vxEPA
United States        Office of Water      EPA 822-R-13-001
Environmental Protection     4304T         April 2013
Agency
 AQUATIC LIFE AMBIENT WATER
     QUALITY CRITERIA FOR
    AMMONIA - FRESHWATER
              2013

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                                        EPA-822-R-13-001
             Aquatic Life
Ambient Water Quality Criteria For
       Ammonia - Freshwater
                  2013
                 April 2013
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
               Office of Water
         Office of Science and Technology
               Washington, DC
                    ii

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                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS	iii
LIST OF TABLES	v
LIST OF FIGURES	vi
LIST OF APPENDICES	vii
FOREWORD	viii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT	ix
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY	x
ACRONYMS	xiii
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND	1
PROBLEM FORMULATION	4
  Overview of Stressor Sources and Occurrence	5
  Environmental Fate and Transport of Ammonia in the Aquatic Environment	6
  Mode of Action and Toxicity	8
  Assessment Endpoints	9
  Measures of Effect	10
    Acute measures of effect	11
    Chronic  measures of effect	12
    Chronic  averaging period of 30 days	13
    Ammonia toxicity data fulfilling minimum data requirements	14
  Conceptual Model	16
    Conceptual diagram	17
  Analysis Plan	19
EFFECTS  ANALYSES FOR FRESHWATER AQUATIC ORGANISMS	21
  Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Animals	21
    Summaries of studies used in acute criterion determination	24
  Chronic Toxicity to Freshwater Aquatic Animals	31
    Summaries of studies used in chronic criterion determination	34
  The National Criteria for Ammonia in Fresh Water	40
    Acute criterion calculations	40
    Chronic  criterion calculations	46
    Additional explanation and justification supporting the 2013 temperature and pH-dependent
    calculations and  criteria magnitudes	50
    Protect on of downstream waters	51
    Considerations for site-specific criteria derivation	52
EFFECTS  CHARACTERIZATION	52
  Freshwater Acute Toxicity Data	53
    Acute toxicity data for freshwater mussels and non-pulmonate (gill-bearing) snails	53
  Freshwater Chronic Toxicity Data	56
    Use of 28-day juvenile unionid mussel data	56
    28-day toxicity data for freshwater snails	56
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    28-day toxicity data for Hyalella azteca: Minimum Data Requirement Number 5	57
    Reconsideration of the chronic toxicity data available for aquatic insects: Minimum Data
    Requirement Number 6	59
    New chronic toxicity data for salmonid species and derivation of a GMC V for
    Oncorhynchus: Minimum Data Requirement Number 1	59
    Another order of insect or a phylum not already represented: Minimum Data Requirement
    Numbers	61
  Protection of Endangered Species	62
    Key acute toxicity data for listed species	62
    Key chronic toxicity data for listed species	64
  Comparison of 1999, 2009, and 2013 Criteria Values	65
    Comparison of statistical approaches to develop the chronic criterion: EC20 vs. MATC... 68
UNUSED DATA	68
REFERENCES	70
                                         IV

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                               LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Summary of Assessment Endpoints and Measures of Effect Used in Criteria
      Derivation for Ammonia	13
Table 2. 1985 Guidelines Minimum Data Requirements Summary Table Reflecting the
      Number of Species and Genus Level Mean Values Represented in the Acute and
      Chronic Toxicity Datasets for Ammonia in Freshwater	15
Table 3. Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values	27
Table 4. Ranked Genus Mean Chronic Values	39
Table 5a. Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CMC (Acute Criterion Magnitude)
      - Oncorhynchus spp. Present	44
Table 5b. Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CMC (Acute Criterion Magnitude)
      - Oncorhynchus spp. Absent	45
Table 6. Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CCC (Chronic Criterion
      Magnitude)	49
Table 7. Comparison of the Four Taxa Used to Calculate the FAV and CMC in the 1999,
      2009 Draft and 2013 AWQC	55
Table 8. Comparison of the Four Taxa Used to Calculate the FCV and CCC in the 1999
      Update, 2009 Draft and the 2013 AWQC	67
Table F.I.  Species,  Genus and Taxon-Specific ACRs for Freshwater Aquatic Animals
      Exposed to Ammonia	145
Table M. 1.  Results  of Regression Analysis of logLCso (mg/L total ammonia nitrogen)
      Versus Temperature (C) for Individual Data Sets on the Temperature Dependence
      of Acute Ammonia Toxicity	215
Table M.2.  Results of Regression Analysis of log LCso (mg/L total ammonia nitrogen)
      Versus Temperature (C) for Pooled Data Sets on the Temperature Dependence of
      Acute Ammonia Toxicity to Fish	216
Table N. 1.  Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CMC (Acute Criterion
      Magnitude) - Unionid Mussels Present, Oncorhynchus Absent	233
Table N.2.  Acute Data Without Mussels: Comparison of the Four Taxa Used to Calculate
      the FAV and CMC in the 1999 AWQC and this Updated 2013 AWQC Excluding
      Data for Freshwater Unionid Mussels	234
Table N.3.  Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CMC (Acute Criterion
      Magnitude) - Unionid Mussels Absent and Oncorhynchus Present	235
Table N.4.  Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CMC (Acute Criterion
      Magnitude) - Unionid Mussels Absent and Oncorhynchus Absent	236
Table N. 5.  2013 Acute Criterion Recalculations for Site-specific Criteria	237
Table N.6.  Chronic Dataset Without Mussels: Comparison of the Four Taxa used to
      Calculate the CCC in the 1999 AWQC and this Updated 2013 AWQC Excluding
      Data for Freshwater Unionid Mussels	237
Table N.7.  Chronic Criterion Recalculations for Site-Specific Criteria	238
Table N.8.  Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CCC (Chronic Criterion
      Magnitude) - Mussels Absent and Early Life Stage (ELS) Protection Necessary	239
Table N.9.  Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CCC (Chronic Criterion
      Magnitude) - Mussels Absent and Early Life Stage (ELS) Protection not Necessary. ...240

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                               LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Fraction of Chemical Species of Ammonia Present with Change in pH (at 25C)	7
Figure 2: Conceptual Model for Ammonia Effects on Aquatic Animals	18
Figure 3. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Acute Values (GMAVs) with Criterion
      Maximum Concentrations (CMCs)	24
Figure 4. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Chronic Values (GMCVs) with Criterion
      Continuous Concentrations (CCCs)	33
Figure 5a. 2013 Acute Criterion Magnitudes Extrapolated Across a Temperature Gradient
      atpH7	43
Figure 5b. 2013 Chronic Criterion Magnitudes Extrapolated Across a Temperature Gradient
      atpH7	48
Figure F.I.  SMACRs by SMAV Rank	148
Figure M. 1. The Effect of Temperature on Ammonia Toxicity in Terms of Unionized
      Ammonia (DeGraeve et al. 1987)	203
Figure M.2. The Effect of Temperature on Acute Ammonia Toxicity in Terms of Total
      Ammonia Nitrogen	205
Figure M.3. The Effect of Temperature on pH-Adjusted Acute Ammonia Toxicity in Terms
      of Total Ammonia Nitrogen	206
Figure M.4. The Effect of Temperature on Normalized Acute Ammonia Toxicity in Terms
      of Total Ammonia Nitrogen	210
Figure M.S. The Effect of Temperature on Chronic Ammonia Lethality to Fathead
      Minnows in Terms of Total Ammonia Nitrogen (DeGraeve et al. 1987)	211
Figure M.6. Temperature Dependence of Acute Ammonia Toxicity to Invertebrate
      Organisms from Arthur et al. (1987)	221
Figure M.7. Temperature-Dependence of Ammonia ACRs for Fathead Minnows	223
Figure N.I.  Comparison of the 2013 CMC Extrapolated Across  a Temperature Gradient at
      pH 7 Accounting for the Presence or Absence  of Unionid Mussels and the Presence
      or Absence of Oncorhynchus	241
Figure N.2.  Comparison of the 2013 CCC Extrapolated Across a Temperature Gradient at
      pH 7 Accounting for the Presence or Absence  of Mussels and/or the Need for Early
      Life Stage (ELS) Protection of Fish Species	242
                                         VI

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                            LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals	86
Appendix B. Chronic Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals	131
Appendix C. Other Chronic Ammonia Toxicity Data	134
Appendix D. Conversion of Acute Results of Toxicity Tests	138
Appendix E. Conversion of Chronic Results of Toxicity Tests	141
Appendix F. Acute-Chronic Ratios (ACRs)	143
Appendix G. Results of the Regression Analyses of New Chronic Data for Unionid
      Mussels	149
Appendix H. Detailed Descriptions of Select New Acute and Chronic Toxicity Test Data
      Used for Criteria Derivation	154
Appendix I. Qualitative Weight-of-Evidence Test Data	163
Appendix J. Unused Acute Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria
      Development	171
Appendix K. Unused Chronic Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia
      Criteria Development	177
Appendix L. Unused (Non-Influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia
      Criteria Development - Screened Out Studies with Code List	179
Appendix M.  1999 Re-examination of Temperature Dependence of Ammonia Toxicity	199
Appendix N. Site-Specific Criteria for Ammonia	225
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FOREWORD
       This water quality criteria update provides scientific recommendations to states and tribes
authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act (CWA), to protect
aquatic life from acute and chronic effects of ammonia in freshwater ecosystems. Under the
CWA, states and tribes are to establish water quality criteria to protect designated uses.  State
and tribal  decision makers retain the discretion to adopt approaches on a case-by-case basis that
differ from those used in these criteria when appropriate. While this update constitutes United
States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) scientific recommendations regarding ambient
concentrations of ammonia that  protect freshwater aquatic life, this update does not substitute for
the CWA  or EPA's regulations;  nor is it a regulation itself.  Thus, it cannot impose legally
binding requirements on EPA, states, tribes, or the regulated community, and might not apply to
a particular situation based upon the circumstances.  EPA may change these criteria in the future,
as new scientific information becomes available. This document has been approved for
publication by the Office of Science and Technology, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      This 2013 criteria document is an update of the 1999 Update of Ambient Water Quality
Criteria for Ammonia. The updates described herein were prepared by Lisa Huff (EPA Team
Leader), Charles Delos, Kathryn Gallagher, and Joe Beaman with written and technical support
provided by EPA contractor: Great Lakes Environmental Center, Inc.  EPA received substantial
input from Dave Mount, James (Russ) Hockett, Russell Erickson, and Charles Stephan of the
EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) National Health and Environmental Effects
Research Laboratory (NHEERL) Mid-Continent Ecology Division, Duluth, MN, and Cindy
Roberts, ORD Office of Science Policy. Please submit comments or questions to: Lisa Huff,
U.S. EPA, Mail Code 4304, Washington, DC 20460 (e-mail: huff.lisa@epa.gov).
                                        IX

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
       EPA has updated the freshwater ammonia aquatic life ambient water quality criteria in
accord with the provisions of Section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act to revise Ambient Water
Quality Criteria (AWQC) from time to time in order to reflect the latest scientific knowledge.
Literature searches for laboratory toxicity tests of ammonia on freshwater aquatic life, published
froml985 to 2012, identified new studies containing acute  and chronic toxicity data acceptable
for criteria derivation. The acute criterion dataset includes 12 species of aquatic animals
Federally-listed as threatened, endangered or species of concern.  In the chronic dataset for
ammonia, Federally-listed species are represented by three salmonid fish species in the genus
Oncorhynchus, including sockeye salmon, rainbow trout/steelhead, and the subspecies Lahontan
cutthroat trout.  Data were assessed from the perspective of EPA's "Guidelines for Deriving
Numerical National Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their
Uses" (Stephan et al. 1985).
       The 1999 recommended aquatic life criteria for ammonia were based on the most
sensitive endpoints known at the time: the acute criterion was based primarily on effects on
salmonids (where present) or other fish, and the chronic criterion was based primarily on
reproductive effects on the benthic invertebrate Hyalella or on survival and growth offish early
life stages (when present), depending on temperature and season.
       The 2013 recommended criteria of this document take into account data for several
sensitive freshwater mussel species in the Family Unionidae that had not previously been tested.
As noted in the 2009 draft ammonia criteria document, available data indicated that another
freshwater mollusk taxon, non-pulmonate (gill-bearing) snails, are also sensitive to the effects of
ammonia (EPA-822-D-09-001). The 2013  criteria include additional data confirming the
sensitivity of freshwater non-pulmonate snails. Many  states in the continental United States have
freshwater unionid mussel fauna in at least some of their waters (Abell et al. 2000, Williams et
al. 1993, Williams and Neves  1995). Moreover,  approximately one-quarter of approximately
300 freshwater unionid mussel taxa in the United States are Federally-listed as endangered or
threatened species. Freshwater mussels are broadly distributed across the U.S., as are freshwater
non-pulmonate snails, another sensitive invertebrate taxon, and both of these groups are now
included in the ammonia dataset.  Thus, the 2013 freshwater acute and chronic aquatic life
criteria for ammonia will more fully protect the aquatic community than previous criteria, and

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are represented by a single (non-bifurcated) value each for acute and chronic criteria.
       The criteria magnitude is affected by pH and temperature. After analysis of the new data,
EPA determined that the pH and temperature relationships established in the 1999 ammonia
criterion document still hold. When expressed as total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), the effect
concentrations for fish are normalized only for pH, reflecting the minimal influence of
temperature on TAN toxicity to fish. For invertebrates, TAN effect concentrations are
normalized for both pH and temperature. At water temperatures greater than 15.7C, the 2013
acute criterion magnitude is determined primarily by effects on freshwater unionid mussels. At
lower temperatures the acute criterion magnitude is based primarily on effects on salmonids and
other fish. Throughout the temperature range, the 2013 chronic criterion magnitude is
determined primarily by the effects on freshwater mollusks, particularly unionid mussels.
       At an example pH of 7 and temperature of 20C, the 2013 acute criterion magnitude is 17
mg TAN/L and the chronic criterion magnitude is 1.9 mg TAN/L.  At pH 7 and 20C the 2013
acute criterion magnitude is 1.4-fold lower than the 1999 acute criterion magnitude. At this pH
and temperature, the 2013 chronic criterion magnitude is 2.4-fold lower than the 1999 chronic
criterion magnitude.  See the Criterion Statements (pages 40-49) for the criterion concentrations
at other pH and temperature conditions. The decreases in acute and chronic criteria magnitudes
below those of 1999 reflect the inclusion of the new data discussed above.
       The acute criterion duration represents a one-hour average. The chronic criterion
duration represents a 30-day rolling average  with the additional restriction that the highest 4-day
average within the 30 days be no greater than 2.5 times the chronic criterion magnitude. These
values are not to be exceeded more than once in 3 years on average.
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Criterion
Duration
Acute
(1-hr average)
Chronic
(30-d rolling
average)
1999 AWQC
Update Criteria
Magnitude
pH 8.0,
(mg TAN/L)
5.6a
1.2
pH7.0,
T=20C
(mg TAN/L)
24a
4.5b
2009 Draft AWQC
Update Criteria0
Magnitude
pH 8.0,
T=25C
(mg TAN/L)
2.9
0.26
pH7.0,
T=20C
(mg TAN/L)
19
0.91
2013 AWQC
Update Criteria
Magnitude
pH7.0,
T=20C
(mg TAN/L)
17a
1.9*
*Not to exceed 2.5 times CCC or 4.8 mg TAN/L (at pH 7, 20C) as a 4-day average within the 30-days,
more than once in three years on average.
Criteria frequency: Not to be exceeded more than once in three years on average.
1 Salmonids present
3 Based on renormalization of data to pH 7 and 20C
3 Mussels present
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ACRONYMS
ACR         Acute-Chronic Ratio
ASTM       American Society of Testing and Materials
AWQC       Ambient Water Quality Criteria
CCC         Criterion Continuous Concentration
CMC         Criterion Maximum Concentration
CV          Chronic Value (expressed in this document as an EC20 or MATC)
CWA        Clean Water Act
ECx         Effect Concentration at X Percent Effect Level
LCx         Lethal Concentration at X Percent Survival Level
EPA         Environmental Protection Agency
ESA         Endangered Species Act
FACR       Final Acute-Chronic Ratio
FAV         Final Acute Value
FCV         Final Chronic Value
GMACR     Genus Mean Acute-Chronic Ratio
GMAV       Genus Mean Acute Value
GMCV       Genus Mean Chronic Value
LOEC       Lowest Observed Effect Concentration
MATC       Maximum Acceptable Toxicant Concentration (expressed mathematically as the
             geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC)
NOEC       No Observed Effect Concentration
SD          Sensitivity Distribution
SMACR     Species Mean Acute-Chronic Ratio
SMAV       Species Mean Acute Value
SMCV       Species Mean Chronic Value
TAN         Total Ammonia Nitrogen
TRAP       EPA's Statistical Program: Toxicity Relationship Analysis Program (Version
             1.21)
WER         Water Effect Ratio
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INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
       National Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) are established by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Water Act (CWA).  EPA will review
and from time to time revise 304(a) AWQC as necessary to ensure the criteria are consistent with
the latest scientific information. Section 304(a) aquatic life criteria serve as recommendations to
states and tribes in defining ambient water concentrations that will protect against adverse
ecological effects to aquatic life resulting from exposure to a pollutant found in water from direct
contact or ingestion of contaminated water and/or food. Aquatic life criteria address the CWA
goals of providing for the protection and propagation offish and shellfish.  When adopted into
state standards, these criteria can become a basis for establishing permit limits and Total
Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs).
       EPA first published aquatic life criteria recommendations for ammonia in 1976, followed
nine years later by the 1985 criteria revision, which used updated procedures and additional
information. The  1985 acute ammonia criterion was calculated from acute values expressed as
unionized ammonia and normalized for pH (8.0) for all freshwater aquatic animals, and
temperature (20C) for freshwater fish only. Because the fraction of total ammonia that is
unionized varies with pH and temperature, the 1985 toxicity data normalizations with unionized
ammonia were necessarily structured differently than the current document's normalizations with
total ammonia nitrogen. Because the 1985 chronic toxicity dataset was more limited than is
available now, the 1985 chronic criterion was calculated by dividing the Final Acute Value by an
acute-chronic ratio (ACR).  The 1985 acute and chronic criteria concentrations were 19 and 1.2
mg/L expressed as total ammonia nitrogen at pH 7 and temperature 20 C for salmonids or other
coldwater species present (e.g., rainbow trout).  The durations for these criteria were one-hour
(acute) and four-day (chronic) averaging periods.  The 1985 freshwater acute criterion dataset
was composed of acute values from tests involving 41 species (29 fish and 12 invertebrate)
representing 34 genera (18 fish and 16 invertebrate).  The data available for invertebrates at the
time indicated they were not among the more acutely-sensitive organisms to ammonia.
       In 1999 EPA revised the 1985 freshwater ammonia criteria to incorporate newer data,
better models, and improved statistical methods. For its acute criterion, the revision included a
re-examination of the temperature and pH relationships underlying the 1985 acute criterion,
reworked from the perspective of total ammonia nitrogen rather than unionized ammonia. For its
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chronic criterion, EPA developed relationships for formulating a seasonal, pH- and temperature-
dependent relationship, in part because the chronic criterion was based on endpoints that might
not be of concern during cold-season conditions (e.g., fish early life stages). EPA analyzed all of
the freshwater chronic data used in the 1985 criteria document as well as newer chronic data and
was able to directly calculate a chronic criterion instead of calculating it from the acute criterion
with an ACR.  EPA did not conduct a comprehensive literature search for and critical review of
all of the acute toxicity data published after 1985, but focused on the chronic criteria, in response
to scientific issues raised by the public.  Thus, the 1999 acute criterion relied on acute tests
reported in Table 1 in the 1985 criteria document, supplemented by a limited number of newer
studies relevant to the revised pH relationship.
       The 1999 criteria were based on the most sensitive endpoints known at the time: the acute
criterion was based primarily on effects on fish throughout the temperature range, and the
chronic criterion was based primarily on effects on benthic macroinvertebrates or fish early life
stages (when present), depending on temperature and season. For the 1999 acute criterion the
effect concentrations for fish were normalized for pH only, reflecting the minimal influence of
temperature on total ammonia toxicity to fish. The 1999 acute criterion was not adjusted for
temperature because invertebrates that were included in the dataset, mollusks included, were not
among the species highly sensitive to ammonia, thus, the invertebrate temperature slope did not
affect the formulation of the 1999 acute criterion.  The 1999 chronic criterion was adjusted for
pH for fish and for pH and temperature for invertebrates.  The chronic averaging period was
increased from a 4- to a 30-day average in the 1999 update; the rationale for this change was
based on analysis of chronic data from fathead minnow laboratory tests of different exposure
durations and exposure concentrations with "limited  variability" (see detailed discussion in the
Problem Formulation of this document under Chronic Measures of Effect). For chronic toxicity,
the 1999 updated dataset consisted of nine values representing four invertebrate and five fish
genera.  Two of the four most chronically sensitive species were invertebrates (the benthic
amphipod Hyalella azteca and the bivalve mollusk, Musculium transversum).  Missing were
representative  chronic values for the genus Oncorhynchus (salmonid) and an insect genus,
although in both of these cases the calculation of the  fifth percentile directly from the GMCVs in
Table 5 of the  1999 update was deemed to adequately protect the freshwater aquatic community.

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       In 2004 EPA published a Federal Register Notice indicating its intent to re-evaluate the
freshwater ammonia criteria and requesting new information on ammonia toxicity to freshwater
mussel species in the Family Unionidae. This action was taken in response to concerns from
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and mussel researchers about the sensitivity of unionid
mussels to ammonia (summarized by Augspurger et al. 2003).  The current document takes into
account all such data, new toxicity data obtained by a search of the literature for all other species,
and updated analyses of tests previously included  in the 1999 document.
       In 2009, EPA published a draft ammonia criteria document that included all  available
new data on the toxicity of ammonia to freshwater mussels (EPA-822-D-09-001). The draft
2009 document incorporated new toxicity data in the acute and chronic dataset while retaining
the relationships describing the influence of pH and temperature on ammonia toxicity established
in the 1999 criteria. The 2009 acute dataset represented 67 genera, including 12 species of
freshwater mussels, compared to only 34 genera in the  1999 AWQC.  Freshwater bivalve
mollusks and snails were the predominant groups  of genera ranked in the lowest (most sensitive)
quartile, and the four most acutely sensitive genera were all bivalves.  The 2009 chronic dataset
incorporated two new fish species and  new data for three freshwater mussel species, which
represented two of the four most sensitive genera. The draft 2009 criteria recommendations
were bifurcated, with a set of acute and chronic criteria values for waters with mussels present
that reflects  their greater sensitivity to ammonia, and a different set of criteria values for waters
where mussels are  absent. Including the new acceptable data for freshwater unionid mussels,  the
draft 2009 acute and chronic criteria magnitudes, respectively, were 19 and 0.91 mg TAN/L
adjusted to pH 7.0  and 20C.
       For this 2013 update, EPA conducted a new literature search for both acute and chronic
toxicity data and reanalyzed data considered in the 1999 criteria and the 2009 draft.  EPA
reviewed results from this literature search and reanalysis of previously considered data to
identify data from laboratory toxicity tests that quantify the adverse effects of ammonia on
freshwater aquatic  life (amphibians, fishes, and macroinvertebrates), with particular attention
given to tests conducted with freshwater unionid mussels and non-pulmonate snails, since such
data were not available for many of these species previously. While unionid mussel species are
not prevalent in some waters,  such as in the arid west, non-pulmonate snails are broadly
distributed across the U.S. Thus, considering that freshwater unionid  mussels are among the
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most sensitive genera in the dataset, and that all states have at least one freshwater unionid
mussel or bivalve mollusk, or non-pulmonate snail species, another relatively sensitive mollusk
group, native or present in at least some of their waters, EPA is recommending a single national
acute and a single national chronic criterion be applied to all waters rather than different criteria
based on the presence or absence of mussels.
       EPA also conducted a separate search and analysis of any relevant new data specific for
freshwater mussels to evaluate whether the existing pH-acute  TAN toxicity relationship
established in the 1999 update document similarly applies to this group of invertebrates. Based
on the results of the literature review, EPA concludes that the  same pH and temperature
relationships used to account for the influence of these two abiotic factors on ammonia toxicity
in the 1999 AWQC document are still applicable (e.g., see Additional Explanation and
Justification Supporting the 2013 Temperature andpH-Dependent Calculations and Criteria
Magnitudes section for additional details, pg. 50).

PROBLEM FORMULATION
       Problem formulation provides a strategic framework for water quality criteria
development by focusing the effects assessment on the most relevant chemical properties and
endpoints.  The structure of this effects assessment is consistent with EPA's Guidelines for
Ecological Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA 1998)
       This ecological effects assessment defines scientifically-defensible water quality criteria
values for ammonia under section 304(a)(l) of the Clean Water Act. The goal of the Clean
Water Act is to protect and restore the biological, chemical and physical integrity of waters of
the U.S.  Clean Water Act Section 304(a)(l) requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality
that accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge. These criteria are based solely on data and
best professional scientific judgments on toxicological effects. Criteria are developed following
the guidance outlined in the Agency's Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water
Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses (Stephan et al. 1985).
       Once  Section 304(a) water quality criteria are finalized, states and authorized tribes may
adopt the criteria into their water quality standards to protect designated uses of water bodies.
States and tribes may also modify the criteria to reflect site-specific conditions or use other

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scientifically-defensible methods to develop standards. Water quality standards are subsequently
approved by EPA.

Overview of Stressor Sources and Occurrence
       Ammonia is considered one of the most important pollutants in the aquatic environment
not only because of its highly toxic nature, but also its ubiquity in surface water systems (Russo
1985). Ammonia is produced for commercial fertilizers and other industrial applications using a
reaction that converts atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia using hydrogen obtained from methane
(natural gas) under high heat and pressure; the ammonia gas is then compressed under low
temperature and stored in an anhydrous liquid form (Appl 1999).  In agriculture, ammonia is
used both directly (in anhydrous form),  as well as a precursor for other nitrogen-based fertilizers
such as ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, urea, and ammonium sulfate (Environment
Canada 2010). The agricultural industry uses approximately 90% of the U.S. annual domestic
ammonia production (USGS 2004). Ammonia also has numerous industrial applications,
including use as a protective atmosphere and as a source of hydrogen in metal finishing and
treating applications (e.g., nitriding; Appl 1999), as well as many  other uses in the chemical
industry including the production of pharmaceuticals (Karolyi 1968) and dyes (Appl 1999). The
petroleum industry utilizes ammonia for processing of crude oil and in corrosion protection (U.S.
EPA 2004). Ammonia is also used in the mining industry for metals extraction (U.S. EPA
2004). Natural sources of ammonia include the decomposition or breakdown of organic waste
matter, gas  exchange with the atmosphere, forest fires, animal waste, the discharge of ammonia
by biota, and nitrogen fixation processes (Environment Canada 1997; Environment Canada
2010; Geadah 1985).
       Ammonia can enter the aquatic environment via anthropogenic sources or discharges
such as municipal effluent discharges, agricultural runoff, and natural  sources such as nitrogen
fixation and the excretion of nitrogenous wastes from animals.  While much of the early
information regarding lethal concentrations of ammonia was driven by the consequences of
ammonia buildup in aquaculture systems (i.e., fish culture ponds,  hatchery raceways, and fish
holding and transporting tanks), the introduction of ammonia into surface water systems from
industrial processes, agricultural runoff, and sewage effluents has received considerable attention
since the 1980s (Alabaster and Lloyd 1980; U.S. EPA 1985). Many effluents have to be treated
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extensively in order to keep the concentrations of ammonia in surface waters from being
unacceptably high.  In 2011, there were approximately 4.7 million pounds (Ibs.) of ammonia
documented as discharged from all reporting industries to surface waters (U.S. EPA 2011).  In
2010, industrial releases of ammonia to ten large aquatic ecosystems (e.g., Chesapeake Bay,
Puget Sound, Great Lakes) were reported to total approximately 1.3 million Ibs. (U.S. EPA
2010).

Environmental Fate and Transport of Ammonia in the Aquatic Environment
       Ammonia (NHa) is formed in the natural environment by the fixation of atmospheric
nitrogen and hydrogen by diazotrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria (Latysheva et al. 2012).
Trace amounts are also produced by lightning (Noxon 1976).  Decomposition of manure, dead
plants and animals by bacteria in the aquatic and terrestrial environments produce ammonia and
other ammonium compounds through conversion of nitrogen during decomposition of tissues in
a process called ammonification (ATSDR 2004; Sylvia 2005).  In the aquatic environment,
ammonia is also produced and excreted by fish. The chemical form of ammonia in water
consists of two species, the more abundant of which is the ammonium ion (NH4+) and the less
abundant of which is the non-dissociated or unionized ammonia (NH3) molecule; the ratio of
these species in a given aqueous solution is dependent upon both pH and temperature (Emerson
et al. 1975; Erickson 1985; Thurston 1988; Whitfield 1974; Wood 1993).  Chemically, ammonia
in an aqueous medium behaves as a moderately strong base with pKa values ranging from
approximately 9 to slightly above 10 as a function of temperature and ionic  strength (Emerson et
al. 1975; Whitfield 1974). In general, the ratio of unionized ammonia to ammonium ion in fresh
water increases by 10-fold for each rise of a single pH unit, and by approximately two-fold for
each 10C rise in temperature from 0-30C (Erickson 1985). Basically, as values of pH and
temperature tend to  increase, the concentration of NHa increases and the concentration of NH4+
decreases.
       The ionized  ammonium ion (NH4+) and unionized ammonia molecule (NHa) are
interrelated through the chemical equilibrium NH4+- OH~<^> NHa-H^O-1^ NHa+H^O (Emerson et
al. 1975; Russo 1985). The concentration of total ammonia (often expressed on the basis of
nitrogen as total ammonia nitrogen or TAN) is the sum of NH4+ and NHa  concentrations.  It is
total ammonia that is analytically measured in water samples. To estimate the relative

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concentrations of NH4+ and NHa from total ammonia, Emerson et al.'s (1975) formulas are
recommended (Adams and Sealing 1994; Alabaster and Lloyd 1980; Richardson 1997; Russo
1985).  Figure 1 (below) shows the chemical speciation of ammonia over a range of pH levels in
ambient waters at 25C. It depicts the 10-fold increase in the ratio of unionized ammonia to
ammonium ion in fresh water for each rise of a single pH unit as described above. This increase
in unionized ammonia with increased pH is one hypothesis explaining why toxicity of total
ammonia increases as pH increases.
          o
          i
              Q. 1
              0.01
             O.OD1
                     C h em ical  Spec^at:.cr. of Arnr. on La.
                                        l i^:or.ii
                    VIL - ic n.1. z c d A
                                                     r.  u:n  I or.
                                                           i .1
Figure 1.  Fraction of Chemical Species of Ammonia Present with Change in pH (at 25C).

       Each separate fraction of total ammonia can be calculated in freshwater from the
Henderson-Hasselbach equation if the pH and pKa are known:
NH4+ = Total ammonia/(l+ antilog (pH-pXa)) = Total ammonia - NH3    (Wood 1993)
and,
pKa = 0.09018 + (2729.927(273.2 + T))
where T is temperature in C.
(Emerson et al. 1975)

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Mode of Action and Toxicity
       Ammonia is unique among regulated pollutants because it is an endogenously produced
toxicant that organisms have developed various strategies to excrete, which is in large part by
passive diffusion of unionized ammonia from internal organs, such as the gills in fish. High
external unionized ammonia concentrations reduce or reverse diffusive gradients and cause the
buildup of ammonia in internal tissues and blood. Unionized ammonia may cause toxicity to
Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp. bacteria, inhibiting the nitrification process (Russo
1985). Bacterial inhibition can result in the increased accumulation of ammonia in the aquatic
environment, thereby intensifying the toxicity to beneficial bacteria and aquatic animals (Russo
1985).
       The toxic action of unionized ammonia on aquatic animals, particularly in sensitive fish,
may be due to one or more of the following causes: (1) proliferation in gill tissues, increased
ventilation rates and damage to the gill epithelium (Lang et al. 1987); (2) reduction in blood
oxygen-carrying capacity due to progressive acidosis (Russo 1985); (3) uncoupling oxidative
phosphorylation causing inhibition of production and depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
in the brain (Camargo and Alonso 2006); (4) and the disruption of osmoregulatory and
circulatory activity disrupting normal metabolic functioning of the liver and kidneys (Arillo et.
al.1981; Tomasso et al. 1980).
       Among invertebrates, studies testing ammonia toxicity to bivalves, and particularly
studies with freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae, have demonstrated their sensitivity to
ammonia (Augspurger et al. 2003; Wang et al. 2007a, b; Wang et al. 2008).  Toxic effects of
unionized ammonia to both freshwater and marine bivalves include reduced opening of valves
for respiration and feeding (Epifanio and Srna 1975); impaired secretion of the byssus, or
anchoring threads in bivalves (Reddy and Menon 1979); reduced ciliary action in bivalves (U.S.
EPA 1985); depletion of lipid and carbohydrate stores leading to metabolic alteration (Chetty
and Indira 1995) as well as mortality (Goudreau  et al. 1993).  These negative physiological
effects may lead to reductions in feeding, fecundity, and survivorship, resulting in decreased
bivalve populations (Alonso  and Camargo 2004; Constable et al. 2003).

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Assessment Endpoints
   Assessment endpoints are defined as "explicit expressions of the actual environmental value
that is to be protected" and are defined by an ecological entity (species, community, or other
entity) and its attribute or characteristics (U.S. EPA 1998). Assessment endpoints may be
identified at any level of organization (e.g., individual, population, community).  In the context
of the Clean Water Act,  aquatic life criteria for toxics are typically determined based on the
results of toxicity tests with aquatic organisms in which unacceptable effects on growth,
reproduction, or survival occurred. This information is aggregated into a species sensitivity
analysis that evaluates the impact on the aquatic community.  Criteria are designed to be
protective of the vast majority of aquatic animal species in an aquatic community (i.e.,
approximately 95* percentile of tested aquatic animals representing the aquatic community). As
a result, health of the aquatic ecosystem may be considered as an assessment endpoint indicated
by survival, growth, and reproduction.  To assess potential effects on the aquatic ecosystem by a
particular stressor, and develop 304(a) aquatic life criteria under the CWA, EPA typically
requires the following:
      Acute toxicity test data (mortality, immobility, loss of equilibrium) for aquatic animals
       from a minimum of eight diverse taxonomic groups.  The diversity of tested species is
       intended to ensure protection of various components of an aquatic ecosystem. The acute
       freshwater toxicity testing requirement is fulfilled with the following eight minimum data
       requirements:
                    the family Salmonidae in  the class Osteichthyes
                    a  second family in the class  Osteichthyes, preferably a commercially or
                     recreationally important warmwater species (e.g., bluegill, channel catfish,
                     etc.)
                    a  third family in the phylum Chordata (may be in the class Osteichthyes or
                     may be an amphibian, etc.)
                    a  planktonic crustacean (e.g., cladoceran, copepod, etc.)
                    a  benthic crustacean (e.g., ostracod, isopod, amphipod, crayfish, etc.)
                    an insect (e.g., mayfly, dragonfly, damselfly, stonefly, caddisfly,
                     mosquito, midge, etc.)

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                    a family in a phylum other than Arthropoda or Chordata (e.g., Rotifera,
                     Annelida, Mollusca, etc.)
                    a family in any order of insect or any phylum not already represented

       Chronic toxicity test data (longer-term survival, growth, or reproduction) are required for
       a minimum of three taxa in order to use acute to chronic ratios to estimate a chronic
       value, which involves having acceptable chronic toxicity data for the following:
                    at least one fish
                    at least one invertebrate
                    at least one chronic test being from an acutely-sensitive species
       However, since acceptable chronic values were available for ammonia for all eight
       minimum data requirements, the chronic criterion was derived following the same genus
       level sensitivity distribution (SD) approach used to calculate the acute criterion (see 1985
       Guidelines for additional  detail).

       The Guidelines also require at least one acceptable test with a freshwater alga or vascular
       plant. If plants are among the aquatic organisms most sensitive to the material, results of
       a plant in another phylum should also be available. The data available on the toxicity of
       ammonia to freshwater plants indicate that plants are approximately two orders of
       magnitude less sensitive than the aquatic animals tested.  Therefore, plant endpoints were
       not used in criteria derivation.

Measures of Effect
       Each assessment endpoint requires one or more "measures of ecological effect," which
are defined as changes in the attributes of an assessment endpoint itself or changes in a surrogate
entity or attribute in response to chemical exposure. Ecological effect data are used as measures
of direct and indirect effects to biological receptors. The measures of effect selected represent
the growth, reproduction, and survival of the organisms.
       The amount of toxicity testing data available for any given pollutant varies significantly,
depending primarily on whether any major environmental issues are raised due to interpretation
                                            10

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of those data. An in-depth evaluation of available data is performed by EPA to determine test
acceptability.

Acute measures of effect
       Acute measures of effect used for organisms in this document are the LCso and ECso.  LC
stands for "Lethal Concentration" and the LCso is the concentration of a chemical that is
estimated to kill 50% of the test organisms.  EC stands for "Effective Concentration" and the
ECso is the concentration of a chemical that is estimated to produce a specific effect in 50% of
the test organisms.
       As part of the evaluation of new acute data for ammonia, studies submitted using
glochidia, the larval life stage of freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae, were reviewed for
acceptability for use in the ammonia criteria development.  In 2006 a new ASTM method was
published for toxicity tests with glochidia.  However, at the time of the 2009 draft revised criteria
for ammonia, EPA and external peer reviewers were concerned that information was unavailable
to determine whether the tests with glochidia were ecologically relevant. Specifically, the
appropriate duration of the tests (24, 48, or 96 hrs) was uncertain because it was unclear how the
tests of various  durations related to the viability of this short parasitic life stage and its ability to
successfully infect a fish host upon encountering the appropriate fish species.  Since that time,
studies by Bringolf et al. (2013) have resulted in the recommendation of a maximum test
duration of 24 hours for glochidia corresponding with the ecologically relevant endpoint of
infectivity for this parasitic life stage. EPA agreed with this recommendation and decided to
include glochidia tests in the criterion dataset for test data with durations of up to 24 hours with
survival of glochidia at the end of 24 hours of at least 90% in the control treatment.  In addition,
to account for species of mussels whose glochidia might not be expected to be viable at 24 hours
(i.e., potentially mantle lure strategists), EPA examined available tests with glochidia that were
conducted for 24 hours that included testing for viability at 6, 12, and 18 hours.  If the viability
was less than 90% at 24 hours in the control animals, then the next longest duration less than 24
hours that had at least 90% survival in the control, was considered  acceptable for use in deriving
the ammonia criteria.
                                            11

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Chronic measures of effect
       Chronic measures of effect are EC20, NOEC, LOEC, and MATC. EC20 values were used
to estimate a low level of effect observed in chronic datasets that are available for ammonia (see
U.S. EPA 1999). EC20 is the concentration of a chemical that is estimated to result in a 20
percent effect in a chronic endpoint (e.g., growth, reproduction, and survival) of the test
organisms.
       The NOEC (i.e.,  "No-Observed -Effect-Concentration") is the highest test concentration
at which none of the observed effects are statistically different from the control.  The LOEC (i.e.,
"Lowest-Observed- Effect-Concentration") is the lowest test concentration at which observed
effects are found to be statistically different from the control.  The MATC is the calculated
geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC.
       For life-cycle (LC) and partial life-cycle (PLC) tests, the toxicological variables used in
regression analyses were survival, embryo production, and embryo hatchability.  For early life-
stage (ELS) tests with fishes, the endpoints used were embryo hatchability, fry/larval survival,
and fry/larval growth. If ammonia reduced both survival and  growth, the product of these
variables (biomass) was  analyzed (when possible), rather than analyzing them separately.  For
other acceptable chronic and related (e.g., 28-day juvenile or adult) tests, the toxicological
endpoints analyzed were survival, reproduction, hatchability,  or growth as appropriate.
       Regression analysis was used, both to demonstrate that a concentration-effect relationship
was present, and to estimate chronic values at a consistent level of effect. Estimates of effect
concentrations can generally be made with precision for a 50 percent reduction in response
(ECso), but at low percent reductions such precision is decreased.  A major reduction, such as 50
percent, is not consistent with the intent of establishing chronic criteria to protect the population
from long-term effects.  In contrast, a concentration that causes a low level of reduction in
response, such as an ECs or ECio, is rarely  statistically significantly different from the control
treatment.  EPA selected EC20 values to be used to estimate a  low level of effect that would be
statistically different from control effects, yet not so severe as to be expected to cause chronic
impacts at the population level (see U.S. EPA 1999). For calculation of the chronic criterion, the
EC2o point estimate was  selected for use over a NOEC or LOEC as the measure of effect to use,
as NOECs  and LOECs are highly dependent on test concentrations selected. Furthermore, point
estimates provide additional information that is difficult to determine using NOEC and LOEC
                                           12

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effect measures, such as a measure of effect level across the range of tested concentrations, and
the confidence intervals around those measures of effect.
       The typical assessment endpoints for aquatic life criteria are based on unacceptable
effects on growth, reproduction, or survival of the assessed taxa.  These measures of effect on
toxicological endpoints of consequence to populations are provided by results from the acute and
chronic toxicity tests with aquatic plants and animals.  The toxicity values (i.e., measures of
effect expressed as genus means) are used in the genus sensitivity distribution of the aquatic
community to derive the aquatic life criteria. Endpoints used in this assessment are listed in
Table 1.
Table 1. Summary of Assessment Endpoints and Measures of Effect Used in Criteria
Derivation for Ammonia.
Assessment Endpoints for the Aquatic
Community
Survival, growth, and reproduction of
freshwater fish, other freshwater vertebrates,
and invertebrates
Maintenance and growth of aquatic plants
from standing crop or biomass
Measures of Effect
For acute effects: LCso or ECso
For chronic effects: EC20, NOEC and LOEC,
calculated MATC
Not relevant for ammonia because plants are
substantially less sensitive than animals
MATC = maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (geometric mean of NOEC and LOEC)
NOEC = No observed effect concentration
LOEC = Lowest observed effect concentration
LC50 = Lethal concentration to 50% of the test population
EC50/EC2o = Effect concentration to 50/20% of the test population

Chronic averaging period of 30 days
       The 30-day averaging period for chronic effects has been retained from the 1999 chronic
criterion, as is the restriction that the highest 4-day average within the 30 days may be no greater
than 2.5 times the chronic concentration (CCC) more than once every three years on average.
This is based on analysis of chronic data from fathead minnow laboratory tests of different
exposure durations and starting with different age test organisms as summarized below and
described in greater detail in the 1999  ammonia criteria update.
       The 1985 ammonia criteria document specified a CCC averaging period of 4 days as
recommended in the 1985 Guidelines (Stephan et al. 1985), except that an averaging period of 30
days could be used when exposure concentrations were shown to have "limited variability". For
                                            13

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ammonia, the toxicity data on the fathead minnow demonstrate how long the averaging period
should be when concentrations have limited variability, and what restriction applies in terms of
the maximum concentration that can be reached and for how long within that averaging period.
Based on 7-day tests, EC2os of 29.34 and 24.88 mg TAN/L were calculated from the data of
Willingham (1987), adjusted to pH 7. Chronic values of 20.32 mg TAN/L at pH 7 and 20.99 mg
TAN/L similarly adjusted to pH 7 were reported by Camp Dresser and McKee (1997). The
geometric mean of the four values is 23.62 mg TAN/L.  This is approximately 2.5 times the
geometric mean EC20 (i.e., 9.396 mg TAN/L at pH 7) for the 30-day early life-stage tests
conducted on the same species by Swigert and Spacie (1983) and Mayes et al. (1986), [see also
Appendix B].
       Thus, in the 1999 criteria document, EPA determined that because the mean chronic
value from the shorter 7-day toxicity tests with slightly older (< 1 day old) fish is substantially
higher than the mean chronic value from the longer 30-day ELS tests initiated with newly
fertilized embryos, the CCC averaging period under this "limited variability" can be 30 days, as
long as excursions above the CCC are restricted sufficiently to not exceed the mean chronic
value from the 7-day tests. As indicated in the 1999 AWQC document, a more rigorous
definition of this excursion restriction is not possible with the data available, especially because
the information is not available concerning the effects to fish or other animals of variations in
ammonia concentration within a 7-day test period.  It is useful, however, to base the excursion
restriction on a 4-day period, because this period is the default that already has to be considered
in calculations of water quality-based effluent limits, and because it provides a substantial
limitation of variability relative to the 7-day chronic values. While it may be uncertain how
much higher than the CCC the 4-day average can be, based on the fathead minnow test results
summarized above, 2.5 -fold higher concentrations should be acceptable.  Other data and
justification supporting the use of a longer averaging period for ammonia and the excursion
restriction is provided in the 1999 AWQC document under Chronic Averaging Period (page 81).

Ammonia toxicity data fulfilling minimum data requirements
       Table 2 provides a summary of the number of toxicity data currently available for genera
and species that fulfill the 1985 Guidelines minimum requirements for calculation of acute and
chronic criteria for freshwater species exposed to ammonia.
                                           14

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Table 2. 1985 Guidelines Minimum Data Requirements Summary Table Reflecting the
Number of Species and Genus Level Mean Values Represented in the Acute and Chronic
Toxicity Datasets for Ammonia in Freshwater.

Genus Mean
Acute Value
(GMAV)
Species Mean
Acute Value
(SMAV)
Genus Mean
Chronic Value
(GMCV)
Species Mean
Chronic Value
(SMCV)
Freshwater
Family Salmonidae in the
class Osteichthyes
Second family in the class
Osteichthyes, preferably a
commercially or
recreationally important
warmwater species
Third family in the phylum
Chordata (may be in the class
Osteichthyes or may be an
amphibian, etc.)
Planktonic Crustacean
Benthic Crustacean
Insect
Family in a phylum other than
Arthropoda or Chordata (e.g.,
Rotifera, Annelida, or
Mollusca)
Family in any order of insect
or any phylum not already
represented
Total
4
22
O
4
6
9
17
4
69
11
33
4
6
8
11
23
4
100
1
6
1
2
1
1
4
la
17
3
7
1
3
1
1
5
la
22
a In the absence of other chronic data to fulfill this MDR for another phylum not already represented in the chronic
dataset, the acute data for species within the phylum Annelida were used to calculate a surrogate chronic value, by
applying a geometric mean ACR from the available invertebrate ACRs.
       Since the data available regarding the toxicity of ammonia to freshwater phytoplankton
and vascular plants reported in the 1985 AWQC document indicate that aquatic plants appear to
be two orders of magnitude less sensitive than the aquatic animals tested, it is assumed that any
ammonia criterion appropriate for the protection of freshwater aquatic animals will also be
protective of aquatic vegetation  (U.S. EPA 1985, 1999, 2009). The  greater tolerance of these
taxa to ammonia is due in part to the fact that ammonia is a readily available and energy-efficient
source of nitrogen for plants; although ammonia can be toxic when present at high
concentrations. For example, the experimental data concerning the toxicity of ammonia to
                                            15

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freshwater phytoplankton show negative effects occurring in the green alga, Scenedesmus
obliquus, ranging from approximately 26.88 to 70.14 mg TAN/L with regards to oxygen
evolution and reduction in carbon dioxide photoassimilation (Abeliovich and Azov 1976).
Additionally, ammonia caused growth inhibition and cell death of the green alga, Chlorella
vulgaris, at concentrations ranging from 326 to 1,330 mg TAN/L (Przytocka-Jusiak 1976); and
for another algal species, Ochromonas sociabilis, a concentration of 256 mg TAN/L was
algicidal while a concentration of approximately half that (128 mg TAN/L) reduced population
development (assuming pH 6.5 and 30C; see Bretthauer 1978). Furthermore, Champ et al.
(1973) investigated the effects of treating a Texas pond with a mean ammonia concentration of
25.6 mg/L NHa (unionized ammonia) for two weeks. A diverse population of dinoflagellates,
diatoms, desmids, and blue-green algae had been reduced by 95% at the end of the experiment.
At the same time, the pond was virtually eradicated of all rooted aquatic vegetation. Compared
to the 2013 chronic criterion magnitude of 1.9 mg TAN/L, the results from these plant tests,
which are considered as chronic effects according to the 1985 Guidelines, indicate that the 2013
CCC for ammonia will be protective  of aquatic plants.
       Much of the early work concerning the response of freshwater vegetation to high
ammonia concentrations is not quantitative or the result of research exploring the possible use of
ammonia as an aquatic herbicide (U.S. EPA 1985). There is no new evidence to suggest that
freshwater phytoplankton and vascular species are more sensitive to ammonia than invertebrates
or fish.  Until such a time as those data are produced, EPA will continue to assume that any
ammonia criterion appropriate for the protection of freshwater aquatic animals will also be
protective of aquatic vegetation.

Conceptual Model
       A conceptual model consists of a written description and diagram (U.S. EPA 1998) that
illustrates the relationships between human activities, stressors, and ecological effects on
assessment endpoints. The conceptual model links exposure characteristics with the ecological
endpoints important for management goals.  Under the CWA, these management goals are
established by states and tribes as designated uses of waters of the United States (for example,
aquatic life support).  In deriving aquatic life criteria, EPA is developing acceptable thresholds
                                           16

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for pollutants that, if not exceeded, are expected to protect designated uses.  A state and/or tribe
may implement these criteria by adopting them into their respective water quality standards.

