Industrial Waste
Management

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This Guide provides state-of-the-art tools  and
practices to enable you to tailor hands-on
solutions  to the industrial waste management
challenges you face.
           WHAT'S AVAILABLE

           • Quick reference to multimedia methods for handling and disposing of wastes
             from all types of industries
           • Answers to your technical questions about siting, design, monitoring, operation.
             and closure of waste facilities
           • Interactive, educational tools, including air and ground water risk assessment
             models, fact sheets, and a facility siting tool.
           • Best management practices, from risk assessment and public participation to
             waste reduction, pollution prevention, and recycling

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                  ^DGEMENTS
The fotawng members of the Industrial Waste Focus Group and the Industrial Waste Steering Committe aregrateMy
acknowledged far al of their time ana assistance in the development of this guidance document
                        'ICUS
        .
r-oui own, nie isun viicamuti
  Company
Walter Carey. Nestle  USA Inc and
  New Milford Farms
Rama Chaturvedi Bethlehem Steel
  Corporation
H.C. Clark. Rice University
Barbara Dodds.  League of Women
  Voters
Chuck Feerick. Exxon Mobil
  Corporation
Stacey Ford. Exxon Mobil
  Corporation
Robert Giraud DuPont Company
John Harney, Citizens Round
  Table/PURE
Kyle Isakower. American Petroleum
  Institute
Richard Jarman, National Food
  Processors Association
James Meiers, Cinergy Power
  Generation Services
Scott Murto. General Motors and
  American Foundry Society
James Roewer, Edison Electric
  Institute
Edward Repa. Environmental
  Industry Association
Tim Saybr, International Paper
Amy SchaRer, Weyerhaeuser
Ed Skemote. WMX Technologies. Inc
Michael Wach Western
  Environmental Law Center
David Wels, University of South
  "*—«• Medical Center

rat fewin. Cherokee Nation of
  Oklahoma

                    rocu?.

wu wom.nu. ^».u uiuu
Brian Forrestal. Laidlaw Waste
  Systems
Jonathan Greenberg. Browning-
  Ferris Industries
Michael Gregory, Arizona Toxics
  Information and Sierra Club
Andrew Mites, The Dexter
  Corporation
Gary Robbins, Exxon Company
Kevin Sail. National Paint & Coatings
  Association
Bruce Sterer. American Iron & Steel
Lisa Williams. Aluminum Association




  arid Territorial Solid Waste" "
  Management Officials
Marc Crooks. Washington State
  Department of Ecology
Cyndi Darling. Maine Department of
  Environmental Protection
Jon Dilliard Montana Department of
  Environmental Qualty
Anne Dobbs. Texas Natural
  Resources Conservation
  Commission
Richard Hammond. New York State
  Department of Environmental
  Conservation
Elizabeth Haven California State
  Waste Resources Control Board
Jim HuD. Missouri Department of
  Natural Resources
Jim Knudson. Washington State
  Department of Ecology
Chris McGuire.  Florida Department
  of Environmental Protection
Gene Mitchell Wisconsin
  Department of Natural Resources
William Pounds. Pennsylvania
  Department of Environmental
  Protection
Bjjan Sharafkhani Louisiana
  Department of Environmental
  Qualty
James Warner,  Minnesota Pollution
  Control Agency



railKHa l*ujiit, mame LmpwUlRitlt Of
  Environmental Protection
NormGumenik Arizona Department
  of Environmental Qualty
Steve Jenkins, Alabama Department
  of Environmental Management
Jim North Arizona Department of
  Environmental Qualty

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Industrial waste is generated by the production
of commercial goods, products, or services.
Examples include wastes from the production
of chemicals, iron and steel, and food goods.

-------
United Satei
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of Water
(4305)
EPA-823-B-95-008
September 1995
SWMM Windows
Interface User's Manual
                          '.;. • H \\v\\\\

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SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
           United States Environmental Protection Agency
          Office of Science and Technology401 M Street, S. W.
      Standards and Applied Science DivisionWashington, 0. C. 20460
                      401 M Street, SW
                    Washington, OC 20460

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                                       FOREWORD


Water quality standards are implemented through a process of developing Waste Load Allocations
(WLAs) for point sources. Load Allocations (LAsf for nonpoint sources and natural backgrounds, and
Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLsJ for the watershed.  Ultimately permit limits are developed based
on these WLAs, LAs and TMOLs.  Many of the required calculations are preformed with computer
simulation models. Either steady-state or dynamic modeling techniques may be used.

The  Office of Science and Technology develops and maintains analytical tools, such as the Storm
Water Management Model (SWMM>, to assist in performing analysis of water quality problems and
developing TMDLs. The Windows interface developed for the SWMM model will help users prepare
input files more efficiently.  Calibration  routines and  plotting  capabilities facilitate interpreting the
model's results and calibrating the model. There are many useful features included in the SWMM
Windows interface. Different screens or parts of screens will be active or jnactive depending on the
input. This feature reduces the potential for making mistakes during data  entry.

This  document is  an Agency software  user's manual.  It does not establish or affect legal right* or
obligations.  It does not establish binding requirements.  This document is expected to be revised
periodically to reflect changes in this rapidly evolving area.  Comments from users will be welcomed.
Send comments to U.S. EPA, Office of  Water, Office of Science and Technology,  Standards and
Applied Science Division (4305!,  401 M Street SW, Washington, DC 20460.
                                                               Tudor T, Davies
                                                               Director
                                                               Office of Science and Technology

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                                ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
 The SWMM Windows Interface software and this user's manual were written by Mohammed Lahlou,
 Ph.D., and Sayedul H. Chcudrtury of Tetra Tech, Inc. and Yin Wu, Ph.D.. and Kirk Baldwin of General
 Science  Corporation,  under  the direction of D. King Boynton of EPA's Office of Science and
 Technology.  The authors would like to thank Gerald LaVeck, and  Russell Kinerson of the Office of
 Science and Technology for  their contribution and assistance in the successful completion  of this
 project.
                                     DISCLAIMER
The information contained in this user's manual is intended to assist in using the Windows" interface
for the SWMM model, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Science and
Technology. This user's manual  is not a substitute for Storm Water Management Model, Version 4;
User's Manual developed by Wayne C. Huber and Rober E. Dickinson 
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                                Table of Contents

      INTRODUCTION	
2.     TECHNICAL SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND	   3
      2.1    Overview of SWMM 4.3  	   3
      2.2    Model Structure and Description of Blocks  	   3
      2.3    Data Requirements  	   4
      2.4    Output	   5

3.     TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SWMM
      IMPLEMENTATION IN WINDOWS 	   7
      3.1    MET  	  7
      3.2    RUNOFF	  9
      3.3    USEHP 	  II
      3.4    TRANSPORT	  11
      3.5    EXTRAN	  13
      3.6    Limitations of SWMM Windows Interface	  14

4.     MINIMUM SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS  AND SOFTWARE INSTALLAION ...  17
      4.1    Minimum System Requirements 	  17
      4.2    Installing the Software	  17

5.     USING THE SWMM WINDOWS INTERFACE	  19
      5.1    Accessing  an Existing File or Opening a New File  	  19
      5.2    SWMM File Naming Conventions	  19
      5.3    Saving Input Files	  21
      5.4    Setting Up a Default Editor for Viewing Output Files	  21
      5.5    Submitting an  Input File to the Model	  21
      5.6    SWMM Windows Interface Commands and Function Keys  	  21
      5.7    Import File Option in SWMM 	  23
      5.8    Export Function  	  24
      5.9    Array Screen Capabilities in  SWMM	  24
      5.10  Manual Run Option  	  25

6.     EXAMPLE RUNS	  27
      6.1    Example 1  - A User-Defined Hyetograph (A Screening-Level Example)  . .  27
      6.2    Example 2 - Steven's Avenue Drainage District in Lancaster, PA (MET,
            RUNOFF,  and TRANSPORT) . .  . ."	  30
      6.3    Example 3 - Simulation of a Simple One-Pipe  System with Two
            Manholes (USEHP & TRANSPORT)	  33
      6.4    Example 4 - Basic  Pipe System (USEHP and EXTRAN)	  34

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7     SWMM POST-PROCESSOR  	  37
      7.1    The Tables Routine	  37
      7.2    The Graphics Routine  	  39
      7.3    The Calibration Routine	  40

APPENDIX A:
SWMM WINDOWS INTERFACE DESIGN  	  43

REFERENCES  	  73

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                                  Tables and Figure

Table 2.1     Summary of Computational Blocks in SWMM   	   4
Table 3.1     Data Category and Screen Input in MET interface	  9
Table 3.2     Screen Input Sequence in RUNOFF Interface	  10
Table 3.3     Screen Input Sequence in L'SEHP interlace	  II
Table 3.4     Screen Input Sequence in TRANSPORT Interface	  12
Table 3.5     Different Element Types in Transport Block	  14
Table 3.6     Screen Input Sequence in EXTRAN Interface	  25
Table 5.1     Naming Conventions of SWMM Interface  	  20
Table 6.1     Example Run Matrix for SWMM  Windows Interlace  	  28
Table 6.2     Example Input files with SWMM  Windows and SWMM 4.3  	  29
Table 6.3     A User-Defined Hyetograph in MET	  29
Table 6.4     User-Defined Hydrograph and Pollutographs in USEHP  	  33
Table A.I     Input  Variables and Screen  Sequence in MET  	  44
Table A.2     Input  Variables and Screen  Sequence in RUNOFF  	  45
Table A.3     Input  Variables and Screen  Sequence in USEHP	  55
Table A.4     Input  Variables and Screen  Sequence in TRANSPORT  	  56
Table A.5     Input  Variables and Screen  Sequence in EXTRAN  	  63


                                       Figures

Figure 3.1     SWMM Windows Interface Functions	  8
Figure 6.1     Basic  System with Free Outfall   	  35
Figure 7.1     SWMM Post-Processing Structure	  38
Figure 7.2    RUNOFF Graphics 	  41
Figure 7.3    Total  Solids Concentrations   	  42

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 1.     INTRODUCTION
 The EPA's Storm Water Management Model
 (SWMM) is a large, complex model capable of
 simulating the movement of precipitation and
 pollutants from the  ground  surface through pipe and
 channel networks, storage/treatmeni unils, and finally
 to receiving waters.  Both single-event and
 continuous simulation may  he performed on
 catchments having storm sewers, combined sewers,
 and naiural drainage, for prediction of flows, stages,
 and pollutant concentrations.

 The  model may he used for hoth planning and
 design.  The planning model is used for an overall
 assessment of the urban runoff problem and proposed
 abatement options.  This model  is typified by
 continuous simulation for several years using
 long-term precipitation data. Catchment
 schcmatization is usually "coarse" in keeping with the
 planning level of analysis.  A design-level, event
 simulation also may be run  using a detailed
 catchment schematization and shorter time steps for
 precipitation input.

 The SWMM Windows interface was developed to
 assist the user in data input  and  model execution and
 to make a complex model user-friendly. The
 Windows interface was developed for the Office of
 Science and  Technology, Standards and Applied
 Sciences Division of the U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency to assist  them with the  Total
Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)  program.  This user's
guide provides guidance on  the use of the  SWMM
interface and illustrates its use with four example
runs.  The Windows interface integrates the SWMM
model and data handling needs to make the model
 implementation user friendly.  A hnef description  of
 the SWMM model structure is presented in order  to
 facilitate subsequent discussions.

This guide is divided into seven sections.  Section 2
 gives you  a technical summary irf the SWMM model.
as well as the model structure, the interaction
between the various blocks of SWMM. the input
requirements, and the output.  Section 3 describes the
Windows  Implementation of the blocks, including
descriptions of the screens sequences, the
corresponding blocks, changes made for ease of use.
and limitations of the implementation. Section 4
provides minimum hardware requjremenrs and
installation information  for the Windows SWMM.
Section 5  provides the information necessary to use
the SWMM interface, including:

   •   Accessing an Existing File or Opening a New
      Ftle

   •   File-Naming Conventions

   •   Saving Input Files

   •   Setting Up a Default Editor for Viewing
      Output Files

   •   SWMM Windows Interface Commands and
      Function Keys

   •   Submitting an Input File to the Model

   •   Import File Option  in SWMM

   •   Export Function

   •   Array Screen Capabilities

   •   Using the Manual Run Option

Section 6  contains  four  example runs that highlight
user entry and model output. Section 7 describes the
SWMM post-processor  capabilities, which allows the
user to display tabulated summary information and
graphical representations of  the modeling results.
Appendices provide the screen structure and variable
descriptions for the Windows interface blocks.

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 2    TECHNICAL  SUMMARY  AND BACKGROUND
 2.1  Overview of SWMM 4.3

 SWMM simulates most quantity and quality
 processes in Che urban hydrologic cycle on the basis
 of rainfall (hyclograph) .md other meteorological
 inputs and system characten/atmn icatchment,
 conveyance, storage/treatment i   Storm sewers,
 combined sewers, and natural drainage systems can
 be simulated as well.
2.2  Model Structure and Description
      of Blocks

SWMM is constructed in the form of "blocks" as
follows:
Computational Blocks:
Services Blocks:
Runoff, Transport, Extran.
S toragc/Treatmcn t
Executive, Rain, Temp,
Graph. Statistics, Combine
Each block has a specific function, and the results of
each block are entered on working storage devices to
be used as pan of the input to other blocks.  A
typical run usually  involves only one or two  compu-
tational  blocks together with the Executive Block.  A
summary of the four computational blocks in SWMM
are shown in Table 2.1.  This table explains the
model capability, (low routing characteristics, and
quality by block.

The Runoff Block is a critical  block to the SWMM
simulation. This block  receives meteorological data
from either Ram and/or Temp  Blocks or user defined
hyctographs (rainfall intensity vs.  time) and then
simulates the rainfall-runnl'f process using a nonlinear
reservoir approach, with an option lor snowmelt
simulation. Groundwaicr and unsaturated 7.one flow
and outflow are included using a simple lumped
storage scheme. At the end. the Runoff Block
produces hydrographs and poilutographs at inlet
locations.  This block may he run for periods ranging
Irom minutes to years.  Simulations less lhan a few
weeks will henceforth be called single event mode
and longer simulations will be called continuous
mode.  With the slight exception of snowmelt. all
computations arc done identically for the two cases
(Huber and Dickinson, 1988)  Quality processes in
the Runoff Block  include generation of surface runoff
constituent loads through a variety of options: I)
build-up of constituents during dry weather and
wash-off during wet weather, 2) "rating curve"
approach in which load is proportional Co flow rate to
a power. 3) constant concentration (including
precipitation loads), and/or 4) Universal  Soil Loss
Equation (Donigian and Hubcr, 1991).  The overall
catchment may be divided into a maximum of 200
subcatchments and 200 channel/pipes plus inlets.
The Runoff Block transfers hydrographs and
poilutographs for as many as 200 inlets and  10
constituents through an assigned interlace file Co
other SWMM blocks.

The Transport block is one of the subsequent blocks
and performs the detailed flow and pollutant routing
through the sewer system.  In the Transport Block,
flow routing is accomplished using the kinematic
wave method, while quality  processes include first-
order decay and simulating scour and deposition
within the  sewer system based on Shiled's criterion
for initiation of motion, and generation of dry-
weather flow and quality. The Transport Block uses
inlet hydrographs and poilutographs generated either
from the Runoff Block via the interface file or from
the user defined option as the input, then determines
the quantity and quality of dry weather flow, the
system infiltration, pollutant loadings  for each
channel/pipe, and study area.

The Storage/Treatment (S/T) Block is a special type
of element of the Transport Block. The  S/T Block
simulates the routing of flows and up to  three
pollutants through a dry- or wet-weather S/T tank
containing up to five units or processes.  It also
simulates removal in S/T devices by I) first-order
decay coupled with complete mixing or plug flow, 2)
removal functions (e.g., solids deposition as a
function of detention time), or 3) sedimentation
dynamics.  Additionally,  capital cost and operation
and maintenance cost can be estimated for each unit.

The Extended Transport (EXTRAN) Block provides
the SWMM with  dynamic wave simulation capability
(Rocsner. L.A el al.  1988).  The EXTRAN Block  is

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SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                        Table 2.1  Summary of Computational Blocks in SWMM



Block
Runoff



Transport




exbvn



Store**


Capability

Description
simulate quantity and quality runoff
of a drainage basin, route flows
and pollutants to major sewer lines.
produce hydrographs and
pollutographs at inlet locations
routes flow and pollutant through
the sewer system, determine
quantity and quality of dry-weather
flow, calculate system infiltration.
land, capital, operation and
maintenance costs of two internal

storage tanks
routes flow through the sewer
system, simulate backwater profiles
(flows} m open channel and/or
dosed conduit systems, a drainage
system can be represented as links
and nodes, looped pipe networks,
weirs, orifices, pumps, and system
surcharges
characterize the effects of control
devices upon flow and quality,
simulate removal in S/T devices.
calculate costs
Quantity

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                                                                        Technical Summary and Background
collection can he accomplished within a few days.
but reducing the data for input to the model may take
up to 3 person-weeks for a large area (e.g., greater
than 2000 acres).  For an EXTRAN simulation of
sewer hydraulics, expensive and time-consuming field
verification  of sewer invert elevations is often
required.  On an optimistic note, however, most data
reduction, i.e.. tabulation of slopes, lengths,  and
diameters, is straightforward (Ambrose and Barnwell,
1989).

Categories of Data:

!)  Weather Data: hourly or daily precipitation; daily
    or monthly evaporation rates. Snowmelt: daily
    max - min temperatures, monthly wind speeds.
    melt coefficients and base temperatures, snow
    distribution fractions and arc a I depletion curves
    (continuous only), and other melt parameters.

2)  Surface  quantity: area, imperviousness, slope,
    width, depression storage and Manning's
    roughness for pervious and impervious areas;
    Horton or Green-Ampt infiltration parameters.

3)  Subsurface quantity: Porosity,  field capacity,
    wilting point, hydraulic conductivity, initial  water
    table elevation, ET parameters; coefficients for
    groundwater outflow as  function of stage and tail
    water elevations.

4)  Channel/pipe quantity: linkages, shape, slope,
    length, Manning's roughness.  EXTRAN
    transport also requires invert and ground
    elevation, storage volumes at manholes and other
    structures; geometric and hydraulic parameters
    for  weirs, pumps, orifices, storage, etc.;
    infiltration rate into conduits.

5)  Storage/sedimentation quantity:
    stage-area-volume-ouiflow relationship,  hydraulic
    characteristics of outflows.

61  Surface  quality: land use;  total  curb length;
    catchbasin volume and initial pollutant
    concentrations; street sweeping interval,
    efficiency and availability factor; dry days prior
    to initial precipitation; dusi/din and/or pollutant
    fraction parameters for each land use, or
    pollutant rating curve coefficients; concentrations
    in precipitation; erosion parameters for Universal
    Soil Loss Equation, if simulated.

7)  Dry-weather flow constant or on basis of diurnal
    and daily quantity/quality variations,  population
    density, other demographic parameters,

8}  Particle size distribution, Shields parameter decay
    coefficients for channel/pipe quality routing and
    scour/deposition routine (optional).

9)  Storage/treatment:  parameters defining pollutant
    removal equation;  parameters for individual
    treatment options such  as particle size
    distribution, maximum  flow rates, size of unit,
    outflow characteristics; optional dry-weather flow
    data when using continuous simulation.

10) Storage/treatment cost: parameters for capital and
    operation and maintenance costs s$ function of
    flows, volumes and operating time.

In order to create SWMM input files, the users have
to follow certain sequences within one particular
block or between blocks.  In the Runoff Block, for
example, the Group Identifiers, i.e.. SWMM ID, are
defined as the order of input data and are
characterized into five sections: general input and
control data, meteorological data, surface quantity,
surface  quality, and print control.  Each section may
be divided into subsections, e.g., meteorological data
include  snow data, precipitation data, and evaporation
data.  Many individual parameters are entered in
those data categories.
2.4  Output

SWMM produces a lime history of flow, stage and
constituent concentration at any point in the
watershed for Runoff, Transport,  Storage/Treatment
Blocks. Seasonal and annual summaries are also
produced, along with continuity checks and other
summary output. Simulation output in the Extran
takes the form of water surface elevations and
discharges  at selected system locations.

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 3    TECHNICAL  DESCRIPTION  OF THE  SWMM
       IMPLEMENTATION  IN  WINDOWS
 The SWMM Windows interface is designed to he as
 user-fnendly as possible  The SWMM Windows
 interface consists of five interface Nocks:
 METeorological data iMETt, RUNOFF. USEr
 defined Hydrographs and Pollutngraphs (USEHP),
 TRANSPORT, and EXTRAN  Basically, the  MET
 function acts as the Ram and Temp blocks  The
 RUNOFF, TRANSPORT, and F.XTRAN interface
 blocks perform the same functions as the Runoff,
 Transport, and EXTRAN  Blocks do m SWMM 4.3.
 The USEHP function allows the user to define time
 series of flows and concentrations at desired inlets.

 A key feature of the design ot a 'Windows' user
 interface for SWMM 4.3 is  the separation of
 meteorological data from the Runoff Block of user
 input.  Users will access the MET interface 10 create
 and edit meteorological daia. Selection of
 meteorological data for use  in a RUNOFF run will
 occur as pan of the RUNOFF function. The goal of
 this function is to consolidate user interaction and
 input of meteorological data m SWMM into one
 separate module.  From a user's perspective, all
 meteorological data will be  accessed unambiguously
 by a single file name.  This therefore, eliminates
 meteorological data entry in the RUNOFF input file.
 Similar consideration made  in the TRANSPORT and
 EXTRAN functions is the separation of user defined
 hydrographs and pollutographs from the
 TRANSPORT and EXTRAN user input. The
 USEHP function was developed to handle all user-
supplied flows  and concentrations.

The normal execution sequence for the SWMM
 Windows interface is indicated by an arrow symbol
 as shown m the screen in  Figure 3.1. Usually, MET
 should be executed first to create interface files that
 are required input to the Runoff Block.  Likewise,
 RUNOFF creates an interface tile that is required
 input to the Transport and EXTRAN Blocks.
 USEHP MT'Ts the same function for input to the
 Transport and EXTRAN Blocks as the runoff
 interface tile does  TRANSPORT or EXTRAN can
 he executed independently when either a Runoff
 interface file or a USEHP file exists
NOTE: In order to differentiate the Windows
        Interface blocks from the actual SWMM
        blocks (even if they arc practically the same
        thing in some  instances), the Windows
        Interface Blocks will be in capital letters and
        will he identified as an "interface block".
3.1  MET

As mentioned earlier. MET allows ihe user to create
and edit meteorological data.  Input data in MET
consists of three data components: general
meteorological parameters, precipitation and
evaporation, and snow data.  Those three elements
take a total of six screens (see Table 3.1).  The first
screen describes the control variables in MET, such
as the types of meteorological data and units
associated with the MET data.  The selections on the
first screen determines which subsequent screens are
accessible. The  next two screens contain raingage
stations and precipitation data.  The fifth screen
defines monthly  average evaporation and/or wind
speed.  Air temperatures are stored on the fourth
screen for continuous snowmelt simulation, and on
the last screen for single event snow melt simulation,
RAIN (precipitation) and evaporation data are always
required in MET. Wind speed and temperature data
are needed when the snowmelt is simulated

Precipitation data are the smgie most importan* group
of hydrologic data required by SWMM.  SWMM
requires a hyetograph of rainfall intensities versus
time for the period of simulation. For single event
simulation, this is usually a single storm, and data for
up to ten rampages may be entered.  For continuous
simulation, hourly, daily or other continuous data
from at least one gage are  required.  RAIN data can
be selected from a NOAA data file, an existing user-
created tile, or a new tile.  NOAA data files are
obtained from the EPA Environmental Research Lab
in Athens. Georgia.  They  contain 35-year daily
weather data for all  NOAA first order stations in the
United  States  Plea.se note that at present only one
raingage is available when the user selects the NOAA

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SWMM \\nndons Interface User's Manutil
     MET
     • SWMM Rain Block
     • SWMM Temp Block
     • Meteorlogical Interface Block
                    i
     RUNOFF
     • SWMM Runoff Block
     • Runoff Interface Block
          USE HP
          • Hydrograph & Pollutograph
           Interface Block
     TRANSPORT
     • SWMM Transport Block
     • Transport Interface Block
                                                                          1
          EXTRAN
          • SWMM Extran Block
          • Extran Interface Block
    — SWMM Graph Block replaced by SWMM Post-processor
    — There is not Window interface yet for: Storage/Treatment Block, Graph Block,
       Statistics Block, or Combine Block
Figure 3.1 SWMM Windows Interface Functions.
data option from our meteorological database.  The
RAIN data should be entered in the Rain Data Table
on Screen No. 3.  Input variables for this screen arc
listed in Table A.I.  The format used in Rain Data
Table is the same one stored in the Rain Block
interface file of SWMM, which  is an unformatted
binary file.  Thus, the RAIN data can be handled
through the  Rain Data Table instead of using the
Ram BU>ck  and E1-E3 data groups in Runoff Block.

NWS precipitation data can be also read into the
MET function.  The data include:  I)  hourly and 15-
inm precipitation data tor NWS  Release B
Condensed 
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                                              Technical Description tif the SWMM Implementation in Windows
                       Table 3.1  Data Category and Screen Input in MET interface
Data
Element
1
2
3
Category
Screen Title
Genera! Meteorological Parameters
Precipitation
Evaporation
SNOW
Windspeed
Temp
Single Event
Continuous
Station Table
Rain Data Table
Avg. EVAP & WINDSPEED Table
Single Event Snow Melt Air Temp. Table
TEMP Data Table
Data Requirement
Units, control variables
Raingage station number
(max- 10)
Hourly, daily, and any time
step prectp. values
Default evap. rates
Monthly evap. rates
Monthly windspeed rates
Time interval, air temp
values
Daily Max & Min temp.
data
Screen
No.
1
2
3
1
5
5
6
4
a complete time history of daily maximum and
minimum temperatures on Screen No. 4.  These
maximum/minimum temperatures are supplied in the
NOAA data file.  A single event snowmelt simulation
receives air temperatures from Screen No. 6  for a
given time step entered  on the first screen.  The
temperatures  are constant over the time interval.

After all the data are entered, MET will generate four
MET interface files: a RAIN data interface file,  a
TEMP data interface file, an evaporation  and wind
speed file (EVAWIND), and a single event snow
melt temperature  file (SINAIR).  The first two
interface files are the SWMM scratch files processed
during the execution of  the Runoff block. The other
two files would he processed into the Runoff Block
input file.  The evaporation and wind speed data
from the EVAWIND file will be placed on Fl and
C2 data group lines in the RUNOFF  input file,
respectively.  The air temperature from the SINAIR
file will be input  to C5 data group line.
3.2 RUNOFF

The RUNOFF interface block assist in creating the
Runoff input tile  and call the SWMM Runoff Block
for execution  It  is designed to closely follow the
mpul representation order in the Runoff Block.  Input
data in RUNOFF are divided into five data elements:
general control parameter, meteorological data, water
quality, description of a drainage system, and print
control.  The general control parameter includes
identifying a MET file, unit, simulation length,
starting date, time step, and type of simulations.
These selections  determine whether subsequent
screens or controls are accessible.  The
meteorological data include precipitation, evaporation,
temperature, and wind speed, which should be
generated  through the MET function.  Water quality
simulation requires the user to specify up to ten
pollutants  >nd appropriate parameters to buildup and
washoff mechanisms, and up  to five land uses to
characterize different subcatchments. Erosion and
groundwater simulations are optional.  A drainage
system can be described as number of subcatchments
(subwatersheds  voniicucd with channels/pipes.
Necessary inputs associated with subcatchment are
surface area, width, ground slope. Manning's
roughness coefficient, and infiltration rates. Channel
descriptions are the length. Manning's roughness
coefficient, invert slope, diameter for pipes, and
cross-sectional dimensions of the channel. Other
inputs arc  discussed in Section 2.1.

There are  a total of twenty-three screens in the
RUNOFF  interface. The screen input sequence (see
Table 3.2> reflects the overall structure of the  Runoff

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SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                        Table 3.2. Screen Input Sequence in RUNOFF Interface
Data
El.
1
2
3
4
5
Category
General Control Parameter
Meteorotogic Data (B1)
Water Quality
Description ol a Drainage System
Pnnt control
Content
Titles
Units
Simulation
Starting, ending time, time step
Simulation Type: Groundwater Row & Quality (J1)
Precipitation
(01)
Evaporation
Snow (B1)
hyetographs (1-10)
RAIN (database)
default rates
monthly rates
TEMP (database)
no
single event
continuous
Pollutants (1-10)
Lane! uses & fractions
Groundwater Concentration
Channel/Pipe
Watershed/
Subcatchment
t, inlet ». length. slope. Manning's n
t. inlet
Surface Water
infiltration
physical
GioumlwalBi
empirical
Snow
Erosion
Quality
SWMM output. Inlet hydrographs. pollutographs. inflows,
outflows, channel depths.
SWMM
ID
A1
B1
81. 83

E1-E3
F1
C1-C5
J3
J2&J4
J5
G1-G2
H1
H2-H4
11-12
K1
L1-L2
82. MI-
MS
Screen
No.
1
2
1
2
2
2.3.4.5
6&7
8&9
10
11
124 13
14
15 & 16
17
18
19-23
Block. Screen numbers are assigned corresponding
to the data elements and to cover all the input
requirements.  Table 3.2 also shows the relationship
between the screen numbers  in the  RUNOFF
interlace  and SWMM ID (Group Identifiers) in a
RUNOFF input file  Furthermore,  a spreadsheet (see
Table A.2) is generated to identity  the controls
(variables) lor each screen. This table defines the
following for RUNOFF

   I   variable name in the Runotf Block,
2.  the description of the variable,

3.  SWMM ID m the Runoff Block (SID),

4.  screen number (SCR),

5.  control number (CSi,

6.  control type iCTl. item, range, default, and
   unit.
                                                   10

-------
                                            Technical Description of the S\VMM Implementation in Windows
 Each variable in ihc Runoff Block tor SWMM 43
 has a unique control number nn a particular screen in
 the RUNOFF interlace.  For  example, if you refer to
 the first page of Table A.2. a variable WET in
 SWMM 4.3 is interpreted as  Wet time step (sec).
 which is the eighth control on the first screen in the
 RUNOFF Windows interface.

 For WET, the SID (SWMM  IDi should be under
 Group B3, the type is  floating, the range  must be
 equal or greater than one. the default should be
 3600.0 seconds, and the  unit  is in seconds. The
 relationship between variables of SWMM  4.3 and
 controls of SWMM interface  can be easily checked
 in Table A.2.
3.3 USEHP

The USEHP function is designed to create and edit
user-defined inlet flows and concentrations.  This
option  is preferable to the RUNOFF interface file
option  for those users who wish mainly to use the
Transport Block or (he EXTRAN Block.  For
EX I KAN, the user should provide only inlet
hydrographs in USEHP since EXTRAN is not
capable of simulating water quality  Any quality
information that is input to EXTRAN  is ignored by
the program.

There are a total  of five screens in the USEHP
interface block and input requirements arc listed in
Table 3.3. USEHP will generate four USEHP files
(sec Table 5.1) as input to the Transport and Ex Iran
Blocks. As shown in Table 3.3. the values stored  in
USEHP correspond to the variables and data group
lines in either a Transport Block input or an
FiXTRAN Block input  For a Transport input file,
two variables, (i.e.. NINPUT and NCNTRL) and two
data lines (i.e., II and Rl) are used for inlet
hydrographs; and a variable (NPOLL) and two data
lines (i.e., Fl  and Rl) are used for inlet
poilulographs.  Similarly, for an EXTRAN input a
variable, NLSW.  and  KI-K3 data lines are used for
the mlel hydrographs.
3.4 TRANSPORT

The Transport Block was implemented following the
same procedure as used for the Runoff Block.  Table
3.4 indicates the screen input sequence in the
TRANSPORT interface as compared to in the
SWMM model. The TRANSPORT interface is
characterized  into six data components, namely
TRANSPORT simulation control, sewer system
description, water quality, infiltration and dry-weather
flow, study area description, and print control.
TRANSPORT simulation control defines an  inlel
hydrograph and pollutograph file, computational
parameters, units, and types of simulation. Sewer
system description provides the physical
characteristics of the conveyance system.  Quality
data identify pollutants to be routed and their
characteristics.  Infiltration and Dry-Weather Flow
(DWF) data describe the necessary drainage  area
characteristics to permit (he computation of the
respective inflow quantities and qualities.  Print
control reports a time history of inlet hydrographs
and pollutographs. and a time history of channel
depths.
                         Table 3.3  Screen Input Sequence in USEHP interface
DlU
Element
1
2
Category
General Control Parameters
List of inlet Numbers
Pollutant Name Table
Time of day
Hydrograph/Pollutograpn Table
Data Requirement
Units. # of inlets. * of pollutants. * of
data points
Inlet number
Pollutant name, input and output unit
Time in hours
Time series of flows and concentrations
Transport
Block
NINPUT
NPOLL
11
F1
R1
Extran
Block
NJSW
K2
No
K1.K3
3cr»««i
No.
1
2
3
4
5
                                                  II

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SWMM Windows Interface  User's Manual
                       Table 3.4 Screen Input Sequence in TRANSPORT Interface
Data
Element
f
2
3
4
5
6
Category
TRANSPORT Simulation Control
Sawar System Description
Content
Title
Inlet Hydrographs and PoHutographs
Computational Control
Simulation Type
Simulation Type
Unit
* of Constituents
Sewer System Table
Special Types of
Sewer Elemeni
Storage Tank
New Sfiapes
Natural Channel
(HEC-2 format)
Water Quality
Infiltration and Dry-Weather Flow
Study Area Description
Prtrt Control
Study Area Parameters
Process Flow Characteristics
Categorized Study Area
Printed non-
conduit elements
lor hydrograph &
pollutograph
Transferred to
Graph Block
Input
Output
Printed conduit elements for depths
SWMM ID
A1
B3
B1.B3
B3
B1
81
£1
G1-GS
Cf, 01-09
E2-E4
F1
K1.K2.L1-L3, M1-M4
N1. 01.O2
P1
Q1
91.C1.H1
J1
J2
12
Screen
No.
1
2
3
4
5.6.7,8
9& 10
11
12
134 14
15
16
17
The physical representation of the sewer system is a
key input to (he TRANSPORT simulation. The
sewer system is classified as a certain type of
"element."  All elements in combination form in a
manner similar to thai ot links and nodes (Huber and
Dickinson,  1988).  Elements m a real system can be
described as a network of conduits tc g., chan-
nels/pipes) joined with non-conduits such as man-
holes   Conduits  themselves may he ot different
element types depending upon their geometrical
cross-section.  Non-conduits must he located  at points
corresponding  in inlet points tor hvdrographs
generated by either the Runoff Block or USEHP.
According to SWMM documentation, there is a total
of twenty-fiN'e  types of elements that are available for
use in Transport Block (See Table 3.5).  Eighteen of
them are conduit elements and seven  are non-conduit
elements.  For the elements with regular shapes, data
requirements are usually the tabulation of shape.
dimension,  slope, and roughness parameters.  While
for the elements with irregular shapes, supplemental
data are required, such as flow-area and depth-area
relationships of the elements.  The irregular shapes
are new shapes and natural channels with HEC-2
                                                   12

-------
                                            Technical Description of the SWMM Implementation in Windows
formal for conduit elements and storage tanks for
non-conduit elements

Only up to four pollutants can be handled for water
quality simulation in ihe Transport Block. Pollutants
may he introduced  to the sewer system by cither the
RUNOFF interface or  USEHP using the data group
II and Rl in the Transport input file.

The TRANSPORT interface contains a total of
seventeen screens.  The data components associated
with screen numbers in ihe interface and  SWMM ID
in SWMM 4.3 are presented in Table 3.4. Table A.4
contains a description of ihc TRANSPORT data
requirements including variable definitions, SWMM
tD, screen number, control number, control type,
control item, type, range, default, and units.  This
table was designed  to assist in assembling data for
implementing WINDOWS processes of SWMM and
give a clear picture of identifying the variables used
in TRANSPORT interface as compared to SWMM
4.3.

The TRANSPORT  interface reads the data for
conduit and non-conduit elements from the Sewer
System Table on Screen No. 3,  Different element
types supplied with  the TRANSPORT block and
corresponding element names used in the
TRANSPORT interface are lis(ed in Table 3.5.
Three irregular shapes of elements are a natural
channel, a user-supplied shape, and  a storage unil.
They are  treated as special elements and have 10 be
•"parate functions tn the TRANSPORT interface.
Currently, the TRANSPORT allows the user to
specify three types of files, which correspond to three
types of sewer elements.  They are defined as
follows:
Special
Elements

HEC-2 format
User supplied
Storage unit
SWMM 0«t»
Groups in
Transport Block

E2-E3
C1. 01-09
G1-Q5
File Name
Used in
TRANSPORT interlace

XHEC2-.PIP
XSHAP'.PIP
XTANK'.PIP
The files must contain the input parameters and data
group lines required by the TRANSPORT input.  The
three types of tiles arc XHF.C2#*# PIP tor a natural
channel, XSHAP### PIP for  a user supplied shape,
and  XTANK*##.PIP for a storage unit.  For example.
\ou  detine u non-conduit element as a storage tank.
you need to prepare a data file containing G1-G5
data group lines using any  text editor outside of the
Windows interface  You should save this file as

XTANK* PIP, Next, go to the fourth column under
TYPE on Screen 3 in the TRANSPORT interface and
specify the file that you created. Table 5.1  presents
files created by TRANSPORT

3.5  EXTRAN

There are three data components included in the
Extran Block: EXTRAN simulation control, sewer
system description, and  output print and plot.  The
EXTRAN simulation control defines the simulation,
an inlet hydrograph file, computational control, and
simulation methods. Like the TRANSPORT
interface, EXTRAN gets inlet flows from either a
RUNOFF interface file or a USEHP file. Therefore,
the user must run either RUNOFF or USEHP before
proceeding with EXTRAN. The sewer system
description is divided into two sections:  identification
of channels/conduits and junctions. The cross
sections  of channels/conduits can be regular or
irregular. For regular channels, input data are
relatively simple.  For irregular channels, however,
data are  complex and a  detailed description to define
cross sections for each channel is needed.  Junction
data can be described as regular junctions and special
flow  devices (hat divert sanitary sewage oul of a
combined sewer system or relieve the storm load on
sanitary  interceptors.  The  five types of junctions are
storage,  orifice,  weir, pump, and outfall. Like
irregular channels, those special junctions may
require detailed  input describing a time-history curve
for stage, volume, flow, etc. Output print and plot
determine number junctions and channels for printing
and plotting of heads and  flows.

There are twenty-three screens  for the EXTRAN
interface, as  shown in Table 3.6.  Sixteen of these
screens are for inputs for channels and junctions.
Two looping  screens are developed to handle large
input depending upon the type of channel or junction.
Variable input sequences on each screen are given in

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
Table A.5. which defines the \ariable name, the
description of vanable. SWMM ID. screen number.
control number, and the vanable's usage

Screens No. 4 and 5 are designed to store the data
for natural channels, which use the same format as
used in the HEC-2 mode!
3.6  Limitations  of The SWMM
     Windows Interface

The SWMM Windows Interface has several
limitations.  These limitations are summan/ed below.

I   In the RUNOFF Windows interface, (he maximum
   number of watersheds and channels allowed is
   100.  For the SWMM Model 43, the maximum
   number allowed is 200.  In the TRANSPORT and
   EXTRAN Interfaces, the maximum number of
   inlets and channels allowed is 100, while the
   maximum number of inlets and channels allowed
   in the SWMM model is 200

2.  Due to problems with the subcatchment number
   vanable, which would not accept names, all IDs
   in all the Windows interfaces have to be integers
   instead of characters.  You cannot enter a name
   for pipes, subcatchments,  tnlci numbers

3.  Due to problems encountered with the snow melt
   simulation and with the conversion of the pan
   evaporation data, daily evaporation rate and wind
   speed data from the MET interlace (or continuous
   snowmelt simulation will  be converted to monthly
   data.
Table 3.5  Different Element Types in
          Transport Block
NTYPE
Transport Block
TRANSPORT
interface
CONDUIT ELEMENTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17. 18
Circular
Rectangular
Phillips standard egg shape
Boston horseshoe
Gothic
Catenary
Louisville semiellipdc
Basket-handle
Semi-circular
Modified basket-handle
Rectangular, triangular
bottom
Rectangular, round bottom
Trapezoid
Parabolic
Power Function
HEC-2 Format - Natural
Channel
User supplied
Circular
Rectangular
Egg shape
Horseshoe
Gothic
Catenary
Sermellipoc
Baslet-Handle
Serm -circular
Modified B-H
R + tri bottom
R + round bottom
Trapezoid
Parabolic
Power F
XHEC2»#».PIP
XSHAP»»t PIP
NON-CONDUIT ELEMENTS
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Manhole
Lift station
Flow divider
Storage unit
Flow divider • weir
Flow divider
Backwater element
Manhole
Lift station
Flow divider
XTANK»t*PlP
Flow divider-weir
Flow divider
Backwater
                                                 14

-------
                    Technical Description of the SWMM Implementation in Windows
Table 3.6   Screen Input Sequence in EXTRAN Interface
Data
Element
1
2
3
Category
EXTRAN Simulation Control
Sewer System Description

Output print and plot

Content
Tide
Inlet Hycfrographs
Computational Control and Unit
Simulation and print
control
Channels/Conduits
Junctions
Solution technique, flow
condition, and conduit
elevation
Print cycle
Channels/Conduits Table
Natural Channel (HEC-2
format)
Regular Junction
Storage Junction
Orifice
Weir
Pump
Outfall
Printed and plotted Junctions for elevations
Printed and plotted channels for flows and velocities
Plotted channels for US/OS elevations
SWMM ID
A1
B3.K1.K2.K3 (if
USEHP is selected)
B1.B3.B2
BO.BB
B1
C1
C2-C4
D1.I1.I2.J1
E1.E2
F1.F2
G1
H1
J2-J4
B4.B6
B5.B7
B8
Semen
No.
•1
2
3
4-5
6
7-8
9-12
13-14
15-16
17-18
19,21
20,22
23
                         /5

-------
4    MINIMUM SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS  AND
      SOFTWARE  INSTALLATION
4.1 Minimum System Requirements

The sysiem runs under Microsoft" Windows. The
minimum system requirements are provided below:

• Windows Version 3.1
• 80386 Processor
• 4 Megabytes RAM
• IO Megabytes hard  disk space

NOTE:  A math co-processor is recommended but not
       required.
4.2  Installing the Software

STEP I   Insert the SWMM Setup Disk (i.e., SWMM
        - DISK I). into drive A: or B:

NOTE:  You must have IO Megabytes of space on
       the hard disk drive on which you are
       installing SWMM for Windows. Also close
       all open applications including FILE
       MANAGER before you start the SETUP
       program.

STEP 2.  Start Windows and, at the Program
        Manager, choose File   Run.

STEP 3:  Type A:SETUP.EXE ("B:" if the disk is on
        the B: drive) and press ENTER.

STEP 4:  You will be asked to enter the path of the
        directory where you would like SWMM to
        be installed. When you accept the default
        path or enter a new directory path, the
        installation will begin.

          Please note that the SWMM Windows-
          interface consists of three disks.

STEP 5.  You are now ready to use SWMM.

The executable for which the SETUP program has
already created an icon is described below.

   Executable    Description
   SWMM.EXE   The mam SWMM executable.
                This executable allows you
                access to the two SWMM
                options:

    The Windows Interface Option:
    This option calls up all the windows
    implementations of the various blocks of
    SWMM  as explained in Section 3.

    Manual  Run Option:
    For experienced users of SWMM and those
    familiar with the structure of the input files.
    this option allows you to edit input Tiles
    directly using a data editor.

NOTE: The working directory option should be the
       one containing the executables since SWMM
       requires certain table Hies in order to create
       the input files.
                                           17

-------
5    USING  THE  SWMM WINDOWS INTERFACE
Once you have finished installing the software, you
will be ready to access the SWMM Windows
Interface and Manual Run option  When you select
the Windows Interface option. \ou will see a flow-
chart that is  shown in Figure .v 1 thai shows the
various interlace blocks that are available and the
sequence you should follow in  accessing them.  All
[he interface blocks share certain characteristics since
they are all  in Windows. Tins  section details how to
use the capabilities available in (he various interface
blocks m SWMM.  In addition,  it will detail the
Manual Run option as well.  Tins section describes
the following:

  • Accessing An  Existing File or Opening a New
   File

  • SWMM  File-Naming Conventions

  • Saving Input Files

  • Setting Up a Default Editor for Viewing Output
   Files

  • Submitting an  Input File to the Model

  • SWMM  Windows Interface Commands and
   Function Keys

  • Import File Option in SWMM

  • Export Function

  • Array Screen Capabilities

  • Using the Manual Run option
5.1  Accessing an Existing  File or
     Opening a New File

When you first enter ans of the Windows SWMM
Blocks, you will be automatical!) assigned a new
tile  The new tile name and number  will appear at
the top of the screen in parentheses

To access an existing file, click on the FILE option
on the very lop line, select the OPE^ option and
select the file that \ou want from ihc list that
appears.

NOTE: The input files must be in the same location
        as (he * EXE files (the SWMM executable
        files). If you elect to  read  in an existing
        file  from  a different directory, the directory
        lhat the file is in becomes the default
        directory  tor SWMM.   All the data files for
        SWMM  must exist in  the default directory.
        So we strongly recommend  that  you do not
        save input files in any location other than
        the SWMM directory.

If you selected an existing file  to edit, when you
choose to save the file, the existing file will be
rewritten with the new  values unless you choose the
SAVE AS option and assign a  new file name.  Please
remember, if you are assigning a new name to a file,
to follow the naming conventions followed by
SWMM explained in the next subsection.
5.2  SWMM File Naming Conventions

The naming convention of files in SWMM is as
follows: the first four characters are the interface
block name, the next three digits are sequentially
assigned numbers that indicate the number of the
input file lhat you are currently creating, and the file
extension indicates the file type. Table 5.1
summarizes naming conventions of the SWMM
interface for each function.  There are three file
extensions in the MET input files. The first
extension is .MET which indicates user defined
meteorological data, the  second one is .DAT that
contains hourly precipitation data, and the last one is
.ATH that indicates long term meteorological data
obtained from the EPA Athens Lab.   The file
extensions in the RUNOFF and  TRANSPORT
interfaces are also standardized   For  instance. *.INP
is the input file and 'OUT is the output file.

Additional files tor RUNOFF and TRANSPORT are
post-processor files, which include the Tables.
Graphics, and Calibration files.  They are defined
below:
                                                 /y

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                           Table 5.1  Naming Conventions of SWMM Interface
Interface
Blocks
METeoroiogical
data editor (MET)
RUNOFF
USEr defined
Hydrographs and
PoHutographs
(USEHP)
TRANSPORT
EXTRA,,
FitoNwn*
SMET««« MET
•OAT
•ATM
SMET»»»MT1
SMETiii MT2
SMETMH MT3
SMETiM MT4
RNOFFMi IMP
FtNOFFttf RUN
RNOFFIMOUT
RNOFF*f*INT
USEHPtll HP
USEHPMt HP1
USEHPtllHPZ
US£HP»M MP3
USEHPMf HP4
TRANStM INP
XTANKf H PIP
XSHAP»f« PIP
XMEC2M* PIP
TRANSIM RUN
TRANSM* OUT
TRANS* •• INT
EXTRNtM INP
EXTRNMt RUN
EXTRN««« OUT
EXTRNtH IMT
File Type (Frnt)'
Input (A)
Input (A)
Input (A)
Outputlnput |B)
Input (A)
Input (A\
Output (A)
Output (B)
Input (A)
Output/Input (A)
Input 
-------
                                                                          the SWMM Windows Interface
 The RUNOFF Interlace
  SWRPPM.NP

  SWRGRMNP

  SWRCAMNP
Tables file bused on
RNOFFMNT
Graphics Tile based on
RNOFFMNT
Calibration Isle based un
RNOFFMNT
The TRANSPORT Interface:
  SWTPPMNP

  SWTGRMNP

  SWTCAMNP
Tables tile based on
TRANS*.INT
Graphics file based on
TRANS* INT
Calibration file based on
TRANS' INT
5.3 Saving input Files

SWMM will ask you whether you wish to save the
input Tile when you exit an interface block or when
you reach the last screen of an interface function.
However,  if you have accessed an existing file and
made all the changes before reaching the last screen,
you may save the input Tile by proceeding to the
FILE option and selecting ihe SAVE option.  Once
you have completed  an input file, you may submit it
to the SWMM model for execution. When you
submit the input file to the model, the input file will
be validated by the Windows interface. If any errors
are uciectcd during the validation, you will be
informed of them and brought to the incorrect entry
so that you might effect the change immediately.
5.4 Setting Up a  Default Editor for
     Viewing Output Files

The default editor for viewing and editing SWMM
output tiles is the WRITE program in Windows.
However, users may choose any  other data editor
le g.. EDIT EXF. I for viewing the output by selecting
the  Utilities menu on the top line ol the screen and
using the Setup Output  File Viewer  option.  The path
and executable name of the output lile editor should
be specified under this option.

This output viewer is automatically activated each
time a SWMM run is completed.  To view the model
output (rather than submitting a SWMM model run).
the editor can be used outside the SWMM Windows
interface.  Using the appropriate file manipulations of
the editor, the SWMM output file can he opened,
edited, and saved.
5.5 Submitting an Input File to the
     Model

When you have completed the input file for the
interface thai you are in, select the RUN button to
run the model with the input file you created.  When
you select the RUN option,  all the entries in  the file
will be validated.  If any errors are delected during
the validation. SWMM will  put up a message
informing you of ihe type of error detected and will
then take you to the prompt that is incorrect. Once
all the values are valid, the file is submitted to  the
appropriate block  for execution,  An icon will appear
at the bottom of the screen for those blocks for
which the SWMM model is called. When the
processing of the input file is complete and the
output results, SWMM will ask whether you wish to
view them.  If you indicated that you did wish  to
view the  output file, SWMM will show tJ,em using a
data editor allowing you  to annotate the results  if you
so choose.  To exit from the Data File Editor, press
the ALT  and F4 function keys simultaneously.  You
will be returned to the interface block  that you  were
in previously.


5.6 SWMM Windows Interface
     Commands and Function Keys

The Windows Interface options all have a series of
"buttons" designed to make  using the system as easy
as possible.  These buttons and the commands  they
represent are accessible in three ways:  ( I) click on
the button with the mouse key to access the function
that button represents. (2) press the ALT along with
the underlined letter in the button iille (e.g. ALT/H
for Help), or 1 3)  select the TOOL option and select
ihe option under  there from  the list presented.

The buttons and the commands they represent are
explained below.

The NEXT Button  This option allows you to move
  to the next screen in the interface.  If there are

-------
       U'iiK/miv Interface I'ier's Mitnuat
  incorrect value*, on the screen that you are in
  currently and you attempt u> move so another
  screen, SWMM will inform you of the error and
  allow you the option ol going back (and correcting
  the error at a later time) or correcting the error.
  The cursor will Wink at the prompt with the
  incorrect entry, it" you elect  to correct (he error
  before moving on.

The BACK button  This button allows you  u> move
  hack one screen   If there are incorrect values on
  (he screen thai you are in  currently and you
  attempt  to move to another screen, SWMM will
  inform you of the error and allow you (he option
  of going hack (and correcting the error at a later
  lime) or correcting the error. The  cursor will hhnk
  at the prompt with the incorrect entry, if you elect
  to correct the error before moving  on

The INDEX Function   Instead of moving
  backwards and forwards through the  screens, you
  may use the INDEX feature to hop back and forth
  between screens.  To access this feature, move
  your cursor over the INDEX button and click with
  the mouse button, or enter ALT, 1   All the screens
  ava lablc in this option will be displayed with the
  screen titie and (he screen numbers.  Certain
  screens will be grayed out This indicates that
  these screens are not accessible due to selections
  made on other screens.  The screen that you
  were in when you selected the INDEX button
  will be  highlighted in blue text

  If you wish to see tl.c prompts that appear on each
  screen, press the EXPAND button at the  bottom of
  the  INDEX screen The screen names and numbers
  will  then include all the prompts contained  in the
  screens.  You may contract the screen again to the
  normal  display of just the screen names and
  number h;  clicking on the CONTRACT button

  To move to the screen that  you want, move your
  cursor over the screen number of any non-gray
  screen and click the left  mouse button  You are
  taken immediately lo that screen  To exit the
  INDEX screen and return to the previous screen,
  click on the CANCEL button.

The HELP Button  This opium  allows you  access
  help information on that interlace   You have two
  different types ol help: Prompt-Level Help which
  contains information on the specific prompt that
  \our cursor is on or on which you are entering data
  and General Help which contains a general
  description of the SWMM system.

  To access General Help, move your cursor lo the
  tool bar and the select the HELP option, or enter
  ALT, H from the keyboard.  A menu will appear.
  Select the HELP IN'DEX option or enter I  from the
  key board.

  To access Prompt-Level Help, move your cursor
  over to the prompt on which you would like
  information and press cither the Fl function key  or
  move your cursor over in (he  HELP button and
  click.

  A window will appear in either case displaying
  broad help or prompt-specific help.  If you are
  accessing prompt-specific help, you may browse
  through the helps for all the additional prompts that
  are related to the prompt you are on by accessing
  the forward and backward BROWSE keys.

  All words or sentences thai are  in green and
  underlined have further information on them.
  Move  your cursor over the phrase on which you
  would like further information and click.  You will
  be taken to that option.

  There  is a search function within the HELP
  functions thai allows you to type in a word and
  find all the help available on the word that you
  typed.  To access this, select the SEARCH key in
  the HELP window and follow instructions.

  When you are through viewing help, exit the help
  window by  either entering ALT, F-* from the
  keyboard or  by  moving the cursor over to  the icon
  on the  top .ft  i.,)ii,cr of the window and double
  clicking the left mouse button.  You will be
  returned to the screen that you were  in previously.

The CALC Button  This option allows you to
  access the Calculator Function within Windows.
  should you require  the use of a calculator  at any
  screen in SWMM.

The TOP Button  This option allows you to move
to the first screen in SWMM (rum any screen
without  havine to use the IN'DEX luncuon.

-------
                                                                        Using the SWMM Windows Interface
 The Rl'N Dulton  'Dus option allows sou to submit
   an input file that you have created 10 ihe SWMM
   model for execution.  II >ou ha\e incorrect entries
   in the tile when you click on this hutton. SWMM
   will inform you that you have incorrect values and
   take you  to the appropriate  prompt MI that you may
   corrcci the value and resuhrmi the tile.

 The RESTORE Button   This opium allows >ou to
   restore the default values thai were in the file
   before you started making changes for (his screen.
   This is an opuon (hat allows \ou to  start again
   withoul having  to exit ihe system or go hack to
   even1 variable  that you changed.

 The TABLES Button   This  option allows you  to
   tabulate the SWMM output  results.  The Tables
   function presents the user with two types of tables:
   Summary table  and Evcnl Mean Concentrations
   (EMCs) table.

The GRAPHICS Button   This option allows you to
   graph Ihe SWMM output results.  There are six
   different types of graphs available: hydrograph,
   pollutograph. loadograph, flow volume, mass, and
   land use.

The CALIBRATION  Button  This option allows
   you to perform the calibration based on the
   SWMM results. You can use this option to
   compare simulated results with observed data.
   Two types of graphs and one statistical table are
   generated al the end  of the calibration. Refer to
   Accessing The  Calibration Routine for details
   ("Section 7.3).
5.7 Import File Option in SWMM

The import file option  allows ihe user to access
existing input files that are generated from other
model  runs.  'Hie SWMM interlace can  import three
types of files: NWS rainfall Jala can be imported
into the MHT interface for ihe Ram Block, an
existing runoff input file  can be imported into the
Windows  interface lor  the RUNOFF block and
existing transpon input tiles c.in  be imported  into the
Windows  interface for  the TRANSPORT block.
 Procedure for Using the Import Functions

 The Import option is selected from the main menu
 bar at the top of MET. RUNOFF, or TRANSPORT
 interfaces  When the import option is selected, the
 R_unoff file will appear as an option. Select this
 option

 A window will appear with a list of Runoff Input tile
 that arc in the SWMM directory. To see a list of
 files with extensions other  than .DAT extension.
 select the List Files of Type option at the bottom of
 the window.  The second option will be to  see a list
 of all the  files in the directory.  To import a file from
 the list, brine the cursor to the file thai you would
 like to import and click twice in quick  succession or
 click on the OK button when the cursor is on the file.
 A description line, which consists of the top line of
 the file  (i.e., the Al card in the Runoff input), is
 provided to help you identify the file when the cursor
 is on the file name.

 The SWMM interface currently supports the SWMM
 4.2 version, although the SWMM 4.3 execution file
 (05/25/94) is used.  Not all the SWMM input cards
 in the SWMM blocks can be read into the interfaces.
 For example, the L2 card in the Runoff Block cannot
 be imported to the  RUNOFF interface.  To find a list
of the SWMM ID cards and variables that can be
read into the interface refer to Appendix B.  A
message will be displayed on the screen when
reading  the new SWMM cards.

The  weaihcr data handled in SWMM interface is
different from the Runoff Block of the SWMM
model.  The interface  allows the user to enter all the
weather data in MET while the  Runoff Block lets the
user enter the rainfall data cither in the Rain Block or
 in the Runolf mpt   itself.  When importing an
existing Runoff input  file, the RUNOFF interface
 reads most of the data lines except E1-E3. Dl, and
 Fl lines in the Runoff input file  (see SWMM manual
 by Huhcr. W.C. and Dickinson, R.E.. 1988. for
explanation of data  lines).  Those rainfall and
evaporation data should be  entered in the MET
 interface.  In other word, the user should interpret
El-FJ, Dl, and FI lines and generate a new
SMETV.MET file.  A complete runoff interface file
must include a MET tile.

-------
SWAfAf Windows Interface Cvrr's Manual
Existing input files can contain only one data block.
Multiple blocks  are not allowed.  The interlace
Import function  can read existing input files
containing single block information, although the
SWMM  model allows the user to put more than one
data block in one input file.
5.8  Export Function

The Export function is a function available under the
Tables option that allows you to export Summary
data or EMCs tables to another file for export into a
spreadsheet program or another analytical or
graphical program.  The Export function is available
under the Edit option ai the top of the screen.

Using the Export Function

STEP 1.  Highlight the block of data 
-------
                                                                      L'sint; the SWMM Windows Interface
5.10   Manual Run Option

This option is one of (wn mam options available to
you in the SWMM mam menu.  Tins option allows
you to edit input files and submit the appropriate
ones to the model. Table 5.1 gives you a summary of
all the input and output files generated by SWMM
and their file formats  Refer to it if  you have any
questions about any of the files.  You may only edit
ASCII files  This option requires  some expertise in
SWMM. so we  recommend that you  use the
Windows interface option to  familiarize yourself with
the SWMM Model prior to using this option. To
change the default file editor, select the Utilities
option  at the top of the screen.  Click on  Setup
Output File Viewer.  You will then be required to
enter the location and executable  name of the output
file editor when you select this option.
You have two options for the SWMM Input files:

EDIT   You may edit two types of files using this
  option: *.RUN, which are the files generated by
  the RUNOFF.  TRANSPORT, and EXTRAN
  interfaces for input to SWMM or *.DAT files,
  which are the traditional files created for the DOS
  model version  of SWMM that you may  have
  created previously or came with the SWMM mode)
  (the example runs that are provided, see Section 5).
RUN   Once you have edited either the  *.RUN files
  or the *.DAT files, you may submit them for
  processing by the SWMM model by selecting this
  button.
                                                  2.5

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6.   EXAMPLE  RUNS
Tills section contains tour example r:ns to illustrate
how to best  use the SWMM Windows interface. The
example runs are selected in .in .nteinpi to exercise
ihe major portions of the SWMM interlace. A
matrix ol SWMM interlace wnh the \anous runs is
shown in Table 6  1  The SWMM interlace contains
five blocks:  MET. RUNOFF. USF.HP. TRANSPORT.
and EXTRAN  E-.ich block has Us own components.
and each component may be dmJed into  sections if
applicable.  Five SWMM interlace blocks and their
subdivisions are listed in the first column   The four
example runs arc given on the top row of Table 6.1.
For a given example, two or more blocks  may be
used depending on the level of complexity of the
simulation.   Example 2 shown in Table 6.1. for
instance, illustrates the combination of three blocks:
MET. RUNOFF, and TRANSPORT.  It includes the
applications  on  I) how to generate precipitation  data
for a single evcni  simulation using MET;  2) how to
describe a drainage system  with channels  and
subwatersheds and simulate runoff and water quality
using RUNOFF; and 3) how to apply TRANSPORT
to a sewer system for the simulations of infiltration,
dry weather, and water quality.

These examples were obtained from the EPA and
demonstrated the applications on the Ram, Temp ,
Runoff. Transport, and E-xtran  Blocks in the SWMM
model. The interface runs c.m be checked using the
input files supplied by HPA along with  ihe
distribution package  for SWMM. The example  mpuc
files prepared for testing the SWMM Windows
interface and corresponding ones used for SWMM
4.3 are listed in Table 6.2.  Tins table indicates the
relationship between blocks used in the SWMM
interface and Blocks in SWMM  4.3 for each example
run. The first example is a screening level example:
the rainfall-runoff was simulated through  a single
watershed.  The first run shows the use of the MET
and RUNOFF blocks, while the  second one presents
.1 user-supplied  hyetograph uiili/mg MET. RUNOFF.
and TRANSPORT  The sequence of running the
SWMM Windows interface is  given in  the
FUNCTION column of Table  6 2. In example I.
MET produces an input lilc c.Jled SMHTOOl MET.
and further generates a  Rain interlace tile alter a
RUN hution is selected.  'Dm  is equivalent to
running  the Rain Block using  two input tiles:
RAIN8.DAT and USRN4 DAT.  A RUNOFF input
file. RNOFF001.INP. generated by the interface can
he checked wnh a Runoff Block input file.
RUNOFF36.DAT.
6.1  Example 1—A User-Defined
     Hyetograph  (A Screening-Level
     Example)

This is an example of a user-defined time series of
rainfall with a total precipitation of 28.0 mm.  A user
defined hyetograph is shown in Table 6.3.  The for-
mat (see Table 6.3) required by MET is the same one
used in Rain Block interface file.  A single catchment
with a total drainage area of 300 hectares  receives
rainfall through an inlet.  The catchment charac-
teristics' are 20%  of impervious area, 100 meters long
for catchment width, and 0.001 for ground slope.
The total  simulation length lasts 3 days.

This example is there to show  you how to use MET
and RUNOFF together to perform a Runoff Block
Run. Only hydrologic simulation  is involved.

The steps that you must follow for this  screening-
level example are explained in detail below:

STEP I   Select the SWMM Windows Interface
         option Irom the mam SWMM menu.  Next.
         select the MET Block, which  is  the first
         option in the (low chart, by clicking on the
         option.

STEP 2  Select the example MET data that has been
         created lor you by clicking on the FILE
         option,  followed by the O_PEN option.
         Select the first file listed: SMET001.MET.
         The file will be loaded into the MET
         interlace Move through the screens and
         tamihari/e yourself with the MET option
         Use the HELP button to answer any
         questions you may have. Compare the
         input to Table 6.3 to make sure  that it is
         the right file.

STEP 3  Next, click on the RUN button.   MET will
         then  generate a Ram Block interface file.

-------
S\VMM Window!, Interlace (,'ser's Manual
        BLOCKS
    Table 6.1   Example  Run  Matrix for SNVMM Windows Interface

                                                    EXAMPLE RUN
                                       1             2             3
        MET

        Precipitation
        Rain gage -

        Evaporation

        Snow
     Single
            Multi
            Default rates
            Monthly rates
     Wind Speed
     Temp  -     Single Event
                 Continuous
        RUNOFF
        Drainage System
                                   Channels/Pipes
                                   Watersheds/
                                   Subcatchments
        Snow

        Groundwater
        Water Quality
        Erosion
     Single Event
     Continuous
        USEHP
        Inlet  -

        Flow
        Pollutant
Single
     Mult
        TRANSPORT
        Sewer System
        Infiltration Inflow
        Dry Weather Inflow
        Water Quality
                             Storage Tank
                             New Shape
                             Natural Channel
                              RUNOFF Interlace
                              USEHP
        EXTRAN
        Sewer System
        inlet Hydrographs
            Channels
            Junctions (one free outfall)
            Boundary Conditions

            RUNOFF Interface
            USEHP

-------
                                                                                           Example Runs
                  Table 6.2  Example Input files with SWMM Windows and S\VMM 4.3
Example
i
2
3
10
SWMM Windows Interface
Block
MET
RUNOFF
MET
RUNOFF
TRANSPORT
USEHP
TRANSPORT
USEHP
EXTRAN
Input File
SMET001 MET
RNOFF001 INP
SMET002MET
RNOFF002.INP
TRANS001.INP
USEHP002.HP
TRANS002.INP
USEHP001 HP
EXTRNOOVINP
SWMM 4.3
Block
Rain
Runoff
Runoff
Transport
Transport
Exlran
Input File
RAIN8.DAT USRN4.DAT
RUNOFF36.DAT
RUNOFF3 DAT
TRANS1 DAT
TRANS35.DAT
EXAM 1 DAT
            Table 6.3  A User-Defined
               Hyetograph in MET
Julian
Date
88001
88001
88001
88001
88001
88001
88001
88001
88002
88002
88002
Hour'
(second)
3600
7200
10800
25200
26100
27900
30600
34000
37800
41400
45000
Time Interval
THISTO
(second)
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
Rainfall
Intensity
(mtn/hr)
12
24
0
12
12
\2
24
42
54
66
78
'Daytime (starting storm) hour in seconds from midnight

You must have used (he RUN hulion before you
proceed to the next  block in SWMM.

STEP 4   n.xit the MET option by pressing the ALT
          key and F4 function  key.  You will he
          returned to the S\VMM Windows Interface
          menu.  Seleci the RL'NOFF option.
STEP 5.   Click on the FILE option, select the OPEN
          File option.  A list of Runoff Input Files
          will appear.  Select the RNOFFOOI.INP
          file for this example run. Once you select
          this option, the parameters for this example
          run will he entered  from  the Hie.  The first
          screen for  the RUNOFF block also allows
          you to enter the Meteorological Input file.
          If the file that you created for the MET
          option does not show in the input option
          for the  file name, click on the arrow key to
          the right of the option. A list  of existing
          meteorological file names will appear.
          Select SMETOOI.MET.  Please note that,
          if you did  not use the RUN button from
          the MET interface, you  will not be able
          to use the  MET data since the interface
          file will not exist.  You will be informed
          by the interface that the input file could
          not bo  read if you  did not create the
          Rain Block Interface file in  MET.

STEP 6.   Familiarize yourself with the screens in the
          RUNOFF option hy moving through the
          screens using  either the NEXT, BACK or
          INDEX options  Refer to Section 5 for
          more  information on these buttons. Cer-
          tain important screens are detailed below.

          Screens 1 and 2:
          The hydroloeic simulation starts at January

-------
SWMM Wituttiws Interface User's Manual
          I, I9HH and the simulation length is three
          days  Three time steps should he entered
          Screen 2 in RUNOFF determines the
          complexity of the simulation.  In this case.
          snawmcli is not included; default
          evaporation rales are used, und metric units
          are selected.  Screens 3 through  H are
          grayed because no snowmelt is simulated.

          Screen 10:
          This screen gives you the physical
          representation ot the watershed  For this
          example, you have a single watershed
          without a connecting channel  One inlet is
          defined as a ramgage station in MET for
          this  watershed.  Please note that  the
          ramgage station in MET must  match the
          hyetograph number in RUNOFF  For this
          example,  ramgage station number is 1.

          Screen 12;
          You will notice that  two infiltration
          equations are available to you  m this
          screen: (I) the  Horton and (2)  the modi Red
          Grcen-Ampl equation. The Horton model
          is empirical and is perhaps the best known
          ot the infiltration equations. Many
          hydrologisls have a "feel" for ihe best
          values for its three parameters despite the
          fact that little published information is
          available.

          The Green-Ampt equation is a physically-
          hased model that can give you a good
          description of the infiltration process.  The
          Mein-Larson (1973) formulation of the
          Green-Ampt equation is a two-stage
          model. The first step predicts the volume
          of water, which will infiltrate before the
          surface becomes saturated. From this
          point onwards, infiltration capacity is
          predicted directly by the Green-Ampt
          equation. This equation is applicable  also
          if the rainfall intensity is less than the
          inhltrutmn capacity at the beginning ol the
          storm.  New data have  been published to
          help users evaluate the parameter values
          ic g. Carlisle el al.  ]*)K1>  Both equations
          require three different coefficients  The
          user will be required to enter these
         coelfkicnis in Screen 13.  The Windows
         interface has  an additional function lo help
         users with  these coefficients.  Depending
         on the equation selected by the user,
         definitions  of each of these coefficient will
         appear w hen  the user clicks on the
         appropriate variable.

         For this example, the Green-Ampt equation
         has been selected.  The three  coefficients
         are 4 U for the average capillary suction of
         water, 1.0  for the saturated hydraulic
         conductivity of soil,  and 0.34 tor the  initial
         moisture deficit for soil.

STEP 7.  Submit the RUNOFF input file to the
         SWMM  model for execution  by clicking
         on the RUN button.  An icon will appear
         on the bottom of the screen with the  words
         SWMM  MODEL EXECUTION on the
         icon. When the processing is complete,
         the output  will be shown in the default
         output file  viewer.  View the  output
         carefully and see how the  SWMM model
         blocks in this screening  level  example.
         Press the ALT/F4 sequence to exit when
         you are through.  You will be returned to
         the RUNOFF block.  Press the ALT/F4
         sequence again until you are  back at  the
         SWMM  mam menu.


6.2 Example 2—Steven's Avenue
     Drainage District in Lancaster, PA
     (MET, RUNOFF,  and TRANSPORT)

The 67 hectare  Stevens Avenue Drainage District in
Lancaster, Pennsylvania is a relatively steep (average
slope = 0.046) combined sewered catchment with its
overflow tributary  to Conestoga Creek.  It has been
the site ol intermittent monitoring activity sir.ce 1972
due to us selection as the location of a  swirl
concentrator from an EPA demonstration grant.
Although several storms were  monitored prior to
construction activities, the measurement technique
used the  Manning's equation to develop a rating
curve in  a supercritical flow pipe section ("manhole
51" of SWMM schemalt/ationi. As a result
measured flow's iat 1.5 minute intervals) are very
"tlashv'  and erratic:  (vtuin ax erases have been used

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                                                                                           Example Runs
 in the  SWMM calibration usim:  the storm ot
 November 28.  197?. taken from  the EPA Urban
 Rjinfall-Runol'f-Qualay IXua Base iHubcr ct al..
 1981).  Further information about ihe catchment and
 sampling  is given  in the Data Base report and b>
 Heanev et al i 1975)  Quality  concentration data
 have also been used tor SS. HOD5. and COD
 calibrations using the same storm  Artificially  high
 COD values are input at selected manholes to
 produce dry-weather flow  COD \alues  since the dry-
 weather Mow generated by subroutine FILTH cannot
 generate any COD (see SWMM  manual by Hubcr.
 W.C. and Dickinson. R.E.. 198K, lor explanation).

 This watershed is a complex drainage system and  is
 divided into 29 subwatersheds  and  35 channels.
 There are 15 inlets in the  drainage  system.  Seven
 pollutants arc included lor water quality simulations:
 (I) Total Solids (TS). (2) Total Suspended Solids
 (TSS). (3) BOD-5, i4) COD, (5) Total Coliform. (6)
 Ammonia nitrogen (NH,-N), and (7) Total
 Phosphate 
-------
SWMM U'triJ
-------
                                                                                       Example Runs
         using the Output File Editor  Examine ihc
         output file carefully and press the ALT/F4
         sequence to exit when you are through.
         You will he  returned to the TRANSPORT
         block. Press the ALT/F4  sequence again
         until you are back at the SWMM main
         menu.
6.3     Example 3—Simulation of a
         Simple One-Pipe System with
         Two Manholes (USEHP &
         TRANSPORT)

We are simulating a simple one-pipe system with a
small slope and water quality for a Transport run.
The one-pipe system has two manholes.  The first
manhole is  specified through ihc USEHP interface.
The constituents TSS and BODS with decay are
simulated without scour/deposition. A user-supplied
hydrograph and two pollutographs for inlet number
1000 are shown in Table 6.4 below.

The steps thai you must follow for this screening-
level example are explained in detail below:

STEP 1.  Select the SWMM Windows Interface
         option from the  main SWMM  menu.
         Next, select the  USEHP option.

STEP 2  Select the example USEHP file that has
         been created for you by clicking on the
         FILE option, followed by the OPEN
         option. Select the second file listed:
         USEHP002.HP.  The file will  be loaded
         into  the USEHP Interface.  Move through
         the screens and familiarize yourself with
         this option.  Use the help information
         available to you through the HELP button
         lo answer any questions you may have
         about any prompts.  Compare  the input to
         Table 6.4 above to make sure  that it is the
         right tile.

STEP 3  Next, dick on the RUN button.  USEHP
         will  then generate the  L'SEHP interlace
         files as input to the Transport  Block.  You
         must have used  the RUN button before
         you  may proceed to the next block in
         SWMM
    Table 6.4  User-Defined Hydrograph and
            Pollutographs in USEHP
Time
(hr)
0
1.0
20
30
240
Flow
(cfs)
1 0
100.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
TSS
(mgA.)
10.0
100.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
BOD

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SIVMAf Windttws Interface User's Manual
6.4 Example 4—Basic Pipe System
     (USEHP and EXTRAN)

This example is obtained from [he EXTRAN user's
manual tRoesner et al. 1988) described as Example
I: Basic pipe system. Figure 6.1 below shows a
typical sewer system of conduits conveying
stormwater flow. The system consists of nine
channels and ten junctions with one free outfall.  In
(his example, conduits are designated with tour-digit
numbers, while junctions have been gi%-en five-digit
numbers.  There arc three junctions or inlets that
receive inflows, which w-ill be  defined using the
USEHP interface.  The total simulation length is
eight hours.

Two SWMM interfaces are used in running Example
4. Hirst, the user should select the USEHP block to
specify three inlet hydrographs. The user then should
access EXTRAN in order to select an inlet
hydrograph file thai has been just generated by
USEHP, and to enter a drainage system and
simulation information for a EXTRAN run.  A
USEHPOOI.HP file  and  an EXTRN001.INP file are
the input files for this example

The steps in this example are explained below.

STEP I.  Select (he SWMM Windows Interlace
         option from the mam SWMM menu.
         Next, select the USEHP option.

STEP 2  Select the example USEHP data lhat has
         been created for you by clicking on the
         FILE option,  followed by the OPEN
         option. Select the  first file listed:
         USEHPOOI.HP. The file will be loaded
         into the USEHP interface   Move through
         the screens and famiharue  yourself with
         'his option  Use the help information
         available to you through the HELP button
         to answer any questions you may have
         about any prompts.  Next, click on the
          RUN button  USEHP will  then generate
          tour USEHP  interlace tiles  You must
          have used ihe RUN  button  belore vou may
          proceed to the next block in SWMM.

S1T.P '   Hut the USEHP ,'ptmn h>  pressing the
          ALT ke\ and F4 1 unction kcs   You will
         be returned to the SWMM Windows
         Interlace menu.  Select the EXTRAN
         option.

STEP 4  Click on the RLE option, select the OPEN
         File option  A list of EXTRAN Input
         Files will appear.  Select the
         HXTRNOOI.INP file for this example run.
         Once you select this file, the parameters
         for ihis example run will be entered from
         the file.  The first screen for this interface
         also allows you to enter the USEHP file.
         Please note that, if you did not use the
         RUN button in the USEHP interface,
         you will not be able to use the data since
         the interface files will not exist.  You
         will be informed by the interface lhat
         the input File could not be read if you
         did not  create the USEHP Interface  file.

STEP 5.  Use the  NEXT, BACK and INDEX
         buttons along with the HELP button to
         move through the screens and familiarize
         yourself with both the EXTRAN block and
         with this input file. When you have done
         so, submit this input file to the RUN
         button.  The SWMM model icon will
         appear in the bottom of she  screen with the
         •itle SWMM MODEL EXECUTION.
         When 'he processing is complete, you  will
         be asked whether you wish to see  the
         output file lhat has been created. If you
         indicate  YES, you will view- the output file
         using the Output File Editor.  Examine the
         output file carefully and press the  ALT/F4
         sequence to exit when you are through.
         You will be  returned to the  EXTRAN
         block.  Press Ihe ALT/F4 sequence again
         until you are back al the SWMM main
         menu.

Summary  of output from EXTRAN:

The first section is an echo of the input data and  a
listing ot conduits  created internally by EXTRAN to
represent outfalls and diversions caused by weirs,
orifices, and pumps.

The next section oi ihe output is the intermediate
printout  Iliis  lists system inflows ,is they ate read

-------
                                                                                      Example Runs
                        \°
           Free
           Outfall
                          i
                          V  <
V
V •$>
                                  1602
                                       8060
                                                                                8040
                            1600
1630             1570
                                                       8130
                                                                               8100
figure 6.1     Basic System with Free Outfall.  (After Camp.  Dresser, and McKee. 1988.
                                                35

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
by EXTRAN and gives the depth at each junction
and flow in each conduit in the system at a user-
input  lime  interval.  A junction m surcharge is
indicated by printing an asterisk beside its  depth.  An
asterisk beside a conduit How indicates that the How
is set  at the normal flow value for the conduit. The
intermediate printout ends with the printing of a
continuity balance of the water passing through the
system during the simulation.  Printed outflows from
junctions not designated as outfalls in the input data
set are junctions which have flooded.

The  final section of the output gives the  lime history
of depths and flows for those junctions and conduits
input by the user, as well  as a summary requested
plots of junctions heads and conduit flows.

-------
 7   SWMM  POST-PROCESSOR
 The SWMM Post-Processor consists of three parts:

   * Summary Tables
   • Graphics
   * Calibration

 Figure 7.1 shows the SWMM post-processor
 structure.  The Summary Tables function presents
 (low raie (or volume I  and pollutant concentrations (or
 loads)  for desired inlets. The Tables function
 presenis the  user with  two different types of tables:
 the summary table  and the Event Mean Concentration
 (EMCs) lable. The Graphics routine displays six
 different types of graphs:  hydrograph, pollutograph,
 loadograph,  flow volume, mass, and land use.  The
 Calibration routine allows the user 10 compare
 observed data and predicted values.

 These three  functions are available from the
 RUNOFF interface and the TRANSPORT interface
 blocks. The results (Tables or Graphs) presented in
 the three  functions  are based on the values stored in
 either a RUNOFF interface  file (RNOFFMND or a
 TRANSPORT interface file  (TRANSMNT).
 Therefore, the user must provide a SWMM interface
 file.

The functions are accessible through three special
buttons on the third line of each screen in RUNOFF
and TRANSPORT.
7.1  The Tables Routine

The table function presents the user with two
different types of tables:

* The Summary Table

The summary table presents flow  rate (or volume)
and pollutant concentrations (or loads I for desired
inlets.  There are four time increments given for this
option. Event.  Daily. Monthly, and Annual.  Usually,
Event may be applied to single-event .simulations
where ihe instantaneous How rate  and pollutant
concentrations  will he displayed in [he summary
lable.  while Dailv, Monthly, or Annual mav be used
 for continuous simulations where the flow volume
 and pollutant loads can be tabulated.

  The Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs) Table.

 The EMCs table reports flow volume, duration.
 EMCs, and Loads for each storm event Two
 parameters are required to be specified: minimum
 interevent time and base flow. The minimum
 interevent time indicates the minimum number of dry
 hours (or fractional hours) mat will constitute  an
 interevem.  The baseflow  or cutoff flow is used to
 separate the events.  Flows greater than the baseflow
 are pan of ihe event, conversely  flows less than or
 equal  to the baseflow are  part of the interevent
 period.  The default value of ihe baseflow may be set
 to zero.

The event mean concentrations are defined as  Ihe
total pollutant mass divided by the total runoff
 volume for storm events.  Separation of the data into
events depends on the unique series of zero and
non-zero instantaneous flow values found at each
inlet location  within the system being simulated.  The
results of the  analyses would be expected to vary
from location to location.  The Statistics Block can
analyze only one location  at a time.  However, the
Windows post-processor can analyze multiple
locations (the maximum inlets specified in the
interface file).

Procedure for Generating a Table

STEP I.  The table option is accessible through a
         TABLES button on the third line of  the
         screen, with the  other button options
         available in RUNOFF and TRANSPORT.
         It is also accessible under the Utilities
         option in the main menu bar (ALT U, G).

STEP 2.  ITic table program screen will appear.  You
         must first select  a Runoff or Transport
         interface file (depending on the module
         from where you  selected graphics).  To see
         a list of the files that exist in your default
         directory, click on the arrow to the right of
         the input cell asking you for the file  name.

-------
      Windows Interface User's Manual
                                    SWMM  Interface file
 Summary Tables
Graphical Display
                         Hydrograph,
                         Pollutograph,
                         Lodograph
                         (Line Chart)
Calibration
  Flow Volume,
  Mass

  (Bar Chart)
Hydrograph,
Pollutograph,
Observed vs
Predicted
Figure 7.1 SWMM Post-Processing Structure.

-------
                                                                                  SWMM Post-Processor
         Select the file that you would like 10
         tabulate the model results for ihe tables,

STEP 3. Select the type of table that you like to
         have. Specify inlets of interest or the
         duration for the summary' lable.

STEP 4, Hit the NEXT button when you  have
         completed the selections thai you wish.
         The tables will bop through the number of
         inlets specified,  One table represents ihe
         model results for a specified location
         (inlet).

STEP 5, Use the Export function to export summary
         data and EMCs tables to another file in
         either table delimited or comma  delimited
         format.
7.2 The Graphics Routine

The Graphics option in SWMM provides access lo
six different type of graphs: hydrograph,
poliutograph, ioadograph, flow volume, mass, and
land use.  It is available from the RUNOFF module
and the TRANSPORT module.  The graphics option
is provided to allow the user to represent the results
in  easy-io-understand graphs.

Accessing the Graphics Program

STEP I. The graphics  option is accessible through a
         GRAPHICS button on the third line of the
         screen, with the other button options
         available in RUNOFF and TRANSPORT.
         It is also accessible under the Utilities
         option in the  main menu bar (ALT U, G),

STEP 2. The graphics  program screen will appear.
         You must first select a Runoff or Transport
         interface file (depending on the module
         from where you selected graphics).  To see
         a list of the files that exist in your default
         directory, click on the Arrow to the right of
         ihe parameter asking you for the file name.
         Select the file that you would like to use as
         input for the graphics.

STEP 3. Select the type of graph  from the list
         provided.  Please note that depending on
         the input file that you selected, certain
         graphs such as pollutographs may not be
         available since the data in the  file does no!
         support that graph.  The options that are
         unavailable to you will  be grayed out.  A
         list of inlet IDs will be  presented  when you
         select an input file. You may select
         between one and three inlets to represent on
         the graph. For the  Flow Volume  and Mass
         Graph, you will be  required to select the
         Time Increment that you would like: daily,
         monthly, or annual.  You will  then be
         required to enter the period  for which you
         would  like to have  for the graph.  Please
         note that the period shown when you select
         the Runoff file automatically shows the
         beginning and ending dates of the data
         contained in the file.  You may only select
         a period with the dates shown  if you wish
         to change the defaults.

STEP 4.  Hit the RUN button when you have
         completed the selections that you  wish.
         You will see a box informing you that the
         selections that you made will be saved
         under the filename  shown at the top of the
         screen.

STEP 5.  Next you will see a list of files in a box
         with the title of GRAPHIC SELECTION.
         The file that was just generated will be
         selected.  You  may select up to four graphs
         from the  list presented.  Hit the OK button
         to draw the graphs.

STEP 6.  The graphs that you selected will  be drawn
         on the  screen.  Once drawn, you have two
         options:
                  To print the graph(s) that appear
                  on the screen, select the GRAPH
                  option at the top of the screen
                  and select PRINT, The file will
                  be printed 10 the default
                  Windows printer.
        EDIT:
This option allows you to copy
the image and transport it to any
Windows program through the
Cut and Paste option available

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                   with that program.  To do ibis.
                   select  EDIT a( the lop of ihe
                   screen, and select COPY.

Figure 7.2 displays  four graphs from the first two
example results.

Features and Limitations of the Graphics
Program

« The graphics routine can draw up to three inlets or
  pollutants for one graph. It can display two inlets
  or pollutants with two Y-axes for one graph.

* To draw land use distribution, you must have two
  files: a Runoff interface  file (RNOFFMNT) and a
  RUNOFF windows interface file (RNOFFMNP).
  The land use distribution is computed based on the
  data stored in the RNOFF*.INP file. This means
  that two interface files must be available when the
  user selects the land use option.

* You can display up to four graphs at a time.  To
  create four different graphs at one session, you
  must loop through the graphics option screen using
  a different graphics input file name each time (this
  is the file name shown at the top of the screen:
  SWTGRMNP for TRANSPORT graphs, and
  SWRGR»,INP for the RUNOFF graphs). If you
  do not select a new file  name, then when you hit
  the RUN button, it will overwrite the graph that
  you just created since the graphs are organized by
  file names.
7.3 The Calibration Routine

The calibration routine can be accessed by clicking
on the Calibration button with the mouse. A window
similar to the Graphics Routine will appear.  There
are only two types of graphics available: hydrograph
and pollutograph. The procedures to generate the
graphs in the calibration routine are similar to the
ones used in ihe graphics routine, except for observed
data.  Like the graphics routine, you should select a
Runoff interface (i.e.. RNOFFMNT) file and specify
the type of graph, the inlet numbers), time
increment, beginning and ending time, and number of
observed points. You then should provide observed
data on Screen 3. You have options either to enter
the data on Screen 3 or to import the observed data
mat are stored in a separate file.  Refer to the  How to
Import Observed Data option in details.  Click R_un
to view the calibration graphs.

The calibration routine  produces two types of graphs
and one statistical table. The first graph  draws two
sets of values over time: predicted values obtained
from a RNOFFMNT file for a continuous plot and
observed data from the user input on Screen 3 for a
scatter plot.  The second graph shows observed data
vs. predicted values  and a best fit line, which is
automatically generated by the  calibration routine.
The table displays several important parameters for
predicted values and observed data.  For  a
hydrograph. flow volume, peak flow, time to peak,
and duration are reported.  For a pollutograph,
pollutant mass, peak concentration. Event Mean
Concentration (EMC), time to peak, and duration are
presented.  Figure 7.3 presents  the total solids
calibration graphs from a RNOFF002.INT file.

* Importing Observed Data

If you have observed data stored in either a
spreadsheet or an ASCII file, you can import the data
directly to the observed data screen.  The format in
the data file should be consistent with the format
defined on the observed data screen (Screen  3  in the
calibration routine).  Check the file formal before
importing the data.  Select Edit at  the top line  of the
observed data screen and select the Import option.
Then, give a file name that contains the observed
data.  Click on OK.  The data will be entered into
the screen.

-------
                                                                        SWMM Post-Proctuor
Flow (RNOFFM2.MT) (Flow Rat* vs. Tfaw)
  20
  It
|u
]..
  04
  °*
                                  £/ hM4
                               4  01
                                 s
                                        Mrtf
       0^     04    0.*    0«
                                 to
  (RNOFF002.IHT) (Ma« Rate vs. Time)
      02   04    06    08   10
                                  / Wtt«BOOS
                                  / WM4COO
                                                        Us* (RMOFFM2.IMT1 (LM4 Us* Oisli*«tio*)
                                                        22.6X
                                                                   • 6*
20 n
                                                                       3«
                                                                                    |  tcnooi
                                                                                    Q  FAMH.Y
                                                             449%
                                                                                 Q

                                                                                 Q  MFAMftT
                                                 Flow volMM (FtMOFFMLMT) (O*Ny Total Flow)
                                                         Tool «*i«<«U4 w«* « «S.43
                                                I—)
                                                                                            Wctl
Figure 7.2  RUNOFF Graphics
                                            41

-------
     SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                                     RNOFF002.INT
              Concentration vs. Tim*
        ObMfv«d v». Predicted
CMC
IMQA.I  2000
      1000
        0
         00
                                       /  MM t TOT COL
              02    04
          Hnm
-------
 APPENDIX  A:  SWMM WINDOWS INTERFACE DESIGN
This appendix contains the structures and variables
for the five window interface portions of SWMM.
There arc five tables in this appendix:

  Table A. I  Input Variables and Screen Sequence
            in MET

  Table A 2.  Input Variables and Screen Sequence
            in RUNOFF

  Table A.3  Input Variables and Screen Sequence
            in USEHP

  Table A.4  Input Variables and Screen Seq
            in TRANSPORT

  Table A.5  Input Variables and Screen Sequen
            in EXTRAN

The screen design for (he interfaces (hat are the same
as the SWMM Model 4.3 blocks (RUNOFF.
TRANSPORT and EXTRAN) provide the following
information.

  I.  The  variable name for the model block
     SWMM (if there is one).

  2.  the description of the  variable
lucnce
   ice
in
  3.  SWMM ID (SID)

  4.  screen number (SCR)

  5.  control number (CS)

  6.  control type (CT). item, range, default, and unit

You are therefore able to match the Windows
Interface variable name with the SWMM Model
Variable names, see where it occurs in the interface,
read a description, see what type of variable, the unit
type and the range, all by referring to the table for
the block in which you are interested.

For those tor which there arc no corresponding
blocks in SWMM (MET and USEHP), the following
is provided:

  I.  Screen Number
  2.  Variable Name
  3.  Definition of the variable
  4.  Unit Type

This will give you all the information about each
variable in  the interface.  Please refer to Sections 2
and 3 for more general information about SWMM
and the Windows implementation.

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                      Table A.I  Input Variables and Screen Sequence in MET
Screen
No.
1

2
3
4
5
6
Variables
Description
UNITS
Numbers! rain gages
Number of rain data values
Time interval HI hours
Number ol air temperatures
Number of TEMP data
values
STATION
JUL.DATE
HOUR
THISTO
PRECIP(t)
JUL.OATE
MAX TEMP.
MIN TEMP.
EVAP
WINDSPEEO
TAIR
Definition
Description of this run
Input meteorological data units either m U.S. units or ( Metric units 1
Number of raingage stations
Number of data values for preciprtation on Screen No. 3
Time interval lor single event snowneK simulation
Number of values tor ait temperature on Screen No. 6
Number ot data values for TEMP Data Table on Screen No. 4
An integer (1-10) for raingage station number
An integer for the Julian date in The format YYDDD
A real number for the daytime hour from midnight
A real number for the time interval between precipitation data values {A
variable lime interval is alowed)
A real number for ratnM Intensity with the its raingage number
(i • raingage. max- 10)
An integer for the Julian date in the format YYDOO
A real number for maximum temperature for the date
A real number for minimum temperature for the date
A real number for monthly average evaporation rate
A real number for monthly average wind speed rate
A real number for air temperature for single event snowmert simulation
Unit


second
second
tMv(mnvtv)

T|*CJ

in/day
[mm/day]
mile/nr
[km/hour]
TrC]
                                                44

-------
                                  Appendix A:  SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A.2 Input Variables and Screen Sequence in RUNOFF
Variable

tint


NHR
NMN
NDAY
MONTH
IYRSTR
LONG
IUNIT





W£T
WE TORY
DRY



K WAI TV
ISNOW
ISNOW
ISNOW
ISNOW
IVAP


M€TRIC


Description .
RUNOFF Simulation Time Control
Description of this run
Meteorologic Data
Simulation Time Period
Starting time of the storm hr
mm
Day storm starts Imm/dd/yyl


Simulation Length
Units of simulation length 	
Seconds
Minutes
Hours
Days
Ending Date
Wet time step (sec)
Transition time step (sec)
Dry time step (sec) 	
Simulation Control Parameters
Simulation Type
Groundwater Flow
Quality Simlation
Snowmelt Simulation
Not simulated
Single event
Continuous
Evaporation
Evaporation data from met. data file
Default evaporation rate
UNIT
U. S. units
Metric units
SID

A1


B1
81
B1
81
81
83
83





83
83
B3_
—


81
81
81
81
81
81


81


SCR

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1








2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
CS

1
2

3
4
5
5
5
6
7





8
9
10
- -

1
2
3
4
S
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
CT



5






3
9
9
9
9
9
1
1
1
—
5
4
4
5
6
6
6
5
6
6
S
6
l»
Hem











1.
2
3
4
5


-- -
-













Type

C160
C40






F
C11





F
F
F











CIS


Range




024
0-60
0-31
012
0099







> -1

	


0.1
0.1
0-2
0
1
2
O.>0


0.1
0
1
Default




0
0


42


0
1
2
3
4
3600.0
7200.0
86400.0



1
0



>0

0
0


Units
















second
second
second















-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                                        Table A.2—-continued
Variable

tliv
FWfftACO)

fWf*ACl2>

FWF«»CU|

SNOTMP
SCf
TIPM
RNM
ANGIAT
DUONG

ADCllll

ADCPOI

was
JIAND
DflVOAY
C8VOI
DRYBSN
mos
IROSAO
RAINIT



Description
Snow Melt
Average watershed elevation
Ratio of free water holding capacity to snow
depth on snow covered impervious area
Ratio of free water holding capacity to «now
depth on snow covered pervious area
Ratio of free water holding capacity to snow
depth for snow on normally bare impervious area
Dividing temp, between snow and rain
Snow gage correction factor
Weight used to compute antecedent temo_i«dex
Ratio of negative melt coeff . to melt coefl.
Average latitude of watershed (deo/ee north)
Longitude correction
Area) Depletion Curve for Impervious Area (%)
ADCMMO) J
Aeral Depletion Curve for Pervious Area (%\
ADCP(1-10>
Water Quality
Number of constituents (1-9)
Number of land uses ( 1 51
Number of dry days prior to storm
Average catchbasin storage volume
Dry days required to recharge to catchbasin
Erosion Simulation
Erosion added to constituent number
Higest average 30 minute rainfall intensity

Groundwater Quality
Street Sweeping Parameters
SID

Ct
C1

C1

C1

C1
C1
C1
a
a
C1

C3

C4

j\
ji
ji
ji
ji
ji
ji
jt



SCR
3
3
3

3

3

3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

j6

CS

i
2

3

4

S
6
7
8
9
io

j
-
1
—
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

9

CT

1
1

1

1







-
t

1

1
1
1
1
1
" 4
1
1

" 4
5
Item






























Type

f
f

f

F

f
F
f
f
f
f
-
F

F
—
1
1
F
F
F
»
1
F



Range










0010


-
O.CM'.O
—
o.o ro
_
-- -
1^9
t-5
>p.g^

>oo7_






Default

00
00

00

00

00
1.0
00
06
00
00

0.0

00


0
00
0.0
1.0
0
0
00



Units

ft Iml
we in tnwn)

w e in Imm)

we in Imml

FICI




mm







days
ft3 Im31
days


in/hr
Imm/hrl



-------
                 Appendix A:  SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A.2—continued
Variable
RlffDD
KINBGN
KINCNO

CNAMEiKI
PUNIT(K)
NOIM(K)



KAICIKI





KWASHIKI



KACGUTIKI



UNKUPfK)


OrACTn.KI'
QfACTl2,KI*
QFACTlJ.KI*
QMCTI4.KI"
QMCTIS.IO"
WASHPOIKI*
Description
Street sweeping efficiency for 'dust and dirt*
Day of year on which street sweeping begins
Day of year on which street sweeping ends
Constituent Table
CNAME
CUNIT
TYPE UNIT
mg/1
MPN/1
OTHER
BUILDUP
Fraction
Power-linear
Exponential
Mich-Men
No buildup
WHSHOFF
Power Exp
R Curve/N
R. Curve/B
FUNCTION
FJputter ten)
F(areal
Constant
LINK SNOW
No
Yes
LIMIT
POWER
COEFF
FOURTH
FIFTH
POWERW
SID
J1
J1
J1
J3
J3
J3
J3



J3





J3



J3



J3


J3
J3
J3
J3
J3
J3
SCR
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
CS
10
11
12

1
2
3



4





5



6



7


8
9
10
11
12
13
CT
1
1
1

1
1
2



2





2



2



2








Item







1
2
3

1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3

1
2
3

1
2






Type
F
1
1

C
C
C



C





C



C



C


F
F
F
f
f
f
Range






02
0
1
2
0-4
0
1
2
3
4
02
0
1
2
0-2
0
1
2
0.1
0
1






Default
00
0
367



0



0





0



0



0


00
00
00
0.0
0,0
0.0
Units

































         47

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                                       Table A.2—-continued
Variable
HCOfFIKl'
CBFACTIKf
CONCBNIK*'
RtfFlKI'

INAMCMI
MflMODMI





JACOUTIJI



DDCIMUI-
OOPOWIJ) '
OOFACTUC
CLHUOMI*
AVSWUI"
OSlClUr

KTO
KFMOM
fKKTO.KFROMI



Description
COIFFW
INICON
CONPRE
IFFI
Land Use Table
LNAME
METHOD
New values-
New Ratio
Power-linear
Exponential
MichaeNs- Menton
FUNCTION
F|0utter len)
FCareal
Constant
LIMIT
POWER
COEFF
DAYS1
FRACTION
DAYS2
Fractional Constituent Table
CNAME1
CNAME2
FRACTION
Groundwater Concentration
GCONC(1-10j
*** Array
SID
J3
J3
J3
J3

J2
J2





J2



J2
J2
J2
J2
J2
J2
J4
J4
J4
J4
J5


sen
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
S
9
9
10
.. .

CS
14
15
16
17

1
2





3



4
S
6
7
8
a

1
2
3

—

CT
1
1
1
1

1
3





3










1
1
1

1

Hem







1
2
3
4
5

f
2
3










- -


Type
F
F
F
F

C
C





C



1
F
F
F
F
F

1
1
F

F

Range






2.-1.02
•2
1
0
1
2
0-2
0
1
2





	 .




	 —
. . ._ .

Default
00
00
00
00


0





0



10
00
0.0
6.0
00
0.0

0
0
0.0

o.q

Units

8(3)
813}
















days

days





§

                                               48

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User s Manual
                                        Table A.2—continued
Variable
PtTZIR

JK
NAMfW
NGTO
wwnr
WARE A*
WWI3C
WSIOWE'
WW(5I *
WWI6I'
WS TORSI '
wsroflEJ-
WLMAX-
WLMIN*
O£CAV

NMSU0
NGWGW
ISfPF


ISFOF


etitv
GRELEV
STG
BC
TW
*»•

Description
Percent of impervious area with zero detention
Subcatchment Surface Water Table
HYETO *
NAMEW
CHA/INLET *
WIDTH
AREA
% IAREA
SLOPt
IMP V
PER 'n'
(STORE
PSTORi
COEFF1
COEFF2
COEFF3
Subcatchment Groundwtaer Table
NAMEW
CHA/INLET f
GPRINT
Yes
No
GGRAPH
Yes
No
BELEV
GELEV
IELEV
Ci/TS ELV
TW
GCOEFF

SID
B4

HI
HI
HI
H1
HI
HI
HI
H1
HI
HI
HI
HI
HI
HI
H2f
H2
H2
H2


H2


H2
H2
H2
H2
H2
H3

SCR
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14


14


14
14
14
14
14
14
14
CS
4

1
2
3
4
§
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
-
1
2
3


4


5
6
7
8
9
10

CT
1

1
1












-
1
1
3


3









Htm




















1
2

1
2







Type
f

1
C
c
F
F
f
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

C
C






F
F
F
F
F
F

Range















™ -
	


0,1
0
1
0,1
0
1







Default
25

1


00
00
00
00
00
0.0
00
00
00
- oo
00

00
00
0


0


00
00
00
00
00
00

Units
%




film)
area (hal
%
ft/ft


in (mm)
in (mm)



-








ft Iml
him)
ft Iml
h Iml

in/hr-ft
Imm/hr-ml
                                                 50

-------
                 Appendix A:  SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A.Z—•continutd
Variable

NAMfG
NGTO
NPG • NP







GWIOTM-
GLEN*
GI-
GS!
GS2
G«'
OFUIL'
GDlff
WTVK



WflEV
WOIS
SPILL


iMFUM


RfCEN
Description
Channel /Pipe Table
NAME
CHA/INLET *
TYPE
Trapeioidal
Circular
Dummy
Parabokc
Trap w/ wtir
Cir w/weir
Par w/w«ir
WIDTH
LENGTH
INV SLOPE
L SLOPE
R SLOPE
Manning's n
DEPTH
INI DEPTH
WTYPE
B N weir
V N weir
Orifice
WELEV
COEEF
SPILL
Watershed Parameters (subcatchmentsl
Number of subcatchments (1-100)
Infiltration Equation
Morton
Green- Ampi
Regeneration coeff . using Morton Eq
SID
G1
G1
G1
G1







G1
G1
G1
G1
G1
G1
G1
G1
G2



G2
G2
G2
-

B1


84
sen
n
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
CS

1
2
3







4
§
6
7
8
9
10
11
12



13
14
15
—
1
2


3
CT

1
1
3














1
3



1
1
1
-
1
3


1
Item




1
2
3
4
S
6
7









1
2
3






1
2

Type

C
C
c







F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

C
C
C
F
F
"f
	
1
C


F
Range



17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7








0,1,2
0
1
2

- . — ..
	
