7%
57.0%
56.3%
52.9%
54.5%
47.7%
45.8%
45.8%
48 2%

46.6%
47.8%
44.3%
40 6%

42.2%
40.0%
39.6%
43 0%

42.4%
31.8%


Midsize
23.3%
25.2%
24.5%
34.4%
34.2%
34.4%
36.4%
30.9%
31.9%
29.7%
29.5%
28.3%
24.8%
22.8%
28.7%
28.9%
27.6%
29.4%
32.7%
28.2%
30.0%
33.9%
31.7%
41.4%
42.2%
37.1%
35 8%

39.0%
36.9%
38.9%
40 7%

35.8%
42.7%
40.0%
39 3%

40.3%
46.5%


Large
21.2%
19.4%
23.5%
20.9%
22.1%
11.3%
12.2%
12.5%
15.0%
13.2%
15.2%
12.5%
12.1%
12.7%
13.4%
12.7%
12.0%
15.2%
12.6%
14.8%
13.7%
13.2%
13.7%
10.8%
12.0%
17.1%
16 0%

14.5%
15.3%
16.8%
18 6%

22.1%
17.3%
20.4%
17 8%

17.3%
21.7%


EPA-420-R-13-011
D-6
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
457
502
514
625
481
242
245
311
383
676
855
1044
1114
1133
1278
1262
1034
1221
1441
1418
1662
1409
1265
1489
1463
1691
1232
1243
1232
953
1481
1166
847
790
368
559
521
661
568
Frac
0.045
0.041
0.036
0.043
0.035
0.021
0.023
0.032
0.037
0.048
0.059
0.068
0.075
0.074
0.088
0.100
0.082
0.100
0.109
0.100
0.110
0.107
0.088
0.103
0.096
0.102
0.079
0.077
0.078
0.061
0.093
0.077
0.055
0.057
0.040
0.050
0.043
0.049
0.040
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
13.1
13.9
14.7
14.2
13.5
16.6
17.5
17.3
17.7
18.9
19.5
20.6
20.9
21.2
21.1
21.2
21.4
21.5
21.9
21.5
21.8
22.2
22.1
22.7
22.3
22.8
22.1
23.1
23.5
23.7
24.0
24.3
24.2
24.6
25.0
25.0
26.3
26.7
26.2
Adj
City
10.6
11.1
11.9
11.6
11.1
13.3
14.0
13.9
14.1
15.0
15.5
16.1
16.2
16.2
16.1
16.0
16.0
15.9
16.0
15.7
15.8
15.9
15.7
16.0
15.6
15.9
15.3
15.9
16.0
16.0
16.1
16.2
16.1
16.4
16.7
16.7
17.5
17.7
17.4
Adj
Hwy
11.9
12.8
13.3
12.7
12.1
15.4
16.0
15.9
16.5
17.7
18.1
19.4
19.8
20.3
20.2
20.4
20.5
20.5
21.0
20.5
21.0
21.4
21 2
22.0
21.5
21.8
21.1
21.9
22.2
22.7
22.8
23.1
23.1
23.5
23.7
23.7
24.7
25.3
24.9
Adj
Comb
11.1
11.8
12.5
12.1
11.5
14.1
14.8
14.7
15.1
16.1
16.5
17.5
17.7
17.9
17.8
17.8
17.9
17.9
18.2
17.8
18.1
18.3
18.2
18.7
18.3
18.6
18.0
18.7
19.0
19.2
19.3
19.5
19.5
19.8
20.1
20.1
21.0
21.4
21.0
Weight
(Ib)
4196
4200
4252
4250
4541
4353
4324
4342
4414
4075
3975
3998
3972
4053
4057
4095
4133
4151
4105
4156
4110
4195
4240
4183
4306
4276
4518
4394
4393
4487
4430
4475
4479
4527
4572
4533
4501
4440
4626
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
318
324
332
329
322
288
284
287
294
249
236
228
226
229
225
225
220
222
218
226
231
220
220
217
223
217
229
218
219
219
216
216
219
220
215
214
212
210
215
HP
143
146
152
149
144
131
129
132
136
126
129
127
142
147
146
149
149
152
155
159
159
171
174
180
183
183
202
199
202
214
209
211
225
221
220
212
259
254
264
0-60
Time
13.9
13.7
13.3
13.4
14.6
15.2
15.3
15.2
15.0
14.9
14.3
14.5
13.3
13.0
13.1
13.0
13.1
12.9
12.6
12.4
12.3
11.8
11.8
11.3
11.4
11.4
10.9
10.8
10.7
10.4
10.5
10.5
10.0
10.4
10.4
10.6
9.0
9.2
9.1
HP/
cro
0.448
0.447
0.458
0.453
0.451
0.459
0.458
0.463
0.466
0.538
0.578
0.588
0.657
0.671
0.680
0.682
0.701
0.705
0.730
0.721
0.708
0.790
0.802
0.840
0.832
0.858
0.897
0.929
0.929
0.988
0.976
0.984
1.034
1.010
1.033
1.001
1.224
1.211
1.226
HP/
WT
0.0341
0.0347
0.0359
0.0351
0.0317
0.0299
0.0298
0.0303
0.0307
0.0307
0.0322
0.0317
0.0356
0.0363
0.0360
0.0363
0.0359
0.0366
0.0378
0.0384
0.0387
0.0408
0.0410
0.0431
0.0424
0.0428
0.0447
0.0455
0.0459
0.0477
0.0472
0.0472
0.0503
0.0488
0.0482
0.0467
0.0574
0.0570
0.0569
Ton-MPG
(Lab 55/45)
28.1
29.7
31.7
30.8
31.3
36.4
38.0
38.0
39.7
39.3
39.3
41.5
41.7
43.2
43.2
43.8
44.5
44.8
45.0
44.9
45.0
46.8
46.9
47.7
48.1
48.9
50.3
50.9
51.7
53.4
53.2
54.4
54.3
55.9
57.2
56.8
59.2
59.3
60.7
Cu Ft-MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Drivetrain
Front






0.3%

0.2%
22.3%
30.4%
24.4%
27.5%
36.3%
34.4%
46.8%
38.2%
45.4%
49.8%
52.3%
61.3%
73.8%
64.8%
78.3%
76.0%
80.6%
69.3%
84.3%
83.5%
86.6%
89.2%
89.8%
93.8%
92.9%
94.1%
96.3%
91.5%
93.5%
92.5%
4WD










0.3%
1.3%
1.9%
0.8%
0.7%
6.6%
10.9%
5.5%
4.5%
6.4%
9.1%
2.3%
4.7%
3.2%
2.7%
2.7%
8.7%
3.0%
5.0%
4.9%
5.5%
4.5%
2.9%
4.0%
2.5%
1.6%
5.6%
3.1%
3.3%
EPA-420-R-13-011
D-7
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Transmission
Manual
23.3%
20.5%
14.3%
13.0%
14.8%
26.0%
21.9%
15.7%
12.0%
15.5%
10.0%
8.5%
6.4%
3.7%
2.9%
1.8%
1.4%
1.6%
1.2%
0.5%
0.1%
0.0%











0.1%
0.3%
0.2%

0.2%
0.2%
Lockup




6.8%
39.0%
46.6%
45.8%
59.3%
45.6%
47.4%
60.1%
67.6%
78.7%
76.5%
93.5%
96.5%
96.4%
97.2%
97.4%
98.2%
98.4%
99.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
94.9%
95.3%
95.5%
99.9%
99.7%
99.8%
96.9%
99.8%
99.8%
CVT






























5.1%
4.7%
4.5%



3.1%
3.2%
5.7%
Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port









6.6%
6.3%
21.8%
45.8%
56.9%
58.1%
58.1%
63.3%
71.9%
79.0%
81.2%
87.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.4%
1.8%
6.5%
4.6%
3.0%
3.5%
3.1%
2.9%
16.3%
30.2%
42.8%
41.8%
41.9%
36.6%
28.1%
21.0%
18.8%
12.6%


















Diesel







1.8%
4.5%
1.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%





















Multi-
Valve



















3.5%
4.5%
5.7%
6.3%
10.4%
12.5%
21.6%
22.6%
28.4%
25.8%
52.3%
38.0%
46.8%
53.1%
52.8%
58.9%
51.8%
96.6%
96.1%
95.3%
WT
























8.2%
15.0%
17.0%
20.9%
19.6%
46.1%
25.0%
36.4%
48.7%
48.1%
47.1%
37.7%
92.5%
91.7%
97.0%
Hybrid







































Vehicle Size
Small
0.4%
0.3%
0.4%
0.4%
1.8%
6.5%
4.6%
4.8%
3.7%
12.2%
10.9%
9.8%
11.3%
4.9%
2.8%
2.4%
1.5%
3.3%
0.8%
0.8%
0.4%
0.1%











2.1%
6.0%
3.6%



Midsize
66.1%
61.4%
61.0%
63.8%
65.1%
53.8%
56.3%
58.0%
60.1%
62.1%
70.1%
74.9%
76.2%
83.0%
86.1%
89.1%
91.2%
89.1%
91.8%
91.4%
93.4%
92.1%
89.0%
91.1%
88.3%
90.0%
76.2%
91.0%
91.0%
93.7%
96.3%
94.0%
96.3%
94.5%
89.9%
93.7%
96.6%


Large
33.6%
38.3%
38.6%
35.8%
33.1%
39.7%
39.2%
37.2%
36.2%
25.7%
19.0%
15.3%
12.5%
12.1%
11.1%
8.5%
7.3%
7.6%
7.4%
7.9%
6.3%
7.8%
11.0%
8.9%
11.7%
10.0%
23.8%
9.0%
9.0%
6.3%
3.7%
6.0%
3.7%
3.4%
4.1%
2.7%
3.4%


EPA-420-R-13-011
D-8
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
177
232
264
364
385
184
136
150
256
570
648
714
779
859
818
643
871
761
838
1291
1596
1603
2089
2127
2342
2526
2707
3588
3571
4075
3272
3006
3314
3072
1713
2305
3069
2773
3020
Frac
0.017
0.019
0.019
0.025
0.028
0.016
0.013
0.015
0.025
0.041
0.045
0.046
0.052
0.056
0.057
0.051
0.069
0.062
0.063
0.091
0.105
0.122
0.145
0.147
0.154
0.152
0.173
0.223
0.226
0.259
0.206
0.199
0.217
0.221
0.184
0.208
0.256
0.206
0.210
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
13.0
13.9
15.1
14.5
12.4
15.5
16.8
17.3
18.5
19.0
19.4
20.1
20.4
20.2
19.7
19.6
20.0
19.4
19.6
19.3
19.3
19.6
19.6
19.7
19.6
19.6
20.2
20.1
20.3
20.4
20.8
21.4
22.0
22.7
24.1
24.7
24.9
25.1
26.1
Adj
City
10.6
11.2
12 2
11.6
10.3
12.5
13.4
13.7
14.5
14.9
15.1
15.6
15.8
15.5
15.0
14.8
15.0
14.5
14.5
14.3
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.1
14.1
14.0
14.4
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.3
14.7
15.1
15.5
16.4
16.8
16.9
17.0
17.7
Adj
Hwy
11.5
12.5
13.7
13.2
10.8
14.1
15.5
16.2
17.7
18.0
18.7
19.1
19.5
19.2
18.6
18.6
19.1
18.5
18.6
18.2
18.2
18.7
18.4
18.5
18.4
18.2
18.6
18.7
18.8
19.0
19.2
19.7
20.3
20.9
22 2
22.6
22.9
23.1
24.1
Adj
Comb
11.0
11.8
12.8
12.3
10.5
13.2
14.3
14.7
15.8
16.2
16.5
17.0
17.3
17.0
16.6
16.4
16.7
16.2
16.3
16.0
16.0
16.2
16.1
16.2
16.1
16.0
16.4
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.7
17.2
17.7
18.2
19.3
19.7
19.8
20.0
20.8
Weight
(Ib)
4214
4328
4248
4282
4561
4237
4208
4494
4270
4049
4092
3958
3882
3906
4086
4098
4157
4204
4331
4331
4323
4386
4463
4450
4518
4602
4546
4636
4754
4756
4756
4715
4797
4727
4547
4555
4665
4639
4626
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
332
339
337
342
337
295
290
305
265
231
222
210
212
222
244
235
233
235
244
245
245
259
255
252
253
253
239
245
247
252
244
236
240
230
211
212
217
214
209
HP
148
142
145
150
145
131
132
133
127
122
123
128
137
144
156
155
162
170
179
180
177
189
190
192
204
206
213
229
233
240
244
240
252
250
244
243
257
261
261
0-60
Time
13.2
14.0
13.5
13.2
14.4
14.7
14.4
15.1
15.1
15.0
15.1
14.2
13.4
12.9
12.5
12.6
12.3
11.9
11.7
11.6
11.7
11.3
11.4
11.3
10.9
10.9
10.6
10.2
10.2
10.0
9.8
9.8
9.7
9.6
9.5
9.5
9.4
9.2
9.2
HP/
cro
0.443
0.415
0.428
0.435
0.433
0.453
0.460
0.444
0.507
0.554
0.583
0.653
0.680
0.682
0.665
0.694
0.709
0.738
0.753
0.756
0.751
0.744
0.765
0.786
0.837
0.839
0.920
0.952
0.967
0.973
1.018
1.028
1.068
1.105
1.170
1.163
1.203
1.232
1.295
HP/
WT
0.0361
0.0333
0.0345
0.0353
0.0323
0.0307
0.0315
0.0300
0.0300
0.0300
0.0299
0.0323
0.0353
0.0369
0.0384
0.0381
0.0391
0.0408
0.0419
0.0420
0.0414
0.0432
0.0427
0.0432
0.0452
0.0449
0.0469
0.0493
0.0492
0.0505
0.0512
0.0507
0.0523
0.0525
0.0532
0.0531
0.0547
0.0558
0.0561
Ton-MPG
(Lab 55/45)
27.2
29.8
32.0
30.8
28.3
32.9
35.4
39.9
40.3
39.0
40.2
40.0
39.7
39.4
40.3
40.1
41.6
40.8
42.3
41.8
41.8
43.1
43.7
43.9
44.4
45.2
46.0
46.6
48.2
48.5
49.6
50.9
53.1
54.0
55.1
56.6
58.2
58.5
60.7
Cu Ft-MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Drivetrain
Front


























7.4%
1.7%
2.6%
2.8%
2.9%
5.1%
6.5%
10.1%
17.5%
14.2%
13.8%
13.7%
14.5%
4WD
88.9%
89.5%
88.4%
92.4%
72.2%
88.9%
90.5%
86.2%
91.3%
93.3%
91.3%
93.3%
94.1%
94.3%
93.5%
92.5%
96.3%
95.4%
93.1%
95.7%
90.1%
83.8%
81.9%
86.2%
79.4%
83.5%
76.5%
74.5%
73.7%
74.8%
77.2%
77.2%
75.3%
75.7%
75.0%
77.7%
77.3%
79.9%
78.9%
EPA-420-R-13-011
D-9
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Transmission
Manual
39.8%
32.2%
32.6%
32.1%
33.1%
43.6%
41.0%
31.9%
33.7%
30.3%
29.5%
38.9%
39.6%
34.5%
26.0%
29.1%
21.8%
21.7%
19.1%
15.2%
15.0%
6.1%
9.7%
7.5%
5.9%
4.9%
3.8%
3.2%
2.2%
2.2%
2.2%
2.4%
2.1%
1.7%
1.2%
1.8%
1.2%
1.6%
1.4%
Lockup




0.4%
26.1%
41.1%
45.0%
52.3%
40.8%
56.9%
53.6%
51.0%
57.5%
65.6%
66.8%
76.5%
77.4%
79.9%
84.8%
85.0%
93.9%
90.3%
92.5%
94.1%
95.1%
96.2%
96.7%
96.5%
96.7%
96.3%
93.0%
92.1%
91.6%
88.2%
86.8%
87.4%
95.5%
97.7%
CVT



























0.0%
1.3%
1.0%
1.5%
4.6%
5.8%
6.7%
10.7%
10.6%
11.4%
9.9%
14.9%
Fuel Metering
GDI

































2.0%
7.6%
12.2%
15.1%
18.3%
23.3%
Port










4.4%
25.9%
33.1%
47.3%
46.3%
56.7%
62.2%
74.5%
83.0%
84.7%
84.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
97.6%
91.9%
87.2%
84.1%
80.5%
76.0%
TBI










1.0%
20.6%
38.7%
34.8%
46.5%
37.8%
37.2%
25.5%
17.0%
15.3%
15.1%


















Diesel




0.2%
2.3%

16.6%
7.6%
2.5%
1.7%
1.7%
0.5%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.2%




0.0%
0.0%
0.0%





0.0%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.4%
0.5%
0.6%
0.8%
1.2%
0.7%
Multi-
Valve



















13.4%
15.1%
13.5%
19.1%
22.0%
26.4%
22.7%
39.6%
44.2%
51.6%
53.2%
64.3%
69.8%
61.8%
71.8%
82.3%
82.7%
83.6%
89.2%
89.6%
WT
























2.9%
2.5%
14.4%
25.0%
33.4%
38.4%
50.0%
60.2%
54.3%
60.5%
69.1%
83.0%
92.6%
95.8%
96.8%
Hybrid






























0.2%
3.1%
1.4%
2.4%
1.6%
1.5%
0.6%
0.6%
1.5%
Vehicle Size
Small
26.7%
22.6%
21.5%
21.4%
23.7%
32.9%
31.4%
21.1%
16.7%
24.9%
17.8%
24.7%
29.8%
29.1%
23.6%
25.3%
10.2%
10.6%
11.4%
9.8%
10.3%
4.9%
16.3%
10.9%
10.6%
10.6%
9.3%
6.8%
5.8%
5.2%
5.3%
4.4%
4.3%
4.9%
3.3%
4.3%



Midsize
67.3%
70.5%
71.9%
73.3%
48.0%
54.3%
58.2%
64.4%
71.4%
66.5%
73.3%
67.1%
62.9%
62.9%
67.3%
63.5%
83.5%
79.5%
73.2%
77.1%
75.3%
80.0%
56.9%
58.9%
57.4%
54.7%
51.1%
37.6%
46.0%
49.1%
49.0%
54.0%
46.4%
51.1%
56.3%
56.8%
54.5%


Large
6.1%
6.9%
6.6%
5.4%
28.3%
12.8%
10.4%
14.5%
11.9%
8.6%
8.9%
8.2%
7.3%
8.1%
9.0%
11.2%
6.2%
9.8%
15.4%
13.1%
14.4%
15.0%
26.8%
30.2%
32.0%
34.7%
39.6%
55.6%
48.2%
45.7%
45.7%
41.6%
49.2%
44.0%
40.4%
38.9%
45.5%


EPA-420-R-13-011
D-10
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
1343
1866
2026
2268
2207
1437
1440
1441
1628
2043
2078
2532
2147
2459
2232
1835
1920
1840
2002
2669
2271
1955
2408
2415
2544
2612
2519
2380
2474
2505
2300
2188
2113
1794
989
1276
1479
1357
1525
Frac
0.131
0.151
0.143
0.157
0.159
0.127
0.136
0.148
0.158
0.146
0.144
0.165
0.144
0.161
0.154
0.145
0.153
0.151
0.152
0.189
0.150
0.149
0.167
0.167
0.167
0.158
0.161
0.148
0.157
0.159
0.145
0.145
0.138
0.129
0.106
0.115
0.123
0.101
0.106
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
14.0
14.6
16.0
15.7
15.5
19.4
21.0
21.7
22.2
21.5
21.4
22.2
22.5
21.5
21.2
20.7
21.7
20.9
21.1
21.0
20.4
20.8
20.4
20.7
19.9
20.5
19.6
19.5
19.9
19.6
19.7
20.1
20.1
20.5
21.0
20.9
21.4
21.3
21.5
Adj
City
11.1
11.7
12.9
12.8
12.7
15.5
16.7
17.2
17.5
16.9
16.9
17.5
17.5
16.5
16.2
15.7
16.3
15.5
15.6
15.5
14.9
15.1
14.7
14.8
14.2
14.6
13.9
13.8
14.0
13.7
13.6
13.9
13.8
14.1
14.4
14.3
14.6
14.5
14.6
Adj
Hwy
13.1
13.4
14.5
14.1
13.9
17.9
19.5
20.3
20.9
20.2
20.1
20.8
21.2
20.4
20.0
19.7
20.7
20.0
20.2
19.9
19.3
19.7
19.4
19.6
18.6
18.9
18.1
17.8
18.2
17.8
18.1
18.4
18.5
18.9
19.5
19.4
19.9
19.9
20.3
Adj
Comb
11.9
12.4
13.6
13.3
13.2
16.5
17.9
18.5
18.9
18.3
18.2
18.9
19.0
18.1
17.8
17.4
18.2
17.5
17.6
17.4
16.9
17.1
16.8
17.0
16.3
16.7
16.0
15.8
16.1
15.7
15.8
16.1
16.2
16.5
16.9
16.9
17.2
17.2
17.4
Weight
(Ib)
4012
4122
4092
4104
4142
3740
3679
3629
3544
3619
3642
3574
3526
3737
3803
3928
3779
3976
3996
4056
4182
4190
4415
4282
4486
4340
4551
4690
4642
4939
4988
4968
5144
5161
5176
5309
5268
5335
5471
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
306
316
313
306
287
236
237
228
212
215
221
206
202
229
236
247
232
245
244
248
257
251
264
252
267
255
269
271
264
281
284
278
286
286
287
293
282
286
287
HP
141
139
146
144
136
118
115
117
112
114
123
120
123
138
143
152
146
151
156
163
167
178
196
190
205
203
216
226
223
249
260
256
269
276
278
289
304
317
330
0-60
Time
13.5
13.9
13.3
13.4
14.2
14.4
14.5
14.3
14.4
14.5
13.7
13.7
13.4
12.9
12.7
12.4
12.4
12.5
12 2
12.0
12.0
11.5
11.1
11.2
10.9
10.8
10.6
10.4
10.5
10.1
9.8
9.9
9.8
9.7
9.5
9.4
9.1
8.9
8.8
HP/
cro
0.491
0.466
0.496
0.496
0.502
0.549
0.521
0.545
0.566
0.563
0.588
0.623
0.639
0.627
0.633
0.647
0.658
0.644
0.666
0.687
0.687
0.737
0.756
0.773
0.776
0.803
0.812
0.838
0.847
0.885
0.917
0.925
0.938
0.962
0.971
0.987
1.086
1.122
1.175
HP/
WT
0.0351
0.0339
0.0357
0.0350
0.0327
0.0315
0.0313
0.0322
0.0317
0.0314
0.0336
0.0336
0.0347
0.0365
0.0373
0.0384
0.0385
0.0379
0.0390
0.0401
0.0399
0.0422
0.0439
0.0439
0.0453
0.0462
0.0470
0.0480
0.0475
0.0501
0.0520
0.0514
0.0519
0.0531
0.0534
0.0542
0.0571
0.0590
0.0600
Ton-MPG
(Lab 55/45)
28.8
30.9
33.4
33.1
32.9
36.7
39.3
40.1
40.0
39.4
39.6
40.1
40.1
40.5
40.5
41.1
41.4
41.8
42.4
43.0
43.1
43.9
45.3
44.6
44.7
44.4
44.7
45.6
46.3
48.2
49.1
49.8
51.6
53.0
54.3
55.5
56.3
56.9
58.8
Cu Ft-MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Drivetrain
Front





1.8%
2.3%
2.2%
1.9%
0.6%


0.0%
0.0%




0.0%




















4WD
13.5%
20.9%
21.4%
27.0%
12.6%
21.1%
16.8%
17.7%
22.1%
24.7%
25.4%
25.2%
25.5%
28.4%
28.9%
27.9%
24.8%
26.3%
27.6%
29.3%
33.0%
29.3%
34.7%
34.8%
45.3%
38.4%
38.7%
42.4%
39.5%
46.3%
46.7%
45.8%
45.4%
47.5%
50.6%
57.0%
60.3%
62.4%
60.7%
EPA-420-R-13-011
D-ll
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Transmission
Manual
41.1%
38.8%
35.9%
37.4%
39.9%
58.8%
57.7%
53.9%
56.3%
54.9%
51.6%
58.4%
58.5%
51.0%
52.4%
45.8%
52.2%
47.1%
43.9%
40.0%
39.6%
34.6%
25.3%
27.3%
17.5%
16.7%
12.0%
9.5%
10.3%
7.0%
5.7%
6.2%
4.4%
4.0%
4.1%
2.4%
2.1%
1.5%
1.3%
Lockup




1.3%
21.9%
27.5%
29.5%
28.0%
29.3%
33.7%
30.4%
28.9%
38.8%
41.5%
49.8%
46.4%
52.1%
55.3%
59.0%
59.5%
64.0%
74.7%
71.1%
81.5%
82.5%
87.1%
89.6%
88.8%
92.1%
94.3%
93.8%
95.6%
96.0%
95.7%
97.5%
97.8%
98.5%
98.7%
CVT


































0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
Fuel Metering
GDI




































7.6%
10.3%
14.3%
Port









1.0%
11.4%
21.2%
26.9%
35.4%
38.8%
52.4%
47.9%
58.0%
61.2%
69.5%
69.5%
99.8%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
92.4%
89.7%
85.7%
TBI





1.0%
0.6%
0.2%
0.1%

4.5%
17.6%
32.0%
48.3%
51.1%
41.4%
48.7%
38.6%
36.7%
29.7%
30.5%


















Diesel



1.2%
2.5%
4.2%
7.1%
10.3%
4.4%
2.7%
1.2%
0.6%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%



0.2%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%














Multi-
Valve



















2.2%
5.5%
13.3%
6.7%
11.2%
7.7%
12.7%
12.8%
17.8%
14.5%
32.4%
40 9%

49.0%
40.0%
41.3%
42.4%
59.9%
50.1%
55.7%
58.9%
WT





























18.9%
39 1%

47.5%
40.0%
37.8%
36.8%
62.2%
86.1%
94.6%
96.8%
Hybrid





























0.0%
00%

0.1%
0.0%

0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
Vehicle Size
Small
11.9%
9.3%
11.7%
11.6%
16.2%
31.5%
25.6%
24.0%
19.2%
20.7%
23.9%
29.4%
20.5%
13.8%
15.9%
15.8%
16.1%
13.7%
13.1%
13.4%
13.1%
11.3%
5.4%
10.8%
8.4%
3.9%
3.2%
8.3%
7.9%
6.4%
04%

0.3%







Midsize
4.2%
2.9%
3.4%
3.3%
4.6%
6.8%
9.1%
21.9%
38.2%
34.4%
29.7%
31.1%
49.0%
42.9%
39.8%
32.7%
45.5%
38.9%
37.1%
39.0%
30.8%
35.7%
28.7%
34.3%
29.9%
29.3%
21.6%
19.6%
21.3%
15.1%
94%

12.5%
12.5%
15.5%
18.6%
12.0%
1.4%


Large
83.9%
87.8%
84.9%
85.0%
79.2%
61.7%
65.3%
54.1%
42.7%
44.9%
46.4%
39.5%
30.5%
43.3%
44.4%
51.5%
38.4%
47.4%
49.7%
47.6%
56.0%
53.0%
65.9%
54.9%
61.7%
66.8%
75.1%
72.1%
70.8%
78.5%
90 2%

87.1%
87.5%
84.5%
81.4%
88.0%
98.6%


EPA-420-R-13-011
D-12
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Vehicle
Type
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
1977
2600
2805
3257
3072
1863
1821
1901
2267
3289
3581
4291
4039
4450
4327
3740
3825
3822
4281
5378
5529
4967
5762
6030
6350
6829
6458
7211
7277
7533
7053
6360
6275
5656
3071
4141
5069
4791
5114
Frac
0.193
0.211
0.199
0.225
0.221
0.165
0.172
0.195
0.220
0.235
0.248
0.279
0.272
0.291
0.299
0.296
0.304
0.314
0.324
0.381
0.365
0.378
0.399
0.417
0.417
0.412
0.414
0.447
0.461
0.480
0.444
0.421
0.411
0.407
0.330
0.373
0.422
0.356
0.356
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
13.7
14.4
15.6
15.3
14.7
18.6
20.1
20.5
20.8
20.4
20.5
21.4
21.6
21.1
20.9
20.7
21.2
20.8
21.0
20.7
20.5
20.8
20.5
20.8
20.3
20.7
20.3
20.3
20.7
20.5
21.0
21.4
21.6
22.2
23.1
23.4
23.9
24.1
24.5
Adj
City
10.9
11.6
12.6
12.4
12.1
14.8
16.0
16.3
16.5
16.1
16.2
16.8
16.8
16.2
15.9
15.6
15.9
15.4
15.5
15.2
14.9
15.0
14.7
14.8
14.5
14.7
14.4
14.3
14.4
14.2
14.4
14.6
14.8
15.1
15.7
15.9
16.2
16.3
16.6
Adj
Hwy
12.7
13.2
14.2
13.7
13.1
17.1
18.6
19.0
19.6
19.3
19.3
20.1
20.4
20.1
19.8
19.8
20.2
19.9
20.1
19.6
19.4
19.8
19.4
19.7
19.1
19.3
18.8
18.8
19.1
18.9
19.5
19.7
20.0
20.5
21.4
21.7
22.1
22.3
22 9
Adj
Comb
11.6
12.2
13.3
12.9
12.5
15.8
17.1
17.4
17.7
17.4
17.5
18.2
18.3
17.8
17.6
17.4
17.8
17.3
17.5
17.2
17.0
17.2
16.8
17.1
16.6
16.8
16.5
16.5
16.7
16.5
16.9
17.2
17.4
17.8
18.5
18.8
19.1
19.3
19.7
Weight
(Ib)
4073
4155
4136
4152
4257
3869
3806
3813
3773
3787
3803
3741
3718
3850
3932
4014
3961
4078
4098
4149
4201
4255
4394
4317
4457
4421
4543
4612
4655
4783
4763
4758
4871
4837
4753
4784
4824
4809
4878
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
311
320
318
315
299
248
247
244
232
225
225
212
211
228
234
237
229
236
235
241
245
245
251
244
252
245
249
249
248
258
251
247
253
246
236
237
236
234
233
HP
142
141
147
146
138
121
119
120
118
118
124
123
131
141
146
151
150
155
160
166
168
179
189
188
199
199
212
223
224
240
242
240
254
254
252
253
271
276
282
0-60
Time
13.6
13.8
13.3
13.4
14.3
14.5
14.6
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.1
14.0
13.4
13.0
12.8
12.6
12.5
12.5
12 2
12.0
12.0
11.6
11.4
11.2
11.0
11.0
10.6
10.3
10.4
10.1
10.0
10.0
9.8
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.2
9.1
9.1
HP/
cro
0.476
0.458
0.482
0.481
0.485
0.528
0.508
0.524
0.542
0.556
0.585
0.619
0.652
0.649
0.653
0.667
0.681
0.682
0.705
0.713
0.712
0.755
0.769
0.794
0.811
0.830
0.873
0.911
0.920
0.946
0.976
0.985
1.020
1.046
1.089
1.087
1.171
1.198
1.251
HP/
WT
0.0349
0.0340
0.0356
0.0351
0.0325
0.0313
0.0311
0.0317
0.0313
0.0310
0.0326
0.0330
0.0351
0.0365
0.0371
0.0377
0.0379
0.0380
0.0391
0.0401
0.0400
0.0421
0.0428
0.0435
0.0446
0.0448
0.0465
0.0482
0.0481
0.0500
0.0506
0.0503
0.0519
0.0522
0.0527
0.0526
0.0557
0.0569
0.0573
Ton-MPG
(Lab 55/45)
28.5
30.5
33.0
32.4
32.1
36.3
38.8
39.7
39.9
39.3
39.6
40.4
40.5
40.9
41.3
41.8
42.3
42.6
43.2
43.2
43.3
44.5
45.1
45.1
45.4
45.8
46.3
47.0
48.1
49.0
50.2
51.2
52.8
53.9
55.1
56.3
57.8
58.2
60.1
Cu Ft-MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Drivetrain
Front





1.4%
1.9%
1.7%
1.4%
5.0%
7.3%
5.9%
7.6%
9.2%
10.1%
15.8%
10.3%
14.5%
16.8%
13.8%
18.4%
20.9%
14.2%
19.3%
17.5%
20.0%
16.3%
15.4%
15.4%
12.5%
20.1%
18.9%
16.1%
18.4%
21.0%
20.9%
17.7%
20.9%
18.8%
4WD
17.2%
23.0%
23.8%
29.1%
18.1%
25.0%
20.1%
20.2%
26.1%
31.5%
31.3%
30.7%
32.2%
34.1%
32.8%
31.8%
37.3%
33.4%
32.7%
39.2%
42.3%
39.2%
45.2%
45.1%
48.1%
46.3%
48.8%
51.6%
50.4%
56.5%
52.2%
53.1%
55.5%
56.8%
58.4%
61.0%
65.0%
64.4%
65.1%
EPA-420-R-13-011
D-13
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck
Vehicle
Type
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Transmission
Manual
36.9%
34.7%
31.6%
32.1%
35.1%
53.0%
51.6%
45.9%
46.3%
42.5%
37.6%
43.0%
40.5%
35.8%
32.8%
28.1%
31.5%
27.5%
24.7%
23.7%
20.7%
15.6%
14.1%
13.6%
9.2%
8.2%
6.3%
4.7%
4.6%
3.5%
2.9%
3.3%
2.6%
2.2%
2.0%
1.8%
1.3%
1.4%
1.2%
Lockup




2.1%
24.5%
31.1%
33.4%
36.0%
34.6%
41.1%
41.5%
43.8%
52.5%
56.4%
67.5%
66.8%
71.3%
74.2%
75.3%
78.5%
83.4%
85.8%
85.8%
90.4%
91.5%
93.4%
94.9%
94.4%
95.6%
95.3%
93.7%
93.8%
94.1%
92.0%
91.9%
91.4%
97.0%
98.3%
CVT



























0.0%
0.6%
0.6%
1.8%
3.1%
3.7%
3.6%
6.0%
5.9%
7.3%
6.2%
9.5%
Fuel Metering
GDI

































1.1%
4.2%
6.8%
11.3%
13.5%
18.0%
Port









2.0%
8.9%
22.1%
33.3%
43.2%
45.9%
55.0%
55.3%
65.7%
71.5%
76.2%
79.4%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
98.7%
95.5%
92.9%
88.1%
85.8%
81.6%
TBI
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.3%
1.7%
1.1%
0.7%
0.6%
0.6%
3.5%
17.8%
32.8%
44.3%
47.5%
40.9%
42.8%
32.6%
27.5%
23.4%
20.6%


















Diesel



0.8%
1.8%
3.5%
5.6%
9.4%
4.8%
2.4%
1.1%
0.7%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%



0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%




0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.5%
0.7%
0.4%
Multi-
Valve



















5.2%
8.0%
11.2%
11.1%
14.8%
15.7%
18.6%
25.9%
32.8%
34.6%
46.2%
51.1%
58.4%
53.3%
59.5%
66.6%
71.5%
75.2%
80.6%
81.1%
WT
























3.0%
4.6%
9.3%
16.0%
19.7%
32.9%
41.2%
51.5%
48.7%
51.6%
56.0%
70.5%
90.7%
94.9%
96.8%
Hybrid





























0.0%
0.1%
1.5%
0.8%
1.3%
0.9%
0.9%
0.4%
0.4%
1.0%
Vehicle Size
Small
10.6%
8.7%
10.6%
10.6%
14.9%
28.4%
23.2%
20.6%
16.3%
19.7%
19.7%
23.8%
19.8%
14.5%
13.5%
12.9%
10.8%
9.8%
8.7%
9.2%
8.5%
6.1%
8.2%
8.2%
7.3%
5.4%
5.2%
6.1%
5.5%
4.9%
2.6%
2.2%
2.3%
3.0%
2.6%
2.9%



Midsize
24.1%
20.2%
20.4%
22.7%
19.5%
17.6%
19.1%
31.1%
45.6%
45.6%
47.2%
47.8%
59.2%
57.0%
58.7%
57.0%
66.5%
63.0%
62.6%
61.9%
62.5%
66.0%
52.2%
57.0%
53.5%
53.7%
44.4%
40.9%
45.2%
43.4%
46.0%
47.1%
41.7%
45.9%
48.2%
48.0%
43.4%


Large
65.3%
71.0%
69.0%
66.7%
65.6%
54.0%
57.7%
48.2%
38.1%
34.7%
33.1%
28.4%
21.1%
28.5%
27.9%
30.1%
22.7%
27.2%
28.8%
28.9%
29.1%
27.9%
39.7%
34.8%
39.2%
40.9%
50.4%
53.0%
49.3%
51.6%
51.4%
50.7%
56.0%
51.2%
49.2%
49.2%
56.6%


EPA-420-R-13-011
D-14
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
Vehicle
Type
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
10224
12334
14123
14448
13882
11306
10554
9732
10302
14020
14460
15365
14865
15295
14453
12615
12573
12172
13211
14125
15145
13144
14458
14456
15215
16571
15605
16115
15773
15709
15892
15104
15276
13898
9315
11110
12003
13438
14370
Frac
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
15.3
16.7
17.7
18.6
18.7
22.5
24.1
24.7
24.6
24.6
25.0
25.7
25.9
25.9
25.4
25.2
25.4
24.9
25.1
24.6
24.7
24.8
24.5
24.5
24.1
24.3
24.2
24.1
24.3
24.0
24.8
25.2
25.8
26.3
28.2
28.4
28.1
29.8
30.3
Adj
City
12.0
13.2
14.0
14.7
14.9
17.6
18.8
19.2
19.0
19.1
19.3
19.8
19.8
19.6
19.1
18.7
18.8
18.2
18.2
17.8
17.7
17.6
17.4
17.2
16.9
16.9
16.8
16.6
16.7
16.3
16.8
17.0
17.4
17.7
18.9
19.1
18.8
19.9
20.2
Adj
Hwy
14.6
15.7
16.6
17.5
17.4
21.5
23.0
23.9
23.9
24.0
24.4
25.0
25.3
25.2
24.8
24.6
24.7
24.4
24.4
23.8
24.1
24.0
23.6
23.6
23.0
23.0
22.8
22.5
22.7
22.4
23.1
23.4
24.0
24.4
26.0
26.2
26.1
27.6
28.1
Adj
Comb
13.1
14.2
15.1
15.8
15.9
19.2
20.5
21.1
21.0
21.0
21.3
21.8
22.0
21.9
21.4
21 2
21.3
20.8
20.9
20.4
20.5
20.4
20.2
20.1
19.7
19.8
19.6
19.5
19.6
19.3
19.9
20.1
20.6
21.0
22.4
22.6
22.4
23.6
24.0
Weight
(Ib)
4060
4079
3982
3715
3655
3228
3202
3202
3257
3262
3271
3238
3221
3283
3351
3426
3410
3512
3519
3603
3613
3659
3727
3744
3835
3821
3879
3951
3999
4111
4059
4067
4093
4085
3914
4002
4127
3977
4041
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
293
294
287
266
252
198
193
188
193
190
189
180
175
180
185
185
184
191
191
197
196
197
199
199
203
200
201
203
204
212
205
204
203
199
183
188
192
180
179
HP
137
135
136
129
124
104
102
103
107
109
114
114
118
123
129
135
138
145
147
152
158
164
169
171
179
181
187
195
199
211
209
213
217
219
208
214
230
222
230
0-60
Time
14.1
14.3
13.8
13.6
13.9
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.1
14.0
13.5
13.4
13.1
12.8
12.5
12 2
12.1
11.8
11.8
11.7
11.3
11.1
11.0
10.9
10.7
10.6
10.5
10.2
10.2
9.9
9.9
9.8
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.6
9.4
9.4
9.3
HP/
cro
0.507
0.493
0.510
0.525
0.532
0.574
0.580
0.593
0.599
0.618
0.650
0.678
0.710
0.726
0.743
0.781
0.796
0.807
0.809
0.816
0.857
0.878
0.890
0.904
0.921
0.942
0.968
0.994
1.007
1.026
1.049
1.073
1.099
1.122
1.156
1.160
1.217
1.248
1.309
HP/
WT
0.0335
0.0328
0.0339
0.0344
0.0335
0.0320
0.0318
0.0320
0.0327
0.0332
0.0347
0.0351
0.0362
0.0372
0.0382
0.0394
0.0402
0.0413
0.0416
0.0420
0.0438
0.0447
0.0452
0.0457
0.0465
0.0472
0.0480
0.0493
0.0496
0.0511
0.0512
0.0522
0.0525
0.0529
0.0523
0.0527
0.0550
0.0548
0.0558
Ton-MPG
(Lab 55/45)
31.6
34.4
35.7
35.1
34.7
36.6
38.9
40.0
40.5
40.7
41.4
42.0
42.1
42.9
43.0
43.5
43.6
44.1
44.5
44.6
45.2
45.6
45.9
46.3
46.5
46.7
47.3
47.9
49.0
49.7
50.9
51.7
53.4
54.4
55.9
58.3
58.8
60.5
62.8
Cu Ft-MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG
(Lab 55/45)







































Drivetrain
Front
5.3%
4.6%
5.5%
7.4%
9.2%
25.0%
31.0%
37.0%
37.0%
42.1%
47.8%
52.6%
57.7%
60.0%
60.2%
63.8%
59.6%
58.4%
59.9%
55.6%
57.6%
60.0%
56.1%
56.4%
55.8%
55.5%
53.8%
52.7%
50.7%
47.7%
53.0%
51.9%
54.3%
54.2%
62.9%
59.5%
53.8%
61.4%
58.7%
4WD
3.3%
4.8%
4.7%
6.6%
4.3%
4.9%
4.0%
4.6%
8.1%
8.2%
9.3%
9.3%
9.6%
10.5%
10.5%
10.1%
12.3%
11.2%
11.3%
15.2%
16.2%
15.7%
19.0%
20.1%
21.3%
20.2%
22.0%
25.0%
25.0%
29.8%
26.8%
25.8%
26.1%
27.3%
23.5%
26.7%
32.4%
27.7%
28.8%
EPA-420-R-13-011
D-15
December 2013

-------
                                                                2013 FE Trends Report
                                                 Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Car or
Truck
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
Vehicle
Type
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
All
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Transmission
Manual
23.0%
20.9%
19.8%
22.7%
24.2%
34.6%
33.6%
32.4%
30.5%
28.4%
26.5%
29.8%
29.1%
27.6%
24.6%
22.2%
23.9%
20.7%
19.8%
19.5%
17.9%
15.2%
14.0%
12.8%
10.1%
9.7%
9.0%
8.2%
8.0%
6.8%
6.2%
6.5%
5.6%
5.2%
4.8%
3.8%
3.2%
3.6%
4.7%
Lockup
0.2%


5.5%
7.3%
18.1%
33.0%
47.8%
52.1%
52.8%
54.5%
53.5%
55.4%
62.2%
65.5%
71.2%
71.6%
74.8%
76.5%
77.6%
80.7%
83.5%
85.5%
86.7%
89.4%
89.5%
90.3%
91.4%
90.8%
91.8%
91.5%
90.6%
87.1%
86.8%
85.5%
84.1%
86.6%
92.1%
90.9%
CVT














0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%


0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.2%
1.1%
1.2%
2.3%
2.8%
7.2%
7.9%
9.4%
10.9%
10.0%
11.6%
14.2%
Fuel Metering
GDI
































0.2%
2.3%
4.2%
8.3%
15.4%
22.7%
30.8%
Port
4.1%
2.5%
3.4%
3.9%
3.7%
5.2%
5.1%
5.8%
7.3%
11.9%
18.2%
32.5%
39.9%
50.6%
57.3%
70.8%
70.6%
81.6%
85.0%
87.7%
91.6%
99.3%
99.5%
99.8%
99.9%
99.8%
99.9%
99.8%
99.8%
99.9%
99.7%
99.6%
99.8%
97.6%
95.3%
91.0%
83.8%
76.4%
68.3%
TBI
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.8%
2.4%
8.0%
14.8%
18.7%
24.8%
25.7%
31.4%
34.3%
33.9%
27.0%
28.7%
17.8%
14.6%
12.1%
8.4%
0.7%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%













Diesel
0.2%
0.2%
0.4%
0.9%
2.0%
4.3%
5.9%
5.6%
2.7%
1.8%
0.9%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%

0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0 1%

0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0 3%

0.4%
0.1%
0.1%
0 5%

0.7%
0.8%
0.9%
0.9%
Multi-
Valve











3.4%
10.6%
14.0%
16.9%
23.1%
23.1%
23.3%
23.5%
26.7%
35.6%
39.3%
39.6%
40.9%
43.4%
44.8%
49 0%

53.3%
55.5%
62.3%
65 6%

71.7%
71.7%
76.4%
83 8%

85.5%
86.4%
91.9%
92.2%
WT















0.4%
1.7%
3.0%
3.0%
4.8%
6.1%
7.0%
6.5%
10.1%
10.8%
15.0%
19 6%

25.3%
30.6%
38.5%
45 8%

55.4%
57.3%
58.2%
71 5%

83.8%
93.1%
96.7%
97.6%
Hybrid

























0.0%
00%

0.2%
0.3%
0.5%
1 1%

1.5%
2.2%
2.5%
23%

3.8%
2.2%
3.1%
4.2%
Vehicle Size
Small
46.8%
45.6%
43.7%
37.0%
37.3%
50.1%
46.6%
49.6%
44.9%
48.4%
46.5%
49.3%
51.4%
50.0%
44.7%
44.9%
45.3%
41.1%
39.8%
38.8%
38.8%
35.2%
36.0%
31.2%
29.7%
29.2%
30 4%

28.5%
28.3%
25.4%
23 7%

25.4%
24.5%
24.7%
29 7%

27.6%
18.4%


Midsize
23.5%
24.2%
23.7%
31.7%
30.9%
31.6%
33.4%
31.0%
34.9%
33.4%
33.9%
33.7%
34.1%
32.7%
37.6%
37.2%
39.4%
39.9%
42.4%
41.0%
41.9%
46.0%
39.9%
47.9%
46.9%
43.9%
39 4%

39.8%
40.7%
41.1%
43 1%

40.5%
42.3%
42.4%
42 2%

43.2%
45.2%


Large
29.8%
30.3%
32.5%
31.2%
31.7%
18.3%
20.0%
19.5%
20.1%
18.2%
19.7%
17.0%
14.5%
17.3%
17.7%
17.8%
15.2%
19.0%
17.8%
20.1%
19.3%
18.7%
24.1%
20.8%
23.4%
26.9%
30 2%

31.7%
31.0%
33.5%
33 2%

34.1%
33.2%
32.9%
28 1%

29.2%
36.5%


EPA-420-R-13-011
D-16
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)










37
81
38
55
25
4
4
8
10
8



















Frac










0.003
0.005
0.003
0.004
0.002
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.001



















Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45










57.4
55.9
56.8
51.6
59.4
65.3
65.3
65.3
65.3
65.8



















Adj City










46.7
45.4
45.4
41.2
46.9
50.7
50.2
49.6
49.1
49.3



















Adj Hwy










51.5
49.4
50.5
45.1
51.4
56.7
56.3
56.0
55.6
55.3



















Adj Comb










48.8
47.1
47.6
43.0
49.0
53.4
53.0
52.6
52.2
52.2



















Weight
(Ib)










1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750



















Vol
(Cu Ft)










82.6
84.6
84.4
84.6
90.9
89.1
89.1
89.1
89.1
89.1



















Engine
cro










61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61



















HP










48
46
46
47
49
49
55
55
55
55



















0-60 Time










15.7
16.3
16.2
16.3
15.4
15.5
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.1



















HP/CID










0.787
0.759
0.756
0.766
0.806
0.803
0.902
0.902
0.902
0.902



















HP/WT










0.0274
0.0264
0.0264
0.0267
0.0281
0.0280
0.0314
0.0314
0.0314
0.0314



















Ton-MPG










42.8
42.0
42.0
38.3
42.9
46.7
46.4
46.1
45.7
45.7



















EPA-420-R-13-011
E-l
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
1750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG










4037
4053
4045
3698
4457
4760
4725
4690
4655
4653



















CuFt-
Ton-MPG










3533
3547
3539
3236
3900
4165
4134
4104
4074
4071



















Drivetrain
Front










100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%



















4WD







































Transmission
Manual










90.1%
64.7%
100.0%
59.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%



















Lock







































CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port







































TBI













2.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%



















Diesel







































Multi-
Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-2
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
105
154
157
270
234
280
209
157
94
92
62
58
106
186
135
71
142
120
111
97
33
37
13
12
8
11
2
1
0
0
0
0

22
14
3
3
5
6
Frac
0.010
0.012
0.011
0.019
0.017
0.025
0.020
0.016
0.009
0.007
0.004
0.004
0.007
0.012
0.009
0.006
0.011
0.010
0.008
0.007
0.002
0.003
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.002
0.002
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
31.4
32.6
36.0
34.9
32.0
33.0
38.4
40.3
43.6
44.3
44.4
36.6
40.0
43.6
43.5
47.5
47.1
47.3
48.6
48.9
53.7
52.3
54.4
53.6
50.3
61.6
75.6
75.3
75.1
73.8
74.3
73.8

49.5
49.5
49.1
48.7
49.5
50.3
Adj City
24.5
25.5
28.2
27.8
25.4
26.1
30.8
32.3
34.9
35.4
35.5
28.4
31.7
34.8
34.7
36.8
36.2
36.2
36.7
36.9
39.7
38.6
39.5
38.1
35.4
42.7
50.8
50.2
49.4
48.6
48.3
47.9

