Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009

United States
jWU	Environmental Protection
kl	Agency

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Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

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Table of Contents
Page
Number
I.	Executive Summary	i
II.	Introduction	1
III.	Fuel Economy Trends	5
IV.	Carbon Dioxide Emissions Trends	17
V.	Fuel Economy Trends by Vehicle Type, Size, and Weight	30
VI.	Fuel Economy Technology Trends	49
VII.	Marketing Groups and Fuel Economy	76
VIII.	Characteristics of Fleets Comprised of Existing Fuel-Efficient Vehicles	86
IX.	References	95

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Table of Contents, continued
Appendices
APPENDIX A — Database Details and Calculation Methods
APPENDIX B — Model Year 2009 Nameplate Fuel Economy Listings
APPENDIX C — Fuel Economy Distribution Data
APPENDIX D — Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
APPENDIX E — Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
APPENDIX F — Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
APPENDIX G — Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
APPENDIX H — Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
APPENDIX I — Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
APPENDIX J — Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
APPENDIX K — Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per
Cylinder
APPENDIX L — Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
APPENDIX M — Fuel Economy by Marketing Group, Vehicle Type and Weight Class
APPENDIX N — Fuel Economy and Ton-MPG by Marketing Group, Vehicle Type and Size
APPENDIX O — MY2009 Fuel Economy by Vehicle Type, Weight and Marketing Group
APPENDIX P — Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Marketing Group and Vehicle Type
APPENDIX Q — Characteristics of Fleets Comprised of Fuel Efficient Vehicles

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I. Executive Summary
Introduction
This report summarizes key trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy and technology
usage related to model year (MY) 1975 through 2009 light-duty vehicles sold in the United States. Light-duty
vehicles are those vehicles that EPA classifies as cars or light-duty trucks (sport utility vehicles or SUVs, vans,
and pickup trucks with gross vehicle weight ratings up to 8500 pounds). The data in this report supersede the
data in previous reports in this series.
On September 15, 2009, EPA proposed the first-ever light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emissions
standards, under the Clean Air Act, for MY2012-2016 (74 Federal Register 49454, September 28, 2009). These
proposed standards are part of a new, harmonized National Policy that also includes proposed corporate average
fuel economy (CAFE) standards for the same years by the Department of Transportation's National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Accordingly, while past reports in this series focused exclusively on
fuel economy data, this year's report provides some key industry-wide tailpipe C02 emissions data for the 1975
- 2009 time series as well. Tailpipe CO2 emissions data represent 90 to 95 percent of total light-duty vehicle
greenhouse gas emissions. Section IV of this report discusses the CO2 emissions data in more detail and also
provides guidance for how readers can calculate CO2 emissions values, not shown in Section IV, that are
equivalent to other fuel economy values in this report.
Since 1975, overall new light-duty vehicle CO2 emissions have moved through four phases:
1.	A rapid decrease from 1975 through 1981;
2.	A slower decrease until reaching a valley in 1987;
3.	A gradual increase until 2004; and
4.	A decrease for the five years beginning in 2005.
The projected fleetwide average real world MY2009 light-duty vehicle C02 emissions level is 422
grams per mile (g/mi). The fleetwide average MY2008 value is 424 g/mi. The MY2008 value is essentially a
final value as the database for 2008 includes formal production data for nearly the entire MY2008 fleet, while
the projected MY2009 value is based on pre-model year production projections provided by automakers and are
therefore much more uncertain. Actual MY2009 sales are expected to be 30 to 40 percent lower than the
projected MY2009 production volumes provided by automakers to EPA in the spring and summer of 2008. At
this time, it is not possible to predict whether the market turmoil in 2009 will yield an actual CO2 emission
value that is higher or lower than the preliminary MY2009 value reported here. The preliminary 422 g/mi value
for model year 2009 represents a 39 g/mi, or eight percent, decrease relative to the 461 g/mi value for 2004,
which was the highest C02 emissions value since 1980.
Since fuel economy has an inverse relationship to tailpipe CO2 emissions, overall new light-duty vehicle
fuel economy has moved through four "opposing" phases:
1.	A rapid increase from 1975 through 1981;
2.	A slower increase until reaching its peak in 1987;
3.	A gradual decline until 2004; and
4.	An increase for the five years beginning in 2005.
The projected fleetwide average real world MY2009 light-duty vehicle fuel economy is 21.1 miles per
gallon (mpg), while the fleetwide average MY2008 value is 21.0 mpg. Again, EPA has much greater
confidence in the MY2008 value, which is 0.2 mpg higher than the value that we projected for MY2008 in last
year's report based on pre-model year production volume projections. The fact that the revised MY2008 value
is higher than the preliminary value in last year's report is to be expected given that gasoline prices peaked in
spring and summer of 2008. There is much less certainty associated with the projected MY2009 value of 21.1
mpg as it is based on pre-model year production projections provided by automakers, and 2009 has continued to
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be a year of turmoil in the automotive market. It is impossible to predict whether actual MY2009 fuel economy
will be higher or lower than the preliminary MY2009 value. The projected model year 2009 value of 21.1 mpg
represents a 1.8 mpg, or nine percent, increase over the 19.3 mpg value for 2004, which was the lowest fuel
economy value since 1980.
The CO2 emissions and fuel economy values in this report are either adjusted (ADJ) EPA "real-world"
estimates (provided to consumers), or unadjusted EPA laboratory (LAB) values. All C02 emissions and fuel
economy values in this report are adjusted values unless explicitly identified as laboratory data. All
combinations of adjusted or laboratory, and CO2 emissions or fuel economy values, may be reported as city,
highway, or, most commonly, as composite (combined city/highway, or COMP). In 2006, EPA revised the
methodology by which EPA estimates adjusted fuel economy to better reflect changes in driving habits and
other factors that affect fuel economy such as higher highway speeds, more aggressive driving, and greater use
of air conditioning. This is the third report in this series to reflect this new real-world fuel economy
methodology, and every adjusted fuel economy value in this report for 1986 and later model years is lower than
values in pre-2007 reports in this series. To reflect that these changes did not occur overnight, these new
downward adjustments are phased in, gradually, beginning in 1986, and for 2005 and later model years the new
adjusted composite fuel economy values are, on average, about six percent lower than under the methodology
used by EPA in older reports. This same methodology is used to generate adjusted CO2 emissions values as
well. See Appendix A for more details.
Because the underlying methodology for generating unadjusted laboratory CO2 emissions and fuel
economy values has not changed since this series began in the mid-1970s, they provide an excellent basis for
comparing long-term CO2 and fuel economy trends from the perspective of vehicle design, apart from the
factors that affect real-world driving that are reflected in the adjusted values. Laboratory composite values
represent a harmonic average of 55 percent city and 45 percent highway operation, or "55/45." For 2005 and
later model years, unadjusted laboratory composite CO2 emissions values are, on average, about 20 percent
lower than adjusted composite CO2 values, and unadjusted laboratory composite fuel economy values are, on
average, about 25 percent greater than adjusted composite fuel economy values. The projected MY2009
unadjusted laboratory composite values of 337 g/mi and 26.4 mpg represent a record low for C02 emissions and
an all-time high for fuel economy.
While EPA establishes vehicle CO2 emissions standards, NHTSA has the overall responsibility for the
CAFE program. For 2009, the CAFE standards are 27.5 mpg for cars and 23.1 mpg for light trucks (for light
trucks, individual manufacturers can choose between the fixed, unreformed 23.1 mpg standard and a reformed
vehicle footprint-based standard which yields different compliance levels for each manufacturer). In March
2009, NHTSA promulgated new footprint-based CAFE standards for MY2011, for which NHTSA projected
average industry-wide compliance levels of 30.2 mpg for cars (including a 27.8 mpg alternative minimum
standard for domestic cars for all manufacturers) and 24.1 mpg for light trucks. EPA provides laboratory
composite fuel economy data, along with alternative fuel vehicle credits and test procedure adjustments, to
NHTSA for CAFE enforcement. Because of real world adjustments, alternative fuel vehicle credits, and test
procedure adjustments, current NHTSA CAFE values are a minimum of 25 percent higher than EPA adjusted
fuel economy values.
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Characteristics of Light Duty Vehicles for Four Model Years
1975 1987 1998 2009
Adjusted CO2 Emissions (g/mi)
679
405
443
422
Adjusted Fuel Economy (mpg)
13.1
22.0
20.1
21.1
Weight (lbs.)
4060
3220
3744
4108
Horsepower
137
118
171
225
0 to 60 Time (sec.)
14.1
13.1
10.9
9.5
Percent Truck Sales
19%
28%
45%
49%
Percent Front-Wheel Drive
5%
58%
56%
55%
Percent Four-Wheel Drive
3%
10%
20%
27%
Percent Multi-Valve Engine
_
_
40%
79%
Percent Variable Valve Timing
-
-
-
65%
Percent Cylinder Deactivation
-
-
-
9%
Gasoline-Direct Injection
-
-
-
3.5%
Percent Turbocharger
-
-
1.4%
3.1%
Percent Manual Trans
23%
29%
13%
6%
Percent Continuously Variable Trans
-
-
-
8%
Percent Hybrid
-
-
-
1.8%
Percent Diesel
0.2%
0.2%
0.1%
0.5%

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Highlight #1: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Decreases and Fuel Economy Increases Over the Last 5 Years
Reverse the Long-Term Trend From 1987 through 2004.
Average adjusted composite CO 2 emissions have decreasedfrom 461 g/mi in MY2004 to
a projected level of422 g/mi in MY2009, accounting for a 39 g mi and 8 percent
decrease. The preliminary MY2009 adjusted composite fuel economy value of 21.1 mpg
represents a 1.8 mpg, or 9 percent, increase over MY2004. ActualMY2009 values will
likely differ fi'om these preliminary MY2009 values, but it is impossible to know the
direction or magnitude of any changes. For both CO 2 emissions andfuel economy, the
last 5 years reverse a longer-term trend over the period 1987 through 2004 and
essentially return CO2 emissions and fuel economy levels to those of the early 1980s.
Adjusted C02 Emissions by Model Year
(grams/mile)
800
700
600
500
400
Adjusted Fuel Economy by Model Year
(Annual Data)
30
25
20
15
rucks
Trucks
Adjusted C02
(g/mi)
Adjusted MPG
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Model Year
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Model Year
MY2009 unadjusted laboratory composite values, which reflect vehicle design considerations only and
do not account for the many factors which affect real world CO2 emissions and fuel economy performance, are
at an all-time low for CO2 emissions (337 g/mi) and a record high for fuel economy (26.4 mpg).
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Highlight #2: Trucks Continue To Represent About Half of New Vehicle Production.
Light trucks, which include SI fVs, vans, and pickup trucks, have accountedfor about 50
percent of the U.S. light-duty vehicle market since MY2002. After two decades of
constant growth, light truck market share has been relatively stable fi'om 2002 through
2009. The MY2009 light truck market share is projected to be 49 percent, based on pre-
model year production projections by automakers.
Historically, growth in the light truck market was primarily driven by the explosive increase in the
market share of SUVs (EPA does not have a separate category for crossover vehicles and classifies many
crossover vehicles as SUVs). The SUV market share increased from six percent of the overall new light-duty
vehicle market in MY1990 to about 30 percent of vehicles built each year since 2004. By comparison, market
shares for both vans and pickup trucks have declined since 1990, with van market share falling by about one-
half from 10 percent to five percent. The increased overall market share of light trucks, which in recent years
have averaged 120 - 140 g/mi higher CO2 emissions and 6-7 mpg lower than cars, accounted for much of the
increase in CO2 emissions and decline in fuel economy of the overall new light-duty vehicle fleet from MY1987
through MY2004.
Sales Fraction by Vehicle Type
(Annual Data)
100%
Market Share
~	Car
~	SUV
~	Van
Pickup
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
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Highlight #3: Technological Innovation Since 2005 Has Resulted in Lower CO2 Emissions, Higher Fuel
Economy and Greater Performance.
Automotive engineers are constantly developing more advanced and efficient vehicle
technologies. From 1987 through 2004, on afleetwide basis, this technology innovation
was utilized exclusively to support market-driven attributes other than CO 2 emissions and
fuel economy, such as vehicle weight (which supports vehicle content andfeatures),
performance, and utility. Beginning in MY2005, technology has been used to increase
both fuel economy (which has reduced CO 2 emissions) and performance, while keeping
vehicle weight relatively constant.
Vehicle weight and performance are two of the most important engineering parameters that help
determine a vehicle's CO2 emissions and fuel economy. All other factors being equal, higher vehicle weight
(which supports new options and features) and faster acceleration performance (e.g., lower 0-to-60 mile-per-
hour acceleration time), both increase a vehicle's CO2 emissions and decrease fuel economy. Average vehicle
weight and performance had increased steadily from the mid-1980s through 2004.
Average light-duty vehicle weight has been fairly constant since 2004, with a small increase in weight of
cars offset by a small decrease in truck market share. Average fleetwide performance has continued to improve
just about every year. The projection for MY2009 is for an increase in both vehicle performance and weight.
Weight and Performance
(Annual Data)
Weight (lbs.)
0 to 60 Time (sec.)
4500
15
4000
3500
Weight
14
13
12
11
10
3000
3 - —1—1—1—1—|—1—1—1—1—|—1—1—1—1—|—1—1—1—1—|—1—1—1—1—|—1—1—1—1—|—r-
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
9
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Highlight #4: Many Marketing Groups Are Increasing Fleetwide Fuel Economy, Resulting in Lower
C02 Emissions.
Seven of the nine highest-selling marketing groups increasedfuel economy (which also
reduced CO 2 emissions) from MY2007 to MY2008, the last two years for which we have
solid information based on final CAFE reports. Preliminary values suggest that four of
the nine marketing groups will increase fuel economy (thereby reducing CO2 emissions)
inMY2009, and one marketing group will maintain constant levels, based on projected
production provided to EPA by automakers prior to the start of the model year. Actual
MY2009 values will likely be different than the preliminary MY2009 values reported
here.
In MY2008, the last year for which EPA has essentially complete formal production data, Honda had the
lowest fleetwide adjusted composite C02 emissions (and highest fuel economy) performance, followed closely
by Hyundai-Kia. Chrysler had the highest CO2 emissions (and lowest fuel economy), with Ford having slightly
lower CO2 emissions. Chrysler had the biggest absolute improvement from MY2007 to MY2008, with an 19
g/mi, or 4.0 percent, reduction in fleetwide CO2 emissions, followed by Hyundai-Kia with a 14 g/mi and 3.6
percent reduction in C02 emissions.
Preliminary MY2009 values suggest that Honda will continue to have the lowest fleetwide CO2
emissions (and highest fuel economy), followed closely by Hyundai-Kia and Toyota. Chrysler is projected to
have the highest MY2009 CO2 emissions, reversing most of its gains from the previous year. Ford is projected
to show the largest C02 reductions, with its projected MY2009 C02 emissions being 37 g/mi lower than
MY2007 and 25 g/mi lower than MY2008. Ford and General Motors are the two marketing groups that showed
improvement in MY2008 and are projected to do so again in MY2009.
MY2007 - 2009 Marketing Group Fuel Economy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions
(Adjusted Composite Values)
Marketing	<	MY2007	> <	MY2008	> <	MY2009	>
Group	Fuel Economy CO2	Fuel Economy CO2	Fuel Economy CO2

(mpg)
(g/mi)
(mpg)
(g/mi)
(mpg)
(g/mi)
Honda
23.3
382
23.9
372
23.6
376
Hyundai-Kia
22.9
388
23.7
374
23.4
380
Toyota
23.3
382
22.8
389
23.2
383
Volkswagen
21.9
405
22.3
398
22.8
398
Nissan
21.3
418
21.9
406
21.6
411
BMW
21.5
415
21.2
419
21.6
412
General Motors
19.2
463
19.7
452
19.9
447
Ford
18.9
471
19.4
459
20.5
434
Chrysler
18.6
479
19.3
460
18.7
476
All
20.6
432
21.0
424
21.1
422
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Important Notes with Respect to the Data Presented in This Report
Most of the CO2 emissions and fuel economy values in this report are a single adjusted composite
(combined city/highway) C02 emissions or fuel economy value, consistent with the real-world estimates for
city and highway fuel economy provided to consumers on new vehicle labels, in the EPA/DOE Fuel Economy
Guide, and in EPA's Green Vehicle Guide.
This 2009 report supersedes all previous reports in this series, which date back to the early 1970s. In
general, users of this report should rely exclusively on data in this 2009 report, which covers the years 1975
through 2009, and not try to make comparisons to data in previous reports in this series. There are at least two
reasons for this.
One, EPA revised the methodology for estimating real-world fuel economy values in December 2006.
This is the third report in this series to reflect this new real-world fuel economy methodology, and every
adjusted (ADJ) fuel economy value in this report for 1986 and later model years is lower than given in reports
in this series prior to the 2007 report. Accordingly, adjusted fuel economy values for 1986 and later model
years should not be compared with the corresponding values from pre-2007 reports. These new downward
adjustments are phased in, linearly, beginning in 1986, and for 2005 and later model years the new adjusted
composite (combined city/highway) values are, on average, about six percent lower than under the methodology
previously used by EPA. See Appendix A for more in-depth discussion of this new methodology and how it
affects both the adjusted fuel economy values for individual models and the historical fuel economy trends
database. This same methodology is used to calculate adjusted C02 emissions values as well.
Two, when EPA changes a marketing group definition to reflect a change in the industry's current
financial arrangements, EPA makes the same adjustment in marketing group composition in the historical
database as well. This maintains a consistent marketing group definition over time, which allows the
identification of trends over time. On the other hand, it means that the database does not necessarily reflect
actual past financial arrangements. For example, the 2009 database, which includes data for the entire time
series 1975 through 2009, no longer reflects the fact that Chrysler was combined with Daimler for several years.
In some tables and figures in this report, a single laboratory composite (combined city/highway) value is
also shown. Because the underlying methodology for generating and reporting laboratory values has not
changed since this series began in the mid-1970s, these laboratory values provide an excellent basis for
comparing long-term CO2 emissions and fuel economy trends from the perspective of vehicle design, apart from
the factors that affect real-world C02 and fuel economy that are reflected in the adjusted values. For 2005 and
later model years, laboratory composite fuel economy values are, on average, about 25 percent greater than
adjusted composite fuel economy values, and laboratory composite CO2 emissions values are, on average, about
20 percent lower than adjusted composite CO2 values.
Formal Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) compliance data as reported by the Department of
Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) do not correlate precisely with
either the adjusted or laboratory fuel economy values in this report. While EPA's laboratory composite fuel
economy data form the cornerstone of the CAFE compliance database, NHTSA must also include credits for
alternative fuel vehicles and test procedure adjustments (for cars only) in the official CAFE calculations.
Accordingly, NHTSA CAFE values are at least 25 percent higher than EPA adjusted fuel economy values for
model years 2005 through 2009.
In general, car/truck classifications in this database parallel classifications made by NHTSA for CAFE
purposes and EPA for vehicle emissions standards. However, this report relies on engineering judgment, and
typically there are a few cases each model year where the methodology used for classifying vehicles for this
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report results in differences in the determination of whether a given vehicle is classified as a car or a light truck.
See Appendix A for a list of these exceptions.
The data presented in this report were tabulated on a model year basis, but some of the figures in this
report use three-year moving averages that effectively smooth the trends, and these three-year moving averages
are tabulated at the midpoint. For example, the midpoint for model years 2007, 2008, and 2009 is MY2008.
Figures are based on annual data unless otherwise noted.
All of the data in this report are from vehicles certified to operate on gasoline or diesel fuel, from
laboratory testing with test fuels as defined in EPA test protocols. There are no data from the very small
number of vehicles that are certified to operate only on alternative fuels. The data from ethanol flexible fuel
vehicles, which can operate on both an 85 percent ethanol/15 percent gasoline blend or gasoline or any mixture
in between, are from gasoline operation.
While CO2 emissions values can be arithmetically averaged, all average fuel economy values were
calculated using harmonic rather than arithmetical averaging, in order to maintain mathematical integrity. See
Appendix A.
The EPA database used to generate the CO2 emissions and fuel economy values in this report was frozen
in April 2009, yielding additional data beyond that used in last year's report for model years beginning in 2006,
although additional data for MY2008 was added in June 2009.
Through MY2007, the CO2 emissions, fuel economy, vehicle characteristics, and vehicle production
volume data used for this report were from the formal end-of-year submissions from automakers obtained from
EPA's fuel economy database that is used for CAFE compliance purposes. Accordingly, values for all model
years up to 2007 can be considered final.
For MY2008, the data used in this report are based almost exclusively on formal end-of-year CAFE
submissions by automakers. Accordingly, the MY2008 data are essentially final and EPA has a very high level
of confidence in the data for MY2008. It is noteworthy that the 21.0 mpg adjusted fuel economy value for
MY2008 in this report is 0.2 mpg higher than the projected 20.8 mpg adjusted fuel economy value for MY2008
in the 2008 report. This suggests that higher gasoline prices have led to actual 2008 production volumes that
differ from the projected 2008 production levels provided to EPA by automakers in 2007.
For MY2009, EPA has exclusively used confidential pre-model year production volume projections.
Accordingly, MY2009 projections are much more uncertain, particularly given the changes in the automotive
marketplace driven by the economic recession and volatile fuel prices. For model years 1998 through 2006, the
final laboratory fuel economy values for a given model year have varied from 0.4 mpg lower to 0.4 mpg higher
compared to original estimates for the same model year that were based exclusively on projected production
levels.
In the various appendices to this report, when there is no entry under "Model Year," that means there
was no production volume for the data in question.
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For More Information
Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through 2009
(EPA420-R-09-014) is available on the Office of Transportation and Air Quality's (OTAQ) Web site at:
www.epa.gov/otaq/fetrends.htm
Printed copies are available from the OTAQ library at:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Transportation and Air Quality Library
2000 Traverwood Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
(734)214-4311
A copy of the Fuel Economy Guide giving city and highway fuel economy data for individual models is
available at:
www, fuel economy. gov
or by calling the U.S. Department of Energy at (800) 423-1363.
EPA's Green Vehicle Guide providing information about the air pollution emissions and fuel economy
performance of individual models is available on EPA's web site at:
www.epa.gov/greenvehicles
For information about the Department of Transportation (DOT) Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)
program, including a program overview, related rulemaking activities, and summaries of the fuel economy
performance of individual manufacturers since 1978, see:
www.nhtsa.dot.gov and click on "Fuel Economy"
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II. Introduction
Light-duty automotive technology, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and fuel economy trends are
examined here, using the latest and most complete EPA data available. Past reports in this series [1-35]1 have
presented fuel economy and technology trends only, and did not include CO2 emissions data. Section IV of this
report provides a few key CO2 emissions summary tables as well as a methodology with which a reader can
convert fuel economy values from other sections of this report to equivalent CO2 emissions levels.
When comparing data in this and previous reports, please note that revisions are made for some prior
model years for which more complete and accurate production and fuel economy data have become available.
In addition, changes have been made periodically in the way EPA calculates adjusted fuel economy values
which means it is not appropriate to compare adjusted fuel economy values from this report with others in this
series. Finally, the grouping of individual manufacturers into broader marketing groups also changes over time
to reflect changes in the financial arrangements within the automobile industry.
The EPA CO2 emissions and fuel economy database used to generate the fuel economy trends database
in this report was frozen in April 2009, yielding additional data beyond that used in last year's report for model
years 2006 through 2009, though additional data for MY2008 was added in June 2009.
Through MY2008, the CO2 emissions, fuel economy, vehicle characteristics, and production volume
data used for this report were from the formal end-of-year submissions from automakers obtained from EPA's
database that is used for CAFE compliance purposes. For MY2009, EPA has exclusively used confidential pre-
model year production projections submitted to EPA by automakers.
Accordingly, values for all model years up to 2008 can be considered final. MY2009 projections are
much more uncertain, particularly given the changes in the automotive marketplace driven by the economic
recession and volatile fuel prices at the time the production projections were submitted to EPA by automakers
in the spring and summer of 2008. Over the last several years, the final fuel economy values for a given model
year have varied from 0.4 mpg lower to 0.6 mpg higher compared to original estimates for the same model year
that were based exclusively on projected production volumes.
All CO2 emissions values in this report are production-weighted arithmetic averages and all fuel
economy averages are production-weighted harmonic averages (necessary to maintain mathematical integrity).
In prior reports in this series, up to and including the one for MY2000, the only fuel economy values used in
this series were the laboratory-based city, highway, and composite (combined city /highway) mpg values - the
same ones that are used as the basis for compliance with the fuel economy standards and the gas guzzler tax.
Since the laboratory mpg values tend to over predict the mpg achieved in actual use, adjusted mpg values are
used for the Government's fuel economy information programs: the Fuel Economy Guide and the Fuel
Economy Labels that are on new vehicles and in EPA's Green Vehicle Guide.
Starting with the report issued for MY2001, this series of reports has provided fuel economy trends in
adjusted mpg values in addition to the laboratory mpg values. In this way, the fuel economy trends can be
shown for both laboratory mpg and mpg values which can be considered to be an estimate of on-road mpg. In
the tables, these two mpg values are called "Laboratory MPG" and "Adjusted MPG," and abbreviated "LAB"
MPG and "ADJ" MPG. These same metrics are used for CO2 emissions values as well.
Where only one CO2 or mpg value is presented in this report and it is not explicitly identified otherwise,
it is the "adjusted composite" value. This value represents a combined city /highway CO2 or fuel economy
value, and is based on equations (see Appendix A) that allow a computation of adjusted city and highway
values based on laboratory city and highway test values.
It is important to note that EPA revised the methodology by which EPA estimates real-world fuel
economy values in December 2006. This is the third report in this series to reflect this new real-world fuel
1 Numbers in brackets denote references listed in the references section of this report.
EPA-420-R-09-014
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economy methodology, and every adjusted (ADJ) fuel economy value in this report for 1986 and later model
years is lower than given in pre-2007 reports in this series. Accordingly, adjusted fuel economy values for 1986
and later model years should not be compared with corresponding values from older reports. These new
downward adjustments are phased in, linearly, beginning in 1986, and for 2005 and later model years the new
adjusted composite values are, on average, about six percent lower than under the methodology previously used
by EPA. This same methodology is used to generate adjusted CO2 emissions values as well. See Appendix A
for more in-depth discussion of this new methodology and how it affects both the adjusted CO2 and fuel
economy values for individual models and the historical trends database.
The data presented in this report were tabulated on a model year basis, but many of the figures in this
report use three-year moving averages which effectively smooth the trends, and these three-year moving
averages are tabulated at their midpoint. For example, the midpoint for model years 2007, 2008, and 2009 is
model year 2008 (See Table A-2, Appendix A). Use of the three-year moving averages results in an
improvement in distinguishing real trends from what might be relatively small year-to-year variations in the
data.
To facilitate comparison with data in older reports in this series, most data tables include laboratory
55/45 fuel economy values as well as the adjusted city, highway, and composite fuel economy values.
Presenting both types of mpg values facilitates the use of this report by those who study either type of fuel
economy metric.
The fuel economy values reported by the Department of Transportation (DOT) for compliance with the
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) compliance purposes are higher than the data in this report for four
reasons:
1.	The DOT data does not include the EPA real world fuel economy adjustment factors for city and
highway mpg;
2.	The DOT data include CAFE credits for those manufacturers that produce dedicated alternative fuel
vehicles and flexible fuel vehicles (credits generated through the production of flexible fuel vehicles
are currently capped at 1.2 mpg per fleet);
3.	The DOT data include credits for test procedure adjustments for cars; and
4.	There are a few differences in the way vehicles are classified as cars and trucks for this report
compared to the way they are classified by DOT.
Accordingly, the fuel economy values in this series of reports are always lower than those reported by
DOT. Table A-6, Appendix A, compares CAFE data reported by DOT with EPA adjusted and laboratory fuel
economy data for MY1975-2009. Table A-7 shows a more detailed comparison for MY2008, by marketing
group, of values for EPA laboratory fuel economy, alternative fuel vehicle credits, test procedure adjustment
credits for cars, and NHTSA CAFE performance (the latter based on mid-model year estimates).
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Other Variables
All vehicle weight data are based on inertia weight class (nominally curb weight plus 300 pounds). For
vehicles with inertia weights up to and including the 3000-pound inertia weight class, these classes have 250-
pound increments. For vehicles above the 3000-pound inertia weight class (i.e., vehicles 3500 pounds and
above), 500-pound increments are used.
All interior volume data for cars built after model year 1977 are based on the metric used to classify cars
for the DOE/EPA Fuel Economy Guide. The car interior volume combines the passenger compartment and
trunk/cargo space. In the Fuel Economy Guide, interior volume is undefined for the two-seater class; for this
series of reports, all two-seater cars have been assigned an interior volume value of 50 cubic feet.
The light truck data used in this series of reports includes only vehicles classified as light trucks with
gross vehicle weight ratings (GVWR) up to 8500 pounds (lb). Vehicles with GVWR above 8500 lb are not
included in the database used for this report. Omitting these vehicles influences the overall averages for all
variables studied in this report. The most recent estimates we have made for the impact of these greater than
8500 lb GVWR vehicles was made for model year 2001. In that year, there were roughly 931,000 vehicles
above 8500 lb GVWR. A substantial fraction (42 percent) of the MY2001 vehicles above 8500 lb GVWR were
powered by diesel engines, and three-fourths of the vehicles over 8500 lb GVWR were pickup trucks. Adding
in the trucks above 8500 lb GVWR would have increased the truck market share for that year by three
percentage points.
Based on a limited amount of actual laboratory fuel economy data, MY2001 trucks with GVWR greater
than 8500 lb GVWR are estimated to have fuel economy values about 14 percent lower than the average of
trucks below 8500 lb GVWR. The combined fleet of all vehicles under 8500 lb GVWR and trucks over 8500 lb
GVWR is estimated to average a few percent less in fuel economy compared to that for just the vehicles with
less than 8500 lb GVWR.
In addition to mpg, some tables in this report contain alternate measures of vehicle fuel efficiency as
used in reference 17.
"Ton-MPG" is defined as a vehicle's mpg multiplied by its inertia weight in tons. Ton-MPG is a
measure of powertrain/drive-line efficiency. Just as an increase in vehicle mpg at constant weight can be
considered an improvement in a vehicle's efficiency, an increase in a vehicle's weight at constant mpg can also
be considered an improvement. "C02/ton" is the equivalent CO2 metric and is reported in Section IV.
"Cubic-feet-MPG" for cars is defined in this report as the product of a car's mpg and its interior volume,
including trunk space. This metric associates a relative measure of a vehicle's ability to transport both
passengers and their cargo. An increase in vehicle volume at constant mpg could be considered an
improvement just as an increase in mpg at constant volume can be. "C02/cubic feet" values are given in
Section IV.
"Cubic-feet-ton-MPG" is defined in this report as a combination of the two previous metrics, i.e., a car's
mpg multiplied by its weight in tons and also by its interior volume. It ascribes vehicle utility to fuel economy,
weight and volume. "C02/ton-cubic feet"" is the equivalent CO2 metric and is shown in Section IV.
This report also includes an estimate of 0-to-60 mph acceleration time, calculated from engine rated
horsepower and vehicle inertia weight, from the relationship:
t = F (HP/WT)"f
where the values used for F and f coefficients are .892 and .805 respectively for vehicles with automatic
transmissions and .967 and .775 respectively for those with manual transmissions [36], Other authors [37, 38,
and 39] have evaluated the relationships between weight, horsepower, and 0-to-60 acceleration time and have
calculated and published slightly different values for the F and f coefficients. Since the equation form and
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coefficients were developed for vehicles with conventional powertrains with gasoline-fueled engines, we have
not used the equation to estimate 0-to-60 time for vehicles with hybrid powertrains or diesel engines. Published
values are used for these vehicles instead.
The 0-to-60 estimate used in this report is intended to provide a quantitative time "index" of vehicle
performance capability. It is the authors' engineering judgment that, given the differences in test methods for
measuring 0-to-60 time and given the fact that the weight is based on inertia weight, use of these other
published values for the F and f coefficients would not result in statistically significantly different 0-to-60
averages or trends. The results of a similar calculation of estimated "top speed" are also included in some
tables.
Grouping all vehicles into classes and then constructing time trends can provide interesting and useful
results. These results, however, are a strong function of the class definitions. Classes based on other definitions
than those used in this report are possible, and results from these other classifications may also be useful.
For cars, vehicle classification as to vehicle type, size class, and manufacturer/origin generally follows
fuel economy label, Fuel Economy Guide, and fuel economy standards protocols; exceptions are listed in Table
A-3, Appendix A. In many of the passenger car tables, large sedans and wagons are aggregated as "Large,"
midsize sedans and wagons are aggregated as "Midsize," and "Small" includes all other cars. In some of the car
tables, an alternative classification system is used, namely: Large Cars, Large Wagons, Midsize Cars, Midsize
Wagons, Small Cars, and Small Wagons with the EPA Two-Seater, Mini-Compact, Subcompact, and Compact
car classes are combined into the "Small Car" class. In some of the tables and figures in this report, only four
vehicle types are used. In these cases, wagons have been merged with cars. This is because the wagon
production fraction for some instances is so small that the information is more conveniently represented by
combining the two vehicle types. When they have been combined, the differences between them are not
important.
The truck classification scheme used for all model years in this report is slightly different from that used
in some previous reports in this series, because pickups, vans, and sports utility vehicles (SUVs) are sometimes
each subdivided as "Small," "Midsize," and "Large." These truck size classifications are based primarily on
published wheelbase data according to the following criteria:
Pickup	Van	SUV
Small	Less than 105"	Less than 109"	Less than 100"
Midsize	105" to 115"	109" to 124"	100" to 110"
Large	More than 115"	More than 124"	More than 110"
This classification scheme is similar to that used in many trade and consumer publications. For those
vehicle nameplates with a variety of wheelbases, the size classification was determined by considering only the
smallest wheelbase produced. The classification of a vehicle for this report is based on the authors' engineering
judgment and is not a replacement for definitions used in implementing automotive standards legislation.
Published data is also used for three other vehicle characteristics for which data is not currently being
submitted to EPA by the automotive manufacturers, or to supplement data that is submitted to EPA: (1) engines
with variable valve timing (VVT) that use either cams or electric solenoids to provide variable intake and/or
exhaust valve timing and in some cases valve lift; (2) engines with cylinder deactivation, which involves
allowing the valves of selected cylinders of the engine to remain closed under certain driving conditions; and
(3) vehicle footprint, which is the product of wheelbase times average track width and upon which future CAFE
standards, and likely future CO2 emissions standards, will be based..
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III. Fuel Economy Trends
Figure 1 and Table 1 depict time trends in car, light truck, and car-plus-light truck fuel economy. Also
shown on Figure 1 is the fraction of the combined fleet that are light trucks and trend lines representing three-
year moving averages of the fuel economy and truck production fraction data. Since 1975, the fuel economy of
the combined car and light truck fleet has moved through several phases:
1.	A rapid increase from 1975 through 1981;
2.	A slow increase until reaching its peak in 1987;
3.	A gradual decline until 2004; and
4.	An increase beginning in 2005.
Adjusted Fuel Economy and Percent Truck by Model Year
(Three Year Moving Average)
Adjusted Composite MPG	Percent Truck
Trucks
Pet. Truck
100%