	

0
0
1

Default











00
00



0^,014


0



00
33
10
- •

0


0.01
Units











ft (ml
ft (ml
H/fl
ft/ft
ft/ft

ft 1ml
ft (ml




ftlmi
ft1/2/s
lml/2/sl






          49

-------
                 Appendix A: SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A.2—continued
Variable
Dcicription
BI- GEXPON
*3-

82'
*$•

PRO-
WP-
re-
HKSAT-
TNI-
MCO-
PCO'
C£T'
w
DIT'

JKt
SNN1
SNCflNI
WSNOWIN 1 1
WSNOWCN.2I
fVVtN.X
f WIN. 21
DHMAXIN, II*

DHMAXIN.21*

t»*SUM,ir
TftAStlN.n*

JK.I
CHCOEFF

CEXPON
GCCO6FF

PROSIT Y
WP
FC
HKSAT
TM1
HCO
PCO
CET
OP
DET
Subcatchimnt Snow M*K Data
NAMEW
FRACIMP
FRACPER
DEPIIMP
DEPIPEH
FWIMP
FWPER
MEITIMP

MEITPCR

TBASEIMP
TBASEPER
Sutkatchmtnt Snow Input for Continuous Stimuli
SID
H3
H3

H3
M3

H3
M3
H3
H3
H3
H3
H4
H4
H4
H4

11
It
11
11
11
11
11
11

11

11
n
ition
NAMEW {12
SCR
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
~is
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

15

IS
16
16
16
CS
11
12

13
14

15
16
' 17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
-
1
2
3
4
S
6
7
8

9

10
11
—
1
CT
















-•
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1

1
1
. —
1
Iwm
















-













— .

T*p«
F
F

F
F

F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
	
C
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

F

F
F
	
C
Rangi
















	 ^













	 , 	

Default
00
00

00
00

00
00
00
0.0
00
00
00
00
00
00


00
00
00
00
00
00
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
32.0
32.0
_ 	 ,

Unit*

mftii-ft
Imm/hr ml

tn/hr-tt
Imm/hr-ml



in/hr Icm/Twl


/frac Im/fracl

in/hr Icm/hrl
ftlm!




.e. in |mra|
.t. in ImmJ
in Inrwnl
in |mm|
in w «./hf -F
m w.a./hf -C
in w.a./hr -F
m w.t./tw -C
1s 1CI
F 1C)
- — 	

         51

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                                        Table A.2—-continued
Variable
WSNOWIN.Jl
fWIN.JI
OHMAKIN ii*

TBASeiN 31'
OHMmiN.ll*

OHMININ.7I'

DHMIN
-------
                 Appendix A: SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A.2—continued
Variable

PSMIUH Ml

PSMEDUO.NI

IHRNill








Deicription
* * * number of constituents up to 10
INI LOAD HI

INI LOAD (10)
Print Control
RUNOFF Input
Print all input data
Control information
Possible combinations
Channel/Pipe
Snowmert
Subchachmant
Water OuaNty
RUNOFF Output
iP«N(3i ISWMM output control


Do not print totals
Monthly and annual totals only
[Daily, monthly and annual totals
IPRNI2I
INTtRV






STAPTPO NOfTt
STOPWM1 NDiT)
MOtT

Plot graphs
Detailed print option
statistical summary only
every time step
every K time steps
K "
* * * provide starting and ending date Max - 1 6
Detailed Printout Periods (mm/dd/yyl
STARTING DATE (mm/dd/yy)
ENDING DATE 
-------
$WMM Windows Interface User $ Manual
                                        Table A.2—continued
Variable
IPRNTII NPRNTI
IPHNTlt NPHNTl
KOEfPII MOfEP)
WHNT
MOEEP
Description
Channel/Intel number
Channel/Inlet Number for Printing Outflow* end C
Channel/Inlet numlMr
Channel for Printing Depths
Channel number
Number of channels/inlets HOT which non-t tro H
to be printed
Number of depth location* for printout




	 	
SID
M3
;oncer
Mi
M4
Ml
M4




	
SCR
21
ItfMIO
22
23
23
	




	
CS
1
is
1
2



• —
CT
7
7
7



—
Item
.

Type
I
1
1
1
1
—




- _.
Range
	




	
Default
0
0
0



_..
Unrtt

	 .. ..

-------
                                  Appendix A:  SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A.3 Input Variables and Screen Sequence in USEHP
Screen
No.
1
2
3
4

5

Variables
Description
UNITS
Number ol inlets
Number of pollutants
Number ot data points
INLET #
POLLUTANT
UNIT
TYPE UNIT
TEO
INLET
[TIME]
FLOW
POLLUTANT(1J
POLLUTANT (2)
POLLUTANT [3)
POLLUTANT (4)
Definition
Description of this run
Units either in U.S. units or [ Metric units ]
Number of inlets (non-conduit elements)
Number of pollutants (max=4)
Number of data points to define hydrographs and/or
pollutographs
Inlet number
Pollutant name (character field)
Pollutant input unit (character filed)
Pollutant output unit. Three options: mg/l, MPN/1. or
others
Time of day in decimal hour (e.g.. 6:30 p.m =18 5)
Inlet number supplied on Screen 2
[time of day provided on Screen 4]
Input flow for the time step at the inlet
Concentration for pollutant f 1
Concentration for pollutant »2
Concentration for pollutant f 3
Concentration for pollutant *4
Unit




hour
[hour]
cte [mVs)
unit supplied on Screen 3
unit supplied on Screen 3
unit supplied on Screen 3
unit supplied on Screen 3
                         55

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                  Table A.4 Input Variables and Screen Sequence in TRANSPORT
Variable

TITLE

DWDAYS
GNU

TRIBA

iDATEZ
T2ERO
NOT
NITER
DT
EPSIL


NINFIL
NFILTH
NDESN
METRIC


NPOLL


NOE
NUEI1)
NUEI2I
NUE13I
NTYPE

Description
TRANSPORT Control Parameters
Description of this run
Intet hydrograph* and potlutogr aphi tilt
Number of "days prior to simulation
Kinematic viscosity of water

Total catchment area
Computational Control
f , _- . - — - — , ..~. .
Starting date of strom tmm/dd/yy) 	
Starting time of the storm ( hours)
Number of time steps
Number of iterations
Time step (seconds!
Allowable error for convergence
Simulation Control
Simulation type
Sewer Infiltration Inflows
Dry- weather sewage inflow
Hydraulic design
Unit
U S units
Metric units
Number of constituents to be simulated
••• Array (max = 1001
Sewer System Table
CNAME
IstU/P
2nd Uff»
3ndU/P
TYPE
Circular
SID

A1

82
B2

B2

81
B2
B1
E1
82
B2
— •

B3
83
B3
81


Bl


El
El
El
El
El
E1
SCR

1
T











2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
CS

1
2
3
4

5

6
7
8
9
10
11


1
2
3
4
S
6
7


1
2
3
4
S

CT

1
3
1
1

1
5
1
1
1
1
1
1

5
4
4
4
5
6
6
1


1
1
1
1
3

Hem




















1
2








1
Type

C160

f
F

F

C
F
1
1
F
F
	
C25




C15
CIS
1


C
1
i
i
C17

Range













- -•
	

0.1
0.1
0.1
0,1
0
1
__0-4






1-2S
1
Default



0
10'-S
10--2
0.0

000000
0
0
4
0
OJDOOI
—

0
0
0
0
0

0



6
0
0
i

Units




tt2/»
cm2/s
aclhal






-
- 	
















                                            56

-------
                 Appendix A: SWMM Windows interface Design
Table A,4—continued
Variable























DIST*
GEOM1'
SLOPC*
ROUGH'
GEOM2*
BARREL
GEOM3*


PNAME
Description
Rectangular
Eg0 shape
Horiethore
Gothic
Catenary
Semielliptic
Baslet-Handle
Semi-circular
Modified B -H
R * tri bottom
R o- round bottom
Trapezoid
Parabolic
Pow*r F
Manhole
Lift station
Flow divider
Flow divider/weir
Flow divider
Backwater
XTANK001 DAT
XHEC2001 DAT
XSHAP001.DAT
LENGTH
GEOM1
SLOPE
MANNING'S n
GEOM2
BARREL
GEOM3
*•• Array 
-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                                        Table A.4—continued
Variable
PUNU
NOIM



DECAY
SPG
PSIZE<2)
PGR(2»
PSIZEI3)
PGR(3I
PSIZEJ4)
PGRI4I
PSI2EI5)
PGRI5)
PSDWF

DINFIFL
GINFIL
RINFIL
RSMAX
CPINF(I)
CPINFI2)
CPINFOI
CPINFI4)



NDD(1 121


Description
CUNIT
TYPE UNIT
mg/l
Other /I
Other unns
DECAY
GRAVITY
SIZE (2)
GR(2) %
SIZE 13)
GRI3I %
SIZE 14)
GR(4) %
SIZE 15)
GR 15) %
MAX SIZE
Infiltration Inflows
Base dry weather infiltration
Groundwater infiltration
Rainwater infiltration
Peak residual moisture
Concentration of constituent * 1
Concentration of constituent * 2
Concentration of constituent 1 3
Concentration of constituent * 4
•** Array (max = 1 2) Jan. Feb 	 Dec
Average Monthly Degree-Days
Month
Degree Days
•••Array (max -7) Sunday 	 Saturday
SIO
F1
FJ



F1
F1
F1
F1
F1
F1
F1
F1
F1
F1
F1

K1
K1
K1
K1
K1
K1
K1
K1



K2

Daily Correction Factors for Flow and Concentrations
SCR
4
4



4










5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

6
6
6
—
7
CS
2
3



4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


1
2


CT
1
3

























1
1


Item


1
2
Type
C8
C11


3


























F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

F
F
F
F
F
F
F
	 F
	 .


F


Range

0.1.2
0
1
2



















	
--


__ . —
- 	 	

Default

0



00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
0.0

0.0
0.0
00
0.0
00
00
00
0.0



0.0


Units





I/day

mm

mm

mrn

mm

mm

cfs Im3/$|
cfs |m3/sl
cfs lm3Vsl
cfs |m3/sl







F
—


-------
                  Appendix A:  SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A..4—continued
Variable

OVDWFI1 71
NVBODI1 71
DVSSd 7|


HVDWFI1 24)
HVBODI1)
HVSSI1I
HVCOLIU)

KTNUM
NPF
KDAV
CPI
CCO
POPUtA
KASE


ADWF
A BOO
ASUSO
ACOLI

TOTA
TINA
TCA

TRHA
IRA A
Description
Day
SEWAGE FLOW
BOD
SS
*** Array (man « 241 1 am, 2am 	 11 pri
SID

LI
L2
L3
n
Hourly Correction Factors (or Flow and Concentration
SEWAGE FLOW
BOD
SS
TOTAL COLIFORM
Study Araa Description
Total number of subareas within a given stud
Number ol process Hows
Day of the week begins simulation
Consumer price index
Composite construction cost index
Total population in all areas
Estimate sewage quality from treatment plant
Study Area Parameters
Total study area data
Sewage flow
BOD
SS
CoMorm
Categorized contributing Area
BOD and SS
Industrial
Commercial
Residential area
High income
Average income
Ml
M2
M3
M4

N1
N1
Ml
N1
N1
N1
N1


01
01
01
01

02
02
02

02
02
sen
7
7
7
7

8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10

10
10
10

10
10
CS
1
2
3
4


1
2
3
4
• -
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
_

1
2
3
4

5
6
7

8
9
CT
1
1
1
1


1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
4


1
1
1
1

1
1
1

1
1
Item































Type

F
F
F


F
F
F
F
—
1
1
1
F
F
F
1


F
F
F
F

F
F'
F

F
F
Rang*









_. „

"






--












Default Units

1.0
1.0
1.0


1.0
1.0
1.0
10

1
0
1
1250
1100
00
0


0.0
0.0
0.0
o.o

o.o
bo
o.o

0.0
0.0
















thousands



cfs fm3J
mg/1
mg/1
mg/l

acre lhal
acre lhal
acre lhal

acre lhal
•ere lhal
         59

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                                        Table A.4—continued
Variable
TRLA
TRGGA
rPOA


INPUT
OPF
BOOPF
SUSPF


KNUM
INPUT
KLAND





METHOD


KUNIT



MSUBT


SAGPF
SABPF
SASPF
Description
Low income
Additional waste
Park and open area
* * * Array (max = NPF)
Process Flow Characteristics
MANHOLE *
FLOW
QBOD
OSS
' • * Array (ma* - KTNUMJ
Categoriied Study Area
KNUM
MANHOLE *
LAND
Single F R
MuiliFR
Commercial
Industrial
U/P lands
METHOD ~ .. " _"
Metered
No metered
UNIT
Thousand gal/mo
Thousand cfs/mo
10"3m3/mo 	
PRINT
No
Yes
INOU Q
BODC
ssc " 	 "
SID
02
02
02


PI
PI
PI
PI ~


01
01
01





01 ~ _


01



Ot


01
oi ""
01
SCH
10
10
10

1
1
1
1
1

12
12
12
12





12


'12



J2


12
12
12
CS
10
11
12


1
2
3
4


1
2
3





_4


5



"e


-_7
8
i
CT
1
1
1



1
1
'


1
1
3





3


3



3


1
1
1
Item














1
2
3
4
5

1
2

1
2
3,

1
2



Type
F
,' F
F


1
F
F
F
_ —

1
1
CIS





"CIO


jcis



~C3


p
F
F
Ranee













15


















Default
00
00
00


0
00
00
00


0
0
5
1
2
3
4
5
0
1
2

0
1
0

0
1
00
00
0.0
Units,
acre |ha|
acre Dial
acre lhal



cfs (m3/sl
mg/1
mg/l




















cfs Im3/t|
mj/i
mg/l
                                                 60

-------
                  Appendix A:  SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A.4—continued
Variable I Description
WATER
PRICE

SFWAGE
ASUB
POPDEN

DWLNGS
FAMILY
VALUE
PCGG
XINCOM

NPRINT
KPRINT
INTPRT


JNH-NOUTS1
NOUTS




NYNO NNYN»
NNYN


WINTER USE
PRICE

SEWAGE
AREA
DENSITY

DWELNGS
FAMILY
VALUE
% GARBAGE
INCOME
Print Control
Error message suppressed
AH stops* suppressed
Print interval _
List of Element Numbers for Hydrographs
and PoNutographs to be Transferred
Non-conduit element number _
Number of non-conduit elements with transfe
routed hydrographs and poMtfograpjw pjaced
interface fNe 	
SID
01
O1

Ol
01
01

01
Q1
01
Ol
01

B1
C1
B1
•

HI
B1


List of Element Numbers for Input Hydrographs
and Poltutographs
Non-conduit element number
Number of non-conduit elements with input h
and pollutograpns printouts


J1_
B1


List of Element Numbers for Output Hydrographs
SCR
12
12

12
12
12

12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
~14

14
— -


15

15



16
CS
10
11

12
13
14

15
16
17
18
19

1
2
3
- —

1





_1


—
CT
1
1

1
1
1







4
4
1
— •

7


—


_7




Item



%











-
--


- --




--




Type
F
F

F








--
1
1
_ - '
	

1
\

	


	 1
1



Range













0.1
0,1
_ --
-

..
- -

	


	




Default
00
00
Units

/lOOOgal
cents/ 1000 m3
00
00
00

100/ac
0.0
200
00
value/25

0
6
0


0
0




0




cfs Im3|
acre lhal
pers/ac
pers (nal


MOOO

»10OO/vr












-




         61

-------
SWUM Windows Interface User's Manual
                                        Table A.4—continued
Vefieble

Description
and Pollutographs
NPEU NNPEi Non-conduit element number
NNPt


JSURFd NAURU
NAURF

NCNTRL


NINPUT

Number of non- conduit element* with output
and poilutographs printouts
List the Conduit Elements lot Which Depth* t<
Conduit number
Number of conduit element*
**» SetNCNTRL-0
Control parameter specifying meant to be ul
transferring inlet hydrographs
*•* set NINPUT -0
Number of non-conduit elements with data in
hydrographs and poHutographs on data group
. 	 .
SM>

J2
B1

jbePn
12


83


B1
R1
sen

16


17
17






-
CS

1



1

—




— "
CT

7



7






.- -
Item












--
Type

1
1


1


1


1
_
.._. .
Ranfe








0,1


0.1
— —

Default

0
0


0


0


0

Units












-
                                                62

-------
                                  Appendix A:  SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A.5  Input Variables and Screen Sequence in EXTRAN
Variable


mu

REDO






METRIC



TZERO
0€IT
NICVC
UMAX
SURTOl



AMEN
NSTART
INTER
JNTER
NEQUAL
ISOl



KSUPCR

Description

EXTRAN Simulation
Description of this run
Inlet hydrographs file
Initial flows, heads, and velocities
No
Read a hot start file
Create a new hot-start file
Read old file and create a new hot -start file
Hot start file

Unit
U.S. units
Metric units
Computational Control
Starting time of simulation {hour)
Time step (seconds)
Number of time steps
Number of iterations
Allowable error for convergence
Simulation and Print Control
Number of channels/conduits in the system
Number of Junctions in the system
Surface area for all manholes
First time- step to begin print cycle
Print interval during simulation
Punt interval at end of simulation
Modify short pipe lengths
Solution technique
Explicit
Enhanced explicit
Iterative explicit
Flow condition
Normal and dynamic
SWIO
SWtVw

A1

B1f7




MM«2

B2»1



B1f3
B1
B1
B2
B2



B2
B1f4
B1
B1
B2
BO
BO
BO
BO
BO
BO
SCR











1








2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
CS


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8



9

CT


1
3
5
6
6
6
6
0

5
6
6

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
4
3



3

Item












1
2















1
2
3

1
Type


C160

1






1



F
F
1
1
F



F








1

Range




14
0
1
2
3


0.1
0
1

"












0.1,2
0
1
2
0.1
0
Default




0






0



0
1.0
1





12.566




0



0

Units













- -



_.





'2 lm'21










                         63

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User'$ Manual
                                        Table A.5—continued
Variable


Jfltv


JOOWN






NCONO
NJUNC1II
NJUNCUI
QO
NKIASS








AFUU
DCEP
wtoe
UN
ZPI1I
2f(ll
ROUGH

STMfTA
Description

Normal
Conduit elevation
Depth
Elevation
Water depth *t ouitaH conduits
Normal or critical
Critical
Normal

* * * 2(1 1 determines i of looping tenant (3-5t
Channel/Conduit Data
Channel/conduit number
Junction number at upstream end of channel
Junction number at downstream end of channel
Initial Now
Type of channel shape
Circular
Rectangular 	
Horseshoe
EM
Baskathandle
Trapezokt
Parabolic
MIC- 2 format
Cross section area
Vertical depth
Maximum width
Length
UP distance of channel invert above junction inv
ON distance of channel invert above junction inv
Martning'n coefficient
Trapetoid
Side Stop* 1
SWK)
SWffVar
BO
88
88
B8
BB
68
88
BB



C1
C1
C1
C1
Cl
Ct
ci
Cl
Cl
Cl
Cl
Cl
C1
Cl
Cl
Cl
Cl
Cl
ci
Cl

ci
SCR

2
2
2
2
2






3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

3
CS


10


11






1
2
3
4
5








6
7
8
9
10
11
12

13
Cf


3


3






1
1
1
1
5
















1
Item

2

1
2

1
2
3








1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8









Type


1


1


— .



IS
1
1
F
1








F
fl
F
F
f
F
F

F
Rang*

1
0,1
0
1
OJ.2
0
1
2







18
1
2
3
4
S
6
7
8









Default


0


0






1
0
0
00
1








0.0
0.0
00
0.0
0.0
00
0.0014

' o.o
Units











•



»lm'3/il









-2tm-2l
•2Im'2!
•2im-2i
•2lm'21
-2|nT21
'2lnT2J



                                                  64

-------
                 Appendix A: SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A.5—continued
Variable

SPMI

5>tMHA
SPMI

SUlt t A



SECNO

XNl
XNS
XNCH
NUMST

STCMl
STCHft
UN
PXSECR
PSXECI



EUll
STAI1I



JUN
Description

Side slop* • 2
HtC 2 format
Cioss section ID
Average slope
Parabolic/power (unction
Exponent

*" KNKLASS-8-> 4*5
Natural Channel (NEC 2 format)
Cross section 10
Manning's n
Left bank __
Right bank
Channel 	
Number of etov/sution poin's
Station
Left bank of channel
Right bank of channel
Channel length
Factor • horizontal dimensions
Elevation increment
* " * Array screen
* * *NUMST determines * of rows
Cross Section Profile
Elevation
Station
* * * looping screens per (unction
* * * Repeat Screens No. 6-1 8 for each junction
Junction Data
Junction number
iSWID
SWfVar
C1

C1
C1
-
Cl
•



C3

C2
C2
C2
C3

C3 '
C3
C3
C3
C3



C4
C4
--


01
SCR









4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4


5
S
6
	


«
CS

14

15
16

17



1

2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10



1
2
	


1
CT

1

1
1

1



?










1





-


1
Item






















-


1
2




Type










1

f
F
f
1

"~J
f
f
f
f
	




	 .



Range









"

""





~




	




	



Default










t

00
0.0
|_" 0.6
0-99

00
00
00
00
6.6



0.0
0.0




Units

















film!
(tint)
Hlml





ft Iml
ftlml




         65

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                                        Table A.5—continued
Variable

GRElEV
Z
QINST
YO
JTYPt.






JFHEE
JGATE
NTIOC






JSTORE




ZTOP
ASTOftE
NUMST

OCURVEM.1)
QCURVEI2.il
Description

Ground elevation
Invert elevation
Net constant flow mto Junction
Initial depth above junction invert elevation
Type of junction
Storage
Orifice • sump
Orifice • side outlet
Weir - transverse
Weir • side flow
Pump
Outfall without tide gate
OuttaN with tide gate
Type of boundary
Free outfall
Constant elev
Tide coeff
Compute coeff
Stage-history
Storage Junction Data
Junction Number
Type of storage junction
Constant-area
Variable-area
Power function
Crown Elevation
Surface Area
Number of stage/storage area points
Power function
Coefficient
Exponent
SWIO
SWffVa*
01
Ol
01
01







11
12
J1





'-
El




El
El
El

E2
E2
SCR

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
~ 6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
~7
7
7
7
7
CS

2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9
10
It
12
13
14






1
2
3
4
5
" 6
7
8

9
10
CT

1
1
1
1
5








3






7
5
6
6
6






Item















1
2
3
~ 4
5












Trpe




















—
	 i




F
F
1



Range















1
2
3
4
5
	











Default

00
00
00
00
















0




0.0
00
0 99



Units

film)
ff |m|
slm'3/sl
ftlml





















ft (ml
s lm'3/sl





-------
                 Apptndix A: SWMM Windows Interface Deiign
Table A.5—•
-------
SWMM Windows Interface User s Manual
                                        Table A.5—continued
VaruMe Description
1
if
NtlMt


VORIFU.II
VORIFI1.2)
VORIFH.3I


NJUNCHI
NJUNCUI
KWEIR


YCREST
VTOP
WLEN
COEF

NJUNCHI
NJUNCI2I
KWEIR


VCRfST
VTOP
WLEN
COEF

Distance of orifice invert above junction
Number of discharge coeff/area points
• * * NTIME determines * of rows (Array scree*
Time History Orifice • Stde Outlet
TIME IJUN *)
FLOW COEFF
AREA
• ' * Weir (max - 601
Weir Data - Transverse
Junction 1 containing weir
Junction t to which weir discharges
Type of weir
Transverse
Trans w/ tide
Height of weir crest above invert
Heigth to top of weir opening above invert
Weir length
Discharge coefficient
Weir Data Side Flow
Junction f containing weir
Junction 1 to which weir discharges
Type of weir
Side flow
Side flow w/ tide
Height of weir crest above invert
Heigth to top of weir opening above invert
Weir length
Discharge coefficient
* * * Pump (max = 20)
SWN>
SWfVar
F1
F2
1

F2
F2
F2


G1
Gl
Gl


Gl
Gl
Gl
Gl

Gl
Gl
Gl


Gl
Gl
Gl
Gl
	
SCR

11
11

12
12
12
12


13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13

14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
'
CS

6
7


1
2
3


1
2
3


4
5
6
7
-
1
2
_ 3


" 4
5
6
7
	
CT

1
1


1
1
1


?
2
3


1
1
1
1

t
2
3


1
I
1
1
	
Item













1
2








1
2





Type

F
1


F
F
F


1
1
1


F
F
F
F
- -
1
1
1


F
f
f
f
	
Range












1-4
1
2




	


14
3
4



- - — . -
— •- --
Default


050




f




1


00
00
00
10



1


00
00
00
1.0
_
Units

ft I'nl





•2|m 21







ft Iml
ft lm|
ft Iml







film)
ft Iml
ft Iml
_


-------
                 Appendix A: SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A.5-—continued
Variable


NJUNCH)
NJUNCI2)
IPTYP



PRATtlll
PflATSlZI
PRATtlJl

VRATEtll
VRATEUI
VRATE(J)
VWHl

VRATElll
VRATCI2I

VRATtlll
VRATU2I
VRATEUI
vwen



PON
a off



A1
w
Description

Pump Data
Junction * b«ing pumped
Junction t which pumped discharge goes to
Typa of pump
Off lint
In Mne
Dynamic head
Lower pumping rate
Mid-pumping rat*_
High pumping rat* _
Offline pump volume
Mid-ratt pumps
High-rat* pumps
Total wet wfH capacity _
Initial voHimc
In-line pump depth
Mid rate pumps 	
High-rate pumps
Dynamic (wad difference
Lowest pumping rate
Mid-poumping rat*
Hiflhe»t pumping rat*
initial depth

* * * Array screen (max « 20)
Depth in Pumping Inflow Junction 	 	
DEPTH ON IJUN t\
DEPTH OFF IJUN *)

Boundary Condition at OutfaHs
Junction Number
First lid* coeff
Tide period (hours)
SWK)
SWtVar

HI
HI
HI
HI


HI
HI
HI

HI
HI
HI
HI

HI
HI

HI
HI
HI
Hf



HI
HI



J2
J2
SCR

15
IS
IS
IS
15
15
15
IS
15
IS

15
15
15
15

15
15

15
16
15
15



16
16

17
17
17
17
CS


1
2
3



4
5
6

7
8
S
10

11
12

13
14
15
16



1
2


1
2
3
CT


?
1
3



1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1
1



1
1



1
1
Item





1
2
3


























TVP*


i
l
l



F
F
F

F
F
F
F

F
F

F
F
F
F



F
F


1
F
f
Range





1
2
3


























Default








ira/
ft'3/
ft'3?

ft
ft
ft
ft











00
0.0





Units








slm'3/sl
slm*3/sl
stm-3/sl

•3(m'31
"3l«T3!
"3|m-3|
"3tnT3l

ft (ml
film)

ftlml
ft lm|
ftlm)
ftlm)



ftlml
ftlml



ftlml
hours
         69

-------
SWMM Windows Interface User's Manual
                                        Table A.5—continued
Variable

A2
A3
A4
AS
A6
A7
KO


Nl
DtlTA
NCHTIO


IT
VV


JPRTU 201
NMPUT



CPftTI! 20)
NOPflT


JPVTI1 201
Description

Second tide coeff
Third tide coeff
Fourth tide coeff
Fifth tide coeff
Sixth tide coeff
Seventh tide coeff
Type of tide input
Tide) height
High-low water values
1 of input points
Convergence criterion
Print tidal input
* * * Nl determines t of rows (Array screen)
Time-Stage Table
TIME
STAGE
* * * 2(2} determines t of junction numbers
List of Junction Numbers for Heads to be printed
Junction Number
Number of junctions for detailed printing of head

* * * 2(1 ) determines t of conduit numbers
List of Condmt Numbers for Flows to be printed
Conduit Number
Number of conduits for detailed printing of flow
* * * 2(2) determines * of junction numbers
List of Junction Numbers for Heads to be Plotted
Junction Number
swto
SW*Var
J2
J2
J2
J2
J2
J2
J3

J3
J3
J3
J3


J4
J4 _
— -

B4
83*1



B5
83*2


B6
SCR

17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17


18
18
-
19
J9



20
20
	

21
21
CS

4
5
6
7
8
9
10


11
12
13
-

1
2
—

_±




\
—


1
CT







3


1
1
4


1
1


7




7



7
Item








1
2









—









Type

F
F
F
F
f
F
I


F
f
- -
--


—....
	 .

	





	



Range








0
1



—


	
- - —

	





	



Default











0.0005







-









Units

film)
ftlml
Him)
ftlm]
ftlml
ftlml




ftlm)



Hours
film)












                                                 70

-------
                 Appendix A:  SWMM Windows Interface Design
Table A.S—continued
Variable 'Description

NPlT

Numbei of (ufKiKKi heads to be plotted
I * * * 2(11 determines * of conduit numbers
[list of Concuil Numbers for Flows to be plotted
KPIIH 201 .CofwfuU Number
IPU


JSURMI 201
Nsuttf


Number of conduit flows to be plotted
* * * 2(11 determines * of conduit numbers
swro
SWffVer
B3*3


87
B3*4
—
List of Concuit Numbers for US/OS elevstions to be^plotte
Conduit Number
Number of conduit upstream/downstream eievat
to be ptotted
- —
BS
B8I1

	
SCR



22
22

-
23
23



CS




1



t
-



CT




?



7


—
Item












--
T»i»e









.. „.

	
	
	
Ranee









_. .. ..

...
— . — ~
~.
Default











—
Units












          71

-------
 REFERENCES
Ambrose. R. B Jr. and T. O  Barnwcll. Jr. 1989.
Environmental Software al the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's Center for Exposure Assessment
Modeling.  CEAM. EPA.  Alhens. GA. Environmental
Software 4(2);76-93.

Camp. Dresser and McKce, Inc.. "Storm Water
Management Model Version 4. Part B  EXTRAN
Addendum".  PB88-236658. Annandale. VA, June.
1988.

Donigian. A.S. and W.C. Hubcr,  "Modeling of
Nonpomt Source Water Quality in Urban and Non-
urban Areas." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
EPA-600-3-91-039. June.  1991.

Heaney. J.P.. Huber. W.C., Sheikh. H.. Medina.
M.A., Doyle. J.R.. Peltz. W.A., and Darling, J.E..
"Urban Stormwater Management Modeling and
Decision Making," EPA-670/2-75-022 (NTIS PB-
242290). Environmental Protection Agency,
Cincinnati. OH. May 1975.

Huber, W.C., Heaney, J.P.. Aggidis. D.A.. Dickinson,
R.E.  and Wallace, R.W., "Urban Rainfall-Runoff-
Quality Data Base." EPA-600/2-81-238 (NTIS PB82-
221094). Environmental Protection Agency.
Cincinnati, OH. October  1981.

Huber, W.C. and Dickinson. R.E., "Storm Water
Management Model, Version 4: User's Manual,"
Dept.  of Enviro. Enginr. Sci., University of Florida,
Gainesville. FL. August.  1988. Second printing. 1992.
EPA/600/3-88/001 a. NTIS PB88-23664/AS

Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., University of Florida, and
Water Resources Engineers. Inc., "Storm Water
Management Model. Volume I - Final Report," EPA
Report 11024 DOC 07/71 (NTIS PB-203289),
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
July. 1971a.

Roesner. L.A. el. al. Storm  Water Management
Model User's Manual Version 4: EXTRAN
ADDENDUM. U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency,  Environmental Research Laboratory. Office
of Research and Development, Athens. Georgia.
August 1988. Second Printing February 1989.
EPA/600/3-88/001 b
                                               73

-------
SERA
   United States
   Environmental Protection
   Agency
   (4305)
   Washington, DC 20460

   Official Business
   Penalty for Private Use
   $300

-------
V-/EPA
Agency
Solid Waste and Emergency Response (5305W)
Sensitive
Environments
and the Siting
of Hazardous Waste
Management
Facilities

                          1
                        _

-------

-------
                        Introduction

        1 his publication discusses sensitive types of environments
       that pose special challenges to the siting, expansion,
       and operation of RCRA hazardous waste management
       facilities. Locating hazardous waste management facilities
       in certain areas - because of their soils, terrain, ground-
       water, or weather conditions - may pose significant risks
       of releases and possible exposures to humans and the
       environment. The environmentally sensitive locations
       addressed in this book are:
        Floodplains
        Wetlands
        Groundwater
        Earthquake Zones
        Karst Soils
Unstable Terrain
Unfavorable Weather
    Conditions
Incompatible Land
    Use
       In addition to these technical siting factors, there are social
       concerns that affect the appropriateness of a  hazardous
       waste facility's location. These social concerns and related
       evaluation factors will be addressed in a future EPA
       guidance document.
.

-------
    What Are Environmentally Sensitive
                  Locations and
          Why Are They a Concern?
Sensitive environments are locations that, because of their
physical conditions, maybe disturbed or permanently
damaged by hazardous waste contamination. Wetlands, for
example, are especially sensitive to chemical contamination.
Sensitive environments are also locations that are physically
unstable and may change so greatly that they can cause the
release of a hazardous waste or complicate its cleanup.
         Unfavorable
          Weather
      "N   Conditions

                                          Incompatible
                                           Land Use      ^
                                                      1
                                     Unstable Terrain

                          •    Kars. '^
Locating hazardous waste facilities in the sensitive environments shown in this
figure increases the risk of contamination.

-------
For example, floodwaters spilling into floodplains may damage waste
management structures such as tanks or berms (walls of earth), causing
the release of hazardous waste to the environment. This brochure
provides additional information on wetlands and floodplains and
discusses other environments that are sensitive, particularly in relation
to hazardous waste management facilities.

Soil, groundwater, and weather conditions are important technical
factors in determining how environmentally sensitive a location is.
Knowing about environmentally sensitive areas helps ensure that a
hazardous waste management facility is sited at a location that is safe
for our health and our environment. For example, facilities constructed
on unstable ground or in floodplains are at greater risk for landslides or
floods, respectively, which could cause accidental hazardous waste
                            releases. Therefore, when selecting a
                            location for a hazardous waste facility,
                            such safety concerns must be considered.

                            Other nontechnical factors to consider in
                            locating a hazardous waste management
                            facility are the people living and working
                            around the facility, that is, the number of
                            people, their ages, and their health. Also,
                            hospitals and schools should be  considered
                            because they may be difficult to evacuate
                            in the event of a hazardous waste spill.
                            This is why many states require
                            hazardous waste management facilities to
                            locate a safe distance from densely
                            populated areas, hospitals, schools, or
                            prisons. These issues will be discussed in
                            further detail in an upcoming
                            companion brochure on social  factors.

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Companies that plan to construct and operate hazardous waste
management facilities should avoid siting their facilities in
environmentally sensitive areas. If a company does decide to locate a
facility in a sensitive area, its owner should design the facility to
minimize risks to  people and the environment. By law, an owner's
approach to locating a safe hazardous waste management facility must

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include consideration of the physical site, the facility's design, and its
operating conditions. The facility's design includes such factors as
whether it is designed to protect surrounding soils and groundwaters.
Operating conditions may include how many hours each day an
incinerator may burn waste and how well a technology destroys or
treats waste.
The distribution of three of the types of sensitive
locations-wetlands, land use (population), and
major areas of karst-demonstrates the need to site
hazardous wastes carefully.
  •ft   •   ^l
Population
  • 50,000-100,000
                                          Karst
                                          Wetlands
    100,001-500,000
  • 500,001-1 Million

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                      Floodplains
Floodplains are lands that are subject to periodic flooding.
They are usually lowlands along rivers, streams, lakes, and
oceans. Often, they occur where annual water flow is low or
nonexistent, but they may also occur due to large amounts
of melting snow or rainfall that run off the land.


Facts About Floodplains

Floodplains act as natural storage areas, slowing down rushing
floodwaters and reducing downstream flooding. Floodplains also help
maintain the quality of rivers and streams by filtering eroded soils (also
known as sediments) and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.
  To Lear/? Where
  Floodplains are
  Located...

  Floodplain maps can be
  obtained at no cost from the
  Federal Emergency Man-
  agement Agency's Flood
  Map Distribution Center,
  6930  (A-F)  San  Tomas
  Road, Baltimore, MD 21227-
  6227 or from the U.S. Army
  Corps of Engineers, the Soil
  Conservation Service, the
  National Oceanic and Atmos-
  pheric Administration, the
  US Geological Survey, the
  Bureau of Land Manage-
  ment, the Bureau of Recla-
  mation, the Tennessee Val-
  ley Authority, and State and
  local flood control agencies.
  Your county or city planning
  office should also have
  floodplain maps. Know your
  local zoning laws!
What is a 100-Year Floodplain?

A 100-year floodplain is any land area that
is subject to a 1 percent or greater chance
of flooding in any given year from any
source.


The Problem with  Locating
a Facility in a Floodplain

Industry considers floodplains as valuable
locations for development because they
are often flat and near water and
transportation routes. However, EPA has
recently seen the damage that flooding can
cause at hazardous waste management
facilities (for example, the 100-year and
500-year floods that have occurred along

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the Mississippi River). In some cases, floodwaters have floated
hazardous waste storage tanks off their foundations and floodwaters
have flowed into waste ponds, carrying their hazardous contents
downstream.

The speed of flood waters is also a concern because high flow rates can
erode wastepiles, berms, landfills, or other types of waste management
structures.
                                  fbodnlstn
Floodplains are typically lands along waterways that may flood.
Facility Siting Recommendations

Facilities should avoid building in floodplains. Existing regulations
require hazardous waste management structures built in a 100-year
floodplain to be built above the  100-year flood level or built to
withstand the flooding event. See Title 40 of the Code of Federal
Regulations, Section 264.18 (40 CFR 264.18).
          Facilities can be declared exempt from this regulation if they prove
          (1) that they can remove all waste before the flood or (2) no harm
          will come  to human health or the environment when the flood
          occurs. Regulations also allow facilities to locate in 100-year
          floodplains if owners can  prove that the facility can withstand a
          washout in the event of a flood (40 CFR 270.14(b)(11)(iv)). In
          addition, all facilities should  have detailed, up-to-date emergency
          response plans that can be put into action before and during floods.
          Check your state and local regulations; they may have more
          stringent requirements that also have to be met.

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                        Wetlands
 Wetlands are areas that are waterlogged for an extended
period of time and include a  variety of fish and wildlife
habitats. Swamps, marshes, bayous, bogs, and Arctic tundra
are wetlands. Wetlands are highly sensitive areas that are
among the most productive ecosystems in the world.

Interesting Facts about Wetlands

   •  One-third of all bird species  appear in wetlands,  which serve as
     vital migratory resting, staging, and nesting areas for waterfowl
     and other species.

   •  96 percent of all fish species  caught by commercial fishers depend
     upon wetlands for part of their life-cycle.

   •  Wetlands control shoreline erosion, which protects other
     ecosystems from storms, improves water quality,  supplies water,
     and regulates climates.

The Problem with Locating
a Facility In or Near Wetlands
Construction or expansion of hazardous waste management facilities
directly in and near wetlands can destroy fish and/or wildlife habitats.
In addition, the high amounts of unstable soils and water in wetlands
make them poor areas for land-based hazardous waste structures such
as landfills.

Any hazardous wastes spilled on wetlands can spread faster through the
groundwater and surface water. Such contamination may harm
commercial and recreational fisheries and shellfish harvesting. Eating
finfish and shellfish that have accumulated toxic substances can be

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dangerous to human health. Hazardous waste releases into wetlands can
also reduce the variety and reproduction of species living in wetlands.

One of the most serious consequences of a hazardous waste spill or
leak in a wetland can occur in the process of restoring the wetland.
Removing the contaminated sediments can be very costly and may even
destroy the wetland. Because wetlands are typically found at the
headwaters of rivers, lakes, and streams, removal of contaminated
bottom sediments in wetlands could unintentionally release contami-
nants downstream to unsuspecting human, fish, and wildlife
populations.


Facility Siting Recommendations

Hazardous waste management facilities should not be located in
wetlands. This strategy of no construction in wetlands supports the
EPA's goal of no net loss of this important resource. Facilities planning
to locate near wetlands should also take special protective steps.
They should (1) investigate how the soil and groundwater would be
affected by spilled  hazardous wastes, and
(2) design the facility to prevent spills.
               Wetlands are often assigned to
               three categories. Swamps are
               dominated by trees, marshes by
               grasses, and bogs by mosses.
 Swamp
          Marsh
Highlights
of Wetlands
Protection Laws

Section 404 of the Clean
Water Act (CWA) requires
permits from the Army Corps
of Engineers for activities
involving the discharge of
dredged or fill materials into
'Waters of the United States,"
which include wetlands.
Other laws that provide some
protection to wetlands are:
the Wild and Scenic Rivers
Act, the Fish and Wildlife
Coordination Act, the Endan-
gered Species  Act, and the
Coastal Zone Management
Act. In addition, some States
are now enacting wetlands
protection laws.

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                    Groundwater
Groundwater is a collection of water beneath the earth's
surface that is fed either by rainfall percolating through soil
and rock or by surface water. High-value groundwater is
(1) the sole source of drinking  water available, or (2) the
water feeding into a sensitive environment such as a wetland.

Hydrogeology is the study of the interaction between groundwater and
its source  (soil, surface water) along with its movement. A site's
hydrogeology is considered complex when scientists cannot accurately
characterize, monitor, or predict groundwater movement.

Interesting Facts About Groundwater
    Over half the U.S. population
    uses groundwater as its main
    drinking water source.

    95 percent of rural households
    rely on groundwater for their
    drinking water.

    Groundwater is the only
    source of drinking water
    for people in some areas.

    34 of the 100 largest U.S.
    cities rely on groundwater for
    drinking and commercial
    purposes.

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The Problem with Locating a Facility
Near High-Value Groundwater
In certain parts of the country, contaminants can move quickly into
the groundwater. It can be very difficult and expensive, if not
impossible, to clean up this contamination. The underground soil and
rock in certain areas make it difficult for scientists to find out the
direction of groundwater flow, which further complicates cleanup.
Most of the time, groundwater cannot be cleaned for a reasonable cost
and within a reasonable time frame. Removing contamination from
groundwater may take hundreds of years.

Facility Siting Recommendations
Experts believe that hazardous waste management facilities should
not be located over high-value groundwater or areas where the
underground conditions are complex and not understood. If a facility
plans to locate in one of these areas, EPA requires several studies as part
of the groundwater investigation, such as (1) determining the
complexity and importance of the groundwater for drinking supplies,
(2) determining the direction of groundwater flow, (3) assessing the
ability of the groundwater to be replenished, and (4) determining
how other waters (e.g., rivers and wetlands) are connected to the
groundwater.

Facility owners should also take extra steps to  make sure that no leaks
or spills will occur from structures that hold hazardous wastes.
They should use conservative assumptions when  engineering waste
management structures such as adding more spill containment systems
around structures. Also, the number of monitoring wells used to detect
spills in these environments may need to be increased and samples
taken more frequently.

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                 Earthquake Zones
Earthquake zones are areas affected by earthquakes.
Earthquakes are a significant threat to public safety and
welfare over many parts of the United States, particularly
the West Coast, Alaska, parts of the Rocky Mountains, the
Mississippi Valley, and selected areas along the Eastern
Seaboard.

The Problem with Locating a Facility
in an Earthquake Zone
EPA is concerned about earthquakes affecting hazardous waste
management facilities because they can damage structures that hold
wastes and result in accidental releases to groundwater, surface water,
soil, and air. Damage can result from movement of large pieces of
ground or, more commonly, ground shaking. Because structures that
hold hazardous waste (e.g., landfills, ponds, or lagoons) are often made
of soil and rock, they can be damaged by earthquake activity.
Structures above the ground, such as tanks and incinerators can also
be damaged, toppled, or destroyed.

When is an Earthquake Zone a Siting Concern?
The magnitude or amount of ground shaking at a site is a good
measure  for determining if a site is appropriate for a hazardous waste
management facility. To help determine the level of risk from shaking,
scientists have mapped out seismic impact zones. These zones measure
the amount that the ground could potentially shake during an
earthquake. The risk is based on the area's geology and past earthquake
activity. Maps of seismic impact zones are available to the public
through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and state and local
governments.

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Facility Siting Recommendations
EPA currently has regulations designed to prevent damage to hazardous
waste management facilities in areas with earthquake activity. In Title 40
of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 264.18 (a) bans facilities from
siting new hazardous waste management units within 200 feet of a
Holocene fault (that is, faults that have been active within the last 10,000
years). These faults are located in certain areas of the western United States.
And 40 CFR 270.14(b)(l 1) (ii) also requires owners and operators of
hazardous waste management facilities to investigate Holocene faults that
are within 3,000 feet of a facility.

In addition to the regulatory requirements, earthquake experts
recommend a number of safety features for facilities in areas where
earthquake activity can cause ground shaking or ground rupture:

  • Design structures at hazardous waste management facilities to resist
  ground motion or shaking and withstand the maximum horizontal
  acceleration - the highest acceleration value expected at the earth's
  surface in that particular area. It has been found that the horizontal
  direction of shaking is much more damaging to structures than the
  vertical direction.
  • Build structure containment systems to prevent spills in case of a failure.
  • Pay special attention to site factors such as soil moisture and slope
  stability, which may enhance ground shaking and lead to structural failure.
                       \
The side-to-side motion of the ground during earthquakes causes the most
damage to structures.

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                    Karst Terra in
Karst terrain consists of rock - such as limestone, dolomite, or
gypsum - that slowly dissolves when water passes through it.
The dissolving rock leaves underground voids,  tunnels, and
caves. Sometimes these underground spaces can grow so large
that their "ceilings " will collapse, forming large sinkholes.
A karst sinkhole in east-central Missouri.

The Problem with Locating a Facility in Karst Terrain
Facilities located in karst areas may have an increased chance of
hazardous waste spills because sinkholes can form suddenly. These
spills can contaminate the groundwater and make it difficult to clean
up since the hydro geology is complex in these areas. Engineers do not
have good methods to protect hazardous waste management facilities
against sinkhole collapse.

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           Sinkhole

           Losing Stream

           Cave
Deeply V\feathered
Bedrock
Limestone and
Dolomite
Sandstone
Spring
Karst soils are poor foundations for any structure.

Facility Siting Recommendations
Hazardous waste management facilities should avoid locating in
"active" karst areas. Approximately 5 percent of the United States
has "active" karst, including Missouri, Kentucky, Florida, Indiana,
Arkansas, and Puerto Rico. Companies planning to locate facilities
in karst areas should demonstrate that they can (1) engineer a waste
management structure that protects against sinkhole formation
(e.g., additional foundation support) and, in turn, hazardous waste
spills, and (2) monitor and clean up groundwater contamination if it
occurs. It is important that companies conduct site characterization
studies in which they map sinkholes and underground caverns,
determine ground stability, and  measure the speed and direction of
groundwater flow.

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                 Unstable Terrain
Unstable terrain is any area where movement of the land
surface can damage structures and buildings. Unstable
terrain is divided into two kinds of land movement:
(1) the movement of rock and soil on steep slopes by gravity
(e.g., landslides), and (2) rock and soil sinking, swelling,
or heaving.

The Problem with Locating a Facility
on Unstable Terrain
EPA is concerned that movement of unstable soils can damage
hazardous waste facilities and lead to spills and leaks. Mass movement
of rock and soil onto a hazardous waste facility can crush or destroy
buildings, puncture and bury drums of hazardous waste, and break
apart earthen structures containing liquid wastes. Poor foundation
conditions can:

  • Cause buildings to shift and crack

  • Disrupt landfill gas and leachate collection

  • Rip landfill liner systems.

Damages such as these may cause hazardous waste spills that can be
difficult to clean up.

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Facility Siting Recommendations
Unstable terrain is found throughout the United States. Therefore,
companies seeking locations should check for past mining activities,
flood control, or groundwater withdrawal, which could cause the
ground to sink. Natural conditions, such as high water content in soil
and freezing temperatures that cause soil to heave or swell, should also
be identified along with slumping soils caused by steep slopes that have
high soil moisture, poor drainage, or weak soils.

It is possible to build a safe facility on unstable terrain; however,
construction and operating costs would increase considerably.
Although most of the risks to facilities in unstable terrains can be
addressed by good design and engineering, EPA recommends that
facilities perform geotechnical analyses of soil and geologic properties
to determine the extent of unstable conditions. This information will
help a facility decide if its unit should be located in another area
or if additional design and engineering measures are needed.
Building on unstable soils can lead to serious environmental consequences.

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      Unfavorable Weather Conditions
Certain areas of the United States have atmospheric
conditions that increase the chance of breathing air
contaminants. Some parts of the country may have long
periods with little or no air movement (such as Los Angeles'
smog inversions). In these areas, air contaminants are not
easily dispersed. In mountainous areas, air contaminants can
also become trapped for a long time. This situation occurs
because mountains can affect regional wind patterns by
acting as barriers that reduce air flow.

The Problem with Locating a Facility in an Area
with Unfavorable Weather Conditions
Hazardous waste management facilities increase the chance of exposing
people and the environment to air contaminants in areas where
stagnant weather conditions exist. Young and elderly people, along
with people suffering with respiratory ailments, are more susceptible to
extended exposures to air contaminants. In addition, eating food
produced in areas with air pollutants (e.g., meat,  milk, and grains)
becomes a concern because these pollutants may  be taken up by plant
or animal respiration or by contaminated rainfall. Hazardous waste
facilities that burn or incinerate waste (i.e., combustion facility,
incinerator) may cause unacceptable contamination and, in turn,
environmental exposures in these stagnant areas.

Facility Siting Recommendations
Facilities that burn hazardous wastes should avoid locating where
unfavorable weather conditions exist. Atmospheric conditions
in this type of area should be evaluated carefully by the facility.
Facilities should evaluate the distribution and age of the population

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and other vulnerability factors and the effects of land features on wind
patterns and pollutant mixing in the air. Seasonal effects on wind
patterns should also be evaluated. Special engineering and placement of
the facility at the site may be necessary to ensure acceptable dispersion
of air contaminants. The permit for the facility may also need to
restrict the operations of the facility to times when weather conditions
are favorable.

Regulations Controlling Air Emissions
from Hazardous Waste Management Facilities
Both the Clean Air Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act contain regulations on the control of air pollution from hazardous
waste facilities (40 CFR 264, Subparts I, J, K, and O and 40 CFR 266,
Subpart H). Combustion regulations address specific chemical
pollutants; tank, container, and waste pond regulations address volatile
organic pollutants as a class. However, both sets of regulations target
emission reduction. They do not address the siting of emission sources.
An inversion can be worsened by a mountain range forcing warm desert air to
move up and over cooler ocean air flowing in the opposite direction.

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             Incompatible Land  Use
Certain preexisting land uses may not be compatible with
the operation of a hazardous waste management facility.
For example, densely populated areas or facilities such as
hospitals, schools, and prisons are especially vulnerable to
hazardous waste exposures.

Human Exposure to Hazardous Wastes
People may become exposed to hazardous waste contaminants
by breathing, drinking water, eating food, eating dirt (children,
particularly), or by skin contact (with soil, air, or water).

The Problem with Locating a Facility
Near Sensitive Populations
Certain people may be more sensitive to exposure to hazardous waste
than the average person. Studies have shown that children and the
elderly may be more sensitive to certain toxic substance exposures.
Likewise, people who are sick can also be more vulnerable to toxic
exposures, and their illnesses may become worse.

Facility Siting Recommendations
Hazardous waste management facilities should avoid locating near
sensitive populations or in densely populated areas. Areas near schools,
nursing homes, day care centers, or hospitals should be avoided. Many
states have setback distances that prescribe the minimum distance a
hazardous waste facility can be from certain types of land use.
These minimum distances are meant to protect the public or
the environment from potential exposure to hazardous waste.

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EPA recommends NOT siting hazardous waste facilities in sensitive
locations for the following reasons:
Location
Environmental Consequences
Floodplains
Waste ponds may wash out.
Tanks may be moved from foundations.
Wetlands
Fish and wildlife are threatened.
Spills are spread to groundwater
and surface waters faster.
Cleanup is difficult, costly,
and sometimes more damaging.
Land Use
Sensitive populations such as the elderly,
children, and the sick are more affected
by toxic exposures.
High-Value
Groundwater
Contaminants are transported quickly.
Cleanup is costly and difficult.
Earthquake Zones
Ground fractures and shaking damage
structures, leading to spills.
Karst Terrain
Sinkholes may develop, leading to
structure failure and spills.
Unstable Terrain
Soil movement can shift and damage
structures causing waste releases.
Unfavorable
Weather Conditions
Stagnant air concentrates pollutants.
Mountains may block pollutant dispersion.
For Further Information...
For further information on sensitive environments, please contact
the RCRA hotline at 800-424-9349 orTDD-800-553-7672.
In the Washington, DC, area, call 703-412-9810.

This publication is also available on the Internet at
http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste.

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United States
Environmental Protection Agency
401 M Street, SW. (5305W)
Washington, DC 20460

Official Business
Penalty for Private Use
$300

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            United Stales       Office Of        EPA-505/8-91-002
            Environmental Protection    Water         April 1991
            Agency         (EN-336)
v>EPA      Guidance Manual
            For The Preparation Of
            NPDES Permit Applications
            For Storm Water Discharges
            Associated With
            Industrial Activity

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           GUIDANCE MANUAL
       FOR THE PREPARATION OF
      NPDES PERMIT APPLICATIONS
    FOR STORM WATER DISCHARGES
ASSOCIATED WITH INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY
                  April 1991
          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
      Office of Wastewater Enforcement and Compliance
               401 M Street, S.W.
              Washington, D.C. 20460
                Printed on Recycled Paper

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES	   i

LIST OF FIGURES	  ii

PREFACE	 iii

SECTION 1.0     INTRODUCTION  	   1
      1.1    What Is The Purpose Of This Guidance Manual?	   1
      1.2    How Is This Manual Organized?	   1

SECTION 2.0     WHAT IS THE NPDES PERMIT PROGRAM?  	   2
      2.1    Authorized NPDES State Programs	   2
      2.2    What Is A Storm Water Discharge Associated With
            Industrial Activity?  	   2
      2.3    Discharges Through Large And Medium Municipal Separate
            Storm Sewer Systems  	   7
      2.4    Discharges To Combined  Sewer Systems  	   9
      2.5    Options For Applying  For Permit Coverage	   9

SECTION 3.0     INDIVIDUAL APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS ...  13
      3.1    The Process Of Submitting Individual Applications	  13
      3.2    Forms 1 And 2F	  15
      3.3    Special Provisions For Selected Discharges	  16
            3.3.1 Special Provisions For Small Businesses	  16
            3.3.2 Special Provisions For Construction Activities   	  17
            3.3.3 Mining And Oil And Gas Operations	  17
      3.4    Individual Applications Deadlines 	  18
      3.5    When Are Additional  Forms Required?	  19
      3.6    Where To Obtain And Submit Applications	  19
      3.7    Signatories	  19
      3.8    Penalties For Knowingly Submitting False Information	  20

SECTION 4.0     THE PERMITTING PROCESS  	  21
      4.1    How Are Individual Applications Processed? 	  21
      4.2    Completeness Of The  Application	  21
      4.3    Public Availability Of Submitted Information	  24
      4.4    How Long Is A Permit Valid?	  24
      4.5    How Are NPDES Permits Enforced?	  24

SECTION 5.0     TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR SPECIFIC
                 ELEMENTS OF THE NPDES PERMIT
                 APPLICATION FORMS	  26
      5.1    Overview	  26
      5.2    Site Drainage Map	  26
      5.3    Identification Of Outfalls To Be Monitored	  27

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     5.4   Evaluation Of The Presence Of Non-storm Water Discharges    27
           5.4.1  Visual Inspection of Storm Drain at Manhole Inlet or
                Outfall Description	  29
           5.4.2  Review and Validation of Piping Schematics
                Description	  29
           5.4.3  Dye Tests Description	  30
           5.4.4  TV Line Surveys Description	  30
     5.5   Estimates Of Discharge Flow Rates And Volumes  	  31
           5.5.1  Estimating Flows and Volumes  	  31
           5.5.2  Flow Rate Measurements 	  32
           5.5.3  Estimation of Flow Rates Based on Flow Velocity
                Measurements  	  33
           5.5.4  Estimation of Volumes Based on Row Rate Estimates  .  33
     5.6   Collecting Storm Water Discharge Samples  	  37
           5.6.1  Grab Samples	  38
           5.6.2  Flow-Weighted Composite Samples	  38
           5.6.3  Pollutants to Be Analyzed	  44
           5.6.4  Reporting	  46

SECTION 6.0     REFERENCES  	  48
                      t:: «::-,?>••<
APPENDIX A:    SELECTED TEXT FROM 40 CFR SECTION 122.26  .  49

APPENDIX B:    DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS	  55

APPENDIX C:          INFORMATION FOR EPA REGIONAL
                      OFFICES AND STATES WITH APPROVED
                      NPDES PROGRAMS	  62

APPENDIX C.1:         FEDERAL, STATE, AND REGIONAL
                      PERMITTING AGENCY CONTACTS	  63

APPENDIX C.2:        ADDRESSES AND TELEPHONE
                      NUMBERS OF EPA REGIONAL OFFICES
                     AND STATES WITHIN THE REGIONAL
                      OFFICE JURISDICTION	  71

APPENDIX D:          PROCEDURES FOR SUBMITTING A
                      GROUP APPLICATION 	  73

APPENDIX D.I:         EPA REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR A
                      GROUP APPLICATION 	  75

APPENDIX E:          NPDES PERMIT APPLICATION FORMS
                      AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE
                      PERMITTING PROCESS	  76

APPENDIX E.1:         FORM 1  	  77

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APPENDIX E.2:        FORM 2F 	  78



APPENDIX E.3:        FORM 2C	  79



APPENDIX E.4:        FORM 2D	  80



APPENDIX E.5:        FORM 2E	  81

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LIST OF TABLES
Table          Title                                   Page

2-1   CONTENTS OF 40 CFR PARTS 400 TO 471 (SUBCHAPTER N)     4

2-2   STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION (SIC) CODE
     GROUPS WHICH ARE REFERENCED IN THE NPDES STORM
     WATER REGULATIONS                                8

4-1   PERMIT APPLICATION CHECKLIST                      22

5-1   EXAMPLE CALCULATION OF THE TOTAL RUNOFF FLOW
     VOLUME FROM HELD DATA                          35

5-2   EXAMPLE PREPARATION OF A MANUALLY COMPOSITED
     FLOW-WEIGHTED SAMPLE                            41

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure          Title                                    Page

2-1   FLOWCHART FOR NPDES PERMITTING OF
     INDUSTRIAL STORM WATER DISCHARGES                10

3-1   FLOW DIAGRAM TO IDENTIFY WHICH FORMS
     MUST BE SUBMITTED WHEN APPLYING FOR AN
     INDIVIDUAL NPDES STORM WATER DISCHARGE PERMIT    14

5-1   EXAMPLE INDUSTRIAL STORM RUNOFF OUTFALLS
     WITH STORM WATER DISCHARGE ASSOCIATED WITH
     INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY                               28

Appendix
D-l   RAINFALL ZONES OF THE UNITED STATES                74
                            n

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PREFACE
       Water quality problems have occupied an increasingly prominent role in
the public's awareness over the past several decades.  In 1972, Congress passed
significant amendments to  the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (commonly
referred to as the Clean Water Act or CWA) to prohibit the discharge of any
pollutant to waters  of the United States from a point source unless the discharge
was authorized by a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
permit.  NPDES  permits specify monitoring, reporting and control requirements,
including allowable levels of pollutants in discharges.

       Efforts to  improve water quality under the NPDES program have
traditionally focused on reducing pollutants in discharges of industrial process
wastewater and municipal sewage. Industrial process discharges and sewage
outfalls were easily  identified as responsible for poor, often drastically degraded
water quality conditions. However, as pollution control measures were installed
for these discharges, it became evident that more diffuse sources (occurring over
a wide area) of water pollution were also major causes of water quality problems.

       For many  years, most of the environmental law makers and the  public
alike assumed that  runoff from urban and other areas subjected to man's
activities was essentially "clean" water. However, during the past twenty years or
so, this view has changed.  It is now recognized that rainfall picks up a multitude
of pollutants from falling on and draining off streets and parking lots,
construction and  industrial  sites, and mining, logging and agricultural areas.  The
pollutants are dissolved into and are carried off by the rainfall as it drains from
these surfaces and areas. Through natural or manmade conveyances, the runoff
is channeled  into and transported by gravity flow through a wide variety of
drainage facilities.  Once in these facilities, the runoff may scour accumulated
pollutants out of  gutters, catchbasins,  storm sewers, and drainage channels. The
runoff eventually ends  up in surface water bodies such as creeks, rivers, estuaries,
bays, and oceans.

       Many  recent studies have shown that runoff from urban and industrial
areas typically contains significant quantities of the same general types  of
pollutants that are found in wastewaters and industrial discharges and cause
similar water quality problems.  These pollutants include heavy metals  (e.g.,
chromium, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc), pesticides, herbicides, and
organic compounds such as fuels, waste oils, solvents,  lubricants, and grease.
These pollutants  may cause problems for both human health and aquatic
organisms.

       In general, assessments of water quality are difficult to perform  and verify.
However, several national assessments have been made.  For the purposes of
these assessments, runoff from urban and industrial areas has been considered as
a diffuse source or  "nonpoint"source of pollution.  Legally, however, most urban

                                     iii

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runoff is discharged through conveyances such as separate storm sewers or other
conveyances which are point sources under the CWA and are, therefore, subject
to the NPDES program.

       To provide a better understanding of the nature of storm water runoff
from  residential, commercial, and light industrial areas (collectively referred to as
urban), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding and
guidance to the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP), which was
conducted from 1978 through 1983.  The NURP study provided insight on what
can be considered background levels of pollutants for urban runoff.  NURP also
concluded that the quality of urban runoff can be adversely impacted by several
sources of pollutants that were not directly evaluated in the study, including illicit
connections, construction and industrial site runoff, and illegal dumping.

       Other studies have shown that storm sewers contain illicit discharges of
non-storm water,  and that wastes, particularly used oils, are improperly disposed
of in  storm sewers.  Removal of non-storm water discharges to storm sewers
presents opportunities for dramatic improvements in the quality of storm water
discharges.

       In  1987, the Clean Water Act was revised by adding Section 402(p) to
address storm water. In summary, Section 402(p) states that prior to October 1,
1992, the  NPDES program cannot require permits for discharges composed
entirely of storm water unless one of the following conditions apply:

       1)     The discharge has been permitted prior to February 4, 1987 (in this
             case, the  operator is required to  maintain the existing permit).

       2)     The discharge is associated with  industrial activity.

       3)     The discharge is from a large (population greater than 250,000) or
             medium (population greater than 100,000 but less than 250,000)
             municipal separate storm sewer system.

       4)     The permitting authority determines that the discharge contributes
             to a violation of a water quality standard or is a significant
             contributor of pollutants to the waters of the United States.

       Section 402(p) of the CWA requires EPA to establish NPDES permit
application requirements for storm water discharges associated with  industrial
activity; discharges from large municipal separate storm water systems (systems
serving a population of 250,000 or more); and  discharges from medium municipal
separate storm water systems (systems serving a population of 100,000 or more,
but less than  250,000).  In response to this requirement, EPA published permit
application requirements on November 16, 1990 (55 FR 47990). This manual
provides guidance to facility operators discharging storm water associated with
industrial  activity  on how to comply with  the permit application requirements.

                                     iv

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SECTION 1.0      INTRODUCTION
1.1   What Is The Purpose Of This Guidance Manual?

      The Federal Water Pollution Control Act (also known as the Clean Water
Act (CWA)), as amended in 1987, requires National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) permits for storm water discharges associated with
industrial activity.

      On November 16, 1990, (55 FR 47990), the Environmental Protection
Agency  (EPA) issued regulations establishing  permit application requirements for
storm water discharges associated with industrial activity.  These regulations are
primarily contained in Section 122.26 of Section 40 of the Code of Federal
Regulations (40 CFR Part 122.26).

      The purpose of this manual is to assist operators of facilities which
discharge storm water associated with industrial  activity in complying with the
requirements for applying for an NPDES  permit. This manual provides operators
with an  overview of the permitting process and information regarding the permit
application requirements including: which forms are to be completed; where these
are to be submitted; and when permit applications are due.  In addition, this
manual  provides technical information on sample collection procedures.

1.2   How Is This Manual Organized?

      This guidance manual contains five sections and several appendices.
Section  2.0 explains the NPDES permit program, who must file an application
and the different options for applying. Section 3.0 discusses the individual
application requirements, including the necessary forms and  information to be
provided. Section  4.0 explains the permitting  process, how applications are
handled, whether an application is complete and public availability of the
information.  Technical guidance for the preparation of selected parts of the
permit application  forms is provided in Section 5.0. Pertinent regulatory guidance
materials and other references are provided in Section 6.0.

      Additional information is provided in the appendices to this manual.
These appendices contain selected text from 40 CFR  Part 122.26 (Appendix A),
definitions of key terms (Appendix B), addresses for EPA Regional Offices and
State agencies (Appendix C),  procedures for filing a group application (Appendix
D), and copies of the various permit application forms (Appendix E).

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SECTION 2.0      WHAT IS THE NPDES PERMIT PROGRAM?
      This section provides a description of the NPDES permitting program.
Section 2.2 describes the regulatoiy term "storm water associated with industrial
activity" which defines the scope of the NPDES program requirements with
respect  to industrial storm water discharges.  Section 2.3 describes notification
requirements for storm water discharges associated with industrial  activity to large
or medium municipal separate storm sewer systems. (These storm water
discharges associated with industrial activity are also required to obtain NPDES
permit coverage). Section 2.4 explains that storm water discharges associated
with industrial activity to sanitary sewers, including combined sewers, are not
required to obtain NPDES permit coverage.  Section 2.5 describes three options
that operators of storm water discharges associated with industrial  activity may
follow for obtaining permit coverage  for storm water discharges associated with
industrial activity:  (1) individual permit applications; (2) group applications; and
(3) case-by-case requirements developed for general permit coverage.

2.1   Authorized NPDES State Programs

      The CWA allows States to request EPA authorization to administer the
NPDES program instead of EPA  Upon authorization of a State program, the
State is primarily  responsible for issuing permits and administering the NPDES
program in the State. At all times following authorization, State NPDES
programs must be consistent with minimum Federal requirements, although they
may always be more stringent.

      State authority is divided into  four parts: municipal and industrial
permitting (including permitting for storm water discharges from non-Federal
facilities); Federal facilities (including permitting for storm water discharges from
Federal facilities); pretreatment; and general permitting. At this point in  time, 39
States or Territories are authorized to, at a minimum,  issue NPDES permits for
municipal and industrial sources. In  the 12 States and 6 territories without
NPDES authorized  programs, EPA issues all NPDES permits.  In 6 of the 39
States that are authorized to issue NPDES permits for municipal and industrial
sources, EPA issues permits for discharges from Federal facilities.
22   What Is A Storm Water Discharge Associated With Industrial Activity?

      The November 16, 1990 regulation established the  following definition of
"storm water discharge associated with industrial activity" at 40 CFR
122.26(b)(14):

      "Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity"means the discharge
      from any conveyance which is used for collecting and conveying storm water

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and which is directly related to manufacturing, processing or raw materials
storage areas at an industrial plant.  The term does not include discharges
from facilities or activities excluded from the NPDES program under 40 CFR
Part 122.  For the categories of industries identified in subparagraphs (i)
through (x) of this subsection, the term includes, but is not limited to, storm
water discharges from industrial plant yards; immediate access roads and rail
lines used or traveled by carriers of raw materials, manufactured products,
waste material, or by-products used or created by the facility;  material
handling sites; refuse sites; sites used for the application or disposal of process
waste waters (as defined at 40 CFR  401); sites used for the storage and
maintenance of material handling equipment; sites used for residual
treatment, storage, or disposal; shipping and receiving areas; manufacturing
buildings; storage areas (including tank farms) for raw  materials, and
intermediate and finished products; and areas where industrial activity has
taken place in the past and significant materials remain and are exposed to
storm water. For the categories of industries identified  in subparagraph  (xi),
the term includes onfy storm water discharges from all the areas (except access
roads and rail lines) that are listed in the previous sentence where material
handling equipment or activities, raw materials, intermediate products, final
products, waste materials, by-products, or industrial  machinery are exposed to
storm water. For the purposes of this paragraph, material handling activities
include the: storage, loading and unloading, transportation, or conveyance of
any raw material, intermediate product, finished product, by-product or waste
product. The term excludes areas located on plant lands separate from  the
plant's industrial activities, such as office buildings and accompanying parking
lots as long as the drainage from  the excluded areas is  not  mixed with storm
water drained from the above described areas.  Industrial facilities  (including
industrial facilities that are Federally, State, or municipally  owned or operated
that meet the description of the facilities listed in this paragraph (i)-(xi))
include those facilities designated under the provisions of 122.26(a)(l)(v).
The following categories of facilities are considered to be engaging in
"industrial activity" for purposes of this subsection:

(i) Facilities subject to storm water effluent limitations guidelines, new source
performance standards, or toxic pollutant effluent standards under 40 CFR
Subchapter N (except facilities with toxic pollutant effluent  standards which
are exempted under category (xi) of this paragraph); (See Table 2-1)

(u) Fadtities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 24 (except  2434),
26 (except 265 and 267), 28 (except 283 and 285) 29, 311, 32 (except 323),
33, 3441, 373;

(ui) Facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications  10 through 14
(mineral industry)  including active or inactive mining operations (except for
areas of coal mining operations no longer meeting the definition of a
reclamation area under 40 CFR 434.11(1) because the performance bond
issued to the facility by the appropriate SMCRA  authority has been released,

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Table 2-1. CONTENTS OF 40 CFR PARTS 400 TO 471 (SUBCHAPTER N)
Part                 Subchapter N - Effluent Guidelines and Standards
400                  [Reserved]
401                  General Provisions
402                  [Reserved]
403                  General pretreatment regulations for existing and new sources of pollution
405                  Dairy products processing point source category
406                  Grain mills point source category
407                  Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables processing point source category
408                  Canned and preserved seafood processing point source category
409                  Sugar processing point source category
410                  Textile mills point source category
411                  Cement manufacturing point source category
412                  Feedlots point source category
413                  Electroplating point source category
414                  Organic chemicals, plastics,  and synthetic fibers
415                  Inorganic chemicals manufacturing point source category
416                  [Reserved]
417                  Soap and detergent manufacturing point source category
418                  Fertilizer manufacturing point source category
419                  Petroleum refining point source category
420                  Iron and steel manufacturing point source category
421                  Nonferrous metals manufacturing point source  category
422                  Phosphate manufacturing point source category
423                  Steam electric power generating point source category
424                  Ferroalloy manufacturing point source category
425                  Leather tanning and finishing point source category
426                  Glass manufacturing point source category
427                  Asbestos manufacturing point source category
428                  Rubber manufacturing point source category
429                  Timber products processing point source category
430                  Pulp, paper, and paperboard point source category
431                  The builders' paper  and board mills point source category
432                  Meat products point source category
433                  Metal finishing point source category
434                  Coal mining point source category; BPT, BAT, BCT limitations and
                     new source performance standards
435                  Oil and gas extraction point source category
436                  Mineral mining and processing point source category
439                  Pharmaceutical manufacturing point source category
440                  Ore mining and dressing point source category
443                  Effluent limitations guidelines for existing sources and standards
                     of performance and pretreatment standards for new sources for the paving
                     and roofing materials (tars and asphalt) point source category
446                  Paint formulating point source category
447                  Ink formulating point source category
454                  Gum and wood chemicals manufacturing point source category
455                  Pesticide chemicals
457                  Explosives manufacturing point source category
458                  Carbon black manufacturing point source category

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Table 2-1. CONTENTS OF 40 CFR PARTS 400 TO 471 (SUBCHAPTER N) (continued)
Part	Subchapter N - EffluejitJ3uidelinesand Standards	

459                  Photographic point source category
460                  Hospital point source category
461                  Battery manufacturing point source category
463                  Plastics molding and forming point source category
464                  Metal molding and casting point source category
465                  Coil coating point source category
466                  Porcelain enameling point source category
467                  Aluminum forming point source category
468                  Copper forming point source category
469                  Electrical and electronic components point source category
471                  Nonferrous metals forming and metal powders point source category

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 or except for areas of non-coal mining operations which have been released
from applicable State or Federal reclamation requirements after December 17,
1990 and oil and gas exploration, production* processing, or treatment
operations, or transmission faculties that discharge storm water contaminated
by contact with or that has come into contact with, any overburden, raw
material, intermediate products, finished products, byproducts or waste
products located on the site of such operations; (inactive mining operations
are mining sites that are not being actively mined, but which have an
identifiable owner/operator; inactive mining sites do not include sites where
mining claims are being maintained prior to disturbances associated with the
extraction, beneficiation, or processing of mined materials, nor sites where
minimal activities are undertaken for the sole purpose of maintaining a
mining claim);

(iv) Hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal faculties, including those
that are operating under interim status or a permit under Subtitle  C of RCRA;

(v) Landfills, land application sites, and open dumps that receive or have
received any industrial wastes (waste that  is received from any of the facilities
described under this subsection) including those that are subject to regulation
under Subtitle D of RCRA;

(vi) Facilities involved in the recycling of materials, including metal scrap
yards,  battery reclaimers, salvage yards, and automobile junkyards, including
but limited to those classified as Standard Industrial Classification 5015 and
5093;

(vii) Steam electric power generating facilities, including coal handling sites;

(viii) Transportation facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications
40, 41, 42 (except 4221-25), 43, 44, 45, and 5171 which have vehicle
maintenance shops, equipment cleaning operations, or airport deicing
operations.  Onfy those portions of the facility that are either involved in
vehicle maintenance (including vehicle rehabilitation, mechanical repairs,
painting, fueling, and lubrication), equipment cleaning operations, airport
deicing operations, or which are otherwise identified under paragraphs (i)-
(vu) or (ix)-(xi) of this subsection are associated with industrial activity;

(ix) Treatment works treating domestic sewage or any other sewage sludge or
wastewater treatment device or system, used  in the storage treatment, recycling,
and reclamation of municipal or domestic sewage, including land dedicated to
the disposal of sewage sludge that are located within the confines  of the
facility, with a design flow of 1.0 mgd or more, or required to have an
approved pretreatment program under 40  CFR 403. Not included are farm
lands, domestic gardens or lands used for sludge management where sludge is
beneficially reused and which are not physically located in the confines of the
facility, or areas that are in compliance with  Section 405 of the CWA;

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       (x) Construction activity including clearing, grading and excavation activities
       except: operations that result in the disturbance of less than five acres of total
       land area which are not pan of a larger common plan of development or
       sale;

       (xi) Facilities under Standard Industrial Classifications 20, 21, 22, 23, 2434,
       25, 265, 267, 27, 283, 285, 30, 31 (except 311), 323, 34 (except 3441), 35, 36,
       37 (except 373), 38, 39,  4221-25, (and which are not otherwise included
       within categories (ii)-(x))."

       Table 2-2 lists Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Code groups which
are referenced in the  regulatory definition of 'storm water associated with
industrial activity'.

       Several aspects of the regulatory definition are highlighted below:

  o    The term  'storm water discharge associated with industrial activity'
       excludes storm water drained from areas located on plant lands separate
       from the plant's industrial activities, such as  office buildings and
       accompanying parking lots as long as the drainage from the excluded areas
       is not mixed with storm water drained from  the above described  areas.

  o    Storm water discharges associated with industrial activity include
       appropriate storm water discharges from Federally, State, or municipally
       owned or  operated facilities that conduct activities that are described in
       subparagraphs
       (i)-(xi) of  the regulatory definition.

  o    For the categories of industries  identified in  subparagraph (xi), the term
       'storm water discharges associated with industrial activity' includes only
       storm water discharges  from all the areas (except access roads  and rail
       lines) that are listed in  the regulatory definition where material handling
       equipment or activities, raw materials, intermediate products, final
       products, waste materials, by-products, or industrial machinery  are exposed
       to storm water.

2.3    Discharges Through Large And Medium Municipal Separate Storm Sewer
       Systems

       Storm water discharges associated with industrial activity discharged
through municipal separate storm sewers to waters  of the United States are
required to obtain NPDES  permit coverage.  In addition to meeting the
requirements discussed in Section 4.0  of this manual, operators of storm water
discharges associated with industrial activity which discharge through large or

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Table 2-2.         STANDARD  INDUSTRIAL  CLASSIFICATION  (SIC)  CODE  GROUPS  WHICH  ARE
                  REFERENCED IN THE NPDES STORM WATER REGULATIONS
  SIC Code
                 Tide
     10

     12
     13
     14

     20
     21
     22
     23
     24
     25
     26
     27
     28
     29
     30
     31
     32
     33
     34
     35
     36
     37
     38
     39
     40
     41
     42
     43
     44
     45

    5015
    5093
    5171
Metal Mining

Coal Mining
Oil and Gas Extraction
Nonmetallic Minerals, Except Fuels

Food and Kindred Products
Tobacco Products
Textile Mill Products
Apparel and Other Textile Products
Lumber and Wood Products
Furniture and Fixtures
Paper and Allied Products
Printing and Publishing
Chemicals and Allied Products
Petroleum and Coal Products
Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastic Products
Leather and Leather Products (except 311)
Stone, Clay, and Glass Products
Primary Metal Industries
Fabricated Metal Products
Industrial Machinery and Equipment
Electronic and Other Electric Equipment
Transportation Equipment
Instruments and Related Products
Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries
Railroad Transportation
Local and Interurban Passenger Transit
Trucking and Warehousing
United States Postal Service
Water Transportation
Transportation by Air

Motor Vehicle Parts, Used
Scrap and Waste Materials
Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals
Notes:
(1)
    For the exact 4-digit SIC codes within each industry group number, refer to the Standard Industrial Classification
    Manual. 1987 Edition, US. Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget

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       medium municipal separate storm sewer systems are required to submit the
       following information to the operator of the municipal separate storm sewer
       receiving the discharge no later than May 15, 1991 or 180 days prior to
       commencing such discharge:

                  (i) the name of the facility;

                 (ii) a contact person and phone number;

                (iii)  the location of the discharge; and

                 (iv) a  description, including Standard Industrial Classification, which
              best reflects the principal  products or services provided by each facility.

              The terms "municipal separate storm sewer", "large municipal separate
       storm sewer system" and "medium municipal separate storm sewer system" are
       defined in Appendix  B.

       2.4     Discharges To Combined  Sewer Systems

              Discharges to  municipal sanitary systems, including combined sewer
       systems (systems  designed to convey municipal sanitary sewage and storm water)
       are not required  to obtain NPDES permit coverage.  However, these discharges
       may be subject to pretreatment requirements, including requirements
       implemented by permits issued by the operator of the municipal treatment plant.

       2.5     Options For Applying For Permit Coverage

              The NPDES regulatory scheme provides three potential tracts for
       obtaining permit  coverage for storm water discharges associated with industrial
       activity:  (1) individual  permit applications; (2) group applications; and (3) case-
       by-case requirements developed for general permit coverage.

              A flowchart illustrating the three  potential routes, or tracks for applying
       for  permit coverage, as well as a route or track for discharges to combined sewers
       is provided in Figure 2-1. The four tracks are named:  the general permit track,
       the group application track, the  individual application track, or the combined
       sewer track.  Dischargers following the first three are required to submit
       information, whereas the fourth track, the combined  sewer track, illustrates that
       permits are not required for industrial discharges to combined sewer systems1.
   - NPDES permit coverage is required for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity which
either discharge directly to waters of the United States, through a municipal separate storm sewer to waters of the
United States, or through a privately owned conveyance to waters of the United States.  Permits are not required
for industrial discharges to municipal sanitary sewer systems, including combined sewer systems. However,
municipalities operating combined sewer overflows are required to obtain NPDES permits.

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  Figure 2-1.    Flowchart for NPDES
                    Permitting of Industrial
                    Storm Water Discharges
                                                 d)
                                                                       Identify
                                                                      Permitting
                                                                      Authority
                                                                         DOM
                                                                       YourFacMy
                                                                    Discharge Storm
                                                                      Associated with
                                                                        Industrial
                                                                        ActMty
                                                                          7
                                         No
                                       Permit
                                      Required
                                                                         DOM
                                                                       Your Fadlty
                                                                       Discharge to
                                                                     Waters of ID* U.S. or
                                                                       to a Municipal
                                                                        System
                                                                          7
               Combined
              Sewer System
                     Separate
                   Storm Sewer
  No
 Permit
Required
Combined Sewer Track
                     Urge or
                     Medium
Notes:
                                                                                      No
                                                                                   (Continued on next page)
                                                                           Yes
                                                                Comply WKri Nolle* of Intent Provision*
                                                                ki the General Permit In Ueu of Submitting
                                                                an Application
                                                                General Permit Track
    1) Permitting Authority:  States which have NPDES permit authority, otherwise EPA regional offices
    2) States with NPDES permit authority can disallow participation in a group application
    3) Time line begins at the date of publication of the final rule
    4) Other forms may be required in addition to Forms 1 and 2F

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                                                (Continued from previous page)
Individual Application Track
                                 Individual
                               Industry
                             Selects Group
                                 or
                           IndMdual Application
                                Track
                                                                                          EPA
                                                                                        Headquarters
                                                                                        Approve*the
                                                                                      ApproprtatanM* of
                                                                                        theApplcarti
Group Application Track

                      (3)
Describe
Storm Drainage
System;
Drainage Area
lor Each Outfall;
Storage Faculties;
Existing BMPs
1

FORM2F
                          FORM2F
                       Collect and Submit
                        Quantitative Data
                      to Permuting Authority
                   Permitting Authority
                        Issues Final
                  INDIVIDUAL PERMIT
                      to Each Facility
                                                                                          PART 2
                                                            Collect and Submit
                                                           Quantitative Data tor
                                                            10%ofFadMe*
                                                          to EPA Headquarters
                                                                                           Does
                                                                                       Your SUM Have
                                                                                        General Pern*
                                                                                          Authority
                                                                                                               SEPT. 30. 1991
                      S

                     I
                                                                                       YES
                                                                                                                MAY 18. 1992

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      The individual permit application track (i.e., the third tier on the
flowchart) is applicable to all storm water discharges associated with industrial
activity except: where the operator of the discharge is participating in a group
application; where a general permit has been issued to cover the discharge and
the general  permit provides alternative means to obtain permit coverage; or
where the discharge is to a sanitary sewer,  including a combined sewer. For most
storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, the requirements for an
individual permit application are incorporated into Form 1 and Form 2F.  Special
individual application requirements for storm water discharges associated with
industrial activity from construction activities, mining operations, oil and gas
operations, and small businesses are discussed in Chapter 3.

      The group application track (i.e., the second tier of the  flowchart) allows a
group of similar industries to submit a group application.  This will often be an
efficient alternative to preparing and submitting individual permit applications
because it may reduce the cost for applicants. The requirements for group
applications are discussed in Appendix D.  Authorized NPDES States may
establish requirements which are more stringent than EPA requirements, and may
require facilities with storm water discharges associated with industrial activity to
submit individual applications rather than participate in a group application.

      The general  permit track (i.e., the top tier of the flowchart) may be
available where a general permit for the discharge has been issued.  In this case,
the facility operator must comply with any  applicable Notice of Intent (NOI)
provisions of the general permit instead of submitting an individual permit
application.

      The combined sewer track (i.e., the  bottom tier of the flowchart) is
followed if an industrial facility discharges storm water associated with industrial
activity to a municipal sanitary sewer, including sewers that are part of a
combined sewer systems.  In this case, an NPDES permit  for the storm water
discharge to the combined sewer is not required. However, the operator of the
sewage treatment works may develop pretreatment requirements  (including
requirements implemented through permits issued by the sewage treatment
operator) applicable to industrial facilities discharging to combined sewers.
                                      12

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SECTION 3.0       INDIVIDUAL APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS
       Section 2.5 of this manual describes the three options that operators of
storm water discharges associated with industrial activity may follow for obtaining
permit coverage for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity:  (1)
individual permit applications; (2) group applications; and (3) case-by-case
requirements developed for general permit coverage.  In addition, section 2.4
explains that storm water discharges associated with industrial activity to
municipal sanitary systems, including combined sewer systems (systems designed
to convey municipal sanitary sewage and storm water) are not required to obtain
NPDES permit coverage.

       This Chapter focusses on the procedures and requirements associated with
submitting individual permit applications. Appendix D.2 discusses the procedures
and requirements associated with submitting group applications.

       Section 3.1 discusses the process of submitting individual permit
applications.  Section 3.2 provides an overview of the requirements of Form 1  and
Form 2F, the  individual permit application forms for most storm water discharges
associated with industrial activity.  Section 3.3 discusses special provisions for
individual applications for  storm water discharges associated with industrial
activity from: small businesses; construction activities; and mining and oil and gas
operations.  Section 3.4 discusses deadlines for submitting  individual permit
applications.  Section 3.5 describes the additional application forms that are
necessary if storm water associated with industrial activity  is mixed with non-
storm water.  Section 3.6 explains where to obtain and submit permit applications.
Section 3.7 describes signatory requirements  for individual permit applications,
and Section 3.8 describes penalties for knowingly submitting false information.

3.1    The Process Of Submitting Individual Applications

       Figure 3-1 illustrates the process of selecting and submitting the
application forms to use for individual permit applications for storm water
discharges associated with  industrial activity.  The items on this list are discussed
below:

       1)     Determine whether the discharge is considered a storm water
             discharge associated with industrial activity.  Refer to the definition
             of "storm water discharge associated with industrial activity"
             provided in Section 2.2 of this guidance.

       2)     Determine whether the State in which the discharge(s) is located
             has an authorized NPDES program.  A list of these States is
             provided in Appendix C.  The permit application forms required by
                                      13

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                 Operators of a facility which:             ~     ~

                    1) discharge worm water associated with an industrial activity, or
                    2) discharge storm water that the permitting authority designates as a significant contributor of
                       pollutants to waters of the U.S., or
                    3) discharge storm water that contributes to a violation of a water quality standard

                 are required to submit an application for a NPDES storm water discharge permit, unless a general
                 permit has been issued. In this case, the facility operator must comply with the Notice of Intent
                 provisions in lieu of submitting an application. Facility operators  submitting an individual permit
                 application must complete FORy 1 (EPA Form 3510-1) and  FORM 2F (EPA  Form 3510-2F).
                 Additional forms may be required as shown below.
ComptoM only m* pravnualy
                                     (•your
                                    discharge
                                    oompoMd
                                    entirely of
                                   storm water
                                       t
                             Comptol* Faun 1 and Form Tf
   I* your
discharge a new
source ora new
  discharge
                                                                       form  3D (EPA Form 3910-2O) in
                                                                       addition to Form 1 and farmir
   I* your
  diMtwrg*
 combined wrih
   prooM*
         or
other non-storm
Form 1C (EPA Form 3S10-2C) in
addition to Forml and FormSf
       Note:  This flow chart does not address group application track or NOI/General permit track
 FIGURE 3-1:  FLOW DIAGRAM TO IDENTIFY WHICH FORMS MUST BE SUBMITTED WHEN
                  APPLYING FOR AN INDIVIDUAL NPOES STORM WATER DISCHARGE PERMIT

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             authorized NPDES States may be different from the EPA-required
             forms that are discussed in this manual.

       3)     Determine the track (e.g. individual permit application track, group
             application track, general permit track, etc.) that the discharger will
             pursue to comply with application requirements.  The  options for
             different tracks are discussed in section 2.5 of this guidance.

       4)     Obtain the appropriate application forms if submitting an individual
             permit application. Sections 3.2, 3.3, and 3.5 of this guidance
             manual provide information on permit application forms and
             requirements. Section 3.6 describes where forms can be obtained.

       5)     Submit the completed application to the appropriate permitting
             regulatory agency by the application deadline (Section 3.4). Section
             3.6 describes where applications are to be submitted.

3.2    Forms 1 And 2F

       The requirements for individual permit application for most types of
discharges composed of storm water associated with industrial activity are
incorporated into Form 1 and Form 2F. (Section 3.3.2 discusses alternative
individual permit application requirements for storm water discharges  associated
with industrial activity from construction activities and Section 3.5 discusses the
additional forms necessary where storm water discharges associated with
industrial  activity are mixed with any non-storm water discharge).

       Form 1 (EPA Form 3510-1) requires general information about the facility,
including: the name and address of the facility; the facility type  (i.e., SIC code); a
map showing specified features, etc.  See Appendix D.I for a sample application
form with instructions.

       Form 2F (EPA Form 3510-2F) contains information which can  be used to
evaluate the pollution  potential  of storm water discharges associated with
industrial  activity, including:

  o    a map showing  site drainage;

  o    an  estimate of the area of impervious surfaces and the total  area drained
       by  each outfall;

  o    a narrative description of material management practices and control
       measures;

  o    a certification that separate storm water outfalls have  been tested or
       evaluated for non-storm water discharges;
                                      15

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  o    existing information regarding significant leaks or spills of toxic or
       hazardous pollutants at the facility that have taken place within the three
       years prior to the submittal of the application; and

  o    sampling data for specified parameters.

       See Appendix E.2 for a sample application form with instructions.
Section 5.0 provides technical guidance for obtaining or estimating the following
information required by Form 2F:  preparing a site drainage map, detecting the
presence of non-storm water discharges, measuring storm water runoff flow rates
and volumes, and sampling equipment and procedures for collecting storm water
discharge samples.

3 J    Special Provisions For Selected Discharges

3.3.1   Special Provisions For Small Businesses

       Small businesses with storm water discharges associated with industrial
activity do not have to analyze  storm water discharges associated with industrial
activity for the  organic toxic pollutants listed in Table 2F-3  of Form 2F.  (Small
business  with storm water discharges associated with industrial activity are subject
to the other appropriate requirements  of Form 1 and Form 2F, including
requirements to sample for specified conventional pollutants and other specified
constituents (40 CFR 122.21(g)(8)).

       There are two ways in which a facility can qualify as a "small business."  If
the facility is a coal mine, and if the probable total annual  production is less than
100,000 tons per year, past production data or estimated future production (such
as a schedule of estimated total production under 30 CFR 79514[c]) may be
submitted instead of conducting analyses for the organic toxic pollutants.
Facilities that are not a coal mine with gross total annual sales  for the most
recent three years average less that $100,000 per year (in second quarter  1980
dollars),  may submit sales data for those years instead of conducting analyses for
the organic toxic pollutants.  The production or sales data must be for the facility
which is  the source of the discharge. The data should not be limited to
production or sales for the process or processes which contribute to the discharge,
unless those are the only processes at the facility.  For sales data, in situations
involving intra-corporate transfer of goods and services, the transfer price per unit
should approximate market prices for those goods and services as closely as
possible.  Sales figures for years after 1980 should be indexed to the second
quarter of 1980 by using the gross national product price deflator (second quarter
of 1980 =  100).  This index is available  in National Income and Product
Accounts of the United States (Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic
Analysis).
                                      16

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3J2  Special Provisions For Construction Activities

       The application requirements for operators of storm water discharges
associated with industrial activity from construction activities include Form 1 and
a narrative description of:

    (i) the location (including a map) and the nature of the construction activity;

   (ii) the total area of the site and the  area of the site that is expected to
       undergo excavation during the life of the permit;

  (iii) proposed measures, including best management  practices, to control
       pollutants in storm water discharges  during construction, including a brief
       description of applicable State and local erosion and sediment control
       requirements;

   (iv) proposed measures to control pollutants in storm water discharges that will
       occur after construction operations have been  completed, including a brief
       description of applicable State and local storm water management controls;

   (v) an estimate of the runoff coefficient  of the site and the increase in
       impervious area after the construction addressed in the permit application
       is completed, the  nature of fill material and existing data  describing the
       soil or the quality of the discharge; and
   (vi)the name of the receiving water.
       At this time, EPA has not developed a standardized form for the narrative
information accompanying Form 1 that is required in individual applications for
storm water discharges associated with industrial activity from construction sites.

3.3.3   Mining And Oil And Gas Operations

       Several specific regulatory provisions are applicable to storm water
discharges associated with  industrial activity from mining and oil and gas
operations:

       (1)    Mining operations and Oil and Gas- (40 CFR 122.26(a)(2)):  The
             permitting  authority may not require  a permit for discharges of
             storm water runoff from mining operations or oil and gas
             exploration, production, processing or treatment operations or
             transmission  facilities,  composed entirely of flows which are from
             conveyances or systems of conveyances (including but not limited to
             pipes, conduits, ditches, and channels) used for collecting and
             conveying precipitation runoff and which are not contaminated by
             contact with or that has not come into contact with, any overburden,
                                      17

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             raw material, intermediate products, finished product, byproduct or
             waste products located on the site of such operations.

      (2)    Oil and gas- (40 CFR 122.26(c)(l)(iii)):  The operator of an
             existing or new discharge composed entirely of storm water from an
             oil or gas exploration, production, processing, or treatment
             operation, or transmission facility is not required to. submit a permit
             application, unless the facility:

             (A) has had a discharge of storm water resulting in the discharge of
             a reportable quantity for which notification is or was required
             pursuant to 40 CFR 117.21 or 40 CFR 302.6 at anytime since
             November 16, 1987; or

             (B) has had a discharge of storm water resulting in the discharge of
             a reportable quantity for which notification is or was required
             pursuant to 40 CFR 110.6 at any time since November 16, 1987; or

             (C) contributes to a violation of a water quality standard.

3.4   Individual Applications Deadlines

      Individual permit applications for storm water discharges associated with
industrial activity which are currently not covered by an NPDES permit must be
submitted by November 18, 1991.

      Operators of discharges which are authorized by an individual NPDES
permit must resubmit individual permit applications 180 days prior to the
termination of the existing NPDES permit.

      Permit applications for a new discharge of storm water associated with
industrial activity must be submitted 180 days before  that facility commences
industrial activity which may result in a discharge of storm water associated with
that industrial activity. Permit applications for a new discharge of storm water
associated with industrial activity from a construction activity (see subparagraph
(x) of the definition in section 23 of this document) must be submitted at least
90 days before the date on which construction is to commence. Persons
proposing a new discharge are encouraged to submit  their application well in
advance of the 90 or 180 day requirements to  avoid delay.

      Where a general permit has been issued, deadlines  for submitting a notice
of intent (NOI) to be authorized to discharge under the permit are established in
the permit
                                     18

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3.5   When Are Additional Forms Required?

      Where a storm water discharge associated with industrial activity is mixed
with a non-storm water component prior to discharge, an additional application
form must be submitted.

      A complete permit application for a storm water discharge associated with
industrial activity mixed with process wastewater. (process wastewater is water
that comes into direct contact with or results from the production or use of any
raw material, intermediate product, finished product, byproduct, waste product or
wastewater) includes Form  1, Form 2F and Form 2C.

      A complete permit application for a storm water discharge associated with
industrial activity mixed with new sources or new discharges of non-storm water
(non-NPDES permitted discharges commencing after August 13, 1979) includes
Form 1, Form 2F and Form 2D.

      A complete permit application for a storm water discharge associated with
industrial activity mixed with nonprocess wastewater (nonprocess wastewater
includes noncontact cooling water and sanitary wastes which are not regulated by
effluent guidelines or a new source performance standard, except discharges by
educational, medical, or commercial chemical laboratories) includes Form 1,
Form 2F and Form 2E.

3.6   Where To Obtain And Submit Applications

      In States without an  authorized NPDES State program, EPA issues all
NPDES permits.  Where  EPA issues permits, permit application forms can be
obtained from and submitted to the appropriate EPA Regional office.  (See
Appendix C.2 for a list of the addresses and telephone numbers of the EPA
Regional offices).

      In States with authorized NPDES programs, application forms can be
obtained from and submitted to the appropriate State office. A list of these
States is provided in Appendix C. The permit  application forms required by
authorized NPDES States may be different from the EPA-required forms that are
discussed in this manual.

3.7   Signatories

      Section X of Form 2F requires that all permit applications must be signed
with the following certification:

      "I certify under penalty of law that this document and all attachments were
      prepared under my  direction or supervision in accordance with a system
      designed to assure that qualified personnel property gather and evaluate the

                                    19

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      information submitted. Based on my inquiry of the person or persons who
      manage the system, or those persons directfy responsible for gathering the
      information, the information submitted is, to the best of my knowledge and
      belief, true, accurate, and complete.  I am aware that there are significant
      penalties for submitting false information, including the possibility of fine and
      imprisonment for knowing violations."

      This certification is to be signed as follows:

      (A) For a corporation: by a  responsible corporate official. For purposes of
this section, a responsible corporate official means (i) a president, secretary,
treasurer, or vice-president of the corporation in charge of a principal business
function, or any other person who performs similar policy or decision-making
functions for the corporation, or (ii) the manager of one or more manufacturing,
production, or operating facilities employing more than 250 persons or having
gross annual sales or expenditures exceeding $25,000,000 (in second-quarter 1980
dollars), if authority to sign documents has been assigned or delegated to the
manager in accordance with corporate procedures.

      EPA does not require specific  assignments or delegation of authority to
responsible corporate officers.  The Agency will presume that these responsible
corporate officers have the requisite authority to sign permit applications unless
the corporation has notified the Director to the contrary.  Corporate  procedures
governing authority to sign permit applications may provide for assignment or
delegation to applicable corporate position rather than to specific individuals.

      (B) For a partnership or sole proprietorship: by a general partner or the
proprietor, respectively; or

      (C) For a municipality, State,  Federal, or other public  agency: by either a
principal executive officer or ranking  elected official. For purposes of this
section, a principal executive officer of a Federal agency includes (i)  the chief
executive  officer of the agency, or (ii) a senior executive officer having
responsibility for the  overall operations of a principal geographic unit of the
agency (e.g. Regional Administrators  of EPA).

3.8   Penalties For Knowingly Submitting False Information

      The Clean Water Act provides for severe penalties for knowingly
submitting false information on application forms. Section 309(c)(4)  of the Clean
Water Act provides that "Any person who knowingly makes any fake material
statement, representation, or certification in any application, . . .  shall upon
conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by imprisonment for
not more than 2 years or by both.  If a conviction of such person is for  a violation
committed after a first conviction of such person under this paragraph, punishment
shall be by a fine of not more than $20,000 per day of violation, or by imprisonment
of not more than 4 years or by both."

                                     20

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SECTION 4.0      THE PERMITTING PROCESS
       The purpose of this section is to provide the applicant with a summary of
the process of issuing NPDES permits for storm water discharges associated with
industrial activity.

4.1    How Are Individual Applications Processed?

       Following the submission of the NPDES permit application, the permitting
authority reviews the application for completeness.  If additional information is
required to complete the application, the permitting authority will notify the
applicant. The permitting authority will specify a deadline for submitting the
additional information.  The effective date of the application is the date when the
permitting authority determines  that the application is complete.

       The permitting authority may request additional information beyond what
is required in the application form. The permit writer will use available
information, primarily that in the permit  application, to develop a draft permit or
a notice to deny a permit.  All draft permits and notices of intent to deny a
permit will include a statement of basis or a draft fact sheet. The statement of
basis will briefly describe the rationale for either proceeding with issuing a permit
or denying a  permit. The draft fact sheet will include the principal facts,
methodology, and  any legal or policy questions considered in the  decision to
proceed with issuing a  permit.

       All draft permits and notices of intent to  deny a permit are subject to
public notice and will be made available  for public comment. The permitting
agency will give public notice when:  (1)  a permit application has been tentatively
denied, (2) a draft permit is issued, (3) an evidentiary hearing is granted, or (4)
when a new source determination has been made.

       After the close of the public comment period, the  permitting agency will
issue a final decision.  The permitting agency,  upon issuance of the final decision,
will respond to comments, identify any changes in the tentative decision (to either
permit or deny a permit) and give any reason  pertinent to the changes.  If a final
NPDES permit is issued, the permit usually specifies the effective date, at which
time, the facility is legally authorized to discharge storm water associated with an
industrial activity subject to the permit conditions.  A more complete description
of the processes involved in obtaining an NPDES Permit is provided in 40 CFR
Part 124, especially Subpart D.

42    Completeness Of The Application

       Prospective applicants seeking an NPDES permit for  storm water related
industrial activity can refer to the following list that summarizes the applicant's
primary responsibilities (Table 4-1).  This application checklist is  useful

                                     21

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Table 4-1.    PERMIT APPLICATION CHECKLIST
                                                                        Date Completed/
                                                                        Signature of Person
Action Checklist                                                         Filling out
1.     Determine whether a permit is required for the
      storm water discharge.
      o   Refer to Section 3.0 of this manual

      o   Contact the permitting authority, if necessary

      o   Record name of contact person

2.    Determine whether the state in which the
      discharge(s) is located has an EPA-approved
      NPDES program.

      o   Refer to Appendix C of this manual

      o   Determine which forms need to be submitted for
          individual applications.

      o   If EPA is the permitting authority, list
          appropriate forms (Refer to Figure 4-1)

      o   For EPA-approved states, contact the permitting
          authority for appropriate forms and instructions

3.    Determine if a general permit will be, or has
      been, issued for the discharge.

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Table 4-1. PERMIT APPLICATION CHECKLIST (continued)
                                                                        Date Completed/
                                                                        Signature of Person
Action Checklist                                                         Filling out

4.    If no general permit, select between participating                       	
      in a group application or submitting an individual
      application.
5.    Determine what the deadlines are for the
      permit application.

      o   Check Section 4.6 of this manual if EPA
          is the permitting authority

      o   Contact the state permitting agency if this
          information is not provided in the application
          form or instructions provided by that agency

6.    Complete the appropriate application forms.  All
      applicants are to submit Forms #1 and 2F.  Refer
      to Figure 4-1 to determine if Forms 2C, 2D, and/or
      2E need to be submitted.

7.    Retain a complete copy of the permit application
      and all supporting documentation.

8.    Submit the completed application forms to the
      appropriate permitting agency by the application
      deadline identified above.

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for the applicant for self-checking the completeness of the application prior to
submission.  Applications will not be considered complete unless all applicable
information required is provided. If an item does not apply, "NA"(for "not
applicable") may be entered in the appropriate space. If additional information is
required, the applicant will be notified.

4.3   Public Availability Of Submitted Information

      Section 402(j) of the Clean Water Act requires that all permit applications
will be available to the public.  Information in permit applications will be made
available to the public upon request.  Any information required in  a permit
application may not be claimed as confidential. Any information submitted to
EPA which goes beyond that required by Form 1, Form 2F or other appropriate
forms may be claimed as confidential. However, claims for confidentiality of
effluent data will be denied.

      If a claim of confidentiality is not asserted at the time of submitting the
information, EPA may make the information public without  further notice to the
applicant. Claims of confidentiality will be handled in accordance with EPA's
business confidentiality regulations at 40 CFR Part 2.

4.4   How Long Is A Permit Valid?

      A permit will be issued by the permitting agency for a period up to, but
not more  than 5 years.  Dischargers must reapply for a permit 180  days before
the expiration date of the permit

      The permit is not transferable  except after notice to and approval by the
permitting authority.  The Director of the permitting authority may require
modification or revocation and reissuance of the permit to change the name of
the permittee and incorporate such other requirements that may be necessary
under the CWA.