33.4
33.4
33.3
33.1
33.4
34.5
Adj Hwy
30.1
31.0
34.3
32.5
29.9
30.9
35.0
36.9
40.2
40.8
40.9
34.9
36.2
38.3
37.6
42.2
41.4
41.2
42.3
41.9
46.0
44.4
46.1
46.1
43.5
51.6
61.8
60.7
60.3
57.9
57.7
57.6

40.5
40.5
40.0
39.5
37.7
38.2
Adj Comb
26.7
27.8
30.7
29.7
27.2
28.0
32.6
34.2
37.1
37.7
37.7
31.0
33.6
36.4
36.1
39.2
38.6
38.5
39.4
39.3
42.8
41.4
42.8
42.0
39.3
47.1
56.3
55.6
55.0
53.5
53.3
53.0

37.1
37.1
36.8
36.5
35.7
36.5
Weight
(Ib)
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000

2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
Vol
(Cu Ft)


73.7
80.3
80.1
85.7
86.7
87.3
86.0
73.5
60.2
72.3
79.9
91.0
92.4
92.7
88.8
88.8
91.1
91.9
99.9
100.0
90.5
89.7
88.0
68.1
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0

50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
Engine
cro
83
84
84
90
88
90
86
86
84
86
89
76
70
77
76
72
67
64
67
62
63
72
61
60
61
61
61
61
61
61
61
61

61
61
61
61
61
61
HP
54
56
61
62
62
63
64
62
62
67
70
56
55
59
59
58
58
56
58
56
57
60
55
55
55
61
67
67
67
67
73
73

70
70
70
70
70
70
0-60 Time
15.9
15.6
14.4
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.0
14.5
14.4
13.5
13.3
15.4
15.9
15.0
15.2
15.2
15.3
15.6
15.2
15.7
15.4
14.8
15.7
15.7
15.7
13.2
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.2
11.0

13.3
13.3
13.3
13.3
13.3
13.3
HP/CID
0.655
0.670
0.739
0.695
0.712
0.696
0.744
0.715
0.728
0.776
0.782
0.750
0.799
0.770
0.782
0.813
0.866
0.886
0.870
0.902
0.900
0.846
0.902
0.917
0.902
1.005
1.098
1.098
1.098
1.098
1.197
1.197

1.148
1.148
1.148
1.148
1.148
1.148
HP/WT
0.0272
0.0279
0.0307
0.0312
0.0312
0.0314
0.0321
0.0308
0.0308
0.0335
0.0348
0.0281
0.0276
0.0293
0.0294
0.0290
0.0288
0.0282
0.0291
0.0281
0.0284
0.0298
0.0275
0.0275
0.0275
0.0306
0.0335
0.0335
0.0335
0.0335
0.0365
0.0365

0.0350
0.0350
0.0350
0.0350
0.0350
0.0350
Ton-MPG
26.9
28.0
31.4
30.0
27.5
28.4
33.0
34.6
37.4
38.2
38.7
33.0
35.0
37.0
36.8
39.6
39.1
39.0
39.8
39.8
42.8
41.6
42.8
42.0
39.3
48.8
56.3
55.6
55.0
53.5
53.3
53.0

37.1
37.1
36.8
36.5
35.7
36.5
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-3
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG


2307
2423
2208
2434
2857
3022
3216
2802
2343
2253
2737
3343
3360
3670
3478
3465
3629
3661
4278
4157
3871
3765
3461
3153
2817
2778
2749
2673
2663
2649

1857
1857
1841
1826
1787
1824
CuFt-
Ton-MPG


2307
2423
2208
2434
2857
3022
3216
2802
2343
2253
2737
3343
3360
3670
3478
3465
3629
3661
4278
4157
3871
3765
3461
3153
2817
2778
2749
2673
2663
2649

1857
1857
1841
1826
1787
1824
Drivetrain
Front
100.0%
92.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
82.7%
85.1%
91.9%
98.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
93.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
52.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%







4WD













6.1%

























Transmission
Manual
88.1%
89.7%
87.0%
93.4%
78.8%
68.5%
90.6%
88.3%
93.4%
96.7%
94.7%
100.0%
80.5%
99.0%
65.0%
89.8%
68.4%
53.4%
76.2%
52.3%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%







Lock
11.9%


6.6%
10.3%
8.0%

2.5%

3.1%
5.3%




























CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port








8.1%
1.3%
11.9%

6.3%
14.0%
37.9%
50.5%
29.1%
13.0%
28.7%
1.5%





52.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI













0.0%
19.3%
46.9%
69.2%
86.6%
71.3%
98.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
47.6%













Diesel







































Multi-
Valve












26.4%
17.5%
8.3%
3.0%
1.3%
0.4%
1.8%
1.5%





52.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT

























52.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid

























52.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%







EPA-420-R-13-011
E-4
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
375
570
851
887
699
1162
1191
884
985
899
840
745
461
401
280
97
129
146
136
117
161
135
87
26
23
43
24
3
2
0
5
2
1
0
1
0
0
10
12
Frac
0.037
0.046
0.060
0.061
0.050
0.103
0.113
0.091
0.096
0.064
0.058
0.048
0.031
0.026
0.019
0.008
0.010
0.012
0.010
0.008
0.011
0.010
0.006
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.002
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.001
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
28.3
29.6
32.1
31.9
31.4
32.4
34.4
35.6
36.2
37.1
37.5
38.5
39.0
38.9
38.7
39.6
38.1
39.7
38.7
39.6
40.4
38.9
39.3
39.0
38.6
39.6
39.3
51.5
50.8
64.5
34.1
34.3
29.9
29.9
30.0
29.8
29.9
52.3
52.3
Adj City
21.6
23.2
25.0
25.2
24.7
25.6
27.2
28.2
28.6
29.3
29.8
30.6
30.9
30.6
30.2
30.9
29.3
30.1
29.2
29.4
30.0
28.7
28.7
28.4
27.8
28.2
27.9
35.9
35.0
44.5
23.6
23.4
20.3
20.4
20.4
20.3
20.3
35.9
36.0
Adj Hwy
28.4
28.2
30.8
29.9
29.6
30.4
32.4
33.3
34.1
34.8
34.9
35.2
35.3
35.1
34.8
35.0
33.9
35.4
34.3
35.3
35.6
34.1
34.4
33.7
33.4
34.3
33.6
42.4
41.8
48.8
29.0
29.6
26.6
26.7
26.7
26.6
26.6
37.4
37.4
Adj Comb
24.2
25.2
27.3
27.1
26.7
27.5
29.3
30.3
30.8
31.5
31.9
32.5
32.8
32.6
32.3
32.8
31.4
32.5
31.6
32.1
32.6
31.3
31.4
31.0
30.6
31.2
30.8
39.2
38.5
46.8
26.4
26.6
23.5
23.5
23.6
23.4
23.5
36.7
36.8
Weight
(Ib)
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
Vol
(Cu Ft)


85.5
85.6
88.0
89.6
91.3
92.5
96.4
97.2
96.9
93.1
89.7
91.7
93.4
87.6
90.3
93.2
94.4
95.5
95.8
95.7
92.1
89.8
88.1
92.3
86.6
77.9
82.9
53.2
65.4
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
77.4
77.4
Engine
cro
89
91
90
89
88
92
96
94
95
94
94
93
91
90
89
86
88
89
88
86
84
90
81
80
81
83
80
78
81
63
101
100
110
110
110
110
110
81
81
HP
66
67
68
67
66
67
68
66
67
68
70
68
69
73
78
77
81
82
81
76
76
78
73
80
81
89
81
88
93
68
157
166
232
229
225
237
231
94
94
0-60 Time
15.3
15.3
14.8
15.0
15.2
15.0
14.8
15.0
14.9
14.8
14.4
14.8
14.6
14.0
13.3
13.5
12.9
12.8
12.8
13.6
13.7
13.5
14.2
13.0
13.0
12.2
12.8
10.6
10.5
11.1
8.0
7.5
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.6
5.7
11.6
11.6
HP/CID
0.749
0.736
0.762
0.758
0.745
0.722
0.710
0.703
0.709
0.721
0.748
0.737
0.766
0.808
0.876
0.891
0.921
0.924
0.921
0.885
0.903
0.869
0.891
1.002
1.003
1.063
1.015
1.125
1.136
1.073
1.520
1.615
2.110
2.082
2.045
2.157
2.103
1.159
1.159
HP/WT
0.0294
0.0296
0.0303
0.0298
0.0291
0.0296
0.0302
0.0294
0.0298
0.0303
0.0312
0.0304
0.0308
0.0325
0.0347
0.0341
0.0360
0.0365
0.0362
0.0340
0.0339
0.0349
0.0322
0.0356
0.0359
0.0395
0.0361
0.0393
0.0414
0.0301
0.0698
0.0739
0.1031
0.1018
0.1000
0.1054
0.1028
0.0418
0.0418
Ton-MPG
27.4
28.6
31.3
31.3
30.5
31.6
33.5
34.5
35.1
36.0
36.3
37.0
37.2
37.0
36.6
37.3
36.0
37.5
36.1
36.6
37.0
35.3
35.6
35.1
34.6
35.3
35.2
45.7
44.4
53.0
31.4
32.3
26.4
26.5
26.5
26.4
26.5
41.3
41.4
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-5
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG


2385
2394
2394
2515
2713
2833
3003
3113
3130
3068
2972
3015
3043
2858
2838
3110
3026
3107
3152
3001
2916
2801
2706
2907
2673
2969
3114
2468
1924
1434
1175
1177
1179
1173
1176
2843
2846
CuFt-
Ton-MPG


2683
2694
2694
2830
3052
3187
3379
3502
3521
3452
3344
3392
3424
3216
3193
3498
3404
3495
3546
3376
3281
3152
3044
3270
3007
3341
3504
2777
2165
1613
1322
1324
1326
1319
1323
3199
3202
Drivetrain
Front
46.1%
37.5%
43.0%
41.6%
44.8%
57.9%
69.8%
79.8%
93.2%
91.1%
97.1%
96.3%
96.3%
100.0%
100.0%
95.4%
95.7%
99.8%
98.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
40.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
37.0%
20.0%





100.0%
100.0%
4WD








1.6%

0.3%




4.6%
4.3%
0.2%
1.4%




















Transmission
Manual
88.0%
72.2%
78.9%
77.5%
82.5%
76.5%
78.4%
71.6%
70.6%
71.8%
65.3%
65.5%
70.5%
69.9%
63.5%
70.3%
69.6%
80.0%
76.0%
79.9%
48.7%
29.5%
39.1%
22.8%
23.5%
39.3%
15.3%
54.4%
65.3%
6.4%
93.7%
80.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%


Lock
2.3%


3.1%
1.0%
0.7%
5.0%
6.8%
10.2%
13.5%
21.6%
20.1%
14.1%
18.0%
15.0%
3.6%
22.3%
12.5%
13.3%
16.6%
27.7%
32.8%
4.4%














100.0%
100.0%
CVT














4.5%
2.5%
2.4%
0.2%
0.5%







6.2%
45.6%
34.7%
93.6%
6.3%
20.0%





100.0%
100.0%
Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port
22.6%
5.7%
14.4%
16.7%
15.6%
14.9%
6.5%
5.7%
8.0%
6.8%
1.6%
7.7%
9.9%
9.4%
5.1%
39.4%
80.3%
97.8%
98.2%
96.5%
69.9%
63.1%
38.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI








12.1%
16.5%
8.6%
6.3%
3.4%
28.1%
28.0%
20.3%
18.8%
2.0%
1.8%
3.5%
30.1%
36.9%
61.8%
















Diesel


1.9%
4.1%
5.5%
9.3%
9.2%
4.7%
1.4%
2.6%
0.1%
0.0%



























Multi-
Valve











5.6%
49.5%
48.4%
63.5%
66.3%
86.9%
77.9%
87.8%
62.3%
37.9%
43.2%
17.3%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
34.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT

























33.9%
16.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid


























6.2%
45.6%
34.7%
93.6%
6.3%
20.0%







EPA-420-R-13-011
E-6
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
406
349
465
782
1078
1172
1532
1443
1240
1529
1699
1622
1975
1802
1335
942
748
525
517
424
484
329
329
207
253
166
214
149
39
7
10
3
159
121
73
63
43
91
114
Frac
0.040
0.028
0.033
0.054
0.078
0.104
0.145
0.148
0.120
0.109
0.118
0.106
0.133
0.118
0.092
0.075
0.059
0.043
0.039
0.030
0.032
0.025
0.023
0.014
0.017
0.010
0.014
0.009
0.002
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.010
0.009
0.008
0.006
0.004
0.007
0.008
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
24.4
26.2
29.3
27.9
27.9
28.0
29.4
31.2
32.2
32.7
32.8
33.7
33.4
34.1
34.4
35.1
35.8
35.9
36.5
36.0
37.5
37.4
37.0
37.3
35.9
36.7
36.2
37.3
40.8
40.8
41.1
41.6
42.4
42.1
42.0
42.0
41.1
42.9
43.5
Adj City
18.8
20.2
23.0
22.1
22.2
22.3
23.2
24.4
25.3
25.6
25.6
26.3
26.0
26.5
26.4
26.9
27.2
26.8
26.9
26.3
27.0
26.6
26.2
26.0
24.9
25.4
25.0
25.3
28.0
27.8
27.8
28.6
28.9
28.8
28.8
28.8
28.2
29.3
29.5
Adj Hwy
23.8
25.8
27.9
26.2
25.8
26.0
27.6
29.7
30.5
31.2
31.5
31.8
31.3
31.5
31.8
32.1
32.7
33.1
33.9
33.5
35.1
34.9
34.2
34.9
33.3
33.7
32.6
34.2
35.3
35.1
35.1
34.3
35.3
34.9
34.7
34.7
34.2
35.6
36.3
Adj Comb
20.8
22.4
24.9
23.8
23.7
23.8
25.0
26.6
27.4
27.8
28.0
28.6
28.2
28.7
28.7
29.2
29.6
29.6
30.0
29.5
30.6
30.4
29.9
30.1
28.8
29.3
28.7
29.6
31.6
31.5
31.5
31.6
32.2
32.0
31.9
31.9
31.3
32.6
33.1
Weight
(Ib)
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
Vol
(Cu Ft)


90.3
91.6
90.6
92.3
94.8
91.5
94.8
96.3
98.0
100.0
98.9
99.5
98.0
94.0
94.2
94.1
93.9
94.4
94.1
95.3
94.8
99.6
93.1
95.2
99.8
100.1
93.6
92.6
95.7
97.4
99.1
98.7
97.6
98.2
98.9
97.4
98.5
Engine
cro
95
97
98
101
101
104
108
106
107
107
109
106
104
100
99
97
96
97
99
100
100
103
101
104
105
103
100
106
94
94
93
91
91
91
91
91
91
91
86
HP
73
73
75
74
72
71
76
72
75
78
83
80
78
79
85
89
91
94
94
92
99
102
98
97
103
107
102
102
112
113
111
106
106
106
106
106
103
104
98
0-60 Time
15.2
15.1
14.9
15.1
15.4
15.6
14.8
15.4
15.0
14.7
14.0
14.3
14.6
14.5
13.6
13.0
12.8
12.5
12.5
12.8
12.0
11.8
12.2
12.1
11.7
11.3
11.7
11.7
10.9
10.8
11.0
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.3
11.6
11.6
12.2
HP/CID
0.774
0.755
0.764
0.734
0.710
0.680
0.711
0.683
0.705
0.726
0.760
0.759
0.749
0.785
0.865
0.920
0.957
0.980
0.956
0.930
0.991
0.999
0.976
0.948
0.983
1.049
1.032
0.968
1.185
1.197
1.193
1.165
1.165
1.165
1.165
1.165
1.132
1.148
1.146
HP/WT
0.0292
0.0294
0.0299
0.0297
0.0287
0.0283
0.0305
0.0289
0.0300
0.0312
0.0330
0.0321
0.0311
0.0314
0.0339
0.0356
0.0365
0.0376
0.0374
0.0366
0.0396
0.0407
0.0393
0.0390
0.0411
0.0428
0.0408
0.0406
0.0448
0.0450
0.0443
0.0424
0.0424
0.0424
0.0424
0.0424
0.0414
0.0416
0.0394
Ton-MPG
26.1
28.3
31.5
30.0
29.8
30.0
31.5
33.6
34.6
35.2
35.4
36.0
35.5
36.0
36.1
36.7
37.2
37.3
37.8
37.3
38.5
38.2
37.6
37.7
36.2
36.9
36.1
37.1
39.8
39.6
39.5
39.5
40.3
40.0
39.9
39.9
39.2
40.8
41.4
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-7
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG


2278
2197
2163
2218
2398
2469
2643
2721
2789
2882
2810
2869
2830
2768
2820
2818
2846
2828
2909
2933
2873
3003
2722
2836
2890
2976
3018
2975
3052
3079
3193
3157
3114
3132
3099
3172
3255
CuFt-
Ton-MPG


2847
2746
2703
2772
2997
3086
3303
3401
3486
3602
3513
3586
3537
3460
3524
3522
3557
3535
3637
3666
3592
3754
3403
3544
3612
3719
3772
3719
3815
3849
3991
3946
3892
3915
3874
3965
4069
Drivetrain
Front
36.0%
18.3%
20.7%
34.3%
43.7%
47.9%
53.6%
69.3%
68.9%
75.4%
77.1%
94.3%
97.7%
99.7%
97.8%
94.4%
94.7%
94.7%
95.8%
95.2%
95.9%
94.2%
94.4%
100.0%
100.0%
88.4%
96.8%
96.4%
86.7%
84.7%
90.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
4WD




3.5%
3.9%
2.7%
0.6%
13.1%
2.4%
9.2%
0.9%
0.8%
0.3%
2.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%




















Transmission
Manual
75.2%
67.5%
69.3%
53.2%
52.1%
52.5%
52.4%
57.3%
50.5%
47.3%
53.7%
49.5%
47.7%
48.3%
52.0%
56.7%
62.7%
53.6%
61.9%
50.7%
48.4%
50.1%
47.0%
38.9%
41.9%
45.3%
36.1%
38.0%
23.9%
32.3%
15.0%
29.5%
18.2%
16.8%
12.9%
11.6%
14.5%
27.9%
28.8%
Lock
0.1%



4.7%

0.9%
8.6%
20.7%
26.4%
19.8%
22.1%
32.6%
41.8%
37.6%
34.2%
36.6%
46.3%
32.8%
41.6%
45.6%
43.7%
53.0%
61.1%
58.1%
54.7%
63.9%
62.0%
76.1%
67.7%
85.0%
70.5%
81.8%
83.2%
87.1%
88.4%
85.5%
72.1%
71.2%
CVT















0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%




















Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port
20.4%
12.9%
12.5%
8.0%
2.3%
3.8%
4.1%
4.6%
3.2%
11.9%
15.7%
16.9%
13.6%
11.9%
24.7%
44.5%
64.0%
82.6%
76.7%
75.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI








0.1%
1.6%
4.2%
5.3%
19.5%
51.5%
47.3%
51.0%
36.0%
17.4%
23.3%
24.6%



















Diesel


1.2%

0.6%
2.8%
2.5%
3.0%
0.4%
2.2%
1.7%
1.0%



























Multi-
Valve











2.7%
20.7%
31.8%
44.7%
58.7%
66.1%
64.3%
55.1%
68.4%
66.4%
65.1%
60.4%
54.0%
59.9%
71.0%
73.4%
43.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT
















5.1%
8.9%
4.6%
3.1%
1.4%
8.8%
1.8%
2.8%
0.2%
29.3%
26.6%
24.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-8
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
281
203
349
498
459
973
715
961
863
2051
1878
1899
1896
1519
1204
1081
1462
1280
1651
1522
1747
1241
1637
1621
1347
1318
1184
913
691
729
941
628
549
437
271
194
237
398
414
Frac
0.027
0.016
0.025
0.034
0.033
0.086
0.068
0.099
0.084
0.146
0.130
0.124
0.128
0.099
0.083
0.086
0.116
0.105
0.125
0.108
0.115
0.094
0.113
0.112
0.089
0.080
0.076
0.057
0.044
0.046
0.059
0.042
0.036
0.031
0.029
0.017
0.020
0.030
0.029
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
21.7
24.5
24.8
24.8
24.0
26.1
27.7
28.8
30.2
30.1
30.6
30.6
30.8
31.5
31.8
31.9
32.5
32.6
33.0
33.6
33.9
33.9
34.0
34.5
34.6
34.3
35.9
36.3
37.1
36.9
37.3
37.8
38.2
37.9
38.3
39.0
40.4
44.5
45.1
Adj City
16.6
19.0
19.2
19.3
18.5
19.9
21.6
22.0
23.6
23.3
23.7
23.6
23.6
23.9
24.0
24.1
24.1
24.0
24.0
24.3
24.4
24.2
24.1
24.2
24.2
23.8
24.7
24.8
25.1
24.8
25.0
25.3
25.4
25.2
25.9
26.3
27.1
29.7
30.0
Adj Hwy
21.6
23.7
24.1
24.1
23.7
26.0
26.7
28.5
28.9
29.3
29.6
29.7
29.7
30.3
30.4
30.1
31.0
31.1
31.4
32.1
32.1
31.7
31.8
32.4
32.0
31.5
33.0
33.0
33.5
33.2
33.1
33.4
33.9
33.7
33.1
33.8
35.1
37.1
37.2
Adj Comb
18.5
20.9
21.1
21.2
20.5
22 2
23.6
24.5
25.7
25.7
26.0
26.0
26.1
26.5
26.7
26.7
27.0
27.0
27 2
27.7
27.8
27.6
27.6
27.9
27.9
27.4
28.6
28.8
29.2
28.9
29.0
29.3
29.7
29.4
29.6
30.1
31.1
33.5
33.7
Weight
(Ib)
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
Vol
(Cu Ft)


80.3
88.6
82.2
96.0
107.2
104.3
106.3
102.7
103.3
102.0
101.7
102.1
101.7
98.7
100.3
98.5
101.9
101.2
102.6
101.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
100.5
99.6
99.6
100.8
101.6
102.1
101.0
102.0
102.5
104.9
105.1
101.2
101.4
101.1
Engine
cro
127
122
126
129
132
142
137
124
124
127
128
125
124
123
118
111
112
110
112
109
110
108
109
110
110
108
108
107
106
105
106
104
104
104
96
97
97
95
95
HP
100
96
96
95
94
93
92
87
88
89
94
95
96
97
96
100
100
106
106
108
111
117
113
117
118
120
121
119
123
120
121
119
120
119
111
113
114
116
116
0-60 Time
12.8
13.4
13.3
13.4
13.6
13.6
13.8
14.4
14.2
14.1
13.6
13.4
13.3
13.1
13.3
12.9
12.9
12.3
12.4
12.1
12.0
11.5
11.7
11.3
11.3
11.2
11.0
11.2
10.9
11.1
11.1
11.3
11.2
11.2
11.8
11.6
11.6
11.2
11.2
HP/CID
0.799
0.794
0.765
0.740
0.710
0.665
0.678
0.707
0.712
0.705
0.735
0.769
0.790
0.804
0.820
0.919
0.913
0.972
0.955
1.001
1.017
1.086
1.039
1.071
1.078
1.118
1.122
1.121
1.154
1.144
1.144
1.142
1.145
1.147
1.159
1.174
1.175
1.211
1.217
HP/WT
0.0365
0.0348
0.0350
0.0344
0.0341
0.0339
0.0333
0.0316
0.0320
0.0324
0.0340
0.0347
0.0350
0.0354
0.0349
0.0364
0.0364
0.0386
0.0384
0.0394
0.0403
0.0427
0.0409
0.0427
0.0428
0.0437
0.0440
0.0434
0.0447
0.0436
0.0439
0.0432
0.0435
0.0434
0.0404
0.0413
0.0416
0.0420
0.0421
Ton-MPG
25.9
29.1
29.4
29.4
28.4
30.9
32.7
33.8
35.6
35.5
36.0
36.0
36.0
36.6
36.8
36.7
37.3
37.4
37.6
38.2
38.4
38.2
38.2
38.6
38.4
37.9
39.6
39.8
40.3
39.9
40.1
40.5
40.9
40.6
40.8
41.5
43.1
47.0
47.4
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-9
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG


1728
1892
1720
2176
2533
2566
2756
2653
2707
2667
2658
2717
2719
2637
2724
2681
2789
2816
2865
2816
2788
2820
2807
2768
2874
2884
2964
2955
2976
2982
3044
3042
3122
3188
3174
3478
3500
CuFt-
Ton-MPG


2375
2602
2365
2992
3482
3528
3790
3648
3722
3667
3655
3736
3738
3625
3746
3687
3835
3872
3940
3872
3833
3877
3860
3806
3952
3966
4075
4062
4092
4100
4186
4182
4293
4383
4365
4783
4813
Drivetrain
Front
0.4%
0.9%
2.0%
0.9%
5.4%
47.9%
70.0%
77.9%
89.4%
87.7%
93.3%
92.7%
95.7%
97.4%
97.5%
99.0%
99.3%
99.5%
98.4%
98.7%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
96.9%
94.2%
98.5%
98.2%
98.8%
99.6%
96.7%
97.6%
96.3%
98.4%
96.3%
97.7%
98.4%
98.5%
4WD







3.1%
4.0%
2.2%
2.8%
2.9%
1.9%
1.8%
1.1%
0.9%
0.2%
0.5%
1.6%
0.1%
0.0%


















Transmission
Manual
70.3%
63.5%
67.5%
66.7%
59.6%
53.6%
36.0%
33.7%
31.2%
30.5%
21.8%
34.7%
31.5%
31.0%
29.6%
25.7%
28.1%
30.1%
27.3%
32.1%
27.6%
25.1%
22.1%
22.3%
19.1%
21.1%
20.1%
22.1%
21.3%
23.0%
16.8%
17.1%
14.9%
19.3%
21.1%
16.7%
13.4%
9.8%
12.0%
Lock
0.3%






30.2%
33.0%
36.3%
45.1%
47.5%
44.0%
58.1%
59.2%
65.5%
68.0%
64.4%
69.4%
66.4%
72.4%
74.8%
77.5%
77.1%
80.3%
77.2%
78.4%
77.0%
77.4%
75.7%
82.2%
81.5%
85.1%
80.7%
78.9%
83.3%
86.6%
78.9%
75.4%
CVT





















0.1%
0.4%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.4%
1.3%
1.3%
1.0%
1.5%





29.8%
30.3%
Fuel Metering
GDI





































24.8%
26.7%
Port
3.9%
3.6%
9.4%
5.5%
6.1%
13.8%
18.3%
6.4%
12.3%
12.2%
14.5%
32.1%
24.7%
18.9%
21.8%
56.5%
63.5%
85.9%
93.8%
99.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
75.2%
73.3%
TBI







5.8%
40.6%
42.4%
59.5%
52.6%
58.4%
59.8%
63.8%
43.0%
36.1%
14.0%
6.2%
0.3%



















Diesel






0.6%
0.4%
0.6%
1.0%
0.4%
0.3%
0.2%

0.3%
0.2%
0.3%
0.1%





















Multi-
Valve











17.5%
26.4%
27.2%
22.6%
46.9%
47.0%
58.8%
52.9%
67.4%
74.7%
88.0%
75.7%
83.2%
83.3%
92.2%
93.1%
93.8%
100.0%
99.6%
93.2%
91.8%
87.8%
98.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT
















6.6%
11.0%
12.1%
20.1%
13.3%
17.3%
16.8%
22.1%
20.8%
42.0%
65.9%
63.4%
80.0%
78.4%
75.4%
86.1%
79.7%
60.7%
84.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid





































11.3%
12.6%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-10
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
828
884
584
903
1286
2026
1626
1554
1515
1994
2037
2830
2743
3146
3402
2857
2714
1918
2021
2033
1933
1796
1765
1153
924
1470
1255
1587
1776
1576
1738
1673
1780
1660
1565
1809
1084
1886
1645
Frac
0.081
0.072
0.041
0.062
0.093
0.179
0.154
0.160
0.147
0.142
0.141
0.184
0.185
0.206
0.235
0.226
0.216
0.158
0.153
0.144
0.128
0.137
0.122
0.080
0.061
0.089
0.080
0.099
0.113
0.100
0.109
0.111
0.116
0.119
0.168
0.163
0.090
0.140
0.114
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
21.4
23.5
23 2
22.5
22.1
23.6
24.4
25.7
25.8
26.4
27.1
27.5
27.9
28.4
28.4
28.6
28.1
28.4
28.7
29.1
29.7
29.9
30.0
30.1
30.1
30.6
31.6
31.4
32.8
33.5
34.2
34.9
36.4
37.5
38.4
38.2
38.5
40.3
40.1
Adj City
16.6
18.1
18.1
17.7
17.2
18.3
19.0
19.7
19.8
20.2
20.7
21.0
21.2
21.4
21.2
21.3
20.8
20.8
20.8
21.0
21.2
21.1
21.0
21.0
20.9
21.3
21.8
21.6
22.4
22.5
23.0
23.3
24.3
25.1
25.7
25.5
25.7
26.6
26.5
Adj Hwy
20.9
23.1
22.3
21.3
21.3
23.0
23.4
25.4
25.6
26.2
26.9
27.1
27.4
27.8
27.7
27.7
27.3
27.6
27.8
28.0
28.8
29.2
29.0
28.8
28.4
28.6
29.1
28.9
29.8
30.4
30.6
31.4
32.4
33.2
33.9
33.8
34.0
35.9
35.6
Adj Comb
18.3
20.1
19.8
19.2
18.9
20.1
20.8
21.9
22.0
22.5
23.1
23.4
23.6
24.0
23.9
23.9
23.5
23.7
23.8
24.0
24.5
24.6
24.5
24.5
24.4
24.7
25.3
25.1
26.0
26.4
26.8
27.3
28.4
29 2
29.8
29.6
29.9
31.2
31.1
Weight
(Ib)
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
Vol
(Cu Ft)


87.6
97.3
96.3
100.9
103.8
104.2
105.4
104.9
106.7
106.6
106.3
105.3
105.2
103.9
104.0
102.7
102.6
102.9
103.6
103.1
102.5
101.1
99.9
102.0
102.5
104.2
104.4
105.5
106.1
103.4
104.5
104.2
104.2
105.4
106.8
106.7
107.6
Engine
cro
147
147
146
164
162
164
165
163
161
157
154
151
147
145
146
142
145
146
147
143
139
137
136
132
128
126
125
124
121
123
121
120
120
118
115
116
114
114
113
HP
99
95
104
102
100
100
101
103
105
107
110
108
111
114
118
122
124
127
125
124
136
133
134
131
128
127
129
132
133
136
135
139
137
135
135
138
139
145
147
0-60 Time
14.4
14.6
13.7
13.9
13.9
13.8
13.9
13.6
13.4
13.3
13.0
13.2
12.9
12.6
12.3
12.0
11.8
11.6
11.8
11.8
10.9
11.0
11.0
11.2
11.4
11.6
11.4
11.2
11.0
10.7
10.6
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.3
10.2
HP/CID
0.674
0.657
0.715
0.637
0.634
0.624
0.619
0.640
0.658
0.689
0.727
0.723
0.767
0.797
0.815
0.867
0.868
0.885
0.863
0.881
0.988
0.980
0.993
0.997
1.001
1.007
1.031
1.064
1.098
1.103
1.110
1.156
1.143
1.145
1.171
1.196
1.227
1.276
1.301
HP/WT
0.0329
0.0317
0.0347
0.0339
0.0333
0.0334
0.0335
0.0343
0.0349
0.0357
0.0366
0.0359
0.0371
0.0380
0.0393
0.0405
0.0414
0.0423
0.0417
0.0413
0.0452
0.0444
0.0447
0.0436
0.0426
0.0423
0.0429
0.0440
0.0443
0.0452
0.0449
0.0462
0.0457
0.0450
0.0450
0.0462
0.0463
0.0484
0.0489
Ton-MPG
27.8
30.4
30.1
29.1
28.6
30.3
31.4
33.3
33.4
34.1
35.0
35.3
35.8
36.3
36.0
36.0
35.5
35.6
35.9
36.2
36.9
37.0
36.9
37.0
36.8
37.3
38.3
38.0
39.5
40.3
41.3
42.1
43.9
45.2
45.4
44.7
45.0
47.1
47.0
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-ll
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG


1771
1885
1834
2040
2168
2319
2346
2381
2489
2513
2539
2547
2525
2497
2458
2438
2455
2481
2546
2544
2521
2494
2455
2544
2628
2642
2747
2842
2935
2913
3081
3156
3161
3136
3192
3343
3369
CuFt-
Ton-MPG


2656
2828
2751
3060
3252
3479
3520
3571
3734
3770
3809
3821
3788
3746
3687
3657
3683
3721
3819
3817
3781
3741
3682
3816
3942
3963
4121
4263
4402
4369
4622
4733
4742
4704
4789
5015
5053
Drivetrain
Front
3.5%
2.5%
3.6%
4.4%
2.6%
32.0%
45.4%
53.2%
63.0%
73.9%
77.9%
82.2%
84.1%
90.6%
91.3%
95.0%
93.3%
94.2%
94.6%
99.1%
95.4%
96.7%
95.5%
94.6%
94.4%
95.7%
95.9%
98.1%
97.0%
97.6%
98.0%
97.2%
97.3%
98.0%
99.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.2%
97.5%
4WD









0.2%
0.5%
1.0%
1.9%
1.2%
1.4%
0.7%
1.5%
0.7%
0.9%
0.3%
2.6%
1.8%
2.3%
2.7%
2.5%
1.2%
0.7%
0.2%
1.4%
1.2%
0.8%
1.2%
0.8%
0.9%
0.7%
0.0%
0.1%
0.8%
1.0%
Transmission
Manual
48.5%
50.4%
51.3%
35.2%
39.7%
30.9%
21.6%
17.0%
17.2%
16.2%
14.4%
15.1%
15.7%
17.2%
16.4%
20.8%
18.4%
20.3%
19.7%
16.5%
22.1%
20.7%
19.8%
24.2%
26.9%
21.2%
22.8%
19.2%
19.4%
15.2%
15.9%
17.0%
14.3%
12.0%
9.8%
6.3%
7.6%
8.0%
11.8%
Lock
0.1%




1.0%
0.7%
65.1%
62.7%
58.2%
53.5%
56.4%
63.5%
66.8%
71.5%
68.8%
72.4%
66.3%
68.9%
75.6%
77.9%
79.3%
80.1%
75.5%
72.0%
77.1%
74.8%
79.0%
77.9%
79.8%
75.7%
75.8%
68.2%
66.9%
77.4%
83.2%
76.3%
90.3%
82.6%
CVT


























1.3%
1.4%
2.7%
5.0%
8.4%
7.2%
17.5%
21.1%
12.8%
10.5%
16.2%
10.7%
9.2%
Fuel Metering
GDI
































1.2%
1.3%
0.9%
1.1%
3.1%
27.2%
25.9%
Port
17.1%
9.8%
22.4%
18.0%
14.1%
7.5%
11.9%
18.6%
22.7%
27.6%
37.5%
35.7%
49.6%
69.9%
73.4%
74.9%
75.7%
87.2%
86.8%
89.5%
98.6%
100.0%
99.9%
99.0%
99.0%
98.6%
98.6%
98.9%
99.0%
99.4%
99.7%
99.9%
98.8%
98.7%
99.1%
98.9%
96.9%
72.8%
74.1%
TBI







26.9%
26.5%
29.6%
34.7%
49.0%
49.5%
30.1%
24.0%
25.0%
24.3%
12.8%
13.2%
10.5%
1.4%


















Diesel




0.1%
0.5%
0.4%
0.7%
0.7%
0.8%
0.4%
0.2%
0.0%
0.0%








0.1%
1.0%
1.0%
1.4%
1.4%
1.1%
1.0%
0.6%
0.3%
0.1%







Multi-
Valve











2.3%
10.6%
22.6%
33.6%
46.7%
41.8%
36.5%
38.2%
37.2%
65.5%
61.9%
69.1%
57.4%
49.9%
48.2%
56.5%
64.4%
85.6%
92.7%
91.9%
94.7%
96.3%
98.1%
98.8%
97.2%
97.0%
97.6%
97.3%
WT

















0.2%
0.2%
0.7%
9.9%
12.4%
7.6%
21.0%
24.9%
17.3%
26.4%
27.7%
40.1%
46.5%
62.6%
71.7%
55.9%
63.8%
79.4%
90.3%
89.0%
98.0%
99.0%
Hybrid



























1.4%
2.6%
4.5%
8.5%
7.1%
10.7%
12.3%
6.5%
2.8%
2.8%
1.3%
2.0%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-12
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
1029
934
724
2992
2684
2148
1829
1421
1669
2220
2461
2760
2521
2693
2688
2704
2137
2822
2848
2770
3628
3154
3196
3995
4610
4665
4313
4294
4119
3561
3265
3024
3016
2458
2191
2339
2537
3362
3385
Frac
0.101
0.076
0.051
0.207
0.193
0.190
0.173
0.146
0.162
0.158
0.170
0.180
0.170
0.176
0.186
0.214
0.170
0.232
0.216
0.196
0.240
0.240
0.221
0.276
0.303
0.282
0.276
0.266
0.261
0.227
0.205
0.200
0.197
0.177
0.235
0.211
0.211
0.250
0.236
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
18.2
19.4
20.2
20.2
20.2
20.7
22 2
22.4
22.8
22.9
23.4
24.4
24.6
25.4
25.1
25.5
25.4
25.6
26.0
26.1
26.4
26.5
26.7
27.1
27.2
27.1
27 2
27.7
28.0
28.1
28.9
29.2
29.9
30.6
31.7
34.6
34.8
35.9
37.3
Adj City
14.3
15.5
16.1
15.8
16.0
16.3
17.3
17.3
17.5
17.5
17.7
18.2
18.0
18.5
18.2
18.3
18.2
18.2
18.5
18.4
18.5
18.5
18.5
18.6
18.6
18.5
18.5
18.7
18.7
18.7
19.2
19.3
19.9
20.3
21.0
22.9
22.8
23.6
24.5
Adj Hwy
17.1
18.0
18.8
19.2
18.8
19.8
21.4
21.8
22.6
22.8
23.7
25.1
25.7
26.5
26.2
26.4
26.0
26.2
26.5
26.5
26.9
26.6
26.8
27.0
26.8
26.7
26.5
26.6
26.9
26.9
27.3
27.4
28.0
28.4
29.5
31.6
32.5
33.3
34.2
Adj Comb
15.5
16.5
17.2
17.2
17.2
17.7
18.9
19.1
19.5
19.5
20.0
20.8
20.9
21.5
21.3
21.5
21.3
21.5
21.7
21.7
22.0
22.0
22.1
22.3
22.3
22 2
22.1
22.4
22.6
22.6
23.1
23.2
23.8
24.3
25.1
27.2
27.5
28.3
29 2
Weight
(Ib)
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Vol
(Cu Ft)


102.4
111.1
112.3
111.3
113.3
112.0
111.8
109.6
111.9
113.5
114.0
113.5
114.2
113.0
111.2
113.6
114.2
111.7
111.9
111.5
112.4
111.5
110.8
111.5
110.6
112.5
111.1
110.4
111.8
111.4
110.3
110.8
113.2
113.6
113.2
114.0
112.3
Engine
cro
227
231
232
257
252
244
234
237
238
236
228
225
217
212
207
194
195
192
194
191
188
181
181
178
174
175
174
176
175
176
170
167
160
155
149
147
144
142
137
HP
102
100
104
120
120
115
113
118
122
127
133
141
147
151
151
150
156
155
156
156
166
164
170
170
170
174
177
183
185
188
185
188
184
184
177
173
179
176
180
0-60 Time
15.6
15.8
15.3
13.8
13.7
14.1
14.3
14.0
13.6
13.2
12.7
12.0
11.6
11.4
11.4
11.4
11.1
11.2
11.1
11.1
10.6
10.7
10.4
10.4
10.4
10.2
10.1
9.8
9.8
9.6
9.8
9.7
9.8
9.8
9.9
9.7
9.7
9.9
9.7
HP/CID
0.463
0.447
0.458
0.468
0.477
0.477
0.487
0.505
0.524
0.556
0.603
0.654
0.703
0.732
0.751
0.795
0.822
0.829
0.825
0.837
0.906
0.925
0.957
0.969
0.993
1.013
1.029
1.063
1.076
1.097
1.111
1.144
1.163
1.195
1.193
1.173
1.249
1.250
1.330
HP/WT
0.0292
0.0286
0.0297
0.0342
0.0342
0.0329
0.0322
0.0338
0.0348
0.0363
0.0379
0.0404
0.0421
0.0431
0.0431
0.0430
0.0446
0.0442
0.0447
0.0445
0.0473
0.0470
0.0486
0.0485
0.0486
0.0498
0.0505
0.0524
0.0528
0.0538
0.0528
0.0537
0.0525
0.0525
0.0507
0.0495
0.0511
0.0502
0.0514
Ton-MPG
27.6
29 2
30.5
30.2
30.1
31.1
33.3
33.8
34.3
34.5
35.1
36.5
36.7
37.9
37.4
37.7
37.4
37.6
38.2
38.2
38.5
38.5
38.7
39.2
39.1
38.9
38.9
39.4
39.7
39.8
40.7
41.0
42.0
42.8
44.2
49.8
49.4
50.7
52.6
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-13
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG


1789
1919
1934
1980
2160
2170
2199
2167
2246
2377
2399
2464
2444
2443
2386
2447
2495
2438
2466
2455
2488
2494
2476
2479
2461
2533
2529
2516
2608
2618
2657
2720
2865
3247
3204
3308
3388
CuFt-
Ton-MPG


3132
3358
3385
3465
3780
3798
3848
3792
3930
4160
4199
4312
4278
4275
4176
4283
4365
4266
4315
4297
4353
4365
4333
4339
4307
4433
4426
4404
4563
4581
4651
4759
5013
5681
5607
5789
5930
Drivetrain
Front





0.2%

0.5%
0.9%
8.2%
35.2%
49.2%
64.1%
72.8%
80.6%
84.5%
79.7%
78.6%
87.5%
84.8%
79.4%
89.0%
88.8%
88.0%
90.0%
88.4%
88.8%
88.3%
87.1%
84.1%
85.9%
85.4%
86.7%
86.7%
89.4%
92.1%
89.4%
92.6%
90.5%
4WD





0.4%
0.5%
0.6%
0.8%
0.2%
0.0%
0.5%
0.4%
0.2%
0.2%
1.9%
2.7%
1.7%
1.6%
0.9%
1.4%
2.5%
2.9%
2.7%
2.6%
2.5%
1.9%
2.6%
1.7%
2.6%
4.4%
4.1%
3.7%
6.1%
5.6%
3.6%
5.2%
4.2%
4.1%
Transmission
Manual
19.3%
17.2%
16.2%
4.7%
4.0%
3.1%
3.4%
6.9%
8.7%
7.7%
8.3%
8.6%
8.8%
7.9%
6.8%
6.3%
7.4%
5.2%
4.6%
7.4%
7.1%
7.5%
6.2%
5.7%
5.9%
6.4%
7.1%
7.7%
8.5%
8.6%
7.2%
8.8%
8.1%
7.8%
5.6%
4.8%
4.9%
3.9%
6.1%
Lock



6.4%
16.9%
37.9%
84.4%
88.4%
83.4%
88.9%
88.8%
88.5%
87.8%
89.7%
88.2%
89.6%
88.3%
92.2%
93.7%
91.5%
91.8%
91.8%
93.8%
94.2%
93.7%
93.0%
92.4%
92.0%
91.3%
90.7%
92.4%
91.0%
79.7%
75.7%
80.7%
67.0%
76.9%
86.8%
84.5%
CVT



























0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%

12.2%
16.5%
13.6%
24.0%
17.5%
19.6%
28.4%
Fuel Metering
GDI
































0.2%
2.5%
3.0%
3.2%
16.9%
17.8%
34.9%
Port
6.5%
5.7%
6.1%
1.4%
1.3%
2.2%
3.0%
5.1%
9.1%
23.5%
37.6%
59.4%
77.1%
88.2%
87.8%
97.2%
96.0%
98.0%
99.6%
100.0%
100.0%
99.8%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.7%
99.7%
99.6%
99.4%
98.6%
99.8%
97.5%
95.3%
94.2%
80.9%
79.7%
61.8%
TBI







4.4%
5.3%
12.1%
32.3%
20.7%
15.0%
11.4%
12.2%
2.8%
3.9%
1.9%
0.4%




















Diesel
1.9%
1.4%
2.7%
0.5%
0.8%
1.7%
2.5%
4.9%
2.6%
1.4%
0.7%
0.1%
0.4%

0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%



0.2%
0.1%



0.1%
0.3%
0.3%
0.4%
0.6%
1.4%


1.7%
2.6%
2.2%
2.5%
3.3%
Multi-
Valve











1.1%
3.1%
6.1%
7.7%
12.6%
16.4%
24.0%
24.4%
26.2%
37.4%
47.0%
48.7%
55.1%
63.4%
65.7%
64.8%
67.8%
66.6%
66.6%
70.6%
78.5%
87.1%
93.9%
98.1%
98.1%
99.5%
99.7%
99.6%
WT
















0.1%
2.4%
2.6%
9.0%
10.5%
12.3%
12.5%
17.8%
16.5%
22.5%
21.4%
33.6%
40.7%
37.6%
47.3%
57.4%
67.8%
63.3%
78.4%
94.9%
96.8%
96.7%
96.3%
Hybrid






























0.6%

0.2%
0.3%
0.5%
10.7%
6.4%
7.3%
7.8%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-14
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
1089
1977
3323
2235
2643
1316
1313
1215
1446
1702
1671
918
912
829
860
986
1114
1166
1059
1342
1281
1093
1259
918
1179
1382
1331
1256
1013
1287
1637
2241
2197
2284
1315
1399
1472
1354
1756
Frac
0.106
0.160
0.235
0.155
0.190
0.116
0.124
0.125
0.140
0.121
0.116
0.060
0.061
0.054
0.060
0.078
0.089
0.096
0.080
0.095
0.085
0.083
0.087
0.064
0.077
0.083
0.085
0.078
0.064
0.082
0.103
0.148
0.144
0.164
0.141
0.126
0.123
0.101
0.122
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
15.6
17.7
17.9
18.0
17.8
18.8
20.3
20.6
20.3
20.6
21.7
22.1
21.7
22 2
23.0
23.0
23.3
23.4
23.6
23.5
23.5
23.9
23.8
23.8
24.2
24.4
24.6
24.8
25.1
25.4
25.7
26.0
27.0
26.9
27.5
27.7
28.2
29.1
30.6
Adj City
12.4
14.0
14.2
14.1
14.0
14.6
15.5
15.6
15.4
15.5
16.4
16.5
16.3
16.4
16.8
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.6
16.4
16.6
16.4
16.4
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
16.8
16.9
17.2
17.8
17.7
18.1
18.3
18.6
19.0
20.0
Adj Hwy
14.5
16.5
16.7
17.1
16.7
18.3
20.3
20.9
20.6
20.9
22.3
22.6
22.0
22.7
23.5
23.7
24.1
24.1
24.1
24.0
24.2
24.6
24.3
24.0
24.5
24.5
24.5
24.3
24.5
24.9
25.0
25.1
25.9
26.1
26.4
26.6
27.4
28.2
29.6
Adj Comb
13.3
15.0
15.2
15.3
15.1
16.1
17.3
17.6
17.4
17.6
18.6
18.8
18.5
18.8
19.4
19.4
19.6
19.7
19.7
19.6
19.6
19.9
19.8
19.7
19.9
20.0
20.2
20.2
20.4
20.6
20.7
21.0
21.7
21.7
22.1
22.2
22.7
23.3
24.5
Weight
(Ib)
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Vol
(Cu Ft)


113.5
114.9
119.6
122.4
123.2
126.4
126.7
126.3
125.3
124.9
122.2
125.8
125.1
123.1
124.9
123.4
121.9
121.5
121.3
124.1
123.1
123.0
123.5
122.3
121.2
116.6
114.0
113.7
115.1
116.3
114.4
113.6
113.0
112.1
111.5
111.4
110.9
Engine
cro
292
280
293
306
311
302
296
287
287
289
294
299
294
289
275
263
265
258
253
248
253
249
249
247
238
235
227
223
215
211
214
215
208
209
208
213
207
205
195
HP
130
122
133
145
147
136
134
135
139
139
148
154
157
160
155
165
187
198
198
204
219
218
225
234
233
240
226
230
233
239
240
245
241
247
251
262
263
276
274
0-60 Time
14.5
15.4
14.2
13.1
13.0
13.9
14.0
13.8
13.4
13.4
12.8
12.4
12.3
12.1
12.5
12.0
10.7
10.2
10.3
10.0
9.4
9.5
9.3
8.9
9.0
8.8
9.2
9.1
9.0
8.8
8.7
8.6
8.6
8.5
8.3
8.1
8.1
7.8
7.7
HP/CID
0.443
0.433
0.453
0.474
0.472
0.453
0.458
0.479
0.490
0.485
0.508
0.520
0.551
0.569
0.576
0.643
0.718
0.788
0.806
0.842
0.885
0.885
0.913
0.963
1.003
1.036
1.021
1.052
1.106
1.147
1.138
1.159
1.177
1.202
1.219
1.239
1.281
1.355
1.429
HP/WT
0.0325
0.0305
0.0333
0.0362
0.0367
0.0339
0.0334
0.0339
0.0348
0.0347
0.0371
0.0384
0.0392
0.0400
0.0386
0.0412
0.0466
0.0495
0.0494
0.0510
0.0547
0.0546
0.0562
0.0585
0.0582
0.0600
0.0565
0.0574
0.0584
0.0596
0.0600
0.0613
0.0603
0.0619
0.0628
0.0654
0.0657
0.0689
0.0684
Ton-MPG
27.0
30.4
30.6
30.9
30.5
32.6
35.2
35.6
35.0
35.3
37.3
37.8
37.1
37.9
39.1
39.0
39.4
39.5
39.6
39.3
39.3
39.9
39.6
39.5
40.0
40.2
40.5
40.5
40.9
41.4
41.7
42.2
43.9
43.7
44.8
45.2
45.9
47.5
50.7
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-15
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG


1739
1782
1830
2003
2171
2244
2211
2225
2337
2366
2275
2392
2447
2400
2459
2440
2415
2390
2386
2476
2440
2427
2469
2459
2455
2369
2343
2359
2406
2459
2513
2487
2534
2532
2565
2651
2822
CuFt-
Ton-MPG


3477
3563
3660
4007
4343
4487
4422
4449
4674
4733
4550
4783
4894
4800
4918
4881
4829
4780
4773
4953
4879
4854
4938
4918
4910
4738
4686
4719
4812
4917
5026
4974
5067
5063
5129
5302
5645
Drivetrain
Front



0.0%
5.3%
10.9%
11.1%
11.1%
12.5%
12.8%
13.0%
0.2%
1.1%
6.3%
8.9%
33.2%
38.6%
41.3%
39.2%
45.6%
44.7%
51.6%
50.7%
50.5%
55.1%
55.7%
51.4%
51.9%
46.2%
61.0%
53.4%
52.5%
64.5%
60.2%
60.2%
51.4%
56.4%
54.0%
54.1%
4WD





2.3%
0.9%
1.3%
1.3%
1.1%
0.0%
0.7%
0.4%
0.3%
0.0%
0.1%
0.9%
1.9%
0.7%
0.2%
0.6%
0.7%
0.9%
4.4%
3.8%
4.0%
12.9%
15.7%
16.8%
17.1%
13.3%
10.4%
12.1%
12.4%
13.6%
11.8%
13.8%
13.3%
15.5%
Transmission
Manual
7.6%
6.9%
3.3%
3.0%
2.2%
0.9%
0.9%



0.1%
0.2%
3.6%
1.6%
2.5%
1.8%
1.9%
1.6%
0.9%
0.8%
1.2%
1.1%
1.0%
1.2%
1.5%
2.1%
3.3%
2.5%
3.1%
3.7%
4.1%
3.9%
3.4%
3.8%
2.2%
4.8%
4.0%
4.1%
5.8%
Lock



10.4%
10.4%
40.1%
82.8%
89.6%
94.6%
95.8%
94.8%
92.5%
87.9%
92.7%
92.5%
95.5%
95.4%
97.3%
97.1%
97.3%
96.4%
97.1%
99.0%
98.8%
98.5%
97.9%
96.7%
97.3%
96.0%
95.8%
93.0%
93.3%
89.3%
92.4%
89.1%
84.3%
87.8%
89.6%
86.4%
CVT



























0.2%
0.9%
0.5%
2.9%
2.8%
7.3%
3.8%
8.6%
10.1%
7.5%
9.9%
9.5%
Fuel Metering
GDI

































5.8%
11.1%
17.4%
22.0%
39.1%
46.6%
Port
0.6%
0.4%
0.5%
0.9%
2.8%
2.5%
1.2%
1.8%
2.0%
2.1%
3.8%
48.3%
50.9%
75.0%
84.4%
95.3%
86.8%
94.8%
95.7%
100.0%
99.6%
99.8%
99.8%
99.6%
99.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.4%
99.8%
99.9%
94.1%
88.7%
82.4%
77.5%
60.9%
53.4%
TBI





4.9%
10.3%
18.7%
38.0%
41.1%
41.4%
4.4%
3.2%
2.2%
13.6%
4.6%
12.9%
5.2%
4.3%




















Diesel

0.6%
0.4%
0.7%
2.3%
9.6%
13.2%
9.4%
4.4%
2.8%
2.0%
0.5%
1.2%


0.1%
0.4%



0.4%
0.2%
0.2%
0.4%
0.4%




0.1%
0.6%
0.2%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.5%


Multi-
Valve











1.1%
4.5%
5.5%
4.0%
10.5%
10.4%
20.5%
31.4%
41.7%
41.9%
48.3%
48.2%
54.9%
59.5%
52.2%
60.3%
70.5%
77.5%
82.2%
78.7%
76.5%
75.1%
75.6%
76.1%
81.7%
84.5%
98.9%
98.7%
WT















5.5%
6.1%
8.5%
8.1%
6.0%
6.8%
4.2%
7.0%
12.2%
11.4%
13.4%
19.4%
23.1%
26.4%
47.9%
44.2%
56.6%
70.4%
65.9%
81.6%
84.0%
94.2%
99.6%
99.1%
Hybrid































0.2%
3.3%
1.5%
4.1%
4.7%
2.5%
5.8%
11.2%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-16
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
1791
2223
3496
1997
1528
363
318
183
188
185
104
101
78
105
87
67
73
113
85
88
111
96
37
30
24
67
78
95
278
317
355
371
328
297
183
221
326
243
359
Frac
0.175
0.180
0.248
0.138
0.110
0.032
0.030
0.019
0.018
0.013
0.007
0.007
0.005
0.007
0.006
0.005
0.006
0.009
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.003
0.002
0.002
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.018
0.020
0.022
0.025
0.022
0.021
0.020
0.020
0.027
0.018
0.025
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
14.3
15.7
16.5
16.3
16.5
19.0
20.4
21.0
19.9
20.2
21.0
21.5
22.3
22.6
21.8
20.3
20.9
22.1
22.1
22.4
22.4
22.9
22 2
22.0
22.2
21.9
22.0
22.3
23.2
22.9
23.1
22.6
22.5
22.4
23.3
24.1
24.8
25.5
26.1
Adj City
11.1
12.3
13.0
12.6
12.8
14.4
15.4
15.8
14.8
15.1
15.6
15.9
16.3
16.6
16.0
14.8
15.0
15.5
15.4
15.6
15.6
15.8
15.5
15.3
15.3
15.1
15.0
15.2
15.5
15.2
15.4
14.9
14.8
14.7
15.4
15.9
16.3
16.7
17.1
Adj Hwy
13.7
15.1
15.6
16.1
15.9
19.0
20.9
21.6
20.8
21.0
22.1
22.5
23.5
23.3
22 2
20.9
21.7
23.3
23.8
23.4
23.2
23.8
22.1
22.0
21.9
21.5
21.6
21.6
22.9
22.7
22.4
22.3
22.3
22 2
22.9
23.7
24.5
25.2
25.8
Adj Comb
12.2
13.4
14.1
13.9
14.0
16.2
17.5
17.9
17.0
17.3
18.0
18.3
19.0
19.2
18.4
17.2
17.7
18.6
18.7
18.8
18.7
19.1
18.4
18.2
18.3
18.0
18.0
18.2
18.9
18.7
18.7
18.4
18.3
18.2
18.9
19.6
20.2
20.7
21.1
Weight
(Ib)
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Vol
(Cu Ft)


118.7
123.8
127.6
137.3
137.1
148.3
146.6
152.0
160.2
156.5
160.2
144.8
141.1
130.1
133.6
137.2
141.4
136.8
127.7
131.5
109.0
100.0
93.1
114.8
117.3
123.6
128.6
132.6
132.1
132.0
124.9
122.0
115.1
117.5
116.4
114.1
114.9
Engine
cro
347
346
346
356
353
350
343
323
311
308
306
308
306
305
306
322
312
334
339
344
310
324
257
272
264
281
270
274
279
267
283
289
295
284
280
267
259
262
254
HP
158
157
157
161
157
137
127
127
143
148
150
150
140
144
151
179
201
191
187
255
257
260
272
288
278
288
284
267
255
252
272
296
312
303
316
315
323
356
351
0-60 Time
13.6
13.5
13.4
13.1
13.4
15.1
16.1
16.1
14.4
14.0
13.8
14.0
14.6
14.4
14.1
12.6
11.3
11.6
11.8
9.0
9.0
8.9
8.7
8.2
8.5
8.2
8.3
8.9
9.2
9.3
8.8
8.2
7.9
8.1
7.8
7.9
7.7
7.1
7.2
HP/CID
0.455
0.454
0.454
0.453
0.445
0.394
0.374
0.401
0.463
0.482
0.490
0.485
0.458
0.474
0.494
0.555
0.648
0.587
0.567
0.747
0.867
0.826
1.061
1.065
1.066
1.026
1.070
0.990
0.919
0.956
0.967
1.030
1.060
1.079
1.149
1.214
1.287
1.397
1.419
HP/WT
0.0351
0.0349
0.0349
0.0358
0.0349
0.0305
0.0282
0.0283
0.0318
0.0329
0.0333
0.0333
0.0311
0.0321
0.0336
0.0397
0.0448
0.0424
0.0416
0.0567
0.0572
0.0579
0.0604
0.0641
0.0619
0.0640
0.0631
0.0594
0.0567
0.0560
0.0605
0.0658
0.0694
0.0674
0.0702
0.0700
0.0719
0.0791
0.0780
Ton-MPG
27.7
30.4
31.9
31.6
31.9
37.3
40.4
41.5
38.7
39.0
40.5
41.5
42.7
43.4
41.7
39.2
40.2
42.1
42.1
42.5
42.3
43.1
41.5
41.1
41.2
40.6
40.7
41.0
42.6
42.1
42.2
41.5
41.5
41.2
42.8
44.3
45.9
47.2
48.2
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-17
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG


1680
1739
1808
2273
2459
2696
2512
2630
2884
2903
3043
2797
2638
2306
2445
2590
2658
2602
2413
2525
2025
1842
1722
2080
2122
2254
2443
2477
2481
2436
2301
2236
2201
2315
2374
2396
2459
CuFt-
Ton-MPG


3780
3912
4068
5115
5532
6067
5651
5918
6490
6532
6846
6293
5936
5189
5500
5828
5981
5854
5429
5681
4557
4144
3873
4679
4774
5072
5496
5574
5582
5482
5178
5030
4953
5210
5341
5390
5534
Drivetrain
Front
0.9%
2.0%
1.3%
2.7%
4.4%
7.5%
8.6%
6.3%
1.4%
0.6%
0.1%


















14.3%
13.9%
15.8%
13.3%
3.8%
8.9%
3.6%
7.6%
1.5%
3.0%
4WD




















0.5%
0.4%

0.0%

1.0%
11.4%
6.9%
3.6%
7.2%
9.6%
9.9%
8.0%
19.3%
27.8%
41.3%
39.5%
42.5%
45.6%
Transmission
Manual
0.6%
0.1%
0.1%

0.0%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%

0.7%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.5%
0.4%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.3%
1.1%
0.7%
0.2%
0.4%
0.4%
0.1%
0.1%
0.8%
5.6%
5.4%
2.8%
4.6%
4.2%
Lock



12.9%
9.3%
54.2%
61.7%
99.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
91.2%
100.0%
100.0%
96.2%
84.4%
82.1%
89.6%
96.0%
93.6%
82.4%
90.6%
99.9%
99.8%
99.9%
99.7%
98.9%
99.3%
99.8%
99.6%
99.3%
99.4%
99.6%
98.3%
93.3%
93.9%
96.6%
93.9%
93.8%
CVT



































0.1%
0.1%

0.5%
Fuel Metering
GDI

































6.0%
12.2%
24.3%
42.6%
58.9%
58.5%
Port
1.6%
2.3%
1.6%
3.1%
3.4%
0.0%





8.7%
0.1%
2.9%
8.0%
20.5%
26.2%
12.2%
10.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
94.0%
87.8%
75.7%
56.4%
40.2%
41.1%
TBI






29.7%



0.0%




30.5%
73.8%
87.8%
89.4%




















Diesel



1.5%
5.5%
28.7%
44.2%
45.3%
12.3%
4.2%
1.1%

























1.0%
0.9%
0.4%
Multi-
Valve















4.2%
11.6%
5.0%
9.3%
8.9%
35.3%
23.6%
97.7%
95.7%
100.0%
96.6%
94.6%
61.6%
22.6%
44.2%
33.2%
41.9%
52.3%
51.6%
59.3%
62.9%
70.7%
75.3%
78.0%
WT
















3.2%
5.5%
3.1%
7.0%
6.0%
15.0%
79.9%
99.2%
61.9%
26.1%
34.8%
20.8%
8.3%
18.9%
16.6%
19.9%
21.8%
34.3%
68.7%
75.2%
81.6%
91.3%
94.3%
Hybrid
































1.0%
0.3%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.6%
1.3%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-18
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
1505
1495
1051
477
182
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
0

10
16
11
16
7
10
6
8
1
1
0
1
54
70
25
30
24
17
22
22
27
35
Frac
0.147
0.121
0.074
0.033
0.013
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.003
0.004
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
12.9
14.6
14.1
14.6
14.4
12.5
11.7
11.2
11.5
11.2
10.9
10.7
11.4
12.3
12.4
10.9

17.3
18.9
20.4
19.6
19.9
20.2
20.2
19.7
18.3
18.2
19.1
20.3
21.7
21.7
21.5
20.9
20.2
21 2
21.6
22.1
22.7
24.0
Adj City
10.0
11.5
10.9
11.1
11.1
9.9
9.3
8.8
9.1
8.8
8.5
8.3
9.0
9.5
9.5
8.2

12.8
13.9
14.6
14.1
13.9
14.0
14.0
13.6
12.4
12.3
13.5
13.3
14.9
14.7
14.6
13.7
13.4
14.1
14.4
14.7
15.0
15.6
Adj Hwy
12.5
13.9
13.8
14.5
14.2
11.9
11.1
10.6
10.9
10.6
10.3
10.2
10.6
11.7
11.7
10.7

16.7
18.3
20.2
19.0
20.3
20.5
20.2
19.5
18.8
18.7
17.7
21.0
20.3
20.6
20.3
21.0
20.0
21.0
21.1
21.8
22.5
24.1
Adj Comb
11.0
12.5
12.1
12.4
12.3
10.7
10.0
9.5
9.8
9.5
9.2
9.1
9.7
10.4
10.4
9.2

14.5
15.8
17.0
16.3
16.6
16.8
16.7
16.3
15.2
15.1
15.5
16.8
17.5
17.5
17.4
17.1
16.5
17.3
17.5
18.1
18.5
19.5
Weight
(Ib)
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000

5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Vol
(Cu Ft)


129.7
132.3
126.5
121.9
122.2
121.4
126.4
122.1
113.5
114.2
113.0
112.0
112.9
95.9

126.0
125.8
124.5
119.6
125.5
125.1
126.1
124.0
120.1
120.1
121.2
122.5
164.2
164.1
162.4
143.8
134.6
121.9
121.3
123.5
123.5
123.1
Engine
cro
388
378
387
403
396
382
387
378
373
374
394
378
410
408
410
326

283
247
254
284
286
288
283
290
325
327
303
364
218
218
224
281
308
304
296
283
275
272
HP
166
166
175
179
169
156
156
176
157
176
187
205
191
207
206
240

297
263
266
298
303
304
299
307
324
325
302
429
253
254
264
319
370
402
390
391
446
443
0-60 Time
14.0
13.9
13.3
13.1
13.7
14.6
14.6
13.7
14.7
13.7
12.9
12.2
12.4
11.6
11.6
10.3

9.1
9.8
9.8
8.8
8.6
8.6
8.7
8.5
8.1
8.0
8.5
6.4
9.9
9.9
9.7
8.6
7.6
6.8
6.9
7.0
6.3
6.4
HP/CID
0.429
0.440
0.453
0.445
0.426
0.409
0.402
0.482
0.426
0.485
0.494
0.574
0.466
0.509
0.502
0.736

1.041
1.072
1.051
1.048
1.058
1.057
1.059
1.060
0.996
0.995
0.997
1.179
1.161
1.163
1.172
1.119
1.189
1.333
1.327
1.393
1.626
1.632
HP/WT
0.0333
0.0333
0.0351
0.0358
0.0339
0.0313
0.0311
0.0353
0.0314
0.0351
0.0375
0.0409
0.0382
0.0413
0.0411
0.0480

0.0594
0.0526
0.0532
0.0595
0.0605
0.0608
0.0598
0.0613
0.0648
0.0650
0.0604
0.0858
0.0506
0.0508
0.0528
0.0638
0.0740
0.0804
0.0780
0.0782
0.0893
0.0885
Ton-MPG
27.8
31.2
30.3
31.3
31.3
26.8
25.1
23.8
24.6
23.9
23.1
22.8
24.2
26.1
26.1
23.1

36.8
39.7
43.0
40.9
41.7
42.1
41.9
40.8
38.0
37.7
38.8
41.9
43.8
43.9
43.5
42.9
41.6
43.6
44.3
45.5
46.7
48.9
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-19
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG


1571
1663
1587
1320
1231
1160
1246
1171
1050
1039
1095
1170
1180
885

1851
1996
2142
1962
2093
2108
2114
2030
1827
1814
1880
2053
2880
2883
2828
2478
2253
2123
2148
2247
2306
2412
CuFt-
Ton-MPG


3927
4157
3968
3299
3078
2900
3115
2928
2626
2598
2738
2925
2950
2212

4628
4989
5354
4904
5232
5269
5286
5075
4567
4534
4700
5133
7200
7207
7069
6196
5633
5308
5370
5617
5766
6029
Drivetrain
Front

0.3%
3.3%
4.9%


























30.8%

1.2%
1.1%


4.3%


4WD





























98.1%
67.6%
94.6%
90.7%
68.8%
58.1%
73.4%
68.0%
60.1%
68.6%
Transmission
Manual







































Lock



14.1%



14.2%
6.5%
15.8%
16.3%
30.6%
1.8%
4.9%

100.0%





100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI

































2.0%
33.0%
30.5%
73.6%
83.2%
80.4%
Port


0.7%
0.4%
0.9%
6.7%
42.6%
44.2%
19.3%
37.4%
83.7%
69.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

89.1%
100.0%
94.0%
97.3%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
98.0%
67.0%
69.5%
26.4%
12.9%
18.8%
TBI






57.4%
41.5%
74.2%
46.8%





























Diesel



0.9%
9.1%












10.9%

6.0%
2.7%
















3.8%
0.9%
Multi-
Valve

















89.1%
93.5%
94.0%
97.3%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
92.0%
100.0%
2.3%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT

















89.1%
59.7%
65.1%
97.3%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
93.0%
100.0%
98.8%

100.0%
1.0%
1.9%
6.0%
1.0%
18.2%
63.8%
100.0%
95.4%
96.0%
99.1%
Hybrid



































6.6%
3.6%
0.7%
1.6%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-20
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
828
934
298
134
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
3
3
3
1
2
0
2
0
0

4
5
21
15
12
4
1
0
1
1
Frac
0.081
0.076
0.021
0.009
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
12.2
13.3
12.6
12.8
11.0
10.7
10.5
10.1
10.9
11.0
11.0
11.0
10.9
12.2
12.5
13.1
13.2
14.1
15.6
17.7
18.2
17.8
18.1
17.0
14.9
18.1
16.1
16.1

18.8
16.7
19.9
20.5
21.6
20.6
18.7
20.2
17.7
20.0
Adj City
9.4
10.4
9.6
9.7
8.8
8.6
8.3
8.0
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.4
8.5
9.4
9.6
10.0
10.0
10.2
11.5
12.8
13.2
13.1
12.6
11.4
10.4
12.6
11.3
11.3

12.5
11.0
13.6
13.9
14.9
14.1
12.4
13.4
11.6
13.1
Adj Hwy
11.8
12.7
12.6
12.9
10.1
9.8
9.9
9.5
10.7
10.7
10.8
10.7
10.3
11.4
11.9
12.5
12.4
14.4
15.1
17.3
17.6
16.7
18.4
18.9
14.9
17.5
15.3
15.3

18.9
17.3
18.7
19.4
19.6
19.2
18.8
20.2
19.1
20.7
Adj Comb
10.4
11.3
10.8
10.9
9.4
9.1
8.9
8.6
9.3
9.3
9.4
9.3
9.2
10.3
10.5
11.0
11.0
11.9
13.0
14.7
15.1
14.7
15.1
14.4
12.4
14.9
13.2
13.2

15.4
13.9
16.1
16.6
17.3
16.6
14.4
16.6
15.0
16.5
Weight
(Ib)
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500

5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Vol
(Cu Ft)


131.8
130.7
112.7
100.7
98.8
92.5
92.3
92.6
92.5
92.4
92.0
91.3
103.8
107.2
107.5
107.2
126.5
141.3
143.1
155.8
149.9
142.7
98.1
160.0
123.3
120.5

123.8
107.8
157.1
154.1
146.8
149.9
118.0
110.9
102.1

Engine
cro
458
460
447
445
417
412
412
412
412
412
412
412
412
412
412
412
412
412
374
356
355
357
315
287
412
284
328
328

309
347
245
243
246
249
381
344
363
319
HP
208
204
194
191
174
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
187
205
259
250
238
258
290
262
252
261
312
303
349
279
322
322

391
491
295
314
320
318
550
543
549
526
0-60 Time
12.6
12.7
13.2
13.3
14.4
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
14.7
13.7
12.6
10.7
11.0
11.4
10.7
10.4
10.5
10.7
10.4
9.0
9.2
8.2
9.8
8.8
8.8

7.8
6.5
9.6
9.6
8.7
9.0
5.6
5.4
5.7
6.1
HP/CID
0.454
0.443
0.435
0.429
0.417
0.413
0.413
0.413
0.413
0.413
0.413
0.413
0.454
0.498
0.630
0.607
0.577
0.625
0.777
0.735
0.712
0.734
1.011
1.062
0.847
0.984
0.982
0.982

1.268
1.409
1.213
1.275
1.284
1.269
1.444
1.559
1.511
1.643
HP/WT
0.0378
0.0370
0.0353
0.0348
0.0317
0.0309
0.0309
0.0309
0.0309
0.0309
0.0309
0.0309
0.0340
0.0373
0.0472
0.0455
0.0432
0.0468
0.0527
0.0476
0.0459
0.0475
0.0567
0.0551
0.0635
0.0507
0.0585
0.0585

0.0711
0.0894
0.0536
0.0571
0.0582
0.0578
0.1000
0.0987
0.0998
0.0956
Ton-MPG
28.6
31.2
29.7
30.1
25.8
25.2
24.6
23.7
25.7
25.7
25.7
25.7
25.5
28.2
29.0
30.3
30.4
32.8
36.1
40.8
41.8
40.6
42.0
39.6
34.1
41.0
36.4
36.3

43.0
38.6
44.6
46.3
48.3
46.2
40.2
46.9
41.4
46.1
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-21
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG


1421
1437
1060
922
888
798
862
866
866
861
854
937
1098
1182
1187
1280
1678
2106
2186
2311
2328
2060
1216
2390
1630
1589

1952
1529
2559
2619
2576
2537
1727
1894
1543

CuFt-
Ton-MPG


3908
3951
2916
2534
2442
2194
2370
2382
2382
2369
2348
2578
3018
3251
3264
3519
4614
5792
6011
6357
6403
5666
3345
6573
4482
4371

5368
4205
7037
7203
7083
6976
4748
5208
4242

Drivetrain
Front
8.2%
7.4%
15.9%
33.7%


















73.2%
94.1%

92.1%



11.6%
5.9%







7.7%
4WD





























76.2%
85.4%
98.4%
91.6%
94.3%
87.9%
33.0%
63.8%
92.6%
90.1%
Transmission
Manual







































Lock

















100.0%
56.9%
92.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
91.5%
66.2%
95.0%
96.0%
CVT



































8.5%
33.8%
5.0%
4.0%
Fuel Metering
GDI

































3.3%
15.3%
55.3%
33.8%

34.6%
Port

2.9%
3.1%
30.0%

5.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
71.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
89.8%
87.2%
76.0%
44.7%
66.2%
100.0%
65.4%
TBI


















28.2%




















Diesel
































10.2%
9.5%
8.7%




Multi-
Valve


















43.1%
7.6%


73.2%
94.1%

92.2%



100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT


















43.1%
7.6%









88.4%
94.1%
78.2%
75.6%
88.0%
89.2%
100.0%
63.8%
92.6%
100.0%
Hybrid

































18.3%
5.4%
8.5%
33.8%
5.0%
4.0%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-22
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)










0
0
0
0




1
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
3
2
2
1
1
3
5
3
2
2
3
2
4
Frac










0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000




0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45










10.1
10.1
10.4
11.8




17.6
13.9
13.9
14.9
14.9
14.9
19.3
15.0
17.6
17.6
18.2
18.5
17.3
15.4
16.2
16.4
16.4
17.1
18.1
17.9
19.9
Adj City










8.0
8.0
8.3
9.3




13.0
9.9
9.9
10.5
10.5
10.4
13.3
10.4
12.2
12.1
12.3
12.3
11.7
10.0
10.7
10.8
11.0
11.4
12.1
11.7
13.2
Adj Hwy










9.5
9.5
9.5
10.8




16.8
14.2
14.2
15.0
15.0
14.9
19.2
14.8
17.1
17.1
18.1
18.5
16.9
16.3
16.9
17.0
16.4
17.2
18.2
18.9
21.0
Adj Comb










8.6
8.6
8.8
10.0




14.7
11.7
11.7
12.5
12.4
12.4
15.9
12.4
14.4
14.4
15.0
15.2
14.2
12.8
13.5
13.6
13.5
13.8
15.0
15.0
16.8
Weight
(Ib)










6000
6000
6000
6000




6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Vol
(Cu Ft)










157.5
157.5
157.5
157.5




145.5
90.6
90.6
88.9
88.9
88.9
145.8
112.8
168.6
155.7
157.3
149.9
138.4
114.9
111.2
112.5
124.1
116.7
120.8
112.9

Engine
cro










412
412
412
412




350
412
412
412
412
412
279
412
303
297
287
294
313
369
348
342
331
335
354
387
301
HP










170
170
173
205




175
241
280
350
350
350
300
350
289
294
286
295
320
545
514
505
438
412
472
548
449
0-60 Time










15.7
15.7
15.5
13.5




15.3
11.9
10.7
8.8
80
.0
8.8
10.0
8.8
10.3
10.3
10.5
10.3
9.8
6.2
7.0
7.1
8.1
8.3
7.4
6.2
7.7
HP/CID










0.413
0.413
0.420
0.498




0.500
0.585
0.679
0.850
0.850
0.850
1.075
0.850
0.961
0.990
0.992
0.998
1.013
1.478
1.451
1.445
1.287
1.207
1.310
1.423
1.499
HP/WT










0.0283
0.0283
0.0288
0.0342




0.0292
0.0402
0.0466
0.0583
0.0583
0.0583
0.0500
0.0583
0.0481
0.0490
0.0476
0.0492
0.0533
0.0908
0.0857
0.0842
0.0729
0.0687
0.0786
0.0914
0.0748
Ton-MPG










25.9
25.8
26.5
29.9




44.0
35.1
35.1
37.4
37.3
37.2
47.8
37.2
43.6
43.6
45.2
46.1
43.3
38.6
40.6
41.0
40.7
41.5
45.1
45.1
50.6
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-23
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG










1358
1355
1391
1571




2135
1060
1059
1106
1104
1102
2325
1399
2474
2278
2379
2318
2019
1477
1520
1553
1696
1627
1822
1706

CuFt-
Ton-MPG










4075
4065
4174
4713




6404
3180
3176
3319
3312
3305
6976
4198
7422
6833
7138
6955
6058
4431
4561
4660
5087
4882
5465
5117

Drivetrain
Front
























100.0%

81.6%
86.8%
93.9%
88.6%
74.5%

24.3%
28.6%
46.4%
44.9%
34.6%

33.3%
4WD































92.9%
68.9%
69.8%
42.1%
39.3%
22.2%
48.4%
39.5%
Transmission
Manual







































Lock


















100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI



































15.8%
35.0%
40.2%
82.4%
Port










100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%




0.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
84.2%
65.0%
59.8%
17.6%
TBI


















99.5%




















Diesel







































Multi-
Valve
























100.0%

81.6%
86.8%
93.9%
88.6%
74.5%
100.0%
100.0%
98.4%
94.6%
100.0%
91.8%
88.5%
100.0%
WT































92.9%
68.9%
69.8%
42.1%
84.7%
65.4%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-24
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)



















0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0
0

2
3
1
0
0
1
0
0
Frac



















0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45



















13.6
13.6

14.9
13.8

15.2
15.2
15.2
15.2
18.9

17.9
19.1
16.6
16.6
14.5
18.9
15.5
16.3
Adj City



















9.8
9.7

10.7
9.7

10.6
10.5
10.5
10.4
12.7

12.0
12.7
11.0
11.1
9.5
12.6
10.3
10.9
Adj Hwy



















13.7
13.7

14.5
13.9

15.1
15.1
15.0
14.9
18.9

17.5
19.0
16.7
16.5
15.3
18.8
15.7
18.0
Adj Comb



















11.4
11.4

12.4
11.5

12.6
12.6
12.6
12.5
15.6

14.6
15.6
13.7
13.7
12.1
15.5
12.8
14.0
Weight
(Ib)



















6500
6500

6500
6500

6500
6500
6500
6500
6500

6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
Vol
(Cu Ft)



















140.2
140.2

140.1
140.1

88.9
88.9
88.9
88.9
133.2

144.4
129.7
131.8
135.0
102.0
129.9
128.0
111.3
Engine
cro



















412
412

412
412

412
412
412
412
281

279
281
323
308
411
284
359
413
HP



















241
241

241
300

325
377
325
325
234

275
234
375
345
503
253
603
487
0-60 Time



















12.7
12.7

12.7
10.6

10.0
8.9
10.0
10.0
13.0

11.4
13.0
9.5
10.1
7.0
12.5
6.1
7.3
HP/CID



















0.585
0.585

0.585
0.728

0.789
0.914
0.789
0.789
0.833

0.986
0.833
1.136
1.094
1.224
0.882
1.681
1.178
HP/WT



















0.0371
0.0371

0.0371
0.0462

0.0500
0.0580
0.0500
0.0500
0.0360

0.0423
0.0360
0.0578
0.0530
0.0773
0.0389
0.0928
0.0749
Ton-MPG



















37.1
37.1

40.3
37.5

41.0
40.9
40.8
40.8
50.5

47.6
50.8
44.8
44.6
39.3
50.5
41.6
45.7
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-25
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Weight
Class
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG



















1602
1599

1737
1615

1121
1119
1116
1114
2072

2113
2027
1834
1865
1233
2017
1639
1564
CuFt-
Ton-MPG



















5206
5196

5646
5248

3644
3636
3629
3621
6734

6869
6587
5959
6060
4008
6556
5327
5082
Drivetrain
Front































100.0%

59.4%
73.5%




4WD







































Transmission
Manual







































Lock



















100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI






































35.5%
Port



















100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
64.5%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve































100.0%
0.1%
80.3%
84.6%
2.4%
3.7%
100.0%
35.5%
WT



































2.4%
3.7%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-26
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)







11
13
3





2
12
17
19
27
19
3
4
7















Frac







0.001
0.001
0.000





0.000
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000















Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45







23.6
23.2
22.6





32.2
30.7
29.6
29.3
29.0
29.7
29.3
28.4
28.5















Adj City







20.7
20.4
19.7





25.6
24.3
23.3
23.0
22.6
22.7
22.3
21.6
21.5















Adj Hwy







19.1
18.7
18.3





27.8
26.4
25.3
24.9
24.6
25.4
25.1
23.9
23.9















Adj Comb







19.9
19.6
19.1





26.7
25.3
24.3
23.9
23.6
24.0
23.7
22.8
22.7















Weight
(Ib)







2500
2500
2500





2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500















Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro







151
151
150





97
94
96
96
97
97
97
97
97















HP







84
87
93





80
77
79
79
80
81
95
95
95















0-60 Time







13.7
13.3
12.6





13.9
14.3
14.2
14.1
14.0
13.9
12.3
12.4
12.3















HP/CID







0.556
0.580
0.620





0.825
0.827
0.826
0.825
0.829
0.835
0.979
0.979
0.979















HP/WT







0.0336
0.0350
0.0372





0.0320
0.0310
0.0316
0.0318
0.0322
0.0324
0.0380
0.0380
0.0380















Ton-MPG







24.9
24.5
23.8





33.3
31.7
30.4
30.0
29.5
30.1
29.6
28.5
28.4















EPA-420-R-13-011
E-27
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







































Transmission
Manual















100.0%
100.0%
72.6%
66.4%
55.6%
58.4%
66.6%
27.2%
52.5%















Lock

















27.4%
33.6%
44.4%
41.6%
33.4%
72.8%
47.5%















CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port


















6.7%
8.3%
6.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%















TBI















100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
93.3%
91.7%
93.4%


















Diesel







































Multi-
Valve



















2.6%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%















WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-28
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)




9












4
2
3
1
18
2
0
2
1
0












Frac




0.001












0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000












Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45




20.8












29 2
29.1
28.0
27.7
28.8
29.6
29.3
31.0
31.1
31.0












Adj City




17.5












22.8
22.5
21.8
21.6
21.7
21.7
21.4
22.9
22.8
22.7












Adj Hwy




17.7












25.3
25.2
23.8
23.1
25.0
26.4
25.8
26.3
26.3
26.0












Adj Comb




17.6












24.0
23.8
22.8
22.4
23.3
24.0
23.5
24.6
24.6
24.4












Weight
(Ib)




2750












2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750












Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro




121












97
97
97
97
102
115
97
97
97
122












HP




80












95
95
95
95
100
113
95
97
97
97












0-60 Time




15.4












13.1
13.1
13.3
13.4
12.8
11.7
13.4
12.9
12.9
12.9












HP/CID




0.661












0.979
0.979
0.979
0.979
0.980
0.982
0.979
1.001
1.000
0.795












HP/WT




0.0291












0.0345
0.0345
0.0345
0.0345
0.0365
0.0411
0.0345
0.0354
0.0353
0.0353












Ton-MPG




24.2












33.0
32.8
31.3
30.8
32.1
32.9
32.4
33.8
33.8
33.6












EPA-420-R-13-011
E-29
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front





















21.1%
71.7%

1.4%














4WD







































Transmission
Manual

















100.0%
100.0%
40.1%

54.4%
48.5%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%












Lock



















59.9%
100.0%
45.6%
51.5%
100.0%















CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port

















100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%












TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve



















100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
4.1%














WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-30
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)







1

1
5
2
2
1
1
1
0
1
3
7
5
25
137
35
38
35
67
63
54
40
41








Frac







0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.002
0.009
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.004
0.004
0.003
0.003
0.003








Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45







25.8

28.3
23.4
25.7
26.4
26.3
24.9
25.0
23.3
24.8
25 2
25.6
27.9
28.7
28.0
29.7
29.9
29.7
29.7
30.6
29.9
30.9
30.9








Adj City







20.0

21.9
18.6
20.2
20.6
20.5
19.0
19.0
17.8
18.6
19.2
19.2
20.9
21.1
20.5
21.6
21.7
21.4
21.3
21.5
20.9
21.5
21.3








Adj Hwy







25.0

27.6
21.9
24.0
24.7
24.2
23.5
23.4
21.2
23.2
22.5
23.0
24.8
25.8
25.0
26.5
26.3
26.0
25.7
27.0
26.1
26.8
26.7








Adj Comb







22.0

24.1
19.9
21.8
22.3
22.1
20.9
20.9
19.3
20.6
20.7
21.0
22.7
23.3
22.7
23.9
23.9
23.7
23.5
24.2
23.5
24 2
24.1








Weight
(Ib)







3000

3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000








Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro







173

121
158
151
150
150
150
150
150
150
150
135
89
121
130
118
123
122
122
121
122
144
144








HP







110

83
107
117
117
117
117
117
130
130
130
120
82
115
127
121
127
127
140
146
143
161
161








0-60 Time







12.6

15.6
13.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
11.0
11.0
11.0
11.9
16.2
12.3
11.4
11.8
11.3
11.3
10.5
10.2
10.4
9.4
9.4








HP/CID







0.636

0.686
0.678
0.774
0.780
0.780
0.780
0.780
0.867
0.867
0.867
0.899
0.913
0.961
0.979
1.024
1.033
1.044
1.146
1.206
1.171
1.118
1.118








HP/WT







0.0367

0.0276
0.0356
0.0390
0.0390
0.0390
0.0390
0.0390
0.0433
0.0433
0.0433
0.0400
0.0272
0.0385
0.0424
0.0404
0.0423
0.0423
0.0466
0.0488
0.0476
0.0537
0.0537








Ton-MPG







33.1

36.2
30.2
32.8
33.5
33.3
31.4
31.4
29.0
30.9
31.1
31.5
34.1
35.2
34.1
36.0
36.0
35.6
35.4
36.4
35.4
36.3
36.1








EPA-420-R-13-011
E-31
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front





















56.4%
50.1%
80.4%
72.8%
60.7%
61.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%








4WD







































Transmission
Manual







65.4%

100.0%
39.2%
63.1%
87.0%
88.5%
86.3%
88.1%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
37.3%
41.4%
23.7%
17.9%
13.4%
20.1%
9.6%
9.0%
5.5%
5.3%








Lock







34.6%


60.8%
36.9%
13.0%
11.5%
13.7%
11.9%





62.7%
42.6%
76.3%
82.1%
86.6%
79.9%
90.4%
91.0%
94.5%
94.7%








CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port
















100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
53.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%








TBI











94.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%




46.2%


















Diesel







































Multi-
Valve



















28.8%

82.0%
100.0%
100.0%
79.5%
60.7%
61.0%
83.0%
75.8%
100.0%
100.0%








WT


























61.0%
83.0%
75.8%
100.0%
100.0%








Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-32
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)

0





0
21
46
82
57
93
108
107
57
82
76
78
75
34
63
33
71
84
88
215
180
218
147
239
262
288
370
260
357
491
448
447
Frac

0.000





0.000
0.002
0.003
0.006
0.004
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.005
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.005
0.002
0.005
0.002
0.005
0.006
0.005
0.014
0.011
0.014
0.009
0.015
0.017
0.019
0.027
0.028
0.032
0.041
0.033
0.031
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45

14.3





16.6
25.1
23.5
23.5
22.1
22.8
22.7
22.7
22.4
21.8
20.9
20.3
21.4
20.1
21.6
22 2
24.0
24.3
24.0
24.6
25.5
26.5
27.0
27.2
28.3
29.0
28.9
29.9
30.8
31.3
31.7
34.0
Adj City

11.4





14.6
19.0
17.8
17.6
17.0
17.1
17.0
17.0
16.8
16.8
15.9
15.3
15.9
14.4
15.6
16.1
17.3
17.5
17.4
17.4
17.9
18.2
18.4
18.8
19.5
19.8
19.7
20.2
20.9
21.1
21.5
22.8
Adj Hwy

13.3





13.4
25.4
24.0
24.4
21.6
23.0
22.5
22.0
21.7
19.8
19.1
18.7
19.9
19.7
20.6
20.6
22.0
22.0
21.3
22.3
23.0
24.4
24.7
24.0
25.0
25.8
25.7
26.9
27.5
28.2
28.2
30.2
Adj Comb

12 2





14.0
21.4
20.1
20.1
18.8
19.4
19.2
19.1
18.8
18.1
17.3
16.8
17.7
16.7
17.8
18.2
19.5
19.7
19.3
19.8
20.4
21.2
21.5
21.5
22.3
22.9
22.8
23.6
24.2
24.7
24.9
26.5
Weight
(Ib)

3500





3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro

350





173
170
173
172
171
179
200
226
216
207
205
211
201
241
224
194
169
163
151
160
159
161
159
155
148
144
150
152
155
150
151
140
HP

161





110
109
110
109
121
131
142
148
148
130
151
160
161
189
183
166
151
156
150
166
173
172
172
170
163
159
169
179
184
177
182
172
0-60 Time

10.6





14.5
14.5
14.4
14.5
13.4
12.7
11.9
11.4
11.5
13.3
11.8
11.3
11.0
9.4
9.7
10.6
11.5
11.1
11.4
10.6
10.2
10.3
10.2
10.3
10.6
10.9
10.3
9.9
9.7
9.9
9.8
10.2
HP/CID

0.459





0.636
0.640
0.636
0.634
0.711
0.729
0.718
0.667
0.698
0.632
0.732
0.751
0.812
0.785
0.826
0.891
0.929
1.005
1.043
1.061
1.085
1.064
1.083
1.099
1.104
1.104
1.126
1.175
1.188
1.179
1.207
1.250
HP/WT

0.0459





0.0314
0.0311
0.0314
0.0311
0.0346
0.0374
0.0405
0.0422
0.0423
0.0372
0.0431
0.0457
0.0461
0.0540
0.0522
0.0476
0.0430
0.0445
0.0429
0.0475
0.0495
0.0490
0.0492
0.0485
0.0466
0.0453
0.0483
0.0512
0.0526
0.0507
0.0521
0.0492
Ton-MPG

21.3





24.5
37.6
35.2
35.2
33.0
34.0
33.7
33.5
33.0
31.9
30.5
29.5
31.0
29.3
31.3
31.9
34.6
34.7
34.0
34.9
36.1
37.3
37.9
37.7
39.1
40.2
39.9
41.3
42.4
43.3
43.7
46.6
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-33
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front




















0.9%

8.9%
27.0%
30.0%
29.9%
56.6%
80.6%
98.4%
96.7%
100.0%
99.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.3%
99.0%
4WD







































Transmission
Manual

15.6%






30.8%
21.4%
14.4%
16.1%
13.1%
23.9%
27.1%
36.5%
15.0%
23.5%
11.4%
14.6%
10.4%
12.2%
15.8%
29.7%
20.6%
9.3%
7.6%
12.1%
10.4%
14.9%
10.0%
7.2%
3.6%
1.6%
1.1%
0.5%
0.8%
1.1%
1.7%
Lock







100.0%
69.2%
78.6%
85.6%
83.9%
86.9%
76.1%
72.9%
63.5%
85.0%
76.5%
88.6%
51.7%
89.6%
87.8%
84.2%
70.3%
79.4%
90.7%
92.4%
87.3%
78.0%
77.0%
90.0%
92.8%
96.4%
90.0%
86.9%
87.8%
85.0%
97.1%
98.3%
CVT



























0.6%
11.6%
8.1%



8.4%
12.0%
11.8%
14.2%
25.4%
21.8%
Fuel Metering
GDI




































0.3%
0.2%
11.2%
Port











0.0%
33.3%
48.7%
45.0%
61.8%
24.2%
60.0%
66.1%
98.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.7%
99.8%
88.8%
TBI










5.7%
86.5%
66.7%
51.3%
53.6%
32.3%
73.6%
36.1%
29.7%
1.6%



















Diesel











0.0%



























Multi-
Valve





















31.6%
44.4%
60.9%
68.1%
77.4%
69.3%
95.0%
98.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT



























16.2%
13.1%
32.0%
12.8%
38.4%
70.7%
60.7%
80.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
98.3%
Hybrid
































2.6%






EPA-420-R-13-011
E-34
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
10
11
19
16
7
0
0
1

6





6
129
144
372
221
161
178
184
342
364
493
461
361
303
413
473
429
473
378
279
301
494
595
787
Frac
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000





0.000
0.010
0.012
0.028
0.016
0.011
0.014
0.013
0.024
0.024
0.030
0.030
0.022
0.019
0.026
0.030
0.028
0.031
0.027
0.030
0.027
0.041
0.044
0.055
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
13.1
12.3
14.3
13.6
13.3
17.2
17.3
19.3

16.7





20.9
21.2
20.9
20.1
21.1
21.0
21.4
21.1
21.4
21.9
21.3
22.1
22.5
23.1
24 2
24.8
25.0
25.3
26.3
27 2
30.4
30.2
29.9
31.5
Adj City
10.1
9.3
11.2
10.4
10.8
13.9
13.7
15.2

14.2





16.1
15.7
15.4
14.7
15.5
15.2
15.5
15.2
15.3
15.6
15.1
15.5
15.7
16.1
16.5
16.8
16.9
17.2
17.8
18.5
20.3
20.0
19.9
20.8
Adj Hwy
12.6
12.5
13.6
13.5
12.0
15.5
16.1
18.3

14.1





19.1
20.6
20.1
19.6
20.2
20.1
20.4
19.9
20.1
20.3
19.8
20.5
20.9
21.2
22.6
23.0
23.2
23.2
24.1
24.7
28.1
27.9
27.6
29.0
Adj Comb
11.1
10.5
12 2
11.6
11.3
14.6
14.7
16.4

14.1





17.4
17.8
17.4
16.8
17.5
17.4
17.7
17.4
17.5
17.8
17.4
17.9
18.2
18.6
19.5
19.8
20.0
20.1
20.9
21.6
24.1
23.8
23.6
24.8
Weight
(Ib)
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000

4000





4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
262
261
261
262
275
280
318
250

258





173
232
229
253
229
227
239
236
241
231
229
220
206
206
202
199
198
199
188
187
162
164
163
150
HP
113
122
124
126
125
122
140
115

112





143
160
164
188
176
173
176
184
178
178
181
191
188
194
202
196
199
219
210
217
204
206
207
203
0-60 Time
15.6
14.7
14.4
14.2
14.3
15.1
13.3
15.5

15.9





13.1
11.9
11.8
10.5
11.1
11.3
11.1
10.7
11.0
11.0
10.9
10.4
10.6
10.4
10.0
10.2
10.1
9.3
9.6
9.4
10.0
9.9
9.9
10.1
HP/CID
0.430
0.467
0.477
0.481
0.457
0.436
0.440
0.460

0.434





0.828
0.695
0.716
0.753
0.773
0.770
0.750
0.791
0.749
0.789
0.810
0.888
0.927
0.950
1.002
0.988
1.005
1.120
1.126
1.162
1.255
1.253
1.279
1.387
HP/WT
0.0282
0.0305
0.0311
0.0315
0.0312
0.0305
0.0350
0.0288

0.0280





0.0359
0.0401
0.0411
0.0471
0.0440
0.0433
0.0441
0.0460
0.0446
0.0444
0.0453
0.0479
0.0469
0.0485
0.0505
0.0491
0.0497
0.0548
0.0526
0.0542
0.0510
0.0516
0.0517
0.0508
Ton-MPG
22.6
22.1
25.1
23.8
22.8
29.4
29.4
32.9

28.3





34.9
35.7
35.0
33.8
35.1
34.9
35.5
34.9
35.1
35.7
34.8
36.0
36.7
37.4
39.1
39.8
40.2
40.5
42.4
43.7
48.8
48.2
47.9
49.9
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-35
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front



















3.9%




6.1%
6.3%
24.6%
35.3%
36.4%
68.8%
68.0%
75.5%
84.3%
86.9%
94.9%
87.0%
85.0%
76.8%
84.9%
4WD






























22.1%
11.9%
7.0%
9.5%
4.6%
13.0%
13.1%
17.7%
15.1%
Transmission
Manual
68.3%
70.6%
82.5%
84.2%
90.6%
3.9%










19.1%
16.9%
6.8%
17.1%
11.5%
8.7%
10.5%
5.2%
4.1%
4.4%
3.4%
4.8%
4.5%
3.1%
0.5%
0.5%
0.7%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.5%
0.1%
0.1%
Lock




9.4%
86.8%
100.0%
100.0%







80.6%
80.6%
83.1%
93.2%
82.9%
88.5%
91.3%
89.5%
94.8%
95.9%
95.6%
96.6%
95.2%
87.7%
90.0%
91.9%
90.4%
91.7%
94.2%
81.6%
91.7%
94.6%
99.4%
99.9%
CVT




























7.8%
6.8%
7.7%
9.1%
7.6%
5.7%
18.3%
8.2%
5.0%
4.3%
2.5%
Fuel Metering
GDI

































5.3%
2.8%
55.9%
49.9%
66.1%
75.2%
Port















100.0%
69.8%
80.0%
99.7%
99.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
94.7%
97.2%
44.1%
50.1%
33.9%
24.8%
TBI
















30.2%
20.0%
0.3%
0.2%



















Diesel







































Multi-
Valve



















14.7%
26.2%
17.8%
21.0%
14.1%
27.5%
24.5%
28.3%
55.7%
45.0%
62.1%
44.2%
76.8%
66.3%
74.6%
87.3%
100.0%
100.0%
95.8%
100.0%
WT
























6.1%
6.3%
7.3%
8.1%
14.3%
28.1%
19.3%
20.9%
37.2%
60.9%
73.9%
99.8%
99.6%
95.8%
100.0%
Hybrid






























0.9%
1.9%
1.5%
5.7%
5.9%
2.2%
0.9%
0.5%

EPA-420-R-13-011
E-36
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)





























39
46
46
148
162
65
248
218
224
288
Frac





























0.002
0.003
0.003
0.010
0.012
0.007
0.022
0.018
0.017
0.020
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45





























21.0
21.7
21.5
23.4
23.7
24.0
25.6
26.5
25.7
26.8
Adj City





























14.1
14.6
14.6
15.6
15.9
16.1
17.3
17.8
17.1
17.8
Adj Hwy





























20.3
20.7
20.3
22.3
22.6
22.6
23.7
24.9
24.1
25.2
Adj Comb





























17.1
17.6
17.4
18.9
19.1
19.3
20.4
21.2
20.5
21.4
Weight
(Ib)





























