Start With WaterSense®

Cover photographs from Gino Piscelli, Mississauga, Ontario; Joy Stewart, Bristol,Tennessee;
Linda Andrews, Olympia, Washington; and John Galbraith, Grants Pass, Oregon
What Is Water-Smart Landscaping?	2
Why Use Water-Smart Landscaping?	4
How Is Water-Smart Landscaping Applied?	5
Water-Smart Landscape Irrigation Methods	7
Water-Smart Landscape Examples	9
For IVlore Information and Resources..               . 12

                                                                         www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor  1
Having a beautiful yard doesn't have to mean using a lot of water or
spending a lot of money.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
(EPA's) WaterSense program can help you
take some of the guesswork out of keeping a
healthy yard while using less water.

Outdoor water use stresses existing water
supplies by contributing to peak demand
during summer months. During these hot, dry
times, utilities must increase capacity to meet
water needs, sometimes as much as three to
four times the amount used during  the winter.

This brochure provides a holistic approach to
developing a water-smart landscape for your
home or property. From thoughts on landscape
design to daily maintenance, it includes a
step-by-step process for any homeowner and
examples of beautiful, water-saving landscapes
from across the country.

WaterSense and this brochure make it easy to
find products and information to ensure you
have a water-smart landscape that you can be
proud of—for both its natural beauty and its
low impact on the environment.
• Timing is everything. Know how much
 water your landscape actually needs
 before you set your sprinkler. Your local
 water utility can offer recommendations
 and best times to water.

• Look for the label. WaterSense labeled
 irrigation controllers use local weather
 data to water only when needed. If
 your system uses a clock timer, consider
 upgrading to this smart technology.

• Go with a pro. Contractors certified
 through a WaterSense labeled program
 can audit, install, or maintain your system
 to ensure water isn't wasted. Ask for

2 www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor
     What  Is  Water-Smart  Landscaping';
     Water-smart landscaping produces attractive landscapes because it
     uses designs and plants that are well suited to local conditions.
     Water is our most precious natural resource;
     without it, there is no life. Yet judging by our
     water use and consumption practices, many
     Americans take it for granted.

     The average American uses 100 gallons of
     water per day—that's 320 gallons used every
     day by the average family. More and more
     Americans are demonstrating their water
     smarts indoors by retrofitting their homes with
     WaterSense labeled products. But outdoors,
     especially in the summer, the amount of water
     used by a household can exceed the amount
     used for all other purposes in the entire year.
     This is especially true in hot, dry climates.

     Gardening and lawn care account for the
     majority of this seasonal increase. Of the
     estimated 29 billion gallons of water used
     daily by households in the United States, more
     than 8.5 billion, or 30 percent, is devoted
     to outdoor water  use. In dry climates, a
     household's outdoor water use can be as high
     as 60 percent. The majority of this is used for
     landscaping. In fact, it is estimated that the
     average American home consumes 58,000
     gallons of water outdoors each year, mostly for
     Many mistakenly  believe that stunning
     gardens and beautiful lawns are only possible
     through extensive watering, fertilization,
     and pesticide application. As this brochure
demonstrates, eye-catching gardens and
landscapes that save water and protect the
environment are, in fact, easily achieved by
employing water-smart landscaping.

For specific information about how to best
apply water-smart landscaping principles in
your geographical area, consult with your
county extension service and local garden and
nursery centers. Local governments and water
utilities also possess a wealth of information,
suggestions, and sometimes incentives for
using water more efficiently in all aspects of
your life, including landscaping.
             USE OUTDOORS?
               12%    TOILET
         FAUCET         19%   Wk

                                                 Source: American Waterworks Association Research Foundation

                                                         www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor  3


• Go native or choose plants that need less water. Once established,
 native and low water-using plants require little water beyond normal
 rainfall. If you're designing a new landscape or just sprucing up your
 current landscape, be sure to consider the water needs of the plants you

• Group plants according to their water needs. Grouping vegetation
 with similar watering needs into specific"hydrozones" reduces water
 use by allowing you to water to each zone's specific needs. Turf areas
 and shrub areas should always be separated into different hydrozones
 because of their differing water needs.

• Maintain healthy soils. Healthy soils are the basis for a water-smart
 landscape; they effectively cycle nutrients, minimize runoff, retain water,
 and absorb excess nutrients, sediments, and pollutants.