45   How Are NPDES Permits Enforced?

      The CWA provides that any person who violates a permit condition is
subject to a civil penalty not to exceed $25,000 per day of violation. Any person
who willfully or negligently violates a permit is subject to a fine of  not less than
$2,500 or more than $25,000 per day of violation, or imprisonment for not more
that 1 year,  or both (40 CFR 122.41(a)).

      The operator of a facility must allow a representative of the permitting
authority upon the presentation of credentials and other documents as may be
required by law, to enter the regulated facility and inspect records  pertaining to
the permit.  This includes, but is not limited to, monitoring and control
equipment, practices, and operations regulated under this permit. The

                                     24

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representative may also sample the storm water discharge for any substance to
assure compliance with the permit conditions.  Inspection activities are to be
conducted at reasonable times (40 CFR 122.41(i)(l) to (4)).

      The operator must retain all records of discharge monitoring for at least
three years from the date of the sample, measurement, report,  or application.
This includes all calibration and maintenance records, all original strip charts
from continuous monitoring, copies of all records required by the permit, and all
records of data used to complete the NPDES permit application  40 CFR
      The CWA provides that any person who knowingly falsifies any record or
document, tampers with or renders inaccurate any monitoring device, shall upon
conviction be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 per violation, or by
imprisonment for not more than 2 years, or both (40 CFR 122.4 l(j)(5) and
00(2)).

      Additional penalties for knowingly submitting false information in
applications are described in Section 2 of this manual.
                                     25

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SECTION 5.0      TECHNICAL SUPPORT FOR SPECIFIC ELEMENTS OF
                   THE NPDES PERMIT APPLICATION FORMS
5.1   Overview

      The instructions provided with Form 2F are expected to be sufficient for
most applicants. This section provides additional technical guidance for obtaining
information required by Form 2F, including guidance for: developing site maps;
identification of outfalls that discharge storm water associated with industrial
activity; testing for the presence of non-storm water discharges; estimating storm
water runoff flow rates and volumes; and collecting samples.

5.2   Site Drainage Map

      Section III of Form 2F requires that a  site drainage map be attached to
the application.  The site drainage map must show either topography or a
delineation of the drainage area served by each outfall which discharges storm
water associated with  industrial activity if a topographic base map is not used.
The delineation of the drainage area for each outfall that discharges storm water
associated with industrial activity, can be based on  site observations which identify
drainage patterns.  Drainage patterns should be shown on the site drainage map
so that runoff from each drainage area drains to a  separate outfall.

      The site drainage map must show the location (and size - approximate for
earthen structures) of all drainage conveyances or natural channels that convey or
drain  storm water off the applicant's property. The map must indicate whether
the drainage system receiving the discharge is a natural water body, part of a
municipal or non-municipal drainage system, or other system as applicable.

      The following information must be provided and recorded on the map
where appropriate:

             o     Paved areas and buildings at the facility

             o     Past and present outdoor areas used  for storage or disposal
                   of significant materials

             o     Hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facilities, or
                   accumulation areas (including those not requiring a RCRA
                   permit)

             o     Injection wells
                                     26

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             o      Material loading and access areas (e.g., loading docks and
                    main truck routes on the facility property)

             o      Areas where pesticides, herbicides, soil conditioners, and
                    fertilizers are applied

             o      Structural  control measures to reduce pollutants in storm
                    water runoff

             o      Surface water bodies which receive storm water discharges
                    from the facility

       During the preparation of a site drainage map, or the review of an existing
one, emphasis should be placed on the identification of all inflow sources to
ensure that inappropriate sources of non-storm water entry are not present.  The
map should identify points of entry to the facility site storm water drain system,
including catchbasins, floor drains, and roof leaders.

       The site drainage map required in Form 2F should show the location and
an identifying number or name for each storm water outfall at the facility.

53    Identification Of Outfalls To Be Monitored

       Form 2F requires that applicants provide quantitative data for samples of
storm water discharges associated with industrial activity. If a facility discharges
storm water associated with industrial activity to a municipal separate storm
sewer, then the facility should sample the storm water from the site prior to
discharging to the municipal  separate storm sewer.  Storm runoff from areas
located on plant lands separate from the plant's industrial activities, such as
administrative buildings roofs and accompanying parking  lots are not defined as
storm water associated with industrial activity and hence do not need to be
monitored unless the runoff is combined with storm water associated with
industrial activity. Figure 5-1 shows several scenarios for storm water outfalls that
may or may not need to be monitored as part of a NPDES permit application.
40 CFR J22.21(g)(7) provides that when an applicant has two or more outfalls
with substantially identical effluents, the Director may allow the applicant to test
only one outfall and report that the quantitative data also apply to substantially
identical outfalls.

5.4    Evaluation Of The Presence Of Non-storm Water  Discharges

       Form 2F requires applicants to certify that all outfalls that discharge storm
water associated with industrial activity have been tested  or evaluated for the
presence of non-storm water discharges. Applicants do not have to test for the
presence of non-storm water discharges already subject to an NPDES permit.
Acceptable procedures include: dry weather observations of outfalls or other
appropriate observation locations; the analysis and validation of accurate piping

                                      27

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                                                                in
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                              O
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                  Receiving Stream
   Publicly
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                                                             PLANT
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                                                             Receiving Stream
        • Outfall disdiarges storm water associated with Industrial activity (sampling typically required in Form 2F).
        O Outfall discharges storm water that is not assoicated wRh industrial activity (sample typically not required
          In Form 2F),
        <•*» Storm runoff direction
Figure 5-1.  EXAMPLE INDUSTRIAL STORM RUNOFF OUTFALL0 WITH
            STORM WATER DISCHARGE ASSOCIATED WITH INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY

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schematics; dye tests; or other procedures for ensuring that there are no
inappropriate connections or discharges to the storm drain system.  The permit
application requires a description of the method used, the date of testing (if
applicable), and the onsite drainage locations observed during the test.  Any non-
storm water discharge which is not already identified in a NPDES permit which is
detected must be identified in Form 2C (for process wastewater) or Form 2E (for
non-process wastewater) which must accompany the storm water discharge
application (Form 1 and Form 2F).

       The following sections provide a description of several procedures that can
be used in developing a certification and an overview of the applicability of the
tests and the resources required for performing the tests.  A first step should be
to identify potential sources of non-storm water at the facility and to focus  on
those places.

5.4.1   Visual Inspection of Storm  Drain at Manhole Inlet or Outfall Description

       A visual inspection of the system conducted during dry weather, can be an
effective method of locating illicit connections to the storm drain system. The
observation should be made during normal business hours when sources of non*
storm water are typically operating.  A record should be kept of all observed
flows and any stains, sludges, or other abnormal conditions observed.  Where
flows are observed, additional analysis, such as dye testing (described below) may
be necessary to identify the source of the flows.

       Applicability: This method is applicable to any industrial site with a storm
drain system where an outfall or other location (e.g. manhole) down gradient
from potential  non-storm water discharges can be observed.

       Resources:  No special equipment is required.

5.4.2   Review and Validation of Piping Schematics Description

       A careful review of piping schematic drawings for industrial sites can
identify the intended routing of flows from particular areas or drains.  This review
should be accompanied by visual inspection to compare the "as built" condition to
the plans and to determine whether any unrecorded piping modifications have
been made.

       Applicability: This method is most applicable for industrial sites which
have large or elaborate piping arrangements, usually recorded on schematic
piping drawings.  It is most applicable in conjunction with use of the other
techniques described below.

       Resources:  No special equipment is required, though dye tests may  be
useful  in specific situations to clarify discrepancies which cannot be  resolved
visually.

                                     29

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5.4 J  Dye Tests Description

      Dye tests are used to determine whether a particular inlet or fixture
discharges non-storm water to the storm drain.  A quantity of dye is released at
the selected location while an observer watches for the dye at a downstream
location. If the inlet is discharging to the storm drain, the dye will be detected at
the downstream location. Dye doses should be sufficiently large so that the dye
at the downstream location is visible to the naked eye.

      Applicability: Dye tests are most effective for determining if an identified
drain or catchbasin is connected to the storm sewer where the outfall of the
storm sewer is submerged, but the receiving water can be observed. (Where the
outfall or other point can be observed and is not  submerged, dry weather
observation can be  made or water can be used instead of a dye).  Dye tests can
also be  used where dry weather flows have been observed, but the source of the
flow has not yet been observed.  It is best used when there are only a limited
number of possible sources of non-storm water to the storm drain that need to be
investigated.

      Resources:  No special equipment is necessary to conduct a dye test.  Dye
is the only material required.  Effective dyes that are safe  and harmless  are
available in powder, tablet, or liquid form. A 20% solution of Rhodamine
(liquid) costs about $15/lb.  Dye  can be purchased in 2-1/2 gallon containers
which weigh 25 pounds and  cost about $400. This can be  diluted  before each test
by an approximate ratio  of 10 to  1.  A minimum field crew of two is needed, one
to apply the dye, the other to observe the storm drain.

5,4.4  TV Line Surveys Description

      TV surveys are conducted  with a mobile closed-circuit television system
consisting of a monitor screen, camera, drag lines, and reels and cables that allow
the camera to be guided through  a section of pipeline. The TV picture  allows a
visual inspection of the interior of the drain pipe  and can be used for pipelines
with diameters that range from 4 inches to approximately 48  inches.  Television
inspection of a storm drain provides positive information (and a documented
record) of the interior of the pipelines.  All inlets to the line can be identified
and located.  Systems for conducting TV surveys can be purchased, leased,  or
rented.  Alternatively, a firm which  specializes in  this work can be hired.

      Applicability: TV surveys  may serve as useful tools where  an initial survey
identifies a non-storm water discharge and the operator is having difficulty  in
finding  the source.  A TV survey  can locate entry points to the storm drain
system,  determine whether or not there is flow in them, and permit estimates of
the flow to be made.  However, in many cases,  these observations will need to be
supplemented by other methods to identify the specific source (above ground) of
                                     30

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the connection.  This may be accomplished by inspection of drain maps, dye tests,
or possibly smoke tests.

       Resources:  Resources required for a TV survey of storm drains include
the following:

             o     TV camera

             o     TV monitor and VCR to record survey

             o     Rig consisting of video cables, tow lines, and related
                   equipment for properly guiding the camera in the line at a
                   controlled rate,  recording distance moved, and withdrawing
                   the camera from the pipeline

       The cost to conduct a TV survey can range from $1 to $3 per foot of
storm sewer.  For small surveys costs could vary from $125 to $200 per hour,
including labor and rental of the necessary equipment. However, this cost can
increase significantly if the storm sewer must be cleaned of debris prior to
conducting the TV survey. On average, approximately 1000 feet of sewer can be
inspected in a day.  In a clean sewer, up to 2000 feet  can be inspected.

       The applicant should refer to "Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater
Collection Systems" (CSU 1983) or similar appropriate reference documents for a
detailed description of these test methods.

5 J     Estimates Of Discharge Flow Rates And Volumes

       Form 2F requires applicants to provide quantitative data based on samples
collected during  storm event(s).  One set of parameters that must be provided for
such storm event(s) are flow estimates or flow measurements, and an estimate of
the total volume of the discharge. The method of flow estimation or
measurement must be described in the application.

       EPA intends that applicants need only provide rough estimates of flows in
Form 2F.  The following section discusses methods for obtaining the  required
information.  Section 5.5.1 presents a method for approximating flows and
volumes which does not require flow velocity measurements. The following
subsections discuss other methods that require measurements of flow velocities.

5.5.1   Estimating Flows and Volumes

       Runoff flow rates and volumes can be estimated by using the total rainfall
amount for the storm event and estimated runoff coefficients for the  facility.
Runoff coefficients represent the fraction of total rainfall that will be transmitted
as runoff from the facility. As such, the  coefficients reflect the ground surface or
cover material.  To  estimate runoff volume and rates, it can be  assumed that

                                    31

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paved areas and other impervious structures such as roofs have a runoff
coefficient of 0.90 and, therefore, 90% of the rainfall is conveyed from the facility
as runoff. For unpaved surfaces, it can be assumed that the runoff coefficient is
about 0.50.  The total volume of discharge for the event is then estimated by:

      total  runoff volume (cubic ft) = total rainfall  (ft) x [facility paved area x
      0.90 +  facility unpaved area x 0.50]

      The facility areas used in this calculation should be  in units of square feet
and should include only those areas drained by the outfall  sampled. To estimate
an average flow rate, divide the volume by the duration of the rainfall event.  If
desired, a more accurate estimate can be made by using more specific runoff
coefficients for different parts of the facility based on the type of ground cover
(Chow 1964 contains various runoff coefficients and discusses  their use).

5.5.2  Flow Rate Measurements

      There are a variety of techniques for measuring or estimating flow rates.
Flow measuring devices based on pipe invert sections (e.g., flumes, weirs, and
others) are commercially available.  For locations that may be used for routine
monitoring in the future, the applicant may consider installing these types of
devices for ease in future measurements.  The installed cost of a  weir, for
example, typically ranges from about $1,000 to $5,000.  Once installed, the weir
must be calibrated so that future measurements of stage (i.e.,  depth of flow) can
be converted directly to flow volumes. The installation and calibration of such
devices should be  performed by experienced personnel.

      To estimate flow rates in units of volume per time such as cubic feet per
second, information on flow velocities and depth of flow are required. The
remainder of this section discusses methods for collecting these data.

      Flow rate estimates may also be  obtained by measuring depth  of flow and
velocity in a pipe of known diameter or other conveyance structure at frequent
intervals  during a storm runoff event. For a pipe or other structure of known
size, the cross-sectional area  of flow can be calculated for any depth of flow using
geometric relationships.  Flow velocities can be measured by using suitable units
(e.g., propeller operated devices) attached to a portable current meter.  Flow
velocity measurements should be obtained from representative locations
throughout the flow cross-section.  Such units are commercially available at costs
ranging from about $1,000 to $3,000. While these devices may be fairly
expensive, they are easy to use and they provide accurate data if  used properly.

      Flow velocities can be estimated using simpler methods, such as measuring
the time  of passage of an object (e.g., an orange) between  two points a known
distance apart (e.g., manholes).
                                      32

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      Facility operators who are more familiar with measuring flows in pipes or
open channels may use  the Chezy-Manning equation, for example, to calculate
flow velocities:
                                  2/3     k
                    v-  142 (rH)     (S*)
                          n
where: v  = velocity [ft/s]
      n  = Manning roughness constant
      rH = hydraulic radius [ft]
      S  = slope of the energy line [ft/ft]

      A complete discussion of the use of this equation, other appropriate
equations, and the identified parameters can be found in most fluid mechanics
references (e.g., Chow, 1964).

5.5.3  Estimation of Flow Rates  Based on Flow Velocity Measurements

      If the measurements of flow depth are recorded and converted to cross-
sectional areas (in square  feet), and the corresponding velocities for each depth
are recorded  (in feet per minute), then the flow rate (Q) in cubic feet per minute
(cfrn) is:

                         Q = (area)(velocity)
      The maximum flow rate is the highest value recorded during the storm
event.  The time-weighted average flow rate for the storm event can be estimated
by the average of the individual values recorded.

5.5.4  Estimation of Volumes Based on Flow Rate Estimates

      The total volume of discharge can be estimated by first multiplying each of
the flow rates determined above by a time interval that represents the portion of
the total storm duration associated with the measurement, and then adding all
such partial volumes. If the time intervals used are seconds, then the total  flow
of runoff will be in units  of cubic feet.

      A procedure for calculating the total runoff volume from a set of discrete
measurements of flow depth and velocity during a storm runoff event is discussed
below and presented in Table 5-1. The basic steps for calculating this
information are as follows:

      Step 1:      Measure and tabulate flow depths and velocities every  20
                   minutes during at least the first 3 hours of the  runoff event.

                                     33

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Step 2:       Calculate and tabulate the cross-sectional area of flow for
             each of the flow depths measured.  Calculate the flow rate
             (Q) for each discrete set of flow rate and flow velocity
             measurements.  Q =  (area)(velocity).

Step 3:       Plot flow rate, Q versus time as shown in Table 5-1.

Step 4:       Assign each flow rate measurement a duration equal to the
             sum of 1/2  the time interval between the preceding and
             succeeding measurements. In the ideal case of uniform 20
             minute intervals, the durations are {(20)^ +  (20) | =  20
             minutes].

Step 5:       Compute the flow volume associated with each observation
             (Vv V^  ,..,  Va) by multiplying the measured flow rate by the
             duration (in this case, 20 minutes).  Be sure the units are
             consistent.  For example,  if durations are in minutes  and flow
             velocities are in cubic feet per second (cfs), convert the
             durations to seconds or the velocities to feet per minute.

             Volume  (V) = Flow Rate (eta) x Duration (minutes)

Step 6:       The beginning volume can be approximated by assuming that
             the flow rate is zero at time zero and increases linearly to
             the first  calculated flow rate (Q,) at 20 minutes (see Table 5-
             1).

             The final volume can be approximated similarly by assuming
             that flow drops uniformly from the last calculated flow rate
             (Q9) to zero at the time when QJQ would have been taken.

Step 7:       Total the individual volumes calculated in Step 5 with the
             initial and final  volume approximations calculated in Step 6
             to obtain the total runoff volume.
                              34

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Table 5-1.  Example Calculation  of  the Total Runoff Flow Volume  from Field  Data
Station:
Date:
Step 1:











OUTFALL-1
7-20-90
Measure or estimate
TIME
(minutes)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
UO
160
180


the following data
FLOW VELOCITY
(feet per minute)
4
i
10
8
4
6
4
2
4



FLOW DEPTH
(feet)
0 2
0.4
0.5
04
0.2
0.3
02
O.I
0 2
     Step 2:     Convert flow  depths  to  area  of  flow based on  the  geometry of
                 the  conveyance  structure and  calculate flow  rates,  Q  (cubic  feet
                 per  minute - cfm).  Q = (area)(ve!ocity)

     Step 3:     Plot  flow-  rate Q  versus time
                  30
      Flow Rat*. Q
        (elm)
25 •
20 -

•5 -
   0   20  40  80  80  100 T20  1*0  1 SO
                 Tim* (minut**)
                                                         30 200
     Step 4:     Assign a  lime  duration  to  each flow rate
      PtowMatt, Q
                        20  «0   60   80  100  120 140 160  180
                                   Tim* (mlnutw)

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Table 5-1.   Example Calculation of the Total  Runoff Flow Volume from Field Data
            (concluded)
Step 5:      Calculate  individual  flow  volumes

         Fio^  Volume 
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5.6    Collecting Storm Water Discharge Samples

       This section provides guidance for collecting grab samples, flow-weighted
composite samples, and identifying the constituents or parameters that must be
monitored. Section VII of Form 2F requires that specific pollutants in storm
water discharges be measured and reported as concentrations and as total mass.
At least one representative storm event must be sampled to collect  this
information.  If samples from more than one storm are analyzed and the results
are representative of the discharge, the results must be reported in Section VII of
Form 2F.

       A representative storm is a storm that is "typical"for the area in terms of
intensity, volume, and duration.  The storm must have a volume greater than 0.1
inch, must be preceded by at least 72 hours of dry weather,  and should not vary
by more than 50%  from the average rainfall volume and duration.

       A representative storm event  must be sampled to provide water quality
data for the initial runoff period (i.e., a grab sample to measure first-flush
effects).  A flow-weighted composite sample must also be collected and analyzed
separately from the grab sample to provide an estimate of the average runoff
water quality for the storm event.  Data from samples analyzed in the past may
be used, provided that:

       o      All data requirements in Form 2F  are met;

       o      Sampling was done no  more than three years before submission of
             the permit application; and

       o      All water quality data are representative of the present discharge.

       Among the factors which would cause the data to be  unrepresentative are
significant changes  in production level, changes in raw materials, processes, or
final products, and  significant changes in storm water management activities.

       Grab samples and flow-weighted composite samples must be  collected and
analyzed from each of the storm runoff outfalls identified on the site drainage
map in Section III of Form 2F.  However, if an applicant has two or more
substantially identical outfalls, they may request permission from the permitting
authority to sample and analyze only one outfall and submit the results of the
analysis for the other substantially identical outfalls. Substantially identical
outfalls are those from drainage areas undergoing similar activities where the
discharges are expected to be of similar water quality. If the request is granted,
identify which outfall was tested and describe why  the outfalls which were not
tested  are substantially identical. Provide this information on a separate sheet
attached to the application form.
                                     37

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5.6.1  Grab Samples

      A grab sample must be collected during the first 30 minutes of the runoff
(or as soon thereafter as practicable).  The sample collected should be large
enough for all of the laboratory analyses to be performed, but at least  100
milliliters (ml).   Grab samples are typically collected by filling the  sample
container just below the water surface in the flow channel.  Extension rods or
cables can be used to reach inaccessible locations. The grab sample should be
collected from near the center of the flow channel, where turbulence is at a
maximum (and  therefore the storm runoff is well mixed), or at a site specified in
an existing permit, or at any site adequate for the collection of a sample  that
would be representative of the storm water quality.

      All samples must be properly handled (i.e., holding time prior to analysis,
storage temperature, preservation methods) and analyzed by the methods
contained in  40 CFR Part 136.  Most commercial laboratories will be familiar
with these requirements and can provide information on appropriate handling
procedures.  Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) methods  must be
implemented both in the field by the applicant and in the lab to ensure the
accuracy and validity of the analytical results.  Most labs can assist applicants in
designing a field QA/QC program and will also provide sample containers that
are suitable (e.g., container material, type, and size) to the analysis to be
performed. The labs will also typically report to the applicant the results of their
internal QA/QC upon request.

      If an analytical method is not listed in 40 CFR 136 for a particular
pollutant, then the applicant may use any suitable method for measuring  the level
of the pollutant in the discharge provided that the applicant submits a description
of the method or a reference to a published method.  The description should
include the sample holding time, preservation methods, and the quality control
measures used.

      The parameters pH  and temperature are time-dependent and must be
measured in the field at the time of sample collection rather than  in the
laboratory.

5.6.2  Flow-Weighted Composite Samples

      A flow-weighted composite sample is a single sample intended to provide
the average water quality for the entire runoff event  Because this type of sample
accounts for variations in flow that occur during an event, water quality data from
a flow-weighted composite sample is considered to be more representative of the
average runoff quality for other methods such as a time-weighted composite.

      A flow-weighted composite sample can be collected during either the
entire runoff event (which may be less than 3 hours) or during at least the first 3
hours of the runoff. The sample can be collected using either automatic sampling

                                     38

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equipment or by manually collecting and combining a series of discrete grab
samples (aliquots) in an appropriate manner.  In either case, appropriate
procedures must be followed to obtain a sample for analysis that is flow-weighted,
and hence will provide an indication of the average (or event mean)
concentration for the storm runoff event.

      Manually Collected Samples: A manually collected composite flow-
weighted sample can be prepared by the following procedures. Collect samples
of the same size (at least 100 ml and preferably 1000 ml) at regular intervals
during the duration of the entire runoff event or for at least the first 3 hours of
the event.  Samples should be collected every 20 minutes to meet the
requirement of at least 15 minutes between sample collection times. Storm
runoff flow rates and flow cross-sectional areas in the conveyance should be
estimated (see Section 5.5) each time an individual sample is taken. Relative
flow rates rather than actual flow rates can be used.  Where flow rates are
estimated based on runoff coefficients, then the amount of rainfall during a  given
time period should be measured or estimated, and discharge flow rates assumed
to be proportional to the amount of rainfall occurring during a given interval.
Remove a portion (or aliquot) from each of the individual samples that is
proportional to the flow rate for that time interval  (there should be at least  nine
individual samples-i.e., three samples collected each hour during the first 3  hours
of runoff) and combine them in the container that  will be  sent to the laboratory
for analysis. Only the composite sample needs to be sent to the laboratory  for
analysis.  The actual amount taken from each of the individual samples should be
in proportion to the flow rate or volume of flow associated with that sample.

      The procedure for combining aliquots of individual  samples to form a
flow-weighted composite sample is described below by example and shown in
Table 5-2. The example is the same as that discussed in Section 5.5 and shown in
Table 5-1. In the example shown in Table 5-2, the minimum number of nine
samples were collected for use in preparing the composite sample.  Because a
grab sample must also be collected within the first  20 minutes of the runoff, two
separate samples should be collected. One of the grab samples will be analyzed
separately, while the second grab sample will be available for use in preparing
the flow-weighted composite sample. Note that 40 CFR 122.21(g)(7) provides
that quantitative data from grab samples, rather than flow-weighted samples, be
provided for pH, temperature, cyanide, total phenols, residual chlorine, oil and
grease, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus.

      Other methods can be used for collecting flow-weighted composite
samples, including the following four methods taken from EPA's NPDES
Compliance Sampling Inspection Manual. MCD-51.

      a)    Constant time interval between samples, sample volume
            proportional to flow rate at time of sampling;
                                    39

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      b)    Constant time interval between samples, sample volume
            proportional to total flow (volume) since last sample. For the first
            sample, the flow rate at the time the sample was collected may be
            used;

      c)    Constant sample volume,  time interval between samples
            proportional to flow (i.e.,  sample taken every "X"gallons of flow);
            and

      d)    Continuous collection of sample, with sample collection rate
            proportional to flow rate.

      A different amount of each of the nine individual aliquots is used so that
they are combined in proportion to the volume of runoff they represent. In the
case of uniform time intervals between  samples, the sample portions can be based
on the measured flow rate associated with each sample rather than on the flow
volumes calculated from each flow rate. For uniform time intervals, both flow
rates (Q) and flow volumes (V) will result in the same aliquot proportions used
to prepare the composite. The procedures are as follows:

      1.    For the sample that was collected at the highest flow rate (or
            volume), add the full sample volume (e.g., 1000 ml) to the
            composite sample container.  The other eight samples will provide
            smaller amounts.

      2.    For each of the other samples, take an amount that is proportional
            to the  largest flow rate. In other words, the  amount of the
            individual samples used will be a simple ratio of the measured flow
            rates:

            Sample X (ml) =         Qx   (cfs)
                                    40

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Table 5-2.                          EXAMPLE PREPARATION OF A  MANUALLY COMPOSITED  FLOW-
                                  WEIGHTED SAMPLE
Station:   OUTFALL-1
Date: 7-20-90

Step 1:    Tabulate flow rates (if a constant time duration was used) or flow volumes (if a non-constant time duration
         was used)
      Sample                                                 Flow Rate fcfm)
         1                                                         10
         2                                                         20
         3                                                         25
         4                                                         20
         5                                                         10
         6                                                         15
         7                                                         10
         8                                                          5
         9                                                         10
Step 2:   Calculate proportions of individual samples to be used in preparing the composite sample

         Sample X (ml) = [Sample MAX (ml)]                           Qx(cfs)


      Note: Sample 3 is Q^  (25 cfm)
     Sample 1 =  Sample 3 x 10/25 =  0.40
     Sample 2 *  Sample 3 x 20/25 =  0.80
     Sample 3 =             =1.0
     Sample 4 =  Sample 3 x 20/25 =  0.80
     Sample 5 -  Sample 3 x 10/25 =  0.40
     Sample 6 *  Sample 3 x 15/25 =  030
     Sample 7 *  Sample 3 x 10/25 =  0.40
     Sample 8 -  Sample 3 x 5/25  -  0.20
     Sample 9 -  Sample 3 x 10/25 =  0.40

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Table 5-2. EXAMPLE PREPARATION OF A MANUALLY COMPOSITED FLOW-WEIGHTED SAMPLE (continued)


Step 3:   Use a convenientvolume from the sample corresponding to the largest flow rate (Sample 3) and corresponding
         amounts from the other samples


         Note: The final volume of the composite sample must be large enough so that all of the appropriate analyses
     can be performed. The analytical laboratory should be consulted prior to sample collection.  The amount of
     Sample 3 used in this sample is 1000 ml.


     Remaining amounts used:

     Sample 1: 400 ml
     Sample 2: 800 ml
     Sample 4: 800ml
     Sample 5: 400 ml
     Sample 6: 300 ml
     Sample 7: 400 ml
     Sample 8: 200 ml
     Sample 9: 400ml

         Therefore, the total sample volume is 4,700 ml (i.e,t 4,7 liters or about 1.2 gallons)

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In the example shown in Table 5-2, Sample 3 had the highest flow rate (Q3 =  25
cfm). Assume that 1000 ml of this sample was added to the composite container.
Then the amount of Sample 1 to add to the composite, assuming that flow rate
Q, =  10 cfm, is:

            Sample 1 (ml) =    [Sample 3 (in ml) ]  x Q,   (cfs)
                                           Q3  (cfs)

                                (1000 ml) x 10 (cfs)


                                 25  (cfs)

      3.     Repeat this process for each discrete sample to produce a flow-
             weighted composite sample for laboratory analysis. As shown in
             Table 5-2, the total composite sample volume is 4,700 ml.

      The personnel collecting the individual samples and preparing the
composite sample should contact the analytical laboratory personnel to ensure
that a large enough sample is submitted. Based on the analyses to be performed
on the composite sample, the laboratory personnel can require a minimum
sample size.

      As illustrated in the example, the computation is simplified when the time
interval  between the samples is uniform. When there are different time intervals
between samples, the procedure is only  slightly more complicated.  In this case,
the individual sample volumes used should be based on the runoff volume
(calculated from the individual flow rates and durations) associated with the
sample,  as opposed to simply the storm  flow rate associated with each sample.

      Automatic Samplers:  Automatic samplers are labor-saving devices but are
fairly expensive to purchase. The samplers consist of an intake device set in the
channel  which is attached by tubing to a pump that can draw a sample from the
storm drain into a sample bottle. However, in order for the sample obtained to
be flow-weighted composite, the automatic sampler must be triggered by the flow
sensing  device.  Samples of fixed volume are collected each time the flow sensing
device indicates that a specified  quantity of flow has passed the sample point.

      An appropriate flow sensing device, coupled to the automatic sampler is
necessary for the automatic system to produce a flow-weighted composite. If the
monitoring equipment does not employ  such a coupled system, then the
automatic sampler merely serves as a  mechanical means for withdrawing the
sample (usually at fixed time intervals).  The guidance given above for properly
                                    43

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combining manually collected samples to obtain a flow-weighted composite will
apply in this case.

      Automatic samplers generally range in price from about $8,000 to $16,000
for equipment costs alone. Units with telemetry are in the upper end of this
range. The equipment included with a standard unit includes a fabricated weir,
an automatic sampler with silica sample containers, software to control the
remote computer data logger, housing for unit, thermistor, and pressure sensor.
The installation and flow rating of a unit will cost approximately $6,000 to $8,000
depending on whether the unit  is installed in a manhole, open culvert or channel,
or stream.  Digital doppler velocity sensors can also be purchased and installed.
Such units would replace the weir, data logger, and pressure sensor identified
above.

5.6.3  Pollutants to Be Analyzed

      Section VII of Form 2F requires that  several common pollutants must be
analyzed for in both the grab sample and the flow-weighted composite sample
while additional  analyses are dependent upon existing NPDES permit conditions
or whether the discharger has reason to believe other pollutants may be present
in the storm runoff discharge.  A separate table should be completed for each
outfall.  Note that 40  CFR 122.21(g)(7) provides that rather than using a flow-
weighted sample for quantitative data for pH, temperature, cyanide,  total phenols,
residual chlorine, oil and grease, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus, a grab
sample must be used.

      Part A of Section VII requires that both grab samples and flow-weighted
composite samples be analyzed  for:

                   Biological oxygen demand (BOD5)
                   Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
                   Total suspended solids (TSS)
                   Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN)
                   Nitrate  plus nitrite nitrogen
                   Total phosphorus

      In addition, grab samples must be analyzed for pH.

      Part B of Section VII requires that each pollutant limited in an effluent
guideline which the facility is subject to or any pollutant listed in the facility's
NPDES permit for its process wastewater (if the facility is operating under an
existing permit) be analyzed for and reported separately for each outfall in Part
B.

      Part C of Section VII requires the listing of any pollutant shown in Tables
2F-2, 2F-3, and 2F-4  that the discharger knows or  has reason to believe is present
                                     44

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in the discharge and was not already identified above (see Form 2F in Appendix
D for these three tables).

      Table 2F-2 includes conventional and non-conventional pollutants. For
any pollutant from this table listed in Part C, the applicant is required to either
report quantitative data or briefly describe the  reason the pollutant is expected to
be discharged.

      Table 2F-3 lists toxic pollutants. For every pollutant listed in Table 2F-3
that is expected to be discharged in concentrations of 10 parts per billion (ppb)
or greater, the  applicant is required to submit quantitative data.  For acrolein;
acrylonitrile; 2,4 dinitrophenol; and 2-methyI-4, 6 dinitrophenol the applicant must
submit quantitative data if these four pollutants (collectively) are expected to be
discharged in concentrations of 100 ppb or greater.  For every other pollutant
listed in Table  2F-3 that is expected to be discharged in concentrations less than
10 ppb (or 100 ppb total for the four pollutants listed above), then the applicant
must  either submit quantitative data or briefly describe  the reasons the pollutant
is expected to be discharged.

      Table 2F-4 lists hazardous substances. For each outfall, the applicant must
list any  pollutant from Table 2F-4 that is  known or believed  to be present in  the
discharge and explain why they believe it  to be present.  No  analysis is required,
but if the applicant has analytical data, it  must  be reported.

      Under 40 CFR  117.12(a)(2), certain discharges of hazardous substances
(listed in 40 CFR  177.21 or 40 CFR 302.4) may be exempted from the
requirements of Section 311 of the CWA, which establishes reporting
requirements, civil penalties, and liability  for cleanup costs for spills of oil and
hazardous substances.  A discharge of a particular substance  may be exempted if
the origin, source, and amounts of the discharged substances  are identified in the
NPDES permit application or in the permit, if the permit contains a requirement
for treatment of the discharge, and if the  treatment is in place.  To apply for an
exclusion  of the discharge of any hazardous substance from the requirements  of
Section  311, attach additional sheets of paper to the form and provide for the
following information:

      1.     The substance and the amount of each substance which may be
             discharged.

      2.     The origin and source of the discharge of the substance.
                                     45

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      3.     The treatment which is to be provided for the discharge by:

             a.     An onsite treatment system separate from any treatment
                   system treating the normal discharge;

             b.     A treatment system designed to treat the normal discharge
                   and which is additionally capable  of treating the amount of
                   the substance identified under paragraph 1 above, or

             c.     Any combination of the above.

      See 40 CFR 117.12(a)(2) and (c), published on August 29,  1979, in 44
Federal Register (FR) 50766 for further information on exclusions from Section
311 oftheCWA.

5.6.4  Reporting

      All sampling data obtained for the purpose of completing Section VII of
Form 2F must be reported as concentration  and  as total mass.  The applicant
may report some or all of the required data  by attaching separate sheets of paper
instead of filling out pages VII-1 and VII-2 if the separate sheets contain all the
required information in a format which is consistent with pages VII-1 and VII-2
in spacing and in identification of pollutants and columns. Use the following
abbreviations in the columns headed "Units."
                   ppm = parts per million
                   mg/1 =  milligrams per liter
                   ppb =  parts per billion
                   ug/1 =  micrograms per liter
                   Ibs =  pounds
                   ton =  tons (English tons)
                   mg =  milligrams
                   g = grams
                   T  = tonnes (metric tons)
                   kg = kilograms

      All reporting of values for metals must be in terms of "total recoverable
metal" unless;

      (i)    An applicable promulgated effluent limitation or standard specifies
             the limitation for the metal in dissolved, valent,  or total form

      (ii)    All approved analytical methods for the metal measure only its
             dissolved form (e.g., hexavalent chromium)
                                     46

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       (iii)   The permitting authority has determined that in establishing case-
             by-case limitations it is necessary to express the limitations on the
             metal in dissolved, valent, or total form to carry out the provisions
             of the CWA.

       If only one grab sample and one flow-weighted composite sample is
collected and analyzed for a given outfall, complete only the "Maximum Values"
columns and insert 'T'into the "Number of Storm Events Sampled" column.

       To calculate total mass from the water quality analyses, multiply the
concentration reported by the lab by the flow volume associated with the sample.
For the grab samples collected within 30 minutes of the storm runoff, the
concentrations of the individual pollutants should all be  multiplied by the flow
volume calculated in Step 5 shown in Table 5-1.  Care must be exercised to
ensure that consistent units are  used. For the flow-weighted composite sample,
the concentrations of the individual pollutants should all by multiplied by the
total runoff volume calculated in Step 7 of Table 5-1.
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SECTION 6.0      REFERENCES
California State University, Sacramento, Department of Civil Engineering.  1983.
      Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Collection Systems. A field
      training program for EPA, Office of Water Programs Operations.

Chow, V.T.  1964.  Handbook of Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. New
      York.  1418  p.

Shelly, P.E.  1979.  Monitoring Requirements, Methods, and Costs for the
      Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP). EPA-600/9-76-014.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Nonpoint Source
      Division. Methodology for Analysis  of Detention Basins for control of
      urban Runoff Quality.  Prepared by  Woodward-Clyde Consultants.
      September 1986.

U.S. Executive Office of the President, Office of Management  and Budget.  1987.
      Standard Industrial Classification Manual.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water. NPDES Compliance
      Inspection Manual, May 1988.  MCD-51.
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 APPENDIX A:   SELECTED TEXT FROM 40 CFR SECTION 122.26
        Section 122.26(a) Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see € 123.251
        (a) Permit requirement.  (1) Prior to October I, 1992, discharges composed entirely of storm
 water shall not be required to obtain a NPDES permit except:
        (i) a discharge with respect to which a permit has been issued prior to February 4, 1987;
        (ii) A discharge associated with industrial activity (see 122.26(a)(4));
        (Hi) A discharge from a large municipal separate storm sewer system;
        (iv) A discharge from a medium municipal separate storm sewer system;
        (v) A discharge which the Director,  or in States with approved NPDES programs, either the
 Director or the EPA Regional Administrator, determines to contribute to a violation of a water quality
 standard or is a significant contributor of pollutants to waters of the United States.  This designation
 may include a discharge from arty conveyance or system of conveyances used for collecting and
 conveying storm water runoff or a  system of discharges from municipal separate storm sewers, except for
 those discharges from conveyances which do not require a permit under paragraph (2) of this subsection
 or agricultural storm water runoff which is exempted from the definition of point source at 122.2.
        The Director may designate discharges from municipal separate storm sewers on a system-wide
 or jurisdiction-wide basis.  In making this determination the Director may consider the following factors:
        (A) The location  of the discharge with respect to waters of the United States as defined at 40
 CFR 122.2.
        (B) The size of the discharge;
        (C) The quantity and nature of the pollutants discharged to waters of the United States; and
        (D) Other relevant factors.
        (2) The Director may not require a permit for discharges of storm water runoff from mining
 operations or oil and gas exploration, production, processing or treatment operations or transmission
facilities, composed entirely of flows which are from conveyances or systems of conveyances (including
 but not limited to pipes, conduits,  ditches,  and channels) used for collecting and conveying precipitation
 runoff and which are not contaminated by contact with or that has not come into contact with, any
 overburden,  raw material, intermediate products, finished product, byproduct or waste products located
 on the site of such operations.
        (3) Large and Medium Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems.    (i) Permits must be
 obtained for all discharges from large and medium municipal separate storm sewer systems.
        (ii) The Director may either issue one system-wide permit covering all discharges from
 municipal separate storm sewers within a large or medium  municipal storm sewer system or issue
 distinct permits for appropriate categories of discharges within a large or medium municipal separate
 storm sewer system including, but not limited to: all discharges owned or operated by the same
 municipality; located within the same jurisdiction; all discharges within a system that discharge to the
 same watershed; discharges within a system that are similar in nature; or for individual discharges from
 municipal separate storm sewers within the system.
        (Hi) The operator of a discharge from a  municipal separate storm sewer which is part of a large
 or medium municipal separate storm sewer system must either:
        (A) participate in  a permit application (to be a permittee or a co-permittee) with one or more
 other operators of discharges from the large or medium municipal storm sewer system which covers all,
 or a portion of all, discharges from the municipal separate storm sewer system;
        (B) submit a distinct permit application which only covers discharges from the municipal
 separate storm sewers for which the operator is responsible; or
        (C) a regional authority may be responsible for submitting a permit application under the
following guidelines:
        (D the regional authority together with co-applicants shall have authority over a storm water
 management program that is in existence, or shall be in existence at the time Part I of the application is
 due;

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         (2) the permit applicant or co-applicants shall establish their ability to make a timely
submission of Part I and Part 2 of the municipal application;
         (3) each of the operators of municipal separate storm sewer within the systems described in
paragraphs 122.26(b)(4)(i), (ii), and (iii) or (b)(7)(i), (ii), and (in), that are under the purview of the
designated regional authority, shall comply with the application requirements of paragraph 122.26(d).
         (iv) One permit application may be submitted for all or a portion of all municipal separate
storm sewers within adjacent or interconnected large or medium municipal separate storm sewer systems.
The Director may issue one system-wide permit covering all, or a portion of all municipal separate storm
sewers in adjacent or interconnected large or medium municipal separate storm sewer systems.
         (v) Permits for all or a portion of all discharges from large or medium municipal separate
storm sewer systems that are issued on a system-wide, jurisdiction-wide, watershed or other basis may
specify different conditions relating to different discharges covered by the permit, including different
management programs for different drainage areas which contribute storm  water to the system.
         (vi) Co-permittees need only comply with permit conditions relating to discharges from the
municipal separate storm sewers for which they are operators.
         (4)     Discharges through lame and medium municipal separate storm sewer systems.
         In addition to meeting the requirements of 122.26(c), an operator of a storm water discharge
associated with industrial activity which discharges through a large or medium municipal separate storm
sewer system shall submit, to the operator of the municipal separate storm sewer system receiving the
discharge no later than finsert date ISOdavs after publication] or 180 days prior to commencing such
discharge: the name of the facility; a contact person and phone number; the location of the discharge; a
description,  including Standard Industrial Classification, which best reflects the principal products or
services provided by each facility; and any existing NPDES permit number.
         (5) Other Municipal Separate Storm  Sewers.  The Director may issue permits for municipal
separate storm  sewers that are designated under subparagraph (l)(v)  of this paragraph on a system-wide
basis, jurisdiction-wide basis, watershed basis or other appropriate basis, or may issue permits for
individual discharges.
         (6) Non-Municipal Separate Storm Sewers. For storm water discharges associated with
industrial activity from point sources which  discharge through a non-municipal or non-publicfy owned
separate storm  sewer system, the Director, in his discretion, may issue: a single NPDES permit, with
each discharger a co-permittee to a permit issued to the operator of the portion of the system  that
discharges into waters of the United States; or, individual permits to each discharger of storm water
associated with industrial activity through the  non-municipal conveyance system.
         (i)  All storm water discharges associated with industrial activity that discharge through a storm
water discharge system that is not a municipal separate storm sewer must be covered by an individual
permit, or a permit issued to the operator of the portion of the system that discharges to waters of the
United States, with each discharger to the non-municipal conveyance a co-permittee to that permit.
         (ii) Where there is more than one operator of a single system of such conveyances, all operators
of storm water  discharges associated with industrial activity must submit applications.
         (iii) Any permit covering more than  one operator shall identify the effluent limitations, or other
permit conditions, if any, that apply to each operator.
         (7) Combined Sewer Systems. Conveyances that discharge storm water runoff combined with
municipal sewage are point sources that must obtain NPDES permits in accordance with the procedures
of 122,21 and are not subject to the provisions of this section.
         (8) Whether a discharge from a municipal separate storm sewer is or is not subject to regulation
under this section shall have no bearing on  whether the owner or operator of the discharge is eligible for
funding under Title II,  Title III or Title VI of the Clean Water Act. See 40 CFR Part 35,  Subpart I,
Appendix A(b)H.2.j.


         Section 122.26(c) Application requirements for storm water discharges associated with
industrial activity.
         (1) Individual application. Dischargers of storm water associated with industrial activity are
required to apptyfor an individual permit, apply for a permit through a group application, or seek
coverage under a promulgated storm water general permit. Facilities  that are required to obtain an
individual permit, or any discharge of storm water which the Director is evaluating for designation (see


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 40 CFR 124.52(c)) under paragraph (a)(l)(v) and is not a municipal separate storm sewer, and which is
 not part of a group application described under paragraph (2), shall submit an NPDES application in
 accordance with the requirements of 5 .72227 as modified and supplemented by the provisions of the
 remainder of this paragraph.  Applicants for discharges composed entirely of storm water shall submit
 Form 1 and Form 2F. Applicants for discharges composed of storm water and non-storm water shall
 submit Form 1, Form 2C, and Form 2F. Applicants for new sources or new discharges (as defined in
 § 122.2 of this part) composed of storm water and non-storm water shall submit Form 1, Form 2D, and
 Form 2F.
         (i) Except as provided in paragraphs 122.26(c)(l)(ii)-(iv),the operator of a storm water
 discharge associated with industrial activity subject to this section shall provide:
         (A) a site map showing topography (or indicating the outline of drainage areas served by the
 outfall(s) covered in the application if a topographic map is unavailable) of the facility including: each
 of its drainage and discharge structures; the drainage area of each storm water outfall; paved areas and
 buildings within the drainage area of each storm water outfall, each past or present area used for
 outdoor storage or disposal of significant materials, each existing structural control measure to reduce
pollutants in storm water runoff, materials loading and access areas, areas where pesticides, herbicides,
 soil conditioners and fertilizers are applied, each of its hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal
facilities (including each area not required to have a RCRA permit which is used for accumulating
 hazardous waste under 40 CFR 262.34); each well where fluids from the facility are injected
 underground; springs, and other surface water bodies which receive storm water discharges from the
facility;
         (B) an estimate of the area of impervious surfaces (including paved areas and building roofs)
 and the total area drained by each outfall (within a mile radius of the facility) and a narrative
 description of the following: significant materials that in the three years prior to the submittal of this
 application have been treated, stored or disposed in a manner to allow exposure to storm water; method
 of treatment, storage or disposal of such materials; materials management practices employed, in the
 three years prior to the submittal of this application, to minimize contact by these materials with storm
 water runoff; materials loading and access areas; the location, manner and frequency in which
pesticides, herbicides,  soil conditioners and fertilizers are applied; the location and a description of
 existing structural and non-structural control measures to reduce pollutants in  storm water runoff; and a
 description of the treatment the storm  water receives, including the ultimate disposal of any solid or fluid
 wastes other than by discharge;
         (C) a certification that all outfalls that should contain storm water discharges associated with
 industrial activity have been tested or evaluated for the presence of non-storm  water discharges which are
 not covered by a NPDES permit; tests for such non-storm water discharges may include smoke tests,
fluorometric dye tests, analysis of accurate schematics, as well as other appropriate tests. The
 certification shall include a description of the method used, the date of any testing, and the on-site
 drainage points that were directly observed during a test;
         (D) existing information regarding significant leaks or spills of toxic or hazardous pollutants at
 the facility that have taken place within the three years prior to the submittal of this application;
         (E) quantitative data based on samples collected during storm events and collected in
 accordance with section 122.21 of this Part from all outfalls containing a storm water discharge
 associated with industrial activity for the following parameters:
         (2) Any pollutant limited in an effluent guideline to which the facility is subject;
         (2) Any pollutant listed in the facility's NPDES permit for its process wastewater (if the facility
 is operating under an existing NPDES permit);
         (1) Oil and grease, pH, BODS, COD,  TSS, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl nitrogen,  and
 nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen;
         (4) Any information on the discharge required under paragraph 122.2 l(g)(7)(iii) and (iv) of this
 Part;
         (5) Flow measurements or estimates of the flow rate, and the total amount of discharge for the
 storm event(s) sampled, and the method of flow measurement or estimation; and
         (6J The date and duration (in hours) of the storm event(s) sampled,  rainfall measurements or
 estimates of the storm event (in inches) which generated the sampled runoff and the duration between
 the storm event sampled and the end of the previous measurable (greater than 0.1 inch rainfall) storm
 event (in hours);


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        (F) Operators of a discharge which is composed entirely of storm water are exempt from the
requirements of paragraphs 12Z21(g)(2), (g)(3), (g)(4), (g)(5), (g)(7)(i), (g)(7)(ii), and (g)(7)(v); and
        (G) Operators of new sources or new discharges (as defined in § 122.2 of this Part) which are
composed in part or entirely of storm water must include estimates for the pollutants or parameters listed
in subparagraph (E) of this paragraph instead of actual sampling data, along with the source of each
estimate.  Operators of new sources or new discharges composed in part or entirely of storm water must
provide quantitative data for the parameters listed in subparagraph (E) of this paragraph within two
years after commencement of discharge, unless such data has already been reported under the
monitoring requirements of the NPDES permit for the discharge. Operators of a new source or new
discharge  which is composed entirely of storm water are exempt from the requirements of paragraphs
12Z21(k)(3)(ii), (k)(3)(iii), and (k)(5).
        (ii) The operator of an existing or new storm water discharge that is associated with industrial
activity solefy under paragraph (b)(14)(x) of this section, is exempt from the requirements of paragraphs
122.2 l(g) and 122.26(c)(l)(i)qfthis Part.  Such operator shall provide a narrative description of:
        (A) the location (including a map) and the nature of the construction activity;
        (B) the total area of the site and the area of the site that is expected to undergo excavation
during the life of the permit;
        (C) proposed measures, including best management practices, to control pollutants in storm
water discharges during construction, including a brief description of applicable State and local erosion
and sediment control requirements;
        (D) proposed measures to control pollutants in storm water discharges that will occur after
construction operations have been completed, including a brief description of applicable State or local
erosion and sediment control requirements;
        (E) an estimate of the runoff coefficient of the site and the increase in impervious area after the
construction addressed in the permit application is completed, the nature of fill material and existing
data describing the soil or the quality of the discharge; and
        (F) the name of the receiving water.
        (Hi) The operator of an existing or new discharge composed entirely of storm water from an oil
or gas exploration, production, processing, or treatment operation, or transmission facility is not required
to submit a permit application in accordance with paragraph (i) of this section, unless the facility:
        (A) has had a discharge of storm water resulting in the discharge of a reportable quantity for
which notification  is or was required pursuant to 40 CFR 117.21 or 40 CFR 302.6 at anytime since
November 16, 1987; or
        (B) has had a discharge of storm water resulting in the discharge of a reportable quantity for
which notification  is or was required pursuant to 40 CFR 110.6 at any time since November 16, 1987; or
        (C) contributes to a violation of a  water quality standard.
        (iv)  The operator of an existing or new discharge composed entirely of storm water from a
mining operation is not required to submit a permit  application unless the discharge has come into
contact with, any overburden, raw material, intermediate products, finished product, byproduct or waste
products located on the site of such operations.
        (v) Applicants shall provide such other information the Director may reasonably require under
paragraph 122.2 l(g)( 13) of this Part to determine whether to issue a permit and may require any facility
subject to paragraph (c)(l)(ii) to comply with paragraph (c)(l)(i) of this section.


        Section 122.26
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        (it) Based on information in the Part 1 application, the Director will approve or deny the
members in the group application within 60 days after receiving Part 1 of the group application.
        (Hi) Part 2 of the application shall be submitted to the Director, Office of Water Enforcement
and Permits no later than 12 months, or by May 18,1992 whichever comes first after the date of
approval of the Part 1 application.
        (iv) Facilities that are rejected as members of a group by the permitting authority shall have 12
months to file an individual permit application from the date they receive notification of their rejection.
        (v) A facility listed under paragraph (b)(14)(i)-(xi) may add on to a group application
submitted in accordance with paragraph (e)(2)(i) at the discretion of the Office of Water Enforcement
and Permits, and onfy upon a showing of good cause by the facility and the group applicant; the request
for the addition of the facility shall be made no later than February 18, 1992; the addition of the facility
shall not cause the percentage of the facilities that are required to submit quantitative data to be less
than 10%, unless there are over 100 facilities in the group that are submitting quantitative data; approval
to become part of group application must be obtained from the group or the trade association
representing the individual facilities.
        (3) For any discharge from a large municipal separate storm sewer system;
        (i) Part 1 of the application shall be submitted to the Director by November 18, 1991;
        (ii) Based on information received in the Part 1 application the Director will approve or deny a
sampling plan under 122.26(d)(l)(iv)(E) within 90 days after receiving the Part 1 application;
        (Hi) Part 2 of the application shall be submitted to the  Director by November 16, 1992.
        (4) For any discharge from a medium municipal separate storm sewer system;
        (i) Part 1 of the application shall be submitted to the Director by May 18, 1992.
        (ii) Based on information received in the Part 1 application the Director will approve or deny a
sampling plan under 122.26(d)(l)(iv)(E) within 90 days after receiving the Part 1 application.
        (Hi) Part 2 of the application shall be submitted to the  Director by May 17,  1993.
        (5) A permit application shall be submitted to the Director within 60 days of notice, unless
permission for a later date is granted by the Director (see 40 CFR 124.52(c)),for:
        (i) a storm water discharge which the Director, or in States with approved NPDES programs,
either the Director or the EPA Regional Administrator, determines that the discharge contributes to a
violation of a water quality standard or is a significant contributor of pollutants to waters of the United
States (see paragraph (a)(l)(v) of this section);
        (ii) A storm water discharge subject to paragraph (c)(l)(v) of this section.
        (6) Facilities with existing NPDES permits for storm water discharges associated with industrial
activity shall maintain  existing permits.  New applications shall be submitted in accordance with the
requirements of 40 CFR 122.21 and 40 CFR 122.26(c) 180 days before the expiration of such permits.
Facilities with expired permits or permits due to expire before May 18, 1992 shall submit applications in
accordance with the deadline set forth under 122.26(e)(l).


        Section 122.26(f) Petitions.
        (1) Any operator of a municipal separate storm sewer system may petition the Director to
require a separate NPDES permit (or a permit issued under an approved NPDES State program) for
any discharge into the municipal separate storm sewer system.
        (2) Any person may petition the Director to require a NPDES permit far a discharge which is
composed entirely of storm water which contributes to a violation of a  water quality standard or  is a
significant contributor of pollutants to waters of the United States.
        (3) The owner or operator of a municipal separate storm sewer system may petition the Director
to reduce the Census estimates of the population served by such separate system to account for storm
water discharged to combined sewers as defined by 40 CFR 35.2005(b)(ll)that is treated in a publicly
owned treatment works. In municipalities in which combined sewers are operated, the Census estimates
of population may be reduced proportional to the fraction, based on estimated lengths, of the length of
combined sewers over the sum of the length of combined sewers and municipal separate storm sewers
where an applicant has submitted the NPDES permit number associated with each discharge point and
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a map indicating areas served by combined sewers and the location of any combined sewer overflow
discharge point.
        (4) Any person may petition the Director for the designation of a large or medium municipal
separate storm sewer system as defined by subsections  (b)(4)(iv) or (b)(7)(iv) of this rule.
        (5) The Director shall make a final determination on any petition received under this section
within 90 days after receiving the petition.
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APPENDIX B:   DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS
The following are definitions of terms found in the NPDES general definitions (40 CFR 122.2), the
storm water regulations (55 FR 47990), and terms commonly used in relation to storm water
discharges.


        (1) "Best management practices ("BMPs")"means schedules of activities, prohibitions of
practices, maintenance procedures, and other management practices to prevent or reduce the
pollution of "waters of the United States." BMPs also include treatment requirements, operating
procedures, and practices to control plant site runoff, spillage or leaks, sludge or waste disposal, or
drainage from raw material storage.

        (2) "Contiguous zone" means the entire zone established by the United States under Article
24 of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone.

        (3) "Co-permittee"means a permittee to a NPDES permit that is only responsible for permit
conditions relating to the discharge for which it is operator.

        (4) "Discharge"when used without qualification means  the "discharge of a pollutant."

        (5) "Discharge of a pollutant" means:

        (i) Any addition of any "pollutanf'or combination of pollutants to "waters of the United
        States" from any "point source," or

        (ii) Any addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to the waters of the
        "contiguous zone" or the ocean from any point source other than a vessel or other floating
        craft which is being used as a means of transportation.

        This  definition includes additions of pollutants into waters of the United States from:
surface runoff which is collected or channelled by man; discharges through pipes, sewers, or other
conveyances owned by a State,  municipality, or other person which do not lead  to a treatment works;
and discharges through pipes, sewers, or other conveyances, leading into privately owned treatment
works. This term does not include an addition of pollutants by  any "indirect discharger."

        (6) "Effluent limitation" means any restriction imposed  by the Director on quantities,
discharge rates, and concentrations of "pollutants"which are "discharged"from "point sources" into
"waters of the United States," the waters of the "contiguous zone," or  the ocean.

        (7) "Effluent limitations guidelines" means a regulation published by the Administrator
under section 304(b) of CWA to adopt or revise "effluent limitations."

        (8) "Illicit discharge" means any discharge to a municipal separate storm sewer that is not
composed entirely of storm water except discharges pursuant to NPDES permit (other than the
NPDES permit for discharges from the municipal separate storm sewer) and discharges from fire
fighting activities.

        (9) "Incorporated place" means the District of Columbia, or a city, town or village that is
incorporated  under the laws of the State in which it is located.

        (10) "Large municipal separate storm sewer system"  means all municipal separate storm
sewers that are either:
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        (i) located in an incorporated place with a population of 250,000 or more as determined by
        the latest Decennial Census by the Bureau of Census (Appendix F); or
        (ii) located in the counties listed in Appendix H, except municipal separate storm sewers
        that are located in the incorporated places, townships or towns within such counties; or
        (iii) owned or operated by a municipality other than those described in paragraph (i) or (ii)
        and that are designated by the Director as part of the large or medium municipal separate
        storm sewer system due to the interrelationship between the discharges of the designated
        storm sewer and the discharges from municipal separate storm sewers described under
        paragraphs (i) or (ii).  In making this determination the Director may consider the following
        factors:
        (A) physical interconnections between the municipal separate storm sewers;
        (B) the location of discharges from the designated municipal separate storm sewer relative
        to discharges from municipal separate storm sewers described in subparagraph (i);
        (C) the quantity and nature of pollutants discharged to waters of the United States;
        (D) the nature of the receiving waters; and
        (E) other relevant factors; or
        (iv) the  Director may, upon petition, designate as a large  municipal separate storm sewer
        system, municipal separate storm sewers located within the boundaries of a region defined
        by a storm water management regional authority based on a jurisdictional, watershed, or
        other appropriate basis that includes one or more of the systems described in paragraphs (i),
        (ii),
        (11) "Major municipal separate storm sewer outfall" (or "major outfall") means a municipal
separate storm sewer outfall that discharges from a single pipe with an inside diameter of 36 inches
or more or its equivalent (discharge from a single conveyance other than circular pipe which is
associated with a drainage area of more than 50 acres); or for municipal separate storm sewers that
receive storm water from lands zoned for industrial activity (based on comprehensive zoning plans or
the equivalent), an outfall that discharges from a single pipe with  an inside diameter of 12 inches or
more or from  its equivalent (discharge from other than a circular  pipe associated with a drainage
area of 2 acres or more).

        (12) "Major outfall" means a major municipal separate storm sewer outfall.

        (13) "Medium municipal separate storm sewer system" means all municipal separate storm
sewers that are either:
        (i) located in an  incorporated place with a population of 100,000 or more but less than
        250,000, as determined by the latest Decennial Census by the Bureau of Census (Appendix
        G); or
        (ii) located in the counties listed  in Appendix I, except municipal separate storm sewers that
        are located in the incorporated places, townships or towns within such counties; or
        (iii) owned or operated by a municipality other than those described in paragraph (i) or (ii)
        and that are designated by the Director as part of the large or medium municipal separate
        storm sewer system  due to the interrelationship between the discharges of the designated
        storm sewer and the discharges from municipal separate storm sewers described under
        paragraphs (i) or (ii).  In making this determination the Director may consider the following
        factors:
        (A) physical interconnections between the municipal separate storm sewers;
        (B) the location of discharges from the designated municipal separate storm sewer relative
        to discharges from municipal separate storm sewers described in subparagraph (i);
        (C) the quantity  and nature of pollutants discharged to waters of the  United States;
        (D) the nature of the receiving waters; or
        (E) other relevant factors; or
        (iv) the Director may, upon petition, designate as a medium municipal separate storm sewer
        system, municipal separate storm sewers located within the  boundaries of a region defined
        by a storm water management regional authority based on a jurisdictional, watershed, or
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        other appropriate basis that includes one or more of the systems described in paragraphs (i),
        (ii).(iii).

        (14) "Municipal separate storm sewer" means a conveyance or system of conveyances
(including roads with drainage systems, municipal streets, catch basins, curbs, gutters, ditches, man-
made channels, or storm drains):
        (i) owned or operated by a State, city, town, borough, county, parish, district, association, or
        other public body (created by or pursuant to State law) having jurisdiction over disposal of
        sewage, industrial wastes, storm water, or other wastes, including special districts under
        State law such as a sewer district, flood control district or drainage district, or similar entity,
        or an Indian tribe or an authorized Indian tribal organization, or a designated and approved
        management agency under section 208 of the CWA that discharges to waters of the United
        States;
        (ii) designed or used for collecting or conveying storm  water;
        (iii) which is not a combined sewer; and
        (iv) which is not part of a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) as defined at 40 CFR
        122.2.

        (IS) "NationalPollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)" means the national
program for issuing, modifying, revoking and reissuing, terminating, monitoring and enforcing
permits, and imposing and enforcing pretreatment requirements, under sections 307,402,318, and
405 of CWA. The term includes an "approved program."

        (16) "Newdischarger" means any building, structure, facility, or installation:

        (i) From which there is or may be a "discharge of pollutants;"
        (ii) That did not commence the "discharge of pollutants"at a particular "site"prior to August
        13,1979;

                (iii) Which is not a "new source," and

                (iv) Which has never received a finally effective NPDES permit for discharges  at
                that "site."

        This definition includes an "indirect discharger" which commences discharging into "waters
of the  United States" after August 13,1979. It also  includes any existing mobile point source (other
than an offshore or coastal oil and  gas exploratory drilling rig or a coastal oil and gas developmental
drilling rig) such as a seafood processing rig, seafood processing vessel, or aggregate plant, that
begins discharging at a "site"for which it does not have a permit; and any offshore or coastal mobile
oil and gas exploratory drilling rig or  coastal mobile oil and gas developmental drilling rig that
commences the discharge of pollutants after August 13,1979, at a "site"under EPA's permitting
jurisdiction for which it is not covered by an individual or general permit and which is located in an
area determined by the Regional Administrator in the issuance of a final permit to be an area of
biological concern.  In determining whether an area is an area of biological concern, the Regional
Administrator shall consider the factors specified in 40 CFR 125.122(a) (1) through (10).

        An offshore or coastal mobile exploratory drilling rig or coastal mobile developmental
drilling rig will be considered a "new discharger" only for the duration of its discharge in an area of
biological concern.

        (17) "New source" means any building, structure, facility, or installation from which there is
or may be a "discharge of pollutants," the construction of which commenced:
                (i) After promulgation of standards of performance under section 306 of CWA
                which are applicable to such source, or
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                (ii) After proposal of standards of performance in accordance with section 306 of
                CWA which are applicable to such source, but only if the standards are
                promulgated in accordance with section 306 within 120 days of their proposal.

        (18) "Outfairmeans a "point source" as defined by 40 CFR 122.2 at the point where a
municipal separate storm sewer discharges to waters of the United States and does not include open
conveyances connecting two municipal separate storm sewers, or pipes, tunnels or other conveyances
which connects segments of the same stream or other waters of the United States and are used to
convey waters of the United States.

        (19) "Overburden"means any material  of any nature, consolidated or unconsolidated.that
overlies a mineral deposit, excluding topsoil or similar naturally-occurring surface materials that are
not disturbed by mining operations.

        (20) "Owner or operator" means the owner or operator of any "facility or activity" subject to
regulation under the NPDES program.

        (21) "Permit"means an authorization, license, or equivalent control document issued by
EPA or an "approved State" to implement the requirements of this part and Parts 123 and 124.
"Permit"includes an NPDES "general permit" (Section 122.28). Permit does not include any permit
which has not yet been the subject of final  agency action, such as a "draft permit" or a "proposed
permit"

        (22) "Person"means an individual, association, partnership, corporation, municipality, State
or Federal agency, or an agent or employee thereof.

        (23) "Point source" means any discernible, confined, and discrete conveyance, including but
not limited to, any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock,
concentrated animal feeding operation, vessel, or other floating craft from which pollutants are or
may be discharged. This term  does not include return flows from irrigated agriculture.

        (24) "Pollutanf'means dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, filter backwash,
sewage, garbage, sewage sludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive
materials (except those regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 19S4, as amended (42 (U.S.C
2011 et sea.)), heat, wrecked or discharged equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt and industrial,
municipal, and agricultural waste discharged into water.  It does not mean:

        (i) Sewage from vessels; or

                (ii) Water, gas, or other material which is injected into a well to facilitate
                production of oil or gas, or water derived in association with oil and gas production
                and disposed of in a well,  if the well used either  to facilitate production or for
                disposal  purposes is approved by authority of the State in which the well is located,
                and if the State determines that the injection or disposal will not result in the
                degradation of ground or surface water resources.

        Radioactive materials covered by the Atomic Energy Act are those encompassed in its
definition of source, byproduct, or special nuclear materials. Examples of materials not covered
include radium and accelerator-produced isotopes. See Train v. Colorado Public Interest Research
Group. Inc. 426 US. 1 (1976).

        (25) "Privately owned treatment works" means any device or system which is (a) used to
treat wastes from any facility whose operator is not the operator of the treatment works and (b) not
a "POTW."
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        (26) "Process wastewater" means any water which, during manufacturing or processing,
comes into direct contact with or results from the production or use of any raw material,
intermediate product, finished product, byproduct, or waste product.

        (27) "Proposed permit" means a State NPDES "permifprepared after the close of the
public comment period (and, when applicable, any public hearing and administrative appeals) which
is sent to EPA for review before final issuance by the State. A "proposed permit" is not a "draft
permit."

        (28) "Publicly owned treatment works ("POTW")'Yneans any device or system used in the
treatment (including recycling and reclamation) of municipal sewage or industrial wastes of a liquid
nature which is owned by a "State"or "municipality." This definition includes sewers, pipes, or other
conveyances only if they convey wastewater to a POTW providing treatment.

        (29) "Runoffcoefficient" means the fraction of total rainfall that will appear at the
conveyance as runoff.

        (30) "Significant materials" includes, but is not limited to: raw materials; fuels; materials such
as solvents, detergents, and plastic pellets; finished materials such as metallic products; raw materials
used in food processing or production; hazardous substances designated under section 101(14) of
CERCLA; any chemical the facility is required to report pursuant to Section 313 of Title III of
SARA; fertilizers; pesticides; and waste products  such as ashes, slag and sludge that have the
potential to  be released with storm water discharges.

        (31) "Site"means the land or water area  where any "facility or activity" is physically located.
or conducted,  including adjacent land used in connection with the facility or activity.

        (32) "Storm water" means storm water runoff, snow melt runoff, and surface runoff and
drainage.

        (33) "Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity" means the discharge from arty
conveyance which is used for collecting and conveying storm water  and which is directly related to
manufacturing, processing or raw materials storage areas at an industrial plant.  The term does not
include discharges from facilities or activities excluded from the NPDES program under 40 CFR
Part 122.  For the categories of industries identified in subparagraphs (i) through (x) of this
subsection, the term includes, but is not limited to, storm water discharges from industrial plant
yards; immediate access roads and rail lines used  or traveled by carriers of raw materials,
manufactured  products, waste material, or by-products used or created by the facility; material
handling sites; refuse sites; sites used for the application or disposal of process waste waters (as
defined at 40 CFR 401); sites used for the storage and maintenance of material handling equipment;
sites used for residual treatment, storage, or disposal; shipping and receiving areas; manufacturing
buildings; storage areas (including tank farms) for raw materials, and intermediate and finished
products; and  areas where industrial activity has taken place in the  past and significant materials
remain and are exposed to storm water. For the  categories of industries identified in subparagraph
(xi), the term includes only storm water discharges from all the areas (except access roads and rail
lines) that are  listed in the previous sentence where material handling equipment or activities, raw
materials, intermediate products, final products, waste materials, by-products, or industrial machinery
are exposed to storm water. For the purposes of this paragraph, material handling activities include
the: storage, loading and unloading, transportation, or conveyance of any raw material, intermediate
product, finished product, by-product or waste product  The term excludes areas located on plant
lands separate from the plant's industrial activities, such as office buildings and accompanying
parking lots as long as the drainage from  the excluded areas is not mixed with storm water drained
from the above described areas.  Industrial facilities (including industrial facilities that are Federally,
State, or municipally owned or operated that meet the description of the facilities listed in this
paragraph (i)-(xi)) include those facilities designated under the provisions of 122.26(a)(l)(v). The
                                             59

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following categories of facilities are considered to be engaging in "industrial activity" for purposes of
this subsection:
        (i) Facilities subject to storm water effluent limitations guidelines, new source performance
standards, or toxic pollutant effluent standards under 40 CFR Subchapter N (except facilities with
toxic pollutant effluent standards which are exempted under category (ri) of this paragraph);
        (ii) Facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 24 (except 2434), 26 (except 265
and 267), 28 (except 283) 29,311,32 (except 323), 33,3441.373;
        (iii) Facilities classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 10 through 14 (mineral
industry) including active or inactive mining operations (except for areas of coal mining operations
no longer meeting the definition of a reclamation area under 40 CFR 434.11(1) because the
performance bond issued to the facility by the appropriate SMCRA authority has been released, or
except for areas of non-coal mining operations which have been released from applicable State or
Federal reclamation requirements after December 17,1990 and oil and gas exploration, production,
processing, or treatment operations, or transmission facilities that discharge storm water
contaminated by contact with or that has come into contact with, any overburden, raw material,
intermediate products, finished products, byproducts or waste products located on the site of such
operations; (inactive mining operations are mining sites that are not being actively mined, but which
have an
identifiable owner/operator; inactive mining sites do not include sites where mining claims are being
maintained prior to disturbances associated with the extraction, beneficiation, or processing of mined
materials, nor sites where minimal activities are undertaken for the sole  purpose of maintaining a
mining claim);
        (iv) Hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal facilities, including those that are
operating under interim status or  a permit under Subtitle C  of RCRA;
        (v) Landfills, land application sites, and open dumps that receive or have received  any
industrial wastes (waste that is received from any of the facilities described under this subsection)
including those that are subject to regulation under Subtitle  D of RCRA;
        (vi) Facilities involved in the recycling of materials,  including metal scrapyards, battery
reclaimers, salvage yards, and automobile junkyards, including but limited to those classified as
Standard Industrial Classification 5015 and 5093;
        (vii) Steam electric power generating facilities, including coal handling sites;
        (viii) Transportation facilities  classified as Standard Industrial Classifications 40, 41,42
(except 4221-25), 43,44,45, and 5171 which have vehicle maintenance shops, equipment cleaning
operations, or airport deicing operations. Only those portions of the facility that are  either involved
in vehicle maintenance (including vehicle rehabilitation, mechanical repairs, painting, fueling, and
lubrication), equipment cleaning operations, airport deicing operations, or which are otherwise
identified under paragraphs  (i)-(vii) or (ix)-(xi) of this subsection are associated with industrial
activity;
        (be)  Treatment works treating domestic sewage or any other sewage sludge or wastewater
treatment device or system, used in the storage treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal or
domestic sewage, including land dedicated to the  disposal of sewage sludge that are located within
the confines of the facility, with a design flow of 1.0 mgd or  more, or required to have an approved
pretreatment program under 40 CFR 403. Not included are farm lands, domestic gardens or lands
used for sludge management where sludge is beneficially reused and which are not physically located
in the confines of the facility, or areas that are in compliance with Section 405 of the CWA;
        (x) Construction activity including clearing, grading  and excavation activities except:
operations that result in the disturbance of less than five acres of total land area which are not part
of a larger  common plan of development or sale;
        (xi) Facilities under Standard  Industrial Classifications 20, 21, 22, 23, 2434,25, 265.267,27,
283,285,30,31 (except 311), 323,34 (except 3441), 35,36,37 (except 373), 38,39,4221-25. (and
which are not otherwise included within categories (ii)-(x));

   (34) 'Total dissolved solids" means the total dissolved (filterable) solids as determined by use of
the method specified in 40 CFR Part 136.

   (35) Toxic pollutant" means any pollutant listed as toxic under section 307(a)(l) of CWA.


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    (36) "Variance"means any mechanism or provision under section 301 or 316 of CWA or under
40 CFR Part 125, or in the applicable "effluentlimitations guidelines" which allows modification to or
waiver of the generally applicable effluent limitation requirements or time deadlines of CWA.  This
includes provisions which allow the establishment of alternative limitations based on fundamentally
different factors or on sections 301(c), 301(g), 301(h), 301(i), or 316(a) of CWA.

    (37) "Waters of the United States" or "waters of the U.S." means:

      (i) All waters which are currently used, were used in  the past, or may be susceptible to use in
      interstate or foreign commerce, including all waters which are subject to the ebb and flow of
      the tide;

      (ii) All interstate water, including interstate "wetlands",

      (iii) All other water such as intrastate lakes, rivers, streams  (including intermittent steams).
      mudflats, sand flats, "wetlands" ploughs, prairie potholes, wet meadows, playa lakes, or natural
      ponds the use, degradation, or destruction of which would affect or could affect interstate or
      foreign commerce including any such waters:

           (A) Which are or could be used by interstate or foreign  travelers for recreational or
           other purposes;

           (B) From which fish or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in interstate or foreign
           commence; or

           (C) Which are used or could be used for industrial purposes by industries in interstate
           commerce:

      (iv) All impoundments of waters otherwise defined as waters of the United States under this
      definition;

      (v) Tributaries of waters identified in paragraphs (i) through (vi) of this definition;

      (vi) The territorial sea; and

      (vii) "Wetlands"adjacent to waters (other than waters that are themselves wetlands) identified
      in paragraphs (i) through (vi) of this definition.

    Waste treatment systems, including treatment ponds or lagoons designed to meet the
requirements of CWA (other than cooling ponds as defined in 40 CFR 423.11(m) which also meet
the criteria of this definition) are not waters of the United States.  This exclusion applies only to
manmade bodies of water which neither were originally created in waters of the United States (such
as disposal area in wetlands) nor resulted from the impoundment of waters of the United States.
[See Note 1 of this section.]

    (38) "Wetlands"means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at
a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances, do support a
prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life  in saturated soil  conditions.  Wetlands generally
include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas.
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APPENDIX G        INFORMATION FOR EPA REGIONAL OFFICES AND STATES WITH
                   APPROVED NPDES PROGRAMS
      Cl          Federal, State, and Regional Permitting Agency Contacts

      C2          Addresses and Telephone Numbers of EPA Regional Offices
                   and States within the Regional Office Jurisdictions
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APPENDIX C.1:
FEDERAL, STATE, AND REGIONAL PERMITTING AGENCY
CONTACTS
Alabama Department of Environmental Management
         Water Division
         1751 Cong. W.L. Dickinson Drive
         Montgomery, AL 36130
         (205) 271-7825

Alaska   Department of Environmental
           Conservation
         Division of Environmental
           Quality Management
         Pouch O
         Juneau, AK 99811
         (907) 465-2640

Arizona  Department of Health Services
         Office of Waste and Water
           Quality Management
         2005 N. Central Avenue
         Phoenix, AZ 85007
         (602) 257-2305

Arkansas Department of Pollution
           Control and Ecology
         NPDES Branch
         8001 National Drive
         Little Rock, AR  72209
         (501) 562-7444

California State Water Resources Control Board
         P.O. Box 100
         901P Street
         Sacramento, CA 95801
         (916) 322-3132

Colorado Department of Health
         Water Quality Control Division
         Permits and Enforcement Section
         4210 E. llth Avenue, Room 200
         Denver, CO 80220
         (303) 331-3015

Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
         Water Compliance and Hazardous Substances
         122 Washington Street
         Hartford, CT  06106
         (203) 566-3245
                              and
U.S. EPA
Region X
                              and
U.S. EPA
Region IX
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Delaware  Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control
          Division of Water Resources
          89 Kings Highway
          P.O. Box 1401
          Dover, DE  19903
          (302) 736-4761

District   Department of Consumer and                 and    U.S. EPA
          of Columbia                                        Region III
          Environmental Control Division
          5010 Overlook Avenue, S.W.
          Washington, D.C 20032
          (202) 767-7370

Florida   Department of Environmental              and   U.S. EPA
            Regulation                                    Region IV
          Div. of Environmental Programs
          Water Quality Planning Section
          2600 Blairstone Road, Ste 531
          Twin Towers Office Building
          Tallahassee, FL  32301
          (904) 488-0780

Georgia   Department of Natural Resources
          Environmental Protection Division,
            Water Protection Branch
          Floyd Towers East - Room 1058
          205 Butler Street, S.W.
          Atlanta, GA  30334
          (404) 656-4887

Hawaii    Department of Health
          Pollution Investigation and
            Enforcement Division
          P.O. Box 3378
          Honolulu, HI  96801
          (808) 548-6505

Idaho     Department of Health and                 and   U.S. EPA
            Welfare                                      Region X
          Bureau of Water Quality
          State House
          Boise, ID 83720
          (208) 334-4250

Illinois    Illinois Environmental Protection Agency
          Division of Water Pollution Control
          2200 Churchill Road
          Springfield, IL 62706
          (217) 782-1654

Indiana   Indiana Department of Environmental Management
          105 S. Meridian Street
          P.O. Box 6015
          Indianapolis, IN  46225
          (317) 232-8488
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Iowa      Department of Natural Resources
          Environmental Protection Division
          Surface and Ground Water
           Protection Bureau
          Henry A. Wallace Building
          900 E. Grand Avenue
          Des Moines, IA  50319
          (515) 281-8690

Kansas    State Department of Health and Environment
          Division of Environment
          Bureau of Water Quality
          Forbes AFB Building No. 740
          Topeka,KS 66612
          (913) 862-9360x25?

Kentucky  Department of Environmental
           Protection
          Department of Environmental Protection
          Division of Water Quality
          18 Reilly Road, Fort Boone Plaza
          Frankfort, KY 40601
          (502) 564-3410

Louisiana  Department of Environmental              and
           Quality
          Office of Water Resources
          Permits Programs
          P.O. Box 44091
          Baton Rouge, LA 70804-4091
          (504) 922-0530
      U.S. EPA
      Region VI
Maine     Department of Environmental
           Protection
          Bureau of Water Quality Control
          State House, Station 17
          Augusta, ME 04333
          (207) 289-3355
          Boston, MA 02203
          (617) 565-3519

Maryland  Department of Natural Resources
          Water Resources Administration
           (water resources programs)
          Tawes State Office Building
          Annapolis, MD 21401
          (301) 269-3846

          Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
          Environmental Health Administration
           (water quality standards, NPDES
           permits, and sewage treatment)
          201W. Preston Street
          Baltimore, MD 21203
          (301) 225-6300
and
U.S. EPA
Region I
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Massachusetts Department of Environmental           and
           Quality Engineering
          Division of Water Pollution
           Control & Division of Water
           Supply
          1 Winter Street
          Boston, MA  02108
          (617) 292-5673

Michigan  Department of Natural Resources
          Water Resources Commission
          Water Quality Division
          P.O. Box 30028
          Lansing. MI 48909
          (517)373-1949

Minnesota Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
          Division of Water Pollution Control
          520 Lafayette Road
          St. Paul, MN 55155
          (612) 296-7202

Mississippi Dept. of Natural Resources                and
           and Water Division
          P.O. Box 10385, Southport Mall
          Jackson, MS  39209
          (601)961-5171
Missouri  Department of Natural Resources
          Water Quality Program
          Division of Environmental Quality
          Jefferson State Office Building
          205 Jefferson Street
          Jefferson City, MO 65102
          (314) 751-1300

Montana  Department of Health and Environmental
           Sciences
          Division of Environmental Sciences
          Water Quality Bureau
          Cogswell Building, Room A206
          Helena, MT 59620
          (406) 444-2406

Nebraska  Department of Environmental Control
          Water Pollution Control Division
          State House Station
          P.O. Box 94877-301 Centennial Mall
          Lincoln, NE  68509
          (402) 471-2186
US. EPA
Region I
Department of Environmental
 Quality
Surface Water Division
Bureau of Pollution Control
P.O. Box 10385
Jackson, MS  39289
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Nevada   Department of Conservation and
           Natural Resources
          Water Resources Division
          201S. Fall Street, Room 221
          Carson City, NV 89710
          (702) 885-4380

New      Water Supply and Pollution                and   U.S. EPA
Hampshire Control Commission                           Region I
          Hazen Drive
          P.O. Box 95
          Concord, NH 03301
          (603) 271-2458
New Jersey Department of Environmental
           Protection
          Division of Water Resources
          1474 Prospect Street
          P.O. Box CN029
          Trenton, NJ 08625
          (609) 292-1638

New Mexico Health and Environment                and   U.S. EPA
           Department                                  Region VI
          Environmental Improvement
           Division
          Surface Water Quality Bureau
          1190 St. Francis Drive
          Santa Fe, NM 87504-0968
          (505) 827-2918

New York Department of Environmental
           Conservation
          Permit Administrator
          50 Wolf Road
          Albany, NY 12233

North     Department of Natural Resources
Carolina    and Community Development
          bivision of Environmental
           Management
          Water Quality Section
          P.O. Box 27687
          Raleigh, NC 27611
          (919) 733-5083

North Dakota Department of Health
          Division of Water Supply
           and Pollution Control
          1200 Missouri Avenue
          Bismark, ND 58501
          (701) 224-2345
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Ohio      Environmental Protection Agency
          Waste Water Pollution Control
          1800 Watermark Drive
          P.O. Box 1049
          Columbus, OH 43266-0149
          (614) 466-7427
Oklahoma Water Resources Board                   and   U.S. EPA
          P.O. Box 53585                                Region VI
          Oklahoma City, OK 73152

          State Department of Health
          Permits and Compliance Division
          P.O. Box 53551
          Oklahoma City, OK 73152
Oregon    Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)
          Water Quality Division
          522 S.W. Fifth Avenue
          P.O. Box 1760
          Portland, OR 97207
          (503) 229-5324

Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources
          Bureau of Water Quality Management
          P.O. Box 2063. llth Floor/Fulton Bldg.
          200 N. 3rd Street
          Harrisburg, PA  17120
          (717) 787-2666

Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board             and   US. EPA
          Division of Water/Water                        Region n
           Resources
          P.O. Box 11488
          Santurce.PR  00910
          (809) 725-5140

Rhode Island Department of Environmental
           Management
          Division of Water Resources
          75 Davis St, 209 Cannon Bldg.
          Providence, RI  02908
          (401) 277-2234
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South     Department of Health and
Carolina   Environmental Control
          Environmental Quality Control
          2600 Bull Street
          Columbia, SC 29201
          (803) 734-4880

South Dakota Department of Water and               and   U.S. EPA
           Natural Resources                             Region VIII
          Division of Environmental
            Regulation
          Point Source Control Program
          Joe Foss Building
          120 E. Capitol
          Pierre,SD 57501
          (605) 773-3351

Tennessee Department of Public Health
          Division of Water Quality Control
          TERRA Building, 2nd floor
          150 9th Ave., N.
          Nashville, TN  37219-5405
          (615) 741-3111

Texas     Texas Water Commission                  and   U.S. EPA
          P.O. Box 13087                                 Region VI
          Capitol Station
          Austin, TX  78711-3087
          (512) 463-8028
          Texas Railroad Commission
          P.O. Drawer 12967
          Austin, TX  78711
          (512) 463-8028

Utah      Department of Health
          Bureau of Water Pollution Control
          288 N. 1460 W.
          P.O. Box 16690
          Salt Lake City, UT 84116-0690
          (801) 538-6146

Vermont  State Water Resources Board
           (water pollution control)
          58 E. State Street
          Montpelier, VT 05602
          (802) 828-2871

          Water Quality Division
           (water quality)
          Department of Water Resources
           and Environmental Engineering
          103 S. Main Street
          Waterbuty.VT 05676
          (802) 244-5638
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Virginia   State Water Control Board
          211N. Hamilton Street
          P.O. Box 11143
          Richmond, VA  23230
          (804) 257-0056

Washington  Washington Dept of Ecology
          Office  of Water Programs
          Mail Stop PV/11
          Olympia, WA 98504
          (206) 459-6000
West      Department of Natural Resources
Virginia   Division of Water Resources
          1800 Washington Street, East
          Charleston, WV  25305
          (304) 348-2107

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
          Division of Environmental Standards
          Bureau of Water Resources and
           Management
          P.O. Box 7921
          Madison, WI  53707
          (608) 266-2121

Wyoming  Department of Environmental Quality
          Water Quality Division
          Hcrschler Building
          122 West 25th Street
          Cheyenne, WY 82002
          (307) 777-7781
                                       and   Environmental Permit
                                              Information Center
                                             Department of Ecology
                                             Headquarters Office, PV-11
                                             St. Martin's College
                                              Campus-Lacey
                                             Olympia, WA 98504
Virgin
Islands
US EPA, Region tt
Guam     US EPA, Region DC

American  US EPA, Region DC
Samoa

District of US EPA, Region ID
Columbia

Northern  US EPA, Region DC
Marianas
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APPENDIX C.2:       ADDRESSES AND TELEPHONE NUMBERS OF EPA REGIONAL
                     OFFICES AND STATES WITHIN THE REGIONAL OFFICE
                     JURISDICTION
REGION I

       NPDES Permits, Water Management Division, EPA 9141,
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, John F, Kennedy Building,
       Boston, Massachusetts 02203, (617) 565-3420, FTS 835-3420.
              Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island,
              and Vermont,
REGION II
       NPDES Permits, Water Management Division, EPA 9270,
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Jacob K. Javitz Federal Building,
       26 Federal Plaza, New York, New York 10278, (212) 264-2657, FTS 264-2657.

              New Jersey, New York, Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico.

REGION III

       NPDES Permits, Water Management Division, EPA 9360,
       U,S. Environmental Protection Agency, 841 Chestnut Building,
       Philadelphia, Pennsylvania  19107, (215) 597-9800, FTS 597-9800.

              Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania,
              Virginia, and West Virginia

REGION IV

       NPDES Permits, Water Management Division, EPA 9441,
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 345 Courtland Street, N.E.,
       Atlanta, Georgia 30365, (404) 347-4727, FTS 257-4727.

              Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina,
              South Carolina, and Tennessee.

REGION V

       NPDES Permits, Water Management Division, EPA 9560,
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 230 South Dearborn Street,
       Chicago, Illinois 60604, (312) 353-2105, FTS 353-2105.

              Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin.

REGION VI

       NPDES Permits, Water Management Division, EPA 9670,
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, First Interstate Bank Tower at Fountain Place,
       1445 Ross Avenue, 12th Floor, Suite 1200,
       Dallas, Texas  75202, (214) 655-6444, FTS 255-6444.

              Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.


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REGION VD

       NPDES Permits, Water Management Division, EPA 9790,
       US. Environmental Protection Agency, 726 Minnesota Avenue,
       Kansas City, Missouri  66101, (913) 551-7000, FTS 276-7000.

              Iowa, Kansas,  Missouri, and Nebraska.

REGION VIII

       NPDES Permits, Water Management Division, EPA 9871,
       999 18th Street, Suite 500, US. Environmental Protection Agency,
       Denver, Colorado 80202, (303) 293-1603, FTS 330-1603.

              Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

REGION IX

       NPDES Permits, Water Management Division, EPA 9920,
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 75 Hawthorne Street,
       San Francisco, California 94105, (415) 744-2125, FTS 484-2125.
              Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Guam, American Samoa, and
              Trust Territories.
REGION X
       NPDES Permits, Water Management Division, EPA 9031,
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 6th Avenue,
       Seattle, Washington 98101, (206) 442-1200, FTS 399-1200.

              Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.
                                         72

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 APPENDIX D:          PROCEDURES FOR SUBMITTING A GROUP APPLICATION

        As an alternative to submitting an individual application, a facility (except facilities that have
 existing individual NPDES permits for storm water or process discharge) may participate in a group
 application for sufficiently similar facilities.  The intent of the group application process is to reduce
 the collection and reporting burdens of participating industries.  Group applications involve a two
 part application process.  Group applications do not have specific forms; rather, the applicants are
 required to submit the information described below.

        Acceptable participants for a group application include those facilities that are part of the
 same industrial subcategory (see Table 2-1 for a list of the SIC codes that are considered industrial
 plants in the regulations - Part 405 to Part 471) or have sufficiently similar services or activities.

        Part 1 of the group application must contain the following information: (There is no
 standard form for Part 1 of a group application. For Part 2 the relevant portion of form 2F should
 be used.) When determining the number or dischargers identified for Part 2 sampling under
 paragraph (D), unless the group is less than 11 members in size, a minimum of 10  facilities must
 conduct and submit quantitative sampling data.

        122.26(c)(2) Group application for discharges associated with industrial activity. In  lieu of
 individual applications or notice of intent to be covered by a general permit for storm water discharges
 associated with industrial activity, a group application may be filed by an entity representing a group of
 applicants (except facilities that have existing individual NPDES permits for storm water) that are part of
 the same subcategory (see 40 CFR Subchapter N, Part 405 to 471) or, where such grouping is
 inapplicable, are sufficiently similar as to be appropriate for general permit coverage under § 122.28 of
 this Part.  The Part 1 application shall be submitted to the Office of Water Enforcement and Permits,
 U.S. EPA, 401M Street, S. W. Washington, D.C. 20460 (EN-336)for approval.  Once a Part 1
 application is approved, group applicants are to submit Part 2 of the group application to the Office of
 Water Enforcement and Permits.  A group application shall consist of:
        (i) Part 1.  Part I of a group application shall:
        (A) identify the participants in the group application by name and location.  Facilities
participating in the group application shall be listed in  nine subdivisions, based on the facility location
 relative to the nine precipitation zones indicated in Appendix Figure D-l to this Part.
        (B) include a narrative description  summarizing the industrial activities of participants of the
group application and explaining why the participants, as a whole, are sufficiently similar to be a covered
 by a general permit;
        (C) include a list of significant materials stored exposed to precipitation by participants in the
group application and materials management practices employed to diminish contact by these materials
 with precipitation and storm water runoff;
        (D) identify ten percent of the dischargers participating in the group application (with a
 minimum of 10 dischargers, and  either a minimum of two dischargers from each precipitation zone
 indicated in Appendix Figure D-l of this Part in which ten or more members of the group are located, or
 one discharger from each precipitation zone indicated in Appendix Figure D-l of this Part in which nine
 or fewer members of the group are located) from which quantitative data will be  submitted in Part 2.   If
 more than 1,000 facilities are identified in a group application, no more than  100 dischargers must
submit quantitative data in Part 2. Groups  of between four and ten dischargers may be formed.
However, in groups of between four and ten, at least half the facilities must submit quantitative data,
 and at least one facility in each precipitation zone in which members of the group are located must
submit data. A description of why the facilities selected to perform sampling and analysis are
 representative of the group as a whole, in terms of the information provided in subparagraphs (i)(B) and
 (i) (C) of this paragraph, shall accompany this section. Different factors impacting the nature of the
storm water discharges, such as processes used and material management, shall be represented, to the
 extent feasible, in  a manner roughfy equivalent to their proportion in the group.
        (ii) Part 2.   Part 2 of a group application shall contain quantitative data (NPDES Form 2F),
 as modified by paragraph (c)(l) of this section, so that when Part 1 and Part 2 of the group application
 are taken together, a complete NPDES application (Form 1, Form 2C, and Form 2F) can be evaluated
for each discharger identified in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(D) of this section.
                                              73

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                                                      25aN
                                                                                        25'N
Source: Methodology for Analysis of Detention Basins for Control of Urban Runoff Quality, prepared for
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Nonpoint Source EH vision, Washington, DC, 1986.


Note:   Alaska and Hawaii are included in Zone 7. The Virgin Island and Puerto Rico are included in  Zone 3.
Appendix Figure D-l. Rainfall Zones of the United States

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APPENDIX D.I:        EPA REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR A GROUP APPLICATION
        As shown in Figure 2-1, EPA Headquarters has 60 days to approve or deny the Part 1
application.  When the Part 1 application is approved, group applicants are to submit Part 2 to the
same address.

        Part 2 of the group application must contain quantitative data (i.e., the data required in
Form 2F) so that when Parts 1 and 2 of the group application are taken together, a complete
NPDES permit application [Form 1, Form 2C (if necessary based on the criteria for use of this
form), and Form 2F] can be evaluated for each of the dischargers designated in Item 4 of Part 1.

        Although there in no such thing as a group permit, the data submitted by the group will be
used to develop general permits or individual permits for all of the facilities participating in the
group application (see Figure 2-1). EPA and NPDES States with general permit authority may
develop a general permit that can then be modified as necessary for each industrial subcategory (e.g.,
based on SIC codes). NPDES States without general permitting authority can develop individual
permits for the facilities participating in the group based on the information reported in the
application.  The group application process and related timeframes are summarized below:

        a)      Part 1 of the application must be submitted to the Director, EPA Office  of Water
               Enforcement and Permits, by September 30,1991.

        b)      Based on information submitted in Part  1 of the group application, EPA
               Headquarters will approve or deny the group coapplicants within 60 days after
               receipt.

        c)      Part 2 of the application must be submitted to EPA,  Office of Water Enforcement
               and Permits no later than May 18,1992.

        d)      A  facility identified in the definition of "storm water associated with industrial
               activity" (summarized in Table 2-2) may  add on to a group application submitted in
               accordance with item (2a) above at the discretion of the Office of Water
               Enforcement and Permits, and only upon a showing of good cause by the facility
               and the group applicant.

        e)      Facilities identified in Table 2-2 may apply for a storm water discharge permit as
               part of a group application previously submitted in accordance with item  (2a) above,
               if the application for the additional facility is made within IS months from the date
               of publication of the final general permit rule;  the addition of the facility shall not
               reduce the percentage of the facilities that are required to submit quantitative data
               below 10%, unless there are over 100 facilities in the group that are submitting
               quantitative data.  Approval to become part of group application must be obtained
               from the group or the trade association representing  the individual facilities and
               from the Office of Water Enforcement and Permits.
                                            75

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APPENDIX E:       NPDES PERMIT APPUCATION FORMS AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR
                 THE PERMITTING PROCESS
           Appendix
           E.1          Form 1
           E2          Form 2F
           E3          Form 2C
           E4          Form 2D
           E5          Form2E
                                 76

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APPENDIXES:     FORM I
                               77

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                United Steut
                Environmental Protection
                Off to of
                Enforcement
                Washington. DC 20480
EPA Form 3910-1
Revleed August
                Permits Divieion
6EPA
Application  Form 1 - General
Information

Consolidated  Permits Program
                  This form must bt completed by all ptrsons applying for
                  • parmit under EPA's Consolidated Permits Program. See
                  the general instructions to Form 1 to determine which
                  other application forms you will i

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               DESCRIPTION OF CONSOLIDATED
                 PERMIT APPLICATION FORMS
                   FORM 1 PACKAGE
                 TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Consolidated Permit Application Formi art:

  Form 1 - General Information (included in thiiptrti,

  Form 2 - Discharges to Surface Water INPDES Pmrmia):

   2A, Publicly Owned Treatment Workt /fl«wrv*rf — not Included in
   2B. Concentrated Animal Feeding Oparationi and Aquatic Animal
   Production Facilities (not included in thit pfcktgtl,

   2C. Exilting Manufacturing. Commarcial, Mining, and Silviculture!
   Oparationt (not included in tftit fucktgf), and

   2D.  Ntw Manufacturing,  Commarcial,  Mining,  and Silvicultural
   Oparationi IRnumd — not inctudtd in tfiii ptcktgi);

  form  3 —  Hazardous Wasta Application Form IRCRA P*mltt —
  not included In thit ptcktya);

  Form  4 — Underground  Injection  of Fluids !UIC Pttmltt — Hf-
  mn*d — not included in  tfilt p*ck»gi) , and

  Form  5 - Air Emissioni in  Attainment Areas  (PSD Pumitt — ft*
        — not included in
Section A. General Instructions

Section B. Instructions for Form 1

Section C. Activities Which Do Not Require Permits

Section 0. Glossary

Form 1 ftwocopinl
                                             SECTION A - GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
Who Mutt Apply

With the exceptions described in Section C of these instructions. Fed-
eral laws prohibit you from conducting any of the following activities
without a permit.

NPDES INttiontl Polluttnt Ditchtrge Eliminttion Syinm Und»r th»
CTea/i W»t*r Act, 33 U.5.C !2St>. Discharge of pollutants into the
waters of the United States.

RCRA (Rttovrc* Con$»rv»tion tnd flecovery Met, 42 U.S.C  6901).
Treatment, storage, or disposal of hazardous westes.

U1C lUndtrground Infection Control Under the  Sift Drinking Wittr
Act, 42 (J.S.C  30Ofl. Injection of fluids underground by gravity flow
or pumping.

PSD  (Prevention  of Significtnt Dvtiriorttion Under the  dean Air
Act, 72 U.&G 7401). Emission of an air pollutant by a new or modi-
fied facility in or near an area which has attained the National Ambient
Air Quality Standards for that pollutant.

Each of the above permit programs is operated in any particular State
by either the United States  Environmental  Protection Agency  (EPA)
or by an approved State agency. You must use this application form to
apply for a permit for those  programs administered by EPA. For those
programs administered by approved States, contact the State environ-
mental agency for the proper forms.

If you nave any questions about whether you need a permit under any
of  the  above progrems, or if you  need information as to whether a
particular program is administered by EPA or a State agency, or If you
need to obtain application  forms, contact  your  EPA Regional office
(lifted in Tattle  1i,

Upon  your request, and based upon  information supplied by you,
EPA will determine whether you are required to obtain a permit for
a particular facility.  Be sure to contact EPA if  you  have a question,
because  Federal laws provide that  you may be heevBy penalized tf
you do not apply for a permit when a permit ie required.

Form  1  of the EPA consolidated  application forms collects  general
information applying to all programs. You must fill out Form 1 regard-
less of which permit you are applying for. In addition, you mutt fill
out one of the supplementary forms IFormt 2 — 8) for each permit
needed under each of  the  ibove programs.  Item II of Form 1 will
guide you to the appropriate supplementary forms,

You should note that there are certain exclusions  to the permit require-
ments listed above. The exclusions are described  in detail in Section C
of  these instructions. If your activities are excluded from permit re-
quirements then you do  not need to complete and return any forms.
  NOTE; Certain  activities not listed above also are subject to EPA
  administered environmental permit requirements. These include per-
  mits  for ocean dumping, dredged  or fill material discharging, and
  certain types of air emissions. Contact your EPA Regional office for
  further information.
TeWe 1. Addreaaai of EPA Regional Contact! and States Within the
Regional Office Juriedtetlona

REGION I

  Permit Contact, Environmental and Economic Impact Office, U.S.
  Environmental Protection Agency, John  F. Kennedy Building, Bos-
  ton, Massachusetts 02203, (61?) 223-4635, FTS 223-4635.
   Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hempshire, Rhode hland.
   and Vermont.

REGION II

  Permit Contact,  Permits Administration  Branch, Room  432, U.S.
  Environmental  Protection Agency, 26 Federal  Place, New  York.
  New York 10007, (212} 264-9880, FTS 264-9880.
   New Jersey. New York, Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico.

REGION III

  Permit Contact 'f3 iN 23). U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency,
  6th A Walnut  Streets, Philedelphie, Pennsylvania  19106,  (215)
  597-8816, FTS §97-8816.
   Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland,  Pennsylvania, Virginia,
   and West Virginia.

REGION IV

  Permit Contact,  Permits  Section, U.S.  Environmentel Protection
  Agency, 346 Courtland Street, N.E.,  Atlanta, Georgia 30365, (404)
  881-2017, FTS 257-2017.
   Alabama, Florida, Georgia,  Kentucky, Mississippi,  North Carolina,
   South Carolina, and Tennessee.

REGION V

  Permit Contact I5EP). U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency, 230
  South Dearborn  Street, Chtcage, Illinois  60604,  (312) 353-2105.
  FTS 353-2106.
   Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota. Ohio, and Witconiin.
                                                                  1-1

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                                       SECTION A - GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS (continued)
T«Wt 1 fconttweoV

REGION VI

 Permit  Contact ISAEf).  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency,
 First International Building. 1301 Elm Street, Dallas. Tflx« 75270.
 1214) 767-2765, FTS 729-2765.
   ArkwiMt, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texat.

REGION VII

 Permit  Contact,  Permits  Branch, U.S.  Environmental Protection
 Agency, 324 Een 11th Street, Kaniat City, Missouri 64106,  (816)
 768-5955. FTS 758-5955.
   Iowa, Kantet, Missouri, and Nebraska.

REGION VIII

 Permit Contact (8E-WE).  Suite 103, U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency, 1880 Lincoln Street, Denver, Colorado 80295, (303) 837-
 4901, FTS 327-4901.
   Colorado,   Montana, North  Dakota, South  Dakota,  Utah, and
   Wyoming.

REGION IX

 Permit Contact, Permits Branch IE—41, U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency,  215  Fremont Street,  San  Francisco, California 94105.
 14151 556-3450, FTS 556-3450.
   Arizona, California, Hawaii,  Nevada, Guam, American Samoa, and
   Trust Territories.

REGION X

 Permit  Contact (U/S 521 i, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
  1200 6th Avenue,  Seattle, Washington  98101,  (206)  442-7178,
  FTS 399-7176.
   Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.
Where to File

The application forms should be mailed to the EPA Regional  office
whose Region includes the Stete in which the facility is located tee
FaMeW.

If the State in which the facility is located administers a Federal permit
program under which you need e permit, you should contact the appro-
priate State agency for the correct forms. Your EPA Regional office
iTeo/e II  can tell  you to whom to apply and can provide the appro-
priate address and phone number.
When to FMa

Because of statutory requirements, the deadlines for filing applications
very according to the type of facility you operate and the type of per-
mit you need. These deadlines are as follows:1
Table 2. Filing Oetei for Permit*
                                    WHEN TO FILE
  IMNPOfSI	180 days before your present NPDES per-
                         mit expires.
  IB(NPDfS)	180 days before your present NPDES per-
                         mit expires*, or 180 days prior to start-
                         up if you are a new facility.
  ICtNPDCS)	ISO days before your present NPOES per-
                         mit expires*.
                        180 days prior to startup.
                      . .Existing   facility:  Six  months following
                         publication of regulations  listing hazard-
                         ous wastes.
                        New facility: 180 days before commencing
                         physical construction.
TaMe 2 tcontinutd)

 *(UIC)	A reasonable  time .prior to construction
                         for new wells; as directed by the Director
                         for existing wells.
 S(PSO)	Prior  to commencement of construction.