4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro





























238
232
232
221
216
218
206
204
212
216
HP





























281
268
265
263
261
266
266
276
277
287
0-60 Time





























8.4
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.8
8.7
8.7
8.5
8.5
8.3
HP/CID





























1.187
1.161
1.145
1.193
1.209
1.226
1.296
1.363
1.311
1.330
HP/WT





























0.0625
0.0597
0.0589
0.0585
0.0580
0.0592
0.0590
0.0613
0.0616
0.0638
Ton-MPG





























38.5
39.5
39.2
42.5
43.1
43.4
46.1
47.9
46.3
48.3
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-37
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front
































66.1%
65.1%
55.2%
73.8%
72.4%
59.2%
69.0%
4WD





























55.1%





16.1%
23.4%
35.0%
23.7%
Transmission
Manual






























3.3%
4.8%
0.6%
0.2%
0.1%
0.0%



Lock





























100.0%
96.7%
95.2%
99.4%
99.8%
99.9%
98.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT



































1.4%


3.2%
Fuel Metering
GDI



































28.6%
39.1%
47.1%
29.1%
Port





























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
71.4%
60.9%
52.9%
70.9%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve





























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT





























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
27.7%
32.5%
42.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-38
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)






























13
15
10
14
4
8
4
2
5
Frac






























0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45






























19.1
20.7
20.6
20.9
19.2
33.6
32.3
40.3
40.4
Adj City






























12.6
13.7
13.7
13.9
12.6
24.7
23.4
31.4
31.5
Adj Hwy






























19.4
20.5
20.4
20.3
19.4
26.0
25.6
27.9
27.9
Adj Comb






























15.7
16.9
16.8
17.0
15.8
25.4
24.6
29.3
29.4
Weight
(Ib)






























5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro






























236
235
232
228
226
200
198
211
211
HP






























273
272
269
265
263
260
263
245
245
0-60 Time






























9.3
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
7.7
7.9
7.6
7.8
HP/CID






























1.158
1.160
1.160
1.165
1.166
1.319
1.358
1.164
1.162
HP/WT






























0.0546
0.0544
0.0537
0.0531
0.0526
0.0519
0.0527
0.0490
0.0490
Ton-MPG






























39.4
42.3
42.2
42.4
39.5
66.2
64.4
73.3
73.4
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-39
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Weight
Class
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front



































73.4%
66.8%
99.7%
100.0%
4WD






























100.0%
90.0%
94.4%
96.8%
97.0%
26.6%
33.2%
0.3%

Transmission
Manual







































Lock






























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
26.6%
33.2%
0.3%

CVT



































73.4%
66.8%
99.7%
100.0%
Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port






























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve






























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT






























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid



































73.4%
66.8%
99.7%
100.0%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-40
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)








1
2





























Frac








0.000
0.000





























Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45








39.0
38.6





























Adj City








33.5
33.5





























Adj Hwy








32.3
31.7





























Adj Comb








32.9
32.6





























Weight
(Ib)








2250
2250





























Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro








97
97





























HP








52
52





























0-60 Time








18.3
18.3





























HP/CID








0.536
0.536





























HP/WT








0.0231
0.0231





























Ton-MPG








37.2
36.9





























EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-41
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front








100.0%
100.0%





























4WD







































Transmission
Manual








33.3%
40.0%





























Lock







































CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port







































TBI







































Diesel








100.0%
100.0%





























Multi-
Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-42
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)









15
8
5
4


























Frac









0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000


























Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45









29.8
29.8
29.4
29.3


























Adj City









24.0
23.5
23.6
23.3


























Adj Hwy









26.9
28.2
26.7
26.4


























Adj Comb









25.3
25.4
24.9
24.7


























Weight
(Ib)









2750
2750
2750
2750


























Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro









122
122
122
122


























HP









88
QQ
00
00
OO
00
00


























0-60 Time









14.1
14.0
14.1
14.1


























HP/CID









0.721
0.721
0.721
0.721


























HP/WT









0.0320
0.0320
0.0320
0.0320


























Ton-MPG









34.8
35.0
34.3
34.0


























EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-43
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front









100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%


























4WD







































Transmission
Manual









42.3%
77.4%
52.5%
47.8%


























Lock









57.7%
22.6%
47.5%
52.2%


























CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port







































TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-44
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
0








31
56
50
59
17
13
5
8
23
11
5
4
0

















Frac
0.000








0.002
0.004
0.003
0.004
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000

















Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
21.2








25.7
26.1
26.9
26.6
27.4
26.3
26.4
26.2
28.3
28.5
28.4
27.7
27.7

















Adj City
16.1








20.4
21.1
21.3
21 2
21.5
20.6
20.3
20.3
21.2
21.1
20.8
20.1
19.9

















Adj Hwy
21.6








23.8
23.7
24.9
23.9
24.9
23.8
24.3
23.5
26.4
26.6
26.7
26.1
26.0

















Adj Comb
18.2








21.8
22.2
22.8
22.4
23.0
22.0
22.0
21.7
23.5
23.5
23.4
22.8
22.7

















Weight
(Ib)
3000








3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000

















Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
109








134
128
128
130
124
124
137
122
119
120
127
130
134

















HP
67








92
94
92
96
97
97
116
96
114
119
124
127
127

















0-60 Time
18.6








14.6
14.5
14.6
14.2
14.0
14.0
12.4
14.1
12.4
12.0
11.6
11.4
11.4

















HP/CID
0.615








0.691
0.733
0.717
0.742
0.782
0.783
0.842
0.789
0.963
0.994
0.981
0.974
0.954

















HP/WT
0.0223








0.0307
0.0313
0.0306
0.0320
0.0323
0.0323
0.0387
0.0321
0.0379
0.0397
0.0414
0.0422
0.0424

















Ton-MPG
27.2








33.0
33.4
34.3
33.7
34.6
33.1
33.1
32.6
35.3
35.4
35.3
34.4
34.1

















EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-45
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front









69.4%
51.2%
43.5%
38.2%
68.9%
73.5%
71.5%
78.8%
99.5%
100.0%
51.0%
40.5%
100.0%

















4WD










5.3%
26.9%
14.4%
19.5%
18.0%
8.5%
21.2%
0.5%

49.0%
59.5%


















Transmission
Manual
71.4%








32.4%
22.2%
62.2%
31.7%
41.5%
35.0%
57.2%
32.2%
35.3%
13.3%
21.4%
16.4%
13.2%

















Lock









23.6%
50.3%
32.2%
68.3%
58.5%
65.0%
42.8%
67.8%
64.7%
86.7%
78.6%
83.6%
86.8%

















CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port









30.6%
43.5%
29.6%
69.3%
100.0%
99.3%
97.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

















TBI
100.0%













0.7%
2.8%























Diesel







































Multi-
Valve



















95.2%
100.0%
100.0%

















WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-46
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
17
12
10
12
8
17
16
25
10
164
292
320
329
262
264
213
63
84
220
144
237
33
33
16
1








16
22
57
28
69
28
Frac
0.002
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.003
0.001
0.012
0.020
0.021
0.022
0.017
0.018
0.017
0.005
0.007
0.017
0.010
0.016
0.002
0.002
0.001
0.000








0.001
0.002
0.005
0.002
0.005
0.002
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
19.0
19.5
20.2
19.4
18.7
19.0
19.3
20.9
19.5
24.2
23.5
24.3
24.1
24.5
24.3
25.2
25.3
25.7
25.3
24.7
25.1
27.0
24.2
27.0
26.9








30.7
30.3
30.5
30.1
31.3
32.8
Adj City
14.5
15.4
16.4
15.6
14.8
14.9
15.5
16.9
15.5
19.3
18.7
19.1
18.7
18.8
18.7
19.0
19.2
19.4
18.6
18.3
18.4
19.4
17.6
19.3
19.3








20.9
20.7
21.4
20.9
21.2
22.4
Adj Hwy
18.9
18.3
18.2
17.7
17.6
17.9
17.7
18.9
18.2
22.4
21.9
22.7
22.7
23.2
22.5
23.9
23.5
23.7
24.0
22.9
23.4
25.6
22.2
24.9
24.3








27.3
26.8
25.7
25.9
27.3
26.7
Adj Comb
16.2
16.6
17.1
16.5
16.0
16.1
16.4
17.8
16.6
20.6
20.0
20.6
20.4
20.6
20.4
21.1
21.0
21.3
21.0
20.4
20.6
22.1
19.7
21.9
21.7








24.1
23.8
23.6
23.5
24.3
24.7
Weight
(Ib)
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500








3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
214
211
201
200
120
151
172
179
119
139
154
152
162
166
159
170
161
156
176
173
171
145
145
138
138








140
140
128
122
136
139
HP
98
96
92
101
67
77
81
82
69
96
102
102
120
123
120
129
109
110
133
131
137
144
133
150
150








153
153
145
140
146
146
0-60 Time
15.9
16.3
16.8
15.8
20.9
19.3
18.6
18.7
20.5
16.1
15.4
15.3
13.8
13.5
13.9
13.0
14.9
14.6
12.6
12.8
12.2
11.6
12.4
11.3
11.3








11.1
11.1
11.6
11.9
11.6
11.7
HP/CID
0.466
0.460
0.471
0.509
0.558
0.524
0.490
0.473
0.582
0.694
0.673
0.674
0.735
0.736
0.753
0.758
0.674
0.707
0.755
0.755
0.807
1.013
0.927
1.087
1.087








1.093
1.093
1.128
1.148
1.074
1.048
HP/WT
0.0280
0.0273
0.0264
0.0288
0.0191
0.0219
0.0230
0.0233
0.0198
0.0275
0.0293
0.0292
0.0343
0.0353
0.0343
0.0368
0.0312
0.0314
0.0380
0.0374
0.0391
0.0411
0.0379
0.0429
0.0429








0.0437
0.0437
0.0413
0.0400
0.0417
0.0416
Ton-MPG
28.4
29.1
30.1
28.9
28.0
28.3
28.8
31.9
29.4
36.3
35.2
36.2
35.8
36.2
35.7
37.0
36.9
37.3
36.7
35.7
36.2
39.0
34.6
38.4
37.9








42.2
41.6
41.4
41.1
42.5
43.2
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-47
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front









68.8%
76.3%
71.0%
75.9%
80.7%
84.5%
92.4%
81.4%
85.5%
96.5%
96.5%
95.4%
76.3%
73.1%
100.0%
100.0%








100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
4WD












1.8%
1.7%
1.3%
1.3%
3.6%
7.3%
0.1%
0.7%
0.8%
0.4%

















Transmission
Manual
18.7%
24.4%
28.8%
28.4%
81.2%
62.8%
55.9%
62.9%
79.6%
27.1%
15.2%
9.6%
9.6%
7.3%
5.6%
5.0%
4.1%
8.6%
2.9%
2.8%
0.2%
0.1%











4.9%
4.8%
2.4%

1.7%
3.1%
Lock





25.0%
34.3%
32.5%

15.7%
14.6%
23.5%
52.8%
63.9%
30.6%
90.9%
95.9%
91.4%
97.1%
97.2%
99.8%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%








95.1%
95.2%
97.6%
100.0%
98.3%
96.9%
CVT






































43.5%
Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port









21.6%
10.1%
22.0%
50.5%
63.5%
53.6%
72.1%
28.9%
35.5%
80.2%
73.4%
87.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%








100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI
6.1%
13.3%
23.2%
23.4%
100.0%
70.1%
50.6%
25.1%
96.9%
9.6%
6.6%
2.7%
8.5%
36.5%
46.4%
27.9%
71.1%
64.5%
19.8%
26.6%
12.5%


















Diesel







15.0%
3.1%






























Multi-
Valve



















0.7%
14.3%
75.5%
73.1%
100.0%
100.0%








100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT

































100.0%
100.0%
35.3%

47.1%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-48
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
262
293
262
310
83
90
82
85
102
160
184
316
401
559
674
684
686
758
826
849
990
956
792
1116
822
948
463
451
493
186
380
160
81






Frac
0.026
0.024
0.019
0.021
0.006
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.010
0.011
0.013
0.021
0.027
0.037
0.047
0.054
0.055
0.062
0.063
0.060
0.065
0.073
0.055
0.077
0.054
0.057
0.030
0.028
0.031
0.012
0.024
0.011
0.005






Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
14.0
14.1
16.1
15.6
16.5
18.4
18.7
18.8
18.8
18.0
19.8
21.1
21.7
22 2
22.5
22.2
22.5
22.6
22.6
22.7
22.9
23.5
23.4
23.8
23.9
24 2
24.6
24.9
25.4
25.1
25.5
25.7
25.9






Adj City
11.2
11.2
13.0
12.7
13.5
14.6
14.9
15.0
15.0
14.3
15.6
16.3
16.6
16.8
16.9
16.6
16.8
16.7
16.5
16.5
16.4
16.8
16.6
16.7
16.6
16.7
16.9
17.0
17.2
16.8
17.0
17.2
17.4






Adj Hwy
12.9
13.1
14.6
14.1
14.8
17.0
17.4
17.4
17.5
16.8
18.6
20.5
21.0
21.7
21.9
21.5
21.5
21.7
22.0
21.9
22.4
22.6
22.5
23.0
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.8
24.2
24.2
24.0
24.2
24.4






Adj Comb
11.9
12.0
13.7
13.3
14.0
15.6
15.9
16.0
16.0
15.3
16.8
18.0
18.4
18.8
18.9
18.7
18.8
18.9
18.9
18.9
19.0
19.4
19.3
19.5
19.6
19.7
20.0
20.2
20.5
20.3
20.4
20.6
20.8






Weight
(Ib)
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000






Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
311
323
323
321
275
263
262
264
261
276
272
232
222
214
207
199
194
198
196
203
217
201
197
202
198
194
194
196
199
203
198
190
190






HP
136
142
148
142
128
121
120
117
112
116
137
134
149
150
145
143
144
146
149
151
152
166
164
174
168
171
183
186
185
185
182
183
184






0-60 Time
14.0
13.5
12.9
13.2
14.3
15.0
15.2
15.8
16.1
15.5
13.7
13.9
12.8
12.6
12.9
13.2
13.0
12.9
12.6
12.5
12.5
11.7
11.8
11.2
11.5
11.3
10.7
10.6
10.6
10.6
10.8
10.7
10.7






HP/CID
0.434
0.437
0.457
0.444
0.468
0.466
0.463
0.445
0.433
0.427
0.510
0.590
0.689
0.717
0.722
0.722
0.756
0.745
0.768
0.752
0.713
0.828
0.835
0.863
0.857
0.892
0.953
0.956
0.934
0.917
0.926
0.969
0.976






HP/WT
0.0340
0.0356
0.0371
0.0356
0.0320
0.0304
0.0300
0.0292
0.0281
0.0290
0.0342
0.0335
0.0371
0.0374
0.0364
0.0357
0.0361
0.0365
0.0373
0.0378
0.0380
0.0415
0.0409
0.0435
0.0420
0.0427
0.0457
0.0464
0.0462
0.0463
0.0456
0.0457
0.0460






Ton-MPG
24.5
24.7
27.7
27.0
28.4
31.4
32.1
32.4
32.4
31.0
34.1
36.0
36.9
37.6
38.0
37.5
37.8
37.8
37.8
37.8
38.0
38.8
38.6
39.1
39.2
39.5
40.0
40.5
41.1
40.6
40.9
41.2
41.6






EPA-420-R-13-011
E-49
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front






0.8%



0.2%
0.1%
7.6%
33.5%
30.6%
57.0%
49.2%
60.7%
59.4%
70.6%
79.7%
90.3%
87.9%
96.2%
95.7%
95.9%
95.8%
95.7%
96.9%
92.6%
95.4%
100.0%
100.0%






4WD












1.7%
0.2%
0.4%
10.0%
12.6%
1.8%
1.1%
3.1%
10.1%


















Transmission
Manual
34.8%
30.9%
23.4%
22.6%
34.8%
41.3%
33.7%
23.9%
28.5%
21.2%
10.2%
6.5%
4.2%
2.6%
2.4%
1.4%
1.3%
0.6%
1.1%
0.2%



















Lock




29.1%
43.7%
50.9%
55.3%
40.0%
29.8%
58.0%
86.3%
90.3%
93.8%
96.5%
97.1%
98.4%
99.4%
98.9%
99.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
89.6%
78.1%
68.9%






CVT






























10.4%
21.9%
31.1%






Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port










0.2%
21.1%
48.9%
60.7%
67.7%
69.4%
79.7%
85.2%
90.4%
90.2%
96.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%






TBI





4.1%
4.0%
3.5%
3.3%
3.4%
3.2%
51.1%
46.1%
39.3%
32.3%
30.6%
20.3%
14.8%
9.6%
9.8%
4.0%


















Diesel







2.3%































Multi-
Valve



















4.6%
3.0%
5.3%
6.3%
11.6%
15.9%
25.7%
32.6%
33.0%
19.6%
15.3%
20.7%
39.3%
41.3%






WT
























8.5%
13.9%
18.6%
24.5%
15.5%
12.0%

6.3%







Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-50
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
165
188
222
289
273
91
121
164
215
245
258
284
252
184
223
268
211
242
251
278
291
291
275
188
426
578
462
623
564
644
955
928
734
713
256
361
455
554
366
Frac
0.016
0.015
0.016
0.020
0.020
0.008
0.011
0.017
0.021
0.017
0.018
0.019
0.017
0.012
0.015
0.021
0.017
0.020
0.019
0.020
0.019
0.022
0.019
0.013
0.028
0.035
0.030
0.039
0.036
0.041
0.060
0.061
0.048
0.051
0.028
0.033
0.038
0.041
0.025
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
11.6
13.3
13.5
13.0
13.6
16.3
17.1
16.8
17.3
17.0
16.1
17.5
17.3
17.9
17.5
18.7
19.1
19.2
19.8
19.3
19.1
20.6
20.7
21.5
22.1
22.3
23.5
23.3
23.6
24 2
24.1
24.5
24.2
24.7
24.7
24.4
26.6
26.7
26.9
Adj City
9.5
10.7
11.0
10.7
11.1
13.1
13.7
13.5
13.7
13.4
12.8
13.8
13.5
13.9
13.5
14.1
14.3
14.3
14.6
14.2
14.0
14.8
14.8
15.3
15.5
15.5
16.2
16.0
16.1
16.2
16.1
16.3
16.1
16.4
16.5
16.3
17.7
17.6
17.8
Adj Hwy
10.3
12.3
12.0
11.4
12.0
15.1
15.7
15.3
16.1
16.0
14.9
16.2
16.2
16.8
16.5
17.9
18.4
18.3
19.0
18.3
18.1
20.0
19.9
20.6
21.2
21.4
22.5
22.2
22.4
23.1
22.9
23.5
23.3
23.6
23.5
23.3
25.2
25.6
25.6
Adj Comb
9.8
11.3
11.4
11.0
11.5
13.9
14.6
14.2
14.7
14.4
13.7
14.8
14.7
15.1
14.8
15.7
16.0
16.1
16.5
16.1
15.8
17.1
17.1
17.7
18.1
18.2
19.1
18.9
19.1
19.5
19.4
19.8
19.6
19.9
19.9
19.7
21.3
21.4
21.5
Weight
(Ib)
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
333
330
342
341
329
313
305
307
308
309
309
304
313
321
323
306
294
288
282
283
292
248
252
242
234
232
217
220
222
216
218
216
219
218
216
221
214
215
214
HP
155
153
157
157
145
141
138
145
149
153
156
148
163
169
175
174
170
179
180
187
190
177
182
186
193
192
196
206
211
221
219
215
230
221
219
210
266
268
267
0-60 Time
13.6
13.8
13.5
13.4
14.3
14.6
14.8
14.3
14.0
13.8
13.5
14.1
13.0
12.6
12.4
12.4
12.7
12.2
12.1
11.7
11.5
12.2
11.9
11.6
11.3
11.4
11.2
10.8
10.6
10.1
10.2
10.4
9.9
10.4
10.4
10.7
8.7
8.7
8.8
HP/CID
0.464
0.463
0.458
0.460
0.443
0.449
0.453
0.474
0.485
0.493
0.503
0.485
0.521
0.528
0.541
0.569
0.580
0.626
0.646
0.664
0.662
0.716
0.727
0.770
0.826
0.832
0.908
0.941
0.955
1.033
1.012
1.000
1.051
1.014
1.019
0.955
1.243
1.245
1.243
HP/WT
0.0345
0.0340
0.0348
0.0348
0.0322
0.0313
0.0306
0.0323
0.0332
0.0339
0.0346
0.0328
0.0363
0.0376
0.0389
0.0387
0.0377
0.0398
0.0400
0.0414
0.0421
0.0393
0.0405
0.0413
0.0428
0.0426
0.0436
0.0458
0.0468
0.0492
0.0487
0.0477
0.0510
0.0490
0.0486
0.0467
0.0592
0.0596
0.0592
Ton-MPG
22.2
25.7
25.9
24.9
26.3
31.5
33.0
32.3
33.3
32.8
30.9
33.4
33.1
34.0
33.3
35.6
36.4
36.5
37.3
36.5
35.9
38.8
38.8
39.9
40.8
41.2
43.2
42.8
43.1
44.1
43.7
44.5
44.1
44.8
44.7
44.3
48.0
48.3
48.5
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-51
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front






0.2%











1.3%
0.0%

52.1%
35.5%
40.3%
76.0%
78.4%
88.5%
90.9%
88.6%
93.2%
92.3%
95.6%
97.2%
96.1%
97.4%
98.4%
98.5%
99.1%
100.0%
4WD














0.1%
4.2%
10.8%
13.6%
14.9%
14.8%
7.5%
6.1%
13.3%
14.7%
4.8%
3.7%
1.9%
2.8%
6.0%
5.0%
6.6%
4.4%
2.8%
3.9%
2.6%
1.6%
1.5%
0.9%

Transmission
Manual
6.2%
5.0%
3.8%
2.6%
11.3%
14.5%
13.3%
6.8%
3.4%
2.9%
1.0%
0.6%
1.0%
0.9%
0.7%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%





















Lock




0.9%
47.9%
48.8%
46.6%
68.7%
76.7%
73.3%
78.0%
56.3%
60.4%
71.9%
89.1%
94.3%
97.4%
98.7%
96.6%
97.8%
97.8%
98.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
96.2%
97.9%
98.3%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
96.5%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT






























3.8%
2.1%
1.7%



3.5%
3.9%
5.6%
Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port











21.6%
32.2%
16.5%
20.8%
9.2%
12.7%
31.2%
32.3%
49.7%
56.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI












45.0%
82.8%
79.1%
90.8%
87.2%
68.8%
67.7%
50.3%
44.0%


















Diesel











0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%






















Multi-
Valve



















1.6%
2.5%
1.7%
2.2%
4.6%
11.8%
21.1%
27.2%
24.7%
30.1%
64.8%
42.6%
52.0%
56.6%
51.7%
46.9%
29.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT
























11.8%
21.1%
26.7%
23.9%
29.3%
64.8%
38.8%
44.7%
56.2%
51.0%
39.6%
29.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-52
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
12
8
18
12
96
35
26
36
49
54
52
62
64
100
99
84
56
92
101
108
106
100
136
135
176
145
174
155
137
101
130
63
23
51
84
134
27
27
159
Frac
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.007
0.003
0.002
0.004
0.005
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.004
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.009
0.012
0.009
0.011
0.010
0.009
0.006
0.008
0.004
0.002
0.004
0.009
0.012
0.002
0.002
0.011
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
12.0
12.4
12.4
12.5
11.8
14.2
14.8
15.1
17.1
15.6
15.4
16.0
15.9
16.7
16.5
16.5
16.6
17.5
17.7
17.6
17.8
17.8
19.0
18.6
18.2
18.4
19.1
18.7
19.3
20.4
20.7
19.9
20.4
23.9
25.3
25.3
22.9
22.6
25.0
Adj City
9.7
10.1
10.0
10.3
9.6
11.4
11.9
12.1
13.5
12.3
12.2
12.5
12.3
12.8
12.5
12.5
12.5
13.1
13.1
12.9
13.0
12.9
13.7
13.3
13.0
13.1
13.4
13.2
13.5
13.9
14.0
13.7
14.1
16.1
16.7
16.7
15.6
15.4
16.5
Adj Hwy
10.7
10.9
11.2
11.0
10.6
13.1
13.6
13.8
16.0
14.7
14.4
15.0
15.0
16.1
15.8
15.7
15.8
16.7
16.9
17.0
16.9
17.0
18.1
17.8
17.3
17.1
17.9
17.3
17.7
19.4
19.6
18.1
18.7
22.5
24.5
24.7
21.1
21.0
24.2
Adj Comb
10.2
10.5
10.5
10.6
10.0
12.1
12.6
12.8
14.5
13.3
13.1
13.5
13.4
14.2
13.9
13.9
13.9
14.7
14.8
14.7
14.7
14.8
15.7
15.4
15.0
15.0
15.5
15.2
15.6
16.5
16.7
15.9
16.4
19.2
20.4
20.5
18.3
18.1
20.2
Weight
(Ib)
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
398
370
404
389
347
334
325
320
336
329
323
326
323
312
315
317
315
305
306
308
302
317
296
295
296
292
284
262
252
241
235
267
269
249
226
228
225
240
222
HP
200
169
187
183
155
148
145
144
143
155
158
162
167
156
159
165
165
169
184
190
184
203
219
217
219
219
226
210
205
205
202
216
205
232
239
243
247
229
275
0-60 Time
12.3
13.9
12.6
12.9
14.9
15.3
15.5
15.6
15.7
14.9
14.6
14.4
14.0
14.7
14.5
14.1
14.1
13.8
12.8
12.5
12.9
12.0
11.1
11.2
11.2
11.2
10.8
11.5
11.8
11.7
11.9
11.3
11.8
10.7
10.3
10.2
10.2
10.9
9.4
HP/CID
0.497
0.455
0.464
0.470
0.446
0.441
0.448
0.450
0.431
0.472
0.486
0.495
0.516
0.500
0.503
0.519
0.522
0.557
0.607
0.623
0.613
0.644
0.743
0.738
0.741
0.751
0.800
0.813
0.820
0.857
0.869
0.810
0.761
0.939
1.066
1.075
1.120
0.982
1.246
HP/WT
0.0401
0.0338
0.0375
0.0365
0.0309
0.0295
0.0290
0.0288
0.0286
0.0310
0.0315
0.0324
0.0334
0.0313
0.0318
0.0331
0.0330
0.0339
0.0369
0.0381
0.0367
0.0407
0.0438
0.0433
0.0437
0.0437
0.0452
0.0420
0.0409
0.0410
0.0404
0.0432
0.0411
0.0464
0.0479
0.0487
0.0493
0.0459
0.0550
Ton-MPG
25.5
26.3
26.3
26.5
25.4
30.3
31.8
32.3
38.0
34.1
33.3
34.2
33.9
35.6
35.0
34.8
34.9
36.9
37.1
36.8
36.9
37.0
39.3
38.5
37.4
37.6
39.0
38.1
39.1
41.5
41.9
39.9
41.0
48.6
51.3
51.3
45.9
45.6
50.5
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-53
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front




















1.7%



0.1%


32.1%
37.7%
52.5%
58.9%


63.9%
88.5%
93.7%


82.5%
4WD















0.3%

15.4%
18.3%
18.3%
22.7%
15.2%
16.9%
15.3%
11.3%
16.7%
12.7%
13.3%
15.3%
10.0%
10.5%
13.0%




72.8%
44.9%
10.0%
Transmission
Manual
13.1%
1.9%
2.7%
1.0%
4.3%
5.0%
4.8%
4.7%
2.6%
3.5%
1.5%
0.7%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%





0.7%


















Lock




6.5%
19.9%
31.7%
29.4%
69.4%
51.9%
65.2%
58.7%
48.1%
74.2%
76.6%
86.9%
86.4%
81.4%
86.4%
88.0%
87.0%
93.1%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port











23.5%
40.0%
84.0%
83.0%
81.8%
82.8%
90.0%
94.3%
98.0%
90.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI












13.6%
14.3%
16.5%
17.5%
16.3%
9.5%
5.7%
2.0%
9.8%


















Diesel








26.9%
8.4%
2.8%
1.4%
0.6%
0.7%
0.5%
0.7%
0.8%
0.5%





















Multi-
Valve
























0.1%


32.1%
37.7%
52.5%
58.9%


63.9%
88.5%
93.7%
72.8%
44.9%
92.5%
WT


































58.9%
57.5%
72.8%
44.9%
92.5%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-54
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)

0


17
8
1
0
5
6
5
6
5
10
5
9
10
18
31
27
27
25
27
31
36
17
66
11
21
6
5
7
2
5
3
3
3
3
7
Frac

0.000


0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.001
0.004
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45

11.1


11.4
12.4
12.3
13.4
18.2
14.5
12.9
15.0
14.6
14.2
14.4
14.4
15.2
15.9
16.1
16.2
16.2
15.8
17.3
17.4
17.5
17.2
17.4
17.5
18.2
19.1
19.3
19.2
19.2
19.3
17.8
18.6
18.5
18.5
18.7
Adj City

9.0


9.5
10.0
9.9
10.9
14.2
11.4
10.3
12.0
11.3
11.0
11.2
10.7
11.3
11.8
12.1
12.1
12.0
11.6
12.4
12.4
12.3
12.2
12.1
12.3
12.9
13.3
13.3
13.2
13.2
13.6
12.5
12.9
12.8
12.8
13.0
Adj Hwy

10.0


9.9
11.2
11.2
12.1
17.5
13.9
12.0
13.7
13.8
13.3
13.4
14.3
14.9
15.3
15.2
15.1
15.1
14.8
16.7
16.9
16.9
16.3
16.9
16.4
16.6
17.5
17.8
17.6
18.0
17.3
15.9
16.9
16.9
16.8
17.1
Adj Comb

9.4


9.7
10.5
10.5
11.4
15.5
12.4
11.0
12.7
12.4
12.0
12.1
12.2
12.8
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.5
13.1
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.1
14.3
14.3
14.7
15.4
15.5
15.4
15.6
15.5
14.2
14.9
14.9
14.8
15.0
Weight
(Ib)

5500


5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro

350


377
356
346
337
369
362
351
286
346
347
343
347
334
323
321
316
314
314
288
296
294
296
314
298
312
298
301
293
325
325
325
323
318
323
317
HP

160


168
154
154
143
140
158
180
158
196
195
192
199
187
178
178
174
172
169
212
217
226
221
249
228
264
251
260
250
295
301
301
301
292
308
294
0-60 Time

15.4


15.6
16.0
15.9
16.8
17.2
15.8
14.1
15.9
13.2
13.2
13.5
13.0
13.8
14.4
14.3
14.6
14.8
15.0
12.4
12.1
11.8
12.1
10.8
11.6
10.4
10.8
10.6
10.9
9.4
9.2
9.2
9.2
9.5
9.2
9.6
HP/CID

0.457


0.438
0.431
0.447
0.427
0.383
0.438
0.512
0.594
0.564
0.562
0.559
0.574
0.556
0.548
0.553
0.550
0.545
0.536
0.743
0.738
0.772
0.753
0.798
0.782
0.845
0.842
0.859
0.847
0.908
0.926
0.926
0.932
0.916
0.954
0.925
HP/WT

0.0291


0.0305
0.0279
0.0281
0.0260
0.0255
0.0287
0.0327
0.0288
0.0356
0.0355
0.0349
0.0363
0.0340
0.0323
0.0324
0.0316
0.0312
0.0308
0.0385
0.0395
0.0410
0.0402
0.0452
0.0415
0.0479
0.0457
0.0472
0.0454
0.0536
0.0547
0.0547
0.0547
0.0530
0.0560
0.0535
Ton-MPG

25.9


26.9
28.9
29.0
31.4
46.3
37.1
30.4
36.6
34.6
33.4
34.0
33.7
35.3
36.8
37.1
37.2
37.2
36.0
39.6
39.7
39.7
39.0
39.3
39.4
40.6
42.4
42.8
42.4
42.8
42.5
39.2
41.0
40.9
40.8
41.4
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-55
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front






















5.9%

2.8%
10.0%
1.9%
7.2%
1.4%










4WD


















0.6%







17.8%

1.9%
24.9%
39.2%
33.6%
100.0%
48.5%
55.0%
64.7%
52.7%
69.4%
23.9%
Transmission
Manual




3.1%

4.4%
2.3%
0.6%
1.0%

32.4%



























Lock





0.8%

2.5%
83.2%
59.3%
44.9%
35.0%
50.7%
29.0%
45.0%
95.1%
100.0%
93.7%
78.0%
74.1%
70.8%
61.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port












11.6%
71.4%
66.2%
82.5%
89.0%
92.9%
89.5%
90.9%
94.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI












39.1%
24.3%
33.5%
17.5%
10.9%
7.1%
10.5%
9.1%
5.1%


















Diesel








61.2%
32.8%

32.4%

1.1%
0.3%
0.0%
0.0%






















Multi-
Valve


























1.9%
7.2%
1.4%







11.4%


WT



































100.0%
82.1%
97.4%
79.5%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-56
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
1
1
1
1
3
1

0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
6
6
5
3
2
3
3
67
4
17
16
11
9
6
5
3
4
6
6
6
Frac
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.004
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.000
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
11.1
11.9
13.0
12.5
10.6
10.9

11.9
12.6
12.9
21.3
23.1
22.9
21.7
21.3
21.5
20.4
15.0
21.3
15.5
16.1
16.1
16.5
16.6
16.2
16.3
16.0
17.1
18.5
18.7
18.2
18.2
18.1
17.6
17.7
18.4
17.8
18.0
18.0
Adj City
9.1
9.7
10.9
10.4
8.4
9.1

9.5
10.1
10.4
16.2
17.5
17.4
16.1
16.0
15.8
15.2
10.8
15.7
11.2
11.5
11.5
11.7
11.7
11.4
11.6
11.2
12.0
12.8
13.1
12.7
12.6
12.6
12.4
12.5
12.8
12.5
12.6
12.5
Adj Hwy
9.7
10.6
11.2
10.9
10.1
9.4

10.8
11.6
11.8
21.5
22.9
22.4
21.9
20.8
21.7
19.8
15.2
20.2
15.4
15.9
15.9
16.4
16.5
15.9
15.3
15.4
16.0
17.4
17.2
16.5
16.6
16.5
15.8
15.9
16.6
16.1
16.3
16.4
Adj Comb
9.4
10.1
11.0
10.6
9.1
9.2

10.1
10.7
10.9
18.2
19.6
19.4
18.4
18.0
18.2
17.1
12.6
17.7
13.0
13.4
13.4
13.8
13.8
13.4
13.4
13.1
13.9
15.0
15.1
14.7
14.6
14.6
14.1
14.2
14.7
14.3
14.5
14.5
Weight
(Ib)
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000

6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
317
325
318
324
460
400

350
366
366
376
379
379
379
379
379
379
352
379
352
344
350
331
330
330
330
330
330
322
324
325
326
325
325
325
323
312
311
314
HP
149
144
148
154
270
187

165
150
150
133
130
130
126
130
135
140
202
145
204
197
205
225
225
235
255
260
255
281
278
278
283
295
310
301
301
272
277
279
0-60 Time
17.1
17.5
17.3
16.8
10.8
14.6

16.1
17.4
17.4
19.2
19.5
19.5
20.0
19.5
18.9
18.4
13.7
17.9
13.6
14.1
13.5
12.5
12.5
12.1
11.3
11.2
11.3
10.5
10.6
10.6
10.5
10.1
9.7
9.9
9.9
10.9
10.9
10.8
HP/CID
0.470
0.445
0.468
0.475
0.587
0.468

0.471
0.410
0.410
0.354
0.343
0.343
0.332
0.343
0.356
0.369
0.574
0.383
0.582
0.570
0.587
0.680
0.682
0.712
0.773
0.787
0.773
0.871
0.857
0.856
0.868
0.908
0.955
0.926
0.932
0.871
0.887
0.886
HP/WT
0.0248
0.0240
0.0247
0.0256
0.0450
0.0312

0.0275
0.0250
0.0250
0.0222
0.0217
0.0217
0.0210
0.0217
0.0225
0.0233
0.0337
0.0242
0.0341
0.0328
0.0342
0.0375
0.0375
0.0392
0.0425
0.0433
0.0425
0.0468
0.0463
0.0463
0.0471
0.0492
0.0517
0.0502
0.0502
0.0454
0.0461
0.0466
Ton-MPG
28.5
30.5
33.2
31.9
27.2
27.7

30.3
32.2
32.8
55.7
58.9
58.1
55.2
54.0
54.5
51.4
38.0
53.0
39.0
40.3
40.2
41.3
41.4
40.2
40.1
39.4
41.8
45.3
45.5
44.0
44.0
43.8
42.3
42.7
44.2
42.9
43.5
43.5
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-57
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD


























95.4%

39.1%
17.8%
18.6%
19.0%
28.6%
32.9%
37.3%
33.3%
21.7%
16.0%
16.2%
Transmission
Manual
85.3%
85.7%
65.6%
64.3%






2.1%
2.2%
0.6%
0.9%
1.4%
























Lock







100.0%


97.9%
97.8%
99.4%
99.1%
98.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port

















95.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI







































Diesel










91.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
4.6%





















Multi-
Valve







































WT



































100.0%
56.6%
56.4%
57.3%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-58
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
1
1
2
1
































1
1
1
Frac
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
































0.000
0.000
0.000
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
10.6
11.5
12.3
11.7
































16.1
16.3
16.2
Adj City
8.9
9.4
10.3
9.7
































11.1
11.2
11.1
Adj Hwy
9.0
10.4
10.6
10.3
































15.0
15.4
15.4
Adj Comb
9.0
9.8
10.4
9.9
































13.0
13.3
13.2
Weight
(Ib)
6500
6500
6500
6500
































6500
6500
6500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
321
324
316
328
































334
320
333
HP
150
144
142
155
































273
272
276
0-60 Time
18.6
19.2
19.3
18.1
































11.5
11.6
11.5
HP/CID
0.468
0.447
0.453
0.474
































0.818
0.853
0.831
HP/WT
0.0231
0.0222
0.0219
0.0239
































0.0420
0.0419
0.0424
Ton-MPG
29.2
31.9
34.0
32.3
































42.4
43.1
43.0
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-59
December 2013

-------
   IEnvsr4Dirtmenl.fi! Protectk
                         2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







































Transmission
Manual

0.2%





































Lock




































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port




































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve







































WT




































33.9%
48.0%
39.6%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-60
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)




































1
1
0
Frac




































0.000
0.000
0.000
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45




































15.4
15.0
15.1
Adj City




































10.4
10.1
10.1
Adj Hwy




































15.0
14.9
14.9
Adj Comb




































12.6
12.4
12.4
Weight
(Ib)




































7000
7000
7000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro




































368
367
369
HP




































322
322
323
0-60 Time




































10.6
10.7
10.7
HP/CID




































0.876
0.878
0.878
HP/WT




































0.0460
0.0460
0.0462
Ton-MPG




































44.2
43.4
43.5
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-61
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







































Transmission
Manual







































Lock




































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port




































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve







































WT




































95.3%
94.8%
95.2%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-62
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)





































0

Frac





































0.000

Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45





































14.5

Adj City





































9.8

Adj Hwy





































14.3

Adj Comb





































12.0

Weight
(Ib)





































8000

Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro





































366

HP





































324

0-60 Time





































11.9

HP/CID





































0.885

HP/WT





































0.0405

Ton-MPG





































47.8

EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-63
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Weight
Class
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







































Transmission
Manual







































Lock





































100.0%

CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port





































100.0%

TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve







































WT





































100.0%

Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-64
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)




1
3
1
1
1






























Frac




0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000






























Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45




25.7
25.2
25.2
25.2
25.2






























Adj City




20.9
20.3
20.3
21.3
21.3






























Adj Hwy




23.0
22.9
22.9
21.3
21.3






























Adj Comb




21.8
21.4
21.4
21.3
21.3






























Weight
(Ib)




2000
2000
2000
2000
2000






























Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro




49
49
49
59
59






























HP




41
41
41
45
45






























0-60 Time




19.7
19.7
19.7
18.3
18.3






























HP/CID




0.837
0.837
0.837
0.763
0.763






























HP/WT




0.0205
0.0205
0.0205
0.0225
0.0225






























Ton-MPG




21.8
21.4
21.4
21.3
21.3






























EPA-420-R-13-011
E-65
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD




100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%






























Transmission
Manual




100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%






























Lock







































CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port







































TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-66
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)







2
3
5
6
37
63
83
6
























Frac







0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.002
0.004
0.005
0.000
























Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45







24.8
24.8
28.8
28.8
33.1
33.1
33.3
33.4
























Adj City







20.9
20.9
25.3
25.3
27.0
26.8
27.0
27.0
























Adj Hwy







21.1
21.1
23.1
23.1
29.1
29.0
28.7
28.4
























Adj Comb







21.0
21.0
24 2
24 2
27.9
27.8
27.8
27.7
























Weight
(Ib)







2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
























Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro







59
59
59
61
81
81
81
80
























HP







45
45
45
45
64
64
64
64
























0-60 Time







20.1
20.1
20.1
20.1
15.3
15.3
15.3
15.3
























HP/CID







0.763
0.763
0.763
0.738
0.790
0.790
0.790
0.797
























HP/WT







0.0200
0.0200
0.0200
0.0200
0.0284
0.0284
0.0284
0.0284
























Ton-MPG







23.6
23.6
27.3
27.3
31.4
31.3
31.2
31.2
























EPA-420-R-13-011
E-67
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
























Transmission
Manual







100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
























Lock







































CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port







































TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-68
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)














40
32
3
2
0
3
1


















Frac














0.003
0.003
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000


















Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45














31.3
31.8
33.5
33.5
33.5
33.5
30.5


















Adj City














25.3
25.4
27.0
26.8
26.6
26.4
23.4


















Adj Hwy














26.8
27.4
27.9
27.8
27.7
27.6
26.1


















Adj Comb














26.0
26.3
27.5
27.3
27.2
27.0
24.7


















Weight
(Ib)














2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500


















Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro














97
94
79
79
79
79
90


















HP














80
77
66
66
66
66
84


















0-60 Time














14.1
14.3
16.2
16.2
16.2
16.2
13.7


















HP/CID














0.825
0.827
0.835
0.835
0.835
0.835
0.926


















HP/WT














0.0320
0.0310
0.0264
0.0264
0.0264
0.0264
0.0337


















Ton-MPG














32.6
32.9
34.4
34.2
34.0
33.8
31.0


















EPA-420-R-13-011
E-69
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD














100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%


















Transmission
Manual














56.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%


















Lock














43.8%
























CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port




















63.1%


















TBI














100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
36.9%


















Diesel







































Multi-
Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-70
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
47
41
44
58







0


0
14
28
23
22
38
38
26
10
9















Frac
0.005
0.003
0.003
0.004







0.000


0.000
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.002
0.002
0.001
0.001















Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
16.8
17.8
18.6
18.1







25.6


29.3
28.7
28.9
28.9
29.0
28.7
28.4
28.4
28.3
28.4















Adj City
13.5
14.7
15.2
14.8







20.0


23.9
23.2
23.0
22.9
22.7
22.3
21.8
21.6
21.5
21.5















Adj Hwy
15.5
15.5
16.6
16.2







24.2


24.9
24.4
24.8
24.7
24.6
24.3
24.3
24.2
23.9
23.9















Adj Comb
14.3
15.1
15.8
15.4







21.7


24.4
23.8
23.9
23.8
23.7
23.3
23.0
22.9
22.7
22.7















Weight
(Ib)
2750
2750
2750
2750







2750


2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750















Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
276
268
271
270







96


97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97















HP
120
102
104
103







86


80
80
80
80
80
82
95
95
95
95















0-60 Time
11.4
12.6
12.4
12.5







14.2


15.4
15.4
15.2
15.2
15.2
14.9
13.3
13.3
13.3
13.3















HP/CID
0.429
0.379
0.381
0.379







0.896


0.825
0.825
0.825
0.825
0.825
0.847
0.979
0.979
0.979
0.979















HP/WT
0.0435
0.0371
0.0377
0.0373







0.0313


0.0291
0.0291
0.0291
0.0291
0.0291
0.0299
0.0345
0.0345
0.0345
0.0345















Ton-MPG
19.8
20.8
21.8
21.2







29.8


33.5
32.7
32.9
32.7
32.6
32.1
31.7
31.5
31.3
31.2















EPA-420-R-13-011
E-71
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%







100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%















Transmission
Manual
100.0%
89.1%
92.5%
89.7%







100.0%




56.7%
56.8%
57.6%
50.6%
47.4%
49.6%
48.4%
46.0%















Lock














100.0%
100.0%
43.3%
43.2%
42.4%
49.4%
52.6%
50.4%
51.6%
54.0%















CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port


















15.9%
14.3%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%















TBI














100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
84.1%
85.7%



















Diesel







































Multi-
Valve



















14.3%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%















WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-72
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)

10
13
20
52
43
38
25
37
69
15
3
11
7
20
28
11
29
39
51
105
53
16
19
17
11
8
7
6
1
0








Frac

0.001
0.001
0.001
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.001
0.000
0.001
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.007
0.004
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000








Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45

15.4
16.8
16.8
17.2
19.7
20.9
20.2
20.5
22.6
24.5
22.8
22.4
22.3
22.1
23.3
27.1
23.7
24.0
23.5
23.3
28.0
27.8
27.4
28.3
28.0
27.7
27.8
27.8
23.7
23.5








Adj City

12.3
13.7
13.5
14.3
16.0
16.8
15.9
16.3
18.3
19.2
18.5
17.9
17.8
17.4
18.4
21.8
18.5
18.7
18.3
18.0
20.8
20.6
20.3
21.1
20.7
20.4
20.2
20.0
16.8
16.5








Adj Hwy

14.2
15.1
15.3
14.9
17.6
19.0
19.0
19.0
20.6
23.2
20.1
20.1
19.9
19.9
20.5
22.9
20.7
20.8
20.2
19.9
24.9
24.5
23.9
24.0
23.7
23.2
23.5
23.5
20.6
20.6








Adj Comb

13.1
14.3
14.2
14.6
16.7
17.7
17.2
17.4
19.2
20.8
19.2
18.9
18.7
18.5
19.4
22.3
19.5
19.7
19.2
18.9
22.8
22.5
22.1
22.6
22.2
21.9
21.9
21.8
18.8
18.6








Weight
(Ib)

3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000








Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro

304
304
304
258
222
223
241
251
203
150
150
150
150
150
136
97
139
133
135
140
111
98
105
120
118
122
118
122
165
152








HP

120
120
120
120
92
101
104
110
102
94
105
117
117
117
111
85
123
119
115
118
111
97
108
121
124
127
125
127
165
165








0-60 Time

11.8
11.8
11.8
11.7
14.4
13.5
13.2
12.6
13.5
14.3
13.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.5
15.5
11.7
12.0
12.4
12.2
12.7
14.1
13.0
11.8
11.6
11.3
11.5
11.3
9.2
9.2








HP/CID

0.395
0.395
0.395
0.465
0.440
0.469
0.440
0.444
0.526
0.624
0.703
0.780
0.780
0.780
0.831
0.877
0.891
0.902
0.860
0.843
0.998
0.988
1.024
1.007
1.044
1.041
1.056
1.041
1.000
1.086








HP/WT

0.0400
0.0400
0.0400
0.0400
0.0307
0.0338
0.0347
0.0367
0.0340
0.0312
0.0351
0.0390
0.0390
0.0390
0.0369
0.0284
0.0408
0.0397
0.0385
0.0395
0.0371
0.0324
0.0360
0.0403
0.0412
0.0423
0.0415
0.0423
0.0550
0.0550








Ton-MPG

19.7
21.5
21.4
21.9
25.3
26.9
25.9
26.2
29.0
31.3
28.9
28.3
28.1
27.8
29.3
33.5
29.6
30.0
29.2
28.7
34.2
33.7
33.1
33.9
33.4
32.8
32.8
32.7
28.1
27.9








EPA-420-R-13-011
E-73
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%










Transmission
Manual

54.6%
70.2%
70.0%
88.6%
100.0%
90.6%
88.6%
90.1%
76.3%
71.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
70.4%
97.8%
85.6%
77.1%
79.7%
34.6%
27.3%
32.6%
64.5%
59.3%
33.0%
60.1%
42.6%
100.0%
100.0%








Lock






8.7%
11.4%
9.9%
23.7%
28.4%





29.6%
2.2%
14.4%
22.9%
20.3%
65.4%
72.7%
67.4%
35.5%
40.7%
67.0%
39.9%
57.4%










CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port















26.9%
36.1%
100.0%
100.0%
84.2%
81.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%








TBI











3.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
73.1%
63.9%


15.8%
18.6%


















Diesel







































Multi-
Valve



















12.8%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
17.6%
0.0%



100.0%
100.0%








WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-74
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)




38
12
2

13
173
237
316
336
305
189
159
138
119
108
106
119
147
297
293
258
333
437
398
415
351
281
202
144
161
160
225
262
301
366
Frac




0.003
0.001
0.000

0.001
0.012
0.016
0.021
0.023
0.020
0.013
0.013
0.011
0.010
0.008
0.007
0.008
0.011
0.021
0.020
0.017
0.020
0.028
0.025
0.026
0.022
0.018
0.013
0.009
0.012
0.017
0.020
0.022
0.022
0.025
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45




15.6
16.3
17.2

23.4
21.3
21.8
21.8
22.2
20.9
20.3
20.5
19.8
19.4
19.6
19.4
19.8
19.9
22.7
24.0
25.7
24.0
24.8
25.9
26.0
26.3
26.9
28.0
28.8
29.8
29 2
29.4
30.7
30.8
31.9
Adj City