• Be selective when adding turf areas. Turfgrass receives the highest
 percentage of irrigation water in traditional landscaping.To improve
 the aesthetics of your landscape and better manage outdoor water use,
 plant turfgrass only where it has a practical  function.

• Water wisely. Know your plant's water needs and avoid watering during
 the heat of the day. If you have an irrigation system, make regular
 adjustments to ensure proper watering. And be sure to look for the
 WaterSense label on components for your system.

• Use mulch. Incorporate mulch around shrubs and garden plants to help
 reduce evaporation, inhibit weed growth, moderate soil temperature,
 and prevent erosion. Adding organic matter and aerating soil can
 improve its ability to hold water.

• Provide regular maintenance. Replace mulch around shrubs and
 garden plants at least once per year, and remove weeds and thatch as

In short, plan and maintain your landscape with these principles of water
efficiency in mind, and it will continue to be attractive and healthy while
requiring less maintenance and less water.

4 www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor
     Why Use  Water-Smart  Landscaping';
     Proper landscaping techniques not only create beautiful landscapes,
     but also benefit the environment and save water.
     Water-smart yards often have increased curb
     appeal, which can lead to higher home values.
     In addition to requiring less water, fertilizer,
     pesticides, and usually less maintenance, water-
     smart landscapes offer many other benefits:

     • Lower water bills from reduced water use.

     • Conservation of natural resources and
       preservation of habitat for plants and wildlife,
       such as fish, birds, and waterfowl.

     • Decreased energy use (and air pollution
       associated with its generation) because less
       pumping and treatment of water is required.

     • Reduced home or office heating and cooling
       costs through the careful placement of shade
       trees and shrubs.

     • Reduced runoff of stormwater and irrigation
       water that carries top soils, fertilizers, and
       pesticides into lakes, rivers, and streams.
• Fewer yard trimmings to be managed or

• Reduced landscaping labor and maintenance

• Extended life for water resource
 infrastructure (e.g., reservoirs, treatment
 plants, groundwater aquifers), thus
 reduced taxpayer costs.

If you've designed a water-smart landscape,
you might be able to get all the water you need
from rainfall alone. But sometimes, that might
not be enough. Whether you water with a hose
or use an irrigation system, smart watering
habits can keep your lawn and landscape
healthy and beautiful without wasting water or
   You may hear the term "xeriscape" when
   looking for information on water-smart
   landscaping.The two concepts are very
   similar and following the principles of either
   will lead to a water-efficient and attractive

                                                                     www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor  5
How  Is  Water-Smart
Landscaping  Applied?
Through careful planning, landscapes can be designed to be both
pleasing to the senses and kind to the environment.
Your landscape design should take into account
your local climate as well as soil conditions.
Focus on preserving as many existing trees and
shrubs as possible, because established plants
usually require less water and maintenance.
Choose plants native to your region. Native
plants, once established, require very little to no
additional water beyond normal rainfall. Also,
because they are adapted to local soils and
climatic conditions, native plants commonly do
not require the addition of fertilizers and are
more resistant to pests and  disease.

When selecting plants, avoid those labeled
"hard to establish,""susceptible to disease,"or
"needs frequent attention,"as these types of
plants frequently require large amounts of
supplemental water, fertilizers, and pesticides.
Be careful when selecting non-indigenous or
exotic species, as some of them can  become
invasive. An invasive plant might be a water
guzzler and will surely choke out native
species. Your state or county extension service
or local nursery can help you select appropriate
plants for your area.
Developing a landscape plan is the first and
most important step in creating a water-smart
landscape. Your plan should take into account
the regional and microclimatic conditions of the
site, existing vegetation, topography, intended
uses of the property, and most importantly, the
grouping of plants by their water needs. Also
consider the plants' sun or shade requirements
and preferred soil conditions. A well-thought-
out landscape plan can serve as your roadmap
in creating beautiful, water-smart landscapes
and allow you to continually improve your
landscape over time.

Because soils vary from site to site, test
your soil before beginning your landscape
improvements. Check with your local garden
center for soil test kits and proper amendments.
Alternatively, your county extension  service can

• Analyze the pH levels; nutrient levels (e.g.,
 nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium); and the
 sand, silt, clay, and organic matter content of
 your soil.