Conceptual diagram
       Environmental exposure to ammonia, while ultimately determined by various site
specific conditions and processes, occurs from human activities related to agricultural practices,
urbanization and industrial processes, or from natural sources.  Point and non-point sources
contribute to elevated concentrations in ambient surface water.  The environmental fate
properties of ammonia indicate that direct discharge, runoff, groundwater transport, and
atmospheric deposition represent the pathways of greatest transport to the ambient surface waters
which serve as habitat for aquatic organisms. These sources and transport mechanisms are
depicted in the conceptual model below (Figure 2). The model also depicts exposure pathways
for biological receptors of concern (e.g., aquatic animals) and the potential attribute changes (i.e.,
effects such as reduced survival, growth and reproduction) in the ecological receptors due to
ammonia exposure.
       The conceptual model provides a broad  overview of how aquatic organisms can
potentially be exposed to ammonia.  Transport mechanisms and exposure pathways are not
quantitatively considered in the derivation of aquatic life criteria, which are effects assessments,
not risk assessments. Derivation of criteria focuses on effects on survival, growth and
reproduction of aquatic organisms. However, the pathways, receptors, and attribute changes
depicted in Figure 2 may be helpful for states and tribes as they adopt  criteria into standards and
need to evaluate potential exposure pathways affecting designated uses.
                                            17

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                             4> riparian &
                          watershed vegetation
f atmospheric emissions,  ]
I, transport & deposition  J
                                                                            [   leakage, leachate &   |
                                                                            I groundwater transport J
f direct effluenM
I  discharges   J
                                       A population &
                                     community structure
       X^A ecosystem processes^)
                                mortality )  C * reproductive success
Figure 2:  Conceptual Model for Ammonia Effects on Aquatic Animals.
(Available at: http://www.epa.gov/caddis/ssr amm  int.html)
                                                    18

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Analysis Plan
       During development of CWA section 304(a) criteria, EPA assembles all available
toxicity test data and considers which data are relevant that also meet data quality acceptance
standards for all genera. Where data allow, two to four criterion values are developed (acute and
chronic freshwater, acute and chronic saltwater). If plants are the most sensitive relative to
vertebrates and invertebrates, plant criteria are developed. This criteria update document is
specific to ammonia in fresh water, and thus, only two criterion values (freshwater acute and
chronic) are derived in this document. Available data indicate freshwater plants are not more
sensitive to ammonia than freshwater animals, thus, plant criteria are not developed. Finally,
ammonia does not bioaccumulate in aquatic animals, thus, final tissue values are not developed.
       These criteria are based on a sensitivity distribution (SD) comprised of ranked genus
mean acute values (GMAVs), calculated from combined species mean acute values (SMAVs
within each genus) for acceptable data. SMAVs are calculated using the geometric mean for all
acceptable measures  of effect based on the results of toxicity tests within a given species (e.g., all
ECsos from acceptable acute tests for Daphnia magna). GMAVs are then calculated using the
geometric means of all SMAVs within a given genus (e.g., all SMAVs for genus Daphnia, such
as Daphniapulex, Daphnia magna).  If only one SMAV is available for a genus, then the
GMAV is represented by that value. GMAVs are then rank-ordered by sensitivity from most
sensitive to least sensitive.  The final acute value (FAV) is determined by regression analysis
using a log-triangular fit based on the four most sensitive genera (reflected as GMAVs) in the
data set to interpolate or extrapolate (as appropriate) to the 5  percentile of the distribution
represented by the tested genera.  If there are 59 or more GMAVs, as is the case with ammonia,
the four GMAVs closest to the 5* percentile of the distribution are used to calculate the FAV.
The acute criterion magnitude is  the FAV divided by two, in order to provide an acute criterion
magnitude protective of nearly all individuals in 95% of all genera, since the effect endpoint is a
50th percentile effect  (e.g., LCso or ECso) (see 1985  Guidelines, Section XI. Criterion, B.).
       Although the  aquatic life  criteria derivation process relies on selected toxicity endpoints
from the sensitive species tested, it does not necessarily mean that the selected toxicity endpoints
reflect the sensitivity of the most sensitive species existing in a given environment.  The intent of
the eight minimum data requirements is to serve as  a sample representative of the aquatic
community.  These minimum data requirements represent different ecological, trophic,
                                            19

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taxonomic and functional differences observed in the natural aquatic ecosystem. The use of the
four most sensitive genera to determine the final criterion value is a censored statistical approach
than improves estimation of the lower tail (most sensitive) of the distribution when the shape of
the overall distribution, particularly in the less sensitive part of the distribution, is uncertain.
    The chronic criterion may be determined by one of two methods. If all eight minimum data
requirements are met with acceptable chronic test data (as is the case with ammonia), then the
chronic criterion is derived using the same method used for the acute criterion.  Genus Mean
Chronic Values (GMCVs) are derived from available Species Mean Chronic Values (SMCVs)
and are then rank-ordered from least to most  sensitive, and the Final Chronic Value (FCV) is
calculated based on regression analysis of a censored distribution using the four most sensitive
GMCVs, similar to calculation of the FAV. Unlike the FAV, however, the FCV directly serves
as the basis for the chronic criterion without further adjustment because the endpoint measured
represents a low level (e.g., EC20 orNOEC) of effect (see 1985 Guidelines).
       In addition, whenever adequately justified, a state can develop a site-specific  criterion in
lieu of the use of a national recommended criterion (U.S. EPA  1983). The site-specific criterion
may include not only site-specific criterion concentrations, but also site-specific durations or
averaging periods, site-specific frequencies of allowed excursions, and representative species
present at a given site, where supported by sound science (U.S. EPA 1991).  The Revised
Deletion Process for the Site-Specific Recalculation Procedure for Aquatic Life Criteria (U. S.
EPA 2013) provides guidance on revising the taxonomic composition of the toxicity  data set
used for the sensitivity distribution upon which a site-specific criterion is based, in order to better
reflect the assemblage of organisms that resides at the site.  For more information on criteria
derivation, see:
http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swgmdance/waterquality/standards/upload/2009'01 13 criteria_8
5guidelines.pdf.
       The criteria presented are the Agency's best estimate of maximum ambient
concentrations of ammonia to protect most freshwater aquatic organisms from unacceptable
short- or long-term effects.  Results of intermediate calculations such as Species Mean Acute
Values (see in Appendix A) and chronic values (see in Appendix B) are specified to four
significant figures to prevent rounding error in subsequent calculations, not to reflect the
precision of the value. All of the ammonia acute values (LCsoS and ECsos) in Appendix A of this
                                           20

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document were converted to TAN acute values using the reported temperatures and pHs as
described using an example in Appendix D (Conversion of Acute Results of Toxicity Tests).
Similarly, all of the ammonia chronic values (EC2os) in Appendix B were converted to TAN
chronic values as described in Appendix E (Conversion of Chronic Results of Toxicity Tests).

EFFECTS ANALYSES FOR FRESHWATER AQUATIC ORGANISMS
      The acute and chronic ammonia toxicity data used here to update the acute and chronic
criteria for ammonia (freshwater) were collected via literature searches of EPA's ECOTOX
database, EPA's Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (U.S. EPA 1985,
1998, 1999), data provided by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Marine Fisheries Service (collectively known as
the Services),  and EPA regional and field offices. Relevant papers were identified, by title and
abstract, and their data screened according to data quality criteria described in the 1985
Guidelines. All available,  reliable acute and chronic toxicity values published since 1985 were
incorporated into the appropriate ammonia AWQC tables and used to recalculate the CMC and
the CCC, as outlined in detail in the 1985 Guidelines.  The most recent literature search covered
the period from 1985 through October 2012.

Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Animals
      All available data relating to the acute effects of ammonia on aquatic animals were
considered in deriving the  ammonia criteria and were subjected to a data quality review per the
1985 Guidelines. The acute effects  concentrations are all normalized to pH 7.0 (for all
organisms) and temperature 20C (for invertebrates) as indicated via the equations provided in
Appendix D.  The pH and temperature conditions to which these data are normalized were
deemed to be generally representative of ambient surface water.  Data that were suitable for the
derivation of a freshwater FAV are presented in Appendix A.
      The GMAVs ranked according to  sensitivity, as well as the new (2013) and previous
(1999) acute criterion values (CMCs), are shown in Figure 3. The GMAVs represent LCsos or
ECsos, whereas the CMC (the FAV/2) values represent concentrations that are expected to be
                                         21

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lethal to less than 50% of the individuals in either the fifth percentile genus, or, a sensitive
commercially or recreationally important species (e.g., adult rainbow trout).
       For this 2013 AWQC document, results from acute toxicity tests that met test
acceptability and quality (according to the 1985 Guidelines) were available for 44 species offish,
52 species of invertebrates and four species of amphibians. This data includes ammonia toxicity
test data on 52 new species of aquatic animals not previously included in the 1999 acute criterion
dataset. There are now 69 genera represented in the freshwater acute toxicity dataset for
ammonia, and of the 69 genera (represented in Appendix A and listed according to sensitivity in
Table 3), approximately half are invertebrates.  The acute dataset more than fulfills the eight
minimum data requirements outlined in the 1985 Guidelines with between three and 22 genera
represented for each taxa category specified (see Table 2 above). The  acute criterion dataset now
includes 12 species of aquatic animals Federally-listed as threatened, endangered or species of
concern.  Freshwater invertebrates in the Phylum Mollusca, particularly freshwater mussels in
the family Unionidae, freshwater clams, and some non-pulmonate snails, are the predominant
group of aquatic organisms ranked in the lowest quartile. The four most acutely sensitive genera
are all freshwater bivalve mussels (Table 3).  GMAVs for freshwater mollusks in general, are
now among the most influential in the  2013 acute criterion dataset.
       Data for glochidia and juvenile life stages of freshwater unionid mussels were evaluated
for acceptability based on the 1985 Guidelines, the approved ASTM protocol for toxicity testing
with these life stages of unionid mussels  (ASTM 2006), and recent studies on the most
ecologically relevant toxicological endpoint(s) and exposure duration(s) for glochidia tests by
Bringolf et al. (2013). The acute unionid mussel dataset for ammonia now includes acceptable
data for 11  genera, totaling 16 species of freshwater mussels, as well as two sensitive species of
non-pulmonate snails. Of these, four of the 18 mollusk species included in 2013 acute dataset
are Federally-listed as threatened or endangered (as identified in Table 3).
       Nearly all states in the continental United States have freshwater unionid mussel fauna in
at least some of their waters (Abell et al.  2000; Williams et al.  1993; Williams and Neves 1995).
While the number of freshwater unionid mussel species is less  and the distribution is sparse in
the dry western states, even New Mexico and Arizona have at least one native mussel species
(Williams et al. 1993).  Moreover, approximately one-quarter of nearly 300 freshwater unionid
mussel taxa in the USA are Federally-listed as endangered, threatened or of special concern. In
                                           22

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addition, non-pulmonate snails are relatively ubiquitous compared to mussels and of the 650
freshwater snail species, 25 species are Federally-listed.  Every state in the continental U.S. has
at least one family of non-pulmonate snail in at least some of their waters.  Thus, considering
that freshwater unionid mussels are among some of the most sensitive genera in the dataset, and
that all states have at least one freshwater unionid mussel or bivalve mollusk, or non-pulmonate
snail species, another relatively sensitive mollusk group, native or present in at least some of
their waters, EPA is recommending a single national acute criterion to be applied to all waters
rather than different criteria based on the presence or absence of mussels.
       The most sensitive fish SMAV is for mountain whitefish, Prosopium williamsoni (SMAV
of 51.93 mg TAN/L), representing one of the four genera of salmonids in the acute dataset,
followed by the second most sensitive fish, the Lost River sucker (SMAV of 56.62 mg TAN/L),
which is an endangered species (Table 3).  The mountain whitefish GMAV is ranked eighth most
sensitive after seven more sensitive GMAVs for freshwater mussel species, thus, salmonids
should be adequately protected by the new acute criterion. The next most sensitive salmonid
genus is Oncorhynchus, represented by data for six different species, three of which are
threatened or endangered, with SMAVs ranging from 78.92  mg TAN/L for Cutthroat trout, O.
clarkii, to 180.7 mg TAN/L for pink salmon, O. gorbuscha.  The GMAV for Oncorhynchus
(99.15 mg TAN/L) is ranked #25 in acute sensitivity rank at pH 7 and temperature 20 C (Table
3).
       The four lowest GMAVs in this 2013 ammonia AWQC update are for invertebrate
species (specifically, freshwater bivalve mollusks dominated by mussels in the family
Unionidae).  Because the most sensitive GMAVs are all represented by invertebrate species, the
CMC is both pH-dependent, in accordance with the acute pH-toxicity relationship for all aquatic
organisms, and temperature-dependent, due to the invertebrate acute-temperature relationship.
                                           23

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     1000
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     Summary of Ranked Ammonia GMAVs
                      Freshwater
                                                                                AA
0.o~oooo
          OB
                                                  OOAOAA<
                                                                  AOAA1
                                                   1999 CMC (salmonids present) = 24 mg TAN/L

                                                   2013CMC = 17mgTAN/L
        0.0
                0.1
                        0.2
                                0.3
                                        0.4
                                                0.5
                                                        0.6
                                                                0.7
                                                                        0.8
                                                                                0.9
                                                                                         1.0
                                Genus Mean Acute Values
                                  (Cumulative Fraction)
                                          * Freshwater Unionid Mussels
                                           OtherFreshwaterMollusks
                                          A OtherFreshwaterlnvertebrates
                                          O Freshwater Fish
                                          O Freshwater Amphibians
Figure 3. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Acute Values (GMAVs) with Criterion
Maximum Concentrations (CMCs).

Summaries of studies used in acute criterion determination
       Presented in this section are brief summaries of the results of acute toxicity tests that
meet the data quality acceptability criteria and that are used directly for deriving the FAV (i.e.,
serve as the basis for the SMAV or GMAV of one of the most sensitive genera). As per the 1985
Guidelines, whenever there are 59 or more GMAVs in the acute criteria dataset, the FAV is
calculated using the four GMAVs closest to the 5th percentile of the distribution.
       The four species and associated endpoints (SMAV or GMAV) used in calculating the
acute criterion (sensitivity rank 2-5) are ranked below from most to least sensitive:
                                             24

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       2.   Lasmigona subviridis, Green Floater (GMAV= 23.41 mg TAN/L)
       3.  Epioblasma capsaeformis, Oyster mussel (GMAV= 31.14 mg TAN/L)
       4.   Villosa iris, Rainbow Mussel (GMAV= 34.23 mg TAN/L)
       5.  Lampsilis sp.  (GMAV=46.63 mg TAN/L)

The most sensitive species Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (SMAV=23.12 mg TAN/L) is not
included in the criteria numeric calculation, because it falls below the 5* percentile in sensitivity
in the distribution of 69 genera included in the dataset.
       Summaries are provided on the basis of individual species or genera (in cases where more
than one species is included in the calculation of the GMAV). All values are provided in terms
of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), either as reported by the authors or as converted from the
reported values for unionized ammonia, pH, and temperature (using the speciation relationship)
applied in the 1999 AWQC document (i.e., Emerson et al. 1975). In the special cases where the
result of a test is considered an upper limit on an acute value, the value is ascribed a greater than
(">")  sign indicating as much.

Lasmigona subviridis (green floater)
       The GMAV/SMAV for the green floater, a freshwater bivalve mollusk, of 23.41 mg
TAN/L is based on the geometric mean of three 96-hr ECsoS from tests using less than two-
month old juveniles  as reported in Black (2001). Test solutions were renewed after 48 hours.
The mean pH and test temperature for two of the tests was 7.73 and 24C, and for the third, 7.92
and 24.8C. Control survival exceeded 90 percent in all three tests. The reported ECsos at test
temperature and pH  expressed on the basis of TAN were 6.613, 6.613 and 3.969 mg TAN/L,
respectively.  Adjusted to pH 7 and 20C, the EC50s are 24.24, 24.24 and 21.84 mg TAN/L,
respectively (Appendix A). The GMAV for juvenile green floaters of 23.41 mg TAN/L
represents the second lowest in the acute dataset, and the lowest of the four GMAVs used to
calculate the FAV (Table 3).

Epioblasma capsaeformis (oyster mussel)
       The GMAV/SMAV for the endangered oyster mussel (31.14 mg TAN/L) is the third
lowest in the acute dataset (Table 3), and is based on the geometric mean of a 96-hr ECso from a
                                          25

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renewal test using less than five-day old juveniles, and two 6-hr ECsos from static tests
conducted with two-hour old glochidia (Wang et al. 2007b).  The mean pH and test temperature
for all three tests was 8.5 and 20C. Control survival exceeded 90 percent in all tests. The
estimated measured ECso for juvenile oyster mussels at test temperature and pH was 4.760 mg
TAN/L, after adjusting the reported nominal ECso by multiplying by a factor of 0.835 (i.e.,
measured total ammonia concentrations were 83.5 percent of nominal concentrations for 96 hour
juvenile exposures). The reported ECsoS for glochidia were 3.4 and 5.0 mg TAN/L, respectively
(no further adjustment necessary). These ECsoS normalized to pH 7 and 20C are 53.63, 17.81
and 31.61 mg TAN/L, for the two glochidia and juveniles respectively (Appendix A).

Villosa iris (rainbow mussel)
       Ten ECsos from several studies (Goudreau et al. 1993; Scheller 1997; Mummert et al.
2003; Wang et al. 2007b) using two different life  stages (glochidia and juvenile) and range of
ages within each life-stage were used to calculate the GMAV/SMAV for rainbow mussel
(Appendix A). All tests were either static or static renewal where  concentrations were measured.
The GMAV of 34.23 mg TAN/L is the fourth lowest in the acute dataset (Table 3), and is
composed of individual ECso values (expressed as TAN and normalized to pH 7 and 20C)
ranging from 12.62 to  99.28 mg TAN/L (Appendix A). The difference in pH and test
temperature among the 10 different tests ranged from 7.29 to 8.40 and 12.6 to 25.0C,
respectively.  Control survival exceeded 90 percent in all tests regardless of life-stage tested.
The glochidia were not substantially more  sensitive than the juveniles (less than a factor of 2
difference).

Mussels in Genus Lampsilis
       Freshwater unionid mussels within the Genus Lampsilis represent the most widely tested
genus to date.  The GMAV of 46.63 mg TAN/L reflects the geometric mean of SMAVs for six
species, two (Lampsilis abrupta and L. higginsif) which are endangered  and a third (L.
rafinesqueana) that is a Federal species of concern (Table  3).  The SMAVs for this genus range
from 26.03 mg TAN/L (L. abrupta) to 69.97 mg TAN/L (L. rafinesqueand), and are composed
of anywhere from one (L. abrupta) to fourteen (L. siliquoided) individual ECsos (Appendix A).
The range of ECsos used to calculate the FAV, normalized to pH 7 and 20C across all species of
                                          26

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Lampsilis is from 24.30 to 160.5 mg TAN/L (see Appendix A).  The GMAV for Lampsilis is the
fifth most sensitive in the acute dataset, and the highest of the four GMAVs used to calculate the
FAV (Table 3). Both glochidia and juvenile data were available for three of the six Lampsilis
species, showing an inconsistent pattern of relative sensitivity.
Table 3. Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values.
Table 3. Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values
Rank
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
GMAV
(mg TAN/L)
2515
994.5
735.9
686.2
681.8
442.4
387.0
378.2
281.5
246.5
233.0
222.2
219.3
218.7
216.5
211.6
Species
Insect,
Erythromma no/as
Caddisfly,
Philarctus quaeris
Beetle,
Stenelmis sexlineata
Crayfish,
Orconectes immunis
Crayfish,
Orconectes nais
Midge,
Chironomus riparius
Midge,
Chironomus tentans
Mayfly,
Drunella grandis
Aquatic sowbug,
Caecidotea racovitzai
Isopod,
Asellus aquaticus
Threespine stickleback,
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Mayfly,
Callibaetis skokianus
Mayfly,
Callibaetis sp.
Dragonfly,
Pachydiplax longipennis
Mottled sculpin,
Cottus bairdii
Western mosquitofish,
Gambusia qffinis
Oligochaete worm,
Lumbriculus variegatus
Tubificid worm,
Tubifex tubifex
Marsh ramshom snail,
Planorbella trivolvis
SMAV
(mg TAN/L)
2515
994.5
735.9
1550
303.8
1029
451.8
442.4
387.0
378.2
281.5
364.6
166.7
233.0
222.2
219.3
218.7
216.5
211.6
                                          27

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Table 3. Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values
Rank
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
GMAV
(mg TAN/L)
192.6
192.4
185.2
181.8
170.2
164.5
164.0
162.6
159.2
157.8
156.7
146.5
143.9
142.9
142.4
138.0
136.7
134.8
Species
Scud,
Hyalella azteca
Stonefly,
Skwala americana
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis mossambicus
Amphipod,
Crangonyx pseudogracilis
Amphipod,
Crangonyx sp.
Tubificid worm,
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri
Pouch snail,
Physa gyrina
Damselfly,
Enallagma sp.
Water flea,
Chydorus sphaericus
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Lake trout,
Salvelinus namaycush
Shortnose sturgeon,
Acipenser brevirostrum (LS)
White sucker,
Catostomus commersonii
Mountain sucker,
Catostomus platyrhynchus
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia acanthine
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea,
Simocephalus vetulus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Red swamp crayfish,
Procambarus clarkii
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar (LS)
Brown trout,
Salmo trutta
White perch,
Morone americana
White bass,
Morone chrysops
SMAV
(mg TAN/L)
192.6
192.4
185.2
270.5
122.2
170.2
164.5
164.0
162.6
159.2
156.3
159.3
156.7
157.5
136.2
154.3
134.2
142.9
142.4
138.0
183.3
102.0
132.7
144.0
28

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Table 3. Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values
Rank

35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
GMAV
(mg TAN/L)

125.0
122.5
119.5
117.1
115.9
110.0
109.0
109.0
106.9
106.3
99.15
96.72
Species
Striped bass,
Morone saxatilis
Sunshine bass,
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia pulicaria
Clawed toad,
Xenopus laevis
Flatworm,
Dendrocoelum lacteum
Walleye,
Sander vitreus
Central stoneroller,
Campostoma anomalum
Rainbow dace,
Cyprinella lutrensis
Spotfin shiner,
Cyprinella spiloptera
Steelcolor shiner,
Cyprinella whipplei
Dwarf wedgemussel,
Alasmidonta heterodon (LS)
Pink papershell,
Potamilus ohiensis
Green sunfish,
Lepomis cyanellus
Pumpkinseed,
Lepomis gibbosus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Common carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Golden trout,
Oncorhynchus aguabonita
Cutthroat trout,
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Pink salmon,
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
Coho salmon,
Oncorhynchus kisutch (LS)
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss (LS)
Chinook salmon,
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (LS)
Topeka shiner,
Notropis topeka (LS)
SMAV
(mg TAN/L)
246.2
70.22
157.7
99.03
122.5
119.5
117.1
115.9
196.1
83.80
80.94
109.0
109.0
150.8
77.53
104.5
106.3
112.1
78.92
180.7
87.05
82.88
82.39
96.72
29

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Table 3. Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values
Rank
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
GMAV
(mg TAN/L)
96.38
89.36
89.06
88.62
74.66
74.25
72.55
71.56
71.25
70.73
69.36
68.54
63.02
62.15
56.62
51.93
47.40
46.93
46.63
Species
Leopard frog,
Rana pipiens
Long fingemailclam,
Musculium transversum
Smallmouth bass,
Micropterus dolomieu
Largemouth bass,
Micropterus salmoides
Guadalupe bass,
Micropterus treculii
Great pond snail,
Lymnaea stagnalis
Guppy,
Poecilia reticulata
Johnny darter,
Etheostoma nigrum
Orangethroat darter,
Etheostoma spectabile
Rio Grande silvery minnow,
Hybognathus amarus
Spring peeper,
Pseudacris crucifer
Pacific tree frog,
Pseudacris regilla
Mucket,
Actinonaias ligamentina
Pheasantshell,
Actinonaias pectorosa
Giant floater mussel,
Pyganodon grandis
Shortnose sucker,
Chasmistes brevirostris
Pagoda homsnail,
Pleurocera uncialis
Golden shiner,
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Pebblesnail,
Fluminicola sp.
Lost River sucker,
Deltistes luxatus(LS)
Mountain whitefish,
Prosopium williamsoni
Atlantic pigtoe,
Fusconaia masoni
Pondshell mussel,
Utterbackia imbecillis
Pink mucket,
Lampsilis abrupta (LS)
SMAV
(mg TAN/L)
96.38
89.36
150.6
86.02
54.52
88.62
74.66
71.45
77.17
72.55
61.18
83.71
63.89
79.46
70.73
69.36
68.54
63.02
62.15
56.62
51.93
47.40
46.93
26.03
30

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Table 3. Ranked Genus Mean Acute Values
Rank

4
3
2
1
GMAV
(mg TAN/L)

34.23
31.14
23.41
23.12
FAV=33.52
CMC = 17
Species
Plain pocketbook,
Lampsilis cardium
Wavy-rayed lampmussel,
Lampsilis fasciola
Higgin's eye,
Lampsilis higginsii (LS)
Neosho mucket,
Lampsilis rafinesqueana (LS)
Fatmucket,
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Rainbow mussel,
Villosa iris
Oyster mussel,
Epioblasma capsaeformis (LS)
Green floater,
Lasmigona subviridis
Ellipse,
Venustaconcha ellipsiformis
SMAV
(mg TAN/L)
50.51
48.11
41.90
69.97
55.42
34.23
31.14
23.41
23.12

        LS = Federally-listed as threatened or endangered species
Chronic Toxicity to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
       Freshwater chronic toxicity data that meet the test acceptability and quality
assurance/control criteria are presented in Appendix B. All tests were conducted with measured
concentrations of ammonia. Ammonia chronic toxicity data are available for 21 species of
freshwater organisms: ten invertebrate species (mussels, clam, snail, cladocerans, daphnid, and
insect) and 11 fish species, including three Federally-listed salmonid species. The chronic
dataset includes data for three freshwater unionid mussel species, one freshwater non-pulmonate
snail species, and two fish species not included in the 1999 criteria (see Appendix B).  It also
includes an estimate of chronic effects for the Phylum Annelida, to meet the data requirement of
a species in "a family in any order of insect or any phylum not already represented," as described
below.
       Each chronic test was reviewed to determine acceptability based on the dilution water,
control mortality, experimental design, organism loading, etc., as consistent with ASTM
standards, including for freshwater mussels via E2455-06 (ASTM 2006). The concentration of
                                            11

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dissolved oxygen was also reviewed to determine acceptability based on the general limits
specified in the 1999 AWQC document.  The mean measured dissolved oxygen concentration
and the lower limit for dissolved oxygen concentration required to be protective varies based on
taxa group. The mean dissolved oxygen concentration for toxicity tests should be at least 6.5
mg/L for salmonids, 6.0 mg/L for invertebrates, and the lower limit of dissolved oxygen should
be 5.0 mg/L to be protective of both of these groups of organisms (U.S. EPA 1999).
       Based on the determination that the test methodology used was acceptable, the studies
were evaluated to determine whether the ammonia caused a reduction in (a) survival (if over a
period of at least seven days), (b) growth, or (c) reproduction. If the test demonstrated reduction
in any of these toxicological endpoints, the test could be accepted for use in calculating the
chronic value (CV).
       Acceptable 28-day survival tests using juvenile freshwater mussels and juvenile
freshwater snails and growth tests using juvenile freshwater snails were evaluated for inclusion
in the derivation of the  chronic aquatic life criterion when the test concentration caused a
reduction in survival  or growth of 20 percent or more of these types of organisms  at those life
stages. Based on evaluation of the individual studies (Wang et al. 2007a; Wang et al. 2011),
growth data for juvenile mussels was not used in the derivation of the chronic criterion due to
uncertainty in method of measurement for the growth endpoint (see Effects Characterization for
further discussion).
       All chronic data in individual studies were analyzed using regression analysis to
demonstrate the presence of a concentration-effect relationship within the test. For those studies
that demonstrated a concentration-effect relationship, EPA used regression analysis to estimate
the EC20.
       Sixteen GMCVs are presented in Appendix B and ranked according to sensitivity in
Table 4. The four lowest values were used to calculate the FCV, because values for fewer than
59 genera exist.  EPA calculated the chronic criterion based on fifth percentile of the GMCVs in
Table 4. The GMCVs for the four most sensitive species are ranked below from most to least
sensitive:

       1. Lampsilis spp, Wavy-rayed lamp mussel and Fatmucket (GMCV=2.126 mg TAN/Lj
       2. Villosa iris, Rainbow mussel (GMCV= 3.501 mg TAN/L)
                                           32

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       3. Lepomis spp., Bluegill and Green sunfish (GMCV= 6.920 mg TAN/L)


       4. Musculium transversum, Long fingernailclam (GMCV= 7.547 mg TAN/L)




       The chronic criterion magnitude is 1.9 mg TAN/L at 20C and pH 7. The four most


sensitive species are predominantly mollusks although Lepomis species (bluegill and green


sunfish) comprise the third most sensitive GMCV.  Figure 4 shows the GMCVs ranked


according to sensitivity and shows the 2013 chronic criteria magnitude as well as the 1999


criterion value (based on fish early life stages) for comparative purposes.
     100
 01
+J
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.a
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 01



u
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                         Summary of Ranked Ammonia GMCVs

                                          Freshwater
                                                    O
                                               o
                                  O
                     o
                                               1999 CCC= 4.5 mg TAN/L
                                             2013 CCC= 1.9 mg TAN/L
       0.0
               0.1
                      0.2
                              0.3
                                     0.4
                                             0.5
                                                    0.6
                                                            0.7
                                                                   0.8
                                                                           0.9
                                                                                  1.0
                                Genus Mean Chronic Values

                                  (Cumulative Fraction)
                                                            * FreshwaterUnionid Mussels

                                                             Other Freshwater Mollusks

                                                            A Other Freshwater Invertebrates

                                                            O Freshwater Fish
Figure 4.  Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Chronic Values (GMCVs) with Criterion

Continuous Concentrations (CCCs).
                                           33

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Summaries of studies used in chronic criterion determination
       The following presents a species-by-species discussion of freshwater chronic data used in
deriving the chronic criterion magnitude for ammonia.  All analyses were conducted in terms of
TAN, either as reported by the authors or as converted from the reported values for unionized
ammonia, pH, and temperature (using the speciation relationship in Emerson et al. 1975). EC20
values were adjusted to pH 7, and for invertebrates, also adjusted to a temperature of 20C.
SMCVs were used when data were available for only one species. When data for more than one
species in a taxon were available, GMCVs were calculated from the SMCVs. All of the CVs
(EC20 values), SMCVs, and GMCVs derived are tabulated and included in Appendix B.  For
some of the new chronic data, authors reported EC20 values on the basis of TAN. In such cases
these reported CVs were normalized to pH 7 and 20C (temperature normalization for
invertebrates only), and utilized for the analysis. The results of all intermediate calculations such
as ECs, SMCVs and GMCVs are given to four significant figures to prevent round-off error in
subsequent calculations, not to reflect the precision of the value.

Lampsilis species
Lampsilis fasciola (wavy-rayed lampmussel)
       Wang et al.  (2007a) published results of the effect of ammonia on survival and growth of
2-month old juvenile freshwater unionid mussels.  The 28-day juvenile test was part of a series
of studies designed to refine the methods for conducting acute and chronic toxicity tests with
early life stages of freshwater mussels. Dissolved  oxygen was maintained above 7.0 mg/L
during the 28-day test.  Survival in the control treatment and lowest ammonia test concentration
(0.13 mg TAN/L) were 100 and 83 percent, respectively. Survival decreased to 30 percent at
1.02 mg TAN/L, and zero at 1.98 mg TAN/L.  There was no concentration-response relationship
for  either length at 28 days or change in length after 28 days.  Using EPA's TRAP model (see
Appendix G), the survival EC20 for this freshwater unionid mussel species is 0.4272 mg TAN/L
at test temperature (20C) and pH (8.2), or 1.408 mg TAN/L when adjusted to pH 7 and 20C
(Appendix B).
                                          34

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Lampsilis siliquoidea (fatmucket)
       In a recent study, Wang et al. (2011) evaluated the influence of substrate on the
sensitivity of two-month-old juvenile mussels to ammonia in 28-day water-only exposure and
substrate exposure. The methods used were similar to those in an earlier study (Wang et al.
2007a) except for how the organisms were exposed.  In this study, the organisms were housed in
a glass tube with a screen bottom that was suspended in a beaker. The authors conducted two
exposure conditions simultaneously for comparison of the water-only and substrate exposure.
The organisms used in the water-only exposure were simply placed on the screen at the bottom
of the tube. The substrate treatment involved  substrate that was screened, eliminating both large
and small particles, with only particles between 300-500 microns retained, which is essentially
the grain size of medium sand.  A layer of substrate was placed on the screen and the organisms
were placed on top of the relatively inert substrate.  In the substrate treatment, the water actively
flowed past the organisms and through the substrate. Water chemistry was characterized before
and after passing through the substrate and found not to be substantially altered. Furthermore,
the pH was maintained consistently at approximately pH 8.25 in overlying water and porewater.
       The survival response between the water-only and substrate treatments was similar with a
reported LOEC of 0.53 mg TAN/L in the water-only and 0.88 mg TAN/L for the substrate
treatment at the test pH 8.25 and temperature 20C.  Mean control survival in both the water-
only and substrate treatments was 95% at the end of the 28-day exposures, which met
acceptability requirements. Dry weight measurements of the mussels increased by 165%  in the
water-only exposure compared to 590% increase in the substrate exposure suggesting that the
presence of the substrate increased food availability, as noted by the authors.
       Using TRAP threshold sigmoid regression of the survival response results in an 20 of
0.5957 mg TAN/L for the water-only and EC2o 0.8988 mg TAN/L for the substrate exposure at
the test pH and temperature, or adjusted to pH 7 and 20 C, chronic values equivalent to 2.128
and 3.211 mg TAN/L, respectively (Appendix B). Based on the apparent improved health of the
test organisms in the substrate exposures, and the lack of any significant alteration of water
chemistry in the exposure, the SMCV 3.211 mg TAN/L, based on survival of juvenile fatmucket
from the substrate exposures is used to calculate the CCC rather than the water-only exposure.
                                           35

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       The geometric mean of SMCVs for fatmucket and wavy-rayed lamp mussel of 3.211 and
1.408 mg TAN/L, respectively, results in a GMCV of 2.126 mg TAN/L for the genus Lampsilis
(Table 4).

Villosa iris (rainbow mussel)
       The effect of ammonia on survival and growth of this freshwater unionid mussel species
was also reported in the study by Wang et al. (2007a). Juvenile (2-month-old) rainbow mussels
were tested via a 28-day test under similar conditions as described above.  Survival was > 98
percent up to the 0.81 mg TAN/L exposure, but fell to 15 percent at 1.67 mg TAN/L and zero
percent at 3.45 and 7.56 mg TAN/L. EPA's TRAP was used to generate a chronic value for this
species based on survival resulting in 20 of 1.063 mg TAN/L at test temperature (20C)  and
pH (8.2) - (Appendix G), or 3.501  mg TAN/L adjusted to pH 7.0. Wang et al. (2007a) elected to
exclude length estimates for concentrations above those where significant survival effects were
measured (or in this case, 1.67 mg TAN/L). As a result, growth data are available for only three
effect concentrations, even though there was 15% survival at the 1.67 mg TAN/L treatment
level. Due to the uncertainties in the limited growth data for this test the growth data was not
used in the calculation of the GMCV.
       The SMCV and GMCV for this freshwater unionid mussel species  is 3.501 mg TAN/L
when adjusted to pH 7 and 20C (Appendix B).

Lepomis species
Lepomis cyanellus (green sunfish)
       Reinbold and Pescitelli (1982a) conducted a 31-day early life-stage (ELS) test that started
with <24-hour-old embryos. No information was reported concerning the DO concentration, but
it averaged 70 to 76 percent of saturation (5.7 to 6.2 mg/L) in a similar test in the same report
with another fish species at about the same temperature. The weight data were not used in the
calculation of an EC20 because of the greater weight of the fish in test chambers containing fewer
fish, which indicated that weight was density-dependent. Although overflows resulted in loss of
fish from some chambers, survival  was 96 percent in one of the chambers affected by overflow,
indicating that the survival  data were either adjusted or not affected by the  overflows. Survival
by the end of the test was reduced at test concentrations of 6.3 mg TAN/L  and above. TRAP
                                          36

-------
analysis of the survival data resulted in an EC20 of 5.840 mg TAN/L at pH 8.16 and 25.4 C (U.S.
EPA 1999).  Adjusted to pH 7, the EC2o is 18.06 mg TAN/L (Appendix B).
       McCormick et al. (1984) conducted a 44-day ELS test starting with <24-hour-old
embryos. During this test, no effect was found on percent hatch, but survival and growth were
both reduced at measured test concentrations of 14 mg TAN/L and above. TRAP analysis using
biomass resulted in an EC2o of 5.61 mg TAN/L at pH 7.9 and 22.0C for the test (U.S. EPA
1999). Adjusted to pH 7, the EC20 calculated using the data as previously reported in U.S. EPA
(1999) is 11.85 mg TAN/L (Appendix B).
       The pH-adjusted EC2os of 18.06 mg TAN/L from Reinbold and Pescitelli (1982a) and
11.85 mg TAN/L from McCormick et al. (1984) agree well with one another. It is possible that
the second value is lower because it was based on survival and growth, whereas the first value
was based only on survival.  The results of the tests were deemed acceptable for use in
calculating a SMCV for the species, which is 14.63 mg TAN/L (Table 4) at pH 7.

Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill)
       Similar to the studies summarized above for L. cyanellus, Smith et al. (1984) conducted a
30-day ELS  test starting with <28-hour old embryos of L. macrochirus. No information was
reported concerning the DO concentration, but the flow-rate was kept high during the test. In
this study, the authors found no significant reduction in percent hatch up to a test concentration
of 37 mg TAN/L, but hatched larvae were deformed at this  concentration and died within six
days. By the end of the test, both survival and growth were greatly reduced at measured test
concentrations ranging from 3.75 to 18 mg TAN/L. TRAP analysis of biomass resulted in
calculation of an EC20 of 1.85 mg TAN/L at pH 7.76 and 22.5C (U.S. EPA 1999).  The EC20
adjusted to pH 7  is 3.273 mg TAN/L (Appendix B).
       The SMCV for the bluegill is 3.273 mg TAN/L, which, when calculated as a geometric
mean with the  SMCV of 14.63 mg TAN/L for green sunfish, results in a GMCV of 6.920 for the
genus Lepomis (Table 4).

Musculium transversum
       Anderson et al. (1978) conducted two 42-day tests of the effect of ammonia on survival
of field-collected juvenile clams whose length averaged 2.2 mm. The results of the two tests
                                          37

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were similar so the data were pooled for analysis.  Survival in the control treatment and low
ammonia concentrations (<5.1 mg TAN/L) ranged from 79 to 90%, but decreased to zero at 18
mg TAN/L.  TRAP analysis of the survival data resulted in a calculated EC 20 of 5.820 mg
TAN/L at 23.5C and pH 8.15.  The EC20 is 22.21 mg TAN/L when adjusted to pH 7 and 20C
(Appendix B).
       Sparks and Sandusky (1981) conducted a test similar to Anderson et al. (1978) with field-
collected juvenile clams whose average length was 2.1 mm. The test was conducted in the same
laboratory and used test organisms from the same location in the Mississippi River as Anderson
et al. (1978), but employed a feeding regime and food for the test that was deemed by the authors
to be better suited to maintaining the health of fingernail clams during chronic toxicity testing.
Survival in the control treatment was 92% and decreased with increasing concentration of
ammonia to 17% at 18 mg TAN/L.  Effects on survival were evident at lower concentrations,
resulting in an 20 of only 1.23 mg TAN/L at 21.8 C and pH 7.80 when calculated using
TRAP. The EC2o adjusted to pH 7 and 20C is 2.565 mg TAN/L (Appendix B).
       Although this latter 20 determined for the test reported by Sparks and Sandusky (1981)
is substantially lower than that obtained by Anderson et al. (1978), the difference is less than a
factor of 10,  and thus, the SMCV for this species (at pH 7 and 20 C) is the geometric mean of the
two values, or 7.547 mg TAN/L (Table 4).
                                          38

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Table 4. Ranked Genus Mean Chronic Values.
Rank
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
GMCV
(mg TAN/L)
73.74
53.75
41.46
29.17
21.36
20.38
16.53
12.02
11.62
11.07
9.187
7.828
7.547
6.920
3.501
2.126
FCV=1.887mgTAN/L
CCC=1.9mgTAN/L
Species
Stonefly,
Pteronarcella badia
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia acanthina
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Amphipod,
Hyalella azteca
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Northern pike,
Esox lucius
Common carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Lahontan cutthroat trout,
Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi
(LS)*
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss (LS)
Sockeye sahnon,
Oncorhynchus nerka (LS)
White sucker,
Catostomus commersonii
Smallmouth bass,
Micropterus dolomieu
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Pebblesnail,
Fluminicola sp.
Long fingemailclam,
Musculium transversum
Green sunfish,
Lepomis cyanellus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Rainbow mussel,
Villosa iris
Fatmucket,
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Wavy-rayed lamp mussel,
Lampsilis fasciola
SMCV
(mg TAN/L)
73.74
64.10
45.08
41.46
29.17
21.36
20.38
16.53
25.83
6.663
10.09
11.62
11.07
9.187
7.828
7.547
14.63
3.273
3.501
3.211
1.408

               LS= Federally-listed species as threatened or endangered
               LS* = Listed at the subspecies only for specific populations
                                                 39

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The National Criteria for Ammonia in Fresh Water
       This ammonia criteria update document recommends an acute criterion magnitude of 17
mg TAN/L and a chronic criterion magnitude of 1.9 mg TAN/L at pH 7 and 20C, with the
stipulation that the chronic criterion cannot exceed 4.8 mg TAN/L as a 4-day average. All
criteria magnitudes are recommended not to be exceeded more than once in three years on
average.
                     2013 Final Aquatic Life Criteria for Ammonia
                          (Magnitude, Frequency, and Duration)
                                     (mg TAN/L)
                                   pH 7.0, T=20C
Acute
(1 -hour average)
Chronic
(30-day rolling average)
17
1.9*
               *Not to exceed 2.5 times the CCC as a 4-day average within
               the 30-days, i.e. 4.8 mg TAN/L at pH 7 and 20C, more than
               once in three years on average.	
               Criteria frequency: Not to be exceeded more than once in
               three years on average.
       The available data for ammonia indicate that, except possibly where an unusually
sensitive species is important at a site, freshwater aquatic life will be protected if these criteria
are met. Tables 5a and 5b below provide the temperature and pH-dependent values of the CMC
(acute criterion magnitude) and Table 6 provides the temperature and pH-dependent values of
the CCC (chronic criterion magnitude) based on the following recommended criterion
calculations derived for this update.

Acute criterion calculations
       The one-hour average concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (in mg TAN/L) is not to
exceed, more than once every three years on the average, the CMC (acute criterion magnitude)
calculated using the following equation:
                                         40

-------
                    0.275           39.0
   CMC = MINI I   .  ,,,..,  + 
                        x      -         +     1'6181     x f23 12 X K,o.036x(20-
                        X     1()7_204_pH + 1             X "-1^ X iU
The 2013 CMC equation is predicated on the following:

1.  The lowest GMAV in this criterion update is for an invertebrate species; thus, the CMC is
both pH- and temperature-dependent and varies with temperature according to the invertebrate
acute temperature relationship.  The lowest GMAV is 23.12 mg TAN/L for Venustaconcha
(Table 3).  The updated CMC (rounded to 4 significant figures) of 16.76 mg TAN/L at pH 7 and
20C is 27.5 percent lower than this value.  The CMC divided by the lowest GMAV is 0.7249.

2.  Where salmonids in the Genus Oncorhynchus are present, EPA's recommended acute
criterion magnitude is protective of the commercially and recreationally important adult rainbow
trout, which becomes the most sensitive endpoint at lower temperatures (see footnotes pertaining
to the 1999 FAV in Table 7 and Appendix A). Vertebrate sensitivity to ammonia is independent
of temperature, while invertebrate sensitivity to ammonia decreases as temperature decreases.
Therefore, across all temperatures the CMC equals the lower of: a) 0.7249 times the temperature
adjusted lowest invertebrate GMAV (for Ellipse 23.12 mg TAN/L times 0.7249, or 16.76 mg
TAN/L at pH 7.0 and 20C), or (b) the FAV protective of adult rainbow trout (48.21 mg TAN/L)
divided by two, or 24.10 mg TAN/L at pH 7.0 and across all temperatures, according to the
following temperature relationship:

             CMC (at pH 7) = MIN (24.10, (o.7249  X 23.12 (io-036x(2-T))))

Thus, the CMC increases with decreasing temperature as a result of increased invertebrate
insensitivity until it reaches a plateau of 24.10 mg TAN/L at 15.7C and below, where the most
sensitive taxa is the temperature invariant rainbow trout (Table 5a; see also Oncorhynchus
present line in Figure 5a).

                                          41

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3.  Where Oncorhynchus species are absent, EPA retains all tested species in the order
Salmoniformes as tested surrogate species representing untested freshwater fish resident in the
U.S. from another order, but does not lower the criterion to protect them as commercially and
recreationally important species. The lowest GMAV for a freshwater fish is 51.93 mg TAN/L
for mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) (Table 3). Therefore, in this case, the CMC
equals the lower of: a) 0.7249 times the temperature adjusted lowest invertebrate GMAV (for
Ellipse 23.12 mg TAN/L times 0.7249, or 16.76 mg TAN/L at pH 7.0 and 20C),  or (b) 0.7249
times the lowest freshwater fish GMAV (51.93 mg TAN/L at pH 7.0 and all temperatures),
according to the following temperature relationship:

              CMC(atpH 7)  = 0.7249 XM/JV(51.93, 23.12 X io-036x(20-T))

Thus, the CMC increases with decreasing temperature as a result of increased invertebrate
insensitivity until it reaches a plateau of 37.65 mg TAN/L at 10.2C and below (51.93 mg
TAN/L x 0.7249), where the most  sensitive taxa switches to the temperature invariant fish genus
Prosopium (Table 5b; see also Oncorhynchus absent line in Figure 5a). Note: while the
mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) is a species in the same family as Oncorhynchus
species (i.e., Family:  Salmonidae), it is also an appropriately sensitive surrogate species amongst
all freshwater fish in the Class Actinopterygii.

The CMC, where Oncorhynchus species are absent, extrapolated across both temperature and pH
is as follows:
                       0.0114          1.6181           ,                 nn^vr9n  -
  CMC  0 7249 X	1	X MIN( 51 93 2312x1 n0-036x(2-
  LML - V.I L
-------
ammonia criteria magnitudes included some threatened or endangered species, none of which
were the most sensitive of the species tested.

       In summary, at pH 7 and 20C the CMC is 17 mg TAN/L, as primarily determined by the
sensitivity of invertebrates.  As temperature decreases to 15.7C and below, invertebrates no
longer are the most sensitive taxa, and thus in this range the CMC is 24 mg TAN/L. Where
recreationally and/or commercially important Oncorhynchus species are not present, the CMC is
determined according to statement three above. Below 15.7C, if Oncorhynchus species are not
present the criterion continues to increase with decreasing temperature to 10.2C and below,
where the CMC is 38 mg TAN/L.
     40
     30  -
 O)
 I
 Q.
     20  -
 o
 O  10  -
      0
            	  2013 CMC - Oncorhynchus present
            	2013 CMC - Oncorhynchus absent
         0
10          15          20
    Temperature (C)
25
30
Figure 5a. 2013 Acute Criterion Magnitudes Extrapolated Across a Temperature Gradient
at pH 7.
                                         43

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Table 5a. Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CMC (Acute Criterion Magnitude) - Oncorhynchus spp. Present.
       Temperature (C)
pH 0-14
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9.0
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.1
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
15
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.1
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
16
32
30
29
27
25
23
21
19
17
15
13
11
9.3
7.9
6.6
5.4
4.5
3.7
3.1
2.5
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
17
29
28
27
25
23
21
20
18
16
14
12
10
8.6
7.2
6.0
5.0
4.1
3.5
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.93
0.79
18
27
26
24
23
21
20
18
16
14
13
11
9.3
7.9
6.7
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.1
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.85
0.73
19
25
24
22
21
20
18
17
15
13
12
10
8.6
7.3
6.1
5.1
4.2
3.5
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.93
0.79
0.67
20
23
22
21
20
18
11
15
14
12
11
9.2
7.9
6.7
5.6
4.7
3.9
3.2
2.7
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.86
0.72
0.62
21
21
20
19
18
17
15
14
13
11
9.8
8.5
7.3
6.2
5.2
4.3
3.6
3.0
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.1
0.94
0.79
0.67
0.57
22
19
18
18
17
15
14
13
12
10
9.0
7.8
6.7
5.7
4.8
4.0
3.3
2.7
2.3
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.0
0.87
0.73
0.61
0.52
23
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
9.5
8.3
7.2
6.2
5.2
4.4
3.7
3.0
2.5
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.2
0.96
0.80
0.67
0.56
0.48
24
16
16
15
14
13
12
11
9.8
8.7
7.7
6.6
5.7
4.8
4.0
3.4
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.88
0.74
0.62
0.52
0.44
25
15
14
14
13
12
11
10
9.1
8.0
7.0
6.1
5.2
4.4
3.7
3.1
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.4
1.2
0.98
0.81
0.68
0.57
0.48
0.41
26
14
13
13
12
11
10
9.3
8.3
7.4
6.5
5.6
4.8
4.1
3.4
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.90
0.75
0.62
0.52
0.44
0.37
27
13
12
12
11
10
9.4
8.5
7.7
6.8
6.0
5.2
4.4
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.83
0.69
0.57
0.48
0.40
0.34
28
12
11
11
10
9.4
8.6
7.9
7.1
6.3
5.5
4.8
4.1
3.5
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.1
0.93
0.77
0.63
0.53
0.44
0.37
0.32
29
11
10
9.8
9.2
8.6
8.0
7.2
6.5
5.8
5.1
4.4
3.8
3.2
2.7
2.2
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.0
0.86
0.71
0.59
0.49
0.41
0.34
0.29
30
9.9
9.5
9.0
8.5
7.9
7.3
6.7
6.0
5.3
4.7
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.2
0.96
0.79
0.65
0.54
0.45
0.37
0.32
0.27
                                                     44

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Table 5b. Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CMC (Acute Criterion Magnitude) - Oncorhynchus spp. Absent.
      Temperature (C)
pH o-io
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9.0
51
49
46
44
41
38
34
31
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
8.8
7.2
6.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
11
48
46
44
41
38
35
32
29
26
22
19
17
14
12
9.9
8.2
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.1
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.3
12
44
42
40
38
35
33
30
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
9.1
7.6
6.3
5.2
4.3
3.5
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
13
41
39
37
35
32
30
27
25
22
19
17
14
12
10
8.4
7.0
5.8
4.8
3.9
3.2
2.7
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
14
37
36
34
32
30
28
25
23
20
18
15
13
11
9.3
7.7
6.4
5.3
4.4
3.6
3.0
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
15
34
33
31
30
28
25
23
21
18
16
14
12
10
8.5
7.1
5.9
4.9
4.0
3.3
2.7
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.93
16
32
30
29
27
25
23
21
19
17
15
13
11
9.3
7.9
6.6
5.4
4.5
3.7
3.1
2.5
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
17
29
28
27
25
23
21
20
18
16
14
12
10
8.6
7.2
3.0
5.0
4.1
3.4
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.93
0.79
18
27
26
24
23
21
20
18
16
14
13
11
9.3
7.9
6.7
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.1
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.85
0.73
19
25
24
22
21
20
18
17
15
13
12
10
8.6
7.3
6.1
5.1
4.2
3.5
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.93
0.79
0.67
20
23
22
21
20
18
17
15
14
12
11
9.2
7.9
6.7
5.6
4.7
3.9
3.2
2.7
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.86
0.72
0.62
21
21
20
19
18
17
15
14
13
11
9.8
8.5
7.3
6.2
5.2
4.3
3.6
3.0
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.1
0.94
0.79
0.67
0.57
22
19
18
18
17
15
14
13
12
10
9.0
7.8
6.7
5.7
4.8
4.0
3.3
2.7
2.3
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.0
0.87
0.73
0.61
0.52
23
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
9.5
8.3
7.2
6.2
5.2
4.4
3.7
3.0
2.5
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.2
0.96
0.80
0.67
0.56
0.48
24
16
16
15
14
13
12
11
9.8
8.7
7.7
6.6
5.7
4.8
4.0
3.4
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.88
0.74
0.62
0.52
0.44
25
15
14
14
13
12
11
10
9.1
8.0
7.0
6.1
5.2
4.4
3.7
3.1
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.4
1.2
0.98
0.81
0.68
0.57
0.48
0.41
26
14
13
13
12
11
10
9.3
8.3
7.4
6.5
5.6
4.8
4.1
3.4
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.90
0.75
0.62
0.52
0.44
0.37
27
13
12
12
11
10
9.4
8.5
7.7
6.8
6.0
5.2
4.4
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.83
0.69
0.57
0.48
0.40
0.34
28
12
11
11
10
9.4
8.6
7.9
7.1
6.3
5.5
4.8
4.1
3.5
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.1
0.93
0.77
0.63
0.53
0.44
0.37
0.32
29
11
10
9.8
9.2
8.6
7.9
7.2
6.5
5.8
5.1
4.4
3.8
3.2
2.7
2.2
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.0
0.86
0.71
0.58
0.49
0.41
0.34
0.29
30
9.9
9.5
9.0
8.5
7.9
7.3
6.7
6.0
5.3
4.7
4.0
3.5
2.9
2.5
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.2
0.96
0.79
0.65
0.54
0.45
0.37
0.32
0.27
                                                     45

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Chronic criterion calculations
       The thirty-day rolling average concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (in mg TAN/L) is
not to exceed, more than once every three years on the average, the chronic criterion magnitude
(CCC) calculated using the following equation:
   CCC = 0.8876 X              H +          7.6SS  X (2.126 X
       In addition, the highest four-day average within the 30-day averaging period should not
be more than 2.5 times the CCC (e.g., 2.5 x 1.9 mg TAN/L at pH 7 and 20C or 4.8 mg TAN/L)
more than once in three years on average.