 ' Please  note that some of these forms are not yet available for use
 and ere listed as  "Reserved" at the beginning of these instructions.
 Contact your EPA Regional office for information on current appli-
 cation requirement! and forms.

 * If your present permit expires on or before November 30, 1980, the
 filing date is the  date on  which your permit expires. If your permit
 expires during the period December  1, 1980 — May 31, 1981, the fil-
 ing date is 90 dayi before your permit expires.

Federal regulations provide that you may not begin to construct a
new source in the NPDES program, a new hazardous waste management
facility, a new infection well, or a facility covered by the PSD program
before the issuance of a  permit under the applicable program. Please
note that if you are required to  obtain a permit before beginning con-
struction,  es  described above, you may need to submit your permit
application well in advance  of en appliceble deadline listed in Table 2.
The U.S. EPA does not require e fee for apply irvg for eny permit under
the consolidated permit programs. Mowteivr, fame Scant which ad-
miniittr one or mom of tftase progrtmt nquirt tut for Me perm/at
nnfiich th«y ittutj
Availability of Information to Public

Information contained in these application forms will, upon request,
be made available to the public for inspection and copying. However,
you may request confidential treatment for certain information which
you submit  on  certain supplementary forms. The specific instructions
for each supplementary  form state what information on the form, if
any, may be claimed as confidential and what procedures govern the
claim. No information on Forms 1 and 2A through 2D may be claimed
as confidential.
Completion of Forme

Unless otherwise specified in  instructions to the forms, each item In
each form must be answered.  To indicate that each item has been con-
sidered, enter  "NA," for not  applicable, if a particular item does not
fit  the  circumstances or characteristics of  your facility or activity,

If you have previously submitted information to EPA or to en approved
State agency which answers a question, you may either  repeat the in-
formation in the space provided or attach a  copy of the previous sub-
mission. Some items in the form require narrative explanation. If more
space is necassery to answer a question, attach a separate sheet entitled
"Additional Information."
Financial Assistance for Pollution Control

There ere a number of direct loans, loan guarantees, and grants available
to firms and communities for pollution control expenditures. These are
provided by the Small Business Administration, the Economic Devel-
opment Administration, the Farmers Home Administration,  and the
Department of Housing and Urban Development. Each EPA Regional
office rTa0/« 1) has an economic assistance coordinator who can pro-
vide you with additional information.

EPA's construction grants program under Title II of the Clean Water
Act  is an  additional source of assistance to publicly  owned treatment
works. Contact your EPA Regional office for details.
                                                                   1-2

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                                       SECTION B - FORM 1 LINE-BY-LINE INSTRUCTIONS
This form ">utt be completed by ell applicants.
Completing Thte fun*

Please type or print in  the unshaded arm only. Some items heve imail
graduation marks in the fill-in spaces. These marks indicate the num-
ber of characters that may b* entered into our data lystam. The marks
art spaced at 1/6" interval* which accommodata elite type 112 chine-
ttn per inch!.  If you  usa another typa you may ignore tha marks. I*
you print, place each character between the mark*. Abbreviate if neces-
sary to  stay within the number of  character* allowed  for each item.
Use one space for breaks  between words,  but not for punctuation
marks unless they are needed to clarify your response.
     I

Space is provided at the upper right hand corner of Form 1 for inser-
tion of your EPA Identification Number. If you haw an existing facil-
ity, antar your Identification  Number. If you don't know your EPA
identification Number, please contact your EPA Regional office (Tgbti
ft,  which will provide you with your number. If your facility ii new
(notyttconttmcttdl, leave this item blank.
     II

Answer each question to determine which supplementary forms you
need to fill out.  Be sura  to check  the glossary in Section 0 of these
instructions for the  legal  definitions of the bold faced wonts.  Check
Section C  of  these  instructions to determine whether your activity
is excluded from permit requirements.

If you answer "no" to every question, then you do not need a permit,
and you do not need to complete and return any  of these  forms.

If you answer "yes" to any question, then  you must complete and file
the supplementary form by the deadline listed in Table 2 along with
this form.  ITh* tpptictbl* form number follow? aacA Question unit it
tnctoftd in p*y»/>«/>**«J You need not submit a supplementary form if
you  already have a permit under  the appropriate Federal  program,
unless your permit is due to expire and you wish to renew your permit.

Questions (I) and (J) of Item II refer to major new or modified sources
subject to  Prevention of Significant Deterioration IPSD) requirements
under tha Clean Air Act. For the purpose of the PSD program, major
sources are defined as: {A) Sources listed in Table 3 which have the po-
tential to emit 100 toni or more per year emissions; and (B) All other
sources with  the potential to  emit 250 tons or more par  year. See
Section C of  these instructions for discussion of exclusions of certain
modified sources.

TaWa 3. 2S Industrial Categories Lieted In Section 189(1) of the Oeen
Air Act of 1977

Fossil  fuel—fired steam generators of more than 250 million  BTU per
 hour heat input;
Coal deeming plants Mth thtrmtl drytnl;
Kraft pulp mills;
Portland cement plants;
Primary zinc smelters;
Iron and steel  mill plants;
Primary aluminum ore reduction plants;
Primary copper smelteri;
Municipal incinerators capable  of charging more than 250 tons of re-
 fuse per day;
Hydrofluoric acid plants;
Nitric acid plants;
Sulf uric acid plants;
Petroleum refineries;
Lime plants;
Phosphate rock processing plants;
Coke oven  batteries;
Sulfur recovery plants;
Carbon black plants (furract procttt);
Primary lead smelters;
Fuel conversion plants;
Sintering plants;
Secondary  metal production plants;
Chemical process plants;
Fossil fuel  boilers  for combinttion thereof) totaling more  than 250
 million BTU per hour heat input;
Table 3 Icontinutdi

Petroleum  storage and transfer  units with  a total storage capacity
 exceeding 300,000 barrels;
Taconite ore processing plants;
Glass fiber processing plants; and
Charcoal production  plants.
Item III

Enter  the  facility's official or legal name. Do not use a colloquial
name.
Item IV

Give the name, title, and work telephone number of a person who is
thoroughly familiar with the operation of the facility and with the facts
reported in this application and who can be contacted by  reviewing
offices if necessary.
Item V

Give the complete mailing address of the office where correspondence
should be sent. This often is not the address used to designate the lo-
cation of the facility or activity.
Item VI

Give the address or location of tha facility identified in Item HI of this
form. If the facility lacks a street name or route number, give the most
accurate alternative geographic information ft.g.. mcfion mimbtr or
Qutrttr tfction mtmbtr from county ncordt or *t inttrtuction of fit*.
43S»nd23).
Item VII

List, in descending order of significance,  tha  four  4—digit standard
industrial  classification (SIC) codes which  best describe  your facility
in terms of the principal products or services you produce or provide.
Also, specify each classification in words. These classifications may dif-
fer from  the SIC codes describing the operetion generating the dis-
charge, air emissions, or hazardous wastes.

SIC code  numbers are descriptions which may be found in the "Stan-
dard Industrial  Classification Manual" prepared by the Executive Of-
fice of  the President, Office of Management  and Budget, which  is
available  from  the Government Printing  Office, Washington,  D.C.
Use the current edition of the manual. If you have any questions con-
cerning  the appropriate SIC code for your  facility, contact your iPA
Regional office A** r*M» V.
Item Vlll-A

Give the name, at it is legally referred to, of tha person, firm, public
organization, or any other entity which operates tha facility described
in this application. This may or may not be the same name as the fa-
cility. The operator of tha facility is the legal entity which  controls
the facility's operation rather than tha plant or site manager. Do not
use a colloquial name.
Item VIII-B

Indicate  whether the entity which operates the facility also owns  it
by marking the appropriate box.
Item VIII-C

Enter the appropriate letter to indicate the legal status of the operator
of the facility. Indicate "public" for a  facility solely owned by local
government^*) such as a city, town, county, parish, etc.
Item* VIII-D - H

Enter the telephone number and address of the operator identified in
Item Vlll-A.
                                                                    1-3

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                                 SECTION B - FORM 1 LINE-BY-LINE INSTRUCTIONS (continued)
Item IX

Indicate whether the facility is located on Indian Lands.


Item X

Give the number of each presently effective permit issued to the fa-
cility  for each program or, if you have previously filed an application
but have not yet received a permit, give the number of the application,
if any. Fill in the unshaded area only. If you have more than on* cur-
rently effective permit for your facility under a particular permit pro-
gram, you  may list additional permit numbers  on a separate sheet of
paper. List any relevant environmental Federal (e.g., permitt under the
Ocean Dumping Act, Section 404 of the Cletn Water Act or the Surface
Mining Control and Reclamation Act),  State (e.g.. State ptrmitt for
new air emission  sources  in nonattainmem treat under Pan D of the
Clean Air Act or State permits under Section 404  of the Clean  Water
Act), or local permits or applications under "other."


Item XI

Provide  a topographic map or maps of  the  area extending at least to
one mile beyond the property boundaries of the facility which clearly
show the following:

  The legal boundaries of the facility;

  The location and serial number of each of your existing and proposed
  intake and discharge structures;

  All hazardous waste management facilities;

  Each well where you inject fluids underground; and

  All  springs and surface water bodies  in the  area, plus all  drinking
  water wells within 1/4 mile of the facility  which are identified in the
  public record or otherwise known to you.

If an intake or discharge structure,  hazardous waste disposal site, or
injection well  associated with the facility is located more than one mile
from  the  plant, include it on the map, if possible.  If not, attach addi-
tional sheets describing the location of  the  structure, disposal site, or
well, and  identify  the U.S. Geological Survey (or  other) map corres-
ponding to the location.

On each map, include the map  scale, a meridian arrow  showing  north,
and latitude and longitude at the nearest whole second. On all maps of
rivers, show the direction of the current, and in tidal waters, show the
directions of the ebb and flow tides. Use a  7-1/2 minute  series map
published  by  the U.S.  Geological  Survey,   which may be obtained
through the  U.S.  Geological Survey  Offices listed below. If a 7-1/2
minute series  map has not been published for your facility sit*, than
you may use a 15 minute series map from the U.S. Geological Survey.
If neither a 7-1/2 nor  15 minute series map has been published for your
facility site, use a plat map or other  appropriate map, including  all the
requested information; in this  case,  briefly  describe land uses  in the
map area (e.g.. residential, commercial).

You may  trace your map from  a geological survey  chart, or other map
meeting the above specifications. If  you do, your map should bear a
note showing  the number or title  of the  map or chart it was  traced
from. Include the names of nearby  towns, water bodies, and other
prominent points. An example of an acceptable location map is shown
in Figure  1—1 of these instructions. (NOTE: Figure 1—1 it provided for
purposet of illustration only, and don not repretent any actual  fa-
cility.)
  U.S.G.S. OFFICES
AREA SERVED
  Eastern Mapping Center
  National Cartographic Information
  Center
  U.S.G.S.
  536 National Center
  Reston, Va. 22092
  Phone No. (703) 860-6336
Ala., Conn.,  Del., D.C.,  Fla.,
Ga., Ind.. Ky.,  Maine,  Md..
Mass.,  N.H.,  N.J.. N.Y., N.C.,
S.C., Ohio, Pa., Puerto Rico,
R.I., Tenn.,  Vt., Va., W. Va.,
and Virgin Islands.
                                      Itam XI (continued.)

                                       Mid Continent Mapping Center
                                       National Cartographic Information
                                       Center
                                       U.S.G.S.
                                       1400 Independence Road
                                       Rolla. Mo. 65401
                                       Phone No. (314)341-0861

                                       Rocky Mountain Mapping Canter
                                       National Cartographic Infomation
                                       Center
                                       U.S.G.S.
                                       Stop 504, Box 25046 Federal Center
                                       Denver, Co. 80225
                                       Phone No. (303) 234-2326

                                       Western Mapping Center
                                       National Cartographic Information
                                       Center
                                       U.S.G.S.
                                       345 Middlef ield Road
                                       Menlo Park, Ca. 94025
                                       Phone No. (415) 323-8111
                                     A.rk-: '"••  '*"».  Kans..  La.,
                                      Mich.,   Minn.  Miss   Mo
                                      N.Dak., Nebr.. Okie., S. Dak!'
                                      and Wis.
                                     Alaska, Colo., Mom., N. Max.,
                                      Tex., Utah, and Wyo.
                                     Ariz.,  Calif.,  Hawaii,  Idaho
                                      Nev.. Or«g., Wash., American
                                      Samoa,  Guam,  and  Trust
                                      Territories
                                     ItwnXII

                                     Briefly describe  the nature of your business  (e.g., product* producao
                                     or tervicet provided).
Item XIII

Federal statues provide for severe penalties for submitting falsa inform-
ation on this application form.

18 U.S.C. Section  1001 provides that "Whoever, in any matter within
the jurisdiction of any department or agency  of the United States
knowingly and willfully falsifies, conceals or covers up  by any trick,
scheme, or device  a  material fact,  or makes or uses any false writing
or document knowing same to contain any false, fictitious or fraudu-
lent statement or entry, shall  be fined not more than $10,000 or im-
prisoned not more then five years, or both."

Section 309(c)(2) of the Clean Water Act and Section  113(c)(2) of the
Clean Air Act each provide that "Any person who knowingly mekes
any false statement, representation, or certification  in any  applica-
tion, .  . . shell upon conviction, be punished by e fine of no more then
$10,000 or by imprisonment for not more then six months, or both."

In addition, Section 3008(d)(3) of  the Resource Conservation end Re-
covery Act provides for a fine  up to $25,000 per dey or imprisonment
up to one veer, or both, for e  first conviction for making a false state-
ment In any application under the Act, and for double these penalties
upon subsequent convictions.

FEDERAL REGULATIONS REQUIRE THIS APPLICATION TO BE
SIGNED AS FOLLOWS:

  A. For a corporation, by  a principal executive officer of at least the
  level  of vice president. However, if the only activity in Item II which
  is marked "yes"  is Question G, the  officer may authorize e person
  having  responsibility  for  the overall operations of the well or well
  field  to sign the certification. In that case, the authorization must be
  written end submitted to the permitting authority.

  B. For partnership or sole proprietorship, by a general partner or the
  proprietor, respectively; or

  C. For a municipality. State, Federal,  or  other public facility, by
  either a principal executive officer  or ranking elected official.
                                                                    1-4

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                                  SECTION C - ACTIVITIES WHICH DO NOT REQUIRE PERMITS
I.  National  Pollutant Otacharge  Elimination  System Permit! Under
the Claan Wattr Act. You are not required to obtain an NPDES permit
if your discharge  n in ont of the following categories, »» provided by
the Clean  Water Act (CWAI and  by the NPDES regulation! (40 CFR
torn  122—128}. However, under Section  510 of CWA a discharge ex-
empted  from the federal NPDES requirements may still  be regulated
by  a State authority; contact your State environmental agency to de-
termine whether you need a State permit.

  A. DISCHARGES FROM VESSELS. Discharges of sewage from vet-
  Ml*, effluent  from properly functioning  marine engines, laundry,
  shower, and galley sink wastes, and any other discharge  incidental to
  the  normal operation  of  a vessel do not require NPDES permits.
  However, discharges of rubbish, trash, garbage, or othtf such mater-
  ials discharged overboard require permits, and so do  other discharges
  when the vessel is operating in a capacity other than as a means of
  transportation, such as when the vessel is being used as in energy or
  mining facility, a storage facility, or a seafood processing fecility, or
  is secured to the bed of the ocean, contiguous zone, or waters of the
  United States for the  purpose  of mineral  or oil exploration or de-
  velopment.

  B. DREDGED OR  FILL MATERIAL.  Discharges of dredged or fill
  material into waters of the United States do not need NPDES permits
  if the dredging or filling is authorized by a permit issued by the U.S.
  Army  Corps of  Engineers or an EPA  approved State under Section
  404 of CWA.

  C. DISCHARGES INTO PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS
  (POTWI. The introduction of sewage, industrial wastes, or other pol-
  lutants into a POTW  does  not need an NPDES permit.  You mutt
  comply  with  ell  applicable pretreatment  standards   promulgated
  under Section 307(b) of CWA, which may  be included in the permit
  issued to the POTW. If you have a plan or  an agreement to twitch
 to a POTW in the future, this does not relieve you of the obligation
 to apply for and receive an NPDES permit  until you have stopped
 discharging pollutants into waters of the United States.

  (NOTE:  Ditchargert into  privately owned treatment work* do not
 Aave to epply for or obtain NPDES permit* except  at otherwiie re-
 quired by the EPA Regional Adminittretor.  Tht owner or operator
 of the treatment work* ittelf, however, mutt apply for a permit end
 identify ell umn in it* application, Utert  to identified will receive
 public notice ofectt'ont taken on the permit for the treatment workt.1

  D.  DISCHARGES FROM AGRICULTURAL AND  SILVICULTUR-
 AL ACTIVITIES.  Most discharges from  agricultural and silviculture!
 activities to waters of  the United States do not require  NPD1S per-
 mits. These include runoff from orchards, cultivated crops, pastures,
 range lands, and forest lands. However, the discharges  lifted below
 do require  NPDES permits. Definitions of the terms  lilted below are
 contained in the Glossary section of these instructions.

   1.  Discharges  from  Concentrated  Animal  Feeding  Operations.
   (Set  Glossary  for definition!  of "animal fading operetfont" end
   "concentrated animal fading  operationi." Only the letter require
   permit*.)

   2.  Discharges  from  Concentrated  Aquatic  Animal  Production
   Facilities. (See Slonery for tize cutofft.l

   3,  Discharge!  associated  with approved  Aquaculture  Projects.

   4.  Discharges from Silviculture! Point Sources. /Sew  G/ouary  for
   th* definition  of "tilvicultural  point  tource.") Nonpoint source
   tilvicultural activities are  excluded from NPDES  permit require-
   ments.  However, some of  these activities, such es stream crossings
   for roadi, may involve point  source discharges of dredged or fill
   material which  may  require  a Section 404 permit. See 33 CFR
   209.120.

 E. DISCHARGES IN  COMPLIANCE  WITH AN ON-SCENE CO-
 ORDINATOR'S INSTRUCTIONS.
 it. Hazardous Wade  Permits Under th« Resource Conservation and
 Recovery Act Yoy may be excluded from the requirement to obtain
 a  permit under  this program  if you fall  into one of the following
 categories:

  Generators who accumulate their own hazardous want on—site for
  leu than 90 days as provided in 40 CFR 262.34;

  Farmers who dispose of hazardous waste pesticide from their own use
  as provided in 40 CFR  262.51;

  Certain persons treating, storing, or disposing of small quantities of
  hazardous waste as provided in 40 CFR 261.4 or 261.5; and

  Owners and operators of totally enclosed treatment facilities as de-
  fined in 40 CFR 260.10.

 Check with your Regional office for details. Please note that even  if
 you are  excluded from  permit raquirements, you may be required by
 Federal regulations to handle your watte in a particular manner.
III. Underground Injection Control Permits Under the Safe Drinking
Water Act. You are not required to obtain a permit under this program
if you:

  Inject into existing wells used to enhance recovery of oil and gas or
  to store hydrocarbons (note, however, that thete underground injec-
  tion* an regulated by Federel ruin); or

  Inject into or above a stratum which contains, within 1/4 mile of the
  wall bora, an underground source of drinking water (unleu your in-
  Action it tru type identified in  I tarn II-H, for which you do need a
  permit). However, you must notify EPA of your  injection and submit
  certain required information on  forms supplied by the  Agency, and
  your operation may be phased out if you are a generator  of hazardous
  wastes  or a  hazardous waste management facility  which uses wells
  or septic tanks to dispose of hazardous waste.
IV. Prevention  of  Significant Deterioration Permits Under the Claan
Air Act. The PSD  program applies to newly constructed or modified
facilities (both of which ere referred to at "new tourcet"! which in-
crease air emissions. The Claan Air Act Amendments of 1977 exclude
small new sources of air emissions from the PSD review program. Any
new source in an industrial category lilted in Table 3 of these instruc-
tion! whose potential  to emit is lest than  100 tons per year is not re-
quired to get a PSD permit. In addition, any new source in an industrial
category not listed in Table 3 whose potential to emit it lest than 250
tons per year it exempted from the PSD requirements.

Modified sources which increase their  net emissions  (the  difference
between  the total  emittion increase* end tola/ emimion decreases n
the tource) lets than the significant amount tat forth in  EPA regulations
are also exempt from PSD requirements. Contact your EPA Regional
office (Table 11  for further information.
                                                                  1-5

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                                                      SECTION D - GLOSSARY
NOTE: This Glossary includes terms used in the instruction! and in Forms 1, 28, 2C, and 3. Additional termi will bt included in the
future when other forms are developed to reflect the requirements of other parts of the Consolidated Permits Program. If you have
any questions concerning the meaning of any of these terms, please contact your EPA Regional office (Tibfa 1).
ALIQUOT meant • sample of specified volume used to make up * total
composite semple.
ANIMAL  FEEDING  OPERATION means • lot or facility (otrmr (nan
an tquttic tnirrml production futility! whir* the following conditions
•re m*t:

  A. Animals tottigr tncn tquttic tnimils! have been, »r», or will be
  stabled or  confined and ftd or maintained for a total of 45 dayl or
  more in any 12 month period; and

  8.  Crops, vegetation, forage growth, or pott—harvest residua*ara not
  sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot
  or  facility.

Two or  more  animal feeding operations under common ownership
ar* a singla  animal feeding operation if they adjoin  each  other or if
they use a common area or lystam for the disposal of wastes.
 ANIMAL UNIT maeni a unit of measurement for any animal feeding
 operation calculated by adding the following numbers: The number of
 slaughter and feeder  cattle multiplied by 1,0; Plus the number of ma-
 ture dairy cattle multiplied by  1.4; Plus the number of swine weighing
 over 25 kilograms (tpproxirrntv/y 55 pound*) multiplied by 0.4; Plus
 the  number of sheep multiplied by  0.1; Plus the number of horses
 multiplied by 2.0.
APPLICATION meant the EPA standard national forms for applying
for a permit, including any additions, revisions, or modifications to the
forms; or forms approved by EPA for use in approved States, including
any approved modifications or revisions. For  RCRA, "application"
also means "Application, Part B."
APPLICATION, PART A means that part of the Consolidated Permit
Application forms which a  RCRA permit applicant must complete to
Qualify for interim status under Section 3006(e) of RCRA and for con-
sideration for a permit. Part A consists of Form 1 fGtemml Inform*-
Han) and Form 3 (Hutrdoui rVwfa Appltcttioa form).
APPLICATION, PART B means that part of the application which a
RCRA permit applicant mutt complete to be issued a permit. MOTS:
EPA it not dtveVopmp a apaci/ac form for fls/i 8 of tt>* permit appli-
cation, but an inttruction oookltt txpMning  t*ri*t information mutt lit
•upplitdit avaWaMe from tfi» EPA rTeeftna/ office./
 APPROVED  PROGRAM or APPROVED STATE means a State pro-
 gram which has been approved or authorized by EPA under 40 CFR
 Part 123.
 AQUACULTURE PROJECT  means a  defined managed water  area
 which uses discharge* of pollutants into that designated area for the
 maintenance  or production  of harvertable freshwater,  astuarina, or
 marine plants or animals. "Designated area" means the portions of the
 waters of the United  States within which the applicant  plans to  con-
 fine the cultivated species, using a method of plan or operation Hnctud-
 ing. out not  /wn/rwrf to, ftVtvafca/ eonfintmtnt) which, on the basis of
 reliable scientific evidence, is expected to ensure the specific individual
 organisms comprising  an aqoaculture crop will enjoy increased growth
 attributable to the discharge of pollutants and be hervested within e
 defined geographic area.
 AQUIFER means a geological formation, group of formations, or part
 of a formation that is capable of yielding e significant amount of water
 to e well or spring.
 AREA  OF  REVIEW meant  the area surrounding  an injection well
 which is described according to the criteria set forth in 40 CFR Section
 146.06.
AREA PERMIT means a UIC permit applicable to ell or certain walls
within a geographic eree, rather than to a specified well, under 40 CFR
Section 122.37.
ATTAINMENT AREA meens, for any air pollutant, an aree which has
been designated  under  Section  107 of the Clean  Air Act as having
ambient air quality levels better than any national primary or secondary
ambient air quality standard for that pollutant. Standards have been set
for sulfur oxides, paniculate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monox-
ide,  ozone, lead, and hydrocarbons. For purposes of  the Glossary,
"attainment area" also refers to "unclassifiable area," which means,
for any pollutants, an area designated under Section 107 a* unclassi-
fiable with  respect to that pollutant due to insufficient  information.
BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES <8Mf>) means schedules of activi-
ties, prohibitions of practices, maintenance procedures, and other man-
agement practices to  prevent or reduce the pollution of waters of the
United States. BMP's  include treatment requirements, operation proce-
dures,  and practices  to control  plant site runoff,  spillage or leaks,
sludge or waste disposal, or drainage from raw material storage.
BIOLOGICAL MONITORING TEST  means any test which includes
the use of aquatic algal, invertebrate, or vertebrate species to measure
acute or chronic toxicity, and any biological or chemical measure of
bioeccumulation.
BYPASS means the intentional diversion of wastes from any any por-
tion of a treatment facility.
CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATION meens en animal
feeding operation which meets the criteria set forth in either (A) or (B)
below or which  the  Director designates as such on e case— by— case
basis:

  A.  More than the numbers of animals specified in any of the follow-
  ing categories are confined:

   1 . 1 ,000 slaughter or feeder cattle,

   2. 700 mature dairy cattle (wfittfur milktd or dry cowtl,

   3. 2,500 swina each  weighing over  26 kilograms tfpproximttoly
   5S pound*),

   4. 500 horses,

   6. 10,000 sheep or lambs,

   6. 55,000 turkeys.

   7, 100,000 laying hens or broilers (if tn* facility  fit* t eontinuout
   overflow tm
   B. 30,000 laying hens or broilers Iff tt\t facility h»t * liquid minurt
   handling tyittml.

   9. 6,000 ducks, or

  10. 1 ,000 animal units; or

  B. More than the following numbers and types of animals ara con-
  fined;

   1 . 300 slaughter or feeder cattle,

   2, 200 mature dairy cattle (wftithfr milked or dry cowtl,

   3, 750 twine  each weighing over 25 kilograms foproximtttly 55
   poundtl,

   4. 150 hones,
                                                                  1-6

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                                                SECTION D - GLOSSARY (continued)
CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATION (continual)

   5. 3,000 sheep or Iambi.

   6. 16,500 turkeys,

   7. 30,000  laying  hens or broilers  (if the facility hit continuout
   overflow watering).

   8. 9,000 laying bans or broilers (if the facility his » liquid manure
   handling system!,

   9. 1,600 ducks, or

  10. 300 animal units; AND

   Either one  of  the following conditions are met: Pollutants are dis-
   charged  into waters of the United States through a manmade ditch,
   flushing  system  or  other similar manmade device  ("manmade"
   means contracted by men ind tiled for the purpose of transporting
   wastes!; or Pollutants are discharged directly into waters of the
   Unites States which originate outside of and pass  over, across,  or
   through the facility or otherwise come into direct contact with the
   animals confined in the operation.

   Provided, however, that no animal  feeding operation  is a  concen-
   trated animal  feeding  operation as  defined above if such animal
   feeding operation discharges only in the event of a 25 year,  24 hour
   storm event.
CONCENTRATED  AQUATIC ANIMAL PRODUCTION  FACILITY
means a hatchery, fish farm, or other facility which contains, grows or
holds aquatic animals in either of the following categories, or which the
Director designates as such on a case—by—case basis:

  A. Cold water fish species or other cold water aquatic animals includ-
  ing, but not limited to,  the Salmonidae family of fish (e.g.,  trout end
  salmon) in  ponds,  raceways or other  similar structures which dis-
  charge at least 30 days per year but does not include:

    1. Facilities which produce less than 9,090 harvest weight  kilograms
    (approximately 20,000 poundtl of aquatic animals per  year; and

    2. Facilities  which feed less than 2,272 kilograms  (approximately
    5,000 pounds!  of  food during the calendar month of maximum
    feeding.

  B. Warm water fish species  or other  warm  water  aquatic animals
  including,  but not limited to, the Ameiuridae, Cetrarchidae, and
  Cyprinidae families of  fish (e.g., respectively, catfish, sunfish. and
  minnows) in ponds, raceways,  or other similar structures which dis-
  charge at least 30 days per year, but does not include:

    1. Closed ponds which discharge only during periods of excess run-
    off; or

    2. Facilities  which produce  less than 45,454 harvest weight kilo-
   grams (approximately  tOO.OOO pounds) of aquatic animals per year.
CONTACT COOLING WATER means water used to reduce tempera-
ture which comes into contact with a raw material, intermediate pro-
duct, waste product other than heat, or finished product.
CONTAINER means any portable device in which a material is stored,
transported, treated, disposed of, or otherwise handled.


CONTIGUOUS ZONE means the entire zone established by the United
States under article 24 of the convention of the Territorial Sea and the
Contiguous Zone.
CWA  means the Clean Water  Act (formerly referred to the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act}  Pub. L. 92-500. as amended by Pub.
L. 95-217 and Pub. L. 95-576, 33 U.S.C. 1251  etseq.


DIKE means any embankment or ridge of either natural or manmade
materials used  to prevent the 'movement of  liquids, sludges, solids, or
other materials.


DIRECT DISCHARGE  means the discharge  of  a pollutant as defined
below.
DIRECTOR means the EPA Regional  Administrator or the  State Di-
rector as the context requires.
DISCHARGE (OF A POLLUTANT) means:

  A.  Any  addition of any pollutant or combination of pollutants to
  waters of the United States from any point source; or

  B. Any addition of any  pollutant or combination of pollutants to the
  waters of the contiguous zone or the ocean from any point source
  other than a vestal or other floating craft which is being used as a
  means of transportation.

This definition includes discharges into  waters of the United States
from: Surface runoff which is collected or channelled by man; Dis-
charges through pipes, sewers, or other conveyances owned by a State,
municipality, or other person which do not lead to POTW's; and Dis-
charges  through pipes, seweri, or other conveyances, leading  into
privately owned treatment works. This term does not include an ad-
dition of pollutants by any indirect discharger.
DISPOSAL (in the ftCRA program! means the discharge, deposit, in-
jection, dumping, spilling, leaking, or placing of any hazardous waste
into or on any land or water so that the hazardous waste or any constit-
uent of it may enter the environment  or be emitted into  the  air or
discharged into any waters, including ground water.
DISPOSAL FACILITY means a facility or part of a facility at which
hazardous waste is intentionally placed into or on land or water, and
at which hazardous waste will remain after closure.
EFFLUENT  LIMITATION  means any restriction imposed by  the
Director on quantities, discharge  rates, and concentrations of pollu-
tants  which are discharged  from  point  sources into waters  of  the
United States,  the  waters  of  the continguous zone, or the  ocean.
EFFLUENT LIMITATION GUIDELINE means a regulation published
by the Administrator under Section 304(b) of the Clean Water Act to
adopt or revise effluent limitations.
ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION  AGENCY  (EPA)  means  the
United States Environmental Protection Agency.
EPA IDENTIFICATION NUMBER means the number assigned by EPA
to each generator, transporter, and facility.
EXEMPTED AQUIFER means an aquifer or its portion that meets the
criteria in the definition of USDW, but which has been exempted ac-
cording to the procedures in 40 CFR Section 122.35(b).


EXISTING HWM FACILITY means a Hazardous Waste Management
facility which was in operation, or for which construction had com-
menced, on or before October 21, 1976. Construction had commenced
if (A) the owner or operator had obtained all necessary Federal. State,
and local preconstruction approvals or permits, and either  (B1) a con-
tinuous  on-site,  physical  construction program had  begun, or  (B2)
the owner or operator had entered into contractual obligations, which
could not be cancelled or modified without substantial loss, for con-
struction of  the  facility  to be  completed  within a reasonable time.

  (NOTE: This definition  reflects the literal language of  the statute.
  However, EPA believes that amendments to RCRA now in conference
  will shortly be enacted and will change the date for determining when
  a facility is an "existing facility" to one no earlier than May of 1980;
  indications  are  the  conferees  are  considering October 30  1980.
  Accordingly, EPA encourages every owner or operator of a facility
  which  was built or under construction as of the promulgation date of
  the  RCRA program regulations to file Part A of its permit application
  so that it can be quickly processed for interim status when the change
  in the law takes  effect.  When those amendments are enacted, EPA will
  amend this definition.)


EXISTING SOURCE  or EXISTING DISCHARGER  (in  the NPDES
program)  means any source which is not a new source or a  new dis-
charger.
                                                                   1-7

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                                               SECTION D - GLOSSARY (continued)
EXISTING INJECTION WELL means in injection
new injection well.
                                                til other thin •
FACILITY means my HWM facility, UIC underground injection well,
NPDES  point source, PSD stationary tourct, or my other facility or
activity  /including /and or jppuriWMncm thfrttol that it subject to
regulation under the RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or PSD program.
FLUID meant material or substance which flown or moves whether In
• semisoltd, liquid, sludge, gas, or any other form or rtate.
GENERATOR means any person by site, whost act or process products
hazardous watte identified or listed in 40 CFR Part 261.
GROUNDWATER meant water below the land surface in a zone of
saturation.
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE means any of the substances designated
under 40  CFR Part  116 pursuant to Section 311 of CWA. (NOTE:
Theu tututtnctt art lilted in T*t>/» 3c—4 of ttit innruction* to Form
SCI
HAZARDOUS WASTE means a hazardous waste as daf inad in 40 CFR
Section 261.3 published May 19, 1980,
HAZARDOUS WASTE  MANAGEMENT. FACILITY {HWM ftcilityl
means all contiguous land, structures,  appurtenances, and improve-
ments on the land, used  for treating, storing, or disposing of hazardous
wastes. A facility may consist of several  treatment, storage, or disposal
Operational units (fear txtmpt*, on* or mart Itndfillt. turf*c» impound-
mtntt. Of combintt'oni of thtml.
 IN OPERATION means a facility which is treating, storing, or disposing
 of hazardous waste.
 INCINERATOR (in (fit ft C ft A program 1 meant an enclosed device
 using controlled flame combustion, the primary purpose of which is to
 thermally break down hazardous waste. Examples of incinerators art
 rotary kiln, fluidiztd bed, and liquid injection incinerators.
 INDIRECT DISCHARGER  means a nondomastic discharger introduc-
 ing pollutants to a publicly owned treatment works.
INJECTION WELL  means a well into which fluid* are being injected.
INTERIM AUTHORIZATION  means  approval by  EPA of a State
hazardous waste program which has mat the requirements of Section
3006(cl of RCRA and applicable requirements of 40 CFR Part 123,
Subparts A, B. and F.
LANDFILL means a disposal facility or part of a facility where hazard*
ous waste is placed in or on land and which is not a land treatment
facility, a surface impoundment, or an injection well.
LAND TREATMENT FACILITY (in  trie RCflA prognml means a
facility or part of a facility at which hazardous waste Is applied onto or
incorporated into the soil  surface, such facilities are disposal facilities
if the waste will remain after closure.
LISTED  STATE  means a  State listed by  the Administrator  under
Section 1422 of SDWA as needing a State UIC program,


MGD means millions of gallons per day.
MUNICIPALITY means a city, village, town, borough, county, parish,
district, association, or other  public body created by or under State
law and having jurisdiction over disposal of sewage, industrial wastes,
or other wastes, or an Indian trite or an authorized Indian tribal organ-
ization, or  a  designated  and approved management agency  under
Section 208 of CWA.
NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE  ELIMINATION  SYSTEM
(NPOES) means the national program for issuing modifying, revoking
and  reissuing,  terminating, monitoring,  and enforcing  permits and
imposing and  enforcing pretreatment  requirements, under Sections
307, 318, 402,  and 405  of CWA.  The term includes  an  approved
program.
NEW  DISCHARGER means any building, structure, facility, or instal-
lation: (A) From which there is or may be a new or additional discharge
of pollutants at a site at which on October 18, 1972, it had never dis-
charged pollutants;  (Bl Which  hat  never received a finally effective
NPDES permit for discharges at that site; and (C) Which is not a "new
source." This definition includes an  indirect discharger which com-
mences discharging into waters of the United States, It also includes
any existing mobile point source, such as an offshore oil drilling rig,
seafood processing vessel, or aggregate  plant that begins discharging
at a location for which it does not have an existing permit.
NEW HWM FACILITY means a Hazardous Watte Management facility
which began  operation or for  which construction commenced after
October 21,1976.
NEW INJECTION WELL meens a well which begins injection after a
UIC program for the State in which the well is located it approved.
NEW SOURCE (in trie NPDES prognml means any building, structure,
facility, or installation from which there is or may  be a discharge of
pollutants, the construction of which commenced:

  A. After promulgation of standards of performance under Section
  306 of CWA which era applicable to such source; or

  B. After proposal of standards of  performance in accordance with
  Section 306 of CWA which are applicable to such source, but only if
  the standards are promulgated in accordance with Section 306 within
  120 days of their proposal.
NON-CONTACT COOLING  WATER means water used to reduce
temperature which does not coma into direct contact with any  raw
material, intermediate product, waste product  (other rtafi fit»t), or
finished product.
OFF—SITE means any site which it not "on—site."


ON-SITE means on  the same or geographically contiguous property
which may be divided by public or private rightfW—of—way, provided
the entrance and exit between the properties is at a cross—roads Inter-
section, and  access is  by crossing as opposed to going along, the
rightW-of—way. Non-contiguous properties owned by the same per-
son, but connected by a right—of—way which the person controls and
to which the public doe* not have access,  is also considered on-tite
property.


OPEN BURNING means the combustion of any material without the
following characteristics:

  A. Control of combustion air to maintain adequate temperature for
  efficient combustion;

  B. Containment of the combustion—reaction  in an enclosed device
  to provide sufficient residence time and mixing for complete  com-
  bustion; and

  C. Control of emission of the gaseous combustion products.

(Sf« a/KJ "incintntof" tnd "tnermaV rr*e«m«nr'V.


OPERATOR means the person  responsible for the overall operation
of a facility.


OUTFALL means a point source.


OWNER means  the person who owns a facility or part of a facility.
                                                                  1-8

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                                                SECTION D - GLOSSARY (continued}
 PERMIT means tn authorization, license, or equivalent control docu-
 ment issued by EPA or *n approved State  to Implement the require-
 ments of 40 CFR Pert* 122, 123, and 124.
 PHYSICAL CONSTRUCTION lin the RCRA program) means
 tion, movement of Mrth, erection of formi or ttructum, or  similar
 activity (o prepare a HWM facility to accept hazardous waste.
 PILE meant any  noncontarnerized  accumulation of solid, nonflowing
 hazardous watte thai is mad for treatment or ttoraga.
 POINT SOURCE meant any discernible, confined, and discrete convey-
 ance, including  but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel,
 conduit, (Mtll. discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated
 animal feeding operation, venal or other floating craft from which pol-
 lutants art or may be discharged. This term does not  include return
 flow* from irrigated agriculture.
POLLUTANT meant dredged spoil, solid  wast*, incinerator residue,
filter backwash, sewage, garbage,  sewage sludge,  munitions, chemical
waste, biological materials, radioactive materials (except ttiota regulated
under the Atomic Entrgy Act of 1954. at amended [42 U.S.C. Section
2011 tt IK)J/, heat, wracked  or discarded equipment, rocks, sand,
cellar dirt and  Industrial, municipal, and agriculture waste discharged
into water. It does not mean:

  A. Sewage from vessels; or

  B.  Water, gas, or other material which is injected into a well to facili-
  tate production of oil or gas, or  water derived in association with oil
  and gas production and disposed of in a well, if the well used either
  to  facilitate production  or for disposal  purpose!  is approved by
  authority of the State In  which the well is located, and if the State
  determines that the injection or disposal will not result in the degrada-
  tion of ground or surface water resources.

  (NOTE: Radioactive materials covered by th« Atomic Energy Act in
  those encompassed in in  definition of source, byproduct, or special
  nuclear materials. Example? of materials not covered include radium
  and accelerator produced isotopes.  Set  Train K.  Colorado Public
  Inuntt Rttoarch Group. Inc.. 426 U.S. 1 HS761.)
PREVENTION  OF  SIGNIFICANT DETERIORATION  IPSDl means
the national permitting program under 40 CFR S2.21 to prevent emit-
sions of certain pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act from signi-
ficantly deteriorating air quality in attainment areas.
PRIMARY INDUSTRY CATEGORY means any industry category list-
ad in the NRDC Settlement Agreement  INt rural Ret on rets  Defente
Council r. Tnin, 8 £RC 2120 (D.D.C. 197S],  modified 12 ERC 1833
[D.D.C. 19791).
PRIVATELY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS means any device or
system which  is: (A) Used  to  treat wastes from any facility whose
operator  is not the operator of the treatment works; and  (B) Not a
POTW.
PROCESS WASTEWATER means any water which, during manufactur-
ing or processing, comes  into direct contact  with or results from the
production or use of any raw material, intermediate product, finished
product, byproduct, or waste product.
PUBLICLY OWNED TREATMENT WORKS or POTW means any de-
vice or system used in the treatment {including recycling met reclama-
tion) of municipal  sewage or industrial wastes of a liquid nature which
to owned by a State or municipality. This definition includes any sew-
ers, pipes, or other conveyances only  if they convey wastewatar to a
POTW providing treatment,


RENT means use of another's property in return for regular payment.


RCRA means the Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended by the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (Pub, L. 94-S80, as amended
oyfub. L 95-609. 42 U.S. C Section 6901 etteqJ.
 ROCK CRUSHING AND GRAVEL WASHING FACILITIES are facil-
 ities which process crushed and  broken stone, gravel, and riprap  (see
 40 CFR tort 436. Subpart B. and the effluent limitations guidelines
 for tfiese facilities!.


 SDWA means the Safe Drinking Weter Act (Pub.  L. 9S-S23. as amend-
 ad by Pub. L. 95-1900, 42 U.S.C. Section 300ff] etsegj.


 SECONDARY INDUSTRY CATEGORY means any industry category
 which is not a primary industry category.
 SEWAGE FROM VESSELS means human body wastes and the wastes
 from tiolets and  other receptacles intended to receive or retain body
 wastes that are discharged from vessels and regulated under Section 312
 of CWA, except that with respect to commercial vessels on the Great
 Lake* this term includes graywater. For the purposes of this definition,
 "grsywater" means galley, bath, end shower water.
SEWAGE SLUDGE means the solids, residues, and precipitate separat-
ed from or created in sewage by the unit processes of • POTW. "Sew-
age" as used in this definition means any wastes, including wastes from
humans, households, commercial establishments, industries, and storm
water  runoff, that are discharged to or otherwise enter  a publicly
owned treatment works.
 SILVICULTURAL POINT SOURCE means any discernable, confined,
 and discrete  conveyance related to rock crushing, gravel washing, log
 sorting, or log storage facilities which are operated in connection with
 silvicultural activities and from  which pollutants are discharged  into
 waters  of the  United States, This term does not  include nonpoint
 source silviculture! activities such as nursery operations, site prepara-
 tion, reforestation and  subsequent cultural treatment, thinning,  pre-
 scribed burning, peit and fire control, harvesting operations, surface
 drainage,  or  road construction and maintenance  from which there  is
 natural runoff.  However, some of these activities (sucti as stream cross-
 ing for rote/si may  involve point source discharges of  dredged or fill
 material which may  require a CWA Section 404  permit. "Log sorting
 and log storage facilities" are facilities whose discharges result from the
 holding of unprocessed wood, e.g., logs or roundwood with bark or
 after removal of bark in self-contained bodies of water {mill ponds or
 log ponds) or stored on lend where water  is applied intentionally on
 the logs (wet decking!. (See 40 CFR Part 429. Subpart J, and trie efflu-
 ent limitations guidelines for these facilities.)
 STATE means any  of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Guam,
 the  Commonwealth of Puerto  Rico, the  Virgin Islands, American
 Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (except in thecate of
 RCRA!. end the Commonwealth of the Northern  Mariana Islands
 (except in the cast of CWA).
STATIONARY SOURCE  (in tte PSD program) means any building,
structure, facility, or installation which emits or may emit any air pol-
lutant regulated under the Clean Air Act. "Suilding, structure, facility,
or  installation" means any  grouping o< pollutant—emitting activities
which are located on one or more contiguous or adjacent properties
and which are owned or operated by the same person (or by persons
under common control).
STORAGE (in rt» RCRA program) means the  holding of hazardous
waste for e temporary period at the end of which the hazardous waste
ii treated, disposed, or stored elsewhere.
STORM WATER RUNOFF means water discharged as a result of rain,
snow, or other precipitation.


SURFACE IMPOUNDMENT or IMPOUNDMENT means a facility or
part of a  facility which is a natural topographic depression, manmade
excavation, or diked  area formed primarily of  earthen materials (al-
though it may be lined with manmade materials), which is designed to
hold an accumulation  of liquid wastes or wastes containing free liquids,
and which is  not an injection well. Examples of surface impoundments
are holding,  storage,  settling,  and aeration pits, ponds, and  lagoons.


TANK (in the RCRA program) means a stationary device, designed to
contain an accumulation of hazardous wattt which is constructed pre-
marily  of non—earthen materials (e.g.. wood, concrete, steel,  plastic!
which provide structural support.
                                                                  1-9

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                                                SECTION D - GLOSSARY (continued)
THERMAL TREATMENT  tin rti RCRA prognml means the treat-
mtnt of hazardous watte in  • device which u*n elevated temperature at
the primary maani to change the chemical, physical, or biological char-
acter or  composition of  the  hazardous watte. Examples of thermal
treatment processes are incineration, molten salt, pyrolysis, calcination,
wet air oxidation, and microwave discharge, /Sew ilto "incinerator" ind
"open burning").
TOTALLY ENCLOSED TREATMENT FACILITY (in the RCRA pro-
gnml means a facility for the treatment of hazardous waste which is di-
rectly connected to an  industrial production process and which is con-
structed and operated in a manner which prevents the release of any
hazardous waste or any constituent thereof into the environment dur-
ing treatment. An example is a pipe in which waste acid is neutralized.
TOXIC POLLUTANT means any pollutant lined as toxic under Section
307(e)(1] of CWA.
TRANSPORTER tin the fICftA prognml means * person engaged in
the off—site transportation of hazardous waste by air, rail, highway, or
water.
TREATMENT tin the RCRA prognml means any method, technique.
or process, including neutralization, designed to  change the physical,
chemical, or biological character  or composition of  any hazardous
waste so as to neutralize such waste, or so as to recover energy or ma-
terial resources from the waste, or so as to render  such waste non—haz-
ardous, or less hazardous; safer to transport, store, or dispose of; or
amenable for  recovery, amenable for storage,  or reduced in volume.
UNDERGROUND INJECTION means well injection.
UNDERGROUND SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER or USDW means
an aquifer or iti portion which is not an exempted aquifer and:

  A. Which supplies drinking water for human consumption; or

  B. In which the ground water contains fewer than 10,000 mg/l total
  dissolved solids.
 UPSET means an exceptional incident in which there is unintentional
 and temporary noncompliance with technology—based permit effluent
 limitations because of fictori beyond the reasonable control of the
 permittee.  An upset does not  include noncompliance  to the extent
 caused by  operational error, improperly designed  treatment facilities,
 inadequate treatment facilities, lack of preventive maintenance, or care-
 lets or improper operation.
WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES meam:

  A. All waters which ere currently used, were used in the past, or may
  be susceptible to use in  interstate or foreign commerce, including
  all waters which are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide;

  B. All interstate waters, including interstate wetlands,

  C. All other  waters tuch at intrasiate lakes, rivers, stream* {including
  intermittent  ttretmt).  mudflats, sandflats, wetlands, sloughs, prairie
  potholes, wet meadows,  playa lakes,  and natural ponds, the use,
  degradation,  or destruction of  which  would or could affect interstate
  or foreign commerce including  any such waters:

    1. Which are or could be used by interstate or foreign travelers for
    recreational or other purposes,

    2. From which fish  or shellfish are or could be taken and sold in
    interstate or foreign commerce,

    3. Which are used or could  be used  for industrial purposes by in-
    dustries in interstate commerce;

  D. All  impoundments of waters otherwise  defined as  waters of the
  United States under this definition;

  E. Tributaries of  waters identified in paragraphs  (A)  - (D) above;

  F, The  territorial sea; and

  G. Wetlands  adjacent to waters (otittr ttttn waters that an themselves
  wttltndt) identified in paragraphs (A! — (F) of this definition.

Waste treatment systems, including treatment ponds or lagoons design-
ed  to meet requirement of CWA lather thin  cooling ponds at defined
in 40 CFR Section 423,11 (ml  which tl$o meet the criterit of this
definition) are not waters of the United States. This exclusion applies
only to manmade bodies of water which neither were originally created
in waters of the United  States (tuch ts t ditpout tret in wetlands] nor
resulted  from  the  impoundments of  waters  of the United  States.
WELL INJECTION  or UNDERGROUND INJECTION means the sub-
surface emplacement of fluids through a bored, drilled, or driven well;
or through a dug well, where the depth of the dug well is greater than
the largest surface dimension.
WETLANDS means those areas that are inundated or saturated by
surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to sup-
port, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of
vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wet-
lands  generally include swamps,  marshes,  bogs,  and similar areas.
                                                                  1-10

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•n
O
C

m
  40° 47' 30"
                                                                                                                    -.
                                                                                         „  CENTRAL PROCESSING CO
                                                                                                                              UIM GRID AND 19'0 MAGNCTIC NORTH
                                                                                                                               DECLINATION AT CENTER OF SHEET
                                                                                                                                USGS Map Cmtral City. Ohio
                                                                                                                                    Location M*p
                                                                                                                                    Central ProeMring Co.
           TSo 37- X"
                                                  I tlBtfllttOH 94 flMMB

-------
Please print or TvPe in the unshaded areas only
(lill-in area are spaced tor elite type, i.e.. I2chtrtcten/inchl.
                                                                                Form Approved. OMB No. 2040-0086.  Approval expires 5-31-92.
   FORM
 GENERAL
                                       0.«. ENVIRONMENTAL. PROTECTION AOENCV

                                            GENERAL INFORMATION
                                                ContoHdtWd Arm/or Prafrtm
                                        (Rtttd the "General Inttruclionl" btfort iftutlnf.)
                                                                                                 \. EPA I.D. NUMBER
 \\   \   \  \   \
 I. EPA I.D. NUMBER
 V  \   \   \  \   \
,111. FACILITY
vM
   It this a facility whicn currently rasuft* in
   to  waters of the U.S. other than those described in
   A or B above? (FORM 2C)	
     Does or will this  facility treat, store, or dispose of
     hazardous watt*' (FORM 3)
                                                                      F. Do y«u or win you inject at this facility industrial or
                                                                        municipal effluent below the lowermost stratum con-
                                                                        taining, within  one quarter  mile of the wall  bore.
                                                                        unalarground sources of drinking water? (FORM 4)
  G. Do you or mill you inject at this facility any proauead
     water or other fluids which ere brought to the surface
     in connection with conventional oil or natural ges pro-
     duction, inject fluids used for enhanced recovery of
     oil or natural gas. or inject fluids for storage of liquid
     hydrocarbons? (FORM 4)	
                                                                      H. Do vMWWiB yew infect M this facility fluids for spa-
                                                                         del procaaaas such as mining Of sulfur by the Frasch
                                                                         proeees, eatatJOn mining of minerals, in situ combus-
                                                                         tion of feeeH fuel, or retomry of geotharmal energy?
                                                                         tFOf%M4l
  I.  It thit facility a proposed stttJeiMry awirsje which Ts
     one of the 28 industrial categories lifted in the in-
     structions  and  which will potentially emit 100 torn
     per year of any  air pollutant regulated under the
     Clean Air  Act  and may affect or be located in en
     attainment area? (FORM 51
                                                                         M this facility a proposed etationary source which is
                                                                         NOT one of the 2» industrial categories listed in the
                                                                         metruaiom and which will potentially emit 260 tons
                                                                         per year of any air pollutant regulated under the Clean
                                                                         Aar Act end may affect or be located in an attainment
                             A. NAMC ft TITLE (Imt. tint, t title)
 V. FACILITY MAILING ADDRESS
 VI. FACILITY LOCATION
                  A. CTRCCT, ROOTS: NO. on OTHIR SPECIFIC IDENTIFIER
 "T"
                            S3. COUNTY NAME
                             C. CITV OR TOWN
                               -i—i—i—r
                                                                                       E. ZIP CODE
EPA  Form  3510-1  (8-90)
                                                                                                                  CONTINUE ON REVERSE

-------
CONTINUED PROM THE FRONT
 VII. SIC COOES '4-etigit, in order of priority!

                             A  FIRST
 VIII. OPERATOR INFORMATION
                                                                                                              i. It tM RWTM (MM In
                                                                                                                Item vill-A ctao MM
                                                                                                               a YES  o  NO
      C. STATUS OF OPERATOR {Enter the appropriate letter into tfte answer box, if "Other", specify. I
                                                                                                  O. PHONE farofl foiie & no.)
      FtDSHAL.
   S•STATE
   f • PRIVATE
M « PUBLIC (other men feaeral or state)
O » OTHER
                              1. STREET OH P.O. »OX
        I  I   I   I  I   I   1  I  I              I  1   i   I  I   I  I        I          I
                                                                                           IX. INDIAN LAND
                           F. CITY OB TOWN
                                                                                           It th» facility locjttd on Indun «ndi'
                                                                                                  YES     CH NO
X. EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL PERMITS
              I Discharges to Surface Water)
                         O. ftD I Air Emittioru from Proposed Sources)
     *. uie (Vnatrfrouad Injection of Fluid* >
                                  «. OTMKM ftoecifyl
         e. it en A (Hazardous Wastes)
                                   *.. OTHtm (iptctfyi
 Attach to thii applioition • topographic map of the ana extending to at toast one mil* beyond property boundari**. The map must show
 the outline of the facility, the location of each of its existing and proposed intake and discharge structure*, each of its hazardous waste
 treatment, storage, or disposal facilities, and each well when it injects fluids underground. Intfude all sprtnp, river* and other surface
 water bodies in the map area. See instructions for precise requirements.
 XII. NATURE OF BUSINESS Iprovidt m britf oncrtptionj
 XIII. CERTIFICATION tut Imtructfem)
  ttttctmwtt* ma ttut, btmd on my inquiry of Moat ptrtom Immfdfg^fy ntpontSUt for oMaMs/M» Mbrriwthn eonMntd in the
  application, I bflitvs tfot tttf information it en**, aceurvfit md compbt*. I *n *mr* Out thm ** tignificmt pmrti* for submitting
  falte information, including the posttbilfty of firm md impritonmtm.
 A. NAME & OFFICIAL TITLE ftypf Or print)
 COMMENTS FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
EPA Form 3510-1 (8-90)

-------
Please pnm or tvpe in the unshaded areas only
Ifill—in areas are spaced lor elite type, i.e.. 12 chtrtcters/inchl.
                                                                                    Form Approved.  OMB No 2040-0086. Approval expires 5-31-92.
  FORM



GENERAL
                                           U.». ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGCNCV

                                                GENERAL INFORMATION
                                                    Contotidetfd rVmvw Program
                                           IRtad thr ••Gtntral Initnictioiu" btfort itartins I
                          s1
   ^   ^    ^    kj  ^    X
 \ ' \A  \   \  \.   \
   \  \  \  \  \N
    FACILITY
    MAILING ADOI
\ \  \  \ \
 II. POLLUTANT CHARACTERISTICS
                                                                                                     If • preprinted label het been provided, affix
                                                                                                     it in the designated space. Review the inform-
                                                                                                     ation carefully; if any  of it  if incorrect, cross
                                                                                                     through  it and enter the correct data  in the
                                                                                                     appropriate fill—in area below. Alao, if any of
                                                                                                     the preprinted data is  abwnt (the are* to th»
                                                                                                     /eft  of tht Itbet apace-  littt the informetjon
                                                                                                     frier ihouU tppeerl, please  provide  it in the
                                                                                                     proper  fill—in areafrj  below.  If  the label  it
                                                                                                     complete and correct,  you need not  complete
                                                                                                     Item*  I,  III.  V, and VI (except VI-8  which
                                                                                                     matt be  completed regerd/eal. Complete all
                                                                                                     items if no label has been provided. Refer to
                                                                                                     the  instructions  for  detailed  item  descrip-
                                                                                                     tion* anal tor the  legal authorization!  under
                                                                                                     which tab data is collected.
  INSTRUCTIONS:  Complete. A throuah J to dttarmint whathar you naad to submit any parmit application forms to the EPA. If you answer "yes" to my
 .qutrttoru, you mutt submit this form and the suppssajajual fana No* in tha paranthatst fe«owm| tht qwstion. Mork "X" in the box in tht third column
 . if Uw supplemental form Is aMacfcsd.  H yen anew "BO" to oath ojKWtioii. you naad not submit any of thest forms. You miy answer "no" if your activity
  it excluded from permit raqtitoniants; asa Saetion C of tha tastnirtom. Saa also, Sarton D of tht inatructiortt for dtf initioni of boM-facad tarms.
                SPECIFIC QUESTIONS
                                                                •Tr*cM«a
                                                                                         •metric QUESTION*
                                                                                                                                    MARK  X	
                                                                                                                                     ~~   r OHM
A. Is  this  facility a
   which results  in a
   (FORM  2AI
                                         i erf the US.?
                                                                         B. Oo« or w«l thia fecttrty Ujmer mining or propped!
                                                                            ICTCHIOB  ( WMoMNHVMo MMMMl vMINflf OpWttOO Or
                                                                            •ajnatk antaHl ajiejsfcmhm faefltty which results in a
                                                                            etoharge to watet* of the UA? (FORM 28)
  C. Is  this a facility which currently results m oeitnereja*
     to waters  of the US. other than those detcribed in
     A Of 6 above? (FORM 2C)     		
                                                                         D. Is this a proposed facility fotncr tfttn tftote described
                                                                            in A or 8 ebove) which will remit in e diacharga to
                                                                            watiiittf the UJL7 (FORM 2DI	
  E. Does or will  thit facility  treat,  store, or dicpoaa of
     hazardous wastes' (FORM 3)
                                                                         F. Do you or will you inject at this facility industrial or
                                                                            municipal effluent below tha lowermost stratum con-
                                                                            taining, within  one  quarter mile of the well bore,
                                                                            underground sources of drinking water? (FORM 4)
     Do you or will you inject at this facility any prooucea
     water or other fluids which are brought to tha surface
     in connection with conventional oil or natural get pro-
     duction, inject fluids used for enhanced recovery of
     oil or natural gas, or inject fluids tor storage of liquid
     hydrocarbons? (FORM 4)	
                                                                         H. Do you or will you inject at this facility fluids for spe-
                                                                            cial processes such as mining of sulfur by the Frasch
                                                                            process, solution mining of minerals, in situ combus-
                                                                            tion of fossil fuel, or recovery of geothermal energy?
                                                                            (FOHM 4)
 I.  Is this facility i proposed aistionajY same* wnicn is
    one of  the 28 industrial  categories  listed in trte in-
    structions and  which will potentially emit 100 ton*
    per  yeer  of any  air pollutant  regulated under the
    Cleen Air  Act  and may affect  or be  located in an
    attainment area? (FORM
III. NAME OF FACILITY
                                                                             Is this facility a proposed stationery source which is
                                                                             NOT one of the 28 industrial categories listed in the
                                                                             instructions and which will potentially  emit 250 tons
                                                                             par year of any air pollutant regulated under the Clean
                                                                             Air Act and may affect or be located in en attainment
                                                                               •7 (FORM  5)
 V. FACILITY MAILING ADDRESS
                  A. STRCCT. ROUTC NO. OH OTHCH SPECIFIC IDENTIFIER
-"I"
                             e. COUNTY NAME
                ~i—i—i—i—i—i—r
                                          i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—r
                              C  CITY OR TOWN
                                                                               O STATE
6i
                                                                                         E  ZIP CODE
                                                                                                         F. COUNTY CODE
EPA  Form  3510-1  (8-90)
                                                                                                                        CONTINUE ON REVERSE

-------
CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
 VII. SIC CODES 14-digit. in order at priorityi^
                                                                                                •  SECOND
              Ispecijy/
                                                                                  (specify!
                                                                                               O. FOURTH
              (specify^
 VIII. OPERATOR INFORMATION
                                                                                                                  9. Is the name lifted in
                                                                                                                     Itwn VIH-Aalto ttw
                                                                                                                     ownar?

                                                                                                                     I] YES Cj NO
      FEDERAL
   S- STATE
   P * PRIVATE
M - PUBLIC (other than federal ornate)
O • OTHER (iptcify)
                               E. STREET OK P.O. BOX
                            F. CITV OR TOWN
                                                                                               It tht facility located on Indian lands'

                                                                                                   CH YES      Cj NO
X. EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL PERMITS
       C. STATUS OF OPCR ATOM (Enter the appropriate letter into the answer box if "Other", specify.)
                                                                                                       O. PHONE fat-ca code & no.t
      A. NPOES (Discharge! to Surface Wat*r)
                                         -U-
                          D. PSD fAir Emlisiora from Proposed Sources/
     I. uic (Underground Infection of Fluids)
                                    *.. OTHER (specify)
                                                                                          (specify/
          c. RCRA (Hazardous Wattesj
                                    c. OTHBW (iptdfyi
 Attach to this application a topographic map of ttw area extending to at tost one mile beyond property bounderies. The map must show
 the outline of the facility, the location of each of its exfeting and proposed intake and discharge structures, each of it* hazardous waste
 treatment, storage, or disposal facilities, and each well where ft injects fluids underground. Include all springs, rivers and other surface
 water bodies in the map area. See instruction* for precis* requirements.
 XII. NATURE OF BUSINESS Iprovidt» briaidmcriftionT
 XIII. CERTIFICATION fcM iratrvctiontl
  I certify under penalty of law that I have partonaity txtmitml and am famiOar with th* Information tutmfttad in th/t application and all
  attachments and that, bated on my inquiry of thoaa peraomr immatOatary responsible for obtaining the Information contained in the
  application, I believe that the information  it true, accurate and complete, I am aware that then art tignlffcant penalties for submitting
  false information, including the possibility of fine and imprisonment
 A. NAME a OFFICIAL TITLE (type or print!
 COMMENTS FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
EPA Form  3510-1  (8-90)

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APPENDIX EJ:      FORM 2F
                                78

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                                          EPA ,0 Number ;copy torn mm i Of Form !)
=cat c-  •
   topographic map is unavailable) depicting the facility including: each of its intake and discharge structures: the drainage area ot eac- v:
   water outfall: paved areas and buildings within the drainage area of each storm water outfall, each known past or present areas  .->t-
   outdoor storage or disposal of significant materials,  each existing structural control measure to reduce pollutants in storm  *ate»  . -;
   materials loading and access areas, areas where pesticides, herbicides, soil conditioners and fertilizers are applied; each o> >;s "a:i•::
   waste treatment, storage or disposal units (including each area not required to have a RCRA permit which is used for accumulating -1:1 ::
   waste under 40 CFR 262.34); each well where fluids from the facility are iniected underground; springs, and other surface water  oca «i --
   receive storm water discharges from the facility.	
EPA Form 3S10-2P (11-90)
                                                         Page t ot 3
                                                                                              Continue on >>t9* t

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Continued from the Front
 IV. Niirativa Description of Pollutant SQufCM
A.
       For each outfall. provide an estimate at the area (include units) of impervious surfaces (including paved artas and Dmldmg roofs]
       to the ourfall. and an estimate of the total surface aria drained by the outfaJI.
 Outfall
        Area of Impervious Surface
Total ATM Drained
  (o/ovid* units!	
                                                                    Outfall
Area of Impervious Surface

      fpmv/dt units)
 Total Arta Drained
—(orovida
       Provide a narrative description of significant materials that are currently or n the past tnree years nave Deen treated, stored or Disposed .n
       a manner to allow exposure to storm water; method of treatment, storage, or disposal: past znd present materials management practices
       employed. 
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 Continued from Pag« 2
                                          EPA ID NumOtf (copy from lt»m i of Form 1)
  A.B.C, & 0: See instruction* before proceeding. Complete on* set of tables (or each outfall. Annotate the outfall number in the space providto:

            Tablet Vlt-A, VII-B. and V1I-C art included on separate sheets numbered VII-1 and VII-2.
  E:  Potential discharge* not covered by analysis - is any pollutant listed in Table 2F-2 a substance or a component of a substance whicn you
     currently use or manufacture as an intermediate or final product or byproduct?                                                '

     I   |  Y«s (litt«// sucft polluting oetowj	[~~| No (go to Section IX)	
                    ticrtv Teatlno
 Do you have any knowledge or reason to believe that any biological test for acute or chronic toxicity has been made on any of your discharges or
 on a receiving water in relation to your discharge within the last 3 years?
Yes (litt all such pollutants b»low)
                                                                                         I    | No (go to Section OQ
 IX. Contract Analyaia Informatit
 Were any of the analyses reported in Item V performed by a contract laboratory or consulting firm?
Yes (litt roe name, address, and fefepnone number of, and pollutants
              MC/I «ue/> labomorv or firm ex/owl	
                                                                                         |   |  No (go to Stction X)
                 A. Name
                                               B Address
C. Area Code & Phone No.
D. Pollutants Analyzed
   / certify under  penalty of law that this  document and all  attachments were prepared  under  my direction  or
   supervision in accordance with a system  designed to assure that qualified personnel properly gather and evaluate
   the information submitted. Based on my inquiry of the person or persons who manage the system or those persons
   directly responsible for gathering the information,  the information submitted is, to the best of my knowledge and
   belief, true, accurate, and complete. I am aware that there are significant penalties for submitting false information,
   including the possibility of fine and imprisonment for knowing violations.
 A, Name & Official Title (type or print)
                                                                                B. Area Code and Phon* No
 C. Signature
                                                                                D. Date Signed
EPA Form 3S10-2F  (11>90)
                                               Page 3 of 3

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                                        5?A C Nyrrcf' .^OCy-nsm tw"  if :0
                                           CMB NO  2CJO-DC86
VII. Discnarat Information (Continued from oaae 3 of Form 2f )
Part A- You must provide the results of at least one analysis for every pollutant in this taee. Complete ont taoie 'or eac- ;yr?an ;««
instructions tor addMonai d*tailt.
Pollutant
and
CAS Ngmo»r
i:f avaiiact*)
Oil and GrtaM
5»oiogic»l 0»yg«n
Otmand (300S)
Ch«mic»J Oxyg*n
Otmand (COO)
Total Susp«ndtd
Solids (TSS)
Total Kjtidatii
Nitrogtn
Nitr»« plus
Nitni* Nitrogtn
Total
Phosphorus
Maximum Value*
f/nc/ude un/ti)
Grab Sample
Taken Owing
Rr«30
Minutes







ftow-wwgnted
Composite







Average values
(incluO* units)
Grab Sample
''FIT.!*)"8 "OW.*.igh«.d
Minutes i Composite
Numoer
of
Storm i
Events ,
Sampled! Sources of 3ciiutants
'














s
sH Mifumurfi Mammum Minimum Mammum
Part 8 • Us! tach pollutant that is imitta m an «rflutm guidtimt *hicn tnt facility i$ suBjtet to or any pollutant :.st«o m tht facmty j SPCE5
permit (or its procns watttwanr (if the facility n operating unotr an tmsting NPOES pirmit) Cornptttt o-« !act« 'or tacn 3yt*aii
SM *• instfuciions for additional dauuls and r»auirtm«nti.
Pollutant
and
CAS Number
(if avatiaDi*}






Maximum Values
(include units)
Grao Sample
Taken During
First 30
Minutes






i










































Row-weighted
Composite




























Average Values
(include units)
Grab Sample
Taken During
First 30
Minutes



	 1
Flow-weighted
Composite
Numoer |
ol
Storm
Events
Sampled! Sources c< =•: ^la^-s
]


t

!
!























!




i
' i
;
'< i












i








EPA Form 3510-2f (11-M)
Page Vil-i

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Continued from »• front
   Part C -
  L« *acn pollutant »now^ ,n Tieiea 2F-2. 2F-3, and 2F-* that you Know or nav« reason to oeneve .* present. See sue rrruaion* '
  aaaitionu 3«uii* and r««uirtm«nn. Compi«t« on* taeic for ••eft outfall.
     Pollutant
       and
   CAS Numb*
                 Maximum Values
                  (incluOt unit*)
          Or aft Sample
          Taken During
             First 30
             MinutM
              How weighted
               Composite
                                       Average Values
                                        (include unit*)
             Grab Sample
             Taken Owing
               first M
               Minutes
    Flow-weighted
      Composite
 Numoer
    of
  Storm
  Events
 Sampled
                                                                                                       Sources of Pollutants
   Part 0 •  Provide data for the storm «v«nt(s) which rtaultad m the maximum valu** tor tn« flow w*ignt*d composit* sampir
   1
 Oat* of
  S,orm
  Event
    2.
  Duration
  of Storm
(in minunt)
       3.
   Total rainfall
during ,to,m.v.n,
    (in mcr»t)
Number of hours Mtwaon
^r^^^,^
  mMSuraOl* rain evtnt
Maximum floe ratt
$^%,ZFor
   specify unit*
Total flow from
  £*£&
 ip*c/fy unit*)
  7.
S*a*on
 taken
  8.
Form of
                                                                                                                    snowmtit)
   9.  Provide a description of the method of flow measurement or estimate.
EPA Form  3510-2F  (11-90)
                                                 Page vn-2

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                                 Instructions - Form 2F

                Application for Permit to Discharge Storm Water

                         Associated with Industrial Activity

Who Must File Form 2F

Form 2F must be completed by operators of facilities which discharge storm water associated with industrial
activity or by operators of storm water discharges that EPA is evaluating for designation as a  significant
contributor of pollutants to waters of the United States, or as contributing to a violation of a water quality
standard.

Operators of discharges which are composed entirely  of storm water must complete Form 2F (EPA Form
3510-2F) in conjunction with Form 1  (EPA Form 3510-1).

Operators of discharges of storm water which are combined with process wastewater (process wastewater
is water that comes into direct contact with or results from the production or use of any raw material, interme-
diate product, finished product, byproduct, waste product, or wastewater) must complete and submit Form
2F. Form 1. and Form 20 (EPA Form 3510-20).

Operators of discharges of storm water which are combined with nonprocess  wastewater (nonprocess
wastewater includes noncontact cooling water and sanitary wastes which are not regulated by effluent guide-
lines or a new source performance  standard, except discharges by educational, medical, or commercial
chemical laboratories) must complete Form 1, Form 2F, and Form 2E (EPA Form 3510-2E).

Operators of new sources or new discharges of storm water associated with industrial activity which will be
combined with other nonstormwater new sources or new discharges must submit Form i. Form 2F, and
Form 20 (EPA Form 3510-20).

Where to Flit Applications

The application forms should be sent to the EPA Regional Office which covers the State in which  the facility
is located. Form 2F must be used  only when applying for permits in States where the  NPOES  permits
program is administered by EPA. For facilities located in States which are approved to administer the NPOES
permits program, the State environmental agency should be contacted for proper permit application forms
and instructions.
Information on whether a particular program is administered by EPA or by a State agency can be obtained
from your EPA Regional Office. Form  1, Table  1 of the "General Instructions" lists the addresses of EPA
Regional Offices and'the States within the jurisdiction of each Office.

Completeness
Your application will not be considered complete unless you answer every question on this form and on Form
1.  If an item does not apply to you, enter "NA* (for not applicable) to show that you considered the question

Public Availability of Submitted Information
You may not claim as confidential any information required by this form or Form 1. whether the information
is reported on the forms or in an attachment. Section 402(j) of the Clean Water Act requires that all permit
applications will be available to the public. This information will be made available to the public upon request
Any information you submit to EPA which goes beyond that required by this form, Form i,  or Form 2C you
may claim as confidential, but claims for information which are effluent data will be denied.

If you do not assert a daim of confidentiality at the time of submitting the information.  EPA may make the
information public without further notice to you. Claims of confidentiality will be handled in accordance with
EPA's business confidentiality regulations at 40 CFR Part 2.

Definitions
All significant terms used in these instructions and in the form are defined in the glossary found in the General
Instructions which accompany Form 1.
EPA 10 Number
Fill in your EPA Identification Number at the top of each  odd-numbered page of Form 2F. You may copy r s
number directly from item I of Form 1.

 EPA Form 3810-2F (11-M>                     I - 1

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Ittml

You may use the map you provided for item XI of Form 1 to determine the latitude and longitude of each of
your outfalls and the name of the receiving water.

Item II-A

If you check "yes" to this question, complete all parts of the chart, or attach a copy of any previous submission
you have made to EPA containing the same information.
Item il-B

You are not required to submit a description of future pollution control projects if you do not wish to or if none
is planned.

Item III

Attach a site map showing topography (or indicating the outline of drainage areas served by the outfall(s)
covered in the application if a topographic map is unavailable) depicting the facility including:

    each of its drainage and discharge structures;

    the drainage area of each storm water outfall;

    paved areas and  building  within the drainage area  of each storm  water outfall, each known past or
    present areas used for outdoor storage or disposal of significant materials, each existing structural con-
    trol measure to reduce pollutants in storm water runoff,  materials loading and access areas, areas where
    pesticides, herbicides, soil conditioners and fertilizers are applied;

    each of its hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facilities (including each area not required to
    have a RCRA permit which  is used for accumulating hazardous waste for less than 90 days under 40 CFR
    262.34);

    each well where fluids from the facility are injected underground;  and

    springs, and other surface  water bodies which receive storm water discharges from the facility;

Item IV-A

For each  outfall, provide an estimate of the area drained by the outfall which is covered by impervious
surfaces.  For the purpose of this application, impervious surfaces are surfaces where storm water runs off at
rates that are significantly higher than background rates (e.g.,  predevelopment levels) and include paved
areas,  building roofs, parking lots, and roadways. Include an estimate of the total area (including all impervi-
ous and pervious areas) drained by each outfall. The site map required under item ill can be used to estimate
the total area drained  by each outfall.

Item IV-8

Provide a narrative description of significant materials that are currently or in the past three years have been
treated, stored, or disposed in  a manner to allow exposure  to storm water; method of treatment, storage or
disposal of these materials;  past and present materials management practices employed, in the last  three
years,  to minimize contact by thasa materials with storm water runoff; materials loading and access areas
and the location, manner, and frequency in which pesticides, herbicides, soil conditioners, and fertilizers are
applied. Significant materials should be identified by chemical name, form  (e.g.. powder, liquid, etc ). and
type of container or treatment  unit Indicate any materials treated, stored, or disposed of together.  Signifi-
cant materials" Indudas, but is not limited to: raw materials; fuels; materials such as solvents, detergents, and
plastic pellets: finished materials such as metallic products: raw materials used in food processing or produc-
tion, hazardous substances  designated  under Section 101 (14)  of CERCLA any chemical  the facility  is  re-
quired to report pursuant to Section 313 of Title III of SARA; fertilizers: pesticides: and waste products sucn
as ashes, slag and sludge that  have the potential to be released with storm water discharges.
Item IV-C

For each  outfall, structural controls Include structures which enclose material  handling or storage areas
covering materials, berms, dikes, or diversion ditches around manufacturing, production, storage or treat
ment units, retention  ponds, etc.  Nonstructural controls include  practices  such as spill prevention plans
employee training, visual inspections, preventive maintenance, and housekeeping measures that are used :;
prevent or minimize the potential for releases of pollutants.

EPA Form 3S10-2F (11-90)                       I -2

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ItemV

Provide a certification that all outfalls that should contain storm water discharges associated with industrial
activity have been tested or evaluated for the presence of non-storm water discharges which are not covered
by an NPDES permit Tests for such non-storm water discharges may include smoke tests, fluorometric dye
tests, analysis of accurate schematics, as well as other appropriate tests. Part B must include a description
of the method used, the date of any testing, and the onsrte drainage points that were directly observed during
a test. All non-storm water discharges must be identified in a Form 2C or Form 2E which must accompany
this application (see beginning of instructions under section titled "Who Must File Form 2F for a description
of when Form 2C and Form 2E must be  submitted).

Item VI

Provide a description of existing information regarding the history of significant leaks or spills of toxic or
hazardous pollutants at the facility in the last three years.
Item VII-A, B, and C

These items require ybu to collect and report data on the pollutants discharged for each of your outfalls. Each
part of this item addresses a different set of pollutants and must be completed in accordance with the specific
instructions for that part. The following general instructions apply to the entire  item.

General Instructions

Part A requires you to report at least one analysis for each pollutant listed.  Parts B and C require you to report
analytical data in two ways. For some pollutants addressed in Parts B and C. if you know or have reason to
know that the pollutant is present in your discharge, you may be required to list the pollutant and test (sample
and analyze) and report the levels of the pollutants  in your discharge. For all other pollutants addressed in
Parts B and C, you must list the pollutant if you know or have reason to know that the pollutant is  present in
the discharge, and either report quantitative data for the pollutant or briefly describe the reasons the pollutant
is expected to be discharged. (See specific instructions on the form and below for Parts A through C.) Base
your determination that a pollutant is present in or absent from your  discharge on your knowledge of your
raw materials, material management practices, maintenance chemicals, history of spills and releases, inter-
mediate and final products and  byproducts, and any previous analyses known to you  of your effluent or
similar effluent.

A.  Sampling: The collection of the samples for the reported analyses should be supervised by a person
    experienced in performing sampling of  industrial wastewater or storm water discharges. You may con-
    tact EPA or your State permitting authority for detailed guidance on sampling techniques and for answers
    to specific questions. Any specific requirements contained  in the applicable analytical methods should
    be followed for sample containers, sample preservation, holding times, the collection of duplicate sam-
    ples, etc. The time when you sample should  be representative, to the extent feasible, of your treatment
    system operating properly with no system upsets. Samples should be collected from the center of the
    flow channel, where turbulence is at a maximum, at a site specified in your present permit, or  at any sue
    adequate for the collection of a representative sample.
    For pH, temperature, cyanide, total phenols, residual chlorine, oil and  grease, and fecal conform, grab
    samples taken during the first 30 minutes (or as soon thereafter as practicable) of the discharge must be
    used (you an not required to analyze a flow-weighted composite for these parameters). For all other
    pollutants both • grab sample collected during the first 30 minutes (or as soon thereafter as practicable)
    of the discharge and a flow-weighted composite sample must be analyzed. However, a minimum of one
    grab sample may ba taken for effluents from holding ponds or  other impoundments with a retention
    period of greater than 24 hours.
    All samples shall be collected from  the discharge resulting from  a storm event that is greater than 0 1
    inches and at least 72 hours from the previously measurable (greater than 0.1 inch rainfall) storm event
    Where feasible, the variance in the  duration of the event and the total rainfall of the event should not
    exceed SO percent from the average or median rainfall event in that area.
    A grab sample shall be taken during the first thirty minutes of the discharge (or as  soon thereafter as
    practicable), and a flow-weighted composite shall be taken for the entire event or for the first three hours
    of the event.
    Grab and composite samples are defined as follows:


EPA  Form 3S10-2F (11-90)                       I - 3

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       Grab sample: An individual sample erf it leas! 100 milliliters collected during the first thirty minutes
       (or as soon thereafter as practicable) of the discharge. This sample is to be analyzed separately from
       the composite sample.

       Flow-Welgrrttd Composite sample: A flow-weighted composite sample may be taken with a con-
       tinuous sampler that proportions the amount of sample collected with the flow rate or as a combina-
       tion of a minimum of three sample aliquots taken in each hour of discharge for the entire event or for
       the first three hours of the event, with each aliquot being at least  100 milliliters and collected with a
       minimum period of fifteen minutes between aliquot collections. The composite must be flow propor-
       tional; either the time interval between each aliquot or the volume of each aliquot must be propor-
       tional to either the stream flow at the time of sampling or the total  stream flow since the collection of
       the previous aliquot. Aliquots may be collected  manually or automatically. Where GC/MS Volatile
       Organic Analysis (VOA) is required, aliquots must be combined in the laboratory immediately before
       analysis. Only one analysis for the composite sample is required.

    Data from samples taken in the past may be used, provided that:

       Alt data requirements are met;

       Sampling was done no  more than three years before submission; and

       All data are representative of the present discharge.

    Among the factors which would cause the data to be unrepresentative  are significant changes in produc-
    tion level, changes in raw materials, processes, or final products, and changes in storm water treatment.
    When the Agency promulgates new analytical methods in 40 CFR Part 136, EPA will provide information
    as to when you should use the new methods  to generate data on  your discharges.  Of course, the
    Director may request additional information, including current quantitative data, if they determine it to be
    necessary to assess your discharges. The Director may allow or establish appropriate site-specific sam-
    pling procedures or requirements, including sampling locations, the season in which the sampling takes
    place, the minimum duration between the previous measurable storm event and the storm event sam-
    pled, the minimum or maximum level of precipitation required for an appropriate storm  event, the form
    of precipitation sampled (snow melt or rainfall), protocols for collecting samples under 40 CFR Part 136
    and additional*time* for submitting data on a case-by-case basis.

B.  Reporting: All levels must be reported as concentration and as total mass. YOU may report some or an
    of the required data by attaching separate sheets of paper instead of filling out pages vil-1 and  vit-2 if the
    separate sheets contain all the required information in a format which  is consistent with pages vn-i and
    VII-2 in spacing and in identification of pollutants and columns. Use  the following abbreviations in the
    columns headed 'Units.'

                    Concentration                                    Mass

     ppm     parts per million                      Ibs      pounds
     mg/1    milligrams per liter                     ton      tons (English tons)
     ppb     parts per billion                       mg      milligrams
     ug/1     micrograms per liter                   g        grams
     kg       klograms                            T        tonnes (metric tons)

    All reporting of values for metals must be in terms of  "total recoverable metal," unless:

       (1) An appHcaU*, promulgated effluent limitation or standard specifies the limitation for the metal m
       disserved, valent, or total form; or

       (2) AH approved analytical methods for the metal inherently measure only its dissolved form  (e g
       hexavalent chromium);  or
       (3) The permitting authority has determined that  in establishing case-by-case limitations it is
       sary to express the limitations on the metal  in dissolved, valent, or total form to carry out the
       sions of the CWA. If you measure only one grab sample and one flow-weighted composite
       for a given outfall, complete only the 'Maximum Values* columns  and insert T into the '
       Storm Events Sampled" column. The permitting authority may require  you to conduct  add'!
       analyses to further characterize your discharges.


 EM Fotm 3510-2F (11-M)                      I - 4

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    If you measure more than one value for a grab sample or a flow-weighted composite sample tot a given
    outfall and those values are representative of your discharge, you must report them. YOU must describe
    your method of testing and data analysis. You also must determine the average of all values within the
    last year and report the concentration mass under the 'Average Values* columns, and the total number
    of storm evert* sampled under the 'Number of Storm Events Sampled* columns.

C.  Analysis: You must use test methods promulgated in 40 CFR Part 136; however, if none has been
    promulgated for a particular pollutant, you may use any suitable method for measuring the level of the
    pollutant in your discharge provided that you submit a description of the method or a reference to a
    published method. Your description should include the sample holding time, preservation techniques,
    and the quality control measures which you used. If you have two or more substantially identical outfalls,
    you may request permission from your permitting authority to sample and analyze only one outfall and
    submit the results of the analysis for other substantially identical outfalls. If your request is granted by the
    permitting authority, on a separate sheet attached to the application form, identify which outfall you did
    test, and describe why the outfalls which you did not test are substantially identical to the outfall which
    you did test.
Part VILA

Part VII-A must be  completed by all applicants for all outfalls who must complete Form 2F.
Analyze a grab sample collected during the first thirty minutes (or as soon thereafter as practicable) of the
discharge and flow-weighted composite samples for all pollutants in this Part, and report the results except
use only grab samples for pH and oil and grease.  See discussion in  General Instructions to Item vii for
definitions of grab  sample collected during the first thirty minutes of discharge and flow-weighted composite
sample. The "Average Values* column is not compulsory but should be filled out if data are available.
Part VII-B

List all pollutants that are limited in an effluent guideline which the facility is subject to (see 40 CFR Subchap-
ter N to determine which pollutants  are limited  in effluent guidelines) or any  pollutant listed in the facility's
NPOES permit for its process wastewater (if the facility is operating under an existing NPOES permit). Com-
plete one table for each outfall. See discussion in General instructions to item VII for definitions of grab
sample collected during the first thirty minutes (or as soon thereafter as practicable) of discharge and flow-
weighted composite sample. The "Average Values" column is not compulsory but should be filled out if data
are available.
Analyze a grab sample collected during the first thirty minutes of the discharge and flow-weighted composite
samples for ail pollutants in this Part, and report the results, except as provided in the General Instructions.

Pirt VII-C
Part Vll-C must be completed by all  applicants for all outfalls which discharge storm water associated with
industrial activity, or that EPA is evaluating for designation as a significant contributor of pollutants to waters
of the United States, or as contributing to a violation of a water quality standard. Use  both a grab sample and
a composite sample for ail pollutants you analyze for in this part except use grab samples for residual chlorine
and fecal coliform. The 'Average Values" column is not compulsory but  should be filled out  if data are
available. Part C requires you to address the pollutants in Table 2F-2, 2F-3,  and 2F-4 for each outfall.  Pollu-
tants in each of these Tables are addressed differently.
Table 2F-2: For each outfall, list all pollutants in Table  2F-2 that you know or have reason to believe are
discharged (except pollutants previously listed in Part Vli-B). if a pollutant is limited in an effluent guideline
limitation which the facility is subject to (e.g., use of TSS as an indicator to control the discharge of iron and
aluminum), the pollutant should be listed in Part VII-B. If a pollutant in table 2F-2 is indirectly limited by an
effluent guideline limitation through an indicator, you must analyze for it and report data in Part Vll-C For
other pollutants listed in Table 2F-2 (those not limited directly or indirectly by an effluent limitation guideline).
that you know or have reason to believe are discharges, you must either report quantitative data or briefly
describe the reasons the pollutant Is expected to be discharged.

Table 2F-3: For each outfall, list all pollutants in Table  2F-3 that you know or have reason to believe are
discharged. For every pollutant in Table 2F-3 expected to be discharged  in concentrations of 10 ppb or
greater, you must  submit quantitative data. For acrolein,  acrylonitrile,  2,4  dlnitrophenol, and 2-methyl-4.6
dinitrophenoi, you  must submit quantitative data if any of these four pollutants is expected to be discharged
 EPA Form 3310-2F  (11-M)                       |-5

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in concentrations of 100 ppb or greater. For every pollutant expected to be discharged in concentrations less
than 10 ppb (or 100 ppb for the four pollutants listed above), then you must either submit quantitative data
or briefly dtseriba the reasons the pollutant is expected to be discharged.

Small Suslnttt fittnpttofi • If you are a 'small business,* you are exempt from the reporting requirements
for the organic tccdc pollutants listed in Table 2F-3. There are two ways in which you can qualify as a 'small
business*, if your faciHy Is a coal mine, and if your probable total annual production is less than 100,000 tons
per year, you may submit past production data or estimated future production {such as a schedule of esti-
mated total production under 30 CFR 795.14(C)) instead of conducting analyses for the organic toxic pollu-
tants. If your facility is not a coal mine, and if your gross total annual sales for the most  recent three years
average less than $100.000 per year (in second quarter 1980 dollars), you may submit sales data for those
years instead of conducting analyses for the organic toxic pollutants. The production or sales data must be
for the facility which is the source of the discharge. The data should not be limited to production or sales for
the process or processes which contribute to the discharge, unless those are the only  processes at your
facility. For sales data, in situations involving intracorporate transfer of goods and services, the transfer price
per unit should approximate market prices for those goods and services as closely as possible. Sales figures
for years after 1980 should be indexed to  the second quarter of 1980 by using the gross national product
price deflator (second quarter of 1980*100).  This  index is available in National Income and Product Ac-
counts of the United States (Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis).

Table 2F-4: For each outfall, list any pollutant in Table 2F-4 that you know or believe to be present in the
discharge and explain why you believe it to be present. No analysis is required, but if you have analytical
data, you must report them. Note: Under 40 CFR 117.i2(a)(2), certain discharges of hazardous substances
(listed at 40 CFR 177.21 or 40 CFR 302.4)  may be exempted from the requirements of section 311 of CWA.
which establishes reporting requirements, civil penalties, and liaWity for cleanup costs for spills of oil  and
hazardous substances. A discharge of a particular substance may be exempted if the origin, source,  and
amount of the discharged substances are  identified in the NPOES permit application or in the permit, if the
permit contains a requirement for treatment of the discharge, and if the treatment is in place. To apply for an
exclusion of the discharge of any hazardous substance from the requirements of section 311, attach addi-
tional sheets of paper to your form, setting forth the following information:

    1. The substance and the amount of each substance which may be discharged.

    2. The origin and source of the discharge of the substance.
    3. The treatment which is to be provided for the discharge by:

         a. An onsite treatment system  separate from any treatment  system treating your normal  dis-
            charge;

         b. A treatment system designed to treat your normal discharge and which is additionally capable
            of treating the amount of the substance identified  under paragraph 1 above; or

         c. Any combination of the above.
See 40 CFR 117.12(a)(2) and (c), published on August 29, 1979, in 44 FR 50766,  or contact your Regional
Office (Table 1 on Form 1, Instructions), for further information  on exclusions from section 311

Part VIMi
If sampling I* conducted during more than one  storm event,  you  only need to report the information re-
quested in Part VH-O  for 9m storm event (s) which resulted in any maximum pollutant concentration reported
inPartVIIAVll-B.orvll-C.

Provide flow measurements or estimates of the flow rate, and the total amount of discharge for the storm
event(s) sampled, the method of flow measurement, or estimation. Provide the data and duration of the storm
event(s) sampled, rainfall measurements, or estimates of the storm event which generated the sampled runoff
and the duration between the storm event sampled and the end of the previous measurable (greater than o 1
inch rainfall) storm event

PartVtH
List any  toxic pollutant listed in Tables 2F-2, 2F-3,  or  2F-4 which you currently use or manufacture as an
intermediate or final product or byproduct In addition, if you know or have reason to believe that 2,3,7 8-te-
trachlorodibenzo-p-dtcodn (TCOD) is discharged or if you use or manufacture 2,4.5-trichiorophenoxy acetic


EPA Fora M10-2P (11-tO)                       I - 6

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aad (2.4.5.-T); 2"{2.4.5-trichlorophenoxy) prooanoic acid (SSvex. 2.4.5.-TP); 2-{2.4.5-mchioroohenoxyi
2.2-dichloropropionate (Erbon);  0,0-dimethyt 0-(2,4,5-trichlorphenyl) phosphorothioate (Ronnel);  2,4.5-
trichlorophenol (TCP); or hexachlorophene (HCP); than list TCOO. Ths Director may waive or modify tha
requirement if you demonstrate that it would be unduly burdensome to identify each toxic pollutant and the
Director has adequate information to issue your permit. You may not claim this information as confidential;
however, you do not have to distinguish between use or production of the pollutants or list the amounts.
Item Vill

Self explanatory. The permitting authority may ask you to provide additional details after your application is
received.
ItemX

The Clean Water Act provides for severe penalties for submitting falsa information on this application form.

Section 30i(c)(4) of the Clean Water Act provides that 'Any parson who knowingly makes any false material
statement, representation, or certification in any application— shall upon conviction, be punished by a fine
of not more than $10.000 or by imprisonment for not more than 2 years, or by both. If a conviction of such
person is for a violation committed after a first conviction of such person under this paragraph, punishment
shall be by a fine of not more than 520,000 per day of violation, or by imprisonment of not more than 4 years.
or by both." 40 CFR Part 122.22 requires the certification to be signed as follows:

    (A) For a corporation: by a responsible corporate official. For purposes of this section, a responsible
    corporate official means  (i) a president, secretary, treasurer, or  vice-president of  the corporation m
    charge of a principal business function, or any other person who  performs similar policy-  or decision-
    making functions for the corporation,  or (ii") the manager of one or more manufacturing, production, or
    operating facilities employing more than 250  persons or having  gross annual sales or expenditures
    exceeding S25.000.000 (in second-quarter 1980 dollars),  if authority to sign documents has been as-
    signed or delegated to the manager in accordance with corporate procedures.

    Note: EPA does not require specific assignments or delegation of authority to responsible corporate
    officers identified in  I22.22(a)(i)(i), The Agency will presume thai these responsible corporate officers
    have the requisite authority to sign permit applications unless the corporation has notified the Director to
    the contrary.  Corporate procedures governing authority to sign permit applications may provide for
    assignment or delegation to applicable corporate position under I22.22(a)(i)(ii) rather than to specific
    individuals.
    (8) For a partnership or sola proprietorship: by a general partner or the proprietor, respectively; or

    (C) For a municipality, State, Federal, or other public agency: by either a principal executive officer
    or ranking elected official. For purposes of this section, a principal  executive officer of a Federal agency
    includes (i) the chief executive officer of the agency, or (ii) a senior executive officer having responsibility
    for the overall operations of a principal geographic unit of the agency (e.g., Regional Administrators of
    EPA).
 EPA  Form 3510-2*" (11-M)                      I - 7

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      1-A
      1-8
      i-C
      i-O
      i-E
      1-H
      1-4
      1-J
      1-K
      1-L


      2-A
      2-8
      2-C
      2-0
      26
      2-F
      3-A
      3-8
      3-C
      3-D
      4-A
      4-8
      5A
      5-8
      5-C
      5-0
      5-E
      5-F
      5-G
      5-H
      5-1
      9-J
      5-K
      5-L
Ammonia Stripping
Otasomaceous Earth Fltration
Distillation
SectroOtaJyus
Evaporation
Floccuiacon
Flotation
Foam Fractionation
Freezing
Gas-Ptiase  Sepa/ation
Grinding (Commmutors)
Carbon Adsorption
Chemical Oxidation
Chemical Precipitation
Coagulation
Dechionnation
Disinfection (Chlorine)
Activated Sludge
Aerated Lagoons
Anaerobic Treatment
Nitritication-Oenitritication
Discharge to Surface Water
Ocean Discharge Through Outfall
        Table 2F-1
Codm for Trtatmcnt Units
 Physical Treatment Process**
                 l-M        Grit Removal
                 1 -N        Microstraining
                 1-O        Mixing
                 1-P        Moving 8ed Filters   .
                 i -O        Multimedia Filtration
                 1-R        Rapid Sand Filtration
                 1-S        Reverse Osmosis (Hypediltration)
                 1-T        Screening
                 1-U        Sedimentation | Setting)
                 l-V        Slow Sand Filtration
                 1-W        Solvent Extraction
                 1-X        Sorption
CtMmteal Treatment Process**
                 2-G        Disinfection (Ozone)
                 2-H        Disinfection lOther)
                 2-1         8ectrochemical Tr*atm*nt
                 2-J         ion Exchange
                 2-K        Neutralization
                 2-L         Reduction
Biological Treatment Processes
                 3-E        Pre-Aeration
                 3-F        Spray irrigation/Land Application
                 3-<3        Stabilization Ponds
                 3-H        Trickling Filtration


                            Reuse/Recycle of Treated Effluent
                            Underground  injection
                                                    Other Process**
                      4-0
A«rob«c Digestion
Anaerobic Digestion
Sen Filtration
Centnfugation
Chemical Conditioning
Chtoone Treatment
Composting
Drying Beds
Sutnatwo
Flotation Thicfceniog
Slutt-9* Treatment and Disposal Process**
                      5-M        Heat Drying
                      5-N        Heat Treatment
                      SO        incineration
                      S-P        Land Application
                      5-Q        Landfill
                      5-R        Pressure Filtration
                      5-S        Pyrolysis
                      5-T        Sludge Lagoons
                      5-U        Vacuum Filtration
                      5-V        vibration
                      5-W        Wet Oxidation
QraMrty Thickening
6PA  Form 3S10-2P  (11-M)
                                        •8

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                                             Table 2F-2

  Conventional and Noneonvantional Pollutants Raquirad To B« Taatad by Existing Oitenargar if
                                       Expactad To Ba Praaant
Bromide
Chlorine, Total Residual
Color
Fecal Colitorm
Fluorid*
Nitratt-Nitritt
Nitrog«n, Total Kjtdahl
0
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      Antimony. Tom
      Arsenic. Total
      Beryllium. Total
      Cadmium, Tottl
      Chromium. Total
      Acrolein
      Acryiomtrile
      Benzene
      Bromoform
      Carbon Tetrachloride
      Chlorobenzene
      Chlorodibromomethane
      Chloroethane
      2-Chloroethytvinyl Eth«r
      Chloroform
      2-Chlorophenol
      2.4-Oichlorophenol
      2,4-Oimetnylphenol
      4.6~-Dinitro-O-Cre«ol
      Acenaphthene
      Acenaphthylene
      Anthracene
      Benzidine
      Benzo (a)anthracene
      Benzo (a)pyrene
      3.4-Benzofluoranthene
      Benzo (ghi)perylene
      Benzo (k (fluoranthene
      Bis(2-chloroethoxy)metHane
      Bi$(2
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                                                    Table 2F-4
                                       Hazardous substances required to be
                                 identified by applicant if expected to be present
                                                    Toxic Pollutant
       Asbestos


       Aeetaldenyde
       Allyl alcohol
       Ally! chloride
       Aniyl acetate
       Aniline
       Benzonitrile
       Benzyl chloride
       Butyl acetate
       flutytamme
       Carbaryl
       Carbofuran
       Carbon disuifide
       ChlOfpynfos
       Coumaphos

       Crasol
       Crotonaldehyde

       Cyclohexane
      2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic
      acid)
       Diaiinon
       Dicamba
       Dichlobenil
       Dichlone
       2,2-Oiehloropropionic acid
       Dichlorvos
       Diethyl amin*
       Dim»my( amini
      Hazardous Substances
 Dinitrob«nz«na
 Oiquat
 Oisulfoion
 Diuron
 Epichlorohydrin
 Ethion
 Ethyltnt diamin*
 Ethylant dibromid*
 Formald«hyd«
 Furfural
 Gutfiion
 Isoprtns
 Isopropanolamin*
 Kslthanc

 Ktpont
 Malathion

 M*reaptodim*thur
 Mtthoxychlor

 Mothyl m«rcaptan
 Methyl metfiacrylat*
 Mtthyt parathion
Msvinphoi
Mexaearbat*
Monoethyt amint
Monomatnyl amin*
Naiad
 Napthtmc acid
 Nitrotoluene
 Parathlon
 Ph«noisuifonat»
 Phosgene
 Propargite
 Propylene oxide
 Pyrethrini
 Ouinoline
 Reiorcinol
 Strontfiium
 Strychnine
 Styrene
 2.4,5-T (2,4,5-Trichiorophenoxyacetic
 acid)
 TOE (Tctrachlorodiphenyl ethane)
 2,4,5-TP [2-(2,4,5-TricWorophenoxy)
 propanoic acid]
 Trichlorofan
 Triethylamine

 Tfimethylamine
 Uranium
 Vanadium
 Vinyl acetate
Xylene
Xylenol
Zirconium
EPA Form  3510-2F (11-M)
                                                      1-11

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APPENDIX EJ:      FORM 2C
                                 79

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cxEPA
                                       are oosoiete
             Permits Division
Application Form 2C -
Wastewater Discharge
Information

Consolidated  Permits Program
               This form must be completed by all persons applying for
               an EPA permit to discharge waste water (existing manu-
               facturing, commercial, mining, and sitvicu/tural opera-
               tions}.