13.0
13.1
13.3

18.0
16.9
17.1
17.1
17.2
15.9
15.4
15.3
14.9
14.4
14.6
14.4
14.5
14.5
16.8
17.6
18.8
17.4
17.7
18.3
18.2
18.2
18.6
19.4
20.2
20.9
20.3
20.4
21.2
21.1
21.8
Adj Hwy




13.4
14.8
16.8

22.9
19.8
20.7
20.4
21.1
20.2
19.3
19.8
18.8
18.6
18.7
18.3
18.7
18.9
20.2
21.3
22.5
21.2
22.1
23.2
23.3
23.4
23.5
24.6
24.4
25.2
25.2
25.5
26.7
27.1
27.8
Adj Comb




13.2
13.8
14.7

19.9
18.1
18.6
18.5
18.8
17.7
17.0
17.2
16.6
16.2
16.4
16.1
16.4
16.5
18.4
19.4
20.6
19.3
19.9
20.7
20.7
20.8
21.1
22.0
22.4
23.1
22.8
23.0
24.0
24 2
24.9
Weight
(Ib)




3500
3500
3500

3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro




304
285
304

166
167
165
171
195
213
242
241
227
242
240
240
231
235
174
159
136
158
153
152
153
155
152
145
147
143
147
149
146
149
142
HP




122
115
130

107
102
103
119
135
149
162
164
172
190
189
189
182
186
148
147
144
153
164
167
167
170
164
161
170
166
171
172
171
175
169
0-60 Time




13.1
14.1
12.5

14.4
15.2
15.1
13.6
12.5
11.4
10.8
10.7
10.2
9.3
9.4
9.3
9.8
9.5
11.6
11.6
11.7
11.2
10.6
10.5
10.5
10.2
10.5
10.7
10.3
10.4
10.2
10.1
10.2
10.0
10.4
HP/CID




0.402
0.401
0.428

0.649
0.615
0.629
0.705
0.705
0.709
0.676
0.683
0.763
0.785
0.787
0.786
0.796
0.799
0.880
0.957
1.076
1.013
1.089
1.098
1.092
1.104
1.088
1.107
1.152
1.162
1.163
1.151
1.169
1.178
1.195
HP/WT




0.0349
0.0329
0.0371

0.0307
0.0292
0.0294
0.0341
0.0385
0.0427
0.0464
0.0468
0.0490
0.0542
0.0539
0.0540
0.0521
0.0533
0.0424
0.0420
0.0412
0.0438
0.0468
0.0476
0.0476
0.0487
0.0467
0.0460
0.0484
0.0474
0.0487
0.0490
0.0487
0.0500
0.0483
Ton-MPG




23.2
24.3
25.7

35.0
31.8
32.7
32.5
33.0
31.1
29.9
30.2
29.1
28.5
28.7
28.3
28.8
28.9
32.7
34.6
36.4
34.3
35.1
36.6
36.5
36.6
37.4
38.6
39.3
40.6
40.0
40.3
42.1
42.4
43.7
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-75
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front




























5.3%
4.7%
6.4%
8.3%
30.3%
37.0%
19.9%
16.3%
17.7%

8.3%
4WD




100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
95.7%
94.4%
100.0%
100.0%
98.6%
98.6%
94.0%
94.1%
92.0%
91.7%
69.4%
62.9%
77.9%
81.8%
81.2%
100.0%
91.7%
Transmission
Manual




78.6%
44.2%
76.8%

100.0%
36.3%
52.2%
55.6%
55.1%
37.4%
26.8%
24.4%
37.2%
25.0%
35.3%
35.7%
30.2%
12.8%
47.0%
39.4%
26.3%
15.9%
11.8%
10.0%
7.8%
8.8%
16.1%
10.1%
10.1%
7.4%
7.8%
8.0%
5.6%
3.2%
3.5%
Lock






23.2%


19.6%
47.3%
43.1%
37.7%
57.5%
67.7%
71.1%
57.8%
69.8%
57.3%
64.3%
69.8%
87.2%
53.0%
60.6%
73.7%
84.1%
88.2%
89.5%
88.5%
89.5%
83.2%
89.9%
33.0%
33.6%
55.1%
53.5%
43.5%
77.4%
96.5%
CVT



























0.4%
3.7%
1.6%
0.6%

56.9%
59.0%
37.1%
38.4%
50.9%
29.8%
33.5%
Fuel Metering
GDI


































0.1%



7.4%
Port










8.1%
34.8%
63.6%
83.2%
78.9%
82.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
92.6%
TBI










2.8%
10.7%
6.7%
0.6%
0.7%
0.6%























Diesel










0.5%
0.1%
0.0%


























Multi-
Valve




















4.4%
4.6%
46.1%
65.1%
83.2%
60.4%
84.1%
90.7%
94.0%
100.0%
92.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT


























10.6%
38.5%
41.1%
52.5%
62.0%
65.0%
69.5%
67.2%
45.3%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
91.7%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-76
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
16
24
30
40
7
7
7
8
68
116
173
154
184
259
348
196
335
226
204
344
414
359
433
499
599
451
475
523
573
764
586
557
700
638
415
628
782
568
623
Frac
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.003
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.007
0.008
0.012
0.010
0.012
0.017
0.024
0.016
0.027
0.019
0.015
0.024
0.027
0.027
0.030
0.034
0.039
0.027
0.030
0.032
0.036
0.049
0.037
0.037
0.046
0.046
0.045
0.057
0.065
0.042
0.043
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
13.2
13.8
14.7
14.5
15.7
15.9
16.9
19.4
21.9
22.1
22.0
21.1
20.4
20.8
21 2
20.5
20.8
20.2
21.3
18.9
19.0
19.3
19.9
20.2
20.8
20.9
21.3
21.6
22.8
22.3
23 2
23.5
25.5
26.4
27.5
28.3
28.8
29.1
30.8
Adj City
10.6
11.0
11.7
11.6
12.6
12.9
13.4
15.3
16.7
16.7
16.6
16.2
15.5
15.9
16.2
15.7
15.6
14.9
15.6
13.9
13.9
14.0
14.5
14.5
15.0
15.0
15.1
15.3
16.0
15.3
16.0
16.2
17.5
18.2
18.9
19.3
19.7
19.8
20.9
Adj Hwy
12.2
12.7
13.6
13.4
14.3
14.3
15.7
18.2
21.8
22.7
22.6
20.6
20.0
19.8
20.0
19.2
19.8
19.5
20.5
17.9
17.9
18.2
18.5
19.0
19.2
19.0
19.4
19.5
20.5
20.7
21.0
21.1
22.9
23.4
24.6
25.3
25.6
25.8
27.3
Adj Comb
11.2
11.7
12.5
12.3
13.3
13.5
14.4
16.5
18.7
18.9
18.8
17.9
17.3
17.6
17.8
17.2
17.4
16.9
17.7
15.7
15.7
15.9
16.3
16.6
17.0
16.9
17.2
17.4
18.3
18.0
18.5
18.7
20.2
20.9
21.8
22.3
22.7
22.9
24.1
Weight
(Ib)
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
350
353
359
361
222
248
258
258
175
173
173
165
172
190
213
197
231
234
246
249
242
254
240
236
222
223
214
203
199
218
195
194
177
171
166
169
166
167
148
HP
144
145
148
145
95
99
112
110
110
110
110
121
127
135
146
141
153
165
190
189
187
193
189
190
194
192
197
197
199
204
202
198
199
192
197
201
195
207
207
0-60 Time
13.0
13.1
13.0
13.0
18.2
17.4
15.8
15.9
16.0
16.0
16.0
14.8
14.3
13.7
12.8
13.1
12.4
11.8
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.3
10.4
10.4
10.2
10.3
10.1
10.1
10.1
9.9
10.0
10.1
10.2
10.4
10.2
10.1
10.3
10.0
10.0
HP/CID
0.412
0.408
0.409
0.400
0.422
0.400
0.434
0.428
0.631
0.636
0.636
0.738
0.737
0.723
0.703
0.735
0.676
0.711
0.776
0.774
0.789
0.772
0.803
0.818
0.887
0.874
0.945
0.991
1.021
0.952
1.044
1.034
1.144
1.139
1.201
1.202
1.192
1.242
1.446
HP/WT
0.0360
0.0362
0.0369
0.0361
0.0237
0.0249
0.0280
0.0276
0.0275
0.0275
0.0275
0.0304
0.0317
0.0337
0.0366
0.0353
0.0383
0.0412
0.0474
0.0472
0.0467
0.0483
0.0474
0.0474
0.0486
0.0479
0.0493
0.0493
0.0499
0.0509
0.0504
0.0494
0.0497
0.0481
0.0493
0.0503
0.0488
0.0518
0.0517
Ton-MPG
22.5
23.5
25.1
24.7
26.7
27.2
28.8
33.5
37.4
37.9
37.7
36.4
34.7
35.3
35.8
34.5
35.0
33.8
35.5
31.5
31.5
31.9
32.8
33.3
34.1
34.0
34.6
35.1
36.9
36.2
37.4
38.1
40.9
42.2
43.8
45.1
45.8
46.1
48.7
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-77
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front


























7.4%
11.5%
12.5%
8.8%
12.0%
9.8%
7.6%
2.7%
6.0%
7.0%
4.9%
6.1%
3.1%
4WD
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.0%
98.7%
98.3%
95.7%
94.5%
100.0%
92.6%
95.8%
86.9%
89.3%
85.8%
82.6%
77.3%
68.4%
80.6%
76.1%
88.0%
90.2%
86.4%
89.5%
91.5%
90.4%
91.2%
93.9%
96.9%
Transmission
Manual
27.7%
28.1%
26.2%
29.2%
97.5%
69.7%
33.7%
33.8%
28.9%
22.9%
17.9%
31.9%
19.9%
32.8%
30.4%
42.2%
21.5%
22.5%
16.9%
15.0%
15.1%
5.9%
7.6%
4.5%
8.8%
10.9%
6.5%
7.6%
7.0%
6.7%
3.4%
7.3%
3.5%
3.3%
0.3%
2.3%
1.6%
3.6%
2.5%
Lock






66.3%
66.2%
71.1%
77.1%
82.1%
68.1%
80.1%
67.2%
66.9%
57.8%
78.5%
77.5%
83.1%
85.0%
84.9%
94.1%
92.4%
95.5%
91.2%
89.1%
93.5%
92.4%
87.6%
88.6%
88.6%
87.4%
91.6%
88.7%
85.4%
79.4%
76.2%
94.9%
97.5%
CVT




























5.4%
4.7%
8.0%
5.3%
4.8%
8.0%
14.3%
15.6%
22.2%
25.2%
23.5%
Fuel Metering
GDI

































2.1%
5.8%
3.8%
3.9%
3.9%
37.6%
Port











23.4%
5.4%
33.2%
43.8%
64.5%
31.9%
55.0%
98.3%
99.3%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
97.9%
94.2%
96.2%
96.1%
96.1%
62.4%
TBI











73.4%
94.6%
66.8%
56.2%
35.5%
68.1%
45.0%
1.7%
0.7%



















Diesel











3.2%
0.0%


























Multi-
Valve



















23.2%
21.5%
12.1%
34.4%
32.6%
36.2%
37.0%
49.6%
59.6%
65.8%
42.0%
69.7%
63.5%
78.4%
85.3%
92.2%
91.1%
91.5%
100.0%
100.0%
WT
























11.5%
13.0%
33.3%
32.6%
47.6%
29.7%
32.7%
40.2%
65.0%
63.1%
75.9%
90.2%
91.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid






























1.1%
2.3%
1.0%
2.3%
1.9%
1.0%
0.5%
0.4%

EPA-420-R-13-011
E-78
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
41
47
101
119
56
50
42
50
55
61
60
46
32
34
31
58
262
260
298
546
645
736
832
719
747
904
1006
1525
968
1158
929
878
1041
1014
599
700
795
789
910
Frac
0.004
0.004
0.007
0.008
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.005
0.004
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.002
0.002
0.005
0.021
0.021
0.023
0.039
0.043
0.056
0.058
0.050
0.049
0.055
0.064
0.095
0.061
0.074
0.058
0.058
0.068
0.073
0.064
0.063
0.066
0.059
0.063
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
13.5
13.9
15.4
14.7
12.9
14.5
15.8
15.7
15.7
14.8
15.0
15.6
14.6
15.0
14.9
17.5
19.8
19.4
19.7
19.9
19.9
20.2
19.8
20.1
19.7
19.9
20.4
19.9
20.7
21.3
21.6
22.7
22.5
23.0
23.5
23.9
24.4
24.7
25.9
Adj City
10.7
11.0
12.3
11.7
10.4
11.7
12.5
12.4
12.5
11.8
12.0
12.3
11.4
11.8
11.6
13.4
14.7
14.6
14.6
14.7
14.5
14.5
14.3
14.4
14.1
14.1
14.4
14.0
14.4
14.7
14.7
15.6
15.5
15.7
16.0
16.3
16.6
16.8
17.5
Adj Hwy
12.6
13.0
14.2
13.6
11.7
13.1
14.7
14.6
14.6
13.7
13.9
14.6
13.7
13.8
13.8
16.5
19.1
18.4
18.6
19.0
18.9
19.5
18.8
19.1
18.4
18.6
19.0
18.6
19.3
19.8
20.0
20.7
20.5
21.1
21.8
22.0
22.6
22.8
23.9
Adj Comb
11.5
11.8
13.1
12.5
10.9
12.3
13.4
13.3
13.3
12.6
12.8
13.2
12.4
12.7
12.5
14.7
16.6
16.2
16.4
16.6
16.5
16.7
16.3
16.5
16.1
16.2
16.6
16.2
16.8
17.2
17.3
18.2
18.0
18.4
18.8
19.1
19.6
19.7
20.7
Weight
(Ib)
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
351
349
345
343
334
313
317
316
317
320
321
325
326
312
311
221
227
221
217
229
233
251
252
251
259
254
237
243
238
234
227
222
225
222
216
218
216
213
207
HP
157
150
150
157
140
139
137
139
135
134
145
142
144
148
151
153
167
167
167
177
174
176
181
184
199
197
207
225
229
229
236
232
241
245
249
251
256
264
269
0-60 Time
13.4
14.0
13.8
13.3
14.6
14.8
14.8
14.6
14.9
15.0
14.1
14.4
14.2
14.0
13.8
13.6
12.6
12.6
12.6
12.1
12.3
12.2
11.9
11.8
11.1
11.2
10.7
10.1
9.9
9.9
9.7
9.5
9.4
9.3
9.3
9.2
9.0
8.9
8.7
HP/CID
0.446
0.430
0.436
0.459
0.420
0.446
0.435
0.443
0.430
0.420
0.456
0.438
0.450
0.494
0.505
0.740
0.742
0.764
0.778
0.776
0.754
0.708
0.724
0.745
0.777
0.783
0.886
0.931
0.968
0.991
1.046
1.050
1.076
1.107
1.155
1.157
1.199
1.249
1.319
HP/WT
0.0348
0.0333
0.0334
0.0350
0.0311
0.0308
0.0304
0.0309
0.0301
0.0298
0.0323
0.0315
0.0320
0.0328
0.0335
0.0341
0.0371
0.0372
0.0372
0.0393
0.0386
0.0391
0.0402
0.0410
0.0442
0.0437
0.0460
0.0501
0.0509
0.0508
0.0524
0.0516
0.0535
0.0544
0.0553
0.0557
0.0569
0.0586
0.0599
Ton-MPG
26.0
26.8
29.6
28.2
24.8
28.4
30.5
30.3
30.4
28.7
29.2
30.3
28.2
28.8
28.4
33.6
37.4
36.6
36.9
37.4
37.4
37.8
36.9
37.3
36.3
36.6
37.5
36.5
37.8
38.8
39.2
41.5
40.8
41.6
42.6
43.2
44.2
44.7
46.8
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-79
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front


























16.4%

0.0%
2.6%
0.9%
8.5%
6.8%
11.2%
22.0%
18.8%
22.1%
22.8%
23.7%
4WD
56.9%
57.7%
74.2%
81.5%
84.3%
92.3%
94.4%
89.6%
98.0%
93.0%
72.2%
80.7%
70.4%
76.8%
74.0%
91.6%
99.3%
99.7%
99.7%
100.0%
90.4%
74.7%
79.0%
89.8%
91.2%
91.6%
71.8%
73.4%
68.6%
74.9%
70.7%
63.6%
76.3%
77.8%
75.0%
76.9%
75.0%
71.7%
74.2%
Transmission
Manual
12.0%
12.5%
13.7%
13.3%
11.2%
25.0%
31.1%
28.2%
22.8%
29.0%
23.2%
14.0%
16.4%
1.6%
1.9%
2.2%
14.6%
15.3%
13.1%
8.1%
5.7%
3.2%
2.5%
1.6%
0.9%
1.7%
1.6%
0.9%
0.4%
0.6%
0.8%
0.9%
2.7%
1.9%
1.0%
1.4%
1.2%
1.9%
1.6%
Lock





12.8%
41.3%
31.6%
39.5%
1.9%

32.4%
22.7%
45.1%
47.3%
77.7%
83.3%
84.7%
86.9%
91.9%
94.3%
96.8%
97.5%
98.4%
99.1%
98.3%
98.4%
99.1%
99.6%
99.4%
99.2%
86.6%
90.0%
95.5%
91.1%
94.1%
95.0%
98.1%
98.4%
CVT































12.5%
7.4%
2.6%
7.9%
4.5%
3.8%
3.8%
15.3%
Fuel Metering
GDI


































1.3%
2.7%
3.9%
5.7%
11.6%
Port











22.5%
7.0%
31.5%
34.2%
79.9%
97.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.1%
99.2%
100.0%
100.0%
98.7%
97.3%
96.1%
94.3%
88.0%
TBI













21.5%
26.0%
8.4%
0.7%






















Diesel




1.3%
8.6%
























0.9%
0.8%
0.0%
0.0%




0.3%
Multi-
Valve



















11.9%
21.5%
9.4%
7.5%
9.8%
9.9%
12.6%
28.8%
35.9%
50.6%
58.7%
70.0%
81.3%
78.3%
75.7%
82.4%
79.7%
84.8%
90.0%
100.0%
WT


























15.1%
25.7%
39.0%
48.4%
61.9%
72.7%
63.3%
61.6%
66.8%
71.3%
82.9%
90.0%
99.7%
Hybrid































9.1%
3.8%
2.6%
0.0%



0.1%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-80
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
67
101
66
114
173
60
43
37
54
121
133
135
97
101
112
83
51
36
46
51
70
82
120
265
356
254
160
404
638
683
621
811
584
685
328
444
667
693
599
Frac
0.007
0.008
0.005
0.008
0.012
0.005
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.007
0.004
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.008
0.018
0.023
0.015
0.010
0.025
0.040
0.044
0.039
0.054
0.038
0.049
0.035
0.040
0.056
0.052
0.042
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
11.1
12.8
13.6
13.0
11.4
14.0
15.3
15.1
15.7
15.3
15.7
16.4
15.7
16.1
15.9
16.0
15.8
15.7
16.1
16.5
17.0
17.0
18.0
17.3
17.4
17.6
17.1
18.9
19.3
19.6
19.5
20.0
20.4
21.4
22.6
23.2
24.0
24.3
24.8
Adj City
9.4
10.5
11.2
10.5
9.5
11.2
12.2
12.0
12.3
12.0
12.3
12.7
12.2
12.4
12.2
11.9
11.8
11.6
11.9
12.2
12.4
12.4
13.0
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.0
13.2
13.4
13.4
13.3
13.7
13.9
14.5
15.3
15.8
16.2
16.4
16.8
Adj Hwy
9.4
11.5
12.0
11.7
9.9
12.9
14.1
14.1
15.0
14.6
15.0
15.8
14.9
15.3
15.2
15.7
15.3
15.2
15.5
15.7
16.3
16.1
17.1
16.7
16.6
16.8
16.4
17.8
18.2
18.5
18.4
18.8
19.2
20.1
21.1
21.5
22.4
22.7
23.1
Adj Comb
9.4
10.9
11.5
11.0
9.6
11.9
13.0
12.9
13.4
13.0
13.4
14.0
13.3
13.6
13.4
13.5
13.3
13.2
13.5
13.7
14.1
14.1
14.9
14.3
14.3
14.5
14.0
15.4
15.7
15.9
15.8
16.2
16.5
17.2
18.2
18.6
19.2
19.5
19.9
Weight
(Ib)
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
347
357
351
370
351
343
328
330
328
330
330
324
326
330
328
332
312
292
313
310
322
318
308
317
307
295
282
255
259
263
260
252
249
240
227
228
222
220
218
HP
157
151
160
168
152
159
154
156
157
164
169
163
175
181
179
184
188
174
200
202
199
216
226
223
234
229
233
244
256
265
261
255
259
260
272
268
294
288
289
0-60 Time
14.4
15.0
14.4
13.7
15.2
14.3
14.7
14.6
14.5
14.1
13.7
14.1
13.5
13.2
13.3
12.9
12.7
13.5
11.9
11.8
12.0
11.3
10.8
10.9
10.6
10.7
10.6
10.2
9.8
9.6
9.7
9.9
9.8
9.6
9.3
9.4
8.7
8.9
8.8
HP/CID
0.453
0.421
0.457
0.454
0.433
0.463
0.473
0.476
0.482
0.497
0.510
0.503
0.535
0.545
0.540
0.553
0.604
0.622
0.646
0.659
0.625
0.685
0.738
0.705
0.779
0.784
0.847
0.976
1.002
1.025
1.025
1.024
1.051
1.095
1.211
1.185
1.329
1.312
1.333
HP/WT
0.0315
0.0301
0.0320
0.0336
0.0303
0.0317
0.0309
0.0311
0.0315
0.0327
0.0337
0.0326
0.0350
0.0362
0.0357
0.0369
0.0375
0.0348
0.0400
0.0404
0.0398
0.0431
0.0453
0.0446
0.0468
0.0459
0.0467
0.0489
0.0513
0.0529
0.0522
0.0510
0.0517
0.0519
0.0545
0.0535
0.0588
0.0576
0.0579
Ton-MPG
23.6
27.3
29.0
27.6
24.2
30.0
32.9
32.8
34.1
33.2
33.9
35.1
33.7
34.2
33.9
33.9
33.3
33.0
33.9
34.4
35.4
35.3
37.3
36.0
36.1
36.4
35.2
38.7
39.3
39.8
39.6
40.5
41.5
43.7
45.9
47.2
48.3
48.9
50.1
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-81
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front































1.0%
8.0%
17.4%
33.9%
25.8%
24.3%
24.1%
28.7%
4WD
98.7%
97.9%
96.4%
97.3%
68.1%
78.4%
75.3%
79.2%
72.6%
76.2%
73.0%
72.8%
97.3%
99.1%
99.4%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
75.9%
72.0%
26.2%
58.8%
54.4%
68.0%
97.1%
88.4%
86.9%
79.3%
82.4%
83.6%
81.1%
71.0%
60.2%
64.9%
63.5%
71.6%
66.1%
Transmission
Manual
19.5%
18.9%
21.0%
19.7%
14.7%
18.9%
7.8%
8.9%
5.7%
6.5%
4.6%
4.9%
7.1%
6.3%
6.6%
4.8%
3.1%
4.7%
4.4%
3.4%
2.3%
2.6%




0.3%
4.5%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.4%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
Lock




0.9%
55.3%
62.7%
51.5%
66.6%
55.5%
64.6%
76.8%
62.0%
59.4%
63.0%
86.4%
91.6%
94.1%
95.6%
96.6%
97.7%
97.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.7%
95.5%
99.9%
99.8%
99.9%
99.6%
99.7%
96.3%
96.7%
94.2%
98.4%
98.3%
95.7%
CVT

































3.5%
3.2%
5.8%
1.6%
1.7%
4.2%
Fuel Metering
GDI

































0.5%
23.5%
40.6%
45.2%
54.3%
36.9%
Port










6.7%
21.1%
32.4%
54.9%
59.4%
63.3%
70.6%
97.4%
98.6%
98.5%
75.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
98.9%
98.4%
75.5%
58.8%
53.9%
44.9%
61.1%
TBI












43.2%
42.9%
40.6%
36.7%
29.4%
2.6%
1.4%
1.5%
24.8%


















Diesel
































1.1%
1.1%
1.0%
0.6%
0.9%
0.8%
2.0%
Multi-
Valve



















31.5%
12.7%
22.5%
20.6%

14.6%
2.2%
20.3%
62.5%
71.5%
73.5%
70.1%
64.5%
58.0%
69.0%
84.8%
80.0%
99.0%
99.2%
98.1%
WT

























2.2%
20.3%
45.2%
56.1%
58.7%
61.6%
62.9%
56.5%
65.2%
85.5%
81.5%
99.5%
99.2%
92.1%
Hybrid

































3.5%
3.2%
5.8%
1.6%
1.7%
4.2%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-82
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
6
7
10
12
59
6
4
24
20
21
18
19
52
66
41
41
25
45
71
92
143
141
307
273
199
303
402
278
317
483
365
231
165
92
69
70
118
84
121
Frac
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.004
0.000
0.000
0.002
0.002
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.004
0.004
0.003
0.003
0.002
0.004
0.005
0.007
0.009
0.011
0.021
0.019
0.013
0.018
0.026
0.017
0.020
0.031
0.023
0.015
0.011
0.007
0.007
0.006
0.010
0.006
0.008
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
10.5
11.2
11.7
11.8
10.6
13.8
14.1
21.2
20.2
17.9
16.1
15.7
16.8
16.5
17.5
17.3
17.2
16.3
16.8
16.8
16.9
17.4
17.4
17.0
17.5
18.2
18.5
18.4
18.3
18.4
18.6
18.7
19.0
19.4
21.1
22.2
21.6
21.6
21.6
Adj City
8.5
9.1
9.4
9.6
8.9
11.0
11.4
16.5
15.6
13.9
12.3
11.9
12.8
12.5
12.9
12.7
12.6
12.1
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.7
12.5
12.1
12.3
13.0
13.3
12.9
12.8
12.8
12.8
12.9
13.1
13.3
14.2
15.0
14.6
14.6
14.4
Adj Hwy
9.6
10.2
10.7
10.6
9.1
12.9
12.9
20.4
19.8
17.4
16.0
15.6
16.4
16.1
17.8
17.6
17.2
15.8
16.3
16.1
16.0
16.6
16.7
16.3
17.0
17.1
16.7
17.3
16.9
17.0
17.2
17.4
17.5
18.3
19.9
20.9
20.5
20.3
20.9
Adj Comb
8.9
9.6
10.0
10.1
9.0
11.7
12.0
18.0
17.3
15.3
13.7
13.4
14.3
14.0
14.9
14.7
14.5
13.7
14.1
14.0
14.0
14.4
14.4
14.0
14.4
14.9
15.0
15.0
14.8
14.9
15.0
15.1
15.3
15.7
17.0
17.9
17.5
17.4
17.5
Weight
(Ib)
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
429
412
419
410
405
350
350
350
372
364
355
353
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
351
350
350
334
327
333
306
306
310
297
302
296
303
291
283
267
254
278
286
277
HP
210
197
193
188
176
165
175
134
139
148
159
162
209
200
209
209
209
210
210
210
205
250
238
234
252
253
260
267
258
280
287
289
305
327
311
304
345
351
350
0-60 Time
12.5
13.3
13.4
13.5
14.5
15.0
14.3
17.8
17.4
16.6
15.5
15.3
12.5
12.9
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.4
12.6
10.7
11.2
11.3
10.7
10.7
10.5
10.2
10.5
10.0
9.7
9.7
9.3
8.7
9.0
9.0
8.0
7.6
8.3
HP/CID
0.488
0.475
0.459
0.461
0.432
0.471
0.500
0.382
0.375
0.408
0.450
0.459
0.596
0.572
0.596
0.597
0.597
0.600
0.600
0.598
0.586
0.714
0.713
0.720
0.759
0.841
0.857
0.862
0.867
0.933
0.978
0.959
1.058
1.175
1.189
1.218
1.273
1.270
1.296
HP/WT
0.0381
0.0359
0.0351
0.0343
0.0320
0.0300
0.0318
0.0243
0.0252
0.0269
0.0289
0.0294
0.0379
0.0364
0.0380
0.0380
0.0380
0.0382
0.0382
0.0381
0.0373
0.0455
0.0432
0.0426
0.0459
0.0460
0.0472
0.0486
0.0469
0.0509
0.0522
0.0526
0.0554
0.0595
0.0565
0.0552
0.0627
0.0639
0.0636
Ton-MPG
24.7
26.4
27.6
27.7
24.9
32.3
33.0
50.5
48.9
43.6
38.3
37.1
39.3
38.6
40.9
40.3
39.9
37.6
38.7
38.5
38.5
39.7
39.6
38.7
39.7
41.1
41.3
41.2
40.8
41.0
41.3
41.6
42.2
43.4
47.2
49.6
48.6
49.0
48.7
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-83
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD
84.6%
72.3%
77.0%
79.0%
26.5%
84.1%
100.0%
66.8%
68.3%
74.8%
100.0%
100.0%
37.9%
40.7%
2.2%
1.0%
1.3%
46.2%
35.6%
39.3%
66.5%
74.9%
85.1%
85.1%
14.8%
40.6%
45.7%
19.9%
20.0%
47.7%
56.9%
62.1%
84.3%
94.1%
73.4%
86.1%
95.8%
96.0%
94.9%
Transmission
Manual
15.4%
9.9%
8.8%
8.2%
21.0%

6.8%
10.8%
1.3%
2.3%
2.8%
1.9%
0.2%
0.2%



















0.1%
0.3%
0.0%



Lock





100.0%
93.2%
89.2%
98.7%
97.7%
97.2%
98.1%
99.8%
99.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.7%
98.9%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT



































1.1%
0.1%


Fuel Metering
GDI

































43.7%
28.0%
44.5%
35.9%
15.6%
51.8%
Port



















1.5%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
56.3%
68.0%
45.5%
54.8%
62.1%
46.2%
TBI












98.4%
98.8%
98.6%
98.9%
98.6%
100.0%
100.0%
98.5%
100.0%


















Diesel







89.3%
75.1%
49.3%
16.9%
9.6%
1.6%
1.2%
1.4%
1.1%
1.4%




0.0%












4.0%
10.0%
9.3%
22.3%
2.0%
Multi-
Valve























3.4%
4.3%
15.8%
23.7%
28.8%
24.7%
47.2%
46.4%
43.5%
61.1%
60.4%
64.8%
82.3%
59.1%
50.9%
62.6%
WT




























0.4%
30.3%
39.0%
43.5%
38.1%
55.8%
69.6%
92.9%
90.7%
73.8%
89.9%
Hybrid



































1.1%
1.5%
2.1%
1.8%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-84
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
0
1
1
1

3

4
4
4
7
5
3
3
33
32
18
21
49
60
61
58
74
50
166
269
219
453
654
635
490
327
681
442
139
202
364
276
332
Frac
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0.000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.002
0.003
0.001
0.002
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.003
0.011
0.016
0.014
0.028
0.041
0.040
0.031
0.022
0.045
0.032
0.015
0.018
0.030
0.021
0.023
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
10.3
11.9
11.9
11.4

13.4

21.2
20.8
21.0
21.4
22.1
20.9
18.3
15.8
16.0
15.7
14.9
15.8
16.1
15.7
16.8
16.7
16.1
16.5
16.6
16.8
17.7
17.4
17.4
18.2
18.1
19.8
19.5
19.8
20.2
20.7
20.7
21.3
Adj City
8.3
9.5
9.5
9.2

10.3

16.5
16.0
16.1
16.2
16.7
15.9
13.9
11.9
12.0
11.7
10.9
11.6
12.0
11.6
12.1
12.0
11.5
11.7
11.9
12.0
12.4
12.1
12.1
12.5
12.4
13.3
13.2
13.3
13.6
14.0
13.8
14.4
Adj Hwy
9.3
11.0
11.0
10.2

13.2

20.5
20.4
20.8
21.7
22.1
20.5
17.8
15.4
15.6
15.2
14.7
15.3
15.0
14.9
16.3
15.9
15.7
16.1
15.5
15.4
16.6
16.4
16.2
16.9
16.9
19.0
18.7
19.0
19.3
19.6
19.6
21.2
Adj Comb
8.7
10.1
10.1
9.7

11.4

18.1
17.7
17.9
18.3
18.8
17.8
15.5
13.3
13.5
13.2
12.5
13.2
13.3
13.1
13.9
13.8
13.4
13.7
13.6
13.6
14.4
14.2
14.1
14.7
14.6
16.0
15.8
16.1
16.4
16.7
16.6
17.6
Weight
(Ib)
6000
6000
6000
6000

6000

6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
400
400
400
400

350

350
379
379
378
379
376
368
352
351
351
350
350
350
350
350
350
323
319
325
326
332
329
331
330
318
329
324
329
326
324
321
328
HP
170
170
180
180

165

130
130
130
131
130
137
162
206
206
207
210
210
210
210
250
250
230
237
257
274
295
279
287
302
306
322
333
339
335
339
339
341
0-60 Time
15.7
15.6
15.0
15.0

16.1

19.5
19.5
19.5
19.4
19.5
18.9
16.9
13.6
13.5
13.5
13.3
13.3
13.3
13.3
11.5
11.5
12.3
12.1
11.3
10.7
10.2
10.6
10.4
9.9
9.8
9.5
9.2
9.0
9.1
9.0
9.1
9.1
HP/CID
0.425
0.426
0.450
0.449

0.470

0.371
0.343
0.343
0.348
0.343
0.366
0.445
0.586
0.588
0.591
0.600
0.600
0.600
0.599
0.713
0.713
0.715
0.747
0.795
0.842
0.885
0.851
0.869
0.917
0.973
0.979
1.031
1.039
1.033
1.050
1.063
1.048
HP/WT
0.0283
0.0284
0.0300
0.0300

0.0274

0.0217
0.0217
0.0217
0.0219
0.0217
0.0229
0.0270
0.0343
0.0344
0.0345
0.0350
0.0350
0.0350
0.0350
0.0416
0.0416
0.0383
0.0395
0.0429
0.0457
0.0491
0.0465
0.0479
0.0504
0.0510
0.0537
0.0554
0.0566
0.0558
0.0564
0.0565
0.0568
Ton-MPG
26.2
30.4
30.4
29.0

34.2

54.2
53.2
53.8
55.3
56.5
54.1
47.9
40.2
40.6
39.7
37.5
39.7
40.0
39.2
41.8
41.4
40.1
41.0
40.8
41.0
43.5
42.7
42.4
44.2
43.9
48.3
47.7
48.7
49.4
50.4
50.2
53.7
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-85
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

3.4%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
47.3%
49.0%
56.8%
70.0%
97.2%
97.5%
96.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
93.4%
84.5%
75.1%
78.2%
76.6%
77.2%
56.7%
57.2%
57.2%
60.7%
65.9%
66.2%
59.3%
Transmission
Manual
12.7%
12.8%
11.6%
15.5%








9.1%
7.3%
1.0%
0.7%























Lock





100.0%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
90.9%
92.7%
99.0%
99.3%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
98.2%
95.5%
99.3%
99.7%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT

































1.8%
4.5%
0.6%
0.3%
0.3%
4.3%
Fuel Metering
GDI

































0.8%
1.4%
12.9%
15.4%
18.1%
15.7%
Port




















1.0%
99.5%
99.6%
99.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
100.0%
99.8%
99.7%
97.9%
96.9%
84.5%
82.1%
78.2%
83.3%
TBI












9.1%
37.7%
94.6%
95.2%
96.1%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.0%


















Diesel







100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
95.9%
100.0%
90.9%
62.3%
5.4%
4.8%
3.9%




0.5%
0.4%
0.3%





0.1%

0.2%
0.3%
1.2%
1.7%
2.6%
2.5%
3.7%
1.1%
Multi-
Valve























13.0%
29.8%
13.6%
23.0%
7.3%
7.8%
13.4%
36.6%
63.1%
14.8%
37.3%
33.8%
51.2%
36.1%
42.8%
29.4%
WT




























2.1%
7.3%
34.9%
63.0%
28.6%
41.8%
45.4%
89.8%
98.4%
96.3%
98.9%
Hybrid

































1.8%
5.9%
0.7%
0.3%
0.3%
4.3%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-86
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
















1
















40
4
36
77
61
68
Frac
















0.000
















0.003
0.000
0.003
0.006
0.005
0.005
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
















20.2
















18.4
18.3
18.4
18.6
18.6
18.9
Adj City
















14.7
















12.5
12.4
12.6
12.7
12.7
12.9
Adj Hwy
















20.4
















17.5
17.5
17.3
17.5
17.5
17.8
Adj Comb
















17.0
















14.9
14.9
14.9
15.1
15.0
15.3
Weight
(Ib)
















6500
















6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
















379
















344
346
337
348
344
348
HP
















140
















375
383
341
353
344
352
0-60 Time
















19.6
















8.9
8.7
9.6
9.4
9.7
9.5
HP/CID
















0.369
















1.090
1.107
1.011
1.011
0.998
1.007
HP/WT
















0.0215
















0.0577
0.0589
0.0525
0.0544
0.0529
0.0541
Ton-MPG
















55.2
















48.6
48.4
48.5
49.0
49.0
50.0
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-87
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD
















100.0%
















100.0%
100.0%
85.6%
91.5%
88.7%
89.2%
Transmission
Manual







































Lock
















100.0%
















100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
98.7%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT




































1.3%
1.2%
4.0%
Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port

































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI







































Diesel
















100.0%






















Multi-
Valve

































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
68.4%
74.8%
66.6%
WT

































100.0%
100.0%
44.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid




































1.3%
1.2%
4.0%
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-88
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)




































4
2
1
Frac




































0.000
0.000
0.000
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45




































15.4
15.4
15.4
Adj City




































10.3
10.3
10.3
Adj Hwy




































15.4
15.4
15.4
Adj Comb




































12.7
12.7
12.7
Weight
(Ib)




































7000
7000
7000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro




































366
366
366
HP




































352
352
352
0-60 Time




































9.9
10.0
10.0
HP/CID




































0.962
0.961
0.961
HP/WT




































0.0503
0.0503
0.0503
Ton-MPG




































44.5
44.5
44.5
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-89
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
7000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD




































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Transmission
Manual







































Lock




































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port




































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve







































WT




































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-90
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)




































0
0

Frac




































0.000
0.000

Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45




































16.4
16.4

Adj City




































11.2
11.2

Adj Hwy




































15.6
15.6

Adj Comb




































13.3
13.3

Weight
(Ib)




































8500
8500

Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro




































330
330

HP




































310
310

0-60 Time




































12.8
12.9

HP/CID




































0.939
0.941

HP/WT




































0.0365
0.0365

Ton-MPG




































56.6
56.6

EPA-420-R-13-011
E-91
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Weight
Class
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
8500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







































Transmission
Manual







































Lock




































100.0%
100.0%

CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port




































100.0%
100.0%

TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve




































100.0%
100.0%

WT




































100.0%
100.0%

Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-92
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)





0
0
































Frac





0.000
0.000
































Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45





25.2
25.2
































Adj City





20.3
20.3
































Adj Hwy





22.9
22.9
































Adj Comb





21.4
21.4
































Weight
(Ib)





2000
2000
































Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro





49
49
































HP





41
41
































0-60 Time





19.7
19.7
































HP/CID





0.837
0.837
































HP/WT





0.0205
0.0205
































Ton-MPG





21.4
21.4
































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-93
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
2000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD





100.0%
100.0%
































Transmission
Manual





100.0%
100.0%
































Lock







































CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port







































TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-94
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)




0
25
24
11
1
0





























Frac




0.000
0.002
0.002
0.001
0.000
0.000





























Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45




25.0
32.0
41.5
43.1
39.2
28.8





























Adj City




20.1
25.3
33.2
35.7
32.6
25.3





























Adj Hwy




22.9
30.0
38.1
37.6
34.0
23.1





























Adj Comb




21.2
27 2
35.2
36.5
33.2
24 2





























Weight
(Ib)




2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250





























Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro




49
94
97
97
91
59





























HP




41
64
52
52
51
45





























0-60 Time




21.6
15.9
17.9
18.0
18.3
20.1





























HP/CID




0.837
0.677
0.536
0.539
0.571
0.763





























HP/WT




0.0182
0.0284
0.0231
0.0231
0.0226
0.0200





























Ton-MPG




23.9
32.4
39.7
41.2
39.1
27.3





























EPA-420-R-13-011
E-95
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
2250
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front





100.0%
100.0%
98.8%
84.5%






























4WD




100.0%


1.2%
15.5%
100.0%





























Transmission
Manual




100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%





























Lock







































CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port







































TBI





54.6%

































Diesel





45.4%
100.0%
98.8%
84.5%






























Multi-
Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-96
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)



23
39
17
27
25
21
15
4
5
1


























Frac



0.002
0.003
0.001
0.003
0.003
0.002
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000


























Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45



27.2
27.5
25.8
28.4
29.7
32.6
28.1
29.6
30.0
29.8


























Adj City



21.2
21.7
19.9
22.4
23.1
24.6
22.2
23.5
23.6
23.4


























Adj Hwy



26.3
26.1
25.2
26.7
28.8
33.1
26.3
27.4
27.9
27.5


























Adj Comb



23.2
23.5
22.0
24 2
25.3
27.8
23.9
25 2
25.4
25.1


























Weight
(Ib)



2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500


























Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro



97
97
97
108
123
128
102
109
109
109


























HP



67
67
68
73
80
86
70
73
73
73


























0-60 Time



16.0
16.0
15.8
14.9
14.0
13.3
16.4
15.0
15.0
15.0


























HP/CID



0.691
0.691
0.701
0.683
0.655
0.670
0.700
0.670
0.670
0.670


























HP/WT



0.0268
0.0268
0.0272
0.0294
0.0321
0.0343
0.0279
0.0292
0.0292
0.0292


























Ton-MPG



29.1
29.4
27.5
30.2
31.7
34.9
30.1
31.5
31.8
31.4


























EPA-420-R-13-011
E-97
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
2500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front





9.5%
34.2%
71.2%
78.8%
36.0%





























4WD



100.0%
100.0%
90.5%
65.8%
28.8%
21.2%
64.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%


























Transmission
Manual



100.0%
100.0%
90.5%
100.0%
83.6%
95.7%
96.0%
95.6%
100.0%
100.0%


























Lock








4.3%
4.0%
4.4%




























CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port







































TBI





9.5%
34.2%
13.5%
4.2%






























Diesel







































Multi-
Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-98
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
156
162
226
183
240
324
222
227
340
314
238
311
240
121
76
31

19





















Frac
0.015
0.013
0.016
0.013
0.017
0.029
0.021
0.023
0.033
0.022
0.016
0.020
0.016
0.008
0.005
0.002

0.002





















Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
22.7
24.1
25.7
25.8
22.7
25 2
27.9
28.3
28.8
28.2
29.9
29.5
29.7
27.8
27.6
26.0

28.2





















Adj City
17.4
18.6
20.0
20.7
17.8
20.0
22.2
22.4
22.9
22.5
23.7
23.3
23.2
21.7
21.6
20.4

21.3





















Adj Hwy
22.4
23.8
24.7
23.7
21.6
23.4
26.0
26.3
26.7
26.1
27.8
27.4
27.7
25.5
25.1
23.0

25.7





















Adj Comb
19.4
20.6
21.9
22.0
19.3
21.4
23.8
24.0
24.5
24.0
25.4
25.0
25.1
23.4
23.1
21.6

23.3





















Weight
(Ib)
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750

2750





















Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
119
120
121
121
126
126
130
130
132
130
130
132
134
136
135
144

144





















HP
95
98
97
97
91
91
90
91
87
87
90
92
93
98
97
102

112





















0-60 Time
13.3
13.1
13.2
13.1
13.7
13.6
13.8
13.7
14.2
14.2
13.8
13.6
13.5
12.9
12.9
12.4

11.6





















HP/CID
0.799
0.815
0.801
0.801
0.722
0.728
0.695
0.699
0.658
0.670
0.692
0.694
0.694
0.721
0.721
0.708

0.778





















HP/WT
0.0347
0.0355
0.0352
0.0353
0.0330
0.0333
0.0329
0.0331
0.0315
0.0317
0.0328
0.0334
0.0338
0.0356
0.0354
0.0371

0.0407





















Ton-MPG
26.7
28.4
30.2
30.3
27.0
29.7
32.9
33.3
33.9
33.3
35.1
34.6
34.6
32.2
31.9
29.7

32.0





















EPA-420-R-13-011
E-99
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
2750
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







1.4%
4.0%
2.2%





























4WD








0.1%
0.1%





























Transmission
Manual
88.7%
80.2%
79.9%
86.1%
85.8%
86.9%
90.3%
87.1%
89.4%
88.1%
92.5%
89.0%
90.6%
99.4%
100.0%
100.0%

100.0%





















Lock







4.9%
0.2%
0.3%





























CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port









1.2%
1.5%


0.6%



100.0%





















TBI








0.1%






























Diesel






1.4%
1.7%
0.9%
0.7%
0.4%
0.4%



























Multi-
Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-100
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
60
63
78
124
174
169
211
353
378
475
583
785
728
715
575
413
577
318
364
275
172
103
66
81
50
40
23
21
21
23









Frac
0.006
0.005
0.006
0.009
0.013
0.015
0.020
0.036
0.037
0.034
0.040
0.051
0.049
0.047
0.040
0.033
0.046
0.026
0.028
0.019
0.011
0.008
0.005
0.006
0.003
0.002
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001









Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
20.7
22.3
28.6
27.5
23.9
23.6
27.1
26.4
26.4
26.6
26.3
26.8
27.0
27.4
27.6
28.2
27.5
27.1
27.4
28.0
27.3
27.2
26.6
27.3
27.2
26.7
27.1
27.7
27.7
27.6









Adj City
16.4
17.5
22.4
21.9
18.9
18.8
21.6
20.8
20.7
20.8
20.6
20.9
20.8
21.1
21.2
21.6
20.8
20.4
20.4
20.9
20.4
20.1
19.6
20.0
19.8
19.5
19.7
19.6
19.6
19.4









Adj Hwy
19.4
21.2
27.2
25.5
22.4
21.9
25.2
25.0
25.0
25.4
25.0
25.3
25.7
25.9
25.8
25.9
25.6
25.2
25.5
25.5
24.6
24.5
23.9
24.2
24.0
23.2
23.2
24.3
24.1
23.9









Adj Comb
17.6
19.0
24.3
23.4
20.3
20.1
23.1
22.5
22.5
22.6
22.4
22.7
22.8
23.1
23.2
23.5
22.9
22.5
22.6
23.0
22.3
22.1
21.6
22.0
21.9
21.3
21.5
22.0
21.9
21.7









Weight
(Ib)
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000









Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
107
108
122
123
124
127
136
157
149
147
153
144
146
146
146
143
149
148
150
143
145
148
146
149
149
149
149
149
149
149









HP
70
70
75
77
80
84
83
96
93
93
100
100
100
98
102
110
109
112
115
117
129
139
134
142
142
142
142
142
142
142









0-60 Time
18.2
18.3
17.2
16.7
16.2
15.5
16.0
14.4
14.7
14.6
13.6
13.8
13.8
14.0
13.5
12.8
12.8
12.5
12.2
12.0
11.2
10.5
10.8
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3
10.3









HP/CID
0.667
0.667
0.629
0.631
0.649
0.666
0.613
0.616
0.626
0.636
0.656
0.689
0.684
0.672
0.699
0.765
0.735
0.760
0.771
0.818
0.883
0.938
0.917
0.954
0.953
0.953
0.953
0.953
0.953
0.953









HP/WT
0.0234
0.0234
0.0249
0.0258
0.0266
0.0281
0.0278
0.0322
0.0310
0.0310
0.0334
0.0333
0.0334
0.0328
0.0340
0.0365
0.0364
0.0375
0.0385
0.0390
0.0429
0.0462
0.0446
0.0473
0.0473
0.0473
0.0473
0.0473
0.0473
0.0473









Ton-MPG
26.6
29.0
37.0
35.5
31.2
30.7
35.6
34.4
34.3
34.5
33.9
34.3
34.4
34.9
34.9
35.4
34.5
33.9
34.1
34.6
33.5
33.3
32.5
33.1
32.8
32.0
32.3
33.0
32.8
32.6









EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-101
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
3000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD




31.7%
56.9%
44.0%
21.0%
16.4%
9.4%
9.9%
4.1%
4.6%
1.0%

























Transmission
Manual
69.3%
84.5%
88.8%
88.1%
88.1%
93.2%
93.7%
74.1%
73.6%
74.8%
68.8%
78.9%
77.4%
77.9%
82.7%
86.3%
88.1%
85.9%
87.3%
85.5%
79.0%
72.2%
82.0%
54.3%
52.2%
47.6%
47.6%
47.2%
45.1%
42.9%









Lock






0.1%
22.7%
9.6%
11.5%
26.0%
16.7%
15.9%
15.9%
11.6%
10.7%
9.0%
9.4%
8.3%
5.3%
9.2%
2.1%
18.0%
















CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port









3.4%
16.8%
19.3%
20.3%
28.3%
31.0%
70.8%
51.5%
53.1%
63.2%
92.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%