• Suggest ways to improve your soil's ability
 to support plants and retain water (e.g., by
 aeration or the addition of soil amendments).

6  www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor
      How and where turf is placed in the landscape
      can significantly reduce the amount of
      irrigation water needed to support the
      landscape. Lawns require a large amount of
      supplemental water and generally greater
      maintenance than other vegetation. Use turf
      where it has a practical function, such as in play
      or recreation areas. Grouping turf areas can
      increase watering efficiency and significantly
      reduce evaporative and runoff losses. Select
      a type of grass that can withstand drought
      periods and become dormant during hot, dry
      seasons. Reducing or eliminating turf areas
      altogether further reduces water use.

      Proper irrigation is an important part of using
      water efficiently outdoors, and applies in any
      landscape. For this reason, an entire section of
      this brochure addresses efficient irrigation; it
      can be found on page 7.

      Mulches aid in greater retention of water
      by minimizing evaporation, reducing weed
      growth, moderating soil temperatures, and
      preventing erosion. Organic mulches also
      improve the condition of your soil as they
      decompose. Mulches are typically composed of
      wood bark chips, wood grindings, pine straws,
      nut shells, small gravel, and/or shredded
landscape clippings. Avoid using rock mulches
in sunny areas or around non-arid climate
plants, as they radiate large amounts of heat
and promote water loss that can lead to
scorching. Avoid using too much mulch, as
excessive amounts can restrict water flow to
plant roots.

Water and fertilize plants only as needed.
Too much water promotes weak growth and
increases pruning and mowing requirements.
Like any landscape, a water-smart yard can
require regular pruning, weeding, pest control,
and possibly irrigation.

As your landscape matures, it will require less
maintenance and less water. Cutting turfgrass
only when it reaches 2 to 3 inches promotes
deeper root growth and a more drought-
resistant lawn. As a rule of thumb, mow your
turfgrass before it requires more than 1 inch
to be removed.The proper cutting height
varies, however, with the type of grass, so you
should contact your county extension service
or local nursery to find out the ideal cutting
height for your lawn. Avoid shearing plants or
giving them high-nitrogen fertilizers during
dry periods because these practices encourage
water-demanding new growth.

                                                                       www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor  7
Water-Smart  Landscape
Irrigation  Methods
Don't let your yard control your water bill.
The information included in this section
applies to every yard, whether it is designed
specifically with water efficiency in mind or not.

With today's common watering practices, up to
50 percent of the water applied to lawns and
gardens is not absorbed by the plants. It is lost
through evaporation, runoff, or being pushed
beyond the root zone because it is applied too
quickly or in excess of the plants'needs. The goal
of efficient irrigation is to reduce these losses
by applying only as much water as is needed to
keep your plants healthy, whether you have a
water-smart or a conventional landscape.

To promote the strong root growth that
supports a plant during drought, water deeply
and water only when the plant needs it. For
clay soils, it is recommended to water less
deeply, and in multiple cycles. Irrigating with
consideration to soil type, the condition of your
plants, the season, and weather conditions—
rather than on a fixed schedule—significantly
improves your watering efficiency and  results
in healthier plants. Grouping plants according
to similar water needs also makes watering
easier and more efficient.

Lawns, gardens, and landscapes can be
irrigated manually or with an automatic
irrigation system. Manual watering with a
handheld hose tends to be the most water-
efficient method. According to the American
Waterworks Association (AWWA) Research
Foundation's Residential End Uses of Water
study, households that manually water with
a hose typically use 33 percent less water
outdoors than the average household. The
study also showed that households with
in-ground sprinkler systems used 35 percent
more water; those with automatic timers
used 47 percent more water; and those with
drip irrigation systems used 16 percent more
water than households without these types
of systems. These results show that in-ground
sprinkler and drip irrigation systems must be
operated properly to be water-efficient.

You can use a handheld hose or a sprinkler
for manual irrigation.To reduce water losses
from evaporation and wind, avoid sprinklers
that produce a fine mist or spray high into the
air. Soaker hoses can also be very efficient and
effective when used properly. Also, consider
using a handheld soil moisture probe to
determine when irrigation is needed.

  • Set sprinklers to water the lawn or
    garden only—not the street or sidewalk,
    because they don't grow!