The 2013 CCC equation is predicated on the following:

1 .  The lowest GMCV in this criteria update is for an invertebrate  species; thus, the CCC is both
pH- and temperature-dependent (based on the invertebrate chronic temperature relationship).
The lowest GMCV is 2. 126 mg TAN/L for Villosa iris (Table 4).  The updated CCC (rounded to
4 significant figures) of 1 .887 mg TAN/L at pH 7and 20C is 11.2 percent lower than the lowest
GMCV. The CCC to lowest GMCV ratio is 0.8876.

2.  The most sensitive freshwater fish to chronic ammonia exposure are early life stages of
Lepomis with a GMCV of 6.920 mg TAN/L (Table 4). At a pH of 7 and temperature of 7C and
below, the CCC plateaus (see Figure 5b) at 4.363 mg TAN/L, which is lower than the GMCV for
Lepomis, the most sensitive fish, multiplied by the CCC to lowest GMCV ratio (or 6.920 mg
TAN/L x 0.8876 = 6. 142 mg TAN/L);  thus, at pH 7, the CCC is expressed as:

                    CCC  = 0.8876  X (2.126  X  io-28x(20-M^(7-,7)))

This function increases steadily with decreasing temperature (T), until it reaches a maximum  at
7C, below which it remains constant (see Table 6; also shown graphically in Figure 5b).  The
rationale for the 7C plateau in extrapolated invertebrate sensitivities is described in detail in
                                          46

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Appendix M. The assumption of invertebrate insensitivity to temperatures of 7C and below is
based on an interpretation of the empirical relationship between acute ammonia toxicity of
invertebrates and temperature, first described by Arthur et al. (1987), and in Appendix M).

3. All new chronic fish data added to this update of the freshwater AWQC for ammonia are
from early life-stage tests of the species (see new data for Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi,
Oncorhynchus mykiss, Esox lucius, and Cyprinus carpio in Appendix B), and since the new
chronic criterion magnitude lies far below all chronic values for these fishes (as well as for
Lepomis  spp.), the early life stage offish no longer warrants special consideration.

4. Where a threatened or endangered species occurs at a site and sufficient data indicate that it is
sensitive at concentrations below the CCC,  it is appropriate to consider deriving a site-specific
criterion  magnitude.

       In summary, at pH 7 and 20C the CCC of 1.9 mg TAN/L is determined by the
sensitivity of invertebrates.  As temperature decreases, invertebrate sensitivity to ammonia
decreases until the CCC reaches a maximum of 4.4 mg TAN/L at pH 7 and temperature of 7C
and below.
                                           47

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 0)


N.
X
 Q.
-i'
 CD
O
o
O
    3 -
2 -
    1 -
    0
      0
                        10         15        20

                            Temperature (C)
25
30
Figure 5b. 2013 Chronic Criterion Magnitudes Extrapolated Across a Temperature
Gradient at pH 7.
                                     48

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Table 6. Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CCC (Chronic Criterion Magnitude).




  Temperature (C)
pH 0-7
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9.0
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.2
4.0
3.8
3.5
3.2
2.9
2.6
2.3
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.95
0.80
0.68
0.57
0.49
0.42
0.36
8
4.6
4.5
4.5
4.4
4.2
4.1
3.9
3.7
3.5
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.4
2.2
1.9
1.7
1.5
1.2
1.1
0.89
0.75
0.64
0.54
0.46
0.39
0.34
9
4.3
4.3
4.2
4.1
4.0
3.8
3.7
3.5
3.3
3.1
2.8
2.6
2.3
2.1
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
0.99
0.84
0.71
0.60
0.51
0.43
0.37
0.32
10
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.3
3.1
2.9
2.7
2.4
2.2
1.9
1.7
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.93
0.79
0.67
0.56
0.47
0.40
0.34
0.30
11
3.8
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.2
3.1
2.9
2.7
2.5
2.3
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.87
0.74
0.62
0.53
0.44
0.38
0.32
0.28
12
3.6
3.5
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.0
2.9
2.7
2.5
2.3
2.1
1.9
1.7
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.96
0.82
0.69
0.58
0.49
0.42
0.35
0.30
0.26
13
3.3
3.3
3.2
3.2
3.1
3.0
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.1
0.90
0.76
0.65
0.55
0.46
0.39
0.33
0.28
0.24
14
3.1
3.1
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.5
2.4
2.2
2.1
1.9
1.7
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.99
0.84
0.72
0.61
0.51
0.43
0.37
0.31
0.27
0.23
15
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.2
2.1
1.9
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.1
0.92
0.79
0.67
0.57
0.48
0.41
0.34
0.29
0.25
0.21
16
2.8
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.3
1.2
1.0
0.87
0.74
0.63
0.53
0.45
0.38
0.32
0.27
0.23
0.20
17
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.8
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.2
1.1
0.94
0.81
0.70
0.59
0.50
0.42
0.36
0.30
0.26
0.22
0.19
18
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.0
0.88
0.76
0.65
0.55
0.47
0.40
0.33
0.28
0.24
0.21
0.18
19
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.2
1.1
0.95
0.83
0.71
0.61
0.52
0.44
0.37
0.31
0.27
0.23
0.19
0.17
20
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.0
2.0
12
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.1
1.0
0.89
0.78
0.67
0.57
0.49
0.41
0.35
0.29
0.25
0.21
0.18
0.16
21
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
0.95
0.84
0.73
0.63
0.54
0.46
0.39
0.33
0.28
0.23
0.20
0.17
0.15
22
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.89
0.79
0.68
0.59
0.50
0.43
0.36
0.31
0.26
0.22
0.19
0.16
0.14
23
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.1
0.94
0.84
0.74
0.64
0.55
0.47
0.40
0.34
0.29
0.24
0.21
0.17
0.15
0.13
24
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.1
0.98
0.88
0.79
0.69
0.60
0.52
0.44
0.38
0.32
0.27
0.23
0.19
0.16
0.14
0.12
25
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.92
0.83
0.74
0.65
0.56
0.49
0.42
0.35
0.30
0.25
0.21
0.18
0.15
0.13
0.11
26
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.95
0.86
0.78
0.69
0.61
0.53
0.46
0.39
0.33
0.28
0.24
0.20
0.17
0.14
0.12
0.11
27
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.96
0.89
0.81
0.73
0.65
0.57
0.50
0.43
0.37
0.31
0.26
0.22
0.19
0.16
0.13
0.12
0.10
28
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.0
0.97
0.90
0.83
0.76
0.68
0.61
0.53
0.44
0.40
0.34
0.29
0.25
0.21
0.18
0.15
0.13
0.11
0.09
29
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
0.96
0.91
0.85
0.78
0.71
0.64
0.57
0.50
0.44
0.38
0.32
0.27
0.23
0.20
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.10
0.09
30
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.0
0.99
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.79
0.73
0.67
0.60
0.53
0.47
0.41
0.35
0.30
0.26
0.22
0.18
0.15
0.13
0.11
0.09
0.08
                                                     49

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Additional explanation and justification supporting the 2013 temperature and pH-
dependent calculations and criteria magnitudes
       Part of a criterion magnitude derivation is the estimation of the CMC or CCC based on
the set of toxicity values available for different genera. The CMC or CCC estimate is intended to
be equivalent to what would be obtained by simple inspection if many genera had been tested.
Generally, the CMC or CCC is below the lowest value.  For small datasets (<19) it is assumed
that the fifth percentile is lower than the lowest toxicity value. Because the CMC is one half of
the fifth percentile (i.e., FAV/2), it is frequently lower than the lowest GMAV even in large
datasets.  Because the  extrapolation procedure used to calculate the FAV or FCV/CCC is based
on the slope of the four most sensitive genera, when there are data for less than 59 genera, if the
genera vary widely in  sensitivity, the extrapolated criterion value is further below the lowest
value than if the criteria were tightly grouped. This is statistically appropriate because when
variance is high (i.e., values are widely spaced), the fifth percentile of the distribution would be
expected to lie further below the lowest value of a small dataset than if the variance was low.
       This extrapolation procedure, while appropriate for criteria derivations across chemicals
with different variances for genus sensitivities, is not necessarily appropriate when the genera are
following different temperature or life stage dependencies. Sensitivities can change with
temperature or life stage, and as a result, the spread of the four lowest GMAVs or GMCVs, and
the resulting degree of extrapolation to the fifth percentile of sensitivity, can also change.  Rather
than develop separate  sets of GMAVs and GMCVs for each temperature and re-computing
iteratively the CMC or CCC from the four most sensitive GMAVs or GMCVs at each
temperature-pH combination, the extrapolation approach described below was used.
       This issue of extrapolation to different temperatures and pH values with regard to chronic
toxicity was addressed in the 1999 AWQC document for ammonia by first calculating the ratio
of the CCC to the lowest GMCV, and then applying that ratio to subsequent criteria calculations
for all possible pH and temperature combinations. The rationale of this approach was that it
offered a degree of extrapolation that was modest and reasonable given the relatively low
number of tested genera, and that it was a preferable approach to the alternative procedure of
calculating CCCs directly from new sets of GMCVs for each pH-temperature combination, as
each combination could result in different degrees of extrapolation, some of which could be
more than 50 percent below the lowest GMCV.
                                           50

-------
       In the 1999 AWQC document, the temperature extrapolations for the CCC determination
described above were conducted separately for adult fish, fish early life stages, and invertebrates.
This was because fish GMCVs are not affected by temperature, and because the most sensitive
fish species was an early life stage ofLepomis. As a consequence, even though the lowest
GMCV at 20C was for an invertebrate, as temperature decreases, invertebrates, but not fish,
become less sensitive to ammonia, and below 14.6C, fish genera become the most sensitive.
However, the above scenario is not applicable now because at the new recommended CCC (1.9
mg TAN/L), invertebrate genera are the most sensitive across the entire temperature range.
       In the 1999 AWQC document, the most sensitive GMAVs were for fish, and because the
sensitivities offish to ammonia did not vary with temperature,  no temperature extrapolation was
performed.  In contrast, the lowest GMAVs in this document are  for invertebrates, and as a
consequence, the temperature extrapolation procedure is similarly applied to the CMC as well as
the CCC.
       For the reassessment of the pH-TAN  acute toxicity relationship, EPA has determined that
the current pH-TAN acute toxicity relationship equation effectively represents the pH-TAN
toxicity relationship for L. siliquoidea (as determined by Wang et al. 2008), as well as for other
invertebrates, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (snail), Macrobrachium rosenbergii (freshwater
shrimp), and//, azteca (amphipod), as tested by Hickey and Vickers (1994), Straus et al. (1991),
and Borgmann and Borgmann (1997), respectively.  Also, for the  reassessment of the
temperature-TAN acute toxicity relationship, EPA similarly determined that the current
temperature-TAN acute toxicity relationship  equation effectively represents the temperature-
TAN toxicity relationship for other invertebrates, P. antipodarum (snail), Branchiura sowerbyi
(oligochaete), and Viviparus bengalensis (snail) as tested by Hickey and Vickers (1994) and
Sarkar (1997), respectively.

Protection of downstream waters
       EPA regulations at 40 CFR 131.10(b) provide that "[i]n designating uses of a water body
and the appropriate criteria for those uses, the state shall take into consideration the water quality
standards of downstream waters and ensure that its water quality  standards provide for the
attainment and maintenance of the water quality standards of downstream waters." In cases
where downstream waters are characterized by higher pH and/or  temperature, or harbor more
                                           51

-------
sensitive species, ammonia criteria more stringent than those required to protect in-stream uses
may be necessary in order to ensure that water quality standards provide for the attainment and
maintenance of the water quality standards of downstream waters.

Considerations for site-specific criteria derivation
      At water temperatures above 15.7C, the 2013 acute criteria magnitude is based on
effects to freshwater unionid mussels.  However, when the temperature is below 15.7C, and
salmonids are present (even when mussels or other sensitive mollusk species are present),
salmonid sensitivity determines the acute criterion (regardless of pH), similar to the 1999 acute
criterion, which was based on effects on salmonids (i.e., adult rainbow trout). Where unionid
mussels and other sensitive related mollusk species are absent, the commercially and
recreationally important adult rainbow trout is the most sensitive species. Site-specific criteria
derivation must take into account the temperature at the site. As an example, the acute criterion
magnitude at pH 7 and temperature 20C  cannot exceed 24 mg TAN/L (the rainbow trout SMAV
of 48.21 mg TAN/L, divided by two, used in this 2013 update as being representative of the most
sensitive fish in general).
      The 1999 chronic criterion (CCC) magnitude was based on the effects on fish early life
stages, whereas based on the new data, the 2013 CCC magnitude is based on the effects on
sensitive invertebrate genera, including unionid mussels.  When mussels are  present, the 2013
CCC magnitude is protective offish early life stages regardless of temperature. See Appendix N
for additional information on site-specific criteria for ammonia.

EFFECTS  CHARACTERIZATION
      The purpose of this section is to characterize the potential effects of ammonia on aquatic
life considering available test data and to describe additional lines of evidence not used directly
in the criteria calculations, but which support the 2013 aquatic life criteria values.  This section
will also provide a summary of the uncertainties and assumptions, as well as provide
explanations for decisions regarding data acceptability and usage in the effects assessment. In
addition, this section will describe substantive differences between the 1999  ammonia AWQC
and the 2013 update resulting from the incorporation of the latest scientific knowledge.

                                          52

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       All acceptable acute and chronic values for freshwater aquatic animal species, including
those from the 1999 AWQC document (re-normalized to pH 7 and 20C in the case of
invertebrates), are presented in Appendices A (acute) and B (chronic).  These tables include new
acute and chronic ammonia toxicity data for freshwater mussels in the Family Unionidae and
reflect the latest science informing the determinations regarding acceptable test conditions and
associated data for glochidia and juvenile mussels.

Freshwater Acute Toxicity Data
Acute toxicity data for freshwater mussels and non-pulmonate (gill-bearing) snails
       Prior to publishing the 2009 draft ammonia AWQC, concerns had been raised about the
appropriateness of using data obtained from tests conducted with the parasitic glochidia life-
stage of freshwater unionid mussels.  Glochidia of different species have different life history
strategies for finding an appropriate fish host; glochidia may be free living in the water column
(and potentially exposed to pollutants) for a duration ranging from seconds to days, depending
on the particular species. EPA concluded it was useful to consider potential  adverse effects on
glochidia, because effects of chemicals on this early life stage of mussels could potentially have
broad impacts on mussel populations. In order for the toxicity test results with glochidia to be
ecologically relevant, the duration of the acute toxicity test must be comparable to the duration of
the free-living stage of the glochidia prior to attaching to a host. Supported by research
conducted by Bringolf et al. (2013) demonstrating the appropriate duration of exposure for this
life stage, acceptable acute toxicity data for glochidia with an exposure duration of 24 hours or
less have been included in this 2013 AWQC Update, with the stipulation that control  survival  for
the time period used is at least 90%.
       In addition to the four sensitive bivalve mollusk species in Table 7, there are three other
unionid mussel species among the seven genera found to be most acutely sensitive to ammonia
as well as two non-pulmonate snail species are ranked tenth and twelfth in sensitivity. These
GMAVs represent mollusk toxicity data that were not in the 1999 acute criteria dataset.
       New test data for the ellipse (Venustaconcha ellipsiformis), the most  sensitive species
tested, was not directly used in the acute criterion calculation because the methodology used
calculated the acute value using the second through fifth most sensitive species to approximate
effects for a 5*  percentile of species as noted in the effects assessment. The  GMAV for ellipse
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(23.12 mg TAN/L at pH 7 and 20C) is greater than the acute criterion of 17 mg TAN/L and thus
provides additional evidence supporting the protectiveness of the calculated acute criterion
(Table 3).
       Available data on non-pulmonate snails show that they are another taxon within the
Phylum Mollusca sensitive to ammonia in freshwater ecosystems. The calculated GMAV of
62.15 mg TAN/L for Fluminicola sp. (pebblesnail) is the tenth most sensitive in the acute dataset
(Table 3).  Another non-pulmonate snail species Pleurocera uncialis (pagoda hornsnail) was
ranked 12*  in acute  sensitivity. The LCso for P.  uncialis (reported in Goudreau et al. 1993),
normalized to pH 7 and 20C,  is 68.54 mg TAN/L (Appendix A).  To date, few studies have
been attempted with this group of species; additional testing would improve understanding of
their relative sensitivity to ammonia compared to other aquatic animals.
       The draft 2009 acute criterion magnitude recommended for waters with mussels present
was slightly higher than the 2013 acute criteria (19 vs.  17 mg TAN/L at pH 7,  T 20C) due to a
number of differences in the data used in the CMC derivations.  In response to comments
received on the 2009 draft criteria, EPA removed the six invasive species from the acute dataset
for ammonia; one of the invasive species removed from the dataset was Asiatic clam, which had
been ranked as the fourth most sensitive GMAVs in the 2009 draft AWQC. Because the acute
dataset for ammonia is extensive and contains toxicity data for other bivalves that are native
North American species, the Asiatic clam was not needed as a bivalve  surrogate. Also in the
2013 CMC, the most sensitive GMAV used to derive the CMC is for Lasmigona subviridis
(green floater mussel) (GMAV=23.41 mg TAN/L) which is lower than the lowest GMAV (32.73
mg TAN/L) in the draft 2009 CMC used in the derivation of the CMC.  Based on new scientific
information regarding determination of test acceptability, EPA included acceptable data for
glochidia (mussel larvae) and Hyalella azteca, which added five GMAVs for derivation of the
CMC.  Since the number of GMAVs is a factor in the equation used to derive the CMC, a change
to the number of GMAVs results in a change in the resulting FAV and CMC.
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Table 7.  Comparison of the Four Taxa Used to Calculate the FAV and CMC in the 1999, 2009 Draft and 2013 AWQC.
1999 Update CMC Magnitude
Species
Oncorhynchus sp.
(salmonids), includes:
O. aquabonita, O. clarkii,
O. gorbuscha, O. kisutch,
O. mykiss, and
O. tshawytscha
Orangethroat darter,
Etheostoma spectabile
Golden shiner,
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Mountain whitefish,
Prosopium williamsoni
FAV1
CMC
pH 8.0,
T=25C
(mg TAN/L)
21.95
17.96
14.67
12.11
11.23
5.6
pH 7.0,
T=20C
(mg TAN /L)
99.15
74.25
63.02
51.93
48.21
24
2009 Draft Update CMC Magnitude
Species
Oyster mussel,
Epioblasma capsaeformis
Asiatic clam,
Corbicula fluminea
Lampsilis sp.
(Unionidae), includes:
L. abrupta, L. cardium,
L. fasciola, L. higgimii,
L. rqfinesqueana, and
L. siliquoidea
Rainbow mussel,
Villosa iris
FAV
CMC
pH 8.0,
T=25C
(mg TAN/L)
6.037
6.018
5.919
5.036
5.734
2.9
pH 7.0,
T=20C
(mg TAN/L)
39.24
39.12
38.48
32.73
37.27
19
2013 Final CMC Magnitude
Species
Lampsilis sp.
(Unionidae), includes:
L. abrupta, L. cardium,
L. fasciola, L. higginsii, L.
rqfinesqueana, and
L. siliquoidea
Rainbow mussel,
Villosa iris
Oyster mussel,
Epioblasma capsaeformis
Green floater,
Lasmigona subviridis
FAV
CMC
pH 7.0,
T=20C
(mg TAN/L)
46.63
34.23
31.14
23.41
33.52
17
1 The FAV in the 1999 AWQC document of 11.23 mg TAN/L at pH 8 was lowered to the geometric mean of these seven LC50 values at the time in order to
protect large rainbow trout which were shown in Thurston and Russo (1983) to be measurably more sensitive than other life stages. The FAV prior to adjusting
it to protect the commercially and recreationally important adult rainbow trout was calculated to be 14.32 mg TAN/L (CMC = 7.2 mg TAN/L) at pH 8. This
FAV based on protection of adult rainbow trout at pH 7 is 48.21 mg TAN/L (see also Appendix A in this document).
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Freshwater Chronic Toxicity Data
Use of 28-day juvenile unionid mussel data
       EPA decided that growth data from 28-day tests with juvenile unionid mussels presented
in the Wang et al. studies from 2007 and 2011 would not be used in calculating the 2013 chronic
criterion. The decision not to use the growth data was based on the uncertainty in the test
methods for assessing the growth endpoint and the need,  as stated by the authors, for additional
research "to optimize feeding conditions, to conduct longer-term exposures (e.g., 90 d), and to
compare growth effect to potential reproductive effect in partial life-cycle exposure"  (Wang et al.
2011). The growth endpoint showed a high degree of variability, and the test methods for
assessing growth, based on substrate or water-only exposures, are currently being evaluated.  For
these reasons, the survival data for 28-day juvenile mussels were used in the calculation of the
CCC and not the growth data. Appendix G provides the TRAP EC2os for survival for rainbow
mussel and both Lampsilis species, and a comparison to the growth of fatmucket mussel from
28-day tests reported by Wang et al. (2007a, 2011), which shows the additional uncertainty in the
concentration-response relationship based on growth.

28-day toxicity data for freshwater snails
       As noted in the 2009 draft ammonia criteria document, non-pulmonate snails  have been
demonstrated to be sensitive to ammonia in freshwater ecosystems, in addition to other taxa
within the Phylum Mollusca. Besser et al. (2010) data  from a repeat test with pebblesnail
(referred to in this document as Besser 2011) support the conclusion that non-pulmonate snails
may be slightly less sensitive to ammonia than freshwater mussels. Additional toxicity tests are
recommended for non-pulmonate snails and other freshwater mollusks to further substantiate the
findings from the 28-day tests summarized in Appendices H and I.  The calculated 20 values
using  TRAP for P. idahoensis, F. aldrichi, and T. serptenticola, and the recommended 28-day
ammonia survival effects concentration of <7.667 mg TAN/L for P. canaliculata, are considered
representative of non-pulmonate snail sensitivity in general and are included in Appendix C for
the purpose of comparison.
       Based on the 28-day toxicity test results for the gill-bearing, non-pulmonate snail species
(Appendices B and C), EPA concludes that the overall  sensitivity of this particular group of snail
species (Sub-class Prosobranchia, Order Neotaenioglossa) appears high.  Furthermore, the
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sensitivity of juvenile and adult mixed-age non-pulmonate snails to ammonia may be greater
than that of their air-breathing, pulmonate counterparts such as L. stagnalis.
       Although the GMCV for Fluminicola species is not ranked as one of the four most
sensitive used to calculate the FCV, the value is ranked the 5th most sensitive in the chronic
criterion dataset. The 28-day growth EC20 for this freshwater non-pulmonate snail species,
calculated using EPA's TRAP, is 2.281 mg TAN/L at test pH (8.22) and temperature (20.1C),
or 7.828 mg TAN/L after adjustment to pH 7 and 20C (see Appendix B).  Appendix H includes
a summary of the 28-day toxicity test results for Fluminicola species which are acceptable for
use quantitatively in the chronic dataset.  The TRAP output for this test is provided in Appendix
H.

28-day toxicity data for Hyalella azteca: Minimum Data Requirement Number 5
       Literature data indicate that the response of Hyalella azteca is influenced not only by pH,
but also by sodium concentration in the dilution water. Borgmann and Borgmann (1997)
demonstrated that increasing sodium decreased the toxicity of ammonia to Hyalella., and applied
these findings to explain differences in toxicity observed by Ankley et al. (1995), which were
originally attributed to water hardness. Further unpublished experiments by EPA's Office of
Research and Development confirm Borgmann's assertion that sodium  concentration plays a key
role in determining the acute response of Hyalella to ammonia (personal communication, D.R.
Mount, EPA, ORD). Because sodium is not known to affect ammonia toxicity to other species,
this criterion does not consider sodium concentration, and this variation is not explicitly
addressed. For purposes of deriving a GMAV for Hyalella, tests were selected that had a
moderate sodium concentration (e.g., "moderately hard" water tests from Ankley et al. 1995, see
Appendix A), and tests with extremely low sodium concentrations were excluded (e.g., "soft"
water tests from Ankley et al. 1995; data from Whiteman et al. 1996,  see Appendix J). The
available acute data for ammonia did not include tests conducted in natural waters with a sodium
concentration below about 3 mg/L;  at that sodium concentration, the acute values for Hyalella
were near the FAV reported in this document. Whether acute toxicity of ammonia to Hyalella
would occur below the FAV in waters with less than 3 mg/L sodium is unknown (Appendix H).
       For the 2013 chronic criterion, EPA re-evaluated the available data for Hyalella azteca
based on recent research regarding the appropriate test conditions, including water chemistry
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(e.g., appropriate concentrations for specific ions such as chloride) and feeding regimes.  The
concentrations of sodium are important to H. azteca health as discussed previously and the
sodium concentrations in the chronic test used in the CCC represent approximately the mid-
range of U.S. waters. Based on this re-evaluation, EPA determined that certain tests met the new
recommended conditions that would support healthy test organisms, and accepted those data for
use in the calculation of the CCC.  The specific tests used were from Borgmann (1994); details
on these tests are included in Appendix H under Chronic Toxicity Tests with Juvenile Hyalella
azteca. As a result of inclusion of acceptable H. azteca data, the minimum data requirement
(MDR) for a benthic crustacean is  fulfilled for the chronic criterion provided in this document.
The GMCV of 29.17 mg TAN/L ranks Hyalella azteca as the thirteenth (of 16) most sensitive
GMCV.
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Reconsideration of the chronic toxicity data available for aquatic insects: Minimum Data
Requirement Number 6
       EPA chose not to include a chronic value for the stonefly, Pteronarcella badia., from
Thurston et al. (1984a) in the 1999 AWQC update document because this aquatic insect species
is relatively insensitive. Upon further consideration, EC2os for 30-day nymph mortality were
calculated for field collected Pteronarcella badia for two separate partial life cycle tests in
consecutive years, in order to develop a GMCV for insects to fulfill the sixth minimum data
requirement (MDR), and to clearly specify the expected lack of sensitivity of insects to ammonia
based on available data. EC2os were calculated for each test, and, as the authors themselves
noted, the results were variable between the two tests.  The normalized EC20 for the test
conducted with P. badia collected from the Gallatin R. was 207.0 mg TAN/L, and was 26.27 mg
TAN/L for the test conducted with P. badia collected from the Rocky River (Appendix B). The
geometric mean for these two tests is 73.74 mg TAN/L.  It is not known if these tests were
conducted using the most sensitive life stage; however, the authors did note that the length of
individuals used in both tests was similar. EPA used the two EC2oS based on 30-day nymph
mortality to calculate a GMCV of 73.74 mg TAN/L for this species. The stonefly is listed as
sixteenth GMCV in chronic sensitivity, fulfilling the sixth MDR.  Additional data on insect
sensitivity to ammonia would be useful in confirming the conclusion that insects are relatively
insensitive to ammonia in freshwater environments, given the limited data available.

New chronic toxicity data for salmonid species and derivation of a GMCV for
Oncorhynchus: Minimum Data Requirement Number 1
       Chronic values from two additional studies with Oncorhynchus species (salmonids) are
included in this AWQC document that were not included in the 1999 document (see Appendix H
for more detailed descriptions of the results from these studies). Koch et al.  (1980) exposed
Lahontan cutthroat trout {Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi\ an endangered species, for 103 days
in  an ELS test. There were no successful hatches at exposure levels of 148 mg TAN/L or higher
and no significant mortality at exposure levels below 32.9 mg TAN/L. Regression analysis of
the survival data resulted in a calculated EC20 value of 17.89 mg TAN/L at 13.7C and pH 7.57.
The EC2o value is 25.83 mg TAN/L when adjusted to pH 7 (Appendix B).
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       The results of a more recent 90-day ELS test using a wild strain of rainbow trout exposed
to ammonia were reported by Brinkman et al. (2009), and are included in this criteria document.
The test was initiated with newly fertilized embryos exposed under flow-through conditions
through hatch, swim-up, and early fry development. Survival, growth and biomass of swim-up
fry were significantly reduced at 16.8 mg TAN/L compared to controls, but unaffected at 7.44
mg TAN/L.  The EC20 calculated for biomass using TRAP and normalized to pH 7 is 15.60 mg
TAN/L (Appendix B).
       In the 1999 AWQC document, the results of six chronic tests conducted with ammonia
for Oncorhynchus mykiss and Oncorhynchus nerka were included in Table 5 of that document as
"acceptable" chronic tests for criteria development.  A GMCV was not derived for
Oncorhynchus at that time, however, because of the degree of variability among test results, as
well  as a preponderance of "greater than" or "less than" values, preventing the calculation of
definitive SMCVs within the genus.  The results of these chronic tests were only used at that
time to assess the appropriateness of the CCC.
       For this 2013 document, these six studies and the data from the two additional studies
summarized above, have been re-evaluated and re-considered for inclusion in deriving a new
chronic criterion for ammonia in order to consider and include all available, reliable toxicity test
information for this recreationally, commercially and ecologically important taxon. The data
were re-examined with specific consideration of whether unbounded (greater or  less than) values
add relevant information to determination of final SMCVs for Oncorhynchus clarkii, O. mykiss,
and O. nerka.  A decision rule was developed for evaluating chronic values (EC2os) for potential
use in deriving an SMCV for a salmon species.  In developing the decision rule,  it was noted that
"greater than" values for concentrations of low magnitude, and "less than" values for
concentrations of high magnitude do not add significant information to the analysis.  That is, if a
researcher only tested very low concentrations and found no chronic effects or very high
concentrations and found 100% response for a chronic endpoint, those data do not significantly
enhance understanding of the toxicity of ammonia.  Conversely, if a  researcher only tested very
low concentrations and found significant chronic effects, indicating  the test material was highly
toxic, or relatively high concentrations and found incomplete response for a chronic endpoint,
indicating low toxicity of the materials, those data do significantly enhance understanding of the
toxicity of ammonia. Thus, the decision rule was applied as follows: "greater than" (>) low CVs
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and "less than" (<) high CVs were not used in the calculation of the SMCV; but "less than" (<)
low CVs and a "greater than" (>) high CVs were included in the SMCV.
       Following this decision rule, the SMCV for O. clarkii is the normalized EC20 of 25.83 mg
TAN/L from Koch et al. (1980).  The SMCV for O. mykiss is 6.663 mg TAN/L at pH 7, which is
the geometric mean of the <3.246 mg TAN/L value from Calamari et al. (1977, 1981), the
<3.515 mg TAN/L value from Solbe and Shurben (1989), the >11.08 mg TAN/L value from
Thurston et al. (1984b), and the 15.60 mg TAN/L value from Brinkman et al. (2009). With
respect to the SMCV for O. mykiss, both the Calamari et al. (1977, 1981) and the Solbe and
Shurben (1989) values are low "less than" values, indicating demonstrated toxicity at low
concentrations of ammonia, while the Thurston et al. (1984b) value is a relatively high "greater
than" value, indicating lower toxicity to O. mykiss in this test, compared to the Calamari (1977,
1981) and Solbe and Shurben (1989) values with respect to the SMCV for O. mykiss. Finally,
the SMCV for O. nerka is <10.09 mg TAN/L (Rankin 1979), and has been included as a
relatively low "less than" value, indicating relative sensitivity to the effects of ammonia in this
test.  The <48 mg TAN/L value (at pH 7) from Thurston et al. (1978) re-calculated for O. clarkii
(see Appendix C; value represents the geometric mean of four values) and the <45.50 mg TAN/L
value from Burkhalter and Kaya (1977) for O. mykiss (retained in Appendix B) are not included
in the SMCV calculations because they  are high "less than" values, and do not add important
information to the analyses. The new GMCV for Oncorhynchus in this 2013 Update document
is 12.02 mg TAN/L,  which is the geometric mean of the three SMCVs for Oncorhynchus clarkii
(25.83 mg TAN/L), O. mykiss (6.663 mg TAN/L), andO. nerka (<10.09 mg TAN/L) (Appendix
B), resulting in Oncorhynchus as being seventh most sensitive GMCV (Table 4).

Another order of insect or a phylum not already represented: Minimum Data Requirement
Number 8
       For the MDR identified earlier as "#8," "another order of insect or a phylum not already
represented," there are no additional chronic toxicity data for any freshwater animal that would
fulfill this MDR in the chronic dataset (the acute dataset fulfills all eight MDRs). Therefore,
EPA developed a surrogate ammonia CV for the Phylum Annelida by using the geometric mean
acute value from the four available genera (Dendrocoelus, Limnodrilus, Lumbriculus, and
Tubifex) and applying an ACR from other invertebrate groups. There is less than a factor of two
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difference between the GMAVs for the most (Dendrocoelus, 119.5 mg TAN/L) and least
(Lumbriculus, 218.7 mg TAN/L) sensitive genus (see Table 3).  A surrogate chronic value was
derived by dividing the GMAV for all four annelids (176.2 mg TAN/L) by a geometric mean
species level invertebrate acute to chronic ratio (6.320), represented by pelagic crustaceans
(cladocerans), a benthic crustacean (amphipod) and prosobranch snail (see Appendix F Acute-
Chronic Ratios). The resulting surrogate CV for Phylum Annelida is 27.88 mg TAN/L (at pH 7
and 20C).

Protection of Endangered Species
       The dataset for ammonia is particularly extensive and includes data representing species
that are Federally-listed as threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and/or
NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service.  Summaries are provided here describing the data for
the listed species and demonstrating that the 2013 ammonia criteria update is protective of these
species, based on best available scientific data.

Key acute toxicity data for listed species
       The acute criterion dataset for ammonia now includes  12 aquatic species that are
Federally-listed as threatened, endangered or of concern.
       For unionid mussels, the 2013 criterion acute dataset includes acceptable data for 16
freshwater species across 11 genera. Of these, five of the mussel species are Federally-listed as
threatened or endangered (as identified in Table 3). The oyster mussel (Epioblasma
capsaeformis) is a Federally-listed species and is the third  most sensitive in the acute dataset
with a GMAV, based on a single SMAV, of 31.14 mg TAN/L. The SMAV/2 for the oyster
mussel is approximately 16 mg TAN/L, similar to the 2013 acute criterion value of 17 mg
TAN/L. The SMAV/2 is a value considered statistically indistinguishable from control mortality
or effect based on analysis of 219 acute toxicity tests on a range of chemicals, as described in the
Federal Register on May 18, 1978 (43 FR 21506-18). Thus, the magnitude of acute effects to
this species at the SMAV/2 are not expected to significantly impact the  species, because it is
expected to be statistically indistinguishable from effects to control (unexposed) organisms.
Furthermore, the acute criterion specifies that this concentration should  not be exceeded for more
than one hour once every three years on average, providing further protection through the
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limitation of any excursions above the criterion.  Thus, the 2013 recommended CMC for
ammonia of 17 mg TAN/L should be protective of oyster mussels. In waters where this listed
species is present, a site-specific criterion could be considered using the SMAV for that species
as the FAV from which to derive the CMC.
       The Lampsilis GMAV of 46.63 mg TAN/L reflects the geometric mean of SMAVs for
six mussel species, two (L.  abrupta and L. higginsif) of which are endangered and a third (L.
rafinesqueand) that is a Federal species of concern (Table 3).  The SMAVs for this genus range
from 26.03  mg TAN/L (L. abrupta) to 69.97 mg TAN/L (L.  rafinesqueand) (Appendix A).
Given the range of sensitivity within this genus with listed species at both the most and least
sensitive ends of the range, the CMC  of 17 mg TAN/L should be protective of the genus as a
whole, with SMCVs/2 ranging from 13 to 34 mg TAN/L. Again, the acute criterion specifies
that a concentration of 17 mg TAN/L should not be exceeded for more than one hour once every
three years  on average, providing further protection of species, through the limitation of any
excursions above the criterion. In waters where the listed species are present, a site-specific
criterion could be considered using the SMAV for that species as the FAV from which to derive
the CMC.
       Also among the ten most sensitive GMAVs in the acute dataset is the GMAV for the
endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatis) endemic to the Klamath Basin of northern
California and southern Oregon (Appendix A).  The reported LCsos at test temperature 20C and
pH 8.0 were 10.35 and 16.81 mg TAN/L for larval and juvenile fish, expressed as total ammonia
(Appendix A). The LC50s normalized to pH 7 and 20C are 44.42 and 72.18  mg TAN/L,
respectively (Appendix A). The GMAV for Lost River sucker is calculated as the geometric
mean of the two normalized LCsoS, or 56.62 mg TAN/L (Table 3), with an SMAV/2, or expected
low mortality level, of approximately 28 mg TAN/L, significantly above the CMC.  Lost River
sucker represents the ninth  most sensitive genus in the acute dataset, and second most sensitive
fish species (following mountain whitefish which is the most sensitive fish GMAV), and thus is
expected to be protected by the CMC of 17 mg TAN/L.
       The second most acutely sensitive salmonid genus (after Prosopium, represented by the
mountain whitefish, Prosopium williamsoni, acute sensitivity rank 8) is Oncorhynchus,
represented by data for six different species, three of which are threatened or endangered, with
SMAVs ranging from 78.92 mg TAN/L for Cutthroat trout, O. clarkii, to 180.7 mg TAN/L for
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pink salmon, O. gorbuscha. The GMAV for Oncorhynchus (99.15 mg TAN/L) is ranked #25 in
acute sensitivity (Table 3). All SMAV/2 values for the threatened or endangered species tested
in this genus are significantly above the acute criterion magnitude. Thus, the acute criterion is
expected to be protective of threatened and endangered salmonid species.

Key chronic toxicity data for listed species
       In the chronic dataset for ammonia, the Federally-listed species are represented by three
salmonid species in the genus  Oncorhynchus, including sockeye salmon, rainbow trout, and the
subspecies Lahontan cutthroat trout.  The GMCV for Oncorhynchus of 12.02 mg TAN/L
includes the three SMCVs ranging from  6.663 (rainbow trout) to 25.83 mg TAN/L (Lahontan
cutthroat trout) (Table 4).  The CCC for  ammonia of 1.9 mg TAN/L  is expected to be protective
of this genus as a whole. At pH 7, the CCC is 3.5 times lower than the chronic value for the
most sensitive tested listed salmonid species, O. mykiss, which includes populations of rainbow
trout and steelhead trout.
       In addition, three other studies provide useful information with which to assess the
protectiveness of the CCC for threatened and endangered fish species (data included in Appendix
C).  All three studies indicate that the chronic criterion is expected to be protective of the
endangered or listed species tested by the researchers, as described below.
       Meyer and Hansen (2002) conducted a 30-day toxicity test with late-stage larvae (0.059
g) of Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus} at pH 9.5. The exposure duration and pH were
chosen to represent the period of combined elevated unionized ammonia concentrations and
elevated pH that occur during  cyanobacterial blooms in surface waters of Upper Klamath Lake,
which have been shown to last for several weeks to a month. Survival decreased significantly at
1.23 and 2.27 mg TAN/L, whereas the highest NOEC for all endpoints (survival, growth, body
ions, and swimming performance) was 0.64 mg TAN/L.  Control survival was > 90 percent.  The
calculated LOEC of 1.23 mg TAN/L at test pH and temperature when normalized to pH 7
corresponds to a value of 25.31 mg TAN/L, again, substantially higher than the 2013 chronic
criterion value (Appendix C).
       In order to determine if whole effluent toxicity testing is protective of threatened and
endangered fish species, Dwyer et al. (2005) conducted 7-day chronic toxicity tests with
Ceriodaphnia dubia (neonates, <24 h old) and fathead minnow larvae (Pimephalespromelas,
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<24 h) in addition to the following six threatened and endangered fish species: bonytail chub
(Gila elegans\ spotfin chub (Erimonax, formerly Cyprinella, monachus\ Cape Fear shiner
(Notropis mekistocholas\ gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis), Colorado pikeminnow
(Ptychocheilus lucius), and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus).  The age of the six threatened
and endangered fish species used during the 7-day ammonia exposures ranged from <1 to 7 days.
The combined effect on test species survival and growth were determined as EC25 values. The
six endangered species, presented in the same order as they are listed above, have reported EC25
values of: 11.0, 15.8, 8.80, 24.1, 8.90 and 13.4 mg TAN/L; or 23.24, 33.37, 18.59,50.91, 18.80
and 28.30 mg TAN/L when adjusted to a pH of 7.0 (Appendix C). These values are all
substantially higher than the 2013 chronic  criterion concentration value of 1.9 mg TAN/L.
Based on the results, the two species typically used for whole effluent toxicity testing (C. dubia
and P. promelas) were more sensitive to ammonia and are protective of the six listed fish species
when used as surrogate test species.
      Fairchild et al. (2005) conducted 28-day toxicity tests with early life stages of Colorado
pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and compared
the results of those tests with a test using a surrogate fish species, the fathead minnow
(Pimephales promelas). Effect concentrations based on the survival and growth endpoints of the
fathead minnow and razorback sucker tests were not different; however, growth was the more
sensitive endpoint for the Colorado pikeminnow test.  The 28-day growth LOEC for the
Colorado pikeminnow was 8.60 mg TAN/L, or 29.75 mg TAN/L at pH 7, substantially greater
than the 2013 chronic criterion. The 28-day survival LOEC for the razorback sucker was 13.25
mg TAN/L, or 46.58 mg TAN/L at pH 7. Both endangered fish species exhibited similar
sensitivity to ammonia as the fathead minnow (LOEC of 32.71 mg TAN/L at pH 7; see
Appendix C). The same can be said for the Lost River sucker, which indicates that these
particular endangered fish species are expected to be protected by the CCC value calculated in
this 2013 AWQC Update.

Comparison of 1999, 2009, and  2013 Criteria Values
      Table 8 provides a comparison of the four most sensitive taxa used to calculate the CCC
in this 2013 AWQC Update document compared to the four most sensitive taxa used to calculate
the CCC in the 1999 AWQC document.
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       The 2013 CCC is about twice the magnitude of the draft 2009 CCC recommended for
waters with mussels present (1.9 vs. 0.91 mg TAN/L, respectively, at pH 7, T=20C) as a result
of differences in the data used in the CCC derivations. Based on a new study by Wang et al.
(2011) described in the Effects Analysis section under Summaries of Studies Used in Chronic
Criterion Determination, pg. 34, above, the lowest GMCV for the mussel genus Lampsilis
increased from 1.154 mg TAN/L in the 2009 draft AWQC to 2.216 mg TAN/L in the 2013
AWQC. As a result, compared to the four lowest GMCVs in the 2009 draft CCC, the four
lowest GMCVs in the 2013 CCC have a smaller range of variation in values (2.216 to 7.547 mg
TAN/L) which decreases the uncertainty of the 5th percentile GMCV estimation. Also in the
2009 draft CCC, there were only 13 GMCVs in the dataset used to derive the CCC while in the
2013 CCC, there are 16 GMCVs used to derive the CCC, because of the addition of the GMCVs
for Hyalella azteca., the insect Pteronarcella badia., and salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.}.  The
new GMCVs affect the chronic species sensitivity distribution. The cumulative probability (P)
decreases as a function of the increased number of GMCVs and results in an increase in the
FCV.
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Table 8. Comparison of the Four Taxa Used to Calculate the FCV and CCC in the 1999 Update, 2009 Draft and the 2013
AWQC.
1999 Update CCC Magnitude
Species
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Lepomis sp.
(Centrarchidae), includes:
Bluegill sunfish,
L. macrochirus, and
Green sunfish,
L. cyanellus
Long fmgernailclam,
Musculium tramversum
Amphipod,
Hyalella azteca
CCC
pH 8.0,
T=25C
(mg
TAN/L)
3.09
2.85
<2.26
<1.45
1.2
pH 7.0,
T=20C
(mg
TAN/L)
7.503
6.92
7.547
4.865
4.5
2009 Draft Update CCC Magnitude
Species
Long fmgernailclam,
Musculium transversum
Lepomis sp.
(Centrarchidae), includes:
Bluegill sunfish,
L. macrochirus, and
Green sunfish,
L. cyanellus
Rainbow mussel,
Villosa iris
Lampsilis sp.
(Unionidae), includes:
Wavy-rayed lamp mussel,
L. fasciola and
Fatmucket, L. siliquoidea
CCC
pH 8.0,
T=25C
(mg
TAN/L)
<2.260
2.852
<0.9805
O.3443
0.26
pH 7.0,
T=20C
(mg
TAN/L)
7.552
6.924
3.286
1.154
0.91
2013 Final CCC Magnitude
Species
Long fmgernailclam,
Musculium transversum
Lepomis sp.
(Centrarchidae), includes:
Bluegill sunfish,
L. macrochims, and
Green sunfish,
L. cyanellus
Rainbow mussel,
Villosa iris
Lampsilis sp.
(Unionidae), includes:
Wavy-rayed lamp mussel,
L. fasciola and
Fatmucket, L. siliquoidea
CCC
pH 7.0,
T=20C
(mg
TAN/L)
7.547
6.92
3.501
2.216
1.9
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Comparison of statistical approaches to develop the chronic criterion: EC20 vs. MATC
       In this 2013 ammonia criteria update, the CCC is based on a 20 percent reduction in
survival, growth, or reproduction, which is a risk management decision made by EPA in 1999
and also retained for this document.  When an EC20 was not provided in a study, the EPA's
TRAP program was used to estimate the EC20 as the basis for the GMCV and included the
resultant CCC derivation of 1.9 mg TAN/L.  An alternative chronic measure of effect that is
commonly used is the MATC, which is the geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC. In the case
of the current ammonia dataset, using MATCs to derive the chronic criteria would result in an
FCV of 1.972 and CCC of 2.0 mg TAN/L. This comparison demonstrates that, for the current
ammonia chronic dataset, the use of TRAP to estimate EC20 values does not result in a
significant difference from the MATC, another statistical approach frequently used to develop
chronic effects assessments and criteria.
       The concentrations of TAN affecting freshwater animals in this 2013 AWQC update are
normalized to pH 7.0 for all aquatic organisms and 20C for invertebrates. In contrast, the
concentrations of TAN affecting freshwater animals in the 1999 AWQC were normalized to pH
8.0 for all organisms and temperature 25C for invertebrates.  The current pH (7) and
temperature (20C) used are considered to more closely reflect ambient pH and temperatures
found generally  in surface waters in the U.S. The  acute and chronic criterion values can be
adjusted to reflect local pH and temperature using  the values in Tables 5a, 5b, and 6 derived
from the equations presented in The National Criteria for Ammonia in Fresh Water section
(pages 40-49).

