dean Watersheds Needs Survey 2004
The Clean Watersheds Needs
Survey (CWNS) is a comprehensive
assessment of needs1 to meet the water
quality and water-related public health
goals of the Clean Water Act (CWA).
States and the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) conduct the
CWNS every four years under CWA
Sections 205(a) and 516 (b)(l).

Delaware reported needs totaling $0.1
billion in 2004. This is a fifty-eight
percent decrease from the $0.3 billion in
needs reported in 2000.
County Needs ($M)
     None reported
     <25
     25-50
     >50
  Facility Needs ($M)
       <25
    o   25-75
       >75
Reported Needs in Delaware

Type of Need
Wastewater treatment plant improvements
Wastewater collection and conveyance improvements
Combined sewer overflow correction
Stormwater management controls
Home sewage treatment system improvements
Recycled wastewater distribution"
Total Wastewater Treatment Needs
Agriculture best management practices (BMPs)
Forestry BMPs
Residential/ business development BMPs
Ground water protection BMPs
Marinas and boating BMPs
Mining and quarrying BMPs
Contaminated industrial site (Brownfield) remediation
Leaking storage tank remediation
Sanitary landfill BMPs
Water resource restoration and protection
Total Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Needs
| Total Needs
a The CWNS did not collect data on recycled water distribution in 2000
Needs (2004 Dollars,
2000
$63
$143
$113
nrb
n/a
n/a
$319
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
$319
b Not reported
Millions)
2004
$62
$51
$21
nr
nr
nr
$134
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
nr
$134


Percent Change
-2%
-64%
-81%
n/a
n/a
n/a
-58%
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
-58%

1 Costs in the CWNS are generally eligible for funding under the Clean Water Act State Revolving Fund (CWSRF). All needs are capital
needs except stormwater management needs, which include program development costs. The survey is a "snapshot" of data and needs;
needs are as of January 1, 2004, and all costs are in January 2004 dollars.

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                          dean Watersheds Needs Survey 2004
The enactment of the Clean Water Act (CWA) in 1972 resulted in dramatic improvements in the:
     Number of wastewater treatment plants.
     Percentage of the population served by wastewater treatment plants.
     Level of effluent treatment from wastewater treatment plants.
In 2004, 84% of Delaware residents received centralized wastewater treatment services at the secondary, greater
than secondary, or no discharge treatment level, compared to 17% in 1972.
                      Number of Centralized Treatment Facilities and Population Served
Treatment Level
                        Number of Facilities
1972    2004   Projected"    1972
                                             Population Served
                                      % Total                % Total
                                     Population              Population
1972
2004
2004"    Projected3
Less than Secondary
Secondary
Greater than Secondary
No Discharge
^^^M
^
6
9
9
0
mm
0
2
13
4
19
0
2
12
5
15,000
8,000
88,000
0
19 111,000
2.6%
1.4%
15.2%
0%
19.2%
0
8,822
666,349
25,444
700,615
0%
1.1%
80.2%
3.1%
84.4%
0
11,165
796,144
39,024
846,333
a Number of facilities and population served if all needs documented in the CWNS 2004 are met.
b The remaining population is largely served by home and cluster sewage treatment systems.
(Number of facilities from Tables C-7 and C-8 of the CWNS 2004 Report to Congress)
    What are treatment levels?
       Less than secondary treatment removes solids by filtration, sedimentation, and chemical coagulation.
       Secondary treatment removes most of the organic matter in wastewater using biological processes.
       Greater than secondary treatment removes additional organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, or toxics.
       No discharge facilities include facilities that reuse wastewater, discharge to an underground aquifer, or
       dispose of wastewater via methods such as irrigation or evaporation.
    The CWA goals of fishable, swimmable and drinkable waters require secondary or greater treatment.
 Small communities often need additional assistance to meet CWA requirements, because they often lack
 adequate financing, training, and economies of scale to efficiently manage and maintain wastewater treatment
 systems.
In Delaware, small community wastewater
facilities serve 11% of the population and
comprise 38% of total wastewater treatment
and collection needs. EPA small community
support information is available at:
www. epa. gov/owm/mab/smcomm
                              Reported Needs for Facilities in Small Communities
                         Population
  Facilities
2000     2004
                         < 1,000
                         1,000-3,499
                         3,500-10,000
    Needs (2004 Dollars, Millions)
        2000         2004
                        $24
                        $28
                        $35
                           $6
                          $16
                          $29
           Detailed Reports to Congress
           Other state fact sheets
           Maps, charts, and data downloads for watersheds, counties, congressional districts, states,
           and regions
         Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management; 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W. (Mailcode 4204M), Washington, DC 20460
                                      EPA-XXX-X-XX-XXX; Month XX, 2007

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