^—Moving Avg.
75%
Yearlv Data

A Cars

• Both
50%
¦ Trucks

~ Percent Truck
25%
0%
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Model Year
Figure 1
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As shown in Table 1, the projected MY2009 fleetwide fuel economy value of 21.1 mpg is the highest
value since 1991 and is 1.8 mpg higher than the 2004 value of 19.3 mpg, which was the lowest value since 1980.
Projected industry-wide MY2009 production is not shown in Table 1, as it is expected that actual MY2009
production will be 30 to 40 percent lower than automaker projections to EPA in spring/summer 2008. Average
fleetwide fuel economy has now increased for five consecutive years. These increases reverse the longer term
trend of declining adjusted composite fuel economy since its peak in 1987. Most of the increase in overall fuel
economy since 2004 is due to higher truck fuel economy (likely due at least in part to higher truck CAFE
standards in recent years), as truck fuel economy has increased by 1.7 mpg since 2004, while car fuel economy
has increased by 1.4 mpg. The 21.1 mpg adjusted fuel economy value projected for 2009 is 0.9 mpg below the
peak in 1987, but this difference is due to the new methodology for calculating adjusted fuel economy values
that is phased in over the 1986 - 2005 timeframe. As shown in Table 1, based on laboratory 55/45 fuel economy
values which are based on vehicle design considerations only, the projected fleetwide fuel economy value of
26.4 mpg is an all-time record, and is 0.5 mpg higher than the previous peak of 25.9 mpg in 1987.
Figure 1 shows that the estimated light truck share of the market, based on the three-year moving average
trend, has leveled off at about 50 percent. Figure 2 compares laboratory 55/45 fuel economy for the combined
car and truck fleet and the production fraction for trucks.
The MY2009 adjusted fuel economy for cars is estimated to average 24.5 mpg, which is an all-time high.
For MY2009, the adjusted fuel economy for light trucks is estimated to average 18.4 mpg, also a record high.
Fuel economy standards were unchanged for MY1996 through MY2004. In 2003 DOT raised the truck CAFE
standards for 2005 - 2007, and in 2006 DOT raised the truck CAFE standards for 2008 - 2011. The recent fuel
economy improvement for trucks is likely due, in part, to these higher standards. The CAFE standard for cars
has not been changed since 1990, but will change in 2011.
Truck Sales Fraction vs Fleet MPG by Model Year
Lab. 55/45 MPG
30
2009
1985
1990 iqqn	'	^
1333 2000
25
2004
20
1980
15
1975
10
10%
20%
30%
40%
PercentTruck
50%
60%
70%
Figure 2
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Table 1
Fuel Economy Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Light Duty Vehicles
Cars
MODEL PROD	<	FUEL ECONOMY	> TON CU-FT CU-FT-
YEAR (000) FRAC LAB LAB LAB AD J AD J AD J -MPG -MPG TON-MPG
CITY HWY 55/45 CITY HWY COMP
1975
8237
.806
13.7
19.5
15. 8
12 . 3
15.2
13.5
27 . 6


1976
9722
.788
15.2
21.3
17 . 5
13.7
16.6
14 . 9
30.2


1977
11300
.800
16.0
22 . 3
18 . 3
14 . 4
17 . 4
15. 6
31. 0
1780
3423
1978
11175
. 773
17.2
24 . 5
19. 9
15.5
19. 1
16.9
30. 6
1908
3345
1979
10794
. 778
17 . 7
24 . 6
20.3
15. 9
19.2
17.2
30.2
1922
3301
1980
9443
. 835
20.3
29.0
23.5
18 . 3
22 . 6
20.0
31.2
2136
3273
1981
8733
. 827
21.7
31. 1
25. 1
19. 6
24.2
21.4
33. 1
2338
3547
1982
7819
.803
22 . 3
32 . 7
26.0
20.1
25.5
22.2
34.2
2419
3645
1983
8002
. 777
22 . 1
32 . 7
25. 9
19. 9
25.5
22 . 1
34 . 7
2476
3776
1984
10675
.761
22 . 4
33.3
26.3
20.2
26.0
22 . 4
35. 1
2482
3776
1985
10791
. 746
23. 0
34 . 3
27 . 0
20.7
26.8
23. 0
35. 8
2553
3884
1986
11015
.717
23.7
35.5
27 . 9
21.2
27 . 6
23.7
36.2
2598
3899
1987
10731
. 722
23. 9
35. 9
28 . 1
21.2
27 . 7
23. 8
36.2
2584
3872
1988
10736
.702
24.2
36.6
28 . 6
21.4
28.2
24 . 1
36.9
2631
3963
1989
10018
. 693
23. 8
36.3
28 . 1
20.9
27 . 9
23.7
36.8
2591
3977
1990
8810
. 698
23.4
36.0
27 . 8
20.5
27 . 5
23.3
37 . 1
2528
3984
1991
8524
. 678
23. 6
36.3
28 . 0
20.5
27 . 6
23.4
37 . 0
2540
3970
1992
8108
. 666
23. 1
36.3
27 . 6
20.0
27 . 5
23. 1
37 . 4
2534
4071
1993
8456
. 640
23. 6
36.9
28.2
20.3
27 . 9
23.5
37 . 7
2580
4098
1994
8415
. 596
23.4
36.9
28 . 0
20.0
27 . 7
23.3
37 . 9
2554
4108
1995
9396
. 620
23. 6
37 . 6
28 . 3
20.0
28 . 1
23.4
38 . 3
2584
4171
1996
7890
. 600
23.5
37 . 6
28 . 3
19. 8
28 . 0
23.3
38 . 3
2572
4186
1997
8335
. 576
23.7
37 . 7
28 . 4
19. 8
28 . 0
23.4
38 . 3
2565
4168
1998
7972
. 551
23.7
37 . 9
28 . 5
19.7
28 . 0
23.4
38 . 7
2565
4210
1999
8379
. 551
23.4
37 . 4
28.2
19.4
27 . 5
23. 0
38 . 7
2531
4237
2000
9128
. 551
23.5
37 . 3
28.2
19.3
27 . 3
22 . 9
38 . 6
2534
4246
2001
8408
. 539
23.7
37 . 6
28 . 4
19.4
27 . 3
23. 0
39. 1
2551
4280
2002
8304
. 515
24 . 0
37 . 6
28 . 6
19.4
27.2
23. 1
39.3
2561
4311
2003
7951
. 504
24.2
38 . 1
28 . 9
19.5
27 . 5
23.2
40.0
2582
4378
2004
7538
.480
24 . 1
38.2
28 . 9
19.3
27 . 4
23. 1
40.3
2601
4464
2005
8027
. 505
24 . 7
38 . 7
29.5
19. 6
27 . 6
23.5
41.0
2677
4590
2006
7993
. 529
24 . 4
38 . 5
29.2
19.4
27 . 5
23.3
41.6
2655
4649
2007
8085
. 529
25.4
39.7
30.3
20.1
28 . 3
24 . 1
42 . 8
2733
4734
2008
7345
. 528
25. 6
40.0
30.5
20.3
28 . 5
24 . 3
43.3
2749
4784
2009
	
. 513
25. 9
40.4
30. 9
20.5
28 . 8
24 . 5
43. 8
2786
4858
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Table 1 (Continued)
Fuel Economy Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Light Duty Vehicles
Trucks
MODEL PROD	<	FUEL ECONOMY	> TON
YEAR (000) FRAC LAB LAB LAB ADJ ADJ ADJ -MPG
CITY HWY 55/45 CITY HWY COMP
1975	1987
1976	2612
1977	2823
1978	3273
1979	3088
1980	1863
1981	1821
1982	1914
1983	2300
1984	3345
1985	3669
1986	4350
1987	4134
1988	4559
1989	4435
1990	3805
1991	4049
1992	4064
1993	4754
1994	5710
1995	5749
1996	5254
1997	6124
1998	6485
1999	6839
2000	7447
2001	7202
2002	7815
2003	7824
2004	8173
2005	7866
2006	7111
2007	7192
2008	6554
2009		
.194	12.1
.212	12.8
.200	14.0
.227	13.8
.222	13.4
.165	16.5
.173	17.8
.197	18.1
.223	18.3
.239	17.9
.254	18.0
.283	18.8
.278	18.8
.298	18.3
.307	18.1
.302	17.8
.322	18.3
.334	17.8
.360	17.9
.404	17.8
.380	17.5
.400	17.7
.424	17.6
.449	17.7
.449	17.4
.449	17.7
.461	17.6
.485	17.6
.496	17.8
.520	17.7
.495	18.2
.471	18.5
.471	18.7
.472	19.2
.487	19.4
16.2	13.7
16.9	14.4
18.1	15.6
17.5	15.2
16.8	14.7
21.9	18.6
23.9	20.1
24.4	20.5
25.2	20.9
24.8	20.5
24.9	20.6
25.9	21.4
26.5	21.6
26.2	21.2
25.8	20.9
25.9	20.7
26.6	21.3
26.2	20.8
26.5	21.0
26.1	20.8
25.9	20.5
26.5	20.8
26.1	20.6
26.6	20.9
26.0	20.5
26.2	20.8
26.0	20.6
26.0	20.6
26.5	20.9
26.5	20.8
27.4	21.4
27.8	21.8
28.3	22.1
29.1	22.7
29.6	22.9
10.9	12.7
11.5	13.2
12.6	14.1
12.4	13.7
12.1	13.1
14.8	17.1
16.0	18.6
16.3	19.0
16.5	19.6
16.1	19.3
16.2	19.4
16.8	20.2
16.8	20.5
16.2	20.2
15.9	19.8
15.6	19.8
15.9	20.3
15.5	19.9
15.5	20.1
15.3	19.7
15.0	19.5
15.1	19.9
14.8	19.5
14.9	19.8
14.6	19.2
14.7	19.4
14.6	19.1
14.4	19.1
14.6	19.3
14.3	19.2
14.6	19.8
14.9	20.1
15.1	20.4
15.5	21.0
15.6	21.4
11.6	24.2
12.2	26.0
13.3	28.0
12.9	27.5
12.5	27.3
15.8	30.9
17.1	33.0
17.4	33.7
17.8	34.0
17.4	33.5
17.5	33.7
18.2	34.3
18.3	34.2
17.9	34.5
17.6	34.7
17.4	35.1
17.8	35.3
17.4	35.4
17.5	35.7
17.2	35.7
17.0	35.7
17.2	36.6
17.0	36.9
17.1	36.8
16.7	37.0
16.9	37.1
16.7	37.4
16.7	38.0
16.9	38.7
16.7	39.4
17.2	40.2
17.5	40.9
17.7	42.1
18.2	43.0
18.4	43.5
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Table 1 (Continued)
Fuel Economy Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Light Duty Vehicles
Cars and Trucks
MODEL PROD	<	FUEL ECONOMY	> TON
YEAR (000) FRAC LAB LAB LAB ADJ ADJ ADJ -MPG
CITY HWY 55/45 CITY HWY COMP
1975	10224
1976	12334
1977	14123
1978	14448
1979	13882
1980	11306
1981	10554
1982	9732
1983	10302
1984	14020
1985	14460
1986	15365
1987	14865
1988	15295
1989	14453
1990	12615
1991	12573
1992	12172
1993	13211
1994	14125
1995	15145
1996	13144
1997	14459
1998	14458
1999	15218
2000	16574
2001	15610
2002	16119
2003	15775
2004	15711
2005	15893
2006	15105
2007	15277
2008	13900
2009		
1.000	13.4
1.000	14.6
1.000	15.6
1.000	16.3
1.000	16.5
1.000	19.6
1.000	20.9
1.000	21.3
1.000	21.2
1.000	21.2
1.000	21.5
1.000	22.1
1.000	22.2
1.000	22.1
1.000	21.7
1.000	21.4
1.000	21.6
1.000	21.0
1.000	21.2
1.000	20.8
1.000	20.8
1.000	20.8
1.000	20.6
1.000	20.6
1.000	20.3
1.000	20.5
1.000	20.5
1.000	20.4
1.000	20.6
1.000	20.2
1.000	21.0
1.000	21.2
1.000	21.8
1.000	22.1
1.000	22.2
18.7	15.3
20.2	16.7
21.3	17.7
22.5	18.6
22.3	18.7
27.5	22.5
29.5	24.1
30.7	24.7
30.6	24.6
30.8	24.6
31.3	25.0
32.2	25.7
32.6	25.9
32.7	25.9
32.3	25.4
32.2	25.2
32.5	25.4
32.1	24.9
32.4	25.1
31.6	24.6
32.1	24.7
32.2	24.8
31.8	24.5
31.9	24.5
31.2	24.1
31.4	24.3
31.1	24.2
30.9	24.1
31.3	24.3
31.0	24.0
32.1	24.8
32.6 25.2
33.4	25.8
34.0	26.3
34.3	26.4
12.0	14.6
13.2	15.7
14.0	16.6
14.7	17.5
14.9	17.4
17.6	21.5
18.8	23.0
19.2	23.9
19.0	23.9
19.1	24.0
19.3	24.4
19.8	25.0
19.8	25.3
19.6	25.2
19.1	24.8
18.7	24.6
18.8	24.7
18.2	24.4
18.2	24.4
17.8	23.8
17.7	24.1
17.6	24.0
17.4	23.6
17.2	23.6
16.9	23.0
16.9	23.0
16.8	22.8
16.6	22.5
16.7	22.7
16.3	22.4
16.8	23.1
17.0	23.4
17.4	24.0
17.7	24.4
17.8	24.6
13.1	26.9
14.2	29.3
15.1	30.4
15.8	29.9
15.9	29.5
19.2	31.2
20.5	33.1
21.1	34.1
21.0	34.5
21.0	34.7
21.3	35.3
21.8	35.7
22.0	35.7
21.9	36.2
21.4	36.2
21.2	36.5
21.2	36.5
20.8	36.8
20.9	37.0
20.4	37.0
20.5	37.3
20.4	37.6
20.1	37.7
20.1	37.9
19.7	38.0
19.8	37.9
19.6	38.3
19.4	38.7
19.6 39.4
19.3	39.9
19.9	40.6
20.1	41.2
20.6 42.5
21.0	43.2
21.1	43.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
9
November 2009

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The distribution of fuel economy in any model year is of interest. In Figure 3, highlights of the distribution
of car mpg are shown. Since 1975, half of the cars have consistently been within a few mpg of each other. The
fuel economy difference between the least efficient and most efficient car increased from about 20 mpg in 1975 to
nearly 50 mpg in 1986, but was less than 35 mpg in 1999. With the introduction for sale of the Honda Insight
gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle in MY2000, the range once again approached 50 mpg. The increased market share
of hybrid cars also accounts for the increase in the fuel economy of the best one percent of cars with the cutpoint for
this stratum now over 40 mpg. The ratio of the highest to lowest has increased from about three to one in 1975 to
nearly five to one today, because the fuel economy of the least fuel efficient cars has remained roughly constant in
comparison to the most fuel efficient cars whose fuel economy has more than doubled.
The overall fuel economy distribution trend for trucks (see Figure 4) is narrower than that for cars, with a
peak in the efficiency of the most efficient truck in the early 1980s when small pickup trucks equipped with diesel
engines were being sold. As a result, the fuel economy range between the most efficient and least efficient truck
peaked at about 25 mpg in 1982. The fuel economy range for trucks then narrowed, but with the introduction of the
hybrid Escape SUV in MY2005, it is now over 20 mpg. Like cars, half of the trucks built each year have always
been within a few mpg of each year's average fuel economy value. Appendix C contains additional fuel economy
distribution data.
Sales Weighted Car
Fuel Economy Distribution
Adjusted Composite MPG
First Hybrid
Car
Worst
Car
Best 1 %
Worst 1 %
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 3
Sales Weighted Truck
Fuel Economy Distribution
Adjusted Composite MPG
Best
Truck
50 ^ of Trucks
Worst
Truck
Best 1 °/
Worst 1 <2
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 4
EPA-420-R-09-014
10
November 2009

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1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
J-09-0
Vehicle Size and Design Characteristics of 1975 to 2009
Cars
<	 Vehicle Characteristics: 	> <- Percent By: ->
PROD AD J VOL WGHT FOOT ENG HP/ 0-60 TOP VEHICLE SIZE
FRAC COMP CU-FT LB PRNT HP WT TIME SPD SMALL MID LARGE
MPG	SQFT
806
13.5

4058
136
. 0331
14.2
111
55.4
23.3
21.3
788
14 . 9

4059
134
. 0324
14 . 4
110
55.4
25.2
19.4
800
15. 6
110
3944
133
. 0335
14 . 0
111
51. 9
24 . 5
23.5
773
16.9
109
3588
124
. 0342
13.7
111
44 . 7
34 . 4
21.0
778
17.2
109
3485
119
. 0338
13. 8
110
43.7
34.2
22 . 1
835
20.0
104
3101
100
. 0322
14 . 3
107
54 . 4
34 . 4
11.3
827
21.4
106
3076
99
. 0320
14 . 4
106
51.5
36.4
12.2
803
22.2
106
3054
99
. 0320
14 . 4
106
56.5
31. 0
12 . 5
111
22 . 1
109
3112
104
. 0330
14 . 0
108
53. 1
31. 8
15. 1
761
22 . 4
108
3099
106
. 0339
13. 8
109
57 . 4
29.4
13.2
746
23. 0
108
3093
111
. 0355
13.3
111
55.7
28 . 9
15.4
717
23.7
107
3041
111
. 0360
13.2
111
59.5
27 . 9
12 . 6
722
23. 8
107
3031
112
. 0365
13. 0
112
63.5
24 . 3
12.2
702
24 . 1
107
3047
116
. 0375
12 . 8
113
64 . 8
22 . 3
12 . 8
693
23.7
108
3099
121
. 0387
12 . 5
115
58 . 3
28.2
13.5
698
23.3
107
3176
129
. 0401
12 . 1
117
58 . 6
28 . 7
12 . 8
678
23.4
107
3154
132
. 0413
11. 8
118
61.5
26.2
12 . 3
666
23. 1
108
3240
141
. 0428
11.5
120
56.5
27 . 8
15. 6
640
23.5
108
3207
138
. 0425
11. 6
120
57.2
29.5
13.3
596
23.3
108
3250
143
. 0432
11.4
121
58 . 5
26.1
15.4
620
23.4
109
3263
152
. 0460
10. 9
125
57 . 3
28 . 6
14 . 0
600
23.3
109
3282
154
. 0464
10. 8
125
54 . 3
32 . 0
13. 6
576
23.4
109
3274
156
. 0469
10.7
126
55. 1
30. 6
14 . 3
551
23.4
109
3306
159
. 0475
10. 6
127
49.4
39. 1
11.4
551
23. 0
109
3365
164
. 0481
10.5
128
47 . 7
39.7
12 . 6
551
22 . 9
110
3369
168
. 0492
10.4
129
47 . 5
34 . 3
18.2
539
23. 0
109
3380
168
. 0492
10.3
129
50. 9
32 . 3
16.8
515
23. 1
109
3391
173
. 0504
10.2
131
48 . 6
36.3
15. 1
504
23.2
109
3421
176
. 0510
10. 0
132
50. 8
33.4
15. 9
480
23. 1
110
3462
182
. 0521
9.8
133
47 . 4
35.5
17 . 0
505
23.5
111
3463
182
. 0518
9.8
133
44.2
38 . 9
16.8
529
23.3
112
3534
194
. 0540
9.6
136
46.2
32 . 9
20.9
529
24 . 1
110
3507
189
. 0531
9.6
135
44 . 6
40.0
15.4
528
24 . 3
110
3527 45.4
193
. 0536
9.6
136
44 . 6
35. 9
19.5
513
24 . 5
111
3533
198
. 0548
9.5
137
43. 8
33.3
23. 0
11
November 2009

-------
Table 2 (Continued)
Vehicle Size and Design Characteristics of 1975 to 2009
Trucks
<	Vehicle Characteristics: 	> <—Percent By:—>
MODEL
PROD
ADJ
WGHT
FOOT
ENG
HP/
0-60
TOP
VEHICLE
TYPE
YEAR
FRAC
COMP
LB
PRNT
HP
WT
TIME
SPD
VAN
SUV
PICKU


MPG

SQFT







1975
. 194
11. 6
4072

142
. 0349
13. 6
114
23. 0
9.4
67 . 6
1976
.212
12.2
4155

141
. 0340
13. 8
113
19.2
9.3
71.4
1977
.200
13.3
4135

147
. 0356
13.3
115
18.2
10. 0
71.8
1978
.227
12 . 9
4151

146
. 0351
13.4
114
19. 1
11. 6
69.3
1979
.222
12 . 5
4252

138
. 0325
14 . 3
111
15. 6
13. 0
71.5
1980
. 165
15. 8
3869

121
. 0313
14 . 5
108
13. 0
9.9
77 . 1
1981
. 173
17 . 1
3806

119
. 0311
14 . 6
108
13.5
7 . 5
79.1
1982
. 197
17 . 4
3806

120
. 0317
14 . 5
109
16.2
8 . 5
75.3
1983
.223
17 . 8
3763

118
. 0313
14 . 5
108
16.6
12 . 6
70.8
1984
.239
17 . 4
3782

118
. 0310
14 . 7
108
20.2
18 . 7
61. 1
1985
.254
17 . 5
3795

124
. 0326
14 . 1
110
23.3
20.0
56.6
1986
.283
18.2
3738

123
. 0330
14 . 0
110
24 . 0
17 . 8
58.2
1987
.278
18 . 3
3713

131
. 0351
13.3
113
26.9
21.1
51. 9
1988
.298
17 . 9
3841

141
. 0366
12 . 9
115
24 . 8
21.2
53. 9
1989
. 307
17 . 6
3921

146
. 0372
12 . 8
116
28 . 8
20.9
50.3
1990
. 302
17 . 4
4005

151
. 0377
12 . 6
117
33.2
18 . 6
48.2
1991
. 322
17 . 8
3948

150
. 0379
12 . 6
117
25.5
27 . 0
47 . 4
1992
. 334
17 . 4
4056

155
. 0382
12 . 5
118
30. 0
24 . 7
45.3
1993
. 360
17 . 5
4073

162
. 0398
12 . 1
120
30.3
27 . 6
42 . 1
1994
.404
17.2
4125

166
. 0403
12 . 0
121
24 . 8
28 . 4
46.7
1995
. 380
17 . 0
4184

168
. 0401
12 . 0
121
28 . 9
31. 6
39.5
1996
.400
17.2
4225

179
. 0423
11.5
124
26.8
36.0
37.2
1997
. 424
17 . 0
4344

187
. 0429
11.4
126
20.7
40.0
39.3
1998
. 449
17 . 1
4283

187
. 0435
11.2
126
23. 0
39. 8
37.2
1999
. 449
16.7
4412

197
. 0446
11. 0
128
21.4
41.4
37.2
2000
. 449
16.9
4375

197
. 0448
11. 0
128
22 . 7
42.2
35. 1
2001
.461
16.7
4463

209
. 0466
10. 6
131
17 . 1
47 . 9
35. 0
2002
.485
16.7
4546

219
. 0482
10.4
134
15. 9
53. 6
30.5
2003
.496
16.9
4586

221
. 0481
10.4
134
15.7
52 . 6
31. 6
2004
. 520
16.7
4710

236
. 0501
10. 0
137
11.7
57 . 7
30.7
2005
.495
17.2
4668

237
. 0505
10. 0
137
18 . 8
51. 9
29.2
2006
. 471
17 . 5
4665

235
. 0502
10. 0
137
16.4
52 . 8
30. 8
2007
. 471
17 . 7
4752

248
. 0520
9.8
140
11. 8
58 . 8
29.4
2008
. 472
18.2
4710
52 . 9
247
. 0522
9.7
140
11. 8
60. 8
27 . 4
2009
.487
18 . 4
4712

253
. 0534
9.6
142
9.3
65. 8
24 . 9
EPA-420-R-09-014
12
November 2009

-------
Table 2 (Continued)
Vehicle Size and Design Characteristics of 1975 to 2009
Cars and Trucks
<	 Vehicle Characteristics: 	>
MODEL
PROD
ADJ
WGHT
FOOT
ENG
HP/
0-60
TOP
YEAR
FRAC
COMP
LB
PRNT
HP
WT
TIME
SPD


MPG

SQFT




1975
1. 000
13. 1
4060

137
. 0335
14 . 1
112
1976
1. 000
14.2
4079

135
. 0328
14 . 3
111
1977
1. 000
15. 1
3982

136
. 0339
13. 8
112
1978
1. 000
15. 8
3715

129
. 0344
13. 6
112
1979
1. 000
15. 9
3655

124
. 0335
13. 9
110
1980
1. 000
19.2
3228

104
. 0320
14 . 3
107
1981
1. 000
20.5
3202

102
. 0318
14 . 4
107
1982
1. 000
21.1
3202

103
. 0320
14 . 4
107
1983
1. 000
21.0
3257

107
. 0327
14 . 1
108
1984
1. 000
21.0
3262

109
. 0332
14 . 0
109
1985
1. 000
21.3
3271

114
. 0347
13.5
110
1986
1. 000
21.8
3238

114
. 0351
13.4
111
1987
1. 000
22 . 0
3221

118
. 0361
13. 1
112
1988
1. 000
21.9
3283

123
. 0372
12 . 8
114
1989
1. 000
21.4
3351

129
. 0382
12 . 5
115
1990
1. 000
21.2
3426

135
. 0394
12.2
117
1991
1. 000
21.2
3410

138
. 0402
12 . 1
118
1992
1. 000
20.8
3512

145
. 0413
11. 8
120
1993
1. 000
20.9
3519

147
. 0416
11. 8
120
1994
1. 000
20.4
3603

152
. 0420
11.7
121
1995
1. 000
20.5
3613

158
. 0438
M
CO
123
1996
1. 000
20.4
3659

164
. 0447
ll. l
125
1997
1. 000
20.1
3727

169
. 0452
11. 0
126
1998
1. 000
20.1
3744

171
. 0457
10. 9
126
1999
1. 000
19.7
3835

179
. 0465
10.7
128
2000
1. 000
19. 8
3821

181
. 0472
10. 6
129
2001
1. 000
19. 6
3879

187
. 0480
10.5
130
2002
1. 000
19.4
3951

195
. 0493
10.3
132
2003
1. 000
19. 6
3999

199
. 0496
10.2
133
2004
1. 000
19.3
4111

211
. 0511
9.9
135
2005
1. 000
19. 9
4059

209
. 0512
9.9
135
2006
1. 000
20.1
4067

213
. 0522
9.8
137
2007
1. 000
20.6
4093

217
. 0525
9.7
137
2008
1. 000
21.0
4085
49.0
219
. 0529
9.7
138
2009
1. 000
21.1
4108

225
. 0541
9.5
139
EPA-420-R-09-014
13
November 2009

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Ton-MPG by Model Year
(Three Year Moving Average)
Ton-MPG
50
45
Cars
40
35
30
Trucks
25
20
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Model Year
Figure5
As shown in Table 2, the average weight of the overall fleet has remained relatively constant since 2004,
with a slight increase in car weight offset by a small decrease in truck market share (as trucks have a higher
average weight than cars). Overall average horsepower has continued to increase. The projected 2009 weight
has increased by over 900 pounds and the average horsepower level has more than doubled since 1981.
The long term trends for both weight and performance have been steady increases. As shown in Figure
5, since 1975 Ton-MPG for both cars and trucks increased substantially; i.e., over 60% for cars and 80% for
trucks. Typically, Ton-MPG for both vehicle types has increased at a rate of about one or two percent a year.
Another dramatic trend over that time frame has been the substantial increase in performance of cars and
light trucks as measured by their estimated 0-to-60 time. These trends are shown graphically in Figure 6 (for
cars) and Figure 7 (for light trucks) which are plots of fuel economy versus performance, with model years as
indicated. Both graphs show the same story: in the late 1970s and early 1980s, responding to the regulatory
requirements for mpg improvement, the industry increased mpg and kept performance roughly constant. After
the regulatory mpg requirements stabilized, mpg improvements slowed and performance dramatically
improved. This trend toward increased performance is as important as the truck market share trend in
understanding trends in overall fleet mpg. Figures 8 and 9 are similar to Figures 6 and 7, but show the trends in
weight and laboratory fuel economy and show that the era of weight reductions that took place for both cars and
trucks between 1975 and the early 1980s has been followed by an era of weight increases until recently.
Table 2 also includes, for the first time, a column for vehicle footprint, in square feet. Footprint is one
metric for vehicle size, and is the product of wheelbase and average track width. Essentially, footprint is the area
defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. Footprint is of interest as MY2008 - 2010 light truck
CAFE standards allow manufacturers the option to choose footprint-based standards, MY2011 passenger car and
light truck CAFE standards are based exclusively on footprint-mpg curves, and MY2012 - 2016 CAFE and CO2
emissions standards may be footprint-based as well. EPA does not receive footprint data from manufacturers, so
the MY2008 footprint data in Table 2 is tabulated from external sources. MY2008 is the first year for which we are
reporting footprint data, but we expect to do so in future years as well. For MY2008, industry-wide footprint values
were 45.4 square feet for cars, 52.9 square feet for trucks, and 49.0 square feet for cars and trucks combined.
EPA-420-R-09-014
14
November 2009

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Car 55/45 Laboratory MPG vs 0 to 60 Time
by Model Year
55/45 Lab. MPG
30
o-
2009
2000
1995
1989
25
1985 1980
20
197
15
9	10	11	12	13	14	15
0 to 60 Time (Sec.)
Figure 6
Truck 55/45 Laboratory MPG vs 0 to 60 Time
by Model Year
55/45 Lab. MPG
25
20!
1987
200I
1995
1985
20
1990
1980
15
1975
1979
10
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
0 to 60 Time (Sec.)
Figure 7
EPA-420-R-09-014
15
November 2009

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Car 55/45 Laboratory MPG vs Inertia Weight
by Model Year
55/45 Lab. MPG
30
1988
2009
1985
2000
25
1980
1977
20
1979
1975
15
2500	3000	3500	4000	4500
Inertia Weight
Figure 8
Truck 55/45 Laboratory MPG vs Inertia Weight
by Model Year
55/45 Lab. MPG
25
1987
2000
2009
c>
20
1985
1990
1995
1980
15
1975
10
3500	4000	4500	5000
Inertia Weight
Figure 9
EPA-420-R-09-014
16
November 2009

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IV. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Trends
This new section focuses on light-duty vehicle tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions data that are
measured over the EPA city and highway test procedures.
C02 is the most important greenhouse gas, responsible for a majority of all global, anthropogenic
greenhouse gas emissions. Light-duty vehicles emit approximately 20 percent of total U.S. CO2 emissions. In
April 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court determined that C02 is a pollutant under the Clean Air Act2, and in April
2009, EPA proposed a finding that CO2 and other greenhouse gases from new motor vehicles and new motor
vehicle engines cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health
and welfare.3 In September 2009, EPA proposed the first-ever light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emissions
standards, under the Clean Air Act, for MY2012-2016.4 EPA expects to finalize these standards in early 2010.
These standards will be part of a new, harmonized National Policy that also includes new CAFE standards for
MY2012-2016, established and administered by DOT's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. One
of the goals of the National Policy is to establish a harmonized set of greenhouse gas emissions and CAFE
standards that automakers can meet with a single national fleet. In addition, EPA has granted the State of
California's request for a waiver of pre-emption under the Clean Air Act for its light-duty vehicle greenhouse
gas emissions regulatory program.5
Past reports in this series have presented fuel economy data only and have not included C02 emissions
data. With this report, EPA is introducing CO2 emissions data in anticipation of future CO2 regulations. Rather
than adding C02 emissions data to the large number of tables and figures in this report, we are providing a few
key summary tables and figures in this section as well as a methodology with which a reader can convert fuel
economy values from other sections of this report to equivalent C02 emissions levels. EPA also intends to
expand its annual Compliance Report to include CO2 information.6 Section III and Sections V through VIII of
this report, as well as all of the appendices, continue to focus exclusively on fuel economy data.
The light-duty vehicle tailpipe CO2 emissions data provided in this report represent the sum of three
pollutants that EPA and automakers directly measure in the formal emissions certification and fuel economy
compliance test programs:
•	CO2 emissions;
•	Carbon monoxide emissions, converted to an equivalent CO2 level on a mass basis by multiplying by a
factor of 1.57; and
•	Hydrocarbon emissions, converted to an equivalent CO2 level on a mass basis by multiplying by a factor
of approximately 3.17, which is dependent on the measured carbon weight fraction of vehicle test fuel.
2	549 U.S. 497 (2007).
3	74 Federal Register 18886 (April 24, 2009).
4	74 Federal Register 49454 (September 28, 2009)
5	74 Federal Register 32744 (July 8, 2009).
6	2007 Progress Report: Vehicle and Engine Compliance Activities (EPA-420-R-08-11).
EPA-420-R-09-014	17	November 2009

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While including the carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions adds, on average, less than one
percent to the tailpipe C02-equivalent emissions for late model year light-duty vehicles, they are included in the
CO2 emissions values for three reasons:
•	Atmospheric processes convert carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to CO2 relatively quickly compared
to the much longer atmospheric lifetime of C02;
•	Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions are included, along with CO2, in the "carbon balance"
equations that EPA uses to calculate fuel economy values, so they must also be included in the C02
values to maintain the mathematical integrity of the equations given below to convert between CO2
emissions and fuel economy values; and
•	Including carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions is consistent with EPA's proposed light-duty
vehicle C02 emissions standard-setting approach.
EPA routinely collects C02, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon emissions data as part of its compliance
programs. In fact, the individual fuel economy test values that comprise the EPA fuel economy trends database
are calculated from a set of "carbon balance" equations based on direct measurement of C02, carbon monoxide,
and hydrocarbon emissions. Since carbon is neither created nor destroyed in the combustion process,
quantifying the various carbon-containing compounds in the vehicle exhaust as well as the carbon weight
fraction of the gasoline test fuel allows the precise calculation of the amount of fuel that was combusted in the
vehicle engine. Ironically, while the fuel economy values are calculated from C02, carbon monoxide, and
hydrocarbon emissions data, the historic EPA fuel economy trends database files do not include the direct
emissions data. In order to quickly add C02 emissions data to this year's report, EPA has back-calculated the
C02 emissions (and associated carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions, converted to C02 on a mass basis)
levels from fuel economy values by simply reversing the carbon balance equations. EPA intends to add the
direct C02 emissions data, for future model years, to the database files for subsequent versions of this report.
As with the fuel economy data in this report, the light-duty vehicle C02 emissions values in this report
are expressed in two ways: unadjusted/laboratory values (which will be used for C02 emissions regulatory
compliance under the proposed new standards) and adjusted/real world values (which are used for consumer
information and environmental analysis). The C02 emissions values do not represent total light-duty vehicle
greenhouse gas emissions, as there are other sources of greenhouse gas emissions beyond those included in the
tailpipe C02 emissions values. It is also important to note that the tailpipe C02 emissions data in this report do
not reflect greenhouse gas emissions associated with vehicle assembly or component manufacturing, nor
upstream fuel-related production or distribution.
The unadjusted/laboratory C02 emissions values are the direct emissions data measured over the EPA
city and highway tests. The vehicle air conditioner is turned off during these tests. The EPA city and highway
tests will likely be used for compliance with future EPA light-duty vehicle C02 emissions standards
(compliance flexibilities associated with future C02 standards will likely allow the use of air conditioning and
other credits so that the unadjusted C02 emissions data in this report may not align perfectly with the EPA C02
standards). For late model year vehicles, the unadjusted C02 emissions values represent about 90 percent of
total unadjusted light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. The remaining 10 percent of total light-duty
vehicle greenhouse gas emissions is comprised of air conditioner efficiency-related C02 emissions (about 4
percent), air conditioner hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant emissions leaks (approximately 4 percent), tailpipe
nitrous oxide emissions (about 1 percent), and tailpipe methane emissions (methane is one hydrocarbon
compound with a longer atmospheric lifetime and higher global warming potency, but its mass emissions are so
low from gasoline vehicles that its potency-adjusted C02-equivalent emissions are less than 0.1 percent of total
light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emissions).
EPA-420-R-09-014
18
November 2009