UNUSED DATA
       For this 2013 criteria update document, EPA considered and evaluated all available data
that could possibly be used to derive the new acute and chronic criteria for ammonia in fresh
water.  A substantial amount of those data were associated with studies that did not meet the
basic QA/QC requirements described in the 1985 Guidelines (see Stephan et al. 1985).  In such
cases, EPA further scrutinized those  studies where either: (1) the study included tests with a
species associated with one of the four most sensitive GMAVs or GMCVs used to derive the
2013 criterion; or (2) the study provided results of tests where the normalized acute or chronic

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value for the test was within a factor of approximately two of the fourth ranked most sensitive
GMAV or GMCV, and thus might be considered potentially influential to the acute or chronic
criterion.  For each study that was potentially influential, but did not meet the additional data
quality requirements for its use in deriving criteria for ammonia, the study and its results were
included in Appendix J (acute studies) and K (chronic studies), and a rationale is provided for its
exclusion.  A list of all other studies considered but removed from consideration for use in
deriving the criteria is provided in Appendix L with a code (and in some cases comments)
indicating the reason(s) for exclusion.
                                            69

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Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals.
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Insect (8th-10thinstar),
Erythromma no/as
Insect (8th-10thinstar),
Erythromma no/as
Insect (8th-10th instar),
Erythromma na/as
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
R,U
R,U
R,U
PH
7.5
8.7
9.1
Temp.
fC)
25
25
25
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
589
168
49.2
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
1618
4163
2361
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


2515
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


2515
Reference
Beketov 2002
Beketov 2002
Beketov 2002

Caddisfly,
Philarctus quaeris
Caddisfly,
Philarctus quaeris
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
7.8
7.8
21.9
13.3
296.5
561.7
1032
958.4

994.5

994.5
Arthur etal. 1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987

Beetle,
Stenelmis sexlineata
Ammonium
chloride
4d
F,M
8.7
25
29.7
735.9
735.9
735.9
Hazel etal. 1979

Crayfish,
Orconectes immunis
Crayfish (adult),
Orconectes immunis
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
7.9
8.2
17.1
4.6
488.1
999.4
1367
1757

1550


Arthur etal. 1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987

Crayfish (2.78 cm),
Orconectes nais
Ammonium
chloride
4d
F,M
8.3
26.5
23.15
303.8
303.8
686.2
Evans 1979

Midge (10 d old, 2-3 instar),
Chironomus riparius
Ammonium
chloride
4d
R,M
7.7
21.7
357.7
1029
1029

Mondaetal. 1995

Midge,
Chironomus tentans
Midge,
Chironomus tentans
Midge (2nd instar),
Chironomus tentans
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
F,M
6.69
7.56
6.5
23
23
25
430
564
371
443.0
1439
415.1






Besseretal. 1998
Besseretal. 1998
Schubauer-Berigan et al.
1995
                                                     86

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Midge (2nd instar),
Chironomus tentans
Midge (2nd instar),
Chironomus tentans
Midge (2nd instar),
Chironomus tentans
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
8.1
6.5
8.1
Temp.
(C)
25
25
25
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
78.1
368
50.5
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
614.0
411.7
397.0
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


451.8
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


681.8
Reference
Schubauer-Berigan et al.
1995
Schubauer-Berigan et al.
1995
Schubauer-Berigan et al.
1995

Mayfly (middle to late instar),
Drunella grandis
Mayfly (middle to late instar),
Drunella grandis
Mayfly (middle to late instar),
Drunella grandis
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.84
7.84
7.85
12.8
13.2
12
259.1
195.6
319
455.5
355.6
534.5


442.4


442.4
Thurston et al. 1984b
Thurston et al. 1984b
Thurston et al. 1984b

Aquatic sowbug,
Caecidotea racovitzai
(previously Asellus racovitzai)
Aquatic sowbug (adult),
Caecidotea racovitzai
Aquatic sowbug,
Caecidotea racovitzai
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.8
8
7.81
22
4
11.9
148.8
357.8
176
522.3
407.7
272.2


387.0


387.0
Arthur etal. 1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
Thurston et al. 1983

Isopod (adult),
Asellus aquaticus
Isopod (adult),
Asellus aquaticus
Isopod (adult),
Asellus aquaticus
Isopod (adult),
Asellus aquaticus
Isopod (adult),
Asellus aquaticus
Isopod (adult),
Asellus aquaticus
Isopod (adult),
Asellus aquaticus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.05
7.05
7.05
7.05
7.05
7.05
7.05
12
12
12
18
18
18
24
2.60
1.25
1.70
2.61
1.40
1.95
1.00
575.2
276.6
376.1
603.8
323.9
451.1
246.6














Dehedin etal. 2012
Dehedin etal. 2012
Dehedin etal. 2012
Dehedin etal. 2012
Dehedin etal. 2012
Dehedin etal. 2012
Dehedin etal. 2012
87

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Isopod (adult),
Asellus aquaticus
Isopod (adult),
Asellus aquaticus
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
pH
7.05
7.05
Temp.
(C)
24
24
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
1.00
2.00
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
246.6
493.1
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

378.2
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

378.2
Reference
Dehedinetal. 2012
Dehedinetal. 2012

Threespine stickleback
(juvenile-adult, 32-60 mm),
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Threespine stickleback
(juvenile-adult, 32-60 mm),
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Threespine stickleback
(juvenile-adult, 32-60 mm),
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Threespine stickleback
(juvenile-adult, 32-60 mm),
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Threespine stickleback
(juvenile-adult, 32-60 mm),
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Threespine stickleback
(juvenile-adult, 32-60 mm),
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Threespine stickleback
(juvenile-adult, 32-60 mm),
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
7.1
7.15
7.25
7.5
7.5
7.5
7.5
23.3
15
23.3
15
23.3
23.3
15
198.1
577
203.8
143.9
78.7
115.4
259
216.5
667.4
264.0
261.1
142.8
209.5
470.0






281.5






281.5
Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971

Mayfly,
Callibaetis skokianus
Mayfly,
Callibaetis skokianus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
7.7
7.9
10.8
13.3
263.5
211.7
307.2
432.7

364.6


Arthur etal. 1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987

Mayfly (middle to late instar),
Callibaetis sp.
Ammonium
chloride
4d
F,M
7.81
11.9
107.8
166.7
166.7
246.5
Thurston et al. 1984b


-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Dragonfly (<233 d old),
Pachydiplax longipennis
Dragonfly (<140 d old),
Pachydiplax longipennis
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
pH
8
8
Temp.
(C)
12
20
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
76.92
74.37
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
170.1
319.2
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

233.0
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

233.0
Reference
Diamond etal. 1993
Diamond etal. 1993

Mottled sculpin (1.8 g, 5.4 cm),
Cottus bairdii
Ammonium
chloride
4d
F,M
8.02
12.4
49.83
222.2
222.2
222.2
Thurston and Russo 1981

Western mosquitofish,
Gambusia affinis
Western mosquitofish,
Gambusia affinis
Western mosquitofish,
Gambusia affinis
Western mosquitofish,
Gambusia affinis
-
-
-
-
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,U
S,U
S,U
S,U
7.75
8.2
8.5
8
19
19.5
23
24
129.6
34.54
14.64
42.53
352.9
217.7
165.0
182.6



219.3



219.3
Wallenetal. 1957
Wallenetal. 1957
Wallenetal. 1957
Wallenetal. 1957

Oligochaete worm,
Lumbriculus variegatus
Oligochaete worm,
Lumbriculus variegatus
Oligochaete worm (10-25 mm),
Lumbriculus variegatus
Oligochaete worm (adult),
Lumbriculus variegatus
Oligochaete worm (adult),
Lumbriculus variegatus
Oligochaete worm (adult),
Lumbriculus variegatus
Oligochaete worm (adult),
Lumbriculus variegatus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
-
-
-
-
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
R,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.56
6.69
8.2
6.5
6.5
8.1
8.1
23
23
15
25
25
25
25
286
302
13.66
100
200
34
43.5
729.5
311.1
56.88
111.9
223.8
267.3
342.0






218.7






218.7
Besseretal. 1998
Besseretal. 1998
Hickey and Vickers 1994
Schubauer-Berigan et al.
1995
Schubauer-Berigan et al.
1995
Schubauer-Berigan et al.
1995
Schubauer-Berigan et al.
1995

Tubificid worm,
Tubifex tubifex
Ammonium
chloride
4d
S,U
8.2
12
66.67
216.5
216.5
216.5
Stammer 1953

89

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Marsh ramshom snail,
Planorbella trivolvis
(previously Helisoma trivolvis)
Marsh ramshom snail,
Planorbella trivolvis
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
pH
7.9
8.2
Temp.
(C)
22
12.9
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
47.73
63.73
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
200.7
223.0
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

211.6
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

211.6
Reference
Arthur etal. 1987
Arthur etal. 1987

Scud (7-14 d old),
Hyalella azteca
Scud (7-14 d old),
Hyalella azteca
Scud (7-14 d old),
Hyalella azteca
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
R,M
R,M
R,M
8.3
7.31
6.43
25
25
25
39.8
64
105
461.2
135.1
114.6


192.6


192.6
Ankleyetal. 1995
Ankleyetal. 1995
Ankleyetal. 1995

Stonefly, Little golden stonefly
(middle to late instar),
Skwala americana
Stonefly, Little golden stonefly
(middle to late instar),
Skwala americana
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
7.81
7.76
13.1
13.8
109.3
119.6
186.7
198.3

192.4

192.4
Thurston et al. 1984b
Thurston et al. 1984b

Mozambique tilapia (juvenile),
Oreochromis mossambicus
Ammonium
chloride
4d
R,U
7.2
28
151.5
185.2
185.2
185.2
Rani etal. 1998

Amphipod (4-6 mm),
Crangonyx pseudogracilis
Amphipod,
Crangonyx pseudogracilis
Amphipod,
Crangonyx pseudogracilis
Amphipod,
Crangonyx pseudogracilis
Amphipod,
Crangonyx pseudogracilis
Amphipod,
Crangonyx pseudogracilis
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,U
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.5
8
8
8
8
8.2
12
4
12.1
13.3
24.9
13
43.36
199.5
216
115.3
25.1
81.6
40.54
227.3
481.7
284.1
161.7
287.9





270.5






Prenter et al. 2004
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987

90

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Amphipod(13 d),
Crangonyx sp.
Amphipod (8-42 d),
Crangonyx sp.
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
pH
8
8
Temp.
(C)
12
20
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
79.23
19.83
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
175.3
85.13
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

122.2
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

181.8
Reference
Diamond etal. 1993
Diamond etal. 1993

Tubificid worm (30-40 mm),
Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri
-
4d
F,M
7.9
11.5
96.62
170.2
170.2
170.2
Williams et al. 1986

Pouch snail,
Physa gyrina
Pouch snail,
Physa gyrina
Pouch snail,
Physa gyrina
Pouch snail,
Physa gyrina
Pouch snail,
Physa gyrina
Pouch snail,
Physa gyrina
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
8
8.2
8.1
8.2
8
8
4
5.5
12.1
12.8
13.3
24.9
114.9
85.13
76.29
50.25
62.39
26.33
131.0
161.3
205.9
174.4
153.7
169.7





164.5





164.5
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987

Damselfly(8-10mm),
Enallagma sp.
-
4d
F,M
7.9
11.5
93.1
164.0
164.0
164.0
Williams et al. 1986

Water flea (<24 hr),
Chydorus sphaericus
Ammonium
chloride
4d
S,M
8
20
37.88
162.6
162.6
162.6
Dekker et al. 2006

Fathead minnow (larva, 14 d),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
-
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,U
S,M
S,M
S,M
7.6
7.52
7.48
7.52
20
20.25
19.85
20.25
37.56
36.73
40.93
37.49
79.59
68.17
72.10
69.59








Markle et al. 2000
EA Engineering 1985
EA Engineering 1985
EA Engineering 1985
91

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (4-6 d old),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (1 .9 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (1 .8 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (1 .6 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (1 .7 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (4-5 mo),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (4-5 mo),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (4-5 mo),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (4-5 mo),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (4-5 mo),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (4-5 mo),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (4-5 mo),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (4-5 mo),
Pimephales promelas
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
S,M
S,M
R,M
R,M
R,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
7.48
7.48
8.01
8
8
7.9
8.1
8
8.1
8.05
7.46
7.46
7.41
7.41
7.45
7.4
7.41
7.44
Temp.
(C)
19.85
19.85
25
20
20
3.4
12.1
17.1
26.1
14
6
10
15
20
20
25
25
30
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
41.79
43.49
14.4
5.389
6.1
229.7
56.07
52.22
29.23
47.29
97.27
101.7
76.58
78.22
66.94
81.81
91.4
64.12
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
73.61
76.61
63.00
23.13
26.19
818.4
291.3
224.2
151.8
223.2
166.4
174.0
122.0
124.6
112.9
128.5
145.6
106.6
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


















GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


















Reference
EA Engineering 1985
EA Engineering 1985
Buhl 2002
Diamond etal. 1993
Diamond etal. 1993
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
DeGraeve et al. 1980
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
92

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Fathead minnow
(0.28 g, 26.6 mm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(10 mm length),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (10 mm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (10 mm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (10 mm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (25 mm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (25 mm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (25 mm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (25 mm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (25 mm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(15mm, 0.0301 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(16mm, 0.0315 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(19mm, 0.0629 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(21 mm, 0.0662 g),
Pimephales promelas
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
8.14
7.9
8.2
7.8
7.8
8.1
8.2
8.1
8.1
7.7
8.46
8.02
8.26
8.16
Temp.
(C)
22
20.6
6.2
20.1
19.8
19.6
6.2
5.8
5.8
20.1
4.1
23.9
4.6
25.2
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
25.16
28.9
7.322
18.73
32.12
24.89
11.56
19.94
21.44
32.25
18.54
19.55
30.57
17.65
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
141.2
103.0
46.15
55.68
95.49
129.3
72.86
103.6
111.4
80.61
193.5
87.16
216.5
102.9
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)














GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)














Reference
Mayesetal. 1986
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
93

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Fathead minnow
(5.2cm, 1.1 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (0.2 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (0.5 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 9 g, 5.2cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 9 g, 5.2cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 9 g, 5.2cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 9 g, 5.2cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 9 g, 5.2cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 9 g, 5.2cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.09 g, 2. Ocm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.09 g, 2. 1cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0. 13 g, 2. 3 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
7.7
7.78
7.8
7.83
7.82
6.51
9.03
8.51
7.01
7.91
7.89
7.64
Temp.
(C)
21.65
25.9
25.6
11.8
12
13
13.2
13.5
13.8
16.3
13.1
13.6
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
63.02
40.85
42.65
45.71
62.72
260
5.94
18.88
145.9
51.55
50.2
58.4
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
157.5
117.3
126.8
143.4
193.3
192.9
169.6
216.9
147.2
187.1
175.6
132.1
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)












GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)












Reference
Sparks 1975
Swigert and Spacie 1983
Swigert and Spacie 1983
Thurston et al. 1981c
Thurston et al. 1981c
Thurston et al. 1981c
Thurston et al. 1981c
Thurston et al. 1981c
Thurston et al. 1981c
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
94

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Fathead minnow
(0.19g,2.6cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.22 g, 2.7 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.22 g, 2. 9 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.26 g, 3.0 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0. 31 g, 3.0cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0. 31 g, 3.1cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0. 35 g, 3.1cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.42 g, 3.0 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.42 g, 3.6 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.47 g, 3.2cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.47 g, 3.2cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.5 g, 3.8 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
7.68
8.03
8.06
7.67
8.05
8.05
7.94
7.76
7.66
7.87
7.83
7.91
Temp.
(C)
13.5
22.1
22
13.9
13
13.6
19.1
19
13.4
15.8
22
18.9
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
64.7
47.6
42.6
58.8
74.65
66.48
42.3
50.28
58.2
58.91
50.6
49.3
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
156.3
216.3
205.0
139.7
352.4
313.8
162.3
139.3
136.0
198.7
158.7
178.9
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)












GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)












Reference
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
95

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Fathead minnow
(0.8 g, 4.2 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1.0g,4.6cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 4 g, 4.9 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 4 g, 5.0cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 4 g, 5.0cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1.4 g, 5. 1cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 4 g, 5.4cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 4 g, 5.5cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1.5 g, 5.6 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1. 7 g, 5.2 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(2. Ig, 6.1cm),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(2.2 g, 6.2 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
1.11
1.11
8.04
8.08
8.16
7.88
7.68
7.63
7.76
7.84
7.76
7.74
Temp.
(C)
14.3
14.1
22.4
21.4
21.4
21.7
12.9
13.2
12.9
21.7
13.1
12.8
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
66.7
72.71
36.59
44.8
47.39
50.9
91.8
89.85
107.5
55.43
66.73
52.2
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
188.1
205.1
169.5
224.0
276.4
174.8
221.8
199.9
298.0
177.0
184.9
139.7
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)












GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)












Reference
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
Thurston et al. 1983
96

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Fathead minnow
(2.3 g, 6.3 cm),
Pimephales promelas
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
Methods3
F,M
pH
7.91
Temp.
(C)
15.9
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
47.43
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
172.1
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
159.2
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
159.2
Reference
Thurston et al. 1983

Brook trout (3.12 g, 7.2 cm),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout (3.40 g, 7.4 cm),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,U
F,U
7.86
7.83
13.6
13.8
45.21
52.03
149.7
163.2

156.3


Thurston and Meyn 1 984
Thurston and Meyn 1 984

Lake trout, siscowet (0.9 g),
Salvelinus namaycush
Lake trout, siscowet (0.9 g),
Salvelinus namaycush
Lake trout, siscowet (8 g),
Salvelinus namaycush
Lake trout, siscowet (8 g),
Salvelinus namaycush
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
7.45
7.45
7.45
7.45
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
90.43
110.2
96.25
83.11
152.5
185.9
162.3
140.1



159.3



157.8
Soderberg and Meade 1992
Soderberg and Meade 1992
Soderberg and Meade 1992
Soderberg and Meade 1992

Shortnose sturgeon (fingerling),
Acipenser brevirostrum
Ammonium
chloride
4d
S,M
7.05
18
149.8
156.7
156.7
156.7
Fontenot et al. 1998

White sucker (5.6 g),
Catostomus commersonii
White sucker (5. 2 g),
Catostomus commersonii
White sucker (12.6 g),
Catostomus commersonii
White sucker (9.6 g),
Catostomus commersonii
White sucker (110 mm),
Catostomus commersonii
White sucker (110 mm),
Catostomus commersonii
White sucker (92 mm, 6.3 g),
Catostomus commersonii
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.8
8.1
8.2
8.2
7.8
7.8
8.16
3.6
11.3
12.6
15.3
20.2
20.2
15
89.57
60.86
40.85
43.01
31.21
18.93
30.28
266.3
316.1
257.4
271.0
92.80
56.28
176.6














West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982c
97

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
White sucker (92 mm, 6.3 g),
Catostomus commersonii
White sucker (11. 4 g),
Catostomus commersonii
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
pH
8.14
7.8
Temp.
(C)
15.4
22.5
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
29.65
22.3
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
166.3
66.32
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

157.5
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


Reference
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982c
Swigert and Spacie 1983

Mountain sucker
(63. 3 g, 18.2cm),
Catostomus platyrhynchus
Mountain sucker
(45.3 g, 16.2 cm),
Catostomus platyrhynchus
Mountain sucker
(47.8 g, 15.9cm),
Catostomus platyrhynchus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
F,U
F,U
F,U
7.67
7.69
7.73
12
13.2
11.7
66.91
47.59
51.62
159.0
117.0
135.8


136.2


146.5
Thurston and Meyn 1 984
Thurston and Meyn 1 984
Thurston and Meyn 1 984

Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia acanthina
Ammonium
chloride
2d
F,M
7.06
24
104.8
154.3
154.3

Mount 1982

Water flea (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
hydroxide
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
R,M
8.02
7.5
7.5
8.16
8.4
8.4
8
8.08
8.4
24.8
25
25
22
23
23
25
24.75
26.4
21.26
47.05
56.84
24.77
28.06
32.63
14.52
15.6
7.412
141.1
129.2
156.1
170.5
334.5
389.0
94.35
114.5
117.1


















Andersen and Buckley
1998
Bailey etal. 2001
Bailey etal. 2001
Black 2001
Black 2001
Black 2001
Schellerl997
Andersen and Buckley
1998
Cowgill and Milazzo 1991
98

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Chemical Name
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
Methods3
R,NR
R,M
R,M
S,M
S,M
pH
7.4
7.8
8.2
7.85
7.85
Temp.
(C)
23
25
7
23
23
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
48.59
33.98
16.65
28.65
28.77
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
97.89
152.9
35.72
119.5
120.0
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)




134.2
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)




143.9
Reference
Manning et al. 1996
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Sardal994
Sardal994

Water flea (adult),
Simocephalus vetulus
Water flea (adult),
Simocephalus vetulus
Water flea,
Simocephalus vetulus
Water flea,
Simocephalus vetulus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
2d
2d
2d
2d
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
8.3
8.1
7.25
7.06
17
20.4
24.5
24
31.58
21.36
83.51
83.51
188.5
114.7
157.0
122.9



142.9



142.9
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
Arthur etal. 1987
Mount 1982
Mount 1982

Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (larvae, 1 d),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (juvenile, 7 d),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (3.5 g),
Ictalurus punctatus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,U
S,U
S,U
S,M
S,M
R,M
R,M
F,M
8.7
8.7
8.7
7.49
7.53
8.2
8.2
7.8
22
26
30
19.7
19.75
23.8
23.9
19.6
10.56
10.19
10.88
131.5
99.67
13.03
17.22
44.71
172.9
166.9
178.1
235.0
189.3
82.10
108.5
132.9
















Colt and Tchobanoglous
1976
Colt and Tchobanoglous
1976
Colt and Tchobanoglous
1976
EA Engineering 1985
EA Engineering 1985
Bader and Grizzle 1992
Bader and Grizzle 1992
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
99

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Channel catfish (5.8 g),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (6.4 g),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (3-1 1 mo),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (3-1 1 mo),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (3-1 1 mo),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (3-1 1 mo),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (3-1 1 mo),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (3-1 1 mo),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (3-1 1 mo),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (<1 10 d),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (4.5-10.8 g),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (7.1-12.7 g),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish
(14.3mm, 19.0 g),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (0.5 g),
Ictalurus punctatus
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
8
8.1
8.4
7.46
7.41
7.41
7.45
7.4
7.41
7.44
8
7.94
7.98
8.08
8.09
7.93
7.8
Temp.
(C)
3.5
14.6
28
10
15
20
20
25
25
30
20
23.8
23.8
28
22
20
25.7
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
37.64
24.94
10.71
124.8
113.1
89.63
72.15
89.41
85.69
65.25
15.09
33.1
30.49
44.44
32.33
74.35
32.85
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
161.6
129.5
99.59
213.5
180.2
142.8
121.7
140.5
136.5
108.5
64.77
127.0
126.1
222.2
164.8
277.4
97.67
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

















GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

















Reference
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
Colt and Tchobanoglous
1978
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
DeGraeve et al. 1987
Diamond etal. 1993
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982d
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982d
Roseboom and Richey 1977
Roseboom and Richey 1977
Sparks 1975
Swigert and Spacie 1983
100

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
pH
8
8.1
Temp.
(C)
26
17
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
32.34
40.83
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
138.8
212.1
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

142.4
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

142.4
Reference
West 1985
West 1985

Red swamp crayfish (2. 1 cm),
Procambarus clarkii
Red swamp crayfish (<2.5 cm),
Procambarus clarkii
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
8
8
20
12
26.08
76.92
112.0
170.1

138.0

138.0
Diamond etal. 1993
Diamond etal. 1993

Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
6.4
6.4
6
6
6.05
6.05
6
6
6.45
6.45
6.45
6.45
6.05
1.8
1.8
2.1
2.1
2.5
2.5
7.3
7.3
7.4
7.4
12.5
12.5
12.5
123
133.9
297.2
341.1
400
491.7
581.5
587.6
171.3
214.4
230.6
248.3
403.5
87.86
95.64
195.1
223.9
264.4
325.0
381.7
385.7
124.4
155.7
167.4
180.3
266.7


























Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
101

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (4.8-9.2 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (1.5 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (1.5 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (36 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (36 g),
Salmo salar
Chemical Name
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
pH
6.05
6.05
6.05
7.45
7.45
7.45
7.45
Temp.
(C)
12.5
17.1
17.1
8.5
8.5
8.5
8.5
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
451.5
356.1
373
60.29
35.74
118.2
70.62
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
298.5
235.4
246.6
101.7
60.26
199.3
119.1
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)






183.3
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)







Reference
Knophl992
Knophl992
Knophl992
Soderberg and Meade 1992
Soderberg and Meade 1992
Soderberg and Meade 1992
Soderberg and Meade 1992

Brown trout (1 .20 g, 5.4 cm),
Salmo trutta
Brown trout (1.1 7 g, 5.3 cm),
Salmo trutta
Brown trout (0.91 g, 4.9 cm),
Salmo trutta
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d.
4d
F,U
F,U
F,U
7.85
7.86
7.82
13.2
13.8
14.2
29.58
32.46
33.3
96.20
107.5
102.6


102.0


136.7
Thurston and Meyn 1 984
Thurston and Meyn 1 984
Thurston and Meyn 1 984

White perch (76 mm),
Morone americana
White perch (76 mm),
Morone americana
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
8
6
16
16
14.93
418.4
64.09
274.7

132.7


Stevenson 1977
Stevenson 1977

White bass (4.4 g),
Morone chrysops
Ammonium
chloride
4d
S,M
7.09
19.7
132.4
144.0
144.0

Asheetal. 1996

Striped bass (20-93 mm),
Morone saxatilis
Striped bass (20-93 mm),
Morone saxatilis
Striped bass (20-93 mm),
Morone saxatilis
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
S,M
7.4
7.5
7.35
23.3
23.3
15
92.17
73.45
259.7
144.8
133.3
378.9






Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971
102

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Striped bass (20-93 mm),
Morone saxatilis
Striped bass (20-93 mm),
Morone saxatilis
Striped bass (20-93 mm),
Morone saxatilis
Striped bass (20-93 mm),
Morone saxatilis
Striped bass (20-93 mm),
Morone saxatilis
Striped bass (126.6 g),
Morone saxatilis
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
pH
7.5
7.93
7.5
7.84
7.5
8.3
Temp.
(C)
15
23.3
23.3
15
15
21
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
182.3
48.03
125.9
165.7
354.9
12.86
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
330.7
180.8
228.5
524.6
644.0
98.43
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)





246.2
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)






Reference
Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971
Hazel etal. 1971
Oppenbom and Goudie
1993

Sunshine bass (larvae, 12 h),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Sunshine bass (367.2 g),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Sunshine bass (42.7 g),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Sunshine bass (42.7 g),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Sunshine bass (42.7 g),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Sunshine bass (42.7 g),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Sunshine bass (42.7 g),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Sunshine bass (42.7 g),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Sunshine bass (42.7 g),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Sunshine bass (42.7 g),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Sunshine bass (42.7 g),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
8.5
8.3
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
18.7
21
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
3.903
8.147
63.62
83.06
56.55
65.39
60.09
64.51
79.53
86.6
95.43
43.99
62.37
63.62
83.06
56.55
65.39
60.09
64.51
79.53
86.60
95.43






















Harcke and Daniels 1999
Oppenbom and Goudie
1993
Weirichetal. 1993
Weirichetal. 1993
Weirichetal. 1993
Weirichetal. 1993
Weirichetal. 1993
Weirichetal. 1993
Weirichetal. 1993
Weirichetal. 1993
Weirichetal. 1993
103

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Sunshine bass (42.7 g),
Morone saxatilis x chrysops
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
Methods3
S,M
pH
7
Temp.
(C)
25
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
105.2
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
105.2
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
70.22
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
134.8
Reference
Weirichetal. 1993

Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
S,M
S,M
S,M
R,U
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
8.5
7.92
8.2
8.34
8.07
7.51
7.53
7.5
7.4
8.09
7.95
8.15
8.04
20
21
25
19.7
19.6
20.1
20.1
20.3
20.6
20.9
22
22
22.8
26.34
9.463
20.71
51.92
51.09
48.32
55.41
43.52
42.31
41.51
51.3
37.44
38.7
296.9
37.66
197.5
419.1
242.4
89.74
106.1
80.98
69.88
227.9
236.7
252.8
226.1












157.7













Gersich and Hopkins 1986
Gulyas and Fleit 1990
Parkhurst et al. 1979, 1981
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982a
Russoetal. 1985
Russoetal. 1985
Russoetal. 1985
Russoetal. 1985
Russoetal. 1985
Russoetal. 1985
Russoetal. 1985
Russoetal. 1985
Russoetal. 1985

Water flea,
Daphnia pulicaria
Ammonium
chloride
2d
F,M
8.05
14
34.5
99.03
99.03
125.0
DeGraeve et al. 1980

Clawed toad (embryo),
Xenopus laevis
Ammonium
sulfate
4d
R,M
7.2
22
38.59
40.91


Schuytema and Nebeker
1999a
104

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Clawed toad (embryo),
Xenopus laevis
Clawed toad (embryo),
Xenopus laevis
Clawed toad (embryo),
Xenopus laevis
Clawed toad
(17 mg, Gosner Stage 26-27),
Xenopus laevis
Clawed toad
(17 mg, Gosner Stage 26-27),
Xenopus laevis
Clawed toad
(21 mg, Gosner Stage 26-27),
Xenopus laevis
Clawed toad (embryo),
Xenopus laevis
Clawed toad (embryo),
Xenopus laevis
Chemical Name
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
nitrate
Ammonium
sulfate
Nitric acid
ammonium salt
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
phosphate
Ammonium
phosphate
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
R,M
R,M
R,M
R,M
R,M
R,M
R,M
R,M
pH
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.15
7.15
7.15
8.43
8.62
Temp.
(C)
22
24
24
22
22
22
25
25
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
119.6
32.37
60.71
101.4
135.9
128.3
37.3
28.7
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
126.8
39.55
74.17
117.2
157.2
148.4
367.4
405.6
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)







122.5
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)







122.5
Reference
Schuytema and Nebeker
1999a
Schuytema and Nebeker
1999a
Schuytema and Nebeker
1999a
Schuytema and Nebeker
1999b
Schuytema and Nebeker
1999b
Schuytema and Nebeker
1999b
Tietge et al. 2000
Tietge et al. 2000

Flatworm,
Dendrocoelum lacteum
Ammonium
chloride
4d
S,U
8.2
18
22.37
119.5
119.5
119.5
Stammer 1953

Walleye,
Sander vitreus
Walleye (22.6 g),
Sander vitreus
Walleye (19. 4 g),
Sander vitreus
Walleye (13. 4 g),
Sander vitreus
Walleye (3. 0 g, 65.6mm),
Sander vitreus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
F,U
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
8.08
7.9
7.7
8.3
8.06
18.2
3.7
11.1
19
21.5
17.43
48.37
89.93
6.123
21.49
87.13
172.3
224.8
46.87
103.4




117.1




117.1
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982a
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
Mayesetal. 1986

Central stoneroller (2. 1 g),
Campostoma anomalum
Ammonium
chloride
4d
F,M
7.8
25.7
38.97
115.9
115.9
115.9
Swigert and Spacie 1983
105

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Chemical Name
Duration
Methods3
pH
Temp.
(C)
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
Reference

Rainbow dace,
Cyprinella lutrensis
Rainbow dace,
Cyprinella lutrensis
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
8.3
9.1
24
24
24.37
6.502
186.5
206.1

196.1


Hazel etal. 1979
Hazel etal. 1979

Spotfin shiner (31-85 mm),
Cyprinella spiloptera
Spotfin shiner (41-78 mm),
Cyprinella spiloptera
Spotfin shiner (0.5 g),
Cyprinella spiloptera
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.95
8.15
7.9
26.5
26.5
25.7
18.52
16.27
24.52
72.39
93.07
87.36


83.80



Rosageetal. 1979
Rosageetal. 1979
Swigert and Spacie 1983

Steelcolor shiner (0.5 g),
Cyprinella whipplei
Ammonium
chloride
4d
F,M
7.9
25.7
22.72
80.94
80.94
110.0
Swigert and Spacie 1983

Dwarf wedgemussel
(glochidia),
Alasmidonta heterodon
Ammonium
chloride
Id
S,M
8.3
20
>14.24C
>109.0
>109.0
>109.0
Wang et al. 2007b

Pink papershell (glochidia),
Potamilus ohiensis
Ammonium
chloride
Id
S,M
8.3
20
>14.24C
>109.0
>109.0
>109.0
Wang et al. 2007b

Green sunfish
(larvae, 9 d swim up fry),
Lepomis cyanellus
Green sunfish,
Lepomis cyanellus
Green sunfish (62.5 mg),
Lepomis cyanellus
Green sunfish (62.5 mg),
Lepomis cyanellus
Green sunfish (62.5 mg),
Lepomis cyanellus
Green sunfish (62.5 mg),
Lepomis cyanellus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
F,U
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
8.28
7.84
7.2
6.61
7.72
8.69
26.2
12.3
22.4
22.4
22.4
22.4
8.43
33.09
142.9
254.5
55.79
9.24
62.07
105.7
174.5
197.0
144.3
148.6





150.8






Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982a
Jude 1973
McCormick et al. 1984
McCormick et al. 1984
McCormick et al. 1984
McCormick et al. 1984
106

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Chemical Name
Duration
Methods3
pH
Temp.
(C)
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
Reference

Pumpkinseed (4.13-9.22 g),
Lepomis gibbosus
Pumpkinseed,
Lepomis gibbosus
Pumpkinseed,
Lepomis gibbosus
Pumpkinseed,
Lepomis gibbosus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.77
111
111
7.71
12
14
14.5
15.7
9.11
48.09
42.02
48.54
25.69
135.6
118.5
87.54



77.53




Jude 1973
Thurstonl981
Thurstonl981
Thurstonl981

Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (1.7 cm),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill
(20.0-70.0 mm, young of year),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill
(20.0-70.0 mm, young of year),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill
(20.0-70.0 mm, young of year),
Lepomis macrochirus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.51
7.51
7.52
7.51
7.52
7.52
8
8
8.11
8.24
8.75
20.35
20.35
20.65
20.35
20.65
20.65
20
12
18.5
18.5
18.5
40.41
41.96
41.9
44.3
42.63
44.1
21.56
25.12
16.73
42.01
12.7
73.88
76.72
78.36
80.98
79.73
82.48
92.54
107.9
88.57
286.1
227.4






















EA Engineering 1985
EA Engineering 1985
EA Engineering 1985
EA Engineering 1985
EA Engineering 1985
EA Engineering 1985
Diamond etal. 1993
Diamond etal. 1993
Emery and Welch 1969
Emery and Welch 1969
Emery and Welch 1969
107

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Bluegill
(20.0-70.0 mm, young of year),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill
(20.0-70.0 mm, young of year),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill
(20.0-70.0 mm, young of year),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill
(20.0-70.0 mm, young of year),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (5 .2 cm),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0. 38 g, 26. 3 mm),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (19 mm, 0.0781 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (22 mm, 0.1 106 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (28 mm, 0.250 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (30 mm, 0.267 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (21 7 mg),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (342 mg),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (646 mg),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (72 mg),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
9.05
9.19
9.62
9.85
8.6
7.9
8.1
8.4
8.12
8.16
8.09
8
8.2
7.93
8.07
7.6
Temp.
(C)
18.5
18.5
18.5
18.5
24
24.25
22
4
25
4.5
24.8
22
28
22
22
21.7
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
6.581
3.755
0.7859
1.346
5.509
33.06
19.39
14.64
23.37
12.55
17.22
12.75
14.81
24.08
8.846
44.03
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
193.8
135.0
44.84
89.70
75.01
117.8
100.7
136.1
126.2
73.19
87.75
54.74
93.31
90.66
43.38
93.31
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
















GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
















Reference
Emery and Welch 1969
Emery and Welch 1969
Emery and Welch 1969
Emery and Welch 1969
Hazel etal. 1979
Lubinski et al. 1974
Mayesetal. 1986
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Roseboom and Richey 1977
Roseboom and Richey 1977
Roseboom and Richey 1977
Roseboom and Richey 1977
Smith etal. 1984
108

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Bluegill (4.8 cm, 1.1 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.9 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.9 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (1. 2 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
7.85
7.8
7.6
7.8
Temp.
(C)
22.05
24.2
26.5
26.6
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
59.93
33.88
58.69
37.52
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
194.9
100.7
124.4
111.6
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)



104.5
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)



106.9
Reference
Sparks 1975
Swigert and Spacie 1983
Swigert and Spacie 1983
Swigert and Spacie 1983

Common carp (206 mg),
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp (299 mg),
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp (4-5 cm),
Cyprinus carpio
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
R,M
R,M
R,M
7.72
7.72
7.4
28
28
28
51.78
48.97
45.05
133.9
126.6
70.78


106.3


106.3
Hasan and Macintosh 1986
Hasan and Macintosh 1986
Raoetal. 1975

Golden trout (0.09 g, 24 cm),
Oncorhynchus aguabonita
Ammonium
chloride
4d
F,M
8.06
13.2
23.3
112.1
112.1

Thurston and Russo 1981

Cutthroat trout (3. 6 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (3. 6 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (4.1 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (4.1 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (3. 4 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (3. 3 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (l.Og),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (l.Og),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.7
7.7
7.7
7.7
7.78
7.8
7.8
7.81
10
10
10
10
12.2
12.4
12.8
13.1
17.3
29.1
19.3
26.3
32.57
36.55
37.75
43.72
43.24
72.73
48.24
65.73
93.49
108.7
112.2
132.3







78.92








Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1978
Thurston et al. 1978
Thurston et al. 1978
Thurston et al. 1978

109

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Pink salmon (late alevins),
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
Pink salmon (fry),
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha
Chemical Name
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
sulfate
Duration
4d
4d
Methods3
S,M
S,M
pH
6.4
6.4
Temp.
(C)
4.3
4.3
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
230.5
277.7
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
164.6
198.3
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

180.7
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


Reference
Rice and Bailey 1980
Rice and Bailey 1980

Coho salmon (6 g),
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon,
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon,
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon,
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon,
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon,
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon,
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon,
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
8.1
7
7
7.5
7.5
8
8
8.5
17.2
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
11.59
82.02
84.43
50.65
52.76
21.63
22
9.093
60.20
82.02
84.43
91.90
95.73
92.84
94.44
102.5







87.05








Buckley 1978
Wilson 1974; Robinson-
Wilson and Seim 1 975
Wilson 1974; Robinson-
Wilson and Seim 1 975
Wilson 1974; Robinson-
Wilson and Seim 1 975
Wilson 1974; Robinson-
Wilson and Seim 1 975
Wilson 1974; Robinson-
Wilson and Seim 1 975
Wilson 1974; Robinson-
Wilson and Seim 1 975
Wilson 1974; Robinson-
Wilson and Seim 1 975

Rainbow trout (0.5-3.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(McConaughy strain, 25 1 mg),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0. 80 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.60 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.63 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
-
-
-
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,U
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
7.95
6.84
7.55
6.95
6.97
7.02
15
12
15
14.7
14.5
15.4
51.06
112
34.23
163.6
144
146.7
199.6
98.86
67.04
156.9
140.3
149.4












Qureshietal. 1982
Buhl and Hamilton 2000
Craig andBeggs 1979
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
110

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout (0. 80 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0. 80 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0. 90 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (2.01 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .30 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.78 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.40 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .64 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 . 1 3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .50 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .38 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0. 90 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1. 00 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.30 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .26 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .60 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .30 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.11 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chemical Name
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
pH
7.02
7.03
7.18
7.45
7.47
7.47
7.51
7.54
7.59
7.87
7.93
7.97
7.98
8.03
8.04
8.34
8.39
8.4
Temp.
(C)
14.6
15.1
15.1
15.1
14.7
14.5
14.2
14.6
13.9
15.1
15.2
15.2
15.1
14.9
14.3
15.3
15.3
14.9
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
159
156.6
141.6
104.4
72.65
79.67
73.71
75.3
59.4
42.9
41.15
36.17
35.29
23.03
25.84
19.15
12.05
12.84
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
161.8
160.9
169.2
176.0
126.1
138.3
135.8
145.2
123.9
144.7
155.0
145.4
145.9
104.6
119.7
158.5
109.9
119.4
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


















GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


















Reference
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
111

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout (1 .40 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0. 90 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .26 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .01 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .44 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .42 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (129 mm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.7-1.9 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (8-10 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (129 mm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (10. 9 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (14.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (22.4 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (10.3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (3.3 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chemical Name
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Phosphoric acid,
Diammonium
salt
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Phosphoric acid,
Diammonium
salt
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
F,U
F,U
F,U
F,U
F,U
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
8.44
8.46
8.47
8.93
8.93
9.46
7.5
7
7.4
7.4
7.4
8
7.7
7.7
7.9
7.9
8.3
Temp.
(C)
14.7
14.5
14.3
14.2
15
14.6
15
15
14.5
14.5
14.5
15
3.6
9.8
16.2
11.3
18.7
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
14.41
11.82
17.2
4.8
5.4
1.6
38.37
207.5
20.03
46.31
55.07
70
38.52
55.15
15.23
30.15
12.75
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
144.7
123.4
183.0
117.0
131.6
79.03
69.63
207.5
31.47
72.77
86.53
300.5
96.27
137.8
54.24
107.4
97.57
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

















GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

















Reference
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Environment Canada 2004
Holt and Malcolm 1979
Blahml978
Calamari et al. 1981
Calamari et al. 1981
Calamari et al. 1981
Blahml978
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
112

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout (53 mm, 1 .48 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (stage 8),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (45 mm, 0.86 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(1 19 mm, 20. 6 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(115mm, 18.1 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (42 mm, 0.61 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (52 mm, 1 .47 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (44 mm, 0.76 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (6.3 g, 8.1 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (8.0 g, 8.9 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(29. 8 g, 13.1 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(28.0 g, 13.1 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(24.5 g, 12.7 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(2596 g, 57.0 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
7.95
7.4
8.05
8.16
8.28
8.34
8.43
8.5
8.6
7.44
7.5
7.59
7.6
7.6
7.62
Temp.
(C)
10
14.4
14
14.2
12.8
5
3
14.9
3.3
12.8
14.5
12.7
13
12.9
7.9
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
35.14
40.99
22.9
23.39
15.4
17.32
11.86
10.09
15.27
32.49
24.2
32.62
23.8
25.14
20.53
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
137.3
64.40
108.1
136.4
113.4
143.3
116.8
113.7
207.9
54.00
43.91
68.03
50.43
53.27
44.93f
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)















GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)















Reference
Broderius and Smith Jr.
1979
Calamari et al. 1977
DeGraeve et al. 1980
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982b
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
113

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout
(15. Ig, 10.7cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(29.6 g, 13.3cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(1496 g, 48.5 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(1 8. 9 g, 11.6cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(558 g, 37.0 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(1698 g, 50.9 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(22.8 g, 12.3 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(12.3 g, 10.2 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(513 g, 35.9cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(22.6 g, 12.3 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(26.0 g, 13.0cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(14. 8 g, 10.5cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
7.62
7.63
7.64
7.64
7.64
7.65
7.65
7.65
7.66
7.66
7.66
7.67
Temp.
(C)
14.4
12.9
9.8
13.1
10
9.8
13.2
14.3
9.8
13.6
12.8
14
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
28.62
25.65
25.82
29.28
31.85
19.46
28.64
29.02
25.95
28.27
33.97
27.3
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
62.64
57.06
58.38f
66.21
72.02
44.73f
65.84
66.71
60.65
66.07
79.39
64.87
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)












GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)












Reference
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
114

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout
(38.0 g, 14.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(1 122 g, 45.6 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(1 140 g, 46.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(152 g, 23.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(23. 6 g, 13.2cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (9.5 g, 9.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (4.3 g, 7.1 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (4.0 g, 7.0 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(248 g, 25. 2 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(25. 8 g, 13.6cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (8.1 g, 9.3 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(380 g, 32.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(42.0 g, 16.0 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
7.68
7.69
7.69
7.69
7.69
7.9
7.71
7.71
7.74
7.75
7.75
7.76
7.77
Temp.
(C)
13
10.4
10.7
10.7
13.4
12.7
11.5
11.4
10.4
11.8
12.3
10
13.6
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
33.15
17.75
20.18
25.62
27.51
20.03
30.22
32.02
25.76
31.53
33.94
22.44
31.81
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
80.11
43.62f
49.59f
62.96
67.60
71.36
76.83
81.40
68.95
85.87
92.43
62.19
89.71
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)













GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)













Reference
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
115

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout (1 .7 g, 5.7 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(1 1. 2 g, 10.0cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (5.7 g, 8.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (2.3 g, 6.1 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (8.0 g, 9.5 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (4.6 g, 7.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (6.7 g, 8.6 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (9.0 g, 9.3 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .8 g, 5.7 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (4.3 g, 7.1 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.47 g, 4.0 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (2.5 g, 6.0 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.61 g, 4.3 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .02 g, 4.9 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (9.4 g, 9.6 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.33 g, 3.6 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.33 g, 3.6 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
7.79
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.82
7.83
7.84
7.84
7.84
7.84
7.85
7.85
7.85
7.85
7.85
7.86
7.86
Temp.
(C)
12.4
9.7
13.3
12.4
13.2
13.5
12.2
12.9
13.8
13
12.5
13.1
13.1
12.3
16.1
13
13.4
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
41.97
23.65
42.02
47.87
33.67
33.55
24.54
32.3
33.09
38.69
29.77
31.55
33.59
33.99
34.17
20.7
23.71
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
122.6
70.32
124.9
142.3
103.7
105.2
78.38
103.2
105.7
123.6
96.81
102.6
109.2
110.5
111.1
68.55
78.52
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

















GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

















Reference
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
116

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout (0.47 g, 4.0 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .7 g, 5.8 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(48.6 g, 15.2cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0. 1 5 g, 2.7 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbowtrout (0.18 g, 2.9 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbowtrout (0.23 g, 3.2 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbowtrout (7.0 g, 8.8 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbowtrout (0.18 g, 2.9 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbowtrout (2.6 g, 6.2 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 1 . 1 g, 9.9 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbowtrout (0.12 g, 2.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbowtrout (0.14 g, 2.6 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbowtrout (0.23 g, 3.2 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(52.1 g, 15.5 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .8 g, 5.9 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.06 g, 1 .7 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.06 g, 1 .7 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
7.86
7.86
7.86
7.87
7.87
7.87
7.87
7.87
7.87
7.87
7.88
7.88
7.88
7.88
7.89
7.9
7.7
Temp.
(C)
12.7
14.1
10.2
12.9
12.9
13.1
12.2
13
12.1
13
12.8
12.9
13.4
10
12.4
13.4
13.9
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
28.77
34.95
35.31
16.81
18.99
19.08
20.02
21.15
31.8
34.32
11.07
15.91
19.43
28.6
36.73
19.44
28.54
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
95.27
115.7
116.9
56.69
64.04
64.34
67.51
71.32
107.2
115.7
38.02
54.64
66.73
98.22
128.5
69.26
71.33
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

















GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

















Reference
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
117

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout (7.9 g, 9.2 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (9.7 g, 9.7 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (9.3 g, 9.0 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.08 g, 2.0 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.06 g, 1 .7 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (7.1 g, 8.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbowtrout (10.1 g, 9.8 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .7 g, 5.8 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (2.1 g, 6.2 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0. 1 5 g, 2.7 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (8.6 g, 8.9 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbowtrout (2.1 g, 6.2 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .01 g, 4.6 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbowtrout (0.36 g, 3.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .7 g, 5.9 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 .8 g, 5.8 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (2596 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Phosphoric acid,
Diammonium
salt
Ammonium
sulfate
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Phosphoric acid,
Diammonium
salt
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
bicarbonate
Ammonium
bicarbonate
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.91
7.91
7.91
7.91
7.94
7.94
7.95
7.96
7.98
8.06
8.08
8.1
8.12
7.62
Temp.
(C)
11.9
13
13
13.1
13
19
19.1
12.8
12.5
12.5
19.2
12.5
13.2
12.8
13.9
13.6
7.9
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
22.65
35.75
37.41
12.68
20.99
25.36
26.44
26.49
39.25
19.75
23.21
27.02
33.64
23.05
18.14
17.34
21.6
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
80.69
127.4
133.3
46.01
76.17
92.03
95.95
101.6
150.6
77.19
92.42
111.7
161.8
115.2
94.23
93.61
47.27
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

















GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

















Reference
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston and Russo 1983
Thurston et al. 1981a
118

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout (2080 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (293 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (230 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (244 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (230 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (247 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1 8 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (21 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (4.6 g, 7.3 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (5.7 g, 8.0 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (5.0 g, 7.6 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (5.7 g, 8.0 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (4.0 g, 7.2 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (9.5 g, 9.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (9.5 g, 9.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (9.5 g, 9.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (9.5 g, 9.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (9.5 g, 9.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
7.67
7.71
7.72
7.72
7.74
7.74
7.86
7.86
7.75
7.75
7.76
7.79
7.83
6.51
6.8
7.3
8.29
8.82
Temp.
(C)
7.7
8.5
8.2
8.1
8.3
8.1
9.6
9.7
12.7
12.5
12.5
12.9
12.8
14.1
14.1
14
14.1
13.9
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
17
20.7
10.5
19.8
22.3
28
19.3
31.6
32.09
36.97
39.08
40.88
36.49
157.4
94.05
74.2
13.85
3.95
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
40.40
52.62
27.15
51.20
59.69
74.94
63.91
104.6
87.39
100.7
108.3
119.4
114.5
116.8
80.83
102.2
104.0
80.02
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


















GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


















Reference
Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1981a
Thurston et al. 1981b
Thurston et al. 1981b
Thurston et al. 1981b
Thurston et al. 1981b
Thurston et al. 1981b
Thurston et al. 1981c
Thurston et al. 1981c
Thurston et al. 1981c
Thurston et al. 1981c
Thurston et al. 1981c
119

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout (9.5 g, 9.4 cm),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (juvenile),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(40.0 g; swimming fish),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(40.0 g; resting fish),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
pH
9.01
7.2
6.97
6.97
Temp.
(C)
14.5
10
16.6
16.6
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
2.51
174
32.38
207
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
69.50
212.6
31.56
201.7
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)



82.88
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)




Reference
Thurston et al. 1981c
Wicks and Randall 2002
Wicks et al. 2002
Wicks et al. 2002

Chinook salmon (1.0-7 g),
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Chinook salmon
(14.4 g, 11.9cm),
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Chinook salmon
(15. 3 g, 12.1 cm),
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Chinook salmon
(18. Ig, 12.7cm),
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Ammonia
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
S,M
F,U
F,U
F,U
7.96
7.87
7.82
7.84
7
13.5
12.2
12.3
28.03
18.47
27.23
24.74
111.6
62.29
83.90
79.02



82.39



99.15
Servizi and Gordon 1990
Thurston and Meyn 1 984
Thurston and Meyn 1 984
Thurston and Meyn 1 984

Topeka shiner (adult, 29 mo),
Notropis topeka
Topeka shiner
(juvenile, 16 mo),
Notropis topeka
Topeka shiner
(juvenile, 15 mo),
Notropis topeka
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.85
8.05
8.09
24.6
25.0
13.2
21.40
18.70
28.90
69.59
88.27
147.3


96.72


96.72
Adelman et al. 2009
Adelman et al. 2009
Adelman et al. 2009

Leopard frog (embryo),
Rana pipiens
Leopard frog (8 d),
Rana pipiens
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
8
8
20
12
31.04
16.23
133.3
69.69

96.38

96.38
Diamond etal. 1993
Diamond etal. 1993
120

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Chemical Name
Duration
Methods3
pH
Temp.
(C)
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
Reference

Long fingernailclam,
Musculium transversum
Long fingernailclam,
Musculium transversum
Long fingernailclam,
Musculium transversum
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
8.1
8.2
8.6
14.6
5.4
20.5
32.83
38.18
6.429
109.0
71.74
91.24


89.36


89.36
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987
West 1985; Arthur etal.
1987

Smallmouth bass
(26-29 mm, 264-267 mg),
Micropterus dolomieu
Smallmouth bass
(26-29 mm, 264-267 mg),
Micropterus dolomieu
Smallmouth bass
(26-29 mm, 264-267 mg),
Micropterus dolomieu
Smallmouth bass
(26-29 mm, 264-267 mg),
Micropterus dolomieu
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.16
6.53
7.74
8.71
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3
123.4
359.9
39.3
7.56
144.3
269.2
105.2
126.0



150.6




Broderius et al. 1985
Broderius et al. 1985
Broderius et al. 1985
Broderius et al. 1985

Largemouth bass
(0.086-0.322 g),
Micropterus salmoides
Largemouth bass
(2.018-6.286 g),
Micropterus salmoides
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
8.04
7.96
28
22
19.59
20.48
90.72
81.56

86.02


Roseboom and Richey 1977
Roseboom and Richey 1977

Guadalupe bass (6.5 g),
Micropterus treculii
Ammonium
chloride
4d
S,M/
8
22
12.7
54.52
54.52
89.06
Tomasso and Carmichael
1986

Great pond snail (25-30 mm),
Lymnaea stagnalis
-
4d
F,M
7.9
11.5
50.33
88.62
88.62
88.62
Williams et al. 1986

Guppy(0.13 g, 2.03cm),
Poecilia reticulata
Ammonium
chloride
4d
S,U
7.5
27.55
5.929
10.76


Kumar and Krishnamoorthi
1983
121

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Guppy (8.0 mm),
Poecilia reticulata
Guppy (8.25(6.3-1 1.0) mm),
Poecilia reticulata
Guppy (8.70(6.8-10.6) mm),
Poecilia reticulata
Chemical Name
-
-
-
Duration
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
S,U
s,u
s,u
pH
7.22
7.45
7.45
Temp.
(C)
25
25
25
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
129.4
75.65
82.95
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
161.8
127.6
139.9
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


74.66
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)


74.66
Reference
Rubin and Elmaraghy 1 976
Rubin and Elmaraghy 1 976
Rubin and Elmaraghy 1 976

Johnny darter (38 mm),
Etheostoma nigrum
Johnny darter (38 mm),
Etheostoma nigrum
Johnny darter (38 mm),
Etheostoma nigrum
Johnny darter (38 mm),
Etheostoma nigrum
Johnny darter (38 mm),
Etheostoma nigrum
Johnny darter (38 mm),
Etheostoma nigrum
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
7.9
8
8.2
8.1
8.1
8
20.6
20.1
6.2
5.8
5.8
20.1
28.9
24.61
6.937
11.47
13.46
15.63
103.0
105.7
43.72
59.57
69.93
67.08