TBI










14.0%
33.6%
39.9%
37.0%
45.2%
10.1%
37.9%
28.2%
25.2%




















Diesel






25.5%
17.0%
8.8%
4.7%
1.8%
0.9%
0.4%


























Multi-
Valve




















18.1%
99.9%
99.1%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%









WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-102
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
39
71
65
89
22
53
105
120
231
356
342
432
478
491
439
317
413
413
444
736
578
568
457
630
493
545
348
213
293
131
92
100
89
89
54
52
62
22
8
Frac
0.004
0.006
0.005
0.006
0.002
0.005
0.010
0.012
0.022
0.025
0.024
0.028
0.032
0.032
0.030
0.025
0.033
0.034
0.034
0.052
0.038
0.043
0.032
0.044
0.032
0.033
0.022
0.013
0.019
0.008
0.006
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.005
0.005
0.002
0.001
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
15.1
16.5
17.1
18.5
18.9
18.7
21.3
22.3
23.4
22.7
23.3
23.2
22.9
22.8
22.6
23.1
23.9
24.7
24.5
25.3
26.3
26.3
27.0
26.1
24.9
24.9
24.5
24.9
25.7
25.9
25.9
26.1
26.0
26.7
27.9
27.7
27.7
27.5
29.4
Adj City
11.9
13.1
13.6
14.6
15.1
15.2
16.9
17.7
18.2
17.8
18.3
18.1
17.6
17.5
17.3
17.5
17.9
18.3
18.2
18.6
19.1
19.1
19.5
18.7
17.7
17.6
17.4
17.6
17.8
18.0
17.7
17.7
17.8
18.3
19.3
19.1
19.1
18.7
20.2
Adj Hwy
14.4
15.5
15.9
17.4
17.5
16.8
19.8
21.0
22.5
21.7
22.3
22.0
21.9
21.8
21.5
21.9
22.8
23.4
23.2
23.7
24.6
24.6
24.9
24.1
23.0
22.9
22.3
22.3
23.5
23.1
23.5
23.9
23.5
23.8
24.5
24.5
24.4
24.5
24.4
Adj Comb
12.9
14.1
14.6
15.8
16.1
15.9
18.1
19.0
19.9
19.4
19.9
19.7
19.4
19.3
19.0
19.4
20.0
20.5
20.4
20.9
21.6
21.6
22.0
21.2
20.2
20.1
19.7
19.9
20.6
20.6
20.6
20.8
20.6
21.1
21.9
21.8
21.8
21.6
22.4
Weight
(Ib)
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
348
319
328
275
209
213
247
210
178
174
180
167
178
184
195
186
199
187
186
178
167
158
154
157
162
163
161
168
154
158
167
164
161
159
154
150
149
177
164
HP
156
138
143
132
106
113
112
108
107
104
110
119
121
130
132
135
137
131
134
132
131
129
123
131
133
135
138
146
135
149
159
161
159
157
155
152
151
180
159
0-60 Time
11.1
12.3
12.1
12.9
15.0
14.3
14.2
14.4
14.6
15.0
14.3
13.5
13.4
12.7
12.6
12.3
12.1
12.6
12.4
12.7
12.6
12.8
13.1
12.6
12.4
12.3
12.1
11.5
12.4
11.4
10.8
10.7
10.8
10.9
11.0
11.2
11.3
9.9
10.8
HP/CID
0.447
0.440
0.442
0.497
0.531
0.557
0.472
0.545
0.618
0.615
0.641
0.726
0.696
0.719
0.696
0.741
0.712
0.719
0.738
0.752
0.804
0.828
0.815
0.840
0.827
0.842
0.867
0.884
0.889
0.944
0.960
0.984
0.995
0.991
1.011
1.016
1.015
1.016
0.967
HP/WT
0.0445
0.0394
0.0408
0.0377
0.0304
0.0323
0.0319
0.0310
0.0305
0.0297
0.0313
0.0341
0.0347
0.0370
0.0376
0.0386
0.0393
0.0374
0.0384
0.0377
0.0375
0.0368
0.0353
0.0373
0.0380
0.0386
0.0395
0.0417
0.0385
0.0425
0.0455
0.0459
0.0455
0.0448
0.0443
0.0435
0.0432
0.0516
0.0454
Ton-MPG
22.7
25.0
25.8
27.8
28.6
28.1
31.9
33.4
35.1
34.2
35.0
34.7
34.1
33.9
33.5
34.0
35.2
36.2
35.9
36.8
38.2
38.1
38.9
37.5
35.8
35.5
34.9
35.3
36.3
36.3
36.3
36.6
36.5
37.2
38.6
38.3
38.3
37.8
39.2
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-103
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
3500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD






6.1%
31.5%
59.4%
62.0%
60.9%
67.4%
56.2%
55.6%
37.3%
30.7%
21.3%
18.4%
19.1%
9.0%
7.7%
7.5%
1.0%
8.5%
7.5%
5.4%
2.8%

1.4%


1.2%







Transmission
Manual
5.9%
11.9%
9.3%
20.5%
35.1%
42.1%
62.3%
80.0%
66.6%
67.5%
71.5%
69.0%
55.2%
54.0%
51.7%
52.7%
52.4%
65.1%
64.4%
63.2%
69.5%
66.2%
67.9%
57.8%
46.9%
41.0%
40.2%
34.7%
36.1%
38.5%
37.7%
35.8%
32.3%
25.7%
23.9%
16.5%
16.0%
14.8%
28.5%
Lock





49.3%
31.0%
16.2%
28.0%
25.4%
25.0%
30.2%
44.0%
45.2%
47.9%
47.3%
47.6%
34.9%
35.6%
36.8%
30.5%
33.8%
32.1%
42.2%
53.1%
59.0%
57.1%
60.6%
60.4%
53.7%
62.3%
64.2%
67.7%
74.3%
76.1%
83.5%
84.0%
85.2%
71.5%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port










14.2%
35.6%
28.5%
54.5%
53.8%
77.5%
59.0%
70.5%
76.2%
86.6%
83.1%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI








0.1%

3.5%
30.1%
30.0%
40.6%
44.0%
22.5%
41.0%
29.5%
23.8%
13.4%
16.9%


















Diesel








1.6%
2.5%
0.7%
0.3%
0.2%


























Multi-
Valve



















1.9%
6.9%
14.8%
9.2%
18.9%
16.1%
19.7%
34.4%
54.8%
33.2%
77.4%
77.9%
86.7%
89.2%
87.4%
98.3%
100.0%
98.4%
100.0%
100.0%
WT





























12.7%
51.5%
59.5%
89.2%
92.4%
98.3%
31.9%
22.3%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-104
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
733
907
855
951
606
439
587
397
332
406
385
465
271
370
369
342
353
332
313
536
292
286
425
437
420
481
437
386
396
380
293
282
209
186
97
97
128
92
64
Frac
0.072
0.073
0.061
0.066
0.044
0.039
0.056
0.041
0.032
0.029
0.027
0.030
0.018
0.024
0.026
0.027
0.028
0.027
0.024
0.038
0.019
0.022
0.029
0.030
0.028
0.029
0.028
0.024
0.025
0.024
0.018
0.019
0.014
0.013
0.010
0.009
0.011
0.007
0.004
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
14.1
15.3
16.7
16.1
15.9
18.7
19.2
18.7
18.5
18.5
18.5
19.2
19.1
19.7
20.1
20.2
20.4
20.4
20.5
20.9
20.9
21.6
21.5
21.3
20.7
20.8
20.7
20.9
21.4
21.8
23.1
23.4
22.8
23 2
24 2
23.9
23.5
25.8
25.7
Adj City
11.0
12.2
13.4
13.0
12.9
14.9
15.2
14.9
14.7
14.6
14.8
15.2
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.1
15.2
15.1
15.2
15.4
15.4
15.7
15.5
15.3
14.9
14.9
14.8
15.0
15.2
15.2
15.9
16.1
15.7
16.0
16.7
16.6
16.3
17.7
17.9
Adj Hwy
13.6
14.3
15.3
14.4
14.4
17.4
17.9
17.4
17.4
17.4
17.2
17.7
17.6
18.7
19.3
19.4
19.6
19.7
19.5
19.8
19.5
20.3
20.2
19.9
19.1
19.1
18.8
18.6
19.2
19.6
20.9
21.1
20.6
20.8
21.6
21.3
20.8
22.5
21.9
Adj Comb
12.0
13.1
14.2
13.6
13.5
15.9
16.3
15.9
15.8
15.7
15.8
16.3
16.2
16.6
17.0
16.9
17.1
17.1
17.1
17.3
17.3
17.8
17.6
17.4
16.9
16.9
16.7
16.8
17.2
17.4
18.4
18.7
18.2
18.5
19.2
19.0
18.6
20.2
19.9
Weight
(Ib)
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
330
327
322
318
306
283
286
292
291
287
292
276
273
282
269
271
262
250
236
241
230
239
246
236
231
222
226
220
213
208
211
209
212
213
209
213
218
198
195
HP
143
135
144
144
142
127
128
130
130
127
140
134
141
154
159
162
159
154
155
169
164
173
185
178
173
171
184
183
178
189
206
202
199
199
202
205
202
198
190
0-60 Time
13.2
13.8
13.2
13.1
13.2
14.3
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.5
13.5
13.8
13.3
12.3
12.1
11.9
12.1
12.4
12.3
11.5
11.7
11.2
10.7
11.0
11.3
11.4
10.7
10.8
11.1
10.5
9.9
10.1
10.2
10.2
10.1
10.0
10.0
10.4
10.7
HP/CID
0.433
0.412
0.445
0.453
0.465
0.451
0.451
0.446
0.446
0.442
0.479
0.505
0.530
0.555
0.607
0.612
0.623
0.628
0.669
0.715
0.727
0.734
0.756
0.766
0.755
0.779
0.819
0.836
0.844
0.910
0.978
0.970
0.941
0.938
0.974
0.965
0.933
1.000
0.976
HP/WT
0.0358
0.0338
0.0359
0.0361
0.0356
0.0317
0.0320
0.0325
0.0324
0.0317
0.0349
0.0336
0.0353
0.0385
0.0397
0.0405
0.0397
0.0386
0.0388
0.0423
0.0411
0.0432
0.0461
0.0446
0.0431
0.0429
0.0460
0.0457
0.0445
0.0473
0.0516
0.0505
0.0498
0.0498
0.0506
0.0512
0.0505
0.0495
0.0476
Ton-MPG
24.6
26.8
28.9
28.0
27.4
32.1
33.0
32.2
32.0
32.0
31.9
32.8
32.5
33.4
34.2
34.1
34.3
34.3
34.3
34.9
34.7
35.7
35.3
34.9
33.8
33.9
33.6
33.7
34.5
35.0
37.1
37.5
36.6
37.1
38.7
38.3
37.7
40.5
40.0
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-105
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front












0.1%
0.0%

























4WD
0.7%
1.0%
1.2%
1.1%
6.3%
5.6%
7.3%
9.4%
4.8%
6.3%
7.8%
13.5%
17.6%
18.0%
37.0%
27.6%
40.0%
32.0%
42.3%
43.7%
53.8%
44.0%
26.0%
42.1%
52.4%
45.0%
43.1%
38.1%
36.3%
41.3%
35.2%
29.8%
27.6%
31.3%
25.5%
24.1%
35.7%
18.7%
22.5%
Transmission
Manual
33.1%
33.8%
30.6%
30.5%
33.8%
51.5%
44.3%
32.9%
27.0%
34.2%
26.7%
36.8%
40.2%
43.2%
39.8%
36.9%
42.4%
37.3%
38.0%
38.4%
38.4%
31.7%
31.3%
35.5%
26.1%
21.0%
16.7%
19.7%
15.4%
16.3%
17.1%
17.1%
14.2%
13.9%
22.1%
16.2%
11.2%
10.2%
16.2%
Lock




4.8%
17.4%
35.1%
28.4%
49.0%
39.9%
32.0%
33.5%
35.5%
40.1%
54.8%
57.8%
57.6%
62.7%
62.0%
61.6%
61.6%
68.3%
68.7%
64.5%
73.9%
79.0%
83.3%
80.3%
84.6%
83.7%
82.9%
82.9%
85.8%
86.1%
77.9%
83.8%
88.8%
89.8%
83.8%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port










13.8%
28.0%
48.8%
39.6%
28.4%
31.6%
36.0%
54.4%
68.8%
66.0%
77.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI










0.0%
11.0%
17.6%
60.4%
71.6%
68.4%
64.0%
45.6%
31.2%
34.0%
22.8%


















Diesel



0.7%




0.2%
0.0%





























Multi-
Valve



















8.4%
17.0%
22.4%
10.9%
15.5%
16.0%
13.6%
21.5%
40.0%
34.5%
53.4%
77.9%
82.7%
65.9%
63.5%
81.3%
75.7%
59.8%
99.6%
100.0%
WT





























20.3%
72.5%
80.5%
53.6%
44.0%
52.7%
76.3%
60.2%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-106
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
180
375
539
578
631
247
210
193
247
385
428
439
353
596
641
507
435
513
614
684
744
543
611
585
624
766
518
556
511
350
374
368
252
201
105
121
151
157
94
Frac
0.018
0.030
0.038
0.040
0.045
0.022
0.020
0.020
0.024
0.027
0.030
0.029
0.024
0.039
0.044
0.040
0.035
0.042
0.046
0.048
0.049
0.041
0.042
0.040
0.041
0.046
0.033
0.034
0.032
0.022
0.024
0.024
0.017
0.014
0.011
0.011
0.013
0.012
0.007
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
11.8
12.6
13.7
13.6
14.2
15.7
16.8
17.1
17.0
16.8
16.8
17.4
17.2
17.8
17.8
18.0
18.1
18.4
19.0
18.7
18.6
18.9
19.8
19.8
19.9
20.0
20.0
19.8
20.2
20.5
20.8
21.3
21.4
21.5
22.1
22.0
21.9
22.3
23.0
Adj City
9.6
10.3
11.2
11.2
11.8
12.6
13.4
13.7
13.5
13.4
13.4
13.8
13.5
13.7
13.6
13.6
13.5
13.6
13.9
13.7
13.5
13.7
14.2
14.2
14.2
14.3
14.1
14.0
14.2
14.3
14.3
14.6
14.7
14.8
15.2
15.1
15.1
15.3
15.8
Adj Hwy
10.6
11.3
12.2
12.1
12.7
14.3
15.5
15.7
15.8
15.6
15.5
16.1
16.0
16.9
16.9
17.2
17.5
17.8
18.4
18.0
17.8
17.9
18.8
18.8
18.6
18.6
18.4
18.2
18.5
18.8
19.2
19.5
19.5
19.7
20.1
20.1
20.0
20.2
20.9
Adj Comb
10.0
10.7
11.6
11.5
12.2
13.3
14.3
14.5
14.5
14.3
14.3
14.8
14.6
15.0
15.0
15.1
15.2
15.4
15.8
15.6
15.4
15.6
16.3
16.3
16.2
16.3
16.2
16.0
16.3
16.5
16.7
17.1
17.1
17.3
17.7
17.6
17.5
17.8
18.3
Weight
(Ib)
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
366
365
369
361
320
323
314
311
310
310
310
307
316
322
320
318
315
310
306
311
308
305
283
289
287
281
264
262
261
257
247
240
237
234
238
239
240
243
243
HP
166
161
169
163
146
147
147
156
151
150
159
155
168
174
174
172
176
171
177
186
182
201
212
217
224
224
210
213
212
215
227
233
233
230
239
242
240
247
240
0-60 Time
12.9
13.2
12.6
12.9
14.3
14.1
14.0
13.4
13.8
13.9
13.1
13.5
12.7
12.4
12.4
12.5
12.3
12.6
12.2
11.7
11.9
11.1
10.4
10.3
10.1
10.1
10.6
10.5
10.5
10.4
10.0
9.8
9.8
9.8
9.5
9.4
9.5
9.4
9.6
HP/CID
0.451
0.439
0.459
0.453
0.459
0.456
0.472
0.504
0.488
0.483
0.513
0.503
0.531
0.539
0.542
0.536
0.555
0.550
0.579
0.600
0.593
0.660
0.753
0.752
0.780
0.798
0.796
0.811
0.814
0.841
0.924
0.980
0.993
0.990
1.008
1.016
1.003
1.020
0.988
HP/WT
0.0369
0.0358
0.0377
0.0363
0.0323
0.0326
0.0327
0.0347
0.0335
0.0333
0.0354
0.0344
0.0374
0.0387
0.0388
0.0381
0.0390
0.0380
0.0394
0.0414
0.0404
0.0447
0.0472
0.0481
0.0497
0.0498
0.0468
0.0473
0.0472
0.0478
0.0505
0.0518
0.0517
0.0511
0.0531
0.0538
0.0532
0.0549
0.0532
Ton-MPG
22.6
24.3
26.3
26.3
27.9
30.3
32.6
33.2
33.0
32.6
32.4
33.5
33.0
33.9
33.9
34.3
34.5
34.8
35.8
35.2
34.8
35.3
36.8
36.8
36.7
36.8
36.6
36.1
36.8
37.2
37.7
38.4
38.5
38.9
39.8
39.6
39.5
40.1
41.4
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-107
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
4500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front


















0.0%




















4WD
55.4%
64.5%
58.2%
68.5%
16.4%
30.9%
25.2%
20.0%
34.0%
34.6%
33.6%
36.8%
35.5%
38.3%
37.7%
34.2%
28.6%
21.1%
16.9%
14.5%
18.4%
11.9%
16.3%
9.6%
18.1%
17.7%
16.0%
27.1%
27.6%
31.9%
35.7%
48.2%
52.3%
57.6%
77.2%
76.0%
72.3%
71.2%
66.1%
Transmission
Manual
51.3%
45.2%
31.0%
31.7%
25.6%
32.0%
18.6%
15.7%
21.4%
18.6%
16.9%
19.9%
21.6%
20.3%
32.4%
25.5%
23.7%
27.9%
19.5%
17.3%
26.6%
19.0%
12.5%
11.4%
9.4%
10.3%
11.0%
8.7%
12.5%
10.9%
7.6%
7.0%
7.3%
9.1%
5.8%
4.4%
4.3%
4.7%
7.5%
Lock





44.4%
60.3%
64.1%
55.4%
58.4%
64.9%
66.3%
45.7%
61.7%
58.1%
66.5%
75.3%
72.0%
80.5%
82.7%
73.4%
81.0%
87.5%
88.6%
90.6%
89.7%
89.0%
91.3%
87.5%
89.1%
92.4%
93.0%
92.7%
90.9%
94.2%
95.6%
95.7%
95.3%
92.5%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port










8.0%
22.3%
41.5%
35.5%
45.1%
51.7%
48.0%
59.3%
55.4%
59.9%
58.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI












45.8%
63.9%
54.7%
48.2%
51.9%
40.6%
44.6%
40.1%
41.1%


















Diesel



3.5%
0.3%
2.6%
1.8%
0.8%
0.9%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%





















Multi-
Valve




















0.7%
1.4%
1.2%
0.6%

7.3%
9.1%
15.4%
12.2%
9.1%
38.1%
61.1%
56.2%
59.4%
84.1%
85.5%
79.3%
92.2%
90.3%
WT





























6.0%
38.1%
61.1%
47.4%
50.9%
39.3%
86.8%
80.5%
93.5%
90.3%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
E-108
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
122
188
172
198
404
147
53
97
69
85
92
93
74
165
129
223
138
235
258
414
453
390
573
524
628
707
929
780
870
707
679
608
444
257
98
110
106
126
180
Frac
0.012
0.015
0.012
0.014
0.029
0.013
0.005
0.010
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.005
0.011
0.009
0.018
0.011
0.019
0.020
0.029
0.030
0.030
0.040
0.036
0.041
0.043
0.060
0.048
0.055
0.045
0.043
0.040
0.029
0.019
0.011
0.010
0.009
0.009
0.013
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
11.0
11.7
12.9
12.8
12.9
15.9
16.9
18.9
18.0
17.4
16.3
16.3
16.0
16.4
16.0
16.4
16.2
16.7
16.9
17.0
16.8
17.3
18.2
17.6
18.1
18.4
18.6
18.7
18.9
19.2
19.4
19.9
20.0
20.3
20.8
20.9
21.4
21.5
22.3
Adj City
9.0
9.6
10.6
10.5
10.8
12.7
13.5
15.0
14.1
13.6
12.7
12.7
12.5
12.6
12.4
12.4
12.2
12.4
12.5
12.5
12.3
12.5
13.1
12.6
13.0
13.2
13.2
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.4
13.8
13.7
14.0
14.3
14.3
14.6
14.6
15.2
Adj Hwy
9.7
10.3
11.4
11.3
11.2
14.6
15.6
17.5
17.1
16.6
15.7
15.6
15.0
15.7
15.0
15.9
15.4
16.2
16.3
16.2
16.1
16.7
17.4
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.3
17.1
17.2
17.4
17.8
18.1
18.5
18.7
19.1
19.4
19.8
19.9
20.8
Adj Comb
9.3
9.9
11.0
10.8
11.0
13.5
14.4
16.0
15.3
14.8
13.9
13.8
13.6
13.9
13.5
13.8
13.5
14.0
14.1
14.1
14.0
14.4
15.0
14.6
14.9
15.0
15.1
15.1
15.3
15.4
15.6
16.0
16.1
16.3
16.7
16.8
17.2
17.3
17.9
Weight
(Ib)
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
371
367
378
370
372
351
333
336
334
322
322
321
332
342
323
337
333
330
333
336
337
334
319
327
322
317
314
305
305
311
304
297
282
270
275
271
271
274
268
HP
165
159
167
171
158
153
141
140
150
155
162
162
183
193
187
198
198
189
199
202
202
225
229
236
245
252
255
261
259
269
272
265
245
233
244
247
271
288
294
0-60 Time
14.1
14.5
14.0
13.5
15.1
14.9
15.8
15.9
15.0
14.6
14.1
14.1
12.9
12.3
12.7
12.1
12.1
12.7
12.0
11.9
11.9
10.9
10.7
10.4
10.2
9.9
9.8
9.7
9.7
9.5
9.4
9.6
10.3
10.7
10.3
10.2
9.7
9.3
9.0
HP/CID
0.443
0.430
0.440
0.462
0.419
0.436
0.425
0.420
0.458
0.487
0.505
0.507
0.550
0.565
0.588
0.591
0.598
0.571
0.599
0.601
0.601
0.675
0.722
0.724
0.763
0.797
0.813
0.854
0.852
0.862
0.892
0.891
0.866
0.862
0.885
0.912
1.002
1.053
1.112
HP/WT
0.0331
0.0318
0.0334
0.0341
0.0315
0.0306
0.0282
0.0280
0.0301
0.0311
0.0324
0.0324
0.0366
0.0387
0.0373
0.0397
0.0396
0.0377
0.0399
0.0404
0.0405
0.0451
0.0459
0.0473
0.0491
0.0504
0.0509
0.0521
0.0518
0.0537
0.0545
0.0530
0.0489
0.0466
0.0488
0.0495
0.0541
0.0575
0.0588
Ton-MPG
23.4
24.9
27.5
27.2
28.5
35.2
37.2
41.8
39.7
37.9
35.5
35.1
34.2
35.0
34.0
34.9
34.1
35.2
35.4
35.4
35.1
36.1
37.7
36.5
37.2
37.6
38.0
37.9
38.2
38.6
39.1
40.0
40.3
40.9
41.7
42.1
43.1
43.3
45.1
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-109
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
5000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD
26.4%
26.9%
23.5%
36.6%
8.3%
53.2%
55.4%
43.4%
65.2%
74.8%
85.9%
89.6%
95.4%
74.8%
78.9%
65.5%
86.9%
78.2%
86.6%
87.0%
83.9%
70.7%
60.1%
75.5%
73.5%
78.9%
46.9%
51.3%
49.6%
46.5%
33.5%
28.9%
17.1%
16.1%
18.3%
26.1%
27.2%
30.8%
23.5%
Transmission
Manual
27.9%
28.8%
24.6%
32.8%
18.5%
21.5%
31.1%
26.2%
23.9%
26.8%
28.0%
22.2%
31.5%
17.8%
27.4%
13.4%
17.5%
14.7%
13.7%
10.0%
11.0%
7.8%
5.7%
5.1%
2.6%
1.6%
1.7%
2.0%
1.5%
1.4%
2.3%
3.8%
3.2%
1.8%
0.1%
1.1%



Lock





65.3%
57.2%
65.1%
66.1%
68.4%
61.2%
64.0%
47.0%
61.4%
56.9%
82.7%
78.2%
85.1%
86.3%
90.0%
89.0%
92.1%
94.3%
94.9%
97.4%
98.4%
98.3%
98.0%
98.5%
98.6%
97.7%
96.2%
96.8%
98.2%
99.9%
98.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI




































0.2%
0.6%
3.3%
Port











4.2%
20.5%
25.5%
43.5%
23.9%
31.2%
43.8%
38.8%
45.0%
52.3%
99.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.8%
99.4%
96.7%
TBI












58.7%
71.2%
55.1%
75.3%
67.9%
55.8%
61.2%
55.0%
47.7%


















Diesel



0.0%
13.0%
28.8%
32.9%
56.0%
26.4%
14.7%
6.8%
3.8%
2.0%
2.1%
1.4%
0.8%
0.9%
0.4%



0.2%
0.0%
0.0%















Multi-
Valve

























8.9%
4.1%
5.5%
4.7%
9.1%
15.0%
20.2%
10.3%
8.3%
10.7%
17.5%
36.2%
39.3%
51.7%
WT





























0.3%
15.0%
20.2%
20.8%
1.7%
5.3%
28.6%
62.9%
66.0%
81.7%
Hybrid





























0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%






EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-110
December 2013

-------
                                                       2013 FE Trends Report
                              Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
53
102
91
120
83
14
2
17
10
8
5
3
1
1
1
1
3
9
9
21
29
65
275
112
130
71
258
279
270
538
549
570
688
707
461
532
697
623
694
Frac
0.005
0.008
0.006
0.008
0.006
0.001
0.000
0.002
0.001
0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.005
0.019
0.008
0.009
0.004
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.034
0.035
0.038
0.045
0.051
0.050
0.048
0.058
0.046
0.048
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
10.0
11.4
11.8
12.1
11.3
13.3
13.3
22.4
22.1
21.9
21.1
21.1
21.1
16.9
19.2
18.6
17.5
16.3
17.0
16.9
15.9
15.3
17.0
16.4
16.3
16.3
16.3
17.0
17.2
17.9
18.3
18.7
19.5
20.1
20.4
20.8
21.1
21.0
21.4
Adj City
8.3
9.3
9.7
10.0
9.5
10.7
10.5
17.5
17.3
17.3
16.5
16.4
16.3
13.4
14.8
14.3
13.2
12.2
12.6
12.5
11.6
11.0
12.1
11.7
11.5
11.3
11.5
11.9
12.1
12.5
12.6
13.0
13.5
13.7
13.9
14.1
14.3
14.2
14.4
Adj Hwy
8.7
10.2
10.4
10.8
9.8
12 2
12.4
21.3
21.2
20.5
20.2
20.1
20.1
15.2
17.9
17.2
16.7
15.6
16.3
15.9
15.2
15.0
16.6
16.0
15.9
15.9
15.5
16.0
15.9
16.5
16.8
17.3
18.0
18.6
19.2
19.7
20.1
19.9
20.8
Adj Comb
8.5
9.7
10.0
10.3
9.6
11.3
11.3
19.1
18.9
18.6
18.0
17.9
17.9
14.2
16.1
15.6
14.7
13.7
14.2
14.1
13.2
12.8
14.1
13.6
13.5
13.4
13.4
13.9
13.9
14.5
14.7
15.1
15.7
16.2
16.5
16.8
17.1
17.0
17.5
Weight
(Ib)
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
374
383
396
377
401
353
351
350
379
379
379
379
379
363
370
370
364
353
352
364
358
345
347
330
344
347
340
322
319
316
319
313
317
319
317
315
311
316
309
HP
171
171
183
172
192
165
143
130
130
130
130
130
130
178
153
159
176
200
199
205
215
225
240
226
242
245
251
255
264
287
292
283
297
311
309
313
328
338
338
0-60 Time
14.9
14.9
14.1
14.6
13.8
14.9
16.5
18.1
18.1
18.1
18.1
18.1
18.1
14.4
16.6
15.8
14.6
12.9
13.0
12.6
12.2
11.7
11.1
11.7
11.0
11.0
10.7
10.6
10.4
9.8
9.6
9.8
9.4
9.1
9.1
9.0
8.7
8.6
8.6
HP/CID
0.452
0.443
0.458
0.457
0.473
0.467
0.407
0.371
0.343
0.343
0.343
0.343
0.343
0.495
0.417
0.434
0.489
0.570
0.569
0.568
0.605
0.655
0.693
0.684
0.705
0.706
0.740
0.795
0.827
0.901
0.913
0.902
0.934
0.974
0.974
0.994
1.064
1.081
1.114
HP/WT
0.0310
0.0311
0.0333
0.0312
0.0348
0.0299
0.0260
0.0236
0.0236
0.0236
0.0236
0.0236
0.0236
0.0324
0.0278
0.0289
0.0321
0.0364
0.0363
0.0373
0.0392
0.0410
0.0437
0.0410
0.0441
0.0445
0.0456
0.0464
0.0479
0.0521
0.0531
0.0515
0.0541
0.0566
0.0561
0.0569
0.0596
0.0615
0.0615
Ton-MPG
23.4
26.8
27.8
28.4
26.8
31.3
31.1
52.4
51.9
51.2
49.5
49.3
49.1
40.7
45.4
44.1
41.7
38.1
39.4
39.0
36.5
35.3
38.9
37.5
37.1
37.0
36.9
38.4
38.4
40.0
40.6
41.6
43.3
44.9
45.4
46.4
47.2
46.9
48.2
EPA-420-R-13-011
E-lll
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
5500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD
84.9%
87.1%
76.0%
91.0%
3.9%
84.0%
44.3%
100.0%
100.0%
97.0%
83.2%
84.4%
80.0%
97.8%
100.0%
94.8%
97.5%
99.6%
99.9%
95.5%
96.8%
99.1%
99.8%
94.7%
93.1%
86.5%
97.9%
73.7%
65.7%
43.4%
60.5%
56.6%
48.5%
46.9%
46.1%
44.3%
55.4%
57.1%
50.0%
Transmission
Manual
1.1%
2.9%
1.0%
0.4%
40.8%
44.1%
62.0%
16.7%
10.0%
13.1%
11.9%
14.5%
7.7%
62.7%
36.0%
41.0%
8.7%
30.4%
13.3%
14.9%
9.4%
3.9%
0.7%
3.9%
3.5%
2.3%
1.8%
1.1%
0.9%
0.8%
0.5%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%





Lock





40.9%

83.3%
90.0%
86.9%
88.1%
85.5%
92.3%
37.3%
64.0%
59.0%
91.3%
69.2%
86.7%
85.1%
90.6%
95.3%
99.3%
96.1%
96.5%
97.7%
98.2%
98.9%
99.1%
99.2%
99.5%
99.7%
99.8%
99.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI




































3.9%
4.2%
7.2%
Port

















0.7%
16.0%
47.8%
79.9%
96.2%
99.8%
99.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
96.1%
95.8%
92.8%
TBI













54.9%
31.7%
32.0%
52.2%
86.5%
84.0%
52.2%
20.1%


















Diesel



0.0%
0.1%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
45.1%
68.3%
68.0%
47.8%
12.8%



3.8%
0.2%
0.3%















Multi-
Valve





























27.5%
33.0%
33.4%
23.7%
18.5%
15.5%
32.6%
21.6%
22.3%
31.4%
WT





























21.5%
33.0%
33.4%
23.7%
18.6%
17.4%
77.5%
94.6%
96.8%
99.0%
Hybrid





























0.0%
0.1%
0.3%
0.0%






EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-112
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)



0
7
0




0


0
0
0
0


3
3
0
1
46
200
2
6
146
112
376
311
260
430
355
174
364
317
323
466
Frac



0.000
0.001
0.000




0.000


0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000


0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.003
0.013
0.000
0.000
0.009
0.007
0.024
0.020
0.017
0.028
0.026
0.019
0.033
0.026
0.024
0.032
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45



12.6
10.9
9.9




19.6


19.6
21.2
20.5
19.5


18.1
18.1
18.7
18.7
15.6
16.8
15.8
15.8
17.5
17.6
18.1
18.0
17.6
18.5
18.7
19.2
19.5
20.3
20.4
20.6
Adj City



10.4
9.0
8.1




16.0


16.1
17.3
16.4
15.6


13.6
13.4
13.7
13.7
10.9
12.0
10.8
10.9
12.3
12.3
12.6
12.5
12.3
12.8
12.8
13.2
13.4
13.9
14.0
14.1
Adj Hwy



11.1
9.7
8.8




17.5


16.7
18.0
17.8
16.7


16.7
16.9
17.4
17.3
15.6
16.1
16.0
15.8
16.3
16.5
16.6
16.4
16.1
17.2
17.4
17.8
18.0
18.8
18.9
19.2
Adj Comb



10.7
9.3
8.4




16.6


16.4
17.6
17.0
16.1


15.0
15.0
15.4
15.4
13.0
13.9
13.1
13.1
14.3
14.3
14.6
14.5
14.2
15.0
15.1
15.5
15.7
16.3
16.4
16.6
Weight
(Ib)



6000
6000
6000




6000


6000
6000
6000
6000


6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro



325
390
350




379


379
379
379
379


395
395
395
395
359
350
352
343
329
329
324
325
329
333
334
328
326
290
283
280
HP



154
153
155




130


140
126
135
140


180
180
180
180
234
254
242
239
283
295
290
294
298
325
334
320
324
358
359
369
0-60 Time



16.8
17.9
16.9




18.8


17.8
19.3
18.3
17.8


15.0
15.0
15.0
15.0
12.2
11.4
11.8
11.9
10.5
10.1
10.3
10.2
10.0
9.4
9.2
9.5
9.4
8.6
8.7
8.5
HP/CID



0.474
0.386
0.443




0.343


0.369
0.332
0.356
0.369


0.455
0.455
0.456
0.456
0.651
0.727
0.688
0.698
0.861
0.895
0.894
0.901
0.906
0.974
0.999
0.973
0.991
1.278
1.321
1.364
HP/WT



0.0256
0.0255
0.0258




0.0217


0.0233
0.0210
0.0225
0.0233


0.0299
0.0300
0.0300
0.0300
0.0389
0.0424
0.0404
0.0398
0.0472
0.0491
0.0484
0.0490
0.0497
0.0541
0.0557
0.0533
0.0539
0.0597
0.0599
0.0615
Ton-MPG



32.3
27.9
25.2




49.8


49.2
52.8
51.1
48.4


45.1
45.0
46.2
46.1
38.9
41.6
39.3
39.3
42.9
43.2
43.8
43.5
42.7
45.0
45.3
46.6
47.1
49.2
49.4
50.3
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-113
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
6000
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD



3.7%
62.2%





100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
71.4%
69.3%
87.8%
88.6%
93.0%
83.6%
86.2%
94.5%
95.6%
95.7%
95.6%
94.8%
Transmission
Manual



77.6%






100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%


1.0%
0.5%


0.5%
0.1%
3.0%
17.0%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%







Lock





100.0%













99.0%
99.5%
100.0%
100.0%
99.5%
99.9%
97.0%
83.0%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
98.8%
99.6%
99.6%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT


































1.2%
0.4%
0.4%
0.2%
1.0%
Fuel Metering
GDI




































26.9%
35.0%
35.0%
Port



















100.0%
100.0%


98.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
73.1%
65.0%
65.0%
TBI







































Diesel










100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%




100.0%
100.0%
1.6%
0.0%














Multi-
Valve



























2.3%

63.9%
68.0%
83.0%
64.5%
77.0%
67.5%
94.1%
92.8%
95.8%
92.2%
WT





























63.9%
68.0%
83.0%
64.5%
78.0%
76.8%
42.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid


































1.2%
0.4%
0.4%
0.2%
1.0%
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-114
December 2013

-------
   Envsr-ostmenl.fi! Protection
                          2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)



0

1
























3
0
0
0


18
15
19
Frac



0.000

0.000
























0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000


0.001
0.001
0.001
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45



11.8

12.0
























16.3
15.2
15.1
16.0


16.2
16.7
16.7
Adj City



9.7

9.5
























11.4
10.6
10.6
11.0


11.3
11.5
11.5
Adj Hwy



10.4

11.3
























14.9
14.2
13.9
15.0


14.7
15.7
15.8
Adj Comb



10.0

10.3
























13.2
12.4
12.2
13.0


13.1
13.6
13.6
Weight
(Ib)



6500

6500
























6500
6500
6500
6500


6500
6500
6500
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro



322

368
























330
330
330
330


378
378
378
HP



153

150
























300
445
445
445


415
411
411
0-60 Time



18.3

18.5
























10.6
7.7
7.7
7.7


8.2
8.3
8.3
HP/CID



0.475

0.408
























0.909
1.348
1.348
1.348


1.098
1.086
1.086
HP/WT



0.0235

0.0231
























0.0462
0.0685
0.0685
0.0685


0.0638
0.0632
0.0632
Ton-MPG



32.6

33.3
























42.8
40.2
39.8
42.2


42.5
44.1
44.2
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                  E-115
December 2013

-------
   IEnvsr4Dirtmenl.fi! Protectk
                         2013 FE Trends Report
Appendix E:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Weight
Class
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
6500
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD






























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Transmission
Manual







































Lock






























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port






























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve






























100.0%

100.0%
100.0%





WT






























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
93.2%


100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                 E-116
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Drive Type
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
539
561
774
1075
1283
2804
3236
3568
3784
5737
6648
7831
8267
8768
8267
7455
7096
6551
7195
7104
7701
6829
7213
6937
7303
7750
7069
7050
6494
6093
6402
6056
6506
5689
4655
4940
4482
6212
6163
Frac
0.065
0.058
0.068
0.096
0.119
0.297
0.370
0.456
0.473
0.537
0.616
0.711
0.770
0.817
0.825
0.846
0.832
0.808
0.851
0.844
0.820
0.865
0.865
0.870
0.872
0.849
0.841
0.849
0.820
0.808
0.798
0.758
0.805
0.777
0.826
0.816
0.782
0.842
0.797
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
23.4
24.0
26.2
26.8
26.4
26.9
28.6
30.2
30.3
29.7
29.4
29.9
29.7
30.0
29.3
28.6
28.9
28.4
29.0
28.9
29 2
29.0
29.1
29 2
28.7
28.8
29.2
29.5
30.1
30.2
31.1
30.9
32.0
32.4
33.8
35.4
34.9
37.0
38.0
Adj
City
18.1
18.9
20.3
20.9
20.7
20.8
22.2
23.2
23.5
23.0
22.6
22.8
22.6
22.5
21.8
21.1
21.2
20.5
20.8
20.7
20.6
20.3
20.3
20.2
19.8
19.7
19.9
20.0
20.2
20.1
20.6
20.5
21.3
21.5
22.4
23.5
23.0
24.3
25.0
Adj
Hwy
22.9
22.9
25.5
25.7
25.1
26.3
27.7
29.7
29.5
29.0
28.9
29.4
29.1
29.3
28.8
28.3
28.4
28.2
28.5
28.5
28.9
28.5
28.6
28.5
28.0
27.9
28.0
27.9
28.4
28.5
28.9
28.9
29.6
30.0
30.9
32.0
32.4
33.8
34.6
Adj
Comb
20.0
20.5
22.3
22.8
22.5
23.0
24.4
25.7
25.9
25.3
25.1
25.4
25.2
25.3
24.6
24.0
24.2
23.7
24.1
24.0
24.2
23.9
23.9
23.9
23.5
23.4
23.6
23.7
24.1
24.1
24.7
24.6
25.3
25.6
26.5
27.7
27.6
29.0
29.7
Weight
Ob)
2790
2844
2707
2590
2634
2645
2646
2665
2682
2752
2825
2844
2869
2911
2980
3082
3046
3120
3109
3143
3155
3200
3197
3243
3307
3313
3312
3320
3320
3357
3337
3398
3397
3404
3364
3351
3430
3345
3379
Vol
(Cu Ft)


93.8
94.4
94.6
100.4
103.0
101.7
104.2
105.4
106.5
107.0
106.2
106.2
107.0
106.7
106.3
107.2
107.6
107.6
108.6
108.7
108.3
108.9
109.2
110.3
110.2
111.4
111.0
111.6
111.9
111.9
111.2
110.9
111.0
111.2
112.5
111.4

Engine
cro
147.0
163.1
142.3
129.4
137.4
137.6
133.4
126.7
129.5
133.0
142.3
139.9
139.7
141.8
146.9
151.3
148.8
157.1
154.5
152.7
154.3
153.2
153.0
154.5
157.0
155.9
155.4
156.9
154.3
157.2
152.8
155.7
151.5
150.5
142.6
140.2
143.6
136.4
134.1
HP
88
95
88
82
84
86
85
83
86
90
98
100
103
107
115
123
124
131
130
133
144
147
149
152
156
158
158
163
163
169
165
174
171
173
167
165
174
169
173
0-60
Time
14.8
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.2
14.6
14.4
14.1
13.5
13.5
13.3
13.0
12.6
12.1
12.1
11.7
11.8
11.7
11.0
11.0
10.9
10.8
10.7
10.6
10.6
10.4
10.3
10.1
10.2
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.1
10.0
9.9
9.9
9.8
HP/
cro
0.704
0.680
0.692
0.693
0.674
0.652
0.672
0.677
0.681
0.694
0.712
0.730
0.752
0.775
0.803
0.844
0.859
0.868
0.871
0.895
0.956
0.974
0.985
0.998
1.010
1.030
1.034
1.056
1.077
1.096
1.097
1.131
1.141
1.157
1.174
1.181
1.223
1.247
1.299
HP/
WT
0.0303
0.0319
0.0315
0.0310
0.0312
0.0320
0.0321
0.0310
0.0317
0.0325
0.0344
0.0347
0.0354
0.0364
0.0381
0.0397
0.0402
0.0416
0.0414
0.0417
0.0450
0.0454
0.0459
0.0462
0.0467
0.0473
0.0474
0.0486
0.0488
0.0499
0.0490
0.0505
0.0498
0.0501
0.0489
0.0489
0.0502
0.0502
0.0507
Ton-
MPG
27.6
28.8
30.6
30.1
29.8
30.7
32.6
34.5
35.0
35.2
35.7
36.4
36.3
36.9
36.8
37.1
36.9
37.2
37.5
37.8
38.2
38.3
38.3
38.8
38.8
38.8
39.3
39.5
40.2
40.7
41.5
42.1
43.5
44.1
45.0
47.6
48.0
49.2
51.3
CuFt-
MPG


2264
2308
2211
2363
2566
2658
2751
2725
2722
2758
2703
2719
2666
2591
2604
2580
2626
2613
2656
2620
2612
2621
2580
2596
2631
2662
2703
2721
2804
2792
2876
2907
2993
3173
3165
3297

CuFt-
Ton-
MPG


2876
2838
2835
3087
3349
3512
3641
3709
3800
3894
3855
3928
3942
3967
3932
3987
4045
4068
4152
4160
4151
4226
4249
4284
4333
4400
4467
4541
4652
4715
4846
4903
5002
5303
5405
5493

Transmission
Manual
64.3%
59.7%
68.2%
66.2%
57.2%
45.5%
45.2%
40.0%
36.4%
30.3%
26.3%
27.1%
26.1%
25.5%
21.7%
19.7%
21.0%
18.5%
18.7%
17.4%
16.8%
14.6%
13.1%
11.5%
10.0%
9.7%
9.9%
9.5%
10.1%
8.5%
8.2%
8.3%
7.1%
6.9%
6.2%
4.4%
4.2%
4.9%
6.8%
Lockup
2.4%


4.2%
6.4%
2.1%

32.2%
38.9%
42.4%
48.6%
52.4%
56.5%
64.6%
68.6%
73.1%
73.7%
75.4%
76.3%
78.8%
82.4%
84.4%
86.1%
88.0%
89.4%
89.3%
88.8%
89.8%
88.8%
89.6%
88.9%
88.9%
80.4%
78.3%
80.7%
76.2%
80.8%
87.7%
83.7%
CVT














0.2%
0.0%

0.0%



0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
0.5%
1.1%
1.7%
2.7%
2.8%
12.5%
14.7%
13.1%
17.3%
14.6%
16.2%
21.1%
EPA-420-R-13-011
F-l
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Drive Type
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI
































0.3%
2.0%
1.8%
3.1%
12.3%
22.2%
31.7%
Port
17.6%
18.9%
31.3%
31.0%
19.6%
9.5%
5.4%
5.0%
5.8%
8.6%
21.0%
33.1%
38.0%
48.5%
58.0%
75.2%
77.5%
90.3%
91.9%
93.9%
98.6%
98.7%
99.0%
99.7%
99.8%
99.7%
99.7%
99.5%
99.5%
99.6%
99.5%
99.3%
99.7%
98.0%
97.4%
95.7%
86.5%
76.5%
66.4%
TBI





1.6%
1.8%
13.9%
25.1%
27.9%
33.5%
34.2%
36.7%
35.1%
31.4%
23.6%
22.3%
9.7%
8.1%
6.1%
1.4%
1.3%
0.9%
0.2%
0.1%














Diesel


2.8%
3.6%
5.6%
6.8%
5.4%
2.7%
1.3%
1.6%
0.7%
0.3%
0.0%

0.0%
0.0%
0.1%
0.0%



0.1%
0.0%
0.2%
0.1%
0.3%
0.3%
0.5%
0.5%
0.4%
0.5%
0.7%


0.8%
1.2%
1.2%
1.4%
1.8%
Multi-
Valve











5.7%
17.9%
23.1%
26.9%
34.4%
35.4%
34.5%
37.9%
43.8%
53.7%
61.1%
60.8%
62.7%
66.3%
66.5%
67.3%
69.7%
73.8%
78.2%
78.7%
81.3%
85.5%
88.4%
93.2%
95.4%
94.7%
99.3%
99.3%
WT
















1.9%
3.4%
3.8%
7.7%
9.9%
11.6%
9.7%
17.3%
15.9%
22.5%
26.6%
33.7%
41.9%
43.9%
54.1%
62.3%
67.7%
66.9%
82.8%
94.4%
95.5%
97.9%
97.9%
Hybrid

























0.1%
0.0%
0.4%
0.7%
1.2%
2.6%
2.0%
4.2%
4.3%
3.6%
7.5%
5.2%
6.3%
8.8%
Vehicle Size
Small
87.4%
86.9%
89.5%
93.6%
87.0%
67.8%
68.1%
71.0%
68.3%
69.0%
63.3%
62.5%
66.3%
67.5%
61.0%
61.1%
64.1%
61.6%
60.4%
61.3%
60.4%
56.2%
56.9%
48.8%
47.4%
46.5%
50.1%
45.7%
48.7%
45.3%
43.7%
46.4%
43.4%
44.0%
45.9%
47.5%
32.9%


Midsize
8.3%
8.8%
6.1%
4.2%
13.0%
32.2%
31.9%
29.0%
31.7%
31.0%
29.4%
28.5%
24.7%
23.8%
29.3%
28.8%
27.3%
27.3%
29.7%
26.3%
27.5%
33.3%
31.1%
41.4%
42.1%
36.1%
34.0%
38.9%
36.3%
39.0%
41.9%
36.3%
43.2%
37.9%
38.0%
40.6%
48.4%


Large
4.3%
4.4%
4.4%
2.2%






7.2%
9.1%
9.0%
8.7%
9.7%
10.1%
8.5%
11.1%
9.9%
12.4%
12.1%
10.6%
12.0%
9.8%
10.5%
17.4%
15.9%
15.4%
15.0%
15.7%
14.3%
17.2%
13.3%
18.1%
16.1%
11.9%
18.7%


EPA-420-R-13-011
F-2
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Drive Type
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
7698
9161
10526
10100
9474
6554
5436
4188
3973
4831
3918
3068
2347
1879
1654
1268
1310
1467
1162
1274
1585
943
977
855
887
1185
1062
933
1151
1035
1163
1475
1113
1095
603
755
766
708
951
Frac
0.935
0.942
0.932
0.904
0.878
0.694
0.622
0.536
0.496
0.453
0.363
0.279
0.219
0.175
0.165
0.144
0.154
0.181
0.137
0.151
0.169
0.119
0.117
0.107
0.106
0.130
0.126
0.112
0.145
0.137
0.145
0.185
0.138
0.150
0.107
0.125
0.134
0.096
0.123
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
15.4
17.2
17.9
19.4
19.6
22.3
23.5
23.3
22.5
23.1
23.5
23.8
23.5
23.5
23.6
23.6
24.0
24.6
24.3
24.0
24.6
24.3
24.3
24.5
24.5
25.0
24.8
24.5
24.5
24.3
24.4
24.8
24.7
25.2
25.5
25.7
26.5
27.8
28.2
Adj
City
12.0
13.5
14.1
15.1
15.4
17.4
18.3
18.0
17.2
17.6
17.9
18.0
17.6
17.4
17.4
17.3
17.4
17.8
17.3
17.0
17.3
16.9
16.8
16.9
16.8
17.1
16.9
16.6
16.5
16.2
16.2
16.4
16.3
16.7
16.8
16.9
17.4
18.1
18.4
Adj
Hwy
14.8
16.3
17.0
18.6
18.6
21.4
22.6
22.8
22.4
23.1
23.6
24.0
23.9
23.9
24.0
23.7
24.3
24.6
24.5
24.3
24.8
24.7
24.5
24.4
24.3
24.5
24.3
23.8
23.7
23.8
23.5
23.9
24.0
24.4
24.7
25.1
26.1
27.3
27.7
Adj
Comb
13.2
14.6
15.3
16.5
16.7
19.0
20.0
19.9
19.2
19.7
20.1
20.3
20.0
19.9
20.0
19.9
20.2
20.6
20.3
20.0
20.5
20.2
20.1
20.2
20.1
20.4
20.3
19.9
19.9
19.7
19.7
20.0
19.9
20.3
20.6
20.8
21.5
22.4
22.7
Weight
Ob)
4146
4133
4034
3694
3604
3296
3333
3384
3547
3514
3576
3547
3608
3689
3708
3724
3726
3760
3814
3841
3784
3862
3827
3771
3798
3699
3716
3783
3872
3863
3955
3950
3952
3957
3954
4004
4020
4013
3969
Vol
(Cu Ft)


