Colorado
                           dean  Watersheds Needs Survey 2004
 The Clean Watersheds Needs
 Survey (CWNS) is a comprehensive
 assessment of needs1 to meet the water
 quality and water-related public health
 goals of the Clean Water Act (CWA).
 States and the U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency (EPA) conduct the
 CWNS every four years under CWA
 Sections 205(a) and 516 (b)(l).

 Colorado reported needs totaling $2.4
 billion in 2004. This is a sixty-two
 percent increase from the $1.5 billion in
 needs reported in 2000.
County Needs ($M)
^^ None reported
     3-15
Facility Needs ($M)
     1-10
  .   > 10
Reported Needs in Colorado

Type of Need
Wastewater treatment plant improvements
Wastewater collection and conveyance improvements
Combined sewer overflow correction
Stormwater management controls
Home sewage treatment system improvements
Recycled wastewater distribution"
Total Wastewater Treatment Needs
Agriculture best management practices (BMPs)
Forestry BMPs
Residential/ business development BMPs
Ground water protection BMPs
Marinas and boating BMPs
Mining and quarrying BMPs
Contaminated industrial site (Brownfield) remediation
Leaking storage tank remediation
Sanitary landfill BMPs
Water resource restoration and protection
Total Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Needs0
Total Needs
Needs (2004
2000
$1,108
$263
$11
$54
n/a
n/a
$1,436
nrb
nr
$56
$2
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
$58
$1,494
Dollars, Millions)
2004
$1,772
$354
$0
$100
$2
$14
$2,242
nr
nr
$125
nr
nr
$49
nr
nr
nr
$1
$175
$2,417

Percent Change
60%
35%
-100%
85%
n/a
n/a
56%
n/a
n/a
123%
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
202%
62%
a The CWNS did not collect data on recycled water distribution in 2000    b Not reported
0 The actual NFS pollution control needs are expected to be higher since documenting and reporting their costs is difficult.
 1 Costs in the CWNS are generally eligible for funding under the Clean Water Act State Revolving Fund (CWSRF). All needs are capital
needs except stormwater management needs, which include program development costs. The survey is a "snapshot" of data and needs;
needs are as of January 1, 2004, and all costs are in January 2004 dollars.

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                                          Colorado
                          dean Watersheds Needs Survey 2004
The enactment of the Clean Water Act (CWA) in 1972 resulted in dramatic improvements in the:
     Number of wastewater treatment plants.
     Percentage of the population served by wastewater treatment plants.
     Level of effluent treatment from wastewater treatment plants.

In 2004, 79% of Colorado residents received centralized wastewater treatment services at the secondary, greater
than secondary, or no discharge treatment level, compared to 73% in 1972.
                      Number of Centralized Treatment Facilities and Population Served
Treatment Level
                        Number of Facilities
1972    2004  Projected"     1972
                                            Population Served
                                     % Total                % Total
                                    Population              Population
1972
2004
2004"    Projected3
Less than Secondary
Secondary
Greater than Secondary
No Discharge
Total
26
70
36
0
132
0
221
42
36
299
0
218
57
38
120,000
1,360,000
502,000
0
313 1,982,000
4.7%
53.7%
19.8%
0%
78.2%
0
1,333,330
2,303,870
14,437
3,651,637
0%
29.0%
50.1%
0.3%
79.4%
0
1,744,660
3,000,234
27,865
4,772,759
a Number of facilities and population served if all needs documented in the CWNS 2004 are met.
b The remaining population is largely served by home and cluster sewage treatment systems.
(Number of facilities from Tables C-7 and C-8 of the CWNS 2004 Report to Congress)
   What are treatment levels?
      Less than secondary treatment removes solids by filtration, sedimentation, and chemical coagulation.
      Secondary treatment removes most of the organic matter in wastewater using biological processes.
      Greater than secondary treatment removes additional organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, or toxics.
      No discharge facilities include facilities that reuse wastewater, discharge to an underground aquifer, or
       dispose of wastewater via methods such as irrigation or evaporation.
   The CWA goals of fishable, swimmable and drinkable waters require secondary or greater treatment.
 Small communities often need additional assistance to meet CWA requirements, because they often lack
 adequate financing, training, and economies of scale to efficiently manage and maintain wastewater treatment
 systems.

 In Colorado, small community wastewater
 facilities serve 10% of the population and
 comprise 19% of total wastewater treatment
 and collection needs. EPA small community
 support information is available at:
 www. epa. gov/owm/mab/smcomm
Reported Needs for Facilities in Small Communities
Population
< 1,000
1,000-3,499
3,500-10,000
Total
Facilities
2000 2004
98
55
24
177
104
74
26
Needs (2004 Dollars, Millions)
2000 2004
$86
$69
$92
204 $247
$104
$184
$121
$409
          Detailed Reports to Congress
          Other state fact sheets
          Maps, charts, and data downloads for watersheds, counties, congressional districts, states,
          and regions
         Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management; 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W. (Mailcode 4204M), Washington, DC 20460
                                     EPA-XXX-X-XX-XXX; Month XX, 2007

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