71.45






Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989
Nimmoetal. 1989

Orangethroat darter,
Etheostoma spectabile
Orangethroat darter,
Etheostoma spectabile
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
8.1
8.4
22
21
16.12
7.65
83.74
71.12

77.17

74.25
Hazel etal. 1979
Hazel etal. 1979

Rio Grande silvery minnow
(3-5 d old),
Hybognathus amarus
Ammonium
chloride
4d
R,M
8
25
16.9
72.55
72.55
72.55
Buhl 2002

Spring peeper (embryo),
Pseudacris crucifer
Spring peeper,
Pseudacris crucifer
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,U
F,U
8
8
12
20
17.78
11.42
76.33
49.04

61.18


Diamond etal. 1993
Diamond etal. 1993

Pacific tree frog (embryo),
Pseudacris regilla
Ammonium
nitrate
4d
R,M
6.7
22
41.19
33.36


Schuytema and Nebeker
1999a
122

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Pacific tree frog (embryo),
Pseudacris regilla
Pacific tree frog (embryo),
Pseudacris regilla
Pacific tree frog
(90 mg, Gosner Stage 26-27),
Pseudacris regilla
Pacific tree frog
(60 mg, Gosner Stage 26-27),
Pseudacris regilla
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
sulfate
Nitric acid
ammonium salt
Ammonium
sulfate
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
Methods3
R,M
R,M
R,M
R,M
pH
6.7
6.7
7.3
7.3
Temp.
(C)
22
22
22
22
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
60.44
103.1
136.6
116.4
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
48.95
83.53
188.1
160.2
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)



83.71
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)



71.56
Reference
Schuytema and Nebeker
1999a
Schuytema and Nebeker
1999a
Schuytema and Nebeker
1999b
Schuytema and Nebeker
1999b

Mucket (glochidia),
Actinonaias ligamentina
Mucket (glochidia),
Actinonaias ligamentina
Mucket (glochidia),
Actinonaias ligamentina
Mucket (glochidia),
Actinonaias ligamentina
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Id
Id
Id
Id
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
8.6
8.4
8.3
8.3
20
20
20
20
6.141C
8.099 c
5.073 c
8.900C
83.61
75.29
38.84
68.13



63.89




Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b

Pheasantshell (juvenile),
Actinonaias pectorosa
Pheasantshell (juvenile),
Actinonaias pectorosa
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
7.9
7.95
25
25
14.06
14.08
75.80
83.30

79.46

71.25
Keller 2000
Keller 2000

Giant floater mussel (adult),
Pyganodon grandis
Giant floater mussel (adult),
Pyganodon grandis
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
7.71
7.5
25
25
18.84
25.13
72.49
69.02

70.73

70.73
Schellerl997
Schellerl997

Shortnose sucker (0.53-2.00 g),
Chasmistes brevirostris
Shortnose sucker,
Chasmistes brevirostris
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
8
8
20
20
11.42
22.85
49.04
98.09

69.36

69.36
Saikietal. 1999
Saikietal. 1999

123

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Pagoda homsnail (adult),
Pleurocera uncialis
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
Methods3
R,M
pH
8.1
Temp.
(C)
22
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
11.18
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
68.54
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
68.54
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
68.54
Reference
Goudreau et al. 1993

Golden shiner,
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Golden shiner,
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Golden shiner (8.7 g),
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
F,M
7.5
7.55
7.5
19.6
19.5
24.5
89.61
73.85
34.73
162.6
144.6
63.02


63.02


63.02
EA Engineering 1985
EA Engineering 1985
Swigert and Spacie 1983

Pebblesnail (1.8 mm),
Fluminicola sp.
Ammonium
chloride
4d
F,M
8.25
20.2
>8.801
>62.15
>62.15
>62.15
Besser2011

Lost River sucker (0.49-0.80 g),
Deltistes luxatus
Lost River sucker (larvae),
Deltistes luxatus
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
8
8
20
20
16.81
10.35
72.18
44.42

56.62

56.62
Saikietal. 1999
Saikietal. 1999

Mountain whitefish
(177 g, 27.0 cm),
Prosopium williamsoni
Mountain whitefish
(56. 9 g, 19.1 cm),
Prosopium williamsoni
Mountain whitefish
(63.0 g, 20.4 cm),
Prosopium williamsoni
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
F,U
F,U
F,U
7.68
7.84
7.8
12.1
12.4
12.3
11.3
25.47
21.2
27.31
81.35
63.04


51.93


51.93
Thurston and Meyn 1 984
Thurston and Meyn 1 984
Thurston and Meyn 1 984

Atlantic pigtoe (glochidia),
Fusconaia masoni
Ammonium
chloride
6h
S,M
7.6
24.9
15.9
47.40
47.40
47.40
Black 2001

Pondshell mussel (juvenile),
Utterbackia imbecillis
Pondshell mussel (juvenile),
Utterbackia imbecillis
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
7.9
8.35
24
25
8.235
3.269
40.87
41.75




Keller 2000
Keller 2000
124

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Pondshell mussel (juvenile),
Utterbackia imbecillis
Pondshell mussel
(8 d old juvenile),
Utterbackia imbecillis
Pondshell mussel
(<2d old juvenile),
Utterbackia imbecillis
Pondshell mussel
(<2d old juvenile),
Utterbackia imbecillis
Pondshell mussel
(<2 d old juvenile),
Utterbackia imbecillis
Pondshell mussel
(<2 d old juvenile),
Utterbackia imbecillis
Pondshell mussel (glochidia),
Utterbackia imbecillis
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Id
Methods3
S,M
R,M
R,M
R,M
R,M
R,M
S,M
pH
7.9
7.8
8.16
8.17
8.29
8
8.02
Temp.
(C)
25
24
25
25
25
25.1
25
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
9.355
14.29
5.254
5.781
8.845
2.734
7.395
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
50.45
59.19
46.38
52.03
100.5
17.91
49.90
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)






46.93
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)






46.93
Reference
Keller 2000
Wadeetal. 1992
Black 2001
Black 2001
Black 2001
Black 2001
Black 2001

Pink mucket
(2 mo old juvenile),
Lampsilis abrupta
Pink mucket
(2 mo old juvenile),
Lampsilis abrupta
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
R,M
F,M
8.3
8.4
20
20
1.921d
2.8
14.71
26.03

26.03


Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007a

Plain pocketbook
(3-5 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis cardium
Plain pocketbook
(3-5 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis cardium
Plain pocketbook
(1-2 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis cardium
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
S,M
S,M
F,M
8.2
8.2
7.6
20.5
21.2
21.2
23.506
23.706
23.1
154.4
165.0
54.07






Newton et al. 2003
Newton et al. 2003
Newton and Bartsch 2007
125

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Plain pocketbook
(1-2 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis cardium
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
Methods3
F,M
pH
7.1
Temp.
(C)
21.2
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
38.9
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
47.19
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)
50.51
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

Reference
Newton and Bartsch 2007

Wavy -rayed lampmussel
(2-5 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis fasciola
Wavy -rayed lampmussel
(<5 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis fasciola
Wavy -rayed lampmussel
(glochidia),
Lampsilis fasciola
Wavy -rayed lampmussel
(glochidia),
Lampsilis fasciola
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
Id
Id
R,M
R,M
S,M
S,M
7.83
8.5
8.3
8.4
12.6
20
20
20
14.9
6.179d
7.743 c
5.518C
25.31
69.63
59.28
51.30



48.11




Mummert et al. 2003
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b

Higgin's eye
(1 -2 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis higginsii
Higgin's eye
(1 -2 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis higginsii
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
F,M
F,M
7.6
7.1
21.2
21.2
19.5
31.7
45.64
38.46

41.90


Newton and Bartsch 2007
Newton and Bartsch 2007

Neosho mucket
(<5 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis rafinesqueana
Neosho mucket
(<5 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis rafinesqueana
Neosho mucket (glochidia),
Lampsilis rafinesqueana
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
Id
R,M
R,M
S,M
8.3
8.4
8.3
20
20
20
9.185d
9.269d
7.387C
70.31
86.17
56.55


69.97



Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b

Fatmucket (juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Ammonium
chloride
4d
S,M
8.3
24
1.275
13.60


Myers-Kinzie 1998
126

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Fatmucket (3 mo old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (2 mo old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (2 mo old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (7 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (7 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (7 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (7 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (7 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (7 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (<5 d old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (glochidia),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride,
ammonium
hydroxide
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride,
ammonium
hydroxide
Ammonium
chloride,
ammonium
hydroxide
Ammonium
chloride,
ammonium
hydroxide
Ammonium
chloride,
ammonium
hydroxide
Ammonium
chloride,
ammonium
hydroxide
Ammonium
chloride,
ammonium
hydroxide
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Id
Methods3
F,M
R,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
R,M
S,M
pH
8.35
8.1
8.2
7.6
8.1
8.5
9
6.6
8.1
8.5
8.4
Temp.
(C)
20
20
20
20.5
20.6
20.6
20.6
19.6
19.4
20
20
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
8.80
4.092d
4.6
11
5.2
3.4
0.96
88
11
8.350d
9.790 c
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
74.25
21.26
28.99
24.30
28.39
40.27
27.51
65.59
54.37
94.09
91.01
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)











GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)











Reference
Miaoetal. 2010
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007a
Wang et al. 2008
Wang et al. 2008
Wang et al. 2008
Wang et al. 2008
Wang et al. 2008
Wang et al. 2008
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b
127

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Fatmucket (glochidia),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (glochidia),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (glochidia),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (glochidia),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Fatmucket (glochidia),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
Id
Id
Id
Id
Id
Methods3
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
pH
8.2
8.4
8.5
8.3
8.3
Temp.
(C)
20
20
20
20
20
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
13.35C
11.57C
>14.24C
6.497 c
8.772C
Total Ammoniab
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
84.14
107.6
160.5
49.74
66.77
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)




55.42
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)




46.63
Reference
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b

Rainbow mussel
(2 mo old juvenile),
Villosa iris
Rainbow mussel
(2 mo old juvenile),
Villosa iris
Rainbow mussel
(5 d old juvenile),
Villosa iris
Rainbow mussel
(<5 d old juvenile),
Villosa iris
Rainbow mussel
(2-5 d old juvenile),
Villosa iris
Rainbow mussel
(<3 d old juvenile),
Villosa iris
Rainbow mussel
(< 24 h old glochidia),
Villosa iris
Rainbow mussel (glochidia),
Villosa iris
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
4d
Id
Id
R,M
R,M
S,M
R,M
R,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
8.4
8.3
8.18
8.1
7.29
8.18
7.94
8.4
20
20
25
20
12.6
25
20.0
20
2.505d
8.935d
7.81
5.261d
20.6
7.07
3.290
10.68C
23.29
68.40
71.66
27.33
15.17
64.87
12.62
99.28
















Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b
Schellerl997
Wang et al. 2007b
Mummert et al. 2003
Schellerl997
Schellerl997
Wang et al. 2007b
128

-------
Appendix A. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow mussel
(<1 h old glochidia),
Villosa iris
Rainbow mussel
(<1 h old glochidia),
Villosa iris
Chemical Name
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Duration
Id
Id
Methods3
R,M
R,M
pH
8.1
8.1
Temp.
(C)
22
22
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
3.570
4.278
Total Ammonia1"
(mg TAN/L)
adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
21.89
26.23
SMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

34.23
GMAV
(mg
TAN/L)

34.23
Reference
Goudreau et al. 1993
Goudreau et al. 1993

Oyster mussel
(<5 d old juvenile),
Epioblasma capsaeformis
Oyster mussel (glochidia),
Epioblasma capsaeformis
Oyster mussel (glochidia),
Epioblasma capsaeformis
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
6h
6h
R,M
R,M
R,M
8.5
8.5
8.5
20
20
20
4.760d
5.0C
3.4 c
53.63
17.81
31.61


31.14


31.14
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b

Green floater (<2 d old
juvenile),
Lasmigona subviridis
Green floater (<2 d old
juvenile),
Lasmigona subviridis
Green floater (<2 d old
juvenile),
Lasmigona subviridis
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
Ammonium
chloride
4d
4d
4d
R,M
R,M
R,M
7.73
7.73
7.92
24
24
24.8
6.613
6.613
3.969
24.24
24.24
21.84


23.41


23.41
Black 2001
Black 2001
Black 2001

Ellipse (glochidia),
Venustaconcha ellipsiformis
Ammonium
chloride
Id
S,M
8.1
20
4.550C
23.12
23.12
23.12
Wang et al. 2007b
a S = static, R = renewal, F = flow-through, and NR= not reported (uncertain) exposure types; M = measured and U = unmeasured tests.
b Acute values are normalized to pH 7 (all organisms) and temperature 20C (invertebrates) as per the equations provided in this document (see also 1999 AWQC document for the basis of
the pH- and temperature-dependence of ammonia toxicity and Appendix D for an example calculation).
0 The EC50s reported in this study were based on nominal concentrations. Percent nominal concentrations of measured ammonia concentrations on exposure days 0 and 2 declined from 104
to 44. EC50s based on measured concentrations were estimated from the reported EC50s based on nominal concentrations by multiplying by 0.890 for the 24 hr test; this factor is the average
of the percent nominal concentrations of measured concentrations from ammonia measurements made on exposure day 0 (i.e., 104) and estimated for day 1  (i.e, 74) of the study.
                                                                                      129

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dThe EC50s reported in this study were based on nominal concentrations. Percent nominal concentrations of measured ammonia concentrations on exposure days 0 and 4 declined from 104
to 63. EC50s based on measured concentrations were estimated from the reported EC50s based on nominal concentrations by multiplying by 0.835 or the average of the percent nominal
concentrations of measured concentrations from ammonia measurements made on exposure days 0 and 4 in the study.
e EC50 values based on sediment porewater concentrations. Note: these EC50s were not used to calculate the SMAV for the species.
f This small subset of LC50s for adult rainbow trout from Thurston and Russo (1983) was used as the basis for the FAV calculated in the 1999 AWQC document. The FAV in the 1999
AWQC document of 11.23 mg TAN/L at pH 8 was lowered to the geometric mean of these five LC50 values at the time in order to protect large rainbow trout, which were shown to be
measurably more sensitive than other life stages. The FAV prior to adjusting it to protect the commercially and recreationally important adult rainbow trout was calculated to be 14.32 mg
TAN/L (CMC = 7.2 mg TAN/L) at pH 8.  This FAV based on protection of adult rainbow trout at pH 7 is 48.21 mg TAN/L (see Table 7 in this document). Because several equivalent LC50s
representing different ages and life-stages have been added to the current (updated) acute criteria dataset, it no longer seems appropriate to lower the SMAV for rainbow trout based on only
these five LC50s considering the several other additional acute values which now exist.

Note: Each SMAV was calculated from the associated bold-face number(s) in the preceding column.
                                                                                      130

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Appendix B. Chronic Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals.
Appendix B. Chronic Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Stonefly,
Pteronarcella badia
Stonefly,
Pteronarcella badia
Test and Effect
30-d Juv Survival
24-d Juv Survival
pH
8.04
7.81
Temp.
(C)
12.1
13.2
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
133.8
21.66
Chronic value3
Adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
(mg TAN/L)
207.0
26.27
SMCV
(mg
TAN/L)

73.74
GMCV
(mg
TAN/L)

73.74
Reference
Thurston et al. 1984b
Thurston et al. 1984b

Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia acanthina
7-d LC Reproduction
7.15
24.5
44.90
64.10
64.10

Mount 1982

Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Water flea,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
7-d LC Reproduction
7-d LC Reproduction
7.80
8.57
25.0
26.0
15.20
5.800
38.96
52.15

45.08

53.75
Nimmoetal. 1989
Willinghaml987

Water flea,
Daphnia magna
Water flea,
Daphnia magna
21-d LC Reproduction
21-d LC Reproduction
8.45
7.92
19.8
20.1
7.370
21.70
36.27
47.40

41.46

41.46
Gersichetal. 1985
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982a

Amphipod,
Hyalella azteca
28-d PLC Biomass
8.04
25.0
8.207
29.17
29.17
29.17
Borgmann 1994

Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
30-d ELS Weight
30-d Juv Survival
30-d ELS Biomass
7.80
8.35
7.76
25.8
27.9
26.9
12.20
5.020
11.50
22.66
21.15
20.35


21.36


21.36
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982a
Colt and Tchobanoglous
1978
Swigert and Spacie 1983

Northern pike (fertilized),
Esox lucius
52-d ELS Biomass
7.62
8.70
13.44
20.38
20.38
20.38
Harrahy et al. 2004

Common carp (fertilized),
Cyprinus carpio
28-d ELS Weight
7.85
23.0
8.360
16.53
16.53
16.53
Mallet and Sims 1994
                                                     131

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Appendix B. Chronic Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Test and Effect
pH
Temp.
(C)
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
Chronic value3
Adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
(mg TAN/L)
SMCV
(mg
TAN/L)
GMCV
(mg
TAN/L)
Reference

Lahontan cutthroat trout (fertilized),
Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi
103-d ELS Survival
7.57
13.7
17.89
25.83
25.83

Kochetal. 1980

Rainbow trout (fertilized),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (fertilized),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
42-d ELS Survival
72-d ELS Survival
73-d ELS Survival
5-year LC
90-d ELS Survival
7.50
7.40
7.52
7.70
7.75
10.0
14.5
14.9
7.5-
10.5
11.4
<33.6
2.600
<2.55
>6.71
8.919
<45.5
3.246
<3.515
>11.08
15.60




6.663





Burkhalter and Kaya 1977
Calamari et al. 1977,1981
Solbe and Shurben 1989
Thurston et al. 1984a
Brinkman et al. 2009

Sockeye salmon,
Oncorhynchus nerka
62-d Embryos
Hatchability
8.42
10.0
<2.13
<10.09
10.09
12.02
Rankin 1979

White sucker (3 d old embryo),
Catostomus commersonii
30-d ELS Biomass
8.32
18.6
2.900
>11.62
11.62
11.62
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982a

Smallmouth bass,
Micropterus dolomieu
Smallmouth bass,
Micropterus dolomieu
Smallmouth bass,
Micropterus dolomieu
Smallmouth bass,
Micropterus dolomieu
32-d ELS Biomass
32-d ELS Biomass
32-d ELS Biomass
32-d ELS Biomass
6.60
7.25
7.83
8.68
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3
9.610
8.620
8.180
1.540
8.650
9.726
15.77
11.31



11.07



11.07
Broderius et al. 1985
Broderius et al. 1985
Broderius et al. 1985
Broderius et al. 1985

Fathead minnow (embryo-larvae),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (embryo-larvae),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
28-d ELS Survival
32-d ELS Biomass
30-d ELS Biomass
8.00
7.95
7.82
24.8
25.5
25.1
5.120
7.457
3.730
12.43
16.87
7.101






Mayesetal. 1986
Adelman et al. 2009
Swigert and Spacie 1983
132

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Appendix B. Chronic Toxicity of Ammonia to Aquatic Animals
Species
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Test and Effect
LC Hatchability
pH
8.00
Temp.
(C)
24.2
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
1.970
Chronic value3
Adjusted to pH7
(all organisms)
and 20C
(invertebrates)
(mg TAN/L)
4.784
SMCV
(mg
TAN/L)
9.187
GMCV
(mg
TAN/L)
9.187
Reference
Thurston et al. 1986

Pebblesnail (1.81 mm, juvenile),
Fluminicola sp.
28-d Juv Change in
Length
8.22
20.1
2.281
7.828
7.828
7.828
Besser2011

Long fingemailclam,
Musculium transversum
Long fingemailclam,
Musculium transversum
42-d Juv Survival
42-d Juv Survival
8.15
7.80
23.5
21.8
5.820
1.230
22.21
2.565

7.547

7.547
Anderson et al. 1978
Sparks and Sandusky 1981

Green sunfish,
Lepomis cyanellus
Green sunfish,
Lepomis cyanellus
30-d ELS Biomass
30-d ELS Survival
7.90
8.16
22.0
25.4
5.610
5.840
11.85
18.06

14.63


McCormick et al. 1984
Reinbold and Pescitelli
1982a

Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
30-d ELS Biomass
7.76
22.5
1.850
3.273
3.273
6.920
Smith etal. 1984

Rainbow mussel (2 mo old juvenile),
Villosa iris
28-d Juv Survival
8.20
20.0
1.063
3.501
3.501
3.501
Wang et al. 2007a

Fatmucket (2 mo old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
28-d Juv Survival
8.25
20.0
0.8988
3.211
3.211

Wang etal. 20011

Wavy-rayed lamp mussel
(2 mo old juvenile),
Lampsilis fasciola
28-d Juv Survival
8.20
20.0
0.4272
1.408
1.408
2.126
Wang et al. 2007a
a The chronic value is an EC2o value calculated using EPA's TRAP (Versions 1.0 or 1.2la). Note: all chronic values were normalized to pH 7 (all organisms) and 20C
(invertebrates) as per the equations provided in this document (see also 1999 AWQC document for the basis of the pH- and temperature-dependence of ammonia toxicity and
Appendix E for an example calculation).

Note: Each SMCV was calculated from the associated bold-face number(s) in the preceding column.
                                                                             133

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Appendix C. Other Chronic Ammonia Toxicity Data.
Appendix C. Other Chronic Ammonia Toxicity Data
Species
Test and Effect
Method3
pH
Temp.
fC)
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
Chronic value
Adjusted to pH 7
(all organisms) and
20C (invertebrates)
(mg TAN/L)
Reference
FRESHWATER INVERTEBRATES
Pulmonate pondsnail
(<1 wk post hatch),
Lymnaea stagnalis
Pulmonate pondsnail
(<1 wk post-hatch),
Lymnaea stagnalis
Idaho springsnail
(7-9 and 11-13 wk post hatch juvenile),
Pyrgulopsis idahoensis
Idaho springsnail
(7-9 and 11-13 wk post hatch juvenile),
Pyrgulopsis idahoensis
Idaho springsnail
(mixed-aged, adults),
Pyrgulopsis idahoensis
Pebblesnail (mixed-aged, field collected),
Fluminicola sp.
Pebblesnail (small, field collected),
Fluminicola sp.
Ozark springsnail
(mixed age, field collected),
Fontigens aldrichi
Bliss Rapids snail
(mixed age, field collected),
Taylorconcha serpenticola
28-dNOEC-
Growth
28-dNOEC-
Survival
28-dNOEC-
Growth
28-d EC20 - Survival
28-d EC20 - Survival
28-d EC20 - Survival
28-d MATC -
Survival
28-d EC20 - Survival
28-d EC20 - Survival
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
8.25
8.25
8.25
8.25
8.26
8.26
8.19
8.26
8.26
20.1
20.1
20.1
20.1
20.8
20.8
20.1
20.8
20.8
>8.00
>8.00
>8.00
0.480
3.24
1.02
2.75
0.61
3.42
>28.76
>28.76
>28.76
1.726
12.39b
3.900C
8.977d
2.332b
13.08b
Besser et al. 2009
Besser et al. 2009
Besser et al. 2009
Besser et al. 2009
Besser et al. 2009
Besser et al. 2009
Besser 20 11
Besser et al. 2009
Besser et al. 2009
                                                      134

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Appendix C. Other Chronic Ammonia Toxicity Data
Species
Silty hornsnail
(mixed age, mature and field collected),
Pleurocera canaliculata
Wavy -rayed lamp mussel
(2 mo old juvenile),
Lampsilis fasciola
Fatmucket (2 mo old juvenile),
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Rainbow mussel (2 mo old juvenile),
Villosa iris
Water flea, (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Test and Effect
28-d EC20 -
Survival;
(Alt Effect Cone.)
28-d IC25 - Growth
28-d IC25 - Growth
28-d IC25 - Growth
7-d;
3 broods in control
IC25 Reproduction
Method3
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
R,U
pH
8.15
8.20
8.20
8.20
7.90
Temp.
(C)
24.7
20.0
20.0
20.0
25.0
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
0.45
(<1.86)
0.5700
0.4400
0.7300
1.300
Chronic value
Adjusted to pH7
(all organisms) and
20C (invertebrates)
(mg TAN/L)
1.845
(<7.667)b'e
1.878
1.450
2.406
3.790
Reference
GLEC2011
Wang et al. 2007a
Wang et al. 2007a
Wang et al. 2007a
Dwyer et al. 2005
FRESHWATER VERTEBRATES
Cutthroat trout (3. 3 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (3. 4 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (l.Og),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (l.Og),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
Lake trout, siscowet,
Salvelinus namaycush
Brook trout (juvenile),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Bonytail chub
(2 and 7 d post hatch),
Gila elegans
29-d LC50
29-d LC50
36-d LC50
36-d LC50
105-dJuvNOEC-
Survival
60-d LOEC-
Weight gain
4-d Juv LOEC -
Swimming Perf
7-d IC25 - Growth
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F,M
R,U
7.80
7.78
7.81
7.80
6.84
8.02
9.10
7.90
12.4
12.2
13.1
12.8
12.1
11.6
15.0
25.0
21.60
21.40
30.80
32.20
>32.29
6.440
0.7765
11.00
40.11
38.78
57.91
59.79
>30.64
16.10
10.86
23.24
Thurston et al. 1978
Thurston et al. 1978
Thurston et al. 1978
Thurston et al. 1978
Kolarevic et al. 2012
Beamish and Tandler 1990
Tudorache et al. 2010
Dwyer et al. 2005
135

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Appendix C. Other Chronic Ammonia Toxicity Data
Species
Spotfin chub (<24 hr),
Erimonax monachus
Cape Fear shiner (<24 hr),
Notropis mekistocholas
Topeka shiner (adult),
Notropis topeka
Topeka shiner (juvenile, 1 1 mo),
Notropis topeka
Gila topminnow (<24, 48 and 72 hr),
Poeciliopsis occidentalis
Fathead minnow (<24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (4 d post hatch),
Pimephales promelas
Colorado pikeminnow
(5 and 6-d post hatch),
Ptychocheilus lucius
Colorado pikeminnow (juvenile, 8 d),
Ptychocheilus lucius
Razorback sucker (7 d post hatch),
Xyrauchen texanus
Razorback sucker (9 d),
Xyrauchen texanus
Lost River sucker (late-stage larva),
Deltistes luxatus
Green frog (Stage 24-26),
Rana clamitans
Test and Effect
7-d IC25 - Growth
7-d IC25 - Growth
30-d EC20 - Survival
30-d EC20 - SGR
7-d IC25 - Growth
7-d IC25 - Growth
28-dLOEC-
Survival
7-d IC25 - Growth
28-d LOEC- Growth
7-d IC25 - Growth
28-dLOEC-
Survival
30-dLOEC-
Survival
103-dNOEC-
Growth
Method3
R,U
R,U
F,M
F,M
R,U
R,U
R,M
R,U
R,M
R,U
R,M
F,M
R,M
pH
7.90
7.90
7.94
8.07
7.90
7.90
8.25
7.90
8.23
7.90
8.24
9.43
8.70
Temp.
(C)
25.0
25.0
23.9
12.4
25.0
25.0
19.9
25.0
19.9
25.0
19.9
22.3
24.0
Total
Ammonia
(mg
TAN/L)
15.80
8.800
10.85
6.483
24.10
7.200
9.160
8.900
8.600
13.40
13.25
1.230
>2.20
Chronic value
Adjusted to pH7
(all organisms) and
20C (invertebrates)
(mg TAN/L)
33.37
18.59
24.21
17.45
50.91
15.21
32.71
18.80
29.75
28.30
46.58
25.31
>16.74
Reference
Dwyer et al. 2005
Dwyer et al. 2005
Adelman et al. 2009
Adelman et al. 2009
Dwyer et al. 2005
Dwyer et al. 2005
Fairchild et al. 2005
Dwyer et al. 2005
Fairchild et al. 2005
Dwyer et al. 2005
Fairchild et al. 2005
Meyer and Hansen 2002
Jofre and Karasov 1999
a R = renewal and F = flow-through exposure types; M = measured and U = unmeasured tests.
 Not used in the calculation of the SMCV because of the uncertainty of the chronic value, but included here as weight of evidence supporting the sensitivity of non-pulmonate
snail species in general as determined by 28-day toxicity tests (see Additional 28-day Toxicity test Data for Freshwater Snails in Appendix I for more detail).
0 Not used in the calculation of the SMCV because of the uncertainty of the chronic value, but included here as weight of evidence supporting the sensitivity of non-pulmonate
snail species in general as determined by 28-day toxicity tests (see Chronic Toxicity Test Data: 28-day Tests with Juvenile and Adult Pebblesnails in Appendix H for more detail).
                                                                               136

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d Not used in the calculation of the SMC V because of low control survival (75 percent) for this size class.
e Value represents a 28-day ammonia survival effects concentration used in place of the EC2o due to the high degree of temporal variability in measured total ammonia
concentrations in the test, as well as the unequal response among test replicates near this concentration (see Additional 28-day Toxicity test Data for Freshwater Snails in Appendix
I for more detail).
                                                                                137

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Appendix D. Conversion of Acute Results of Toxicity Tests.

       All of the ammonia acute values (LCsoS and ECsos) in Appendix A of this document were
converted to TAN acute values using the reported temperatures and pHs, and using the pKa
relationship from Emerson et al. (1975).  Conversions were dependent on the form of ammonia
the acute values were expressed, e.g., unionized ammonia (UIA), unionized ammonia expressed
as nitrogen (UIA-N), total ammonia (TA) and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN).  After acute values
were converted to TAN they were then normalized to pH 7 using the pH relationship developed
in the 1999 AWQC document. Following the adjustment to pH 7, the TAN acute values were
further normalized to a temperature of 20 C for invertebrates only, following recommendations
in the 1999 AWQC document. It is worth noting here that while the relationship between pH
and ammonia toxicity was first addressed in the 1985 criteria document, it was not fully
developed until the 1999 AWQC update  document.  Detailed information regarding the
development and parameterization of the pH-ammonia toxicity equations (acute and chronic) can
be found in the 1999 AWQC document (pH-Dependence of Ammonia Toxicity - U.S. EPA
1999). In contrast to the pH-toxicity relationship, which applies to both vertebrates and
invertebrates, the temperature-ammonia toxicity relationship only applies to invertebrates. Based
on the results of the 1999 reanalysis of this relationship, it was determined that ammonia toxicity
for invertebrates decreases with decreasing temperature to a temperature of approximately 7C,
below which the relationship ends (U.S. EPA 1999).
       The conversion procedure for acute toxicity values is illustrated here using the data for
the flatworm, Dendrocoelum lacteum, which is the first species listed in Table 1 in the
1984/1985 criteria document and was the species chosen to illustrate the conversion procedure in
Appendix 3 of the 1999 AWQC document:
              Acute value (AV) = 1.40 mg unionized ammonia (UIA) or
              TestpH = 8.20
              Test Temperature = 18.0C
                                          138

-------
Step 1.
      Equation 3 in the 1999 criterion document, and the Emerson et al. (1975) equation from
      page 7 of this document, is used to calculate the pKa at 18 C:

      pKa = 9.464905

Step 2.
      The AV in terms of total ammonia (TA) is calculated as:

             [NH3]/[NH+4] = 10(pH-pK) = 0.0543369

Step 3.
      The Wood (1993) equation from page 7 (Equation 2 in the 1999 AWQC document) is
      rearranged to obtain the acute value for TA:

             TA = [NH3] + [NH+4] = [NH3] + [NH3]/(10(pH'p&))

             TA = [NH3] + [NH+4] = [NH3] + [NH3]/0.0543369

             = 27.1652 mgTA/L

Step 4.
      The AV for TA is converted to the AV for TAN (AVt) as follows:
             AVt/AV = (14 mg TAN/mmol) / (17 mg TA/mmol) = 14/17
             AVt = (27.1652 mg TA/L) x (14 mg TAN/17 mg TA)
             = 22.3713 mgTAN/L
                                        139

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Step 5.

        The AV in terms of TAN, or AVt, is converted from test pH 8.2 to pH 7 using the

        equation for describing the pH-dependence of acute values (modified from Equation 11

        in the 1999 AWQC document for normalization to pH 7)2:


                                                 AVt
                         AVf'7 ~ (    0.0114      ,     1.6181    ^
                                 VI + IQ7-204-PH + I + lQpH-7.204)


               AVt,7 = (AVt)/(0.158673) = 140.990 mg N/L


Step 6.  (temperature adjustment for invertebrates only)


        The AV in terms of TAN at pH 7, or AVt,?, is converted from this concentration at test
                                                      o
        temperature to a standard test temperature of 20 C using the equation shown below

        (Equation 5 in the 1999 AWQC document)3:


               log(AVt,7,2o) = log(AVt;7) - [-0.036(18C - 20C)]

               = 119.45 Img N/L


Because this is the only species in this  genus for which  data are in Table 1 in the 1984/1985

criteria document, 119.5 mg TAN/L is the GMAV for the genus Dendrocoelum in Table 3 of this

update document.
2 The equation provided here should be applicable from pH 6 to 9, although uncertainty might exist at the lower end
of this range for certain species. Extrapolation below pH 6 is not advisable because of the increasing scatter of the
data from the common regression line at lower pH, and extrapolation above pH 9 is not advisable because of
inadequate knowledge about the effect of the inhibition of ammonia excretion at high pH on results of toxicity tests
(Russoetal. 1988).
3 Note: Based on the 1999 reanalysis of the relationship between temperature and ammonia toxiciry, when test
temperature is less than 7C, T should be set equal to 7, to reflect the plateau of the temperature-toxicity relationship
at these temperatures.
                                             140

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Appendix E. Conversion of Chronic Results of Toxicity Tests.

       As in the previous appendix with the acute results of toxicity tests, all of the ammonia
chronic values (EC2os) in Appendix B of this document were first converted to TAN at test
temperature and pH using the p^a relationship from Emerson et al. (1975).  Once all the chronic
values were converted to total ammonia nitrogen, these values were then adjusted to pH 7 using
the pH relationship developed in the 1999 AWQC document. After the adjustment to pH  7, the
TAN chronic values were further normalized to a temperature of 20 C for invertebrates only, as
per the recommendations in the 1999 AWQC document.  The conversion procedure is illustrated
here using the data for the amphipod species Hyalella azteca.

       Chronic value (CV) = EC20 of 8.207 mg TAN/L
       TestpH=8.04
       Test Temperature = 25.0 C

Steps 1 through 4.

(Not required in this case as CV is already expressed in terms of TAN.  For more details
regarding these steps, see Appendix D).

Step 5.
       The CV in terms of TAN, or CVt, is converted from test pH 8.04 to pH 7 using the
       equation for describing the pH dependence of chronic values (modified from Equation 12
       in the 1999 AWQC document for normalization to pH 7)4:
                       CVt.7 =
CVt
(
ll-
0.0278
h IQ7-688-PH 1 l
1.1994 \
_|_ ^QpH-7.688)
4 See footnote 3 in Appendix D.
                                          141

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              CVt,7 = (CVt)/(0.38855) = 21.13 mg TAN/L

Step 6. (Temperature adjustment for invertebrates only)

       The CV in terms of TAN at pH 7, or CVt,?, is converted from this concentration at test
temperature to a standard test temperature of 20C using the equation shown below (Equation 5
in the 1999 AWQC document)5:

              log(CVt,7)2o) = log(CVt,7) - [-0.028(25C - 20C)]
              = 29.17 mg TAN/L

       Because this is the only species in this genus for which data in appendix B are available,
29.17 mg TAN/L is the GMCV for the genus Hyalella reported in Table 4 of this update
document.
5 See footnote 4 in Appendix D.
                                          142

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Appendix F. Acute-Chronic Ratios (ACRs).

       The CCC was calculated directly from chronic values (EC2oS ) in Appendix B using the
standard fifth percentile procedure provided in the 1985 Guidelines (Stephan et al. 1985).  As a
result, acute-chronic ratios (ACRs) are not necessary for the derivation of the new chronic
criterion presented in this document.  It is still worthwhile, however, for EPA to provide
recommended ACRs for predicting chronic sensitivity of untested species using measured or
estimated acute values for other related efforts (e.g., developing Biological Evaluations in
support of National Endangered Species Act Consultations on EPA 304(a) criteria
recommendations, or when an ACR(s) is allowed to derive site-specific criteria for ammonia in
fresh water).  Table F. 1 below presents ACRs for all  species with chronic values that were used
in the derivation of a GMCV and for which comparable acute values were found, as  well as for a
few additional species of special interest, such as threatened and endangered species. All acute
and chronic values were  adjusted to pH 7 and to 20 C (in the case of invertebrates).  For each
species or genera where more than a single ACR was calculated, Species and Genus Mean
Acute-Chronic Ratios (SMACRs and GMACRs, respectively) were also calculated as the
geometric mean value  of individual ACRs and SMACRs. (Note: in the case of a single ACR
within a Genus, the ACR is the SMACR.) Additionally, taxon-specific ACRs (TSACRs) were
calculated where practical and for purpose of comparison at the taxonomic level of Family and
Class.
       The ACRs for freshwater aquatic invertebrates range from 2.406 to 49.45 (a factor of 21;
see Table F. 1). Likewise, the ACRs for fish range from 3.437 to 36.53 (factor of 11).  The broad
range in values can probably be explained because of the different kinds of chronic tests (life-
cycle, ELS, 28-d juvenile mussel or snail) and toxicological endpoints (survival, growth, or
reproduction) upon which they are based. The ACR  of 36.53 for fathead minnow, for example,
was based on hatchability from the life-cycle test of Thurston et al. (1986), whereas the early
life-stage tests with fathead minnow of Mayes et al. (1986) and Swigert and Spacie (1983) gave
ACRs of 11.35 and 17.17. The range of ACRs based on chronic values from the two early life-
stage tests is small, and it is  perhaps not surprising that a life-cycle test gave a higher ACR than
the early life-stage tests.  As another example illustrating the variability among ACRs from
different kinds of tests and using different toxicological endpoints, but this time comparing
                                          143

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amongst different species of invertebrates, the ACR of 49.45 for Lampsilis fasciola was based on
survival from a 28-day test involving two month-old juveniles (Wang et al. 2007a,b), whereas
the life-cycle tests with the two species of cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia acanthina and C. dubid)
are based on adverse effects on reproduction with ACRs of 2.406 (Mount 1982) and 3.924
(Nimmo et al. 1989), respectively (Table F.I).
       The ACRs for bivalve mollusks in general are larger compared to other freshwater
aquatic animal taxa and range from 9.028 to 49.45.  The ACRs for other freshwater invertebrates
range from 2.406 to 15.81.  The ACRs for fishes, in contrast, are quite varied even within species
or genera. For example, the ACRs for Lepomis sp. range from 3.437 to 28.51 despite having
been based on ELS tests and using biomass or survival as the toxicological endpoint.
       Figure F. 1 depicts SMACRs in relation to SMAVs to determine whether there is a trend.
Only the weak trend of decreasing SMACR with increasing SMAV is apparent; primarily due to
the comparatively large SMACRs for freshwater bivalve mollusks.
       In general TSACRs for most freshwater aquatic animals (excluding bivalve mollusks) are
within the relatively small range of 5.113 to 15.81 at the Class level, and may be acceptable for
use when certain taxon-specific chronic toxicity data are not available. Perhaps not surprisingly,
the CCC (2.1 mg TAN/L) calculated as the quotient of the FAV of 32.99 mg TAN/L (at pH 7
and 20C) and geometric mean ACR for the Family Unionidae (15.52) agrees well with the CCC
calculated directly from available chronic data (see Appendix B and Figure 4).
                                          144

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Table F.I. Species, Genus and Taxon-Specific ACRs for Freshwater Aquatic Animals Exposed to Ammonia.
Table F.I. Species, Genus and Taxon-speciflc ACRs for Freshwater Aquatic Animals Exposed to Ammonia
Species Scientific Name
Acute and Chronic
Test Endpoint
pH
Temp
Normalized
Values
Reference
ACR
SMACR
GMACR
TSACR
(Family)
TSACR
(Class)
Class Gastropoda (Family: Lithoglyphidae)
Fluminicola sp.
LC50
EC20 - Change in Length
8.25
8.22
20.2
20.1
>62.15
7.828
Besser2011
7.940
7.940
7.940
7.940
7.940
Class Bivalvia (Families Unionidae and Pasidiidae)
Lampsilis fasciola
Lampsilis siliquoidea
Villosa iris
Musculium transversum
EC50
EC20 - Survival
EC50
EC20 - Survival
EC50
EC50
EC20 - Survival
EC50
EC20 - Survival
8.50
8.20
8.20
8.25
8.40
8.30
8.20
8.10
7.80
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
14.6
21.8
69.63
1.408
28.99
3.211
23.29
68.40
3.501
109.0
2.565
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007a
Wang et al. 2007a
Wang etal. 2011
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007b
Wang et al. 2007a
West 1985; Arthur et al. 1987
Sparks and Sandusky 1981
49.45
9.028
11.40
42.50
49.45
9.028
11.40
42.50
21.13
11.40
42.50
15.52
42.50
25.68
Class Branchiopda (Family: Daphniidae)
Ceriodaphnia acanthina
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Daphnia magna
EC50
EC20 - Reproduction
EC50
EC20 - Reproduction
EC50
EC20 - Reproduction
EC50
EC20 - Reproduction
7.06
7.15
7.80
7.80
8.50
8.45
8.34
7.92
24.0
24.5
25.0
25.0
20.0
19.8
19.7
20.1
154.3
64.10
152.9
38.96
296.9
36.27
419.1
47.40
Mount 1982
Nimmoetal. 1989
Gersich and Hopkins 1986
Gersichetal. 1985
Reinbold and Pescitelli 1982a
2.406
3.924
8.186
8.841
2.406
3.924
8.507
3.073
8.507
5.113
5.113
Class Malacostraca (Family: Dogielinotidae)
Hyalella azteca
EC50
EC20 - Biomass
8.30
8.04
25.0
25.0
461.2
29.17
Ankley etal. 1995
Borgmann 1994
15.81
15.81
15.81
15.81
15.81
                                                      145

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Table F.I. Species, Genus and Taxon-speciflc ACRs for Freshwater Aquatic Animals Exposed to Ammonia
Species Scientific Name
Acute and Chronic
Test Endpoint
pH
Temp
Normalized
Values
Reference
ACR
SMACR
GMACR
TSACR
(Family)
TSACR
(Class)
Class Actinopterygii (Families Salmonidae, Catostomidae, Cyprinidae, Ictaluridae and Centrarchidae)
Oncorhynchus clarkii
O. clarkii henshawi
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Catostomus commersoni
Notropis topeka
Pimephales promelas
Cyprinus carpio
Ictalurus punctatus
Lepomis cyanellus
LC50
EC20 - Survival
LC50
EC20 - Survival
LC50
EC20 - 5 yr Life Cycle
LC50
LC50
EC20 - Biomass
LC50
EC20 - Growth Rate
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
EC20 - LC Hatchability
LC50
EC20 - Survival
LC50
LC50
EC20 - Biomass
LC50
EC20 - Growth: Weight
LC50
EC20 - Biomass
LC50
EC20 - Biomass
LC50
7.81
7.57
7.40
7.40
7.67
7.70
8.16
8.14
8.32
8.09
8.07
7.76
7.83
7.91
7.94
8.06
8.03
8.00
8.14
8.00
7.78
7.80
7.82
7.72
7.85
7.80
7.76
7.72
7.90
8.28
13.1
13.7
14.5
14.5
7.7
7.5-
10.5
15.0
15.4
18.6
13.2
12.4
19.0
22.0
18.9
19.1
22.0
22.1
24.2
22.0
24.8
25.9
25.6
25.1
28.0
23.0
25.7
26.9
22.4
22.0
26.2
132.3
25.83
31.47
3.246
40.40
>11.08
176.6
166.3
11.62
147.3
17.45
139.3
158.7
178.9
162.3
205.0
216.3
4.784
141.2
12.43
117.3
126.8
7.101
133.9
16.53
97.67
20.35
144.3
11.85
62.07
Thurston et al. 1978
Kochetal. 1980
Calamari et al. 1981
Calamari et al. 1977,1981
Thurston et al. 198 la
Thurston et al. 1984a
Reinbold and Pescitelli 1982c
Reinbold and Pescitelli 1982a
Adelman et al. 2009
(EC2o from Appendix C)
Thurston et al. 1983,1986
Mayesetal. 1986
Swigert and Spacie 1983
Hasan and Macintosh 1986
Mallet and Sims 1994
Swigert and Spacie 1983
McCormick et al. 1984
Reinbold and Pescitelli 1982a
5.122
9.696
3.646
14.75
8.437
36.53
11.35
17.17
8.100
4.800
12.18
3.437
5.122
5.945
14.75
8.437
19.24
8.100
4.800
6.468
5.518
14.75
8.437
19.24
8.100
4.800
13.58
5.518
14.75
10.96
4.800
13.59
8.973
146

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Table F.I. Species, Genus and Taxon-speciflc ACRs for Freshwater Aquatic Animals Exposed to Ammonia
Species Scientific Name

Lepomis macrochirus
Micropterus dolomieui
Acute and Chronic
Test Endpoint
EC20- Survival
LC50
EC20 - Biomass
LC50(pH6.5)
EC20 (pH 6.5) - Biomass
LC50 (pH 7.0)
EC20 (pH 7.0) - Biomass
LC50(pH7.5)
EC20 (pH 7.5) - Biomass
LC50 (pH 8.5)
EC20 (pH 8.5) - Biomass
pH
8.16
7.60
7.76
6.53
6.60
7.16
7.25
7.74
7.83
8.71
8.68
Temp
25.4
21.7
22.5
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3
22.3
Normalized
Values
18.06
93.31
3.273
269.2
8.650
144.3
9.726
105.2
15.77
126.0
11.31
Reference

Smith etal. 1984
Broderius et al. 1985
ACR

28.51
31.12
14.84
6.670
11.14
SMACR

28.51
13.61
GMACR

13.61
TSACR
(Family)

TSACR
(Class)

147

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Figure F.I.  SMACRs by SMAV Rank.
    100
                         Relationship Between SM AC Rand SMAV
.Q
|2
E
  t.
  u
  to
     10
       o.o
                      50.0
                                 O
                                O
                                             Freshwater
                                                      O
                                                         O
                                                        O
                                                     O
                                     100.0
                                                     150.0
                                                                    200.0
                                                                                    250.0
                               Species Mean Acute Value * FreshwaterUnionid Mussels
                                     (fromTable 3)       * OtherFreshwaterMollusks-Snail
                                                         A Other Freshwater Invertebrates
                                                         O FreshwaterFish
                                                         O Other Freshwater Mollusks - Bivalve
                                           148

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Appendix G. Results of the Regression Analyses of New Chronic Data for Unionid
Mussels.
       This appendix provides the figures generated using EPA's TRAP program that was used
to calculate EC2oS for the new chronic ammonia toxicity studies conducted with unionid mussels.
In the figures that follow, circles denote measured responses and solid lines denote estimated
regression lines.  The model-estimated EC20 values and corresponding 95% confidence limits are
provided with each figure, as well as the pH and water temperature at which the test was
conducted. Per the text on page 32 in Chronic Toxicity to Freshwater Aquatic Animals and as
discussed in greater detail on page 56 in Effects Characterization, EPA decided that while 28-
day survival EC2os from these tests using juvenile freshwater mussels are acceptable for
derivation of a chronic aquatic life criterion for ammonia, EC2os based on growth responses from
these tests are not.  The decision not to use the growth data from these tests was based on the
uncertainty in the test methods for assessing the growth endpoint and the need for additional
research "to optimize feeding conditions, to conduct longer-term exposures (e.g., 90 d), and to
compare  growth  effect to potential reproductive effect in partial life-cycle exposure" (Wang et al.
2011). Additionally,  the growth response during these tests show a high degree of variability,
and the test methods for assessing growth, based on substrate or water-only exposures, are
currently being evaluated - see Figure below depicting the growth response of juvenile
fatmucket in the  28-day tests reported in Wang et al. (2011).
                                           149

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          Juvenile Fatmucket, 28-Day Survival, Wang et al. 2011
    100 -,
     80 -
S   60 ^
oo
CNJ
"OB
     40 H
     20 ^
      0
          EC20 = 0.8988 mg TAN/L (95% Cl = 0.7142-1.131)
          T = 20C
          pH = 8.25
      -1.4   -1.2   -1.0   -0.8   -0.6   -0.4   -0.2   0.0

                     log (Total Ammonia - mg TAN/L)
0.2    0.4
                                150

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  Juvenile Wavy-rayed Lampmussel, 28-Day Survival, Wang et al. 2007a
   100
    80 -
S  60 H
c
CM
"CD
  40 H
    20 ^
     0
         EC20 = 0.4272 mg TAN/L (95% Cl = 0.2321-0.7861)
         T = 20C
         pH = 8.2
      -1.4   -1.2   -1.0   -0.8   -0.6   -0.4   -0.2    0.0

                    log (Total Ammonia - mg TAN/L)
0.2    0.4
                                 151

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   Juvenile Rainbow Mussel, 28-Day Survival, Wang et al. 2007a
100 -,
CO
Q

CO
CN
-t>
CD
 80 -
 60 -
 20 H
  0
     EC20 = 1.063 mg TAN/L (95% Cl = 0.9814-1.150)'
     T = 20C
     pH = 8.2
     -1.5
                   -1.0        -0.5       0.0        0.5

                    log (Total Ammonia - mg TAN/L)
1.0
                            152

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           Juvenile Fatmucket, 28-Day Growth, Wang et al. 2011
    0.20 -i
    0.16 -
03

Q  0.12 -
oo
CN
03
-i<
.C
g>
'CD
    0.08 -
    0.04 -
          An EC20 cannot be calculated for these data.

          T = 20C
          pH = 8.25
    0.00
       -1.4    -1.2   -1.0   -0.8   -0.6   -0.4    -0.2   0.0


                      log (Total Ammonia - mg TAN/L)
                                                           0.2    0.4
                                  153

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Appendix H. Detailed Descriptions of Select New Acute and Chronic Toxicity Test Data
Used for Criteria Derivation.

Acute Toxicity Test Data
Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (ellipse)
       As noted above, the ellipse test data was not directly used in the acute criterion
calculation, but the data is described here as additional evidence supporting the determined acute
criterion value. The GMAV for the ellipse is based on the 24-hr ECso reported for an acute
toxicity test initiated with 2-hr old glochidia of the species (Wang et al. 2007b).  Glochidia were
tested under static conditions at pH 8.1 and 20C.  Survival of control animals after 24 hours was
90 percent. The estimated measured ECso at test temperature and pH was 4.450 mg N/L, after
adjusting the reported nominal ECso by multiplying by a factor of 0.89 (i.e., measured total
ammonia concentrations were 89 percent of nominal concentrations for 24 hour glochidia
exposures).  The GMAV for this species is 23.12 mg TAN/L when adjusted to pH 7 and 20C
(Appendix A), and represents the lowest in the acute dataset (Table 3).  The acute criterion of 17
mg TAN/L is considered protective of this species because the GMAV/2, a value used to
estimate an effect level un-differentiable from controls (Federal Register on May 18, 1978 (43
FR 21506-18), is approximately 12 mg TAN/L for the ellipse, which  is close to the current
criterion value, given the variability and uncertainty in such toxicity tests.

