EPA Releases  MOVES2014 Mobile
Source Emissions  Model
What is MOVES and why is EPA releasing MOVES2014?
EPA's MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) is a state-of-the-science emis-
sion modeling system that estimates emissions for mobile sources at the national,
county, and project level for criteria pollutants, greenhouse gases, and air toxics.

The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to regularly update its mobile source emis-
sion models. EPA continuously collects data and measures vehicle emissions to make
sure the Agency has the best possible understanding of mobile source emissions. This
assessment, in turn, informs the development of EPA's mobile source emission models.
MOVES2014 is a major new revision to EPA's mobile source emission model and it
replaces MOVES2010 and its minor revisions (MOVES2010a and MOVES2010b).
It represents the Agency's most up-to-date assessment of on-road mobile source
emissions. MOVES2014 allows users to benefit from new regulations promulgated
since the release of MOVES2010b, incorporates new and up-to-date emissions data,
and has improved functionality compared to MOVES2010b. MOVES2014 also has
added the capability to model non-highway mobile sources by incorporating EPA's
NONROAD2008 model.
What has changed from MOVES2010b to MOVES2014?

MOVES2014 includes three new emission control programs associated with regula-
tions promulgated since the release of MOVES2010b:
     Tier 3 emission standards that phase in beginning in 2017 for cars, light-duty
      trucks, medium-duty passenger vehicles, and some heavy-duty trucks, and
      Tier 3 fuel standards that require lower sulfur gasoline beginning in 2017
     Heavy-duty engine and vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations that phase
      in during model years 2014-2018.
     The second phase of light-duty vehicle GHG regulations that phase in for
      model years 2017-2025 cars and light trucks.
United
Environmental Protection
                                   Office of Transportation and Air Quality
                                                      EPA-420-F-14-049
                                                             July 2014

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        motor vehicle emission factor model for estimating volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitro-
        gen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), direct particulate matter (PMlfland PM2.5) and
        other pollutants and precursors from cars, trucks, motorcycles, and buses by state and local
        agencies outside of California. EPA intends to include in the notice a two-year grace period
        before MOVES2014 is required to be used for transportation conformity purposes.

        As noted above, the nonroad portion of MOVES is essentially identical to EPA's current stand-
        alone NONROAD2008 model. To develop nonroad inventories for SIP submissions or other
        official purposes, States other than California can use either:
             NONROAD2008,
             the nonroad capabilities of NMIM2008 (which contains NONROAD2008), or
             the nonroad capabilities of MOVES2014.

        Prior to MOVES2014, MOVES2010b and its precursors MOVES2010a and MOVES2010 were
        the only on-road models approved for performing SIP and transportation conformity analyses
        outside of California.
        When should MOVES2014 be used for SIP and transportation conformity analyses?

        MOVES2014 should be used in SIP development outside of California as expeditiously as
        possible. The CAA requires that SIP inventories and control measures be based on the most
        current information and applicable models that are available when a SIP is developed.

        Regarding transportation conformity, EPA intends to establish a two-year grace period before
        MOVES2014 is required for new transportation conformity analyses outside of California. EPA
        will publish a Federal Register notice of availability in the near future to approve MOVES2014
        for official purposes and start this grace period. EPA consulted with DOT on the length of this
        grace period.

        For more information on the requirements regarding the use of MOVES2014 for SIP and trans-
        portation conformity analyses, including implementation of the MOVES2014 conformity grace
        period, see EPA's "Policy Guidance on the Use of MOVES2014 for State Implementation Plan
        Development, Transportation Conformity, and Other Purposes," available at www.epa.gov/otaq/
        stateresources/transconf/policy.htm#models.
           Can MOVES2014 be used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions?