-------
The adjusted CO2 emissions values are calculated by adjusting the direct CO2 unadjusted/laboratory
emissions test data upward to account for the many variables that can affect real world C02 emissions. For a
detailed discussion of the methodology that EPA uses to convert unadjusted fuel economy values to adjusted
fuel economy values, see Appendix A. This same methodology is used to calculate adjusted C02 emissions
values as well. On average, based on the current fleet mix, adjusted CO2 emissions levels are about 25 percent
higher than unadjusted C02 values. Because the adjusted C02 values take the impact of air conditioner
operation on vehicle tailpipe C02 emissions into account, these values represent about 95 percent of total
adjusted real world light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emissions, with the remainder comprised of air
conditioner hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant emissions leaks, tailpipe nitrous oxide emissions, and the higher
global warming potency associated with tailpipe methane emissions.
Table 3 gives key light-duty vehicle C02 emissions data for the entire data series from 1975 through
2009 for cars only, trucks only, and cars and trucks combined. Table 3 is very similar to Table 1, except that
the fuel economy data in Table 1 is replaced with C02 emissions data in Table 3. Projected industry-wide
MY2009 production volumes, which represent the sum of manufacturer-specific production projections
provided by automakers to EPA in the spring and summer of 2008, are not shown in Table 3 as it is expected
that actual MY2009 production will be 30 to 40 percent lower than projected values due to the recent economic
downturn.
EPA-420-R-09-014
19
November 2009

-------
Table 3
Carbon Dioxide Emissions Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Light Duty Vehicles
Cars
MODEL PROD	<-Carbon Dioxide Emissions in g/mi-> C02/ C02/	C02/
YEAR (000) FRAC LAB LAB LAB AD J AD J AD J TON CU-FT TON-CU-FT
CITY HWY 55/45 CITY HWY COMP
1975
8237
.806
649
456
563
723
585
658
325


1976
9722
.788
585
417
508
649
536
597
294


1977
11300
.800
556
399
486
618
511
570
289
5.2
2 . 6
1978
11175
. 773
517
363
447
574
466
527
294
4 . 8
2 . 7
1979
10794
. 778
504
362
439
561
464
518
297
4 . 8
2 . 7
1980
9443
. 835
441
308
381
489
396
447
288
4 . 3
2 . 8
1981
8733
. 827
413
288
357
457
370
419
272
4 . 0
2 . 6
1982
7819
.803
401
274
344
445
351
403
264
3.8
2 . 5
1983
8002
. 777
403
273
344
448
350
403
259
3.7
2 . 4
1984
10675
.761
398
268
339
441
343
398
257
3.7
2 . 4
1985
10791
. 746
387
259
330
430
332
387
250
3.6
2 . 3
1986
11015
.717
375
250
319
419
322
375
247
3.5
2 . 3
1987
10731
. 722
372
248
316
419
321
374
246
3.5
2 . 3
1988
10736
.702
367
243
311
415
315
369
242
3.4
2 . 3
1989
10018
. 693
373
245
316
425
319
375
242
3.5
2.2
1990
8810
. 698
380
247
320
434
323
381
240
3.6
2.2
1991
8524
. 678
377
245
317
434
322
380
241
3.5
2 . 3
1992
8108
. 666
385
245
322
444
323
385
238
3.6
2.2
1993
8456
. 640
377
241
315
438
319
378
236
3.5
2.2
1994
8415
. 596
380
241
317
444
321
381
235
3.5
2.2
1995
9396
. 620
377
236
314
444
316
380
233
3.5
2 . 1
1996
7890
. 600
378
236
314
449
317
381
232
3.5
2 . 1
1997
8335
. 576
375
236
313
449
317
380
232
3.5
2 . 1
1998
7972
. 551
375
235
312
451
317
380
230
3.5
2 . 1
1999
8379
. 551
380
238
315
458
323
387
230
3.5
2 . 1
2000
9128
. 551
378
238
315
461
326
388
230
3.5
2 . 1
2001
8408
. 539
375
236
313
458
326
387
229
3.5
2 . 1
2002
8304
. 515
371
236
311
458
327
385
227
3.5
2 . 1
2003
7951
. 504
367
233
308
456
323
383
224
3.5
2 . 1
2004
7538
.480
369
233
308
461
324
385
222
3.5
2 . 0
2005
8027
. 505
360
230
301
454
322
378
219
3.4
2 . 0
2006
7993
. 529
365
231
305
458
323
382
216
3.4
1.9
2007
8085
. 529
350
224
293
442
314
369
210
3.4
1.9
2008
7345
. 528
347
222
291
438
312
366
207
3.3
1.9
2009
	
. 513
344
220
288
434
309
363
206
3.3
1.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
20
November 2009

-------
Table 3 (Continued)
Carbon Dioxide Emissions Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Light Duty Vehicles
Trucks
MODEL PROD	<-Carbon Dioxide Emissions in g/mi-> C02/
YEAR (000) FRAC LAB LAB LAB ADJ ADJ ADJ TON
CITY HWY 55/45 CITY HWY COMP
1975
1987
. 194
734
549
649
815
700
766
376
1976
2612
.212
694
526
617
773
673
728
351
1977
2823
.200
635
491
570
705
630
668
323
1978
3273
.227
645
508
585
718
649
690
332
1979
3088
.222
665
530
606
736
680
713
335
1980
1863
. 165
541
408
480
604
522
565
292
1981
1821
. 173
503
375
446
560
482
524
275
1982
1914
. 197
498
369
439
553
474
518
272
1983
2300
.223
489
355
428
542
457
503
267
1984
3345
.239
498
360
435
554
462
512
271
1985
3669
.254
495
357
432
549
459
509
268
1986
4350
.283
473
343
416
530
440
489
262
1987
4134
.278
473
336
412
529
434
486
262
1988
4559
.298
486
339
419
549
440
497
259
1989
4435
. 307
491
345
425
559
449
505
258
1990
3805
. 302
499
343
429
570
449
511
255
1991
4049
. 322
486
334
417
559
438
499
253
1992
4064
. 334
499
339
427
573
447
511
252
1993
4754
. 360
496
335
423
573
442
508
249
1994
5710
.404
499
340
427
581
451
517
251
1995
5749
. 380
508
343
434
592
456
523
250
1996
5254
.400
502
335
427
589
447
517
245
1997
6124
. 424
505
340
431
600
456
523
241
1998
6485
. 449
502
334
425
596
449
520
243
1999
6839
. 449
511
342
434
609
463
532
241
2000
7447
. 449
502
339
427
605
458
526
240
2001
7202
.461
505
342
431
609
465
532
238
2002
7815
.485
505
342
431
617
465
532
234
2003
7824
.496
499
335
425
609
460
526
229
2004
8173
. 520
502
335
427
621
463
532
226
2005
7866
.495
488
324
415
609
449
517
221
2006
7111
. 471
480
320
408
597
442
508
218
2007
7192
. 471
475
314
402
589
436
502
211
2008
6554
. 472
463
305
392
574
423
488
207
2009
	
.487
458
300
388
570
415
483
205
EPA-420-R-09-014
21
November 2009

-------
Table 3 (Continued)
Carbon Dioxide Emissions Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Light Duty Vehicles
Cars and Trucks
MODEL PROD	<-Carbon Dioxide Emissions in g/mi-> C02/
YEAR (000) FRAC LAB LAB LAB ADJ ADJ ADJ TON
CITY HWY 55/45 CITY HWY COMP
1975
10224
1. 000
665
474
579
741
607
679
335
1976
12334
1. 000
608
440
531
675
565
625
306
1977
14123
1. 000
572
417
503
635
535
590
296
1978
14448
1. 000
546
396
479
607
508
564
302
1979
13882
1. 000
539
400
476
600
512
561
306
1980
11306
1. 000
457
325
397
508
417
467
289
1981
10554
1. 000
429
303
372
475
390
437
273
1982
9732
1. 000
420
292
363
466
375
426
266
1983
10302
1. 000
422
291
363
469
373
426
261
1984
14020
1. 000
422
290
362
468
371
425
260
1985
14460
1. 000
414
284
356
460
364
418
255
1986
15365
1. 000
403
277
346
451
356
407
251
1987
14865
1. 000
400
272
343
450
352
405
251
1988
15295
1. 000
403
272
343
455
352
407
247
1989
14453
1. 000
410
275
350
466
359
415
247
1990
12615
1. 000
416
276
353
475
361
421
245
1991
12573
1. 000
412
274
350
474
359
418
245
1992
12172
1. 000
423
276
357
488
364
427
242
1993
13211
1. 000
420
275
354
487
363
425
241
1994
14125
1. 000
428
281
362
499
373
436
241
1995
15145
1. 000
426
277
359
501
369
434
239
1996
13144
1. 000
428
276
359
505
369
436
237
1997
14459
1. 000
430
280
363
513
376
440
236
1998
14458
1. 000
432
279
363
516
376
443
236
1999
15218
1. 000
439
284
368
526
386
452
235
2000
16574
1. 000
434
284
366
525
385
450
235
2001
15610
1. 000
435
285
368
528
390
454
233
2002
16119
1. 000
436
288
369
535
394
456
230
2003
15775
1. 000
433
284
366
532
391
454
227
2004
15711
1. 000
438
286
370
544
396
461
224
2005
15893
1. 000
424
277
358
530
385
447
220
2006
15105
1. 000
419
273
353
524
379
441
217
2007
15277
1. 000
409
266
345
511
371
432
211
2008
13900
1. 000
402
262
339
502
364
424
207
2009
	
1. 000
399
259
337
500
361
422
205
EPA-420-R-09-014
22
November 2009

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Figure 10 plots the adjusted CO2 emissions values over time, for cars only, trucks only, and both cars
and trucks combined.
Adjusted C02 Emissions by Model Year
(grams/mile)
Adjusted C02
(g/mi)
800
700
600
Trucks
500
Both
400
cars
300
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Model Year
Figure 10
Table 3 and Figure 10 show that, over the last 35 years, adjusted (real world) CO2 emissions rates have
gone through four distinct phases. Most dramatically, adjusted composite (city/highway) C02 emissions rates
for the combined car/truck fleet fell sharply from 679 g/mi in MY1975 to 437 g/mi in MY1981, for a 36 percent
reduction over 6 years. Adjusted C02 emissions continued to decline, though much more slowly, reaching an
all-time low of 405 g/mi in MY1987, which represents a 40 percent reduction from MY1975. The trend then
reversed, as adjusted C02 levels rose slowly over the next 17 years, reaching 461 g/mi in MY2004, a 14 percent
increase relative to the MY1987 low. Adjusted C02 emissions have decreased for each of the last 5 years. The
MY2008 value, based nearly exclusively on final CAFE reports, is 424 g/mi. The preliminary MY2009 value,
based on automaker production projections made prior to the beginning of the model year, is 422 g/mi. The
preliminary MY2009 value represents an 8 percent reduction relative to MY2004.
Laboratory C02 emissions values are also given in Table 3. Because laboratory values do not reflect the
changes that EPA made to its methodology for adjusting fuel economy and C02 emissions levels for real world
estimates for consumers, they are the best metric for evaluating C02 emissions trends solely on vehicle design
considerations. Based on the 55/45 (city/highway) laboratory C02 values in Table 3, the 339 g/mi value in
MY2008 and the preliminary MY2009 value of 337 g/mi represent all-time lows.
Table 4 shows key light-duty vehicle characteristics, along with the adjusted composite C02 emissions
values, for the 1975 through 2009 timeframe for cars only, trucks only, and cars and trucks combined. Table 4
is very similar to Table 2, except that the fuel economy data in Table 2 is replaced with C02 emissions data in
Table 4.
EPA-420-R-09-014
23
November 2009

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1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
{-09-0
Vehicle Size and Design Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Cars
<	 Vehicle Characteristics: 	> <- Percent By: ->
PROD AD J VOL WGHT FOOT ENG HP/ 0-60 TOP VEHICLE SIZE
FRAC COMP CU-FT LB PRNT HP WT TIME SPD SMALL MID LARGE
C02	SQFT
806
658

4058
136
. 0331
14.2
111
55.4
23.3
21.3
788
597

4059
134
. 0324
14 . 4
110
55.4
25.2
19.4
800
570
110
3944
133
. 0335
14 . 0
111
51. 9
24 . 5
23.5
773
527
109
3588
124
. 0342
13.7
111
44 . 7
34 . 4
21.0
778
518
109
3485
119
. 0338
13. 8
110
43.7
34.2
22 . 1
835
447
104
3101
100
. 0322
14 . 3
107
54 . 4
34 . 4
11.3
827
419
106
3076
99
. 0320
14 . 4
106
51.5
36.4
12.2
803
403
106
3054
99
. 0320
14 . 4
106
56.5
31. 0
12 . 5
777
403
109
3112
104
. 0330
14 . 0
108
53. 1
31. 8
15. 1
761
398
108
3099
106
. 0339
13. 8
109
57 . 4
29.4
13.2
746
387
108
3093
111
. 0355
13.3
111
55.7
28 . 9
15.4
717
375
107
3041
111
. 0360
13.2
111
59.5
27 . 9
12 . 6
722
374
107
3031
112
. 0365
13. 0
112
63.5
24 . 3
12.2
702
369
107
3047
116
. 0375
12 . 8
113
64 . 8
22 . 3
12 . 8
693
375
108
3099
121
. 0387
12 . 5
115
58 . 3
28.2
13.5
698
381
107
3176
129
. 0401
12 . 1
117
58 . 6
28 . 7
12 . 8
678
380
107
3154
132
. 0413
11. 8
118
61.5
26.2
12 . 3
666
385
108
3240
141
. 0428
11.5
120
56.5
27 . 8
15. 6
640
378
108
3207
138
. 0425
11. 6
120
57.2
29.5
13.3
596
381
108
3250
143
. 0432
11.4
121
58 . 5
26.1
15.4
620
380
109
3263
152
. 0460
10. 9
125
57 . 3
28 . 6
14 . 0
600
381
109
3282
154
. 0464
10. 8
125
54 . 3
32 . 0
13. 6
576
380
109
3274
156
. 0469
10.7
126
55. 1
30. 6
14 . 3
551
380
109
3306
159
. 0475
10. 6
127
49.4
39. 1
11.4
551
387
109
3365
164
. 0481
10.5
128
47 . 7
39.7
12 . 6
551
388
110
3369
168
. 0492
10.4
129
47 . 5
34 . 3
18.2
539
387
109
3380
168
. 0492
10.3
129
50. 9
32 . 3
16.8
515
385
109
3391
173
. 0504
10.2
131
48 . 6
36.3
15. 1
504
383
109
3421
176
. 0510
10. 0
132
50. 8
33.4
15. 9
480
385
110
3462
182
. 0521
9.8
133
47 . 4
35.5
17 . 0
505
378
111
3463
182
. 0518
9.8
133
44.2
38 . 9
16.8
529
382
112
3534
194
. 0540
9.6
136
46.2
32 . 9
20.9
529
369
110
3507
189
. 0531
9.6
135
44 . 6
40.0
15.4
528
366
110
3527 45.4
193
. 0536
9.6
136
44 . 6
35. 9
19.5
513
363
111
3533
198
. 0548
9.5
137
43. 8
33.3
23. 0
24
November 2009

-------
Table 4 (Continued)
Vehicle Size and Design Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Trucks
<	 Vehicle Characteristics: 	> <	 Percent By: 	>
MODEL PROD AD J WGHT FOOT ENG HP/ 0-60 TOP	VEHICLE SIZE	VEHICLE TYPE
YEAR FRAC COMP LB PRNT HP WT TIME SPD SMALL MID LARGE VAN SUV PICKUP
C02	SQFT
1975
. 194
766
4072
142
. 0349
CO
114
10. 9
24.2
64 . 9
ro
CO
o
9.4
67 . 6
1976
.212
728
4155
141
. 0340
13. 8
113
9.0
20.3
70.7
19.2
9.3
71.4
1977
.200
668
4135
147
. 0356
13.3
115
11. 0
20.4
68 . 5
18.2
10. 0
71.8
1978
.227
690
4151
146
. 0351
13.4
114
10. 9
22 . 7
66. 3
19. 1
11. 6
69.3
1979
.222
713
4252
138
. 0325
14 . 3
111
15.2
19.5
65.3
15. 6
13. 0
71.5
1980
. 165
565
3869
121
. 0313
14 . 5
108
28 . 4
17 . 6
54 . 0
13. 0
9.9
77 . 1
1981
. 173
524
3806
119
. 0311
14 . 6
108
23.2
19. 1
57 . 7
13.5
7 . 5
79.1
1982
. 197
518
3806
120
. 0317
14 . 5
109
21.1
31. 0
47 . 9
16.2
8 . 5
75.3
1983
.223
503
3763
118
. 0313
14 . 5
108
16.6
45. 9
37 . 6
16.6
12 . 6
70.8
1984
.239
512
3782
118
. 0310
14 . 7
108
19.5
46.4
34 . 1
20.2
18 . 7
61. 1
1985
.254
509
3795
124
. 0326
14 . 1
110
19.2
48 . 5
32 . 3
23.3
20.0
56.6
1986
.283
489
3738
123
. 0330
14 . 0
110
23.5
48 . 5
28 . 0
24 . 0
17 . 8
58.2
1987
.278
486
3713
131
. 0351
13.3
113
19. 9
59. 6
20.6
26.9
21.1
51. 9
1988
.298
497
3841
141
. 0366
12 . 9
115
15. 0
57.2
27 . 8
24 . 8
21.2
53. 9
1989
. 307
505
3921
146
. 0372
12 . 8
116
13. 9
58 . 9
27.2
28 . 8
20.9
50.3
1990
. 302
511
4005
151
. 0377
12 . 6
117
13.4
57 . 1
29.6
33.2
18 . 6
48.2
1991
. 322
499
3948
150
. 0379
12 . 6
117
11.4
67.2
21.4
25.5
27 . 0
47 . 4
1992
. 334
511
4056
155
. 0382
12 . 5
118
10.4
64 . 0
25. 6
30. 0
24 . 7
45.3
1993
. 360
508
4073
162
. 0398
12 . 1
120
8 . 8
65.3
25. 9
30.3
27 . 6
42 . 1
1994
.404
517
4125
166
. 0403
12 . 0
121
9.8
63. 1
27.2
24 . 8
28 . 4
46.7
1995
. 380
523
4184
168
. 0401
12 . 0
121
8 . 6
63.5
27 . 9
28 . 9
31. 6
39.5
1996
.400
517
4225
179
. 0423
11.5
124
6.5
67 . 1
26.4
26.8
36.0
37.2
1997
. 424
523
4344
187
. 0429
11.4
126
10. 1
52 . 5
37 . 3
20.7
40.0
39.3
1998
. 449
520
4283
187
. 0435
11.2
126
8 . 9
58 . 7
32 . 4
23. 0
39. 8
37.2
1999
. 449
532
4412
197
. 0446
11. 0
128
7 . 7
55. 8
36.5
21.4
41.4
37.2
2000
. 449
526
4375
197
. 0448
11. 0
128
6.7
55.7
37 . 5
22 . 7
42.2
35. 1
2001
.461
532
4463
209
. 0466
10. 6
131
6.6
47 . 6
45. 9
17 . 1
47 . 9
35. 0
2002
.485
532
4546
219
. 0482
10.4
134
7 . 1
43.5
49.4
15. 9
53. 6
30.5
2003
.496
526
4586
221
. 0481
10.4
134
5.9
47 . 8
46.3
15.7
52 . 6
31. 6
2004
. 520
532
4710
236
. 0501
10. 0
137
5.1
46.2
48 . 7
11.7
57 . 7
30.7
2005
.495
517
4668
237
. 0505
10. 0
137
2 . 8
47 . 3
49.9
18 . 8
51. 9
29.2
2006
. 471
508
4665
235
. 0502
10. 0
137
2 . 0
49.0
49.0
16.4
52 . 8
30. 8
2007
. 471
502
4752
248
. 0520
9.8
140
2 . 0
44 . 9
53. 1
11. 8
58 . 8
29.4
2008
. 472
488
4710
52.9 247
. 0522
9.7
140
2 . 3
49.7
48 . 0
11. 8
60. 8
27 . 4
2009
.487
483
4712
253
. 0534
9.6
142
2 . 5
44 . 7
52 . 9
9.3
65. 8
24 . 9
EPA-420-R-09-014
25
November 2009

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Table 4 (Continued)
Vehicle Size and Design Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Light Duty Vehicles
<	 Vehicle Characteristics: 	>
MODEL PROD AD J WGHT FOOT ENG HP/ 0-60 TOP
YEAR FRAC COMP LB PRNT HP	WT TIME SPD
C02	SQFT
1975
1. 000
1976
1. 000
1977
1. 000
1978
1. 000
1979
1. 000
1980
1. 000
1981
1. 000
1982
1. 000
1983
1. 000
1984
1. 000
1985
1. 000
1986
1. 000
1987
1. 000
1988
1. 000
1989
1. 000
1990
1. 000
1991
1. 000
1992
1. 000
1993
1. 000
1994
1. 000
1995
1. 000
1996
1. 000
1997
1. 000
1998
1. 000
1999
1. 000
2000
1. 000
2001
1. 000
2002
1. 000
2003
1. 000
2004
1. 000
2005
1. 000
2006
1. 000
2007
1. 000
2008
1. 000
2009
1. 000
679	4060
625	4079
590	3982
564	3715
561	3655
467	3228
437	3202
426	3202
426	3257
425	3262
418	3271
407	3238
405	3221
407	3283
415	3351
421	3426
418	3410
427	3512
425	3519
436	3603
434	3613
436	3659
440	3727
443	3744
452	3835
450	3821
454	3879
456	3951
454	3999
461	4111
447	4059
441	4067
432	4093
424	4085 49.0
422	4108
137	.0335
135	.0328
136	.0339
129	.0344
124	.0335
104	.0320
102	.0318
103	.0320
107	.0327
109	.0332
114	.0347
114	.0351
118	.0361
123	.0372
129	.0382
135	.0394
138	.0402
145	.0413
147	.0416
152	.0420
158	.0438
164	.0447
169	.0452
171	.0457
179	.0465
181	.0472
187	.0480
195	.0493
199	.0496
211	.0511
209	.0512
213	.0522
217	.0525
219	.0529
225	.0541
14 . 1
112
14 . 3
111
13. 8
112
13. 6
112
13. 9
110
14 . 3
107
14 . 4
107
14 . 4
107
14 . 1
108
14 . 0
109
13.5
110
13.4
111
13. 1
112
12 . 8
114
12 . 5
115
12.2
117
12 . 1
118
11. 8
120
M
CO
120
11.7
121
M
CO
123
ll. l
125
11. 0
126
10. 9
126
10.7
128
10. 6
129
10.5
130
10.3
132
10.2
133
9.9
135
9.9
135
9.8
137
9.7
137
9.7
138
9.5
139
EPA-420-R-09-014
26
November 2009

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Table 4 shows that average, combined car/truck, weight and horsepower levels declined significantly
from MY1975 through MY1981, with weight decreasing by over 850 pounds (21 percent) and power falling by
35 horsepower (26 percent). Average vehicle weight grew slowly in the 1980s, and more rapidly thereafter, and
by MY2004 average weight had reached an all-time high of 4111 pounds. It has remained relatively constant
since. Average vehicle horsepower has grown steadily since MY1981. The projected MY2009 level of 225
horsepower represents a 64 percent increase over MY1975, and a 121 percent increase relative to MY1981,
which was the all-time low for this data series. Table 4 also shows that average MY2008 footprint values were
45.4 square feet for cars, 52.9 square feet for trucks, and 49.0 square feet for cars and trucks combined.
Table 5 gives average C02 emissions performance for the nine highest-production volume marketing
groups for model years 2008 and 2009 for cars only, trucks only, and cars and trucks combined. As discussed
earlier, EPA has high confidence in the MY2008 data as it is based nearly exclusively on actual production as
submitted by automakers to EPA in final CAFE reports. EPA has less confidence in the MY2009 data as it is
based on automaker projections of production volumes submitted to EPA prior to the start of the 2009 model
year. EPA anticipates that this data will change for all manufacturers after the final MY2009 data has been
submitted to EPA, and this final data will be included in next year's version of this report.
Table 5
Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Marketing Group for MY 2008 and MY2009
(g/mi)
Marketing <-
Group
Model Year 2008 	> <	Model Year 2009 	>
Cars	Trucks Cars and Trucks
Cars	Trucks Cars and Trucks
Honda
328
438
372
334
436
376
Hyundai-Kia
335
447
374
346
447
380
Toyota
316
468
389
324
460
383
Volkswagen
385
546
398
376
464
398
Nissan
351
502
406
344
494
411
BMW
406
480
419
395
496
412
General Motors
386
511
452
378
505
447
Ford
397
499
459
391
475
434
Chrysler
400
494
460
406
496
476
All
366
488
424
363
483
422
For MY2008, Honda had the lowest average car/truck C02 emissions performance of 372 g/mi,
followed closely by Hyundai-Kia with 374 g/mi. Chrysler had the highest average fleet value of 460 g/mi, or
24 percent higher than Honda, followed by Ford with 459 g/mi. For MY2008 cars, Toyota had the lowest and
BMW had the highest average CO2 emissions. Honda had the lowest average CO2 emissions performance for
MY2008 trucks, while Volkswagen had the highest value.
The relative marketing group rankings for the preliminary MY2009 values are generally similar to those
for MY2008. The most notable changes are that the preliminary MY2009 fleetwide value for Ford is 25 g/mi
lower than in MY2008, and the preliminary MY2009 value for Chrysler is 16 g/mi higher than in MY2008. It
will not be possible to confirm these changes until the final MY2009 CAFE reports become available early next
year.
While Tables 3, 4, and 5 provide key summary C02 emissions data, EPA recognizes that many users
will want the CO2 emissions values equivalent to the fuel economy values in many other tables in this report.
Converting fuel economy values from tables in this report to approximate equivalent C02 emissions values is
fairly straightforward.
EPA-420-R-09-014
27
November 2009

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If it is known that a fuel economy value in this report is based on a single gasoline vehicle, or a 100
percent gasoline vehicle fleet, one can calculate the precise corresponding C02 value by simply dividing 8887
(which is a typical value for the grams of CO2 per gallon of gasoline test fuel, assuming all the carbon is
converted to C02) by the fuel economy value in miles per gallon. For example, 8887 divided by a gasoline
vehicle fuel economy of 30 mpg would yield an equivalent CO2 emissions value of 296 grams per mile.
Since gasoline vehicle production has accounted for 99+ percent of all light-duty vehicle production for
all model years since 1975 except for the six years from 1979 through 1984, this simple approach yields very
accurate results for most model years.
Diesel fuel has 14.5 percent higher carbon content per gallon than gasoline. To calculate a CO2
equivalent value for a diesel vehicle, one should divide 10,180 by the diesel vehicle fuel economy value.
Accordingly, a 30 mpg diesel vehicle would have a CO2 equivalent value of 339 grams per mile.
Table 6 should be used by those who want to make the most accurate conversions of industry-wide fuel
economy values to C02 emissions values. Table 6 gives model year-specific industry-wide values for grams of
CO2 per gallon based on actual light-duty gasoline and diesel vehicle production in that year. Using these
model year-specific values and dividing by the fuel economy value in miles per gallon will allow accurate
conversions of industry-wide fuel economy values to industry-wide CO2 emissions values.
Readers will have to make judgment calls about how to best convert fuel economy values that do not
represent industry-wide values (e.g., just small vehicles or vehicles with 5-speed automatic transmissions). If
the user knows the gasoline/diesel production volume fractions of the individual database component, it is best
to generate a weighted value of grams of C02 per gallon based on the 8887 (gasoline) and 10,180 (diesel)
factors discussed above. Otherwise, the reader can choose between the model year-specific weighting in Table
6 (which implicitly assumes that the diesel fraction in the database component of interest is similar to that for
the overall fleet in that year) or the gasoline value of 8887 (implicitly assuming no diesels in that database
component). In nearly all cases, any error associated with either of these approaches will be relatively small.
EPA-420-R-09-014
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November 2009

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1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
for Converting Industry-wide Fuel Economy Values from this Report
to Carbon Dioxide Emissions Values
Gasoline Market Share Diesel Market Share
(Percentage)	(Percentage)
99. 8
99. 8
99. 6
99. 1
98 . 0
95.7
94 . 1
94 . 4
97	.
98	.
99. 1
99. 6
99.7
99. 9
99.
99.
99.
99.
100. 0
100. 0
100. 0
99. 9
99.
99.
99.
99.
99.
99. 8
99. 8
99. 9
99.7
99. 6
99.
99.
99.
.2
.2
. 4
. 9
. 0
. 3
. 9
. 6
. 7
. 8
. 9
. 4
. 3
. 1
. 1
. 1
. 1
. 1
. 0
. 0
. 0
. 1
. 1
. 1
. 1
. 1
. 1
.2
.2
. 1
. 3
. 4
. 1
. 1
. 5
Weighted C02
per Gallon
(grams)
8890
8890
8892
8899
8913
8943
8963
8959
8922
8910
8899
8892
8891
8888
8888
8888
8888
8888
8887
8887
8887
8888
8888
8888
8888
8888
8888
8890
8890
8888
8891
8892
8888
8888
8893
29
November 2009

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V. Fuel Economy Trends by Vehicle Type, Size, and Weight
Table 1 showed that for the past several years trucks have accounted for about 50 percent of the light-
duty vehicles produced each year. MY2004 was the peak year for trucks with 52 percent market share, and
trucks have been between 47 and 50 percent since. Considering the five classes: cars, wagons, sports utility
vehicles (SUVs), vans, and pickups, since 1975 the biggest overall increase in market share has been for SUVs,
up from less than two percent in 1975 to over 30 percent based on a 3-year moving average (see Figure 11 and
Table 7). The biggest overall decrease has been for cars, down from 71 percent of the fleet in 1975 to 47
percent. By comparison, the production fraction for pickup trucks has remained relatively constant at about 12
percent of the market.
Figures 12 to 16 compare 3-year moving average production fractions by vehicle type and size with the
fleet again stratified into five vehicle types: cars (i.e., coupes, sedans, and hatchbacks), station wagons, vans,
SUVs, and pickup trucks; and three vehicle sizes: small, midsize, and large. As shown in Figure 12, large cars
accounted for about 20 percent of all car production in the late 1970s, but their share of the car market dropped
in the early 1980s to about 12 percent of the market where it remained for about two decades, but has since
increased back to about 20 percent. Within the car segment, the market share for small cars peaked in the late
1980s at about 65 percent and is now lower than at anytime since 1975.
Sales Fraction by Vehicle Type
(Three Year Moving Average)
Sales Fraction
Waqon
¦Van
Pickup
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Figure 11
EPA-420-R-09-014
30
November 2009

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Large wagons accounted for more than 20 percent of the wagon segment of the market in the late 1970s
but then lost market share relatively consistently and were not produced at all between 1996 and 2004 when
they re-emerged. They now account for about five percent of all wagons, but less than one percent of all light
vehicles. Similarly (see Figure 14), large vehicles accounted for nearly 40 percent of all vans through the early
1980s compared to less than 10 percent the past few years. Small vans have never had a significant market
share, and none have been produced in recent years. Figures 15 and 16 show that the longer term trend of
increased market share for both large SUVs and pickups has levelled off in the last few years.
Table 7 compares the production fractions by vehicle type and size on a different basis, that for the total
market. Since 1975, the largest increases in production fractions have been for midsize and large SUVs. These
two classes are expected to account for 30 percent of all light vehicles built this year, compared to combined
totals of about 1.3 and 4.5 percent in 1975 and 1988, respectively. Conversely, the largest production fraction
decrease has occurred for small cars which accounted for 40 percent of all light-duty vehicles produced in 1975
and over 43 percent in 1988, but less than 20 percent this year.
Car Sales Fraction by Vehicle Size
(Three Year Moving Average)
Wagon Sales Fraction by Vehicle Size
(Three Year Moving Average)
Sales Fraction
Sales Fraction
100%
100%
~ Small
~Midsize
~Small
~Midsize
80%
¦ Large
80%
¦ Large
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Model Year
Figure 12
Figure 13
EPA-420-R-09-014
31
November 2009

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Van Sales Fraction by Vehicle Size
(Three Year Moving Average)
SUV Sales Fraction by Vehicle Size
(Three Year Moving Average)
Sales Fraction
Sales Fraction
100%
100%
~	Small
~	Midsize
¦ Large
~	Small
~	Midsize
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008	1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year	Model Year
Figure 14	Figure 15
Pickup Sales Fraction by Vehicle Size
(Three Year Moving Average)
Sales Fraction
100%
~	Small
~	Midsize
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Figure 16
EPA-420-R-09-014
32
November 2009

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Table 7
Production Fractions of MY1975, MY1988 and MY2009
Light Duty Vehicles by Vehicle Size and Type
Differences in Production Fraction
Vehicle
Type
Size
Production Fraction	From 1975 From 1975 From 1988
1975 1988 2009	To 2009 To 1988 To 2009
Car
Small
Midsize
Large
40 . OS
16.Oh
15.2k
43. 8^
13. 8=?
8 . 5k
19. OS
16. 3=?
11.7S
-21.0k
. 3k
-3 . 5k
3.
-2 .
-6.
-24 .
2 .
3.
All
71. IS
66.2k
47 . OS
-24.IS
-5 . OS
-19.2S
Wagon
Small
Midsize
Large
4 . 7S
2 . 8S
1.9k
1.1k
1.9k
. 5k
3.4k
. OS
-1.2k
-2 . Ik
-1.9k
-3.0k
-1.0k
-1.4k
1.9k
-1.1k
-0.4k
All
9.4k
4 . 0k
4.2k
-5.2k
-5.4k
Van
Small
Midsize
Large
. 3=!
. 2S
. 6S
-0.4k
-1.8k
-0.1k
All
4 . 5S
7 . 4k
4 . 5k
2 . 9k
-2 . 9k
SUV
Small
Midsize
Large
1.
15.
15.
14
15
-0.1k
11.4k
15.0k
All
1.
6.3k
32 . Ik
30.2k
4 . 5k
25.1k
Pickup
Small
Midsize
Large
1.6k
. 5k
11.0k
2.2k
6.9k
1. 0k
. 0k
2 . 0k
10.1k
-1.
1.
-0.
-2 .
-4 .
3.
All
13 .Ik
16.1k
12 . IS
-1. OS
2 . 9k
-3.9k
All	Trucks	19.4% 29.8% 48.7%	29.3%	10.4%	18.9S
EPA-420-R-09-014
33
November 2009

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Figures 17 through 21 show 3-year moving average trends in performance, weight, and adjusted fuel
economy for cars, wagons, vans, SUVs, and pickups. For all five vehicle types, there has been a clear long term
trend towards increased weight, moderating since 2005 for wagons and SUVs.
Table 8 shows the lowest, average, and highest adjusted mpg performance by vehicle class and size for
three selected years. For both 1988 and 2009, the mpg performance is such that the midsize vehicles in all
classes have better fuel economy than the corresponding entry for small vehicles in 1975. In Table 9, the
percentage changes obtainable from the entries in Table 8 are presented. Average mpg for four classes (midsize
cars, large cars, midsize wagons, and midsize SUVs) have improved over 80 percent since 1975. Since 1988,
average fuel economy has decreased for small wagons, large wagons, small SUVs, and midsize pickups, and the
largest improvements in average mpg has been over 20 percent for midsize and large SUVs, respectively.
Tables 10 and 11 present this same data in terms of fuel consumption.
Fuel Economy and Performance
(Three Year Moving Average)
Cars
35
MPG, 0 to 60 (sec.)	Inertia Weight (lbs.)
30
25
20
15
10
Adjusted Composite MPG
Weight
0 to 60 Time
5 i i i i I i i i i I i i i i I i i i i I i i i i I i i i i I i i i 2000
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Fuel Economy and Performance
(Three Year Moving Average)
Wagons
5000 35
MPG, 0 to 60 (sec.)	Inertia Weight (lbs.)
4500 30
4000 25
3500 20
3000	15
2500	10
Adjusted Composite MPG
Weight
0 to 60 Time
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
5 i i i i I i i i i I i i i i I i i i i I i i i i I i i i i I i i i 2000
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 17
Figure 18
EPA-420-R-09-014
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November 2009