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                                    Application for Permit to Discharge Wastewater
        EXISTING MANUFACTURING, COMMERCIAL, MINING, AND SILVICULTURAL OPERATIONS
This form mutt be completed by all applicants who check "ye*"
to item II-C in Form 1.
Public Availability of Submitted Information.
Your application will not be considered complete unless you answer
every question on this form and on Form 1. If an item does not apply
to you, enter "NA" (for not applicable) to show that you considered
the question.
You may not claim as confidential any information required by this
form or Form 1, whether the information is reported on the forms or
in an attachment.  This information will be made available to the
public upon request.
Any information you submit to EPA which goes beyond that required
by this form or Form 1 you may claim as confidential, but claims for
information which is effluent data will be denied. If you do not assert
a claim of confidentiality at the time of submitting the  information,
EPA may make the information public without further notice to you.
Claims of confidentiality will be handled in accordance with EPA's
business confidentiality regulations at 40 CFR Part 2.
Definitions
All significant terms used in these instructions and in the form are
defined in the glossary found in  the  General  Instructions which
accompany Form 1.
EPA ID Number
Fill in your EPA Identification Number at the top of each page of Form
2c. You may copy this number directly from item I of Form 1.
Item!
You may use the map you provided for item XI of Form 1 to determine
the latitude and longitude of each of your outfalls and the name of the
receiving water.
Item II-A
The line drawing should show generally the route  taken by water in
your facility from intake to discharge. Show all operations contribut-
ing wastewater,  including process and production areas, sanitary
flows, cooling water, and stormwater runoff. You may group similar
operations into a single unit, labeled to correspond to the more
detailed listing in item II-B. The water balance should show average
flows. Show all significant losses of water to products, atmosphere,
and discharge. You should  use actual measurements  whenever
available; otherwise use your best estimate. An example of an accep-
table line drawing appears in Figure 2c-1 to these instructions.
Item II-B
List all sources of wastewater to each outfall.  Operations may be
described in general terms (for example, "dye-making reactor" or
"distillation tower"). You may estimate the flow contributed by each
source if no data are available. For storm water discharges you may
estimate the average flow, but you must indicate  the rainfall event
upon which the estimate is based and the method  of estimation. For
each treatment unit, indicate its size, flow rate, and retention time,
and describe the ultimate disposal of any solid or  liquid wastes not
discharged. Treatment units should be listed in order and you should
select the proper code from Table 2c-1 to fill in column 3-b for each
treatment unit. Insert "XX" into column 3-b if no code corresponds to
a treatment unit you list. If you are applying for a permit for a privately
owned treatment works, you must also identify all of your contribu-
tors in an attached listing.
Item II-C
A discharge is intermittent unless  it  occurs without  interruption
during the operating hours of the facility, except for infrequent shut-
downs for maintenance, process changes, or other similar activities.
A discharge is seasonal if it occurs only during certain parts of the
year. Fill in every applicable column in this item for each source of
intermittent or seasonal discharges. Base your answers on actual
data whenever available; otherwise,  provide your  best estimate.
Report the highest daily value for flow rate and total volume in the
"Maximum Daily" columns (columns 4-a-2 and 4-b-2)  Report the
average of all daily values measured during days when discharge
occurred within the last year in the "Long Term Average" columns
(columns 4-a-l and 4-b-1).
Item III-A
All effluent guidelines promulgated by EPA appear in the Federal
Register  and are published annually in 40 CFR  Subchapter N. A
guideline applies to you if you have any  operations contributing
process wastewater m any subcategory covered by a BPT, BCT, or
BAT guideline. If you are unsure whether you are covered by a
promulgated effluent guideline, check with your EPA Regional office
(Table  1 in the Form 1 instructions). You  must check "yes" if an
applicable effluent guideline has been promulgated, even  if the
guideline limitations are being contested in court If you believe that
a promulgated effluent guideline has been remanded for reconsider-
ation by a court and does not apply to your operations, you may check
"no."
Item III-B
An effluent guideline is expressed in terms of production for other
measure of operation) if the limitation is expressed as mass of pollu-
tant per operational parameter; for example, "pounds of BOD per
cubic foot of logs from which bark is removed," or "pounds of TSS per
megawatt hour of electrical energy consumed by smelting furnace".
An example of a guideline not expressed in terms of a measure of
operation is one which limits the concentration of pollutants.
Item I II-C
This item must be completed only if you checked "yes" to item III-B.
The production information requested  here is necessary to apply
effluent guidelines to your facility and you cannot claim  it as confi-
dential. However, you do not have to  indicate how the reported
information was calculated. Report quantities in the units of mea-
surement used in the applicable effluent guideline. The production
figures provided must be based on actual dairy production and not on
design capacity or on predictions of future operations. To obtain
alternate limits under 40 CFR 122.46
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                                          , ~ M JC - ,NS AUCTIONS  •;.
ITEM V — A, B. C, and D (continued)
mediate and final products and byproducts, and any previous ana*
lyses known to you of your effluent or similar affluent (for example,
if you manufacture pesticides, you should expect those pesticides to
be present in contaminated stormwater runoff.) If you would expect a
pollutant to b« present solely as a result of its presence in your intake
water, you must mark "Believe Present" but you are not required to
analyze for that pollutant. Instead, mark an 'X' in  the "Intake"
column.
   A. Reporting. All levels must be repotted as concentration and as
   total mass  You  may report some or all of the required data by
   attaching separate sheets of paper instead of filling out pages V-l
   to V-9 if the separate sheets contain all the required information
   in a format which is consistent with  pages V-l to V-9 in spacing
   and in identification of pollutants and columns, (for example, the
   data system used in your GC/MS analysis may be able to print
   tins in the proper format,! Use the following abbreviations in the
   columns headed "Units"/eo/«//wi3. fart A, andcolumn4, PartsB
   ane/CJ.
         Concentration                       Mas*
   ppm	 pans per million
   rng/! .,., milligrams per liter
   ppb	parts par billion
   ug/l.... micrograms per liter
                                Ibs	pounds
                                ton	tons (English tons)
                                mg	milligrams
                                g	grams
                                kg	 kilograms
                                T	tonnes (metric tons)
All reporting of values for metals must be in terms of "total
recoverable metal," unless:
(1) An applicable, promulgated effluent limitation or standard
specifies the limitation for the metal in dissolved, valent, or total
form; or
(2) All approved analytical methods for the metal inherently mea-
sure only its dissolved form (e.g., hexavalent chromium); or
13) The permitting authority has determined that in establishing
case-by-case limitations it is necessary to express the limitations
on the metal in dissolved, valent, or total form to carry out the
provisions of the CWA.
If you measure only one daily value, complete only the "Maxi-
mum Daily Values"columns and insert "1' into the "Number of
Analyses' column/'co^mns2-»anrf2-rf. Pan A, and column 3-a,
3-d, Pans B and C). The permitting authority may require you to
conduct additional analyses to further characterize  your dis-
charges. For composite samples, the daily value is the total mass
or average concentration found in a composite sample taken over
the operating hours of the facility during a 24-hour period; for
grab samples, the daily value is the arithmetic or flow-weighted
total mass or average concentration found in a series of at least
four grab samples taken over the operating hours of the facility
during a 24-hour period.
If you measure more than one daily value for a pollutant and those
values are representative of your wastestream, you must report
them. You must describe your method of testing and data analy-
sis. You also must determine the average of all values within the
last year and report the concentration and mass under the "Long
Term Average Values" columns (column 2-c. Part A, and column
3-c, Pans B and C). and the total number of daily values under the
"Number* of Analyses" columns (column 2-d. Part A,  and
columns 3-d, Part's B and C). Also, determine the average of all
deily values  taken during each calendar month, and report the
highest average under the "Maximum 30-day Values" columns
(column 2-c, Part A, and column 3-b, Parts B and C).
B. Sampling: The collection  of the samples for the reported
analyses should be supervised by a person experienced in per-
forming sampling of industrial wastewater. You may contact your
EPA or State permitting authority for detailed guidance on sam-
pling techniques and for answers to specific questions. Any spe-
cific requirements contained in the applicable analytical methods
should be followed for sample containers,  sample preservation.
                                                             2C-2
holding times, the collection of duplicate samples, etc. The time
when you sample should be representative of your normal opera-
tion, to the extant feasible, with all processes which contribute
wmtewatar in normal operation, and with your treatment system
operating properly with no system upsets.  Samples should be
collected from the center of the flow channel, where turbulence
is at a maximum, at a site specified in your present permit, or at
any site adequate for the collection of a representative sample.
For pH, temperature, cyanide, total phenols, residual chlorine, oil
and grease, and fecal coliform, grab samples must be us*d. For ell
other pollutants 24-hour composite samples must be used. How-
ever, a minimum of one grab sample may be taken for effluents
from holding ponds or other  impoundments with a retention
period of greater than 24 hours.  For stormwater discharges a
minimum of on« to four grab samples may be taken, depending on
the duration of the discharge. One grab must be taken in the first
hour (or less) of discharge, with  one additional grab tup to a
minimum of four) taken in each succeeding hour of discharge for
discharges lasting four or more hours. The  Director may waive
composite sampling for any outfall for which you demonstrate
that use of an automatic sampler is infeasible and that a  min-
imum of four grab samples  will be  representative  of  your
discharge.
Grab and composite samples are defined as follows:
   Grab sample: An individual sample of at  least 100 milliliters
   collected  at a randomly-selected  time  over a period  not
   exceeding 19 minutes.
   Composite sample: A combination of at least 8 sample ali-
   quot s of at least 100 milliliters, collected  at periodic intervals
   during the operating hours of a facility over a 24 hour period.
   The composite must be flow proportional; either the  time
   interval between each aliquot or the volume of each aliquot
   must be proportional to either the stream flow at the time of
   sampling or the total stream flow since the collection of the
   previous aliquot. Aliquots may be collected manually or auto-
   matically. For GC/MS Volatile Organic Analysis (VGA), ali-
   quot* must be combined in the laboratory immediately before
   analysis. Four (4) (rather then eight) aliquots or grab samples
   should be collected for VOA. These four samples should be
   collected  during actual hours  of discharge over  a 24 hour
   period and need not be flow proportioned. Only one analysis is
   required.
The Agency is currently reviewing sampling requirements in light
of recent research on testing methods, Upon completion of its
review, the Agency plans to propose changes to the sampling
requirements.
Data from samples taken in the past may be  used, provided that:
   All data requirements are met;
   Sampling was done no more then three years before submis-
   sion; and
   All data are representative of the present discharge
   Among the factors which would cause the data to be unrepre-
   sentative are significant changes in production level, changes
   in raw materials, processes, or final products, and changes in
   wastewater treatment. When the Agency promulgates  new
   analytical  methods in 4O CFP  Part 136, EPA  will  provide
   information as to when you should use the new methods to
   generate data on your discharges. Of course, the Director may
   request additional information, includingcurrent quantitative
   data, if she or he determines it to be necessary to assess your
   discharges,
C, Analysis; You must use test methods promulgated in 40 CFB
Part 136; however, if none has been promulgated for a particular
pollutant, you may use any suitable method for measuring the
level of the pollutant in your discharge provided that you submit a
description of the method or a reference to a published method.
Your description should include the sample holding time, preser-
vation techniques, and the quality control measures which you
used.lf you have two or more substantially identical outfalls, you
may request permission from your permitting authority to sample
and analyse only one outfall and submit the results of the analysis

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                                         FORM 2C - INSTRUCTIONS cj/)f,/;^
ITEM V — A, B, C. and D (continued)
   for other substantially identical outfalls. If your request is granted
   by the permitting authority, on a separate sheet attached to the
   application form, identify which outfall you did test, and describe
   why the outfalls which you did not test are substantially identical
   to the outfall which you did test.
   D. Reporting of Intake Data: You are not required to report data
   under the "Intake" columns unless you wish to demonstate your
   eligibility for a "net" effluent limitation for one or more pollu-
   tants, that is. an  effluent  limitation adjusted by subtracting the
   average level of the pollutant(s) present in your  intake water.
   NPOES regulations allow  net limitations only in certain circum-
   stances. To  demonstrate your eligibility,  under  the  "Intake"
   columns report the  average of the  results of analyses on your
   intake water (if your water is treated before use. test the water
   after it is treated), and discuss the requirements for a net limita-
   tion with your permitting authority.
   Part V-A
   Part V-A must be completed by  all applicants for all outfalls,
   including outfalls containing only noncontact  cooling  water or
   storm runoff. However, at your request, the Director may waive
   the requirement to test for one or more of these pollutants, upon a
   determination that available information is adequate to support
   issuance of the permit with less stringent reporting  requirements
   for these pollutants. You  also may  request a waiver for one or
   more of these pollutants for your category or subcategory from
   the Director. Office of Water Enforcement and Permits. See dis-
   cussion in General  Instructions to item V for definitions of the
   columns  in Part  A.  The "Long Term Average  Values" column
   (column 2-c) and "Maximum 30-day Values"  column (column
   2-b) are  not compulsory but should be filled out if  data are
   available.
   Use composite samples for all pollutants in this Part, except use
   grab samples for pH  and temperature. See discussion in General
   Instructions to Item V for definitions  of the columns in Part A. The
   "Long Term Average Values" column (column 2-c) and  "Maxi-
   mum 30-Day Values" column (column 2-b) are not compulsory
   but should be filled out if data are available.
   PartV-B
   Part V-B must be completed by all applicants for all outfalls,
   including outfalls containing only noncontact cooling  water or
   storm runoff. You must report quantitative data  if the pollutants)
   in question is limited in an effluent limitations guideline either
   directly, or indirectly but expressly through limitation on an indi-
   cator (e.g.. use of TSS as an indicator to control the discharge of
   iron and aluminum). For  other discharged pollutants you must
   provide quantitative data  or explain their presence in  your dis-
   charge. EPA will consider  requests to the Director of the Office of
   Water Enforcement and Permits to eliminate the requirement to
   test for pollutants for an industrial category or subcategory. Your
   request must be supported by data  representative of the indus-
   trial category or subcategory in question. The data  must demon-
   strate that individual testing for each applicant is  unnecessary,
   because the facilities in the category or subcategory discharge
   substantially identical levels of the pollutant or discharge the
   pollutant uniformly at sufficiently  low levels. Use composite
   samples for all pollutants you analyze for in this part, except use
   grab samples for residual chlorine, oil and grease, and fecal
   coliform. The "Long Term Average Values" column (column 3-c)
   and "Maximum 30-day Values" column (column 3-b) are not
   compulsory but should be filled out  if data are available.
   Part V-C

   Table 2c-2 lists the 34 "primary" industry categories in the left-
   hand column. For each outfall, if any of your processes which
   contribute wastewater falls into  one of those categories, you
   must mark 'X' in  'Testing Required" column (column  2-a) and
   test for (I) all of the toxic metals, cyanide, and total phenols, and
   (2) the organic toxic pollutants contained in Table 2c-2  as appli-
   cable to your category, unless you qualify as a small business (see
   below) The organic toxic pollutants are listed  by GC/MS frac-
 tions on pages V-4 to V-9 in Pan V-C. For example, the Organic
 Chemicals Industry has an asterisk in all four fractions, therefore.
 applicants in this category must test for all organic toxic pollu-
 tants in Part V-C. The inclusion of total phenols in Part V-C is not
 intended to classify total phenols as a toxic pollutant If you are
 applying for a permit for a privately  owned  treatment works,
 determine your testing requirements on the basis of the industry
 categories of  your contributors. When you  determine which
 industry category you are in to find your testing requirements,
 you are not determining your category for any other purpose and
 you are not giving up your right to challenge your inclusion in that
 category (for example, for deciding whether an effluent guideline
 is applicable) before your permit is issued. For all other cases
 (secondary industries, nonprocess wastewater outfalls, and non-
 required GC/MS fractions), you must mark  "X"  in either the
 "Believed  Present"  column (column 2-b) or the "Believed
 Absent" column (column 2-c) for each pollutant. For every pollu-
 tant you know or have reason to believe is present in your dis-
 charge in concentrations of 10 ppb  or greater, you must report
 quantitative data. For acrolein, acrylonitrile, 2, 4 dinitrophenol,
 and 2-methyl-4, 6 dinitrophenol, where you expect these four
 pollutants to be discharged in concentrations of 100 ppb or
 greater, you must  report quantitative data. For every pollutant
 expected to be discharged in concentrations less than the thresh-
 olds specified above, you must either submit quantitative data or
 briefly describe the reasons the pollutant is expected to be dis-
 charged. At your request the Director, Office of Water Enforce-
 ment and Permits, may waive the requirement to test for pollu-
 tants for an industrial category or subcategory. Your request must
 be supported by data representatives of the industrial category or
 subcategory in question. The data must demonstrate that indi-
 vidual testing for each applicant is unnecessary, because the
 facilities in question discharge substantially identical levels of
 the pollutant, or discharge the pollutant uniformly at sufficiently
 low levels. If you qualify as a small business (see below) you are
 exempt from testing for the organic toxic pollutants, listed on
 pages V-4 to V-9 in Part C. For pollutants in intake water, see
 discussion in General Instructions to this item. The "Long Term
 Average Values" column (column 3-c) and "Maximum 30-day
 Values" column (column 3-b) are not compulsory but should be
 filled out if data are available.You are required to mark 'Testing
 Required" for dioxin if you use or manufacture one  of the follow-
 ing compounds:
   (a) 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid, (2,4,5-T);
   (b) 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propanoic acid, (Silvex, 2,4,5-
     TP).
   (c)  2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) ethyl  2,2-dichloropropionate,
     (Erbon);
   (d) 0,0-dimethyl 0-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) phosphorothioate,
     (Ronnel);
   (e) 2,4,5,-trichlorophenol, (TCP); or
   (f) hexachlorophene. (HCP).
 If you mark "Testing Required" or "Believed Present," you must
 perform a screening analysis for dioxins, using gas chromoto-
 graphy with an electron capture detector. A TCDD  standard for
 quantitation is not required. Describe the results of  this analysis
 in the space provided; for  example, "no measurable beseline
 deflection at the retention time of TCDD" or "a measurable peak
within the tolerances of the retention time of TCDD." The permit-
 ting authority may require you to perform a quantitative analysis
 if you report a positive result. The Effluent Guidelines Division of
 EPA has collected and analyzed samples from some plants for the
 pollutants listed in Part C in the course of its BAT guidelines
development program. If your effluents are sampled and analyzed
 as part of this program in the last three years, you may use these
data to answer Part C provided that the permitting authority
approves, and provided that no process change or change in raw
 materials or operating practices has  occurred since  the samples
were taken that would make the analyses unrepresentative of
your current discharge.
                                                              2C-3

-------
                                                      -•
ITEM V - A, B, C, »nd D (continual)
   Small Business Exemption: M you qualify M « "small business,"
   you are exempt from tha reporting requirements for tha organic
   toxic pollutants, listed on pages V-4 to V-9 in Part C. Than ara two
   ways in which you can qualify as a "small businass." If your
   facility is a coal mina. and if your probabls total annual production
   is lass than 100,000 tons par year, you may submit past produc-
   tion data or estimated futura production (such e* * schedule of
   estimated total production under 3O CFR % 79S. 14{c)) instead of
   conducting analyse* for the organic toxic pollutants. If your facil-
   ity is not a coal mina, and if your gross total annual sales for the
   most recant three years average less than S100,000 per year (in
   second quarter 1980 dollars), you may submit sales data for those
   years instead of conducting analyses for the organic toxic pollu-
   tants. The production or sales data must be for tha facility which
   is the source of the discharge. The data  should not be limited to
   production or sales for tha process or process* which contribute
   to the discharge, unless those are the  only processes at your
   facility. For  sales data, in situations involving intracorporata
   transfer of goods and services, the transfer price par unit should
   approximate market prices for those goods  and services as
   closely as possible. Sales figures for years after 1980 should be
   indexed to the second quarter of 1980 by  using the gross national
   product price deflator (second quarter of 199O = 100). This index
   is  available  in National income and Product Accounts of the
   United States (Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic
   Anmtyfit).
   PsrtV-D
   List any pollutants in Table 2c-3 that you believe to be present and
   explain why you believe them to be present. No analysis is
   required, but if you have analytical data, you must report it
   Note: Under 40 CFR 117.12(aK2), certain discharges of hazard-
   ous substances (listed in Table 2c-4 of these instructions/may be
   exempted from the requirements  of section 311 of CWA, which
   establishes reporting requirements, civil penalties and liability
   for cleanup costs for spills of oil  and hazardous substances. A
   discharge of a particular substance may be exempted if the origin,
   source, and amount of tha discharged substances are identified
   in the NDPES permit application  or in the permit, if the permit
   contains a requirement for treatment of the discharge, and if the
   treatment is in place. To apply for an exclusion of the discharge of
   any hazardous substance from the requirements of section 311,
   attach additional sheets of paper  to your form, setting forth the
   following information:
      1. The substance and the amount of each substance which
      may be discharged.
      2. The origin and source of the discharge of the substance.
      3. The treatment which is to be provided for the discharge by:
         s. An onsite treatment system separate from any treat-
         ment system treating your normal discharge;
         b. A treatment system designed to treat your normal dis-
         charge and which is additionally  capable of treating the
         amount of the substance  identified under paragraph  1
         above; or
         c. Any combination of the above.
   Se« 40 CFR §117.12(aX2)snd(c), published on August 29,1979,
   in 44 FR 50766, or contact your Regional Office (Teble 1 on Form
   1, Instructions), for further information on exclusions from sec-
   tion 311.
Item VI
This requirement applies to current  use or manufacture of a toxic
pollutant as an intermediate or final product  or byproduct. The Direc-
tor may waive or modify the requirement if  you demonstrate that it
would be unduly burdensome to identify each toxic pollutant and the
Director has adequate information to issue your permit. You may not
claim this information as confidential; however, you do not have to
distinguish between use or production of the pollutants or list the
•mounts.
Ham VII
Self explanatory, Tha permitting authority may ask you to provide
additional details after your application is received.
Ham IX
Tha Clean Water Act provides for severe penalties for submitting
falsa information on this application form.
Section 3O9
-------
                                               cooes
                                               PHYSICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
  -A	Ammonia Stripping
  -8	Dialysis
  -C	Oiatomaceous Earth Filtration
  -D	Distillation
  -E	Electrodialysis
  -F	Evaporation
  -G	Flocculation
  -H	Flotation
  -I	Foam Fractionation
  •J	Freezing
  -K	Gas-Phase Separation
  •L	Grinding IComminuton)
 1—M	Grit Removal
 1—N	Microstraining
 1—0	Mixing
 1—P	Moving Bed Filters
 1—Q	Multimedia Filtration
 1—R	Rapid Sand Filtration
 1—S	Reverse Osmosis (Hyperfiltrttion)
 1—T	Screening
 1-U	Sedimentation (Settling)
 1-V	Slow Sand Filtration
 1—W	Solvent Extraction
 1 —X	Sorption
 —A	Carbon Adsorption
•~B	Chemical Oxidation
•—C	Chemical Precipitation
•~D	Coagulation
2—E	Dechlorination
2—F	Disinfection (Chlorint)
                                              CHEMICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
2—G	Disinfection lOzanel
2-H	Disinfection lOthar)
2—I	Electrochemical Treatment
2—J	Ion Exchange
2— K	Neutralization
2—L	Reduction
                                             BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
3—A	Activated Sludge
3—8	Aerated Lagoons
3—C	Anaerobic Treatment
3-D	Nitrification—Denitrification
3—E	Pre—Aeration
3—F	Spray Irrigation/Land Application
3—G	Stabilization Ponds
3—H	Trickling Filtration
                                                      OTHER PROCESSES
4—A	Discharge to Surface Water
                     Ocean Discharge Through Outfall
4—C	Reuse/Recycle of Treated Effluent
4—D	Underground Injection
                                        SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL PROCESSES
5—A	Aerobic Digestion
5— B	Anaerobic Digestion
5—C	Belt Filtration
5—0	Centrifugation
5— E	Chemical Conditioning
5—F	Chlorine Treatment
5—G	Composting
5-H	Drying Beds
 5—1	Elutriation
 5—J. i	Flotation Thickening
 6—K	Freezing
 6— L	Gravity Thickening
5— M	Heat Drying
5—N	Heat Treatment
5— O	Incineration
5— P	Land Application
5-Q	Landfill
5—R	Pressure Filtration
5—S	Pyrolysis
5— T	Sludge Lagoons
5—U	Vacuum Filtration
5-V	Vibration
5-W	Wat Oxidation
                                                       TABLE 2C-1

-------
                                                                                •as-
                       INDUSTRY CATEGORY
                                                                          Volatile
                                                                                           GC/MS FRACTION1
                                                                                          Acid
                                                                                                      Bast/Neutral      PMicidt
Adhesive! and sealants	       *
Aluminum forming	       X
Auto and other laundries	' .  .  .       X
Battery manufacturing	       X
Coal mining	       X
Coil coating	       X
Copper forming	       X
Electric and electronic compounds	       X
Electroplating	       X
Explosives manufacturing	       —
Foundries	       X
Gum and wood chemical*	       X
Inorganic chemicals manufacturing	       X
Iron and steel manufacturing	       X
Leather tanning and finishing	       X
Mechanical products manufacturing	       X
Nonferrous metals manufacturing	       X
Ore mining	       X
Organic chemicals manufacturing	       X
Paint and ink formulation	       X
Pesticides	       X
Petroleum refining	       X
Pharmaceutical preparations	       X
Photographic equipment and supplies	,	       X
Plastic and synthetic materials manufacturing	       X
Plastic processing	       X
Porcelain enameling	       X
Printing and publishing	       X
Pulp and peperboard mills	       X
Rubber processing	       X
Soap and detergent manufacturing	       X
Steam electric power plants	       X
Textile mills	       X
Timber products processing	       X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X
 X
 X
•See note at conclusion of 40 CFR Part 122, Appendix 0 (1983) for explanation of effect of suspensions on testing requirements for primary
 industry categories.
'The pollutants in each fraction are listed in Kern V—C.
X = Testing required.
— = Testing not required.
                                                           TABLE 2C-2

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                             TOXIC'CLLUTANTS AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
TOXIC POLLUTANT

Aibestot

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

Acetaldehyd*
Ailyl alcohol
Ally! chloride
Amy I aerate
Aniline
Benzonttnle
Benzyl chlorid*
Butyl acetate
Butylamine
Captan
Carbaryl
Carbofuran
Carbon diiulf Ida
Chlorpyrifoi
Coumapho*
Cretol
Crotonaldenyde
Cyclohexane
2,4-D (2,4-Dicnloroprwnoxyecetic acid}
Diazinon
Dicamba
Oichlobenil
Dichlone
2,2-Dichloropropionic acid
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

Dichlorvoi
Diethyl amina
Dimethyl amine
Dintrobenzene
Diquat
Disulfoton
Diuron
Epichlorohydrin
Ethion
Ethylene diamine
ithylene dibromide
Formaldehyde
Furfural
Guthion
IVJprene
liopr opanolam ine
Kalthane
Kapona
Malathion
Marcaptodimathur
Methoxychlor
Mtthyl m«rcaptan
Methyl mathacrylate
Methyl parathion
Movinphoi
Mexacarbate
Monoetnyl amine
Monomethyl amina
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

Naiad
Napthenic acid
NitrotolJene
Parathion
Phenolsulfonate
Phosgene
Propargita
Propylene oxide
Pyrethrinj
Quinoline
Resorcinol
Strontium
Strychnine
Styrene
2,4,5-T (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetie acid)
TDE  (Tatrachlorodiphenyl ethane)
2.4,5-TP  [2-<2.4,5-Trichlorophenoxy)
  propanoic acid}
Tnchlorofon
Triethanolamine
Triethylamine
Trimethylamine
Uranium
Vanadium
Vinyl acetate
Xylena
Xylenpl
Zirconium
                                                          TABLE 2C-3

-------
1. Acetaldehyde
2. Acetic acid
3. Acetic anhydride
4. Acetone cyanohydrin
5. Acetyl bromide
6. Acetyl chloride
7. Acrolein
8. Acrylonitrile
9. Adipic acid
10. Aldrm
11. Allyl alcohol
12. Allyl chloride
13. Aluminum sulfate
14. Ammonia
15. Ammonium acetate
16. Ammonium benzoate
17. Ammonium bicarbonate
18. Ammonium bichromate
19. Ammonium bifluoride
20. Ammonium bisulfite
21. Ammonium carbamate
22. Ammonium carbonate
23. Ammonium chloride
24. Ammonium chromate
2S. Ammonium citrate
26. Ammonium fluoroborate
27. Ammonium fluoride
28. Ammonium hydroxide
29. Ammonium oxalate
30. Ammonium silicofluoride
31. Ammonium sulfamate
32. Ammonium sulfide
33. Ammonium sulfite
34. Ammonium tartrate
35. Ammonium thiocyanate
36. Ammonium thiosulfate
37. Amy I acetate
38. Aniline
39. Antimony pentachlorida
40. Antimony potassium tartrate
41. Antimony tribromide
42. Antimony trichloride
43. Antimony trifluoride
44. Antimony trioxide
46. Arsenic disulfide
46. Arsenic pentoxide
47. Arienic trichloride
48. Arsenic trioxide
49. Arsenic triiulf ide
50. Barium cyanide
51. Benzene
52. Benzoic acid
53. Benzonitrile
54. Banzoyl chloride
55. Benzyl chloride
56. Beryllium chloride
57. Beryllium fluoride
58. Beryllium nitrate
59. Butylacetate
60. n-Butylphthalate
61. Butylamine
62. Butyric acid
63. Cadmium acetate
64. Cadmium bromide
66. Cadmium chloride
66. Calcium arsenate
67. Calcium arsenite
68. Calcium carbide
69. Calcium chromate
70. Calcium cyanide
71. Calcium dodecylbenzenesulfonate
72. Calcium hypochlorite
73. Captan
74. Carbaryl
75. Carbofuran
76. Carbon disulfide
77. Carbon tetrachloride
78. Chlordane
79. Chlorine
80. Chlorobenzene
81. Chloroform
82. Chloropyrifos
83. Chlorosulfonic acid
84. Chromic acetate
85. Chromic acid
86. Chromic sulfate
87. Chromous chloride
88. Cobaltous bromide
89. Cobaltous formate
90. Cobaltous sulfamate
91. Coumaphos
92. Cresol
93. Crotonaldehyde
94. Cupric acetate
95. Cupric acetoarsenite
96. Cupric chloride
97. Cupric nitrate
98. Cupric oxalate
99. Cupric sulfate
100. Cupric sulfate ammoniated
101. Cupric tartrate
102. Cyanogen chloride
103. Cyclohexene
104. 2,4-0 acid 12,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic
  acid)
105. 2,4-0 esters (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic
  acid esters)
106. DDT
107. Diazinon
108. Dicamba
109. Dichlobenil
110. Dichlone
111. Dichlorobenzene
112. Dichloropropan*
113. Dichloropropene
114. Dichloropropene-dichloproropane mix
115. 2,2-Dichloropropionic acid
116. Dichlorvos
117. Dieldrin
118. Diethylamine
119. Dimethylemine
120. Dinitrobenzene
121. Dinitrophenol
122. Dinitrotoluene
123. Diquat
124. Oisulfoton
125. Diuron
126. Dodecylbenzesulfonic acid
127. Endosulfan
128. Endrin
129. Epichlorohydrin
130. Ethion
131. Ethylbenzene
132. Ethylenediamine
133. Ethylene dibromide
134. Ethylene dichloride
135. Ethylene diaminetetrecetic acid
  (EDTA)
1 36. Ferric ammonium citrate
137. Ferric ammonium oxalate
138. Ferric chloride
139. Ferric fluoride
140. Ferric nitrate
141. Ferric sulfate
142. Ferrous ammonium sulfate
143. Ferrous chloride
144. Ferrous sulfate
145. Formaldehyde
146. Formic acid
147. Fumaric acid
148. Furfural
149. Guthion
150. Heptachlor
151. Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
152. Hydrochloric acid
153. Hydrofluoric acid
1 54. Hydrogen cyanide
1 55. Hydrogen suffid*
156. Isoprene
157. Isopropanolamine
  dodecylbenzenesulfonate
158. Kelthane
159. Kepone
160. Lead acetate
161. Lead arsenate
162. Lead chloride
163. Lead fluoborate
164. Lead flourite
165. Lead iodide
166. Lead nitrate
167. Leadstearate
168. Lead sulfate
169. Lead sulfida
1 70. Lead thiocyanate
171. Linoane
1 72. Lithium chromate
173. Malathion
174. Maleic acid
175. Maleic anhydride
176. Mercaptodimethur
1 77. Mercuric cyanide
1 78. Mercuric nitrate
1 79. Mercuric lulfata
180. Mercuric thiocyanate
181. Mercurous nitrate
182. Methoxychlor
183. Methyl mercaptan
184. Methyl methacrylate
185. Methyl parathion
186. Mevinphos
187. Mexecarbate
188. Monoethylamine
189. Monomethylamine
190. Naiad
1 92. Naphtrwnic acid
193. Nickel ammonium sulfate
194. Nickel chloride
196. Nickel hydroxide
196. Nickel nitrate
197. Nickel sulfate
196. Nitric acid
199. Nitrobenzene
200. Nitrogen dioxide
201 . Nitrophenol
202. Nitrotoluene
203. Pareformakfchyde
                                                     TABLE 2C-4

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                                        HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES -ccnr
204. Parathion
205. Penlachlorophenol
206. Phenol
207. Phosgene
208. Phosphoric acid
209. Phosphorus
210. Phosphorus oxychloride
211. Phosphorus pentasulfide
212. Phosphorus trichloride
213. Polychlorinatad biphenyls (PCS)
214. Potassium arsenate
215. Potassium artenite
216, Potassium bichromate
21V. Potassium chromate
218. Potassium cyanide
219. Potasiium hydroxide
220, Potassium permanganate
221. Propargits
222. Propiomc acid
223. Propionic anhydride
224. Propylene oxide
225. Pyrethrms
226. Quincline
227. Resorcinol
228. Selenium oxide
229. Silver nitrate
230. Sodium
231. Sodium arsenate
232. Sodium irsenite
233. Sodium bichromate
234. Sodium bifluoride
235. Sodium bisulfite
236. Sodium chrornate
237. Sodium cyanide
238. Sodium dodeeylbenzenesulfonate
239. Sodium fluoride
240. Sodium hydrosulfide
241. Sodium hydroxide
242. Sodium hypochtorite
243. Sodium methylate
244. Sodium nitrite
245. Sodum phosphate (dibasic)
246. Sodium phosphate Itnbasic)
247. Sodium selenite
248. Strontium chrornate
249. Strychnine
250. Styrene
251. Sulfuric acid
252, Sulfur monochloride
253. 2,4,5-T acid (2.4,5-
  Trichlorophenoxyacotic acid)
254. 2,4,5-T amines  (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy
  acetic acid amines)
255. 2,4,5-T esters (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy
  acetic acid esters)
256. 2,4,5-T salts (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy
  acetic acid salts)
257. 2,4,5-TP acid (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy
  propanoic acid)
258, 2,4,5-TP acid esters (2.4,5-
  Trichlorophenoxy  propanoic acid esters)
259. TDI (Tetractilorodiphenyl ethane)
260. Tatraethyl lead
261. Tetraethyl pyrophosphate
262. Thallium sulfatt
263. Toluene
264. Toxaphene
266. Trichlorofon
266. Tnchloroetrtylene
267, Trichlorophenol
268. Triethanolamme
  dodecylbenzenesulfonate
269. Triethylamme
270. Trimethytamme
271. ijranyl acetate
272. Uranyl nitrate
273. Vanadium pentoxide
274, Vanadyl tulfate
275. Vinyl acetate
276. Vmyhdene chloride
277. Xylene
278. Xylenol
279. Zinc acetate
280. Zinc ammonium chloride
281. Zinc borate
282. Zinc bromide
283. Zinc carbonate
284. Zinc chloride
285. Zinc cyanide
286. Zinc fluoride
287. Zinc formate
288. Zinc hydrosulfite
289, Zinc nitrate
290. Zinc phenolsulfonate
291. Zinc phosphide
292. Zinc silicofluoride
293, Zinc sulfate
294. Zirconium nitrite
295, Zirconium potassium flouride
296. Zirconium sulfate
297, Zirconium titrachloride
                                              TABLE 2C<4 (continued)

-------
                                              LINE DP VWING
                         BLUE RIVER

                              4 90,000 GPD
                                                       MUNICIPAL
                                                     WATER SUPPLY
   RAW
MATERIALS
  10,000 GPD
SOLID WASTE
                                        , 45,000 GPD
1 30,000 GPD
 	10,000
                 BLUE RIVER
                                                                                     10,000 GPD
                                                                                     COOLING WATER
                                                                                          TO PRODUCT
                                                                                            S.OOO GPD
                                                                                                 TO ATMOSPHERE
                                                                                                   5,000 GPD
  4,000 GPD
  MAX: 20,000 GPD
                                                                  SCHEMATIC OF WATER
                                                                  MOWN MILLS. INC,
                                                                  CITY, COUNTY. STATE
                                              JGURE 2C-!

-------



LPA I.D. NUMBER fcopy fror
FORM
2C
NPOES

i Item I of Form IS
Form Approved
OMB No 2040-0086
Approval expires 5-31-92
•n* |i™f^A APPLICATION FOR PERMIT TO DISCHARGE WASTEWATER
»ntar"HPi\ EXISTING MANUFACTURING, COMMERCIAL, MINING AND SILVICULTURAL OPERATIONS
~ "™". Contolidated Permits Program
1. OUTFALL LOCATION ^H|H|
^^^^^^m
^m
s^s^.^
^^^^^^^^^^^m
For aeeh outfall, list the latitude and longitude of its location to the nearest 1 5 seconds end the name of the receiving weter.
"'.BHIZftfr'- • l-ATITUDS






C. UONGITUO






E






D. RECEIVING WATER (name 1






II. ,-LOWS, SOUACES OF POLLUTION, AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES ^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^•^H
A. Attach e line drawing showing the
and treatment units labilad to aorta
£sJ*etoriel otartp*Jon<*e»f|jjfj4|4ft
mater flow through the facility. Indicate si
MlMBi«e**^*OUroesof*ei*and^«
Mircas of intake water, operations contributing westewater to the effluent.
Item B. Construct a water balance on the line drawing by ihowing average
stance cannot be determined fag., for certa/n mining acfrV/tM, provide e
Mactlon or tfaJtiiilBle. ngasuras.
V for each outfatl, praMWIgpfcaJah' l;























1. TREATMENT
e. DECCHIPTION























D. LlftT CODES FMOM
TABL.K tC-1














































^ -   O N ^  •

-------
CONTINUED PROM PAGE 2
                                     •PA 1.0. MUM»«Hf«iJ»y from Htm J of Form I!
 V. INTAKE AND EFFLUINT CHARACTERISTICS
 A, B, A C:   Saa imtnic
ib.for.pi
H| — Complau on* MI of tabl« for aach outfall — Annotate the outfall number in tha
             NOTE: TaWei V-A, V-6, Hid V-O *r* tndudtd on *tp*f*M thaatt numb*r«d V-1 through V-9.
   D. Uw tht ip*c* below to lift my of KM polhttwiti llM*d In Tiblt 2c-3 of the initructiom, which you know or h«v« reaton to btli*v* it dltdwnjKi or m*y b*
     di«chwg*d from any outMI. Fw M*ry pollutant you lilt, briefly dMCrib* the rMforu you believe it to be pmcnt and report any analytical data in your
     poaumon.
        f. POLLUTANT
                                           Z. *OUMCB
                                                                          I. POLLUTANT
                                                                                                             2, COUMCK
 VI. POTENTIAL DISCHAROEf MOT COVERED BY ANALYljg	
                                                 *»m of * wbmme* wtwch you currently UM or nwn
  byproduct?
                                                                     1urea»«ni
                            D VM flW •« Htth pollutant, Inflow;
                                                                   ffo to Item Vt-SI

-------
ONTINUEP FROM THE FRONT

/ll. BIOLOGICAL TOXICITY TESTING DATA^	

  Do you have any knowledge or rat*on to believe that any biological tett for acute or chronic toxiclty ha* been made on any of your diecharges or on a
  receiving water in relation to your discharge within the lait 3 yeert?
                    Q V«S (Identify the tttt(i) and dwerfbe thfirpurpota below)
                                 Q NO -(to to aeetfon vm>
              ANALYSIS INFORMATION;
     any of the analyeei reported in Item V performed by • contract laboretory or conaulttng fkm?


                   ri Y«» (Hit On name, oaWma, and telephone number of. and poUutantt
                          an*ly*«d by, «een wen laboratory or ftrm bdouij
                                                                                                          D. WU-UTAHTi AMALmU
                                                                                                          	(Ml	
•. ADDRESS
C. TlLl"
(tnacodt
   EHTIFICATION,

      fund^p»n»^ofl»wth«tthi*oocum»nt»nd»llM»chm»nttw»npr»p»r^un<^mytlir»ction
                                                              T»ubmitt»d.B»t»donmyinquiiyofth»p»nonurftrmn*whom»n»gtthftYtt»fnor

                                                       t information tubmftud it. fu rfii fi»irnfrnj Itnnnitiftpi amf»e»M Him arnrift tndcomphtt
   ) *M«re (/MT t6ev* ww tignHicwX pevMft/** Ax tubmittint MM information, including th» pottibiltty off intend imprifonmutt for knowing viotttiont.
 A. NAME & OFFICIAL TITLE (type or print!
                                                                                            B. PHONE NO. (artacodt 4 noj
 C SIGNATURE
                                                                                            D. DATE SIGNED
                                                            - t ;- E - r r

-------
PLEASE PRINT OR TYPE IN THE UNSHADED AREAS ONLY. You may report tome or all of
this information on separate sheets lust tht urn* format) instead of completing these pages.
SEE INSTRUCTIONS.	
 V. INTAKE AND EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS {continued from p»ge 3 of Form 2-CI
                                                                                               EPA I.D. NUMBER (copy from Ittm 1 of Farm II
 PART A • You must provide the results of at leatt one analysis for every pollutant in this table. Complete one table for each outfall. See instructions for additional detail*.
 I. POLLUTANT
 a. Biochemical
 Oxygen Demand
 (BOD)
                                                          2. EFFLUENT
                                                                                                        d. NO. OF
                                                                                                       ANALYSE*
          3. UNITS
       (tittcifv if blank)
   •CONCEN-
    TRATION
                                                                                                                                                     4. INTAKE
                                                                                                                                                                        A N A i  > *j I
 b. Chemical
 Oxygen Demand
 (COD)
 e. Total Organic
 Carbon (TOO
 d. Total Suapended
 •DIM* IH,,iuli
	«  LONd
 AVERAGE VALUE
                                                                                                                                                                III "...
 a. Bromide
 (24969-67-9)
 b. Chlorine.
 Total Rattduel
 c. Color
 d. Fecil
 Conform
 «. F luorid*
 (16984-48-8)
 f. Nitrate-
 Nitrite ft* N)
   EPA Form  3510-2C  (8-90)
                                                                                  PAGE V-l
                                         CONTINUE ON HEX.

-------
 ITEM V-B CONTINUED FROM FRONT
 I. POLLUT-
 ANT AND
  CAS NO.
 (If available)
               2. MARK 'X
                                                                   3. EFFLUENT
                                                                                                                                  4. UNITS
                                                                                                                                                           5. INTAKE t«r>ti«nali
 a. mm-l b	
MAY.*""-"!
a. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE
                                                                                       d. NO.OF
                                                                                        ANAL
                                                                                         VSE*
•. CONCEN-
 TRATION
                                                                                                                                                                      (>| MASS
g.Nttrof*n.
Toul Organic
h. Oil wid
On
(at ri. Toul
(7723-14-0)
I. RKliOMtivity
(l)AMi*.
(. IMM, TM*
tl
Total
(743996-4)
j. Molybdenum,
Total
(743998 7)
 v. Manganan
 Tom
 (7439966)
w. Tin, Total
I/44O-31 6)
 x. Titanium.
 Total
 (7440-32-6)
    EPA Form  3510-2C (8-90)
                                                                                      PAGE V-2
                                                                                                                                                                CONTINUE ON \>.

-------
CONIINIIFD FROM PAGE 3 OF FORM 2-C
PART ' (I you araa primary Industry and this outfallconta
2 -a for all such GC/MS fractions that apply to yo
wa*t*M«r*r oalftOf. und nanrfquirmd GC/MS fri
beliav* Is abaant.Myou mark column 2«t«x any po
of at k»aat ona analysis for that pollutant rt you k
dinitrophaool, or 2-iMtttyM, 6 dmitroph«nol, yo
coocantrattons oil 00ppt> or graatar . Otharwiaa. 1
ba diachargad. Nota that thara ara 7 paga* to th*
1. POLI UTANT
AND CAS
NUMHER
1. MAUK 'X*
mm
b. ••-
i.lJ|VBfl
& •«-
kllKVKI
Air

a. MAXIMUM DAILY
COMC KMTWATIOM
METALS. CYANIDE, AND TOTAL PHENOLS
IM Antimony,
K>l*l (/440 38-01
?M Ancnlc, TMBl
I744O 3H ?|
3M. 8»»¥l'«im,
rot«l. 7440 41 .7)
4M Cwfmium,
TOI»I (7440 43*)
*»M Clw oroium,
Tol*! (744O 47-S)
6M daa*.TiMi
(743a-« II
BM Mvrcinv. T0W
IT4M97 r,)
«M. Ntok*l, TOtM
IOM. S*l«Hiium,
Fot»l (77R? 49 J)
1 IM. SHv»r, TOWl
II44O-7? 4)
17M ThiiMium,
fot.M 7440 28-0)
I.1M Zlnr, fOt»I
I74406S Rl
I4M, Cv»»>irt«,
rw««l (s; 12 5(
IBM «»»€»!«.
fowl




























































•F-A l.o. NUMBER (copy from IMin / of Form It
ins proem
iir industr
tctiont).TT
Mutant, yo
now or ha
u muat pr
orpolluta
ipartptoi
iswaatawatw, ri
y and for ALL tw
lark "X" in colurr
timuatprovfcJatf
va ntaaon »> b*<
Unoa tfia Maiwti
itt for wtilOR you

lfWUjgU|%*2lnth«
Ic Rtaxala\ aytnioaar at
n 2-b for aach pollutan
laraaultsofatlaaatona
«wajt««Hlbao>acharo«
of at laaai pna Analyst
mart column 2b, you m
earafulty CorflpMjta «m
I, EFFLUENT >
VALAIB
|t| MAS*
















b. MAJtMIUMJ|JBAT VALUC
n^«f*P«altl
C..C«L'^,«TI««[ l'» "«»*
































OUTFALL MUMBCN

instructions to datarmina which of th
id total phanois If you ara not n»qu»r4
tyouknoworhavaraaaofitob«lava
ar>aty»isfortrtatpollutafrt.Myoumarl
id in oftocafitraUooa of iO||aS at gra
I for aadi^f tfiata poHlMlIpp wtiiot!
niatartharBubrnrtatlaa»toM«naly«i
ittMa/M^^iM foria^l^S:
• "f^fV

<*K«llU..T.«J ««»»»« • J
































^W'
















aGC/MS fractions you must tasi for. Mark "X" in column
id to mark column 2-a (sacondurt industries, nonproctss
ia praaant. Mark "X" in column 2-c for aach pollutant you
1 column 2b lor any pollutant, you muat provide the results
E. N you inark column 2b tor acroialn, aerylonitrila, 2,4
know or hava raaaon B baltave that you discharge in
^rtxlsfrydaacribatharaaaonstha pollutant is expected 10
pa Inatructtooa for adtfltiooal datails and raquiramann.
4, UNIT*
* CONCBlM-
TNATMMt
















fa. MASS
















S. INTAKE (option*!/

(•i — - — — — ~-
'I *w"*»W'

















l>) — ..
















YSIS
















OIOXIN
'. 1 1 H l"lr»
i|... .in I 1 '(-.401 8|



DESCRIBE RESULTS
EPA  Fo-m 3S10-2C (a-90)
                                                                           PAGE V-3
                                                                                                                                    CONTINUE ON REVERSE

-------
' '•<" 1 ANT
Hi- 'PR
'.!,•»
!GC:/MS ACTION
i. /., ,
, ( 10 " !•
_7v AI • -'(trite
• n" i i (
au n,,,, .,«
'( M <••>-•
4v ni» • ' '.Mro-
,m, ilivl! > -tior
154? B" '
•sv H"«.' -'arm
( T\ W '.'
nv c»r>- ii
I t«l.»r>ii' •«!«
|(!»fi ^3 '•'
1 ?v Chi.' i>iwmn*
, j IfW Of* ' *•
••BV Cli' 	 II-
' !>tf»i»f*n" ''mn»
(1^« 411 '
^v r;i.i. -otlMtw
• ( 7f> 1M> '
liiv / i •• i»ro-
•*tiiylvi»- ' th»r '
, (t!0-Vf. '•>
I IV c''i -oform
(67 «fi '»••
IIV l>> 	 »ro-
(75 21 *
13V li!< More-
>HllllOt»' "dlWM
!7r, 71 n
1*V 1, i '»«-Hk»ro-
Mh>rw 1 ' .1A-3)
inv 1.7 "-hterO"
•tiinu* ' ' O0-2)
ir.'., ! ' i-hloro-
. !i,,i«,.. ', 3B-4)
i M. i " blaro-
,„..,..., -t BT-Sl
im' i t • '-no-
nl,,,.vi., . • JS-8)
r< i '<>ir*rt«
	 •' B39)
>< • '
....... ' <17 3J
Z. MARK
JkTIVT'
IN«
*l«*
QUIIK-
ID
-vo





















b>«-
kl«vKa
rHB-
• •NT
LATILI





















•X'
& •«•
A--T
ECOM





















s. errtueirr- •
*, MAXIMUM C
POUNDS





















>AILY VAL.UC






















b. MAXI^y^l
	 1 	





















^YVALU*























iet8lirfi|a;























t{(M. VALUl























It MO. OF
ANAL-
YSIS






















' «; UNITS -
*. CONCKM-
TBATION






















tX MASS






















S. INTAKE 1 optional 1
*. LONG
AVKRAB
(i) eoNccw-






















TCRM
: VALUI






















b. NO. OF
AMAL






















3510-2C
                                                                     PAGE V-4
                                                                                                                                       CONTINUE ON PAGE V-S

-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE V-4
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(tf ouMfa&fr^
OC/MS FRACTION
22V. MMtiylww
Chtarld, (78-O9-2)
23V. 1.1.2.2-T«tr»-
chloro*th*n«
(7934-6)
14V. T«tr«ch(oro-
•Miytoiw <127.»e-4)
26V. TohMM
(10B -88-31
2«V. 1.2-Trm-
DksiilarMtiivMn*
(1M-OO-S)
arv. i,i,i-Tri-
ctite^wttiwm
(71*69)
3*V. 1,1^-Trt-
ahk>ro«th«M
(79-004)
2«V. Trlchkxo
MhyMM (7»4>14I)
90V. Trtehkxo-
fluorom«th*n«
(7B-8»4)
31V. Vinyl
Cniorkf* /75-O1-4)
X. MARK 'X1
&TKBT
IMft
W-
f
-vo










IX »«
LI*VKO
P*C'
tATIl










c ••
LI*W««
All-
ECO*











>. MAXIMUM
*Mnol(10e-«7-a)
4A. 4,«-Dln(tro-O-
Cra*al (83442-11
6A. 2,4-Olnltro.
»lMnol (81-26-8)
8A. 2 Nttroph»nol
(•8766)
7A. 4-NitfOph*iM>l
(100-02.7)
8A. P Chloro M-
Cr«ol (B9-SO-7)
9A P«nt«chloro
phana! (87-86-5)
10A. Phenol
I10B-9S-2)
11A 2,4,6-Tfi-
chlorophvnol
(88-06-2)












































OAILV
tlMdJ
Ei>A l.o. NUMBEB rtopy from ftem 1 of Farm It
3. EFFLUENT
VAL.UB























b. MAXIMUM 1























IJfcj, VALO.























OO rFALL NUMBEM j

c.LONa T(?/r,Ma























ft,W VAUU"























a NO, OF
ANAL.-























4. UNITS
TliATlON















































S, INTAKE (I'pli""
» (_OM<,
lllCM.C.!.
Tnftrtaiv






















TERM !



1

|


1





	 	 1








PAGE V-5

-------
CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBED
(If aiMUoWei
1, MARK 'X'
KT«>T
|M*
N«-
afl*-
tl •<-
blBW«B
(•»«-
«««r
C. mm-
/.•.,
3. EFFLUENT
«. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE
e«,HC.W.«,«»l I"1"***
OC/MS FRACTION - BASE/NEUTRAL COMPOUND*
IB. AewwphtlMit*
(83-32-9)
3m, Acorwolitvton*
|20B-»*«>
30. Antt>r*cww
(120-12-7)
40. BwtxMilM
(03-07-W
»«. BaiMOW
fk/MihtWOttW
{pM«>
«B.S*n*ef«|
•urwia fBftJEt4H

T0.3.4-BWO-
WllOfWIwIWiB
BOWMJ
00, Mmfl MMj
Pvytww
(1*124-2)
••.•witafW
Fluor snttMtw
(207-00-9)
10«. Bh (J-CMoro-
*(ko*y| M«tfwo«
(111-S1-M
ItB. BHa-CWoro-
•Ifcyij f tlw
(HI^4-4)
l&ta/Z-Oikmiw-
«nn«fMf|im40-1|
130. Btofa-'ttyt-
fttcyijl phtluloM
(117-01-7)
14B. 4-Bronto-
phcnyl PfMnyl
Eth*r (101-SB-3)
IBB. Butyl Bcniyl
PhllMMM (86-00-7
1«0. 2-CDIora-
lupMlwlwiM
(•1-90-7)
170. 4-Chh>ro-
DIMnyl Ph»ny I
6th*f (7008-72-3)
18B. ChrywM
(21801 »)
198 Dlb.mo (a.h>
Anthr*c*n*
(53 70-3)
20B. 1,2 D.chloro-
b*n»n* (96-501)
21B. 1,3 Oichlofo
b*nt*najS4 1-73-1)









































































































*-M*XlftfM
111

















,




Ufev v*cu'
ll) -...






















C.LOHaW,MaftiW,«*L0«
I«I






















ill •>**«






















a NO. OF
ANAU
V5B»























4. UNITS
*. CDNCEN-
THATiOW






















b MASS























5, INTAKE f,tpt«»
». LONC
AV^R AQ
01 co»*c«»*-
>n*TiON






















. TERM
E VALUE.
Ill ««»






















EPA  Form 351ft-2C ft-M»
                                                                            PAGE V-«
                                                                                                                                          CONTINUE ON i

-------

1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
III ovtilablr)
2. MARK 'X'
Ht-
• UIH-
LI&VKV
C •«-
AB-
• ••*T

«. MAXIMUM DAILY
(•I
EPA I.D. NUMBER (copy from Jttm 1 of Form 1)
3. EFFLUENT
VALUE
|» "...
OC/MB FRACTION - BASE/NEUTRAL COMPOUNDS teonUmud'
22B. 1.4-Okhloro
IwnzMM (106-46-7
23B. 3.3--Dichloro-
(91-94-1)
24B. Dtothyl
Phthalat*
(84-66-2)
26B. Dimethyl
(131-11-3)
PtlthBtBM
(84-74-2)
278. 2.4-Dlnltro-
tokMM (121-14-2)
3BB. 2.6-Dtnltro-
tokMM (808-20-2)
2BB. DI-N-Octyl
lit 17-844))
MB.1.2-OlplMnvl-
KUMM™ 1 Zt-66%
BMB. FluonnthMw
»8-73-7)
am" "' "
gj^i'n
•^gsasr
Sti'A^r
'8S9?^
(7»8»1)
(61-2041
4OB. NNrotMiuwM
(98-06-3)
41B. N-Nltro-
«Mjlm«tl
-------
CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
1. MARK 'X*
*lt-
BUIW-
ti •«-
ttftvae
PXK-
**MT
e. mm~
**•
••MT


•. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE
111
III M*»»
GC/MS FRACTION - BASE/NEUTRAL COMPOUNDS fi*fiyl*mln«
(8ft-3O-6)
448. Ph*n«ittir«iw
(8B-01-B)
4SB. Pynn*
(12B-OO-0)
4BB. 1,2,4 -Trt-
cMorobwuwM
(120*2 1)
OCVMS FRACTION
IP. AMrtn
(3W-W-2J
3P. O-BHC
018-8441)
3P.jS-BHC
(68-899)
6P 5-BHC
(31946-8)
BP. CMonten*
W7.74-B1
7P. 4.4' -DDT
(60-28-31
BP. 4,4'-DOE
(72-86-9)
8P. 4,4'-DDO
(72 64-8)
1OP Otaldrln
(«O67 1)
1 1P. a-EndOiulf*n
(118-28-7)
12P. 0 Endo«ulf«n
(11S-2B-7!
13P EndcuuK.n
Sulfatt
(1031-O7«)
14P. Endnn
<72 2O-8)
ISP. Endrin
Alilotiydo
(7421-934)
16P. H*pt«chtor
(76-448)




-PEI




















rriaw




















ES




















'





































3. EFFLUENT
b. MAXI^yMJ^HAjT WALUB
co»c«W«»,,o^






















l,|»...






















C.LONG TERM AVRCi. VALUE
CO.C.NVI..IION






















111 «...






















a NO OF
ANAL
IfSES























4, UNITS
*. CONCEN
TRATION






















L. MASS























S. INTAKE (.'/'/.
a LQNC
AVEHACi
'"l^noi"






















» TCftM
L VALUt
I.I-...






















EPA  FMM 3510-2C (S-M)
                                                                             PAGE V-8
                                                                                                                                          CONTINUE ON i

-------
CONTINUED FROM PACi V 8
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(i/ avwfaiMr;
2, MANK 'X'
KT**?
*M«
MH *
OUIW-
b, ,«•
Liftwsn
»»K-
•«WT
C *«-
liiMr

•. MAXIMUM DAILY
10
OC/MS FRACTION - KSTICIDES (continued)
17P. H«pt*chlor
ipoxtd*
(1024-67-31
«P. PCB-1242
(83409-21-0)
IBP. PC B 1264
(11O97-6S 1)
20P, PCB 1J21
(11104-28-2)
IIP. PCB- 1232
(11141.19-6)
22P. PCB-1248
<12672-2»-8)
23P. PCB-128O
(110M42.S)
24P. PCB 1016
(12674-11-2)
2SP. Toxaphwi*
(•001-36-2)




































Cf*A l.D. NUMBER (copy /rom /fern 1 o/1 Form 1)
3 EFFLUENT
VALUE
(j| MA..










b. ilAX^MJ^^JV VALUE
!•)










(l) *!*«*










OUTFALL NUMBER I

c-«-0"CT(f^f.<*M
*H*TIU»«










ti| MAB»










                                                                           PAGE V-9
PA Form 3S10-2C  (8-M)

-------
                                                                                     Approved
                                                                                OMB No. 2040-0086
                                                                                Approval expires 5-31-92
int or type in th« umtwoM tnut only.
                                        APPLICATION KM KMHT TO
                                                                         AMD WLVICOLTUfUL OPERATIONS
mM* to tht «ffiuMrt(
r JMMMM/, provM* •
asrssi'

>. (O^T COOK* PROM
TAM.C 1C-I














































ust ONLY ieffluent guidilinei tub-cattionttl

-------
         IFD FROM THE FRONT
 fC. Except for storm runoff, leaks, or (pills, **• any of th* dheMq
          Q vcs reomptoto the AoOowtaf lafclaj
                                            Id In Items II-A or B trrttrmrnwit or seasonal?
                                                              Quo (go to Sfction III)
  .OUTFALL
  NUMBER
     (list)
   «.
CONTHIMJTINO FLOW
                                                                I. FMQUCNCY
b. MONTH*
•*N VBAft
                                                                                                             4. FLOW
                                                                                         •. PLOW MAT*
                                                                    ?••••  t. •MUIIMUM
h. TOTAL VOUUMC
 <*>»clfy with unit*I
                                                                                     I. t.OM« T«HM  a. MAXIMUM
                        C DUR-
                         ATION
  A. DOM in •ffdunt
           Q vu (eamjrict* JMww
  C. rfyou«ncw«r*d"yM"tolMmm-e.«K«
                                    "~
                                                   I m««iur»m>nt of your tovrt of production, expressed in the terms and units
    . «UANTITV PCN OAV
                           b. uwnv or
                                                                                                      1. AFFECTED
                                                                                                       OUTFALLS
                                                                                                   (litt outfall number*;
 IV. IMPROVEMENTS,
 A. Are you now required by any Federal, Stite or loo) authority to meet any implementation schedule for the construction, upgrading or operation of waste-
    water treatment equipment or practice! or any other environmental programs which may affect the discharges described in this application? This includes,
    but is not limited to, permit conditions, administrative or enforcement orders, enforcement compliance schedule letters, stipulations, court orders, and grant
    or loan condition..                    D»«« feoi^tefti MM toUowH* toMej            DNO («o to /tern IV-B>
1. IDENTIFICATION OF CONDITION,
        AQREStMENT. ETC.
                                       1. AFFECTED OUTFALL*
                                            b. BOWIICK or OI*CHAI»«
                                                        1. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
                                                                                                        4. FINAL COM
                                                                                                       PLIANCE DATE
                                                     > G*i PI &f  i ncjiCbifc wn^Thp' tacr p' ^£"3""  •  "i,i  „'  •  ._
                                                    IF DESCRIPTION OF ADDITIONAL CONTROL PROGRAMS IS ATTACHED
                                                                  PAGE  I  OF 4

-------
   INUED FROM PAGE 2

. HfTAKi MmwnjumttmtmM


         NOTE: T*toVJV,V-Biwt«JV pimnt »nd rapon «ny amlytkal d»ta in your
    . POLLUTANT
                                                                                              S. *OURCt
                                                                                    MMI inarm«XM* or INMI product or
 For

-------
CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
VII. BIOLOGICAL TOXICITY TESTING DATA .
  Do you haw any knowtodga or raaaon to-baUava that any biologic*) tact for acuta or chronic toxicity ha» baan mada on any of your diicharges or on a
  receiving wetar in relation to your diacharga wHWn tha laat 3 yaan?
                     Q VIS (Identify On tettd) end dttcribt their purpom below)
NO (go to Section V1I1)
                                                            wuufcw of. and polhitanto
                                                         or flrm telowj
             f    A. NAHB
                                                           •. ADORKSa
                                                                                          (area code A no.)
                                                                                                                          (lilt)
                                         undtvutueMthfinfonnutiontubmitttd B»»»donmyinguirYofth»ptreonorp»r*ont whomtmgethttyrtfmor


                                                                       including tttt pottibilny of tint end lawrieonmunt for knowing violations.
   *- NAMC a, OFFICIAL TITLE ffVP* Or print)-
  EPA  Form  3510-2C  (6-

-------
PLEASE PRINT OR TYPE IN THE UNSHADED AREAS ONLY. You may report some or all of
this information on separate sheets lute the same formatl instead of completing these pages.
SEE INSTRUCTIONS.          	___
                                                                                               EPA l.O. NUMBER (copy from Item 1 of Form I!
 V.,NTAKE AND FLUENT

 PART A • You must provide the results of at least one analysis for every pollutant in this table. Complete one table for each outfall. See instructions for additional details.
 I. POLLUTANT
                                      2. EFFLUENT
                   a. MAXIMUM DAILY VAUUB
                                                                              Tff*!f *T"
                                                                                            ill M**l
                                                                                                        d. NO. or
                                                                                                       ANALYSES
                                                                                                                          3. UNITS
                                                                                                                        (specify if blank)
                                                                                               a.CONCKN-
                                                                                                TRATIOH
                                                                                                                                4, INTAKE (aptiiHial)
                                                                                                                                                   a, LONG TEHM
                                                                                                            b, NK
                                                                                                            ANA ,
 a, Bioch«rnlc»l
 Ox V9«n Damand
 (BOO)
 b. Chemical
 OxVflan Demand
 (com
 e. Total Organic
 Carbon (TOO
 d. Total Suipandad
 Solid. (TSSt
a. Ammonia ttu N)
1. Flow
g. Tamporatura
(winter)
 h. Tamparatura
 (lummtrl
                 MINIMUM
 i. PH
                                MAXIMUM
                                             MINIMUM
                                                            MAXIMUM
                                                                                                                     STANDARD UNITS
 PART B -   Mark "X" in column 2-a for MCh pollutant you know or hcv* rvawon to telMV* i* prawwtt. Mark "X" in column 2 -b for each pollutant you believe to be absent If you mark column 2a for any p< >i i
           which is HmMariaWiaralractly, or inolractly felt tJ9«*eatyJnwa^
           column 2i. you mint provid* quantitative data or M explanation of trwir prwance in your oKacharg*. Complete one tabla for each outfall. Sea (ha instructions for additional details and require n
 t. POLLUT-
  ANT AND
  CAS NO.
  (if available!
              2. MARK 'X
                                                                 S. EFFLUENT
                                                                                                                              4. UNITS
                                                                                                                                                       5 INTAKE (uptional)
b.
      a. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE

III
                                                             34!

                                                                                   WALUB
                                                                                           ttNO OF
                                                                                            ANAL-
                                                                                            YSE*
                                                            a. CONCEN
                                                             TRATION
                                                                                          ». LONG TERM
                                                                                        AVERAGE VALUE
                                                                                                                                                                |l| MAH
a. Bromida
(24959 679)
b. Chlorina,
Total natidual
 c. Color
 d. Facal
 Conform
 *. f luoride
 (1698448 B)
 f. Nitrata-
 Nitrlta (at Nt
   EPA Form  3510-2C  (8-90)
                                                                                  PAGE V-l
                                                                                                                                                         CONTINUE ON REVt.,

-------

I. POLLUT-
 ANT AND
 CAS NO.
 (tfauatloMtl
Tot*l Organic
tmNl
h. OH *nd
1. PhMphorut
f« ri, ToMl
17723 14-01
               2 MARK 'X
 . R«dlo«ctlvrtv
                                                                   3. EFFLUENT
•. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE
                                            I'i '
                                                                            VAI-U"
                                                                                     C.L&Nfi T*I*M
                                                                                                                  d NO OF
                                                                                                                   ANAL
                                                                                                                    vses
                                                                                                                                  4. UNITS
                                                                                                a. CONCEN-
                                                                                                 TRATION
                                                                                                                                                           S. INTAKE f.i/i«ii>«ii//
TOOri
«)
OUtaHum.
3M* TMtl .
**»
    •"••Mil
 TOUI
 (I430-M-S)
w. Tin, TaM
(/44O.31-6)
 «. Titanium,
                                                                                     PAOE V-Z
                                                                                                                                                                CONTINUE ON PAC,i  ,   3

-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 3 OF FORM 2 C
EPA i.D. NUMBER Icopy from Item 1 of Form 1>
OUTFALL NUMBER

PART C - If you are a primary industry and this outfall contain* process wastewater, refer to Table 2c-2 in the instruction* to determine which of the GC/MS fractions you must test for. Mark "X" in colui i u
2-s for all such GC/MS fraction* that apply to your industry and for ALL toxic metal*, cyanides, and total phenols. If you are not required to mark column 2 a (secondary industries, nonpioc.
tvaata-wMwr outfalls, tndnonrtquirod GC/MS /rtctioml, mark "X" in column 2-bfor each pollutant you know or have reason to believe is present. Mark "X" in column 2 -c for aach pollutant y. «
believe is absent. M you mark column 2a for any pollutant, you must provide the result* of at least one analysis for that pollutant. If you mark column 2b (or any pollutant, you must provide the r es» 1 1
of at least one analysis for that pollutant if you know or have reason to believe It will be discharged in concentrations of 1 0 ppb or greater. If you mark column 2b for acrolein, acrylonitrile, 2 . -1
dinitrophenol, or 2-m*thyl-4, 6 dinitrophenol, you must provide the results of at least one analysis for each of these pollutants which you know or have reason to believe that you discharge u
concentration* of 1 00 ppb or greater. Otherwise, for pollutant* for which you mark column 2b. you must either submit at least one analysis or briefly describe the reasons the pollutant is expected i.
be discharged. Note that there are 7 page* to this part; please review each carefully. Complete one table (ult "f pages) for each outfall. See instructions for additional details and requirement •
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(IfeuaUabU)
2, MARK 'X'
fcT««T
tHa
aum-
tx •«-
klKVBC
• •NT
C •«-
Ll«v«e
AB-
SENT
METALS, CYANIDE, AND TOTAL PH|
tM. Antimony,
Total (744O-36-O)
2M. Arienle, Total
(744O-»2)
3M. Beryllium,
Total, 7440-41-7)
Total (744fr-43-a>
•M. Owomlum.
U»t»l (7440-47-3)
par

^Mj«y.T«-
|k^ luf^j^^Bt IBB^^^J
a^pM« m^ppjifB^ mi>B*
(744002-0)
10M. Mantum.
Tot* <77*2-4ft 2)
11M. Sliver, Total
(7440-29-4)
12M. TheHlum,
TOtel (7440-28-0)
13M. Zinc, Total
(7440-80-6}
14M. CywtlcM,
TotM (87-12-6)
16M. PMnolt,
Total

















































!NPU














--
3. EFFLUENT
VALUE
















	
DIOXIN
2,3,7.8 T»tr»
chlarodib*nio-P-
Oioxln (1764-01-6)



DESCRIBE RESULTS
b. MAXIMUM *

















UoSi VALUl


















C.LONG TEJIM *VRV>. VALUE




































d. NO. or
ANAL-
YSES
















4. UNITS
>. CONCEN-
TRATION
















b. MASS
















S. INTAKE (uplioii.it
*. LOMC
AWERAO
(t) C0MGBM'
















TERM
E VALU^
(2) MASS







'•










1, 1 1, > ttt
* ^ ft i
V ij t ii












EPA  Form 3S10-2C (t-M)
PAGE V-3
                                                       CONTINUE ON REVERM

-------
CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
t. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
/I/ available)
2 MARK 'X'
A Tk»T
QUIPI-
b. ..
,i». wac
• «NT
C mt-
*•-
• •NT
3 EFFLUENT
e. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE
f>>
GC/MS FRACTION - VOLATILE COMPOUNDS
IV. Acroleln
(107-02-8)
2V. Acrylonltrlle
(107-13-1)
3V. Benzene
(71 43-21
4V. BMCMoro-
mtthyll Ether
(642-88 1)
8V. Bromoform
(76-26-2)
6V. Carbon
Tetrechtoride
(66-23-6)
7V. Chtorobeniene
(1089O-7)
8V. Chtorodl-
bromometrtene
(124-481)
9V. Chtoroethene
(76-00-3)
10V. 2-Chtoro-
ethylvlnyl Ether
(110-764)
11V. Chloroform
(67-66-3)
12V. OWilera-
(76-37-4)
lav. DWiloro-
dttluoromethene
(76-71-8)
t4V. 1,1-OWiloro-
ethene (76-34-3)
16V. 1,2-Dtehloro-
16V. 1,1-OfaMoro»
ethylene (76-36-4)
17V. 1,2-DWiloro-
proikene (79-97-9}
Itv 1.3-Otehtoro-
19V. Ethylbenzene
(100-41 4)
20V. Methyl
Bromide (74-83-9)
21V. Methyl
Chloride (74-87-3)










































Fond 3610-1C (t-M)

































































b. MAXIMUM 3D DAY VALUE























i.i ».»






















C.UONC ^ffjgjffjfff VALUE















































tl NO OF
ANAL
vsts






















4 UNITS
• CONCEN
TRATION











































PAGE V-4
S INTAK t /../Hi
n I ON(.
A V Lti A^/






















1 t HM
V ALUL
t I \ M Ak •

-


















1



CONTINUE ON P/^.t V 5

-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE V4
I. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
OC/MS FRACTION
22V. M*thyl*M
ChtorM* (76-08-2)
23V. 1,i,2,2-T«tr»-
chlofiMKtMiM
(78-34-5)
24V. TMnehioro-
•thylww (127-18-41
26V. Toluww
(108-88-3)
28V. 1,2-TfMM-
Dfchtoro*thyt*n«
(166-6O-6)
27V. 1.1,1-Trt-
chtoromlMiM
(71-BB-6)
28V. 1,1,2-Trl-
chk>ro«tti*rM
(79-OO-B)
|29V. Trlchloro-
IMiytan* (78-01 6)
BpV. Trlctilero-
|31V, Vinyl
IChtarM* (75-O1-4)
2. MARK *X*
M*-
I FT I
-vo










u ..-
LIBVKH
LATIL










c •«-
ECOM











•. MAXIMUM I
POUNDS (contt*










OC/MS FRACTION - ACID COMPOUNDS
1A. 2 Chtorophenol
(89-67-8)
2A. 2,4 Olchloto-
ph«nol (120-83-2)
3A. 2.4 D!m«ttiyl-
ph«nol(106 67-g)
4A. 4,6-Dlnrtro-O-
Crwol (B34-62-1)
6A. 2,4-Dlnltro-
ph.nol (61-28-6)
6A. 2 Nltroph«nol
(88-76-6!
7 A. 4-Nltroph«nol
(100-02-7)
8 A. P-ChlOfO-M-
Crnot 159 60 7)
9A. P«nt»chloro-
ph*nol (87 86 5)
10A Prtanol
(108-95-2)
11 A. 2.4.6-Tri-
chEorophvnol
(8806 2)












































JAIl-Y
u*d)
EPA ID. NUMBER (ropy from Item 1 of Form 1)
3. EFFLUENT
VALUE















































lob/5,1 V* *























Ob fFALL NUMBER


























LVRG, VALUE























a. NO. or
ANAL-
YSES























4, UNITS
«, CONCEN-
TRATION























b. MASS























S. INTAKE (Optional
m. LOMQ
AVERAG
|l) COMC0M"























TERM
VALUE
(l| «***











^











, |t . Of
f i •* >

















- , ,e,,, ,« ,„ „„, fAGF v-» '•ONTIMIII: nm NI •'< »«.-<

-------

1.FOM.UTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
fil wMteMrJ
t. MABH '»•
fcf «»T
IM«
««•
•win-
tx*«-
Lt*v«a
P««C
• •MT
t »**
«.*•
•«Mt

•. MAXIMUM OAll-V VAUUE
M w 1 It) M.*«
OC/MS FHAcnwi - M-HUNtuniAi. camwmm
IB, AMMpMhWM
(8332-9)
2B. Ac*iuphtyl*iM
(208-M-a)
36 AnthncwM
(120-12 7)
4B. BwitMin*
(•2*7.6)
•B. BMUO 4I
W«.C«wVHm
(ttt-ii*)
<»B. Oto*nio f«.»i>
Anthrwwn*
(8370-3)
2OB. 1,2-Dkhtofo-
b«iz«r» (B8-6O-1)
218. 1>Dte*iloro-
twniwM(K41-79-1









































































































*. MAXI^M Jj^g^V VAI.UB
co~c»W«»».o.j l'l-««*











































ct-°»aWJSJn£fv*'-u'
i>i






















1^1 *****























U NO OF
AHAC-
vses
























«, COMCCN-
THAT1ON
















































a LONG
AVCRA^I
|l| <.u~C«>.
TMA1IOH






















TCMM
V ALUl
|,) ...t







1
|
;














EPA F*m U10-2C  (»-M)
                                                                         PAGE V-«
                                                                                                                                      CONTINUE ON t'<  t  V /

-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE V-6
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
1 MARK 'X'
Mfc-
ttMtH-
ki&wca
• •NT
C ..-
*•*

EPA (D. NUMBER (copy from Item 1 of Form I)
3. EFFLUENT
«. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUK
l'I T0-
(. »«.»
QC/MK FRACTION - BASE/NEUTRAL COMPOUNDS (continued*
22 B 1,4-Olchloro
b*nz«M (106 46 7
23B. 3,3--D!chloro
MntkSliM
(9194-1)
24B. Dtothyl
PhttuM*
(84-66-2)
2BB. Dlmnhyl
PhthatM*
(131-11-3)
2*B. bl-N -Butyl
phtlMM*
(•4-74-2)
278. 2,4-Olnitro-
tobww (131-14-2)
28B. 2,6-Olnltro
tohiwx (606-20-2)
X»B. D(-N-Octvl
MNh*tM*
0 17-644))
BM«M> (122-66-7;
BNB. FNiarwitlwW
ntoB. Fhionn*
nit-H-i)
34i,H«M-
(•7-6B-4)
gsgssr.
«tti«M (67-72-1)
ggiu.
»B. iwpheren*
(78-68-1)

(91-20-3)
408 NltrobMilMW
(90-963)
41B. N Nitro-
(62 7B 9)
42B. N-Nltrotodl-
N-^ropylwnln*
{621-647)









































































































b. MAXIMUM »0 DAY VALUE
dl






















(»>„»„»






















OUTFALL NUMBER


C.I.ONO T^»*|^P|f VALUB
10













































NO or
ANAL
VSfcS






















4. UNITS
. CONCEN-
TRATION






















l> MASS






















5. INTAKE f«/"<"'
» LONG TERM
*Vt««i.E VALUE























l,| «...






















EPA  Form 3S10-2C (i-M)
                                                                           PAGE V-7
                                                                                                                                        CONTINUfc ON

-------

1 . POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
OCAMFftACTKW
43B. N-Nttro-
•edipiianylatnln*
(M-M41

(•5-01-B)
48B.pyi*n*
(12*404)
4to.'U.4-m 	
[lafrW-D _,
1. MARK 'X'
KT«*r
»••
M«-
-•A




ocMi PHAenoM - ra
IP. AUrtn
OOV4MM}
3F. 0-1MC
(I1»*fr*l
«•.«-•»«:
M1MK-71
*P. 7-BMC
ni4»«i
•P.6-CNC
(S1MW4)
•r. ChlontoiM
(«?.74«>
*, 4.4--DDT
bi-aJM)
M. 4,*-ODi
(TJ-W<)
M>. 4.4--DDD
(72-«*«)
10T. DMdrln
(•M7-1)
IIP.dMVlBWHMi
(11K-29-7)
tar. ^-»Bdo».««B
(11B-24-7)
1W. IndBWHtn
SuHM*
(10*1-07*)
14P. Endrln
(72-204I
ISP, Endrin
AMahyite
(742 1-03-4)
10f*. M*pt*chlar
(7«-44-8)
















d •«•
UIBWKfl
J«;
KMH




TICKI
















c •«-
......
/THAI




•
















S. EFFLUENT
K. MAXIMUM 1
LCOMTOUNM




-.4*;^
















1AILV VA1.UC
(eonOnufd)




Bt:<:
















b.MAK^y-1






















jta:/ VALU«






















O.LONO 'JU^M






















ft*C? v*tu«























d. NO OF
ANAL-
YSES
























1, COHCCN-
TMATION






















b M*»»
























* L.ONC
(l } COMCBM-






















i TtRM






















EPA Fem lilO-JC (t-M)
                                                                        PAGE v-«
                                                                                                                                 CONTINUE ON HM! V9

-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE V-8
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(if mumilmbt*)
QC/MS FRACTION
17P, H*puehlor
EpexM*
<1024-§7-3)
18P. PCB-1242
(834W21-9)
ISP. PCB-12B4
(11M7-W-1)
20P. PCB-1221
(11104-282)
21P. PCB-1232
(11141 1«)
22P. PCB-124B
(12«72-»-«)
23P. PCB-1260
24P. PCB-101*
(12*74-112)
a«P. TBlMplMM
•001-3S-2)
Z. MAUN 'A1
*•*&
-PB









>.«!'•
mao









c mm-
JtKr
C9fMK










•. MAXIMUM I
ill
nOiuMd)









1AIL.Y
•PA I.D. NUMBER (copy from turn 1 of Form li
3, EFFLUENT
VALUK
MA**
































OUTFALL NUMBKR

_Lk






















a NO or
ANAL-
vscs










4. UNITS
• CONCCN
TRATION










b. MASS










5 INTAKE (,>pn,.i
* L.ONC
(l ) CONC**'
TM MTIOVi









TCRM
|l) -A..










                                                                           PAGE V-»
EPA F«nn  SS10-2C (t-M)

-------
ITEM V-B CONTINUED FROM FRONT
1. POLLUT-
ANT AND
CAS NO.
(If available >
0. NltroffWn,
Total Organic
(
-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 3 OF FORM 2-C
EPA l.D. NUMBER (copy from Ittm 1 of Form 1)
OUTFALL NUMBER
FormApprond.
OMB Ho. 2040-0086
Approval expirts 7-31-88
PART C - If you are a primary industry and this outfall contains process wastewater, refer to Table 2c-2 in the instructions to determine which of the GC/MS fractions you must test for. Mark "X" in column
2-8 for all such GC/MS fractions that apply to your industry and for ALL toxic metals, cyanides, and total phenols. If you are not required to mark column 2 -a (secondary industries, nonprocess
wastewater outfalls, and nonrepaired GC/MS tractions), mark "X" in column 2-b for each pollutant you know or have reason to believe is present. Mark "X" in column 2-c for each pollutant you
believe is absent. If you mark column 2a for any pollutant, you must provide the results of at least one analysis for that pollutant. If you mark column 2b for any pollutant, you must provide the results
of at least one analysis for that pollutant if you know or have reason to believe it will be discharged in concentrations of 10 ppb or greater. If you mark column 2b for acrolein. scrylonrtrile, 2,4
dinitrophenol, or 2-methyl-4, 6 dinitrophenol, you must provide the results of at least one analysis for each of these pollutants which you know or have reason to believe that you discharge in
concentrations of 1 00 ppb or greater. Otherwise, for pollutants for which you mark column 2b, you must either submit at least one analysis or briefly describe the reasons the pollutant is expected to
be discharged. Note that there are 7 pages to this part: please review each carefully. Complete one table (all 7 pages) for each outfall. See instructions for additional details and requirements.
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(if available)
2. MARK 'X'
LTCVT
IMG
MC-
QUII*-
b. .«-
LICVKO
PMB-
• •NT
C •«•


a. MAXIMUM DAILY

METALS, CYANIDE, AND TOTAL PHENOLS
1M. Antimony,
Total (7440-36-0)
2M. Arwnlc, Total
(744O-38-2)
3M. Beryllium.
Total, 744O-41-7)
4M. Cadmium.
Total (7440-43-9)
6M. Chromium,
Total (7440-47-3)
8M. Copper, Total
(7440-50-8)
7M. Lead. Total
(7439-92-1)
8M. Mercury, Total
(7439-97-6)
9M. Nickel. Total
(7440-02-0)
10M. Selenium,
Total (7782-49-2)
11M. Silver. Total
(7440-22-4)
12M. Thallium.
Total (7440-28-0)
13M. Zinc. Total
(7440-66-6)
14M. Cyanide,
Total (57-12-5)
15M. Pnanolt,
Total




























































3. EFFLUENT
VALUE

















b. MAXIM.l/Mv>#a0£;r VALUE



































C. LONG TERM AVItG. VALUE


































d. NO. OF
ANAL-
YSES
















4. UNITS
a. CONCEN-
TRATION
















tx MASS
















5. INTAKE (optional}
a. LONG TERM
AVERAGE VALUE
(l ) CONCKN-
















<•) MUM
















b. NO. OF
ANAL-
YSES
















DIOXIN
2.3,7,8 Tetra
chlorodibenzo-P-
Oioxin (1764 01 6)



DESCRIBE RESULTS
EPA Form 3510-2C (Rev. 2-8S)
                                                                        PAGE V-3
                                                                                                                               CONTINUE ON REVERSE

-------
CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
, 1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
fif available)
2, MARK 'X*
•LTK *T
«*i*
OUIM-
b •«
Lli.V«O
I»ML-
tKNT
c. •«-
MV
• •NT
3. EFFLUENT
•, MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE
10
JC/MS FRACTION - VOLATILE COMPOUNDS
' V , A cro l«ln
1107-02-81
W. Acrylonltrll»
i 107-13-1)
4V. Bcnzftn*
I 71 -43-2)
4V. BiifCAtoro-
mrtHyl) EtrMf
(542-SB-1 )
BV. Bromoform
(75-25-2)
BV. Carbon
T*tr*chtorM*
(56-23-5)
7V. ChMrotMnam*
(108-90-7)
8V. Chlorodl-
bromom«th«n*
(124-48-1)
9V. ChtorottriwM
(75-00-3)
10V. 2-Chtoro-
•MiyMnyl Eth«r
(110-76-8)
11V. Chloroform
(87-68-3)
12V. Otehtoro-
bromomtttNatit
(7i-27-4|
13V. DtehlofO-
dHluoroiTMthnM
(76-71-8)
14V. 1,1-Dlehloro-
•triara (76-34-3)
1SV. 1^-OtehkKO-
•trwn* (107-00-2)
18V. 1,1-Oichloro-
•thyKrx (76-39-4)
17V. 1,2-Oichloro-
prop«n. (78-87-5!
1BV 1.3-OtcNor»-
pnwdin»»«-7M(
19V. Ethylb«nz«tM
(100-41-4)
20V. M«thyl
Bromid* (74-83-9)
21V. M*trwt
Chtorid* (74-87-3)




















































































(t) "...






















ft.MA*HWM>U!AJVVAU»
1')






















|t) MMft*






















C-LOHOT^^U^gy. VALUE
dl






















(i| >•««•






















d MO, or
ANAL-
YSES






















4. UNITS
*. CONCEN-
TRATION






















tx MASS






















5. INTAKE (opttonall
». LONG
(l) COMCHM-
TKlkTtOM






















TERM
ill »««»






















b NO. or
ANAL-
YSES






















EPA Form 3510-2C (R«v. 2-85)
PAGE V-4
                                                                                                                                         CONTINUE OH PAGE V-6


-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE V-4
I. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(ifavMabtrt
GC/MS FRACTION
22V. MetNylnt*
Chlorida (78-09-2)
23V. 1,1,2,2-T«tr»-
chloromhin*
(78-34-6)
24V. T*tr*chloro-
•thy ton* (127-18-4)
25V. Tolwirw
(108-88-3)
26V. 1,2-Tr«m-
Dlch!ofo*thyl*n*
(15660-5)
27V. 1.1,1-TH-
cHlorovthan*
(71-SS-SI
28V. 1,1,3.Trl-
chloro»th»n«
(79-OO-S)
29V. Trkhloro-
•thyl.n. (794141
30V. Trlchloro-
fluorom»th»n»
(75-68-4)
31V. Vlnyr
ChloritM (75-01-4)
2. MARK 'X1
&tE*¥
1Mb
lt£ •
ID
_vo










h. .«
I.IKVBD
n»K-
• KMT
c •«-
nm-
LATILE COM





















1. MAXIMUM I
('1
3AILV
POUNDS (eontinutdl










GC/MS FRACTION - ACID COMPOUNDS
1 A 2 -Chloroph.no
(9S-57O
2A. 2.4.Dkhloro
ph«r>ol (120-83-2)
3A. 2,4-Olm*thyl-
ph«nol (105-67-9)
4A. 4,6-Olnitro-O-
Crttol (534-52-1)
5A. 2,4-Olnitro-
plunol (51-28-5)
6A. 2 Nitroph«r>ol
(88 755)
7A. 4 Nlrrophenol
(IOO-O2-7I
SA. P-Chloro M
Crctoi 159-50-7)
9A, Pfint«chloro-
phtnol (87-86-5!
10 A. Ph«nol
(10B-9S-2)
11 A. 2,4,6-Trl-
chlorophttno)
IS8-06-2)












































EPA I.D. NUMBER fcopy from /tern / of Form I!
3. EFFLUENT
VALUE























b. MAXIMUM S
(i? a«o
(.1























«ft|Y V*UUf:























OU fFAI.1. NUM0KR
OMB Wo. 2O4O-OO86
Appro**! etptras 7-31-09

C.UONG TERM
flf O*?fl























war-"*""























a. No.or
ANAL-
YSES























4. UNITS
«. COMCBH-
TRATION























b, MASS























S. INTAKE /optional)
•. LONC
AVERAtZ
tl) CONC*»-























. TERM
C VALUE























b. NO-OP
ANAL-
YSES
























-------
cor* I iNUbU I-HUM THE FRONT
t. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
2. MARK •*•
IMO
MB*
• UIM-
b ••-
Llkvvg
rmu-
• •MT
c ••-


•. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE


OC/MS FRACTION - BASE/NEUTRAL COMPOUNDS

(83-32-9)
28. AcwuplttyMfW
(208-9*8)
38. Anthracene
(12O-12-7)
48. BwnMlfM
(92-87-6)
SB. Bwtzo (u)
AnthracwM
(S6-6S-3)
88. Bwuo  TERM
E VALUK
111 »•••






















b. NO. OF
ANAL-
YSES






















EPA Form 3B10-2C (R«v. 2-86)
                                                                         PAGE V-«
                                                                                                                                    CONTINUE ON PAGE V-7

-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE V-*
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
Ht oualtablr)
X, MAItK -X'

autit-
I.IKVKB
^Kk-
c. »«-
AB-

•. MAXIMUM DAILY
dl
•PA I.e. NUMBKit (copy from iMm 1 of Form 1)
J. EFFLUENT
VALUE

OC/MS FRACTION - BASE/NEUTRAL COMPOUNDS (continued'
228. 1.4-Diehloro-
MnMm (106-46-7;
238. 3,3--Olehtort>
tMmMin*
(»1-f4-1)
248. DMhyl
Plttlwln*
(8446-2)
2SB. Dinwtftyl
Phth*tat*
(131-11-3)
26B. DI-N-Butyl
Mittwl***
(84-74-2)
278. 2,4-Olnltro-
tolu*n* (121-14-2)
288. 2,6-Dln)tro-
toliMM (S06-20-2)
298. Di-N-Octyl
Phth*lM*
(117-84-0)
30B. 1r2-Dlph«oyP
hydrexliw fof Aio-
Jxrarr/w; (122-08-7
31 B, Fkiorwrtton*
(3084441)
328. Fluorvn*
(86-73-7)
338. HmcntontantiM
(11R.74-1I
34B. H«x«-
chterobuttdton*
(87683)
368. H«x»chloro-
cyclop«ntKll*n*
(77-47-4)
36B. Hcxaehloro-
•than* (87-72-1)
378. Indww
H.2,3-cd> Pynn*
(193-39-51
388. liophoron*
(7849-1)
3BB. Naphtlwhn*
(91-20-3)
4O8. Nltrobcnzww
(9896-3)
41 B. N-Nltro-
(62-75-9)
42B. N-Nltrotodl
N Propylimlmi










































































































6. «i*xl*$M0jy»£j»' VAI-UB














































OUTFALL. HUMBKn
OMB Wo. 204O-OO9G
Approval riptrts 7-31 -88

C.1.0NO T|/2y^J»f • VAUM«















































Ct NO.OF
ANAL
VSES






















4. UNITS
«. CONCKN-
TMATION






















b. MAM






















8. INTAKE (trptionel)
m. LOMO TERM
AVCRAOE VALUE
(l) COMCKM-
TIVATIOM






















|l) »<>••






















b. NO.OF
AMAL
vm«»
























-------
CONTINUED PROM THE FRONT
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(If timtlmblfl
I. MARK 'X'
HTCBT
iMa
• •*
• UIA-
bi ««-
Lfftvwa
m«-
c •«•
*•-
3. EFFLUENT
•. MAXIMUM DAIt-Y VALUC


OC/MS FRACTION - BASE/NEUTRAL COMPOUNDS (eonttmud)
438. N-NHro-
•odtphcnytamliM
I88-3O4)
„_ „__ 	 _
(BB-O14)

(129-000)
468. 1.2.4 -Trl-
cMorobMimw
(12042-1)
















OC/MS FRACTION - PESTICIDES
IP. AMrln
(309-00-2)
2P. 0-BHC
019444)
3T.fl.BHC
(319457)
4P. 7-BHC
(59494)
BP. 5-BHC
(31B4B4)
•P. CMordWM
(B7-74-9)
7P. 4,*-DDT
(BO-29-3)
BP. 4.4--ODE
(72-B6-9)
9P. 4.4-.DDD
(72444)
1OP. DtoMrln
(60-571)
IIP. O-Endowlfan
(115-29-7)
12P. 3-EndotuHm
(115-29-7)
13P. Endo«ilf«n
SuH«M
(1031-074)
14P. Endrln
(72-204)
IBP. Endrin
Aldvhyd*
(7421-93-4)
16P. Hcptaehlor
(76-44-8)





















































































b-MAX"?»!t2Ai?(J/VAl-ue














































e-LONaWJIiA,«?-VALUk














































d. NO. OF
ANAL-
VSK*






















4. UNITS
». CONCEN-
TRATION






















tx MASS






















B. INTAKE foptfoiMO
>. LONC
AWCMAC^
|l) CONCVN'
TMATION






















. TKHM
E VAI.LIK
|l| MAM






















b NO. OP
ANAL-
y*t«






















EPA Form 3B10-2C (Rev. 2-85)
                                                                      PAGE V-8
                                                                                                                              CONTINUE ON PAOE V4

-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE V-8
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
<,f auailoblrt
2. MARK 'X'
lr**T
IMC
MK-
«»*N-
Cx««-
L*»vca
*N&-
• •NT
c •*-
A»-
• •NT

*. MAXIMUM DAILY
10
QC/MS FRACTION - PESTICIDES (continued)
17 P. Mopt»chlor
Ep
24P. PCB-4016
(12674-11-21
28P. TOKtphww
(80O1-3B2)




































•PA I.D. NUM«R (copy from Item I of Form It
3, EFFLUENT
VALUE











b.MAX.^MJ^-TVAI.Ue






















OUTFALL. NUMBKR
OMB Ha 2040-COSf
Apprmil rxfini 7-31 -M

C.I.OHS TOJMJggf. VA1.U.






















ilNo.or
ANAL
vsu










«. UNITS
*. CONCCM-
TNATION










b. MAS*










5. INTAKE /optional >
*. LONG TERM
A VCRACC UALUI
(l| COHCV**-
TKAVIOH










III WAV*










b. Mo. OP
ANAL
v*«*










                                                                               PAGE V-»
Ff>* fann 3510-2C (Urn. 2-85)

-------
PIMM print or typ* in the unshaded arm only.
                       I
                                               PA l.D. NUMBERfcopy from Jttm 1 of Form I)
                                                                                                    OMB Ho. 2040-0086
                                                                                                    Apprortl npirt* 7-31-98
  FORM

   2C
                                 APPLICATION FOR PERMIT TO DISCHARGE WASTEWATER
            EXISTING MANUFACTURING. COMMERCIAL, MINING AND SILVICULTURAL OPERATIONS
                                              Consolidated Permit! Program
  1. OUTFALL LOCATION
  For each out fill, lit: tht latitude and longitude of itt location to the neareit 15 secondt and the name of the receiving water.
    NUMBEfl
      (Hrtl
                       m. LATITUDE
                                                  C. LONGITUDE
                                                                                          D. RECEIVING WATER (name)
 II. FLOWS, SOURCES OF POLLUTION. AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES^,
 A. Attach a Una drawing showing the water flow through the facility. Indicate sources of intake water, operations contributing wastewater to the effluent,
    and uaaunaiit units labeled to correspond to the more detailed descriptions in Item B. Construct a water balance on the line drawing by showing average
    flow* between Intakes, operations, treatment units, and outfalls. If a water balance cannot be determined (t.g., for ctrttin mining tctivltitti, provide a
    pictorial description of the nature and amount of any sources of water and any collection or treatment measures.
 B. For each outfall, provide a description of: (1) All operations contributing wastewater to the effluent, including process wastawater, sanitary wastewater,
    cooling water, and storm water runoff; (2) The average flow contributed by each operation; and (3) The treatment received by the wastewater. Continue
    on additional sheets if necessary.
 I.OUT-
 'ALUNC
  ffi*»
                       t. OPERATION(S) CONTRIBUTING FLOW
                                                                                                  1. TREATMENT
•. OPERATION (lilt)
b. AVERAGE FLOW
   (include uniti)
                                                                                        *. DESCRIPTION
9. LIST CODES FROM
    TABLE 2C-I
                    ' (tfflutnt fuldtlmtl tub-catttoHtil
 EPA Form 3610-2C (Rev. 2-86)
                                                            PAGE 1 OF 4
                                                                                                                 CONTINUE ON REVERSE,

-------
  3NTINUED FROM THE FRONT
  . Except for norm runoff. Met, or ipUte, art «ny of the discharge* described in Item* II-A or B intMmittwit or laatOMl?
                 fcom»i«t> tt« feffovinr mMe;                                       QMO fto to feciton raj
: OUTFALL
NUMBER
k1

». OPERATION^
CONTRIBUTING FLOW

3. FREQUENCY
•C.OAVS
rCH WEEK
fvtragt)

b. MONTHS
rtn VKAH
ItPfdfy
avtroftl


a. PLOW HATE






4. FLOW
b. TOTAL VOLUME
ttpfclfy with uniU)






C. DUR-
ATION
(in dayt)

HI. PRODUCTION
 A. Doe* *n effluent guideline limitation promulgated by EPA under Section 304 of the Clean W*t«r Act apply to your facility?
          O VE« fcomptete Item 7I/-B>                                               ONO n° '° Stclion IV)
  B. Art tht limltatiom in th« applicable effluent guideline expretwd in Mrmt of production (or other nrnuun of operationn
          QTtai ffomplrtt Item lll-Ct                                               Quo do to S*ction IV)
  C. If you answered "yes" to Item III-B, list the quantity which represent* an actual measurement of your level of production, expressed in the terms and units
    used in the applicable effluent guideline, and indicate the affected outfalls.
                                           1. AVERAG E DAILY PRODUCTION
                                                                             (tptclfy)
                                                                                                                         t. APrECTID
                                                                                                                          OUTFALL.*
                                                                                                                      flitt outfall numb»n)
   , Are you now required by any Federal, State or local authority to meet any implementation schedule for the construction, upgrading or operation of wette-
    watar treatment equipment or practice* or any other environmental program* which may affect the discharges described in this application? This includes,
    but I* not limited to, permit condition*, administrative or enforcement orders, enforcement compliance schedule letters, stipulations, court orders, and grant
    or loan condition*.                   f~)v«» fcomplttt Htt followlnt taW*)
1. IDENTIFICATION OF CONDITION,
AOREEMENT. ETC.

S. 1
..««.

EFFECTED OUTFALL*
h. .OUflC. 0* M.CH....




4. F1NA
PLIANCI
JtilU'D

£X?C
h. rno-
JACTIIO

 B, OPTIONAL: You may attach additional sheets describing any additional water pollution control programs tor other environmental projects which mty affect
    your ditchiryfs) you now have underway or which you plan. Indicate whether each program is now underway or planned, and indicate your actual or
    planned schedules for construction.  QMAHH «x«> IF BMCIIIPTION or ADDITIONAL CONTROL MIOCHAMS la ATTACHED
EPA Form 3610-2C (Rev. 2 86)
                                                               PAGE Z OF 4
                                                                                                                      CONTINUE ON PAGE 3

-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 2
                                      •PA I.D. NUMBBRfcopy from Ittm 1 of Form 1)
                                                                                     Form Apprortd.
                                                                                     OMB No. 204O-0006
                                                                                     Apftrmtl ttpirit 7-31-98
V. INTAKE AND EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS
 A. B, & C:
SM inttruction* before proceeding — Complete on* wt of tablet for Mch outfall — AnnottM the outfall number in th* space provided.
NOTE: Table* V-A, V-B. and V-C are Included on Mparate aheets numbered V-1 through V-9.
  D. UM the space below to lift any of the pollutant* lifted in Table 2c-3 of the inttruction*, which you know or have reatbn to believe i* ditcharged or may be
     ditcharged from any outfall. For every pollutant you lift, briefly describe the reason* you believe It to be present and report any analytical data in your
     poamiion.
        I. POLLUTANT
                                            i. aouncc
                                                                             I. POLLUTANT
                                                                                                                 I. SOURCE
 VI. POTENTIAL DISCHARGES NOT COVERED BY ANALYSIS"
  Is any pollutant listed in Item V-C a substance or a component of a substance which you currently use or manufacture as an intermediate or final product or
  byproduct?
                            QYB*> (lift all 
-------
CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
 VII.  BIOLOGICAL TOXICITY TESTING DATA]
   Do you h««.Miy knowledge or reeton to believe thet any biological tMt for mitt or chronic toxicity hei been made on my of your discharges or on a
   motiving wetar in relation to your discharge within the (act 3 year*?
                     DY«« (Idmtify tht tftt(i) and dnerlbt tfwtV purpom bcloivj
     ffo to Section VI/JJ
VMICONTRACT ANALYSIS INFORMATION]
  Were any of the analyn* reported in Item V performed by a contract laboratory or consulting firm?