111.6
110.6
110.8
105.9
108.6
109.9
113.6
110.1
110.6
107.7
107.7
110.8
111.7
108.5
109.3
113.6
113.1
111.3
109.0
110.5
109.6
104.0
105.7
103.5
101.4
98.6
100.8
100.6
104.7
107.1
102.1
103.1
102.3
105.4
104.5
104.7
103.4
Engine
cro
298.2
294.1
289.2
264.4
252.7
209.5
211.1
216.2
235.9
233.9
239.7
239.2
241.5
248.5
243.9
234.9
240.3
227.8
242.6
252.2
230.5
256.7
244.6
242.2
241.7
229.2
228.0
233.7
230.3
231.0
236.1
235.3
237.7
230.0
234.4
243.8
237.1
229.3
220.3
HP
140
136
137
129
124
107
107
112
123
125
135
139
147
157
153
159
177
179
189
198
194
207
210
218
226
228
226
237
245
246
258
265
275
273
282
292
307
318
316
0-60
Time
14.1
14.4
13.9
13.6
13.7
14.2
14.4
14.1
13.6
13.3
12.7
12.3
12.0
11.6
11.9
11.7
10.7
10.7
10.5
10.0
10.1
9.7
9.5
9.1
8.8
8.7
8.7
8.5
8.4
8.4
8.3
8.1
7.9
8.0
7.9
7.7
7.3
7.2
7.2
HP/
cro
0.502
0.491
0.504
0.522
0.527
0.554
0.548
0.553
0.549
0.569
0.600
0.625
0.660
0.675
0.675
0.732
0.783
0.834
0.817
0.819
0.884
0.828
0.882
0.924
0.969
1.020
1.031
1.049
1.095
1.101
1.142
1.155
1.193
1.217
1.234
1.221
1.320
1.433
1.496
HP/
WT
0.0333
0.0325
0.0336
0.0345
0.0342
0.0323
0.0320
0.0330
0.0346
0.0356
0.0378
0.0393
0.0409
0.0428
0.0415
0.0429
0.0475
0.0475
0.0497
0.0516
0.0510
0.0535
0.0547
0.0577
0.0596
0.0610
0.0609
0.0628
0.0636
0.0641
0.0654
0.0671
0.0697
0.0687
0.0710
0.0729
0.0764
0.0788
0.0792
Ton-
MPG
27.5
30.3
31.0
30.6
30.2
31.5
33.5
33.9
34.3
34.9
36.0
36.0
36.2
36.9
37.1
37.1
37.7
38.7
38.7
38.5
38.8
39.0
38.6
38.3
38.3
37.8
37.7
37.7
38.5
38.2
39.0
39.7
39.6
40.4
40.9
41.8
43.4
45.3
45.5
CuFt-
MPG


1744
1865
1882
2043
2203
2217
2200
2190
2226
2191
2163
2221
2241
2160
2208
2346
2298
2233
2239
2226
2204
2107
2129
2128
2065
1964
2006
1991
2068
2156
2044
2105
2120
2201
2266
2377
2386
CuFt-
Ton-
MPG


3464
3399
3366
3359
3670
3762
3916
3857
4010
3919
3936
4141
4199
4080
4177
4452
4430
4330
4259
4350
4256
4003
4079
3954
3867
3752
3944
3897
4147
4302
4085
4209
4224
4428
4572
4782
4744
Transmission
Manual
16.5%
14.5%
13.0%
14.9%
15.9%
24.4%
20.3%
19.5%
14.3%
16.1%
15.1%
17.0%
18.3%
16.1%
14.9%
17.5%
15.8%
10.6%
11.4%
12.6%
12.9%
14.9%
13.9%
15.7%
16.0%
18.3%
16.8%
18.3%
15.5%
17.2%
13.1%
12.5%
14.1%
11.8%
10.1%
13.0%
10.6%
10.7%
14.9%
Lockup
0.1%


7.4%
9.2%
23.4%
53.3%
68.0%
76.4%
77.7%
77.0%
74.4%
73.0%
76.2%
75.9%
73.4%
75.3%
83.1%
81.8%
82.0%
80.5%
79.6%
85.9%
84.0%
83.3%
79.3%
82.7%
81.2%
84.5%
82.6%
86.6%
87.2%
85.8%
86.0%
86.7%
85.8%
87.1%
86.7%
82.3%
CVT



































0.0%
0.1%

0.2%
EPA-420-R-13-011
F-3
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Drive Type
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI
































0.4%
5.7%
12.7%
18.5%
27.9%
45.4%
49.9%
Port
4.3%
2.2%
2.2%
2.3%
2.7%
4.9%
6.6%
9.2%
13.5%
22.8%
22.9%
46.0%
58.9%
78.8%
83.3%
90.5%
79.5%
85.7%
89.4%
99.9%
99.6%
99.7%
99.7%
99.6%
99.5%
99.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.4%
99.6%
99.4%
94.0%
86.9%
81.2%
70.7%
54.3%
50.0%
TBI





0.3%
3.1%
6.4%
14.1%
20.8%
31.3%
14.9%
9.8%
5.3%
10.7%
6.8%
20.1%
14.0%
10.6%






0.4%













Diesel
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.6%
1.6%
3.5%
6.3%
6.4%
2.9%
1.8%
1.3%
0.3%
1.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.5%
0.3%

0.1%
0.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0.4%
0.5%





0.6%
0.4%
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.2%
1.4%
0.3%
0.2%
Multi-
Valve











2.5%
4.0%
4.5%
10.8%
22.1%
22.4%
35.5%
24.8%
26.2%
41.7%
26.1%
38.2%
42.8%
44.0%
50.9%
58.3%
61.3%
67.7%
62.9%
67.6%
74.1%
75.1%
79.0%
77.9%
73.1%
83.0%
88.3%
88.9%
WT















4.2%
5.6%
10.2%
11.3%
10.3%
10.2%
13.2%
24.7%
27.5%
25.8%
29.0%
38.7%
36.5%
39.0%
46.9%
43.2%
53.8%
55.3%
54.5%
65.9%
61.6%
81.4%
94.7%
94.9%
Hybrid
































0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.7%
Vehicle Size
Small
53.2%
53.5%
49.2%
39.5%
37.6%
48.0%
41.0%
43.6%
35.7%
42.7%
40.8%
50.6%
52.0%
51.1%
43.4%
41.1%
44.0%
31.3%
34.4%
42.1%
42.5%
42.3%
43.4%
57.1%
52.1%
56.3%
58.9%
67.1%
58.5%
57.3%
47.7%
46.6%
51.2%
48.5%
54.2%
58.8%
60.9%


Midsize
24.4%
26.2%
25.9%
37.6%
37.2%
35.7%
39.4%
33.1%
33.9%
28.0%
29.2%
27.2%
24.0%
16.2%
23.1%
29.8%
22.4%
31.8%
30.5%
25.8%
33.2%
20.3%
22.9%
15.4%
15.1%
16.9%
13.8%
15.1%
16.7%
18.0%
22.9%
17.8%
21.4%
20.0%
15.9%
14.3%
17.9%


Large
22.4%
20.3%
24.9%
23.0%
25.2%
16.2%
19.6%
23.4%
30.4%
29.2%
30.0%
22.1%
24.1%
32.7%
33.5%
29.1%
33.7%
36.9%
35.1%
32.1%
24.3%
37.4%
33.8%
27.5%
32.8%
26.8%
27.3%
17.8%
24.8%
24.8%
29.3%
35.6%
27.4%
31.5%
29.9%
26.9%
21.2%


EPA-420-R-13-011
F-4
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Drive Type
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)




37
85
62
63
245
107
224
116
118
89
97
86
118
90
100
36
109
118
144
179
186
190
273
318
276
410
462
461
463
535
378
359
480
458
616
Frac




0.003
0.009
0.007
0.008
0.031
0.010
0.021
0.011
0.011
0.008
0.010
0.010
0.014
0.011
0.012
0.004
0.012
0.015
0.017
0.023
0.022
0.021
0.032
0.038
0.035
0.054
0.058
0.058
0.057
0.073
0.067
0.059
0.084
0.062
0.080
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45




27.6
20.9
24.3
25.3
31.6
27.6
32.5
26.9
26.8
28.8
28.9
26.8
26.6
25.9
28.0
26.2
27.7
26.7
27.3
26.5
26.2
26.3
25.2
25.8
26.2
24.8
25.0
25.4
25.6
25.9
26.7
26.7
27.5
29.3
29.4
Adj
City




21.7
16.7
19.4
20.1
25.3
21.9
25.7
21.1
20.9
22.4
22.3
20.3
19.9
19.2
20.7
19.2
20.0
19.1
19.3
18.7
18.2
18.4
17.5
17.7
17.8
16.8
16.8
17.1
17.1
17.3
17.9
17.8
18.4
19.5
19.5
Adj
Hwy




26.1
19.2
22.5
23.4
29.0
25.9
30.5
25.3
25.1
26.5
26.7
25.4
25.2
24.5
26.3
24.7
26.3
25.4
26.0
25 2
25.2
24.7
23.8
24.4
24.7
23.4
23.4
23.7
24.0
24.3
24.9
25.0
26.0
27.5
27.8
Adj
Comb




23.5
17.8
20.7
21.5
26.8
23.5
27.7
22.8
22.7
24.2
24.2
22.5
22.2
21.5
23.2
21.6
22.8
21.9
22.3
21.6
21.4
21.3
20.5
20.8
21.1
19.9
20.1
20.3
20.5
20.7
21.3
21.3
22.1
23.4
23.5
Weight
Ob)




2500
3149
2930
3122
2689
2913
2584
2929
2928
2827
2845
3234
3289
3492
3217
3443
3310
3397
3397
3526
3558
3603
3831
3828
3801
4010
3966
3994
3992
3956
3919
4059
4028
3969
4042
Vol
(Cu Ft)




100.5
100.8
102.7
103.1
98.9
106.6
115.8
113.2
114.7
109.2
95.3
115.7
109.5
109.1
111.2
117.3
115.4
118.6
119.3
120.8
119.8
119.0
115.2
112.8
113.4
117.8
121.0
120.0
114.9
113.4
110.5
110.8
108.7
110.2
110.5
Engine
cro




97.0
172.6
156.9
164.9
118.5
135.4
101.4
120.2
115.4
112.2
114.8
124.9
129.9
140.3
127.5
140.4
135.2
145.4
147.2
149.1
149.2
152.7
156.9
155.3
153.7
173.9
177.5
182.6
186.1
185.4
179.8
189.4
183.0
175.0
178.9
HP




67
80
83
85
75
80
72
92
92
98
107
120
145
191
130
140
143
153
160
169
172
181
200
201
194
219
226
235
240
243
237
257
254
255
271
0-60
Time




16.0
16.8
15.4
16.0
15.7
16.0
15.9
14.5
14.5
13.4
12.6
12.8
11.6
9.8
12.1
12.0
11.3
11.0
10.6
10.4
10.3
10.0
9.8
9.7
10.0
9.6
9.2
9.0
8.9
8.7
8.9
8.5
8.5
8.7
8.3
HP/
cro




0.691
0.541
0.576
0.564
0.675
0.643
0.703
0.789
0.811
0.890
0.948
0.959
1.104
1.400
1.008
0.991
1.056
1.045
1.086
1.136
1.152
1.191
1.292
1.320
1.272
1.278
1.294
1.309
1.294
1.314
1.322
1.368
1.413
1.472
1.547
HP/
WT




0.0268
0.0257
0.0284
0.0271
0.0279
0.0274
0.0275
0.0312
0.0313
0.0346
0.0378
0.0367
0.0433
0.0552
0.0400
0.0404
0.0430
0.0449
0.0470
0.0479
0.0481
0.0501
0.0523
0.0528
0.0509
0.0545
0.0568
0.0586
0.0597
0.0608
0.0599
0.0627
0.0625
0.0632
0.0661
Ton-
MPG




29.4
28.0
30.3
33.4
36.3
34.4
36.1
33.5
33.3
34.2
34.7
36.3
36.5
37.6
37.2
37.3
37.7
37.3
38.0
38.2
38.1
38.4
39.4
39.9
40.2
40.0
39.8
40.6
41.0
41.1
41.8
43.4
44.7
46.9
47.9
CuFt-
MPG




2360
1880
2224
2266
2722
2605
3259
2618
2632
2678
2305
2615
2456
2380
2587
2557
2640
2624
2684
2627
2577
2555
2375
2362
2416
2359
2444
2455
2368
2370
2373
2388
2427
2639
2646
CuFt-
Ton-
MPG




2950
2819
3117
3439
3586
3672
4181
3793
3821
3754
3291
4212
4008
4104
4156
4385
4361
4451
4549
4621
4576
4588
4565
4531
4580
4766
4845
4890
4721
4663
4623
4819
4863
5178
5303
Transmission
Manual




100.0%
53.5%
73.3%
67.5%
55.8%
59.2%
54.0%
72.4%
69.7%
76.8%
60.9%
45.8%
42.4%
49.3%
32.6%
36.5%
30.7%
32.5%
27.9%
24.3%
22.7%
25.4%
27.7%
27.5%
18.9%
17.2%
14.2%
13.3%
13.7%
11.3%
9.0%
7.2%
8.5%
7.4%
5.9%
Lockup






26.7%
32.5%
14.5%
35.4%
36.7%
0.0%
0.5%
6.2%
15.4%
45.1%
45.0%
38.0%
63.9%
61.6%
69.3%
67.5%
72.1%
75.7%
77.1%
74.4%
71.9%
72.2%
81.1%
82.7%
78.8%
81.5%
80.3%
88.1%
90.7%
81.4%
75.8%
91.9%
93.8%
CVT















2.4%
3.1%
0.1%
0.8%











7.0%
5.2%
6.0%
0.6%

10.1%
15.4%
26.0%
18.4%
EPA-420-R-13-011
F-5
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Drive Type
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI

































10.7%
24.9%
29.6%
37.3%
45.4%
56.4%
Port








1.0%
7.8%
9.8%
34.7%
27.6%
35.2%
78.1%
82.1%
87.5%
100.0%
93.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.7%
89.1%
75.0%
70.4%
62.7%
54.4%
43.5%
TBI












6.8%
44.3%
21.0%
17.9%
12.5%

6.6%




















Diesel
































0.3%
0.2%
0.1%


0.2%
0.0%
Multi-
Valve












5.1%
24.8%
41.8%
71.4%
84.9%
62.3%
85.4%
16.7%
94.2%
84.6%
88.7%
98.8%
98.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
98.7%
96.4%
98.9%
99.8%
99.6%
99.4%
99.0%
99.1%
98.6%
WT





















2.4%
1.4%
17.9%
22.7%
23.7%
32.9%
30.3%
36.6%
40.8%
39.1%
59.6%
53.4%
46.6%
63.1%
98.4%
98.7%
98.1%
100.0%
Hybrid

































0.4%
0.1%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
Vehicle Size
Small




100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
93.1%
90.3%
94.9%
95.3%
77.1%
95.0%
97.3%
97.7%
93.8%
98.4%
55.1%
44.4%
45.3%
36.7%
36.7%
32.0%
39.9%
59.5%
60.6%
54.7%
42.3%
41.0%
44.5%
44.1%
57.7%
45.3%
55.0%


Midsize










6.9%
9.7%
5.1%
4.7%
22.9%
5.0%
2.7%
2.3%
6.2%
1.6%
44.9%
55.6%
54.7%
63.3%
63.3%
67.6%
59.4%
40.3%
38.2%
28.6%
37.4%
36.8%
39.3%
45.5%
34.5%
43.1%
36.7%


Large

























0.3%
0.7%
0.2%
1.1%
16.7%
20.4%
22.2%
16.2%
10.5%
7.8%
11.7%
8.3%


EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                    F-6
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Drive Type
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)



















9
0
18
73
47
75
79
276
335
379
466
602
584
785
804
561
809
1071
1036
1314
Frac



















0.026
0.001
0.063
0.203
0.103
0.154
0.127
0.371
0.555
0.659
0.729
0.740
0.777
0.854
0.870
0.922
0.884
0.888
0.817
0.861
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45



















20.4
25.6
30.6
28.7
29.1
27.5
26.8
25.8
26.5
26.7
26.2
26.4
26.7
26.5
27.3
28.3
29.5
30.5
30.7
31.8
Adj
City



















15.5
18.8
22.4
21.0
21.2
19.9
19.3
17.9
18.3
18.4
17.8
18.0
18.2
18.0
18.5
19.2
19.9
20.4
20.5
21.1
Adj
Hwy



















18.4
23.5
27.9
25.7
25.8
24.4
23.8
24.0
24.5
24.5
24.2
23.8
24 2
24 2
24.8
25.6
26.8
27.9
27.9
29.0
Adj
Comb



















16.8
21.0
24.9
23.2
23.4
22.1
21.5
20.8
21.3
21.3
20.9
20.9
21.2
21.1
21.6
22.4
23.3
24.1
24.2
24.9
Weight
Ob)



















4000
3500
2947
3015
3204
3466
3561
3632
3597
3574
3762
3734
3777
3879
3836
3800
3900
3847
3851
3911
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro



















183.3
122.0
122.0
122.0
121.2
139.5
145.3
167.1
163.4
162.4
181.2
175.7
175.0
178.5
172.8
171.6
170.5
165.0
163.4
156.6
HP



















161
94
120
120
125
161
170
180
176
174
191
185
184
204
198
203
211
205
206
207
0-60
Time



















12.0
16.0
11.7
11.9
12.1
10.8
10.6
10.2
10.2
10.3
10.0
10.1
10.3
9.8
9.8
9.6
9.5
9.7
9.7
9.8
HP/
cro



















0.871
0.770
0.984
0.984
1.035
1.148
1.163
1.093
1.088
1.073
1.059
1.058
1.058
1.145
1.147
1.178
1.231
1.234
1.260
1.344
HP/
WT



















0.0401
0.0269
0.0408
0.0399
0.0394
0.0459
0.0471
0.0496
0.0491
0.0486
0.0509
0.0495
0.0486
0.0522
0.0514
0.0532
0.0538
0.0529
0.0533
0.0526
Ton-
MPG



















33.7
36.7
36.8
35.1
37.5
38.2
38.2
37.8
38.3
38.2
39.4
39.1
40.2
41.0
41.7
42.7
45.7
46.5
46.8
49.0
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-
MPG







































Transmission
Manual



















54.8%
100.0%
23.2%
28.5%
13.0%
5.8%
3.2%
6.3%
7.2%
8.1%
5.9%
4.4%
3.2%
1.4%
0.8%
0.6%
0.2%
0.6%
0.5%
0.6%
Lockup



















45.2%

76.8%
71.5%
87.0%
94.2%
96.8%
93.7%
92.5%
79.0%
85.5%
89.5%
90.1%
94.0%
92.7%
84.7%
90.4%
90.4%
98.2%
99.1%
CVT



























0.3%
12.9%
8.6%
6.0%
6.7%
4.6%
6.5%
14.7%
9.4%
9.0%
13.6%
10.0%
EPA-420-R-13-011
F-7
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Drive Type
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI

































2.5%
1.4%
19.9%
20.8%
33.6%
42.7%
Port



















100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
97.5%
98.6%
80.1%
79.2%
66.4%
57.3%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve



















73.8%

100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
81.2%
78.7%
90.5%
87.2%
79.8%
88.5%
86.8%
91.9%
95.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT
























29.7%
39.4%
27.0%
32.9%
28.2%
43.5%
27.0%
32.6%
47.3%
54.3%
75.1%
99.9%
99.8%
100.0%
99.4%
Hybrid






























0.7%
1.4%
1.9%
2.7%
2.9%
1.5%
0.6%
0.5%
0.4%
Vehicle Size
Small





















100.0%
100.0%
59.1%
36.5%
27.2%
14.7%
21.4%
14.2%
8.5%
6.7%








Midsize



















100.0%
100.0%


40.9%
63.5%
72.8%
85.3%
67.2%
79.6%
81.9%
68.7%
70.6%
67.6%
76.6%
79.0%
63.9%
67.2%


Large



























11.4%
6.2%
9.6%
24.6%
29.4%
32.4%
23.4%
21.0%
36.1%
32.8%


EPA-420-R-13-011
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F:  Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Drive Type
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
10
11
19
16
16
0
0
13
34
55
88
59
95
109
108
65
224
243
473
323
220
269
287
408
413
538
467
268
196
151
93
103
92
71
31
25
19
49
26
Frac
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.974
0.999
0.937
0.797
0.897
0.846
0.873
0.629
0.445
0.341
0.237
0.115
0.137
0.100
0.076
0.050
0.028
0.015
0.039
0.017
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
13.1
12.4
14.3
13.6
16.8
17.2
17.3
23.4
24.3
22.6
23.5
22.3
22.9
22.7
22.7
22.5
21.8
21.4
20.4
21.8
21.5
22.0
22.5
21.7
22.1
21.5
22.1
21.4
21.9
22.4
21.9
22.4
22.5
22.7
23.3
23.3
23.7
23.8
24.8
Adj
City
10.1
9.4
11.2
10.4
13.9
13.9
13.7
20.2
19.5
17.5
17.6
17.1
17.1
17.1
17.1
16.9
16.4
16.1
15.0
16.1
15.7
15.9
16.3
15.6
15.8
15.3
15.7
15.1
15.4
15.4
14.9
15.2
15.4
15.4
15.8
15.8
16.0
16.2
17.0
Adj
Hwy
12.6
12.5
13.6
13.5
14.8
15.5
16.1
19.3
22.4
22.1
24.2
21.7
23.1
22.5
22.1
21.5
20.5
20.1
19.6
20.5
20.5
20.8
20.9
20.4
20.5
19.9
20.1
19.6
20.0
20.7
20.5
20.9
20.9
21.3
21.7
21.6
22.1
22.1
22.2
Adj
Comb
11.1
10.6
12.2
11.6
14.3
14.6
14.7
19.8
20.7
19.3
20.1
18.9
19.4
19.2
19.1
18.8
18.2
17.8
17.0
18.1
17.8
18.1
18.4
17.8
18.0
17.5
17.8
17.3
17.6
18.0
17.6
18.0
18.1
18.3
18.7
18.7
19.0
19.1
19.6
Weight
Ob)
4000
3986
4000
4000
3271
4000
4000
2630
3124
3487
3469
3479
3492
3495
3497
3518
3733
3713
3848
3728
3764
3761
3686
3895
3898
3915
3844
3935
3991
4042
4249
4231
4280
4406
4479
4500
4246
4098
4326
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
261.6
263.3
261.0
262.3
185.1
280.2
318.0
158.6
163.0
179.5
170.9
169.8
178.9
199.2
226.0
208.7
214.9
209.9
238.3
209.5
214.1
221.2
206.8
229.5
223.4
221.1
209.2
207.6
217.6
212.9
224.1
216.3
233.0
221.9
222.6
226.5
221.8
219.2
214.0
HP
113
123
124
126
99
122
140
88
101
109
109
121
131
142
148
146
145
153
179
163
165
170
169
173
171
174
179
183
194
204
236
231
244
257
269
264
271
233
262
0-60
Time
15.6
14.6
14.4
14.2
14.9
15.1
13.3
13.7
14.1
14.5
14.4
13.3
12.7
11.9
11.4
11.7
12.6
12.0
10.8
11.3
11.3
10.9
10.8
11.0
11.1
11.0
10.7
10.7
10.3
10.0
9.2
9.4
9.0
8.8
8.6
8.7
8.2
9.1
8.8
HP/
cro
0.430
0.467
0.477
0.481
0.576
0.436
0.440
0.557
0.617
0.615
0.637
0.713
0.730
0.719
0.668
0.714
0.680
0.734
0.757
0.789
0.783
0.790
0.847
0.775
0.791
0.812
0.883
0.898
0.900
0.961
1.055
1.069
1.047
1.165
1.210
1.174
1.226
1.069
1.226
HP/
WT
0.0282
0.0309
0.0311
0.0315
0.0300
0.0305
0.0350
0.0335
0.0325
0.0313
0.0314
0.0348
0.0374
0.0405
0.0422
0.0415
0.0385
0.0409
0.0462
0.0434
0.0436
0.0451
0.0459
0.0445
0.0439
0.0445
0.0465
0.0463
0.0486
0.0502
0.0552
0.0542
0.0569
0.0586
0.0600
0.0588
0.0639
0.0567
0.0600
Ton-
MPG
22.6
22.1
25.1
23.8
23.6
29.4
29.4
26.0
32.7
33.9
34.9
33.0
34.0
33.7
33.5
33.2
34.0
33.2
32.9
33.6
33.6
34.1
34.0
34.7
35.1
34.2
34.4
34.1
35.3
36.4
37.5
38.1
38.7
40.3
41.9
42.1
40.3
39.1
43.2
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-
MPG







































Transmission
Manual
68.3%
69.1%
82.5%
84.2%
37.7%
3.9%

4.6%
19.3%
19.4%
15.9%
18.1%
14.3%
24.6%
27.4%
35.1%
22.2%
24.6%
10.9%
20.6%
17.3%
14.9%
21.8%
10.9%
8.9%
6.1%
6.1%
7.9%
5.4%
6.3%
3.3%
4.5%
3.9%
0.4%
0.2%
0.3%

0.3%
2.2%
Lockup




3.9%
86.8%
100.0%
8.9%
43.2%
64.8%
84.1%
81.9%
85.7%
75.4%
72.6%
63.0%
77.7%
75.4%
89.1%
71.6%
82.7%
85.1%
70.5%
89.1%
91.1%
93.9%
93.9%
92.1%
94.6%
93.7%
96.7%
95.5%
96.1%
99.6%
99.8%
99.7%
100.0%
99.7%
97.8%
CVT







































EPA-420-R-13-011
F-9
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Drive Type
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI






































41.9%
Port











0.0%
32.8%
48.2%
44.7%
63.3%
49.3%
68.4%
90.6%
91.9%
90.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
58.1%
TBI










5.3%
86.8%
67.2%
51.8%
53.9%
31.6%
49.9%
30.3%
8.7%
8.1%
9.2%


















Diesel











0.0%



























Multi-
Valve



















9.8%
19.1%
27.9%
43.0%
21.0%
27.3%
24.4%
20.6%
59.8%
24.9%
35.9%
59.5%
68.6%
75.1%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
49.3%
100.0%
WT




























2.9%
11.6%
49.9%
46.1%
54.5%
94.5%
72.2%
100.0%
100.0%
49.3%
100.0%
Hybrid







































Vehicle Size
Small
61.4%
63.1%
79.5%
81.6%
83.5%


86.5%
37.6%
5.6%

0.0%
24.1%
35.2%
32.0%
41.2%
20.9%
19.9%
10.2%
19.2%
11.5%
8.7%
26.3%
13.7%
9.3%
20.4%
21.0%
14.5%
1.9%
3.2%


2.2%






Midsize
38.6%
36.9%
20.5%
18.4%
16.5%
100.0%
100.0%
13.5%
62.4%
94.4%
100.0%
100.0%
75.9%
64.8%
68.0%
58.8%
79.1%
80.1%
89.8%
80.8%
88.5%
91.3%
73.7%
86.3%
89.6%
78.9%
69.5%
85.5%
90.7%
78.8%
69.2%
79.4%
86.5%
80.3%
45.4%
87.2%
81.5%


Large
























1.1%
0.7%
9.5%

7.4%
18.1%
30.8%
20.6%
11.3%
19.7%
54.6%
12.8%
18.5%


EPA-420-R-13-011
F-10
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Drive Type
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)





























22
118
64
43
49
17
81
117
184
187
Frac





























0.034
0.145
0.086
0.047
0.053
0.028
0.089
0.097
0.145
0.122
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45





























20.2
23.8
23.1
23.7
23.6
23.2
27.5
26.0
26.5
28.4
Adj
City





























13.6
16.0
15.5
15.9
15.8
15.5
18.4
17.3
17.6
18.9
Adj
Hwy





























19.6
22.6
21.8
22.5
22.5
22.3
25.5
24.7
24.6
26.5
Adj
Comb





























16.4
19.2
18.6
19.1
19.0
18.7
21.9
20.9
21.0
22.6
Weight
Ob)





























4500
4113
4205
4222
4273
4232
4272
4229
4214
4183
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro





























249.8
207.6
209.2
209.6
211.4
209.9
164.9
163.9
175.6
172.3
HP





























286
195
202
203
214
210
225
221
230
224
0-60
Time





























8.3
10.4
10.4
10.3
10.1
10.1
9.7
9.8
9.5
9.8
HP/
cro





























1.149
0.935
0.959
0.964
1.007
0.997
1.356
1.335
1.308
1.291
HP/
WT





























0.0636
0.0472
0.0477
0.0478
0.0499
0.0496
0.0524
0.0517
0.0544
0.0531
Ton-
MPG





























37.0
39.4
39.0
40.3
40.5
39.6
47.0
44.1
44.4
47.5
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-
MPG







































Transmission
Manual







































Lockup





























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































EPA-420-R-13-011
F-ll
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Drive Type
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI



































97.4%
94.3%
82.6%
82.5%
Port





























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
2.6%
5.7%
17.4%
17.5%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve





























100.0%
11.3%
100.0%
22.2%
36.5%
32.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT





























100.0%
11.3%
20.5%
22.2%
36.5%
32.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































Vehicle Size
Small







































Midsize




































4.7%


Large





























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
95.3%


EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                   F-12
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Drive Type
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)






1

1
151
260
255
307
411
439
590
395
554
718
742
1019
1040
819
1166
1112
1363
854
1048
1029
826
1321
1047
795
734
346
538
476
618
525
Frac






0.003

0.002
0.223
0.304
0.244
0.275
0.363
0.344
0.468
0.382
0.454
0.498
0.523
0.613
0.738
0.648
0.783
0.760
0.806
0.693
0.843
0.835
0.866
0.892
0.898
0.938
0.929
0.941
0.963
0.915
0.935
0.925
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45






17.9

39.0
24.7
23.7
24.4
24.6
24.1
24.1
23.9
23.8
23.8
23.8
23.5
23.5
23.5
23.5
23.8
23.5
23.8
24.3
24.0
24.4
24.3
24.4
24.7
24.4
24.9
25.3
25 2
26.8
27.1
26.7
Adj
City






13.8

33.5
19.6
18.9
19.2
19.1
18.3
18.4
17.9
17.9
17.6
17.4
17.1
16.9
16.7
16.7
16.7
16.4
16.5
16.7
16.5
16.6
16.3
16.3
16.5
16.3
16.6
16.8
16.8
17.9
18.0
17.7
Adj
Hwy






17.5

32.3
23.1
21.9
22.8
23.1
23.1
22.8
23.0
22.5
22.7
22.9
22.5
22.8
22.7
22.7
23.1
22.9
23.0
23.3
22.9
23 2
23.4
23.3
23.7
23.4
23.8
24.1
24.0
25.3
25.8
25.5
Adj
Comb






15.2

32.9
21.0
20.1
20.7
20.8
20.3
20.2
20.0
19.9
19.8
19.8
19.5
19.5
19.4
19.4
19.6
19.3
19.5
19.8
19.5
19.7
19.6
19.6
19.9
19.7
20.1
20.3
20.3
21.5
21.7
21.4
Weight
Ob)






4115

2250
3341
3422
3442
3503
3714
3724
3828
3919
3894
3838
3902
3889
4061
4048
4025
4147
4168
4242
4319
4293
4428
4392
4424
4449
4500
4543
4511
4441
4388
4571
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro






318.0

97.0
143.3
148.3
150.3
163.4
173.3
167.9
184.3
186.3
187.5
188.0
193.4
206.3
202.6
195.4
201.5
204.2
201.6
200.9
206.8
209.2
212.0
212.5
212.6
217.1
217.8
212.2
212.2
208.7
206.5
211.6
HP






135

52
97
100
100
122
133
131
135
136
139
143
145
146
166
162
173
176
178
189
198
199
212
208
210
225
219
219
211
259
255
264
0-60
Time






13.7

18.3
15.3
15.2
15.4
13.6
13.2
13.5
13.3
13.5
13.2
12.7
12.7
12.6
11.8
12.0
11.3
11.4
11.4
10.9
10.8
10.6
10.4
10.5
10.4
10.0
10.4
10.4
10.6
8.9
9.1
9.0
HP/
cro






0.425

0.536
0.680
0.681
0.669
0.741
0.765
0.776
0.733
0.727
0.742
0.763
0.755
0.722
0.824
0.832
0.864
0.863
0.888
0.946
0.959
0.955
1.007
0.984
0.992
1.040
1.009
1.038
1.003
1.237
1.226
1.244
HP/
WT






0.0329

0.0231
0.0293
0.0294
0.0291
0.0347
0.0359
0.0350
0.0354
0.0346
0.0355
0.0373
0.0373
0.0375
0.0409
0.0400
0.0431
0.0423
0.0427
0.0447
0.0458
0.0464
0.0480
0.0474
0.0475
0.0505
0.0486
0.0481
0.0466
0.0580
0.0576
0.0576
Ton-
MPG






31.3

37.2
35.3
34.5
35.7
36.4
37.7
37.7
38.4
38.9
38.6
37.9
38.1
37.9
39.4
39.2
39.4
40.1
40.5
42.0
42.1
42.3
43.5
43.2
44.1
43.8
45.2
46.2
45.8
47.7
47.6
48.9
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-
MPG







































Transmission
Manual






100.0%

33.3%
25.1%
12.4%
8.7%
5.5%
3.0%
2.6%
1.9%
0.2%
2.4%
1.6%
0.6%
0.1%
0.0%











0.1%
0.3%
0.2%

0.2%
0.2%
Lockup









5.6%
4.4%
6.1%
54.1%
78.4%
58.8%
96.7%
99.8%
97.6%
98.4%
99.4%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
97.0%
96.6%
96.8%
99.9%
99.7%
99.8%
96.6%
99.8%
99.8%
CVT






























3.0%
3.4%
3.2%



3.4%
3.5%
6.2%
EPA-420-R-13-011
F-13
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Drive Type
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port










0.1%

51.6%
79.2%
72.7%
67.9%
70.5%
82.0%
88.8%
90.8%
93.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI











0.1%
0.2%
20.8%
27.3%
32.1%
29.5%
18.0%
11.2%
9.2%
6.8%


















Diesel








100.0%
1.3%





























Multi-
Valve



















0.3%
3.3%
5.6%
7.5%
12.0%
16.4%
26.8%
32.6%
33.7%
30.9%
57.3%
38.0%
48.2%
53.9%
53.1%
60.7%
52.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT
























10.8%
18.6%
24.5%
24.7%
23.5%
50.1%
26.2%
38.6%
51.0%
50.0%
48.1%
36.9%
94.1%
94.1%
100.0%
Hybrid







































Vehicle Size
Small








100.0%
11.0%
6.7%
9.0%
8.4%
2.9%
2.2%
2.9%
1.6%
6.1%
1.7%
1.0%
0.2%
0.1%











2.2%
6.4%
3.7%



Midsize






100.0%


89.0%
93.3%
91.0%
91.6%
97.1%
97.8%
97.1%
98.4%
93.9%
98.3%
99.0%
99.7%
99.9%
99.8%
100.0%
99.9%
99.9%
100.0%
99.9%
99.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
97.8%
93.6%
96.3%
100.0%


Large




















0.2%

0.2%

0.1%
0.1%

0.1%
0.4%










EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                   F-14
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Drive Type
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
457
502
514
625
481
242
244
311
382
525
593
776
786
713
830
589
526
600
658
585
492
336
387
274
311
282
272
157
141
81
79
66
28
24
13
12
15
23
24
Frac
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.997
1.000
0.998
0.777
0.693
0.743
0.705
0.630
0.649
0.467
0.509
0.491
0.456
0.413
0.296
0.239
0.306
0.184
0.213
0.167
0.221
0.126
0.114
0.085
0.054
0.057
0.033
0.031
0.034
0.021
0.029
0.034
0.043
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
13.1
13.9
14.7
14.2
13.5
16.6
17.5
17.3
17.7
17.7
18.0
19.5
19.6
19.8
19.8
19.3
20.1
19.8
20.2
19.5
19.0
19.2
19.8
19.5
18.9
19.1
18.9
18.7
19.4
20.1
19.9
19.4
20.0
20.3
20.5
20.7
19.3
19.8
19.6
Adj
City
10.6
11.1
11.9
11.6
11.1
13.3
14.0
13.9
14.1
14.0
14.3
15.3
15.2
15.1
15.0
14.5
15.0
14.7
14.9
14.3
13.9
13.9
14.2
13.9
13.5
13.6
13.3
13.2
13.6
13.9
13.8
13.4
13.8
14.1
14.2
14.3
13.4
13.7
13.5
Adj
Hwy
11.9
12.8
13.3
12.7
12.1
15.4
16.0
15.9
16.5
16.6
16.8
18.4
18.7
19.0
19.1
18.6
19.3
19.0
19.5
18.6
18.0
18.2
18.8
18.5
17.8
17.8
17.9
17.2
17.7
18.5
18.2
17.7
18.4
18.3
18.5
18.9
17.7
18.2
18.0
Adj
Comb
11.1
11.8
12.5
12.1
11.5
14.1
14.8
14.7
15.1
15.1
15.3
16.6
16.6
16.7
16.7
16.2
16.8
16.6
16.9
16.2
15.7
15.9
16.3
16.0
15.5
15.6
15.4
15.1
15.6
16.2
16.0
15.6
16.1
16.2
16.4
16.6
15.6
15.9
15.8
Weight
Ob)
4196
4200
4252
4250
4541
4353
4325
4342
4418
4286
4222
4198
4169
4256
4239
4369
4305
4360
4351
4439
4536
4560
4578
4758
4821
4717
4957
4806
4930
4947
4847
5139
5159
5189
5185
5249
5528
5384
5447
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
317.5
323.7
331.8
329.2
321.9
287.9
283.9
286.9
294.7
279.7
275.1
255.1
253.0
262.1
256.8
269.9
248.9
255.6
249.1
268.4
288.8
272.9
269.1
279.9
285.1
282.9
289.6
284.2
283.2
280.9
277.0
281.0
277.5
277.2
276.6
279.7
290.1
282.8
290.5
HP
143
146
152
149
144
131
129
132
136
134
142
137
151
155
155
162
157
163
166
176
186
185
200
209
208
208
225
213
218
222
214
226
220
222
220
226
235
228
239
0-60
Time
13.9
13.7
13.3
13.4
14.6
15.2
15.3
15.2
15.0
14.8
14.0
14.2
13.1
12.9
13.0
12.8
12.9
12.7
12.5
12.1
11.7
11.9
11.2
11.1
11.3
11.1
10.8
11.0
11.1
10.9
11.1
11.1
11.5
11.5
11.6
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.4
HP/
cro
0.448
0.447
0.458
0.453
0.451
0.459
0.458
0.463
0.466
0.497
0.533
0.559
0.622
0.615
0.627
0.619
0.664
0.664
0.692
0.669
0.660
0.691
0.748
0.750
0.731
0.735
0.779
0.752
0.767
0.785
0.769
0.800
0.785
0.794
0.786
0.799
0.805
0.798
0.815
HP/
WT
0.0341
0.0347
0.0359
0.0351
0.0317
0.0299
0.0298
0.0303
0.0307
0.0311
0.0335
0.0327
0.0362
0.0366
0.0366
0.0372
0.0366
0.0375
0.0383
0.0397
0.0414
0.0406
0.0437
0.0441
0.0431
0.0441
0.0454
0.0445
0.0441
0.0448
0.0442
0.0438
0.0424
0.0425
0.0420
0.0426
0.0423
0.0420
0.0436
Ton-
MPG
23.8
25.2
26.9
26.1
26.5
31.0
32.3
32.3
33.7
32.9
32.9
35.1
34.9
35.7
35.7
35.6
36.4
36.3
36.8
36.1
35.8
36.3
37.4
38.1
37.3
36.9
38.3
36.5
38.6
39.9
38.6
40.0
41.5
42.0
42.6
43.5
43.0
43.0
43.0
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-
MPG







































Transmission
Manual
23.3%
20.5%
14.3%
13.0%
14.8%
26.0%
21.7%
15.7%
12.0%
12.7%
8.4%
6.9%
5.1%
3.1%
2.5%
1.6%
1.5%
0.7%
0.8%
0.3%



















Lockup




6.8%
39.0%
46.8%
45.8%
59.4%
57.1%
66.5%
78.8%
74.1%
79.6%
86.3%
90.4%
94.3%
95.2%
95.6%
94.7%
94.4%
93.2%
98.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT







































EPA-420-R-13-011
F-15
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Drive Type
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port









8.6%
9.1%
29.4%
43.0%
43.5%
49.9%
44.4%
53.1%
60.3%
66.3%
66.6%
71.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.4%
1.8%
6.5%
4.6%
3.0%
3.5%
4.0%
4.2%
21.9%
42.8%
56.0%
50.0%
55.4%
46.7%
39.6%
33.7%
33.4%
28.4%


















Diesel







1.8%
4.4%
1.2%
0.4%
0.5%
0.1%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%





















Multi-
Valve



















2.6%
3.3%
5.3%
3.1%
2.3%












2.5%


WT



































29.1%
26.5%
20.4%
30.1%
Hybrid







































Vehicle Size
Small
0.4%
0.3%
0.4%
0.4%
1.8%
6.5%
4.6%
4.8%
3.6%
12.6%
12.3%
8.5%
10.0%
4.9%
2.2%
1.1%
0.8%






















Midsize
66.1%
61.4%
61.0%
63.8%
65.1%
53.8%
56.1%
58.0%
60.2%
54.3%
60.3%
70.9%
72.2%
75.9%
80.7%
80.6%
84.8%
84.5%
83.8%
80.9%
79.2%
67.4%
64.5%
51.9%
45.5%
40.5%
19.8%
29.3%
29.4%
31.4%
35.1%


4.5%


2.5%


Large
33.6%
38.3%
38.6%
35.8%
33.1%
39.7%
39.3%
37.2%
36.2%
33.1%
27.4%
20.6%
17.8%
19.2%
17.1%
18.2%
14.4%
15.5%
16.2%
19.1%
20.8%
32.6%
35.5%
48.1%
54.5%
59.5%
80.2%
70.7%
70.6%
68.6%
64.9%
100.0%
100.0%
95.5%
100.0%
100.0%
97.5%


EPA-420-R-13-011
F-16
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Drive Type
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)










3
13
21
9
9
83
113
67
65
91
150
33
59
48
40
46
107
38
62
47
81
53
25
32
9
9
29
20
18
Frac










0.003
0.013
0.019
0.008
0.007
0.066
0.109
0.055
0.045
0.064
0.091
0.023
0.047
0.032
0.027
0.027
0.087
0.030
0.050
0.049
0.055
0.045
0.029
0.040
0.025
0.016
0.056
0.031
0.033
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45










25.0
25.1
24 2
26.2
23.4
20.1
20.6
20.3
20.3
20.7
21.7
20.0
20.0
20.2
20.4
20.5
17.3
19.8
20.7
21.6
22.4
22.7
22.7
22.3
21.4
21.1
22.7
23.4
23.2
Adj
City










19.2
19.1
19.0
20.0
17.9
15.2
15.5
15.1
15.0
15.1
15.7
14.5
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.5
12.1
13.8
14.3
14.8
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.2
14.7
14.6
15.5
15.8
15.7
Adj
Hwy










24.8
24.8
22.4
25.1
22.0
19.1
19.6
19.3
19.5
19.9
20.9
19.0
19.0
19.3
19.3
19.2
16.5
18.8
19.5
20.1
20.6
20.9
20.8
20.6
19.5
19.3
21.0
21.8
21.8
Adj
Comb










21.4
21.4
20.5
22.1
19.7
16.9
17.2
16.9
16.9
17.2
18.0
16.5
16.4
16.6
16.7
16.7
14.2
16.1
16.8
17.4
18.0
18.2
18.2
17.9
17.1
16.9
18.2
18.8
18.7
Weight
Ob)










3000
3000
3459
3378
3567
4050
4076
4409
4571
4408
4210
4727
4693
4713
4747
4764
5614
4772
4839
4731
4645
4669
4695
4651
4824
4919
4958
4979
5099
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro










122.0
122.0
127.8
124.9
135.6
201.6
199.6
212.4
229.2
219.1
208.5
244.0
242.7
238.4
250.5
252.5
300.4
239.7
238.7
228.5
206.4
205.5
214.2
226.3
241.8
250.0
222.6
229.0
226.8
HP










88
88
94
97
106
151
152
162
174
169
159
177
179
180
186
181
241
195
202
222
213
214
238
270
275
278
270
273
276
0-60
Time










14.9
14.9
15.8
15.2
15.1
12.7
12.6
12.9
12.5
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.4
12.4
12.1
12.4
11.3
11.7
11.6
10.5
10.7
10.7
9.9
8.8
8.9
9.0
9.3
9.3
9.4
HP/
cro










0.721
0.721
0.739
0.777
0.781
0.765
0.778
0.774
0.765
0.781
0.775
0.735
0.741
0.762
0.745
0.717
0.805
0.824
0.854
0.994
1.051
1.052
1.129
1.211
1.169
1.146
1.227
1.213
1.235
HP/
WT










0.0293
0.0293
0.0276
0.0289
0.0299
0.0375
0.0374
0.0366
0.0381
0.0383
0.0378
0.0375
0.0380
0.0382
0.0393
0.0380
0.0428
0.0411
0.0416
0.0471
0.0460
0.0459
0.0507
0.0582
0.0574
0.0569
0.0545
0.0550
0.0541
Ton-
MPG










32.0
32.0
35.6
37.2
35.1
34.2
35.2
37.3
38.7
37.8
37.9
39.0
38.6
39.2
39.7
39.9
40.0
39.1
41.0
41.5
41.9
42.5
42.7
41.6
41.3
41.6
45.2
46.9
47.9
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-
MPG







































Transmission
Manual










100.0%
100.0%
66.4%
89.7%
59.4%
3.2%
4.6%
3.3%
0.2%
0.5%
0.4%
0.1%

















Lockup












22.9%
10.3%
37.2%
92.5%
95.4%
96.7%
99.5%
99.5%
99.6%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
55.2%
62.4%
48.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT






























44.8%
37.6%
51.6%






EPA-420-R-13-011
F-17
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Drive Type
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port












67.5%
100.0%
100.0%
85.0%
85.9%
91.1%
100.0%
97.5%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI















15.0%
14.1%
8.9%

2.5%



















Diesel







































Multi-
Valve



















34.9%
17.0%
15.3%
10.2%
17.9%





55.6%
74.8%
76.9%
84.1%
87.4%
73.2%
65.2%
89.7%
83.9%
85.9%
WT





























55.6%
30.0%
39.3%
32.5%
41.0%
73.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































Vehicle Size
Small










100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
82.6%
8.4%
3.8%
9.3%
0.3%
4.0%
2.9%
0.4%

















Midsize














17.4%
91.6%
96.2%
90.7%
99.4%
96.0%
97.1%
99.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
28.9%
100.0%
88.4%
90.7%
95.2%
92.4%
84.1%
87.4%
73.2%
65.2%
89.7%


Large


















0.3%







71.1%

11.6%
9.3%
4.8%
7.6%
15.9%
12.6%
26.8%
34.8%
10.3%


EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                   F-18
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Drive Type
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)


























200
60
94
114
97
154
214
309
300
327
423
381
436
Frac


























0.074
0.017
0.026
0.028
0.029
0.051
0.065
0.101
0.175
0.142
0.138
0.137
0.145
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45


























23.5
25.0
25.7
25.3
25.9
26.0
26.0
25.7
24.9
25.6
25.8
25.7
26.7
Adj
City


























16.3
17.6
18.0
17.4
17.8
17.9
17.7
17.4
16.7
17.2
17.3
17.2
17.9
Adj
Hwy


























22.3
22.7
23.0
23.0
23.2
23 2
23.5
23.8
23.4
24.0
24 2
24.3
24.9
Adj
Comb


























19.1
20.1
20.5
20.2
20.5
20.6
20.6
20.5
20.0
20.5
20.7
20.6
21.3
Weight
Ob)


























4412
4000
3885
4060
3950
4239
4283
4472
4537
4496
4537
4674
4605
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro


























221.5
171.8
164.6
186.8
173.8
188.6
187.8
196.0
200.7
201.8
202.1
209.5
201.7
HP


























200
201
190
196
198
209
217
238
251
250
263
269
261
0-60
Time


























10.8
10.1
10.3
10.4
10.1
9.7
9.8
9.5
9.3
9.2
9.0
9.0
9.2
HP/
cro


























0.916
1.163
1.149
1.074
1.138
1.111
1.154
1.214
1.255
1.239
1.301
1.285
1.304
HP/
WT


























0.0455
0.0502
0.0489
0.0484
0.0500
0.0493
0.0504
0.0529
0.0549
0.0552
0.0575
0.0574
0.0564
Ton-
MPG


