           Yes, MOVES2014 is currently the best tool EPA has for GHG emissions from the transportation
           sector, and it is a significant improvement over previous versions of MOVES. As described in
           the second question, MOVES2014 incorporates the effects of three new emission standard rules
           not included in MOVES2010. EPA notes that there are no SIP and transportation conformity

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             requirements for GHGs. State and local agencies estimating GHG emissions in the transporta-
             tion planning process should consider using MOVES2014 for GHG emissions analyses in the
             future.

             EPA will be updating the technical guidance on the use MOVES for GHG analysis soon. In the
             meantime, EPA's technical guidance for using MOVESZOlOb to estimate state and local inven-
             tories  of on-road GHG emissions available at www.epa.gov/otaq/models/moves/ can be applied
             to MOVES2014.
             Can MOVES2014 be used to estimate mobile source air toxics?

             Yes, MOVES2014 estimates emissions for mobile source air toxics (MSATs) such as benzene,
             1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, naphthalene, and ethanol. It is EPA's best
             available tool for quantifying emissions of these MSATs and is based on data that have been up-
             dated since MOVESZOlOb. State and local agencies, academic institutions, and other interested
             parties who are interested in analyzing MSAT emissions from transportation projects should
             consider using MOVES2014 in the future.

             EPA notes that there are no SIP and transportation conformity requirements for air toxics.
             Regarding the analysis of MSAT emissions in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
             process, DOT has responsibility for implementing NEPA for federally-funded or approved
             transportation projects.
       How do MOVES2014 on-road emission estimates compare to those of MOVES2010b?

       EPA performed a comparison of MOVESZ014 to MOVESZOlOb using local data for several
       different urban counties, varying the local data used by fleet age distribution, fraction of light -
       and heavy-duty vehicle miles travelled (VMT), local fuel specifications, meteorology, and
       other input factors. In general, VOC, NOx, PM, and CO emissions show greater decreases over
       time compared to MOVESZOlOb. Differences in total emissions vary by calendar year and loca-
       tion, but in general, VOC and NOx emissions are lower in MOVESZ014. PM emissions may
       be higher in some areas and lower in others. Actual results will vary based on local inputs in a
       given area, with local variations in fleet age distribution and composition having a significant
       influence on the final results.
       What other resources are available for MOVES2014?

       Please visit the MOVES web page (www.epa.gov/otaq/models/moves/index.htm) to download
       and install MOVESZ014 software. Also included on the MOVES website are the MOVESZ014
       User Guide and the MOVESZ014 Reference Manual, which provide basic information about
       running MOVESZ014.

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The MOVES web page also provides a link to the MOVES2014 SIP and Conformity Policy
Guidance. EPA is working on updates to other MOVES guidance documents including the
MOVES Technical Guidance, PM and CO hot-spot guidance documents, and MOVES GHG
guidance and will post these documents on the web as soon as they are available. In the mean-
time, the technical guidance in the MOVESZOlOb versions of those documents will still be
applicable. The MOVESZOlOb guidance documents are available at www.epa.gov/otaq/models/
moves/moves-docum.htm.

EPA is developing separate training courses for new and experienced users of MOVES. New
users who are not familiar with any previous version of MOVES will be able to take an up-
dated version of the two-day MOVES hands-on course. For experienced MOVES users, EPA
is developing a webinar-based course that highlights differences between MOVESZOlOb and
MOVESZ014. Details on those courses will be posted on the MOVES training page (www.epa,
gov/otaq/models/moves/training.htm) soon after the release of MOVESZ014.

Details on subscribing to the MOVES Listserv in order to get e-mail updates when additional
guidance documents are posted, training is scheduled, or as any other new information about
MOVES is released, can be found at www.epa.gov/otaq/models//mobilelist.htm.

For general information on the MOVEZ014 release including all technical questions and any
questions about upcoming guidance documents and training, please contact the EPA MOVES
team at mobile@epa.gov.

For SIP policy questions, please contact Rudy Kapichak at kapichak.rudolph@epa.gov.

For transportation conformity questions, please contact Astrid Larsen at larsen.astrid@epa.gov.

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