Utterbackia imbecillis (pondshell mussel)
       The GMAV for pondshell mussel of 46.93  mg TAN/L is the sixth lowest in the acute
dataset (Table 3). Although this GMAV is not one of the four used in calculating the FAV, the
value is composed of individual ECso values ranging from a comparatively low acute value of
17.91 to 100.5 mg TAN/L (expressed as TAN and normalized to pH 7 and 20C, Appendix A).
This GMAV is based on several ECsos (numbering nine in total) from three different studies
(Wade et al.  1992; Keller 2000; Black 2001).  This particular GMAV is based on tests with
predominantly juvenile mussels of various ages, but also including a single test which employed
glochidia (Appendix A).  The pH and test temperature for all nine tests was relatively uniform
and ranged from 7.80 to  8.35 and 24.0 to  25.1C, respectively.  Control survival exceeded 90
percent in all tests regardless of life-stage tested.

                                          154

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Fusconaia masoni (Atlantic pigtoe)
       The GMAV for the Atlantic pigtoe represents the seventh lowest in the acute dataset, and
lies just below the lowest GMAV for the most sensitive fish species, the mountain whitefish
(Table 3). This GMAV is based on the 6-hr ECso reported for an acute toxicity test initiated with
2-hr old glochidia of the species (Black 2001). Glochidia were tested under static conditions at
pH 7.6 and 24.9C.  Survival of control animals after 6 hours was 93 percent, falling to 87
percent after 12 hours.  The ECso at test temperature and pH was 15.90 mg TAN/L, or 47.40 mg
TAN/L when adjusted to pH 7 and 20C (Appendix A).

Fluminicola sp. (pebblesnail)
       The GMAV of 62.15 mg TAN/L for Fluminicola is the tenth most sensitive in the acute
dataset (Table 3). As part of the study to evaluate the chronic sensitivity of pebblesnails
(Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) to ammonia via 28-day water only toxicity tests (see additional
details below under Chronic Toxicity Test Data: 28-day Tests with Juvenile and Adult
Pebblesnails (Fluminicola species), Besser (2011) reported survival of'large' snails (i.e., mean
starting shell length of 1.81  mm) after 96 hours of exposure. No mortality was observed in
controls through the highest test concentration of 8.801 mg TAN/L where 32 of 40 snails (80
percent) survived. The mean pH and test temperature at this highest ammonia treatment level
were 8.25 and 20.2C, respectively.  Because only 20 percent mortality occurred  at this test
concentration, the ECso at test temperature and pH is  recorded in this document as > 8.801 mg
TAN/L, or >62.15 mg TAN/L when adjusted to pH 7 and 20C (Appendix A).

Pleurocera uncialis (pagoda hornsnail)
       Another non-pulmonate snail species (pagoda hornsnail) was determined to be nearly as
sensitive to ammonia as pebblesnail, the pagoda hornsnail, which was ranked 12*  in acute
sensitivity. Goudreau et al.  (1993) collected and acclimated (for six days) adult snails from
Clinch River, Virginia prior to conducting a static renewal bioassay to determine a 96-hr LCso
for this species.  The test was conducted in a walk-in experimental chamber set to a temperature
of 22C and using chlorine free laboratory dilution water at pH 8.1.  Survival  of adult snails in
the control treatment was 100 percent. The reported LCso at test temperature and pH was 11.18
                                          155

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mg TAN/L when expressed as total ammonia. The LCso normalized to pH=7 and 20C is 68.54
mg TAN/L (Appendix A).

Deltistes luxatis (Lost River sucker)
       The endangered Lost River sucker is a freshwater fish species endemic to the Klamath
Basin of northern California and southern Oregon (Appendix A).  The acute toxicity of ammonia
was determined for larval and juvenile Lost River sucker as reported in Saiki et al. (1999).
Larval tests were initiated when fish reared from spawned eggs were 35 days old, whereas the
juvenile tests were initiated after the fish reached 3-7 months old. All fish were exposed for 96
hours under flow-through conditions at pH 8.0 and 20C. The reported LCsos at test temperature
and pH were 10.35 and 16.81 mg/L for larval and juvenile fish, expressed as total ammonia
nitrogen (Appendix A). The LCsoS normalized to pH 7 and 20C  are 44.42 and 72.18 mg
TAN/L, respectively (Appendix A).  The GMAV for Lost River sucker is calculated as the
geometric mean of the two normalized LCsos, or 56.62 mg TAN/L (Table 3). Lost River sucker
represents the ninth most sensitive genus in the acute dataset, and second most sensitive fish
species (following mountain whitefish which was the most sensitive GMAV) and is expected to
be protected by the CMC of 17 mg TAN/L.

Chronic Toxicity Test Data
28-day Tests with Juvenile and Adult Pebblesnails (Fluminicola species)
       The summary for 28-day tests recently conducted with Fluminicola sp. includes the
results from repeat tests performed by Besser et al. in 2009 and 2010, the details of the latter of
which are  summarized in a memorandum to EPA in 2011 (this study referred to in this document
as Besser 2011).
       Test organisms used in the Besser et al. (2009) 28-day survival tests with wild-caught
(Snake River, Idaho) Fluminicola sp. included mixed-aged adult and young-adult organisms
(from 6 to 12 months).  Mixed-age classes were used because the  acclimation cultures produced
only approximately 200 neonates for testing that were collected over a period of about four
months. Despite the fact that snails in the control treatment exhibited 100 percent survival,  while
snails exposed to the highest ammonia concentration (7.9 mg TAN/L) exhibited 0 percent
survival, extreme variation between replicates at the highest test concentrations was observed
                                          156

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during the test, i.e., snails in replicates were either all alive or all dead in the 1.7 and 3.6 mg
TAN/L treatments. Based on the mean survivals for Fluminicola sp., the reported survival EC20
for the species was estimated to be 1.02 mg TAN/L at test temperature (20.8C) and pH (8.26),
or 3.900 mg TAN/L when adjusted to pH 7 and 20C (see Appendix C). The EC20 reported for
the test is not considered reliable, however, due to the variability in survival among replicates in
the 1.7 and 3.6 mg TAN/L test concentrations; therefore, this data was not used in the derivation
of the final ammonia CCC (i.e., the all-or-none response in the replicates of these two treatments,
which, when averaged and used as means instead of analyzing the replicates separately in the
regression, allows estimation of an EC20 that would otherwise be incalculable because of the
variability between treatment replicates). Thus, the upper limit CV for the test is uncertain. The
value clearly is a concentration below 7.9 mg TAN/L (at test temperature and pH), but the exact
concentration could not be determined at the time.
       In an attempt to further define the 28-day ammonia survival effects threshold for
Fluminicola sp., pebblesnails cultured in the laboratory at the USGS Columbia Environmental
Research Center were tested in April 2010 via a similar 28-day  test protocol (see Besser 2011).
This 2010 test was conducted with two size classes of juvenile pebblesnails: small (mean shell
length of 1.34 mm at the start of the test) and large (mean starting shell  length of 1.81 mm).
Both size groups were exposed in the same flow-through exposure system consisting of five
ammonia concentrations (ranging from a nominal concentration of 0.5 to 8 mg N/L in 50 percent
dilution series), plus a control, with four replicates often snails per replicate (or 40  small and 40
large snails per treatment). Mean measured TAN concentrations, pH, and temperature were
maintained very close to target values throughout the test (i.e., mean measured ammonia
concentrations were within 14 percent of nominal, mean treatment pH ranged from  8.18 to 8.26,
and mean treatment water temperature ranged from 20.1 to 20.2C).  Survival was measured
after 4 and 28 days.  Survival of snails after 28 days in the small size group was lower overall
(75 percent in the control and 60-68 percent in the nominal 0.5 to 2 mg TAN/L test concentration
range) in relation to that of the large size group (93-100 percent in both the control and low
ammonia test concentration). For both size groups, snail survival differed among test
concentrations and was substantially lower than controls in the two highest ammonia
concentrations (4.0 and 8.0 mg TAN/L nominal), however, due to the lower control survival of
the small size group (<80 percent), the data for this group is not used quantitatively in the
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derivation of the final ammonia CCC and is instead presented in Appendix C as other chronic
data.
       Because the survival of the large size group of snails was acceptable in controls and snail
length different among concentrations according to concentration-response, change in length for
the large size group was analyzed further for inclusion in the derivation of the CCC. (Note:
attempts to model concentration-response curves for survival in the large size group using TRAP
software were not as informative because partial mortality was limited to only one treatment
(i.e., 28-day  survival ranged from 98 to 100 percent in the nominal 0.5, 1 and 2 mg TAN/L test
concentrations, only 10 percent in the 4 mg TAN/L nominal test concentration, and zero percent
at the highest nominal test concentration of 8 mg TAN/L). The growth EC20 for this freshwater
non-pulmonate snail species calculated using EPA's TRAP (threshold sigmoid model with full
convergence) is 2.281 mg TAN/L at test pH (8.22) and temperature (20. FC), or; 7.828 mg
TAN/L after adjustment to pH 7 and 20C (see Appendix B).  The TRAP output for this test is
provided below to support the use of the growth-based EC20 for this particular species and test.
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                    Large Pebblesnail, 28-Day Growth, Besser et al. 2011
           -0.2 -i
    -0.4 -
        E
        E
        CO
       Q
       oo
       CM
       I
        CO
O)
cu
_c
cu
O)
CO
-C
O
          -1.0
           -0.6 -
           -0.8 -
                  EC20 = 2.281 mg TAN/L (95% Cl = 1.116-4.665)
                  T = 20.1C
                  pH = 8.22
               -1.0   -0.8    -0.6    -0.4   -0.2    0.0    0.2     0.4
                                log (Total Ammonia - mg TAN/L)
                                                                   0.6    0.8
Chronic Toxicity Tests with Juvenile Hyalella azteca
      Borgmann (1994) conducted four sets of experiments on H. azteca using different
dilution water types and life-stages of test organisms. One set of experiments consisted of tests
that began with 
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ionic composition and feeding requirements necessary to ensure the health of this particular
freshwater aquatic test organism for use in long-term toxicity testing.  During the EPA's re-
evaluation of these tests, it was concluded that while the ionic composition of the water used for
testing (dechlorinated city tap water originating from Lake Ontario) was acceptable, the results
of the two 10-week chronic tests should not be used for deriving AWQC for the following
reasons:
      Low control survival observed after 10 weeks of exposure (only 66.3%), possibly linked
       to inadequate food and feeding level that was employed, particularly after the first four
       weeks of testing;
      Poor control reproduction observed after 10 weeks of exposure; and
      The fact that the ammonia concentrations increased substantially in critical test
       treatments (e.g., the 0.1 mM ammonia treatment) during the final 3 weeks of testing
       (weeks?-  10).

       However, four week data for these two tests, in combination with data from the third
four-week test with the same life stage, were not affected by these limitations.  The measured
total ammonia concentrations and mean pH (8.04) reported for the "Tap water (young)" tests in
Table 1 of Borgmann (1994) reflect the analytical measurements combined from all three tests
conducted with this life stage (i.e., <1 wk old H. aztecd). Likewise, the pooled results for
survival (from Figure la) and wet weight (from Table  4) reflect the  observations (weekly for
survival and after four weeks for wet weight) from the three respective tests, and thus, represent
observations stemming from six test replicates per treatment when combined. Using these  data
up through the first four weeks of exposure, as well as the water temperature of 25C
(maintained via an incubator) at which all sets of experiments in the study were run, a 28-day
EC2o of 29.17 mg N/L (based on biomass and normalized to pH 7 and 20C) was calculated for
H. azteca for the study (Appendix B). These data were deemed sufficient to derive an SMCV for
the species (as an upper limit), which is  subsequently used here for chronic  criterion
development.  This decision was largely predicated on the fact that:
      The ion composition of the water used in this test was acceptable;
      The control survival for the tests up through the first four weeks was good (88.4%); and
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       The feeding level during the first four weeks of testing was acceptable (as judged via the
       growth performance of the test organisms during this timeframe.

New Chronic Data for Non-salmonid Fish Species
Cyprinus carpio (common carp)
       Mallet and Sims (1994) conducted a 28-day early life-stage test starting with eggs
approximately 6 hours post-fertilization. Mean pH and temperature for the test were 7.85 and
23C, respectively. The measured DO concentrations reported for the test ranged from 79 to 94
percent of saturation. Ammonia had no effect on hatching success at the highest concentration
tested (19.6 mg TAN/L); although survival of the post-hatch stages was significantly reduced at
this level compared to controls (average fry survival in the control treatment was 86 percent).
Growth of fry was the most sensitive endpoint, and mean fry wet weights were inhibited at
concentrations >10.4 mg TAN/L.  Even though the number of larvae in each replicate vessel was
not made uniform on hatching, at  least one vessel per concentration contained an equivalent
stocking density (23 to 29 carp), so the mean wet weight of carp in the one selected replicate per
concentration was analyzed using regression analysis. The resulting 20 value was 8.360 mg
TAN/L at 23C and pH 7.85, which is calculated to be 16.53 mg TAN/L at pH 7, with a GMCV
sensitivity rank often (see Appendix B and Table 4).

Esox lucius (northern pike)
       Harrahy et al. (2004) conducted a 52-day early life-stage test starting with newly-
fertilized northern pike embryos.  The mean dissolved oxygen concentration in test water ranged
from 8.7 to 9.1 mg/L during the test. There was no effect of ammonia on hatching success up to
62.7 mg TAN/L, and larval survival of control fish was 100 percent.  A significant reduction in
larval survival and growth was observed at concentrations of total ammonia >30.4 and 15.1 mg
TAN/L, respectively, at pH 7.62 and 8.7C. The estimated EC20 value reported for biomass was
13.44 mg TAN/L, which, normalized to pH 7 to support criteria development in this document,
is 20.38 mg TAN/L (Appendix B).  The GMCV of 20.38 mg TAN/L for northern pike is
included in Table 4 as the GMCV ranked 11* in sensitivity.
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New Chronic Toxicity Data for Salmonid Species
       Chronic values for two additional studies with Oncorhynchus species are included in this
AWQC document.  Koch et al. (1980) exposed Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii
henshawf) for 103 days in an ELS test. The measured dissolved oxygen concentrations for the
entire study ranged from 7.0 to 8.9 mg/L, with an overall average of 7.9 mg/L.  Survival of
embryos in the control treatment was 80 percent, with approximately 95 percent surviving
through the fry stage, and 80 percent surviving as fingerlings up to day 94 of the test. There
were no successful hatches at exposure levels of 148 mg TAN/L or higher and no significant
mortality at exposure levels below 32.9 mg TAN/L. Regression analysis of the survival data
using an arcsine transformation resulted in a calculated EC20 value of 17.89 mg TAN/L at 13.7C
and pH 7.57.  The EC20 value is 25.83 mg N/L when adjusted to pH 7 (Appendix B).
       The recent results of a 90-day ELS test using a wild strain of rainbow trout exposed to
ammonia were reported by Brinkman et al. (2009). The test was initiated with newly fertilized
embryos (<24 h) exposed under flow-through conditions through hatch (28 days), swim-up (15
days) and early fry  development (52 days) to five concentrations of total ammonia with a control.
Each treatment consisted for four replicates containing 20 embryos each (N = 100 embryos per
treatment).  Mean pH and temperature of test water measured among treatments was 7.75  and
11.4C, respectively.  Hatch success and survival of sac fry were similar to controls  for all
ammonia concentrations, resulting in an unadjusted NOEC of >16.8 mg TAN/L. Survival,
growth and biomass of swim-up fry were significantly reduced at 16.8 mg TAN/L compared to
controls, but unaffected at 7.44 mg N/L, resulting in a chronic value (MATC) of 11.2 mg
TAN/L. The EC20 calculated  for biomass using TRAP and normalized to pH 7 is 15.60 mg
TAN/L (Appendix B).
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Appendix I.  Qualitative Weight-of-Evidence Test Data.

Additional 28-day Toxicity Test data for Freshwater Mussels
       As part of the same study summarized above in the Effects Analyses to Freshwater
Aquatic Organisms under Summaries of Studies Used in Chronic Criterion Determination (page
34), Wang et al. (2007a) also attempted to determine the effect of ammonia on growth of 2-
month old juvenile rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel. The 28-day tests
were conducted following the same methods (see ASTM 2006). The mean length of juvenile
rainbow mussel and fatmucket exposed to the lowest ammonia concentrations tested was reduced
by 13 and 12 percent compared to mean length of control animals, respectively, but increased by
7 percent for the wavy-rayed lampmussel. There was no consistent effect of ammonia, however,
on either length at 28 days or change in length after 28 days for fatmucket and wavy-rayed
lampmussel at test concentrations where survival was unaffected; only the 28-day test with
rainbow mussel exhibited such a concentration- response for length and change in length. For
the reasons explained above under the section referenced, the growth endpoint was not used from
these tests to derive the chronic criterion, and instead, the reported IC25 (inhibition concentration)
estimated for these tests are included in Appendix C. The reported growth IC25 for juvenile
rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel from their respective 28-day tests were
0.73, 0.44, and 0.57 mg TAN/L at test pH of 8.2 and temperature 20C. These values, when
adjusted to pH 7 and 20C, are 2.406, 1.450 and 1.878 mg TAN/L, respectively (see Appendix
C).

Additional 28-day Toxicity test Data for Freshwater Snails
       Besser et al. (2009), in a USGS study report completed for EPA, conducted 28-day flow-
through survival and growth tests with five species of snails, including four gill-bearing (non-
pulmonate) species and an air-breathing (pulmonate) species. All tests were conducted in ASTM
hard water (mean hardness and alkalinity of approximately 170 and 120 mg/L as CaCOs,
respectively) with a pH range of 8.20-8.29 and a temperature range of 19-21C during testing.
Total ammonia nitrogen (mg TAN/L) concentrations in tests were measured weekly with the
percent of nominal concentrations ranging from 83 to 101 percent.  Test results were based upon

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the mean of the measured concentrations.  For all snail exposures, the effect of ammonia on
growth was not determined for test species that were of mixed ages at test initiation (as explained
further below); growth, however, was not as sensitive  of an endpoint as survival for at least one
(Pyrgulopsis idahoensis) of the two snail species (Lymnaea stagnalis and P. idahoensis) where
both growth and survival were measured (see Appendix C).

Fontigens aldrichi (Ozark springsnail)
       As part of the original study described above, Besser et al. (2009) also determined the
effect of ammonia  on survival of the non-pulmonate snail F. aldrichi. Because F. aldrichi did
not reproduce  during culturing and acclimation, field-collected organisms of "older" (adult)
mixed-ages were used for ammonia exposures.  F. aldrichi exposed to ammonia in the 28-day
test exhibited approximately  94 percent survival at 0.45 mg TAN/L, but only 50 percent at 0.83
mg TAN/L. Similar to the 2009 adult pebblesnail study, the replicates associated with the latter
0.83 mg TAN/L treatment in particular were characterized by high variability, and therefore,
these data were not used quantitatively in the derivation of the final ammonia CCC. In addition,
field-collected F. aldrichi did not reproduce in captivity and animals in  the control group did not
grow during testing. The reported EC20 for F. aldrichi was 0.61 mg TAN/L, or 2.332 mg TAN/L
when adjusted to pH 7.0 and 20C, and is presented as other chronic data in Appendix C.

Pyrgulopsis idahoensis (Idaho springsnail)
       Two separate 28-day  tests with the de-listed (from the Federal threatened and endangered
species list) non-pulmonate snail species, P. idahoensis, were conducted which included
exposing juvenile organisms that were 7-9 and 11-13 weeks post-hatch  (organisms in each
cohort tested as separate replicates in the same test; test identified as test #3 in the 2009 Besser et
al. report), as well as a cohort of mixed-age adults for  all subsequent tests (test identified as test
#5 in Besser et al. 2009). The older life stages were chosen for testing because of the high
control mortality demonstrated in preliminary tests using 2-3 week  post-hatch P. idahoensis.
       In the 28-day test with juveniles, snails in four of the five test concentrations exhibited
<44.4 percent survival, whereas control survival was 100 percent; the single exception being the
snails in the middle test concentration of 1.8 mg TAN/L, which demonstrated only 62.5 percent
survival. The  survival 20 reported for the test was 0.48 mg TAN/L at 20.1C and pH 8.25,  or
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1.726 mg TAN/L when adjusted to pH 7 and 20C, however, due to the poor concentration-
response relationship exhibited in this test, this EC20 is highly uncertain, and therefore, the data
are included in Appendix C as "other data" and are not used in the derivation of the CCC.
       The 28-day chronic test initiated with mixed-aged adult P. idahoensis (4 to 8 months of
age), on the other hand, resulted in an EC20 reported for the test of 3.24 mg TAN/L, or 12.39 mg
TAN/L when adjusted to pH 7 and 20C (Appendix C). Comparison of the juvenile and adult P.
idahoensis survival results indicates that juveniles are possibly the more sensitive of the two life
stages; however, due to the unreliability of the juvenile data, specifically the irregular survival
concentration-response relationship,  such an assertion is uncertain at this time and the CVs are
not used quantitatively in the derivation of the CCC.

Taylorconcha serpenticola (Bliss Rapids snail)
       A non-pulmonate snail species listed under the Endangered Species Act, Taylorconcha
serpenticola, was exposed to ammonia in 28-day flow-through toxicity tests as described above.
Because T. serpenticola did not reproduce or grow well during culturing and acclimation, field-
collected organisms of "older" (adult) mixed-ages were used. Survival of snails in the control
treatment was 100 percent, whereas survival of snails exposed to concentrations up to 3.6 mg
TAN/L exceeded 80 percent. Survival of snails exposed to the highest concentration tested (7.9
mg TAN/L) was reduced to only 30 percent. The survival EC20 reported for T. serpenticola in
the test was 3.42 mg TAN/L at 20.8C and pH 8.26, or 13.08 mg TAN/L at pH 7.0 and 20C, but
because these snails did not grow well preceding the test, the data are also considered "other
data" and placed in Appendix C.

Pleurocera canaliculata (silty hornsnail)
       EPA sponsored a study (GLEC 2011) to independently confirm the results of the 28-day
juvenile and adult tests performed by the USGS, Columbia, MO laboratory (i.e., Besser et al.
2009 and Besser 2011) with non-pulmonate snails. The USGS test results indicated that
specialized and Federally-listed non-pulmonate gill-bearing snails, such as the Idaho springsnail,
Bliss Rapids snail and pebblesnail, are potentially: 1) sensitive to prolonged, 28-day ammonia
exposure, and 2) as sensitive as ammonia-sensitive freshwater unionid mussel species to such
exposure. The EPA-sponsored study involved a 28-day flow-through toxicity test using a more
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widely-distributed non-pulmonate snail species, P. canaliculata. Two other non-pulmonate snail
species were also selected based on distribution and generalized habitat preference; however, P.
canaliculata was the only one of the three wild-caught snail species that were successfully held
and maintained in the laboratory for subsequent testing. Following a protocol similar to that
used in the USGS studies, a 28-day toxicity test of mature, mixed-age P. canaliculata was
conducted. The test design consisted of five ammonia test concentrations (0.9,  1.9, 3.8, 7.5, and
15 mg TAN/L, nominal) and one control, with four replicate chambers containing six snails each
per test concentration (N=24 snails per treatment). Test concentrations were based on the results
of a 96-hr range finding test with the species, which provided a 96-hr ECso of 9.66 mg TAN/L,
or approximately 88 mg N/L at 20C and pH 7.0. The endpoint for the 28-day toxicity  test was
mortality or immobilization, measured daily, the results of which were used to calculate an 20
(at pH 7 and 20C) of 1.845 mg TAN/L (Appendix C). However, due to the high degree of
temporal variability in the measured total ammonia concentrations, as well as the unequal
response amongst replicates at the 1.9 mg TAN/L nominal test concentration, these data were not
used quantitatively in the derivation of the final ammonia CCC; a 28-day ammonia survival
effect concentration of <7.667 mg TAN/L was recommended as the CV for the species which
supports the recent findings for the pebblesnails (1.8 mm) which were re-tested and reported to
EPAviaBesser(2011).

(Note: The calculated 20 values using TRAP for P. idahoensis, F. aldrichi, and T.
serptenticola, and the recommended 28-day ammonia survival effects concentration of <7.667
mg TAN/L for P. canaliculata, are deemed representative of non-pulmonate snail sensitivity in
general and are included in Appendix C for the purpose of comparison.)

Lymnaea stagnalis (pulmonate pondsnail)
       The effect of ammonia in a 28-day test on survival and growth of a third freshwater snail
species, the air-breathing L.  stagnalis, was also reported in Besser et al. (2009). The tests with L.
stagnalis utilized organisms that were <1 week post-hatch due to the abundance of young
produced during culturing. L. stagnalis exposed to ammonia in a 28-day flow-through  test
exhibited approximately 98 percent survival  at the highest concentration tested  (8.0 mg TAN/L).
Because of the apparent negligible effect of ammonia on growth (i.e., the magnitude  of the
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growth reduction was so small, 6 percent at 1.8 mg TAN/L and only 16 percent at 8 mg TAN/L),
only the CV of >8.0 mg TAN/L (for survival and growth) is reported in this document for the
test, or >28.76 mg TAN/L when adjusted to pH 7 and 20C. Note: For the purposes of this
document, the CV for this test species is included in Appendix C and was not used in the
derivation of the CCC because of the uncertainty of this value (> 28.76 mg TAN/L) as an upper
limit SMCV for the species.

Chronic Toxicity Data for Other Salmonids
       A few other chronic toxicity tests produced applicable data for salmonid species that
were excluded from Appendix B and subsequent SMCV and GMCV calculation because either
the exposure did not include the appropriate life stage for the species, or the tests did not meet
other general  1985 Guidelines requirements for use in calculating the CCC. These tests are
summarized below and shown in Appendix C.
       The effects of water temperature and ammonia on the swimming characteristics of brook
charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) were investigated by Tudorache et al. (2010). Juvenile brook charr
were exposed to four ammonia concentrations in de-chlorinated tap water for 96 hours at pH
9.10 and 15C. The following swimming characteristics were measured in a 4.5 m long raceway
following this exposure: gait transition speed, maximum swimming speed, tail-beat amplitude,
tail-beat frequency, maximum acceleration of bursts, number of bursts, distance of bursts, and
total swimming distance. The most sensitive  swimming parameters (maximum swimming speed
and maximum acceleration) had a reported LOEC of 0.7765 mg TAN/L, or 10.86 mg TAN/L
when normalized to pH 7.
       The effects of long-term exposure of ammonia on the molecular response of Atlantic
salmon (Salmo solar) parr were investigated by Kolarevic et al. (2012).  The juvenile fish were
exposed for 105 days to three concentrations of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) in a flow-through
apparatus with two different feeding regimes: full and restricted.  Average water temperature
during the exposure was 12.1C with a pH of 6.84. There was no effect of ammonia exposure on
survival, resulting in a NOEC of 32.29 mg N/L (highest concentration tested) in the full feeding
regime.  When normalized to pH 7, the CV for this test is >30.64 mg TAN/L.
       Beamish and Tandler (1990) exposed juvenile lake trout {Salvelinus namaycush) for 60
days on two different diets and observed a significant reduction in rate of weight gain when total
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ammonia was 6.44 mg TAN/L at pH 8.02 and temperature was 11.6C. Food intake by fish was
initially decreased at this concentration of total ammonia, but was no different from controls by
the end of the test. The growth LOEC for the study, when adjusted to pH 7, was calculated to be
16.10 mg TAN/L. Note: this test was not included in the calculation of the CCC because it was
not a true ELS having been initiated with juvenile fish.

Chronic Toxicity Data for Threatened and Endangered Fish Species
       Meyer and Hansen (2002) conducted a 30-day toxicity test with late-stage larvae (0.059
g) of Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) at pH 9.43.  The exposure duration and pH were
chosen to represent the period of combined elevated unionized ammonia concentrations and
elevated pH that occur during cyanobacterial blooms in surface waters of Upper Klamath Lake,
which have been shown to last for several weeks to a month. Survival decreased significantly at
1.23 and 2.27 mg TAN/L, whereas the highest NOEC for all endpoints (survival, growth, body
ions, and swimming performance) was 0.64 mg TAN/L. Most deaths in the 2.27 mg TAN/L
exposure occurred during the first three days of the test, while mortality of larvae in the 1.230
mg TAN/L treatment occurred gradually from days 2 to 24.  The 29 percent average mortality in
the 0.64 mg TAN/L treatment was all due to an unexplained complete loss of one replicate
between days 5 and 7 of the exposure. Control  survival was > 90 percent. The calculated LOEC
of 1.230 mg TAN/L total ammonia normalized to  pH 7 corresponds to a value of 25.31 mg
TAN/L, substantially higher than the 2013 chronic criterion value (Appendix C).
       Fairchild et al. (2005) conducted 28-day toxicity tests with early life stages of Colorado
pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus\ and compared
the results of those tests with a test using a surrogate fish species, the fathead minnow
(Pimephalespromelets). Tests were initiated 2 days after swim-up when the larvae were feeding
exogenously (or at 8-day post hatch for Colorado pikeminnow, 9-day post hatch for razorback
sucker, and 4-day post-hatch for fathead minnow). Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen over
the 28-day test period averaged 19.9C, 8.24, and  7.4 mg/L (80 percent saturation) over the
course of the three studies.  Control mortality was 7 percent (fathead minnows and Colorado
pikeminnow) or less (3 percent, razorback sucker) on day 28.  Effect concentrations based  on the
survival and growth endpoints of the fathead minnow and razorback sucker tests were not
different; however, growth was the more sensitive endpoint for the Colorado pikeminnow test.
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The 28-day growth LOEC for the Colorado pikeminnow was 8.60 mg N/L, or 29.75 mg TAN/L
at pH 7, substantially greater than the 2013 chronic criterion. The 28-day survival LOEC for the
razorback sucker was 13.25 mg TAN/L, or 46.58 mg TAN/L at pH 7. Both endangered fish
species exhibited similar sensitivity to ammonia as the fathead minnow (LOEC of 32.71 mg
TAN/L at pH=7; see Appendix C). The same can be said for the Lost River sucker, which
indicates that these particular endangered fish species will be protected by the CCC value
calculated in this 2013 AWQC Update.
      Finally, Adelman et al. (2009) conducted both acute and chronic toxicity tests with
ammonia on the endangered Topeka shiner (Notropis topekd) and compared those values to
chronic studies with fathead minnows. All tests used a flow-through dosing apparatus and deep
well water with a total hardness and alkalinity of 210-230 mg/L CaCOs, and chloride
concentration of 0.64-1.04 mg/L. Acute survival studies with Topeka shiner lasted 96 hours and
were conducted on two different life-stages (juvenile and adult) and at two test temperatures,
warm, 25C (adult and juvenile), and cold, 13C (juvenile only). LCsos for total ammonia
ranged from 18.7-21.4 mg TAN/L at 25C and 28.9  mg TAN/L at 13C; all acute studies were
conducted at approximately pH 8. Normalized to  pH 7, the 96-hr LCsoS were 69.59 - 88.27 mg
TAN/L at 25C and 147.3 mg TAN/L at 13C, both  substantially greater than the acute criterion
value of 17 mg TAN/L, respectively (see Appendix A).
      Chronic studies with Topeka shiners  started with both adults and juveniles,  since
embryos  were not available, and lasted 30 days. The results of the survival and growth studies
with juvenile Topeka shiners were compared to a 30-day juvenile survival study and 32-day
embryo-larval study conducted with fathead minnows in the same dilution water. The authors
interpreted the results of the relationship between the comparative studies using Topeka shiners
versus fathead minnows to infer what an expected result for an embryo-larval study with Topeka
shiner would be.  Reported MATC values (normalized to pH 8, according to USEPA 1999) were
16.95 mg TAN/L for the 30-day juvenile fathead growth test and 8.62 mg TAN/L for the 32-day
embryo-larval survival and growth test.  Using the relationship from the results obtained between
juvenile Topeka shiners and juvenile (growth) and embryo-larval test using fathead minnows
(growth and survival),  a 32-day embryo-larval study with Topeka shiner might be expected to
result in a chronic value that is approximately 51% more sensitive than the 30-day juvenile
growth test with that species, or a chronic value of approximately 5.63 mg TAN/L (i.e., the
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reported 30-day MATC of 11.10 mg TAN/L at pH 8 based on growth of juvenile Topeka shiners
multiplied by a factor of 0.507). Using EPA's TRAP (version 1.21a) the 32-day biomass EC20
for embryo-larval fathead minnow (measured from days 7-32), 30-day adult survival 20 for
Topeka shiner, and 30-day juvenile specific growth rate EC20 for Topeka shiner were 7.457,
10.85, and 6.483 mg TAN/L at test temperatures (25.5, 23.9, and 12.4C) and pH (7.95, 7.94,
and 8.07), respectively. When adjusted to pH 7, the EC2os for the respective tests are 16.87 mg
TAN/L for the fathead minnow (Appendix B), and 24.21 and 17.45 mg TAN/L for the Topeka
shiner (Appendix C), much higher than the 2013 chronic criterion.

Chronic Toxicity Data for Amphibians
       In a long term chronic study by Jofre and Karasov (1999), pre-metamorphic (Gosner
stage 24-26) green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles were exposed to ammonia for 103 days under
renewal conditions.  Tadpoles were evaluated in two different experiments conducted in
successive years. In the 1997 (repeat) experiment, survival and growth were  not statistically
different from controls at the highest concentration tested, or 2.2 mg TAN/L at pH  8.7 and 24C,
although only approximately 50 percent of the frogs survived at this concentration compared to
the controls (98 percent survival).  Survival was reduced to approximately 78 percent at 0.9416
mg TAN/L at test temperature and pH (or 7.149 mg TAN/L at pH 7). Growth, measured as total
length, was no different between treatments. The frogs  grew from an average total length of
approximately 7.5 mm at test initiation to approximately 50 mm in all treatments. The NOEC
for growth of green frog tadpoles in the study (which does not reflect an ELS or partial life cycle
test) is >16.74 mg TAN/L at pH 7.
                                          170

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 Appendix J.  Unused Acute Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development.
Appendix J. Unused Acute Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Reference:
Organism:
Reported or Normalized Acute
Value Expressed as Total
Ammonia (mg TAN/L) at pH=7
and 20C, Where Applicable
Rationale for Omission:
Abdalla, A.A.F. and C.D. McNabb. 1999. Acute and
sublethal growth effects of unionized ammonia to Nile
tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In: Nitrogen production
and excretion in fish. Randall D. J. and D.D. Mackinlay
(Eds.), Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Vancouver,
BC, Canada and Towson University, Baltimore, MD.
pp. 35-48.
Oreochromis niloticus
Normalized LC,n = 87.0
Species is a resident, non-North American
"invasive" species known to cause or likely to cause
economic or environmental harm (see ISAC 2006).
Because the species is in the Family Centrarchidae
which is well represented in the current acute
criteria dataset, it has been intentionally excluded
from further consideration and calculation of an
acute criterion.
Alonso, A. and JA. Camargo. 2011. The freshwater
planarian Polycelisfelina as a sensitive species to assess
the long-term toxicity of ammonia. Chemosphere 84:
533-537.
Polycelisfelina
Normalized 96 h LC = 25.72
Species not resident in North America.
Ankley, G.T., M.K. Schubauer-Berigan and P.D.
Monson. 1995. Influence of pH and hardness on toxicity
of ammonia to the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Can. J.
Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52(10): 2078-2083.
Hyalella azteca
Normalized 96 h LC50s:
Softwater (Lake Superior) -
25.51 (pH 6.50)
47.35 (pH 7.49)
233.4 (pH 8.21)
Hardwater (Reconstituted-ASTM) -
232.8 (pH 6.55)
337.6 (pH 7.41)
545.5 (pH 8.45)
Ankley et al. conducted several static-renewal acute
tests with H. azteca to determine the effect of pH
and hardness on the toxicity of ammonia.  For the
hardness evaluation, Ankley chose three waters for
testing, soft water (SW; unaltered lake Superior
water), moderately hard water (MW; hardened Lake
Superior water), and hard water (HW; hard
reconstituted water).  At the time, Ankley et al.
focused  only on hardness in the test waters, but the
ion ratios in these three waters were not consistent.
Of the three water types, only the moderately hard
water (MW) that Ankley used is suitable for testing
and culturing amphipods (see Appendix A for
results).  The SW was not suitable for testing this
species because the sodium concentration was too
low. Similarly, the reconstituted FIW was not
suitable  because the bromide was too low. Bold
values indicate LC50s below the cutoff of 93 mg
TAN/L for unused, potentially influential acute
values.
                                                                             171

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Appendix J. Unused Acute Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Reference:
Organism:
Reported or Normalized Acute
Value Expressed as Total
Ammonia (mg TAN/L) at pH=7
and 20C, Where Applicable
Rationale for Omission:
Augspurger, T., A.E. Keller, M.C. Black, W.G. Cope
and F. J. Dwyer. 2003. Water quality guidance for
protection of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) from
ammonia exposure. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22(11):
2569-2575.
Medionidus conradicus
Normalized 48 h LC,0 = 27.56
48-hr glochidia test.  Secondary data from Keller
2000
Babu, T.R., P. Surendranath and K.V. Ramana Rao.
1987. Comparative evaluation of DDT and fenvalerate
toxicity on Penaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards).
Mahasagar 20(4): 249-253. 	
Daphnia magna
Reported LC50s:
60 (25 h),
32 (50 h),
20(100h)
pH not reported - LC50s could not be normalized.
Belanger, S.E., D.S. Cherry, J.L. Farris, K.G.
Sappington and JJ. Caims. 1991. Sensitivity of the
Asiatic clam to various biocidal control agents. J. Am.
Waterworks Assoc. 83(10): 79-87.
Corbicula fluminea
Normalized LC50s:
23.55(4.1 d)
64.99 (4.2 d)
Species is a resident, non-North American
"invasive" species known to cause or likely to cause
economic or environmental harm (see ISAC 2006).
This species is the target of current eradication and
control programs in various states, and because this
Phylum (Mollusca) is well represented in the current
acute criteria dataset, this species has been
intentionally excluded from further consideration
and calculation of an acute criterion.
                                                    Gammarus pulex
                          Normalized 96h LC50s:
                          36.98
                          49.31
                          49.31
                          69.40
Dehedin, A., C. Piscart and P. Marmonier. 2012.
Seasonal variations of the effect of temperature on lethal
and sublethal toxicities of ammonia for three common
freshwater shredders.  Chemopshere In press.
                                                    Gammarus roeselii
                          Normalized 96 h LC50s:
                          2.466
                          24.66
                          36.98
                          46.27
                          46.27
                          55.31
                          55.31
                          57.84
                                   Species not resident in North America. Control
                                   mortality less than 15%.
                                   Species not resident in North America. Control
                                   mortality less than 15%.
                                                                              172

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Appendix J. Unused Acute Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Reference:
Organism:
Reported or Normalized Acute
Value Expressed as Total
Ammonia (mg TAN/L) at pH=7
and 20C, Where Applicable
Rationale for Omission:
                                                    Daphnia magna
Dowden, B.F. andH.J. Bennett. 1965. Toxicity of
selected chemicals to certain animals. J. Water Pollut.
Control Fed. 37(9): 1308-1316.
                          Reported LC50s:
                          202 (24 h),
                          423 (25 h),
                          161 (48 h),
                          433 (50 h),
                          67 (72 h),
                          50 (96 h),
                          202, 139 (100 h)
                                   pH not reported - LC50s could not be normalized.
                                                    Lymnaea sp.
                          Reported LC50s:
                          241(24h),
                          173(48h),
                          73 (72 h),
                          70 (96 h)
                                   pH not reported - LC50s could not be normalized.
Ewell, W.S., J.W. Gorsuch, R.O. Kringle, K.A.
RobillardandR.C. Spiegel. 1986. Simultaneous
evaluation of the acute effects of chemicals on seven
aquatic species. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 5(9): 831-840.
Daphnia magna
Reported LC50 in paper = >100;
Reported LC50 in ECOTOX = >20
Normalized LC50 = 36.29
Insufficient controls; pH that varied from 6.5-8.5
during the exposure. LC50 based on a 96 h (non-
standard) test duration.
Fairchild, J.F., A. Allert, J. Mizzi, R. Reisenburg and B.
Waddell. 1999. Determination of a safe level of
ammonia that is protective of juvenile Colorado
pikeminnow in the upper Colorado River, Utah. Final
Report. 1998 Quick Response Program. U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, Region 2 (Salt Lake City Office).
Pimephales promelas
Normalized LC = 60.12
72-hour test in well water
Hazel, R.H., C.E. Burkhead and D.G. Huggins. 1982.
Development of water quality criteria for ammonia and
total residual chlorine for the protection of aquatic life in
two Johnson County, Kansas Streams. In: J.G. Pearson,
R.B. Foster, and W.E. Bishop (Eds.), Proc. Annu. Symp.
Aq. Tox., ASTM STP 766, Philadelphia, PA: 381-388.
Etheostoma spectabile
Normalized 96 h LC50s = 83.74,
71.12
Same data as in Hazel (1979) - see E. spectabile in
Appendix A.
Hecnar, S.J. 1995. Acute and chronic toxicity of
ammonium nitrate fertilizer to amphibians from
Southern Ontario. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 14(12):
2131-2137.
Pseudacris triseriata
Reported values:
4-dLC50=17
4-dNOEC = 5,
4-d LOEC = 45
Formulation - ammonium nitrate fertilizer
                                                                             173

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Appendix J. Unused Acute Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Reference:
Hickey, C.W. and M.L. Vickers. 1994. Toxicity of
ammonia to nine native New Zealand freshwater
invertebrate species. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
26(3): 292-298.
Home, F.R. and S. Mclntosh. 1979. Factors influencing
distribution of mussels in the Blanco River of Central
Texas. Nautilus 94(4): 119-133.
Jofre, M.B., and W.H. Karasov. 1999. Direct effect of
ammonia on three species of North American anuran
amphibians. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18(8): 1806-1812.
Jofre, M.B., M.L. Rosenshield and W.H. Karasov. 2000.
Effects of PCB 126 and ammonia, alone and in
combination, on green frog (Rana clamitans) and
leopard frog (R. pipiens) hatching success, development,
and metamorphosis. J. lowaAcad. Sci. 107(3): 113-122.
Kaniewska-Prus, M. 1982. The Effect of ammonia,
chlorine, and chloramine toxicity on the mortality of
Daphnia magna Straus. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 29(3/4):
607-624.
Meyer, J.S. and JA. Hansen. 2002. Subchronic toxicity
of low dissolved oxygen concentrations, elevated pH,
and elevated ammonia concentrations to Lost River
suckers. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 131: 656-666.
Morgan, W.S.G. 1979. Fish locomotor behavior patterns
as a monitoring tool. J. Water Pollut. Control. Fed.
51(3): 580-589.
Morgan, W.S.G. 1976. Fishing for toxicity: Biological
automonitor for continuous water quality control. Effl.
Water Treat. J. 16(9): 471-475.
Organism:
Potamopyrgus
antipodarum
Cyrtonaias tampicoensis
Toxolasma texasensis
Corbicula manilensis
Bufo americanus
Rana clamitans
Rana clamitans
Daphnia magna
Deltistes luxatus
Micropterus salmoides
Micropterus salmoides
Reported or Normalized Acute
Value Expressed as Total
Ammonia (mg TAN/L) at pH=7
and 20C, Where Applicable
Normalized 96 h LC50s:
33.14
29.79
38.93
36.27
Normalized LC50 = 26.75
Normalized LC50 = 26.75
Normalized LC50 = 26.75
Normalized 96 h LC50 = 62.85
Normalized 96 h LC50 = 40.80
Normalized 96 h LC50 = 49.56
Normalized LC50 = 1.980
Normalized 48 h LC50:
78.23
Normalized EC50 = 5.0 10
Normalized EC50 = 5.0 10
Rationale for Omission:
Species is a resident, non-North American
"invasive" species known to cause or likely to cause
economic or environmental harm (see ISAC 2006).
This species is the target of current eradication and
control programs in various states, and because this
Phylum (Mollusca) is well represented in the current
acute criteria dataset, this species has been
intentionally excluded from further consideration
and calculation of an acute criterion.
LC50 based on a 7-d (non-standard) test duration.
LC50 based on a 7-d (non-standard) test duration.
LC50 based on a 7-d (non-standard) test duration.
Non-standard acute endpoint based on hatch
success/ deformity. UIA calculated using Thurston et
al. (1979)EPA-600/3-79-091 from measured values
Non-standard acute endpoint based on hatch
success/ deformity. UIA calculated using Thurston et
al. (1979)EPA-600/3-79-091 from measured values
Non-standard acute endpoint based on hatch
success/ deformity. pH not reported; assume same as
Jofre and Karasov 1999.
LC50 based on a 24-h (non-standard) test duration.
The pH for this test was reported as 9.5, which is
outside of the acceptable pH range of (6.0-9.0) these
criteria were meant to apply.
Acute toxicity evaluated electronically based on
activity. Exposure was only 24-h (non-standard) in
test duration. Concentrations were nominal.
Added nominal concentrations equivalent to 48-h
LC50 from previous literature values, then monitored
opercular rhythm activity for 24 h.
174

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Appendix J. Unused Acute Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Reference:
Morgan, W.S.G. and P.C. Kuhn. 1974. A method to
monitor the effects of toxicants upon breathing rate of
largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacepede).
Water Res. 8(1): 67-77
Morgan, W.S.G. 1978. The use offish as a biological
sensor for toxic comparison in potable water. Prog.
Water Tech. 10: 395-398.
Passell, H.D., C.N. Dahm and EJ. Bedrick. 2007.
Ammonia modeling for assessing potential toxicity to
fish species in the Rio Grande, 1989-2002. Ecol. Appl.
17(7): 2087-2099.
Scheller, J.L. 1997. The effect of dieoffs of Asian clams
(Corbicula fluminea) on native freshwater mussels
(Unionidae). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University, Blacksburg, VA.
Watton, A.J. and H.A. Hawkes. 1984. The acute toxicity
of ammonia and copper to the gastropod Potamopyrgus
jenkinsi (Smith). Environ. Pollut. Ser. A 36: 17-29.
Organism:
Micropterus salmoides
Lacepede
Micropterus salmoides
Hybognathus amarus
Corbicula fluminea
Pimephales promelas
Potamopyrgus jenkinsi
Reported or Normalized Acute
Value Expressed as Total
Ammonia (mg TAN/L) at pH=7
and 20C, Where Applicable
Normalized EC50s:
110.3(llh),
3 1.32 (22 h),
110.3(23h),
1.556 (44 h)
Normalized LC50 = 9.091
Secondary data; reported LC50 from
Buhl 2002 =1.01 mg/L unionized
ammonia-N
Normalized LC50s:
6.498 (96 h)
1 1.57 (96 h)
14.62 (96 h)
Normalized LC50 = 3 8. 46
Normalized EC50s:
40.3 land 42.06 (48 h),
27.60 and 27. 17 (96 h)
Rationale for Omission:
Similar to Morgan (1 976). This is not an actual
toxicity test. Rather, it is a test of a monitoring
system that relates nominal LC50 concentrations
(based on literature values), to breathing rate
monitored over 24 h.
Similar to other Morgan studies listed in this table
where nominal ammonia concentrations based on
literature LC50 concentrations are added to tanks and
breathing rate and activity level are monitored
electronically for 24 h.
In this study the frequency of acute ammonia
exceedances were modeled by relating discharge,
pH, temperature, and stream ammonia
concentrations to literature LC50 values.
Species is a resident, non-North American
"invasive" species known to cause or likely to cause
economic or environmental harm (see ISAC 2006).
This species is the target of current eradication and
control programs in various states, and because this
Phylum (Mollusca) is well represented in the current
acute criteria dataset, this species has been
intentionally excluded from further consideration
and calculation of an acute criterion.
Non-standard (48 h) test duration.
Species not resident in North America.
175

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Appendix J. Unused Acute Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Reference:
Organism:
Reported or Normalized Acute
Value Expressed as Total
Ammonia (mg TAN/L) at pH=7
and 20C, Where Applicable
Rationale for Omission:
Whiteman, F.W., G.T. Ankley, M.D. Kahl, D.M. Rau
and M.D. Balcer.  1996. Evaluation of interstitial water
as a route of exposure for ammonia in sediment tests
with benthic macroinvertebrates. Environ. Toxicol.
Chem. 15(5): 794-801.
Hyalella azteca
Normalized 96 h LC50s:
10.27 (Lake Superior water)
11.06 (sediment test)
72.67 (sediment test)
Tests were fed.  The results from the two sediment
tests were not used because sediment toxicity tests
using pore water measurements likely underestimate
the toxicity of ammonia in a water-only exposure,
i.e., test animals could have been exposed to the
higher interstitial ammonia concentrations during
the exposure8. The 96 h LC50 for//, azteca from
water-only exposure to Lake Superior water was not
used from this study because the sodium
concentration in this dilution water is too low for
maintaining adequate animal health - see also the
results in this appendix from Ankley et al. (1995)
above.
   For the same reason the sediment tests reported by Whiteman et al. (1996) for H. azteca were unused for criteria derivation, results from the sediment tests from Besser et al.
 (1998) were also not used. The normalized 96 h LC50s for//, azteca from the Besser et al. (1998) sediment tests were 120.5 and 321.4 mg TAN/L at pH 6.69 and 7.56,
 respectively.  Two other LC50s generated for//. azteca which are also not used for criteria derivation (due to the insufficient amount of detail provided) include values of 251.5 and
 262.7 mg TAN/L from Sarda (1994). Because these latter values exceed 93 mg TAN/L, they are considered non-influential data for the purpose of criteria derivation.
                                                                               176