                     Q YES (ll*t tht name, addnu, and ttltphon* number of, and poUutantt
                            analyied by, facH tuen laboratory or firm btlowj
] NO f»o to Section IX)
                                                           m. AODRC*»
                                                                                           (arra code A no.)
                                                                                                                          flitti
 •ssure that qualifiedpersonnel'property gather indevtluite tht information tubmittod. Bused on my inquiry of the person or persons who manage the system or
 those persons tHreetrfresponsOtle for guthering the infomtmtion, the informetion submitted is. to the best of my knowledge and belief, true, accurate, and complete.
 I am aware that there are significant penalties for submitting false information, including the possibility of fine and imprisonment for knowing violations.
  A. NAME at OFFICIAL TITLE (type or print)
                                                                                                B. PHONE NO. (area code & no.)
  C. SIGNATURE
                                                                                                D. DATE SIGNED
 EPA Form 3610-2C (Rev. 2-86)
                                                              PAGE 4 OF 4

-------
                                                                                             EPA I.D, NUMBER (copy from Hem 1 of form 1)
PLEASE PRINT OR TYPE IN THE UNSHADED AREAS ONLY. You may report jomE or all of
this information on separate sheets (use the tame formatl instead of completing these pages.
SEE INSTRUCTIONS.
Form Approved.
OMB Ho 200OOOS9
Appioval expires 12 31-US
V. INTAKE AND EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS {continued from payv 3 or Form 2-CS ^SI^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H
HHHU|oUTFXLL NO
PART A • You must provide the results of at least one analysis for every pollutant M> this table. Complete one table for each outfall. See instructions for additional details.
1. POLLUTANT
3 Biochemical
U>
b Chemical
Oxygen Demand
f(:tiD)
c. Total Organic
Caibon ITOCj
rl Total Su$M«*ld«d
Sol«i» ( 'I 'Mi)
e Ammonia {as AV
1 Flow
y. Temperature
«. IH'lTj
It. Temperature
!. pH
2
a. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE
i'l («l "»»»





V ALUt
VALUE
VALUE
MINIMUM JMAXIMUM
b, MAXIMUM 3
1 if ava
li





VALUE
EFFLUENT
Q PAV VALUE
(a)—"






VALUE
VALUE
MINIMUM

MAXIMUM
e.LDNt, TE«M AVRG, VALUE
tOHt.J;,WJiril>N j.i^*,,





V ALU*
V A L U I,
V A L U L
^. ^^^^
tl HO OF
ANALYSES









3. UNITS
Ixprrifv if blank!
a. CONCEN-
TRATION






b. MASS






°C
°C
STANDARD UNITS
4. INTAKE S»I'lK»lMlS
a LONG TEHM
CONCti'T».T,o~





(•) »»,*





VALUE
VALUE
VALUE
h. NO. OF
ANALYSES








^I^^^1^^^
PART B - Mark "X" in column 2-8 for each pollutant you know or have reason to believe is present. Mark "X" in column 2 b for each pollutant you believe to be absent. If you mark column 2a for any pollutant
which is limited either directly, or indirectly but expressly, in an effluent limitations guideline, you must provide the results of at least one analysis for that pollutant. For other pollutants for which you mark
column 2a, you must provide quantitative data or an explanation of their presence in your discharge. Complete one table for each outfall. See the instructions for additional details and requirement*
1. POLLUT-
ANT AND
CAS NO.
a. Bromide
(24959 67 9)
b. Chlorine,
Total Residual
c. Color
cl Fecal
Conform
e. Fluoride
(1698 4- 48 -8)
f. Nitr«t«-
Nitrlt* (a* N)
2 MARK 'X'
a. er-
PWE-






b. Hi,-
AB-






3. EFFLUENT
a, MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE






b. MA








p^ VALUE 	 , , ^"^w 	






liNO. OP
ANAL-






4. UNITS
a LONCEN*
- NATION






h. MASS






5. INTAKE (optional)
a LON(
AVERAG






E VALUE
(<) «*<«






% NO. OP
ANAL
VSC*






 EPA Form 3610-2C (Rev. 2-85)
                                                                                PAGE V-1
                                                                                                                                                     CONTINUE ON REVERSE

-------
ITEM V-B CONTINUED FROM FRONT
1. POLLUT-
ANT AND
CAS NO.
(If available)
o. Nitrogen,
Total O'flante
fotJVJ
h. OH and
1. Phoaphorui
(m P), Total
(7723-14-0)
I. MARK 'X'
a, •«-
.I«VKC
ftn-



tl.mt-
LlKVKO
AH-



j. Radioactivity
(1) Alpha,
Total
(2) Beta,
Total
(3) Radium.
Total
(4| Radium
226, Total
k. Sulfat*
tat S04)
(14800-79-81
1. SulfWa
«*m
m. Sulf tta
<<» so3;
(14366-46-3)
n. SufiActMitt
o. Aluminum,
Total
17429 9O-5)
p. BaHutrt,
Total
(7440-3S-3)
q. Boron,
Total
(7440-42-8)
'.Cobalt,
Total
(7440-48-4)
& Iron, Total
(7439419-6)
t. Mapiaalum,
Total
(7439-95 4)
u. MolylxMnum,
Total
(7438-9B-7J
v. Minganata,
Total
(74399651
w. Tin, Total
(7440-31 B)
x. Titanium,
Total
(7440-32-6)




































3, EFFLUENT
a. MAXIMUM I






















JAIL.Y VALUE






















b. -AXIOMS






















i&rv*""






















C.UNCJT^IJM,






















SBf-v*Lur























d, NO. or
ANAL-
YSES






















4. UNITS
a. CONCIH-
TRATION






















b MAM






















5. INTAKE /optional)
itttfrt
(>>






















fcVAltit























xNO.or
AKAL
vscs






















EPA Form 3510-2C (Rov. 2 85)
                                                                    PAGE"V"2
                                                                                                                              CONTINUE ON PAGE V • 3

-------
EPA I.O. NUMBER (copy from /(cm 1 of Form 1) OUTFALL NUMBER)
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 3 OF FORM 2-C
Form ApproYtd.
OMB Ho. 2040-OOte
Appro**! tipirtt 7-31-81
PART C - If you are a primary Industry and this outfall contains process wastewater, refer to Table 2c-2 in the instructions to determine which of the GC/MS fractions you mud test for. Mark "X" in column
2-a for all such GC/MS fractions that apply to your industry and for ALL toxic metals, cyanides, and total phenols. If you are not required to mark column 2-a (secondary induttries. nonprocesi
wtstewfltr outffll*. and nonrequired GC/MS fractions), mark "X" in column 2-b for each pollutant you know or have reason to believe is present. Mark "X" in column 2-c for each pollutant you
believe is absent. If you mark column 2a for any pollutant, you must provide the results of at least one analysis for that pollutant. If you mark column 2b for any pollutant, you must provide the results
of at least one analysis for that pollutant if you know or have reason to believe it will be discharged in concentrations of 10 ppb or greater. If you mark column 2b for acrolein, acrylonitrile. 2.4
dinitrophenol. or 2-methyl-4. 6 dlnitrophenol. you must provide the results of et least one analysis for each of these pollutants which you know or have reason to believe that you discharge in
concentrations of 1 00 ppb or greater. Otherwise, for pollutants for which you mark column 2b, you must either submit at least one analysis or briefly describe the reasons the pollutant is expected to
be discharged. Note that there are 7 pages to this part please review each carefully. Complete one table {all 7 pages) for each outfall See instructions for additional details and requirements.
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
HI ouatlablt)
t. MARK 'X'
•.TEST
INO
KC-
QUIM-
b..«-
LICVKB
»••-
C •«-
AB-
3. EFFLUENT
a. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE

METALS, CYANIDE. AND TOTAL PHENOLS
1M. Antimony.
Total (7440-36-O)
2M. Araente, Total
(744O-3B-2)
3M. Beryllium,
Total. 7440-41-7)
4M. Cadmium.
Total (7440-43-9)
SM. Chromium,
Total (7440-47-3)
6M.Cnaer.ToM
(7440-K.il
7M. last Total
(74M.M-1)
8M. Mercury, Total
(7439-97-6)
9M. Nickel. Total
(744O-D2-0)
10M. Selenium.
Total (7782-49-2)
11M. Silver, Total
(744O-22-4)
12M. Thallium.
Total (744O-28-0)
13M. Zinc, Total
(744066-6)
14M. Cyanide,
Total (57-12-6)
16M. Phenol*
Total













































































b. "AX'M.U.M^BAY VALUE


































C.LONG T^Mgyte). VALUE


































d NO. OF
ANAL-
YSES
















4. UNITS
•. CONCEN-
TRATION
















b. MASS
















5. INTAKE (optional/
•. LONG
AVERAO
(t) COMCIM*
















ITATTi.
(l| MAM
















b. NO.OF
ANAL-
YSES
















DIOXIN
2,3.7,8-Tetr».
chlorodibenzo-P-
Oioxln (176401 6)



DESCRIBE RESULTS
EPA Form 3510-2C (Rev. 2-86)
                                                                       PAGE v-3
                                                                                                                             CONTINUE ON REVERSE

-------
CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(if availablfl
t. MAWK -X-
ftTKVT
INCi
!*•-
auiiv-
b.x-
LIKVBB
PHK-
• •NT
C •«•
.V.T
S. EFFLUENT
•. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE
(•I
QC/MS FRACTION - VOLATILE COMPOUNDS
IV. ActoMn
(107-03-8)
2V. AcrylonNrM
(107-13-1)
3V. Bwuww
(71-43-2)
4V. Bll ICMoro-
mttliylt Ether
(943-88-1)
5V. Bromoform
(75-28-2)
6V. Carbon
Tetrechlorlde
(B6-23-S)
TV. Chtorobenxene
(108-90-7)
8V. Chlorodl-
(124-48-1)
9V. Chtoroethene
(7B-OO-3)
10V. 2-Chtoro-
•thylvlnyl Ether
(110-75-8)
11V. Chloroform
(87-86-3)
12V. Olchtoro-
(78-27-4)
13V. Dtehtoro-
O IT luOTOfTMulATM
(75-71-8)
14V. 1.1-DtehtofO-
etheoe (78-34-3)
18V. 1.2-Dlchloro-
•thww (107-O8-2)
18V. 1.1-Dlchloro-
Mhyton* (75-35-4)
17V. 1.2-Dlchloro-
propin* (78-87-5)
18V. IJ-DicrUoro-
»repy(w»(842-7»O
18V. Ethylb*nnrM
(100-41-4)
20V. M«thyl
Bromid* (74-83-9)
21V. Methyl
Chloride (74-87 3)











































































































b. "AXHWM^kfcf / VALUB














































C.UONCT(WMaAoVJjy.VALU«














































d. NO. OP
ANAL-
VSM






















4. UNITS
*. CONCEN-
TRATION






















b. MAM






















S. INTAKE (opriontll
A««yiNcc
(l) COMCIM-
THATION






















> TERM
E VALUE
(a) MA*t






















b. NO. OF
ANAL-
YSES






















EPA Form 3510-2C (R«v. 2-86)
                                                                       PAGE V-4
                                                                                                                                  CONTINUE ON PAGE V-5

-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGF V-4
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(if available}
2. MARK 'X'
NC -
OUIH-
tx ...
L.tCW«c
• •NT
C ••-
AP-
• •NT

•. MAXIMUM DAILY
EPA I.O. NUMBER (copy from Item 1 of form 1)
3. EFFLUENT
VALUE
CD l'> 1 (,|-...
OC/MS FRACTION - VOLATILE COMPOUNDS tconttnuedj
22V. MMhylww
Chlorkia (75-09-2)
23V. 1,1,2,2-T«tr«-
ehloromnan*
(79 345)
24V. T«tr«chloro-
•thyton* (127-18-4)
2SV, Toltran*
< 106*8 3!
28V. 1,2-Trant-
Dichloro«tfiyl*n*
(156605)
27V. 1,1,1-Trl-
ehloroothatw
(71-S6-BI
2BV. 1.1.2-Trl-
chtoroMhm*
(79-OO-6)
28V. Trtehlotw-
•thyterw (79-01-«)
30V. Trlchlwo-
fluorom«th»n«
(75-894)
31V. Vinyl
ChlOflb. (75 01-4)








































OC/MS FRACTION - ACID COMPOUNDS
1 A. 2-Chloroph«no
2A. 2,4-Dlchlofo
phenol (12O-B3 2)
phenol (109-07-9)
4A. 4,6-Dlnltro 0
Crnol (534-62 1)
BA. 2,4-Dlnltro-
phcnal (51 28-5)
6A. 2-NltroptMnol
188755)
7 A. 4-Nltroplwnol
(100-02-7)
8A. P Chloro M
Cretol (59 5O-7)
phenol (87*65)
IDA. Phwtol
(109952)
11 A. 2.4.6-Tri-
chlorophanol
(8808-2)



































































b. MAXIMUM 30 OAV VALUE
(if auailaalei
















































OU rFALL NUMBKII
OMB Wo. 204O OOS6
Appravml mxpirti 7 3I-9S

C.LONC TERM flVPP VALUE
















































d NO. or
ANAL-
y«c*























4. UNITS
«. CONCEN-
TRATION
















































B. INTAKE (optional)
a LONC TERM
AVERAGIt VAUUC
(t) COMC*W«























III MA««























b. HO. or
ANAL-























PAGE V-S
                                                             CONTINUE ON REV

-------
CONTINUED PROM THE FRONT
• .POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(tfavfiltbtrt
t. MARK 'X'
aTK»T
t*io
)i«-
*UM«-
ll.«-
Lictf«e
PMH*
*«WT
c»~
««•-
••MT
3. EFFUUENT
•. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUK
I«)

OC/MS FRACTION - BASE/NEUTRAL COMPOUNDS
IB. AcwMpMtwn*
(83-32-B)
28. AewaphtyMn*
(208-9*8)
38, AnthraeMW
(120-12-7)
48. BwixMIn*
(92-87-6)
BS. Bwno M
Anthr»e*ft*
(56-663)
SB, B*MO (<•)
Pyran* (BO-32-8)
7B. 3,4-BaMO-
(206-09-3)
SB. B*nco fflfeV
MrylMM
(191 24-2)
BB. BwtxofM
Fluonnttxn*
(207-OB-B)
108. Bit (i-CMaro-
tOloxy) MMhMW
(111-91-1)
11 B. Bte »-CMor»
tthyll Ettwr
(111-44-4)
1M.K«g-O»fcrX»»
»«lMEtt»(1htl»l*n*
(81.58-7)
17B. 4-Chloro-
ph*nyl Phitiyl
Ittwr (7008-72-3)
188. Cl>ry**n*
(218-014)
19B. Ditwnzo 
-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE V-6
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(if available)
2. MARK 'X-
KTC «T
INC
**•.-
• UIH-
tk««-
Lift V BO
fm*.-
• •NT
C »C-
*•-

•. MAXIMUM DAILY

erA I.D. NUMBCH (copy ^rom Item 1 of Form I)
3. EFFLUENT
VAL.UC

OC/MS FRACTION - BASE/NEUTRAL COMPOUNDS (continued'
22B. 1,4-Dichloro-
bw»*rM (106-46-7
23B. 3,3--Dlchloro-
tMnzldin*
(91-94-1)
248. Dlethyl
Phthllm
(84-66-2)
258. Dimethyl
Phthcltt*
(131-11-3)
268. OI-N-Butyl
Phthiltt*
(84-74-2)
278. 2,4-Dlnltro-
toluwra (121-14-2)
28B. 2,6-Dlnltro-
toluwra (606-20-2)
298. DI-N-Octyl
Phthdlt*
(117-84-0)
3OB. 1 ,2-Olphwiyl-
hydruliM (at A*o-
b*m*n*)( 122-66-7
318. FluonnttwiM
(206-44-0)
32B. Fluorm*
(86-73-7)

i(11ft.7*-l>
348. H«x».
ehlorobutodtorM
(87-68-3)
3SB. Hmachloro-
cyelopvntadiww
(77-47-4)
36B. Hmachloro-
Mh»M (67-72-1)
378. Indcno
. LONG TCBM
AVERAGE VALUE
(l| COMCBM-






















|l| MAO






















b. NO. OF
ANAL
V»ES






















CONTINUE ON REVERr

-------
.•ONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(it auailahlrl
2. MARK 'X'
B.TF «T
»C-
aum-
b ...
Litveo
r**.-
• CNT
C •«-
»•• I
• •NT
3. EFFLUENT
1. MAXIMUM DAILY VALUE
I'l
|,)-«.t
GC/MS FRACTION - BASE/NEUTRAL COMPOUNDS (continued)
43B. N-Nltro-
•odiphAny lamina
(86.30-6)
44B. Phananthran*
(85-01-8)
46 B. Pyrana
(129-00-0)
46B. 1,2.4 -Trl-
chtorobantana
(120-82-1)
















GC/MS FRACTION - PESTICIDES
IP. Aldrin
(3O9-OO-2I
2P. a-BHC
(319-84-6)
3P. fl-BHC
(319-86-7)
4P. 7-BMC
(58-89-9)
SP. 6-BHC
(319-86-8)
6P. Chlordana
(67-74-9)
7P. 4,4'-DDT
(5O-29-3)
8P. 4,4' -006
(72-65-9)
9P. 4,4'-ODO
(72-54-8)
10P. Dlaldrln
(BO-57-1)
IIP. d-Endoiultan
(115-29-7)
12P. 0-Endomilfan
(115-29-7)
13P. Endotulfan
Sulfata
(1031-O7-8)
14P. Endrln
(72-208)
15P. Endrin
Aldahyda
(7421-93-4)
16P. Hcptachlor
(76-44-8)





















































































t. MAX.M^M^^Y VAI.UE














































C.LONG T^IJJJJJJgy. VALUE
(
-------
CONTINUED FROM PAGE V-8
1. POLLUTANT
AND CAS
NUMBER
(If MHtilfblfl
I. MARK 'X'
fcVKCT
MM***
b. ...
LIKVKB
C. •«-


«. MAXIMUM DAILY
1-1
QC/M8 FRACTION - PESTICIDES (continued)
17P. HwKMhlor
Epoxld*
(1O24-B7-3)
1BF. PCB-1242
(S3489-21-9)
19f». PCB-12B4
(11097-S9.1)
20P. PCB-1221
<1 1104-28-21
71P. PCB-1232
(11141.16*1
22P. PCB-124B
J3P. PCB-126O
(110MM9-6)
I4P. PCS 1010
112*14-11-2)
2SP. ToxiphwM
(8001-38-2)




































EPA l.o. NUM»n (copy from ;t«m J of form 1)
3. EFFLUENT
VALUE
«•) «...










B MAXIMUM 3D DAY VALUE
WavatlaUt)
III
COMC«MTH*TION










(•I --..










OUTFALL NUMBER
OM8 Wo. 2Q4O-OO96
Apfirov*/ *xptrtt 7 31 Si

C.LONC TEMM AVRG. VALUE
(•1










1,1 ....










tl NO. OF
ANAU-
VSES










4, UNITS
a. CONCCN-
THATION










(X MAI*










5. INTAKE fiiptlonul)
*. LONG TtBM
(l| COMCBM-
TKATIOM










(tl »»••










b. NO. OF
ANAL-
V««*










                                                                            PAGE V-t
"A Form 3S10-2C (Rm, 2-86)

-------
APPENDIX E.4:       FORM 2D
                                  80

-------
          United Slates       Office of Water      EPA Form 3510-20
          Environmental Protection    Enforcement and Permits    August 1990
          Agency         Washington, DC 20460
          Permiu Division
&EPA    Application Form 2D —

          New Sources and
          New Dischargers:

          Application for Permit to
          Discharge Process
          Wastewater

-------
                                     Form 2D
Form 2D must be completed in conjunction with EPA
Form 3510-1 (Form 1).
This form must  be completed by all applicants who
checked "yes" to Item II-D in Application Form 1. How-
ever, facilities which  discharge only  nonprocess was-
tewater that is not regulated by an effluent limitations
guideline or new source performance  standard may use
EPA Form 3510-2E (Form 2E). Educational, medical, and
commercial chemical  laboratories should use this form
or EPA Form 3510-2C (Form 2C). To further determine if
you are a new source or a new discharger, see §122.2
and  §122.29. This form should not  be used for dis-
charges of stormwater runoff.
Public Availability of Submitted Information
You  may not  claim as confidential  any information
required by this form or Form 1, whether the information
is reported on the forms or in an attachment. Section
402(j) of the CWA requires that all permit applications
shall be available to the public. This information will
therefore be made available to the public upon request.
You may claim as confidential any information you sub-
mit to EPA which goes beyond that required by this form
and Form 1. Confidentiality claims for effluent data must
be denied. If you do not assert a claim of confidentiality
at the time of submitting the information, EPA may make
the information public without further notice.  Claims of
confidentiality will be handled in accordance with EPA's
business confidentiality regulations in 40 CFR Part 2.
Completeness
Your application will not be considered complete unless
you answer every question on  this form and on Form 1
(except as instructed below). If an item does not apply to
you, enter "NA" (for "not applicable") to show that you
considered the question.
Followup Requirements
Although you  are now required  to submit estimated
data on this form (Form 2D), please note that no later
than two years after  you begin discharging  from the
proposed facility, you  must complete  and submit Items
V and VI of NPDES application Form  2C (EPA Form
3510-2C)  How-ever,  you  need  not complete  those
portions  of Item  V requiring tests  which you have
already performed under  the discharge  monitoring
requirements of  your NPDES  permit In addition, the
permitting authority may waive requirements of Items
V-A and VI if the permittee makes the demonstrations
required  under  40  CFR §122.22(g)(7)(i)(B) and
122.21(gX9).
Definitions
All significant terms used in these instructions and in
the form are defined in the glossary found in the General
Instructions which accompany Form 1.

EPA Form 3510-2D (Rev 8-90)
Instructions
     Item I
     You may use the map you provided for Item XI of Form 1
     to determine the latitude and longitude (to the nearest
     15 seconds) of each of your outfalls and the name of the
     receiving water. You should name all waters to which
     discharge is made  and which  flow  into significant
     receiving waters. For example, if the discharge is made
     to a ditch which flows into an unnamed tributary which
     in turn flows into a named river, you should provide the
     name or description (if no name is available) of the ditch,
     the tributary, and the river.
     Item II
     This item requires  your best estimate of the date on
     which your facility or new outfall will begin to discharge
     Item III-A
     List all outfalls, their source (operations contributing to
     the flow), and estimate an average flow from each
     source. Briefly describe the planned treatment for these
     wastewaters prior to discharge. Also describe the ulti-
     mate disposal  of any solid  or liquid wastes  not dis-
     charged. You should describe the treatment in either a
     narrative form or list the proper code for the treatment
     unit from a list provided in Table 2D-1
     Item III-B
     An example of an acceptable line drawing appears in
     Figure  2D-1  to these  instructions The line  drawing
     should show the route taken by water in your proposed
     facility from intake to discharge. Show all sources of
     wastewater,  including process and production areas,
     sanitary flows, cooling water, and storm water runoff.
     You may group similar operations into a single  unit,
     labeled to correspond to the more detailed listing in Item
     III-A. The water balance should show estimates of antic-
     ipated average flows. Show all significant  losses of
     water to  production, atmosphere, and discharge. You
     should use your best estimates
     Item III-C
     Fill in every applicable column  in this item for  each
     source of intermittent or seasonal discharge  Base your
     answers on your best estimate A discharge is intermit-
     tent if it occurs with interruptions during the operating
     hours of the facility. Discharges caused by routine main-
     tenance shutdowns, process changes, or other similar
     activities are not considered to be intermittent. A dis-
     charge is seasonal  if it occurs only during certain  parts
     of the year. The reported flow rate is the highest  daily
     value and should be measured in gallons per day Maxi-
     mum total volume  means the total volume of any one
     discharge within 24 hours  and  is measured in  units
     such as gallons.

1-1

-------
Item IV
"Production" in this  question  refers to those goods
which the proposed facility will produce, not to "waste-
water" production  This information  is only necessary
where production-based new  source  performance
standards (NSPS) or effluent guidelines apply to your
facility. Your estimated production figures should be
based on a realistic projection of actual daily production
level (not design capacity)  for each  of the first three
operating years of the facility. This estimate must be a
long-term-average estimate (e.g.,  average production
on an annual basis)  If production will vary depending on
long-term shifts in operating schedule or capacity,  the
applicant may report alternate production estimates and
the basis foi the alternate estimates.
If known, report quantities in the units of measurement
used m the  applicable NSPS or effluent guideline.  For
example, if the applicable NSPS is expressed as "grams
of pollutant discharged per kilogram of unit production,"
then report maximum "Quantity Per Day" in kilograms
If you do  not know whether any NSPS or effluent guide-
line applies to your facility, report quantities in any unit
of measurement known to you. If an effluent guideline
or NSPS specifies a method for estimating production,
that method must be followed.
There is  no need to conduct new studies to obtain these
figures, only data already on hand are required. You are
not required to indicate how the reported information
was calculated
Items V-A.  B. and C
These items require you to estimate and report data on
the pollutants expected to be discharged from each of
your outfalls Where there is more than one outfall,  you
should submit a separate Item V for each outfall  For Part
C only a  list is required. Sampling  and analysis are not
required at this  time. If, however, data from such ana-
lyses are available, then those data should be reported.
Each part of this item addresses a different set of pollu-
tant^ or  parameters and must  be  completed in accor-
dance with the  specific instructions for that part  The
following are the general and specific instructions for
 Items V-A through V-C.
 Item V — General  Instructions
 Each part of this item requires you to provide an esti-
 mated maximum daily and average daily value for each
 pollutant or parameter listed (see Table 2D-2), according
 to the specific instructions below. The source of the data
 is also required.
 For Parts A through C, base your  determination of
 whether a pollutant will be present in your discharge on
 your knowledge of the proposed facility's raw materials.
 EPA Form 3510-2D (Rev 8-90)
maintenance chemicals,  intermediate and final prod-
ucts, byproducts, and any analyses of your effluent or of
any similar effluent. You may also provide the determi-
nation and the estimates based on available in-house or
contractor's engineering reports or any other  studies
performed on the proposed facility (see  Item VI of the
form). If you expect a pollutant to be present solely as a
result of its presence in your intake water, please state
this information on the form
Please note that no later than 2 years after you begin
discharging from the proposed facility, you must com-
plete and submit Items V and VI of NPDES application
Form 2C (followup data).
Reporting Intake Data. You are not required to report
pollutants or parameters present in  intake water unless
you wish to demonstrate your eligibilty fora "net" efflu-
ent limitation for these pollutants or parameters, that is,
an effluent limitation adjusted to provide allowance for
the pollutants or parameters present  in your intake
water. If you wish  to obtain credits for pollutants or
parameters present in your intake water, please  insert a
separate sheet,  with a short statement of  why  you
believe you are eligible (see §122 45 (g)),  under  Item VII
(Other Information). You will then be contacted by the
permitting authority for further instructions
All  estimated pollutant or  parameter levels must be
reported as concentration and as total mass, except for
discharge flow, temperature, and pH  Total mass is the
total weight of pollutants or parameters discharged over
a day.
Use the following abbreviations  for  units
      Concentration                Mass
ppm ...  .parts per million    Ibs	pounds
mg/1  ..  .milligrams per liter ton	tons (English tons)
ppb	parts per billion    mg	milligrams
Ug/1  ..  .micrograms per liter g	grams
kg	kilograms         T	Tonnes (metric tons)
Source
In providing the estimates, use the codes in the following table
to indicate the source of such information in column 4 of Parts
V — A and — B
                       Code
Engineering study 	1
Actual data from pilot plants	1
Estimates from other engineering studies	2
Data from other similar plants 	3
Best professional estimates	4
Others	specify on  the form
Item V-A
Estimates of data on pollutants or parameters inGroupAmust
be reported by all applicants for all outfalls, including outfalls
                                                     1-2

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containing only noncontact cooling water or nonprocess
wastewater
To request a waiver from reporting any of these pollu-
tants or parameters, the applicant must submit to the
permitting authority a written request specifying which
pollutants or parameters should be waived and the rea-
sons for requesting such a waiver. This request should
be submitted to the permitting authority before or with
the permit application. The permitting authority  may
waive the requirements for information about these pol-
lutants or parameters if he or she determines that less
stringent reporting requirements are adequate to sup-
port issuance of the permit. No extensive documenta-
tion will normally be needed, but the applicant should
contact the permitting authority if she or he wishes to
receive  instructions on  what his  or her particular
request should contain.
Item V-B
Estimates of data on pollutants in  Group B  must be
reported by all  applicants for all outfalls, including out-
falls containing only noncontact cooling water or non-
process wastewater.You are merely required  to report
estimates for those pollutants which you know or have
reason to believe will be discharged or which are limited
directly by an effluent limitations guideline (or  NSPS) or
indirectly through promulgated limitations on an indica-
tor  pollutant. The priority pollutants in Group B are
divided into the following three sections:
1)  Metal toxic pollutants, total cyanide, and total
    phenols
2)  2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (TCDD) (CAS
    # 1764-016)
3)  Organic Toxic Pollutants (Gas Chromatography/-
    Mass Spectrometry Fractions)
    a)  Volatile compounds
    b)  Acid compounds
    c)  Base/neutral compounds
    d)  Pesticides
For pollutants listed in Sections  1 and 3, you must report
estimates as instructed above.
For Section 2, you are required to report that TCDD may
be discharged if you will use or  manufacture one of the
following compounds, or if you  know or have reason to
believe that TCDD is or may be present in an effluent:
A   2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4,5-T) (CAS #
    93-765);
B.  2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) propanoic acid (Silvex,
    2,4, 5TP) (CAS # 93-72-I);
C   2-(2,4,5-tnchlorophenoxy) ethyl 2,2-
    dichloropropionate (Erbon)(CAS # 136-25-4);
D   0,0-dimethyl 0-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) phosphoro-
    thioate (Ronnel) (CAS # 299-84-3);

EPA Form 3510-2D (Rev. 8-90)
     E   2,4,5-tnchlorophenol (TCPMCAS # 95-95-4); or
     F.   Hexachlorophene (HCP) (CAS # 70-30-4)
     Small Business Exemption
     If you are a "small business," you are exempt from the
     reporting requirement for Item V-B (section 3) You may
     qualify as a "small business" if you fit one of the fol-
     low-ing definitions:
     1)  Your expected gross sales will total less than
         $100,000 per year for the next three years,  or
     2)  in the case of coal mines, your average production
         will be less than 100,000 tons of coal per year
     If you are a "small business,"you may submit projected
     sales or production figures to qualify for this exemption.
     The sales or production figures you submit must be for
     the facility which is the source of the discharge. The data
     should not be limited only to production or sales for the
     process or processes which contribute to the discharge,
     unless  those are the only processes at your facility For
     sales data, where intracorporate transfers of goods and
     services are involved, the transfer price per unit should
     approximate market prices for those goods and services
     as closely as possible. If necessary, you may index your
     sales figures to the second quarter of 1980 to demon-
     strate your eligibility for a small business exemption.
     This may be done by using the  gross national product
     price deflator  (second quarter of 1980 - 100), an index
     available in "National Income and Product Accounts of
     the United States" (Department of Commerce, Bureau
     of Economic Analysis).
     The small business  exemption  applies to the GC/MS
     fractions (Section 3) of Item V-B only. Even if you are
     eligible for a  small business exemption,' you are still
     required to provide information on metals, cyanide, total
     phenols, and dioxin in Item V-B, as well as all of Items
     V-A and C.
     Item V-C
     List any pollutants in Table 2D-3 that you believe will be
     present in any outfalls and  briefly explain why you
     believe they will be present. No estimate of the pollu-
     tant's quantity is  required, unless  you already  have
     quantitative data.
     Note: The discharge of pollutants listed in Table  2D-4
     may subject you to the additional requirements of sec-
     tion 311  of the CWA (Oil and  Hazardous Substance
     Liability). These  requirements  are  not administered
     through the NPDES program. However, if you wish an
     exemption under 40 CFR 117.12(aX2) from these require-
     ments, attach additional sheets of paper to this form
     providing the following information:
     A.  The substance and the amount of each substance
         which may be discharged;
1-3

-------
B   The origin and source of the discharge of the
    substance,
C   The treatment which is to be provided for the dis-
    charge by
    1   An onsite treatment system separate from any
       treatment system which will treat your normal
       discharge,
    2  A treatment system designed to treat your nor-
       mal discharge and which is additionally capable
       of treating the amount of the substance identi-
       fied under paragraph 1 above, or
    3  Any combination of the above.
An exemption from the section  311 reporting require-
ments pursuant to 40 CFR Part 117 for pollutants  on
Table 20 does  not exempt you from the section 402
reporting requirements pursuant to 40 CFR Part 122
(Item V-C) for pollutants listed on Table  20-3.
For further information on exclusions from Section 311,
see 40 CFR Section 117.12(aX2)and(c), or contact your
EPA Regional off ice (Table 1 in the Form 1 instructions).
Item VI-A
If  an engineering study was conducted, check the box
labeled "report available " If no study was done, check
the box labeled "no report."
Item VI-B
Report the name and location of any existing plant(s)
which (to the best of your knowledge) resembles your
planned  operation with respect  to items produced, pro-
duction  process, wastewater constituents, or waste-
water treatment.  No studies need be conducted to
respond to this item. Only data which are already availa-
ble need be submitted.
This information will be used to inform the permit writer
of appropriate treatment methods and their associated
permit conditions and limits.
 Item VII
A space  is provided for additional information which you
 believe would be useful in setting permit limits, such as
additional sampling. Any response is optional.
 Item VIII
The Clean Water Act provides for severe penalties  for
 submitting false information on this application form.
 Section  309(cX2) of the Clean Water Act provides that
 "Any person who knowingly makes any false statement,
 representation, or certification  in any application, . . .
 shall upon conviction, be punished by a fine of no more
 than $ 10,000 or by imprisonment for not more than six
 months, or both."
40 CFR Part 12222 Requires the Certification To Be
Signed as Follows:
A   For a corporation: by a responsible corporate officer
    A responsible corporate officer means (i) a presi-
    dent, secretary,  treasurer, or vice-president of the
    corporation in charge of a principal business func-
    tion, or any other person who performs similar pol-
    icy or decision-making functions for the corporation,
    or (ii) the manager of one or  more manufacturing,
    production or operating facilities employing more
    than 250 persons or having gross annual sales or
    expenditures exceeding $25,000,000 (in second-
    quarter 1980 dollars), if authority to sign documents
    has been assigned or delegated to the manager in
    accordance with corporate procedures
B.  For a partnership or sole proprietorship: by a general
    partner or the proprietor, respectively; or
C.  For a municipality,  State. Federal, or other public
    agency: by either a principal executive officer or
    ranking elected official. For purposes of this section,
    a principal  executive officer of a Federal agency
    includes (i) the chief executive officer of the agency,
    or (ii) a senior executive officer having responsibility
    for the overall operations of a principal geographic
    unit of the agency (e.g., Regional Administrators of
    EPA).
 EPA Form 3510-2D (Rev. MO)
                                                    1-4

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                   PHYSICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
1
   A ....... Ammonia Stripping
   B ....... Dialysis
1_C ....... Diatomaceous Earth Filtration
1 _ D ....... Distillation
1 _ £ ....... Electrodialysis
1 _ F ....... Evaporation
1— G ....... Flocculation
1_H ....... Flotation
1 — I ........ Foam Fractionation
1— J ....... Freezing
1 — K ....... Gas-Phase Separation
1 — L ....... Grinding (Comminutorsl
 —M  	Grit Removal
 —N	Microstraining
 —0	Mixing
 —P	Moving Bed Filters
 —Q	Multimedia Filtration
                                                 —R ...
                                                1—S ...
                                                1 —T ...
                                                1 —U ...
                                                1—V ...
                                                1—W	Solvent Extraction
                                                1—X	Sorption
          .Rapid Sand Filtration
          . Reverse Osmosis (Hyperfiltration)
          .Screening
          . Sedimentation (Settling)
          .Slow Sand Filtration
                   CHEMICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
2—A	Carbon Adsorption
2—B	Chemical Oxidation
2—C	Chemical Precipitation
2—D	Coagulation
2—E	Dechlorination
2—F	Disinfection (Chlorine)
                                                2—G	Disinfection (Ozone)
                                                2—H	Disinfection (Other)
                                                2—I	Electrochemical Treatment
                                                2—J	Ion Exchange
                                                2—K	Neutralization
                                                2—L	Reduction
                  BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES
3—A	Activated Sludge
3—B	Aerated Lagoons
3—C	Anaerobic Treatment
3—D	Nitrification-Denitrification
                                                3—E	Preaeration
                                                3—F	Spray Irrigation/Land Application
                                                3—G	Stabilization Ponds
                                                3—H	Trickling Filtration
                              OTHER PROCESSES
4—A	Discharge to Surface Water
4—B	Ocean Discharge Through Outfall
                                               4—C	Reuse/Recycle of Treated Effluent
                                               4—D	Underground Injection
         SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL PROCESSES
5—A	Aerobic Digestion
5—B	Anaerobic Digestion
5—C	Belt Filtration
5—D	Centrifugation
5-E
5—F
5—G
5-H
5—I.
5-J
5—K	Freezing
5—L	Gravity Thickening
         .Chemical Conditioning
         .Chlorine Treatment
         .Composting
         .Drying Beds
         .Elutriation
         .Flotation Thickening
5—M 	Heat Drying
5—N	Heat Treatment
5—0	Incineration
5—P	Land Application
5—Q	Landfill
5—R	Pressure Filtration
5—S	Pyrolysis
5—T	Sludge Lagoons
5—U	Vacuum Filtration
5—V	Vibration
5—W	Wet Oxidation
                                       Table 2D-1
EPA Form 3510-20 (Rev. 8-90)

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                                         GROUP A
                                                    Ammonia (as N)
                                                    Temperature (winter)
                                                    Temperature (summer)
                                                    pH
                                         GROUPB
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
Flow
Bromide
Total Residual Chlorine
Color
Fecal Cohform
Fluoride
Nitrate-Nitrite (as N)
Oil and Grease
Phosphorus (as P) Total
Radioactivity
  (1) Alpha, Total
  (2) Beta, Total
  (3) Radium, Total
  (4) Radium 226, Total
Section  1

Antimony, Total
Beryllium, Total
Chromium, Total
Lead, Total
Nickel, Total
Silver, Total
Zinc, Total
Phenols, Total

Section  2
2,3,7,8,Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin

Section  3

GC/MS FRACTION* — VOLATILE COMPOUNDS
                                                    Sulfate(as SO4)
                                                    Sulfide(asS)
                                                    Sulfitefas S03)
                                                    Surfactants
                                                    Aluminum, Total
                                                    Barium, Total
                                                    Boron, Total
                                                    Cobalt, Total
                                                    Iron, Total
                                                    Magnesium, Total
                                                    Molybdenum, Total
                                                    Manganese, Total
                                                    Tin, Total
                                                    Titanium, Total
                                                    Arsenic, Total
                                                    Cadmium, Total
                                                    Copper, Total
                                                    Mercury, Total
                                                    Selenium, Total
                                                    Thallium, Total
                                                    Cyanide, Total
Acrolein
Benzene
Carbon Tetrachloride
Chlorodibramomethane
2-Chloroethylvinyl Ether
Dichlorobomomethane
1,2-Dichloroethane
1,2-Dichloropropane
Ethylbenzene
Methyl Chloride
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
Toluene
1,1,1 -Trichloroethane
Trichloroethylene
                                                    Vinyl Chloride
                                                    Acrylonitirle
                                                    Bromoform
                                                    Chlorobenzene
                                                    Chloroethane
                                                    Chloroform
                                                    1,1 -Dichloroethane
                                                    1,1 -Dichloroethane
                                                    1,3-Dichloropropylene
                                                    Methyl Bromide
                                                    Methylene chloroethane
                                                    Tetrachloroethylene
                                                    1,2-Trans-Dichloroethylene
                                                    1,1,2-Trichloroethane
                                           Table 2D-2
EPA Form 3510-2D (Rev 8-90)

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 GS/MS FRACTION - ACID COMPOUNDS

 2-Chlorophenol                                  2,4-Dichlorophenol
 2,4-Dimethylphenol                              4,6-Dmitro-O-Cresol
 2,4-Dinitro-phenol                               2-Nitrophenol
 4-Nitrophenol                                   P-Chloro-M-Cresol
 Pentachloropnenol                               Phenol
 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

 GC/MS FRACTION — BASE/NEUTRAL COMPOUNDS

 Acenaphthene                                   Acenaphtylene
 Anthracene                                     Benzidine
 Benzo (a) Anthracene                             Benzo (a) Pyrene
 3,5-Benzofluoranthene                           Benzo (ghi) Perylene
 Benzo (k) Fluoranthene                           Bis (2 Chloroethoxy) Methane
 Bis (2-Chloroethyl) Ether Bis                       (2-Chloroisopropyl) Ether
 Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate                        4-Bromophenyl Phenyl Ether
 Butyl Benzyl Phthalate                            2-Chloronaphthalene
 4-Chlorophenyl Phenyl Ether                       Chrysene
 Dibenzo(a, h) Anthracene                         1,2-Dichlorobenzene
 1,3-Dichlorobenzene                             1,4-Dichlorobenzene
 3,3-Dichlorobenzidine                             Diethyl Phthalate
 Dimethyl Phthalate                               Di-N-Butyl Phthalate
 2,4-Dinitrotoluene                               2,6-Dinitrotoluene
 Di-N-Octyl Phthalate                             1,2, Diphenylhydrazine (as Azobenzen)
 Fluoranthene                                    Fluorene
 Hexachlorobenzene                               Hexachlorobutadiene
 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene                        Hexachloroethane
 Indeno (1,2,3-cd) Pyrem                          Isophorone
 Naphthalene                                    Nitrobenzene
 N-Nitro-sodimethylamine                         N-Nitrosodi-N-Propylamine
 N-Nitro-sodiphenylamine                         Phenanthrene
 Pyrene                                         1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

 GC/MS FRACTION -  PESTICIDES

Aldrin                                          Gamma-BHC
Alpha-BHC                                      Delta-BHC
 Beta-BHC                                       Chlordane
4,4' DDT                                        4,4' DDE
4,4'-DDD                                       Dieldrin
Alpha-Endosulfan                                Beta-Endosulfan
Endosulfan Sulfate                               Endrin
Endrin Aldehyde                                 Heptachlor
Heptachlor Epoxide                               PCS-1242
PCB-1254                                       PCB-1221
PCB-1232                                       PCB-1248
 PCB-1260                                       PCB-1016
Toxaphene

 "fractions defined in 40 CFR Part 136

                                          Table 2D-2

EPA Form 3510-20 (8-90)

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       TOXIC POLLUTANTS AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
   REQUIRED TO BE IDENTIFIED  BY APPLICANTS IF EXPECTED
                                 TO BE PRESENT
TOXIC POLLUTANT

Asbestos

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

Aeeltaldehyde
Allyl alcohol
Ally) chloride
Amy) acetate
Aniline
Benzonitnle
Benzyl chloride
Butyl acetate
Butylamme
Captan
Carbaryl
Carbofuran
Carbon disulfide
Chlorpynfos
Coumpahos
Cresol
Crotonaldehyde
Cyclohexane
2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophinoxyacetic acid)
Diazmon
Dicamba
Dichlobenil
Dichlone
2,2 Diehloropropionic acid
Dichlorvos
Diethyl amine
Dimethyl amine
Dintrobenzene
Diquat
Disulfoton
Diuron
Epichlorohydrin
Ethion
Ethylene diamine
Formaldehyde
Furfural
Guthion
Isoprene
Isopropanolamme dodecylbenzenesulfonate
Kelthane
Kepone
Malathion
Mercaptodimethur
Methoxychlor
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

Methyl mercaptan
Methyl methacrylate
Methyl parathion
Mevinphos
Mexacarbate
Monoethyl amine
Monomethyl amine
Naled
Naphthenic acid
Nitrotoluene
Parathion
Phenolsulfonate
Phosgene
Propargite
Propylene oxide
Pyrethrins
Quinoline
Resorcinol
Strontium
Strychnine
2,4,5-T (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid)
TOE (Tetrochlorodiphenyl ethane)
2,4,5-TPl2-(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy) propanic acid]
Trichlorofon
Triethanolamine dodecylbenzenesulfonate
Triethylamine
Uranium
Vanadium
Vinyl acetate
Xylene
Xylenol
Zirconium
 EPA Form 3510-20 (Rev 8-90)
                                          TABLE 2D-3

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                                HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
Acetaldehyde
Acetic acid
Acetic anhydride
Acetone cyanohydrm
Acetyl bromide
Acetyl chloride
Acrolein
Acrylonitrile
Adipic acid
Aldrin
Allyl alcohol
Alyll chloride
Aluminum sulfate
Ammmonia
Ammonium acetate
Ammonium benzoate
Ammonium bicarbonate
Ammonium bichromate
Ammonium bifluoride
Ammonium bisulfite
Ammonium carbamate
Ammonium carbonate
Ammonium chloride
Ammonium chromate
Ammonium citrate
Ammonium flouroborate
Ammonium fluoride
Ammonium hydroxide
Ammonium oxalate
Ammonium silicofluoride
Ammonium sulfamate
Ammonium sulfide
Ammonium sulfite
Ammonium tartrate
Ammonium thiocyanate
Ammonium thiosulfate
Amyl acetate
Aniline
Antimony pentachloride
Antimony potassium tartrate
Antimony tribromide
Antimony trichloride
Antimony trifluoride
Antimony trioxide
Arsenic disulfide
Arsenic trichloride
Arsenic trioxide
Arsenic trisulfide
Barium cyanide
Benzene
Benzoic acid
Benzonitnte
Benzoyl chloride
Benzyl chloride
Beryllium chloride
Beryllium fluoride
Beryllium nitrate
Butylacetate
n-Butylphthalate
Butylamine
Butyric acid
Cadmium acetate
Cadmium bromide
Cadmium chloride
Calcium arsenate
Calcium arsenite
Calcium carbide
Calcium chromate
Calcium cyanide
Calcium dodecylbenzenesulfonate
Calcium hypochlorite
Captan
Carbaryl
Carbofuran
Carbon disulfide
Carbon tetrachloride
Chlordane
Chlorine
Chlorobenzene
Chloroform
Chloropyrifos
Chlorosulfonic acid
Chromic acetate
Chromic acid
Chromic sulfate
Chromous chloride
Cobaltous bromide
Cobaltous formate
Cobaltous sulfamate
Coumaphos
Cresol
Crotonaldehyde
Cupric acetate
Cupric acetoarsenite
Cupric chloride
Cupric nitrate
Cupric oxalate
Cupric sulfate
Cupric sulfate ammoniated
Cupric tartrate
Cyanogen chloride
Cyclohexane
2,4-D acid
 (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)
2,4-D esters
 (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
 esters)
DDT
Diazinon
Dicamba
Dichlobenil
Dichlone
Dichlorobenzene
Dichloropropane
Dichloropropene
Dichloropropene-Dichloropropane
 mix
2.2-Dichloropropionic acid
Dichlorvos
Dieldrm
Diethylamine
Dimethylamine
Dinitrobenzene
Dinitrophenol
Dinitrotoluene
Diquat
Disulfoton
Diuron
Dodecylbenzesulfonic acid
Endosulfan
Endrin
Epichlorohydrin
Ethion
Ethylbenzene
Ethylenediamme
Ethylene dibromide
Ethylene dichloride
Ethylene diaminetetracetic
 acid (EDTA)
Ferric ammonium citrate
Ferric ammonium exalate
Ferric chloride
Ferric fluoride
Ferric nitrate
Ferric sulfate
Ferrous chloride
Ferrous sulfate
Formaldehyde
Formic acid
Fumaric acid
Furfural
Guthion
Heptachlor
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
Hydrochloric acid
Hydrofluoric acid
Hydrogen cyanide
Hydrogen sulfide
Isoprene
Isopropanolamine
 dodecylbenzenesulfonate
Kelthane
Kepone
Lead acetate
Lead arsenate
Lead chloride
Lead fluoborate
Lead fluorite
Lead iodide
Lead nitrate
Lead stearate
Lead sulfate
Lead sulfide
Lead thiocyanate
Lindane
Lithium chromate
Malathion
EPA Form  3510-20 (8-90)
                                               TABLE 2D-4

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                        HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES (Continued)
 Maleic acid
 Maleic anhydride
 Mercaptodimethur
 Mercuric cyanide
 Mercuric nitrate
 Mercuric sulfate
 Mercuric thiocyanate
 Mercurous nitrate
 Methoxychlor
 Methyl mercaptan
 Methyl methacrylate
 Methyl parathion
 Mevmphos
 Mexacarbate
 Monoethylamme
 Monomethylamme
 Naled
 Naphthalene
 Naphthenic acid
 Nickel ammonium sulfate
 Nickel chloride
 Nickel hydroxide
 Nickel nitrate
 Nickel sulfate
 Nitric acid
 Nitrobenezene
 Nitrogen dioxide
 Nitrophenil
 Nitrotoluene
 Paraformaldehyde
 Parathion
 Pentachlorophenol
 Phenol
 Phosoene
 Phosphoric acid
 Phosphorus
 Phosphorus oxychlonde
 Phosphorus pentasulfide
 Phosphorus trichloride
 Polychlormated biphenyls (PCB)
 Potassium arsenate
 Potassium arsenite
 Potassium bichromate
 Potassium cyanide
 Potassium hydroxide
 Potassium permanganate
 Propargite
 Propionic acid
 Propionic anhydride
 Propylene oxide
 Pyrethnns
 Qumolme
 Resorcinol
 Selenium oxide
 Silver nitrate
 Sodium
 Sodium arsenate
 Sodium arsenite
 Sodium bichromate
EPA Form 3510-2D (Rev 8-90)
Sodium bifluonde
Sodium bisulfite
Sodium chromate
Sodium cyanide
Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate
Sodium fluoride
Sodium hydrosulfide
Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hypochlorite
Sodium methylate
Sodium nitrate
Sodium phospate (dibasic)
Sodium phosphate (tribasic)
Sodium selenite
Strontium chromate
Strychnine
Styrene
Sulfuric acid
Sulfur monochlonde
2,4,5-T acid
 {2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy
 acetic acid)
2,4,5-Tamines
 (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy
 acetic acid amines)
2,4,5-T esters
 (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy
 acetic acid esters)
2,4,5-T salts
 (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy acetic
 acid salts)
2,4,5-TP acid
 (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy
 propanoic acid)
2,4,5-TP acid esters
 (2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy
 propanoic acid esters)
TDE (Tetrachlorodiphenyl ethane)
Tetraethyl lead
Tetraethyl pyrophosphate
Thallium sulfate
Toluene
Toxaphene
Trichlorofon
Trichloroethylene
Trichlorophenol
Triethanolamine
 dodecylbenzenesulfonate
Triethylamine
Trimethylamine
Uranyl acetate
Uranyl nitrate
Vanadium pentoxide
Vanadyl sulfate
Vinyl acetate
Vinylidene chloride
Xylene
Xylenol
Zinc acetate

             Table 2D-4
Zinc ammonium chloride
Zinc borate
Zinc bromide
Zinc carbonate
Zinc chloride
Zinc cyanide
Zinc fluoride
Zinc formate
Zinc hydrosulfite
Zinc nitrate
Zinc phenolsulfonate
Zinc phosphide
Zinc silicofluonde
Zinc sulfate
Zirconium nitrate
Zirconium potassium fluoride
Zirconium sulfate
Zirconium tetrachloride

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                                               LINE DRAWING
                           BLUE RIVER

                               1 90.000 GPD
  MUNICIPAL
WATER SUPPLY
      RAW
   MATERIALS

   10,000 GPD
 SOLID WASTE
BLUE RIVER
                              10,000 GPD
                              COOLING WATER
   4,000 GPO
    MAX: 20,000 GPD
                                                                           OUTFALL 002
                                                                            50.000 GPO
                                                            70,000 GPD + STORMWATER
                                                  OUTFALL 001
                                                                   SCHEMATIC OF WATf R PLOW
                                                                   •ROWN MILLS. INC
                                                                   CITY. COUNTY. STATi
                                                                                           TO PRODUCT
                                                                                             5.000 GPD
                                          TO ATMOSPHISf
                                            5,000 GPD
EPA Form 3510-20 (Rev. 8-90)
                                               Figure 2D-1

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                                                                          Form Approved OMB No 20400086 Approval Expires 5,31/92
EPA ID NumbiM ,-, :,;/>y fnnn Item ! ,;/ Futiii 1 1
Please lype or pnni IP Hie unshaded areas only

2D ** c DA New Sources and New Dischargers
NPOES Ot PA Application for Permit to Discharge Process Wastewater
. Outfall Location
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^••^^^•^^••M
For each outfall, list the latitude and longitude and the name of. the receiving water
Outfall Number
Ilistl
Latitude Longitude Receiv ng Water tnamt'i
Deg Mm Sec Oeg Mm Sec '
^

— 	 i 	 . 	 . 	 , 	 _ 	 ; -

1 Discharge Date IWhen do you expect 10 begin discharging?!
II. Flows. Sources of Pollution, and Treatment Technologies |


	 - -- 	
	 • - -- - -
— - — 	

^••••••••^•^••H
A For each outfall, provide a description of (1 ) All operations contributing wastewater to the effluent, including
process wastewater, sanitary wastewater, cooling water, and stormwater runoff; (2) The average flow contrib-
uted by each operation, and (3) The treatment received by the wastewater. Continue on additional sheets
if necessary
Outfall
Number
















1 Operations Contributing Flow 2 Average Flow
(list) j (include units)





























3 Treatment
^Description or List Codes from Table 2D 1 1
















EPA Form 3510-20 (Rev. 8-90)
Page 1 ol 5

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B Atlach a line drawing showing the water flow through the facility Indicate sources of intake water,
operations contributing v.jbtewater to the effluent, and treatment units labeled to correspond to the more
detailed descriptions in Item III-A. Construct a water balance on the line drawing by showing average flows
between intakes, operations, treatment units, and outfalls. If a water balance cannot bedetermined{e.g.,for
certain mining activities), provide a pictorial description of the nature and amount of any sources of water and
any collection or treatment measures.
C Except for storm runoff, leaks, or spills, will any of the discharges
seasonal?
1 	 1 Yes (complete the /allowing table! 1 	 1 No (go to item IV)
Outfall
Number

IV. Production
~mmm
••
1 Frequency
a Days
Per Week
(specify
average!
mmmm
b Months
Per Year
(specify
average!
M^
described in item III-A be intermittent or

a Maximum
Daily Flow
Rate
(in mgdl
M^M
2 Flow
b Maximum
Total Volume
(specify
with units!
__
c Duration
(in dayst
_
If there ts an applicable production-based effluent guideline or NSPS, for each outfall list the estimated level of production (projection of
actual production level, not design), expressed in the terms and units used m the applicable effluent guideline or NSPS, for each of the
first 3 years of operation If production is likely to vary, you may also submit alternative estimates (attach a separate sheet}
Year
a Quantity
Per Day
b Unnsol
Measure
c Operation. Product Material, etc (specify!













EPA
3510 20 (Rev 8-90'
                                           Page 2 o« 5
CONTINUE ON NEXT PAGE

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CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
V. Effluent Characteristics ^^^^^^J
EPA ID Number (copy from Hem 1 of Form 1 / Oulfail Number
^•••••1 HH^^^^H
A, and B: These items require you to report estimated amounts (both concentration and mass) of the pollutants to
be discharged from each of your outfalls. Each part of this item addresses a different set of pollutants and should
be completed in accordance with the specific instructions for that part. Data for each outfall should be on a
separate page. Attach additional sheets of paper if necessary
General Instructions (See table 2D-2 for Pollutants)
Each part of this item requests you to provide an estimated daily maximum and average for certain pollutants and
the source of information. Data for all pollutants in Group A, for a II outfalls, must be submitted unless waived by
the permitting authority. For all outfalls, data for pollutants in Group B should be reported only for pollutants
which you believe will be present or are limited directly by an effluent limitations guideline or NSPS or indirectly
through limitations on an indicator pollutant.
1 Pollutant






















2 Maximum
Daily
Value
(include units/






















3 Average
Daily
Value
/include unitsl






















4 Source (see instructionsl






















EPA Form 3510-2D (Rev. 8-90)
Page 3 of 5
CONTINUE ON REVERSE

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CONTINUED FROM THE
ID Vn>'b.>r r(,i>/iv /Finn it,'
     Use the space below to list any of the pollutants listed in Table 2D-3 of the instructions which you know or have
     reason to believe will be discharged from any outfall For every pollutant you list, briefly describe the reasons you
     believe it will be present.
1 Poiiutam
                                      2 Reason for Discharge
\fl. Engineering Report on W»«tew«ter Traatmant

A.    If there is any technical evaluation concerning your wastewaier treatment, including engineering reports or pilot plant studies, check the
     appropriate box below                  	

              I	I Report Available         I	I No Report
     Provide the name and location of any existing plant(s) which, to the best of your knowledge, resembles this
     production facility with respect to production processes, wastewater constituents, or wastewater treatments
  Name
                                       Location
EPA Form 3S10-2D (Rev. 8-90}
          Page 4 of 5
CONTINUE ON NEXT PAGE

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i/ll. Other Information (Optional)

   Use the space below to expand upon any of the above questions or to bring to the attention of the reviewer any
   other information you feel should be considered in establishing permit limitations for the proposed facility.
   Attach additional sheets if necessary.
   / certify under penalty of law that this document and all attachments were prepared under my direction or
   supervision in accordance with a system designed to assure that qualified personnel properly gather and
   evaluate the information submitted. Based on my inquiry of the person or persons who manage the system, or
   those persons directly responsible for gathering the information, the information submitted is. to the best of my
   knowledge and belief. true, accurate, and complete. I am aware that there are significant penalties for submitting
   false information, including the possibility of fine and imprisonment for knowing violations.
  Name and Official Title (type or print)
B Phone No
C Signature
0 Date Signed
EPA Form 3510-20 (Rev. 8-90)
             Page 5 of 5

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                                                                          Form Approved OMB No 20400086  Approval Expires 5/31/92
EPA ID Number (copy front Item / of form It
leas^ ivpe Of print r. ihe unshaded areas oni\

2D A C DA New Sources and New Dischargers
NPDES Ot KA Application for Permit to Discharge Process Wastewater
. Outfall Location
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^i^**^^^
For each outfall, list the latitude and longitude, and the name of the receiving water
Outfall Number
Hist)





Latitude Longitude j Receiving Water /name)
Deg Mmj Sec Deg ' Mm Sec


! i
. ! 1
i
i i i
\. Discharge Date (When do you expect to begin discharging'/
III. Flows. Sources of Pollution, and Treatment Technologies |

A. For each outfall, provide a description of (1 ) All operations contributing wastewater to the effluent, including
process wastewater, sanitary wastewater, cooling water, and stormwater runoff; (2) The average flow contrib-
uted by each operation; and (3) The treatment received by the wastewater. Continue on additional sheets
if necessary
Outfall
Number
















1 Operations Contributing Flow
(list)
















2. Average Flow
(include units)
















3 Treatment
(Description or List Codes from Table 2D-1)
















EPA Form 3510-20 (Rev. 8-90)
Page 1 of 5

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B Attach a line drawing showing the water flow through the facility Indicate sources of intake water,
operations contributing wastewater to the effluent, and treatment units labeled to correspond to the more
detailed descriptions in Item III-A Construct a water balance on the line drawing by showing average flows
between intakes, operations, treatment units, and outfalls If a water balance cannot bedetermmed(e g , for
certain mining activities), provide a pictorial description of the nature and amount of any sources of water and
any collection or treatment measures
C. Except for storm runoff, leaks, or spills, will any of the discharges described in item III-A be intermittent or
seasonal?
1 	 1 Yes (complete the following tablet I — I No (go to item IV)
Outfall
Number

IV. Production ^^^^|


^MH
1 Frequency
a Days
Per Week
(specify
average!
^•M
b Months
Per Year
(specify
average)
—
2 Flow
a Maximum
Daily Flow
Rate
(in mgd)
^•H
b Maximum
Total Volume
(specify
with units)
•MM
c Duration
(in days/
\
If there is an applicable production-based effluent guideline or NSPS, for each outfall list the estimated level of production (projection of
actual production level, not design), expressed in the terms and units used in the applicable effluent guideline or NSPS. for each of the
first 3 years of operation. If production is likely to vary, you may also submit alternative estimates (attach a separate sheet)
a Quantity
Year Per Day


b Units of
Measure



c Operation. Product Material, etc /specify/



EPA Form 3510-20 (Rev 8-90)
Page 2 of 5
                                                                                              CONTINUE ON NEXT PAGE

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CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
V. Effluent ChiractBristict ^^^^HH^I
I EPA ID Number icopy from Hem 1 of form !/ 1 Outfall Number 1
^MHjj^BMM^M^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^I
A, and B: These items require you to report estimated amounts (both concentration and mass) of the pollutants to
be discharged from each of your outfalls. Each part of this item addresses a different set of pollutants and should
be completed in accordance with the specific instructions for that part. Data for each outfall should be on a
separate page. Attach additional sheets of paper if necessary.
General Instructions (See table 2D-2 for Pollutants)
Each part of this item requests you to provide an estimated daily maximum and average for certain pollutants and
the source of information. Data for all pollutants in Group A, for all outfalls, must be submitted unless waived by
the permitting authority. For all outfalls, data for pollutants in Group B should be reported only for pollutants
which you believe will be present or are limited directly by an effluent limitations guideline or NSPS or indirectly
through limitations on an indicator pollutant.
1 . Pollutant






















2 Maximum
Daily
Value
(include units/






















3 Average
Daily
Value
(include units!






















4. Source {see instructionsl






















EPA Pom 3510-2D (Rev. 8-90)
Page 3 of &
                                      CONTINUE ON REVERSE

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ONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
                                     EPA ID Number /copy from Item 1 ol Form 11
    Use the space below to list any of the pollutants listed in Table 2D-3 of the instructions which you know or have
    reason to believe will be discharged from any outfall For every pollutant you list, briefly describe the reasons you
    believe it will be present.
 Pollutant
                                     2 Reason for Discharge
VI. Engineering Report on Waitewatar Treatment
     If there is any technical evaluation concerning your wastewater treatment, including engineering reports or pilot plant studies, check the
     appropriate box below

              I—I Report Available         I—I  No Report
     Provide the name and location of any existing plant(s) which, to the best of your knowledge, resembles this
     production facility with respect to production processes, wastewater constituents, or wastewater treatments
  Name
                                       Location
EPA Form 3510-2D (Rev 8-90)
Page 4 of 5
                                                                                          CONTINUE ON NEXT PAGE

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rll. Other Information {Optional)
   Use the space below to expand upon any of the above questions or to bring to the attention of the reviewer any
   other information you feel should be considered in establishing permit limitations for the proposed facility
   Attach additional sheets if necessary
   / certify under penalty of law that this document and all attachments were prepared under my direction or
   supervision in accordance with a system designed to assure that qualified personnel properly gather and
   evaluate the information submitted. Based on my inquiry of the person or persons who manage the system, or
   those persons directly responsible for gathering the information, the information submitted is. to the best of my
   knowledge and belief, true, accurate, and complete. I am aware that there are significant penalties for submitting
   false information, including the possibility of fine and imprisonment for knowing violations.
A. Name and Official Title {type or print)
B Phone No
C. Signature
D Date Signed
 EPA Form 3510-20 (Rev. 8-90)
                                    Government Printing utti
                                                              281-724/28466
             Page 5 of b

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APPENDIXES      FORM2E
                                81

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            United States       Office of Water       EPA Form 3510-2E
            Environmental Protection    Enforcement and Permits    Revised August 1990
            Agency         Washington, DC 20460

            Permit* Division	^________	
<&EPA    Application Form 2E —

           Facilities Which Do Not
           Discharge Process
           Wastewater

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Who Mu«t File Form 2E
EPA Form 3510-2E must be completed in conjunction
with EPA Form 3510-1 (Form 1). This short form may be
used only by operators of facilities which discharge only
nonprocess wastewater (process wastewater is water
that comes into direct contact with or results from the
production or use  of any raw material,  intermediate
product, finished product, byproduct, waste product, or
wastewater) which is not regulated by effluent limita-
tions guidelines or new source performance standards.
The form is intended primarily for use by dischargers
(new or existing) of sanitary  wastes and noncontact
cooling water. It may not be used for discharges of
stormwater runoff or by educational, medical, or com-
mercial  chemical laboratories or  by publicly owned
treatment works (POTW's).
Where to File Applications
The  application forms should  be  sent  to  the EPA
Regional Office which  covers the State  in which the
facility is located. Form 2E (the short form) must be used
only when applying for permits in States where the
NPDES permits program is administered by EPA. For
facilities located in States which are approved to admin-
ister the  NPDES permits program, the State environ-
mental agency should be contacted for proper permit
application forms and instructions. Information on whe-
ther a particular program is administered by EPA or by a
State agency can be obtained from your EPA Regional
Office. Form 1, Table 1 of the "General  Instructions"
lists the  addresses of  EPA Regional Offices and the
States within the jurisdiction of each Office.
Public Availability of Submitted Information
You may not claim as confidential  any information
required by this form or Form 1, whetherthe information
is reported on the forms or  in an attachment. Section
402(j) of the CWA requires that all permit applications
shall be available to the public. This information will
therefore be made available to the public upon request.
You may claim as confidential any information you sub-
mit to EPA which goes beyond that required by this form
or Form 1, However, confidentiality claims for effluent
data must  be denied. If you do not assert a claim of
confidentiality at the time of submitting the information,
EPA may make the information  public without further
notice. Claims  of  confidentiality will be handled  in
accordance with EPA's business confidentiality regula-
tions in 40 CFR Part 2.
Completeness
Your application will not be considered complete unless
you  answer every question on this form and Form 1
 EPA Form 3510-2E  (8-90)
Form 2E Instructions
                  (except as instructed below). If an item does not apply to
                  you, enter "NA" (for "not applicable") to show that you
                  considered the question.
                  Followup Requirements for New Dischargers  and
                  New Sources
                  Please note that no later than 2 years after commence-
                  ment of discharge from the proposed facility, you must
                  complete and submit Item IV of this form (NPDES Form
                  2E). At that time you must test and report actual rather
                  than estimated data for the pollutants or parameters in
                  item IV, unless waived by the permitting authority.
                  Definitions
                  Significant terms used in these instructions and in the
                  form are defined in the Glossary found in the General
                  Instructions accompanying Form 1.
                  Item I
                  Under Part A, list an outfall number. Under Part B,  list
                  the latitude and longitude to the nearest 15 seconds for
                  this outfall. Under Part C, list the name of the outfall's
                  receiving water. When there is more than one outfall,
                  you must submit a separate Form 2E (Items I, III, and IV
                  only) for each outfall.
                  Item II (New Dischargers Only)
                  This item requires your best estimate of the date on
                  which your facility will begin to discharge.
                  Item III
                  In Part A, indicate the general type(s) of wastes to be
                  discharged by placing an "x" in the appropriate box(es).
                  If "other nonprocess wastewater" is marked, it should
                  be identified. If cooling water additives are to be used,
                  they must be listed by name under Part B.
                  In addition, the composition of the cooling water addi-
                  tives should be listed if this information is available. The
                  composition of cooling water additives may be found on
                  product labels or from manufacturer's data sheets.
                  Item IV — Reporting
                  All pollutant levels must be reported as concentration
                  and as total mass (except for discharge flow, pH, and
                  temperature). Total mass is the total weight of pollutants
                  discharged over a day. Use the following abbreviations
                  for units;
                         Concentration
                         parts per million
                         milligrams per liter
                         parts per billion
Mm
Ibs
ton
mg
pom
mg/1
ppb
Ug/1   micrograms per liter  g
kg     kilograms          T
A. Existing Sources
You are required to provide at least one analysis for each
pollutant or parameter listed by filling in the requested infor-
pounds
tons (English tons)
milligrams
grams
Tonnes (metric tons)
                                                   1-1

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mation  under the applicable column.  Data reported
must be representative of the facility's current operation
(average daily value over the previous 365 days should
be reported). Most facilities routinely monitor these pol-
lutants or parameters as part of existing permit require-
ments.
The pollutants or parameters listed are: average flow,
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended sol-
ids (TSS), fecal coliform (if believed present or if sanitary
waste is discharged), pH, total residual chlorine (if chlo-
rine is used), temperature (winter and summer), oil and
grease, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic
carbon (TOC) (COD and TOC are only required if noncon-
tact cooling water is discharged), and ammonia (as N).
The analysis of these pollutants or parameters must be
done in accordance with procedures promulgated in 40
CFR  Part  136.  Grab samples must  be used for pH,
temperature, residual chlorine, oil and grease, and fecal
coliform. For all other pollutants, 24-hour composite
samples must be used. Any further questions on sam-
pling or analysis should be directed to your EPA or State
permitting authority. The authority may request that you
do additional testing, if appropriate, on a case-by-case
basis under Section 308 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).
If you expect a pollutant to be present solely as a result of
its presence in your intake water, state this information
on Item VII of the form.
B. New Dischargers
You are required to provide an estimated maximum daily
and average daily value for each pollutant or parameter
(exceptions noted on the form). Please note that fol-
lowup testing and reporting are required no later than 2
years after the facility starts to discharge. Sampling and
analysis are  not required at this time. If,  how-
ever, data from such analyses are available,  then such
data should be reported. The source of the estimates is
also  required. Base your determination of whether a
pollutant will be present  in  your  discharge on  your
knowledge of the proposed facility's use of maintenance
chemicals, and any analyses of your effluent or of any
similar effluent. You may also  provide the  estimates
based on available inhouse or contractor's engineering
reports or any other studies performed on the proposed
facility. If you expect a pollutant or  parameter to be
present solely as a result of its presence in your intake
water,  state this information on Item VII of the form.
In providing the estimates, use the codes in the follow-
ing table to indicate the source of such information.
             Engineering study             Code
Actual data from pilot plants	1
Estimates from other engineering studies	2
Data from other similar plants	3
Best professional estimates	4
Others	specify on the form
C. Testing Waivers
To request a waiver from reporting any of these pollu-
tants or parameters, the applicant (whether a new or
existing discharger) must submit to the  permitting
authority a written request specifying which pollutants
or parameters should be waived and the reasons for
requesting a waiver. This request should be submitted
to the permitting authority before or with  the permit
application. The permitting authority  may waive the
requirements for information about any pollutant or
parameter if he determines that less stringent reporting
requirements are adequate to support issuance of the
permit. No extensive documentation of the request will
normally be needed, but the applicant should contact
the permitting authority if he or she wishes to receive
instructions on what his or her particular request should
contain.
ItemV
Describe the average frequency of flow and  duration of
any intermittent or seasonal discharge (except for storm-
water runoff, leaks, or spills). The frequency of flow
means the number of days or months per year there is
intermittent discharge. Duration means the number of
days or hours per discharge. For new dischargers, base
your answers on your best estimate.
Item VI
Describe briefly any treatment system(s) used (or to be
used for  new  dischargers), indicating  whether the
treatment system is physical, chemical, biological, sludge
and disposal, or other. Also give the particular type(s) of
processes) used (or to be used). For example, if a physi-
cal treatment system is used (or will be used), specify the
processes applied, such as grit removal, ammonia strip-
ping, dialysis, etc.
hem VII
This item  is intended for you to provide any additional
information (such as sampling results) that  you  feel
should be considered by the reviewer in establishing
permit limitations. Any response here is optional. If you
wish to demonstrate your eligibility for a "net" effluent
limitation, i.e., an effluent limitation adjusted to provide
credit for the pollutants) present in your  intake water,
please add a short statement of why you believe you are
eligible (see §122.45(g)). You will then be contacted by
the permitting authority for further instructions.
Item VIII
The Clean Water Act provides severe penalties for sub-
mitting false information on this application form. Sec-
tion 309(cH2) of the Clean Water Act provides that "Any
person who  knowingly makes  any false  statement.
 EPA Form 3S10-2E (8-90)
                                                    I-2

-------
representation, or certification in any application, .. .
•nail upon conviction, be punished by a fine of no more
than * 10,000 or by imprisonment for not more than six
months or both."
40 CFR Part 122.22 requires the certification to be
signed as follows:
a.  For a corporation: by a responsible corporate officer.
    A responsible corporate officer means (i) a  presi-
    dent, secretary, treasurer, or vice-president  of the
    corporation in charge of of a principal business func-
    tion, or any other person who performs similar pol-
    icy or decisionmaking functions for the corporation,
    or (ii) the manager of one  or more manufacturing,
    production, or operating facilities employing more
    than 250 persons or having gross annual sales or
    expenditures exceeding $25,000,000 (in second
    quarter 1980 dollars), if authority to sign documents
    has been assigned or delegated to the manager in
    accordance with corporate procedures.
b.  For a partnership or sole proprietorship: by a general
    partner or the proprietor, respectively;  or
c.  For a  municipality, State,  Federal,  or  other  public
    agency: by either a principal executive officer or
    ranking elected official. For purposes of this section,
    a principal  executive officer of a Federal agency
    includes (i) the chief executive officer of the agency,
    or (ii} a senior executive officer having responsibility
    for the overall operations of a principal geographic
    unit of the agency (e.g., Regional Administrators of
    EPA).
                                                     i-3
EPA  Form 3S10-2E  (»-»0)

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             Please type or prim in the unshaded areas only
                                                       EPA ID Number (copy from Item 1 of form
                                                                            Form Approved. OMB No. 2040-0086
                                                                            Approval expire* 5-31-92.
                 Form

                2E
                NPOES
oEPA   Facilities Which  Do  Not Discharge Process Wastewater
             I. Receiving Waters


                   For this outfall, list the latitude and longitude, and name of the receiving waters).
                  Outfall
                Number (list!
         Latitude
                               Dog  Mm  Sec
Longitude
                      Pep  Min   Sec
Receiving Water {name)
             II, Discharge Date (II a new discharger, the date you expect to begin discharging!
             III. Type of Waste

             A. Check the t>ox(es) Indicating the general typ«
                                                                 (*>
                                             Number of
                                           Measurements
                                               Takan
                                             fltftyeer}
 Source of
 Estimate
  fifrmw
ditchargfr)
             Biocrwmicsl Oxygen
             Demand (BOD)
             Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
             Fecal Coliform til b«liev«d
             prestnt or if stnttfry wttte is
             discharged)
             Total Retiduel Chlorine (if
             chlorine is usadl
             Oil and Gre«*e
             *Chamieal oxygen demand
             H Ignt r»nge)
                                       Value
             fampef alure (Winter)
             emperature (Summer)
             'If nonconiaci cooling water is discharged
            EPA Form  3S10-2E (8-90)
                                                                                                       Page 1 o* 2

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I/. Except for leaks or spills, will the discharge described in this form be intermittent or seasonal?
  If yes, briefly describe the frequency of flow and duration.	
D
    No
             System (Dewto briefty My troitrnefM SY*t*fn(*) ill*! or to be used}
   . Other Information I
      Use the space be tow to expend upon any of th* •bow questions or to bring to the attention of the reviewer any otf»er Inter
      should be considered in establishing permit limitations. Attach additional sheets, if i
            tattoo you fee!
      I certify urxtopen^ of tow trMthit document »nd »if Mttchi
                                                                                              m^^ Beted on my inquiry of the
      pa^MM vpevions M^ inatfia^ trte sysf am, or irVaM^avvovw dHncc^
      /* to the awat of my Itnowftdg* indbtlicf. true, accurate undcompto*. I am aw*nt thtt r/wr« ar* tignifiemtttp»n»ltifg for submitting /*/«•
      information, including th» pottibiHtY of fin« and imprisonment for knowing viotttion*.          _
A. Name A Official Title
    B. Phone No. (area code
     & no.)
C. Signature
    0. Date Signed
 EPA Form  3510-2E  (1*90)
                    Page 2 of 2

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                                                                            Form Approved  OMB No. 2040-0086
EPA ID Number (copy from Item 1 of Form 1 >
                                                                            Approval expires 5-31-92
             AEPA   Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater
       For thto outfall liat the latitude and longitude, and name of the receiving water(s)
    Discharge Date (W • new discharger, the date you expect to begin discharging)
                                                                         DOttier Nonprocess
                                                                         Wastewater (Mfntifyl
    If any cooling water additives are used, list them here. Briefly describe their composition if this information is available

1..-. Jal... _. - — ^ 	

wWffity^MW aflMrlACeMfffMyt
MV DHMMM^pW ™~ l^POWIto 9KIIMNMI V0T «l)tt pMTWIMMNV «Kt90 If) tH0 Mft~fH
•Jwrity. Instead of «M number of mecewwnema taken, provide the source of «t
MMamor
SSnetalaW"'*"
Ten Suspends* SoUda (T8«
«mMM •rttunHurr wen* *
«%cn»«MO
To»IBislnip












Source of
Estimate
(if new
discharger)












*M noncontacl cooling water is discharged
EPA Form  3510-2E (8-90)
                                                              Page 1 of 2

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. Except for leaks or spills, will the discharge described in this form be interrnittent or seasonal?
 If yes, briefly describe the frequency of flow and duration.	
                                                                                              Ye*
                                                                                                    D
                                                                                                        No
VI. Treatment System (Describe briefly any treatment systemfs) toed of to to i
VII. Other Information (Optional)
      Use the space below to expand upon any of the above questions or to bring to the attention of the reviewer any other information you feel
      should be considered in establishing permit limitations. Attach additional sheets, tf neceesary.
VIII. Certification
      I certify under penatty of law that thiso\>cwnenterrteJlanechmerHswerepreperedurKfo*my direction or s
      a system designed to assure that qualified personnel property gather andeveluate the information submitted. Bated on my inquiry of the
      person or persons who manege the system, or those persons directly responsible for gathering the information, the information submitted
      is to the best of my knowledge and belief, true, accurate, and complete. Iam aware that there are significantpenalties for submittingfalsa
      information, including the possibility of fine and imprisonment for knowing violations.
A. Name & Official Title
                                                                                                       B. Phone No. (area code
                                                                                                        & no.)
C  Signature
                                                                                                        D. Date Signed
 EPA Form  3510-2E (8-90)
                                              WS. GOVERNMENT PRNTINQOFFCe: 1801517-003/47028
                                                                                                                       Page 2 of 2

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         United States
         Environmental Protection
         Agency
                     Office of Air Quality
                     Planning and Standards
                     Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
EPA/451-K-97-001
May 1997
f\
EPA Regional Approaches to
      Improving Air Quality

-------
                                     AlR POLLUTION CAN
                                          BE TRANSPORTED
                                     HUNDREDS  OF MILES
                                        DOWNWIND FROM
                                                 ITS ORIGIN.
SINCE AIR  POLLUTANTS
DO NOT RECOGNIZE
POLITICAL BOUNDARIES,
STATES AND COMMUNITIES
CANNOT INDEPENDENTLY
SOLVE  ALL OF THEIR AIR
POLLUTION  PROBLEMS.
                              20
                              12
                                                                               This model of a July 1991 ozone episode shows how far
                                                                               downwind emissions originating from industrial and mobile
                                                                               sources in the boxed area can be transported.
                                                             N   T   R   O    D   U   C   T
                                                                      O    N
Each indivfjual breathes nearly 13,000 liters
(approximately 3,400 gallons) of air every day.
Yet the air is being polluted by human
activities like driving cars, burning fossil fuels,
and manufacturing chemicals, and natural
events such as forest fires. These add gases and
particles to the air we breathe and, in high
enough concentrations, can have harmful
effects on people and the environment. Many
air pollutants such as those that form urban
smog, acid rain, and some toxic compounds
remain in the environment for long periods of
time and can be transported great distances
from their origin.

The struggle for clean air is almost as old as
industrialized society. In 1661, John Evelyn
and John Graunt of England each published
studies associating negative health effects
with industrial air emissions. Both researchers
described the transport of pollutants between
England and France and suggested protecting
human health by locating industrial facilities
outside of towns and using taller smokestacks
to spread "smoke" into "distant parts."

Research continues to show that air pollution
can be carried hundreds of miles from its
source and can cause health and
environmental problems on a regional or
even global scale. In people,  air pollution can
cause burning eyes, irritated throats, difficulty
with breathing, long-term damage to the
respiratory and reproductive systems, cancer,
and, in extreme cases, death. Trees, lakes,
crops, buildings, and statues can be damaged
by air pollution. Air pollutants also cause
haze, impairing visibility in cities, national
parks, and other scenic areas.

Under the Clean Air Act, passed by Congress
in 1970 and recently amended in 1990, the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) sets and enforces air pollutant limits
on sources such as power plants and industrial
facilities to help protect against harmful
health and environmental effects. Although
the Clean Air Act is a Federal law,  state
and local agencies are responsible for
implementing many of its requirements.

Specific air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide
(SO,), particulate matter, ground-level ozone,
and the emissions that form these pollutants
can travel great distances from their sources.
Since air pollutants do not recognize political
boundaries, states and communities cannot
independently solve all of their air pollution
problems. Resolving air pollution control
issues often requires state and local
governments to work together to reduce air
emissions. The Clean Air Act established
groups such as the Ozone Transport
Commission in the northeastern U.S. and
the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport
Commission in the western U.S. to develop
regional strategies to address and control air
pollution. Many other such groups  have also
been formed to address the regional transport
of air  pollutants.

This brochure describes selected air pollutants
of regional concern in the U.S. and
summarizes ongoing efforts to control them.

                                       1

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ROUND-LEVEL       OZONE
                            Ozone that occurs naturally in the upper
                            atmosphere surrounding the Earth provides a
                            filter for the damaging ultraviolet light emitted
                            by the Sun. At ground level, ozone is harmful
                            to living things. Ground-level ozone is an air
                            pollutant that damages human health,
                            vegetation, and many common materials. It is
                            a key ingredient of urban smog.
                            SOURCES
                            Ground-level ozone is not emitted directly into
                            the air, but rather is formed by gases called
                            oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and volatile organic
                            compounds (VOC), which in the presence of
                            heat and sunlight, react to form ozone. Ground-
                            level ozone forms readily in the atmosphere,
                            usually during hot weather. As a result, it is
                            known as a "summer-time" air pollutant.
                            Emissions of NOxare produced primarily when
                            fossil fuels are burned in motor vehicle engines,
                            power plants, and industrial boilers. There are
                            hundreds of thousands of sources of VOC
                            emissions including automobile emissions,
                            gasoline vapors, chemical solvents, and
                            consumer products like paints.

                            HEALTH  &

                            ENVIRONMENTAL

                            EFFECTS	

                            Repeated exposure to ozone pollution for
                            several months may cause permanent
                            structural damage to the lungs. Because ozone
                            pollution usually forms in hot weather,
                            anyone who spends time outdoors in the
                            summer is at risk, particularly children,
                            moderate exercisers, and outdoor workers.
                            E%'en when inhaled at very low levels,
ground-level ozone triggers a variety of health
problems including aggravated asthma,
reduced lung capacity, and increased
susceptibility to respiratory illnesses like
pneumonia and bronchitis.

Ground-level ozone is also responsible for
1 to 2 billion dollars in reduced crop
production in the U.S. each year. Because
ground-level ozone interferes with the ability
of plants to produce and store food, they are
more susceptible to disease, insects, other
pollutants, and harsh weather. Ozone also
damages the foliage of trees and other plants,
ruining the appearance of cities, national
parks, and recreation areas.

REGIONAL

TRANSPORT	

Under the Clean Air Act, EPA has set
acceptable levels, called National Ambient
Air Quality Standards, for ozone in the air we
breathe. Some parts of the U.S. are currently-
unable to meet these standards. These areas
are described as "nonattainrnent" areas. Tens
of millions of Americans live in ozone
"nonattainrnent" areas, primarily in parts of
the Northeast, Lake Michigan area, Atlanta,
southeastern Texas, and parts of California.
Many of these nonattainrnent areas have
focused a great deal of effort on reducing VOC
and, in some cases, NOX emissions from
stationary (factories) and mobile (vehicles)
sources within their jurisdictions. In several
cases, emission controls are not producing the
reductions in ground-level concentrations
of ozone needed to meet the national
health standard.
                                             + NO, + Heat:  4=               =
                                                      A.                        4w'
                                       According to this simplified equation, volatile organic compounds and oxides
                                       of nitrogen react, in the presence of heat and sunlight, to form oione.

-------
Ozone "precursors," such as NOX emissions, as
well as ozone itself, can he carried hundreds of
miles from their origins, causing air pollution
over wide regions. Although many urban areas
have made efforts to control ozone by reducing
local NOX and VOC emissions, incoming
ozone transported from upwind areas also
needs to be addressed in order to meet the
National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
High levels of ozone entering some
nonattainment areas can make achieving the
national ozone standard difficult and costly,
unless upwind sources are identified and
controlled. If these sources fall within a certain
state's boundaries, it can take measures to
control them. If, as is often the case, these
sources fall beyond the political boundaries of
that state, it must work with EPA and other
states to reduce air pollution on a regional
             scale. Often, it is more cost-effective to reduce
             emissions from upwind sources than to control
             emissions from smaller and smaller businesses
             in the nonattainment areas being affected
             downwind.

             Some regional strategies for reducing ground-
             level ozone include:

                   @ reducing NOX emissions from power
                      plants and industrial combustion
                      introducing low-emission cars
                      and trucks

                      burning gasoline reformulated to
                      reduce VOC, NOX, and other
  .2  0.15
  «  0.10
  €
  8. 0.05
  o>
  P    n
                     50
    100           150
     Distance (miles)
200
250
     Industrial/Urban Area
Rural
              Urban
   Downwind/Rural
 Ozone, VOC, and A/0, air emissions from upwind industrial/urban areas contribute to ozone concentrations hundreds of
 miles downwind in rural and other urban areas. When combined with local air emissions, regionally transported ozone
 causes some areas to exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) lor ozone.
GROUND-LEVEL  OZONE  is
ALSO RESPONSIBLE  FOR
1  TO 2 BILLION DOLLARS
IN REDUCED CROP
PRODUCTION IN THE U.S.
EACH YEAR.  BECAUSE
GROUND-LEVEL OZONE
INTERFERES  WITH  THE
ABILITY OF  PLANTS TO
PRODUCE AND  STORE
FOOD, THEY ARE MORE
SUSCEPTIBLE TO DISEASE,
INSECTS, OTHER
POLLUTANTS, AND
HARSH WEATHER.

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          ARTICULATE         MATTER
EVIDENCE FROM COMMUNITY
STUDIES LINKS PART1CULATE
EXPOSURE TO  PREMATURE
DEATH, INCREASED
HOSPITALIZAT1ON, SCHOOL
ABSENCE,  AND LOST WORK
DAYS  DUE TO  RESPIRATORY
AND CARDIOVASCULAR
DISEASES LIKE  ASTHMA.
Paniculate matter, which includes solid
particles as well as liquid droplets found in
the air, can be described as "haze." Breathing
paniculate matter can cause serious health
problems, Particulates also reduce visibility
in many parts of the U.S. They can also
accelerate corrosion of metals and damage
paints and building materials such as concrete
and limestone.
SOURCES
Paniculate matter comes from a variety of
sources. Some particles are emitted directly
from their sources such as smokestacks arid cars.
In other cases, gases such as sulfur oxide, SO,,
NOx, and VOC interact with other
compounds in the air to form particulate
matter. As a result, the chemical and physical
composition of particles varies widely. "Coarse"
particles are larger than 2.5 micrometers and
generally come from sources such as vehicles
traveling on unpaved roads, materials handling,
crushing and grinding operations such as
cement manufacturing, and combustion
sources. Particles less than 2,5 micrometers
(0,0004 inch) in diameter are known as "fine"
particles. Fine particles result from fuel
combustion in motor vehicles, power plants and
industrial facilities, residential fireplaces,
woodstove.s wildfires, and prescribed forest
   burning. Fine particles can also be formed in
   the atmosphere from gases such as SO,, NOX,
   and VOC.

   HEALTH  &

   ENVIRONMENTAL

   EFFECTS	

   Particulate matter less than 10 micrometers
   in size, including fine particles less than 2,5
   micrometers, can penetrate deep into the
   lungs. On a stnoggy day, one can inhale
   millions of particles in a single breath. Tens
   of millions of Americans live in areas that
   exceed the national health standards for
   particulates. In recent studies, exposure to
   particulate pollution — either alone or with
   other air pollutants   has been linked with
   premature death, difficult breathing,
   aggravated asthma, increased hospital
   admissions and emergency room visits, and
   increased respiratory symptoms in children.
   People most at risk from exposure to fine
   particulate matter are children, the elderly, and
   people with chronic respiratory problems.
   Fine particles scatter and absorb light,
   creating a haze that limits our ability to see
   distant objects. Some particles, such as
   sultates and nitrates, grow in size as humidity
fine particle^ j

power plant sulfates f
1 1
! diesel gxhaust t
1 I
tobacco smoke
[ 1
( photochemical smog
t
2.5
coarse particles
1
fly ash

l pollens
I
cement dust
t coal dust
1
l human 1
1 l 	
1

1
1
I
1
1
\
|
1
lair
l
1
                                                          0.01
                           0.1
1.0
10.0
100.0
                                                   This schematic shows the general size range of selected airborne particles in micrometers.
                                                       The size range of a human hair is also indicated. (Not dram to standard scale.)

-------
in the air increases, which increases the
amount of haze and reduces visibility. Particle
plumes of smoke, dust, and/or colored gases
that are released to the air can generally be
traced to local sources such  as industrial
facilities or agricultural burning. Regional haze
is produced by many widely dispersed sources,
reducing visibility over large areas that may
include several states.

REGIONAL  HAZE

Chemical reactions of air pollutants and
weather conditions can create  fine particles,
which can remain in the air for several days
and be transported great distances. As a
result, fine particles transported from urban
and industrial areas may contribute
significantly to impaired visibility in places,
such as national parks, valued  for their scenic
views and recreational opportunities.

Sources of regional haze vary from region to
region. In the eastern U.S.,  for  example,
sulfates from power plants and other large
industrial sources play a major role.  In the
western U.S., nitrates, sulfates,  organic matter,
soot, and dust emitted by power plants, motor
vehicles, petroleum and chemical industrial
facilities, wildfires, and forest-management
burning, all contribute to reduced visibility.

Visibility conditions vary across the country.
With a few exceptions, much of the eastern
U.S. has poorer visibility than the western
U.S. because of higher levels of particles from
manmade and natural sources,  as well as the
effect of higher humidity levels on those
particles. Visibility in the eastern U.S. should
naturally be about 90 miles, but air pollutants
have reduced this range from 14 to  24 miles.
In the  western U.S., visual range should be
approximately 140 miles, while current
conditions limit it to 33 to  90 miles. Visibility
also varies seasonally and is generally worse
during the summer months, when humidity is
higher and the air is stagnant.
The Clean Air Act established special goals
for visibility in some national parks and
wilderness areas. In 1994, EPA began
developing a regional haze program that is
intended to ensure that continued progress is
made toward the national visibility goal of "no
manmade impairment." Such control efforts
would likely result in improved public health
protection and visibility in areas outside
national parks as well.

Examples of regional strategies for reducing
fine particulate levels include:

    ©   reducing paniculate emissions by
         conserving energy and promoting
         renewable energy sources like solar-
         ami wind'powered energy

    ©   controlling SO2 emissions from power
         plants and industrial sources

    ©   reducing particulate emissions from
         diesel truck and bus exhaust

    O   reducing controlled burning to manage
         undergrowth in forested areas.
EPA's "REGIONAL HAZE"
PROGRAM IS  INTENDED
TO  ENSURE  CONTINUED
PROGRESS IS  MADE
TOWARD  THE NATIONAL
VISIBILITY GOAL OF
"NO  MANMADE
IMPAIRMENT."
                                                                      Visibility impairment in Acadia National Park, Maine.

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                C       I        D
            RAIN
Chesapeake  Bay

Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuarine
system in the continental U.S. and is home
to more than 2,000 species offish, shellfish,
and wildlife.  Increasing levels of nitrogen
compounds in the Bay are harming this
aquatic ecosystem.  The influx of higher
than normal amounts of nutrients (e.g.,
nitrogen, phosphorous) allows excessive
growth and reproduction of algae,
eventually changing aquatic systems by
depleting dissolved oxygen and decreasing
light penetration to submerged plants.
Recent research concludes that air pollution
.from power plants is a significant source of
nitrogen in the Chesapeake Bay. Studies
show that 27 percent of the total nitrogen
deposited in the Chesapeake Bay and tidal
tributaries is from transport and deposition of
air pollutants. Similarly, hundreds of other
estuaries such as Pwget Sound, Washington
and Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, are
suffering from effects of excess nitrogen.
The Chesapeake Bay Agreement, a
cooperative action among the U.S. EPA,
Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the
District of Columbia, was enacted to reduce
and control pollution sources affecting water
quality in the Bay. Goals of the agreement
are to achieve a 40 percent reduction in
nutrients, such as nitrogen, being input to
the Bay  by the year 2000 and to cap those
inputs at 60 percent of 1985 levels. States
participating in the agreement are evaluating
how reductions in NO^ air emissions will
help achieve these goals.
Acid rain is formed when sulfur dioxide
(SO,) and oxides of nitrogen (NOJ are
released into the air. While airborne, SO,
and NO^  gases and particles contribute to
visibility impairment and impact human
health. These gaseous compounds react with
other substances in the atmosphere to form
weak acids and fall to earth as rain, fog, snow,
or dry particles. They cause lakes and streams
to become acidic and unsuitable for many
fish, damage forests, and cause deterioration
of cars, buildings, and historical monuments.
SOURCES
By far, power plants burning coal, oil, and
natural gas are the primary source of SO,
emissions. In the U.S., 70 percent of SO,
emissions come from such plants. Nitrogen
oxides are emitted into the  air from cars and
trucks, coal-burning power plants, and
industrial combustion operations such as
boilers and heaters.

REGIONAL
TRANSPORT &
ENVIRONMENTAL
EFFECTS	

In the past, industrial facilities and power
plants had  shorter smokestacks. When air
pollution from these stacks  settled in
populated areas near the plants and caused
sickness, stacks were built much higher. At
that time, many believed that if the air
pollutants were sent high into the
atmosphere, they would no longer be a
problem. We now know that emissions
released high in the atmosphere can be
transported great distances. The Ohio River
Valley, where power plants burn high-sulfur
coal, leads  the U.S. in emissions of SO, and
NO^. Consequently, areas receiving the most
acid rain are downwind (generally northeast)
of the Ohio River Valley. The ecological
effects of acid rain depend on both the total
amount of acid rain deposited in an area and
its soil characteristics. Some soils, such as
those generally found in most of the Midwest,
contain acid-neutralizing compounds. These
areas can be exposed to years of acid
deposition without experiencing significant
environmental problems. But the thin soils of
the northeastern mountains have very little
acid-buffering ability, making this area, along
with eastern Canada, vulnerable to acid rain
damage. Other areas along the Appalachians,
as well as certain high elevation western
areas, are also sensitive to acid deposition.

Lower pH levels have been found in aquatic
systems of the northeastern U.S., indicating
higher acidity. These conditions can interrupt
reproductive cycles of aquatic plants and
animals. Acid deposition can also filter
through soils, pick up toxic metals as it passes
through, and carry them to lakes and streams,
where they accumulate and affect the aquatic
food chain.
                                                                                     Statue ruined by acid deposition. Photograph courtesy ot
                                                                                     the National Park Service.

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                                                                                                                                       I
REDUCING ACID
RAIN
                               How Acid is Acid Rain?

                  Vinegar            Distilled Water
     Lemon Juice            "Pure" Rain         Baking Soda
              Acid Rain ~~™  '    ~|
Hie Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
require major reductions in SO, and NOX
emissions and establish a market-based
approach to managing emissions of SOr
Coal-fired electric power plants are the
primary target for reducing these pollutants
in the U.S. Beginning in 1995 (Phase I), EPA
allocated a limited number of "allowances" to
445 electric power plants. These plants can
emit up to one ton of SO, emissions during a
1 -year period for each allowance. Allowances
can be  bought, sold, or traded among utilities,
brokers, or others. Utilities must ensure that
their emissions do not exceed the allowances
they hold. Pollution control equipment, the
                                                                                                        10     11
                                                                       12    13
                                      14
use of low-sulfur coal, and implementation
of energy-efficient measures such as home
insulation programs and energy-efficient
lighting are ways power plants can reduce
their SO, emissions.  In the year 2000,
Phase II tightens the annual SO, emissions
on the large high-emitting Phase I plants and
sets restrictions on smaller, cleaner plants.

By 2010, EPA's Acid Rain Program and the
utility industry expect to achieve a 10 million
ton teduction from 1980 SO, emission levels.
The Clean Air Act also calls for a 2 million
ton reduction in NOX emissions by the year
2000, a significant portion to be achieved
by installation of controls on coal-fired
utility plants.
                                                                                          in
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Although not obvious to the casual observer, many lakes have been affected by acid deposition. Big Rock Lake in the southwestern
Adirondacks of New York State has been      by acid rain over the last            Fish populations have been severely
impacted. (Source: Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation Interpretive Report, 1990. Photograph courtesy of the Adirondack Council.;
                                                                                                     Utility SO2 Emissions
                                                               No A|ad Rain Program
                                                                                                                Acid Rain Program
                                                                                               ol
                                                                                               1980
                                                            1990
                          2000
2010
                                                                                                              Year
                                                                                                 By the year 2010, EPA's Acid Rain Program
                                                                                                 is expected to reduce S02emissions
                                                                                                 10 million tons from 1980 levels.

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              OXIC       AIR       POLLUTANTS
WITHIN THE NEXT 10 YEARS,
THE NATIONAL  TOXIC AIR
POLLUTANT PROGRAM IS
EXPECTED TO LOWER
EMISSIONS OF TOXIC
POLLUTANTS  75 PERCENT
AND THUS REDUCE ADVERSE
HUMAN HEALTH AND
ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS.
           Humans
                       aid Eagle
                =**•*  Sfvfft \—
                Smslt  Chi!) "Soujpln
         Bactsria/Fufigi  Plankton
Simplified aquatic foot wet. Persistenl pollutants do
not    down easily in the environment They accumulate
in body tissues and concentrate at each step ol the
food chain.
Toxic air pollutants are known to cause or are
suspected of causing cancer, adverse
reproductive, developmental, and central
nervous system effects, and other serious
health problems. The Clean Air Act lists 188
toxic air pollutants as hazardous. Examples of
toxic air pollutants include heavy metals like
mercury and lead, manmade chemicals like
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycyclic
organic matter (POM), dioxin and benzene,
and pesticides like dichlorodiphenyl-
trichloroethane (DDT). Some toxic air
pollutants remain in the environment for
only short periods of time. These pollutants,
including compounds such as formaldehyde,
toluene, and benzene, generally impact
human health and the environment near
emission sources. Other toxic air pollutants,
such as lead, mercury, PCB, and DDT, break
down slowly, if at all, in the environment and
can be  redeposited many times. Additionally,
they build up in the body and concentrate as
they rise through the food chain. Many of
these "persistent" pollutants, emitted from
various sources including motor vehicles and
industrial facilities, are appearing in
unexpected locations far away from their
sources, including the Great Lakes, Lake
Champlain, and the Chesapeake Bay.

REDUCING  Toxic

AIR POLLUTANTS

EPA has identified 174 categories of sources
that emit one or more of the 188 toxic air
pollutants. These sources vvill he required to
reduce  emissions over the next 10 years.
Since 1990, EPA's toxic air pollutant program
has issued a number of rules to control toxic
air releases from approximately 50 categories
of sources. These include large industrial
complexes such as chemical plants, oil
refineries, and steel mills and smaller sources
such as dry cleaners and commercial
sterilizers. One of these rules applies to the
organic chemical manufacturing industry,
which produces chemicals used in many
industrial processes. This rule alone will
reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants by
over half-a-million tons annually (a 90
percent reduction) and will lower smog-
causing VOC by about 1 million tons
annually (an 80 percent reduction). Within
the next 10 years, EPA's national program is
expected to lower emissions of toxic air
pollutants 75 percent.
SOURCES
Metals and other toxic air pollutants that
persist in the environment and are
transported over broad regions come from a
variety of sources. Mercury, for example, is a
toxic metal that comes from both natural and
manmade sources. Coal-fired power plants,
municipal waste incinerators,  medical waste
incinerators, and cement kilns that burn
hazardous waste or coal are  among the major
manmade sources of mercury. Natural sources
of atmospheric mercury include gases released
from the Earth's crust by geysers, volcanic
eruptions, and forest fires. PCB are industrial
chemicals used widely in the U.S. from 1929
until 1978 as coolants and lubricants and in
electrical equipment. The manufacture of
PCB in the U.S. stopped in 1977, and use
was restricted in 1979. POM includes a
number of cancer-causing products of
incomplete combustion and can come from
diesel engines and other motor vehicles,
wood burning, and industrial burning of fossil
fuels. DDT is an insecticide that was widely
used in this country from 1946 until 1972.
DDT  is still used in other countries and, by
special permit, in the U.S. Many VOC and
fine particulates are also toxic air pollutants.
Controlling air concentrations of ozone and
paniculate matter has the added benefit of
reducing toxic air pollutants.

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HEALTH  &

ElsrvmONMENTAL

EFFECTS	

At certain levels, toxic air pollutants can
cause human health effects ranging from
nausea and difficulty in breathing to cancer.
Health effects can also include birth defects,
serious developmental delays in children, and
reduced immunity to disease in adults and
children. Toxic air pollutants can also be
deposited onto soil or into lakes and streams
where they affect ecological systems and can
eventually affect human health when
consumed in contaminated food,
particularly fish.

For example, people who regularly consume
fish from the Great Lakes have been found to
have higher concentrations of PCB, DDT,
and other toxic chemicals in their bodies
than people who do not. Fish-eating birds,
mammals, and reptiles have experienced a
variety of adverse effects associated with
chemical pollution.

LONG-RANGE

TRANSPORT	

Scientific studies conducted over the past
30 years consistently indicate that toxic air
pollutants can be deposited at locations far
from their sources. For example, a number of
toxic air pollutants persist in the
environment and concentrate through the
food web, including toxaphene, a pesticide
used primarily in the cotton belt, and have
been found in fatty tissues of polar bears and
other Arctic animals thousands of miles from
any possible source. Lead and other trace
metals have been measured in the air and
rainfall at remote locations over the Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans, great distances from
likely sources. Core samples from peat bogs in
the Great Lakes region show deposition of
new releases of DDT. Since DDT is used only
under special conditions in the U.S., this
toxic compound may be originating from
sources as far away as Mexico or Central
America. Fortunately, Mexico has recently
banned the  use and production of DDT.
                                          TOXIC AIR  POLLUTANTS

                                          CAN BE DEPOSITED

                                          ONTO SOIL OR INTO

                                          LAKES  AND  STREAMS,

                                          WHERE THEY AFFECT

                                          ECOLOGICAL  SYSTEMS

                                          AND CAN EVENTUALLY

                                          AFFECT HUMAN HEALTH

                                          WHEN  CONSUMED  IN

                                          CONTAMINATED  FOOD,

                                          PARTICULARLY FISH.

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                   EGIONAL      EFFORTS      TO
Several regional organizations have been
formed to address problems associated with
long-range transport of air pollution.
These organizations are described in the
summaries below.

OZONE TRANSPORT

COMMISSION (OTC)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments
established the OTC and the Northeast
Ozone Transport Region it\ recognition of
long-standing regional ozone problems in
the northeastern U.S. The Commission
comprises the governors or their designees
and an ait pollution control official from
each  of 12 states (Connecticut,
Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,
New  Hampshire, New jersey, New York,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont,
Virginia) and the District of Columbia.
Administrators for three northeastern EPA
Regions also participate.

The OTC states have agreed on a number of
steps to reduce regional air pollution. For
example, they have agreed to introduce a
low-emission vehicle (LEV) program similar
to that in California, which includes five
categories of vehicles that meet increasingly
stringent emissions standards. The OTC,
automobile manufacturers, and EPA are also
working on an agreement for a national LEV
program, which would bring ''cleaner cars" to
all states, not just those in the northeastern
U.S.  The OTC has also agreed to signifi-
cantly reduce NOK emissions throughout the
Regional ozone transport
region from large stationary sources such as
power plants and other large fuel combustion
sources, using a market-based approach. By
1999, NOS emissions in the OTC states are
expected to be reduced by approximately 52
percent from the 1990 baseline,

OZONE TRANSPORT

ASSESSMENT  GROUP

(OTAG)	

OTAG includes 37 states east of the
Rocky Mountains. It is convened by the
Environmental Council of States (an
organization comprised of state environmental
commissioners) for analyzing long-range
transport of ozone and the compounds that
form ozone. The goal of OTAG is to identify
and recommend to EPA cost-effective control
strategies for VOC and NO, to facilitate
compliance with the National Ambient Air
Quality Standards for ozone. OTAG includes
representatives from states with and without
areas that fail to meet the national ozone
standards. EPA, industry representatives,
public health advocates, and environmental-
ists are also included in OTAG discussions.
OTAG's regional-scale ozone modeling shows
that transport plays an important role in local
levels of ozone. OTAG is expected to
complete its analyses and make  its
recommendations to EPA in 1997.

GRAND  CANYON

VISIBILITY TRANSPORT

COMMISSION

(GCVTC)	

GCVTC was established by EPA in 1991 to
advise on strategies for protecting visual air
quality at national parks and wilderness areas
on the Colorado Plateau. The Commission
includes governors of Arizona, California,
Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon,
Utah, and Wyoming, and representatives of
the Hopi Tribe, Navajo Nation, Acoma
Pueblo, Hualapai Tribe, and the Columbia
River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission. Federal
agencies, including the Department of
Agriculture, the Department of the Interior,
and EPA are also represented.

In 1996, the Commission released recommen-
dations for improving visibility on the
Colorado Plateau, including;

     0 establishing an emissions cap/target
       far the region and an emissions trading
       program to keep the region within
       the cap

     O decreasing mobile source emissions

     & minimizing visibility impairment from
       controlled burning

     & identifying areas called "clean air
       corridors" as important sources of clean
       air for national paries and other scenic
       vistas (sources of paniculate emissions
       will be closely monitored in these areas).

EPA expects to pursue methods for imple-
menting these recommendations including
continued regional coordination and
development of regional haze rules.