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Fuel Economy and Performance
(Three Year Moving Average)
Vans
35
MPG, 0 to 60 (sec.)	Inertia Weight (lbs.)
30
25
20
15
10
Weight
Adjusted Composite MPG
0 to 60 Time
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 19
5000
4500
4000
2000
Fuel Economy and Performance
(Three Year Moving Average)
SUVs
MPG, 0 to 60 (sec.)	Inertia Weight (lbs.)
3500	20
3000	15
2500	10
Weight
Adjusted Composite MPG
0 to 60 Time
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 20
Fuel Economy and Performance
(Three Year Moving Average)
Pickups
MPG, 0 to 60 (sec.)	Inertia Weight (lbs)
Weight
Adjusted Composite MPG
0 to 60 Time
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 21
EPA-420-R-09-014
35
November 2009

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Table 8
Vehicle
Type
Car
Lowest, Average and Highest Adjusted Fuel Economy by Vehicle Type and Size
High. Low.
Wagon
Van
SUV
Pickup
Size
Small
Midsize
Large
All
Small
Midsize
Large
All
Small
Midsize
Large
All
Small
Midsize
Large
All
Small
Midsize
Large
All
Low.
8 . 6
8 . 6
8 . 4
8 . 4
11. 8
8 . 4
8 . 4
8 . 4
16.2
8.2
8 . 9
8.2
10.2
8.2
7 . 9
7 . 9
13. 0
17 . 8
7 . 6
7 . 6
1975
Avg.
1988
Avg.
High. Low.
15. 6
11. 6
11.2
13.4
19. 1
11.3
10.2
13. 8
17 . 5
11.3
10.7
11. 1
13.7
10.2
10.3
11. 0
19.
17 .
11. 1
11. 9
28 . 3
18 . 4
14 . 6
28 . 3
24 . 1
25. 0
12 . 8
25. 0
18 . 5
18 . 4
14 . 5
18 . 5
16.3
18 . 4
13.7
18 . 4
20.8
18 . 0
18 . 5
20.8
7 . 5
10.5
10. 0
17 . 1
17 . 5
19.2
17 . 1
15.5
11.3
9.9
9.9
15. 6
10.2
12.2
10.2
13.3
15.3
9.8
9.8
25.7
22 . 6
20.6
26.3
22.2
19.4
20.6
18 . 4
14 . 3
20.4
16.5
14 . 0
21.0
21.3
15.2
54 . 4
27 . 7
26.0
7.5 24.2 54.4
33.2
27 . 7
19.4
23.3 33.2
25. 0
23.4
16.8
17.9 25.0
27 . 7
23. 6
18 . 8
17.2 27.7
24 . 6
25. 9
21.0
10.4
11. 9
12 . 1
10.4
19.2
15.4
17 . 0
15.4
18 . 4
11.2
11.2
16.7
12 . 7
10. 0
2009
Avg.
25.7
25. 1
22.2
24 . 5
25.5
22 . 0
17 . 4
24 . 7
20.1
15. 8
19. 8
18 . 7
20.2
17 . 9
18.1 25.9
10.0 19.0
15.9 19.5
11.5 16.2
11.5 16.7
High.
42 . 9
46.2
26.4
46.2
35. 0
24 . 8
20.9
35. 0
21.1
17 . 4
21.1
23. 1
32 . 0
22 . 0
32 . 0
23.7
21.5
23.7
All
All
All
Cars
Trucks
Vehicles
8.4 13.5 28.3
7.6 11.6 20.8
7.6 13.1 28.3
7.5 24.1 54.4
9.8 17.9 27.7
7.5 21.9 54.4
10.4 24.5 46.2
10.0 18.4 32.0
10.0 21.1 46.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
36
November 2009

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Table 9
Percent Change in Lowest, Average and Highest Adjusted Fuel Economy
by Vehicle Type and Size
Vehicle
Type
Size
From
Low.
1975 to
Avg.
2009
High.
From
Low.
1975 to
Avg.
1988
High.
From
Low.
1988 to
Avg.
2009
High
Car
Small
Midsize
Large
21%
38%
44%
65%
116%
98%
52%
151%
81%
-12%
22%
19%
65%
95%
84%
92%
51%
78%
39%
13%
21%
0%
11%
8%
-20%
67%
2%

All
24%
83%
63%
-10%
81%
92%
39%
1%
-14%
Wagon
Small
Midsize
Large
63%
83%
102%
34%
95%
71%
45%
0%
63%
45%
108%
129%
38%
96%
90%
38%
11%
52%
12%
-11%
-10%
-2%
0%
-9%
5%
-9%
8%

All
83%
79%
40%
104%
69%
33%
-9%
6%
5%
Van
Small
Midsize
Large
124%
26%
78%
48%
15%
20%
-3%
38%
11%
18%
63%
34%
35%
27%
16%
63%
13%
9%
10%
-9%
4%

All
37%
78%
14%
21%
61%
35%
13%
11%
-15%
SUV
Small
Midsize
Large
64%
55%
27%
36%
98%
74%
42%
74%
61%
53%
24%
54%
49%
62%
36%
70%
28%
37%
7%
25%
-17%
-7%
22%
28%
-16%
36%
17%

All
27%
73%
74%
29%
56%
51%
-1%
10%
16%
Pickup
Small
Midsize
Large
-10%
51%
9%
4 6%
32%
16%
2%
-13%
29%
9%
19%
37%
18%
44%
14%
4%
17%
-7%
7%
-7%
2%

All
51%
40%
14%
29%
52%
25%
17%
-7%
-7%
All
Cars
24%
81%
63%
-10%
79%
92%
39%
2%
-14%
All
Trucks
32%
59%
54%
29%
54%
33%
2%
3%
16%
All
Vehicles
32%
61%
63%
0%
67%
92%
33%
-3%
-14%
EPA-420-R-09-014	37	November 2009

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Table 10
Adjusted Fuel Consumption	(Gallons/100 miles) by	Vehicle	Type and Size
Vehicle	1975	1988	2009
Type Size	Low. Avg.	High.	Low.	Avg.	High.	Low.	Avg.	High.
Car Small	11.6	6.4	3.5	13.3	3.9	1.8	9.6	3.9	2.3
Midsize	11.6	8.6	5.4	9.5	4.4	3.6	8.4	4.0	2.2
Large	11.9	8.9	6.8	10.0	4.9	3.8	8.3	4.5	3.8
All	11.9	7.5	3.5	13.3	4.1	1.8	9.6	4.1	2.2
Wagon	Small
Midsize
Large
All
8.5	5.2	4.1
11.9	8.8	4.0
11.9	9.8	7.8
11.9	7.2	4.0
5.8	3.8	3.0
5.7	4.5	3.6
5.2	5.2	5.2
5.8	4.3	3.0
5.2	3.9	2.9
6.5	4.5	4.0
5.9 5.7	4.8
6.5	4.0	2.9
Van	Small
Midsize
Large
All
6.2	5.7 5.4
12.2	8.8	5.4
11.2	9.3 6.9
12.2	9.0 5.4
6.5	4.9	4.0
8.8	5.4	4.3
10.1	7.0	6.0
10.1	5.6	4.0
5.4 5.0 4.7
8.9 5.1 4.7
8.9 5.1 4.7
SUV	Small
Midsize
Large
All
9.8	7.3 6.1
12.2	9.8	5.4
12.7	9.7 7.3
12.7	9.1 5.4
6.4	4.9	3.6
9.8	6.1	4.2
8.2	7.1	5.3
9.8	5.8	3.6
6.0	5.3	4.3
7.9	5.0	3.1
10.0	5.6	4.5
10.0	5.3	3.1
Pickup Small
Midsize
Large
All
7.7	5.2	4.8
5.6	5.6	5.6
13.2	9.0	5.4
13.2	8.4	4.8
7.5	4.8	4.1
6.5	4.7	3.9
10.2	6.6 4.8
10.2	5.5	3.9
6.3 5.1 4.2
8.7 6.2 4.7
8.7 6.0 4.2
All	Cars	11.9 7.4 3.5	13.3 4.1 1.8	9.6 4.1 2.2
All	Trucks	13.2 8.6 4.8	10.2 5.6 3.6	10.0 5.4 3.1
All	Vehicles 13.2 7.6 3.5	13.3 4.6 1.8	10.0 4.7 2.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
38
November 2009

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Table 11

Percent Change* in
Adjusted Fuel
Consumption by Vehicle Type and
Size
Vehicle

From 1975
to 2009
From
1975 to
1988
From
1988 to 200
Type
Size
Low
Avg
High
Low
Avg.
High.
Low
Avg.
Higl:
Car
Small
17%
39%
17%
-15%
39%
49%
28%
0%
-28%

Midsize
28%
53%
59%
18%
49%
33%
12%
9%
39%

Large
30%
49%
44%
16%
45%
44%
17%
8%
0%

All
19%
45%
37%
-12%
45%
49%
28%
0%
-22%
Wagon
Small
39%
25%
29%
32%
27%
27%
10%
-3%
3%

Midsize
45%
49%
0%
52%
49%
10%
-14%
0%
-11%

Large
50%
42%
38%
5 6%
47%
33%
-13%
-10%
8%

All
45%
44%
28%
51%
40%
25%
-12%
7%
3%
Van
Small



-5%
14%
2 6%




Midsize
56%
43%
13%
28%
39%
20%
39%
7%
-9%

Large
21%
45%
32%
10%
25%
13%
12%
27%
22%

All
27%
43%
13%
17%
38%
2 6%
12%
9%
-18%
SUV
Small
39%
27%
30%
35%
33%
41%
6%
-8%
-19%

Midsize
35%
49%
43%
20%
38%
22%
19%
18%
2 6%

Large
21%
42%
38%
35%
27%
27%
-22%
21%
15%

All
21%
42%
43%
23%
36%
33%
-2%
9%
14%
Pickup
Small



3%
8%
15%




Midsize
-13%
9%
25%
-16%
16%
30%
3%
-9%
-8%

Large
34%
31%
13%
23%
27%
11%
15%
6%
2%

All
34%
29%
13%
23%
35%
19%
15%
-9%
-8%
All
Cars
19%
45%
37%
-12%
45%
49%
28%
0%
-22%
All
Trucks
24%
37%
35%
23%
35%
25%
2%
4%
14%
All
Vehicles
24%
38%
37%
-1%
39%
49%
25%
-2%
-22%
*Note:
A Negative
Change
indicates that
the
fuel consumption has
increased.
EPA-420-R-09-014
39
November 2009

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Cars and light trucks with conventional drivetrains have a fuel consumption and weight relationship
which is well known and is shown on Figures 22 and 23. Fuel consumption increases linearly with weight.
Because vehicles with different propulsion systems, i.e., diesels and hybrids, occupy a different place on such a
fuel consumption and weight plot, the data for hybrid and diesel vehicles are plotted separately and excluded
from the regression lines shown on the graphs. At constant weight, MY2008 cars consume about 30 to 40
percent less fuel per mile than their MY1975 counterparts.
On this same constant weight basis, this year's cars with diesel engines nominally consume 20 - 25
percent less fuel than the conventionally powered ones, while this year's hybrid cars are about 30 - 40 percent
better. Similarly, at constant weight this year's conventionally powered trucks achieve about 40 percent better
fuel consumption than MY1975 vehicles did.
Figures 24 and 25 show that the relationship between interior volume and fuel consumption is currently
not as important as it used to be. The data points on both of these graphs exclude two seaters and represent
production weighted average fuel consumption calculated at increments of 1.0 cu. ft. As was done for Figures
22 and 23, the data points for hybrid and diesel vehicles were plotted separately from those for the
conventionally powered vehicles.
As discussed above, EPA is including vehicle footprint data for the first time. We are only reporting
MY2008 footprint data in this report. Figures 26 and 27 show laboratory 55/45 fuel consumption versus
footprint for cars and trucks, respectively, again with the regression lines excluding the hybrid and diesel data
points. Car fuel consumption is more sensitive to footprint than truck fuel consumption. For a given footprint,
trucks generally have somewhat higher fuel consumption than cars.
Figures 28 and 29 show the improvement that occurred between 1975 and 2009 for fuel consumption as a
function of 0-to-60 time for cars and trucks. Figures 30 and 31 compare Ton-MPG data versus 0-to-60 time and
show that at constant vehicle performance, there has been substantial improvement in Ton-MPG, particularly for
hybrid and diesel vehicles.
EPA-420-R-09-014
40
November 2009

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Laboratory 55/45 Fuel Consumption
vs Inertia Weight
MY1975 and MY2009 Cars
Gal/100 miles
O 2009
1975
10 --
O Hybrids
~ Diesels
8 --
2009
1500 2500 3500 4500 5500 6500 7500
Inertia Weight
Figure 22
Laboratory 55/45 Fuel Consumption
vs Inertia Weight
MY1975 and MY2009 Trucks
Gal/100 miles
¦
O 2009
O Hybrids
~ Diesels
~ 1975
1975
~ 			
		 2009

	^~ o
^	' o o o
¦
¦ ... i¦¦¦¦i ¦ ... i ¦ ... i ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ i ... ¦
1500 2500 3500 4500 5500 6500 7500
Inertia Weight
Figure 23
EPA-420-R-09-014
41
November 2009

-------
Laboratory 55/45 Fuel Consumption
vs Interior Volume
MY1978 Cars
Gal/100 miles
-

-
D
~
~
~
-
\
I
~
~
D
~
~
-
dbj
~ ¦' , 	n
¦1 n —
-
D dJ «—y
D " a,* ° £*0°
«
~ Diesels
o Conventional
¦ ¦ 1 ¦ ¦ ¦
-
-
... 1 ... 1 ... 1 ... 1 ¦
60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Interior Volume (cu. ft.)
Figure 24
Laboratory 55/45 Fuel Consumption
vs Interior Volume
MY2009 Cars
Gal 1100 miles
12
10
8
6
4
2
» Hybrids
~ Diesels
° Conventional
-+-
-+-

60
80
100 120 140
Interior Volume (cu. ft.)
Figure 25
160
180
EPA-420-R-09-014
42
November 2009

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Laboratory 55/45 Fuel Consumption
vs Footprint
MY2008 Cars
Gal/100 miles
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
20	40	60	80
Footprint (sq.ft.)
Figure 26
~ Diesels
¦ Hybrids
~ Conventional
Laboratory 55/45 Fuel Consumption
vs Footprint
MY2008 Trucks
Gal/100 miles
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
20	40	60	80
Footprint (sq.ft.)
Figure 27
¦ Hybrids
~ Diesels
~ Conventional
EPA-420-R-09-014
43
November 2009

-------
Laboratory 55/45 Fuel Consumption
vs 0 to 60 Time
MY1975 and MY2009 Cars
Gal /100 miles
12
~ 1975
.1975
10
*	Hybrids
~	Diesels
2009
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Oto 60 Time (Sec.)
Figure 28
Laboratory 55/45 Fuel Consumption
vs 0 to 60 Time
MY1975 and MY2009 Trucks
Gal /100 miles
12
D1975
1975
10
<~2009
M Hybrids
~ Diesels
8
2009
6
4
2
0
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
0 to 60 Time (Sec.)
Figure 29
EPA-420-R-09-014
44
November 2009

-------
Ton-MPG vs 0 to 60 Time
MY1975 and MY2009 Cars
Ton-MPG
100
~ 1975
<>2009
¦ Hybrids
~ Diesels
80 -
60
200!
40
20
1975
0	5	10	15	20	25
0 to 60 Time (Sec.)
Figure 30
Ton-MPG vs 0 to 60 Time
MY1975 and MY2009 Trucks
100
80
60
40
20
0
Ton-MPG
~ 1975
© 2009
¦ Hybrids
~ Diesels
1975
2009
10	15
0 to 60 Time (Sec.)
20
Figure 31
25
EPA-420-R-09-014
45
November 2009

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Figure 32 and Table 12 show some of the changes in the distribution of inertia weight that have occurred
over the years for the light-duty fleet. In 1975, 13 percent of all light-duty vehicles had inertia weights of less than
3000 lb compared to less than 5 percent in 2009. Since 1988, market share for vehicles with weight of 5000 pounds
or more has increased from 3 percent to 20 percent.
Distribution of Light Vehicle Inertia Weight For Three Model Years
Sales Fraction
25%
~ 1975 D1988 B2009
10%
1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500
Figure 32
Inertia Weight
Table 12
Light Vehicle Production Fraction
by Inertia Weight Class
for Three Model Years
Inertia
<	
Model Year
	>
Weight
1975
1988
2009
<3000
13 .4%
27 . 2%
4 .4%
3000
8.7%
25 . 4%
11.3%
3500
10 . 6%
25 . 2%
20.3%
4000
20 . 6%
13.2%
25 . 0%
4500
21.3%
6.0%
19.0%
5000
16.7%
2 . 4%
8.7%
5500
8.7%
. 5%
6.0%
>5500
. 0%
. 0%
5.5%
Avg Wt.
4060
3283
4108
EPA-420-R-09-014
46
November 2009

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Figures 33 through 37 provide an indication of the market share of different weight vehicles within the
different classes using 3-year moving averages. Trends within classes are shown which underlie the increasing
weight shown by the fleet as a whole. In 1975, about 40 percent of the cars were in inertia weight classes
greater than 4000 pounds, compared to less than 5 percent this year. For MY2008, three weight classes (3000,
3500, and 4000 lbs) account for over 90 percent of all cars. Conversely, the market share of trucks in the inertia
weight classes of 4500 lb or more have increased substantially, and these vehicles currently account for over 70
percent of all trucks, compared to about 30 percent in 1975. Figures 35, 36, and 37 provide additional details of
the truck data presented in Figure 34 for vans, SUVs, and pickups respectively. Appendices D, E, and F contain
a series of tables describing light-duty vehicles at the vehicle size/type level of stratification in more detail;
Appendix G provides similar data by vehicle type and inertia weight class.
Car Market Share by Inertia Weight Class Truck Market Share by Inertia Weight Class
(Three Year Moving Average)	(Three Year Moving Average)
100%
75%
50%
Market Share (%)
4000
>4000
25%
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
100%
75%
50%
Market Share (%)
<3500
4000
4500
>4500
25%
Figure 33
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Figure 34
EPA-420-R-09-014
47
November 2009

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Van Market Share by Inertia Weight Class SUV Market Share by Inertia Weight Class
(Three Year Moving Average)	(Three Year Moving Average)
Market Share (%)
30%
25%
20%
15%
5000
4500
10%
5%
<4500
>5000
0%
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Market Share (%)
30%
25%
20%
15%
3500
10%
<3500
4000
5%
>4000
0%
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year	Model Year
Figure 35	Figure 36
Pickup Market Share by Inertia Weight Clas;
(Three Year Moving Average)
Market Share (%)
30%
25%
20%
15%
I 3500
<3500
10%
5%
4000
4500
>4500
0%
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Figure 37
EPA-420-R-09-014
48
November 2009

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VI. Fuel Economy Technology Trends
Table 13 repeats the production fraction and adjusted composite fuel economy data from Tables 1 and 2
and adds three measures of powertrain information: engine displacement (CID), horsepower (HP), and specific
power (HP/CID). This table also includes production fraction data giving the percent of vehicles that: have
front- (FWD) or four-wheel drive (4wd); have manual, lockup, or continuously variable (CVT) transmissions;
have port or throttle body fuel injection (TBI) or are Diesels; are equipped with engines that have more than two
valves per cylinder; use variable valve timing (VVT); have turbochargers; and use hybrid vehicle technology.
For the overall MY2009 fleet, FWD continues to account for over one-half of the market and 4wd for
over one-quarter of the fleet. With transmissions, manuals have dropped to under six percent of the market,
while CVTs have grown to eight percent. Nearly 80 percent of the MY2009 fleet has multi-valve engines, and
65 percent use VVT, both all-time highs. Turbochargers are used on about three percent of the fleet. Hybrids
represent about two percent of the fleet, while diesels represent 0.5 percent of the projected MY2009
production. Appendix K contains additional data on fuel metering and number of valves per cylinder.
Table 14 compares technology usage for MY2009 by vehicle type and size. As discussed earlier,
wheelbase is used in this report to distinguish whether a truck is small, mid-size, or large, and four EPA car
classes (Two-Seater, Minicompact, Compact, and Subcompact) have been combined to form the small car class.
For this table, the car classes are separated into cars and station wagons, so that the table stratifies light-duty
vehicles into a total of 15 vehicle types and sizes. Note that this table does not contain any data for small vans
and small pickups, because none have been produced for several years.
Front-wheel drive (FWD) is used heavily in all of the car classes, in small wagons and in midsize vans.
Conversely, four-wheel drive (4WD) is used heavily in SUVs and pickups. A large portion of the midsize and
large wagons also have 4WD, but very little use of it is made in vans and cars.
Manual transmissions are used primarily in small vehicles and midsize pickups. Similarly, usage of
engines with more than two valves per cylinder is more prevalent on small and midsize vehicles than on larger
ones.
Detailed tabulations of different technology types, including technology usage percentages for other
model years, can be found in the Appendices.
EPA-420-R-09-014
49
November 2009

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Table 13
Powertrain Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Light Duty Vehicles (Percentage Basis)
MODEL
YEAR
PROD
FRAC
ADJ
COMP
MPG
ENGINE
CID HP
HP/
CID
DRIVETRAIN
Front 4wd
TRANSMISSION
Manual Lock
FUEL METERING
GDI Port TBI
Multi
Dsl Valve
TURBO
WT CHRGD Hybrid
1975
.806
13.5
288
136

515
6
5


19.6





5
1



2






1976
.788
14 9
287
134

502
5
8


17 .1





3
2



3






1977
.800
15. 6
279
133

516
6
8


16.8





4
2



5






1978
.773
16. 9
251
124

538
9
6


19.8
6
7



5
1



9






1979
.778
17 . 2
238
119

545
11
9

3
21.1
8
0



4
7


2
1






1980
. 835
20.0
188
100

583
29
7

9
30. 9
16
5



6
2

7
4
4






1981
. 827
21. 4
182
99

594
37
0

7
29. 9
33
3



6
1
2
6
5
9






1982
.803
22 . 2
175
99

609
45
6

8
29.2
51
4



7
2
9
8
4
7






1983
.777
22 .1
182
104

615
47
3
3
1
26.1
56
7



9
5
18
9
2
1






1984
.761
22 . 4
179
106

637
53
7
1
0
24 1
58
3



15
0
24
4
1
7






1985
.746
23. 0
177
111

671
61
6
2
1
22 . 8
58
7



21
4
32
0

9






1986
.717
23.7
167
111

701
71
1
1
1
24 8
58
0



36
7
28
4

3
4 . 8





1987
.722
23. 8
162
112

732
77
0
1
1
24 9
59
5



42
5
30
5

3
14 7





1988
.702
24 1
160
116

759
81
7

8
24 3
6 6
1



53
7
30
0


19. 9





1989
.693
23.7
163
121

783
82
5
1
0
21. 0
69
3

1

62
4
27
8

0
24 4





1990
.698
23.3
163
129

829
84
6
1
0
19.6
72
9

0

77
5
21
1

0
33. 0

6



1991
. 678
23. 4
163
132

851
83
2
1
4
20.5
73
5

0

78
0
21
8

1
34 .1
2
4



1992
.666
23.1
170
141

868
80
8
1
1
17 . 4
76
4



89
5
10
4

1
35. 0
4
6



1993
. 640
23.5
166
138

865
85
1
1
2
17 . 8
77
0



91
6
8
4


36.7
4
8



1994
.596
23.3
168
143

884
84
4

4
16.7
79
3



94
9
5
1


41. 0
8
0



1995
. 620
23. 4
167
152

945
82
0
1
2
16.3
81
9



98
8
1
2

1
52 . 2
9
8



1996
. 600
23.3
165
154

958
86
5
1
5
14 9
83
6

0

98
8
1
1

1
57 . 3
11
7
0.3


1997
. 576
23. 4
164
156

974
86
5
1
7
13.5
85
8

1

99
1

8

1
58 . 6
11
3
0.7


1998
. 551
23. 4
164
159

993
87
0
2
3
12 . 3
87
3

1

99
7

1

2
61. 4
18
4
2 . 4


1999
. 551
23. 0
166
164
1
009
87
2
2
2
10. 9
88
4

0

99
7

1

2
64 . 6
17
1
3.3


2000
. 551
22 . 9
165
168
1
032
84
9
2
1
11. 2
87
7

0

99
7

1

2
65.1
23
4
2 . 3

1
2001
. 539
23. 0
165
168
1
042
84
1
3
2
11. 4
87
5

2

99
7



3
67 . 2
28
3
3.6

0
2002
. 515
23.1
166
173
1
066
84
9
3
8
11. 2
88
1

4

99
6



4
6 9.9
33
9
4 . 2

3
2003
. 504
23.2
166
176
1
086
81
7
3
8
11.1
87
9

9

99
6



4
73.5
41
2
2 .1

6
2004
.480
23.1
168
182
1
106
80
8
5
4
10.2
88
2
1
4

99
7



3
77 . 2
44
2
4 . 0

9
2005
. 505
23.5
166
182
1
115
79
8
5
8
9.3
88
0
2
6

99
6



4
78.2
51
6
2 . 7
2
1
2006
. 529
23.3
172
194
1
146
75
8
5
8
9.4
88
1
2
4

99
4



6
80.8
60
6
3.6
1
5
2007
. 529
24 1
165
189
1
157
80
5
5
7
8 . 5
81
1
10
4

99
7



0
84 . 8
6 6
1
3.7
3
4
2008
. 528
24 3
165
193
1
177
77
8
7
3
8 . 0
80
5
11
5
3.2
96
6



1
87 . 9
63
4
4 . 7
3
4
2009
. 513
24 5
167
198
1
195
79
1
6
8
9.1
79
3
11
2
3. 9
95
3



8
90. 0
73
9
5.1
2
7
EPA-420-R-09-014
50
November 2009

-------
Table 13 (continued)
Trucks
Powertrain Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Light Duty Vehicles (Percentage Basis)
MODEL
YEAR
PROD
FRAC
ADJ
COMP
MPG
ENGINE
CID HP
HP/
CID
DRIVETRAIN
Front 4wd
TRANSMISSION
Manual Lock
CVT
FUEL METERING	Multi
GDI Port TBI Dsl Valve
TURBO
WT CHRGD Hybrid
1975
.194
11
6
311
142

476


17 . 1
37 . 0





1




1976
. 212
12
2
319
141

458


22 . 9
34 . 8





1




1977
.200
13
3
318
147

482


23. 6
32 . 0





1




1978
. 227
12
9
314
146

481


29.0
32 . 4





1

8


1979
. 222
12
5
298
138

486


18 . 0
35.2
2 .1




3
1
8


1980
.165
15
8
248
121

528
1
4
25. 0
53. 0
24 . 6



1
7
3
5


1981
. 173
17
1
247
119

508
1
9
20.1
51. 6
31.1



1
1
5
6


1982
.197
17
4
243
120

524
1
7
20.0
45.7
33.2




7
9
3


1983
. 223
17
8
231
118

543
1
4
25. 8
45. 9
36.1




6
4
7


1984
. 239
17
4
224
118

557
4
9
31. 0
42 .1
35.1


1. 9

6
2
3


1985
. 254
17
5
224
124

586
7
1
30. 6
37 .1
42 . 2


8 . 7
3
5
1
1


1986
.283
18
2
211
123

621
5
9
30.3
42 . 7
42 . 0


21. 8
18
7

7


1987
. 278
18
3
210
131

654
7
4
31. 5
39. 9
44.8


33.3
33
6

3


1988
.298
17
9
227
141

650
9
0
33.3
35.5
53.1


43.3
44
4

2


1989
. 307
17
6
234
146

653
9
9
32 . 0
32 . 7
56. 8


45. 9
47
6

2


1990
. 302
17
4
237
151

668
15
5
31. 3
28 2
67 . 4


55.2
40
8

2


1991
. 322
17
8
228
150

681
9
7
35.3
31. 0
67 . 4


55. 0
43
2

1


1992
. 334
17
4
234
155

685
13
6
31. 4
27 . 3
71. 5


65. 9
32
5

1


1993
. 360
17
5
235
162

710
15
1
29.4
23.3
75 . 7


73.4
25
7




1994
.404
17
2
239
166

717
13
1
36. 9
23.5
75.1


77 . 2
22
5


5.6

1995
. 380
17
0
244
168

715
17
7
40.7
20.5
78.6


79.8
20
2


8 . 4

1996
.400
17
2
243
179

757
20
1
37 .1
15. 6
83.5


9 9.9



1
12 . 4

1997
.424
17
0
248
187

775
13
9
43.2
14 6
85. 0


100. 0



0
13.7

1998
.449
17
1
242
187

795
18
7
42 . 0
13. 4
86.0


100. 0



0
15. 8

1999
.449
16
7
249
197

814
17
4
44.6
9.1
90.5


100. 0




17 . 3

2000
.449
16
9
242
197

832
19
4
42 . 4
8 . 0
91. 7


100. 0




19. 9
4 . 7
2001
.461
16
7
243
209

882
18
5
43.8
6.3
93. 4


100. 0




27 . 6
9.3
2002
.485
16
7
244
219

918
18
5
47 . 6
5.0
94 . 7

0
100. 0




35. 6
16.2
2003
.496
16
9
243
221

927
19
2
46.5
4 . 8
93.7
1
2
100. 0




37 . 2
19.8
2004
. 520
16
7
252
236

953
17
2
52 . 3
3.7
95. 0
1
0
100. 0




48.4
31. 6
2005
.495
17
2
244
237

983
25
7
48.3
3.0
95. 0
2
0
99.9



1
52 . 8
39.8
2006
.471
17
5
240
235

992
25
1
48.4
3.2
93.5
3
3
99.9



1
61. 4
49.6
2007
.471
17
7
244
248
1
034
24
9
49.0
2 . 5
93. 9
3
7
99.9



1
57 . 0
48.6
2008
.472
18
2
237
247
1
059
27
8
49.7
2 . 0
94 .1
3
9
1.0 98.6



2
63.5
52 . 2
2009
.487
18
4
238
253
1
080
29
0
47 . 6
2 . 4
92 . 9
4
7
2.9 96.9



1
66.3
56.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
51
November 2009

-------
Table 13 (continued)
Powertrain Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Light Duty Vehicles (Percentage Basis)
Cars and Trucks
vJODEL
PROD
AD J
ENGINE

HP/
DRIVETRAIN
TRANSMISSION


FUEL
METERING


Multi

TURBO

YEAR
FRAC
COMP
CID
HP

CID
Front 4wd
Manual
Lock
CVT
GDI
Port
TBI
Dsl
Valve
WT
CHRGD
Hybr



MPG





















1975
1
. 000
13.1
293
137

. 507
5.3
3.3
23.2




4
1



2




1976
1
. 000
14 2
294
135

.493
4 . 6
4 . 8
20. 9




2
5

0

2




1977
1
. 000
15.1
287
136

. 510
5.5
4 . 7
19.8




3
4

0

4




1978
1
. 000
15. 8
266
129

. 525
7 . 4
6 . 6
23. 0
5.2



3
9

0

9




1979
1
. 000
15. 9
252
124

. 532
9.2
4 . 3
25.1
6.7



3
7

1
2
0




1980
1
. 000
19.2
198
104

. 574
25. 0
4 . 9
35. 4
17 . 8



5
2

8
4
3




1981
1
. 000
20.5
193
102

. 580
31. 0
4 . 0
34 .1
33. 0



5
1
2 .
4
5
9




1982
1
. 000
21.1
188
103

.593
37 . 0
4 . 6
32 . 8
47 . 8



5
8
8 .
0
5
6




1983
1
. 000
21. 0
193
107

.599
37 . 0
8 .1
30. 8
52 .1



7
3
14 .
8
2
7




1984
1
. 000
21. 0
190
109

. 618
42 1
8 . 2
28 . 4
52 . 8



11
9
18 .
7
1
8




1985
1
. 000
21. 3
189
114

. 650
47 8
9.3
26.5
54 . 5



18
2
24 .
8

9




1986
1
. 000
21. 8
180
114

. 678
52 . 6
9.3
29.8
53.5



32
5
25.
7

4




1987
1
. 000
22 . 0
175
118

.710
57 . 7
9.6
29.1
55. 4



39
9
31.
4

3




1988
1
. 000
21. 9
180
123

.726
60. 0
10.5
27 . 6
62 . 2



50
6
34 .
3

1




1989
1
. 000
21. 4
185
129

.743
60.2
10.5
24 . 6
65.5

1

57
3
33.
9

1




1990
1
. 000
21. 2
185
135

.781
63. 8
10.1
22 . 2
71. 2

0

70
8
27 .
0

1




1991
1
. 000
21. 2
184
138

.796
59.6
12 . 3
23. 9
71 . 6

0

70
6
28 .
7

1




1992
1
. 000
20.8
191
145

.807
58 . 4
11. 2
20.7
74.8



81
6
17 .
8

1




1993
1
. 000
20. 9
191
147

.809
59. 9
11. 3
19.8
76.5



85
0
14 .
6






1994
1
. 000
20.4
197
152

. 816
55.6
15.2
19.5
77 . 6



87
7
12 .
1


26.7



1995
1
. 000
20.5
196
158

. 857
57 . 6
16.2
17 . 9
80.7



91
6
8 .
4

0
35. 6



1996
1
. 000
20.4
197
164

. 878
60. 0
15.7
15.1
83.5



99
3

7

1
39.3

0.2

1997
1
. 000
20.1
199
169

.890
55. 8
19.3
14 . 0
85.5

0

99
5

5

1
39.6

0.4

1998
1
. 000
20.1
199
171

. 904
56. 4
20.1
12 . 8
86.7

0

99
8

1

1
40. 9

1. 4

1999
1
. 000
19.7
203
179

. 921
55. 8
21. 3
10.1
89.4

0

99
9

1

1
43.4

1. 8

2000
1
. 000
19.8
200
181

. 942
55.5
20.2
9.7
89.5

0

99
8

0

1
44.8
15. 0
1. 3

2001
1
. 000
19.6
201
187

. 968
53. 8
21. 9
9.0
90.2

1

99
9



1
49.0
19.6
2 . 0

2002
1
. 000
19.4
203
195

. 994
52 . 7
25. 0
8 .1
91. 3

2

99
8



2
53.3
25.3
2 . 2

2003
1
. 000
19.6
204
199
1
. 007
50.7
25. 0
8 . 0
90. 8
1
1

99
8



2
55.5
30. 6
1. 2

2004
1
. 000
19.3
212
211
1
. 026
47 . 7
29.8
6.8
91. 8
1
2

99
9



1
62 . 3
37 . 6
2 . 3
. 5
2005
1
. 000
19. 9
205
209
1
. 049
53. 0
26.8
6.2
91. 4
2
3

99
7



3
65. 6
45.8
1. 7
1.1
2006
1
. 000
20.1
204
213
1
. 073
51. 9
25. 8
6.5
90. 6
2
8

99
6



4
71 7
55. 4
2 .1
1. 5
2007
1
. 000
20.6
203
217
1
.099
54 . 3
26.1
5.2
87 .1
7
2

99
8



1
71 7
57 . 9
2 . 6
2 . 2
2008
1
. 000
21. 0
199
219
1
. 122
54 . 2
27 . 3
5.2
86. 9
7
9
2 . 2
97
5



1
76.4
58 .1
3.0
2 . 5
2009
1
. 000
21.1
202
225
1
. 139
54 . 7
26.7
5.7
86.0
8
1
3.5
96
1