  • Play "zone" defense. Schedule each
    individual zone in your irrigation system
    to account for the type of sprinkler, sun or
    shade exposure, and the soil type for the
    specific area. The same watering schedule
    rarely applies to all zones in the system.

  • Consult a professional. A certified
    irrigation professional can design, install,
    maintain, and/or audit your system to
    ensure optimal efficiency and that you
    are using the proper amount of water to
    maintain a healthy landscape.

8  www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor
      To make automatic irrigation systems more
      efficient, consider upgrading your standard
      clock timer to a WaterSense labeled irrigation
      controller. And rain sensors or soil moisture
      sensors will also help prevent waste by
      ensuring that the sprinkler does not turn on
      during and immediately after rainfall or when
      soil moisture levels are above preprogrammed
      levels. Drip-type irrigation systems are
      considered the most efficient of the automated
      irrigation methods because they deliver water
      directly to the plants' roots.

      With automatic systems, overwatering  is
      most common during the fall when summer
      irrigation schedules have not been adjusted
      to the cooler temperatures. Irrigation system
      schedules should always be adjusted down in
      the fall to prevent overwatering in the colder

      EPA's WaterSense program also recognizes
      professional certification programs that
      advance water-efficient irrigation techniques
      and practices. Whether you're upgrading your
      system, having it audited, or checking it at
      the beginning or end of the season, be sure
      to consult a professional who is certified by a
      WaterSense labeled program. Always ask for
      credentials to ensure that your contractor is
      knowledgeable about your plants'water needs
      and your irrigation system.
Saving water from storms with rain barrels or
cisterns is a great way to further reduce your
water consumption. Homes with access to
alternative sources of irrigation can reduce
their water bills and the runoff that would
otherwise go into the street. Commercial
rooftop collection systems are available,
but simply diverting your downspout into a
covered barrel is an easy, low-cost approach.
When collecting rainwater, cover all collection
vessels to prevent animals and children from
entering and to prevent mosquito breeding.
Some states might have laws which do not
allow collection of rainwater, so be sure to
check with your state's water resource agency
before implementing a rainwater collection
system. Check with your local water utility or
county government to see if there are rebate
programs available in your area.
   WaterSense labels irrigation
   controllers, a type of "smart" irrigation
   control technology that uses local
   weather data to determine whether
   your sprinkler system needs to turn on.

   With proper installation, programming,
   and adjustments, WaterSense
   labeled irrigation controllers can
   help consumers save water, time, and
   money when compared to use of a
   conventional controller.

                                                                    www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor  9
Water-Smart  Landscape  Examples

Designing a water-smart landscape can help you save money and water
and doesn't have to mean piles of rocks and prickly cacti—in fact, it's just
the opposite. Today's yards that incorporate hardy native plants, proper
soil amendments, mulch, and smart irrigation systems (where needed),
are beautiful, colorful, creative spaces that can add curb appeal and

Communities and local water utilities around the country support
demonstration gardens that can provide information and inspiration to
get you started. County cooperative extension offices, master gardeners,
and local nurseries can also be great sources of information on native and
adaptive plants that can thrive in your local climate.
For a climate that gets a moderate amount of rain with a typically
wet summer and a long winter (e.g., some mid-Atlantic areas,
such as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), this landscape design could be
                                   Low to medium water-using

                                   Low to medium water-using
                               Mulched beds

                               Medium water-using turf

                               Low water-using shrubs
                                For a dry climate that gets minimal rain like Austin, Texas, a
                                beautiful, water-smart yard includes a low water-using turf only
                                where it is functional. A good alternative to turf is one of the
                                many drought-tolerant groundcovers, such as Phyla nodiflora.
   Low water-using turf

   Low water-using shrubs

   Low water-using groundcover

   Low water-using trees
                                                               Mulched beds