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Appendix K. Unused Chronic Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development.
Appendix K Unused Chronic Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Reference:
El-Shafai, S.A., F.A. El-Gohary, F.A. Nasr, N.P.
Vander Steen and HJ. Gijzen. 2004. Chronic
ammonia toxicity to duckweed-fed tilapia
(Oreochromis niloticus). Aquacult. 232(1-4): 117-
127.
DeGraeve, G.M., W.D. Palmer, E.L. Moore, JJ.
Coyle and P.L. Markham. 1987. The effect of
temperature on the acute and chronic toxicity of
unionized ammonia to fathead minnows and channel
catfish. Battelle, Columbus, OH.
Hecnar, S.J. 1995. Acute and chronic toxicity of
ammonium nitrate fertilizer to amphibians from
Southern Ontario. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 14(12):
2131-2137.
Hermanutz, R.O., S.F. Hedtke, J.W. Arthur, R.W.
Andrew and K.N. Allen. 1987. Ammonia effects on
macroinvertebrates and fish in outdoor experimental
streams. Environ. Pollut. 47: 249-283.
Organism:
Oreochromis
niloticus
Ictalurus punctatus
Pseudacris
triseriata
Ictalurus punctatus
Sander vitreus
Reported or Normalized Chronic Value
Expressed as Total Ammonia (mg
TAN/L) at pH=7 and 20C, Where
Applicable
Normalized Chronic value = 6.881 (75 d)
Normalized 30-day NOEC = 0.5628
Reported values:
100-dNOEC = 2.5,
100-dLOEC = 10
Normalized NOEC = 4.369
Normalized NOEC = 4.182
Rationale for Omission:
Test was a 3 5 -day juvenile test; not a true fish ELS
test. Species is also a resident, non-North American
"invasive" species known to cause or likely to cause
economic or environmental harm (see ISAC 2006).
Per the 1999 update, this 30-day test with juvenile
catfish encountered some problems that precluded
effective use of these data. For example, some of
the test organisms were treated with acriflavine up
to two days prior to the beginning of the test. In
addition, the mean measured DO concentration was
below 5.5 mg/L and below 60 percent of saturation
in some of the treatments.
Formulation - ammonium nitrate fertilizer.
Survival and growth of juvenile channel catfish
were evaluated via exposure to ammonia in
experimental streams. Three separate tests lasted
from 36 to 177 days and were started with
individuals whose average weights ranged from 6
to 19 g. Average temperatures in the three tests
were 17 to 21 C. Both of the longer tests showed
monotonic, substantial reductions in biomass; these
results are in reasonable agreement with the results
of the laboratory tests. However, juveniles might
not be as sensitive to ammonia toxicity as early life
stages are. These results are not included because
they are from a field study where ammonia
concentrations were highly variable.
Omitted for the same reasons as was Ictalurus
punctatus.
                                                       Ill

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Appendix K Unused Chronic Studies Potentially Influential for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Reference:
Hickey, C.W., L.A. Golding, M.I. Martin and G.F.
Croker. 1999. Chronic toxicity of ammonia to New
Zealand freshwater invertebrates: A mesocosm
study. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 37:338-351.
Rice, S.D. and J.E. Bailey. 1980. Survival, size, and
emergence of pink salmon, Oncorhynchus
gorbuscha, alevins after short- and long-term
exposures to ammonia. Fish. Bull. 78(3):641-648.
Schulter, M. and J. Groeneweg. 1985. The inhibition
by ammonia of population growth of the rotifer,
Brachionus rubens, in continuous culture.
Aquaculture 46: 215-220.
Smith, C.E. 1972. Effects of metabolic products on
the quality of rainbow trout. Am. Fish. Trout News
17:7-8.
Zischke, J.A. and J.W. Arthur. 1987. Effects of
elevated ammonia levels on the fingernail clam,
Musculium transversum, in outdoor experimental
streams. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 16(2):
225-231.
Organism:
Deleatidium sp.
(Ephemeroptera)
Oncorhynchus
gorbuscha
Brachionus rubens
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Musculium
transversum
Reported or Normalized Chronic Value
Expressed as Total Ammonia (mg
TAN/L) at pH=7 and 20C, Where
Applicable
Normalized 29-day EC25 (survival) =
3.844
Normalized 61-dNOEC = 5.859
Normalized 7-d NOEC = 3.000
Normalized 84-dNOEC = 2.304
Normalized LOEC = 6.933 (survival)
Rationale for Omission:
Species not resident in North America. These
results are not included because they are from a
field study where ammonia concentrations were
highly variable.
Per the 1999 update, the only chronic test began
sometime after hatch and ended when the alevins
emerged (i.e., at the beginning of swim-up);
therefore the test did not include effects of
ammonia on the growth and survival of fry after
feeding started. In addition, no information was
given concerning survival to the end of the test in
the control or any other treatment. This test did not
provide data concerning survival and is not an ELS
test because it began after hatch.
Species is not resident in North America. Generally
a marine Rotifera. Undescribed culture medium.
NOEC based on population growth of cultures.
This test did not provide data concerning survival
and is not an ELS test because it began after hatch.
The authors reported that as long as the DO
concentration was maintained at 5 mg/L or greater,
growth of young rainbow trout was not
significantly reduced until average total ammonia
concentrations reached 1.6 mg TAN/L at test pH
and temperature (7.75 and 10C, respectively).
This was a flow-through, measured mesocosm
experiment performed in the field. The test
concentrations varied during the length of the
experiment.
178

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Appendix L. Unused (Non-Influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater
Ammonia Criteria Development - Screened Out Studies with Code List.
(appears separately at end of appendix)
Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
Academy of Natural Sciences. 1960. The sensitivity of
aquatic life to certain chemicals commonly found in
industrial wastes. Final Report No. RG-3965 (C2R1). U.S.
Public Health Service Grant, Academy of Natural
Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.
Alabaster, J.S., D.G. Shurben and G. Knowles. 1979. The
effect of dissolved oxygen and salinity on the toxicity of
ammonia to smolts of salmon, Salmo salar L. J. Fish
Biol.15(6): 705-71 2 (Personal Communication Used).
Alabaster, J.S., D.G. Shurben and M.J. Mallett. 1983. The
acute lethal toxicity of mixtures of cyanide and ammonia to
smolts of salmon, Salmo salar L. at low concentrations of
dissolved oxygen. J. Fish Biol. 22: 215-222.
Alam, M., T.L. Frankel and M. Alam. 2006. Gill ATPase
activities of silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus (Mitchell), and
golden perch, Macquaria ambigua (Richardson): Effects of
environmental salt and ammonia. Aquaculture 251(1): 118-
133.
Allan, I.R.H., D.W.M. Herbert and J.S. Alabaster. 1958. A
field and laboratory investigation of fish in a sewage
effluent. Minist. Agric. Fish. Food, Fish. Invest. Ser. 1. 6(2):
76.
Alonso, A. and J.A. Camargo. 2003. Short-term toxicity to
ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate to the aquatic snail
Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca). Bull.
Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70: 1006-1012
Alonso, A. and J.A. Camargo. 2006. Ammonia toxicity to
the freshwater invertebrates Polycelis felina (Planariidae,
Turbellaria) and Echinogammarus echinosetosus
(Gammaridae, Crustacea). Fresenius Environ. Bull.
15(12b): 1578-1583.
Arillo, A., B. Uva and M. Vallarino. 1981. Renin activity in
rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich.) and effects of
environmental ammonia. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A
68(3): 307-311.
Armstrong, D.A. 1978. Toxicity and metabolism of nitrogen
compounds: Effects on survival, growth and
osmoregulation of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Davis, CA. (Personal
Communication Used).
Bailey, H.C., C. DiGiorgio, K. Kroll, J.L. Miller, D.E. Hinton
and G. Starrett. 1996. Development of procedures for
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kidney of Channa punctatus exposed to chronic nonlethal
level of elsan, mercury, and ammonia. Ecotoxicol. Environ.
Saf. 29(3): 265-275.
ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
5683
406
10252
84839
10316


5704
5620
16844
10000
13750
Rejection
Code(s)
AF
Dur-1d
Dur-1d
NonRes
AF, Det
INV
NonRes
Dur - 2d
Dur-1d
AF
Dur
NonRes, Eff,
UEndp
Comment(s)












                                       179

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Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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Prog. Ser. 365: 67-75.
ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
15256
18229
13480

3822
6903
4290

3106





Rejection
Code(s)
NonRes, Eff,
UEndp
NonRes, Eff,
UEndp
NonRes, UEndp
Dilut
UEndp, Dur - 8h
UEndp, Dur - 8h
UEndp, Dur - 8h
Tox
NonRes, AF,
UEndp, Dur-1d
No Dose,
VarExp
Tox
Tox
NonRes
Tox
Comment(s)



Salt water





Only 1 exposure concentration
(naturally increased overtime)
Mesocosm; no ammonia



180

-------
Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
2019
10002
930
3207




14017
13744
59792
15323
10259

Rejection
Code(s)
Dur
Uenpd
AF
Ace, No Org
Sec
No Dose
No Dose
Tox
AF, Dur-1d
NonRes, Dur -
2d
UChron, Sec
UEndp, Con
AF
Tox
Comment(s)





Only 1 exposure concentration
Fate


Freshwater bivalve mollusk
Data also published in Colt and
Tchobanoglous (1978)
Plant


181

-------
Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No

12711
10305

10217

5433
4268
446


102216

915
Rejection
Code(s)
NonRes
Dur - 2d
AF, UEndp, Dur
No Dose
UEndp, Eff
InVit
UEndp
UEndp
AF, Dur - 2d
No Dose
UEndp
No Dose, Dur,
VarExp
NonRes
AF
Comment(s)



Fate



Plant

Only one exposure concentration

Only 2 exposure concentrations


182

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Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
2465

6084
103070

115940

5478
10317
10005



115940
Rejection
Code(s)
AF
No Dose
Dur - 2d
NonRes, Tox,
No Dose
Dilut, Dur, AF
Dilut, Dur, AF
No Dose
UEndp
UEndp
UEndp, Dur-1d
No Dose
NonRes
Tox
NonRes
Comment(s)

Only 1 or 2 exposure
concentrations at a specific pH

Only one exposure concentration


Only one exposure concentration



Only 2 exposure concentrations



183

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Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
108468


5708
7823
10510
7486
6216
10152
923
8005
8006
10318
10193
19920
Rejection
Code(s)
Tox, No Dose
NonRes
Tox
Dur-1d
UEndp, Dur
Dur-1d
AF, Uendp
UEndp, Eff
Dur - 1 7h
Tox; AF
Dur-1d
Dur - 2d
Dur-1d
Tox; Dur - 2d
UEndp, Eff
Comment(s)
Only one exposure concentration





Plant








184

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Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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Response of Salvinia cucullata to high NH4(+)
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Saf. 79: 69-74.
ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No

14397


4134


6010


14092
8994


Rejection
Code(s)
NonRes
Dur - 3d
INV, Det
NonRes
No Org
Sec
SedExp
Tox
INV
NonRes,
RouExp
AF, Dur-6h,
UEndp, No Org
NonRes, AF,
UEndp
VarExp
NonRes, Con
Comment(s)


Dilution water not described;
Prior exposure?

Periphytic community




Injected


Concentration increased over
time

185

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Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
Jampeetong, A., H. Brix and S. Kantawanichkul. 2012.
Effects of inorganic nitrogen forms on growth, morphology,
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159-165.
ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No

5773
17562
7513
17963
19651

4931
8606

17533
5036

4106
Rejection
Code(s)
NonRes, No
Dose
AF, Dur-1d
NonRes, AF,
UEndp
NonRes, AF,
UEndp
NonRes, UEndp,
Dur
NonRes, Dur -
1d
UEndp
UEndp, Dur
Dur - 7d, Form
NonRes
NonRes, AF
NonRes, AF,
UEndp, Dur
Sec
UEndp
Comment(s)
Plant





Plant


Plant




186

-------
Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No

7048
100026
3402

16156

19144
7093
10018
10019


9619
Rejection
Code(s)
Tox
No Org
Det, AF
Det
NonRes, Efflu
NonRes, UEndp,
Dur
Tox
No Dose
AF, UEndp, Dur
Dur - 8h
Eff, UEndp, Dur -
1d
NonRes, No
Dose
NonRes
AF, UEndp, Dur
Comment(s)
Plant

7-day tests (S,U) with ammonia
chloride; pH not reported
This thesis appears to provide
appropriate 48 h LC50 data for D.
pulex, but details are lacking.


Plant
Only one exposure concentration
Plant


Only one exposure concentration

Plant
187

-------
Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
10302
10020
4314
18102



10021
7404
10543
97379
15860
668

Rejection
Code(s)
UEndp, Dur
Dur
Eff, UEndp
Tox
Det
Tox
Tox
UEndp, Dur
UEndp, Dur
UEndp, Dur
WatQual
Dur
Eff. Dur - 2d
Dilut
Comment(s)




Abstract only






Plant

Deionized water
188

-------
Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No

100651
16594
7605

10243




11516
8278
7746

Rejection
Code(s)
RouExp
NonRes
NonRes
UEndp, Dur
NonRes
Eff, AF, UEndp,
Dur-1d
NonRes
NonRes
NonRes
No Dose
NonRes, AF,
UEndp, Dur
NonRes, AF, Dur
Eff, UEndp, Dur -
1d
Det, INV
Comment(s)

Plant

Plant





Only 2 exposure concentrations




189

-------
Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
949
19532
10307



24
11793
12428
12684
2649
626
19157
5449
Rejection
Code(s)
AF
NonRes, UEndp,
Dur
UEndp, Dur
Tox
No Dose
Tox
NonRes, AF,
UEndp, Dur
NonRes, AF,
UEndp, Dur
NonRes, AF,
UEndp, Dur
NonRes, AF,
UEndp, Dur
NonRes, AF,
UEndp, Dur
AF, UEndp, Dur
UChron
AF, UEndp, Dur
Comment(s)




Fate






Plant

Plant
190

-------
Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
2561
407
10170
667
5770

524

7635
11164
16783
7491
2606
804
3235
238
Rejection
Code(s)
NonRes, Dur -
3d
Dur - 2d
Uchron, UEndp
Dur-1d
NonRes, AF, Dur
Field, Tox
Dur-1d
Det, UChron
Sec
Det, AF, UEndp,
Dur
NonRes, UEndp
Dur-1d
UEndp, Dur
UEndp, No Org
AF, UEndp, Dur
WatQual,
UEndp, No Org
Comment(s)








Other data used from an earlier
report







191

-------
Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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No. 65, NIH Publ. No. 84-2653, U.S. Dep. Health Human
Serv., Natl. Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD. pp. 119-125.
ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
7535
10173

15119
2616
20487
12194
2629
12836
11048
2631
2636
10254
Rejection
Code(s)
Con
Eff, AF, UEndp
NonRes
Dur-10d
UEndp, Dur
NonRes, Dur -
1d
Dur-1d
INV, UEndp, Dur
AF, UEndp, Dur
AF, UEndp, Dur
Eff, UEndp, Dur
Eff, UEnpd, Dur
Eff, UEndp
Comment(s)



Data rejected for C. tentans as
indicated









192

-------
Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
Snell, T.W., B.D. Moffat, C. Janssen and G. Persoone.
1991 . Acute toxicity tests using rotifers IV. Effects of cyst
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Brachionus calyciflorus. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 21(3):
308-31 7 (OECDG Data File).
Soderberg, R.W., J.B. Flynn and H.R. Schmittou. 1983.
Effects of ammonia on growth and survival of rainbow trout
in intensive static-water culture. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.
11 2(3): 448-451.
Solomonson, L.P. 1970. Effects of ammonia and some of
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Spadaro, D., T. Micevska and S.L. Simpson. 2008. Effect
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Speare, D. and S. Backman. 1988. Ammonia and nitrite
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Spencer, P., R. Pollock and M. Dube. 2008. Effects of
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Tarazona, J.V., M. Munoz, J.A. Ortiz, M. Nunez and J.A.
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151 (2): 386-397.
ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
9385
15728
5443

2958

2262



14284
12807
2531
15962
Rejection
Code(s)
Sec, AF, Dur -
1d
AF, UEndp, Dur
UEndp, Dur,
Plant
NonRes
AF, UEndp, Dur
-2d
Det
AF
No Dose, INV
No Dose, INV
No Dose, Dur
Dur-1d
UEndp, Dur-1d
UEndp, Dur - 2d
NonRes, UEndp,
Dur
Comment(s)
Data provided in earlier report

Plant


Dilution water not described
Plant


Only 2 exposure concentrations




193

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Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
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and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in rainbow
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blood respiratory. Aquat. Toxicol. 41(4): 325-342.
ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
6276
2528
105937

410
12198
2075
5619
14071
18512

11744
19154
Rejection
Code(s)
UEndp, Dur-1d
UEndp, Dur
Det, AF, Dur
INV
Dur-1d
AF, UEndp, Dur
AF, UEndp, Dur
Tox
Eff, UEndp
Eff, UEndp, Dur -
2d
VarExp
NonRes, AF,
UEndp, Dur
Eff, UEndp
Comment(s)










Substantial loss of ammonia;
Plant


194

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Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
Vijayavel, K., E.F. Rani, C. Anbuselvam and M.P.
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21 4(24): 41 07-41 20.
Williams, J.E. Jr. 1948. The toxicity of some inorganic salts
to game fish. M.S. Thesis, Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, LA, 71 p.
ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
108153
508



2514
10185
14883



2320


Rejection
Code(s)
Det, AF
Dur, Con, UEndp
NonRes
Tox
NonRes
UEndp, Dur
AF, Dur-2d,
UEndp
UEndp
NonRes, No
Dose
NonRes
Det, No Dose
AF, UEndp, Dur
Eff, UEndp
No Org
Comment(s)
Detail (pH, temp, etc. not
reported)







Only 2 exposure concentrations





195

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Appendix L. Unused (Non-influential) Acute and Chronic Studies for Freshwater Ammonia Criteria Development
Citation
Weltering, D.M., J.L. Hedtke and L.J. Weber. 1978.
Predator-prey interactions of fishes under the influence of
ammonia. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 107(3): 500-504.
Xu, Q. and R.S. Oldham. 1997. Lethal and sublethal
effects of nitrogen fertilizer ammonium nitrate on common
toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
32(3): 298-303.
Zhang, L. and C.M. Wood. 2009. Ammonia as a stimulant
to ventilation in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.
Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 168(3): 261-271.
Zhang, L.J., G.G. Ying, F. Chen, J.L. Zhao, L. Wang and
Y.X. Fang. 2012. Development and application of whole-
sediment toxicity test using immobilized freshwater
microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Environ.
Toxicol. Chem. 31(2): 377-386.
ECOTOX or
Other
Ref. No
7218
17840


Rejection
Code(s)
UEndp, Dur
AF, UEndp, Dur
RouExp
SedExp
Comment(s)



Plant
196

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Corresponding Code List
ABIOTIC FACTOR
(AF)
ACELLULAR
(Ace)
BACTERIA
(Bact)
BIOMARKER
(Biom)
CONTROL
(Con)
DETAIL
(Det)
DURATION
(Dur)
EFFLUENT
(Efflu)
EFFECT
(Eff)
ENDPOINT
(UEndp)
FIELD
(Field)
FORMULATION
(Form)
INVASIVE [Harmful]
(INV)
IN VITRO
(In Vit)
LETHAL TIME
(LT)
NO DOSE or CONG
(No Dose or Cone)
NOMINAL
(Norn)
NON-RESIDENT
(NonRes)
NO ORGANISM
(No Org)
PURITY
(Pur)
ROUTE OF EXPOSURE
(RouExp)
Secondary
(Sec)
Sediment Exposure
(SedExp)
TOXICANT
(Tox)
UNACCEPTABLE CHRONIC
(UChron)
Studies where one or both of the two abiotic factors (pH and temperature) important for ammonia criteria
derivation are not reported.
Studies of acellular organisms (protozoa) and yeast.
Studies describing only the results on bacteria.
Studies reporting results for a biomarker having no reported association with a biologically significant
adverse effect (survival, growth, or reproduction of an individual or population) and an exposure dose (or
concentration).
Studies where control mortality is insufficient or unsatisfactory, i.e., where survival is less than 90% in
acute tests or 80% in chronic tests; or where no control is used.
Insufficient detail regarding test methodology or statistical analysis.
Laboratory and field studies where duration of exposure is inappropriate (e.g., too short) for the type of
test (i.e., acute or chronic), or was not reported or could not be easily estimated.
Studies reporting only effects of effluent, sewage, or polluted runoff where individual pollutants are not
measured.
Studies where the biologically significant adverse effect was not survival, growth, or reproduction of an
individual or population.
Studies reported in ECOTOX where an endpoint (LC50, EC50, NOEC, LOEC, MATC, EC20, etc.) was
not provided, where none of the concentrations tested in a chronic test were deleterious (no LOEC); or
where all concentrations tested in a chronic test caused a statistically significant adverse effect (no
NOEC).
Chronic, long-term studies conducted in a field setting (stream segment, pond, etc.) where source/dilution
water is not characterized for other possible contaminants.
Studies where the chemical is a primary ingredient in a commercial formulation, e.g., biocide, fertilizer,
etc.
Defined in this document as a species that is non-native to the ecosystem under consideration and
whose introduction causes or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health
(see ISAC 2006).
In vitro studies, including only exposure of the chemical to cell cultures and excised tissues and not
related to whole organism toxicity.
Laboratory studies reporting only lethal time to mortality, except under special conditions (no other
applicable information is available for species pivotal in making a finding).
Studies with too few concentrations to establish a dose-response, or no usable dose or concentration
reported in either primary or sister article(s), except under special conditions (no other applicable
information is available for species pivotal in making a finding).
Chronic studies where test concentrations were not measured.
Species that are not resident to North America, or where there is no reported evidence of their
reproducing naturally in North America.
Laboratory and field studies where no one organism is studied (e.g., periphyton community) or where no
scientific/common name is given in either a primary or sister article(s).
Studies where the chemical purity of the toxicant was less than 80% pure (active ingredient).
Dietary or un-natural exposure routes for aquatic chemicals, e.g., injection, spray, inhalation.
Non-original data first reported elsewhere.
Sediment-based toxicity test and method.
Inappropriate form of toxicant used or none identified in a laboratory or field study. Note: Inappropriate
form includes mixtures.
Chronic studies which were not based on flow-through exposures (exception for cladocerans and other
small, planktonic organisms where test water is continuously renewed), where test concentrations were
not measured, or when the chronic test did not include the appropriate test duration for the organism and
life-stage tested.
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UNUSUAL DILUTION
WATER
(Dilut)
VARIABLE EXPOSURE
(VarExp)
WATER QUALITY
(WatQual)
Laboratory or field studies where the dilution water contained unusual amounts or ratios of inorganic ions
or was without addition of appropriate salts (i.e., distilled or de-ionized water).
Excessive variability in contaminant concentrations during the exposure period.
Studies where the measured test pH is below 6 or greater than 9, where dissolved oxygen was less than
40% saturation for any length of time, or where total or dissolved organic carbon is greater than 5 mg/L.
198

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Appendix M.  1999 Re-examination of Temperature Dependence of Ammonia Toxicity.

       This section presents the temperature analysis published in the 1998 Update, followed by
the re-analysis performed for the 1999 Update and reproduced here as background information.
Figure and table numbers are preceded by an 'M' in this appendix, in order to distinguish them
from tables and figures in the main document.

1998 Analysis of Temperature-Dependence
       The 1984/1985 ammonia criteria document identified temperature as an important factor
affecting the toxicity of ammonia.  When expressed in terms of unionized ammonia, the acute
toxicity of ammonia was reported in the criteria document to be inversely related to temperature
for several species offish, whereas limited data on acute ammonia toxicity to invertebrates
showed no significant temperature dependence. No direct data were available concerning the
temperature dependence of chronic toxicity. It was noted, however, that the differences between
chronic values for salmonid fish species tested at low temperatures and chronic values for
warmwater fish species tested at higher temperatures paralleled differences in acute toxicity
known to be caused by temperature.
       In the 1984/1985 criteria document, an average temperature relationship observed for fish
was used to adjust fish acute toxicity data to a common temperature (20C) for derivation of the
CMC for unionized ammonia; this same relationship was used to extrapolate this CMC to other
temperatures.  (Invertebrate toxicity data were not adjusted, but invertebrates were sufficiently
resistant to ammonia that adjustment of invertebrate data was  not important in the derivation of
the CMC.)  This temperature relationship for fish resulted in the unionized ammonia CMC being
higher at warm temperatures than at cold temperatures. Additionally, because of concerns  about
the validity of extrapolating the temperature relationship to high temperatures, the unionized
ammonia CMC was  "capped" to be no higher than its value at a temperature, called TCAP, near
the upper end of the  temperature range of the acute toxicity data available for warmwater and
                                          199

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coldwater fishes. Similarly, the CCC was capped at a temperature near the upper end of the
temperature range of the available chronic toxicity data.
       Although the unionized ammonia criterion is lower at low temperatures, this does not
result in more restrictive permit limits for ammonia because the ratio of ammonium ion to
unionized ammonia increases at low temperatures, resulting in the total ammonia criterion being
essentially constant at temperatures below TCAP.  In practice, however, the criterion at low
temperatures can be more limiting for dischargers than the criterion at high temperatures because
biological treatment of ammonia is more difficult at low temperatures.  Above TCAP, the
constant unionized ammonia criterion results in the total ammonia criterion becoming
progressively lower with increasing temperature, which can also result in restrictive discharge
limitations.
       Because more data are available at moderate temperatures than at lower and higher
temperatures, the ammonia criterion is most uncertain for circumstances when compliance can
be most difficult, either because of the low total  ammonia criterion at high temperatures or
because of treatment difficulties at low temperatures.  This section examines the data used in the
1984/1985 criteria document and newer data to determine (1) whether the use of TCAPs should
be continued and (2) whether a lower unionized criterion at low temperature is warranted. Data
used include those analyzed by Erickson (1985), which are shown in Figure 2 of the 1984/1985
document, and more recent data reported by Arthur et al. (1987),  DeGraeve et al. (1987), Nimmo
et al. (1989), and Knoph (1992).

Data not used include those reported by the following:
    1.  Bianchini et al. (1996) conducted acute tests at 12 and 25C, but one test was in fresh
       water, whereas the other was in salt water.
    2.  Diamond et al. (1993) conducted acute and chronic toxicity tests on ammonia at 12 and
       20C using several vertebrate and invertebrate species.  When expressed in terms of
       unionized ammonia, they reported that vertebrates (i.e., fishes and amphibians) were
       more sensitive to ammonia at 12C than at 20C, whereas invertebrates were either less
                                          200

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       sensitive or no more sensitive at 12C, compatible with the relationships used in the
       1984/1985 criteria document. However, such factors as dilution water and test duration
       varied between tests at different temperatures and possibly confounded the results (see
       Appendix 1 of the 1999 update), raising doubts about the temperature comparisons  for
       the vertebrates and invertebrates.

       Arthur et al. (1987) measured the acute toxicity of ammonia to several fish and
invertebrate species at ambient temperature during different seasons of the year. For three  of the
five fish species (rainbow trout, channel catfish, and white sucker), the relationship of toxicity to
temperature was similar to that used in the 1984/1985 criteria document.  When expressed  in
terms of unionized ammonia, no clear relationship existed between temperature and toxicity for
the other fish species (fathead minnow and walleye).  This result for the fathead minnow is
different  from those of three other studies (Reinbold and Pescitelli 1982b; Thurston et al. 1983;
DeGraeve et al. 1987) reporting a significant effect of temperature on the acute toxicity of
unionized ammonia to the fathead minnow. For five invertebrate species, each tested over  a
temperature range of at least 10C, there was no consistent relationship between temperature and
unionized ammonia toxicity. An initial report of these results (West 1985) was the basis for no
temperature adjustment being used for  invertebrate data in the 1984/1985 criteria document.
Further analysis of the Arthur (1987) data is discussed later.
       DeGraeve et al. (1987) studied the effect of temperature (from 6 to 30C) on the toxicity
of ammonia to juvenile fathead minnows and channel catfish using acute (4-day) and chronic
(30-day)  ammonia  exposures. As shown for both fish species in Figure M. 1, log(96-hr unionized
ammonia LCso) versus temperature was linear within the reported uncertainty in the LCsos; the
slopes were similar to those reported in the 1984/1985 criteria document. Problems with the
channel catfish chronic tests precluded effective use of those data and the highest tested
ammonia concentrations in the fathead minnow chronic tests at 15 and 20C did not cause
sufficient mortality to be useful. However, sufficient mortality did occur in the fathead minnow
chronic tests at 6, 10, 25, and 30C. Based on regression analysis of survival versus log
                                          201

-------
concentration (discussed in more detail in the section concerning the CCC below), 30-day LC20s
forunionizedammoniawereO.il, 0.18, 0.48, and 0.44 mg N/L at 6, 10,25, and 30C,
respectively.  This temperature dependence (Figure M. 1) is similar to that for acute toxicity and
that used in the 1984/1985 criteria document. The actual effect of temperature on these 30-day
LC20s is probably somewhat greater, because test pH decreased with increasing temperature.
       Nimmo et al. (1989) conducted acute toxicity tests on ammonia at 6 and 20C in a well
water using Johnny darters and in a river water using both Johnny darters and juvenile fathead
minnows. In all three sets of tests, LCsos expressed in terms of unionized ammonia were
significantly higher at the warmer temperature, by factors ranging from 3.5 to 6.2.
       Knoph (1992) conducted acute toxicity tests at temperatures ranging from 2 to 17C
using Atlantic salmon parr, one series of tests at pH~6.0 and the other at pH~6.4.  In  both series
of tests, LCsos expressed in terms of unionized ammonia increased substantially with
temperature.
       Even with these additional  data, the shape of the temperature relationship is not
completely resolved, especially for chronic toxicity.  Nevertheless, the acute data for fishes
overwhelmingly indicate that ammonia toxicity, expressed in terms of unionized ammonia,
decreases with increasing temperature.
                                          202

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Figure M.l. The Effect of Temperature on Ammonia Toxicity in Terms of Unionized Ammonia (DeGraeve et al. 1987).
Symbols denote LCsos or LC2os and 95% confidence limits and lines denote linear regressions of log LC versus temperature.
           4 r
      1 0.8
      o
         0.6
      T3
      N 0.4
      C
      O
         0.2
         0.1
  4 r
                   Fathead Minnow
                      96-hr LC50
            0   5  10  15  20  25 30
                  Temperature (C)
~ 0.8
o
| 0.6
<
S0.4
0.2
0.1
                                     2 r
            Channel Catfish
              96-hr LC50
       5  10  15  20 25 30
         Temperature (C)
                                                                              1
                                                                            0.8
                                                                            0.6
                              1 0.4
 0.1
0.08

0.06
                                          Fathead Minnow
                                            30-day LC20
                                       0   5  10  15 20  25  30
                                             Temperature (C)
                                                         203

-------
       Most importantly, the data of DeGraeve et al. (1987) show (Figure M. 1) that (a) a linear
relationship of log unionized ammonia LCso versus temperature applies within the reported
uncertainty in the LCsoS over the range of 6 to 30C and (b) temperature effects on long-term
mortality are similar to those on acute mortality. For invertebrates, acute toxicity data suggest
that ammonia toxicity, when expressed in terms of unionized ammonia, does not decrease, and
possibly even increases, with increasing temperature.  Quantifying and adjusting data for this
relationship is not necessary because even at warm temperatures invertebrates are generally more
resistant to acute ammonia toxicity than fishes and thus their precise sensitivities are of limited
importance to the criterion.  At low temperatures, they are even more resistant relative to fishes
and thus their precise sensitivity is even less important to the criterion.

Based on this information, the two issues raised above were resolved as follows:
    1.  TCAPs will  not be used in the ammonia criterion.  This does not mean that the notion of
       high temperature exacerbating ammonia toxicity is wrong; rather, it reflects the fact that
       such an effect is not evident in the available data, which cover a wide temperature range.
   2.  A CMC, if it were expressed as unionized ammonia (rather than total ammonia, used in
       this document) would continue to be lower at lower temperatures,  consistent with the
       observed temperature dependence of ammonia toxicity to the most sensitive species, i.e.,
       fishes. Although it is possible that the temperature relationship differs among fish species
       and that using the same relationship for all fish species introduces  some uncertainty,
       specifying a relationship for each fish species is not possible with current data and would
       also introduce considerable uncertainty.

       Therefore, for a criterion expressed in terms of unionized ammonia, available data
support the continued use of a generic temperature relationship similar to that in the 1984/1985
ammonia criteria  document, but without TCAPs.
                                           204

-------
Figure M.2. The Effect of Temperature on Acute Ammonia Toxicity in Terms of Total Ammonia Nitrogen.
Symbols denote LCsos, solid lines denote regressions for individual datasets, and dotted lines denote pooled regressions over all
datasets.
               150
               100
                80
                60
                40
                30
            Fathead Minnow
          (Thurston etal. 1983)
             O
             O
80
SO
40
30
20
15
    Rainbow Trout
(Thurston and Russo 1983) 100
                  80
                                                             20
                                                             15
Channel Catfish
 (Cary 1976)
30

20

15

10
8

6
4

Channel Catfish
(Colt & Tchobanoglous 1976) 40

30

_ _ on
15

10
8
I I I r.
Rainbow Trout
- (Ministry of Tech 1968)

.
^ -^
o ^
>^^<^ 	
o
o

1 1 1
600
400
300
200
150
100
 80
                                                                                                                                        Atlantic Salmon
8
o
40
30
20
15
10
8
6
Bluegill
(Roseboom & Richey 1977)
.
r~7~T 77-rn*--^
_

1 1 1
                                              Channel Catfish   so
                                          (Roseboom & Richey 1977)
                                                             40
                                                             30
                                                       Largemouth Bass
                                                     (Roseboom & Richey 1977)
                                                 Rainbow Trout
                                            (Reinbold SPescitelli 1982a)
                                                                              Blu
                                                                       (Reinbold & Pi
                40
                30
                20
                15
                       Fathead Minnow
       (Reinbold & Pescitdli 1982a) 100
                          80
       .                  60
                                              Striped Bass
                                         -   (Hazel etal. 1971)
                       10
                             20
                                  30
                          40
                          30
                          20
                          15
                                              10
                                                   20
                                                      Three-Spined Stickleback ,
                                                        (Hazel etal. 1971)
                                                         30
                                                   Fathead Minnow
                                                  (DeGraeve et al. 1987)
                                                                    10
                                                                          20    30    0     10
                                                                          TEMPERATURE
                                                                                    20
                                                                                  (C)
                                                              400
                                                              300
                                            Channel Catfish
                                          (DeGraeve et al. 1987)
                                                                                                     30
                                                                                                                 10
                                                                                                                      20
                                                                                                                            30
       Fathes
      (Nimmo
id Minnow
etal. 1989)
                                                                                                                                       10
                                                                                                                                             20
                                                                                                                                                  30
                                                                             205

-------
Figure M.3. The Effect of Temperature on pH-Adjusted Acute Ammonia Toxicity in Terms of Total Ammonia Nitrogen.
LCsos are adjusted to the mean pH of the dataset based on the pooled relationship of acute toxicity to pH.  Symbols denote LCsos, solid
lines denote regressions for individual datasets, and dotted lines denote pooled regression over all datasets
15O

1OO
 SO
 6O

 4O
 3D
                   Fathead Minnow
                  (Thurston etal. 1983)
    Rainbow Trout
(Thurston and Russo 1983) 100
                80
                                                      40

                                                      30


                                                      20

                                                      15
                       Channel Catfish
                        (Gary 1976)
30
20
15
10
8
6
4
Channel Catfish
(Colt &Tchobanoglous 1976) 40
30
15
10
8
I I I R
Rainbow Trout
 (Ministry of Tech 1968)
"<"> O
 v o
_
1 1 1
                                                                              200

                                                                              150
                                                                              100
                                                                              80
                                                                                                                           Atlantic Salmon
         O
         IO
         O
         
-------
       This raised a new issue, however, because the criterion expressed in terms of total
ammonia is nearly constant over all tested temperatures, and the small effect of temperature on
the total ammonia criterion in the 1984/1985 criteria document is largely an artifact of
conducting regression analyses in terms of unionized ammonia and is not indicative of any
established, significant trend. It was thought that the expression and implementation of the
ammonia criterion might have been simplified if temperature were dropped as a modifying
factor, which might have been possible if ammonia toxicity is expressed in terms of total
ammonia. Furthermore, permit limits and compliance are usually expressed in terms of total
ammonia nitrogen, and  so expressing the criterion in terms of total ammonia nitrogen would
simplify its implementation by eliminating conversions to and from unionized ammonia.
Because of such benefits and because there are no compelling scientific or practical reasons for
expressing the criterion in terms of unionized ammonia, the freshwater toxicity data concerning
temperature dependence were reanalyzed in terms of total ammonia nitrogen.
       The data analyzed are from the studies included in the 1984/1985 ammonia criteria
document and the studies of DeGraeve et al. (1987),  Nimmo et al. (1989), and Knoph (1992).
All analyses were conducted in terms of total ammonia nitrogen, either as reported by the authors
or as converted by us from reported values for unionized ammonia, pH, and temperature using
the speciation relationship of Emerson et al. (1975).  The data are presented in Figure M.2 and
show considerable diversity, with some datasets showing decreasing toxicity with increasing
temperature, some showing increasing toxicity, and some showing virtually no change. There
are even differences among studies using the same test species. However, in no case is the effect
of temperature particularly large, being no more than a factor of 1.5 over the range of any
dataset, except for the Johnny darter data of Nimmo et al. (1989). In some studies, test pH was
correlated with test temperature. To reduce the confounding effect of pH, the total ammonia
LCso was adjusted to the mean pH of the data for the study using the pH relationship discussed in
the next section of this appendix.  These adjusted data are shown in Figure  M.3 and also show
neither large effects nor any clear consistency among or within species or studies.
                                          207

-------
       For each dataset containing at least three data points, a linear regression of log LCso
versus temperature was conducted (Draper and Smith 1981) and the resulting regression lines are
plotted as solid lines in Figures M.2 and M.3.  These regressions are significant at the 0.05 level
for only one dataset (the unadjusted fathead minnow data of Thurston et al. 1983); for this
dataset, however, the regression is not significant when the data are adjusted for the fact that pH
values were lower in the low-temperature tests than in the high-temperature tests. Slopes from
regression analyses of datasets in Figure M.3 range from -0.015 to 0.013, compared to a range
from 0.015 to 0.054 when expressed in terms of unionized ammonia (Erickson 1985). This
narrower range of slopes in terms of total ammonia nitrogen also argues for use of total
ammonia, rather than unionized ammonia, because there is less uncertainty associated with the
generic relationship.  For  datasets with just two points, Figures M.2 and M.3 also show the
slopes for comparative purposes. Based on the typical uncertainty of LCsos, these slopes also
would not be expected to  be significant, except perhaps for the Johnny darter data of Nimmo et
al. (1989).
       A multiple least-squares linear regression (Draper and Smith 1981) using all datasets
(with a common slope for all datasets and separate intercept for each dataset) was conducted,
both with and without pH adjustment. The results of these pooled analyses are plotted as dotted
lines in Figures M.2 and M.3 to show that the residual errors for the common regression line
compared to the individual regression lines are not large relative to the typical uncertainty of
LCsos. To better show the overall fit of the common regression line, the data are also plotted
together in Figure M.4 by dividing each point by the regression estimate of the LCso at 20C for
its dataset.  This normalization is done strictly for data display purposes because it allows all of
the datasets to be overlaid without changing their temperature dependence, so that the overall
scatter around the common regression line can be better examined.  The data show no obvious
trend, with the best-fit slope explaining only 1% of the sum of squares around the means for the
pH-adjusted data and 0%  for the unadjusted data.  The one available chronic dataset (DeGraeve
et al. 1987) also shows no significant temperature effect when expressed in terms of total
                                           208

-------
ammonia nitrogen (Figure M.5) and adjusted for pH differences among the tests. (These tests
and the calculation of the LC20s are discussed in detail later.)
       Based on the small magnitude and the variability of the effect of temperature on total
ammonia acute and chronic toxicity values for fish, the 1998 Update did not include temperature
as a modifying factor for a total ammonia criterion. For invertebrates, it should be noted that the
1998 Update's assumption that temperature had no effect on the toxicity of total ammonia differs
from the 1984/1985 criteria document's assumption that temperature has no effect on the toxicity
of unionized ammonia. This inconsistency is resolved during the 1999 re-examination of data, to
be discussed shortly, by incorporating a relationship between temperature and total ammonia
toxicity to invertebrates. That relationship, however, does not affect the (1999 update) CMC
because invertebrates are not among the acutely sensitive taxa.
                                           209

-------
Figure M.4. The Effect of Temperature on Normalized Acute Ammonia Toxicity in Terms of Total Ammonia Nitrogen.
Data were normalized by dividing measured LCsos by regression estimates of LCsos at 20C for individual datasets for Figure M.2
(top plot) and Figure M.3 (bottom plot).
               2
              1.5
"   1
< 0.8
O 0.6
< 0.4

R   3
Q
LU
M   2
< 1.5

1   1
   0.8
   0.6
   0.4
                                                          Not pH Adjusted
                                    10        15       20        25       30
                                                              pH Adjusted
                                                                   v
                                    10        15       20
                                      TEMPERATURE (C)
                                                       25
30
                                                                                v
                                                                                a
                                                                                
                                                                                          
                                                                                          o
                                                                                          
                     ChannelCatfish
                      Rainbow Trout
                        Bluegill
                     ChannelCatfish
                     LargemouthBass
                      Rainbow Trout
                        Bluegill
                     Fathead Minnow
                      Striped Bass
                       Stickleback
                     Fathead Minnow
                     ChannelCatfish
                     AtlanticSalmon
                      Johnny Darter
                     Fathead Minnow
                                                              210

-------
Figure M.5. The Effect of Temperature on Chronic Ammonia Lethality to Fathead Minnows in Terms of Total Ammonia
Nitrogen (DeGraeve et al. 1987).
Symbols denote LC20s and 95% confidence limits and lines denote linear regressions of log LC versus temperature. Figure on left is
for estimated LCsos at test pH and figure on right is for LCsos adjusted to pH=7.5 based on pooled relationship of chronic toxicity to
pH.
          100
           50
        o>

        o
           20
        o
           10
                       Data Not pH Adjusted
                         10    15    20   25    30
                          Temperature (C)
                                                     100
                                                      50
                                                      20
                                                      10
Data Adjusted to pH 7.5
 10    15   20    25    30
   Temperature (C)
                                                         211

-------
       The amount of uncertainty in this approach to the CMC can be demonstrated to be small
by considering how the criterion would differ if total ammonia toxicity was adjusted based on
the slopes in various datasets. Because the bulk of the toxicity data used in the derivation of the
criterion is within a few degrees of 20C, the temperature relationship used has very little effect
on the criterion near this temperature, but rather has the greatest effect on the criterion at much
higher or lower temperatures. If the average slope for the pH-adjusted acute data from Figure
M.4 is used, the total ammonia CMC at 5C would be only about 6% higher than at 20C.  The
smallest and largest slopes from the acute regressions for individual species in Figure M.3 would
produce a range from 40% lower to 68% higher at 5C than at 20C, but this greatly overstates
the uncertainty because effects on a CMC derived from many datasets should not be near these
extremes.

1999 Re-examination of Temperature Dependence - Acute Toxicity
       The previous section, reproduced with relatively few changes from the 1998 Update,
included an analysis of available data on the temperature dependence of acute ammonia toxicity
to fish.  These data (in Figures M.2, M.3, and M.4) consisted of 20 different data sets drawn from
11 different studies and included nine different species, four of these species being in more than
one study. Data from Arthur et al. (1987) were not used in the 1998 analysis because those
authors  reported concerns about factors confounding temperature in their data set. Linear
regression analysis of log LCso (total ammonia basis) versus temperature was conducted on each
data set, both with and without correcting for pH as  a confounding factor.  No consistent trend
with temperature was observed and only one data set showed a slope different than zero at the
0.05 level of statistical significance.  Therefore, a pooled linear regression analysis was
conducted across all data to derive an average slope, which was very close to zero and also not
statistically significant. On the basis of this analysis, the 1998 Update did not include any
temperature dependence for criteria to protect fish from acute ammonia  toxicity.
       In response to public comment (U.S. EPA, 1999), the 1998 analysis was re-examined.
This re-examination indicated that it is appropriate to handle the temperature dependencies of
fish and invertebrates separately. For invertebrates,  the inclusion of the Arthur et al. (1987) data
in the regression analysis yields a change in the temperature dependency that is ultimately
reflected in the difference between the 1999 CCC and the 1998 CCC.
                                          212

-------
       In the 1998 Update, EPA did not use the Arthur et al. (1987) data because of those
authors concerns that other variable factors in their tests, conducted during different seasons,
might have had a potential to confound their results. In re-examining their data in response to
comments, however, EPA found that most of the fish data from Arthur et al. showed behavior
similar to that from numerous other investigators: that is, little relationship with temperature
when expressed as total ammonia. Consequently, it was concluded that the other variable factors
were unlikely to be confounding the results.
       For fish, although the temperature dependency is unchanged from 1998, additional
documentation is provided here, primarily because  the apparent difference between fish acute
and chronic temperature dependencies is now used  in the projection of the invertebrate chronic
temperature dependency.
       First presented here will be more details on  the regression analyses of the individual data
sets conducted for the Update, plus similar analyses of the data of Arthur et al. A linear
regression was conducted on each data set using the equation:

                         log(LC50T) = log(LC5020) + S  (T- 20)

where LCSOj is the total ammonia LC50 at temperature T, S is the slope of log LC50 versus
temperature, and LC5020 is the estimated total ammonia LC50 at 20C. For completeness, this
effort included data sets  with just two points, although the regression analysis then provides a
perfect fit and has no residual error, so that confidence limits, significance levels, etc. cannot be
evaluated using normal methods. In such cases, the mean squared error (MSE) of data around
the regression was assumed to be equal to the weighted mean residual MSE for the larger data
sets, so that approximate significance levels could be determined.

Fish acute data:
       Table M.I presents the results of the regression analysis for each data set, with data
adjusted to pH=8 based on the average pH relationship used in the 1998  and 1999 Updates.
Plots of these relationships (except for Arthur et al. 1987) are in Figure M.3 in the previous
section.
                                          213

-------
       Of the 24 entries in Table M.I, nearly half (11) have very small slopes of between -0.006
and +0.006, a range which corresponds to a factor of 1.3 change or less in LCso for a 20C
temperature change and is less than normal data variability. Of these 11, five have positive
slopes and six have negative slopes.  Of the 13 entries with steeper slopes, five have positive
slopes and eight have negative slopes.  Among the data sets used in the Update, only two of the
regressions are statistically significant at the 0.05 level, one with a negative slope and one with a
positive slope, although two other sets (for fathead minnows from DeGraeve et al. 1987 and
Reinbold and Pescitelli 1982b) are close to being significant.  (The level of significance for the
Johnny darter data set differs from what was reported in the previous section because it consists
of two different sets which were analyzed separately in the 1998 analysis, but combined here
because they were not significantly different.) Of the five data sets from Arthur et al. (1987),
only one is significant at the 0.05 level. For species with more than one entry, slopes vary
considerably. This general lack of statistical significance and consistency precludes any reliable
assessments based on these individual analyses.
       The 1998 Update therefore conducted a pooled regression analysis to determine whether
the combined acute toxicity data sets indicated any significant average trends with temperature.
Table M.2 summarizes the mean trends determined in various pooled analyses.  The first entry is
the pooled analysis conducted for the 1998 Update, which included all the data in Table M. 1
above except the fish data of Arthur et al. (1987).  The slope from this pooled analysis was very
small (-0.0023), and was not statistically significant despite the large number of data. The
second entry adds the fish data of Arthur et al.; it does result in a statistically significant trend.
The mean slope (-0.0058) is  still small, but does amount to a 23% decrease in LCso per 20C
increase in temperature. However, this slope is heavily influenced by two points with high
residual (>3o) deviations.  One of these points is a test at 3.4C by Arthur et al. (1987) with
fathead minnows, which showed much greater effects of low temperature than other studies with
the same species.  The other point is for a test at 22.6C by Arthur et al. (1987) with walleye,
which showed very high sensitivity and was part of a set of three tests which used fish from
different sources, potentially confounding the temperature effects. Without these two data, the
regression has an even lower slope and is not significant at the 0.05 level (third entry in Table
M.2). Overall, these analyses of the fish acute data suggest a weak overall trend of higher LCsos
                                           214

-------
at low temperatures, with a logLCso versus temperature slope in the -0.002 to -0.006 range, but
of questionable statistical significance.
Table M.l. Results of Regression Analysis of logLCso (mg/L total ammonia nitrogen)
Versus Temperature (C) for Individual Data Sets on the Temperature Dependence of
Acute Ammonia Toxicity.
Table M.1
Reference/
Species
Thurstonetal. (1983)
Fathead Minnow
Thurston and Russo (1983)
Rainbow Trout
Gary (1976)
Channel Catfish
Colt and Tchobanoglous (1976)
Channel Catfish
Ministry of Technology (1967)
Rainbow Trout
Roseboom and Richey (1977)
Bluegill Sunfish
Roseboom and Richey (1977)
Channel Catfish
Roseboom and Richey (1977)
Largemouth Bass
Reinbold and Pescitelli (1982b)
Rainbow Trout
Reinbold and Pescitelli (1982b)
Bluegill Sunfish
Reinbold and Pescitelli (1982b)
Fathead Minnow
Hazel etal. (1971)
Striped Bass
Hazel etal. (1971)
Three-Spined Stickleback
DeGraeve etal. (1987)
Fathead Minnow
DeGraeve etal. (1987)
Channel Catfish
Knopf (1992)
Atlantic Salmon
Knopf (1992)
Atlantic Salmon
Nimmo etal. (1989)
Johnny Darter
Nimmo etal. (1989)
Fathead Minnow
Arthur etal. (1987)
Fathead Minnow
Slope
(95% CL)
-0.0014
(-0.013,-K).013)
+0.0059
(-0.017,+0.029)
+0.0028
(-0.008,+0.013)
+0.0004
(-0.037,+0.038)
+0.0008
(-0.018,+0.019)
+0.024
(-0.025,+0.073)
+0.020
(-0.029,+0.069)
-0.0029
(-0.040,+0.034)
-0.0088
(-0.028,+0.010)
-0.0004
(-0.027,+0.026)
-0.0153
(-0.031,+0.009)
-0.0163
(-0.057,+0.025)
-0.0106
(-0.053,+0.032)
-0.0052
(-0.012, +0.002)
-0.0088
(-0.016,-0.002)
-0.0035
(-0.027,+0.020)
+0.0163
(-0.075,+0.108)
+0.021
(+0.000,+0.043)
+0.0070
(-0.014,+0.028)
-0.032
(-0.059,-0.004)
logLC5020
(95% CL)
1.641
(1.582,1.700)
1.350
(1.204,1.495)
1.676
(1.593,1.758)
1.604
(1.350,1.858)
1.231
(1.010,1.452)
1.089
(0.803,1.375)
1.482
(1.196,1.768)
1.237
(0.972,1.502)
1.396
(1.159,1.632)
1.370
(1.059,1.681)
1.429
(1.243,1.615)
1.274
(1.105,1.443)
1.390
(1.214,1.567)
1.617
(1.563,1.670)
1.648
(1.595,1.701)
1.715
(1.406,2.025)
1.636
(0.405,2.866)
1.463
(1.248,1.678)
1.568
(1.353,1.782)
1.762
(1.493,2.030)
Residual SD
(r2)
0.112
(<1%)
0.121
(2%)
0.093
(2%)
0.016
(2%)
0.051
(1%)
-
-
-
0.088
(29%)
0.128
(0%)
0.076
(89%)
0.076
(60%)
0.081
(36%)
0.061
(36%)
0.061
(62%)
0.097
(7%)
0.054
(84%)
0.072
(90%)
-
0.105
(92%)
FREGR
(a)
0.06
(0.81)
0.30
(0.59)
0.32
(0.58)
0.02
(0.91)
0.03
(0.88)
0.95
(0.33)
0.68
(0.41)
0.02
(0.88)
1.63
(0.27)
0.00
(0.96)
16.6
(0.06)
2.93
(0.23)
1.14
(0.40)
3.33
(0.12)
9.76
(0.02)
0.22
(0.067)
5.18
(0.26)
18.1
(0.05)
0.42
(0.52)
24.8
(0.04)
                                        215

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Table M.1
Reference/
Species
Arthur etal. (1987)
Rainbow Trout
Arthur etal. (1987)
Channel Catfish
Arthur etal. (1987)
White Sucker
Arthur etal. (1987)
Walleye
Slope
(95% CL)
-0.0100
(-0.053,+0.033)
-0.0058
(-0.038,+0.027)
+0.0007
(-0.23,+0.25)
-0.038
(-0.327,+0.250)
logLC502o
(95% CL)
1.348
(0.937,1.758)
1.558
(1.230,1.886)
1.902
(1.657,2.147)
1.216
(-1.911,4.343)
Residual SD
(r2)
0.158
(16%)
0.030
(84%)
0.048
(1%)
0.306
(74%)
FREGR
(a)
0.56
(0.51)
5.15
(0.26)
0.01
(0.92)
2.84
(0.34)
Table M.2.  Results of Regression Analysis of log LCso (mg/L total ammonia nitrogen)
Versus Temperature (C) for Pooled Data Sets on the Temperature Dependence of Acute
Ammonia Toxicity to Fish.
Data Sets Pooled
All Data excluding Arthur et al.
All Data including Arthur et al.
All Data including Arthur et al. except "Outliers"
Fathead Minnow excluding Arthur et al
Fathead Minnow including Arthur et al.
Fathead Minnow including Arthur et al. excl "Outlier"
Rainbow Trout excluding Arthur et al.
Rainbow Trout including Arthur et al.
Channel Catfish excluding Arthur et al.
Channel Catfish including Arthur et al.
Bluegill Sunfish
Slope
(95% CL)
-0.0023
(-0.0057,+0.0011)
-0.0058
(-0.0094,-0.0022)
-0.0030
(-0.0063,+0.0002))
-0.0063
(-0.0122,-0.0005)
-0.0105
(-0.0169,-0.0049)
-0.0073
(-0.0129,-0.0017)
-0.0013
(0.0122,+0.0096)
-0.0034
(-0.0133,+0.0064)
-0.0030
(-0.0091,+0.0031)
-0.0034
(-0.088,+0.021)
+0.0006
(-0.0172,+0.0184)
Residual SD
(r2)
0.105
(2%)
0.122
(8%)
0.105
(3%)
0.106
(11%)
0.120
(25%)
0.106
(15%)
0.109
(<1%)
0.115
(2%)
0.088
(4%)
0.085
(6%)
0.120
(<1%)
FREGR
(0)
1.79
(0.18)
10.3
(<0.01)
3.52
(0.06)
4.76
(0.04)
13.4
(<0.01)
6.85
(0.01)
0.06
(0.80)
0.51
(0.48)
1.05
(0.32)
1.64
0.21)
0.01
(0.92)
                                       216

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       It is also useful to consider separately the overall trends for different fish species.  Table
M.I includes multiple studies with fathead minnows, rainbow trout, channel catfish, and bluegill
sunfish. Table M.2 includes the results of pooled analyses for each of these species, both with
and without data from Arthur et al. (1987).  For rainbow trout, bluegill, and channel catfish, the
regressions were not statistically significant. The bluegill data indicated virtually no temperature
effect, whereas weak trends similar to the pooled analyses over all data sets were suggested in
the channel catfish data (slope = -0.0030 without and -0.0034 with Arthur et al. data) and
rainbow trout data (slope = -0.0014 without and -0.0034 with Arthur et al. data). For fathead
minnow, the pooled analyses were statistically significant and stronger, with slopes ranging from
-0.0063 to -0.0105 depending on the treatment of data from Arthur et al.  Such slopes for fathead
minnow would result in moderate effects over a broad temperature range:  a 20C decrease in
temperature would result in a 33% to 62% increase in LCso.  However, this species is not
sensitive enough that this would affect the acute criterion values. For the species used in the
acute criterion calculations, no temperature correction for acute toxicity is appropriate due to the
lack of any significant trend over all data sets.