5
78.5
65.3
3.1
1. 8
EPA-420-R-09-014
52
November 2009

-------
Table 14
MY2009 Technology Usage by Vehicle Type and Size
(Percent of Vehicle Type/Size Strata)
Vehicle
Type
Size
Front
Wheel
Drive
Four
Wheel
Drive
Manual
Trans
Multi-
Valve
Variable
Valve
Car
Small
Midsize
Large
77?
8 6?
75?
16?
4?
0?
92?
97?
72?
69?
84?
69?
All
79?
89?
74?
Wagon
Small
Midsize
Large
87?
40?
0?
13%
60%
100?
18?
5?
0?
100?
100?
100?
82?
33?
All
77?
22?
16?
100?
73?
Van
Small
Midsize
Large
98?
0?
2?
14?
61?
0?
40?
All
94?
59?
39?
SUV
Small
Midsize
Large
0?
35?
29?
94?
55?
52?
24?
2?
0?
35?
8 6?
72?
4?
76?
57?
All
31?
55?
77?
64?
Pickup
Small
Midsize
Large
34?
48?
19?
1?
90?
30?
45?
45?
All
4 6?
40?
42?
EPA-420-R-09-014
53
November 2009

-------
Figures 38 through 42 show trends in drive use for the five vehicle classes based on 3-year moving
averages. Cars used to be nearly all rear-wheel drive, but have been 80+ percent front-wheel drive since the late
1980s. Only a small percentage of wagons still have rear-wheel drive, but in recent years they have made
substantial use of 4WD.
The trend towards increased use of front wheel drive for vans is very similar to that for cars, except it
started a few years later and appears to be continuing. Over 90 percent of vans currently use front-wheel drive,
compared to essentially none before 1984, which coincides with the introduction of minivans to the U.S.
market. SUVs are mostly 4WD; but a trend toward front-wheel drive SUVs started in MY2000. Pickups
remain the bastion of rear-wheel drive with the increasing amount of 4WD the only other drive option. Except
for a brief period in the early 1980s, front-wheel drive has not been used in pickups.
Front, Rear and Four Wheel Drive Usage
(Three Year Moving Average)
Cars
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
Sales Fraction
0%
^ Rear
4wd
=~ Front
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Front, Rear and Four Wheel Drive Usage
(Three Year Moving Average)
Wagons
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
Sales Fraction
0%
^ Rear
4wd
=~ Front
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Figure 38
Figure 39
EPA-420-R-09-014
54
November 2009

-------
Front, Rear and Four Wheel Drive Usage
(Three Year Moving Average)
Vans
Front, Rear and Four Wheel Drive Usage
(Three Year Moving Average)
SUVs
Sales Fraction
Sales Fraction
100%
100%
80%
80%
60%
60%
40%
40%
20%
20%
0%
0%
~	Rear
4wd
~	Front
~	Rear
4wd
~	Front
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Figure 40
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Figure 41
Front, Rear and Four Wheel Drive Usage
(Three Year Moving Average)
Pickups
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
Sales Fraction
~	Rear
~	4wd
~	Front
0%
1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Figure 42
EPA-420-R-09-014
55
November 2009

-------
The increasing trend in Ton-MPG shown in Table 1 can be attributed to better vehicle design, including
more efficient engines, better transmission designs, and better matching of the engine and transmission.
Powertrains are matched to the load better when the engine operates closer to its best efficiency point more
often. For many conventional engines, this point is approximately 2000 RPM and two-thirds of the maximum
torque at that speed. One way to make the engine operate more closely to its best efficiency point is to increase
the number of gears in the transmission and, for automatic transmissions, employing a lockup torque converter.
Three important changes in transmission design have occurred in recent years:
1.	The use of additional gears for both automatic and manual transmissions;
2.	For the automatics, conversion to lockup (L3, L4, L5, L6, and now L7) torque converter
transmissions; and
3.	The use of continuously variable transmissions (CVTs).
Table 15 compares Ton-MPG by transmission and vehicle type for 1988, the peak year for passenger car
fuel economy, and this year. In 1988, every transmission type shown in the table achieved less than 40 Ton-
MPG. This year, nearly every transmission type achieves at least 40 Ton-MPG. Figures 43 to 46 indicate that
the L4 transmission is losing its position as the predominant transmission type for all vehicle classes. Use of the
L4 transmission for cars peaked at about 80 percent in 1999 and is now down to about 40 percent. Similarly, its
use peaked at over 90 percent in 1996 for SUVs and has dropped to about 25 percent. Over half of this year's
pickups will still have L4 transmissions. Where manual transmissions are used, the 5-speed (M5) transmission
now predominates.
Transmissions alter the ratio of engine speed to drive wheel speed. In conventional transmissions, this
speed ratio is limited to a fixed number of discrete values, but for a CVT, the ratio is continuous. These
transmissions differ from conventional automatic transmissions and manual transmissions in that CVTs do not
have a fixed number of gears with the advantage that the engine speed/drive wheel speed ratio can be altered to
enhance vehicle performance or fuel economy in ways not available with conventional transmissions.
More data stratified by transmission type can be found in Appendix I.
EPA-420-R-09-014
56
November 2009

-------
Transmission Sales Fraction
(Three Year Moving Average)
Cars
100%
Sales Fraction
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
A3
L3
Other
\
CVT
[L6]
L5
1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Figure 43
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Transmission Sales Fraction
(Three Year Moving Average)
Vans
Sales Fraction
L4
L5
Otheij	/
^ \
Other]
\
1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Figure 44
Transmission Sales Fraction
(Three Year Moving Average)
SUVs
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
Sales Fraction
Other
1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Transmission Sales Fraction
(Three Year Moving Average)
Pickups
100%
80%
60%
Sales Fraction
Other
40% A3
20%
1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
Figure 45
Figure 46
EPA-420-R-09-014
57
November 2009

-------
Table 15
Ton-MPG by Transmission and Vehicle Type
(Conventionally Powered Vehicles)
Car	Van	SUV	Pickup
Trans
1988
2009
1988
2009
1988
2009
1988
2009
M4
37 . 0
—
33. 6
—
38 . 0
—
32 . 4
—
M5
37 . 7
41.7
37 . 7
—
33. 1
42 . 3
35.3
40.3
M6
--
39. 6
--
--
--
36.8
--
38 . 1
CVT
—
44 . 6
—
—
—
43. 0
—
—
L3
36.1
—
37 . 1
—
33.5
—
31.4
—
L4
37 . 9
42 . 4
36.6
44 . 7
33. 8
41.3
33. 8
42 . 7
L5
—
44 . 5
—
45. 9
—
42 . 1
—
41.3
L6
--
43.3
--
45.7
--
45.2
--
46.0
Table 16 and Figures 47 through 50 compare horsepower (HP), displacement (CID), and specific power or
horsepower per cubic inch (HP/CID) for cars, vans, SUVs, and pickups. For all four vehicle types, significant CID
reductions occurred in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Engine displacement has been flat for cars and vans since
the mid-1980s and has declined slightly for SUVs since the mid-1990s, but has been increasing for two decades for
pickups. Average horsepower has increased substantially for all of these vehicle types since 1981 with the highest
increase occurring for pickups whose HP is now more than double what it was then (i.e., 282 versus 115 HP).
Light-duty vehicle engines, thus, have also improved in specific power with the highest specific power being for
engines used in passenger cars.
Table 16
MY2009 Engine Characteristics by Vehicle Type
Vehicle
HP
CID
HP/
Multi-
Variable
Cylinder
Type


CID
Valve
Valve
Deactivation
Car
198
167
1.20
90%
74%
3%
Van
221
223
1. 00
59%
39%
18%
SUV
247
221
1. 13
78%
64%
11%
Pickup
282
289
O
CO
40%
42%
26%
All
225
202
1. 14
79%
65%
9%
EPA-420-R-09-014
58
November 2009

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Car Horsepower, CID
and Horsepower per CID
(Three Year Moving Average)
Van Horsepower, CID
and Horsepower per CID
(Three Year Moving Average)
HP, CID
HP/CID
360
HP/CID
320
CID
280
1.0
240
0.9
200
0.8
160
0.7
HP
120
0.6
80
0.5
40
0.4
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 47
SUV Horsepower, CID
and Horsepower per CID
(Three Year Moving Average)
HP, CID
HP/CID
360
CID
320
280
1.0
240
0.9
200
0.8
160
0.7
HP
120
0.6
80
0.5
HP/CID
40
0.4
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 49
HP, CID
HP/CID
360
CID
320
280
1.0
240
0.9
200
0.8
160
0.7
HP
120
0.6
0.5
HP/CID
40
0.4
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 48
Pickup Horsepower, CID
and Horsepower per CID
(Three Year Moving Average)
HP, CID
HP/CID
360
320
CID
280
1.0
240
0.9
200
0.8
160
0.7
HP
120
0.6
80
0.5
HP/CID
40
0.4
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 50
EPA-420-R-09-014
59
November 2009

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Table 17 compares CID, HP, and HP/CID by vehicle type and number of cylinders for model years 1988
and 2009. Table 17 shows that the increase in horsepower shown for the fleet in Table 13 extends to all vehicle
type and cylinder number strata. These increases in horsepower range from 47 to 99 percent. Because
displacement has remained relatively constant, it can be seen that the primary reason for the horsepower
increase is increased specific power - up between 38 and 102 percent from 1988 to 2009.
At the number-of-cylinders level of stratification, model year 2009 cars generally achieve higher
specific power than vans, SUVs, or pickups. One reason for the lower specific power of some truck engines is
that these vehicles may be used to carry heavy loads or pull trailers and thus need more "torque rise," (i.e., an
increase in torque as engine speed falls from the peak power point) to achieve acceptable drivability. Engines
equipped with four valves per cylinder typically have inherently lower torque rise than two valve engines with
lower specific power.
Table 17
Changes in Horsepower and Specific Power
by Vehicle Type and Number of Cylinders
Vehicle	HP HP Percent CID CID Percent HP/CID HP/CID Percent
Type
Cyl.
1988
2009
Change
1988
2009
Change
1988
2009
Change
Cars
4
95
153
61%
118
127
8%
0. 805
1.201
49%

6
142
251
77%
193
209
8%
0.744
1.209
63%

8
164
327
99%
301
299
-1%
0.544
1. 098
102%
Vans
6
149
219
47%
213
221
4%
0.722
0. 996
38%

8
168
301
79%
322
325
1%
0.520
0. 926
78%
SUVs
4
94
173
84%
122
144
18%
0.773
1.208
56%

6
147
248
69%
211
218
3%
0.706
1. 142
62%

8
183
324
77%
338
322
-5%
0.541
1. 008
86%
Pickups
4
97
157
62%
142
157
11%
0. 685
0. 999
46%

6
142
230
62%
229
239
4%
0. 644
0. 967
50%

8
180
314
74%
329
322
-2%
0.544
0. 971
79%
EPA-420-R-09-014
60
November 2009

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Table 18
Changes in Horsepower and Specific Power
by Vehicle Type and Inertia Weight
Cars
Inertia
HP
HP
Percent
CID
CID
Percent
HP/CID
HP/CID
Percent
Weight
1988
2009
Change
1988
2009
Change
1988
2009
Change
2000
59
70
19%
77
61
-21%
0.770
1.148
49%
2250
73
225
208%
90
110
22%
0.808
2.045
153%
2500
78
106
36%
100
91
-9%
0.785
1.165
48%
2750
97
123
27%
123
105
-15%
0.804
1.179
47%
3000
114
138
21%
145
117
-19%
0.797
1.174
47%
3500
151
182
21%
212
151
-29%
0.732
1.216
66%
4000
160
255
59%
289
216
-25%
0.569
1.201
111%
4500
144
316
119%
305
282
-8%
0. 474
1.135
140%
5000
207
406
96%
408
318
-22%
0.509
1.287
153%
5500
205
320
5 6%
412
250
-39%
0. 498
1.271
155%
6000
205
523
155%
412
350
-15%
0. 498
1.472
196%
Vans









Inertia
HP
HP
Percent
CID
CID
Percent
HP/CID
HP/CID
Percent
Weight
1988
2009
Change
1988
2009
Change
1988
2009
Change
4500
169
216
28%
320
218
-32%
0.528
0.996
89%
5000
156
244
5 6%
312
244
-22%
0.500
1.001
100%
5500
195
301
54%
346
325
-6%
0.562
0.926
65%
6000
126
301
139%
379
325
-14%
0.332
0.926
179%
SUVs









Inertia
HP
HP
Percent
CID
CID
Percent
HP/CID
HP/CID
Percent
Weight
1988
2009
Change
1988
2009
Change
1988
2009
Change
3500
147
172
17%
210
146
-30%
0.712
1.175
65%
4000
135
204
51%
190
179
-6%
0.723
1.156
60%
4500
147
250
70%
311
221
-29%
0. 494
1.133
129%
5000
181
274
51%
330
244
-26%
0.545
1.139
109%
5500
200
322
61%
350
298
-15%
0.572
1.101
92%
6000
162
331
104%
368
326
-11%
0.445
1.019
129%
Pickups









Inertia
HP
HP
Percent
CID
CID
Percent
HP/CID
HP/CID
Percent
Weight
1988
2009
Change
1988
2009
Change
1988
2009
Change
3500
129
156
21%
183
154
-16%
0.719
1.010
40%
4000
154
210
36%
282
217
-23%
0.555
0.971
75%
4500
174
243
40%
322
240
-25%
0.539
1.019
89%
5000
193
245
27%
342
274
-20%
0.565
0.897
59%
5500
178
317
78%
363
323
-11%
0. 495
0.980
98%
6000
140
335
139%
379
333
-12%
0.369
1.003
171%
Table 18 shows similar data to that in Table 17, but the stratification is based on inertia weight. This table
clearly shows that, for every case for which a comparison can be made between 1988 and 2009, there were
increases in HP, substantial increases in specific power ranging from 40 to 196 percent, and with just minor
exceptions, substantial decreases in CID.
EPA-420-R-09-014
61
November 2009

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HP/CID by Number of Valves Per Cylinder
(Three Year Moving Average)
Cars
HP/CID
4-Valve.
1.0
3-Valve
0.8
2-Valve.
0.6
0.4
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
Model Year
Figure 51
HP/CID by Number of Valves Per Cylinder
(Three Year Moving Average)
SUVs
HP/CID
3-Valve
4-Valve
1.0
0.8
0.6
2-Valve
0.4
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
Model Year
Figure 53
HP/CID by Number of Valves Per Cylinder
(Three Year Moving Average)
Vans
HP/CID


4-Valve



3-Valve_ /—¦—



/ 2-Valve

-
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 52
HP/CID by Number of Valves Per Cylinder
(Three Year Moving Average)
Pickups
HP/CID
1.2
1.0
4-Valve
3-Valve"
0.8
0.6
2-Valve
0.4
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
Model Year
Figure 54
EPA-420-R-09-014
62
November 2009

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Number of Valves per Cylinder
(Three Year Moving Average)
Cars
100%
Sales Fraction
80%
60%
~ Two
~Three
~ Four
40%
20%
1988 1992
Figure 55
1996 2000
Model Year
2004 2008
Number of Valves per Cylinder
(Three Year Moving Average)
Vans
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
Sales Fraction
0%
~	Two
~	Three
~	Four
1988 1992
Figure 56
1996 2000
Model Year
2004 2008
Number of Valves per Cylinder
(Three Year Moving Average)
SUVs
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Sales Fraction
~Two
~	Three
~	Four
1988 1992
Figure 57
1996 2000 2004
Model Year
2008
Number of Valves per Cylinder
(Three Year Moving Average)
Pickups
100%
80%
60%
40%
Sales Fraction
~	Two
~	Three
~	Four
20%
1988 1992
Figure 58
1996 2000 2004 2008
Model Year
EPA-420-R-09-014
63
November 2009

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Figures 51 through 54 show that increases in HP per CID apply to all of the engines, except for a couple
of cases for engines with three valves. Engines with more valves per cylinder deliver higher values of HP per
CID. Engines with only two valves per cylinder deliver substantially more horsepower per CID then they used
to, typically a 50 - 80 percent increase for the time period shown. The increases in HP and HP-per-CID are due
to changes in engine technologies. Figures 55 through 58 show that usage of multi-valve engines is increasing
for all vehicle types and as shown in Table 16 for MY2009, is now 90 percent for cars, nearly 80 percent for
SUVs, 60 percent for vans, and 40 percent for pickups.
Figures 59 and 60 and Table 19 show how the car and truck fleet have evolved from one that consisted
almost entirely of carbureted engines to one which is now almost entirely port fuel injected, and increasingly
using variable valve timing. For MY2009, over 70 percent of cars have multi-valve, port fuel injected engines
with variable valve timing, as do about half of trucks.
Car Sales Fraction by Engine Type
(Yearly Data)
Truck Sales Fraction by Engine Type
(Yearly Data)
100%
80%
60%
Sales Fraction
Port Fixed
Carb
valve
40%
20%
1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007
Model Year
100%
80%
60%
Sales Fraction
Diesel
Port Fixed
Va Ive
Carb.
40%
20%
1975 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 2003 2007
Model Year
Figure 59
Figure 60
EPA-420-R-09-014
64
November 2009

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Table 19
Engine Type
Production Fraction of MY1988 and MY2009 Light Vehicles
by Engine Type and Valve Timing
Cars
1988 2009
Vans
1988 2009
SUVs
1988 2009
Pickups
1988 2009
All
1988 2009
Carb
TBI
Port Fixed
Port Variable
GDI Fixed
GDI Variable
Diesel
16k
30t
54t
<1^
24S
69k
U
2k
U

-------
Table 20
Comparison of MY1988 and MY2009 Cars
by Engine Fuel Metering, Number of Valves and Valve Timing
Fuel
Number
Valve
Horsepower
CID
HP/CID
Ton
MPG
0 to
60
Metering
of
Timing








Time

Valves














1988
2009
1988
2009
1988
2009
1988
2009
1988
2009
Carb

Fixed
88
	
131
	
.75
	
37.2
	
14.3
	
TBI
2
Fixed
97
	
141
	
.71
	
36.9
	
13.7
	
Port
2
Fixed
136
269
193
286
.74
.96
36.6
40.5
11.9
8.9
Port
4
Fixed
137
198
131
172
1.05
1.16
37. 9
41.4
11.1
9.6
Port
4
Variable
	
190
	
154
	
1.23
	
43.5
	
9.5
GDI
4
Fixed
	
204
	
121
	
1.68
	
44.3
	
9.6
GDI
4
Variable
	
275
	
184
	
1.54
	
43.7
	
7.8


Percent Change over 1988
Port Two Valve, Fixed Valve
Timing


Carb

Fixed
-35%
	
-32%
	
1%
	
2%
	
20%
	
TBI
2
Fixed
-29%
	
-27%
	
-4%
	
1%
	
15%
	
Port
2
Fixed
0%
98%
0%
48%
0%
30%
0%
11%
0%
-25%
Port
4
Fixed
1%
4 6%
-32%
-11%
42%
57%
4%
13%
-7%
-19%
Port
4
Variable
—
40%
	
-20%
	
66%
	
19%
	
-20%
GDI
4
Fixed
	
50%
	
-37%
	
127%
	
21%
	
-19%
GDI
4
Variable
	
102%
	
-5%
	
108%
	
19%
	
-34%
Table 20 compares horsepower, engine size (CID), specific power (HP/CID), Ton- mpg, and estimated
0-to-60 acceleration time for five selected MY1988 and 2009 engine types.
Because 1988 was the peak year for car fuel economy, and because the two valve, fixed valve timing, port
injected engine accounted for about half of the car engines built that year, it was selected as a baseline engine with
its average characteristics compared to those for the MY2009 two- and four-valve, fixed valve timing and four-
valve VVT engines. As shown in Figure 61, all three of these MY2009 engine types had substantially higher
horsepower than the baseline MY1988 engine, but the MY2009 four valve engines fixed and VVT engines are
considerably smaller and have substantially higher specific power. Not all of these improvements in engine design
for these engine types that occurred between 1988 and 2009 were used to improve fuel economy as indicated by the
nominal 20 percent decrease in 0-to-60 time each achieved. As mentioned earlier, in this report vehicle
performance for conventionally powered vehicles is determined by an estimate of 0-to-60 acceleration time
calculated from the ratio of vehicle power to weight. Obtaining increased power to weight in a time when weight is
trending upwards implies that horsepower is increasing. Increased horsepower can be obtained by increasing the
engine's displacement, the engine's specific power (HP/CID), or both. Increasing specific power has been the
primary driver for increases in performance for the past two decades.
EPA-420-R-09-014
66
November 2009

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Percent Difference in MY2009 Vehicle Characteristics
Percent Change	From MY1988 Port 2 Valve Fixed Car Engine
140%
120%
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
-20%
-40%
Figure 61
For the current model year fleet, specific power has been studied at an even more detailed level of
stratification with both car and truck engines being classified according to: (1) the number of valves per
cylinder, (2) the manufacturer's fuel recommendation, (3) the presence or absence of an intake boost device
such as a turbocharger or supercharger, and (4) whether or not the engine had fixed or variable valve timing (see
Tables 21 and 22). Higher HP/CID is associated with: (a) more valves per cylinder, (b) higher octane fuel, (c)
intake boost, and (d) use of variable valve timing. The technical approaches result in specific power ranges for
cars and trucks from about .9 to about 1.8. The relative production fractions in Tables 21 and 22 are just for
each technical option in the table and exclude hybrids.
Tables 21 and 22 show the incremental effect, on a production weighted basis, of adding each technical
option, but not all of the technical options are production significant. The effect of the use of higher octane fuel
cannot be discounted, because roughly 18 percent of the current car fleet is comprised of vehicles which use
engines for which high octane fuel is recommended. By comparison, about 11 percent of this year's light trucks
require premium fuel.
Engine technology which delivers improved specific power thus can be used in many ways ranging from
reduced displacement and improved fuel economy at constant (or worse) performance, to increased performance
and the same fuel economy at constant displacement.
MY 2009 Engine Type
Port 4 Valve Variable
~	Port 4 Valve Fixed
~	Port 2 Valve Fixed
GDI 4 Valve Fixed
GDI 4 Valve Variable
Ton MPG
Oto 60 Time
HP/CID
EPA-420-R-09-014
67
November 2009

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Table 21
HP/CID and Production Fraction by Fuel and Engine Technology
Model Year 2009 Cars
Fuel/Boost/Valves
Number of Valves per Cylinder
Two	Three	Four
Five
HP/CID Prod HP/CID Prod HP/CID Prod HP/CID Prod
Regular/No Boost/FIX	.88
Regular/No Boost/WT	1.02
Regular/Boost /FIX 	
Regular/Boost /WT 	
Premium/No Boost/FIX	1.47
Premium/No Boost/WT 	
Premium/Boost /FIX	1.65
Premium/Boost /WT 	
Diesel/No Boost		
Diesel/Boost		
Other		
Fract.
. 029
. 066
005
1. 07
1.32
1.37
1. 69
1. 18
Fract.
004
001
1. 14
1. 17
1.72
1.76
1.22
1.36
1. 68
1.70
1. 17
Fract.
. 183
. 522
. 002
. 007
. 019
. 118
. 015
. 021
. 008
Fract.
1.35
1.35
Total
Prod
Fract.
.212
. 592
. 002
. 007
. 024
. 119
. 015
. 021
. 000
. 008
. 000
Total
. 100
. 005
.895
1. 000
Table 22
HP/CID and Production Fraction by Fuel and Engine Technology
Model Year 2009 Trucks
Fuel/Boost/Valves
Number of Valves per Cylinder
Two	Three	Four
Five
HP/CID Prod HP/CID Prod HP/CID Prod HP/CID Prod
Fract.
Fract.
Fract.
Fract.
Total
Prod
Fract.
Regular/No Boost/FIX
Regular/No Boost/WT
Regular/Boost /FIX
Regular/Boost /WT
Premium/No Boost/FIX
Premium/No Boost/WT
Premium/Boost /FIX
Premium/Boost /WT
Diesel/No Boost
Diesel/Boost
Other
. 91
1. 01
1. 14
.282
. 053
. 001
1. 04
. 94
1. 15
1.53
. 008
. 013
. 001
1. 12
1. 15
1.56
1. 17
1.24
1. 64
1. 17
. 137
. 399
. 008
. 088
. 010
. 001
1.3?
426
464
000
000
008
089
000
010
000
001
000
Total
. 336
. 021
. 642
1. 000
EPA-420-R-09-014
68
November 2009

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A relatively recent engine development has been the reintroduction of cylinder deactivation, an
automotive technology that was used by General Motors in some MY1981 V-8 engines that could be operated
in 8-, 6- and 4-cylinder modes. This approach, which has also been called by a number of names including
'variable displacement', 'displacement on demand', 'active fuel management' and 'multiple displacement',
involves allowing the valves of selected cylinders of the engine to remain closed and interrupting the fuel
supply to these cylinders when engine power demands are below a predetermined threshold, as typically
happens under less demanding driving conditions, such as steady state operation. Under light load conditions,
the engine can thus provide better fuel mileage than would otherwise be achieved. Although frictional and
thermodynamic energy losses still occur in the cylinders that are not being used, these losses are more than
offset by the increased load and reduced specific fuel consumption of the remaining cylinders. Typically half of
the usual number of cylinders are deactivated. Challenges to the engine designer for this type of engine include
mode transitions, idle quality, and noise and vibration. For MY2009, as shown previously in Table 16, it is
estimated that about nine percent of all vehicles are equipped with cylinder deactivation.
Table 23 compares three examples of individual MY2009 car models with and without cylinder
deactivation. Table 24 shows two truck cases as well. The Honda Odyssey is the only model shown that offers
the same engine with and without cylinder deactivation. In this case, cylinder deactivation increases fuel
economy by eight percent. For the two cases shown where cylinder deactivation is offered with a smaller, less
powerful engine, this combination led to about 25 percent higher fuel economy relative to the larger engine
without cylinder deactivation. In the two cases shown where cylinder deactivation was coupled with a larger,
more powerful engine, this combination led to 4-9 percent lower fuel economy compared to the smaller engine.
Table 23
Coirparison of MY2009 Cars with Engines with Cylinder Deactivation
Car
Model Name
Drive
Trans
Inertia
Engine
Lab.
Cyl.
Pet.
Change
Class



Weight
CID
HP
55/45
Deact.
HP
MPG
Small
Challenger
Rear
L5
4500
348
340
24 .1
Yes
-20%
23%
Car
Challenger



372
425
19.6
No


Midsize
Lacrosse-Allure
Front
L4
4000
325
290
24 . 7
Yes
45%
-9%
Car
Lacrosse-Allure



231
200
27 .1
No


Large
300 AWD
4wd
L5
4500
348
340
23. 6
Yes
36%
-4%
Car
300 AWD



215
250
24 . 6
No


Table 24

Comparison
of MY2009
Trucks
with Engines
with i
Cylinder
Deactivation


Truck
Model Name
Drive
Trans
Inertia
Engine
Lab.
Cyl.
Pet.
Change
Class



Weight
CID
HP
55/45
Deact.
HP
MPG
Midsize
Odyssey
Front
L5
4500
212
241
25. 9
Yes
-1%
8%
Van
Odyssey



212
244
23. 9
No


Large
Trailblazer
4WD
L4
5000
325
300
21.1
Yes
-23%
25%
SUV
Trailblazer



364
390
16. 9
No


EPA-420-R-09-014
69
November 2009

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Car Technology Penetration
Years After First Significant Use
Sales Fraction
100%
Multivalve
Front Drive
Variable
Valve
Continuously Variable Transmission
75% ¦ ¦
50% ¦ ¦
25% ¦ ¦
0%
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Years
Figure 62
Figure 62 compares penetration rates for six passenger car technologies, namely port fuel injection (Port
FI), front-wheel drive (FWD), multi-valve engines (i.e., engines with more than two valves per cylinder),
lockup transmissions, engines with variable valve timing, and CVTs. The production fraction for VVT car
engines has increased in a similar fashion to the others shown in the figure. This indicates that, in the past, it
has taken a decade for a technology to prove itself and attain a production fraction of 40 to 50 percent and as
long as another five or ten years to reach maximum market penetration.
EPA-420-R-09-014	70	November 2009

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Car Technology Penetration
Years After First Significant Use
Sales Fraction
100%
25% - ¦
50% - ¦
75% ¦ ¦
0%
Pott 4 Valve
Fixed
Port 2
Fixed
Port 2 Valve
Fixed
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Years
Figure 63
A similar comparison of five technologies whose production fraction peaked out is shown in Figure 63.
This figure shows that, in the past, it has taken a number of years for technologies such as throttle body fuel
injection (TBI), lockup 3-speed (L3) and 4-speed (L4) transmissions to reach their maximum production
fraction, and, even then, use of these technologies has often continued for a decade or longer. For the limited
number of historical cases studied, the time a given technology has taken to attain and then pass a market share
of about 40 to 50 percent appears to be one indicator of whether it later attains a stabilized high level of market
penetration. L4 transmissions and both two- and four-valve, port injected, fixed valve timing car engines (Port
2V- and 4V- Fixed) now can be classified with technologies such as TBI engines and L3 transmissions which
have reached their peak production fractions and, thus, are likely to disappear from the new vehicle fleet.
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Table 25 compares inertia weight, fuel economy ratings, the ratio of highway to city fuel economy, and
ton-mpg of the MY2009 hybrid and diesel vehicles with those for the average conventionally powered MY2009
car and truck. All of the hybrid and most of the diesel vehicles in the table have a lower highway/city ratio than
the average conventional car or truck.
Table 25
Characteristics of MY 2009 Hybrid and Diesel Vehicles
IWT
CID
Trans
Lab
55/45
MPG
<	
City
Adjusted
HWY
MPG
COMP
MPG
HWY/
City
Ratio
Ton-
MPG
Hybrid Cars
Prius
3000
91
CVT
65
8
47 . 7
CJi
i—1
46.2

95
69.3
Altima
3500
152
CVT
46
7
35.1
33. 0
33. 9

94
59.3
GS 4 5OH
4500
211
L6
30
8
21. 9
25.3
23. 8
1
15
53.5
Civic
3000
82
CVT
58
8
40.2
45.3
42 . 9
1
13
64 . 4
Camry
4000
144
CVT
45
9
33. 4
34 .1
33. 8
1
02
67 . 6
Malibu
4000
145
L4
38
6
25. 8
34 . 0
29. 9
1
32
59.8
Aura
4000
145
L4
38
6
25. 8
34 . 0
29. 9
1
32
59.8
LS 600HL
5500
303
L8
26
9
19.6
21. 8
20.8
1
11
57 . 2
Hybrid Trucks
Aspen 4WD
6000
348
L4
26. 9
19.7
21. 7
20.8
1.10
62
3
C15 Sierra 2WD
6000
364
CVT
28 . 2
21 . 1
21 . 7
21. 5
1. 03
64
4
C15 Silverado 2WD
6000
364
CVT
28 . 2
21.1
21 . 7
21. 5
1. 03
64
4
C1500 Tahoe 2WD
6000
364
CVT
28 . 2
21.1
21 . 7
21. 5
1. 03
64
4
C1500 Yukon 2WD
6000
364
CVT
28 . 2
21.1
21 . 7
21. 5
1. 03
64
4
Escalade 2WD
6000
364
CVT
28 . 2
21.1
21 . 7
21. 5
1. 03
64
4
Escape Hybrid 4WD
4000
140
CVT
37 . 3
28 . 7
26.6
27 . 5
. 93
55
0
Escape Hybrid EWD
4000
140
CVT
44.2
34 . 0
30.7
32 . 0
. 90
64
1
Highlander 4WD
5000
202
CVT
35.2
27 . 3
25.1
26.0
. 92
65
0
K15 Sierra 4WD
6000
364
CVT
28 . 2
21.1
21 . 7
21. 5
1. 03
64
4
K15 Silverado 4WD
6000
364
CVT
28 . 2
21.1
21 . 7
21. 5
1. 03
64
4
K1500 Tahoe 4WD
6000
364
CVT
28 . 2
21.1
21 . 7
21. 5
1. 03
64
4
K1500 Yukon 4WD
6000
364
CVT
28 . 2
21.1
21 . 7
21. 5
1. 03
64
4
Mariner 4WD
4000
140
CVT
37 . 3
28 . 7
26.6
27 . 5
. 93
55
0
Mariner EWD
4000
140
CVT
44.2
34 . 0
30.7
32 . 0
. 90
64
1
Tribute 2WD
4000
140
CVT
44.2
34 . 0
30.7
32 . 0
. 93
64
1
Tribute 4WD
4000
140
CVT
37 . 3
28 . 7
26.6
27 . 5
. 90
55
0
Vue 2-Mode
4500
220
CVT
37 . 4
26.7
29.6
28 . 3
1.11
63
6
Vue
4000
145
L4
36.7
24 . 8
32 . 2
28 . 5
1. 30
57
0
Diesel Cars
R320 Bluetec
5500
182
L7
26.3
17 . 9
23. 9
20. 9
1
33
57 . 5
E320 Bluetec
4000
182
L7
34 . 7
22 . 8
32 . 2
27 . 3
1
41
54 . 7
Jetta
3500
120
M6
45.5
29.5
40.7
35. 0
1
38
61. 3
Jetta
3500
120
L6
45.0
29.5
39.8
34 . 6
1
35
60.5
Jetta Sportwagen
3500
120
M6
45.5
29.5
40.7
35. 0
1
38
61. 3
Jetta Sportwagen
3500
120
L6
45.0
29.5
39.8
34 . 6
1
35
60.5




Diesel
Trucks





Touareg
5500
181
L6
26.2
17 . 5
24 . 7
21. 0
1
41
57 . 7
Q7
6000
181
L6
24 . 2
15. 9
23. 8
19.6
1
50
58 . 9
GL320 Bluetec
M1320 Bluetec
6000
5000
182
182
L7
L7
24 . 8
26.2
16. 9
17 . 7
22 . 7
24 . 2
19.8
20. 9
1. 34
1. 37
59.3
52 . 3
Average Car
Average Truck
3533
4712
167
238
30. 9
22 . 9
20.5
15. 6
28 . 8
21. 4
24 . 5
18 . 4
1.40
1. 37
43.8
43.5
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November 2009