SOUTHERN

APPALACHIAN

MOUNTAINS

INITIATIVE (SAMI)

SAMI is a nonprofit, voluntary organization
formed in 1992 to address regional air quality
problems in southern Appalachia, particularly in
high elevations, national parks, and recreation
areas. Groups involved in this effort include
Federal, state, and  local agencies; environmental
and industrial representatives; academic
institutions; and private citizens. SAMI is
identifying options for managing air emissions in
the southern Appalachians, with special
attention focused on how these options could
affect the regional environment and economy.
SAMI is expected to complete its analysis and
make recommendations to states by 1999 on
control strategies for pollutants that cause acid
rain, visibility impairment, and ground-level
ozone in the southern Appalachians.
  10

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ADDRESS      AIR     POLLUTION
LAKE MICHIGAN
OZONE STUDY
(LMOS) AND OZONE
CONTROL  PROGRAM
(LMOP)	

In 1989, EPA and the states of Illinois,
Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin signed an
agreement to study the ozone air quality
problem in the Lake Michigan region. In
1991, this group signed a second agreement
to establish control measures to  improve
regional air quality. These efforts have
contributed to a regional understanding of
ozone transport, as well as determining the
steps necessary to control air pollutants that
form ground-level ozone. Recent accomplish-
ments of this group include developing and
applying a state-of-the-art model for examin-
ing the  transport of ozone in the Lake
Michigan region, supporting initial state
implementation plan efforts to control
ozone-forming air pollutants for the four
Lake Michigan states, and working coopera-
tively with other states as part of the
OTAG  discussions.

NORTH AMERICAN

RESEARCH STRATEGY

FOR TROPOSPHERIC

OZONE (NARSTQ)

NARSTO is a 10-year research program,
chartered in  1995 as  a public/private
partnership. It includes researchers and policy
makers  of over 70 organizations  from
government, utilities, industry, and academia
throughout Mexico,  the U.S., and Canada.
The goal of NARSTO is to develop a
scientific and technological basis for managing
ground-level ozone. NARSTO plans to
publish its first Ozone State-of-Science
Assessment Document in 1998, in which it
will address assessment issues including:
     & significant research developments
       relating to ground-level ozone in the
       last 10 years
     O urban and regional sources ofVOC
       and NOX emissions and transport
       of ozone
     © the effectiveness of existing emission
       control measures.

As a science-focused research program based
on international cooperation, NARSTO will
continue to be important in the resolution of
long-range ozone transport problems across
North America.

SOUTHERN  OXIDANTS

STUDY (SOS)	

The SOS, established through cooperative
agreements in 1991, is long-term, academic
research designed to provide a better
understanding of how ozone forms in the
southeastern U.S. In addition to major
academic institutions like the Georgia
Institute of Technology and North Carolina
State University, the private sector and
Government have also played a significant
role in the overall partnership. The Electric
Power Research Institute, the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
the Tennessee Valley Authority, EPA, and
many state and local Southeastern environ-
mental agencies and companies participated
in major research programs in the metropoli-
tan areas of Atlanta (1992) and Nashville
(1994-95). As part  of these efforts, data
gathered at monitoring sites  has provided
insight into ground-level ozone formation in
the Southeast and around the country.

INTEGRATED

ATMOSPHERIC

DEPOSITION

NETWORK (IADN)

The IADN is a U.S./Canadian cooperative
effort that involves  toxic air pollutant
monitoring. This network consists of five
monitoring stations, one placed on each of
the Great Lakes, that gather data on
atmospheric concentrations of toxic air
pollutants such as the pesticides lindane and
dieldrin, heavy rnetals including lead and
arsenic, and chemicals such as PCB and
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. These
monitors help determine the atmospheric
contribution of these compounds to the
concentrations found in the Great Lakes
ecosystem. IADN helps to identify trends in
concentrations of toxic air pollutants, assists
in determining how to reduce toxic air
emissions, and supports research toward
understanding the effects of toxic air
pollutants on the Great Lakes.

INTERNATIONAL

EFFORTS	

There are several other important coopera-
tive efforts underway to address air pollution
that crosses our national boundaries with
Canada and Mexico. Under the La Paz
Agreement, the U.S. and Mexico work to
analyze and reduce air pollution in commu-
nities along our common border, Similarly,
the U.S. and Canada have  signed an air
quality agreement to address air pollution
issues of mutual concern, such as acid rain
and ozone transport, and they also have
embarked on a strategy to reduce and
eliminate certain persistent toxic pollutants
such as mercury and PCB. The North
American Free Trade Agreement
established the Commission for Environmen-
tal Cooperation to foster joint air pollution
control efforts among all three countries and
to ensure that pollution created in one
country does not affect the health of the
citizens and the environment in another.
"These efforts to date include establishing
and upgrading monitoring networks along
the U.S./Mexico border, developing a system
tor the U.S. and Canada to notify each other
of major new sources of air pollution, and
establishing an international air quality
management commission to address
pollution in the El Paso, Texas and Juarez,
Mexico area.
                                                                                                                11

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N     C      L     U      S      I      O      N
                   To effectively control air pollution, the U.S.
                   Congress, EPA, and states have recognized
                   the need for regional, as well as national and
                   local, cooperation. Since air pollution does
                   not respect political boundaries, regional
                   approaches are often among the most
                   effective ways to control its transport.  The
                   overall quality of the nation's air continues
                   to improve, despite increases in population,
                   gross national product, and vehicle miles
                   traveled. Efforts to maintain and build on this
                   progress into the 21st century will require
                   continued cooperation among international,
                   national, state, tribal, and local governments,
                   as well as industry, environmental groups,
                   and private citizens.
  -"" **f «^'j>*"-3.v,*^,-
. ™,    •'  '      ,«-«.» j I  'i  ,  »•
!^*J  ,*   ->.«,f»x:t*«*->.   * -«;f A,<—. *»
^5
                                                                 ACRONYMS
                                                                 * DDT - Dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane
                                                                 • EPA - U.S. Environmental
                                                                   Protection Agency
                                                                 • GCVTC - Grand Canyon Visibility
                                                                   Transport Commission
                                                                 • 1ADN - Integrated Atmospheric
                                                                   Deposition Network
                                                                 • LEV - Low Emission Vehicle
                                                                 • LMOP - Lake Michigan Ozone
                                                                   Control Program
                                                                 • LMOS - Lake Michigan Ozone Study
                                                                 • NARSTO - North American Research
                                                                   Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone
                                                                 • NO^ - Oxides of Nitrogen
                                                                 • OTAG - Ozone Transport
                                                                   Assessment Group
                                                                 • OTC - Ozone Transport Commission
                                                                 • PCB - Polychlorinated Biphenyls
                                                                 • POM  - Fob/cyclic Organic Matter
                                                                 • ppm - parts per million
                                                                 • SAMI - Southern Appalachian
                                                                   Mountains Initiative
                                                                 • SO, -  Sulfur Dioxide
                                                                 • SOS - Southern Oxidants Study
                                                                 • VOC  - Volatile Organic Compounds

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FOR MOM

INFORMATION  ON

REGIONAL AIR

POLLUTION

TRANSPORT  CONTACT:

EPA Headquarters
U.S. EPA
401 M Street, SW
Washington, DC 20460
202-260-2080
Homepage: http://www.epa,
gov/docs/oar/oarhome.html
EPA Regional Offices
U.S. EPA Region I (Connecticut,
Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire,
Rhode Island, Vermont)
John E Kennedy Federal Building
Room 2203
Boston, MA 02203
617-565-3482
U.S. EPA Region II (New Jersey,
New York, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands)
290 Broadway
New York, NY 10007-1866
212-6374081
U.S. EPA Region III (Delaware,
Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West
Virginia, District of Columbia)
841 Chestnut Building
Philadelphia, PA 1910?
215-597-2100
U.S. EPA Region IV (Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee)
Atlanta Federal Center
61 Forsyth Street
Atlanta, GA 30303
404-562-9077
U.S. EPA Region V (Illinois, Indiana,
Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin)
77 West Jackson Boulevard
Chicago, IL 60604
312-353-2212
U.S. EPA Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana,
New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas)
1445 Ross Avenue, 12th Floor, Suite 1200
Dallas, TX 75202-2733
214-665-7220
U.S. EPA Region VII (Iowa, Kansas,
Missouri, Nebraska)
726 Minnesota Avenue
Kansas City, KS 66101
913-551-7020
U.S. EPA Region VIII (Colorado,
Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota,
Utah, Wyoming)
999 18th Street, Suite 500
Denver, CO 80202-2405
303-312-6312
U.S. EPA Region IX (Arizona, California,
Hawaii, Nevada, Guam, American
Samoa)
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
415-744-1264
U.S. EPA Region X (Idaho,
Washington, Oregon, Alaska)
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101
206-553-0218

Other Organizations Discussed

Grand Canyon Visibility
Transport Commission
600 17th Street,
Suite 1705 South Tower
Denver, CO 80202-5452
303-623-9378
Integrated Atmospheric
Deposition Network
77 W. Jackson  Boulevard, MC-G-9J
Chicago, IL 60604
312-353-2000
Lake Michigan Ozone Study and
Control Program
2350 East Devon Avenue, Suite 242
Des Plaines, IL 60018
847-296-2181
North American Research Strategy
for Tropospheric Ozone
4811 West 18th Avenue
Kennewick, Washington 99337
509-735-1318
Homepage: http://narsto.owt.com/Narsto
Ozone Transport Assessment Group
Environmental Council of States
444 N. Capitol Street, NW Suite 517
Washington, DC 20001
202-624-3660
Homepage: http://www.epa.
gov/oar/otag/otag.html
Ozone Transport Commission
444 N. Capitol Street, NW Suite 638
Washington, DC 20001
202-508-3840

Southern Appalachian
Mountains Initiative
59 Woodfin Place
Asheville, NC 28801
704-251-6889
Homepage: http://www.tva.gov/orgs/
sami/samihomepage.htm
Southern Oxidants Study
North Carolina State University
Box 8002
Raleigh, NC 27695-8002
919-515-4649
Homepage: http://www2.ncsu.edu/
ncsu/CIL/souther_oxidants/

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               United States
     Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (MD-10)
   Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 2771 1
            OFFICIAL BUSINESS
      PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE, $300
             Recycled/Recyclable
      Printed with Soy/Canola Ink on paper that
        contains at least 20% recycled paper

-------
                United States
                Environmental Protection
                Agency
                Office of Air Quality
                Planning and Standards
                Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
EPA/451/K-98-001
February 1998
http://www.epa.gov
£EPA
Taking Toxics Out of the Air
Progress in Setting "Maximum Achievable
Control Technology" Standards Under
the Clean Air Act
                                        JX Printed on paper that contains at
                                        r' least 20 percent postconsumer fiber.

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Photos (pages  10, 11, 13,  14, 15, and 18) by S.C. Delaney/EPA
  Photos  (pages 17 and 21)  Copyright © 1997 PhotoDisc, Inc.

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Table of Contents


What Are Toxic Air Pollutants?	2

Where  Do Air Toxics Come From?	3

Where  Do Air Toxics Go?	4

How Are People  Exposed to Air Toxics?	5

Health  Effects	5

How Do Air Toxics Affect the Environment?	5

What Has EPA Done to Reduce Air Toxics?	6
  The Pre-1990 "Risk-Only" Approach
  The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments: A "Technology First, Then Risk" Approach

What Progress Has Been Made in Reducing Toxic Air Pollution?	7
Looking Ahead	8
  The Next Steps

For Further Information ..                                           ..9
Summaries of EPA's Final Air Toxics MACT Rules	10

Summaries of Related Solid Waste Incineration Rules..              . 22

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       The air we breathe can be contami-
      lated with pollutants from factories,
      vehicles, power plants, and many
      )ther sources. These pollutants
have long been a major concern because
of the harmful effects they have on peoples'
health and the environment. Their impact
depends on many factors, including the
quantity of air pollution to which people are
exposed, the duration of the exposures, and
the potency of the pollutants. The effects of
air pollutants can be minor and reversible
(such as eye irritation) or debilitating (such
as aggravation of asthma) and even fatal
(such as cancer).
Since 1970, the Clean Air Act has provided
the primary framework for protecting people
and the  environment from the harmful effects
of air pollution. A key component of the Clean
Air Act is a requirement that the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA) significantly
reduce daily, so-called "routine" emissions of
the most potent air pollutants: those that are
known or suspected to cause serious health
problems such as cancer or birth defects. The
Clean Air Act refers to these pollutants as
         "hazardous air pollutants," but they are also
         commonly known as toxic air pollutants or,
         simply, air toxics.
         Prior to 1990, the Clean Air Act required EPA
         to set standards for each toxic air pollutant
         individually,
         based on its
         particular         The technology- and performance-
         health risks.
         This approach
         proved difficult
         and minimally
         effective at
         reducing emis-
         sions. As a
         result, when
         amending  the
         Clean Air  Act
         in  1990, Con-
         gress directed
based standards issued by EPA
over the past 6 years have proven
extremely successful. Once fully
implemented, these standards
will cut emissions of toxic air
pollutants by nearly 1 million tons
per year—almost 10 times greater
reductions than EPA was able
to achieve in 20 years under the
pre-1990 approach.
         EPA to use a
         "technology-based"  and performance-based
         approach to significantly reduce emissions of
         air toxics from major sources of air pollution,
         followed by a risk-based approach to address
         any remaining, or residual, risks.
   Sources of Air Toxics
    Routine Emissions  From
       Stationary Sources
Mobile Sources
                                 Each year, millions of
                                 tons of toxic pollutants
                                 are released into the
                                 air from both natural
                                 and manmade sources.
     Volcanoes
       Accidental  Releases
                                Forest Fires

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   Mobile  Sources  and  Accidental  Releases

   While this document focuses on EPA's efforts to reduce routine emissions from stationary
   sources, EPA also is working to reduce toxic emissions from:
   •  Mobile sources, such as cars and trucks. For example, EPA and state governments
     (e.g., California) have reduced emissions of benzene, toluene, and other toxic pollut-
     ants from mobile sources by requiring the use of reformulated gasoline and placing
     limits on tailpipe emissions. For more information, contact EPA's Office of Mobile
     Sources at www.epa.gov/OMSWWW/toxics.htm or call (202) 260-7400.
   •  Accidental releases, including leaks and spills. For example, EPA has established
     regulations under the Clean Air Act requiring certain facilities to implement risk
     management programs that will help prevent accidental releases of toxic chemicals.
     For more information, contact EPA's Office of Chemical Emergency Preparedness
     and Prevention at www.epa.gov/swercepp or call (800) 424-9346.
Under the "technology-based"  approach, EPA
develops standards for controlling the "rou-
tine" emissions of air toxics from each major
type of facility within an industry group (or
"source category"). These standards—known
as "maximum achievable control technology
(MACT) standards"—are based on emissions
levels that are already being achieved by the
better-controlled  and lower-emitting sources
in an industry. This  approach assures citizens
nationwide that each major source of toxic  air
pollution will be required to employ effective
measures to limit its emissions.  Also, this ap-
proach provides a level economic playing field
by ensuring that  facilities that employ cleaner
processes and good emission controls are not
disadvantaged relative to competitors with
poorer controls.
In setting MACT standards, EPA does not
generally prescribe a specific control technol-
ogy. Instead, whenever feasible, the Agency
sets a performance level  based on technology
or other practices already used  by the indus-
try. Facilities are  free to achieve these perfor-
mance levels in whatever way is most
cost-effective  for  them. The  MACT standards
issued by EPA over the past 6 years have
proven extremely successful. Once fully imple-
mented, these standards  will cut emissions of
toxic air pollutants by nearly 1 million tons
per year.
Eight years after each MACT standard is is-
sued, EPA must assess the remaining health
risks from source categories. If necessary,
EPA may implement additional standards
that address any significant remaining risk.
This document describes what air toxics are,
where they come from, and how they can
impact people and the environment. It also
describes the individual standards EPA has
issued to reduce emissions of air toxics from
industries such  as chemical manufacturing,
petroleum refining, and steel manufacturing.
Additional information on air toxics and
EPA's air toxics  programs can be found on the
Internet at www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw.
What  Are Toxic  Air
Pollutants?

Toxic (also called hazardous) air pollutants are
those pollutants that are known or suspected
to cause cancer or other serious health effects,
such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or
to cause adverse environmental effects. The
degree to which a toxic air pollutant affects
a person's health depends on many factors,
including the quantity of pollutant the person
is exposed to, the duration and frequency of

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exposures, the toxicity of the chemical, and the
person's state of health and susceptibility.

The  1990  Clean Air Act Amendments list 188
toxic air pollutants that EPA is required to
control.1 Examples of toxic air pollutants in-
clude benzene, which is found in gasoline;
perchloroethylene, which is emitted from
some dry cleaning facilities; and methylene
chloride, which is used as a solvent and paint
stripper by a number of industries. Examples
of other listed air toxics include dioxin, asbes-
tos, toluene, and metals such as cadmium,
mercury,  chromium,  and lead  compounds.
Where  Do  Air  Toxics

Come  From?

Scientists estimate that millions of tons of
toxic pollutants are released into the air
each year. Some air toxics are released from
natural sources such as volcanic  eruptions
and forest fires. Most, however, originate
from manmade sources, including both
mobile sources (e.g., cars, buses, trucks) and
stationary sources (e.g.,  factories,  refineries,
power plants). This document focuses on
EPA's  efforts, as  of January 1998, to reduce
routine (as opposed to accidental) emissions of
toxic air  pollutants from stationary sources.
Routine emissions from stationary sources
constitute almost two-thirds of all manmade
air toxics emissions.
There are two types of stationary sources that
generate routine emissions of air toxics:
•  "Major" sources are defined as sources
  that emit 10 tons per year of any of the
                          listed toxic air
                          pollutants, or
                          25 tons per year
                          of a mixture of air
                          toxics. Examples
                          include chemical
                         plants, steel mills,
                  Major
                  Source
                   24%
Based on 1993 emission inventory data, major sources
account for about 24 percent of air toxics emissions, area
sources for 35 percent, and mobile sources for 41 percent.
Accidental releases and natural sources, which also
contribute air toxics to the atmosphere, are not included
in these estimates.

  oil  refineries,  and hazardous waste incin-
  erators. These sources may release air
  toxics from equipment leaks, when materi-
  als are transferred from  one location to
  another, or during discharge through
  emissions stacks or vents. One key public
  health concern regarding major sources is
  the health effects on populations located
  downwind from them.

•  "Area"  sources consist  of smaller sources,
  each releasing smaller amounts of toxic
  pollutants into the air. Area sources are
  defined  as sources that emit less than
  10 tons per year of a single air toxic,
  or less than 25 tons
  per year of a com-
  bination of air
  toxics. Examples
  include neighbor-
  hood dry cleaners
  and gas stations.
  Though emissions
  from individual
  area sources are
  often relatively small, collectively their
  emissions can be of concern—particularly
  where large numbers of sources are located
  in heavily populated areas.
1 The list originally included 189 chemicals. Based on new scientific information, EPA removed caprolactam from the list in 1996;
 thus, the current list includes 188 pollutants.

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EPA's published list now contains  175 catego-
ries of industrial and commercial sources that
emit one or more toxic air pollutants. For
each of these "source categories," EPA indi-
cated whether the sources are considered to
be "major" sources or "area" sources. The
1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct EPA
to set standards requiring all major sources of
air toxics (and some area sources that are of
particular concern) to significantly reduce
their air toxics emissions.
Where  Do  Air  Toxics Go?

Once released, toxic pollutants can be carried
by the wind, away from their sources, to other
locations. Factors such as weather, the terrain
(i.e., mountains, plains, valleys), and the
chemical and physical properties of a pollut-
ant determine how far it is transported, its
concentration at various distances from the
source, what kind of physical and chemical
changes it undergoes, and whether it will
degrade, remain airborne, or deposit to land
or water.

Some pollutants remain airborne and contrib-
ute to air pollution problems far from the pol-
lution source. Other pollutants released into
the air can be deposited to land and water
bodies through precipitation, or by settling
directly out of the air onto land or water.
Eventually,  a large portion of those pollutants
deposited near water bodies or small tributar-
ies will reach the water bodies via stormwater
runoff or inflow from the tributary streams.

Some toxic air pollutants are of particular con-
cern because they degrade very slowly or not
at all, as in the case of metals such as mercury
or lead. These persistent air toxics (as they are
called) can remain in the environment for
a long time (or forever, in the case of metals)
and can be transported  great distances.
          Toxic
        Pollutants
                             /   Wet
                               Deposition
                                                                               Evaporation
                                                                               of Deposited
                                                                                Pollutants
Toxic air pollutants can be deposited to land and water bodies through precipitation (wet deposition) or by settling directly
out of the air (dry deposition). Repeated cycles of transport, deposition, and evaporation can move toxic air pollutants very
long distances.

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Often, persistent air toxics reach the ground,
evaporate back into the atmosphere, and
are then transported further until they are
deposited on the ground again. Repeated
cycles of transport, deposition, and evapora-
tion can move toxic air pollutants very long
distances. For example, toxic pollutants such
as toxaphene, a pesticide used primarily in the
cotton belt, have been found in the Antarctic,
thousands of miles from their likely emissions
sources.
How  Are  People

Exposed  to Air  Toxics?

People are exposed to toxic air pollutants in
many ways that can pose health risks, such
as by:
• Breathing contaminated air.
• Ingesting contaminated food products—
  such as fish from contaminated waters;
  meat, milk, or eggs from animals that fed
  on contaminated plants; and fruits and
  vegetables grown in contaminated soil on
  which air toxics have been deposited.
• Ingesting contaminated water. Some people
  may be exposed to toxic air pollutants by
  drinking contaminated water.
• Ingesting contaminated soil. Young children
  also may be exposed by ingesting contami-
  nated soil from their hands, food, or objects
  they place in their mouths.
• Touching (skin contact) contaminated soil,
  dust, or water (for example, during recre-
  ational use of contaminated water bodies).
Once ingested, some of the more persistent
toxic air pollutants accumulate in body
tissues. Also, through a phenomenon called
biomagnification, predators typically accumu-
late even  greater pollutant concentrations than
their contaminated prey. As a  result, people
and other animals at the "top" of the food
chain who eat contaminated fish or  meat are
exposed to concentrations that are much higher
than the concentrations in the  water, air,  or soil.
Fish consumption advisories have been issued
for thousands of water bodies nationwide,
including the Great Lakes, Lake Champlain,
the Potomac River, and Chesapeake Bay.
Thirty-nine states currently have consumption
advisories for specific water bodies, warning
consumers about mercury-contaminated fish
and shellfish. Ten of those states have adviso-
ries on every inland water body. Many of
these advisories have been issued for water
bodies that were once thought to be relatively
pristine, where deposition from the atmo-
sphere is thought to be a major source of
the pollution.
Health  Effects
People who are exposed to toxic air pollut-
ants at sufficient concentrations and for suffi-
cient durations may increase their chances of
getting cancer or experiencing other serious
health effects. Depending on which air toxics
an individual is exposed to, these health ef-
fects can include damage to the immune sys-
tem, as well as neurological, reproductive
(e.g., reduced fertility), developmental, and
respiratory problems. A growing body of evi-
dence indicates that some air toxics (e.g., DDT,
dioxins, and mercury) may disturb hormonal
(or endocrine) systems. In some cases this hap-
pens by pollutants either mimicking or block-
ing hormones. Health effects associated with
endocrine disruption include reduced fertility,
birth defects, and breast cancer.
How  Do  Air Toxics Affect
the  Environment?

Toxic pollutants in the air, or deposited on
soils or surface waters, can have a number of
environmental impacts. Like humans, ani-
mals can experience health problems if they
are exposed to sufficient concentrations of air
toxics over time. Numerous studies conclude
that deposited air toxics are contributing to

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birth defects, reproductive failure, and dis-
ease in animals. Persistent toxic air pollutants
are of particular concern in aquatic ecosys-
tems because the pollutants accumulate in
sediments and may biomagnify in tissues of
animals at the top of the food chain to con-
centrations many times higher than in the
water or air.
Toxic pollutants that mimic hormones also
pose a threat to the environment. In some
wildlife (e.g., birds, shellfish,  fish, and mam-
mals), exposures to pollutants such as DDT,
dioxins, and mercury have been associated
with decreased fertility, decreased hatching
success, damaged reproductive organs, and
altered immune systems.
What  Has  EPA  Done to
Reduce Air Toxics?

The Pre-1990  "Risk-Only" Approach
Prior to 1990, the Clean Air Act directed EPA
to regulate toxic air pollutants based on the
risks each pollutant posed to human health.
Specifically, the Act directed EPA to:
• Identify all pollutants that caused "serious
  and irreversible illness or death."
• Develop standards to reduce emissions of
  these pollutants to levels that provided an
  "ample margin of safety" for the public.
While attempting to control air toxics during
the  1970s and 1980s, EPA became involved in
many legal, scientific, and policy debates over
which pollutants to regulate and how strin-
gently to regulate them. Debates focused on
risk assessment methods and assumptions,
the amount of health risk data needed to jus-
tify regulation, analyses of the costs to indus-
try and benefits to  human health and the
environment, and decisions about "how safe
is safe."
During this time, EPA lacked adequate meth-
ods to assess risk and lacked adequate health
and environmental criteria to establish a solid
foundation for risk-based decision-making on
the multitude of air toxics emitted throughout
the United States. Many regulators,  as well as
many members of the communities to be
regulated, were reluctant to accept risk as-
sessment as a legitimate policy tool. During
this period, EPA and the scientific community
gained valuable knowledge about risk assess-
ment methods. However, the chemical-by-
chemical regulatory approach—an  approach
based solely on risk—proved difficult, and in
20 years EPA regulated only seven pollutants
(asbestos,  benzene, beryllium, inorganic
arsenic, mercury, radionuclides, and vinyl
chloride).  Collectively, these standards only
cut annual air toxics emissions by an esti-
mated 125,000 tons.

The 1990 Clean Air Act
Amendments: A "Technology
First, Then  Risk" Approach

Realizing the limitations of a chemical-by-
chemical decision framework based solely on
risk,  and acknowledging the gaps in scientific
and analytical information,  Congress adopted
a new strategy in 1990, when the Clean Air
Act was amended. Specifically, Congress re-
vised Section  112 of the Clean Air Act to
mandate a more practical approach to reduc-
ing emissions of toxic air pollutants.
This  approach has two components. In the
first phase, EPA develops regulations—
MACT standards—requiring sources to meet
specific emissions limits that are based on
emissions levels already being achieved by
many similar sources in the country. Even
in its earliest stages, this new "technology-
based" approach has clearly produced real,
measurable reductions. In the second phase,
EPA applies a risk-based approach to assess
how these technology-based emissions limits
are reducing health and environmental risks.
Based on this assessment, EPA may imple-
ment additional standards to address any
significant remaining, or residual, health or
environmental risks. EPA is currently devel-
oping a strategy for addressing residual risks
from air toxics.

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   Maximum Achievable
   Control  Technology—MACT
   EPA's MACT standards are based on the emissions levels already achieved by the best-
   performing similar facilities. This straight-forward, performance-based approach yields
   standards that are both reasonable and effective in reducing toxic emissions. This approach
   also provides a level economic playing field by ensuring that facilities with good controls
   are not disadvantaged relative to competitors with poorer controls.
   When developing a MACT standard for a particular source category, EPA looks at the level
   of emissions currently being achieved by the best-performing similar sources through clean
   processes, control devices, work practices, or other methods. These emissions levels set a
   baseline (often referred to as the "MACT floor") for the new standard. At a minimum, a
   MACT standard must achieve, throughout the industry, a level of emissions control that is
   at least equivalent to  the MACT floor. EPA can establish a more stringent standard when
   this makes economic, environmental, and public health sense.
   The MACT floor is established differently for existing sources and new sources:
   • For existing sources, the MACT floor must equal the average emissions limitations cur-
     rently achieved by the best-performing 12 percent of sources in that source category, if
     there are 30 or more existing sources. If there are fewer than 30 existing sources, then the
     MACT floor must equal the average emissions limitation achieved by the best-perform-
     ing five sources in  the category.
   • For new sources, the MACT floor must equal the level of emissions control currently
     achieved by the best-controlled similar source.
   Wherever feasible,  EPA writes the final MACT standard as an emissions limit (i.e., as a
   percent reduction in emissions or a concentration limit that regulated sources must
   achieve). Emissions limits provide flexibility for industry to determine the most effective
   way to comply with the standard.
What  Progress  Has Been
Made  in  Reducing  Toxic
Air  Pollution?

As of January 1998, EPA has issued 23 air
toxics MACT standards under Section 112 of
the Clean Air Act Amendments. These stan-
dards affect 48 categories of major industrial
sources, such as chemical plants, oil refiner-
ies, aerospace manufacturers, and steel mills,
as well as eight categories of smaller sources,
such as dry cleaners, commercial sterilizers,
secondary lead smelters, and chromium elec-
troplating facilities. EPA has also issued two
standards under Section 129 of the Clean Air
Act to control emissions, including certain
toxic pollutants, from solid waste combustion
facilities (one standard for municipal waste
combustors and the other for medical waste
incinerators). Together, these standards
reduce emissions of over 100 different air
toxics. When fully implemented, these stan-
dards will reduce air toxics emissions by
about 1 million tons per year—almost  10 times
greater reductions than were achieved under
all the  pre-1990 standards. Each of the
final rules developed since 1990 is summa-
rized as an appendix to this document
(pages  10 to 22). These summaries describe
the sources for which final rules have been
issued, the types of pollutants the sources
emit, and how EPA's rules are reducing
their emissions.

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Some of these air toxics rules have the added
benefit of reducing ground-level ozone (urban
smog) and particulate matter. This occurs be-
cause some air toxics are also smog-causing
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (e.g., tolu-
ene) or particulate  matter (e.g., chromium).
In addition, some of the technologies and prac-
tices designed to control air toxics also reduce
VOCs or types of particulate matter that are
not currently among the 188  listed air toxics.
Reductions of smog-causing pollutants and
particulate matter  are important because of
the health and environmental problems they
can cause. Most notably, urban smog can
cause respiratory problems and can damage
vegetation, and particulate matter can  cause
many detrimental impacts  on human health,
such as bronchitis,  lung damage, increased
infection, aggravation of asthma, and prema-
ture death. In addition  many of these pollut-
ants can  contribute significantly to impaired
visibility in places, such as national parks,
that are valued for their scenic views and
recreational  opportunities.
EPA has  consistently worked to develop air
toxics standards that achieve the required re-
ductions  in air pollution while providing regu-
lated communities  with as  much flexibility as
possible in deciding how to comply with the
standards. For example, under a flexible regu-
lation, industries may reduce their emissions
by redesigning their processes, capturing and
recycling emissions, changing work practices,
or installing  any of a variety of control tech-
nologies. Flexibility helps industries minimize
the cost of compliance  and encourages pollu-
tion prevention. To provide flexibility, EPA
makes every effort  to develop standards that
are based on performance measures rather
than specific control devices, and that allow
for equivalent  alternative control measures.
Looking  Ahead

EPA has focused most of its initial air toxics
control efforts under the 1990 Clean Air Act
Amendments on reducing emissions by
setting technology-based standards. In addi-
tion to the 23 final air toxics MACT stan-
dards, EPA has also proposed a number
of other rules covering 22 source categories,
such as polyurethane foam production,
wool  fiberglass operations, and phosphoric
acid/phosphate fertilizer production.
Over  the next several years, EPA will con-
tinue  to work with industry and  others to
develop standards for all remaining source
categories to reduce air toxics emissions even
further. The Agency  expects to complete a
number of standards—such as agricultural
chemical production and pharmaceuticals
manufacturing—by the end of 1998, and
dozens of other standards by the year 2000.
Under the Clean Air Act Amendments, exist-
ing regulated facilities generally have up to
3 years from the date a MACT standard is
finalized to come into compliance with that
standard's requirements. New sources must
be in  compliance upon start-up. Within the
next 10 years, as these additional standards
are implemented, emissions of toxic air pollut-
ants are expected to be reduced by about
75 percent from 1990 levels.

The  Next Steps

EPA anticipates that its technology-based
approach will continue to prove  extremely
successful at reducing air toxics.  Other
air toxics reductions  are also expected to
continue as a result of mobile and other sta-
tionary source control programs  (e.g., imple-
mentation of new particulate and ozone
national ambient air  quality standards) that
indirectly reduce toxics. At the same time,
however, the Agency recognizes  the need for
continued research into the dangers posed by
air toxics.
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments call  for
EPA to supplement its technology-based ap-
proach by assessing the effectiveness of the
MACT standards at reducing the health and
environmental risks posed by air toxics. Based
on this assessment, the Agency may imple-
ment  additional standards that address any

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significant remaining, or residual, risk. After
setting a MACT standard, EPA has 8 years
(9 years for the earliest standards) to examine
the risk posed by continued emissions from
regulated facilities and to issue requirements
for additional controls if they are necessary
to reduce an  unacceptable residual risk.  Cur-
rently, EPA is working with industry repre-
sentatives, states, and others to develop a
residual risk program, and is collecting the
necessary data to conduct the first risk assess-
ments, beginning  in  1998.
In addition to the residual risk assessments of
MACT standards, the Clean Air Act Amend-
ments also require EPA to conduct special
studies to assess whether certain air toxics
problems may not be fully addressed by  the
MACT and residual risk programs. Since
1990,  EPA has published two reports on
deposition of air toxics and their detrimental
effects on the Great Lakes, Chesapeake Bay,
Lake  Champlain, and coastal waters. In  these
reports, EPA  listed 15 pollutants of greatest
concern that have a tendency to persist in the
environment  and  accumulate. The pollutants
of concern are: metals (mercury, cadmium,
lead), dioxins, furans, polycyclic organic
matter, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),
pesticides  (such as chlordane and DDT/
DDE), and nitrogen compounds. EPA is
continuing to develop and implement strate-
gies under the Clean Air Act Amendments
to reduce releases of these pollutants. The
Agency is expected to issue subsequent
reports every 2 years, outlining any control
measures needed to achieve further  reduc-
tions  in toxic  pollutants that are being
deposited in water bodies.
EPA is also studying air toxics emitted from
coal-, oil-, and gas-fired electric utility power
generation plants  and the health hazards
associated with these emissions. Preliminary
information indicates that emissions of toxic
pollutants from coal-fired power plants are
expected to increase  by 30 percent over the
next 2 decades, while emissions from oil-
fired power plants are expected to decline by
50 percent. Utility plants (primarily  coal-fired
plants) emit approximately 51 tons per year
of mercury nationwide, which is roughly
32 percent of the manmade mercury emis-
sions in the United States. This study is in-
tended to determine if emissions of toxic air
pollutants from power plants should be con-
trolled under Section  112 of the Clean Air Act
because of health risk concerns. EPA plans to
publish a final report in 1998.
The Clean Air Act Amendments also require
EPA to develop an urban strategy that will
reduce air toxic emissions from area sources
to address the associated health risk problems
posed by the most highly toxic pollutants (at
least 30 of them). In addition, the Amend-
ments require that EPA study the need for
and feasibility of controlling emissions of toxic
pollutants from motor vehicles and fuels. EPA
is looking at an integrated approach that ad-
dresses the urban air toxic emissions from
both stationary sources and mobile sources.
EPA is currently analyzing data to determine
which air toxics sources will be included in
the urban air toxics program, which is ex-
pected to be completed by the end of 1998.
  For Further Information

  For further information on EPA's air
  toxics program and other activities
  under the Clean Air Act Amendments,
  contact the following Web sites and
  EPA offices:

  Unified Air Toxics Website
  Internet: www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw
  EPA Office of Air and Radiation
  Internet: www.epa.gov/oar/
  (202) 260-7400
  EPA Office of Mobile Sources
  Internet: www.epa.gov/OMSWWW/
  omshome.htm
  EPA Office of Chemical Emergency
  Preparedness  and Prevention
  Internet: www.epa.gov/swercepp
  (800) 424-9346

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Summaries of  EPA's Final  Air Toxics MACT  Rules

The following summaries describe 23 air toxics rules EPA has issued since 1990 under Section 112
of the Clean Air Act.
  DRY  CLEANERS
  Final rule published September 22, 1993
  Dry cleaning facilities are the largest source
  of perchloroethylene (also called perc) emis-
  sions in the United States. Because dry
  cleaners are located in many communities
  across the country, perc emissions from dry
  cleaners are often released in close proxim-
  ity to large numbers of people.
  Perc can cause dizziness, nausea, and
  headaches and is suspected to cause cancer
  in humans.
  EPA's rule requires all dry cleaners that
  use perc to implement pollution prevention
  measures. It also contains specific control
  requirements that vary depending on the
type of machinery and the amount of perc
a facility uses.
The rule affects approximately 30,000 dry
cleaners and will reduce perc emissions at
these facilities by about 7,300 tons per year.
  COKE  OVEN   BATTERIES  AT  STEEL  PLANTS
  Final rule published October 27,  1993
  Coke oven batteries (a group of ovens con-
  nected by common walls) are used to con-
  vert coal into coke, which is then used in
  blast furnaces to convert iron ore to iron.
  Coke oven emissions contain benzene (a
  known carcinogen) and other chemicals that
  can cause cancer of the respiratory tract, kid-
  ney, and prostate. Long-term exposure to
  coke oven emissions can also cause conjunc-
  tivitis, severe dermatitis, and lesions of the
  respiratory and digestive systems.
  EPA's rule provides guidelines for day-to-
  day operations and sets emissions limits for
  existing sources and even tighter limits for
  new sources. The rule was developed
  through a formal regulatory negotiation
process that involved extensive industry
participation. It provides industry with
a menu of compliance options—this
flexibility should significantly reduce
compliance costs.
The coke oven rule affects 29 existing
facilities and will reduce air toxics by
approximately 1,500 tons per year.
         Air Toxics Emissions
 Pre-rule
 Post-rule
10

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ORGANIC  CHEMICAL  PRODUCTION  PLANTS
Final rule published April 22, 1994
EPA's rule reduces emissions of 131 or-
ganic air toxics from chemical  manufactur-
ing processes in the Synthetic Organic
Chemical Manufacturing Industry and
from several other chemical production
processes. The rule applies to production
of about 385 chemicals.
The rule requires reductions in toxic organic
air pollutants emitted from process vents,
storage vessels, transfer racks, equipment
leaks, and wastewater treatment systems.
Emissions averaging is allowed in the rule
as a compliance option to give  industry
flexibility in meeting the emissions
reduction limits.
The rule affects an estimated 310 facilities
and will reduce air toxics emissions by
510,000 tons per year—a 90 percent reduc-
tion from the preregulated levels emitted
by these facilities. The rule will also reduce
VOCs by about 1 million tons per year—
an 80 percent reduction from the preregu-
lated levels emitted by these facilities,
and equivalent to taking approximately
38 million cars off the road.
INDUSTRIAL  PROCESS  COOLING   TOWERS
Final rule published September 8,  1994
Industrial process cooling towers are used
to remove heat from industrial processes. In
the past, chromium  was added to cooling
tower waters to prevent equipment corro-
sion and control algae growth.
Chromium (Chromium VI, the most toxic
form, is known to cause lung cancer) is ulti-
mately released from the cooling towers
into the air. Most individual industrial pro-
cess cooling towers  do not qualify as major
sources of air toxics; however, almost all
cooling towers are part of large production
facilities (e.g.,  petroleum refineries,
chemical manufacturing plants, and
primary metal producers) that do qualify.
EPA's rule prohibits the use of chromium-
based water treatment chemicals and
suggests that facilities substitute phosphate-
based chemicals.
The rule affects an estimated 800 cooling
towers at about 400 major sources nation-
wide and will reduce chromium emissions
by 25 tons per year—a 100 percent reduction
from the preregulated levels emitted by
these facilities.
                                                                                 11

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  HALOGENATED  SOLVENT
  CLEANING   MACHINES
  Final rule published December 2,  1994
  Halogenated solvent cleaning machines
  (also known as degreasers) are used to clean
  oil and residues in the manufacturing and
  assembly of metal parts. Halogenated sol-
  vent cleaning is not a distinct industry, but
  it is an integral part of many industries,
  such as the aerospace and motor vehicle
  manufacturing industries. There are three
  basic types of solvent cleaning equipment:

    Batch vapor cleaners, which heat the sol-
    vent to create a solvent vapor zone within
    which the parts are cleaned.
    In-line cleaners, which are enclosed de-
    vices distinguished by a conveyor system
    used to supply a continuous stream of
    parts for cleaning.
    Batch cold cleaners, which use liquid sol-
    vent to remove soils from part surfaces.
  Numerous air toxics contained in these sol-
  vent mixtures are released during the clean-
  ing process.
                                            The rule applies to cleaning machines that
                                            use methylene chloride, perchloroethylene,
                                            trichloroethylene, 1,1,1 -trichloroethane,
                                            carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, or any
                                            combination of these solvents in a total
                                            concentration that is greater than 5 percent
                                            by weight.
                                            EPA's rule combines equipment and work
                                            practice standards that emphasize pollution
                                            prevention. As an alternative to complying
                                            with the equipment standards option, facili-
                                            ties using batch vapor or in-line cleaning
                                            machines may demonstrate that each sol-
                                            vent cleaning machine emits less than an
                                            overall solvent emissions limit.
                                            The rule affects an estimated 9,000 facilities
                                            that use solvent cleaning machines and will
                                            reduce air toxics emissions at these facilities
                                            by 85,300  tons per year and VOC emissions
                                            by 81,700  tons per year.
  COMMERCIAL  STERILIZATION
  AND   FUMIGATION   OPERATIONS
  Final rule published December 6,  1994
A number of industries (including medical
equipment suppliers; pharmaceutical com-
panies; cosmetics manufacturers; spice
manufacturers; libraries, museums, and
archives; and contact sterilizers) use ethyl-
ene oxide as a sterilant for heat- or
moisture-sensitive materials or as a fumi-
gant to control microorganisms or insects.
Ethylene oxide (a probable human carcino-
gen that also can cause adverse reproduc-
tive and developmental effects) is released
during these operations.
                                              EPA's rule sets ethylene oxide emissions
                                              limits for sterilization chamber vents, cham-
                                              ber exhaust vents, and aeration rooms.
                                              The rule affects an estimated 114 sources
                                              and will reduce ethylene oxide emissions
                                              by about 1,000 tons per year—a 94 percent
                                              reduction from the preregulated levels
                                              emitted by these sources.
12

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 GASOLINE  DISTRIBUTION  FACILITIES
 Final rule published December 14, 1994
 The gasoline distribution standard regu-
 lates  bulk terminals and pipeline breakout
 stations, which transfer and store gasoline
 as it goes from petroleum refineries to ser-
 vice stations and gasoline bulk plants.
 Approximately 10 toxic air pollutants, in-
 cluding benzene and toluene, are present in
 gasoline vapor. These pollutants are re-
 leased from gasoline distribution facilities
 during tank truck and rail car loading op-
 erations, gasoline storage, and equipment
 leaks.
 EPA's rule requires the use of pollution pre-
 vention methods (such as improving seals
 on storage tanks and inspecting equipment
 for leaks) and the use of controls (such as
 vapor processors to collect and treat gas
 vapors displaced during cargo tank loading
 operations).
The rule affects an estimated 240 gasoline
 bulk terminals and 20 pipeline breakout
 stations. It will reduce air toxics emissions
from these facilities by 2,300 tons per year
and VOC emissions by over 38,000 tons per
year. In addition, the collection and/or
prevention of gasoline evaporation under
the final rule is expected to result in energy
savings of an estimated 10 million gallons
of gasoline per year.
 MAGNETIC  TAPE   MANUFACTURING
 Final rule published December 15, 1994
 Magnetic tape manufacturers make prod-
ucts such as audio and video cassettes and
computer diskettes.
Toxic air pollutants are released when sol-
vent mixtures are used during coating and
equipment cleaning operations. In addition,
particulate air toxics may be released when
magnetic particles are transferred to the
coating mixture.
EPA's rule requires 95 percent control for
most types of emission points, including the
coating operations. For many of these emis-
sion points, EPA has developed alternative
emissions standards, such as one that allows
facilities the flexibility to commit to more
stringent control of their coating operations
in lieu of controlling certain storage tanks.
The rule affects an estimated 14 of the
25 facilities that  manufacture magnetic tape.
It will reduce emissions of air toxics, most of
which are VOCs, by 2,300 tons per year.
                                                                                  13

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  CHROMIUM  ELECTROPLATING
  AND  ANODIZING   OPERATIONS
  Final rule published January 25,  1995
  Chromium electroplating and anodizing
  operations coat metal parts and tools with a
  thin layer of chromium to protect them from
  corrosion and wear. Examples of electro-
  plated parts include appliances, automotive
  parts, and large cylinders used in construc-
  tion equipment and printing presses.
  Anodized parts include miscellaneous
  aircraft components such as wings and
  landing gears.
  Chromium VI (known to cause lung cancer)
  is released during the electroplating and
  anodizing processes.
  EPA's rule sets specific emissions limits for
  new and existing chromium electroplating
  and anodizing operations that fall into spe-
  cific size categories. The rule requires facili-
  ties to meet emissions limits through the use
  of pollution prevention practices and controls.
The rule affects an estimated 1,500 hard
chromium electroplating facilities, 2,800
decorative chromium electroplating facili-
ties, and 700 chromium anodizing facilities.
It will reduce chromium emissions by
173 tons per year—a 99 percent reduction
from the preregulated levels emitted by
these facilities.
  BASIC  LIQUID   EPOXY  RESINS AND
  NON-NYLON   POLYAMIDE  RESINS
  MANUFACTURE
  Final rule published March 8,  1995
  Basic liquid epoxy resins are used in the
  production of glues, adhesives, plastic parts,
  and surface coatings. Non-nylon polyamide
  or wet strength resins are used to improve
  the strength of paper.
  Epichlorohydrin (strongly suspected of
  causing cancer and known to cause respira-
  tory problems) is released during the resin
  manufacturing process.
  EPA's rule is based on an epichlorohydrin
  emissions limit,  which provides facilities
with the flexibility to meet the regulation's
requirements with a variety of compliance
options. The rule also requires facilities
to implement leak detection and repair
programs.
The rule affects all three basic liquid epoxy
resins manufacturing facilities and all nine
non-nylon polyamide manufacturing facili-
ties. It will reduce epichlorohydrin emis-
sions by 110 tons per year.
14

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SECONDARY  LEAD  SMELTER   INDUSTRY
Final rule published June 23, 1995
Secondary lead smelters produce lead from
scrap and provide the primary means for
recycling lead-acid automotive batteries.
The basic operations performed at these
facilities include battery breaking, smelting,
refining and alloying.
Secondary lead smelter facilities emit a
number of toxic air pollutants, including
1,3-butadiene (a known human carcinogen)
and lead compounds.
EPA's rule requires facilities to reduce emis-
sions from a number of sources, including
smelting furnaces, kettles, dryers, and fugi-
tive sources such as material handling.
The rule affects all 23 secondary lead smelt-
ers in the United States. It will reduce emis-
sions of air toxics from these facilities by
1,400 tons per year—a 72 percent reduc-
tion from the preregulated levels emitted by
these facilities. In addition, the rule is ex-
pected to reduce emissions of particulate
matter (which can cause serious respiratory
problems) from these facilities by 150 tons
per year, and carbon monoxide (which can
cause adverse health effects, including fa-
tigue, nausea, and respiratory problems) by
88,000 tons per year.
          Air Toxics Emissions
 Pre-rule
 Post-rule
PETROLEUM   REFINING   INDUSTRY
Final rule published August 18,  1995
Petroleum refineries process crude oil
to produce automotive gasoline, diesel
fuel, lubricants, and other petroleum-
based products.
Toxic air pollutants, including benzene
(a known human carcinogen) and toluene
(known to affect the central nervous system
and cause developmental problems), are
released from storage tanks, equipment
leaks, process vents, and wastewater
collection and treatment systems at
these facilities.
EPA's rule requires facilities to control emis-
sions from these sources. The rule allows
emissions averaging within the petroleum
refining facility, and provides additional
flexibility by permitting the use of emissions
averaging among emission points at petro-
leum refineries, marine terminal loading
operations, and gasoline distribution facili-
ties located at the same site.
The rule affects all 192 petroleum refin-
eries in the United States and will reduce
emissions of 11 air toxics by 53,000 tons per
year—a 59 percent reduction from the pre-
regulated levels
emitted by these
facilities. In addi-
tion, the rule is
expected to reduce
VOC emissions by
over 277,000 tons
per year—a 60 per-
cent reduction from
preregulated levels
emitted by these
facilities.
                                                                                  15

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  AEROSPACE  MANUFACTURING
  AND   REWORK   INDUSTRY
  Final rule published September 1, 1995
  Aerospace manufacturing and rework fa-
  cilities produce and/or repair aerospace
  vehicles and vehicle parts, such as air-
  planes, helicopters, space vehicles, and
  missiles.
  Toxic air pollutants such as methylene
  chloride (strongly suspected of causing
  cancer) and chromium (Chromium VI, the
  most toxic form, is known to  cause lung
  cancer) are released from these facilities
  during paint stripping, cleaning, priming,
  top
  coat application, and chemical milling
  maskant operations.
  EPA's rule requires facilities to eliminate
  most emissions of toxic air pollutants (par-
  ticularly methylene chloride) from paint
  stripping operations and to implement con-
  trols that will reduce emissions of air toxics
  resulting from other operations. The final
  rule provides a variety of options for meet-
  ing these requirements.
The rule is likely to yield substantial cost
savings for industry sources by providing
industry the flexibility to meet the reduc-
tions in the most cost-effective way. For
example, the rule contains a market-based
emissions averaging provision, which al-
lows facilities to overcontrol some emission
points while undercontrolling others.
The rule affects an estimated 2,800 aero-
space manufacturing facilities and will
reduce emissions of air toxics and VOCs
by 123,000 tons per year—a 60 percent
reduction from the preregulated levels
emitted by these facilities.
         Air Toxics and VOC Emissions
 Pre-rule
 Post-rule
82,000 tons
  MARINE  TANK  VESSEL
  LOADING  OPERATIONS
  Final rule published September 19, 1995
  Marine tank vessels are used to transport
  crude oil, gasoline, and toxic chemicals
  among refineries, bulk terminals, chemical
  plants, and pipeline terminals.
  These vessels release toxic air pollutants
  (including benzene, toluene, hexane, xylene,
  and ethyl benzene) into the air during load-
  ing and unloading operations.
  EPA's rule sets limits for both air toxic pol-
  lutants and VOCs. It requires large marine
  loading terminals (i.e., terminals that load
  either 200 million barrels per year of crude
oil, or 10 million barrels per year of gaso-
line) to reduce emissions of VOCs by
95 percent. It also requires all other major
sources to reduce air toxic emissions by
97 percent.
The rule affects an estimated 30 marine
tank vessel loading facilities. It will reduce
emissions of air toxics from these facilities
by approximately 4,500 tons per year
and VOC emissions by approximately
43,000 tons per year.
16

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WOOD   FURNITURE   MANUFACTURING
Final rule published December 7,  1995
The wood furniture manufacturing indus-
try includes cabinet shops and facilities
that make residential and industrial furni-
ture.
Toxic air pollutants, including toluene,
xylene, methanol, and formaldehyde, are
released from these facilities during finish-
ing, gluing, and cleaning operations. These
air toxics can cause eye, nose, throat, and
skin irritation; damage to the heart, liver,
and kidneys; and reproductive effects.
EPA's rule limits the amount of hazardous
air pollutants that can be contained in the
coatings used for finishing, gluing, and
cleaning operations (substitutes are avail-
able that contain  lower quantities of hazard-
ous air pollutants). In addition, the rule
contains work practice standards such as
keeping containers closed, training workers,
and periodically inspecting equipment to
locate and repair leaks.
The rule affects an estimated 750 wood
furniture manufacturing facilities and will
reduce air toxics emissions by 33,000 tons
per year—a 60 percent reduction from
preregulated levels—and VOC emissions
by an additional 8,400 tons per year.
          Air Toxics Emissions
 Pre-rule
 Post-rule
22,000 tons
SHIPBUILDING  AND  SHIP   REPAIR  INDUSTRY
Final rule published December 15, 1995
The shipbuilding and repair industry in-
cludes shipyards that construct and/or re-
pair commercial or military vessels, such as
barges and tankers.
Toxic air pollutants such as xylene and tolu-
ene are released during painting and associ-
ated cleaning operations.
EPA's rule, which is based on pollution pre-
vention measures, requires that containers
of paint and cleansers be kept closed, and
that facilities use low-VOC coatings for
painting and coating operations and handle
solvent and paint wastes in a manner that
minimizes spills and evaporation. The rule
does not apply to major source shipyards
that use less than 1,000 liters (approximately
264 gallons) of coatings per year, or to
boatyards that only build or repair recre-
ational vessels (marine or freshwater) less
than 20 meters (about 66 feet) long.
The rule affects an estimated 35 shipbuild-
ing and repair facilities and will reduce
emissions of air toxics from these facilities
by 350 tons per year—a 24 percent reduction
from the preregulated levels emitted by
these facilities.
                                                                                  17

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PRINTING  AND   PUBLISHING
Final rule published May 30,  1996
EPA's rule covers two distinct segments of
the printing and publishing industry:

  Publication rotogravure printers, which
  produce paper products such as cata-
  logues, magazines, newspaper inserts,
  and telephone directories.
  Package-product rotogravure and wide-
  web flexographic facilities that print on
  paper, plastic film, metal foil, and vinyl
  for use in products such as flexible pack-
  aging, labels, and gift wrap.
Toxic air pollutants (including toluene,
xylene, methanol, and hexane) are released
from the ink systems used by both types
of printers.
For publication rotogravure facilities, EPA's
rule limits air toxics emissions to 8 percent
of the total amount used (for example, facili-
ties that use only hazardous-air-pollutant-
based solvents would be required to recover
92 percent of the air toxics). For package-
product rotogravure and wide-web
flexographic facilities, the rule requires
95 percent overall control of all organic
hazardous air pollutant emissions from
their presses.
EPA's rule incorporates flexible compliance
options into its emissions control require-
ments.  Facilities may use pollution preven-
tion methods (which allow printers to
eliminate the use of toxic chemicals or to
substitute nontoxic chemicals for toxic
ones), traditional emissions capture and
control equipment, or a combination of
the two.
The rule affects an estimated 27 publication
rotogravure facilities and 100 package-prod-
uct rotogravure and wide-web flexographic
facilities.  It will reduce air toxics emissions
from publication rotogravure printers by
about 5,500 tons per year, and those from
package-product rotogravure and wide-web
flexographic printers by about 2,100 tons
per year.
OFF-SITE   WASTE  OPERATIONS
Final rule published July 1,  1996
Off-site waste facilities include hazardous
waste treatment, storage, and disposal fa-
cilities; industrial wastewater treatment
facilities; solvent recycling facilities; and
used-oil recovery facilities that manage
hazardous air pollutant-containing materi-
als generated at other facilities.
A number of toxic air pollutants (including
chloroform, toluene, formaldehyde, and
xylene) are released from tanks, process
vents, equipment leaks, containers, surface
impoundments, and transfer systems
at these facilities.
EPA's rule combines equipment, opera-
tions, and work practice standards. For ex-
ample, the rule requires that containers be
covered and that process vents meet 95 per-
cent organic emission controls.
The rule  affects an estimated 250 off-site
waste operation facilities. It will reduce air
toxics emissions by 43,000 tons per year and
VOC emissions by 52,000 tons per year.


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 ELASTOMER  PRODUCTION
 Final rule published September 5, 1996
Elastomers are used in the production of
many synthetic rubber products, including
tires, hoses, footwear, adhesives, wire insu-
lation, floor tiles, and latexes.
A number of toxic air pollutants (such as
styrene, hexane, and toluene) are released
during the initial stages of the elastomer
manufacturing process.
EPA's rule requires that facilities use a pol-
lution prevention technique to reduce the
amount of air toxics released during elas-
tomer production. The rule sets emissions
limits for several specific emission points-
storage tanks, process vents, equipment
leaks, and wastewater systems. It also
contains a market-based emissions aver-
aging provision that allows facilities to
overcontrol some emissions points while
undercontrolling others, thus achieving
the required reductions in the most cost-
effective manner possible.
The rule affects 36 facilities nationwide and
will reduce air toxics emissions by approxi-
mately 6,400 tons annually—a 50 percent
reduction from current levels.
         Air Toxics Emissions
 Pre-rule
 Post-rule
  6,400 tons
POLYETHYLENE  TEREPHTHALATE  POLYMER
AND   STYRENE-BASED  THERMOPLASTIC
POLYMERS   PRODUCTION
Final rule published September 12, 1996
Polyethylene terephthalate polymers and
styrene-based thermoplastics are used in the
manufacture of such products as polyester
fibers, soft drink bottles, plastic automotive
parts, packing materials, and plastic toys.
A number of toxic pollutants (including sty-
rene, butadiene, and methane!)  are released
into the air during polymer production.
To reduce the amount of air toxics released
from polymer production facilities, EPA's
rule sets emissions limits for several emis-
sions points: storage vessels, process vents,
equipment leaks, and wastewater opera-
tions. The rule also limits releases from pro-
cess contact cooling towers at some existing
and new facilities.
EPA developed the rule in partnership with
industry representatives and other major
stakeholders. The Agency estimates that
new facilities will experience annual cost
savings of about $5 million under the rule,
due to pollution prevention measures.
The rule affects 66 facilities nationwide
and will reduce emissions by approxi-
mately 3,880 tons annually—a 20 percent
reduction from current levels.
          Air Toxics Emissions
 Pre-rule
 Post-rule
I
I
9,400 ton
5,520 to
                                                                                19

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  PRIMARY  ALUMINUM   REDUCTION  INDUSTRY
  Final rule published October 7, 1997
   Primary aluminum reduction plants pro-
   duce molten aluminum metal (virgin alumi-
   num) from alumina ore. Typically, primary
   aluminum plants are components of larger
   facilities that prepare a variety of finished
   products. These larger facilities also typi-
   cally include secondary aluminum plant
   operations, which use aluminum metal
   to make products such as cans, aircraft
   and automotive products, and construction
   materials. Standards for secondary alumi-
   num production are under development
   by EPA and are not addressed in this
   final rule.
   Air toxics released during the production
   of molten aluminum metal include hydro-
   gen fluoride (which can cause serious res-
   piratory damage) and polycyclic organic
   matter (which is strongly suspected of
   causing cancer and other serious health
   effects).
   Developed in  partnership with state regu-
   lators, industry stakeholders, and tribal
   governments, EPA's final rule contains an
   emissions averaging provision that allows
   facilities to overcontrol some emissions
   points while undercontrolling others, thus
   achieving the required reductions in the
   most cost-effective manner possible. As a
   further cost-saving incentive, facilities that
   consistently perform below the levels set in
   the standard will be allowed to reduce the
   frequency of sampling or emissions testing.
   To achieve the required reductions, the final
   rule relies on a combination of pollution
   prevention measures, including work prac-
   tices,  equipment modifications, operating
practices, housekeeping measures, and in-
process recycling.
The rule affects 24 facilities nationwide.
It will reduce fluoride emissions by about
3,700 tons per year, polycyclic organic mat-
ter emissions by about 2,000 tons per year,
and particulate matter emissions by 16,000
tons per year. These emission levels repre-
sent a reduction of approximately 50 per-
cent from preregulated levels.
 Pre-rule
 Post-rule
 Pre-rule
 Post-rule
 Pre-rule
 Post-rule
          Fluoride Emissions
          Paniculate Matter Emissions
          Polycyclic Organic Matter Emissions
4,000 to

2,000 ton
20

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PULP  AND  PAPER  MILLS
Two final rules signed November 74,  1997
Wood and non-wood fiber sources such as
cotton, linen, and straw are turned into pulp
either though cooking via chemicals (known
as digestion), mechanical grinding, or a
combination of both. Following digestion
or grinding, the resulting fibrous mass is
washed, screened, and (depending on the
final product) sometimes bleached.
A number of toxic air pollutants (including
chloroform, chlorine, formaldehyde, metha-
nol, acetaldehyde, methyl ethyl ketone, and
metals) are released  during cooking, wash-
ing, bleaching, and chemical recovery
processes at these facilities.
• EPA's air toxics rules are part of an inte-
  grated, multimedia regulation designed to
  control pollutant releases to the water and
  air. The integrated rules allow the pulp and
  paper industry to consider all regulatory
  requirements at one time in order to select
  the most effective pollution prevention and
  control technologies.
• EPA has issued two final air toxics stan-
  dards for the pulp and paper industry that
  cover emissions from pulping and bleach-
  ing processes at mills that chemically pulp
  wood; papermaking processes at all mills;
  and pulping and bleaching at non-wood,
  mechanical, and secondary fiber mills. EPA
  has also proposed requirements for emis-
  sions from the chemical recovery area of
  chemical wood pulping mills.
• The two final rules will affect approxi-
  mately 155 mills. These final rules will re-
  duce air toxics emissions by 153,000  tons
  per year (a 67 percent reduction from
  preregulated levels at these facilities);
  VOC emissions by 450,000 tons per year;
  and total reduced sulfur  emissions by
  86,000 tons per year. The proposed rule
  would reduce air toxics emissions by an
  additional 2,900 tons per year; VOC
  emissions by 36,000 tons per year; and
  particulate matter emissions by 26,000 tons
  per year.
                                                        Air Toxics Emissions (Final Rules)
                                               Pre-rule
                                               Post-rule
              230,000 tons
                      77,000 tons
                                                                                   21

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Summaries  of Related  Solid Waste  Incineration Rules
EPA has also issued final rules to control emissions of certain air toxics from solid waste combustion
facilities. These rules set emissions limits for new solid waste combustion facilities and provide emis-
sions guidelines for existing solid waste combustion facilities  under Section 129 of the Clean Air Act.
  MUNICIPAL  WASTE  COM BUSTO RS
  Final rule published December 19, 1995; amended August 25, 1997
  Municipal waste combustors include incin-
  erators that burn waste and waste-to-energy
  plants that generate energy from garbage.
  EPA's final rule applies to all municipal
  waste combustion units with the capacity to
  burn more than 250 tons  of garbage per day
  (known as large  municipal waste combus-
  tion units; EPA has initiated development
  of rules for small municipal waste combus-
  tion units).
  Municipal waste combustors release a num-
  ber of pollutants, including cadmium, lead,
  mercury,  dioxin, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen
  chloride, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate
  matter. Dioxin and mercury are of particular
  concern because they are toxic, persist in the
  environment, and bioaccumulate.
EPA's rule contains strict standards for new
incinerators and sets MACT-based emis-
sions limits for existing incinerators.
The rule affects an estimated 164 municipal
waste combustion units and will signifi-
cantly reduce air toxics emissions (dioxins,
lead, cadmium, and mercury). The rule will
reduce dioxin emissions by 99 percent and
mercury emissions by 90 percent, compared
with 1990 emissions levels from these
sources. Overall emissions of other air pol-
lutants (including sulfur dioxide, particulate
matter, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen chlo-
ride) will be reduced by more than 90,000
tons per year.
  HOSPITAL/MEDICAL/INFECTIOUS
  WASTE  INCINERATORS
  Final rule published September 15, 1997
  Hospital, medical, and infectious waste is
  solid waste produced in the diagnosis, treat-
  ment, or immunization of humans or ani-
  mals; it includes needles, gauzes, boxes, and
  packaging materials. Fewer than half of all
  hospitals and a small number of nursing
  homes, pharmaceutical research laborato-
  ries, and veterinary clinics use incinerators
  to dispose of their waste.
  A number of toxic air pollutants, including
  dioxins, mercury, lead, and cadmium, are
  released into the air during the incineration
  process.
  EPA's rule contains emissions limits
  for new incinerators and emissions guide-
  lines for existing incinerators. The rule
establishes emissions limits for nine pollut-
ants (including dioxin, lead, cadmium, and
mercury). It requires training of incinerator
operators and establishes requirements for
appropriate siting of new incinerators.
The rule affects an estimated 2,400 existing
incinerators and will reduce air toxics emis-
sions (dioxins, lead, cadmium, and mer-
cury) by more than 25 tons per year.
Dioxins will be reduced by over 90 percent
from the current levels emitted by these
incinerators. The rule will also reduce other
air pollutant emissions (particulate matter,
carbon monoxide, and hydrogen chloride)
by over 7,000 tons per year.
22

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                 Overview of Current Total Maximum Daily Load

                           - TMDL - Program and Regiilations

                                             Background

                 Tftf Need- The Quality a/ Our Nuttou's Waters

                 Over 40% of our assessed waters still do not meet toe *atst quality ^tanckud;
                 states, temtoriest and authorized tribes have set for them. This amounts to over
                 20,000 individual rivec segments, lakes, .aad estuaries. These impaired water:.
                 include approximately 300,000 miles of rivfi's and shoreline:, and approximately
                 5 million acres, of lakes — polluted moatlv by sediments, excess nutrients,, and
                 harmful microorganisms. An over^'heimktg majority of the population - 21 8
                 million -Jive within 10 miles of the impaired waters.

                 Section i03(tl) of the Clean Water Act

                 Under section 3Q3idi of the 1972 Clean Water Act, states, territories, and
                 authorized tribes are required to develop lists of impaired waters. These
                 impaired waters do not meet water quality standards that states, tenitories, and
                 authorized tribes have set for them, e\en after point sources of pollution have
                 installed the rrnnirniira requited levels of pollution control technology. The law
                 requires that these jurisdictions establish priority rankingE far «*• users on the- lists
                 and develop TMDLsfor these  Water:.

                 What is ti TMDL?

                 A TMDL specifies 'the maximum amount of a pollutant that a ^vatei'bodv can
                 receive 'and still meet *ater quality standards, and allocates pollutant' loading
                 among, point .and nonpoinf pollutant sources By law.1, EP A must approve or
                 disapprove lists and TMDLs established by states, territories^ and authorized
                 tribes. If a state, territory, or authorized tribe submission is. inadequate, EPA
I oil                                                                                         Q'lS.iOlP;1?!! Ml

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                  must establish the list or the TMDL. EPA issued regulations in 1985 and 1992
                  that implement section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act - the TMDL provisions.

                  Litigation

                  While TMDLs have been required by the Clean Water Act since 1972, until
                  recently states, territories, authorized tribes, and EPA have not developed many.
                  Several years ago citizen organizations began bringing legal actions against EPA
                  seeking the listing of waters and development of TMDLs.  To date, there have
                  been about 40 legal actions in 38 states. EPA is under court order or consent
                  decrees in many states to ensure that TMDLs are established, either by the state
                  or by EPA.

                           EPA Actions to  Implement the TMDL Program

                  Federal Advisory Committee

                  In an effort to speed the Nation's progress toward achieving water quality
                  standards and improving the TMDL program, EPA began, in 1996, a
                  comprehensive evaluation of EPA's and the states' implementation of their Clean
                  Water Act section 303(d) responsibilities. EPA convened a committee under the
                  Federal Advisory Committee Act, composed of 20 individuals with diverse
                  backgrounds, including agriculture, forestry, environmental advocacy, industry,
                  and state, local, and tribal governments. The committee issued its
                  recommendations in 1998.

                  The New TMDL Rule

                  These recommendations were used to guide the development of proposed
                  changes to the TMDL regulations, which EPA issued in draft in August, 1999.
                  After a long comment period, hundreds of meetings and conference calls, much
                  debate, and the Agency's review and serious consideration of over 34,000
                  comments, the final rule was published on July 13, 2000. However, Congress
                  added a "rider" to one of their appropriations bills that prohibits EPA from
                  spending FY2000 and FY2001 money to implement this new rule.

                  Current TMDL Program

                  The current rule remains in effect until 30 days after Congress permits EPA to
                  implement the new rule. TMDLs continue to be developed and completed under
                  the current rule, as required by the 1972 law and many court orders. The
                  regulations that currently apply are those that were issued in 1985 and amended
                  in 1992 (40 CFR Part 130, section 130.7). These regulations mandate that
                  states, territories, and authorized tribes list impaired and threatened waters and
                  develop TMDLs.

                    Overview of the 1992 TMDL Regulations-Under Which the
                                      Current Program Operates
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                      • Scope of Lists of Impaired Waters
                            °  States, territories, and authorized tribes must list waters that are
                              both impaired and threatened by pollutants.
                            °  The list is composed of waters that need a TMDL.
                            0  At the state's, territory's, or authorized tribe's discretion, the
                              waterbody may remain on the list after EPA approves the TMDL,
                              or until water quality standards are attained.
                      • 2-Year Listing Cycle
                            0  States, territories, and authorized tribes are to submit their list of
                              waters on April 1 in every even-numbered year, except in 2000. In
                              March 2000, EPA issued a rule removing the requirement for the
                              2000 list - though some states are choosing to submit such lists on
                              their own initiative.
                      • Methodology Used to Develop Lists
                            °  States, territories, and authorized tribes must consider "all existing
                              and readily available water quality-related information" when
                              developing their lists.
                            °  Monitored and evaluated data may be used.
                            °  The methodology must be submitted to EPA at the same time as
                              the list is submitted.
                            0  At EPA's request, the states, territories, or authorized tribes must
                              provide "good cause" for not including and removing a water from
                              the list.
                      • Components of a TMDL
                            o  A TMDL is the sum of allocated loads of pollutants set at a level
                              necessary  to implement the applicable water quality standards,
                              including -
                                 • Wasteload allocations from point sources, and
                                 • Load allocations from nonpoint sources and natural
                                    background conditions.
                            o  A TMDL must  contain a margin of safety and a consideration of
                              seasonal variations.
                      • Priorities/Schedules for TMDL Development
                            0  States, territories, and authorized tribes must establish a priority
                              ranking of the listed waterbodies taking into account the severity of
                              pollution and uses to be made of the water, for example, fishing,
                              swimming, and drinking water.
                            0  The list must identify for each waterbody the pollutant that is
                              causing the impairment.
                            0  States, territories, and authorized tribes must identify waters
                              targeted for TMDL development within the next 2 years.
                      • Public Review/Participation
                            0  Calculations to  establish TMDLs are subject to public review as
                              defined in the state's continuing planning process.
                      • EPA Actions on Lists and TMDLs
                            °  EPA has 30 days in which to approve or disapprove a state's,
                              territory's, or authorized tribe's list  and the TMDLs.
                            o  If EPA disapproves either the state's, territory's, or authorized
                              tribe's list or an individual TMDL, EPA has 30 days to establish the
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                              list or the TMDL. EPA must seek public comment on the list or
                              TMDL it establishes.
                      •  1997 Interpretative Guidance for the TMDL Program
                           o  EPA issued guidance in August, 1997, to respond to some of the
                              issues raised as the program developed. The guidance includes a
                              number of recommendations intended to achieve a more nationally
                              consistent approach for developing and implementing TMDLs to
                              attain water quality standards. These recommendations include:
                           0  States,  territories, and authorized tribes should develop schedules
                              for establishing TMDLs expeditiously, generally within 8-13 years
                              of being listed. EPA Regions should have a specific written
                              agreement with each state, territory or authorized tribe in the
                              Region about these schedules. Factors to be considered in
                              developing the schedule could include:
                                 • Number of impaired segments;
                                 • Length of river miles, lakes, or other waterbodies for which
                                   TMDLs are needed;
                                 • Proximity of listed waters to each other within a watershed;
                                 • Number and relative complexity of the TMDLs;
                                 • Number and similarities or differences among the source
                                   categories;
                                 • Availability of monitoring data or models; and
                                 • Relative significance of the environmental harm or threat.
                           0  States,  territories, and authorized tribes should describe a plan for
                              implementing load allocations for waters impaired solely  or
                              primarily by nonpoint sources, including -
                                 • Reasonable assurances that load allocations will be achieved,
                                   using incentive-based, non-regulatory or regulatory
                                   approaches.  TMDL implementation may involve individual
                                   landowners and public or private enterprises engaged in
                                   agriculture, forestry, or urban development. The primary
                                   implementation mechanism may include the state, territory,
                                   or authorized tribe section 319 nonpoint source management
                                   program coupled with state, local, and federal land
                                   management programs and authorities,
                                 • Public participation process, and
                                 • Recognition of other watershed management processes and
                                   programs, such as local source water protection and urban
                                   storm water management programs, as well as the  state's
                                   section 303(e) continuing planning process.

                        For more information, see EPA's TMDL web site at:
                        http://www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl/

                           0  Status  report on litigation
                           0  TMDL Federal Advisory Committee Report
                           0  Maps and information on impaired waters
                           o  Links to other TMDL web sites, including states
                           0  Regulations and guidance
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                                                          Back to TMDL Homepage
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-------
c/EPA
               United States
               Environmental Protection
               Agency
                Office of Wastewater
                Management (4203)
EPA-833-B-98-002
February 1999
Introduction to the National
Pretreatment  Program
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              Disclaimer
Mention of trade names or commercial products in this
document or associated references does not constitute
an endorsement or recommendation for use.

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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	Table of Contents
TABLE  OF CONTENTS
       Preface	  iii
       List of Acronyms	  v
       Glossary of Terms  	  vii

1.      POTWs and the Need for the Pretreatment Program 	1
             Sewage Treatment	1
             Need for the Pretreatment Program	2

2.      Overview of the National Pretreatment Program 	5
             The Clean Water Act 	5
             The General Pretreatment Regulations	6
             POTW Pretreatment Programs  	7

3.      Pretreatment Standards	11
             Prohibited Discharge Standards	11
             Categorical Standards 	12
             Local Limits 	20
             Summary of Standards	22

4.      POTW Pretreatment Program Responsibilities	23
             Legal Authority	23
             Industrial Waste Surveys 	24
             Permitting	25
             Inspections	26
             Sampling  	27
             Enforcement	28
             Data Management and Record Keeping	31
             Public Participation and POTW Reporting 	32

5.      Industrial User Pretreatment Program Responsibilities	35
             Reporting Requirements	35
             Self-Monitoring Requirements  	39
             Record Keeping Requirements	40

6.      Hauled Wastes  	43
             Nature of Hauled Wastes	43
             Control Programs	43
             Concerns  	45

7.      Pollution Prevention	47
             Pollution Prevention and the Pretreatment Program	48
             Benefits of Pollution Prevention	49
             Pollution Prevention Assistance	50

8.      Bibliography	51


APPENDICES

A      Annotated Summaries of Existing Pretreatment Guidance Material	A-1
B      Document Ordering Information 	B-1
C      EPA/State Primary Pretreatment Contacts/Addresses	C-1

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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	Preface
PREFACE
    The industrial boom in the United States during the 1950s and 60s brought with it a level of pollution
never before seen in this country. Scenes of dying fish, burning rivers, and thick black smog engulfing major
metropolitan areas were images and stories repeated regularly on the evening news. In December of 1970,
the President of the United States created the U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through an
executive order in response to these critical environmental problems.

    In 1972, Congress passed the Clean  Water Act (CWA) to  restore and maintain the  integrity of the
nation's waters. Although prior legislation had been enacted to address water pollution, those previous
efforts were developed with other goals in mind. For example, the  1899 Rivers and Harbors Act protected
navigational interests while the 1948 Water Pollution Control Act and the 1956 Federal Water Pollution
Control Act merely provided limited funding  for State and local governments to address water pollution
concerns on their own.

    The CWA required the elimination  of the discharge of pollutants into the nation's waters and the
achievement of fishable and swimmable waterquality levels. EPA's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES) Permitting Program represents one of the key components established to accomplish this
feat. The NPDES  program requires that  all  point source discharges to waters of the U.S. (i.e., "direct
discharges") must be permitted.

    To  address "indirect discharges" from industries to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), EPA,
through CWA authorities, established the National Pretreatment Program as a component of the NPDES
Permitting Program. The National Pretreatment Program requires industrial and commercial dischargers
to treat or control pollutants in their wastewater prior to discharge to POTWs.

    In 1986, more than one-third of all toxic pollutants entered  the  nation's waters from publicly owned
treatment works (POTWs) through industrial  discharges to public sewers.1  Certain industrial discharges,
such as slug loads, can interfere with the  operation  of POTWs, leading to the discharge of untreated  or
inadequately treated wastewater into rivers, lakes, etc.  Some pollutants are not compatible with biological
wastewater treatment at POTWs and may pass through the treatment plant untreated. This "pass through"
of pollutants impacts the surrounding environment, occasionally  causing fish kills or other detrimental
alterations of the receiving waters.  Even when POTWs have the capability to remove toxic pollutants  from
wastewater, these toxics can end up in the POTWs sewage sludge,  which in many places is land applied
to food crops, parks, or golf courses as fertilizer or soil conditioner.

    The National Pretreatment Program  is  unique in that the General Pretreatment Regulations require all
large POTWs (i.e., those designed to treat flows of more than 5 million gallons per day) and smaller POTWs
with significant industrial discharges to establish local pretreatment programs.  These local programs must
enforce all national pretreatment  standards  and  requirements in addition  to any  more  stringent  local
requirements  necessary to protect site-specific conditions at the POTW.  More than 1,500 POTWs have
developed and are implementing  local pretreatment  programs  designed to control  discharges  from
approximately 30,000 significant industrial  users.

    Since  1983, the Pretreatment Program  has made great strides in reducing  the discharge of toxic
pollutants to sewer systems and to waters of the U.S.  In the eyes  of many, the Pretreatment Program,
implemented as a  partnership between EPA,  States, and POTWs, is a notable success story in reducing
impacts to human health and the environment.  These strides  can be attributed to the efforts of many
Federal,  State, local,  and industrial representatives who have  been  involved  with developing  and
implementing the various aspects of the Pretreatment Program.
         EPA, Environmental Regulations and Technology: The National Pretreatment Program, July 1986,
         p.4.

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Preface	Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program

    EPA has supported the Pretreatment Program through development of numerous guidance manuals.
EPA has released more than 30 manuals that provide guidance to EPA, States, POTWs, and industry on
various  pretreatment program requirements and policy determinations.  Through this guidance, the
Pretreatment Program has maintained national consistency in interpretation of the regulations.

    Nevertheless, turnover in pretreatment program staff has diluted historical knowledge leaving new staff
and other interested parties unaware of existing materials.  With this in mind, the intent of this guidance
manual, Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program, is to:

    (1) provide a reference for anyone interested in understanding the basics of pretreatment program
    requirements, and

    (2) provide a roadmap to additional and more  detailed guidance materials for those trying to
    implement specific elements of the  Pretreatment Program.

    While the Pretreatment Program has demonstrated significant reductions in pollutants discharged to
POTWs, Congress' goals of zero discharge of toxic pollutants and fishable/swimmable water quality have
not been realized. EPA is currently working to establish more cost-effective and common sense approaches
to environmental protection (e.g., using watershed, streamlining, and reinvention concepts), creating new
responsibilities for all those involved in the  National Pretreatment Program.   Many current challenges
remain,  while  many new  ones likely  lie ahead.   This guidance manual is  intended to provide  an
understanding of the basic concepts that drive the Program, the current status of the Program and program
guidance, and an insight into what the future holds for all those involved with implementing the Pretreatment
Program.

    As noted above, this guidance manual is organized to provide an overview of program requirements and
to referthe readerto more detailed EPA guidance that exists on  specific program elements. To accomplish
this, the guidance manual incorporates two key features: 1) the first page of each chapter contains a list of
EPA references applicable to the topics discussed in that chapter, and 2) abstracts of each reference are
provided in Appendix A with document ordering information provided in Appendix B. Addresses of EPA and
State pretreatment staff are provided in AppendixC. Additionally, Chapters contains a bibliography of these
guidance materials, and other materials that may be useful to the reader and describes how to obtain them.

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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
List of Acronyms
LIST OF ACRONYMS
Acronym  Full Phrase

AA        Approval Authority
AO        Administrative Order
BAT      Best Available Technology Economically Achievable
BCT      Best Conventional Pollutant Control Technology
BMP      Best Management Practices
BMR      Baseline Monitoring Report
BOD5      5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand
BPJ       Best Professional Judgment
BPT      Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available
CA        Control Authority
CFR      Code of Federal Regulations
CIU       Categorical Industrial User
CSO      Combined Sewer Overflow
CWA      Clean Water Act (formerly referred to as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or Federal
          Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972) Pub. L. 92-500, as amended by Pub. L. 95-
          217, Pub. L. 95-576, Pub. L. 96-483, Pub. L. 97-117, and Pub. L. 100-4, 33 U.S.C. 1251 etseq.
CWF      Combined Wastestream Formula
CWT      Centralized Waste Treater
DMR      Discharge Monitoring Report
DSE      Domestic Sewage Exclusion
DSS      Domestic Sewage Study
ELG      Effluent Limitations Guideline
EPA      Environmental Protection Agency
EPCRA    Emergency Preparedness and Community Right to Know Act
ERP      Enforcement Response Plan
FDF      Fundamentally Different Factors
FR        Federal Register
FWA      Flow Weighted Average
gpd       Gallons per Day
ID        Industrial User
LEL       Lower Explosive Limit
MAHL     Maximum Allowable Headworks Loading
MAIL      Maximum Allowable Industrial Loading
MGD      Million Gallons per Day
MSDS     Material Safety Data Sheet
NAICS     North American Industry Classification System (replaces SIC coding system in 1998)
NOV      Notice of Violation
NPDES    National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NRDC     Natural Resources Defense Council
NSPS     New Source Performance Standard
O&G      Oil and Grease
Acronym  Full Phrase

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List of Acronyms
Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
O&M      Operations and Maintenance
OCPSF   Organic Chemicals, Plastics, and Synthetic Fibers
P2        Pollution Prevention
PCI       Pretreatment Compliance Inspection
PCS      Permit Compliance System
PIRT      Pretreatment Implementation Review Task Force
POTW    Publicly Owned Treatment Works
PSES     Pretreatment Standards for Existing Sources
PSNS     Pretreatment Standards for New Sources
QA/QC    Quality Assurance/Quality Control
RCRA     Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
SIC       Standard Industrial Classification
SIU       Significant Industrial User
SPCC     Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures
SNC      Significant Noncompliance
SSO      Sanitary Sewer Overflow
SUO      Sewer Use Ordinance
TCLP     Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure
TIE       Toxicity Identification Evaluation
TOMP     Toxic Organic Management Program
TRE      Toxicity Reduction Evaluation
TRI       Toxic Release Inventory
TSS      Total Suspended Solids
TTO      Total Toxic Organics
USC      United States Code
UST      Underground Storage Tank
WET      Whole Effluent Toxicity
WWTP    Wastewater  Treatment Plant

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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	Glossary of Terms
GLOSSARY  OF  TERMS
   This glossary includes a collection of terms used in this manual and an explanation of each term. To
the extent that definitions and explanations provided in this glossary differ from those in EPA regulations or
other official documents, the definitions used herein are intended for use in understanding this manual only.

Act or "the Act" [40 CFR §403.3(b)]
   The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, also known as the Clean Water Act, as amended, 33 USC 1251
et.seq.

Approval Authority [40 CFR §403.3(c)]
   The Director in an NPDES State with an approved State Pretreatment Program and the appropriate EPA
Regional Administrator in a non-NPDES State or State without an approved pretreatment program.

Approved POTW Pretreatment Program or Program [40 CFR §403.3(d)]
   A program administered by a POTW that meets the criteria established in 40 CFR Part 403 and which
has been approved by a Regional Administrator or State  Director.

Approved State Pretreatment Program
   A program administered by a State that meets the criteria established in 40 CFR §403.10 and which has
been approved by a Regional Administrator

Approved/Authorized State
   A State with an NPDES permit program approved pursuant to section 402(b) of the Act and an approved
State  Pretreatment Program.

Baseline Monitoring Report (BMR) [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403.12(b)]
   A report submitted by categorical industrial users (CILJs) within 180 days after the effective date of an
applicable categorical standard, or at least 90 days prior to commencement of discharge for new sources,
which contains specific facility  information, including flow and  pollutant concentration data. For existing
sources, the report must also certify as to the compliance status of the facility with respect to the categorical
standards.

Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BAT)
   A level of technology based on the best existing control and treatment measures that are economically
achievable within the given industrial category or subcategory.

Best Management Practices (BMPs)
   Schedules of activities, prohibitions of practices, maintenance procedures, and other management
practices to prevent or reduce the pollution of waters of the U.S. BMPs also include treatment requirements,
operating procedures and practices to control plant site runoff, spillage or leaks, sludge or waste disposal,
or drainage from raw material storage.

Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available (BPT)
   A level of technology represented by the average of the best existing wastewatertreatment performance
levels within an industrial category or subcategory.

Best Professional Judgment (BPJ)
   The method  used by a  permit writer to develop technology-based limitations on a case-by-case basis
using  all reasonably available and  relevant data.
Slowdown

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Glossary of Terms	Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program

    The discharge of water with high concentrations of accumulated solids from boilers to prevent plugging
of the boilertubes and/or steam lines. In cooling towers, blowdown is discharged to reduce the concentration
of dissolved salts in the recirculating cooling water.

Bypass [40 CFR §403.17(a)]
    The intentional diversion of wastestreams from any portion of an Industrial User's treatment facility.

Categorical Industrial User (CIU)
    An industrial user subject to National categorical pretreatment standards.

Categorical Pretreatment Standards
    Limitations on pollutant discharges to POTWs promulgated by EPA in accordance with Section 307 of
the Clean Water Act, that apply to specific process wastewater discharges of particular industrial categories
[40 CFR § 403.6 and 40 CFR Parts 405-471].

Chain of Custody (COC)
    A record of each person involved in the possession of a sample from the person who collects the sample
to the person who analyzes the sample in the laboratory.

Chronic
    A stimulus that lingers or continues for a relatively long period of time, often one-tenth of the life span
or more. Chronic should be considered a relative term depending on the life span of an  organism.  The
measurement of chronic effect can be reduced growth, reduced reproduction, etc., in addition to lethality.

Clean Water Act (CWA)
    The common name for the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Public law 92-500; 33 U.S.C. 1251 et
seq.: legislation which provides statutory authority for both NPDES and Pretreatment Programs.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
    A codification of Federal rules published annually by the Office of the Federal Register National Archives
and Records Administration.  Title 40 of the CFR contains the regulations for Protection of the Environment.

Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO)
    A discharge of untreated wastewater from a combined sewer system at a  point prior to the headworks
of a publicly owned treatment works. CSOs generally occur during wet weather (rainfall or snowfall). During
periods of wet weather, these systems become overloaded, bypass treatment works, and discharge directly
to receiving waters.

Combined Wastestream Formula (CWF) [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403.6(e)]
    Procedure for calculating alternative discharge limits at  industrial facilities  where a  regulated
wastestream from a categorical industrial user is combined with other wastestreams prior to treatment.

Compliance Schedule
    A schedule of remedial measures included in a permit or an enforcement  order, including a  sequence
of interim requirements (for example, actions, operations, or milestone events) that lead to compliance with
the CWA and  regulations.

Composite Sample
    Sample composed of two or more discrete samples.  The aggregate sample will reflect the average
water quality covering the compositing or sample period.

Concentration-based Limit
    A limit based  upon the relative strength of a pollutant in a wastestream, usually expressed in mg/l.
Continuous Discharge

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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program _ Glossary of Terms

    A discharge that occurs without interruption during the operating hours of a facility, except for infrequent
shutdowns for maintenance, process changes or similar activities.

Control Authority [paraphrased from 40 CFR § 403. 12(a)]
    A POTWwith an approved pretreatment program or the approval authority in the absence of a POTW
pretreatment program.

Conventional Pollutants
    BOD, TSS, fecal coliform, oil and grease,  and pH

Daily Maximum Limitations
    The maximum allowable discharge of pollutants during  a  24 hour period.  Where daily maximum
limitations are expressed in units of mass, the daily discharge is the total mass discharged over the course
of the day. Where daily maximum limitations are expressed in terms of a concentration, the daily discharge
is the arithmetic average measurement of the pollutant concentration derived from all measurements taken
that day.

Detection Limit
    The minimum concentration of an analyte(substance) that can be measured and reported with a 99%
confidence that the analyte concentration is greater than zero as determined by the  procedure set forth in
40 CFR Part 1 36, Appendix B.

Development Document
    Detailed report of studies conducted by the U.S. EPAforthe purpose of establishing effluent guidelines
and categorical pretreatment standards.

D i I ute Wastestream  [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403. 6(e) (1) (i)]
    For purposes of the combined wastestream formula, the average daily flow (at least a 30-day  average)
from : (a) boiler blowdown streams, non-contact cooling streams, storm water streams, and demineralized
backwash streams; provided, however, that where such streams contain a significant amount of a pollutant,
and the combination of  such streams,  prior  to treatment, with an industrial user's  regulated  process
wastestream(s) will result in a substantial reduction  of that pollutant, the Control Authority, upon application
of the industrial user, may exercise its discretion to determine whether such stream(s) should  be classified
as diluted or unregulated. In its application  to the Control Authority,  the industrial  user must provide
engineering, production, sampling and analysis, and such other information so the control authority can make
its determination; or (b) sanitary wastestreams where such streams are not regulated by a categorical
pretreatment standard; or (c) from any process wastestreams which were, or could have been, entirely
exempted from categorical pretreatment standards pursuant to paragraph 8 of the NRDC v. Costle Consent
Decree (12 ERG 1833) for one more of the following reasons (see Appendix D of 40 CFR Part 403):
    a.  the pollutants  of concern are not detectable in the effluent from the industrial user (paragraph
    b.  the pollutants of concern are present only in trace amounts and are neither causing nor likely to
       cause toxic effects (paragraph (8)(a)(iii));
    c.  the pollutants of concern are present in amounts too small to be effectively deduced by technologies
       known to the Administrator (paragraph (8)(a)(iii)); or
    d.  the wastestream contains only pollutants which are compatible with the POTW (paragraph (8)(b)(l)).

Effluent Limitations Guideline
    Any effluent limitations guidelines issued by EPA pursuant to Section 304(b)  of the  CWA.  These
regulations are published to adopt or revise a national standard prescribing restrictions on quantities, rates,
and concentrations of chemical, physical, biological, and other constituents which are discharged from point
sources, in specific industrial categories  (e.g., metal finishing, metal molding and casting, etc).
Enforcement Response Plan  [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403.8(f)(5)]
    Step-by-step enforcement procedures followed by Control Authority staff to identify, document, and
respond to violations.

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Glossary of Terms	Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program

Existing Source
    Any source of discharge, the construction or operation of which commenced prior to the publication by
the EPA of proposed categorical pretreatment standards, which will be applicable to such source if the
standard is thereafter promulgated in accordance with Section 307 of the Act.

Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA)
    The title of Public law 92-500; 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., also known as the Clean Water Act (CWA),
enacted October 18, 1972.

Flow Weighted Average Formula (FWA) [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403.6(e)]
    A procedure used  to calculate  alternative limits where  wastestreams regulated by a categorical
pretreatment standard and nonregulated wastestreams combine after treatment but prior to the monitoring
point.

Flow Proportional Composite Sample
    Combination of individual samples proportional to the flow of the wastestream at the time of sampling.

Fundamentally Different Factors [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403.13]
    Case-by-case variance from categorical pretreatment standards based on the factors considered by EPA
in developing the applicable category/subcategory being fundamentally different than factors relating to a
specific industrial user.

General Prohibitions [40 CFR §403.5(a)(1)]
    No user shall introduce into a POTWany pollutant(s) which cause pass through or interference.

Grab Sample
    A sample which is taken  from a  wastestream  on a one-time basis with no regard to the flow of the
wastestream and without consideration of time.  A single grab sample should be taken over a period of time
not to exceed 15 minutes.

Indirect Discharge or Discharge [40 CFR §403.3(g)]
    The introduction of pollutants into a POTW from any non-domestic source regulated under section
307(b), (c), or (d) of the Act.

Industrial User (IU) or User  [40 CFR §403.3(h)]
    A source of indirect discharge.

Industrial Waste Survey
    The process of identifying and locating industrial  users and characterizing their industrial discharge.

Inhibition Concentration
    Estimate of the toxicant concentration that would cause a given  percent  reduction (e.g., IC25) in a
nonlethal biological measurement of the test organisms, such as reproduction or growth.

Interference [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403.3(i)]
    A discharge which, alone or in conjunction with a discharge or discharges from other sources, both:  (1)
inhibits or disrupts the POTW, its treatment processes or operations, or its sludge processes,  use or disposal;
and (2) therefore is a cause of a violation  of any requirement of the POTWs NPDES permit (including an
increase in the magnitude or duration of a violation) or of the prevention of sewage sludge  use or disposal
in compliance with ... [applicable] statutory provisions and regulations or permits issued thereunder (or more
stringent State or local regulations) ...

Local Limits [paraphrased 40 CFR § 403.5(c)]
    Specific discharge limits developed and enforced by POTWs upon industrial or commercial facilities to
implement the general and specific discharge prohibitions listed in 40 CFR §§403.5(a)(1) and (b).

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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	Glossary of Terms

Monthly Average
    The arithmetic average value of all samples taken in a calendar month for an individual pollutant
parameter. The monthly average may be the average of all grab samples taken in a given calendar month,
or the average of all composite samples taken in a given calendar month.

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
    The national program for issuing,  modifying, revoking and reissuing, terminating, monitoring  and
enforcing discharge permits from point sources to waters of the United States, and imposing and enforcing
pretreatment requirements, under sections 307, 402, 318, and 405 of the CWA.

National Pretreatment Standard or Pretreatment Standard or Standard [40 CFR §403.3(j)]
    Any regulation containing pollutant discharge limits promulgated by the EPA in accordance with section
307(b) and (c) of the Act, which applies to Industrial Users.  This term includes prohibitive discharge limits
established pursuant to §403.5.

New Source [40 CFR §403.3(k)]
    Any building, structure, facility or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants, the
construction of which commenced after the publication of proposed Pretreatment Standards under section
307(c) of the Act which will be applicable to such source if such standards are thereafter promulgated in
accordance with that section provided that

    (a) The building, structure, facility or installation is constructed at a site at which no other discharge
       source is located; or

    (b) The building, structure, facility or installation totally replaces the process or production  equipment
       that causes the discharge of pollutants at an existing source; or

    (c) The production or wastewater generating processes of the building, structure, facility, or installation
       are substantially independent of an existing source at the same site. In determining whether these
       are substantially independent, factors such as the extent to which the new facility is integrated with
       the existing plant, and the extent to which the new facility is engaged in the same general type of
       activity as the existing source, should be considered.

Construction  on a site at which an  existing source  is located results in a modification rather than  a  new
source if the construction does not create a new building, structure, facility, or installation meeting the criteria
of paragraphs (k)(1)(ii), or (k)(1)(iii) of this section but otherwise alters, replaces, or adds to existing process
or production equipment.

Construction of a new source, as defined under this paragraph has commenced if the owner or operator has:

    (i)  Begun, or caused to begin as part of a continuous onsite construction program:

       (A) Any placement, assembly, or installation of facilities or equipment; or

       (B) Significant site preparation work including clearing, excavation, or removal of existing buildings,
           structures, or facilities which is necessary for the placement, assembly, or installation of new
           source facilities or equipment, or

       (C) Entered into a binding contractual obligation for the purchase of facilities or equipment which
           are intended to be used in its operation within a reasonable  time.   Options to purchase  or
           contracts which can be terminated  or modified  without substantial loss, and contracts for
           feasibility, engineering, and  design studies do not constitute a contractual obligation under this
           paragraph.

90-Day Final Compliance Report  [40  CFR §403.12(d)]
    A report submitted by categorical industrial users within 90 days following the date for final compliance
with the standards.  This report must contain flow measurement (of regulated process streams and other

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Glossary of Terms	Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program

streams), measurement of pollutants, and a certification as to whether the categorical standards are being
met.

Nonconventional Pollutants
    Any pollutant that is neither a toxic pollutant nor a conventional pollutant (e.g., manganese, ammonia,
etc.)

Non-Contact Cooling Water
    Water used for cooling which does not come into direct contact with any raw material, intermediate
product, waste product, or finished product. The only pollutant contributed from the discharge is heat.

Non-Regulated Wastestream
    Unregulated and dilute wastestreams (not regulated by categorical standards).

Pass Through [40 CFR §403.3(n)]
    A discharge which exits the POTW into waters of the United States in quantities or concentrations which,
alone or in conjunction with a discharge or discharges from other sources, is a cause of a violation of any
requirement of the POTWs NPDES permit (including an  increase in  the magnitude or duration of a
violation).

Periodic Compliance Report  [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403.12(e) & (h)]
    A report on compliance status submitted by categorical industrial users and significant noncategorical
industrial users to the control authority at  least semiannually (once every six months).

Point Source [40 CFR 122.2]
    Any discernible, confined, and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel,
tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fixture, container,  rolling stock concentrated animal feeding operation vessel,
or other floating craft from which pollutants are or may be discharged.

Pollutant [40 CFR 122.2]
    Dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, filter backwash, sewage, garbage, sewage sludge,
munitions, chemical  wastes, biological materials, radioactive materials (except those regulated under the
Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.)), heat, wrecked or discarded equipment,
rock, sand, cellar dirt, and industrial, municipal  and agricultural waste discharged into water.

Pretreatment  [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403.3(q)]
    The reduction of the amount of pollutants, the elimination of pollutants, or the alteration of the nature
of pollutant properties in wastewater prior to or in lieu of discharging or otherwise introducing such pollutants
into a POTW.

Pretreatment Requirements [40 CFR §403.3(r)]
    Any substantive or procedural requirement related to Pretreatment, otherthan a National Pretreatment
Standard, imposed on  an Industrial User.

Pretreatment Standards for Existing Sources (PSES)
    Categorical Standards and  requirements applicable to industrial sources that began construction prior
to the  publication of the proposed  pretreatment standards for that industrial  category.(see individual
standards at 40 CFR Parts 405-471.)
Pretreatment Standards for New Sources (PSNS)
    Categorical Standards and requirements applicable to industrial sources that began construction after
the publication of the proposed pretreatment standards forthat industrial category, (see individual standards
at 40 CFR Parts 405-471.)

Priority Pollutant

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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	Glossary of Terms

    Pollutant listed by the Administrator of EPA under Clean Water Act section 307(a). The list of the current
126 Priority Pollutants can be found in 40 CFR Part 423 Appendix A.

Process Wastewater
    Any water which, during  manufacturing or processing, comes  into contact with or results from the
production or use of any raw material, intermediate product, finished  product, byproduct, or waste product.

Production-Based Standards
    A discharge standard expressed in terms of pollutant mass allowed in a discharge per unit of product
manufactured.

Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW) [40 CFR §403.3(o)]
    A treatment works as defined by section 212 of the Act, which is owned by a State or municipality (as
defined by section 502(4) of the Act).  This definition includes any devices or systems used in the storage,
treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal sewage or industrial wastes of a liquid nature.  It also
includes sewers, pipes or other conveyances only if they convey wastewaterto a POTW Treatment Plant.
The term also means the municipality as defined in section 502(4) of the Act, which has jurisdiction over the
Indirect Discharges to and the discharges from such a treatment works.

Regulated Wastestream
    For purposes of applying the combined wastestream formula,  a wastestream from an industrial process
that is regulated by a categorical standard.

Removal Credit [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403.7]
    Variance from a pollutant limit specified in a categorical pretreatment standard to reflect removal by the
POTW of said  pollutant.

Representative Sample
    A sample from a wastestream that is as nearly identical as possible in composition to that in the larger
volume of wastewater being discharged and typical of the discharge from the facility on a normal operating
day.

Sanitary Sewer Overflow (SSO)
    Untreated or partially treated sewage overflows from a sanitary sewer collection system.

Self-Monitoring
    Sampling and analyses performed by a facility to ensure compliance with a permit or other regulatory
requirements.

Sewer Use Ordinance (SUO)
    A legal mechanism implemented  by  a local government entity which sets out,  among  others,
requirements for the discharge of pollutants into a publicly owned treatment works.

Significant Industrial User (SIU) [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403.3(t)]
    (1) All users subject to Categorical Pretreatment Standards under 40 CFR 403.6 and 40 CFR chapter
I, subchapter N; and (2) Any other industrial  user that: discharges an average of 25,000  gallons per day or
more of process wastewater  to the POTW (excluding sanitary, noncontact cooling and boiler blowdown
wastewater); contributes a process wastestream which makes up 5 percent or more of the average dry
weather hydraulic or organic capacity of the POTW treatment plant; or is designated  as such by the Control
Authority as defined in 40 CFR403.12(a) on the basis that the industrial user has a reasonable potential for
adversely affecting the POTWs operation or for violating any pretreatment standard or requirement (in
accordance with 40 CFR 403.8(f)(6)].

Significant Noncompliance  (SNC) [40 CFR §403.8(f)(2)(vii)]
    Industrial user violations meeting  one or more of the following criteria:
    1)  Chronic violations of wastewater discharge limits, defined  here as those in which sixty-six
    percent or more of all of the measurements taken during a six  month period  exceed (by any
    magnitude) the daily maximum limit or the average  limit for the same pollutant parameter;

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Glossary of Terms	Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program

    2)  Technical Review Criteria (TRC) violations, defined here as those in which thirty-three percent
    or more of all of the measurements for each pollutants parameter taken during a six-month period
    equal or exceed the product of the daily maximum limit or the average limit  multiplied by the
    applicable TRC (TRC=1.4 for BOD, TSS, fats, oil, and grease, and 1.2 for all other pollutants except
    PH);
    3)  Any other violation of a pretreatment effluent limit (daily maximum or longer-term average) that
    the Control  Authority determines  has caused,  alone or in  combination with other dischargers,
    interference or pass through (including endangering the health of POTW personnel or the general
    public);
    4)  Any discharge of a pollutant that has caused imminent endangerment to human health, welfare
    or to  the environment or has  resulted in the POTW's exercise of its emergency authority under
    paragraph (f)(1)(vi)(B) of this section to halt or prevent such a discharge;
    5)  Failure to meet, within 90 days after the schedule date, a compliance schedule milestone
    contained in a local control mechanism or enforcement order for starting construction, completing
    construction, or attaining final compliance;
    6)  Failure to provide,  within 30  days after the due date, required reports such as baseline
    monitoring reports, 90-day compliance reports, periodic self-monitoring reports, and reports on
    compliance with compliance schedules;
    7)  Failure to accurately report noncompliance;
    8)  Any other violation or group of violations which the Control Authority determines will adversely
    affect the operation or implementation of the local pretreatment program.

Slug Discharge [40 CFR §403.8(f)(2)(v)]
    Any discharge of a non-routine, episodic nature, including but not limited to, an accidental  spill or a
noncustomary batch discharge.

