Pennsylvania
                          dean  Watersheds Needs Survey 2004
 The Clean Watersheds Needs
 Survey (CWNS) is a comprehensive
 assessment of needs1 to meet the water
 quality and water-related public health
 goals of the Clean Water Act (CWA).
 States and the U.S. Environmental
 Protection Agency (EPA) conduct the
 CWNS every four years under CWA
 Sections 205(a) and 516 (b)(l).
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$13.0 billion in 2004. This is a forty-five
percent increase from the $9.0 billion in
needs reported in 2000.

 1 ; >,"...-,
' / 3 1  '. i
M' i^-'/**
Coimty Needs ($M) Facility Needs ($M)
| 	 None reported
= < 60
_ 60-160 0
^B > 160
<4
4-40
>40




Reported Needs in Pennsylvania

Type of Need
Wastewater treatment plant improvements
Needs (2004
2000
$1,168
Wastewater collection and conveyance improvements $1,559
Combined sewer overflow correction
Stormwater management controls
$6,047
$18
Home sewage treatment system improvements n/a
Recycled wastewater distribution"
n/a
Total Wastewater Treatment Needs $8,792
Agriculture best management practices (BMPs) $ 18
Forestry BMPs
Residential/ business development BMPs
Ground water protection BMPs
Marinas and boating BMPs
Mining and quarrying BMPs
nr
$164
nr
nr
nr
Contaminated industrial site (Brownfield) remediation nr
Leaking storage tank remediation
Sanitary landfill BMPs
Water resource restoration and protection
nr
nr
nr
Total Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Needs0 $182
Total Needs $8,974
Dollars, Millions)
2004
$1,075
$1,464
$4,639
$18
<$0.5
nrb
$7,196
$591
nr
$5,083
nr
nr
$65
$2
nr
nr
$110
$5,851
$13,047

Percent Change
-8%
-6%
-23%
0%
n/a
n/a
-18%
3,183%
n/a
2,999%
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
3,115%
45%
a The CWNS did not collect data on recycled water distribution in 2000     b Not reported
0 The actual NFS pollution control needs are expected to be higher since documenting and reporting their costs is difficult.
 1 Costs in the CWNS are generally eligible for funding under the Clean Water Act State Revolving Fund (CWSRF). All needs are capital
needs except stormwater management needs, which include program development costs. The survey is a "snapshot" of data and needs;
needs are as of January 1, 2004, and all costs are in January 2004 dollars.

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                                     Pennsylvania
                          dean Watersheds Needs Survey 2004
The enactment of the Clean Water Act (CWA) in 1972 resulted in dramatic improvements in the:
     Number of wastewater treatment plants.
     Percentage of the population served by wastewater treatment plants.
     Level of effluent treatment from wastewater treatment plants.

In 2004, 81% of Pennsylvania residents received centralized wastewater treatment services at the secondary,
greater than secondary, or no discharge treatment level, compared to 41% in 1972.
                      Number of Centralized Treatment Facilities and Population Served
Treatment Level
                       Number of Facilities
1972    2004  Projected"     1972
                                            Population Served
                                     % Total                % Total
                                    Population              Population
1972
2004
2004"    Projected3
Less than Secondary
Secondary
Greater than Secondary
No Discharge
Total
70
244
157
0
471
0
419
420
7
846
0
496
459
8
3,461,000
3,146,000
1,645,000
0
963 8,252,000
29.3%
26.6%
13.9%
0%
69.8%
0
5,871,941
4,156,749
9,371
10,038,061
0%
47.3%
33.5%
<0.1%
80.9%
0
5,753,995
4,854,311
13,177
10,621,483
a Number of facilities and population served if all needs documented in the CWNS 2004 are met.
b The remaining population is largely served by home and cluster sewage treatment systems.
(Number of facilities from Tables C-7 and C-8 of the CWNS 2004 Report to Congress)
   What are treatment levels?
      Less than secondary treatment removes solids by filtration, sedimentation, and chemical coagulation.
      Secondary treatment removes most of the organic matter in wastewater using biological processes.
      Greater than secondary treatment removes additional organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, or toxics.
      No discharge facilities include facilities that reuse wastewater, discharge to an underground aquifer, or
       dispose of wastewater via methods such as irrigation or evaporation.
   The CWA goals of fishable, swimmable and drinkable waters require secondary or greater treatment.
 Small communities often need additional assistance to meet CWA requirements, because they often lack
 adequate financing, training, and economies of scale to efficiently manage and maintain wastewater treatment
 systems.

 In Pennsylvania, small community
 wastewater facilities serve 32% of the
 population and comprise 21% of total
 wastewater treatment and collection needs.
 EPA small community support information
 is available at:
 www. epa. gov/owm/mab/smcomm
Reported Needs for Facilities in Small Communities
Population
< 1,000
1,000-3,499
3,500-10,000
Total
Facilities
2000 2004
189
229
121
539
163
135
103
Needs (2004 Dollars, Millions)
2000 2004
$375
$999
$615
401 $1,989
$366
$643
$493
$1,502
          Detailed Reports to Congress
          Other state fact sheets
          Maps, charts, and data downloads for watersheds, counties, congressional districts, states,
          and regions
         Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management; 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W. (Mailcode 4204M), Washington, DC 20460
                                     EPA-XXX-X-XX-XXX; Month XX, 2007

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