Invertebrate acute data:
       Unlike fish, available acute toxicity data for invertebrates indicates that their acute
sensitivity to ammonia decreases substantially with decreasing temperature. The 1998 Update
noted this temperature dependence, but did not present any analysis of it because tested
invertebrates were sufficiently tolerant to acute ammonia exposures that this dependence would
not affect the acute ammonia criterion. The 1998 Update also noted that this temperature
dependence should be a consideration in setting low temperature chronic criterion, but did not
provide any specific analysis regarding this.  This section will provide an analysis of available
information on the temperature-dependence of invertebrate acute ammonia toxicity, to be used
later for estimating the temperature-dependence of chronic ammonia toxicity.
       Arthur et al. (1987) provide the only available data on the temperature dependence of
acute ammonia toxicity to invertebrates. As noted earlier, these toxicity tests did not specifically
test temperature effects, but rather were seasonal tests in which various chemical characteristics
of the tests water varied as well as temperature. Test organisms were whatever were available in
outdoor experimental streams at the time of the test, so the size,  life stage, and condition of the
                                           217

-------
organisms also varied.  The authors of this study expressed some doubt as to how much of the
effects they observed were actually due to temperature. However, for invertebrates, they did
observe strong correlations of total ammonia toxicity with temperature. Confounding factors
might contribute somewhat to this correlation, but temperature is still likely the primary
underlying cause. If other factors were largely responsible for the apparent effects of
temperature, it would be expected that strong correlations with temperature would also be
evident in their fish data.  However, as discussed above, the fish data usually showed much
weaker effects of temperature, similar to other studies with fewer confounding factors.
       These invertebrate acute data were analyzed using the same regression model and
techniques as discussed above for fish. The study of Arthur et al. (1987) included data sets for
nine invertebrate species, but two of these sets were not included in the analysis because they
consisted of two tests at temperatures only 3C apart.  For the other species, the number of tests
ranged from 2 to 6, with temperature ranges of from 9C to 21 C. Table M.I summarizes the
regression results for the data sets of each species and for pooled analyses conducted on (a) all
seven species, and (b) three species that had more than two tests and a temperature range of at
least 15C. All data were corrected to pH 8 based on the average acute pH relationship
(described later). All species show substantially greater tolerance to ammonia at lower
temperatures, and in most cases the significance level  of the regression is better than 0.05.  (As
for the analysis of the fish data, when there were just two tests for a species, the significance
level for the individual  analysis is based on the MSB from the pooled analysis.) The slope of log
LCso versus temperature does not vary widely, ranging from  -0.028 to -0.046 and being -0.036
for both pooled analyses.  Figure M.6 provides plots of this data and the regression lines
comparable to those for fish previously shown in Figures M.3 and M.4.
       Again, because  invertebrates are not among the species acutely sensitive to ammonia (in
the 1999 update), the invertebrate acute temperature slope does not affect the formulation of the
acute criterion. It will be used subsequently, however, in formulating the invertebrate chronic
temperature slope, which ultimately will affect the formulation of the chronic criterion.
                                           218

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1999 Re-examination of Temperature Dependence - Chronic Toxicity
Fish chronic data
       As in the 1998 Update, the only available data on the temperature dependence of chronic
ammonia toxicity are from the study by DeGraeve et al. (1987) on survival of juvenile fathead
minnows during 30-day exposures to ammonia at temperatures ranging from 6C to 30C. In
contrast to acute toxicity, which for fathead minnows showed sensitivity to be slightly reduced at
low temperatures, this data on chronic toxicity suggested greater sensitivity at low temperatures.
However, this trend was small, at least once the confounding effect of pH was corrected for, and
not statistically significant.  Based on this analysis, the 1998 Update treated effect concentrations
for chronic ammonia toxicity to fish as it did for acute toxicity:  as being invariant with
temperature.  However, the 1998 Update also noted that, if seasonal variations in temperature
cause a shift in what endpoints the criterion should be based on, the chronic criterion could have
a seasonal temperature dependence even if effect concentrations for specific chronic endpoints
do not vary with temperature (This is discussed in the 1999  AQWC document under the section
named Seasonality of Chronic Toxicity Endpoints).
       This section will provide more details regarding the  analysis of the chronic  toxicity data
from DeGraeve et al. (1987), and a comparison of its temperature dependence to that of acute
toxicity in the same study. Figure M.5 showed the temperature dependence of acute and chronic
effect concentrations from this study.
       An important issue in this analysis is the confounding effect of pH on the apparent effect
of temperature, because pH increased with decreasing temperature in these chronic exposures.
To examine what the effect of temperature is, the  effect concentrations should be adjusted to a
common pH using an equation that accounts for the effect of pH. A critical question then is what
pH equation to use, because no study exists for the effect of pH on this particular chronic
endpoint (juvenile 30-day survival), or on the interaction of pH and temperature effects. The
1998 Update used the pH relationship derived for the chronic criterion.  Of the pH relationships
available, that one is probably most appropriate, but entails  some uncertainty. To evaluate how
conclusions about temperature effects will vary if the true pH relationship is different, this
analysis will also use the pH relationship for acute toxicity to fathead minnows from  Thurston et
al. (1983).  This relationship likely represents an extreme possibility; i.e., it assumes that chronic
                                           219

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toxicity pH relationships are the same acute ones, contrary to what is indicated by available
chronic studies.
                                            220

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Figure M.6. Temperature Dependence of Acute Ammonia Toxicity to Invertebrate
Organisms from Arthur et al. (1987).

                 Temperature Dependence of Acute Ammonia Toxicity
                   to Invertebrate Organisms from Arthur et al. (1987).
               (Solid line denotes species slope; Dotted line denotes pooled slope)
         500 r
                  Physa gyrina
                                   500
                                   200
                                   100
                                    50
                                    20
                                  1000
                                   500
                                   200
                                   100
                                    50
Drangonyx pseudogracilis
                                           10
                                                  20
                                                        30
                                         Asellus recovitzai
                                                            200
                                                            100
                                                             50
                                                             20
                                                             10
                                                           2000
                                                            1000
                                                            500
                                                            200
                                                            100
Musculium transversum
                                                                     10
                                                                           20
                                                                                 30
                            Philarctus quaeris
                              30
                                           10
                                                  20
                                                        30
                                                                     10
                                                                           20
                                                                                 30
         5000
         2000
         1000
         500
         200
                Orconectes immunis
0 10
o
CM
o 5
in
0
	 i
~o

= 2
ttt
LU
&
_l 1
T3

-------
       Using the pooled chronic pH relationship (presented later in this document), slope=0.010,
significance=0.13, and r2=0.76.  Using the fathead minnow acute pH relationship, slope=0.0053,
significance=0.32, and r2=0.45.  In neither case is the regression statistically significant at the 5
percent level, due to the amount and variability of the data.  Nevertheless, it should be noted that,
in both cases, the chronic data show an upward trend with temperature, in contrast to that
observed for acute toxicity.  Even under the extreme assumption that these data have  a pH
relationship similar to acute toxicity, the slope is 0.005, and is twice this under the assumption
that these data follow the chronic pH relationship. Thus, even if fathead minnows show
increased acute tolerance to ammonia at low temperatures, a similar assumption for chronic
toxicity is contraindicated.
       The difference between acute and chronic temperature relationships can be better
assessed by looking at acute-chronic ratios. Figure M.7 shows the temperature dependence of
the ratio of the acute LCso to the chronic LC20- The chronic LC2os used for the ACRs were
normalized via the above two alternative pH relationships, while the acute LCsos were
normalized only using the acute pH relationship.  The results show that for either pH
normalization alternative, the ACRs are substantially higher at lower temperatures than at higher
temperatures.  If the chronic data are pH-normalized using the chronic pH relationship, the
regression is significant at the 0.05 level, with a slope of -0.0155.  If normalized using the acute
pH relationship, the slope is less (-0.0110), but even with this extreme assumption, there is only a
13 percent probability that the regression slope arose by chance.
       It is not surprising that acute-chronic ratios are higher at low temperature. Temperature
can affect toxicity in a variety of ways, one of which  is simply to slow down responses. This is
evident in some reports on the effect of temperature on ammonia toxicity. For example, for the
rainbow trout data from Ministry of Technology (1967), there was little effect of temperature on
total ammonia LCsos at 96 hours, but at shorter durations LCsos increased with decreasing
temperature.  The overall impact on the temperature dependence of LCsos and ACRs  will depend
on the duration of the acute toxicity test and on the speed of action of acute ammonia toxicity in
the species  of concern. However, temperature is likely to affect ammonia toxicity in  multiple
ways, some of which would alter acute and chronic toxicity similarly. Nonetheless, to some
degree the ratio of effect concentrations at different durations is expected to increase  at lower
                                           222

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temperatures.  This expectation, as well as the empirical evidence, argues against the direct
application of acute temperature relationships to chronic toxicity.
Figure M.7. Temperature-Dependence of Ammonia ACRs for Fathead Minnows.
(The choice of reference condition, pH=8 here versus pH=7.5 in Figure M.5, has no effect on
slope or significance.)
         Temperature-dependence of ammonia acute:chronic ratios for fathead minnows
      10
   o
   CM
   CO
   O
   t-j
   O
   m
   P
   D
   O
   CD
   o>
   o
   o
Chronic Data Adjusted to pH=8
   Using Update Average
   Chronic pH Relationship
 Slope = -0.0155
 r2 = 90%
 Siglevel = 0.05
                 10   15   20   25
                   Temperature (C)
                         30
                                10
Chronic Data Adjusted to pH=8
   Using Fathead Minnow
   Acute pH Relationship
 Slope = -0.0111
 r2 = 80%
 Siglevel = 0.11
     10    15    20    25
      Temperature (C)
30
Invertebrate chronic projections
       No data are available on the effect of temperature on chronic ammonia toxicity to
invertebrates.  Because invertebrates are much more acutely tolerant at low temperatures than at
high temperatures, it is likely that their chronic toxicity would also show some temperature
dependence. However, as discussed above, there is reason to expect acute and chronic toxicity to
vary somewhat differently with temperature, with acute-chronic ratios increasing at low
temperature, especially for organisms for which acute ammonia toxicity is not especially fast,
which is the case for invertebrates (Thurston et al. 1984b).  The observed trend in the fathead
minnow ACRs provides support for this expectation.
       The critical question then becomes, how much of the acute temperature slope for
invertebrates should be assumed to apply to chronic toxicity?  If this slope is predominantly due
                                           223

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to temperature-induced delays of acute toxicity, chronic toxicity might have very little slope.  If
this slope is not at all due to such delays, then all the slope should be applied to chronic toxicity.
       One option for an objective mathematical prediction of the invertebrate chronic slope is
to assume that the difference between acute and chronic slopes will be the same for fish and
invertebrates, potentially implying that the effect of temperature on the kinetics of toxicity is
roughly the same for fish and invertebrates. In this case the invertebrate chronic slope would be
the difference between -0.036, the average invertebrate acute slope, and -0.016, the observed
slope for fish acute-chronic ratios.  This would yield an invertebrate chronic slope of -0.020.
This correction still applies most of the acute slope to chronic toxicity, but recognizes that the
chronic slope should probably be less steep.
       It is recognized that few data are available to define the Figure M.7 fish ACR slope, and
that the assumption the invertebrate ACR slope would equal the fish ACR slope is quite
uncertain despite having some theoretical underpinning in the kinetics of toxicity. Consequently
a second option is to equate the invertebrate chronic  slope to the invertebrate acute slope (-0.036)
minus one-half the fish ACR slope (-0.016/2). This splits the difference between no correction
and full correction for the fish ACR slope, resulting in an invertebrate chronic slope of -0.028.
       A third, related option is suggested from the appearance of data in the last two plots in
Figure M.6, plots of "All Species" and "Physa, Crangonyx, Musculium".  These plots suggest  a
steeper invertebrate acute slope at higher temperatures than at very low temperature. At greater
than 10C,  these data also comfortably fit a slope of -0.044.  If such a slope were used to fit those
data, however, a concentration plateau would need to be imposed  between 5 and  10C to avoid
over-estimating the acute effect concentrations measured near 5C.  If the invertebrate chronic
slope is obtained by subtracting the full value of the fish ACR slope (-0.016), this would yield
the same invertebrate chronic slope, -0.028, as the  option in the previous paragraph.  In this case,
however, concentrations would be capped between 5 and 10C in  order to reflect the implied
attenuation of slope at low temperature relative to higher temperatures.
       EPA selected this third option, a compromise between the  first two options, for defining
the invertebrate chronic temperature slope in formulating the CCC, discussed later.  This
provides a good  fit to the available information.
                                           224

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Appendix N.  Site-Specific Criteria for Ammonia.

Recalculation Procedure for Site-specific Criteria Derivation
       The water quality standards (WQS) regulation at 40 CFR 131.1 l(b)(l)(ii) provides
states with the opportunity to adopt water quality criteria that are ".. .modified to reflect site-
specific conditions." As with any criteria, site-specific criteria must be based on a sound
scientific rationale in order to protect the designated use and are subject to review and approval
or disapproval by EPA.
       The recalculation procedure for site-specific criteria derivation is intended to allow site-
specific criteria that differ from national criteria recommendations (i.e., concentrations that are
higher or lower than national  recommendations) where there are demonstrated differences in
sensitivity between the aquatic species that occur at the site and those that were used to derive
the national criteria recommendations. The national dataset may contain aquatic species that are
sensitive to a particular pollutant, but these or comparably sensitive species might not occur at
the site (e.g., freshwater mussels are included in the national ammonia dataset but may not be
present at a particular site). On the other hand, a species that is critical at the site might be
sensitive to the pollutant and  require site-specific criteria that are lower than the national
recommended criteria.
       In  the case of ammonia, where a state demonstrates that mussels are not present on a site-
specific basis, the recalculation procedure may be used to remove the mussel species from the
national criteria dataset to better represent the species present at the site. For example, many of
the commonly occurring freshwater bivalves (e.g., pea clam) are more closely related to the non-
unionid fingernail  clam Musculium (which is the fourth most sensitive genus in the national
dataset for the chronic criterion) than to the unionid mussels Lampsilis and Villosa (which are the
two most sensitive genera in the national dataset for the chronic criterion). At sites where all
bivalves present are more closely related to Musculium than to Lampsilis and Villosa (i.e., where
unionid mussels are not present at the site), the recalculation procedure may be used to remove
Lampsilis and Villosa from the dataset because they would not be representative of the species
present at the site.  With removal of Lampsilis and Villosa from the national dataset, the
recalculation procedure  could result in criteria (and associated water quality-based effluent  limits
(WQBELs) based on such criteria) with higher concentrations than EPA's recommendations but
                                           225

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that are still protective of the designated use. The retention of Musculium in the dataset would
represent the other non-unionid bivalves present at the site, so the non-unionid bivalves would
still be protected ifLampsilis and Villosa were removed from the chronic dataset. However, at
sites where both unionid and non-unionid bivalves are present, all three bivalves in the national
chronic dataset (i.e., Lampsilis, Villosa, and Musculium) would be retained because they would
represent the species present at the site. The recalculation procedure describes how to compare
the taxonomy of species present at the site with the taxonomy of species in the national dataset.
       The number of tested genera (N) in the criteria calculations must be updated where
genera such as Lampsilis and Villosa are removed from the dataset. For example, if only the two
unionid mussels are removed from the dataset for the national chronic ammonia criterion, N
would be reduced from 16 genera in the national dataset to 14 genera in the site-specific dataset,
and this would affect the site-specific criteria values.
       Freshwater snails represent another sensitive freshwater species group for which acute
and chronic toxicity data exist  and are used in criteria derivation. Because freshwater snails tend
to be more ubiquitous in the environment, however, the existing data for these animals are not
likely to be deleted from the datasets in a criteria recalculation.
       As with any criteria, states choosing to utilize the recalculation procedure should ensure
that their site-specific criteria ".. .provide for the attainment and maintenance of the water quality
standards of downstream waters." 40 CFR   131.10(b).  In addition, states  should consider how
they will demonstrate that mussels are not present at the site before selecting this approach. For
additional information on the recalculation procedure, see EPA's Water Quality Standards
Handbook at http://www.epa.gov/wqshandbook.

Acute Criterion Magnitude Recalculation for Ammonia
Unionid Mussels Present and Oncorhynchus species Absent
      Where Oncorhynchus species are absent, EPA does not lower its acute criteria for
ammonia below the 5th percentile in order to protect the commercially and  recreationally
important adult rainbow trout, but instead, retains all tested species in the Order Salmoniformes
as tested surrogate species representing untested freshwater fish resident in the U.S. from another
Order. The lowest GMAV for a freshwater fish (vertebrate species) is 51.93 mg TAN/L for
Prosopium (Table 3).  Therefore, in this case, the CMC equals the lower of: a) 0.7249 times the
                                           226

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temperature adjusted lowest invertebrate GMAV (e.g., 17 mg TAN/L at pH 7.0 and 20 C), or (b)
0.7249 times the lowest freshwater fish GMAV (e.g., 38 mg TAN/L at pH 7.0), according to the
following temperature relationship:

                   CMC = 0.7249 X M IN (51.93, 23.12 X io-036X2-r))

Thus, the CMC increases with decreasing temperature as a result of increased invertebrate
insensitivity until it reaches a plateau of 37.65 mg TAN/L at  10.2C and below (51.93 mg
TAN/L x 0.7249), where the most sensitive taxa switches to the temperature invariant fish genus
Prosopium (Tables 5b and N.I; see also Oncorhynchus absent line in Figure 5a).  Note: while the
mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsonf) is a species in the same family as Oncorhynchus sp.
(i.e., Family: Salmonidae), it is also an appropriately sensitive surrogate species amongst all
freshwater fish in the Class Actinopterygii.

       The CMC where Oncorhynchus sp. are absent extrapolated across both temperature and
pH is as follows:
                       0.0114          1.6181
CMC  0 7249 X
LML - V.I L
-------
recreationally important adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the most acutely sensitive
species. Thus, when Oncorhynchus spp. are present, the acute criterion cannot exceed 24 mg
TAN/L (the SMAV for adult rainbow trout 48.21 mg TAN/L divided by two - see also Acute
Criterion Calculation section in this document).
       At pH 7, the temperature relationship is expressed as follows:

                      CMC = MIN (24.10, (45.05 x io-036x(2-T)))

Where 24.10 mg TAN/L is one half the SMAV of 48.21 mg TAN/L for adult rainbow trout, and
45.05 is 0.7249 (the CMC divided by the lowest GMAV in the complete acute dataset)
multiplied by 62.15 mg TAN/L, the GMAV of the temperature dependent pebblesnail
(Fluminicola sp.), the most sensitive  non-mussel invertebrate (Table N.2).
       At temperatures 0 - 27.5C, the CMC with mussels  absent and Oncorhynchus spp.
present is 24.10 mg TAN/L, because adult rainbow trout remain the most sensitive species group
in this temperature range. At temperatures greater than 27.5C, however, the GMAV for
Fluminicola species (62.15 mg TAN/L) becomes the most sensitive GMAV because
invertebrates are increasingly more acutely-sensitive to ammonia as temperature increases, and
thus, the CMC equals that of the mussels absent, Oncorhynchus sp. absent temperature
relationship (Figure N. 1). Consistent with the approach followed with the unionid mussels
present, Oncorhynchus species absent CMC calculation in the Acute Criterion Calculations
section of this document, the site-specific criteria should 1) retains all tested species in the Order
Salmoniformes as tested surrogate species representing untested freshwater fish resident in the
U.S. from another Order; and 2) maintains the SSD relationship from the complete acute dataset
(i.e., CMC is equal to the lowest GMAV times 0.7249).
       The CMC, where mussels are absent and Oncorhynchus spp. are present, extrapolated
across both temperature and pH is as follows (extrapolated  values provided Table N.3):
                    0.275            39      \ /         /    0.0114         1.6181
  CMC = MINI 1.  . . *_ + . .  .._.,,nj,  0.7249 X
                                       -7.204 J'\" ""'-'   \J + lQ7.204-pH   I + lQpH-7.204

               x 62.15 xlOao36x(2-T))]
                                          228

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UnionidMussels Absent and Oncorhynchus spp. Absent
       If both unionid mussels and Oncorhynchus spp. are absent, the CMC calculated using the
Guidelines algorithm is 30.25 mg TAN/L at pH 7 and 20C and is based on the four most
sensitive GMAVs in the following rank order: mountain whitefish, Lost River sucker,
pebblesnail, and golden shiner (see Table N.2). The ratio of the mussels absent and
Oncorhynchus spp. absent CMC to the most sensitive GMAV (i.e., mountain whitefish;
Prosopium sp.) is 0.5825, or 30.25 mg TAN/L divided by 51.93 mg TAN/L. However, this
would result in a more protective criterion than when Oncorhynchus spp. are absent but mussels
are present (see Acute Criterion Calculations). Because the unionid mussels absent and
Oncorhynchus spp. absent CMC cannot be more protective than the unionid mussels present and
Oncorhynchus spp. absent CMC, the CMC to lowest GMAV ratio of 0.7249 from the complete
acute dataset is multiplied by 51.93 mg TAN/L for Prosopium sp., the lowest GMAV in the
unionid mussels absent dataset, resulting in a calculated CMC of 37.65 mg TAN/L at pH 7 and
20C. This is equivalent to the maximum plateau CMC when mussels are present and
Oncorhynchus spp. are absent at temperatures of 10.2C and below (compare in Figures 5a and
N.I).

At pH 7, the temperature relationship is expressed as follows:

                 CMC = 0.7249  X MIN (51.93, (62.15 X io-036x(2-T)))

       At temperatures between 0-22.1C the CMC with unionid mussels and Oncorhynchus
spp.  absent is 37.65 mg TAN/L.  At temperatures greater than 22.1C, the temperature dependent
pebblesnail {Fluminicola sp.) becomes the most sensitive  GMAV, and the CMC decreases with
increasing temperature (Figure N. 1).
       The CMC, where both unionid mussels and Oncorhynchus spp. are absent, extrapolated
across both temperature and pH is as follows (extrapolated values provided Table N.4):
               v  I _  __ I __  _ I v MIN  ^~\ Q3  f*7 1 ^ v
               X                +               X NllN   >-S,  Z.lb X
                                          229

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A summary of the acute criterion recalculations for all four mussel and Salmonid present and
absent combinations at pH 7 and 20C is included in Table N.5.

Chronic Criterion Magnitude Recalculation for Ammonia
UnionidMussels Absent, Early Life Stage (ELS) Protection Necessary
      When unionid mussels are present, the CCC is the same regardless of whether early life
stages (ELS) offish genera require protection.  This is because unionid mussels represent the two
most sensitive genera in the chronic dataset, and at pH 7, the CCC at the invertebrate temperature
plateau of 7C is 4.363 mg TAN/L, which is lower than the GMCV for Lepomis, the most
sensitive fish genera, multiplied by the CCC to lowest GMCV ratio (or 6.920 mg TAN/L x
0.8876 = 6.142 mg TAN/L - see Chronic Criterion Calculations for additional details).
      When unionid mussels are absent and fish ELS require protection, however, the CCC is
6.508 mg TAN/L at pH 7 and 20C (Tables N.6, N.7). The lowest GMCV is 6.920 mg TAN/L
for the temperature invariant vertebrate genus Lepomis,  and the most sensitive invertebrate
GMCV  is 7.547 mg TAN/L forMusculium (Table N.6).  The ratio of the CCC to the most
sensitive GMCV (Lepomis sp.) when unionid mussels are absent is 0.9405, or 6.508 mg TAN/L
divided  by 6.920 mg TAN/L. At pH 7 and 20C, the CCC when mussels are absent and ELS
protection is required is expressed as follows:

                  CCC = 0.9405 x M/JV(6.920, (7.547 x io-028x(20-T)))

      This function remains constant at a CCC equal to 6.508 mg TAN/L at 0-21.3C because
the most sensitive GMCV is for the temperature invariant genera Lepomis (Figure N.2; Table
N.6).  At temperatures greater than 21.3C, the GMCV for the invertebrate Musculium (i.e.,
7.547 mg TAN/L) becomes the most sensitive, and the CCC decreases with increasing
temperature (Figure N.2).
      When unionid mussels are absent and ELS protection is required, the thirty-day average
concentration of ammonia nitrogen (in mg TAN/L) does not exceed, more than once every three
years on the average, the CCC calculated using the following equation:
                                         230

-------
                  /    0.0278          1.1994   \       /      ,          nn9Rvon -m\
   CCC = 0.9405 X (x + 1Q7.688_PH + 1 + 1QPH-7.688) X MIN (6.920, (7.547 X i(,o.028x(20-r)))
Recalculated chronic criterion concentrations for the mussels absent, fish ELS protection
necessary scenario across a range of temperatures and pH values are provided in Table N.8.

Unionid Mussels Absent, Early Life Stage (ELS) Protection Not Necessary
       One approach for setting a chronic criterion for mussels absent and fish ELS absent is to
modify the criterion for mussels  absent and fish ELS present.  The four most sensitive genera for
the criterion to be modified are Lepomis (ELS), Musciilium, Fluminicola, and Pimephales (ELS),
which had yielded a criterion of 6.508 mg TAN/L at pH 7.0 and 20 C, or 0.9405 x the lowest
GMCV (Lepomis). Since the Lepomis GMCV, 6.920 mg TAN/L,  is based on ELS sensitivity,
consider that with ELS absent this value would increase to its juvenile and adult GMCV of 21.3
mg TAN/L (from U.S. EPA 1999, page 75 GMCVs, translated from pH 8 to pH 7). In this case,
Musculium, with GMCV 7.547 mg TAN/L, would now be the most sensitive genus in the
dataset, such that at pH 7 and 20C the criterion could be calculated as 0.9405 x 7.547 = 7.098
mg TAN/L.  Because Musculium remains the most sensitive genus throughout the full range of
temperatures, the criterion follows the invertebrate temperature relationship, increasing with
decreasing temperature until it reaches its maximum at the built-in 7C plateau,  which is 16.41
mg TAN/L at pH 7, fully protective of the lowest juvenile-adult fish GMCV, that for Lepomis,
21.3 mg TAN/L shown above.
Mussels absent ELS protection not required at pH 7
                     CCC = 0.9405 x (7.547 x i

Overall

                                         1.1994
Recalculated chronic criterion concentrations for the mussels absent, fish ELS protection not
required scenario across a range of temperatures and pH values are provided in Table N.9. A
                                          231

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summary of the chronic criterion recalculations for all four mussel and fish ELS present and
absent combinations at pH 7 and 20C is included in Table N.7.
                                         232

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Table N.I. Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CMC (Acute Criterion Magnitude) - Unionid Mussels Present,
Oncorhynchus Absent.
      Temperature (C)
 pH   0-10    11    12    13    14    15    16    17    18    19    20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29    30
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9.0
51
49
46
44
41
38
34
31
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
8.8
7.2
6.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
48
46
44
41
38
35
32
29
26
22
19
17
14
12
9.9
8.2
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.1
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.3
44
42
40
38
35
33
30
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
9.1
7.6
6.3
5.2
4.3
3.5
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
41
39
37
35
32
30
27
25
22
19
17
14
12
10
8.4
7.0
5.8
4.8
3.9
3.2
2.7
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
37
36
34
32
30
28
25
23
20
18
15
13
11
9.3
7.7
6.4
5.3
4.4
3.6
3.0
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
34
33
31
30
28
25
23
21
18
16
14
12
10
8.5
7.1
5.9
4.9
4.0
3.3
2.7
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.93
32
30
29
27
25
23
21
19
17
15
13
11
9.3
7.9
6.6
5.4
4.5
3.7
3.1
2.5
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
29
28
27
25
23
21
20
18
16
14
12
10
8.6
7.2
3.0
5.0
4.1
3.4
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.93
0.79
27
26
24
23
21
20
18
16
14
13
11
9.3
7.9
6.7
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.1
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.85
0.73
25
24
22
21
20
18
17
15
13
12
10
8.6
7.3
6.1
5.1
4.2
3.5
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.93
0.79
0.67
23
22
21
20
18
17
15
14
12
11
9.2
7.9
6.7
5.6
4.7
3.9
3.2
2.7
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.86
0.72
0.62
21
20
19
18
17
15
14
13
11
9.8
8.5
7.3
6.2
5.2
4.3
3.6
3.0
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.1
0.94
0.79
0.67
0.57
19
18
18
17
15
14
13
12
10
9.0
7.8
6.7
5.7
4.8
4.0
3.3
2.7
2.3
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.0
0.87
0.73
0.61
0.52
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
9.5
8.3
7.2
6.2
5.2
4.4
3.7
3.0
2.5
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.2
0.96
0.80
0.67
0.56
0.48
16
16
15
14
13
12
11
9.8
8.7
7.7
6.6
5.7
4.8
4.0
3.4
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.88
0.74
0.62
0.52
0.44
15
14
14
13
12
11
10
9.1
8.0
7.0
6.1
5.2
4.4
3.7
3.1
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.4
1.2
0.98
0.81
0.68
0.57
0.48
0.41
14
13
13
12
11
10
9.3
8.3
7.4
6.5
5.6
4.8
4.1
3.4
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.90
0.75
0.62
0.52
0.44
0.37
13
12
12
11
10
9.4
8.5
7.7
6.8
6.0
5.2
4.4
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.83
0.69
0.57
0.48
0.40
0.34
12
11
11
10
9.4
8.6
7.9
7.1
6.3
5.5
4.8
4.1
3.5
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.1
0.93
0.77
0.63
0.53
0.44
0.37
0.32
11
10
9.8
9.2
8.6
7.9
7.2
6.5
5.8
5.1
4.4
3.8
3.2
2.7
2.2
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.0
0.86
0.71
0.58
0.49
0.41
0.34
0.29
9.9
9.5
9.0
8.5
7.9
7.3
6.7
6.0
5.3
4.7
4.0
3.5
2.9
2.5
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.2
0.96
0.79
0.65
0.54
0.45
0.37
0.32
0.27
                                                       233

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Table N.2. Acute Data Without Mussels: Comparison of the Four Taxa Used to Calculate the FAV and CMC in the 1999
AWQC and this Updated 2013 AWQC Excluding Data for Freshwater Unionid Mussels.
1999 Draft Update Acute Criterion (CMC) Magnitude (Salmonids
[Oncorhynchus spp.] present)
Species
Oncorhynchus sp. (salmonids), includes: O.
aquabonita, O. clarkii, O. gorbuscha, O.
kisutch*, O. mykiss*, and O. tshawytscha*
Orangethroat darter,
Etheostoma spectabile
Golden shiner,
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Mountain whitefish,
Prosopium williamsoni
FAV
CMC
GMAV
pH 8.0,
T=25C
(mg TAN/L)
21.95
17.96
14.67
12.11
11.23
5.6
GMAV
pH 7.0,
T=20C
(mg TAN/L)
99.15
74.25
63.02
51.93
48.21
24
2013 Final Acute Criterion (CMC) Magnitude excluding
Mussels (Salmonids [Oncorhynchus spp.] absent)
Species
Golden shiner,
Notemigonus crysoleucas
Pebblesnail,
Fluminicola sp.
Lost River sucker,
Deltistes luxatus*
Mountain whitefish,
Prosopium williamsoni
FAV
CMC
GMAV
pH 7.0,
T=20C
(mg TAN/L)
63.02
62.15
56.62
51.93
76
38**
*Federally-listed as endangered or threatened species
**CMC Excluding mussels, with Oncorhynchus present is 24 mg TAN/L to protect the recreationally and commercially important species Rainbow Trout. When
Oncorhynchus is absent, the CMC is based on the mountain whitefish and is calculated by the ratio of the CMC to the lowest GMAV in the complete acute dataset (0.7249)
times the lowest GMAV in the dataset excluding mussels (51.93 mg TAN/L for mountain whitefish) which results in a CMC of 37.65 mg TAN/L atpH 7 and 20C.
                                                               234

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Table N.3.  Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CMC (Acute Criterion Magnitude) - Unionid Mussels Absent and
Oncorhynchus Present.
        Temperature (C)
        0-14     15     16
pH
 6.5
 6.6
 6.7
 6.8
 6.9
 7.0
 7.1
 7.2
 7.3
 7.4
 7.5
 7.6
 7.7
 7.8
 7.9
 8.0
 8.1
 8.2
 8.3
 8.4
 8.5
 8.6
 8.7
 8.8
 8.9
 9.0
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
33
31
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
15
13
11
9.6
8.1
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.2
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
31
30
29
27
25
23
21
19
17
15
13
11
9.3
7.8
6.5
5.4
4.5
3.7
3.0
2.5
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.85
29
28
26
25
23
21
19
17
16
14
12
10
8.6
7.2
6.0
5.0
4.1
3.4
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.92
0.78
27
26
24
23
21
20
18
16
14
13
11
9.3
7.9
6.6
5.5
4.6
3.8
3.1
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.85
0.72
                             235

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Table N.4.  Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CMC (Acute Criterion Magnitude) - Unionid Mussels Absent and
Oncorhynchus Absent.
        Temperature (C)
        0-14     15     16     17
pH
 6.5
 6.6
 6.7
 6.8
 6.9
 7.0
 7.1
 7.2
 7.3
 7.4
 7.5
 7.6
 7.7
 7.8
 7.9
 8.0
 8.1
 8.2
 8.3
 8.4
 8.5
 8.6
 8.7
 8.8
 8.9
 9.0
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
51
49
46
44
41
38
34
31
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
8.8
7.3
6.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
51
49
46
44
41
38
34
31
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
8.8
7.3
6.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
51
49
46
44
41
38
34
31
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
8.8
7.3
6.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
51
49
46
44
41
38
34
31
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
8.8
7.3
6.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
51
49
46
44
41
38
34
31
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
8.8
7.3
6.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
51
49
46
44
41
38
34
31
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
8.8
7.3
6.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
51
49
46
44
41
38
34
31
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
8.8
7.3
6.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
51
49
46
44
41
38
34
31
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
8.8
7.3
6.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
51
49
46
44
41
38
34
31
27
24
21
18
15
13
11
8.8
7.3
6.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
48
46
43
41
38
35
32
29
26
22
19
17
14
12
9.9
8.2
6.8
5.6
4.6
3.8
3.1
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.3
44
42
40
38
35
32
29
26
23
21
18
15
13
11
9.1
7.5
6.2
5.1
4.2
3.4
2.9
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
40
39
37
35
32
30
27
24
22
19
16
14
12
10
8.4
6.9
5.7
4.7
3.9
3.2
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
37
36
34
32
30
27
25
22
20
17
15
13
11
9.2
7.7
6.4
5.3
4.4
3.6
3.0
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
34
33
31
29
27
25
23
21
18
16
14
12
10
8.5
7.1
5.9
4.9
4.0
3.3
2.7
2.2
1.9
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.93
31
30
29
27
25
23
21
19
17
15
13
11
9.3
7.8
6.5
5.4
4.5
3.7
3.0
2.5
2.1
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.85
29
28
26
25
23
21
19
17
16
14
12
10
8.6
7.2
6.0
5.0
4.1
3.4
2.8
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.92
0.78
27
26
24
23
21
20
18
16
14
13
11
9.3
7.9
6.6
5.5
4.6
3.8
3.1
2.6
2.1
1.8
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.85
0.72
                                                         236

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Table N.5. 2013 Acute Criterion Recalculations for Site-specific Criteria.
Acute Criterion Duration
(1 hr average)
at pH 7 and 20C
(mg TAN/L)
Mussels Present
Mussels Absent
Acute Criterion Magnitude
(CMC)
Oncorhynchus spp.
(Rainbow Trout) Present
17
24
Acute Criterion Magnitude
(CMC)
Oncorhynchus spp.
(Rainbow Trout) Absent
17
38
Frequency: Criteria values not to be exceeded more than once in three years.
Table N.6. Chronic Dataset Without Mussels: Comparison of the Four Taxa used to
Calculate the CCC in the 1999 AWQC and this Updated 2013 AWQC Excluding Data for
Freshwater Unionid Mussels.
1999 Draft Update Chronic Criterion (CCC) Magnitude
Species
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Lepomis sp.
(Centrarchidae), includes:
Bluegill sunfish, L.
macrochirus, and Green
sunfish, L. cyanellus
Long fingernail clam,
Musculium transversum
Amphipod,
Hyalella azteca
CCC
GMCV
pH 8.0,
T=25C
(mg TAN/L)
3.09
2.85
<2.26
<1.45
1.2
GMCV
pH 7.0,
T=20C
(mg TAN/L)
7.503
6.92
7.547
4.865
4.5*
2013 Final Chronic Criterion (CCC)
Magnitude excluding mussels
Species
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Pebblesnail,
Fluminicola sp.
Long fmgernailclam,
Musculium transversum
Lepomis sp.
(Centrarchidae), includes:
Bluegill, L. macrochirus and
Green sunfish, L. cyanellus
CCC
GMCV
pH 7.0,
T=20C
(mg TAN/L)
9.187
7.828
7.547
6.920
6.5
*Based on data renormalized to pH 7.0 and T 20C
                                        237

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Table N.7. Chronic Criterion Recalculations for Site-Specific Criteria.
Chronic Criterion Duration
(30-day average)
at pH 7 and 20C
(mg TAN/L)
Mussels Present
Mussels Absent
Chronic Criterion
Magnitude (CCC)
Fish ELS Present
1.9
6.5
Chronic Criterion
Magnitude (CCC)
Fish ELS Absent
1.9
7.1
Not to exceed 2.5 times the CCC as a 4-day average within the 30-day averaging period.
Frequency: Criteria values not to be exceeded more than once in three years.
                                          238

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Table N.8. Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CCC (Chronic Criterion Magnitude) - Mussels Absent and Early
Life Stage (ELS) Protection Necessary.
       Temperature (C)
 pH
0-14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.0
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9.0
7.3
7.2
7.1
6.9
6.7
6.5
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.2
4.8
4.4
3.9
3.5
3.1
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
0.73
0.62
0.54
7.3
7.2
7.1
6.9
6.7
6.5
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.2
4.8
4.4
3.9
3.5
3.1
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
0.73
0.62
0.54
7.3
7.2
7.1
6.9
6.7
6.5
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.2
4.8
4.4
3.9
3.5
3.1
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
0.73
0.62
0.54
7.3
7.2
7.1
6.9
6.7
6.5
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.2
4.8
4.4
3.9
3.5
3.1
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
0.73
0.62
0.54
7.3
7.2
7.1
6.9
6.7
6.5
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.2
4.8
4.4
3.9
3.5
3.1
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
0.73
0.62
0.54
7.3
7.2
7.1
6.9
6.7
6.5
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.2
4.8
4.4
3.9
3.5
3.1
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
0.73
0.62
0.54
7.3
7.2
7.1
6.9
6.7
6.5
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.2
4.8
4.4
3.9
3.5
3.1
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
0.73
0.62
0.54
7.3
7.2
7.1
6.9
6.7
6.5
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.2
4.8
4.4
3.9
3.5
3.1
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
0.73
0.62
0.54
7.0
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.5
6.2
6.0
5.7
5.4
5.0
4.6
4.2
3.8
3.4
3.0
2.6
2.2
1.9
1.6
1.4
1.2
0.97
0.82
0.70
0.60
0.51
6.6
6.5
6.4
6.2
6.1
5.8
5.6
5.3
5.0
4.7
4.3
3.9
3.5
3.2
2.8
2.4
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.91
0.77
0.65
0.56
0.48
6.2
6.1
6.0
5.8
5.7
5.5
5.3
5.0
4.7
4.4
4.1
3.7
3.3
3.0
2.6
2.3
.9
.7
.4
.2
.0
0.85
0.72
0.61
0.52
0.45
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.3
5.1
4.9
4.7
4.4
4.1
3.8
3.5
3.1
2.8
2.4
2.1
1.8
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.95
0.80
0.68
0.58
0.49
0.42
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.1
5.0
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.1
3.9
3.6
3.2
2.9
2.6
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.5
1.2
1.1
0.89
0.75
0.64
0.54
0.46
0.40
5.1
5.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.5
4.3
4.1
3.9
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.7
2.4
2.1
1.9
1.6
1.4
1.2
0.99
0.83
0.70
0.60
0.51
0.43
0.37
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.2
4.1
3.9
3.6
3.4
3.1
2.9
2.6
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.93
0.78
0.66
0.56
0.47
0.41
0.35
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.1
4.0
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.2
2.9
2.7
2.4
2.1
.9
.6
.4
.2
.0
0.87
0.73
0.62
0.52
0.44
0.38
0.33
4.2
4.1
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.7
3.6
3.4
3.2
3.0
2.8
2.5
2.3
2.0
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.96
0.81
0.69
0.58
0.49
0.42
0.36
0.31
                                                      239

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Table N.9. Temperature and pH-Dependent Values of the CCC (Chronic Criterion Magnitude) - Mussels Absent and Early
Life Stage (ELS) Protection not Necessary.
       Temperature (C)
 pH   0-7   8    9    10   11   12   13   14   15   16    17    18    19   20   21   22   23   24   25    26    27    28   29   30
19
18
18
17
17
16
16
15
14
13
12
11
9.9
8.8
7.8
6.8
5.8
5.0
4.2
3.6
3.0
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.6
1.4
17
17
17
16
16
15
15
14
13
12
11
10
9.3
8.3
7.3
6.3
5.5
4.7
4.0
3.4
2.8
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.5
1.3
16
16
16
15
15
14
14
13
12
12
11
10
8.7
7.8
6.8
6.0
5.1
4.4
3.7
3.2
2.7
2.2
1.9
1.6
1.4
1.2
15
15
15
14
14
14
13
12
12
11
10
9.1
8.1
7.3
6.4
5.6
4.8
4.1
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
14
14
14
14
13
13
12
12
11
10
9.4
8.5
7.7
6.8
6.0
5.2
4.5
3.9
3.3
2.8
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
13
13
13
13
12
12
11
11
10
9.5
8.8
8.0
7.2
6.4
5.6
4.9
4.2
3.6
3.1
2.6
2.2
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.98
13
12
12
12
12
11
11
10
9.6
9.0
8.2
7.5
6.8
6.0
5.3
4.6
4.0
3.4
2.9
2.4
2.1
1.7
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.92
12
12
11
11
11
10
10
9.5
9.0
8.4
7.7
7.0
6.3
5.6
5.0
4.3
3.7
3.2
2.7
2.3
1.9
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.86
11
11
11
10
10
9.8
9.4
9.0
8.4
7.9
7.2
6.6
5.9
5.3
4.6
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.94
0.81
10
10
10
9.8
9.5
9.2
8.8
8.4
7.9
7.4
6.8
6.2
5.6
5.0
4.4
3.8
3.3
2.8
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.88
0.76
9.7
9.6
9.4
9.2
8.9
8.6
8.3
7.9
7.4
6.9
6.4
5.8
5.2
4.6
4.1
3.6
3.1
2.6
2.2
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.96
0.82
0.71
9.1
9.0
8.8
8.6
8.4
8.1
7.7
7.4
6.9
6.5
6.0
5.4
4.9
4.4
3.8
3.3
2.9
2.5
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.90
0.77
0.66
8.5
8.4
8.3
8.1
7.8
7.6
7.3
6.9
6.5
6.1
5.6
5.1
4.6
4.1
3.6
3.1
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.85
0.72
0.62
8.0
7.9
7.7
7.6
7.4
7.1
6.8
6.5
6.1
5.7
5.2
4.8
4.3
3.8
3.4
2.9
2.5
2.2
1.8
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.93
0.79
0.68
0.58
7.5
7.4
7.3
7.1
6.9
6.7
6.4
6.1
5.7
5.3
4.9
4.5
4.0
3.6
3.2
2.7
2.4
2.0
1.7
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.88
0.74
0.64
0.55
7.0
6.9
6.8
6.7
6.5
6.2
6.0
5.7
5.4
5.0
4.6
4.2
3.8
3.4
3.0
2.6
2.2
1.9
1.6
1.4
1.2
0.97
0.82
0.70
0.60
0.51
6.6
6.5
6.4
6.2
6.1
5.9
5.6
5.3
5.0
4.7
4.3
3.9
3.5
3.2
2.8
2.4
2.1
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.91
0.77
0.65
0.56
0.48
6.2
6.1
6.0
5.8
5.7
5.5
5.3
5.0
4.7
4.4
4.1
3.7
3.3
3.0
2.6
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.85
0.72
0.61
0.52
0.45
5.8
5.7
5.6
5.5
5.3
5.1
4.9
4.7
4.4
4.1
3.8
3.5
3.1
2.8
2.4
2.1
1.8
1.6
1.3
1.1
0.95
0.80
0.68
0.58
0.49
0.42
5.4
5.4
5.3
5.1
5.0
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.1
3.9
3.6
3.2
2.9
2.6
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.5
1.2
1.1
0.89
0.75
0.63
0.54
0.46
0.40
5.1
5.0
4.9
4.8
4.7
4.5
4.3
4.1
3.9
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.7
2.4
2.1
1.9
1.6
1.4
1.2
0.99
0.83
0.70
0.60
0.51
0.43
0.37
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.5
4.4
4.2
4.1
3.9
3.6
3.4
3.1
2.9
2.6
2.3
2.0
1.7
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.92
0.78
0.66
0.56
0.47
0.40
0.35
4.5
4.4
4.3
4.2
4.1
4.0
3.8
3.6
3.4
3.2
2.9
2.7
2.4
2.1
1.9
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.87
0.73
0.62
0.52
0.44
0.38
0.33
4.2
4.1
4.1
4.0
3.9
3.7
3.6
3.4
3.2
3.0
2.8
2.5
2.3
2.0
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.1
0.96
0.81
0.69
0.58
0.49
0.42
0.36
0.31
  6.5
  6.6
  6.7
  6.8
  6.9
  7.0
  7.1
  7.2
  7.3
  7.4
  7.5
  7.6
  7.7
  7.8
  7.9
  8.0
  8.1
  8.2
  8.3
  8.4
  8.5
  8.6
  8.7
  8.8
  8.9
  9.0
                                                            240

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     40
     30 -
 O)
 I
 Q.
 "(0
 O
     20 -
     10 -
      0
                                \
                            \
                                  \
                               \
                                    \
                                 \
                                      \
                                   \
                                        \
                                     \
                                                                      \
                                                                        \
                                                                         \
           	  Mussels Present, Oncorhynchus Absent
           	  Mussels Present, Oncorhynchus Present
           	  M ussels Absent, Oncorhynchus Absent
           	  Mussels Absent, Oncorhynchus Present
        0
10         15         20
    Temperature (C)
25
30
Figure N.I. Comparison of the 2013 CMC Extrapolated Across a Temperature Gradient
at pH 7 Accounting for the Presence or Absence of Unionid Mussels and the Presence or
Absence of Oncorhynchus.
                                      241

-------
    18

    16

    14

    12 -
 E  10
 I
 Q.
 "(0
 o
 o
 O
8 -
6 -
     4 -
      2 -
      0
        0
                    \
                       \
                         \
Mussels Absent, ELS Present
Mussels Absent, ELS Absent
Mussels Present, ELS Present
or Absent
                            \
                                     \
                                           \
                        10         15
                            Temperature (C)
    20
25
30
Figure N.2. Comparison of the 2013 CCC Extrapolated Across a Temperature Gradient at
pH 7 Accounting for the Presence or Absence of Mussels and/or the Need for Early Life
Stage (ELS) Protection of Fish Species.
                                      242

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