                                                               Permeable pavers


10  www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor
    Photo credit: Gino Piscelli
    This landscape was transformed from turfgrass
    plagued by stormwater runoff problems into a
    water-smart paradise. Nearly 75 percent of the lawn
    was replaced with native wildflowers, trees, shrubs,
    and grasses that are appropriate for local water
    conditions.To help reduce runoff, the property also
    features a 1,400-gallon pond, four rain gardens, a
    vegetated green roof, and a dry stream bed that
    collects and routes stormwater into the rain gardens.
                                                     This landscape design creates the aesthetics of a
                                                     traditional garden with modern, low water-using
                                                     plants, flowers, colors, and textures. In this sunny
                                                     yard, placing the right plant in the right place was
                                                     the key to creating a water-smart landscape. The
                                                     owners installed a number of drought-tolerant plants
                                                     that thrive in direct sunlight. Mulch was used to help
                                                     reduce evaporation, inhibit weed growth, moderate
                                                     soil temperature, and prevent erosion. The landscape
                                                     requires little to no supplemental water, even during
                                                     the peak summer months.
                                                                                 BRISTOL, TENNESSEE
                                  Photo credit: Joy Stewart

This compact, no-turf landscape features both
edible and drought-tolerant plants. A unique patio
of permeable crushed rock and cobalt recycled
glass aggregate adds eye-catching interest to the
landscape. The plants are efficiently watered by a drip
irrigation system, which irrigates slowly to minimize
evaporation and runoff. The landscape also features
a rain garden that captures rainwater from roofs,
driveways, and sidewalks which reduces runoff by
allowing stormwater to slowly soak into the ground.
    Photo credit: Linda Andrews

                                                                                 www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor  11
Photo credit: John Galbraith
This drought-tolerant, regionally appropriate
garden turns heads with its year-round color and
texture.The owners transformed a high water-using
landscape into a water-smart oasis by choosing
drought-tolerant plants that require little water
beyond normal rainfall. To get the most out of their
irrigation system, the owners make use of water-
efficient technologies such as rotary spray heads and
a weather-based irrigation controller. When needed,
the rotary spray heads deliver water in a thick stream,
ensuring more water reaches plants and less is lost to
evaporation and wind.
                                                 The owners of this home wanted to replace their
                                                 turfgrass with a fun, low-maintenance landscape
                                                 cover that was both beautiful and efficient. In
                                                 keeping with the home's simple, modern features,
                                                 the new landscape consists of low water-using
                                                 shrubs, perennials, and ornamental grasses that
                                                 sweep across the front of the house. The planting
                                                 areas are dressed with aged bark mulch throughout
                                                 to reduce evaporation and minimize erosion. An
                                                 irrigation system utilizing rotary spray heads provides
                                                 water, when needed, to the plantings.
                                                                            DEL MAR, CALIFORNIA
Photo credit: Scott Richardson; designed by Billy Kniffen
                                 Photo credit: Chris Roesink

Junction Middle School's water-savvy landscape
features rain gardens and a large palette of native
perennials. Five rain gardens capture rainwater from
the school's roof, reducing stormwater runoff and
increasing infiltration. Nearly 300 native grasses,
shrubs, and trees cover the landscape, which needs
minimal supplemental water. Mulch covers the
soil around the plants, reducing water loss from
evaporation. An efficient, drip irrigation system
irrigates plants only during the driest months.
Volunteer students and adults donated their time to
create this conservation landscape, dedicated to the
memory of Opal B. Roberts, an exceptional teacher.