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In addition, there are several cases in the table for which the highway to city ratio is less than 1.0, and
these represent cases where a vehicle achieves higher fuel economy in city than in highway driving. This year's
diesel cars achieve ton-mpg values that are roughly the same as some of the hybrid cars. For MY2009, the
Toyota Prius achieves 69 Ton-mpg, 60 percent higher than that of the average car.
Most of the vehicles in Table 25 have conventionally powered counterparts. Tables 26 and 27 compare
the adjusted composite fuel economy and an estimate of annual fuel usage (assuming 15,000 miles per year) for
these vehicles with their conventionally powered (baseline) counterparts. The comparisons in both tables are
limited to a basis of model name, drive, inertia weight, transmission, and engine size (CID), and for simplicity
there is only one listing for "twin" vehicles such as the Escape/Mariner and the Highlander/RX400 H.
Differences in the performance attributes of these vehicles complicate making the forward analysis of the fuel
economy improvement potential due to hybridization and dieselization. In particular, hybrid vehicles are
sometimes reported to have faster 0-to-60 acceleration times than their conventional counterparts, while
vehicles equipped with diesel engines have higher low-end torque, but slower 0-to-60 times. In addition, some
hybrid vehicles use technologies such as cylinder deactivation and CVT transmissions that are not offered in
their counterparts. Given the difficulty in choosing the "right" baseline vehicle, Table 26 includes a comparison
for the CVT-equipped Escape Hybrid FWD with baseline data for both manual and automatic transmission
versions of this vehicle.
Fuel economy improvements and fuel savings per year for the hybrid vehicles in Table 26 vary
considerably from about five percent for the larger, luxury hybrid vehicles to around 40 percent for several
others. Similarly, fuel economy improvements for diesels range from 17 to 41 percent, and these vehicles also
offer relatively high fuel savings. Nine years after the introduction for sale in the U.S. of the first hybrid
vehicle, the MY2000 Honda Insight, hybrid vehicles now account for about two percent of the combined
car/truck fleet. In addition, the production fraction for diesels remains at or below 0.5 percent, an order of
magnitude smaller than their 5.9 percent production fraction in 1981.
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Table 26
Comparison
Model Name
Altima
Camry
Malibu
GS 4 5OH* *
LS 60OHL* *
Aspen 4WD
Escalade 2WD
Vue (2-Mode)
Vue
Escape EWD
Escape 4WD
Highlander 4WD
C1500 Tahoe 2WD
K1500 Tahoe 4WD
C15 Silverado 2WD
K15 Silverado 4WD
of MY2009 Hybrid Vehicles
<	Hybrid Version	
Inertia	ADJ
Weight CID Trans	COMP
MPG
3500 152 CVT	33.9
3	0 0 0	8 2 CVT	4 2.9
4000 144 CVT	33.8
4000 145 L4	29.9
4500 211 L6	23.8
5500 303 L8	20.8
6000 348 L4	20.8
6000 364 CVT	21.5
4	5 0 0 2 2 0 CVT	2 8.2
4000 145 L4	28.5
4000 140 CVT	32.0
4 0 0 0 14 0 CVT	2 7.5
5000 202 CVT	26.0
6000 364 CVT	21.5
6000 364 CVT	2 0.1
6000 364 CVT	21.5
6000 364 CVT	2 0.1
With Their Conventional Counterparts
	> <	 Baseline Version 	>
Gal	Inertia ADJ	Gal
Per	Weight CID Trans COMP	Per
Year*	MPG	Year*
443	3500 152 CVT 26.9	559
349	3000 110 L5 30.6	490
444
502
631
721
722
6 9 9
530
526
468
546
577
6 9 9
745
6 9 9
745
3000 110 M5 30.3 494
3500 144 L5 26.1 574
3500 144 M5 25.^
3500 145 L4
25. i
582
581
4000	211	L6 22.4 669
4500	281	L8 20.1 753
5500	348	L5	16.1	934
6000	380	L6	15.4	973
4000	218	L6	22.0	750
4000	145	L4	22.6	663
3500	140	L6	24.0	625
3500	140	M5	25.0	600
3500	140	L6	22.0	681
4500	211	L5	19.7	760
6000	380	L6	15.4	973
6000	380	L6	16.0	997
5500	380	L6	15.5	968
6000	380	L6	16.0	997
< I mpr ovemen t>
ADJ Gal
COMP Per
MPG
26%
40%
41%
29%
31%
16%
29%
39%
41%
26%
33%
28%
25%
32%
39%
43%
39%
43%
Year*
116
141
145
130
138
79
38
32
212
274
220
136
157
132
136
183
274
268
270
268
*Note: Gallons per year calculation is based on all vehicles being driven 15, 000 miles.
**Note: Baseline version used for the GS 450H comparison is the GS350. Baseline vehicle used for the
LS 600HL comparison is the LS 460L.
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Table 27
Comparison of MY2009 Diesel Vehicles With Their Conventional Counterparts
Model Name
E320 Bluetec**
R320 Bluetec**
Jetta
Jetta
ML320 Bluetec*
GL320 Bluetec*
Touareg
Q7
Diesel Version
<	 Baseline Version 	>
Inertia
ADJ Gal
Inertia
ADJ
4000
3500
3500
5000
6000
5500
6000
182
5500 182
120
120
182
182
181
181
L7
L7
M6
L6
L7
L7
L6
L6
MPG
34 . (
19 A
Year*
27.3 549
20.9 717
35.0 428
434
20.9 717
759
21.0 715
19. f
764
4000
5500
3500
3500
5000
6000
5500
5500
213	L7
213	L7
121	M6
121	L6
213	L7
285	L7
219	L6
219	L6
Gal
Weight CID Trans COMP Per Weight CID Trans COMP Per
MPG
20.3
17 . 0
24 . 9
25. 6
17 . 2
15.3
16.8
16.8
Year*
741
881
603
587
873
978
893
893
< I mpr ovemen t>
ADJ Gal
COMP Per
MPG
35%
23%
41%
35%
22%
29%
25%
17%
Year*
192
164
175
153
156
218
178
129
*Note: Gallons per year calculation is based on all vehicles being driven 15,000 miles.
**Note: Baseline version used for the R320 Bluetec comparison is the R350 4MATIC. Baseline version
used for the GL320 Bluetec comparison is the GL450 4MATIC. Baseline version used for the E320 Bluetec
comparison is the E350. Baseline version used for the ML320 Bluetec comparison is the ML350 4MATIC.
EPA-420-R-09-014
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VII. Marketing Groups and Fuel Economy
In its century of evolution, the automotive industry existed first as small, individual companies that
relatively quickly went out of business or grew into larger corporations. Prior to the 1970s, the historic term
"manufacturer" usually meant an automobile company that manufactured and sold vehicles in its own country
and perhaps exported vehicles to a few other countries. Over the years, the nature of the automotive industry
has changed substantially, and it has evolved into one in which global consolidations and alliances among
heretofore independent manufacturers have become the norm, rather than the exception.
Early reports in this series examined fuel economy and technology trends for the "Domestic" and
"Import" vehicle categories which are part of the corporate average fuel economy program. Over time, this
classification approach evolved into a market segment approach in which cars were apportioned to a
"Domestic," "European," and "Asian" category, with trucks classified as "Domestic" or "Imported." As the
automotive industry has become more transnational in nature, this type of vehicle classification has become less
useful. In the most recent reports in this series, trends by groups of manufacturers have been used to reflect the
transnational and transregional nature of the automobile industry.
There are 33 individual manufacturers in the 2009 C02 and fuel economy trends database. To reflect the
transition to an industry in which there are a smaller number of independent companies, these 33 individual
manufacturers have been divided into nine major marketing group segments, and a tenth catch-all group
("Others") that contains smaller manufacturers not assigned to one of the nine major marketing groups.
These nine major marketing groups are:
1.	The General Motors Group includes GM, Daewoo, Saab, and Isuzu;
2.	The Ford Motor Group includes Ford, Volvo, Roush, and Saleen;
3.	The Chrysler Group includes only Chrysler;
4.	The Toyota Group includes only Toyota;
5.	The Honda Group includes only Honda;
6.	The Nissan Group includes only Nissan;
7.	The Hyundai-Kia (HK) Group includes Hyundai and Kia;
8.	The VW Group includes Volkswagen, Audi, Bentley, and Lamborghini; and
9.	The BMW group includes BMW and Phantom.
Taken together, the nine major marketing groups comprise over 95 percent of the MY2009 new vehicle
market in the U.S. It is expected that these marketing groups will continue to evolve and perhaps expand, or
possibly contract as further changes in the automotive industry occur. The changes in the marketing group
definitions for this report are that Mazda, Rover, and Jaguar are moved out of the Ford marketing group.
Tables 28 and 29 list the 33 individual manufacturers which are included in EPA's 2009 database, and
the marketing group to which they are assigned for this report. Table 28 shows the projected MY2009
laboratory 55/45 fuel economy values for cars only, trucks only, and cars and trucks combined, along with the
EPA-420-R-09-014
76
November 2009

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truck market share, for each of the 33 individual manufacturers. Table 29 shows the same information, but with
projected MY2009 adjusted composite fuel economy values instead.
Tables 30 and 31 provide fuel economy data for the nine marketing groups, with the former providing
laboratory 55/45 fuel economy data, and the latter including adjusted composite fuel economy data. The bottom
two rows in each table give the overall average MY2009 fuel economy value, as well as the truck market share,
for each marketing group. It can be seen that the Honda, Hyundai-Kia, and Toyota marketing groups have the
highest projected MY2009 fuel economy values. Chrysler has the lowest projected MY2009 fuel economy
value. Tables 30 and 31 also show the average marketing group fuel economies by vehicle type and size. For
example, Table 30 shows that Hyundai-Kia has the highest projected MY2009 laboratory 55/45 fuel economy
value for the small car class. Different marketing groups are leaders in other vehicle classes as defined by this
report.
Table 32 combines MY2008 vehicle footprint and fuel economy data by marketing group. MY2008 is
shown here for two reasons: it is the only year for which we have footprint data, and it is the most recent year
for which we have essentially final fuel economy data based on actual production as reported in the end-of-year
CAFE reports. For MY2008, Volkswagen had the lowest fleetwide footprint, while Honda had the highest
fleetwide fuel economy, followed closely by Hyundai-Kia. General Motors had the highest footprint, with
Chrysler having the lowest fleetwide adjusted fuel economy and Ford close behind.
Figures 64 through 72 compare, on a 3-year moving average basis, the percent truck and laboratory
55/45 fuel economy for cars, trucks, and both cars and trucks for the nine marketing groups. More information
stratified by marketing group can be found in the Appendices L through O.
It is important to note when a marketing group definition is changed to reflect a change in the industry's
financial arrangements, EPA makes the same adjustment in marketing group composition in the historical
database that is used for Figures 64 through 72 and in Appendices L through O, as well. This maintains a
consistent marketing group definition over time, which allows a better identification of long-term trends. On
the other hand, this also means that the database does not necessarily reflect actual financial arrangements in the
past. For example, the 2009 database no longer accounts for the fact that Chrysler was combined with Daimler
for several years.
EPA-420-R-09-014
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November 2009

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Table 28
Model Year 2009 Laboratory 55/45 Fuel Economy by Manufacturer
Manufacturer
Marketing
Group
<— FUEL ECONOMY —>
Cars Trucks Both
Percent
Truck
General Motors
General Motors
29.0
21.8
24.5
5 6%
Toyota
Toyota
35 .2
24.2
29.4
43%
Chrysler
Chrysler
27.4
22 .2
23.2
77%
Honda
Honda
33.7
25 .5
29.7
42%
Nissan
Nissan
32.8
22 .5
27.2
45%
Ford
Ford
28.7
23.5
25.7
53%
Hyundai
Hyundai-Kia
32 .2
25 .7
30.1
27%
Kia
Hyundai-Kia
33.4
24.0
28.0
49%
Volkswagen
Volkswagen
31.8
24 . 6
29.6
2 6%
BMW
BMW
28.0
22 .3
26.9
15%
Daimler AG
Other
25 .2
20.5
24.0
22%
Subaru
Other
28.5
26.6
27.6
45%
Mazda
Other
30.0
23.4
27.6
30%
Mitsubishi
Other
29.3
25.9
28.2
29%
Audi
Volkswagen
28.5
21.9
26.6
23%
GM Daewoo
General Motors
37.8

37. 8
0%
Suzuki
Other
33.1
25.4
29.7
39%
Volvo
Ford
25.8
20.7
24.1
29%
Rover
Other

19.3
19.3
100%
Porsche
Other
27.4
20.0
22. 6
58%
Jaguar
Other
24.2

24.2
0%
Saab
General Motors
26.5
20.4
25. 6
12%
Maserati
Other
18 .3

18.3
0%
Bentley
Volkswagen
15 .7

15.7
0%
I suzu
General Motors

20.7
20.7
100%
Ferrari
Other
16.4

16.4
0%
Aston Martin
Other
18 .2

18.2
0%
Roush
Ford
21.3

21.3
0%
Lamborghini
Volkswagen
16.1

16.1
0%
Phantom
BMW
17.3

17.3
0%
Lotus
Other
30.0

30.0
0%
Saleen
Ford
17.4

17. 4
0%
Spyker
Other
19.3

19.3
0%
Fleet
30.9
22.9
26.4
4 9°
EPA-420-R-09-014
78
November 2009

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Table 29
Model Year 2009 Adjusted Composite Fuel Economy by Manufacturer
Manufacturer
Marketing
Group
<— FUEL ECONOMY —>
Cars Trucks Both
Percent
Truck
General Motors
General
Motors
23.
.3
17.
. 6
19.
,7
56%
Toyota
Toyota

27.
.4
19.
.3
23.
,2
43%
Chrysler
Chrysler
21.
.9
17.
.9
18.
,7
77%
Honda
Honda

26.
. 6
20.
.4
23.
, 6
42%
Nissan
Nissan

25 .
.8
18 .
.0
21.
, 6
45%
Ford
Ford

22 .
.9
18 .
.8
20.
, 6
53%
Hyundai
Hyundai-
-Kia
25 .
.5
20.
.4
23.
, 9
27%
Kia
Hyundai-
-Kia
26.
.3
19.
.2
22.
,3
49%
Volkswagen
Volkswagen
25 .
.1
19.
.7
23.
,5
26%
BMW
BMW

22 .
.5
17.
.9
21.
,7
15%
Daimler AG
Other

20.
.3
16.
.5
19.
,3
22%
Subaru
Other

22 .
.5
21.
.1
21.
, 9
45%
Mazda
Other

23.
.8
18 .
.7
22.
, 0
30%
Mitsubishi
Other

23.
.2
20.
. 6
22.
, 4
29%
Audi
Volkswagen
22 .
. 6
17.
.5
21.
,2
23%
GM Daewoo
General
Motors
29.
.5


29.
,5
0%
Suzuki
Other

26.
.0
20.
.2
23.
, 4
39%
Volvo
Ford

20.
.8
16.
.8
19.
, 4
29%
Rover
Other



15 .
.7
15.
,7
100%
Porsche
Other

22 .
.0
16.
.3
18.
,3
58%
Jaguar
Other

19.
.7


19.
,7
0%
Saab
General
Motors
21.
.5
16.
.5
20.
,7
12%
Maserati
Other

15 .
.0


15.
, 0
0%
Bentley
Volkswagen
13.
.1


13.
, 1
0%
I suzu
General
Motors


16.
.7
16.
,7
100%
Ferrari
Other

13.
.5


13.
,5
0%
Aston Martin
Other

15 .
.0


15.
, 0
0%
Roush
Ford

17.
.2


17.
,2
0%
Lamborghini
Volkswagen
13.
.3


13.
,3
0%
Phantom
BMW

14 .
.2


14.
,2
0%
Lotus
Other

23.
. 6


23.
, 6
0%
Saleen
Ford

14 .
.4


14.
, 4
0%
Spyker
Other

15 .
. 6


15.
, 6
0%
Fleet
24.5
18.4
21.1
49t
EPA-420-R-09-014
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November 2009

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Table 30


Model Year
2009 Laboratory
55/45 Fuel
Economy by Marketing Group

VEHICLE
TYPE/SIZE
GM
Toyota
Chrysler
Honda
Nissan
Ford
HK
VW
BMW
All
Cars










Small
Midsize
Large
32.2
29. 9
26.1
37 .5
34 . 4
29.6
24 . 8
31.1
25.8
36.8
26.5
31.2
28 . 6
33. 8
23.7
31 . 9
27 . 9
24 . 4
39.2
35.3
30.5
31.3
22. 9
23.7
29.0
25. 9
21. 6
32. 6
31. 7
27 . 5
All
29.1
35.5
27 . 4
33.3
32.7
28 . 6
32. 6
30.2
28 . 0
30. 9
Wagons










Small
Midsize
Large
32. 0
26.4
32 . 4
27.5
39.9
37 . 9
29.1
23 . 6
34.5
28 . 0
34 .3
28 . 4
26.7
24 . 6
32. 6
27 . 7
21. 8
All
31. 9
32 . 4
27.5
39.9
37 . 9
23.7
29.7
33.5
25.7
31. 4
All Cars










Small
Midsize
Large
32. 1
29. 9
26.1
36.4
34 . 4
29.6
25.7
31.1
25.8
37.3
26.5
31.2
29. 9
33. 8
23.7
31 . 9
27 .3
24 . 4
38 . 4
34 . 4
30.5
31. 6
23.5
23.7
29.0
25. 9
21. 6
32. 6
31. 5
27 . 5
All
29.3
35.2
27 . 4
33.7
32. 8
28 . 4
32.4
30.5
28 . 0
30. 9
Vans










Small
Midsize
Large
19.7
26.2
24 . 6
25.4
24 . 5
24 .2
23.8
24 .1

24 . 9
19.7
All
19.7
26.2
24 . 6
25.4
24 . 5
24 .2
23.8
24 .1

24 . 6
SUVs










Small
Midsize
Large
27 . 9
22. 1
26.0
19.1
21. 4
23.0
22.8
25.8
25. 9
22.7
26.4
22.7
25.5
23.3
26.6
21. 6
22.3
23.5
25.3
22.2
All
22.5
25 .1
22.7
25.8
23.7
24 . 6
25.1
23.8
22.3
23. 6
Pickups










Small
Midsize
Large
24 . 9
20.5
24 . 4
19.3
19.8
22.0
19.6
25 .1
20 . 4



24 . 6
20. 1
All
20. 6
22.3
19.8
22.0
19.6
21 . 4



20. 8
Trucks










Small
Midsize
Large
27 . 3
21. 5
25 . 6
19.2
21. 4
23. 6
21.2
25.7
22.0
25. 8
21. 5
26.1
21 . 6
25.1
23.3
25.1
21. 6
22.3
23.5
25.2
21. 3
All
21. 8
24 .2
22.2
25.5
22.5
23 . 4
24 . 9
23. 9
22.3
22. 9
Fleet










All
24 . 7
29.4
23.2
29.7
27 . 2
25 . 6
29.4
28 . 6
26. 9
26.4
Truck %
55%
43%
77%
42%
45%
51%
34%
25%
15%
49%
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November 2009

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Table 31
Model Year 2009 Adjusted Composite Fuel Economy by Marketing Group
VEHICLE
TYPE/SIZE GM	Toyota Chrysler Honda Nissan Ford	HK	VW	BMW	All
Cars
Small
Midsize
Large
25. 6
24 . 0
21. 1
29.0
27 . 0
23.7
20.1
24.5
20.8
28 . 9
21.3
25.0
22.7
26.5
19.1
25.3
22.3
19.8
30.4
27 . 6
24 . 4
24 . 8
18 . 4
19.1
23.2
21. 0
17 . 6
25.7
25. 1
22.2
All
23.3
27 . 7
21. 9
26.4
25.7
22 . 8
25.8
24 . 0
22.5
24 . 5
Wagons










Small
Midsize
Large
25.2
21. 5
25.3
21.7
30.5
28 . 7
23.3
19.1
26.9
22.3
26.9
22.8
21. 5
19.9
25.5
22. 0
17 . 4
All
25.2
25.3
21.7
30.5
28 . 7
19.2
23.5
26.3
20.7
24 . 7
All Cars










Small
Midsize
Large
25.5
24 . 0
21. 1
28 .2
27 . 0
23.7
20.7
24.5
20.8
29.1
21.3
25.0
23. 6
26.5
19.1
25.3
21 . 9
19.8
29.8
27 . 0
24 . 4
25.0
18 . 9
19.1
23.2
20. 9
17 . 6
25.7
24 . 9
22. 1
All
23.5
27 . 4
21. 9
26.6
25. 8
22.7
25.7
24 .2
22.5
24 . 5
Vans










Small
Midsize
Large
15. 8
20 . 9
19.8
20.5
19.7
19.5
19.2
19.4

20. 1
15. 8
All
15. 8
20 . 9
19.8
20.5
19.7
19.5
19.2
19.4

19.8
SUVs










Small
Midsize
Large
22.2
17 . 9
20 . 6
15.5
17 . 0
18.3
18.4
20.5
20. 6
18 . 2
21 .1
18.3
20.2
18.8
21.2
17.3
17 . 9
18 . 7
20.2
17 . 9
All
18 . 2
19.9
18.2
20.5
18 . 9
19.7
20.0
19.1
17 . 9
19.0
Pickups










Small
Midsize
Large
19.9
16.5
19.3
15.5
16.0
17 . 6
15. 8
19.9
16.4



19.5
16.2
All
16.6
17 . 8
16.0
17 . 6
15. 8
17 .2



16.7
Trucks










Small
Midsize
Large
21. 7
17 . 3
20.3
15.5
17 . 0
18.9
17 . 1
20.5
17 . 6
20.5
17 . 3
20.7
17 . 4
20.0
18.8
20.2
17.3
17 . 9
18 . 7
20. 1
17 . 2
All
17 . 6
19.3
17 . 9
20.4
18 . 0
18.7
19.9
19.2
17 . 9
18 . 4
Fleet










All
19.9
23.2
18.7
23. 6
21. 6
20.5
23.4
22.8
21. 6
21. 1
Truck %
55%
43%
77%
42%
45%
51%
34%
25%
15%
4 9%
EPA-420-R-09-014	81	November 2009

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Table 32
Marketing
Group
General Motors
General Motors
General Motors
Toyota
Toyota
Toyota
Chrysler
Chrysler
Chrysler
Honda
Honda
Honda
Nissan
Nissan
Nissan
Ford
Ford
Ford
Hyundai-Kia
Hyundai-Kia
Hyundai-Kia
Volkswagen
Volkswagen
Volkswagen
BMW
BMW
BMW
Fleet
Fleet
Fleet
MY2008 Footprint and Fuel Economy by Marketing Group
Vehicle
Type
Footprint
SQFT
Lai. 55/45
MPG
Adjusted Composite
MPG
Cars
Trucks
All
46.2
56. 6
51. 7
28 . 6
21. 6
24 . 4
23.0
17 . 4
19.7
Cars
Trucks
All
44.1
52. 8
48.3
36.0
23. 9
29.0
28 .1
19.0
22.8
Cars
Trucks
All
47 . 4
49.9
48.9
27 . 8
22. 4
24 . 2
22.2
18 . 0
19.3
Cars
Trucks
All
44.7
34 . 3
25.5
30. 1
27 .1
20.3
23. 9
Cars
Trucks
All
45.4
52. 8
, 1
32.2
22. 0
27 . 6
25.3
17 . 7
21. 9
Cars
Trucks
All
46.4
53.5
50. 8
27 . 9
22.2
24 . 2
22.4
17 . 8
19.4
Cars
Trucks
All
44.5
48.2
45.8
33. 6
24 . 9
30. 0
26.5
19.9
23.7
Cars
Trucks
All
43. 6
52. 8
44.4
28 . 9
20.2
27 . 9
23.1
16.3
22.3
Cars
Trucks
All
45.4
50. 0
. 2
27 . 2
22. 9
26.3
21. 9
18.5
21.2
Cars	45.4
Trucks	52.9
All	4 9.0
30.5	24.3
22.7	18.2
26.3	21.0
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GM Marketing Group
Fuel Economy by Model Year
(Three Year Moving Average)
Laboratory 55/45 MPG
Percent Truck
Trucks
Percent Truck
I ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ I ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ I
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 64
100%
50%
Ford Marketing Group
Fuel Economy by Model Year
(Three Year Moving Average)
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
Laboratory 55/45 MPG
Percent Truck
Cars^" '


Both^


Jf ^-^Trucks

i i i
Percent Truck
i i i
100%
50%
0%
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 65
Chrysler Marketing Group
Fuel Economy by Model Year
(Three Year Moving Average)
Laboratory 55/45 MPG
Percent Truck
Trucks
Percent Truck
100%
50%
10 —i i i i | i i i i | i iii|iiii|iiii|i i i i | i i i I 0%
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 66
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November 2009

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Toyota Marketing Group
Fuel Economy by Model Year
(Three Year Moving Average)
Laboratory 55/45 MPG
Percent Truck
T rucks
Percent Truck
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
100%
50%
Honda Marketing Group
Fuel Economy by Model Year
(Three Year Moving Average)
Laboratory 55/45 MPG
Percent Truck
T rucks
Percent Truck
100%
50%
Figure 67
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 68
Nissan Marketing Group
Fuel Economy by Model Year
(Three Year Moving Average)
Laboratory 55/45 MPG
Percent Truck
T rucks
Percent Truck
100%
50%
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 69
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November 2009

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Hyundai-Kia Marketing Group
Fuel Economy by Model Year
(Three Year Moving Average)
Laboratory 55/45 MPG
Percent Truck
T rucks
Percent Truck
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 70
100%
50%
VW Marketing Group
Fuel Economy by Model Year
(Three Year Moving Average)
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
Laboratory 55/45 MPG
Percent Truck
/shears

K Both

Both
/ VT rucks
T rucks
_ _Percent Truck


100%
50%
0%
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 71
BMW Marketing Group
Fuel Economy by Model Year
(Three Year Moving Average)
Laboratory 55/45 MPG
Percent Truck
T rucks
Percent Truck
-100%
- 50%
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Model Year
Figure 72
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November 2009

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VIII. Characteristics of Fleets Comprised of Existing Fuel-Efficient Vehicles
This section is limited to a discussion of hypothetical fleets of vehicles comprised of existing fuel-
efficient vehicles and the fuel economy and other characteristics of those fleets. While it includes a discussion
of some of the technical and engineering factors that affect fleet fuel economy, it does not attempt to evaluate
either the benefits or the costs of achieving various fuel economy levels. In addition, the analysis presented
here also does not attempt to evaluate the marketability or the public acceptance of any of the hypothetical fleets
that result from the scenarios studied and discussed below.
There are several different ways to look at the potential for improved fuel economy from the light-duty
vehicle fleet. Many of these approaches utilize projections of more fuel efficient technologies that are not
currently being used in the fleet today. As an example, a fleet made up of a large fraction of fuel cell vehicles
could be considered. Such projections can be associated with a good deal of uncertainty, since uncertainty in
the projections of market share compound with uncertainties about the fuel economy performance of yet
uncommercialized technology. These uncertainties can be thought of as a combination of technical risk, i.e.,
can the technology be developed and mass produced?, and market risk, i.e., will people buy vehicles with the
improved fuel economy?
One general approach used in this report is to consider only the fuel economy performance of those
technologies which exist in today's fleet. This eliminates uncertainty about the feasibility and production
readiness of the technology, but does not address market risk. Therefore, the analysis can be thought of as the
fuel economy potential now in the fleet, with no new technologies added, if the higher mpg choices available
were to be selected by a much higher percentage of consumers.
As was shown in Figures 3 and 4, there is a wide distribution of fuel economy. Because of the interest
in the high end of this spectrum, this portion of the database was examined in more detail using three "best in
class" (BIC) analysis techniques. This type of technique is not new, and in fact was one of the methods used to
investigate future fleet fuel economy capability when the original fuel economy standards were set.
In any group or class of vehicles there will be a distribution of fuel economy performance, and the "best
in class" method relies on that fact. The analysis involves dividing the fleet of vehicles into classes, selecting a
set of representative high mpg "role model" vehicles from each class, and then calculating the average
characteristics of the resultant fleet using the same relative production proportions as in the baseline fleet.
One potential problem with a BIC analysis is that the high mpg cars used in the analysis may be unusual
in some way - so unusual that the hypothetical BIC fleet may be deficient in some other attributes considered
desirable by vehicle buyers. Because the BIC analysis is also sensitive to the selection of the best vehicles,
three different procedures were used to select the role models.
Two of these selection procedures use the EPA car size classes (which for cars are the same as those
used for the EPA/DOE Fuel Economy Guide) and the truck type/size classes described previously in this report.
The third best-in-class role model selection procedure is based on using the vehicle inertia weight classes used
for EPA's vehicle testing and certification programs.
The advantage of using and analyzing data from the best-in-size class methods is that if the production
proportions of each class are held constant, the production distribution of the resultant fleet by vehicle type and
size does not change. This means that the size of the average vehicle does not change a lot, but there can be
some fluctuation in interior volume for cars because of the distribution of interior volume within a car class.
Similarly, another advantage of using the inertia weight classes to determine the role models is, if the
EPA-420-R-09-014
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November 2009

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production proportions in each inertia weight class are held constant, the production distribution of the resultant
fleet by weight does not change, and in this case, the average weight remains the same.
One way of performing a best-in-class analysis is to use as role models the four nameplates with the
highest fuel economy in each size class. (See Tables Q-l and Q-2 in Appendix Q.) Under this procedure, all
vehicles in a class with the same nameplate are included as role models regardless of vehicle configuration.
Each role model nameplate from each class was assigned the same production weighting factor, but the original
production weighting distribution for different vehicle configurations within a given nameplate (e.g.,
transmission type, engine size, and/or drive type) was retained. The resulting values were used to recalculate
the fleet average values using the same relative proportions in each of the size classes that constitute the fleet.
In cases where two identical vehicles differ by only one characteristic but have slightly different nameplates
(such as the two-wheel drive Chevrolet CI500 and the four-wheel drive Chevrolet K1500 pickups), both are
considered to be different nameplates. Conversely, in the cases where there are technically identical vehicles
with different nameplates, only one representative vehicle nameplate was considered in the BIC analysis.
The second best-in-class role model selection procedure involves selecting as role models the best dozen
vehicles in each size class with each vehicle configuration (some of which may have the same nameplate)
considered separately. Tables Q-3 and Q-4 in Appendix Q give listings of the representative vehicles used in
this method. As with the previous procedure, in cases where technically identical vehicle configurations have
different nameplates, only one representative vehicle was considered. Under this best-in-class method, the
production data for each role model vehicle in each class was assigned the same value, and the resulting values
were used to re-calculate the fleet values again using the same relative proportions in each of the size classes
that constitute the fleet.
The third best-in-class procedure involves selecting as role models the best dozen vehicles in each
weight class. As with the previous method, each vehicle configuration was considered separately. (See Tables
Q-5 and Q-6 in Appendix Q for a listing of the vehicles used in this analysis.) It should be noted that some of
the weight classes have less than a dozen representative vehicles. In addition, as in the previous two best-in-
class methods, where technically identical vehicle configurations with different nameplates exist, only one
representative vehicle was included. As with the two best-in-size class methods, the production data for each
role model vehicle in each class was assigned the same value, and the resulting values were used to recalculate
the fleet values again using the same relative proportions in each of the size classes that constitute the fleet.
Tables 33 to 35 compare, for cars, trucks, and both cars and trucks, respectively, the results of the best-
in-class analysis with actual average data for model year 2009. As discussed earlier, for the size class scenarios,
the percentage of vehicles that are small, midsize, or large are the same as for the baseline fleet, and in the
weight class scenarios, the average weight of the BIC data sets is the same as the actual one.
In general, the vehicles used for the BIC analysis have less powerful engines, have slower 0-to-60
acceleration times, and are more likely to be equipped with front wheel drive, VVT, CVTs, and hybrid
powertrains than the entire fleet as a whole.
Depending on the BIC scenario chosen, MY2009 cars could have achieved from 18 to 27 percent better
fuel economy than they did. Similarly, for trucks the potential fuel economy improvement ranges from 13 to 27
percent better fuel economy, and the combined car and truck fleet could have been 15 to 27 percent better.
The best-in-class analyses can be thought of as the mpg potential now in the fleet with no new
technologies added if the higher mpg choices available were selected. As such, the best-in-class analyses
provide a useful reference point reflecting the variation in fuel economy levels that results in large part from
consumer preferences as opposed to technological availability.
EPA-420-R-09-014
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November 2009

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rei«
lla;
:st
:hi<
36
24
32
28
35.
10.
131
16
1..
. 0.
98-
64-
3..
9. :
12:
50
30.
53.
7 9-
7-
14!
34!
39-
26-
12
Best in Class Results 2009 Cars
Selection
Basis
Actual
Data
Size
Class
Size
Class
Selection
Criteria
All
Cars
Best 4
Nameplates
Best 12
Vehicles
Lab. 55/4 5
30. 9
39.2
36. 9
Adjusted City	20.5
Adjusted Highway	28.8
Adjusted Composite	24.5
26.5
33. 8
30.2
24 . 7
32 . 7
28 . 7
Weight (lb.)
Volume (Cu. Ft)
3533
111
3394
109
3246
109
CID
HP
167
198
134
159
130
153
HP/CID
HP/WT
1.20
. 055
1.20
. 046
1.18
. 047
Percent Multivalve	90%
Percent Variable Valve 74%
Percent Diesel	0.8
95%
82%
2 . 2%
0-60 Time ( Sec. ;
Top Speed
9.5
137
9 . i
10.3
125
Ton-MPG
Cu. Ft. Mpg
Cu. Ft. Ton-MPG
43.8
27 8 6
4858
52 . 6
3416
5775
47 . 2
3199
5182
Front
Rear
4WD
7 9%
14%
7%
98
94%
5%
1%
Manual
Lockup
CVT
9%
7 9%
11%
12%
57%
30%
35%
44%
21%
2 .7%
36.7%
12 . 2%
88

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Table 34
Best in Class Results 2009 Trucks
Vehicle
Characteristic
Selection
Basis
Actual
Data
Size
Class
Size
Class
Weight
Class
Selection
Criteria
All
Trucks
Best 4
Nameplates
Best 12
Vehicles
Best 12
Vehicles
Fuel Economy
Lab. 55/4 5
22 . 9
29.1
27 . i
25. 9
Adjusted City	15.6
Adjusted Highway	21.4
Adjusted Composite	18.4
20. 9
23. 8
22 . 5
19.3
24 .1
21. 8
17 . 7
23. 4
20.5
Vehicle Size
Weight (lb.;
4712
4847
4360
4712
Engine CID	238	250	205	219
HP	253	253	222	243
HP/CID	1.08	1.04	1.11	1.13
HP/WT	.053	.052	.051	.051
Percent Multivalve	66%	58%	74%	80%
Percent Variable Valve 56%	73%	74%	65%
Percent Diesel	0.1%	<0.1%	5.3%	4.2%
Performance 0-60 Time (Sec.)	9.6	8.3	9.3	9.5
Top Speed	142	140	136	139
Ton-MPG	43.5	55.4	48.1	48.7
Drive Front	29%	33%	34%	37%
Rear	23%	28%	24%	21%
4WD	48%	40%	42%	43%
Transmission Manual	2%	3%	18%	7%
Lockup	93%	36%	50%	73%
CVT	5%	62%	33%	19%
Hybrid Vehicle	0.9%	65.8%	24.6%	13.3%
EPA-420-R-09-014
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3
2
2
2
4
1
2
1
8
6
9
9
1
4
5
1
2
2
5
2
12
Best in Class Results 2009 Light Duty Vehicles
Selection
Basis
Actual
Data
Size
Class
Size
Class
Selection
Criteria
All
Vehicles
Best 4
Nameplates
Best 12
Vehicles
Lab. 55/4 5
26.4
33.5
31. i
Adjusted City	17.8
Adjusted Highway	24.6
Adjusted Composite	21.1
23.5
28 . 0
25. 9
21. 8
28 .1
24 . 9
Weight (lb.;
4107
4102
3789
CID	202	191	167
HP	225	205	187
HP/CID	1.14	1.12	1.15
HP/WT	.054	.049	.049
Percent Multivalve	79%	74%	84%
Percent Variable Valve 65%	79%	78%
Percent Diesel	0.5%	3.4%	4.9%
0-60 Time (Sec.)	9.5	9.0	9.8
Top Speed	139	133	130
Ton-MPG	43.6	54.0	47.7
Front	55%	66%	64%
Rear	19%	14%	15%
4WD	27%	20%	21%
Manual	6%	7%	25%
Lockup	86%	47%	47%
CVT	8%	46%	27%
1.8%	50.9%	18.2%
90