Specific  Prohibitions  [40 CFR §403.5(b)]
    The following pollutants shall  not be  introduced  into a POTW:
    1)  Pollutants which create a fire  or explosion hazard in the POTW, including but not limited to,
    wastestreams with  a closed cup flashpoint of less than 140 degrees Fahrenheit or 60 degrees
    Centigrade using the test methods specified in 40 CFR Part 261.21;
    2)  Pollutants which will cause corrosive structural damage to the POTW, but in no case discharges
    with pH lowerthan 5.0, unless the works is specifically designed to accommodate such discharges;
    3)  Solid or viscous pollutants in amounts which will cause obstruction to the flow in the POTW
    resulting in interference;
    4)  Any pollutant, including oxygen demanding pollutants(BOD, etc.) Released in a discharge at a
    flow rate and/or concentration which will cause interference with the POTW;
    5)  Heat in amounts which will inhibit biological activity in the POTW resulting in interference, but
    in no case heat in  such quantities that the temperature at the POTW treatment plant exceeds
    40°C(104°F) unless the Approval Authority,  upon  request of the  POTW, approves alternative
    temperature limits;
    6)  Petroleum oil, nonbiodegradable cutting oil, or products of mineral oil origin in amounts that will
    cause interference or pass through;
    7)  Pollutants which result in the presence of toxic gases, vapors, or fumes within the POTW in a
    quantity that may cause acute worker health and safety problems;
    8)  Any trucked or hauled  pollutants, except at discharge points designated by the POTW.

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)
    A system developed by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget that is used to classify various types
of business  entities.   Effective in 1998, the SIC  scheme is replace  by the North  American Industry
Classification System (NAICS), although EPA has not yet implemented this change.

Storm Water
    Rain  water, snow melt, and surface runoff and drainage.

Time Proportional Composite Sample
    A sample consisting of a series of aliquots collected from a representative point in the discharge stream
at equal time intervals over the entire discharge period  on the sampling  day.

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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	Glossary of Terms

Toxic Pollutant
    Any pollutant listed as toxic under section 307(a)(1) oftheCWA, or in the case of sludge useordisposal
practices, any pollutant identified in regulations implementing section 405(d) of the CWA.

Toxicity Reduction Evaluation
    A site-specific study conducted in a stepwise process designed to identify the  causative agent(s) of
effluent toxicity, isolate the sources of toxicity, evaluate the effectiveness of toxicity control options, and then
confirm the reduction in effluent toxicity.

Toxicity Test
    A procedure to determine the toxicity of a chemical or an effluent using living organisms. A toxicity test
measures the degree of effect on exposed test organisms of a specific chemical or effluent.

Toxicity Identification Evaluation
    Set of procedures to identify the specific chemicals responsible for effluent toxicity.

Unregulated Wastestream
    For purposes of applying  the combined  wastestream formula,  a wastestream not regulated  by a
categorical standard nor considered a dilute wastestream.

Upset [paraphrased from 40 CFR §403.16(a)]
    An exceptional incident in which there is unintentional and temporary noncompliance with categorical
Pretreatment Standards because of factors beyond the reasonable control of the Industrial User. An Upset
does not include noncompliance to the extent caused by operational error, improperly designed treatment
facilities, inadequate treatment  facilities,  lack of preventative  maintenance, or careless  or  improper
operation.

Water Quality Criteria
    Comprised  of both numeric and  narrative  criteria. Numeric criteria are scientifically derived  ambient
concentrations developed by EPA or States for various pollutants of concern to protect human health and
aquatic life.  Narrative criteria are statements that describe the desired water quality goal.

Water Quality Standard
    A statute or regulation that consists of the beneficial designated use or uses of a waterbody, the numeric
and narrative water quality criteria that are necessary to protect the use or uses of that particular waterbody,
and an antidegradation statement.

Whole Effluent Toxicity
    The total toxic effect of an effluent measured directly with a toxicity test.

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 Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	POTWs and the Need for the Pretreatment Program

 1.      POTWs   AND   THE   NEED   FOR   THE
          PRETREATMENT PROGRAM
   The average American uses
roughly 100 to 200 gallons of
water a day, with less than one
percent of that water  actually
          Chapter 1. Applicable EPA References
Environmental Regulations and Technology: The National Pretreatment Program
National Pretreatment Program: Report to Congress
Report to Congress on the Discharge of Hazardous Wastes to POTWs
being  consumed.   The  rest  is
used  for  activities  such  as
washing, preparing food, watering
lawns,   heating   and  cooling,
transporting wastes, and fire protection. The public is very conscious about the quality of water that comes out
of their tap each day, quickly notifying authorities of changes in appearance, odor, and taste.  These same
Americans, on average, discharge about the same amount of wastewater to local sewage treatment plants
daily.3 This wastewater (commonly referred to as "domestic sewage") receives much less attention than drinking
water, likely the result of an "out of sight, out of mind" attitude.

    Most people take it for granted that once down the drain, wastes will be handled appropriately.  In fact, this
attitude has carried over to industry as well,  as can be seen by reading the labels of many household products.
These labels often recommend that waste  or excess product be disposed of down the drain. Other toxic or
hazardous products are actually designed to be disposed of down the drain (e.g., drain clog remover). Recall
the  phosphate detergent problems of the late 1960s and early 70s; large doses of phosphate, found in most
detergents at the time, were passing through municipal treatment plants and overloading lakes, causing large
algal blooms to form and  subsequently reducing available light, food and oxygen for fish and other aquatic
organisms. While great strides have been  taken to address the phosphate problem, it is possible that other
problematic pollutants are being dumped down the drain at the expense of human health and the environment.

SEWAGE TREATMENT

    Publicly owned treatment  works (POTWs) collect wastewater from  homes, commercial buildings, and
industrial facilities and transport it via a series  of pipes, known as a collection system, to the treatment plant.
Collection systems may flow entirely by gravity, or may include lift stations that pump the wastewater via a force
main to a higher elevation where the wastewater can then continue on via gravity. Ultimately, the collection
system delivers this sewage to the treatment plant facility.  Here, the POTW removes harmful organisms and
other contaminants from  the sewage so it can  be discharged safely into the receiving stream.  Without
treatment, sewage creates bad odors, contaminates water supplies, and spreads disease. Today, more than
16,000 sewage treatment plants exist in the U.S.  treating more than 32 billion gallons per day of wastewater.4

    Generally, POTWs are designed to treat domestic sewage only.  Simply defined, the typical POTW
treatment process consists of primary and secondary treatment,  along with some form of solids handling.
Primary treatment is designed to remove large solids (e.g., rags and debris) and smaller inorganic grit. Typical
primary  treatment operations include screening  and  settling.   Secondary  treatment  removes organic
contaminants using microorganisms to consume biodegradable organics. Activated sludge, trickling filters, and
rotating biological contactors are examples of common secondary treatment operations. Depending on effluent
discharge requirements, POTWs may perform other "advanced treatment" operations such as nitrification (to
convert ammonia and nitrite to the less toxic nitrate), denitrification (to convert nitrate to molecular nitrogen),
        2      The Nalco Water Handbook, ed. Frank N. Kemmer (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,
               1988), pp. 35.1.

        3      Ibid, p. 36.1.

        4      1996 Clean Water Needs Survey Report to Congress: Assessment of Needs for Publicly
               Owned Wastewater Treatment Facilities,  Correction of Combined Sewer Overflows, and
               Management of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the United States.


 Chapter 1                                                                               -1-

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  POTWs and the Need for the Pretreatment Program
               Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
physical-chemical treatment (to remove dissolved metals and organics), and disinfection (to kill any remaining
pathogens). After treatment is complete, effluent is discharged to the receiving stream, typically a creek, river,
lake, estuary or ocean.  Some  POTWs may apply treated effluent directly to golf courses, parkland, or
croplands.

    Both primary and secondary treatment processes generate waste solids, known as sewage sludge or
biosolids.   Sludges from the treatment process may be either used productively  (i.e.,  as fertilizer or soil
conditioner) ordisposed of in a landfill or incinerated in a dedicated sewage sludge incinerator with the ash also
disposed of in a landfill.
    As  described  above,  POTWs  are designed  to treat  typical
household wastes and biodegradable commercial and biodegradable
industrial wastes.  The Clean Water Act (CWA)  and EPA define the
contaminants  from  these  sources   as   conventional   pollutants.
Conventional pollutants are identified in Figure  1 and include those
specific pollutants that are  expected  to  be present  in  domestic
discharges to POTWs.  Commercial  and industrial  facilities may,
however, discharge toxic pollutants that the treatment  plant is neither
designed for nor able to remove.

NEED FOR THE PRETREATMENT PROGRAM
                    Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
                    Total Suspended Solids
                    Fecal Coliform
                    PH
                    Oil and Grease (O&G)
                  Figure 1. Conventional Pollutants
    As noted above, POTWs are not designed to treat toxics in industrial waste.  As such, these discharges,
from both industrial and commercial sources, can cause serious problems. The undesirable outcome of these
discharges can be prevented using treatment techniques or management practices to reduce or eliminate the
discharge of these contaminants.  The act of treating wastewater prior to discharge to a POTW is commonly
referred to as "pretreatment."  The National Pretreatment Program, published in Title 40 Code of Federal
Regulations (CFR) Part 403, provides the regulatory basis to require non-domestic dischargers to comply with
pretreatment standards (effluent limitations) to ensure that the goals of the CWA are attained. As noted in 40
CFR §403.2, the objectives of the National Pretreatment Program are to:

    a.   Prevent the  introduction of pollutants into  POTWs  which will  interfere with the  operation of a
        POTW, including interference with its use or disposal of municipal sludge;

    b.   Prevent the introduction of pollutants into POTWs which will pass thro ugh the treatment works or
        otherwise be incompatible with such works; and
    c.   Improve opportunities to recycle and
        reclaim   municipal   and   industrial
        wastewaters and sludges.

The two key terms used in EPA's objectives for the
National Pretreatment Program, "interference" and
"pass through," are defined in Figure 2.

    As outlined in EPA's objectives, toxic pollutants
may pass  through  the  treatment plant  into the
receiving stream, posing serious threats to aquatic
life, to human recreation,  and to  consumption of
fish and shellfish from these waters.  Pass through
can make waters unswimmable or unfishable in
direct contrast to the goals of the CWA. Or, these
discharges can interfere with the biological activity
of the treatment plant causing sewage  to  pass
through  the   treatment   plant   untreated  or
inadequately treated.
 Interference - a discharge which, alone or in conjunction with
 a discharge or discharges from other sources, both:

         Inhibits or disrupts the POTW, its treatment
         processes or operations, or its sludge processes, use
         or disposal, and

         therefore is a cause of a violation of any NPDES
         permit requirement or of the prevention of sewage
         sludge use or disposal in compliance with any
         applicable requirements.

 Pass Through - a discharge which exits the POTW into
 waters of the U.S. in quantities or concentrations which,
 alone or in conjunction with a discharge or discharges from
 other sources, is a cause of a violation of any NPDES permit
 requirement.
Figure 2. Interference and Pass Through
-2-
                                                                                           Chapter 1

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  Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
     POTWs and the Need for the Pretreatment Program
    Even where the POTW has the capability to remove these toxics, the pollutants may end up in the sewage
sludge, thereby limiting sludge disposal options or escalating the cost of disposal.  Incinerated contaminated
sludge may release toxic emissions into the atmosphere. Toxic metals removed in primary treatment, while
itself not an inhibitory process, can impact sludge digestion, a process that does utilize bacteria to stabilize
sludge solids.  For example, chromium can inhibit reproduction of aerobic digestion microorganisms, thereby
disrupting  sludge treatment  and producing sludges  that must be  disposed of with  special treatment.
Uncontaminated sludge, on the other hand, can be used as fertilizer or soil conditioner, thereby improving the
productivity of our land.  Many municipalities apply sewage sludge to pastureland or parkland, that they could
not do if the sludge were contaminated.

    Volatile organics discharged to sewers can  accumulate in the head  space of sewers, increasing the
likelihood of explosions that can cause significant damage. Probably the most well known impact from industrial
discharges to  POTWs in the  U.S. is the explosion  in Louisville, KY that occurred in 1981 as  the result of
excessive discharges of hexane into the collection system, eventually igniting and destroying more than 3 miles
of sewers and  causing $20 million in damage. Discharge limitations and management practices to control slug
discharges have significantly reduced the likelihood of future catastrophes such as the explosion in Louisville.

    Discharges of toxic organics can also result in the release of poisonous gas. This occurs most often when
acidic wastes react with  other wastes in the discharge.  For example, cyanide and acid, both present in many
electroplating  operations, react to form highly toxic hydrogen  cyanide gas.  Similarly, sulfides  from leather
tanning can combine with acid to form hydrogen sulfide, another toxic gas. These can be highly dangerous to
POTW collection system operators exposed to such conditions in  the performance of their duties.  Other
problems associated with toxic discharges are summarized in Figure 3 and further document the urgency of
keeping toxics out of collection systems and POTWs.
    The National Pretreatment Program is charged with
controlling the 126  Priority Pollutants from industries
that discharge into sewer systems as described in the
CWA (see Figure 4).  These  pollutants fall into two
categories; metals and organics:

    -   Metals, including lead, mercury, chromium, and
        cadmium cannot be destroyed or broken down
        through   treatment   or   environmental
        degradation. Toxic metals can cause different
        human health problems such as lead poisoning
        and cancer.   Additionally,  consumption  of
        contaminated seafood and agricultural food
        crops  has resulted  in exposures exceeding
        recommended safe levels.
-  air pollution can occur from volatilization of toxic
  chemicals in the POTW collection system or
  treatment plant, or through incineration of sewage
  sludge


-  corrosion of collection system and treatment plant
  from acidic discharges or discharges containing
  elevated levels of sulfate (forming toxic and corrosive
  hydrogen sulfide)


-  groundwater pollution can occur from leaks in the
  collection system or pollutants from contaminated
  sewage sludge.
                                                    Figure 3. Problems Associated With Toxic Discharges
    -  Toxic organics, including solvents, pesticides,
       dioxins, and polychlorinated  biphenyls (PCBs) can be  cancer-causing  and lead to  other serious
       ailments, such as kidney and liverdamage, anemia, and heart failure. In 1996, EPA's Office of Science
       and Technology (OST) identified 2,193 waterbodies with fish and wildlife advisories, up more than 25
       percent from 1995.5

    Reductions in pollutants can ensure that industrial development vital to the economic well-being of a
community is compatible with a healthy environment.  As will be noted  in Chapter 2, many POTWs are
responsible for ensuring that industrial and commercial facilities do not cause problems resulting from their
discharges.  In 1991, EPA estimated that 190 to 204 million pounds of metals and 30 to 108 million pounds of
organics were removed each year as a result of pretreatment program requirements.6  This is substantiated by
                EPA Office of Science and Technology, Listing of Fish and Wildlife Advisories (LFWA)
                database, 1998.

                U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Pretreatment Program: Report to
                Congress, 1991.
  Chapter 1
                                                                                                 -3-

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  POTWs and the Need for the Pretreatment Program
                            Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
many POTWs that report significant reductions in the loadings of toxics to their treatment plants that is directly
attributable to implementation of the National Pretreatment Program.
   Figure 4.  Priority Pollutants
     001 Acenaphthene
     002 Acrolein
     003 Acrylonitrile
     004 Benzene
     005 Benzidine
     006 Carbon tetrachloride
     007 Chlorobenzene
     008 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene
     009 Hexachlorobenzene
     010 1,2-dichloroethane
     Oil 1,1,1 -trichloreothane
     012 Hexachloroethane
     013 1,1-dichloroethane
     014 1,1,2-trichloroethane
     015 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane
     016 Chloroethane
     018 Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether
     019 2-chloroethyl vinyl ethers
     020 2-chloronaphthalene
     021 2,4,6-trichlorophenol
     022 Parachlorometa cresol
     023 Chloroform
     024 2-chlorophenol
     025 1,2-dichlorobenzene
     026 1,3-dichlorobenzene
     027 1,4-dichlorobenzene
     028 3,3-dichlorobenzidine
     029 1,1-dichloroethylene
     030 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene
     031 2,4-dichlorophenol
     032 1,2-dichloropropane
     033 1,2-dichloropropylene
     034 2,4-dimethylphenol
     035 2,4-dinitrotoluene
     036 2,6-dinitrotoluene
     037 1,2-diphenylhydrazine
     038 Ethylbenzene
     039 Fluoranthene
     040 4-chlorophenyl phenyl ether
     041 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether
     042 Bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether
     043 Bis(2-chloroethoxy) methane
044 Methylene chloride
045 Methyl chloride
046 Methyl bromide
047 Bromoform
048 Dichlorobromomethane
051 Chlorodibromomethane
052 Hexachlorobutadiene
053 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
054 Isophorone
055 Naphthalene
056 Nitrobenzene
057 2-nitrophenol
058 4-nitrophenol
059 2,4-dinitrophenol
060 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol
061 N-nitrosodimethylamine
062 N-nitrosodiphenylamine
063 N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine
064 Pentachlorophenol
065 Phenol
066 Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
067 Butyl benzyl phthalate
068 Di-N-Butyl Phthalate
069 Di-n-octyl phthalate
070 Diethyl Phthalate
071 Dimethyl phthalate
072 benzo(a) anthracene
073 Benzo(a)pyrene
074 Benzo(b) fluoranthene
075 Benzo(b) fluoranthene
076 Chrysene
077 Acenaphthylene
078 Anthracene
079 Benzo(ghi) perylene
080 Fluorene
081 Phenanthrene
082 Dibenzo(,h) anthracene
083 Indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene
084 Pyrene
085 Tetrachloroethylene
086 Toluene
087 Trichloroethylene
088 Vinyl chloride
089 Aldrin
090 Dieldrin
091 Chlordane
092 4,4-DDT
093 4,4-DDE
094 4,4-DDD
095 Alpha-endosulfan
096 Beta-endosulfan
097 Endosulfan sulfate
098 Endrin
099 Endrin aldehyde
100 Heptachlor
101 Heptachlor epoxide
102Alpha-BHC
103 Beta-BHC
104 Gamma-BHC
105 Delta-BHC
106PCB-1242
107PCB-1254
108PCB-1221
109PCB-1232
110PCB-1248
111PCB-1260
112PCB-1016
113 Toxaphene
114 Antimony
115 Arsenic
116 Asbestos
117 Beryllium
118 Cadmium
119 Chromium
120 Copper
121 Cyanide, Total
122 Lead
123 Mercury
124 Nickel
125 Selenium
126 Silver
127 Thallium
128 Zinc
129 2,3,7,8-TCDD
                                                                                                        Chapter 1

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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
                                                            Overview of the National Pretreatment Program
2.   OVERVIEW       OF      THE        NATIONAL
       PRETREATMENT  PROGRAM
THE CLEAN WATER ACT

    On October 18, 1972, the 92nd
Congress  of the  United  States
passed the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act Amendments of 1972,
declaring  the   restoration  and
maintenance   of  the  chemical,
physical, and biological integrity of
the Nation's water as a National
objective (see Figure 5).   While
procedures for implementing this act (more commonly referred to as the Clean Water Act (CWA))  have
been re-evaluated and modified overtime, the 1972 objective has remained unchanged in its 25 year history.
                                              Chapter 2. Applicable EPA Guidance
                                    Control Authority Pretreatment Audit Checklist and Instructions
                                    Guidance for Conducting a Pretreatment Compliance Inspection
                                    Guidance for Reporting and Evaluating POTW Noncompliance with
                                       Pretreatment Implementation Requirements
                                    Guidance Manual for POTW Pretreatment Program Development
                                    Pretreatment Compliance Inspection and Audit Manual For Approval Authorities
                                    Procedures Manual for Reviewing a POTW Pretreatment Program Submission
    The 1972 Amendments to the CWA established a water quality regulatory approach along with EPA-
promulgated industry-specific technology-based effluent limitations.  The  National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) permit program was established under the CWA to control the discharge of
pollutants  from  point sources  and served as a vehicle to implement the industrial technology-based
standards.  To implement pretreatment requirements,  EPA promulgated 40 CFR Part 128 in late 1973,
establishing general prohibitions against treatment plant interference and pass through and pretreatment
standards  for the  discharge  of  	
incompatible
               pollutants   from
specific industrial categories.

    In 1975, several environmental
groups  filed  suit  against  EPA
challenging  EPA's   criteria  for
identifying toxic pollutants, EPA's
failure  to   promulgate   effluent
standards, and EPA's  failure  to
promulgate pretreatment standards
for numerous industrial categories.
As a  result of this litigation, EPA
promulgated   the   General
Pretreatment Regulations  at  40
CFR Part 403 on June  26,  1978,
replacing the 40  CFR  Part 128
requirements.  Additionally, as a
result of  the suit,  EPA  agreed  to
regulate  the  discharge  of  65
categories of pollutants (making up
the 126 priority pollutants presented
in  Figure 4) from  21  industrial
categories.    The list of priority
pollutants is still in effect today (the
original   list  actually  had  129
pollutants, three of  which  have
since  been removed from that list)
while the list  of regulated industrial
categories has grown to more than 51
provided  in Chapter 3.
                                  To restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the
                                  Nation's waters:

                                  (1)     it is the national goal that the discharge of pollutants into the
                                         navigable waters be eliminated by 1985;
                                  (2)     it is the national goal that wherever attainable, an interim goal of
                                         water quality which provides for the protection and propagation of
                                         fish, shellfish, and wildlife and provides for recreation in and on the
                                         water be achieved by July 1, 1983;
                                  (3)     it is the national policy that the discharge of toxic pollutants in
                                         toxic amounts be prohibited;
                                  (4)     it is the national policy that Federal financial assistance be provided
                                         to construct publicly owned waste treatment works;
                                  (5)     it is the national policy that Area wide waste treatment management
                                         planning processes be developed and implemented to assure
                                         adequate control of sources of pollutants in each State;
                                  (6)     it is the national policy that a major research and demonstration
                                         effort be made to develop technology necessary to eliminate the
                                         discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters, waters of the
                                         contiguous zone, and the oceans; and
                                  (7)     it is the national policy that programs for the control of nonpoint
                                         sources of pollution be developed and implemented in an
                                         expeditious manner so as to enable the goals of this Chapter to be
                                         met through the control of both point and nonpoint sources of
                                         pollution.
                                 Figure 5. Section 101 of the Clean Water Act (CWA)
                                 distinct industries. A discussion of industry specific requirements are
Chapter 2
                                                                                          -5-

-------
Overview of the National Pretreatment Program
                        Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
THE GENERAL PRETREATMENT REGULATIONS

    The General Pretreatment Regulations establish responsibilities of Federal, State, and local government,
industry and the public to implement Pretreatment Standards to control pollutants which pass through or
interfere with POTWtreatment processes or which may contaminate sewage sludge. The regulations, which
have been revised numerous times since originally published in 1978, consist of 18 sections and several
appendices. A copy of the overall framework for the General Pretreatment Regulations is provided in Figure
6.
    The General Pretreatment Regulations apply to all nondomestic sources which introduce pollutants into
a POTW.  These sources of "indirect discharge" are more commonly referred to as industrial users (IDs).
Since IDs can be as simple as an unmanned coin  operated car wash to  as complex as an automobile
manufacturing  plant  or a synthetic
organic  chemical   producer,  EPA
developed  four  criteria that  define  a
Significant Industrial User (SIU). Many
of   the  General   Pretreatment
Regulations apply to SlUs as opposed
to lUs, based on the fact that control of
SlUs  should  provide  adequate
protection of the POTW.
These four criteria are as follows:

    -   an IU that discharges  an
        average of 25,000 gallons
        per day or more of process
        wastewaterto the POTW;

    -   an IU that contributes a
        process  wastestream
        making  up 5  percent  or
        more of the average dry
        weather  hydraulic   or
        organic  capacity of  the
        POTWtreatment plant;

    -   an IU designated by the
        Control Authority as such
        because of its  reasonable
        potential  to  adversely
        affect   the   POTW's
        operation  or  violate any
        pretreatment standard  or
        requirement; or

    -   an IU subject  to  Federal
        categorical  pretreatment
        standards.
  i 403.1
  i 403.2
  1403.3
  i 403.4
  1403.5
  1403.6


  1403.7
  1403.8


  1403.9


  1403.10


  1403.11


  1403.12
  1403.13


  1403.14
  1403.15
  1403.16
  1403.17
  1403.18
Purpose and applicability
Objectives of general pretreatment regulations
Definitions
State or local law
National pretreatment standards: Prohibited discharges
National pretreatment standards: Categorical pretreatment
standards
Removal credits
Pretreatment program requirements: Development and
implementation by POTW
POTW pretreatment programs and/or authorization to revise
pretreatment standards: Submission for approval
Development and submission of NPDES State pretreatment
programs
Approval procedures for POTW pretreatment programs and
POTW granting of removal credits
Reporting requirements for POTW's and industrial users
Variances from categorical pretreatment standards for
fundamentally different factors
Confidentiality
Net/Gross calculation
Upset provision
Bypass
Modification of POTW pretreatment programs
 Appendix A:  Program Guidance Memorandum
 Appendix B:  [Reserved]
 Appendix C:  [Reserved]
 Appendix D:  Selected Industrial Subcategories Considered Dilute for
             Purposes of the Combined Wastestream Formula
 Appendix E:  Sampling Procedures
 Appendix F:  [Reserved]
 Appendix G:  Pollutants Eligible for a Removal Credit
Figure 6.  The General Pretreatment Regulations
    Unlike other environmental programs that rely on  Federal or State governments to implement and
enforce specific requirements, the Pretreatment Program places the majority of the responsibility on local
municipalities. Specifically, section 403.8(a) of the General Pretreatment Regulations states that any POTW
(or combination of treatment plants operated by the same authority) with a total design flow greater than 5
million gallons per day (MGD) and smaller POTWs with  SlUs must establish a local pretreatment program.
As of early 1998,  1,578 POTWs are required to have local programs. While this represents only about 15
percent of the total treatment  plants nationwide, these POTWs account for more than 80 percent  (i.e.,
approximately 30 billion gallons a day) of the national wastewater flow.
-6-
                                                                                          Chapter 2

-------
Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	Overview of the National Pretreatment Program


    The General Pretreatment Regulations define the term "Control Authority" as a POTWthat administers
an approved pretreatment program since it is the entity authorized to control discharges to its system.
Section 403.10(e) provides States authority to implement POTW pretreatment programs in lieu of POTWs.
Five States have elected to assume this responsibility (Vermont, Connecticut, Alabama, Mississippi, and
Nebraska). In these instances, the  State is defined as the Control Authority.

    As described above, all Control Authorities must establish a local pretreatment program to control
discharges from non-domestic sources. These programs must be approved by the "Approval Authority" who
is also responsible for overseeing implementation and enforcement of these programs. As noted in Figure
7 , a total of 44 States/Territories are authorized to implement State NPDES Permit Programs, but only 27
are authorized to be the Pretreatment Program Approval Authority (i.e, those with approved State
pretreatment programs excluding the five §403.10(e) States). In all other States and Territories (including
the 403.10(e) States), EPA is considered to be the Approval Authority.

POTW PRETREATMENT PROGRAMS

    The actual requirement  for a POTW to develop and implement a local pretreatment program is a
condition of its NPDES permit. Once the Approval Authority determines that a POTW needs a pretreatment
program, the POTWs NPDES permit is modified to require development of a local program and submission
of the program to the Approval Authority for review and  approval.   Consistent with  §403.8(f), POTW
pretreatment programs must contain the six minimum elements presented in Figure 8.

    In addition to the six specific elements, pretreatment program submissions must include:

       a statement from the City Solicitor (or the like) declaring the POTW has adequate authority to
       carry out program requirements;
       copies of statutes, ordinances, regulations, agreements, or other authorities the POTW relies
       upon to administerthe pretreatment program including a statement reflecting the endorsement
       or approval of the bodies responsible for supervising and/or funding the program;
       a brief description and organizational chart of the organization administering the program; and
       a description of funding levels and manpower available to implement the program.

    Pretreatment program submissions found to  be complete  proceed to the public notice process, as
described in Chapter 4, Public Participation and POTW Reporting. Upon program approval, the Approval
Authority is responsible for modifying the POTWs NPDES permit to require implementation of the approved
pretreatment program. Once approved, the Approval Authority oversees POTW pretreatment program
implementation via receiving annual reports and conducting periodic audits and inspections. As  of early
1998, of the 1,578 POTWs required to develop pretreatment programs, 97 percent (1,535) have  been
approved.

    The National Pretreatment Program regulates IDs through three types  of regulatory entities:  EPA,
Approval Authorities, and Control  Authorities.  As noted  above, Approval Authorities oversee  Control
Authorities while Control Authorities regulate IDs.  General responsibilities of each of these three regulatory
entities are presented in Figure 9.
Chapter 2                                                                                    -7-

-------
Overview of the National Pretreatment Program
Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
State
Alabama
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virgin Islands
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wvomina
* - Denotes 403
Approved State
NPDES Permit Program
10/19/79
11/01/86
05/14/73
03/27/75
09/26/73
04/01/74
05/01/95
06/28/74
11/28/74
10/23/77
01/01/75
08/10/78
06/28/74
09/30/83
08/27/96
09/05/74
10/17/73
06/30/74
05/01/74
10/30/74
06/10/74
06/12/74
09/19/75
04/13/82
10/28/75
10/19/75
06/13/75
03/11/74
11/19/96
09/26/73
06/30/78
09/17/84
06/10/75
12/30/93
12/28/77
09/14/98
07/07/87
03/11/74
06/30/76
03/31/75
11/14/73
05/10/82
02/04/74
01/30/75
10(e) State Approval
Approved State Pretreatment
Program
10/19/79*
11/01/86
09/22/89
-
06/03/81*
-
05/01/95
03/12/81
08/12/83
-
-
06/03/81
-
09/30/83
08/27/96
09/30/85
04/16/85
07/16/79
05/13/82*
06/03/81
-
09/07/84*
-
04/13/82
-
06/14/82
-
07/27/83
11/19/96
03/12/81
-
09/17/84
04/09/82
12/30/93
08/10/83
09/14/98
07/07/87
03/16/82*
-
04/14/89
09/30/86
05/10/82
12/24/80
—

Figure 7. State Program Approval Status
                                                                                                       Chapter 2

-------
Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	Overview of the National Pretreatment Program
               1.        Legal Authority

               The POTW must operate pursuant to legal authority enforceable in Federal, State or local courts,
               which authorizes or enables the POTW to apply and enforce any pretreatment regulations developed
               pursuant to the CWA. At a minimum, the legal authority must enable the POTW to:
                        I.       deny or condition discharges to the POTW;
                        ii.       require compliance with pretreatment standards and requirements;
                        iii.      control IU discharges through permits, orders, or similar means;
                        iv.      require IU compliance schedules when necessary to meet applicable
                                pretreatment standards and/or requirements and the submission of
                                reports to demonstrate compliance;
                        v.       inspect and monitor lUs;
                        vi.      Obtain remedies for IU noncompliance; and
                        vii.      comply with confidentiality requirements.

               2.        Procedures

               The POTW must develop and implement procedures to ensure compliance with pretreatment
               requirements, including:
                        I.       identify and locate all lUs subject to the pretreatment program;
                        ii.       identify the character and volume of pollutants contributed by such
                                users;
                        iii.      notify users of applicable pretreatment standards and requirements;
                        iv.      receive and analyze reports from lUs;
                        v.       sample and analyze IU discharges and evaluate the need for IU slug
                                control plans;
                        vi.      investigate instances of noncompliance; and
                        vii.      comply with public participation requirements.

               3.        Funding

               The POTW must have sufficient resources and qualified personnel to carry out the authorities and
               procedures specified in its approved pretreatment program.

               4.        Local limits

               The POTW must develop local limits or demonstrate why these limits are not necessary.

               5.        Enforcement Response Plan (ERP)

               The POTW must develop and implement an ERP that contains detailed procedures indicating how the
               POTW will investigate and respond to instances of IU noncompliance.

               6.        List of SIUs

               The POTW must prepare, update, and submit to the Approval Authority a list of all Significant
               Industrial Users (SIUs).
     Figure 8. Six Minimum Pretreatment Program Elements
Chapter 2                                                                                                      -9-

-------
Overview of the National Pretreatment Program
Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
               EPA
                        Headquarters
                        >        Oversees program implementation at all levels
                        >        Develops and modifies regulations for the program
                        >        Develops policies to clarify and further define the program
                        >        Develops technical guidance for program implementation
                        >        Initiates enforcement actions as appropriate
                        Regions
                        >        Fulfill Approval Authority responsibilities for States without
                                 a State pretreatment program
                        >        Oversee State program implementation
                        >        Initiate enforcement actions as appropriate.

               Approval Authorities (EPA Regions and delegated States)
                        >        Notify POTWs of their responsibilities
                        >        Review and approve requests for POTW pretreatment
                                 program approval or modification
                        >        Review requests for site-specific modifications to categorical
                                 pretreatment standards
                        >        Oversee POTW program implementation
                        >        Provide technical guidance to POTWs
                        >        Initiate enforcement actions, against noncompliant POTWs or
                                 industries.

               Control Authorities (POTWs, States, or EPA Regions)
                        >        Develop, implement, and maintain approved pretreatment
                                 program
                        >        Evaluate compliance of regulated lUs
                        >        Initiate enforcement action against industries as appropriate
                        >        Submit reports to Approval Authorities
                        >        Develop local limits (or demonstrate why  they are not
                                 needed)
                        >        Develop and implement enforcement response plan.
               Industrial Users
                                 Comply with applicable pretreatment standards and reporting
                                 requirements.
              Figure 9. Roles and Responsibilities
-10-
                                                                                                         Chapter 2

-------
Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
                                                                               Pretreatment Standards
3.    PRETREATMENT  STANDARDS
    As described in Chapters 3 and
4, the National Pretreatment Program
identifies specific requirements that
apply   to   all   IDs,   additional
requirements that apply to all SILJs,
and  certain requirements that  only
apply to CILJs. The objectives of the
National Pretreatment Program are
achieved by applying and enforcing
three types of discharge standards:

  - prohibited discharge standards
  - categorical standards
  - local limits.

PROHIBITED DISCHARGE
STANDARDS

    All IDs, whether or not subject to
any  other  National,  State, or local
pretreatment   requirements,   are
subject to the general and specific
prohibitions identified in 40  CFR
§§403.5(a)  and  (b),  respectively.
General   prohibitions  forbid  the
discharge of any pollutant(s) to a
POTW that cause pass through or
interference (Figure  10).  Specific
prohibitions forbid eight categories of
pollutant discharges as follows:

    (1)  discharges containing pollutants which create a fire or explosion hazard in the POTW, including
        but not limited to, wastestreams with a closed cup flashpoint of less than 140°F (60°C) using the
       test methods specified in 40 CFR §261.21;
    (2)  discharges containing pollutants causing corrosive structural damage to the POTW, but in no
        case  discharges with  a pH lower than  5.0,  unless the POTW is  specifically  designed to
        accommodate such discharges;
    (3)  discharges containing  pollutants in amounts causing obstruction to the flow in the  POTW
        resulting in interference;
    (4)  discharges of any pollutants released at a flow rate and/or concentration which will cause
        interference with the POTW;
    (5)  discharges of heat in amounts which  will inhibit biological activity in the POTW resulting in
        interference, but in no case heat in such quantities that the temperature at the POTWtreatment
        plant exceeds 40°C(104°F) unless the Approval Authority, upon request of the POTW, approves
        alternative temperature limits;
    (6)  discharges of petroleum oil, nonbiodegradable cutting oil, or products  of mineral oil origin in
        amounts that will cause interference or pass through;
         Chapter 3. Applicable EPA Guidance
Guidance Manual For Implementing Total Toxic Organics (TTO) Pretreatment
    Standards
Guidance Manual for Preparation and Review of Removal Credit Applications
Guidance Manual for Preventing Interference at POTWs
Guidance Manual for the Identification of Hazardous Wastes Delivered to
    Publicly Owned Treatment Works by Truck, Rail, or Dedicated Pipe
Guidance Manual for the Use of Production-Based Pretreatment Standards
    and the Combined Wastestream Formula
Guidance Manual on the Development and Implementation of Local Discharge
    Limitations Under the Pretreatment Program
Guidance to Protect POTW Workers From Toxic And Reactive Gases And
    Vapors
Prelim User's Guide, Documentation for the EPA Computer Program/Model
    for Developing Local Limits for Industrial Pretreatment Programs at
    Publicly Owned Treatment Works
Supplemental Manual On the Development And Implementation of Local
    Discharge Limitations Under The Pretreatment Program: Residential and
    Commercial Toxic Pollutant Loadings And POTW Removal Efficiency
    Estimation

                  Industry-Specific Guides
Aluminum, Copper, And Nonferrous Metals Forming And Metal Powders
    Pretreatment Standards: A Guidance Manual
Guidance Manual For Battery Manufacturing Pretreatment Standards
Guidance Manual for Electroplating and  Metal Finishing  Pretreatment
    Standard
Guidance Manual For Iron And Steel Manufacturing Pretreatment Standards
Guidance Manual for Leather Tanning and Finishing Pretreatment Standards
Guidance Manual for Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard and Builders' Paper and
    Board Mills Pretreatment Standards
Chapter 3
                                                                                             -11-

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Pretreatment Standards	Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program


    (7) discharges  which result  in the
                                             Pass through - A discharge which exits the POTW into waters of
                                             the US in quantities or concentrations which, alone or in
                                             conjunction with a discharge or discharges from other sources, is a
                                             cause of a violation of any requirement of the POTW's NPDES
                                             permit (including an increase in the magnitude or duration of a
                                             violation.

                                             Interference - A discharge which, alone or in conjunction with a
                                             discharge or discharges from other sources, both (1) inhibits or
       presence of toxic gases, vapors,
       or fumes within the  POTW in a
       quantity that may cause acute
       worker  health   and   safety
       problems; and
    (8) discharges  of trucked  or  hauled
       pollutants, except at discharge points
       designated by the POTW.
                                             uiscnaige o

    Compliance with the general and specific    dlsmpts the POTW'lts treatment processes or °Peratlons'or lts
   ......    .       . .     ,   	.["    .     sludge processes, use or disposal; and (2) therefore is a cause of a
prohibitions is mandatory for all ILJs, although     ..,.,,        .     r ,a  T,,-.™^ ^m™^     •+   *•
r ,   ....       .         *     ..    '  ,     .      violation of any requirement of the POTW s NPDES permit or of
a facihty may have an affirmative defense in    ,,       ,•    f       ,  •,        •,•     ,
      •'.•'.     .       .    ....         the prevention of sewage sludge use or disposal.
any  action  brought against it  a egmg  a
violation of the general prohibitions or of  Figure 10.  Interference and Pass Through
certain specific prohibitions [(3), (4), (5),  (6)
and (7) above] where the ID can demonstrate
it did not have reason to know that its discharge, alone or in conjunction with a discharge or discharges from
other sources, would cause pass through or interference, and the ID was in compliance with a technically-
based local limit developed to prevent pass through or interference.

    These prohibited discharge standards are intended to provide general protection for POTWs. However,
their lack of  specific  pollutant  limitations creates the need for additional controls, namely categorical
pretreatment standards and local limits.

CATEGORICAL STANDARDS

    Categorical pretreatment standards (i.e., categorical standards) are national, uniform, technology-based
standards that apply to discharges to POTWs from specific industrial categories (i.e., indirect dischargers)
and limit the discharge of specific pollutants. Categorical jDretreatment standards for both existing and new
sources (PSES and PSNS, respectively) are promulgated by EPA pursuant to Section 307(b) and (c) of the
CWA. Limitations developed for indirect discharges are designed to prevent the discharge of pollutants that
could pass through, interfere with, or otherwise be incompatible with POTW operations. Effluent limitations
guidelines (ELGs), developed in conjunction with categorical standards, limit the discharge from facilities
directly  to waters of the U.S. (i.e., direct dischargers) and do not apply to indirect dischargers.  ELGs
include Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available (BPT), Best Conventional Pollutant Control
Technology (BCT), and Best Available Technology Economically Achievable (BAT) limitations and New
Source Performance Standards (NSPS). ELGs (i.e., BPT, BCT, BAT, and NSPS) do not apply to indirect
dischargers.  The significant difference between categorical standards and effluent limitations guidelines
is that categorical standards account for any pollutant removal that may be afforded through treatment at
the POTW while effluent limitations  guidelines do not.

    Industries identified as major sources of toxic pollutants are typically targeted for effluent guideline and
categorical standard development.  If limits are deemed  necessary,  EPA investigates affected  IDs and
gathers  information regarding process operations and treatment and management practices, accounting for
differences in facility size and age, equipment age, and wastewater characteristics.  Subcategorization within
an industrial category is evaluated based  on variability in processes employed, raw materials used, types
of items produced, and characteristics of wastes generated.  Availability and cost of control technologies,
non-water quality environmental impacts, available pollution prevention measures7, and economic impacts
are then identified prior to  EPA's  presentation  of  findings in  proposed development documents  and
publishing a notice of the proposed regulations in the Federal Register.  Based on public comments on the
proposed rule, EPA promulgates (i.e., publishes) the standards (Figure 11).
       7       EPA's Considerations of Pollution Prevention in EPA's Effluent Guideline Development
               Process may be consulted for more information on this topic.


-12-                                                                                       Chapter 3

-------
Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
                                                                                         Pretreatment Standards
Data
Collection




Regu
Tas
i
atory
ks
r
Proposed
Development
Document
Proposed
Regulations
'

Public
Comment



L_^^
— ^-V. Revisions
^\^


Promulgation of
Final
Regulations
Final
Development
Document
i
>-

    As noted  above,  categorical pretreatment
standards  are  developed  both  for existing
(PSES) and new sources (PSNS).  Facilities are
classified as either PSES or PSNS  based on the
definition  of "new source" set out in 40  CFR
§403.3(k)   of  the   General  Pretreatment
Regulations  (see Figure  12).    Dischargers
subject to  PSES  are required to  comply with
those standards by a specified date, typically no
more than three years afterthe effective date of
the  categorical  standard.  Users subject  to
PSNS,  however, are   required  to  achieve
compliance within the shortest feasible time, not   Figure 11. Development Process of Effluent Guidelines
to exceed 90 days  from  commencement of
discharge. PSNS are often more stringent than
PSES based on the opportunity for new sources to install the best available demonstrated technology and
operate the most  efficient production  processes.
    Congress established  an initial list of
21  categorical  industries  under Section
306 of the CWA of 1972.  As a result of
various  court  decrees  and  settlement
agreements resulting from litigation, and
from  EPA's  internal  work plan  devel-
opment   process,  EPA  has  developed
effluent guidelines (for direct dischargers)
and/or categorical pretreatment standards
(for indirect dischargers) for 51  industrial
categories.  Of these industrial categories,
EPA implements  pretreatment  standards
for  32 categories,  and  either requires
compliance solely with 40 CFR Part 403
General Pretreatment Regulations ordoes
not address pretreatment standards forthe
remaining  categories.  Plans  for EPA's
expansion and  modification of the list is
detailed in the  Effluent Guidelines  Plan,
published   in  the   Federal   Register
biennially as required in section 304(m) of
the  CWA.    A  list  of  the   industrial
categories that have categorical standards
is provided as Figure 13.

    Categorical  pretreatment   standards
developed can be concentration-based or
mass-based.   Concentration-based
standards are expressed as milligrams of
pollutant allowed per liter (mg/l) of wastewater discharged and are issued where  production rates for the
particular industrial category do not necessarily correlate with pollutant discharges. Mass-based standards
are generally  expressed on a mass per unit of production (e.g.,  milligrams of pollutant per kilogram  of
product produced, pounds of pollutant per million cubic feet of air scrubbed, etc.) and are issued where water
conservation is an important component in the limitation development process. For a few categories where
reducing a facility's flow volume does not provide a significant difference in the pollutant load discharged,
EPA has established both mass- and concentration-based standards.  Generally, both a daily maximum
limitation and  a long-term average limitation (e.g., average daily values in a calendar month) are established
for every regulated pollutant.
  New Source is defined at 40 CFR §403.3 (k)(l) to mean any building, structure, facility
  or installation from which there is or may be a discharge of pollutants, the construction of
  which commenced after publication of proposed Pretreatment Standards under Section
  307(c) of the Act which will be applicable to such source if Standards are thereafter
  promulgated in accordance with that section, provided that:
  (i)  the building, structure, facility, or installation is constructed at a site at which no
     other source is located; or
  (ii)  the building, structure, facility, or installation totally replaces the process or
     production equipment that causes the discharge of pollutants at an existing source; or
  (iii) the production or wastewater generating processes of the building, structure, facility
     or installation are substantially independent of an existing source at the same site. In
     determining whether these are substantially independent, factors such as the extent to
     which the new facility is integrated with the existing plant, and the extent to which
     the new facility is engaged in the same general type of activity as the existing source
     should be considered.
  (2)  Construction on a site at which an existing source is located results in a modification
  rather than a new source if the construction does not create a new building, structure,
  facility, or installation meeting the criteria of paragraphs (k)(l)(ii), or (k)(l)(iii) of this
  section but otherwise alters, replaces, or adds to existing process or production
  equipment.
  (3) Construction of a new source as defined under this paragraph has commenced if the
  owner or operator has:
  (i)  begun, or caused to begin as part of a continuous onsite construction program:
  (ii)  any placement, assembly or installation of facilities or equipment, or
  (B)  significant site preparation work, including clearing, excavation, or removal of
     existing buildings, structures, or facilities which is necessary for the placement,
     assembly, or installation of new source facilities or equipment; or
  (ii)  entered into a binding contractual obligation for the purchase of facilities or
     equipment which are intended to be used in its operation within a reasonable time.
     Options to purchase or  contracts which can be terminated or modified without
     substantial loss, and contracts for feasibility, engineering, and design studies do not
     constitute a contractual obligation under this paragraph.
Figure 12. Definition of New Source (40 CFR 403.3(k))
Chapter 3
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Pretreatment Standards
                                                                Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
                   Figure 13.  Summary of Categorical Pretreatment Standards
Category
Aluminum Forming
Battery Manufacturing
Builders' Paper and
Board Mills
Carbon Black
Manufacturing
Coil Coating
Copper Forming
Electrical and Electronic
Components
Electroplating
Feedlots
Fertilizer Manufacturing
Glass Manufacturing
Grain Mills
Ink Formulating
Inorganic Chemicals
Manufacturing
Iron and Steel
Manufacturing
Leather Tanning and
Finishing
Metal Finishing
40CFR
Part
467
461
431
458
465
468
469
413
412
418
426
406
447
415
420
425
433
Subparts
A-F
A-G
A
A-D
A-D
A
A-D
A-B, D-H
B
A-G
H, K-M
A
A
A-BO
A-F, H-J, L
A-l
A
Type of
Standard
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSNS
PSNS
PSNS
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
Overview of Pretreatment Standards
Limits are production-based, daily maximums and monthly averages.
Subpart C prohibits discharges from certain operations.
Limits are production-based, daily maximums and monthly
averages. No discharge is allowed from any process not specifically
dentified in the regulations.
Limits are production-based daily maximums. These facilities may
certify they do not use certain compounds in lieu of performing
nonitoring to demonstrate compliance.
Limits are for Oil & Grease only (no limit duration specified).
Limits are production-based, daily maximums and monthly averages.
Limits are production-based, daily maximums and monthly averages.
Limits are concentration-based, daily maximums and 30 day
averages or monthly averages (varies per subpart and pollutant
Darameter). Certification is allowed in lieu of monitoring for certain
Dollutants when a management plan is approved and implemented.
Limits are concentration-based (or alternative mass-based
equivalents), daily maximums and four consecutive monitoring days
averages. Two sets of limits exist, depending on if facility
discharges more or less than 1 0,000 gallons per day of process
wastewater. Certification is allowed in lieu of monitoring for certain
Dollutants when a management plan is approved and implemented.
Discharge of process wastewater is prohibited, except when there is
an overflow resulting from a chronic or catastrophic rainfall event.
Limits may specify zero discharge of wastewater pollutants (Subpart
A), production-based daily maximums and 30-day averages
(Subparts B-E) or concentration-based (Subparts F-G) with no limit
duration specified.
Limits are either concentration- or production-based, daily
•naximums and monthly averages.
Discharge of process wastewater is prohibited at a flow rate or mass
oading rate which is excessive over any time period during the peak
oad at a POTW.
Regulations specify no discharge of process wastewater pollutants
to the POTW.
Limits vary for each subpart with a majority of the limits
concentration-based, daily maximums and 30-day averages, or may
specify no discharge of wastewater pollutants. Numerous subparts
nave no pretreatment standards.
Limits are production-based, daily maximums and 30 day averages.
Limits are concentration-based, daily maximums and monthly
averages. In certain instances, production volume dictates
applicable pretreatment standards.
Limits are concentration-based, daily maximums and monthly
averages. Certification is allowed for certain pollutants where a
•nanagement plan is approved and implemented.
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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
                                                                                   Pretreatment Standards
                   Figure 13.  Summary of Categorical Pretreatment Standards
Category
Metal Molding and
Casting
Nonferrous Metals
Forming and Metal
Powders
Nonferrous Metals
Manufacturing
Organic Chemicals,
Plastics, and Synthetic
Fibers
Paint Formulating
Paving and Roofing
Materials (Tars and
Asphalt)
Pesticide Chemicals
Petroleum Refining
Pharmaceutical
Manufacturing
Porcelain Enameling
Pulp, Paper, and
Paperboard
Rubber Manufacturing
Soap and Detergent
Manufacturing
Steam Electric Power
Generating
Timber Products
Processing
40CFR
Part
464
471
421
414
446
443
455
419
439
466
430
428
417
423
429
Subparts
A-D
A-J
B-AE
B-H, K
A
A-D
A, C, E
A-E
A-D
A-D
A-G, I-L
E-K
O-R
N/A
F-H
Type of
Standard
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSNS
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSNS
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
PSES
PSNS
Overview of Pretreatment Standards
Limits are primarily production-based, daily maximums and monthly
averages. Discharges from certain processes are prohibited
(Subparts A-C).
Jmits are production-based, daily maximums and monthly averages.
In some instances, the regulations prohibit the discharge of
wastewater pollutants.
Jmits are production-based, daily maximums and monthly averages.
The majority of the Subparts have both existing and new source
imits, with others having solely new source requirements.
Limits are mass-based (concentration-based standards multiplied by
Drocess flow), daily maximums and monthly averages. Standards
br metals and cyanide apply only to metal- or cyanide-bearing
wastestreams.
Regulations specify no discharge of process wastewater pollutants
to the POTW.
Limits are for Oil & Grease only (no limit duration specified).
Limits are mass-based (concentration-based standards multiplied by
Drocess flow), daily maximums and monthly averages. Subpart C
specifies no discharge of process wastewater pollutants but provides
for pollution prevention alternatives. Subpart E specifies no
discharge of process wastewater pollutants.
Limits are concentration-based (or mass based equivalent), daily
•naximums.
Limits are concentration-based, daily maximums and monthly
averages. These facilities may certify they do not use or generate
cyanide in lieu of performing monitoring to demonstrate compliance.
Limits are concentration-based (or alternative production-based),
daily maximums and monthly averages. Subpart B prohibits
discharges certain operations.
Jmits are production-based daily maximums and monthly averages.
These facilities may certify they do not use certain compounds in
ieu of performing monitoring to demonstrate compliance. Facilities
subject to Subparts B and E must also implement Best Management
Practices as identified.
Limits are concentration- or production-based, daily maximums and
nonthly averages.
Regulations specify no discharge of process wastewater pollutants
to the POTW.
Jmits are either concentration-based, daily maximums, or
'maximums for any time", or compliance can be demonstrated
through engineering calculations.
All PSNS (and PSES for Subpart F) prohibit the discharge of
wastewater pollutants. PSES for Subparts G and H are
concentration-based, daily maximums (with production-based
alternatives).
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Pretreatment Standards
                                                            Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
    Categorical standards apply to regulated wastewaters, i.e. wastewater from an industrial process that
is regulated for a particular pollutant by a categorical pretreatment standard.  Therefore, demonstrating
compliance  with  categorical  pretreatment standards  is intended to be  based  on measurements  of
wastestreams containing only the regulated process wastewater. However, recognizing isolation of regulated
wastestreams from nonregulated wastestreams was not always practicable nor desirable, EPA developed
the combined wastestream formula  (CWF)  and flow
weighted  average (FWA)  approach  for determining
compliance with combined wastestreams.
    Pursuant to  40  CFR  §403.6(e),  the  CWF  is
applicable where a regulated wastestream combines with
one or more unregulated or dilute wastestreams (Figure
14)   prior   to   treatment.     Where  nonregulated
wastestreams  combine with  process streams  after
pretreatment, the  more stringent approach (whether
CWF or  FWA) is used to adjust the  limits8 (Figure 15).
The CWF and FWA approaches differ primarily in their
allowances for nonregulated wastestreams. While the
CWF provides a "full credit" (i.e., same pollutant levels
as   regulated    wastestreams)   for   unregulated
wastestreams yet no credit for dilute  wastestreams, the
FWA requires sampling and analysis of the untreated,
nonregulated wastestreams to determine the credit to be
granted (not to  exceed that allowed for the regulated
wastestreams).
    Regulated
                                                                      Unregulated
Dilute
                  Monitoring^ _
                   location  J
                                                                                         CWF
Figure 14. Combined Wastestream Formula
                                                               Regulated      Unregulated
                                                         Unregulated
                                Dilute
    Application of the CWF and FWA requires proper identification, classification, and quantification of the
three wastestream types (Figure 16.)  Note: in circumstances where boiler blowdown, noncontact cooling
water,  stormwater,   or  demineralized wastestreams
contain a significant amount of a regulated pollutant, and
the treatment of the wastewater  with the  regulated
wastestream  results in  substantial reduction of the
regulated pollutant, the Control Authority can classify the
wastestream  as unregulated rather than  as a dilute
wastestream.    Clarification   on  category-specific
wastestream   classifications  may  be  provided  by
consulting the applicable regulation(s) and associated
development documents, since wastestream  types are
addressed  in  the effluent  guideline  and  categorical
standard development process.   When in doubt, the
Control Authority can always require the CIU to monitor
the wastestream(s) in question to quantify the presence
(or lack thereof) of  categorically regulated pollutants.
Reasonably accurate flow data must also be obtained for
each wastestream type flowing through the monitoring
point to ensure categorical pretreatment standards are
adjusted accordingly. Proper application of the CWF or
FWA will result in:
                                                     Figure 15. CWF vs. FWA
       alternative limits being established for each regulated pollutant in each regulated processes;
       both daily maximum and long-term average (i.e., 4-day, 30-day, or monthly) alternative limits
       being calculated for each regulated pollutant;
               Where commingled wastestreams combine with nonregulated wastestreams after
               treatment, the CWF adjusted limitations are further adjusted by use of the CWF or FWA to
               address the untreated, nonregulated wastestreams (Figure 17.)  For more detailed
               discussion of FWA, see Federal Register preamble language, 51 FR 21454 (June 12,1986).
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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
                                                                               Pretreatment Standards
    -   4-day average limits being adjusted to equivalent monthly average limits when two or more
        categorical pretreatment standards apply to the facility and one of the applicable standards is
        40 CFR Part 413; and
    -   calculated alternative limits remaining  above the analytical detection limit for that pollutant.
        NOTE: If adjusted limit(s)  are below the detection limit, the Control Authority shall instruct the
        ID to either:

           separate the dilute wastestreams from the regulated wastestreams prior to the combined
           treatment facility, or
           segregate all wastestreams entirely.

EPA's Guidance Manual for the Use  of Production Based Pretreatment  Standards  and the Combined
Wastestream Formula should be consulted for more information on the proper application and adjustment
of categorical pretreatment standards.

Regulated
Wastewaterfroman
industrial process that is
regulated for a particular
pollutant by a categorical
pretreatment standard

Nonregulated
Unregulated
Wastestreams from an industrial process that are not regulated for a
particular pollutant by a categorical pretreatment standard and are not
defined as a dilute wastestream, e.g.:
• a process wastestream for which categorical standards
have been promulgated but for which the deadline for
compliance has not yet been reached
• a process wastestream that currently is not subject to
categorical pretreatment standards
• a process wastestream that is not regulated for the pollutant
in question but is regulated for other pollutants.
Dilute
Wastestreams which have no more than trace or
non-detectable amounts of the regulated pollutant.
Defined in 40 CFR § 403.6(e)(1) of the General
Pretreatment Regulations to include sanitary wastestreams,
demineralized backwash streams, boiler blowdown,
noncontact cooling water, storm water, and process
wastestreams from certain standards based on the findings
that these wastewaters contained none of the regulated
pollutant or only trace amounts of it.

Figure 16. Wastestream Types
    Although categorical standards are established based on a particular industrial category, EPA provides
several options for unique circumstances that justify adjustment of categorical standards for an individual
facility:
    Removal Credits   40 CFR §403.7 details the
    conditions by  which a Control Authority may
    demonstrate consistent removal  of pollutants
    regulated  by  categorical standards  at their
    POTW, and in so  doing, may extend removal
    credits to industries on a pollutant-specific basis
    to  prevent  redundant  treatment.   Removal
    credits  are  available  for  a  pollutant  if the
    pollutant is regulated by the sewage sludge use
    or  disposal  option employed by the  POTW
    making the application request, or if the pollutant
    is listed in 40 CFR  Part 403, Appendix G. Also,
    the availability  of removal credits is not limited to
    Appendix G  pollutants for POTWs that dispose
    of  sewage  sludge in municipal solid  waste
    landfills.  Steps for developing such a request
    are detailed  in EPA's  Guidance Manual for the
    Preparation  and  Review of Removal  Credit
    Applications.
                                                         Regulated
    Unregulated
                  Unregulated
Dilute
Figure 17. Multiple use of the CWF/FWA
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Pretreatment Standards
                                                            Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
    Fundamentally Different Factors Variance Section 301 (n) of the CWA authorizes adjustments of
    categorical pretreatment standards for existing sources who demonstrate they have factors which
    are fundamentally different from the factors EPA considered during standards development (40 CFR
    §403.13). Variance requests must be based solely on information and data submitted during the
    development of the categorical standards (Figure 18) and the adjusted effluent limitations must
    neither be more nor less stringent than  justified  by  the fundamental difference nor result in  a
    nonwater quality environmental impact markedly more adverse than the impact considered by EPA
    when developing the categorical standard.

    Successful requests must detail factors well outside the range considered by EPA in establishing the
    standard and not merely factors deviating from the average. Further, differences must not be similar
    to a significant number of other facilities in  the category. A facility must request a variance in writing
    no later than 180 days after publication  of a categorical Pretreatment Standard  in the Federal
    Register.
            Figure 18.  Factors to Consider for an FDF Variance Request
    Net/Gross Adjustment   Categorical pretreatment standards can be adjusted to reflect the presence of
    pollutants in a ClU's intake waters (40 CFR §403.15). To obtain a net/gross credit, the CIU must submit
    a formal written request to the Control Authority that demonstrates:

        -   its intake water is drawn from the same body of water that the POTW discharges into (this
           can be waived if the Control Authority finds no environmental degradation will result);
        -   the pollutants present in the intake water will not be entirely removed by the treatment
           system operated by the CIU; and
        -   the pollutants in the intake water do not vary chemically or biologically from the pollutants
           limited by the applicable standard.

    Inherent in this provision is the requirement that the CIU employ a treatment technology capable of
    meeting the categorical pretreatment standard(s). Net/gross adjustments should not be granted to
    ClUs that have no treatment.  Further, credits are only granted to the extent necessary to meet the
    applicable standard(s), up to a maximum value equal to the influent value.
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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	Pretreatment Standards


    Innovative Technology In accordance with 307(e) of the CWA, existing CILJs choosing to install an
    innovative treatment system may receive approval from the Control Authority for up to a two year
    extension to their applicable categorical pretreatment standards compliance deadline,  provided:

        -   the innovative treatment has a reasonable potential to result in significantly greater pollutant
           removal  or  equivalent removal  at  a  substantially lower  cost than the technologies
           considered by EPA when developing the categorical standard;
        -   the innovative technique has the potential for industry-wide application; and
        -   the proposed compliance extension will  not cause or contribute to  the violation  of the
           POTWs NPDES permit.

    While policy has been established for universal categorical variance requests, occasionally, a Control
Authority  may merely need  assistance to classify a CIU  and/or to determine applicable  categorical
limitations. Provisions in the  General Pretreatment Regulations allow POTWs and IDs to request an EPA
category determination for a specific ID within 60 days after the effective date of the standard in question
[40 CFR §403.6(a)]. Even afterthe formal timeframe for requesting a categorical determination, EPA (and
states) will assist POTWs and IDs with categorization issues.  Such  requests,  however, do not affect
applicable reporting  requirements,  including timely requests submitted  under 40 CFR §403.6(a).
Additionally,  EPA  has  addressed  universal CIU questions posed  by Control Authorities in various
memoranda and guidance:

    Research and  Development (R&D) Facilities  Unless specifically addressed in the  categorical
    regulation or associated development document, R&D facilities where there is no  commercial sale
    of products from the facility, are not subject to categorical standards.9 Should an R&D facility need
    pollution controls to comply with prohibited discharge standards and/or local limits, the development
    documents may serve as guidance on the performance of pollution control technologies.

    Certification Statements  In lieu of requiring self-monitoring, some standards allow ClUs to certify
    that they do not use, generate or discharge a regulated pollutant [e.g. Pulp, Paper and Paperboard
    facilities can  certify  that chlorophenolic compounds are not used (40 CFR Part 430)  and
    Pharmaceutical Manufacturing facilities can certify that cyanide is not used or generated (40 CFR
    Part 439)]. Facilities providing such certifications are still considered ClUs, and therefore are subject
    to other pretreatment standards and requirements.

    Lack of specific categorical effluent limitations  lUs subject to PSES or PSNS that merely require
    compliance with 40 CFR Part 403 are not considered ClUs.  However, these users may still be
    classified  as SlUs and are still subject to the general and specific prohibitions  and any  local limits.

    Total Toxic Organics (TTO)  Seven categorical regulations currently limit the  discharge of TTO:

        -   40 CFR Part 413 - Electroplating
        -   40 CFR Part 433 - Metal Finishing
        -   40 CFR Part 464 - Metal Molding  and Casting
        -   40 CFR Part 465 - Coil Coating
        -   40 CFR Part 467 - Aluminum Forming
        -   40 CFR Part 468 - Copper Forming
        -   40 CFR Part 469 - Electrical and Electronic Components (Phase I and II)

    For each of these standards, TTO refers to the sum of the masses or concentrations of certain toxic
    organic pollutants found in the regulated discharge at a concentration greater than 0.01 milligrams
    per liter (mg/l).  However,  the toxic organic pollutants regulated by the TTO limit are specific to each
    industrial  category.  Further, industrial categories may  provide some flexibility with regard to
    monitoring and/or reporting requirements as follows:
       9       June 26, 1987 letter from Ms. Rebecca W. Hanmer, Deputy Assistant Administrator for
               Water.


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Pretreatment Standards
                                                             Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
        -   40 CFR Parts 413 and 433 allow development and implementation of a Toxic Organic
           Management Plan (TOMP)  in lieu of routine monitoring while 40 CFR Part 469 allows
           development and implementation of a Solvent Management Plan. Upon approval of
           these plans by the Control Authority, the CIU can demonstrate compliance with TTO
           requirements by certifying that the facility is adhering to this Plan to prevent organics
           from being discharged to the POTW.  A specific certification statement must be signed
           and provided to the Control Authority on a regular basis.

        -   40 CFR Parts 464, 465, 467, and 468 allow an option to demonstrate compliance with
           an Oil and Grease limit in  lieu of demonstrating compliance with a TTO limit. The
           option chosen by the CIU must be utilized for all reports required (i.e., BMR, 90-day
           compliance report, and periodic compliance reports).

    EPA's Guidance Manual for Implementing Total  Toxic Organics (TTO) Pretreatment Standards
    should be consulted for more information on TTO.
LOCAL LIMITS

    Prohibited discharge standards are designed to protect against pass-through and interference generally.
Categorical  pretreatment standards, on the  other hand,  are  designed to ensure that lUs implement
technology-based controls to limit the discharge of pollutants.  Local limits, however, address the specific
needs and concerns of a POTW and its receiving waters.  Federal regulations at 40 CFR §§403.8(f)(4) and
122.21 (j)(4) require Control Authorities to evaluate the need for local limits and, if necessary, implement and
enforce specific limits as part of pretreatment  program activities.

    Local limits are developed for pollutants (e.g. metals, cyanide, BOD5, TSS, oil and grease, organics) that
may cause interference, pass through, sludge contamination, and/or worker health and safety problems if
discharged in excess of the receiving POTW treatment plant's capabilities and/or receiving water quality
standards. Typically, local limits are developed to regulate the discharge from all lUs, not just to  ClUs, and
are usually imposed at the "end-of-pipe" discharge from an IU (i.e., at the point of connection to the POTWs
collection system).  In evaluating the need for local limit development, it is recommended that Control
Authorities:
    conduct an industrial waste survey to identify
    all  lUs  that   might   be  subject   to  the
    pretreatment program;
    determine  the  character  and  volume  of
    pollutants contributed to the POTW by these
    industries;
    determine which pollutants have a reasonable
    potential for pass through, interference,  or
    sludge contamination;
    conduct a technical evaluation to determine
    the  maximum  allowable  POTW treatment
    plant headworks (influent) loading  for at least
    arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide,
    lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc (Figure
    19);
    identify additional  pollutants of concern;
    determine contributions from unpermitted sources to determine the maximum allowable treatment plant
    headworks loading from "controllable" industrial sources (Figure 20);
    implement a system to ensure these loadings will not be exceeded.
 Maximum Allowable Headworks Loading Method
 (MAHL)  Pollutant by pollutant, treatment plant data are
 used to calculate removal efficiencies, before applying the
 most stringent criteria (i.e., water quality, sludge quality,
 NPDES permit, or pollutant inhibition levels) to back
 calculate the MAHLs. Subtracting out contributions from
 domestic sources, the available industrial loading is then
 either evenly distributed among the lUs, or allocated on an
 as needed basis to those lUs discharging the pollutant
 above background levels.
Figure 19. MAHL
Other local limit approaches available to Control
Authorities include:

    Collection System Approach  Pollutants found
    to  be present  which  may  cause  fire  and
  Maximum Allowable Industrial Load (MAIL) The
  MAIL is the total daily mass that a POTW can accept from
  all permitted lUs and ensure the POTW is protecting
  against pass through and interference.
                                                Figure 20. MAIL
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Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	Pretreatment Standards


    explosion hazards or other worker health and safety concerns, are evaluated for their propensity to
    volatilize and are modeled to evaluate their expected concentration in air. Comparisons are made with
    worker health exposure criteria and lower explosive limits.  Where values are of concern, the Control
    Authority  may set limits  or  require development  of management  practices to  control  undesirable
    discharges. The collection system approach may also considerthe prohibition of pollutants with specific
    flashpoints to prevent discharges of ignitable wastes. EPA's Guidance to Protect POTW Workers from
    Toxic and Reactive Gases and Vapors details strategies for developing such local limits.

    Industrial User Management Practice Plans These plans typically consist of narrative local limits
    requiring  IDs to develop management practices  (e.g., chemical management practices,  best
    management practices, and spill prevention plans) for the handling of chemicals and wastes. The
    need for and suggested contents of such plans may be found in EPA's Control of Slug Loadings to
    POTWs: Guidance Manual, and Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Information
    Guide.

    Case-by-Case Discharge  Limits  These  numeric local limits are  based  on best  professional
    judgement (BPJ) and available pollution prevention and treatment technologies which are known
    to be economically feasible. This approach is most often used when  insufficient data are available
    to employ the methods outlined above.

    Local Specific  Prohibitions   POTW specific  prohibitions may be imposed in  addition to  the
    prohibitions detailed  in 40 CFR § 403.5 (a) &  (b) to address hydraulic, pollutant specific, and/or
    aesthetic concerns; e.g.:

        -   noxious  or malodorous liquids, gases, or solids creating a public nuisance
        -   wastestreams which impart color and pass through the POTW treatment plant
        -   storm water,  roof runoff, swimming pool drainage
        -   wastewaters  containing  radioactive wastes or isotopes
        -   removed substances from pretreatment of wastewater.

Regardless of the approaches taken by a Control Authority, local limits should correct existing problems,
prevent potential problems, protect the receiving waters, improve sludge use options, and protect POTW
personnel. Additional existing EPA guidance on the subject includes:

    -    Guidance for Preventing Interference at POTWs
    -    Guidance Manual on the Development and Implementation of Local Discharge Limitations Under
        the Pretreatment Program
    -    Supplemental Manual on the Development and Implementation of Local Discharge Limitations
        Under the Pretreatment Program: Residential and Commercial  Toxic Pollutant Loadings and
        POTW Removal  Efficiency Estimation
    -    Toxicity Identification Evaluation: Characterization of Chronically Toxic Effluents.

Additionally, many EPA Regions and States have developed local limits guidance to address regional and
state issues.
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Pretreatment Standards
                                                                                  Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
SUMMARY OF STANDARDS
     A summary of all of the pretreatment standards, including general and specific prohibitions, categorical
pretreatment standards, and local limits, is provided as Figure 21.
                     General and Specific Prohibitions
                                  Categorical Pretreatment Standards
                                                                                                      Local Limits
      Oevelopment
                     established at the Federal level
                                                    Established at the Federal level
                                                                      Developed by Control Authorities
      Reference
                     K) CFR 403.5(a) & (b)
                                                    40 CFR Parts 405-471
                                                                      Requirements for development found in
                                                                      40 CFR §§403.5(c) & 403.8(f)(4)
      Applicability
                       1 lUs
                                                    CIUs
                                                                      Commonly all lUs or all SIUs, but
                                                                      depends on allocation method used
                                                                      when developing limits.
      Purpose
-"rovide for general protection of the
'OTW.  May be superseded by
nore stringent categorical
)retreatment standards or local
imits.
Minimum standards based on available
treatment technology and pollution prevention
measures for controlling nonconventional and
toxic pollutants that may cause pass through,
interference, etc. at the POTW.  May be
superseded by more stringent local limits.
Provide site specific protection for a
POTW and its receiving waters. May
be superseded by more stringent
categorical standards.
      411 standards are considered pretreatment standards for the purpose of section 307(d) of the Clean Water Act.  A POTW is responsible for
      identifying standard(s) applicable to each industrial user and applying the most stringent requirements where multiple provisions exist. Compliance
      with imposed standards can be achieved through implementation of best management practices, development of a pollution prevention program,
      and/or installation of pretreatment.	
     Figure 21.  Summary of Standards
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 Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
                                                          POTW Pretreatment Program Responsibilities
4.   POTW      PRETREATMENT     PROGRAM
       RESPONSIBILITIES
                                            Chapter 4. Applicable EPA Guidance
                                  CERCLA Site Discharges to POTWs Guidance Manual
                                  Control of Slug  Loadings To POTWs: Guidance Manual
                                  Guidance For Developing Control Authority Enforcement Response
                                     Plans
                                  Guidance Manual for POTWs to Calculate the Economic Benefit of
                                     Noncompliance
                                  Industrial User Inspection and Sampling Manual For POTWs
                                  Industrial User Permitting Guidance Manual
                                  Model Pretreatment Ordinance
                                  Multijurisdictional Pretreatment Programs: Guidance Manual
                                  NPDES Compliance Inspection Manual
                                  POTW Sludge Sampling and Analysis Guidance Document
                                  Pretreatment Compliance Monitoring and Enforcement Guidance
                                  RCRA Information on Hazardous Wastes for Publicly Owned
                                     Treatment Works
                                  U.S. EPA Pretreatment Compliance Monitoring and Enforcement
                                     System: Version 3.0, User's Guide
   Chapter 2 describes the basis
for POTWs to develop pretreatment
programs that implement  Federal
pretreatment  standards   and
requirements,  in  addition  to
protecting any local concerns.  This
Chapter provides  an overview of
these POTW programs, highlighting
each of the specific program areas
that are to be addressed.

LEGAL AUTHORITY

   As  discussed  in  Chapter 2,
POTWs  seeking  pretreatment
program  approval must  develop
policy and procedures for  program
implementation  and establish the
legal authority to implement and
enforce program requirements. The
General Pretreatment Regulations do not provide Control Authorities with the legal authority to carry out their
pretreatment programs; rather the regulations do set  forth the minimum requirements for POTWs with
pretreatment programs.

   A Control Authority's legal authority actually derives from State law. Therefore, State law must confer the
minimum Federal  legal authority requirements on a Control Authority.  Where deficient, State  law must be
modified to grant the minimum requirements.

   In order to apply regulatory authority provided by State law, it is generally necessary for the Control
Authority to establish local regulations to legally implement and enforce pretreatment requirements.  Where the
Control Authority is a municipality, legal  authority is detailed in a Sewer Use Ordinance (SUO), which is usually
part of city or county code. Regional Control Authorities frequently adopt similar provisions in the form of "rules
and regulations." Likewise, State agencies implementing a State-wide program under 40 CFR §403.10(e) set
out pretreatment requirements as State  regulations, rather than as an SUO. [Local regulations cannot give the
Control Authority greater authority than that
provided by State law.] EPA's 1992 guidance,
EPA Model Pretreatment Ordinance provides
a model for POTWs that are required to
develop pretreatment programs.

   As  POTW service areas  expand,  new
contributions   may   arise   from
"extrajurisdictional" lUs located outside of the
Control Authority's  legal  jurisdiction  (see
Figure 22).  Multijurisdictional arrangements
require special legal/contractual mechanisms
to ensure adequate authority  to implement
and enforce program requirements in these
other jurisdictions.  Some state statutes may
provide for general extraterritorial  powers
(i.e.,  a Control Authority  is  automatically
allowed to  regulate extrajurisdictional lUs
                                                City A
CityB
                                                POTW
                                       Figure 22. Multijurisdictional Programs
 Chapter 4
                                                                                      -23-

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  POTW Pretreatment Program Responsibilities	Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program

contributing to their system). However, the extent to which authorities (i.e., to permit, inspect, enforce, monitor,
etc.) are granted may be somewhat limited, thereby, restricting a Control Authority's ability to implement and
enforce a program. Where obtaining authority from the State to regulate extrajurisdictional  IDs is not feasible,
other options may be pursued:

       Districts The creation of an independent organization (by affected municipalities orthe State) which
       is authorized to administer and enforce an approved pretreatment program for the entire area in
       which it provides services  is common in  areas where  multiple POTWs each  serve  various
       jurisdictions.

       Agreements  Affected Control Authorities may opt  to enter  into agreements  requiring  each
       municipality to implement and enforce the approved pretreatment program covering all IDs within
       their jurisdiction.  The Control Authority must retain the means to regulate extrajurisdictional IDs
       where the contributing jurisdiction's efforts are inadequate.  It is  essential that agreements clearly
       define the roles of each party.

       Annexation Where extrajurisdictional IDs lie in unincorporated areas, a Control  Authority may
       annex or utility annex the service area.

       Contracts A Control Authority may enter into a contract with an extrajurisdictional ID, although
       contracts generally limit the enforcement capabilities of the Control Authority. As such, contracts
       should only be pursued when all other means fail.

    Since procedures for obtaining jurisdiction, creating sanitary districts,  annexing service areas, etc. vary
among states, Control Authority personnel should consult with their legal staff to thoroughly examine options
allowed.  This may include requesting State legislative changes if necessary. EPA's 1994 Multijurisdictional
Pretreatment Programs - Guidance Manual provides more information on these jurisdictional issues, including
sample language for agreements and contracts.

INDUSTRIAL WASTE SURVEYS

    As part of program development and maintenance, the Federal regulations [40 CFR §403.8(f)(2)(l)] require
Control Authorities to identify and locate all lUs that might be subject to the pretreatment program.  While the
General Pretreatment Regulations do not specify how a Control Authority is to accomplish  this, it is  beneficial
to conduct an initial in-depth survey, then institute measures to  update the list continuously.  Control Authorities
must ensure that the entire service area is reviewed.  This may include lUs located outside the jurisdictional
boundaries of the POTW. In these instances, it may be appropriate to solicit assistance from other jurisdictions
in developing the list of potential dischargers. The types of resources that may be consulted in compiling and
updating the master list include:

       Water and sewer billing records
       Applications for sewer service
       Local telephone directories
       Chamber of Commerce and local business directories
       Business license records
       POTW and  wastewater collection personnel and field  observations
       Business associations
       Internet

    Once lUs are  identified, the  Control Authority must classify  these users to determine  if pretreatment
standards and requirements  should apply to these facilities.  Typically, the Control Authority develops and
distributes  an Industrial Waste Survey (IWS) questionnaire  to the identified lUs.  The  IWS questionnaire
requests information regarding IU activities and the nature of wastes discharged. The Control Authority may
opt to send a detailed IWS questionnaire initially or conduct the survey in two phases  (i.e., send a screener
requesting  basic information to eliminate obvious facilities and  then send a detailed IWS to those facilities with
greater potential to be SlUs).  Key to the IWS is to identify facilities that are subject to  categorical standards
(i.e., ClUs)  or otherwise have the potential to impact the POTW (i.e., SlUs).
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 Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	POTW Pretreatment Program Responsibilities


    A POTW's ID inventory should include the name, location, classification, applicable standards, basis for
limits imposed,  volume of discharge,  control mechanism status, compliance  dates and  other  special
requirements for each ID. The IWS should provide most of the information required to develop the inventory,
although some supplementary information might be required from othersources, such as the permit application
or monitoring data.

    The  ID inventory must be updated as  needed [40 CFR §403.8(f)(2)(l)] and provided to the Approval
Authority as part of the annual report requirement (see POTW Reports section in this Chapter). The on-going
task of maintaining a complete list of IDs requires the Control Authority to implement a system to track existing
ID information  and/or classification  changes  and new user information.  Some Control Authorities may
proactively opt to institute a "utility connect  questionnaire" program. These types of forms are completed when
a customer applies for new utility service (e.g., water, sewerage, or electricity).

PERMITTING

    The General Pretreatment Regulations require all IDs be controlled through permit, order, orsimilar means
to  ensure compliance with applicable pretreatment standards and requirements. Section 403.8(f)(1)(iii)(A-E)
clarifies this requirement to specify that all SILJs be issued a permit or equivalent individual control mechanism
which contains, at a minimum:

    -   statement of duration (not to exceed five years);
    -   statement of nontransferabililty (unless outlined provisions are met);
    -   effluent limitations based on applicable standards;
    -   self-monitoring, sampling, reporting,  notification, and record keeping requirements;
    -   statement of applicable civil and criminal penalties; and
    -   a schedule of compliance (where appropriate).

    EPA's 1989 Industrial User Permitting Guidance Manua/details procedures fordrafting ID discharge permits.
SIU permits issued are site specific and tailored to the unique circumstances of the ID. Permit conditions must
establish clear and explicit requirements for the permittee, to include using such terms such  as "shall" and
"must" in lieu of vague terms such as "recommend" or "may". The Control Authority must document its decision-
making  process when developing permits to ensure defensibility  and  enforceability.  Adherence to sound,
documented procedures will prevent any arbitrary and capricious claims by the permittee. Whether developing
or reissuing a permit, the permitting process  consists of three phases:

    -   Phase I - Collection and verification  of information
        -   Phase II - Data interpretation and fact sheet development
           -   Phase III - Permit development and  issuance.

    As part of Phase I, Control Authorities may review and verify information contained in  the permit application,
perform an inspection of the ID for confirmation of facts, tally data, and potentially sample and analyze the ILJ's
wastestream. Knowledgeable Control Authority personnel, effective communication, and SIU cooperation are
essential to collection of complete and accurate information.

    Phase II requires that the Control Authority interpret data and  other information and document the permit
decision-making rationale, preferably in a permit fact sheet. Although the contents of a fact sheet will vary by
permittee, fact sheets should provide a justification of all permitting decisions.  Typical components of a fact
sheet are provided in Figure 23.  Completed fact sheets  should be included as part of the permit and provided
to  the Permittee to document the soundness of permitting decisions.
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  POTW Pretreatment Program Responsibilities
            Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
    After all permitting decisions are made, the Control
Authority  must  incorporate  those decisions  into  a
permit.  The permit,  signed  by the specified Control
Authority  official  is  provided to the  Permittee for
comment and after comments are addressed, a final
permit is issued to the ID. While many comments may
be easily addressed/resolved  by the Control Authority,
occasionally resolution must be obtained through  a
formal adjudicatory  hearing  process where both the
Permittee and Control Authority present their case to a
third party.

    Many POTWs also control contributions from non-
SILJs using  various means, such as  through general
permits issued to an entire industrial sector.  These
types of  control  mechanisms  may  not necessarily
require compliance with specific pollutant limitations.
For example:

-   grease  trap   maintenance  and  record keeping
    requirements for food establishments;
  For CIUs:
  • the basis for the categorical determination(s)

  • the identity and flow volume of all wastestreams
    generated and discharged to the POTW, and classified
    accordingly (i.e., regulated, unregulated, or dilution)

  • data used and/or justification for estimates used to
    determine categorical limitations

  • basis for limits imposed for categorical parameters.

  For SIUs/CIUs:
  • basis for limits imposed for non-categorical parameters

  • rationale for compliance schedules, special plans
    required, special  conditions, etc.

  • basis for monitoring and reporting frequencies.
 Figure 23. Components of Permit Fact Sheet
-   maintenance and record keeping requirements for photo processors' silver reclamation units;

-   best management practices for mercury recovery by hospitals and dentists.

    Industrial sector general permitting programs are common where a real or potential POTW problem is linked
to a particular pollutant discharged (e.g., collection system blockages caused by the discharge of excess oils
and grease from food establishments).  POTWs do have authority to enforce their SUO or rules or regulations
against non-SIUs without the need for any type of individual control mechanism. Control Authorities do have
the authority to require non-SIUs to comply with pretreatment standards and  requirements contained  in their
local regulations and then take appropriate actions against IDs as noncompliance is identified.
INSPECTIONS

    Control Authorities are required to inspect and
sample all SILJs a minimum of once per year pursuant
to 40 CFR §403.8(f)(2(v).  The frequency with which a
Control Authority actually inspects an SIU  may vary
depending  on issues such as the variability of an SlU's
effluent, the impact of their discharge on the POTW,
and  their  compliance  history.     Inspection
considerations (see Figure 24) will hinge upon the type
of inspection performed (i.e., scheduled, unscheduled
or demand). EPA's 1994 Industrial User Inspection
and Sampling Manual for POTWs provides a detailed
reference for inspection procedures and  protocols.

    Scheduled inspections are useful when the Control
Authority wants to gather specific information from the
facility that necessitates meeting  with  specific SIU
contacts. However, since scheduled inspections may
interrupt normal operations (e.g., altered production
schedule as a result of preparative work undertaken by
the IU), unscheduled inspections may more accurately
reflect IU compliance  status when  the inspection  is
performed  for that reason.
     Provide current data on lUs
     Confirm or determine IUs' compliance status
     Determine completeness and accuracy of the lU's
     performance/compliance records
     Assess the adequacy of the lU's self-monitoring and
     reporting requirements
     Assess the adequacy of monitoring locations and lU's
     sampling techniques
     Assess the adequacy of imposed limitations and
     pollutants of concern
     Develop rapport with IUs
     Evaluate operation and maintenance and overall
     performance of an lU's pretreatment system
     Assess the potential for spills and slug loadings
     Evaluate the effectiveness of slug control plan
     Reveal issues requiring action
     Identify noncompliance needing resolution
     Suggest pollution prevention opportunities
     Collect samples
     Obtain data to support enforcement actions
Figure 24. Inspection Considerations
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 Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	POTW Pretreatment Program Responsibilities


    POTWs must evaluate, at least once every two years, whether each SIU needs a plan  to control slug
discharges (i.e., a discharge of a non-routine, episodic nature, including but not limited to an accidental spill or
non-customary batch discharge). To accurately evaluate the slug potential, Control Authorities likely will have
to  examine the SIU during  normal operating conditions.  If undetected,  slug discharges can have serious
impacts on the POTW.  EPA's 1991 Control of Slug  Loadings to POTWs Guidance Manual provides a
description of procedures for development, implementation, and review of slug control plans.

    Demand inspections are non-routine in nature and occur in response to a concern (e.g., POTW collection
problems downstream from  an ID, elevated enforcement actions against an ID, suspicious ID behavior, or an
informer complaint).

    Routine  Control Authority inspections of SILJs typically consist of three activities;  preparation,  on-site
assessment, and follow-up.

    Preparation - Control Authority  personnel should  review POTW records for SILJs  to be inspected to
    familiarize themselves with the facility. Information reviewed  may include compliance status, compliance
    schedule activities, reports and plans, upcoming report and plan due dates, enforcement activities, permit
    applications, waste surveys, previous inspection summaries, categorical regulations, water use/billing
    records, and POTW collection system maps.  Control Authority personnel should also be familiar with any
    specific issues and concerns regarding the POTW treatment plant or collection system problems receiving
    the SlU's discharge.

    On-site Assessment -  Control Authority personnel typically  discuss ID operations with ID contacts and
    perform a walkthrough of the facility to: update ID information regarding contacts, processes, production
    rates,  pretreatment, and other waste management activities; review records required to be kept by the ID;
    visually verify the need for a slug control  plan; and review pretreatment system maintenance, categorical
    standards applicable to  processes employed, metering and sampling equipment, sampling procedures,
    chemicals used, processes employed, management practices, containment structures, locations of floor
    drains, etc.  Many POTWs have developed a standard inspection questionnaire to facilitate the interview
    process and  promote consistency during  the inspection.

    Follow-up - An inspection report should be prepared as soon as possible after the inspector returns to the
    office. Unanswered questions, required permit modifications, and/or necessary enforcement actions should
    be processed in a timely manner.

    Non-routine inspections  (e.g., demand) may not encompass all the activities and steps specified above, but,
like routine inspections, these activities may provide the  Control Authority an opportunity to collect samples of
the ILJ's  discharge.

SAMPLING

    The General Pretreatment Regulations require Control Authorities to monitor each SIU at least annually and
each SIU to self-monitor semi-annually. As with inspections, the Control Authority should assess site-specific
issues, such as SIU effluent variability, impact of this effluent on the POTW, and the SlU's compliance history
to determine appropriate sampling frequencies (i.e., if more frequent monitoring is necessary). A more detailed
discussion of IU monitoring requirements is provided in Chapter 5. For more detailed information on sampling
frequencies, consult EPA's 1994 Industrial User Inspection and Sampling Manual for POTWs.

    Sampling is the most appropriate method  for verifying compliance with pretreatment standards. Monitoring
location(s) are designated by the Control Authority and must be such that compliance with permitted discharge
limits can be determined. Where possible, the Control Authority should not designate monitoring locations that
are confined spaces or that  are difficult to access or difficult to place the automated sampling  equipment.
Monitoring locations should:

    -   be appropriate for waste stream conditions;
    -   be representative of the discharge;
    -   have no bypass capabilities; and
    -   allow for unrestricted access at all times.
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 POTW Pretreatment Program Responsibilities
Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
    Control Authorities should measure flow to allow for collection of flow-proportioned composite samples,
which are required, unless flow-proportional sampling is not feasible. Flow-proportional composite samples are
preferred overtime composite samples particularly where the monitored discharge is intermittent or variable.
Desired analyses dictate the preparation protocols, equipment, and collection  bottles to use  to  avoid
contamination of samples or loss of pollutants through improper collection. Sampling for such pollutants as pH,
cyanide, oil and grease, flashpoint, and volatile organic compounds require manual collection of grab samples.
Similarto composite samples, grab samples must be representative of the monitored discharge and  are to be
collected from actively flowing wastestreams.  Fluctuations in flow or  the nature of the discharge may require
collection of and hand-compositing of more than one grab sample to accurately access compliance. To ensure
defensibility of data, Control Authorities should develop and implement standard operating procedures and
policies detailing sample  collection and handling protocols in accordance with 40 CFR Part 136.

    Adherence to proper sample collection  and handling protocols,  40 CFR Part 136 approved analytical
methodologies, and record keeping requirements [40 CFR §403.12(o)(1)] (see  Figure 25) can be verified
through review of field measurement records, chain of custodies, and  lab reports. Field measurement records
may require information regarding  sample  location, condition of and programmed settings for sampling
equipment, wastewater meter readings, and information for such parameters as  pH and  temperature which
require analysis in the field. Chain of custody forms serve as a link between field personnel and the laboratory
and contain information regarding sample matrix, type, and handling.  Lab reports should contain the minimum
information specified in  40 CFR §403.12(o)(1)(ii-iv) as well  as any additional  information necessary to
demonstrate compliance with 40 CFR Part 136 requirements (e.g., analytical methodology, sample preparation
date and time, time of analysis). Use of standardized forms which prompt recording of information necessary
for demonstrating compliance with applicable requirements, will aid in ensuring it  can  be used as admissible
evidence in enforcement proceedings or in judicial actions.
 Figure 25. Sample Collection Techniques
Parameter
PH
BOD
TSS
NH3asN
Oil and Grease
Cyanide, total
Metals (total) excl. Cr+6,
B, andHg
624 (volatiles organics)
625 (semi-volatile
organics)
Sample type
Grab
Composite
Composite
Composite
Grab
Grab
Composite
Grab
Composite
Container
Polyethylene or Glass
Polyethylene or Glass
Polyethylene or Glass
Polyethylene or Glass
Glass
Polyethylene or Glass
Polyethylene or Glass
Amber glass, w/ teflon septum
lid and zero headspace
Amber glass w/ teflon lined lid
Preservative
N/A
chilled to 4°C
chilled to 4°C
chilled to 4°C, H2SO4 to pH<2
chilled to 4°C, HC1 or H2SO4 to pH<2
chilled to 4°C, NaOH to a pH >12, and 0.6g
of ascorbic acid if residual chlorine is present
HN03 to pH<2
chilled to 4°C (additional laboratory
preservation required)
chilled to 4°C (additional laboratory
preservation required)
Holding time
analyze immediately
48 hours
7 days
28 days
28 days
14 days
6 months
7 or 14 days, depending on
specific organic
7 days for sample prep; 40
days for extract
ENFORCEMENT

    In addition to requirements for permitting, sampling,  and inspecting IDs,  the  General  Pretreatment
Regulations also require Control Authorities to  review ID reports and plans, and  respond to instances of ID
noncompliance in a timely, fair, and consistent manner. Enforcement of pretreatment requirements is a critical
element of the Pretreatment Program, but in the past extenuating circumstances may have prevented POTWs
from taking adequate enforcement.  For example, political and economic pressures from local officials could
keep POTW personnel  from taking appropriate actions.  After this was identified as  a major concern, EPA
promulgated regulations in 1990 (55 FR 30082)  that require all POTWs with approved pretreatment programs
to adopt and implement an Enforcement  Response  Plan (ERP).  These  ERP  regulations, at 40 CFR
§403.8(f)(5), establish a framework for POTWs to formalize procedures for investigating and responding to
instances of ID noncompliance. With an approved ERP in place, POTWs can enforce against IDs on a more
objective basis and minimize outside pressures.
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  Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program	POTW Pretreatment Program Responsibilities


    To evaluate  ID compliance, Control Authorities must first identify applicable requirements for each ID. In
general, ID reports (discussed in Chapter 5) and POTW monitoring activities are the basis for POTWevaluation
of ID compliance.  Discharge permit limit exceedances, discrepancies, deficiencies, and lateness are all
violations that must be resolved.

    To ensure enforcement response is appropriate and that the Control Authority actions are not arbitrary or
capricious, EPA  strongly recommends that an Enforcement Response Guide (ERG) be included as part of the
approved ERP.  The ERG identifies responsible Control Authority  officials, general time frame for actions,
expected ID responses, and potential escalated actions based on:

    -  the nature of the violation
           pretreatment standards
           reporting (late or deficient)
           compliance schedules
    -  magnitude of the violation
    -  duration of the violation
    -  frequency of the violation (isolated or recurring)
    -  (potential) impact of the violation (e.g., interference,  pass through, or  POTW worker safety)
    -  economic benefit gained by the violator
    -  attitude  of the violator
The types of questions that dictate whether an
ERP is adequate are presented in Figure 26.
Factors  that  should   be   considered   in
determining appropriate enforcement responses
to noncompliance events are discussed in detail
in EPA's 1989 Guidance for Developing Control
Authority Enforcement Response Plans.

    The General Pretreatment Regulations set
as an enforcement priority, facilities that meet
the criteria for  "Significant  Noncompliance
                                                   Is a Control Authority response required for all violations
                                                   identified?
                                                   Is the IU notified by the Control Authority when a violation is
                                                   found?
                                                   Is the IU required to respond to each violation with an explanation
                                                   and, as appropriate, a plan to correct the violation within a
                                                   specified time period?
                                                   Where noncompliance continues and/or the IU response is
                                                   inadequate, does the Control Authority's response become more
                                                   formal and commitments (or schedules, as appropriate) for
                                                   compliance established in an enforceable document?
                                                   Is the enforcement response selected related to the seriousness of
(SNC)" as defined in 40 CFR §403.8(f)(2)(vii)     -   ^?,viol!'ion? , ,.      ... ,   OM_   ..     .   .  ,.
^    '                       °      w\/\/q.  Where the violation constitutes SNC, and is ongoing, is the
                                                   minimum response an administrative order?
and depicted in Figure 27.  A decision to seek
formal enforcement is generally triggered by an
unresolved instance of SNC, failure to achieve   Figure 26. How Complete is Your ERG?
compliance in a specified time period through
less  formal means,  or the advice  of legal
counsel. SNC evaluations are to be conducted in six-month increments; names of IDs found to be in SNC must
be published in the local newspaper (see Public Participation in this Chapter).

    Formal enforcement must be supported by well-documented records of the violations and of any prior efforts
by the Control Authority to obtain compliance.  Where effluent limitations have been exceeded, records must
be reviewed to verify compliance  with  40 CFR Part 136 test methods.   If the IU has received conflicting
information from the Control Authority regarding its compliance status, its status must be clarified in writing.
Although not  required, the  Control Authority may consider a "show cause" meeting with the IU before
commencing formal enforcement action. Similarly, the regulations do allow, in certain instances, an affirmative
defense for violations.

    The range of enforcement mechanisms available to a Control Authority depends on the specific legal
authorities  it has been given by city, county, and State legislatures.  These mechanisms may range from a
simple telephone call to suits seeking significant criminal penalties. Common enforcement mechanisms include:
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POTW Pretreatment Program Responsibilities
                  Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
  Informal notice to ID - This may consist of
  a telephone call or "reminder" letter to an
  appropriate ID  official to  notify them  of a
  minor violation and to seek an explanation.
  Such  informal  notice  may  be used  to
  correct minor instances of noncompliance.

  Informal meetings   -  Used  to obtain an
  ILJ's  commitment to  comply  with  their
  pretreatment obligations or to  inform the ID
  of  stronger   enforcement   mechanisms
  available for unresolved and/or continued
  noncompliance.

  Warning letter or  Notice  of Violation
  (NOV)    -  Written  notice  to the  IU  in
  response to  a violation  of pretreatment
  standards or requirements.  These notices
  should   request  an  explanation  of  the
  noncompliance and  measures that will be
  taken to eliminate future violations.

  Administrative orders and  compliance
  schedules - These  require an ID to "show
  cause"  to the Control Authority as to  why
  formal  enforcement action  should not be
  taken and/or sewer service discontinued, or
  actions that will be  taken to  comply  with
  pretreatment standards or requirements.
  Orders  as such may be  negotiated  (i.e.,
  Consent Order) or issued at the reasonable
  discretion of the  Control Authority  (i.e.,
  Compliance Order).  For more egregious or
  serious  violations,  the Control  Authority
  may issue a Cease and Desist Order.

  Administrative fines    -  Assessed by
  Control Authorities against IDs for violations
  and intended  to  recapture partial  or full
  economic benefit for the noncompliance
  and to deter future violations.

  Civil  suits   - Formal process  of filing
  lawsuits against  IDs to correct violations
  and to obtain penalties for violations.  Civil
  penalty  amounts are  generally  limited
  through State or municipal laws. However, 40 CFR §403.8(f)(1)(vi) requires that Control Authorities have
  the legal authority to seek  or assess civil or criminal penalties of at least $1,000 per day for each violation.
  A civil suit for injunctive relief may be  used when the ID is unlikely to successfully execute the steps that
  the Control Authority believes are  necessary to achieve or maintain compliance, when the violation is
  serious enough to warrant court action to deter future similar violations, or when the danger presented by
  an  ILJ's lengthy negotiation of a settlement is intolerable.

  NOTE:  Surcharges are not penalties or fines.  Surcharges are intended to recoup the cost of treatment
  of wastes by the POTW  and must not be used to allow discharges of toxic pollutants that cause
  interference or pass through.
     An IU is in SNC if its violation meets one or more of
     the following criteria (40 CFR 403.8(f)(2)(vii):

  (A) Chronic violations of wastewater discharge limits, defined
  here as those in which sixty-six percent or more of all of the
  measurements taken during a six-month period exceed (by any
  magnitude) the daily maximum limit or the average limit for the
  same pollutant parameter;

  (B) Technical Review Criteria (TRC) violations, defined here as
  those in which thirty-three percent or more of all of the
  measurements for each pollutant parameter taken during a six-
  month period equal or exceed the product of the daily  maximum or
  the average limit multiplied by the applicable TRC (TRC = 1.4 for
  BOD5, TSS, fats, oil, and grease, and 1.2 for all other pollutants
  except pH);

  (C) Any other violation of a pretreatment effluent limit (daily
  maximum or longer-term average) that the Control Authority
  determines has caused, alone or in combination with other
  discharges, interference or pass through (including endangering the
  health of POTW personnel or the general public);

  (D) Any discharge of a pollutant that has caused imminent
  endangerment to human health, welfare or to the environment or
  has resulted in the POTW's exercise of its emergency  authority
  under 40 CFR § 403.8(i)(l)(vi)(B) of this section to halt or prevent
  such a discharge;

  (E) Failure to meet, within 90 days after the schedule date, a
  compliance schedule milestone contained in a local control
  mechanism or enforcement order for starting construction,
  completing construction, or attaining final compliance;

  (F) Failure to provide, within 30 days after the due date, required
  reports such as baseline monitoring reports, 90-day compliance
  reports, periodic self-monitoring reports, and reports on
  compliance with compliance  schedules;

  (G) Failure to accurately report noncompliance;

  (H) Any other violation or group of violations which the Control
  Authority determines will adversely affect the operation or
  implementation of the local pretreatment program.
Figure 27.  Definition of Significant Noncompliance (SNC)
                                                                                               Chapter 4

-------
  Introduction to the National Pretreatment Program
         POTW Pretreatment Program Responsibilities
-   Criminal prosecution - This type of enforcement is a formal judicial process where sufficient admissible
    evidence exists to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that a person has willfully or negligently violated
    pretreatment standards or that a person has  knowingly made a false statement regarding any report,
    application, record, or otherdocument required  by the General Pretreatment Regulations. As noted above,
    Control Authorities must have the legal authority to seek or assess civil or criminal penalties of at least
    $1,000 per day for  each violation.  Examples of criminal violations include falsification of data  and
    tampering with sampling results or equipment.

-   Termination of service (revocation of permit) - These actions may be pursued  by Control Authorities to
    immediately halt an actual or threatened discharge to the POTW that may represent an endangermentto
    the public health, the environment, or the POTW.  Use of these remedies may also be used in  bringing
    recalcitrant users into compliance.

    Regardless of the response taken, the Control Authority should document and track all contact, notices, and
meetings with IDs and ID responses.  Control Authority responses and ID responses (or lack thereof) should be
documented and include a record of any direct contact with the ID to attempt to resolve the noncompliance.
Control Authorities must take timely and effective enforcement against violators. Unresolved ID noncompliance
may result in the Approval Authority enforcing directly against the  ID and/or the Control Authority. EPA may
also take enforcement action where it deems action by the State or the Control Authority is inappropriate.  An
Approval Authority will routinely review  the overall performance of a Control Authority in monitoring  IDs,
identifying violations, and in enforcing regulations.  Performance will be evaluated based on POTW self-
monitoring data, written enforcement response plans, audits, inspections, and  pretreatment program reports.
Therefore, it is  essential for Control Authorities to effectively manage program information to demonstrate
proper implementation.

    Section 505 of the CWA allows citizens to file suit against a Control Authority that has failed to implement
its approved pretreatment program as required  by  its NPDES permit. The Control Authority may be fined as
well as required to enforce against violations of pretreatment standards and requirements in a court order.

DATA MANAGEMENT AND RECORD KEEPING

    Any ID subject to pretreatment program reporting requirements is required to maintain records resulting from
monitoring in a  readily accessible manner for a minimum of 3 years (longer if during periods of any ongoing
litigation). While the means for maintaining files is usually at the discretion of the POTW, all pretreatment
activities should be documented and the documents maintained.  Types of ID records that the Control Authority
should maintain are summarized in Figure 28.
    Tracking   due   dates,   submissions,  deficiencies,
notifications,   etc.  and   calculating   effluent   limitation
noncompliance may be facilitated by a computerized data
management system. Similarly, many Control Authorities
use standardized forms  (e.g.,  inspection  questionnaires,
chains-of-custody,  field   measurement  records)  and
procedures (e.g..sampling, periodic compliance report
reviews) to promote consistency and organization of
program data.

    In   addition  to  specific  ID  records,  Control
Authorities should also maintain general program files
that document specific program development and
implementation activities that are not ID-specific (see
Figure 29). All information should be filed in an orderly
manner and be readily accessible for inspection and
copying by  EPA and State representatives or the
public.  The pretreatment regulations  specify that all
information submitted to the Control Authority or State
must  be available to the public without restriction,
except for confidential business information.
     Industrial waste questionnaire
     Permit applications, permits and fact sheets
     Inspection reports
     IU reports
     Monitoring data (including laboratory
     reports)
     Required plans (e.g., slug control, sludge
     management, pollution prevention)
 .eg
Drograrttlpcwe&pSfldence to and from the IU
Sopy of POTW NPDES pormit(o)
EtgWBraae dypKUpflfeJU Records Retained
ERP
Correspondence to and from EPA/State
Annual reports to the Approval Authority
Public notices
Funding and resource changes
Applicable Federal and State regulations
IU co