12  www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor
        The following list of organizations can provide more information on water-efficient landscaping. This is
        not an exhaustive list; it is intended to help you locate local information sources and possible technical
        Your local water management district can often provide information on water conservation, including
        water-efficient landscaping practices. Your state or county extension service is also an excellent source of
        information. Many extension services provide free publications and advice on home landscaping issues,
        including tips on plant selection and soil improvement. Some also offer a soil analysis service for a nominal
        fee. A directory of Cooperative Extension System Offices can be found on the USDA's website (www.csrees.
        A directory of Master Gardener programs can be found on the American Horticultural Society's website,
        (www.ahs.org/master gardeners).
        The WaterSense website (www.epa.gov/watersense) can link you to a number of additional resources,
        including information on how to choose the right plants for your landscape (www.epa.gov/watersense/
        outdoor/what to  plant.html).
        To contact WaterSense  by phone, call toll-free (866) WTR-SENS (987-7367).
        The brochure updates a 2002 brochure on
        water-efficient landscaping which included
        technical advice from Alice Darilek, Elizabeth
        Gardner, and David Winger.
        The following is a partial list of publications
        on resource-efficient landscaping. For more
        information, particularly on plants suited to
        your locale, consult your local library, county
        extension service, nursery, garden clubs, or
        water utility.
        Ball, Ken and American Waterworks Association
        (AWWA) Water Conservation Committee.
        Xeriscape Programs for Water Utilities. Denver:
        AWWA, 1990.
        Bennett, Jennifer. Dry-Land Gardening: A
        Xeriscaping Guide for Dry-Summer, Cold-Winter
        Climates. Buffalo: Firefly, 1998.
        Bennett, Richard E. and Michael S. Hazinski.
        Water-Efficient Landscape Guidelines. Denver:
        AWWA, 1993.
        Brenzel, Kathleen N., ed. Western Garden Book,
        2001 Edition. Menlo Park: Sunset Publishing
        Corporation, 2001.
        City of Aurora, Colorado, Utilities Department.
        Landscaping for Water Conservation:Xeriscape!
        Aurora: Colorado Utilities Department, 1989.
        Johnson, Eric and Scott Millard. The Low-Water
        Flower Gardener: 270 Unthirsty Plants for Color,
        Including Perennials, Ground Covers, Grasses &
        Shrubs.Tucson: Ironwood Press, 1993.
        Knopf, James M. The Xeriscape Flower Gardener.
        Boulder: Johnson Books, 1991.
        Knopf, James M., ed. Waterwise Landscaping with
        Trees, Shrubs, and Vines: A Xeriscape Guide for the
        Rocky Mountain Region, California, and the Desert
        Southwest. Boulder: Chamisa Books, 1999.
Knox, Kim, ed. Landscaping for Water
Conservation:Xeriscape. Denver: City of Aurora
and Denver Water, 1989.
Mayer, Peter W. and William B. De Oreo.
Residential End Usesof Water. Aqua craft, Inc.
Water Engineering and Management. AWWA,
Nellis, David W. Seashore Plants of South Florida
and the Caribbean: A Guide to Identification
and Propagation of Xeriscape Plants. Sarasota:
Pineapple Press, Inc., 1994.
Perry, Bob. Landscape Plants for Western
Regions: An Illustrated Guide to Plants for
Water Conservation. Claremont: Land Design
Publishing, 1992.
Phillips, Judith. Natural by Design: Beauty
and Balance in Southwest Gardens. Santa Fe:
Museum of New Mexico Press, 1995.
Phillips, Judith. Plants for Natural Gardens:
Southwestern Natives/Adaptive Trees, Shrubs,
WildfiowersS/Grasses. Santa Fe: Museum of New
Mexico Press, 1995.
Robinette, Gary O. Water Conservation in
Landscape Design and Maintenance. New York:
Nostrand Rein-hold, 1984.
Rumary, Mark. The Dry Garden. New York:
Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1995.
Springer, Lauren. The Undaunted Garden:
Planting for Weather-Resilient Beauty. Golden:
Fulcrum Publishing, 1994.
Springer, Lauren. Waterwise Gardening. New
York: Prentice Hall Gardening, 1994.
Stephens,Tom, Doug Welsh, and Connie Ellefson.
Xeriscape Gardening, Water Conservation for
the American Landscape. New York: Macmillan
Publishing, 1992.
Sunset Books, eds. Waterwise Gardening:
Beautiful Gardens with Less Water. Menlo Park:
Lane Publishing Company, 1989.
Vickers, Amy. Handbook of Water Use and
Conservation. Amherst, MA: WaterPlow Press,
Weinstein, Gayle. Xeriscape Handbook: A How-To
Guide to Natural, Resource-Wise Gardening.
Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 1998.
Williams, Sara. Creating the Prairie Xeriscape.
Saskatchewan: University Extension Press, 1997.
Winger, David, ed. Xeriscape Plant Guide: 100
Water-Wise Plants for Gardens and Landscapes.
Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 1998.
Winger, David, ed. Xeriscape Color Guide.
Golden: Fulcrum Publishing, 1998.
Winger, David, ed. Evidence of Care: The
Xeriscape Maintenance Journal, 2002, Vol. 1,
Colorado WaterWise Council, 2001.
Cover photographs from Gino Piscelli, Joy
Stewart, Linda Andrews, and John Galbraith.
Illustrations by Mindy Mitchell.
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency

(866) WTR-SENS (987-7367)
EPA WaterSense Program
EPA 832-K-12-2002
July 2013