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Another general approach for determining potential fuel economy improvement is to study the effects on
fuel economy caused by the changes that have occurred in the distributions of vehicle weight and size. This
technique involves preserving the average characteristics of vehicles within each size or weight strata in today's
fleet, but re-mixing the production distributions to match those of a baseline year and then calculating the fleet
wide averages for those characteristics using the re-mixed production data. The production distribution of the
resultant fleet is by vehicle type and size, thus it is forced to be the same as that for the base year. As with the
best in car size class technique, there can be some fluctuation in average interior volume for cars because of the
distribution of interior volume within a car class. Similarly, if the production proportions in each inertia weight
class are held the same as the base year's, the production distribution of the resultant fleet by weight remains the
same as that for the base year change, and the recalculated average weight is the same as the base year's.
It is important to note that, for Tables 36 and 37 below, both hybrid and diesel vehicles were excluded
so that only vehicles with conventional powertrains were considered. Accordingly, the data in the rows for
actual 2009, 1981, and 1988 typically differ slightly from data reported elsewhere in this report.
Table 36 compares weight, interior volume, engine CID and HP, estimated 0-to-60 time and laboratory
fuel economy for conventionally powered MY2009 cars as calculated from the projected 2009 production
distribution and then recalculated using the size and weight distributions from MY1981 and MY1988. The base
years of 1981 and 1988 were chosen because 1981 was the year with the lowest average weight and horsepower
levels, and 1988 was the year with the highest LAB fuel economy. This table includes the actual 1981 and 1988
fleet averages as a point of reference. In both of the weight distribution cases, the fuel economy of the re-mixed
MY2009 fleet would have been higher than actually is: 10 percent if the 1981 weight distribution is used, 14
percent if the 1988 weight distribution is used. For both re-mixed weight cases, interior volume and
horsepower are substantially lower. Using the MY1981 and MY1988 size mix distributions result in a much
smaller change of a two percent increase in car fuel economy.
Table 36
Calculated From:
Characteristics of MY 2009 Cars
Inertia
Weight
Interior
Volume
Engine
CID HP
0 to 60
Time
Lab 55/45
MPG
2009 Actual Distribution
3538
111
168 200
9.5
30.5
1981 Weight Distribution	3043	98
1988 Weight Distribution	3047	103
1981 Size Distribution	3468	107
1988 Size Distribution	3447	108
Reference: 1981 Actual	3043	106
Reference: 1988 Actual	3047	107
135
128
160
159
178
160
172
156
194
191
99
116
10
9
9
14
12
33. 4
34.9
31.0
31.1
24.9
28.6
Percent Change:
2009 Actual Distribution
1981	Weight Distribution	-14?
1988	Weight Distribution	-14?
1981	Size Distribution	-2%
1988	Size Distribution	-3%
-12?
-7%
-4%
-3%
-20?
-24?
-5%
-5%
-14?
-22?
-3%
-5%
10?
14=!
2?
2=!
Reference: 1981 Actual
Reference: 1988 Actual
-14?
-14?
-51?
-42?
48?
35?
-18?
-6?
EPA-420-R-09-014
91
November 2009

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Table 37 shows similar data for trucks, and as with the car class cases using either the 1981 or the 1988
production distribution by weight class, results in higher recalculated fuel economy than using the
corresponding size class production distribution. Figures 73 to 76 compare actual fuel economy for all model
years from 1975 to 2007 with what it would have been had the distributions of weight or size been the same as
1981 or 1988. For both cars and trucks, using either the 1981 or 1988 weight class distribution, results in
significantly higher fuel economy improvements than the similar size class cases.
Table 37
Characteristics of MY 2009 Trucks
Inertia	Engine	0 to 60	Lab 55/45
Weight	CID HP	Time	MPG
Calculated From:
2009 Actual Distribution	4709
1981 Weight Distribution	3841
1988 Weight Distribution	3838
1981 Size Distribution	4532
1988 Size Distribution	4392
Reference: 1981 Actual	3841
Reference: 1988 Actual	3838
Percent Change:
2009 Actual Distribution	0%
1981 Weight Distribution	-18%
1988 Weight Distribution	-18%
1981 Size Distribution	-4%
1988 Size Distribution	-7%
Reference: 1981 Actual	-18%
Reference: 1988 Actual	-18%
239	253	9.6	22.9
173	201	9.8	28.2
174	195	10.1	28.1
248	252	9.7	22.7
227	229	10.0	23.6
252	121	14.4	19.7
227	141	12.9	21.2
0%	0%	0%	0%
2qo	O 1 fi.	Ofi-	O Q fi-
ll) o	Z, ± o	Z, o	Z, •_> o
O *7 fi-	O Q fi-	C fi-	OQfi-
Z,/o	Z, •_> o	Oo	Z •_> o
4%	0%	1%	-1%
-5%	-9%	4%	3%
5%	-52%	50%	-14%
-5%	-44%	34%	-7%
EPA-420-R-09-014
92
November 2009

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Effect of Weight and Size On Car Fuel Economy
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Model Year
Figure 73
Lab 55/45 MPG

		—==***-

¦¦¦¦/
^—Actual
¦ 1981 Weight
o 1981 Size
/

Effect of Weight and Size On Truck Fuel Economy
Lab 55/45 MPG
40
35
—Actual
¦ 1981 Weight
o 1981 Size
30
25
20
15
10
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Model Year
Figure 74
EPA-420-R-09-014
93
November 2009

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Effect of Weight and Size On Car Fuel Economy
40 ;
35 :
30 ;
25 :
20 ;
15 :
10 ;
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Model Year
Figure 75
Lab 55/45 MPG

_¦¦¦
		




/
Actual
¦ 1988 Weight


Effect of Weight and Size On Truck Fuel Economy
Lab 55/45 MPG
40
Actual
35
¦ 1988 Weight
30
o 1988 Size
25
20
15
10
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Model Year
Figure 76
EPA-420-R-09-014
94
November 2009

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IX. References
1.	"U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Fuel Economy and Emission Control," November 1972.
2.	"Passenger Car Fuel Economy - Trends and Influencing Factors," SAE Paper 730790, Austin and Hellman,
September 1973.
3.	"Fuel Economy of the 1975 Models," SAE Paper 740970, Austin and Hellman, October 1974.
4.	"Passenger Car Fuel Economy Trends Through 1976," SAE Paper 750957, Austin and Service, October
1975.
5.	"Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1977," SAE Paper 760795, Murrell, Pace, Service,
and Yeager, October 1976.
6.	"Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1978," SAE Paper 780036, Murrell, February
1978.
7.	"Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1979," SAE Paper 790225, Murrell, February
1979.
8.	"Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1980," SAE Paper 800853, Murrell, Foster and
Bristor, June 1980.
9.	"Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1981," SAE Paper 810386, Foster, Murrell and
Loos, February 1981.
10.	"Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy Trends Through 1982," SAE Paper 820300, Cheng, LeBaron,
Murrell, and Loos, February 1982.
11.	"Why Vehicles Don't Achieve EPA MPG On the Road and How That Shortfall Can Be Accounted For,"
SAE Paper 820791, Hellman and Murrell, June 1982.
12.	"Light-Duty Automobile Fuel Economy Trends through 1983," SAE Paper 830544, Murrell, Loos,
Heavenrich, and Cheng, February 1983.
13.	"Passenger Car Fuel Economy - Trends Through 1984," SAE Paper 840499, Heavenrich, Murrell, Cheng,
and Loos, February 1984.
14.	"Light Truck Fuel Economy - Trends through 1984," SAE Paper 841405, Loos, Cheng, Murrell and
Heavenrich, October 1984.
15.	"Light-Duty Automotive Fuel Economy - Trends Through 1985," SAE Paper 850550, Heavenrich, Murrell,
Cheng, and Loos, March 1985.
16.	"Light-Duty Automotive Trends Through 1986," SAE Paper 860366, Heavenrich, Cheng, and Murrell,
February 1986.
17.	"Trends in Alternate Measures of Vehicle Fuel Economy," SAE Paper 861426, Hellman and Murrell,
September 1986.
EPA-420-R-09-014	95	November 2009

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18.	"Light-Duty Automotive Trends Through 1987," SAE Paper 871088, Heavenrich, Murrell, and Cheng,
May 1987.
19.	"Light-Duty Automotive Trends Through 1988," U.S. EPA, EPA/AA/CTAB/88-07, Heavenrich and
Murrell, June 1988.
20.	"Light-Duty Automotive and Technology Trends Through 1989," U.S. EPA, EPA/AA/CTAB/89-04,
Heavenrich, Murrell, and Hellman, May 1989.
21.	"Downward Trend in Passenger Car Fuel Economy—A View of Recent Data," U.S. EPA,
EPA/AA/CTAB/90-01, Murrell and Heavenrich, January 1990.
22.	"Options for Controlling the Global Warming Impact from Motor Vehicles," U.S. EPA,
EPA/AA/CTAB/89-08, Heavenrich, Murrell, and Hellman, December 1989.
23.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends through 1990," U.S. EPA,
EPA/AA/CTAB/90-03, Heavenrich and Murrell, June 1990.
24.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends through 1991," U.S. EPA/AA/CTAB/91-
02, Heavenrich, Murrell, and Hellman, May 1991.
25.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends through 1993," U.S. EPA/AA/TDG/93-01,
Murrell, Hellman, and Heavenrich, May 1993.
26.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends through 1996," U.S. EPA/AA/TDSG/96-
01, Heavenrich and Hellman, July 1996.
27.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends through 1999," U.S. EPA420-R-99-018,
Heavenrich and Hellman, September 1999.
28.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2000," U.S. EPA420-R-00-
008, Heavenrich and Hellman, December 2000.
29.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2001," U.S. EPA420-R-01-
008, Heavenrich and Hellman, September 2001.
30.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2003," U.S. EPA420-R-03-
006, Heavenrich and Hellman, April 2003.
31.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2004," U.S. EPA420-R-04-
001, Heavenrich and Hellman, April 2004.
32.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2005," U.S. EPA420-R-05-
001, Robert M. Heavenrich, July 2005.
33.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends 1975 through 2006," U.S. EPA420-R-06-
011, Robert M. Heavenrich, July 2006.
34.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 through 2007," U.S. EPA420-S-07-
001, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, September 2007.
EPA-420-R-09-014
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35.	"Light-Duty Automotive Technology and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2008," U.S. EPA420-R-
08-015, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, September 2008.
36.	"Concise Description of Auto Fuel Economy in Recent Years," SAE Paper 760045, Malliaris, Hsia and
Gould, February 1976.
37.	"Automotive Engine - A Future Perspective," SAE Paper 891666, Amann, 1989.
38.	"Regression Analysis of Acceleration Performance of Light-Duty Vehicles," DOT HS 807 763, Young,
September 1991.
39.	"Determinates of Multiple Measures of Acceleration," SAE Paper 931805, Santini and Anderson, 1993.
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Appendices
Appendix A: Database Details and Calculation Methods
Appendix B: Model Year 2009 Nameplate Fuel Economy Listings
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Appendix F: Fuel Economy Car Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and
Weight Class
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and
Drive Type
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and
Transmission Type
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and
Cylinder Count
Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type
and Valves Per Cylinder
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and
Marketing Group
Appendix M: Fuel Economy by Marketing Group, Vehicle Type
and Weight Class
Appendix N: Fuel Economy and Ton-MPG by Marketing Group,
Vehicle Type and Size
Appendix O: MY2008 Fuel Economy by Vehicle Type, Weight
and Marketing Group
Appendix P: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Marketing Group
and Vehicle Type
Appendix Q: Characteristics of Fleets Comprised of Fuel
Efficient Vehicles
SEPA
United States	EPA-420-R-09-014
Environmental Protection	crrt n U3 U|if
Agency	November 2009

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Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Appendix A
Database Details and Calculation Methods
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

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Harmonically Averaging Fuel Economy Values
Dimensionally, fuel economy is miles divided by gallons. Then, presented with more
than one fuel economy value, an approach to averaging the values is to compute the result by
determining the total miles traveled and dividing that by the total gallons used.
Example: A motorist's fuel economy log for May shows that 704 miles were accumulated
around town in which the fuel economy was 16 mpg, and one 216 mile highway trip was taken
on which the fuel economy was 24 mpg. What is the average fuel economy for May?
The total miles are 704 + 216 = 920. The total gallons thus are 704 / 16 = 44 plus
216 /24 = 9 or a total of 53 gallons. The average mpg is 920 / 53 = 17.4 mpg. Notice that the
arithmetic average of the two fuel economy values (16 + 24) I 2 = 20 mpg gives an individual
result that is higher than the total miles/total gallons result.
Even if the around-town miles traveled and the highway trip miles traveled were the same
(460 miles), the average fuel economy would not be 20; it would be 19.2 mpg. This is because
in the total miles/total gallons approach, fuel consumption is arithmetically averaged, but fuel
economy is harmonically averaged, so for the second example (equal trip distances), the
calculation would be:
Average MPG = 2 / (1/16 + 1/24) = 19.2 MPG,
which is the same as arithmetically averaging the two fuel consumption values.
A specific example of this type of averaging approach is shown in the calculation of the
overall average fuel economy using the EPA "city" (MPGc) and EPA "highway" (MPGh) fuel
economy values.
Average MPG = Total Miles
Total Gallons
= 	Total Miles	
City Gallons + Highway Gallons
= 	Total Miles	
City Miles/City MPG + Highway Miles/Highway MPG
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-l
November 2009

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Now, if city miles are 55 percent of total miles and highway miles are the remaining 45
percent, after dividing by total miles,
Average MPG	= 	1	
(55/MPG c) + (45/MPG H)
and this average mpg would represent a composite mpg value based on the 55% city/45%
highway driving in this example. This 55% city/45%) highway weighting is the metric in this
report for laboratory composite fuel economy values.
The same approach can be used when the average mpg of a group of vehicles with
different mpg values is to be calculated. Suppose a fleet of 100,000 vehicles is made up of two
classes, one of 70,000 vehicles whose fuel economy is 10 mpg and the other of 30,000 vehicles
whose fuel economy is 14 mpg. Each vehicle in the fleet is assumed to travel the same number
of miles (M),
Total Miles = 100,000 M
Total Gallons = 70,000 M / 10 + 30,000 M / 14
and the average fuel economy is:
Average Fuel Economy =	1	
.7/10 + .3/14
= 10.9 mpg
where .7 and .3 are the relative shares of each vehicle class in the fleet. Notice that, again, the
arithmetic average of the class fuel economy values (10 + 14)/2 = 12 mpg is higher.
In general, some form of a weighted harmonic mean must be used when averaging
different fuel economy values in order to maintain mathematical integrity.
While fuel economy values (in miles per gallon) must be harmonically averaged to
maintain mathematical integrity, fuel consumption values (in gallons per mile) and carbon
dioxide emissions values (in grams per mile) can be arithmetically averaged.
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-2
November 2009

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Estimated and Final Production Data
Table A-l compares average laboratory 55/45 fuel economy for model years 1998
through 2008 at three points in time:
(1)	an initial estimate determined early in the model year using projected production;
(2)	for some years, a revised estimate determined by using trade publication sales
data that were obtained after the end of each model year, but before the final
CAFE data were submitted by automakers to the Federal Government; and
(3)	final fuel economy values determined from CAFE compliance data provided
by the manufacturers to the Federal Government after the end of the model year.
The final car plus truck fuel economy values have varied from 0.4 mpg lower to 0.6 mpg
higher compared to the original estimates based exclusively on projected production. The final
car plus truck value for MY2008 in this report is 0.3 mpg higher than the initial estimate for
2008 in last year's report, which suggests that sustained, higher gasoline prices have led to small
changes in consumer demand relative to what manufacturers expected prior to the start of 2008.
Table A-l
Comparison of Laboratory 55/45 MPG
Model Initial Revised	Final
Year Estimate Estimate Value
Cars
1998	28.6
1999	28.1
2000	28.1
2001	28.3
2002	28.5
2003	29.0
2004	28.7
2005	28.9
2006	28.8
2007	29.4
2008	30.3
28. 6
28.2
28.3
28.3
28.5
28.9
28.9
29.2
29.2
30.3
30.5
28.5
28.1
28.2
28.4
28. 6
28. 9
28. 9
29.5
29.2
30.3
30.5
Trucks 1998 20.6
20. 6
20.4
20.5
20.4
20.3
20. 9
20. 9
21.2
21.9
22.1
22.7
20.9
20.5
20.8
20.6
20.6
20. 9
20.8
21.4
21.8
22.1
22.7
1999	20.3
2000	20.5
2001	20.3
2002	20.4
2003	20.8
2004	20.9
2005	21.3
2006	21.5
2007	22.1
2008	22.5
Both 1998 24.4
24 .4
24 . 0
23. 9
24 . 0
23. 9
24.2
24.4
24 . 6
25.3
25.7
26.3
24 .5
24.1
24 .3
24 .2
24.1
24 .3
24.0
24.8
25.2
25.8
26.3
1999	23.8
2000	24.0
2001	23.9
2002	24.0
2003	24.4
2004	24.4
2005	24.6
2006	24.6
2007	25.3
2008	26.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-3
November 2009

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Use of 3-Year Moving Averages
Use of the three-year moving averages, which effectively smoothes the trends, results in
an improvement in discriminating real trends from what might be relatively small year-to-year
variations in the data. For this report, as shown in Table A-2, these three-year moving averages
are tabulated at the midpoint. For example, the midpoint for model years 2007, 2008, and 2009
is MY2008.
Table A-2
Light-Duty Vehicle Laboratory Fuel Economy and Truck Sales Fraction
Actual Data
55/45 Fuel Economy Truck
Year Cars Trucks Both Production
Fraction
Three-Year Moving Average
55/45 Fuel Economy Truck
Cars Trucks Both Production
Fraction
1975
15.8
13.7
15 .3
0.194




1976
17.5
14.4
16.7
0.212
17.1
14 .5
16.5
0.202
1977
18 .3
15. 6
17.7
0.200
18.5
15.1
17. 6
0.213
1978
19.9
15.2
18 . 6
0.227
19.4
15 .2
18.3
0.216
1979
20.3
14.7
18 .7
0.222
21.1
16.0
19.8
0.205
1980
23.5
CO
Ch
22 .5
0.165
22.8
17.5
21.5
0.187
1981
25.1
20.1
24.1
0.173
24.8
19.7
23.7
0.178
1982
26.0
20.5
24.7
0.197
25.7
20.5
24.5
0.197
1983
25.9
20.9
24 . 6
0.223
26.1
20.6
24 . 6
0.219
1984
26.3
20.5
24 . 6
0.239
26.4
20.6
24.7
0.239
1985
27.0
20.6
25.0
0.254
27.0
20.8
25.1
0.258
1986
27.9
21.4
25.7
0.283
27.6
21.2
25 .5
0.272
1987
28.1
21.6
25.9
0.278
28.2
21.4
25.8
0.286
1988
28.6
21.2
25.9
0.298
28.3
21.2
25.8
0.294
1989
28.1
20.9
25.4
0.307
28.2
20.9
25.5
0.302
1990
27.8
20.7
25 .2
0.302
28.0
21.0
25.3
0.310
1991
28.0
21.3
25.4
0.322
27.8
20.9
25.2
0.319
1992
27.6
20.8
24.9
0.334
27.9
21.0
25.1
0.339
1993
28.2
21.0
25.1
0.360
28.0
20.8
24.8
0.366
1994
28.0
20.8
24 . 6
0.404
28.2
20.7
24.8
0.381
1995
28.3
20.5
24.7
0.380
28.2
20.7
24.7
0.395
1996
28.3
20.8
24.8
0.400
28.3
20.7
24.7
0.401
1997
28.4
20.6
24.5
0.424
28.4
20.8
24 . 6
0. 424
1998
28.5
20.9
24.5
0.449
28.4
20.7
24.4
0.441
1999
28.2
20.5
24.1
0.449
28.3
20.7
24.3
0.449
2000
28.2
20.8
24.3
0.449
28.3
20.6
24.2
0. 453
2001
28.4
20.6
24.2
0. 461
28.4
20.6
24.2
0. 465
2002
28.6
20.6
24.1
0.485
28.7
20.7
24.2
0.481
2003
28.9
20.9
24.3
0.496
28.8
20.8
24.1
0.500
2004
28.9
20.8
24.0
0.520
29.1
21.0
24.4
0.504
2005
29.5
21.4
24.8
0.495
29.2
21.3
24.7
0.495
2006
29.2
21.8
25 .2
0.471
29.7
21.7
25.2
0.480
2007
30.3
22.1
25.8
0.471
30.0
22 .2
25.7
0.471
2008
30.5
22.7
26.3
0.472
30.6
22 . 6
26.2
0.477
2009
30.9
22.9
26.4
0.487




EPA-420-R-09-014
A-4
November 2009

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Table A-2 (Continued)
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Light-Duty Vehicle Adjusted Fuel Economy
Cars
Each Year's Data	3 Year Moving Avg.
CITY HWY COMP CITY	HWY COMP
12 .3
15 .2
13.5



13.7
16.6
14.9
13.4
16.3
14 . 6
14.4
17.4
15 . 6
14 .5
17.6
15.8
15 .5
19.1
16.9
15 .3
18 .5
16.6
15.9
19.2
17.2
16.5
20.2
18.0
18.3	22.6
19.6 24.2
20.1	25.5
19.9 25.5
20.2	26.0
20.0	17.8
21.4	19.3
22.2	19.8
22.1	20.1
22.4	20.3
21.8	19.4
24.1 21.2
25.1 21.9
25.7 22.2
26.1 22.5
20.7	26.8
21.2	27.6
21.2	27.7
21.4	28.2
20.9 27.9
23.0	20.7
23.7	21.0
23.8	21.3
24.1	21.2
23.7	20.9
26.8	23.0
27.4	23.5
27.8	23.9
27.9	23.9
27.8	23.7
20.5	27.5
20.5	27.6
20.0	27.5
20.3	27.9
20.0	27.7
23.3	20.6
23.4	20.3
23.1	20.2
23.5	20.1
23.3	20.1
27.7	23.5
27.5	23.3
27.6	23.3
27.7	23.3
27.9 23.4
20.0
28.1
23.4
19.9
27.9
23.3
19.8
28.0
23.3
19.9
28.0
23.4
19.8
28.0
23.4
19.8
28.0
23.4
19.7
28.0
23.4
19. 6
27.8
23.2
19.4
27.5
23.0
19.5
27.6
23.1
19.3	27.3
19.4	27.3
19.4	27.2
19.5	27.5
19.3	27.4
22.9 19.3
23.0	19.4
23.1	19.4
23.2	19.4
23.1	19.4
27.4	23.0
27.3	23.0
27.3	23.1
27.4	23.2
27.5	23.3
19. 6
19.4
20.1
20.3
20.5
27.6
27.5
28.3
28.5
28.8
23.5
23.3
24.1
24.3
24.5
19.4
19.7
19.9
20.3
27.5
27.8
28.1
28.6
23.3
23.6
23.9
24.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-5
November 2009

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Table A-2 (Continued)
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Light-Duty Vehicle Adjusted Fuel Economy
Trucks
Each Year's Data	3 Year Moving Avg.
CITY HWY COMP CITY HWY COMP
10.9
12 .7
11.6



11.5
13.2
12 .2
11.7
13.3
12.3
12 . 6
14.1
13.3
12 .2
13.7
12.8
12.4
13.7
12.9
12.4
13.6
12.9
12.1
13.1
12 .5
13.0
14.4
13. 6
14.8
16.0
16.3
16.5
16.1
17.1
18 . 6
19.0
19. 6
19.3
15.8
17.1
17.4
17.8
17.4
14.1
15 .7
16.3
16.3
16.3
15.9
18 .2
19.1
19.3
19.4
14.9
16.7
17. 4
17.5
17.6
16.2	19.4
16.8	20.2
16.8	20.5
16.2	20.2
15.9	19.8
17.5	16.4
18.2	16.6
18.3	16.6
17.9	16.3
17.6	15.9
19.6 17.7
20.0	18.0
20.3	18.1
20.2	17.9
19.9 17.6
15.6 19.8
15.9 20.3
15.5	19.9
15.5	20.1
15.3	19.7
17.4	15.8
17.8	15.7
17.4	15.6
17.5	15.4
17.2	15.2
20.0	17.6
20.0	17.5
20.1	17.5
19.9	17.3
19.7	17.2
15.0	19.5
15.1	19.9
14.8	19.5
14.9	19.8
14.6 19.2
17.0	15.1
17.2	15.0
17.0	14.9
17.1	14.8
16.7	14.7
19.7	17.1
19.6	17.0
19.7	17.1
19.5	16.9
19.5	16.9
14 .7
14 . 6
14.4
14 . 6
14 .3
19.4
19.1
19.1
19.3
19.2
16.9
16.7
16.7
16.9
16.7
14 . 6
14 . 6
14 .5
14.4
14.5
19.2
19.2
19.1
19.2
19.4
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.9
14.6	19.8
14.9	20.1
15.1	20.4
15.5	21.0
15.6	21.4
17.2	14.6
17.5	14.9
17.7	15.1
18.2	15.4
18.4
19.7	17.1
20.1	17.5
20.5	17.8
20.9	18.1
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-6
November 2009

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Table A-2 (Continued)
Model
Year
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Light-Duty Vehicle Adjusted Fuel Economy
Cars and Trucks
Each Year's Data	3 Year Moving Avg.
CITY HWY COMP CITY	HWY COMP
12.0
14. 6
13.1



13.2
15.7
14.2
13. 0
15 . 6
14.1
14.0
16.6
15.1
13. 9
16.6
15.0
14.7
17.5
15.8
14.5
17.2
15. 6
14.9
17. 4
15.9
15. 6
18 . 6
16.8
17. 6
21.5
19.2
16.9
20.3
18.3
18.8
23.0
20.5
18.5
22.8
20.2
19.2
23.9
21.1
19.0
23.6
20.8
19.0
23.9
21.0
19.1
23.9
21.0
19.1
24.0
21.0
19.1
24.1
21.1
19.3
24.4
21.3
19.4
24.5
21.4
19.8
25.0
21.8
19. 6
24.9
21.7
19.8
25.3
22.0
19.7
25.2
21.9
19.6
25 .2
21.9
19.5
25.1
21.7
19.1
24.8
21.4
19.1
24.9
21.5
18 .7
24 . 6
21.2
18.9
24.7
21.3
18.8
24.7
21.2
18 . 6
24.6
21.1
CO
N)
24.4
20.8
18.4
24.5
21.0
CO
N)
24.4
20.9
18.1
24.2
20.7
17.8
23.8
20.4
17. 9
24.1
20.6
17.7
24.1
20.5
17.7
24.0
20.4
17. 6
24.0
20.4
17. 6
23.9
20.3
17. 4
23.6
20.1
17. 4
23.7
20.2
17.2
23.6
20.1
17.1
23.4
20.0
16.9
23.0
19.7
17. 0
23.2
19.8
16.9
23.0
19.8
16.9
23.0
19.7
16.8
22.8
19.6
16.8
22.8
19.6
16.6
22.5
19.4
16.7
22 .7
19.5
16.7
22.7
19.6
16.6
22. 6
19.4
16.3
22.4
19.3
16.6
22.7
19. 6
16.8
23.1
19.9
16.7
23.0
19
17. 0
23.4
20.1
17.0
23.5
20
17.3
23.9
20.6
17.3
23.9
20
17.7
24.4
21.0
17.6
24.3
20
17.8
24 . 6
21.1



EPA-420-R-09-014
A-7
November 2009

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Vehicle Classification Exceptions
The truck size classification scheme used in this report is based primarily on published
wheelbase data. For cars, vehicle classification as to vehicle type, size class, and manufacturer/
marketing group generally follows fuel economy label, Fuel Economy Guide, and fuel economy
standards protocols; exceptions are listed in Table A-3. The classification of a vehicle for this
report is based on the authors' engineering judgment and is not a replacement for definitions used
in implementing automotive standards legislation.
Table A-3
Group/Manufacturer/Vehicles
Are Classified As:
Chrysler:	Colt 4WD Wagon*
Chrysler:	Colt Vista*
Chrysler:	Pacifica*
Chrysler:	PT Cruiser
Chrysler:	PT Cruiser Convertible
Chrysler:	Summit Wagon*
Chrysler:	Dodge Ram Charger*
Chrysler:	Dodge Magnum*
Chrysler:	Eagle 4WD Wagon*
Small Wagon
Small Van
Large Wagon
Small Wagon
Subcompact
Small Van
Large Sedan
Midsize Wagon
Car
Ford:	Ford Pinto Van*
Ford:	Volvo V70 XC
Car
Midsize Wagon
GM
GM
GM
HHR
Isuzu Oasis*
Pontiac Vibe
Small Wagon
Midsize Van
Small Wagon
Nissan:
Infiniti EX35
Midsize SUV
Toyota:
Toyota:
VW:
Lexus RX300*
Matrix
Audi Allroad*
Midsize SUV
Small Wagon
Midsize Wagon
Other:	Subaru Outback AWD Wagon
Other:	Subaru Forester
Other:	Subaru Baja*
Other:	Suzuki X-90*
Other:	Mitsubishi Expo*
Other:	Mitsubishi Space Wagon*
Other:	Mercedes R-Series
Midsize Wagon
Small SUV
Small Pickup
Small SUV
Small Van
Small Van
Large Wagon
* Not manufactured for MY2009.
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Methodology for Adjusted Fuel Economy Values
for Model Years 1986-2009
On December 27, 2006, EPA published regulations that changed the methodology for
calculating the city and highway fuel economy label estimates for new passenger cars and light
trucks (71 Federal Register 77872). This revised methodology provides fuel economy estimates
to consumers that better reflect real world fuel economy. The methodology incorporates test
data that directly account for several important factors that affect fuel economy in the real world,
such as high speeds, aggressive accelerations and decelerations, the use of air conditioning, and
operation in cold temperatures, and indirectly account for a number of other factors that are not
reflected in EPA laboratory test data such as changing fuel composition, road conditions, etc.
These vehicle fuel economy label changes were implemented beginning with the 2008
model year. For model years 2008-2010, manufacturers have two options for calculating city
and highway fuel economy labels: 1) use vehicle-specific "5-cycle" (Federal Test Procedure for
urban stop-and-go driving, Highway Fuel Economy Test for rural driving, US06 test for high
speeds and aggressive driving, SC03 test for air conditioning operation, and cold FTP test for
cold temperature operation) fuel economy test data in "composite" equations that calculate
vehicle-specific city and highway fuel economy values using weighting factors for data from
each of the 5 EPA test cycles, or 2) use an industry-average "mpg-based" method, which yields
mpg-based adjustments based on a regression of recent 5-cycle fuel economy data for the
industry as a whole. Beginning in 2011, manufacturers must use the 5-cycle method. For more
details on the derivation of these options, the specific equations that allow an automaker to
calculate new label values using either the vehicle-specific 5-cycle test data or the industry-
average mpg-based approach, and the impact of these changes on average fuel economy label
values, see the Preamble to the new regulations (71 Federal Register 77881-77893).
Beginning with the 2007 Trends report, EPA has made significant changes in how
adjusted (ADJ) fuel economy values for model years 1986 through 2009 are calculated to reflect
the revised EPA fuel economy label methodology. These changes affect every table and figure
in this report that involve adjusted fuel economy data. Accordingly, adjusted fuel economy
values for 1986 and later model years should not be compared with the corresponding values
from pre-2007 reports in this series. Specifically, the adjusted fuel economy values for 1986-
2009 in this report differ from those in pre-2007 reports as explained below.
• For model years 2005-2009, EPA calculates adjusted fuel economy values for most of
the individual models in the fuel economy trends database using the following city
and highway "mpg-based" equations from the EPA fuel economy labeling
rulemaking:
1
New ADJ CITY =	
0.003259+ 1.1805
LAB CITY
1
New ADJ HWY =	
0.001376+ 1.3466
LAB HWY
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-9
November 2009

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The above equations are not used if a manufacturer chooses the option of providing
vehicle-specific 5-cycle test data for an individual model. In that case, the adjusted
fuel economy values are calculated using equations with weighting factors for the
data from the 5-cycle tests. For MY2009, manufacturers chose this option for a small
number of individual models.
Calculating fleetwide adjusted city and highway fuel economy values for a given
model year requires a harmonic, production-weighted average of all of the adjusted
city and highway fuel economy values for individual models.
The above equations yield a greater downward adjustment for higher fuel economy
vehicles than for lower fuel economy vehicles. For example, compared to the older
fuel economy label methodology, a 15 mpg city value will be reduced by an
additional 10%, while a 50 mpg city value will be reduced by an additional 18%.
Likewise, a 20 mpg highway value will be reduced by an additional 7%, while a 50
mpg highway value will be reduced by an additional 11%. EPA projected an overall
average fleetwide adjustment of 11% lower for city fuel economy and 8% lower for
highway fuel economy, beyond that in the older label adjustment methodology that
has been used in pre-2007 reports in this series. These factors can be used to convert
older adjusted fuel economy values to the newer adjusted fuel economy values for the
current fleet as a whole, but would not be appropriate factors to use for individual
models or for a future fleet with different mpg characteristics.
This report seldom uses separate city and highway fuel economy values, but typically
uses the composite city /highway fuel economy value. Pre-2007 reports used a 55%
city/45%) highway weighting for adjusted composite fuel economy values, the same
weighting used for laboratory composite values and for the CAFE compliance
program. The analysis of real world driving activity underlying the newer fuel
economy label methodology assumed a "speed cutpoint" of 45 miles per hour to
differentiate between city and highway driving (71 Federal Register 77904). Based
on this speed cutpoint, the correct weighting for correlating the new city and highway
fuel economy values with real world driving, on a miles driven basis, is 43%
city/57%) highway. Accordingly, the 43% city/57%) highway weighting is now used
for all adjusted composite city /highway fuel economy values in this report beginning
with the 2005 model year (note that the historic 55% city/45%) highway weighting is
still used for both CAFE compliance and fuel economy labels).
The appropriate fleetwide factors to convert laboratory or older adjusted fuel
economy values to the newer adjusted fuel economy values are dependent on the city
fuel economy-to-highway fuel economy ratios in the fleet. On average, for the
current fleet, combining the 11% lower adjustment for city fuel economy, the 8%>
lower adjustment for highway fuel economy, and the shift to the 43% city/57%)
highway weighting, the newer adjustment for city/highway composite fuel economy
values is 6% lower than that used in the older label adjustment methodology. This
6%> lower value is the average impact for a fleet with the mpg and city fuel economy-
to-highway fuel economy characteristics of the current fleet, and would not be the
appropriate value for individual models, partial fleet segments, or for future fleets
with different mpg and city fuel economy-to-highway fuel economy distributions.
EPA-420-R-09-014
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November 2009

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• For model years 1986 through 2004, EPA calculates adjusted fuel economy values
based on the assumption that the impacts of the factors that have led to lower real
world fuel economy have occurred in a gradual (i.e., linear) manner over the 20 years
from 1986 through 2005. On April 6, 1984, EPA published regulations that
established the older fuel economy label adjustment factors of 0.9 for city fuel
economy and 0.78 for highway fuel economy that took effect for model year 1985
vehicles (49 Federal Register 13832). EPA believes that these adjustment factors
were appropriate through the 1985 model year. EPA has not attempted to perform a
year-by-year analysis to determine the extent to which the many relevant factors
(including highway speed limits, more aggressive driving, vehicle horsepower-to-
weight ratio, suburbanization, congestion, use of air conditioning, gasoline
composition, et al) that have affected real world fuel economy since 1985 have
changed over time. Rather, EPA has made the simplifying, but we think reasonable,
assumption that the collective impact of these changes has been a linearly increasing
impact over the 20 years from 1986 through 2005. Using the equations shown above
for individual models, EPA has assumed 1/20 of the fully phased-in downward
adjustment for city and highway values would be reflected in the 1986 data, 2/20 of
this adjustment would be reflected in the 1987 data, etc., up to 19/20 of this
adjustment in 2004 and the full adjustment in 2005 and later years. Likewise, EPA
has assumed the 55/45 city /highway weighting changes to a 43/57 city /highway
weighting in a linear fashion over the 1986 to 2005 time period as well. As discussed
above, the average fleetwide composite city /highway fuel economy values for 2005-
2009 are 6% lower than the composite city /highway fuel economy value calculated
with the older adjustment factors.
To generate precise adjusted city, highway, or composite fuel economy values for
individual models or for future fleetwide averages with different mpg or city fuel economy-to-
highway fuel economy ratios than the current fleet, it is essential to use the above equations to
calculate adjusted city and highway fuel economy values for individual models, then use the
43% city/57% highway weighting to generate an adjusted composite fuel economy value for
individual models, and then calculate the harmonically production-weighted average of the
individual models to yield the average composite fuel economy for the fleet as a whole.
Alternatively, for a first-order estimate of generic fleetwide factors that one could use to convert
values from the historic fuel economy trends database to the newer adjusted fuel economy levels,
see the factors in Table A-4, which are based on the mpg and city fuel economy-to-highway fuel
economy characteristics of the current fleet. For example, the industry-wide adjusted composite
city /highway fuel economy value for model year 1986 in this year's report, which will be
reported as ADJ COMP, is about .997 (1.0 minus 0.003, where 0.003 equals 0.3%, and the latter
is equal to 6% divided by 20) times the adjusted composite city/highway fuel economy value, or
ADJ 55/45, from pre-2007 reports in this series. Likewise, the same industry-wide ADJ COMP
value for 1986 can be approximated by multiplying the laboratory composite 55/45 value for
1986 by 0.851. The industry-wide ADJ COMP fuel economy values for model years 2005-2009
in this year's report are all equal to 0.80 times the laboratory composite 55/45 values.
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-ll
November 2009