42.2
40.4
40.0
41.0
40.6
44.1
44.2
45.9
45.3
46.1
46.8
48.1
49.1
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-
MPG







































Transmission
Manual




























4.3%
1.6%
1.8%
1.1%
2.4%
1.6%
0.9%
0.8%
0.7%


Lockup


























100.0%
100.0%
95.7%
98.4%
98.2%
85.7%
74.8%
81.6%
90.8%
86.7%
88.9%
99.3%
100.0%
CVT































13.2%
22.8%
16.8%
8.3%
9.6%
10.4%
0.7%
12.1%
EPA-420-R-13-011
F-19
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Drive Type
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI


































20.2%
35.7%
40.1%
45.6%
25.1%
Port


























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
79.8%
64.3%
59.9%
54.4%
74.9%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-
Valve


























17.6%
100.0%
100.0%
81.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT


























17.6%
100.0%
100.0%
81.8%
100.0%
100.0%
99.3%
97.6%
83.9%
86.7%
100.0%
100.0%
88.1%
Hybrid































13.2%
5.5%
1.9%
0.1%




Vehicle Size
Small







































Midsize


























82.4%
100.0%
99.6%
91.6%
91.4%
93.5%
72.6%
55.2%
44.6%
34.9%
37.7%


Large


























17.6%

0.4%
8.4%
8.6%
6.5%
27.4%
44.8%
55.4%
65.1%
62.3%


EPA-420-R-13-011
F-20
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Drive Type
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
20
24
31
28
107
20
13
21
22
38
56
48
46
49
53
48
33
35
58
56
157
260
378
293
483
416
435
856
846
913
650
532
603
436
129
187
273
176
200
Frac
0.111
0.105
0.116
0.076
0.278
0.111
0.095
0.138
0.087
0.067
0.087
0.067
0.059
0.057
0.065
0.075
0.037
0.046
0.069
0.043
0.099
0.162
0.181
0.138
0.206
0.165
0.161
0.239
0.237
0.224
0.199
0.177
0.182
0.142
0.075
0.081
0.089
0.064
0.066
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
13.5
13.6
14.7
14.0
11.1
14.4
15.9
19.0
17.6
16.8
16.4
17.0
17.0
17.2
17.4
17.4
17.7
17.6
17.6
17.0
18.8
19.3
19.5
19.3
18.5
18.9
19.0
19.7
19.3
19.5
19.9
20.0
20.5
20.7
21.0
21.5
22 2
22.0
22.0
Adj
City
10.8
10.8
11.9
11.3
9.3
11.4
12.7
14.5
13.6
13.0
12.8
13.1
12.9
12.9
13.0
12.8
13.1
13.1
12.9
12.4
13.7
13.9
14.1
13.8
13.1
13.4
13.6
13.7
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
14.0
14.0
14.2
14.5
15.0
14.8
14.9
Adj
Hwy
12.4
12.7
13.4
12.7
9.5
13.6
14.7
18.8
17.0
16.4
15.8
16.7
16.6
16.9
17.4
17.4
17.4
16.9
16.9
16.4
18.0
18.5
18.6
18.3
17.6
17.8
17.5
18.5
18.1
18.1
18.6
18.9
19.3
19.6
19.9
20.3
20.8
20.8
21.4
Adj
Comb
11.5
11.6
12.5
11.9
9.4
12.3
13.6
16.2
15.0
14.4
14.0
14.5
14.4
14.5
14.7
14.7
14.9
14.7
14.7
14.1
15.6
16.0
16.1
15.8
15.2
15.5
15.5
16.0
15.6
15.8
16.0
16.2
16.6
16.8
17.0
17.4
17.8
17.7
18.0
Weight
Ob)
4570
4628
4612
4650
5161
5058
4910
5064
5119
5013
4917
4960
5280
5338
5249
5332
5188
5061
5192
5500
4761
4652
4629
4678
4932
4935
4960
4842
5111
5012
5083
4993
5293
5197
5339
5288
5331
5475
5698
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
357.0
356.2
351.8
348.3
367.3
342.3
326.1
333.5
349.5
345.7
341.1
344.8
343.8
345.9
334.9
339.1
318.8
302.6
316.6
350.0
275.4
262.6
265.3
271.6
297.2
282.5
281.1
271.0
281.9
284.4
279.8
273.2
288.0
283.9
293.0
282.9
281.5
294.2
309.8
HP
166
156
160
160
151
162
162
150
154
156
159
160
194
186
194
202
196
194
199
210
173
191
198
214
231
228
242
244
255
258
266
260
276
282
287
274
299
315
321
0-60
Time
12.9
13.9
13.6
13.4
15.7
14.2
13.9
15.4
15.2
14.7
14.2
14.2
12.9
13.4
12.8
12.5
12.5
12.3
12.3
12.4
12.8
11.8
11.4
10.7
10.5
10.6
10.2
9.9
10.0
9.8
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.5
9.5
9.8
9.1
9.0
9.1
HP/
cro
0.463
0.435
0.451
0.463
0.408
0.473
0.498
0.453
0.445
0.454
0.467
0.466
0.564
0.536
0.586
0.602
0.635
0.670
0.649
0.600
0.652
0.747
0.764
0.815
0.795
0.826
0.873
0.907
0.914
0.913
0.954
0.954
0.961
0.991
0.979
0.973
1.078
1.089
1.056
HP/
WT
0.0362
0.0335
0.0344
0.0345
0.0291
0.0321
0.0330
0.0299
0.0302
0.0313
0.0325
0.0325
0.0367
0.0348
0.0369
0.0379
0.0379
0.0384
0.0383
0.0382
0.0364
0.0409
0.0426
0.0457
0.0467
0.0463
0.0489
0.0506
0.0504
0.0519
0.0523
0.0521
0.0523
0.0542
0.0535
0.0518
0.0561
0.0579
0.0568
Ton-
MPG
26.4
27.1
29.3
28.0
24.3
31.1
33.3
42.1
40.0
36.7
35.1
36.4
38.3
38.9
38.8
39.2
38.6
37.1
37.9
38.9
37.2
37.1
37.3
37.0
37.4
38.3
38.2
38.7
39.9
39.4
40.8
40.4
43.9
43.5
45.3
45.8
47.5
48.5
51.8
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-
MPG







































Transmission
Manual
15.1%
20.1%
17.5%
24.2%
17.2%
15.1%
2.3%







3.5%
1.6%
5.5%
8.0%
4.7%

12.3%
5.3%
3.7%
1.1%
0.6%
0.4%
0.4%
0.6%
0.0%
0.3%
0.5%
0.4%
0.2%
0.4%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%


Lockup




1.5%
84.1%
97.7%
92.4%
95.1%
88.8%
70.4%
91.0%
91.4%
94.4%
90.6%
88.4%
89.1%
91.9%
95.3%
100.0%
87.7%
94.7%
96.3%
98.9%
99.4%
99.6%
99.6%
99.4%
100.0%
99.7%
99.5%
99.6%
99.8%
98.7%
97.8%
99.6%
99.7%
100.0%
100.0%
CVT

































0.9%
2.0%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
3.4%
EPA-420-R-13-011
F-21
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Drive Type
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI




































2.3%
3.8%
6.1%
Port















5.1%
17.9%
30.0%
21.0%

58.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.9%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
97.7%
96.2%
93.9%
TBI












76.8%
96.6%
98.2%
93.2%
79.9%
70.0%
79.0%
100.0%
41.1%


















Diesel





0.0%

37.9%
28.7%
13.7%
6.5%
5.2%
2.7%
2.2%
1.8%
1.7%
2.2%















0.1%
0.1%





Multi-
Valve





















22.4%
26.2%
31.6%
21.0%
24.6%
31.1%
29.6%
37.8%
41.6%
53.3%
60.5%
34.0%
45.1%
22.6%
42.8%
54.4%
62.5%
40.4%
WT

























1.3%
10.6%
17.7%
23.3%
30.1%
41.9%
53.8%
32.8%
38.0%
28.6%
57.7%
88.8%
100.0%
96.7%
Hybrid

































0.9%
2.0%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
3.4%
Vehicle Size
Small

5.1%
























1.4%
0.6%
0.3%
0.5%
0.7%

1.5%
1.3%
1.9%
1.5%



Midsize
52.7%
44.0%
53.7%
48.5%
14.5%
19.0%
18.3%
25.1%
4.9%
11.2%
29.6%
18.4%
20.5%
16.3%
21.9%
15.1%
23.3%
30.1%
21.0%

58.9%
77.5%
60.7%
30.9%
27.7%
22.5%
22.2%
19.5%
23.7%
27.8%
26.9%
37.3%
20.8%
23.4%
20.6%
25.9%
19.1%


Large
47.3%
51.0%
46.3%
51.5%
85.5%
81.0%
81.7%
74.9%
95.1%
88.8%
70.4%
81.6%
79.5%
83.7%
78.1%
84.9%
76.7%
69.9%
79.0%
100.0%
41.1%
22.5%
39.3%
69.1%
72.3%
77.5%
76.4%
79.8%
76.0%
71.7%
72.4%
62.7%
77.7%
75.3%
77.4%
72.6%
80.9%


EPA-420-R-13-011
F-22
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Drive Type
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
158
208
234
336
278
164
123
129
233
531
592
666
733
810
765
594
839
726
780
1235
1439
1343
1711
1834
1859
2110
2072
2672
2631
3048
2525
2320
2497
2327
1284
1792
2373
2216
2384
Frac
0.889
0.895
0.884
0.924
0.722
0.889
0.905
0.862
0.913
0.933
0.913
0.933
0.941
0.943
0.935
0.925
0.963
0.954
0.931
0.957
0.901
0.838
0.819
0.862
0.794
0.835
0.765
0.745
0.737
0.748
0.772
0.772
0.753
0.757
0.750
0.777
0.773
0.799
0.789
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
12.9
13.9
15.2
14.5
13.0
15.7
16.9
17.0
18.6
19.2
19.7
20.3
20.7
20.4
19.8
19.8
20.1
19.5
19.7
19.4
19.4
19.7
19.6
19.7
20.0
19.8
20.2
20.2
20.5
20.6
20.9
21.5
22.1
22.8
24.3
24.9
25.0
25.3
26.4
Adj
City
10.6
11.3
12.3
11.7
10.8
12.6
13.5
13.6
14.6
15.1
15.4
15.9
16.0
15.7
15.2
15.0
15.1
14.5
14.6
14.4
14.3
14.3
14.2
14.2
14.3
14.1
14.4
14.2
14.3
14.2
14.4
14.8
15.2
15.6
16.6
17.0
17.0
17.2
17.9
Adj
Hwy
11.5
12.5
13.7
13.2
11.4
14.2
15.6
15.8
17.8
18.2
19.1
19.3
19.7
19.3
18.7
18.8
19.2
18.6
18.7
18.3
18.2
18.7
18.4
18.6
18.6
18.3
18.5
18.6
19.0
19.1
19.2
19.7
20.3
20.8
22.2
22.6
22.9
23.1
24.2
Adj
Comb
11.0
11.8
12.9
12.3
11.1
13.3
14.4
14.5
15.9
16.3
16.8
17.3
17.5
17.2
16.7
16.6
16.8
16.3
16.4
16.1
16.0
16.3
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.1
16.4
16.3
16.6
16.6
16.8
17.2
17.7
18.2
19.4
19.8
20.0
20.1
21.0
Weight
Ob)
4169
4293
4201
4251
4329
4135
4135
4403
4188
3979
4014
3886
3795
3819
4005
3998
4117
4162
4267
4278
4275
4335
4427
4414
4411
4536
4472
4585
4670
4705
4702
4683
4722
4673
4470
4490
4612
4566
4540
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
329.0
336.8
334.7
341.7
325.0
288.6
286.3
300.5
257.4
223.1
210.4
200.3
204.1
214.3
237.3
226.3
230.0
231.9
238.7
240.2
241.2
258.2
253.2
249.4
241.3
247.4
231.9
237.8
239.3
244.7
237.8
231.2
233.4
223.9
205.3
206.7
212.4
209.0
201.4
HP
146
140
143
149
143
127
128
130
124
119
120
125
134
142
153
151
160
168
177
179
178
188
189
188
197
202
208
224
228
236
240
237
249
245
238
239
251
255
256
0-60
Time
13.2
14.0
13.5
13.2
13.9
14.8
14.5
15.1
15.1
15.1
15.1
14.2
13.4
12.9
12.5
12.6
12.3
11.9
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.3
11.4
11.4
11.0
11.0
10.6
10.2
10.2
10.0
9.9
9.9
9.7
9.7
9.6
9.6
9.5
9.3
9.2
HP/
cro
0.440
0.412
0.425
0.433
0.442
0.451
0.456
0.443
0.513
0.561
0.594
0.666
0.688
0.691
0.671
0.701
0.712
0.741
0.761
0.763
0.761
0.744
0.765
0.781
0.847
0.842
0.930
0.962
0.978
0.988
1.030
1.040
1.087
1.111
1.169
1.169
1.200
1.234
1.313
HP/
WT
0.0361
0.0332
0.0345
0.0353
0.0336
0.0306
0.0313
0.0300
0.0300
0.0299
0.0297
0.0323
0.0352
0.0370
0.0385
0.0381
0.0391
0.0409
0.0421
0.0422
0.0420
0.0436
0.0427
0.0428
0.0448
0.0446
0.0466
0.0489
0.0489
0.0502
0.0509
0.0504
0.0524
0.0521
0.0528
0.0529
0.0540
0.0554
0.0559
Ton-
MPG
22.6
25.1
26.9
26.0
23.9
27.6
29.8
32.7
33.8
33.0
34.2
33.8
33.3
32.9
33.6
33.2
34.7
33.9
35.0
34.5
34.3
35.3
35.7
35.8
36.0
36.5
36.6
37.4
38.6
39.0
39.5
40.5
42.0
42.7
43.5
44.8
46.1
46.1
48.0
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-
MPG







































Transmission
Manual
42.9%
33.6%
34.6%
32.8%
39.2%
47.2%
45.0%
37.0%
37.0%
32.5%
32.3%
41.7%
42.1%
36.6%
27.5%
31.3%
22.4%
22.4%
20.2%
15.9%
15.3%
6.2%
11.0%
8.5%
7.3%
5.8%
4.8%
4.1%
2.9%
2.8%
2.7%
2.9%
2.5%
2.0%
1.3%
2.2%
1.4%
2.1%
1.8%
Lockup





18.8%
35.1%
37.4%
48.2%
37.4%
55.6%
50.9%
48.5%
55.3%
63.8%
65.0%
76.0%
76.7%
78.8%
84.1%
84.7%
93.8%
89.0%
91.5%
92.7%
94.2%
95.2%
95.8%
95.4%
95.8%
95.4%
91.9%
91.8%
91.6%
86.6%
85.5%
85.7%
94.5%
97.1%
CVT



























0.1%
1.8%
1.4%
1.9%
5.1%
5.7%
6.4%
12.1%
11.8%
12.9%
12.3%
16.4%
EPA-420-R-13-011
F-23
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Track SUV
Drive Type
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI

































2.6%
5.4%
9.1%
12.1%
14.7%
24.4%
Port










4.8%
27.8%
35.1%
50.2%
49.5%
60.9%
63.9%
76.7%
87.5%
88.5%
87.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
96.8%
93.9%
90.1%
86.8%
83.7%
74.7%
TBI










1.1%
22.1%
36.3%
31.1%
42.9%
33.3%
35.5%
23.3%
12.5%
11.5%
12.2%


















Diesel




0.3%
2.6%

13.2%
5.6%
1.7%
1.2%
1.4%
0.3%
0.2%
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%




0.0%
0.0%
0.0%





0.0%
0.3%
0.3%
0.3%
0.6%
0.7%
0.8%
1.1%
1.6%
0.9%
Multi-
Valve



















14.0%
16.8%
11.8%
17.5%
20.4%
27.8%
22.3%
43.5%
47.6%
54.3%
55.6%
65.7%
70.0%
65.2%
73.0%
84.2%
83.8%
84.1%
89.4%
91.8%
WT
























3.7%
2.8%
14.9%
25.7%
34.3%
39.3%
50.2%
59.1%
55.7%
59.7%
69.7%
85.0%
91.7%
94.7%
98.4%
Hybrid






























0.3%
3.1%
1.4%
2.7%
1.9%
1.9%
0.8%
0.8%
1.6%
Vehicle Size
Small
30.0%
24.7%
24.3%
23.1%
32.8%
37.0%
34.7%
24.5%
18.3%
26.7%
19.5%
26.5%
31.6%
30.8%
25.3%
27.4%
10.6%
11.1%
12.2%
10.2%
11.4%
5.9%
19.9%
12.7%
13.4%
12.7%
11.9%
8.9%
7.7%
6.8%
6.7%
5.7%
5.4%
6.2%
4.2%
5.3%



Midsize
69.1%
73.5%
74.3%
75.3%
60.9%
58.7%
62.4%
70.7%
77.7%
70.5%
77.5%
70.6%
65.6%
65.7%
70.5%
67.5%
85.9%
81.9%
77.1%
80.6%
77.1%
80.5%
56.1%
63.4%
65.1%
61.0%
54.2%
41.9%
51.3%
53.9%
53.0%
55.2%
50.4%
55.8%
62.7%
64.0%
61.6%


Large
0.9%
1.8%
1.4%
1.6%
6.3%
4.3%
2.9%
4.8%
4.0%
2.8%
3.0%
2.9%
2.8%
3.5%
4.2%
5.2%
3.5%
7.0%
10.7%
9.2%
11.5%
13.6%
24.0%
24.0%
21.5%
26.2%
34.0%
49.1%
41.0%
39.3%
40.3%
39.1%
44.2%
38.0%
33.1%
30.7%
38.4%


EPA-420-R-13-011
F-24
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Drive Type
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Front Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port


















100.0%




















TBI





57.3%
27.2%
10.7%
2.8%



100.0%
100.0%

























Diesel





42.7%
72.8%
34.0%
2.7%






























Multi-
Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































Vehicle Size
Small





100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%





























Midsize







































Large












100.0%
100.0%




100.0%




















EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                   F-26
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Drive Type
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
1161
1476
1593
1656
1930
1108
1164
1154
1239
1526
1550
1895
1598
1760
1586
1322
1444
1356
1449
1886
1521
1382
1573
1574
1392
1609
1544
1372
1498
1344
1226
1185
1154
942
489
549
588
510
599
Frac
0.865
0.791
0.786
0.730
0.874
0.771
0.808
0.801
0.761
0.747
0.746
0.748
0.745
0.716
0.711
0.721
0.752
0.737
0.724
0.707
0.670
0.707
0.653
0.652
0.547
0.616
0.613
0.576
0.605
0.537
0.533
0.542
0.546
0.525
0.494
0.430
0.397
0.376
0.393
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
14.5
15.4
16.8
16.7
15.5
20.1
21.1
22.0
22.6
22.1
21.9
23.0
23.5
22.5
22.2
21.7
22.9
21.9
22.2
22.3
21.8
22.0
21.9
22.3
21.5
21.6
20.7
20.5
21.0
20.4
20.4
20.9
20.9
21.4
21.9
21.9
22.4
22.2
22.2
Adj
City
11.4
12.3
13.5
13.6
12.7
16.0
16.7
17.4
17.9
17.4
17.3
18.1
18.2
17.3
16.9
16.4
17.1
16.3
16.3
16.3
15.9
15.9
15.7
15.9
15.3
15.3
14.6
14.5
14.7
14.2
14.0
14.4
14.3
14.6
15.0
15.0
15.2
15.1
15.1
Adj
Hwy
13.8
14.2
15.3
15.0
13.8
18.6
19.6
20.6
21.3
20.9
20.6
21.6
22 2
21.4
21.0
20.7
21.8
21.1
21.2
21.1
20.7
20.8
20.7
21.0
20.3
20.1
19.2
18.8
19.2
18.6
18.8
19.1
19.3
19.7
20.3
20.3
20.7
20.7
21.0
Adj
Comb
12.4
13.1
14.2
14.2
13.2
17.1
17.9
18.7
19.2
18.8
18.7
19.5
19.9
19.0
18.7
18.2
19.1
18.3
18.5
18.4
18.0
18.1
18.0
18.2
17.6
17.5
16.8
16.6
16.9
16.4
16.4
16.8
16.8
17.1
17.6
17.6
18.0
17.9
18.0
Weight
Ob)
3885
3948
3928
3901
4170
3689
3708
3595
3463
3519
3527
3439
3386
3578
3633
3759
3608
3810
3825
3861
3960
3992
4123
4021
4113
4112
4341
4473
4444
4712
4752
4747
4915
4929
4935
4996
4954
5035
5200
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
298.7
305.0
298.9
290.9
290.9
235.0
243.3
229.6
210.3
212.4
218.5
201.6
195.2
219.7
226.3
236.3
221.8
234.8
233.9
234.7
239.0
234.9
243.6
231.2
240.9
237.1
251.9
256.4
247.1
267.0
272.0
266.6
273.2
271.2
271.8
273.6
262.8
274.3
279.0
HP
139
136
142
138
136
117
117
117
112
112
121
117
119
130
137
146
139
145
150
156
158
167
184
177
186
190
204
214
206
234
247
242
251
259
261
269
277
297
312
0-60
Time
13.4
13.8
13.2
13.3
14.3
14.3
14.4
14.1
14.3
14.4
13.6
13.6
13.4
13.1
12.7
12.4
12.4
12.5
12.2
12.0
12.0
11.7
11.2
11.3
11.0
11.0
10.7
10.5
10.8
10.2
9.9
10.0
10.0
9.9
9.7
9.6
9.4
9.0
8.9
HP/
cro
0.499
0.476
0.508
0.506
0.495
0.545
0.511
0.542
0.564
0.562
0.585
0.619
0.635
0.620
0.630
0.651
0.656
0.645
0.668
0.695
0.703
0.744
0.770
0.788
0.787
0.810
0.818
0.841
0.843
0.878
0.910
0.911
0.920
0.951
0.963
0.984
1.058
1.087
1.134
HP/
WT
0.0355
0.0343
0.0359
0.0352
0.0327
0.0318
0.0316
0.0326
0.0320
0.0318
0.0340
0.0340
0.0348
0.0360
0.0373
0.0386
0.0383
0.0380
0.0391
0.0403
0.0399
0.0416
0.0440
0.0436
0.0448
0.0455
0.0464
0.0475
0.0459
0.0492
0.0518
0.0507
0.0508
0.0520
0.0524
0.0534
0.0552
0.0584
0.0597
Ton-
MPG
24.6
26.5
28.7
28.6
28.1
31.8
33.7
34.2
34.0
33.6
33.5
33.9
34.0
34.2
34.1
34.6
34.7
35.1
35.4
35.8
36.1
36.5
37.3
36.9
36.3
36.1
36.5
37.0
37.5
38.6
38.9
39.7
41.2
42.4
43.3
43.8
44.4
44.9
46.8
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-
MPG







































Transmission
Manual
41.5%
40.3%
39.0%
40.0%
36.3%
55.8%
52.6%
49.4%
53.3%
52.1%
47.9%
56.7%
58.0%
51.5%
52.5%
46.2%
53.7%
48.3%
45.2%
42.3%
45.2%
38.5%
31.2%
31.3%
22.6%
20.4%
14.5%
11.4%
12.3%
8.6%
7.2%
7.8%
5.6%
5.1%
4.4%
2.6%
2.5%
1.5%
1.2%
Lockup




1.5%
23.4%
31.0%
32.9%
31.1%
32.9%
36.2%
30.8%
28.4%
37.9%
41.5%
49.1%
44.9%
50.6%
53.7%
56.4%
53.4%
59.6%
68.8%
66.3%
75.7%
78.3%
84.1%
87.1%
86.2%
89.6%
92.8%
92.2%
94.4%
94.9%
95.4%
97.2%
97.4%
98.5%
98.8%
CVT


































0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
EPA-420-R-13-011
F-27
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Drive Type
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Rear Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI




































4.8%
5.5%
9.2%
Port









1.3%
11.0%
18.6%
23.7%
30.1%
34.0%
52.0%
46.1%
57.4%
60.6%
72.5%
72.9%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
95.2%
94.5%
90.8%
TBI








0.0%

5.7%
17.5%
33.1%
48.7%
52.4%
39.6%
49.6%
38.1%
36.5%
26.4%
27.1%


















Diesel



1.6%
2.8%
4.3%
6.2%
9.8%
4.3%
2.7%
1.1%
0.6%
0.3%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%



0.1%
0.0%
0.0%















Multi-
Valve



















0.7%
3.6%
11.7%
7.5%
10.3%
8.4%
12.3%
13.8%
21.1%
15.8%
30.2%
38.4%
44.8%
36.6%
38.4%
41.5%
58.4%
54.0%
58.3%
59.4%
WT





























13.5%
35.8%
42.6%
38.5%
34.3%
34.1%
60.9%
76.0%
90.2%
93.5%
Hybrid





























0.0%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%

0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.2%
Vehicle Size
Small
13.8%
11.7%
14.9%
14.5%
13.7%
28.4%
18.8%
18.0%
14.9%
17.9%
21.9%
27.5%
19.4%
11.9%
13.9%
15.0%
14.0%
11.7%
13.2%
11.5%
12.2%
10.1%
6.6%
10.0%
8.4%
6.2%
5.3%
9.6%
7.9%
7.1%









Midsize
4.8%
3.7%
4.3%
4.5%
5.2%
8.8%
11.2%
26.2%
41.5%
37.0%
31.9%
34.6%
52.3%
48.1%
45.5%
37.8%
51.5%
44.6%
42.1%
45.8%
38.9%
43.3%
36.2%
42.2%
39.2%
33.9%
24.5%
19.8%
25.2%
16.3%
12.5%
19.7%
16.3%
19.9%
23.0%
17.0%
2.4%


Large
81.4%
84.6%
80.8%
80.9%
81.1%
62.8%
70.0%
55.8%
43.6%
45.0%
46.2%
37.9%
28.3%
40.0%
40.7%
47.2%
34.5%
43.7%
44.7%
42.7%
48.9%
46.6%
57.2%
47.9%
52.4%
59.9%
70.2%
70.6%
66.9%
76.6%
87.5%
80.3%
83.7%
80.1%
77.0%
83.0%
97.6%


EPA-420-R-13-011
F-28
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Drive Type
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
182
390
433
612
277
302
243
255
359
505
528
638
548
699
645
512
477
484
553
783
750
573
834
841
1153
1003
975
1008
976
1161
1075
1003
960
852
501
728
891
847
926
Frac
0.135
0.209
0.214
0.270
0.126
0.211
0.168
0.177
0.221
0.247
0.254
0.252
0.255
0.284
0.289
0.279
0.248
0.263
0.276
0.293
0.330
0.293
0.347
0.348
0.453
0.384
0.387
0.424
0.395
0.463
0.467
0.458
0.454
0.475
0.506
0.570
0.603
0.624
0.607
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab
55/45
11.4
12.4
13.6
13.5
15.6
16.9
19.6
19.7
20.3
19.7
19.9
20.2
20.0
19.3
19.0
18.6
18.9
18.5
18.8
18.6
18.0
18.3
18.2
18.3
18.2
18.9
18.1
18.2
18.5
18.7
19.0
19.3
19.3
19.6
20.2
20.3
20.8
20.8
21.0
Adj
City
9.3
10.1
11.1
11.1
13.0
13.6
15.7
15.8
16.1
15.6
15.7
15.9
15.7
14.9
14.6
14.0
14.2
13.8
13.9
13.7
13.2
13.3
13.1
13.1
13.1
13.6
12.9
12.9
13.1
13.1
13.2
13.4
13.3
13.5
13.9
13.9
14.2
14.2
14.3
Adj
Hwy
10.2
11.2
12.1
12.0
14.2
15.4
18.1
18.2
19.0
18.4
18.7
18.9
18.7
18.2
17.9
17.7
17.9
17.7
17.8
17.5
17.0
17.3
17.3
17.4
17.0
17.3
16.6
16.7
16.9
17.0
17.4
17.6
17.7
18.1
18.7
18.8
19.3
19.4
19.8
Adj
Comb
9.7
10.5
11.5
11.5
13.5
14.3
16.7
16.8
17.3
16.8
16.9
17.1
16.9
16.3
16.0
15.6
15.8
15.5
15.6
15.4
14.9
15.1
15.0
15.1
14.9
15.4
14.7
14.8
14.9
15.0
15.3
15.5
15.5
15.8
16.3
16.3
16.7
16.8
17.0
Weight
Ob)
4822
4780
4695
4654
3947
4054
3732
3934
3901
3943
3981
3974
3937
4137
4221
4364
4299
4443
4444
4528
4633
4668
4965
4771
4938
4705
4885
4985
4944
5202
5257
5228
5420
5417
5411
5544
5475
5515
5645
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
cro
353.3
358.7
362.7
347.8
260.1
251.1
223.8
235.9
223.6
226.4
229.8
219.0
222 2
253.4
259.0
273.1
262.5
272.2
270.0
278.5
292.1
291.2
302.4
290.8
299.5
284.2
295.6
291.5
290.7
298.3
297.6
291.3
302.2
303.2
301.5
307.1
295.0
293.4
291.4
HP
154
154
164
161
132
126
115
119
117
120
129
130
137
156
158
166
167
167
172
180
186
204
218
213
227
224
235
242
248
266
274
272
290
295
294
304
321
329
341
0-60
Time
14.2
14.2
13.4
13.5
14.2
14.6
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.8
14.0
14.0
13.4
12.6
12.7
12.5
12 2
12.6
12.3
12.1
11.9
11.2
11.1
11.0
10.8
10.5
10.3
10.3
10.1
9.9
9.7
9.7
9.5
9.4
9.4
9.3
8.8
8.8
8.7
HP/
cro
0.437
0.428
0.452
0.468
0.551
0.552
0.561
0.552
0.564
0.564
0.597
0.634
0.648
0.644
0.638
0.637
0.666
0.638
0.661
0.668
0.655
0.719
0.729
0.745
0.763
0.791
0.802
0.834
0.855
0.892
0.926
0.942
0.960
0.974
0.979
0.990
1.104
1.143
1.202
HP/
WT
0.0322
0.0323
0.0351
0.0345
0.0325
0.0308
0.0307
0.0306
0.0301
0.0302
0.0323
0.0327
0.0347
0.0375
0.0372
0.0380
0.0388
0.0376
0.0386
0.0396
0.0400
0.0437
0.0439
0.0445
0.0459
0.0473
0.0481
0.0486
0.0500
0.0511
0.0523
0.0522
0.0534
0.0544
0.0543
0.0548
0.0584
0.0594
0.0602
Ton-
MPG
23.6
25.3
27.2
26.8
27.3
29.1
31.4
33.5
34.1
33.5
34.1
34.4
33.6
33.9
33.9
34.2
34.2
34.5
34.8
35.0
34.7
35.4
37.2
35.8
36.8
36.1
36.0
36.8
36.9
39.0
40.1
40.3
41.9
42.7
43.9
45.3
45.9
46.3
48.1
CuFt-
MPG







































CuFt-
Ton-
MPG







































Transmission
Manual
38.4%
33.3%
24.7%
30.2%
64.9%
66.8%
76.4%
71.4%
66.6%
62.7%
62.4%
63.3%
59.9%
49.7%
52.3%
44.9%
47.5%
43.7%
40.5%
34.6%
28.3%
25.4%
14.0%
19.9%
11.4%
10.7%
8.0%
7.0%
7.3%
5.1%
4.0%
4.2%
2.8%
2.9%
3.8%
2.3%
1.8%
1.5%
1.3%
Lockup





18.6%
14.7%
17.7%
19.9%
19.1%
26.2%
29.4%
30.1%
40.9%
41.5%
51.7%
50.8%
56.2%
59.5%
65.4%
71.7%
74.5%
86.0%
80.1%
88.6%
89.3%
92.0%
93.0%
92.7%
94.9%
96.0%
95.8%
97.2%
97.1%
95.9%
97.7%
98.1%
98.5%
98.7%
CVT


































0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.4%
EPA-420-R-13-011
F-29
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                    Appendix F: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Vehicle
Type
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Pickup
Drive Type
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Four Wheel Drive
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Fuel Metering
GDI




































9.5%
13.2%
17.7%
Port









0.1%
12.7%
29.0%
36.4%
48.7%
50.5%
53.5%
53.5%
59.7%
62.9%
62.2%
62.8%
99.6%
99.9%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
90.5%
86.8%
82.3%
TBI








0.1%

1.1%
17.7%
28.8%
47.1%
47.8%
46.1%
46.1%
40.0%
37.1%
37.8%
37.2%


















Diesel



0.0%
0.0%
0.3%
2.3%
9.6%
4.8%
2.7%
1.5%
0.7%
0.4%
0.4%
0.3%
0.3%
0.4%
0.3%



0.4%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%














Multi-
Valve



















5.7%
9.5%
17.1%
5.3%
13.0%
6.9%
13.3%
11.1%
13.2%
12.4%
34.9%
43.7%
54.1%
44.2%
44.5%
43.3%
61.0%
47.5%
54.2%
58.6%
WT





























25.0%
42.9%
53.3%
41.7%
41.7%
39.5%
63.3%
92.8%
97.3%
98.9%
Hybrid





























0.0%
0.0%
0.2%
0.0%

0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
0.4%
Vehicle Size
Small



3.8%
34.0%
36.7%
48.1%
41.8%
26.8%
27.2%
29.8%
34.9%
23.8%
18.7%
20.9%
17.8%
22.5%
19.2%
12.9%
18.1%
15.0%
14.1%
3.3%
12.3%
8.4%
0.1%

6.4%
7.8%
5.6%
0.8%
0.7%







Midsize







5.1%
30.0%
27.3%
23.1%
20.7%
39.4%
29.9%
25.7%
19.6%
27.2%
22.9%
24.2%
22.5%
14.5%
17.4%
14.4%
19.7%
18.6%
22.0%
17.0%
19.3%
15.4%
13.7%
5.9%
4.0%
7.9%
10.6%
14.4%
8.3%
0.8%


Large
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
96.2%
66.0%
63.3%
51.9%
53.1%
43.2%
45.5%
47.1%
44.4%
36.7%
51.4%
53.4%
62.6%
50.3%
57.9%
63.0%
59.5%
70.5%
68.5%
82.4%
68.1%
73.0%
77.9%
83.0%
74.2%
76.8%
80.7%
93.3%
95.2%
92.1%
89.4%
85.6%
91.7%
99.2%


EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                   F-30
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Transmission Type
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
A6
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)























0
1





1
2
1
3
3
105
16
126
160
Frac























0.000
0.000





0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.017
0.003
0.017
0.021
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45























13.3
13.9





15.9
16.9
16.8
18.5
17.6
36.2
44.0
38.0
42.6
Adj City























9.3
9.7





11.2
11.3
11.4
12.2
11.7
23.8
29.8
25.2
27.9
Adj























13.4
14.1





14.4
16.8
16.4
18.5
17.7
33.2
35.7
34.4
38.0
Adj Comb























11.1
11.6





12.8
13.9
13.8
15.2
14.5
28.4
32.9
29.8
32.9
Weight
(lb)























3500
3500





4500
4337
4500
4485
4245
3552
3537
3462
3238
Vol
(Cu Ft)























50.0
50.0





129.5
116.9
129.5
107.4
92.2
109.1
108.7
108.2
109.7
Engine
CID























213
215





259
259
259
260
275
126
160
134
115
HP























375
382





396
392
396
399
431
184
197
185
160
0-60 Time























5.4
5.3





6.3
6.2
6.3
6.3
5.7
8.8
8.4
8.9
9.8
HP/CID























1.761
1.775





1.529
1.515
1.529
1.536
1.572
1.453
1.182
1.394
1.443
HP/WT























0.1071
0.1091





0.0880
0.0907
0.0880
0.0891
0.1037
0.0515
0.0548
0.0533
0.0498
Ton-MPG























19.5
20.4





28.9
30.0
31.0
34.1
31.0
52.0
61.4
52.9
53.6
EPA-420-R-13-011
G-7
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Transmission Type
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)


































4
4
14
12
20
Frac


































0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.003
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45


































28.0
23.7
22.6
23.9
24.8
Adj City


































18.6
15.7
15.1
15.9
16.5
Adj


































26.5
23.1
21.8
23.0
23.7
Adj Comb


































22.4
19.2
18.3
19.3
20.0
Weight
(lb)


































3590
3679
3994
3823
3872
Vol
(Cu Ft)


































73.8
67.2
87.2
78.6
79.2
Engine
CID


































229
233
214
228
231
HP


































373
395
372
396
416
0-60 Time


































5.5
5.6
6.1
5.8
5.6
HP/CID


































1.633
1.673
1.732
1.733
1.782
HP/WT


































0.1042
0.1072
0.0934
0.1041
0.1065
Ton-MPG


































40.2
36.6
37.0
37.6
39.3
EPA-420-R-13-011
G-9
December 2013

-------
Ufiil&d Sf=a
Envscoftmc
Ag.Micy
                                                              2013 FE Trends Report

                                    Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Transmission Type
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
A7
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG


































1652
1326
1615
1566
1591
Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG


































2965
2440
3222
2982
3087
Drivetrain
Front







































4WD


































32.9%
14.3%

4.5%
7.9%
Fuel Metering
GDI


































100.0%
84.4%
60.4%
81.5%
93.5%
Port



































15.6%
39.6%
18.5%
6.5%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-Valve


































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT


































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                    G-10
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Transmission Type
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG


















2017
2013
2086
1972
2196
2216
2232
2234
2208
2218
2353
2387
2498
2595
2676
2756
2931
2906
3006
3189
3190
Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG


















4286
4035
4493
4236
4401
4335
4258
4250
4185
4187
4276
4402
4658
4780
4771
4839
5056
4912
5159
5276
5122
Drivetrain
Front





















16.2%
2.0%
7.5%
17.3%
26.8%
31.8%
38.0%
55.5%
65.0%
64.3%
68.3%
76.6%
81.9%
93.0%
87.2%
83.4%
90.1%
81.9%
4WD





















11.4%
5.4%
10.6%
11.7%
6.6%
13.1%
14.3%
7.5%
11.8%
8.9%
6.6%
5.0%
5.5%
2.1%
2.7%
1.9%
0.7%
2.0%
Fuel Metering
GDI
































0.1%

0.1%




Port


















100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
98.2%
98.7%
98.7%
98.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.4%
98.9%
99.7%
99.9%
100.0%
99.9%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI







































Diesel






















1.8%
1.3%
1.3%
1.1%



0.6%
1.1%
0.3%







Multi-Valve


















100.0%
100.0%
98.0%
67.8%
97.4%
99.6%
99.2%
96.3%
99.9%
100.0%
99.2%
99.4%
91.1%
90.1%
93.7%
95.3%
96.5%
93.5%
95.0%
96.0%
89.6%
WT



















35.2%
21.5%
72.4%
46.4%
56.2%
50.1%
54.9%
61.1%
57.8%
66.4%
73.6%
79.2%
81.6%
82.5%
80.4%
89.3%
93.0%
94.8%
99.2%
98.5%
Hybrid






























0.9%
0.2%
0.2%






EPA-420-R-13-011
G-20
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Transmission Type
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG

























606
605
2153
2024
2199
2417
2396
2431
2419
2512
2704
2920
3111

Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG

























1060
1058
4743
4081
4410
4702
4483
4717
4696
4801
5024
5253
5351

Drivetrain
Front




























25.0%
14.2%
55.8%
48.7%
60.5%
55.1%
59.0%
72.6%
81.5%
91.3%
88.4%
4WD





























8.4%
11.9%
10.6%
14.7%
18.6%
17.0%
10.4%
5.8%
2.8%
4.2%
Fuel Metering
GDI
































0.8%
14.7%
22.4%
19.3%
26.8%
36.7%
44.7%
Port

























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
99.4%
98.7%
96.7%
99.2%
85.3%
74.2%
80.6%
71.4%
62.0%
53.0%
TBI







































Diesel





























0.6%
1.3%
3.3%


3.4%
0.1%
1.8%
1.3%
2.3%
Multi-Valve

























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
83.2%
91.0%
92.3%
94.1%
97.8%
97.9%
97.1%
96.9%
98.1%
98.7%
99.1%
WT

























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
75.0%
84.7%
43.4%
73.2%
59.0%
59.9%
70.2%
98.8%
96.0%
97.8%
97.2%
Hybrid
































0.3%
0.1%
0.1%


0.5%
1.9%
EPA-420-R-13-011
G-22
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Transmission Type
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
L8
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)
































35
33
10
18
111
249
393
Frac
































0.004
0.005
0.002
0.003
0.019
0.034
0.051
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45
































25.2
24.7
24.2
24.2
29.3
29.6
29.7
Adj City
































16.5
16.4
16.0
15.9
19.3
19.3
19.3
Adj
































24.7
23.9
23.6
23.7
28.4
28.9
29.0
Adj Comb
































20.4
19.9
19.6
19.5
23.6
23.8
23.9
Weight
(lb)
































4500
4497
4699
4724
4323
4111
4100
Vol
(Cu Ft)
































115.7
113.8
114.8
117.4
112.4
115.8
113.8
Engine
CID
































281
284
282
278
189
194
181
HP
































380
382
382
385
292
301
296
0-60 Time
































6.6
6.4
6.7
6.8
8.0
7.6
7.7
HP/CID
































1.352
1.343
1.351
1.389
1.576
1.606
1.698
HP/WT
































0.0844
0.0853
0.0816
0.0816
0.0670
0.0728
0.0717
Ton-MPG
































45.9
44.9
46.0
46.2
51.4
49.2
49.3
EPA-420-R-13-011
G-25
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiil&d Sf=a
Envscoftmc
Ag.Micy
                                                              2013 FE Trends Report

                                    Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Transmission Type
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)



47
23
17
9
































Frac



0.004
0.002
0.002
0.001
































Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45



22.3
22.1
21.1
21.4
































Adj City



17.3
17.4
16.9
16.9
































Adj



21.6
20.9
19.5
20.2
































Adj Comb



19.0
18.8
18.0
18.2
































Weight
(Ib)



3441
3584
3526
3500
































Vol
(Cu Ft)



113.5
111.7
109.1
103.7
































Engine
CID



219
224
228
229
































HP



100
102
111
115
































0-60 Time



15.0
15.2
14.2
13.7
































HP/CID



0.459
0.458
0.485
0.501
































HP/WT



0.0293
0.0286
0.0314
0.0328
































Ton-MPG



32.7
33.8
31.8
31.9
































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                    G-27
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiil&d Sf=a
Envscoftmc
Ag.Micy
                                                              2013 FE Trends Report

                                    Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Transmission Type
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
M7
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG


































778


1691
1673
Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG


































1556


2960
2928
Drivetrain
Front







































4WD






































24.1%
Fuel Metering
GDI


































100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
Port







































TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-Valve


































100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
WT


































100.0%


100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                    G-36
December 2013

-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Car
Transmission Type
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
OT
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)




50
60
51
37
36
3





























Frac




0.005
0.006
0.006
0.005
0.005
0.000





























Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45




36.9
36.6
34.9
36.6
35.4
33.1





























Adj City




29.4
29.4
27.9
29.3
28.3
26.4





























Adj




34.0
33.5
32.0
33.5
32.7
30.6





























Adj Comb




31.3
31.1
29.6
31.1
30.1
28.2





























Weight
(lb)




2122
2164
2250
2200
2278
2545





























Vol
(Cu Ft)




87.3
87.3
87.8
87.8
89.2
93.5





























Engine
CID




91
94
96
91
94
117





























HP




73
77
78
67
70
88





























0-60 Time




13.1
12.9
13.1
14.4
14.3
13.4





























HP/CID




0.801
0.816
0.816
0.740
0.748
0.758





























HP/WT




0.0345
0.0354
0.0349
0.0307
0.0309
0.0348





























Ton-MPG




33.3
33.7
33.4
34.2
34.4
35.8





























EPA-420-R-13-011
G-37
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Transmission Type
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
A3
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port



















100.0%



















TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                   G-40
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Transmission Type
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port















100.0%
100.0%





100.0%
















TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-Valve






















100.0%
















WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                   G-42
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Transmission Type
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG







































Drivetrain
Front



























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
4WD







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port



























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-Valve



























66.5%
99.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT




























48.1%
70.4%
88.4%
79.2%
80.2%
63.9%
98.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid






























11.6%
20.8%
19.8%
36.8%
15.4%
16.3%
7.2%
3.6%
3.7%
EPA-420-R-13-011
G-44
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Transmission Type
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port


















1.8%
11.6%
2.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%













TBI











25.9%
100.0%



100.0%
100.0%
98.2%
88.4%
97.2%


















Diesel







































Multi-Valve



















6.8%

100.0%
100.0%
95.7%















WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
G-46
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Transmission Type
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG







































Drivetrain
Front




























52.7%
73.6%
52.6%
65.3%
73.8%
67.8%
78.9%
91.3%
96.0%
85.7%
90.6%
4WD





























14.6%
34.4%
20.3%
9.9%
12.3%
7.8%


9.4%

Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port






















100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-Valve




























58.7%
100.0%
46.5%
90.0%
74.0%
72.5%
81.2%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT




























6.0%
85.5%
42.5%
49.1%
52.9%
71.4%
76.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
G-50
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Transmission Type
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG







































Drivetrain
Front
































98.5%
96.1%
98.7%
86.7%
85.9%
80.8%
84.8%
4WD
































1.2%
3.6%
1.0%
13.3%
14.1%
19.2%
15.2%
Fuel Metering
GDI

































11.5%
4.2%
39.2%
40.2%
56.0%
58.2%
Port
































100.0%
88.5%
95.8%
60.8%
59.8%
44.0%
41.8%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-Valve
































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT
































42.6%
40.5%
58.8%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
G-52
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Transmission Type
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
L7
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







































Fuel Metering
GDI






































100.0%
Port


































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-Valve


































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT


































100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
G-54
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Transmission Type
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
M3
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port







































TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
G-56
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Transmission Type
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
M4
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG







































Drivetrain
Front







































4WD







































Fuel Metering
GDI







































Port

















100.0%





















TBI










34.7%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%

























Diesel







































Multi-Valve







































WT







































Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
G-58
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Car SUV
Transmission Type
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
M6
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Cu Ft-MPG







































Cu Ft-Ton-
MPG







































Drivetrain
Front



































91.1%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
4WD







































Fuel Metering
GDI





































48.9%
36.5%
Port






























100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
51.1%
63.5%
TBI







































Diesel







































Multi-Valve






























86.7%
69.1%
25.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
WT






























55.3%
69.1%
25.4%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
Hybrid







































EPA-420-R-13-011
G-62
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
                                                           2013 FE Trends Report
                                   Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Transmission Type
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
A4
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)















6
3
1





















Frac















0.005
0.003
0.001





















Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45















14.5
14.4
13.6





















Adj City















11.2
11.1
10.4





















Adj















13.5
13.2
12.5





















Adj Comb















12.2
12.0
11.3





















Weight
(lb)















4709
4640
4856





















Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
CID















348
344
360





















HP















184
182
203





















0-60 Time















12.1
12.1
11.5





















HP/CID















0.530
0.530
0.564





















HP/WT















0.0393
0.0394
0.0421





















Ton-MPG















28.7
27.9
27.4





















EPA-420-R-13-011
G-65
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiil&d Sf=a
Envscoftmc
Ag.Micy
                                                              2013 FE Trends Report

                                    Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Transmission Type
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
CVT
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)






























76
55
38



16
21
33
Frac






























0.051
0.047
0.045



0.031
0.032
0.057
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45






























25.4
25.7
25.7



27.1
27.4
29.7
Adj City






























17.3
17.4
17.4



18.5
18.7
20.5
Adj






























23.2
23.6
23.6



24.4
24.6
24.9
Adj Comb






























20.2
20.5
20.5



21.5
21.7
22.8
Weight
(Ib)






























4239
4181
4168



4500
4500
4124
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
CID






























182
182
182



214
214
179
HP






























203
203
203



260
265
215
0-60 Time






























10.3
10.2
10.2



8.9
8.8
10.2
HP/CID






























1.115
1.115
1.115



1.215
1.241
1.178
HP/WT






























0.0481
0.0487
0.0489



0.0578
0.0589
0.0508
Ton-MPG






























42.8
42.8
42.7



48.3
48.8
46.9
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                    G-67
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiil&d Sf=a
Envscoftmc
Ag.Micy
                                                              2013 FE Trends Report

                                    Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission
Vehicle Type
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Van
Transmission Type
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
L6
Model Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Prod
(000)

































234
101
230
378
432
409
Frac

































0.296
0.275
0.412
0.725
0.654
0.721
Fuel Economy (MPG)
Lab 55/45

































24.1
24.3
24.2
26.2
26.3
26.1
Adj City

































16.0
16.1
16.1
17.5
17.5
17.3
Adj

































23.2
23.5
23.4
24.6
25.1
25.0
Adj Comb

































19.5
19.6
19.6
20.9
21.1
20.9
Weight
(Ib)

































4570
4623
4606
4531
4521
4685
Vol
(Cu Ft)







































Engine
CID

































229
233
235
214
216
216
HP

































199
195
208
271
274
276
0-60 Time

































11.4
11.6
10.8
8.6
8.6
8.8
HP/CID

































0.871
0.839
0.887
1.262
1.267
1.275
HP/WT

































0.0434
0.0420
0.0451
0.0598
0.0606
0.0590
Ton-MPG

































44.6
45.5
45.2
47.5
47.8
49.1
EPA-420-R-13-011
                                                                    G-75
December 2013

-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag
-------
Ufiilfcd SkaiOft
Env
Ag