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It is important to note that the above discussion, as well as all the data in this report, is
focused on new model year vehicle fleets, i.e., the data for a MY2000 vehicle is most directly
relevant for that vehicle operated on the road in calendar year 2000. Because most (though not
all) of the real world factors reflected in this methodology are relatively independent of vehicle
design, the best approximation of the adjusted fuel economy of a used MY2000 vehicle in
calendar year 2008 would be to use the 2008 factors in Table A-4.
Table A-5 provides a comparison of adjusted composite fuel economy values, for cars
and trucks combined, using both the older fuel economy label methodology that has been used in
pre-2007 reports in this series as well as the newer fuel economy label methodology described
above and used in 2007 and later reports.
No changes have been made in the way EPA calculates adjusted fuel economy values for
1975-1985. For these model years, EPA still uses the 0.9 city/0.78 highway fuel economy
adjustments established in 1984, along with the 55% city/45% highway weighting factor. EPA
believes that this methodology was appropriate for the late 1970s and early 1980s and is not
making any changes to adjusted fuel economy values for 1975 through 1985.
No changes have been made in the laboratory (LAB) fuel economy values in this report.
The laboratory city value remains the fuel economy value over the EPA Federal Test Procedure,
the laboratory highway value remains the fuel economy value over the EPA Highway Fuel
Economy Test, and the laboratory 55/45 is a weighted value of these two tests, with a 55%
weighting of the Federal Test Procedure and a 45% weighting of the Highway Fuel Economy
Test. The laboratory 55/45 values are used for CAFE compliance, in conjunction with
alternative fuel vehicle credits and test procedure adjustments. Because the underlying
methodology for generating and reporting the laboratory fuel economy values have not changed
since this series began in the mid-1970s, these values provide an excellent basis with which to
compare long-term fuel economy trends from the perspective of vehicle design, apart from the
factors that affect real world fuel economy that are reflected in the adjusted fuel economy values.
Finally, this same methodology for including real world factors in the adjusted fuel
economy values is also reflected in the adjusted carbon dioxide (C02) emissions data as well.
As discussed in Section IV, EPA back-calculated all C02 emissions values in this report from
corresponding fuel economy values in the historical Trends database. Accordingly, the adjusted
C02 emissions values explicitly account for the above methodology for 1986 and later model
years.
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-12
November 2009

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Table A-4
Approximate Factors for Converting Industry-Wide Fuel Economy Values from Pre-2007
Reports to the Newer Adjusted Fuel Economy Values in This Report
Factors to Convert Old ADJ to New ADJ Factors to Convert LAB to New ADJ

CITY
HWY
55/45
CITY
HWY
55/45
1975-1985
1.00
O
o
1.00
. 900
.780
. 854
1986
. 995
.996
. 997
. 895
.777
. 851
1987
. 989
.992
. 994
. 890
.774
. 849
1998
. 984
.988
. 991
. 885
.771
.846
1989
. 978
.984
. 988
.880
.768
.843
1990
. 973
.980
.985
.875
.765
.841
1991
.967
. 976
.982
.870
.762
.838
1992
.962
. 972
.979
.8 65
.759
.835
1993
.956
. 968
.976
.860
.756
.832
1994
.951
. 964
.973
.855
.753
. 830
1995
.945
. 960
.970
. 850
.750
. 827
1996
.940
. 95 6
.967
. 845
.747
. 824
1997
.934
.952
. 964
. 840
.744
. 822
1998
. 929
.948
. 961
. 835
.741
. 819
1999
. 923
.944
. 958
. 830
.738
. 816
2000
. 918
.940
. 955
. 825
.735
. 814
2001
. 912
.936
. 952
. 820
.732
.811
2002
. 907
.932
. 949
. 815
.729
. 808
2003
. 901
.928
. 946
. 810
.726
. 805
2004
. 896
.924
. 943
. 805
.723
. 803
2005
. 890
.920
. 940
. 800
.720
.800
2006
. 890
.920
. 940
.800
.720
.800
2007
. 890
.920
. 940
.800
.720
.800
2008
. 890
. 920
.940
.800
.720
.800
2009
.890
. 920
.940
.800
.720
.800
Important Notes for Table A-4:
1.	Multiplying the factors above times the appropriate values from pre-2007 reports
approximates the newer adjusted (ADJ) fuel economy values in this report. Also, these factors
can be used "in reverse" to convert new adjusted fuel economy values in this report to
corresponding old adjusted fuel economy values or to corresponding laboratory fuel economy
values, e.g., dividing an adjusted, combined city /highway MY2009 fuel economy value in this
report by .940 would yield a corresponding adjusted fuel economy value based on the
methodology used in pre-2007 reports.
2.	These factors are first-order approximations relevant only for industry-wide fuel economy
values for the 1986 through 2009 timeframe.
3.	Precise estimates for individual models require the use of the mpg-based equations for ADJ
CITY and ADJ HWY provided above as well as a linear phase-in, over the 1986 to 2005 time
period, for both the mpg-based equations and the change from a 55/45 city /highway weighting to
a 43/57 city /highway weighting.
4.	These approximations would yield the largest error for individual models or fleets with high
mpg and/or high city fuel economy-to-highway fuel economy ratios.
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-13
November 2009

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Table A-5
Comparison of "Old" and "New" Adjusted Composite Fuel Economy Values,
for Cars and Trucks Combined, for 2003 - 2009
Cars and Trucks Combined
Model
Year
"Old"
Adj usted
Composite
"New"
Adj usted
Composite
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
20.7
20.5
21.2
21.5
22.0
22.4
22. 6
19.6
19.3
19.9
20.1
20.6
21.0
21.1
Important Notes for Table A-5:
1.	"Old" adjusted composite fuel economy values are based on the EPA fuel economy label
methodology used in previous reports in this series, i.e., 10% downward city adjustment, 22%
downward highway adjustment, and a 55% city/45%) highway weighting factor.
2.	"New" adjusted composite fuel economy values are based on the new EPA fuel economy
label methodology, applicable to MY2009 vehicles and used for the first time in the 2007 report
and described in the previous section.
3.	The "new" adjusted composite fuel economy values for cars and trucks combined are
approximately 6% lower than the "old" adjusted composite fuel economy values for cars and
trucks combined. For cars only, the "new" adjusted composite fuel economy values would be
more than 6% lower than the "old" values, while for trucks only, the "new" adjusted composite
fuel economy values would be less than 6% lower than the "old" values.
EPA-420-R-09-014	A-14	November 2009

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Comparison of EPA and NHTSA Data, 1975-2009
Table A-6 compares CAFE performance data reported by the National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration ("Summary of Fuel Economy Performance" report dated March 30, 2009
and available at www.nhtsa.gov) with the adjusted and unadjusted (laboratory) composite fuel
economy data in this report. The NHTSA values in Table A-6 are generally higher than the EPA
laboratory values due to differences in alternative fuel credits, test procedure adjustment factors
for cars, and vehicle classification. In recent years for which both Agencies report final data, the
NHTSA values are typically 0.6-0.8 mpg higher than the EPA values. For MY2009, the
preliminary NHTSA value is 1.8 mpg higher than the preliminary EPA value. These preliminary
projections are based on different data sets. The EPA value is based on automaker submissions
in the spring and summer of 2008 to support vehicle fuel economy labels. The NHTSA value is
based on automaker estimates provided in pre-model year CAFE reports later in 2008. Given the
volatility in gasoline prices in 2008, it is not surprising that these estimates could vary. Final
MY2009 results will be reported in next year's report.
Table A-6
EPA Adjusted, Laboratory, and NHTSA CAFE Fuel Economy Values by Model Year
Cars	Trucks	Both Cars and Trucks
Model
EPA
EPA
NHTSA

EPA
EPA
NHTSA

EPA
EPA
NHTSA

Year
Adj .
LAB
CAFE
Diff.
Adj .
LAB
CAFE
Diff.
Adj .
LAB
CAFE
Diff
1975
13.5
15.8
n/a

11.6
13.7
n/a

13.1
15.3
n/a

1976
14.9
17.5
n/a

12 .2
14.4
n/a

14.2
16.7
n/a

1977
15. 6
18.3
n/a

13.3
15 . 6
n/a

15.1
17.7
n/a

1978
16.9
19.9
19.9
. 0
12.9
15 .2
n/a

15.8
18. 6
19.9
1.3
1979
17.2
20.3
20.3
. 0
12 .5
14 .7
18.2
3.5
15.9
18.7
20.1
1.4
1980
20.0
23.5
24.3
. 8
15.8
18 . 6
18.5
-.1
19.2
22.5
23.1
. 6
1981
21.4
25.1
25.9
. 8
17.1
20.1
20.1

20.5
24.1
24 . 6
.5
1982
22.2
26.0
26.6
. 6
17.4
20.5
20.5

21.1
24.7
25.1
. 4
1983
22.1
25.9
26.4
.5
17.8
20.9
20.7
-.2
21.0
24.6
24.8
.2
1984
22.4
26.3
26.9
. 6
17.4
20.5
20.6
.1
21.0
24.6
25.0
. 4
1985
23.0
27.0
27.6
. 6
17.5
20.6
20.7
.1
21.3
25.0
25.4
. 4
1986
23.7
27.9
28.2
.3
18 .2
21.4
21.5
.1
21.8
25.7
25.9
.2
1987
23.8
28.1
28.5
. 4
18 .3
21.6
21.7
.1
22.0
25.9
26.2
.3
1988
24.1
28.6
28.8
.2
17.9
21.2
21.3
.1
21.9
25.9
26.0
. 1
1989
23.7
28.1
28.4
.3
17.6
20.9
21.0
.1
21.4
25.4
25 . 6
.2
1990
23.3
27.8
28.0
.2
17.4
20.7
20.8
.1
21.2
25.2
25.4
.2
1991
23.4
28.0
28.4
. 4
17.8
21.3
21.3

21.2
25.4
25 . 6
.2
1992
23.1
27.6
27.9
.3
17.4
20.8
20.8

20.8
24.9
25.1
.2
1993
23.5
28.2
28.4
.2
17.5
21.0
21.0

20.9
25.1
25 .2
. 1
1994
23.3
28.0
28.3
.3
17.2
20.8
20.8

20.4
24.6
24.7
. 1
1995
23.4
28.3
28 . 6
.3
17.0
20.5
20.5

20.5
24.7
24.9
.2
1996
23.3
28.3
28.5
.2
17.2
20.8
20.8

20.4
24.8
24.9
. 1
1997
23.4
28.4
28.7
.3
17.0
20.6
20.6

20.1
24.5
24 . 6
. 1
1998
23.4
28.5
28.8
.3
17.1
20.9
21.0
.1
20.1
24.5
24.7
.2
1999
23.0
28.2
28.3
. 1
16.7
20.5
20.9
.4
19.7
24.1
24.5
. 4
2000
22.9
28.2
28.5
.3
16.9
20.8
21.3
.5
19.8
24.3
24.8
.5
2001
23.0
28.4
28.8
. 4
16.7
20.6
20.9
.3
19.6
24.2
24.5
.3
2002
23.1
28.6
29.0
. 4
16.7
20.6
21.4
.8
19.4
24.1
24.7
. 6
2003
23.2
28.9
29.5
. 6
16.9
20.9
21.8
.9
19.6
24.3
25.1
. 8
2004
23.1
28.9
29.5
. 6
16.7
20.8
21.5
.7
19.3
24.0
24 . 6
. 6
2005
23.5
29.5
30.3
. 8
17.2
21.4
22.1
.7
19.9
24.8
25.4
. 6
2006
23.3
29.2
30.1
. 9
17.5
21.8
22.5
.7
20.1
25.2
25.8
. 6
2007
24.1
30.3
31.2
. 9
17.7
22.1
23.1
1.0
20.6
25.8
26.6
. 8
2008
24.3
30.5
31.2
.7
18 .2
22 .7
23.6
.9
21.0
26.3
27.0
.7
2009
24.5
30.9
32 . 6
1.7
18.4
22.9
24.2
1.3
21.1
26.4
28.2
1.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-15
November 2009

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Comparison of EPA and NHTSA Data for MY2008 by Marketing Group
The primary differences between EPA unadjusted laboratory fuel economy data and
NHTSA CAFE values are flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) credits that are available to manufacturers
that produce vehicles capable of operation on an alternative fuel (generally a blend of 85 percent
ethanol and 15 percent gasoline), and test procedure adjustment (TPA) credits that apply to
manufacturers of passenger cars.
Table A-7 shows a detailed MY2008 comparison, for the ten highest-volume
manufacturers, of the EPA laboratory fuel economy values from this report and projected
NHTSA CAFE values based on the mid-model year fuel economy report data provided to
NHTSA by automakers. This table attempts to show how EPA laboratory values, FFV credits,
and TPA credits "add up" to CAFE values. It is important to emphasize that while the values in
Table A-7 approximately add up for most manufacturers, in most cases they do not add up
precisely. The primary explanation for this is that, for MY2008, the EPA laboratory values are
based on final CAFE reports, while the NHTSA CAFE estimates are based on mid-model year
reports, and MY2008 was an unusual year due to record gasoline prices. Slight differences in car
and truck classification can also affect the individual car and truck comparisons, though not the
combined car and truck values.
The manufacturer column in Table A-7 differs from the marketing group columns
elsewhere in this report in two ways, in order to be consistent with the way NHTSA reports
CAFE data for MY2008. One, Hyundai and Kia are listed separately. Two, Ford includes
Mazda, Rover, and Jaguar (Table 32 gives different EPA laboratory fuel economy values for the
Ford marketing group excluding Mazda, Rover, and Jaguar, consistent with the Trends database
approach where changes in current marketing groups are retroactively applied so as to allow
long-term trends to be identified independent of marketing group composition).
The FFV credit values in Table A-7 for the truck column were obtained directly from
EPA's fuel economy compliance program (trucks are not eligible for TPA credits). The FFV and
TPA credits for the car columns were generated by weighting the values for domestic cars and
import cars by the NHTSA sales for each car category (see cite below). The FFV and TPA
credit values for the combined car and truck columns were generated using the car and truck
sales from the EPA Trends database. For MY2008, three manufacturers earned FFV credits for
cars and four manufacturers did so for trucks. All ten manufacturers were eligible for the TPA
credits for cars.
All of the NHTSA CAFE estimates in Table A-7 were taken or generated from the March
30, 2009 NHTSA report "Summary of Fuel Economy Performance" available at www.nhtsa.gov.
The car values were generated from the NHTSA fuel economy and production estimates for the
separate domestic car and import car CAFE categories. The truck values were taken directly
from the NHTSA report. The combined car and truck values were generated from the NHTSA
fuel economy and production estimates for the separate domestic car, import car, and light truck
CAFE categories. While there are no CAFE standards for combined cars and trucks, this column
is shown for illustrative purposes.
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-16
November 2009

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Table A-7
Comparison of MY2008 EPA Laboratory and Mid-Model Year NHTSA CAFE Estimates
by Highest Sales Manufacturers
<	Passenger Car	> <	
Manufacturer EPA FFV TPA NHTSA EPA
LAB Credit Credit CAFE* LAB
- Light Truck 	>
FFV TPA NHTSA
Credit Credit CAFE* LAB
<— Cars and Trucks —>
EPA FFV TPA NHTSA
Credit Credit CAFE*
General Motors
28 . 6
1
1
0.2
29.8
21. 6
1.2
0
0
22.8
24 . 4
1
2
0.1
25.4
Toyota
36.0
0
0
0.3
36.4
23. 9
0.0
0
0
23.7
29.0
0
0
0.1
28 . 8
Chrysler
27 . 8
0
9
0.2
29.5
22. 4
1. 2
0
0
23. 6
24 . 2
1
1
0.0
25.2
Honda
34 . 3
0
0
0 . 4
34 . 1
25.5
0.0
0
0
25.5
30. 1
0
0
0.1
29.9
Nissan
32.2
0
0
0.3
32.3
22. 0
1. 2
0
0
24 . 0
27 . 6
0
6
0.1
28 . 9
Ford
28 . 6
0
9
0.3
30. 0
22. 1
1. 2
0
0
23. 6
24 . 5
1
1
0.1
25. 9
Hyundai
33. 8
0
0
0 . 4
33. 8
25. 6
0.0
0
0
25.5
30. 9
0
0
0.2
30.6
Kia
33.3
0
0
0.3
33. 4
24 . 2
0.0
0
0
24.2
28 . 8
0
0
0.2
28.7
BMW
27 . 2
0
0
0.2
27 . 4
22. 9
0.0
0
0
22. 9
26.3
0
0
0.2
26.5
Volkswagen
28 . 9
0
0
0.2
28 . 8
20.2
0.0
0
0
20.1
27 . 9
0
0
0.2
27.3
* Mid-model year estimates based on manufacturer reports to NHTSA surrmarized in "Summary of
Fuel Economy Performance" dated March 30, 2009 and available at www.nhtsa.gov
EPA-420-R-09-014
A-17
November 2009

-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Appendix B
Model Year 2009 Nameplate
Fuel Economy Listings
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

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Toyota PRIUS
65.8
47.7
45.1
46.2
Nissan ALTIMA HYBRID
46.7
35.1
33.0
33.9
Toyota CAMRY HYBRID
45.9
33.4
34.1
33.8
Nissan VERSA FE+
40.3
27.6
33.6
30.8
General Motors AURA HYBRID
38.6
25.8
34.0
29.9
General Motors MAT,TBI! HYBRID
38.6
25.8
34.0
29.9
Nissan SENTRA FE+
38.5
25.9
33.6
29.8
Nissan SENTRA
36.9
24.8
32.4
28.6
Nissan VERSA
36.8
24.8
32.1
28.5
Hyundai ELANTRA
36.8
24.6
32.7
28.6
General Motors ASTRA 4DR HATCHBACK
35.9
24.1
31.7
27.9
Kia SPECTRA
35.2
23.6
31.4
27.5
Daimler AG E320 BLUETEC
34.7
22.8
32.2
27.3
Nissan ALTIMA
32.9
22.1
29.6
25.8
Kia OPTIMA
32.4
21.3
30.7
25.8
Chrysler CALIBER
32.2
22.4
27.3
25.0
Toyota CAMRY
32.1
21.0
30.5
25.5
General Motors MALIBU
31.7
20.8
30.0
25.2
Chrysler SEBRING
30.3
20.0
28.8
24.2
General Motors AURA
30.3
19.7
29.6
24.3
Chrysler AVENGER
30.2
19.9
28.7
24.1
Mazda MAZDA 6
29.4
19.5
27.6
23.4
Ford FUSION FWD
29.3
19.5
27.4
23.3
Mitsubishi GALANT
29.1
19.5
26.9
23.1
Ford MILAN FWD
28.9
19.2
27.2
23.0
Toyota ES 350
28.7
18.9
27.4
23.0
Nissan MAXIMA
28.6
19.3
26.1
22.7
Toyota GS 350
28.2
18.9
26.1
22.4
BMW 5281
27.6
18.0
27.2
22.3
Ford MKZ FWD
27.5
17.8
27.5
22.3
Honda TL 2 WD
27.4
18.0
26.3
22.0
Nissan G37
27.0
17.8
26.2
21.8
Toyota LS 600H L
26.9
19.6
21.8
20.8
General Motors LACROSSE-ALLURE
26.9
17.3
27.3
21.9
General Motors CTS
26.8
17.5
26.4
21.7
Toyota GS 350 AWD
26.7
17.9
24.9
21.3
Mazda MAZDASPEED3
26.6
17.6
25.3
21.3
BMW 5351
26.5
17.4
26.0
21.4
Saab 9-5 SEDAN
26.5
17.1
26.7
21.5
Nissan G37X
26.4
17.6
25.0
21.2
BMW 5281XDRIVE
26.2
17.4
25.3
21.1
General Motors CTS AWD
25.8
16.9
25.4
20.9
Honda TL 4WD
25.6
17.0
24.6
20.6
BMW 5351 XDRIVE
25.5
16.8
24.8
20.6
Toyota GS 460
25.4
16.9
24.4
20.5
Ford MILAN AWD
25.4
16.8
24.7
20.5
Ford FUSION AWD
25.4
16.8
24.7
20.5
Volvo S80 FWD
25.4
16.5
25.4
20.6
Daimler AG E350
25.1
16.6
24.3
20.3
General Motors STS
25.1
16.2
25.4
20.4
Audi A6 QUATTRO
25.0
16.6
23.7
20.1
Ford MKZ AWD
24.8
16.5
23.9
20.0
Toyota LS 460
24.6
16.2
24.2
19.9
Toyota LS 460 L
24.6
16.2
24.2
19.9
Jaguar JAGUAR XF
24.4
15.8
24.8
19.9
Daimler AG E350 4MATIC
23.9
16.3
22.0
19.1
Audi A8
23.8
15.9
22.6
19.2
Honda RL
23.8
16.1
22.2
19.1
General Motors STS AWD
23.8
15.6
23.5
19.3
Toyota LS 460 AWD
23.6
15.6
23.1
19.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
B-6
October 2009

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UniUKj Smies
»t PfOiSCl'OI
PPA
Appendix B: Model Year 2009 Nameplate Fuel Economy Listings
|Toyota LS 460 LAWD	\23.6	|l5.6	|23.1	|l9.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
B-7
October 2009

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Hyundai SONATA
31.8
20.8
30.5
25.4
Honda ACCORD 4DR SEDAN
31.2
20.4
30.1
25.0
Toyota AVALON
29.6
19.4
28.4
23.7
General Motors IMP ALA
28.3
18.3
28.1
22.9
Ford SABLE FWD
27.5
17.8
27.5
22.3
Ford TAURUS FWD
27.5
17.8
27.5
22.3
Hyundai AZERA
26.4
17.4
25.6
21.3
Chrysler 300-SRT-8
26.2
17.4
25.1
21.0
Hyundai GENESIS
26.0
17.1
25.4
21.0
General Motors LUCERNE
25.8
16.8
25.7
20.9
Chrysler CHARGER
25.6
17.0
24.7
20.6
Nissan M35
25.3
16.7
24.5
20.4
Kia AMANTI
25.1
16.6
24.3
20.2
Ford MKS FWD
25.0
16.7
23.7
20.1
Jaguar JAGUAR XJ
24.9
16.3
24.7
20.2
Jaguar JAGUAR XJ8L
24.9
16.3
24.7
20.2
Ford SABLE AWD
24.8
16.5
23.9
20.0
Ford TAURUS AWD
24.8
16.5
23.9
20.0
Jaguar JAGUAR VDP
24.7
16.1
24.6
20.1
Chrysler CHARGER AWD
24.4
16.4
23.0
19.6
General Motors G8
24.3
15.9
24.3
19.8
Chrysler 300 AWD
24.2
16.2
23.0
19.5
Ford MKS AWD
24.2
16.3
22.6
19.4
Ford CROWN VICTORIA FFV
24.1
15.9
23.8
19.6
Ford TOWN CAR FFV
24.1
15.9
23.8
19.6
Ford GRAND MARQUIS FFV
24.1
15.9
23.8
19.6
Audi A8 L
23.7
15.9
22.5
19.1
Nissan M35X
23.4
15.8
22.0
18.8
General Motors DTS
23.2
15.3
22.9
18.9
Nissan M45
23.0
15.7
21.3
18.5
Jaguar JAGUAR SUPER V8
22.7
15.1
21.9
18.4
Jaguar JAGUAR XJR
22.7
15.1
21.9
18.4
BMW 750i
22.2
14.7
21.7
18.0
Daimler AG S550
22.0
14.4
22.0
18.0
Ford CROWN VICTORIA POLICE FFV
21.7
14.4
21.4
17.7
Daimler AG S550 4MATIC
21.5
14.1
21.5
17.6
BMW 750Li
21.5
14.2
21.3
17.5
Nissan M45X
20.7
14.0
19.6
16.7
General Motors LIMOUSINE
18.4
12.3
18.2
15.1
General Motors FUNERAL COACH-HEARSE
17.6
12.1
16.5
14.3
Maserati MASERATIQUATTROPORTE
17.6
11.7
17.5
14.4
Phantom PHANTOM EWB
17.3
11.4
17.5
14.3
Daimler AG S600
17.1
11.3
17.4
14.1
Daimler AG S63 AMG
17.1
11.3
17.4
14.1
Daimler AG S65 AMG
16.6
11.0
16.8
13.7
Daimler AG MAYBACH 62
15.3
10.2
15.6
12.7
Daimler AG MAYBACH 57
15.3
10.2
15.6
12.7
Daimler AG MAYBACH 62S
15.2
10.1
15.6
12.6
Daimler AG MAYBACH 57S
15.2
10.1
15.6
12.6
Bentley ARNAGE RL
14.5
9.4
15.3
12.1
EPA-420-R-09-014
B-9
October 2009

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Honda FIT
40.0
27.4
33.5
30.5
Nissan CUBE
37.9
26.9
30.3
28.7
Volkswagen JETTA SPORTWAGEN
36.0
23.8
32.9
28.3
Hyundai ELANTRA TOURING
34.5
23.4
30.4
26.9
Suzuki SX4
33.0
22.2
29.6
25.9
Toyota COROLLA MATRIX
32.9
22.4
28.9
25.7
General Motors HHR FWD
32.2
21.4
29.8
25.5
General Motors HHR PANEL FWD
32.1
21.2
29.9
25.4
General Motors VIBE
31.8
21.6
28.1
24.9
Toyota SCION XB
31.6
21.6
27.6
24.7
Audi A3
31.2
21.0
28.1
24.6
Suzuki SX4 AWD
31.0
20.9
27.8
24.4
Audi A3 QUATTRO
30.3
20.9
26.3
23.7
Audi A4 AVANT QUATTRO
30.3
20.5
27.0
23.8
Mitsubishi LANCER SPORTBACK
29.7
20.2
26.6
23.4
Volvo V50 FWD
29.7
19.7
28.0
23.7
Chrysler PT CRUISER
27.5
18.9
24.5
21.7
Subaru IMPREZA WGN-OUTBACK SPT AWD
27.5
18.7
24.9
21.8
BMW 3281 SPORT
27.5
17.9
27.1
22.2
Volvo V50 AWD
26.9
17.7
26.1
21.7
BMW 3281 SPORT XDRIV
26.2
17.3
25.3
21.1
Saab 9-3 SPORTCOMBI
26.0
17.0
25.7
21.1
Saab 9-3 AERO SPORTCOMBI AWD
25.3
16.5
25.4
20.6
Table B-8
Model Year 2009 Nameplate Fuel Economy Listing

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55/45
(in
ll\U
(OMI*
Mazda MAZDA 5
30.7
20.9
27.3
24.1
Subaru OUTBACK AW
28.8
19.6
26.0
22.8
Volkswagen PASSAT
28.7
18.8
27.5
23.0
Kia RONDO
28.0
18.7
26.0
22.3
Saab 9-5 SPORTCOMBI
26.4
17.1
26.6
21.5
Audi A6 AVANT QUATTRO
26.2
17.4
25.0
21.0
Volvo V70 FWD
25.4
16.5
25.4
20.6
BMW 5351 SPORT XDRIV
24.6
16.2
24.0
19.9
Daimler AG E350 4MATIC
23.1
15.8
21.1
18.5
Volvo XC 70 AWD
23.1
15.3
22.4
18.7
Daimler AG E63 AMG
18.8
12.6
18.5
15.4
Table B-9
Model Year 2009 Nameplate Fuel Economy Listing

i i i:i i:< o\o\n

1 Mi
MM
MM
A1 >-1
I au<;i: w \<;c»\
55/45
on
11\\
( OMI'
Daimler AG R320 BLL'LTLC
26.3
18.0
23.9
20.9
Daimler AG R350 4MATIC
21.3
14.7
19.4
17
EPA-420-R-09-014
B-10
October 2009

-------
>Jnt!ni/i:\ w
55/45
(in
11\\
( <>\ll'
Toyota SIENNA 2WD
26.5
17.9
24.4
21.1
Honda ODYSSEY 2WD
25.4
16.7
24.9
20.5
Ford TAURUS X FWD
24.9
16.6
23.8
20.0
Chrysler TOWN & COUNTRY FWD
24.6
16.4
23.7
19.9
Chrysler CARAVAN FWD
24.5
16.3
23.6
19.8
Nissan QUEST
24.5
16.3
23.5
19.7
Chrysler ROUTAN FWD
24.1
16.0
23.2
19.4
Kia ENTOURAGE
23.8
15.9
22.7
19.2
Kia SEDONA
23.8
15.9
22.7
19.2
Ford TAURUS X AWD
23.0
15.4
22.0
18.6
Toyota SIENNA 4WD
23.0
15.8
21.1
18.4
Table B-ll
Model Year 2009 Nameplate Fuel Economy Listing
i au<;i: \ w
i i i:i i:< o\o\n
1 VIS
55/45
VIM
on
MM
11\\
AIM
(OMI*
General Motors G1500 VAN 2WD CARGO
21.6
14.8
19.8
17.3
General Motors G1500 SAVANA 2WD CARGO
21.5
14.8
19.6
17.2
General Motors H1500 SAVANA CARGO AWD
19.2
13.5
17.0
15.3
General Motors H1500 VAN AWD CARGO
19.2
13.5
17.0
15.3
General Motors G1500 SAVANA 2WD CARGO CONV
18.0
12.6
16.2
14.4
General Motors G1500 VAN CONV 2WD CARGO
18.0
12.6
16.2
14.4
General Motors G1500 EXPRESS 2WD PASS
17.8
12.5
16.0
14.3
General Motors G1500 SAVANA 2WD PASS
17.8
12.5
15.9
14.3
General Motors H1500 EXPRESS AWD PASS
17.6
12.4
15.8
14.1
General Motors H1500 SAVANA PASS VAN AWD
17.4
12.3
15.5
13.9
General Motors H1500 SAVANA AWD CARGO CONV
17.4
12.3
15.5
13.9
General Motors H1500 VAN CONV AWD CARGO
17.4
12.3
15.5
13.9
Table B-12
Model Year 2009 Nameplate Fuel Economy Listing

i i i:i i:< o\o\n

1 VIS
VIM
MM
AIM
s\m i i mi in
55/45
(in
11\\
( OMI'
Subaru FORESTER AWD
29.0
19.7
26.0
22.9
Chrysler WRANGLER 2WD
21.9
14.9
20.4
17.6
Chrysler WRANGLER 4WD
21.3
14.8
19.1
17.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
B-ll
October 2009

-------
>Jnt!
-------
>Jnt!
-------
>Jnt!
-------
		
UniUKj Smies
»t PfOiSCl'OI
PPA
Appendix B: Model Year 2009 Nameplate Fuel Economy Listings
IFord NAVIGATOR 2WD FFV	[205	fol	fl9~5	116.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
B-15
October 2009

-------
>Jnt!.l
\l).l
i au(.i: i i ii in
55/45
on
11\\
(mil'
Ford EXPEDITION 2WD FFV
20.5
13.8
19.5
16.6
Audi Q7
20.5
13.9
19.2
16.5
Saab 9-7X AWD
20.4
13.8
19.4
16.5
Chrysler DURANGO 2WD
20.4
13.8
19.4
16.5
Volvo XC 90 AWD
20.4
13.7
19.6
16.5
Chrysler ASPEN 2WD
20.3
13.7
19.4
16.5
General Motors CI 500 TAHOE 2WD
20.3
13.7
19.5
16.5
General Motors K1500 TAHOE 4WD
20.3
13.6
19.7
16.5
General Motors CI 500 SUBURBAN 2WD
20.3
13.6
19.6
16.5
General Motors K1500 YUKON 4WD
20.2
13.6
19.6
16.5
BMW X5 XDRIVE48I
20.1
13.5
19.3
16.3
General Motors C1500 YUKON XL 2WD
20.0
13.4
19.5
16.3
General Motors C1500 YUKON 2WD
19.9
13.4
19.4
16.2
Ford MOUNTAINEER 4WD
19.9
13.5
19.0
16.1
Ford EXPLORER 4WD
19.9
13.5
18.9
16.1
Toyota SEQUOIA 2WD
19.9
13.6
18.6
16.0
General Motors H3 4WD
19.8
14.0
17.5
15.8
Chrysler ASPEN 4WD
19.6
13.3
18.5
15.9
Porsche CAYENNE S
19.5
13.0
19.1
15.9
Daimler AG ML550 4MATIC
19.2
13.2
17.8
15.5
Chrysler DURANGO 4WD
19.2
13.1
18.1
15.5
Daimler AG GL450 4MATIC
19.0
13.1
17.7
15.3
Porsche CAYENNE GTS
19.0
12.8
18.3
15.4
Toyota LAND CRUISER WAGON 4WD
19.0
12.9
17.9
15.4
Toyota SEQUOIA 4WD
18.8
12.8
17.7
15.2
General Motors ESCALADE ESV 2WD
18.7
12.2
19.2
15.4
General Motors ESCALADE 2WD
18.7
12.2
19.2
15.4
BMW X6 XDRIVE50I
18.6
12.4
18.2
15.2
Daimler AG GL550 4MATIC
18.5
12.8
17.2
14.9
Nissan ARMADA 2WD
18.5
12.4
18.1
15.1
Toyota LX 570
18.3
12.4
17.5
14.9
Nissan ARMADA 4WD
18.3
12.3
17.7
14.9
General Motors K1500 YUKON DENALI AWD
18.3
12.0
18.5
15.1
General Motors ESCALADE AWD
18.3
12.0
18.5
15.1
Nissan QX56 2WD
18.3
12.4
17.5
14.9
Rover RANGE ROVER
18.2
12.2
17.9
14.9
Rover LR3
18.2
12.4
17.4
14.8
Porsche CAYENNE TURBO
18.1
11.8
18.7
14.9
Nissan QX56 4WD
18.0
12.3
17.1
14.6
General Motors TRAILBLAZER AWD
16.9
11.7
15.6
13.6
Daimler AG G55 AMG
15.8
10.8
15.1
12.9
Daimler AG ML63 AMG
13.6
9.6
12.5
11.1
Table B-15
Model Year 2009 Nameplate Fuel Economy Listing

11 i.i. i:c c»n<

1 VIS
VD.I
MM
AIM
MII>M/K l'l( kl 1'
55/45
(in
ll\U
( mil'
Mazda B2300 2WD
28.8
20.0
25.0
22.6
Ford RANGER 2WD
27.1
18.8
23.6
21.3
General Motors CANYON 2WD
25.6
17.5
23.2
20.3
Toyota TOYOTA TACOMA 2 WD
25.5
17.6
22.7
20.2
General Motors COLORADO 2 WD
25.4
17.4
23.1
20.2
Toyota TOYOTA TACOMA 4WD
22.8
15.8
20.4
18.1
General Motors COLORADO 4WD
22.7
15.6
20.7
18.1
General Motors CANYON 4WD
22.6
15.5
20.6
18.0
Ford RANGER 4WD
19.9
13.9
17.7
15.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
B-16
October 2009

-------
>Jnt!
-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Appendix C
Fuel Economy Distribution Data
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

-------
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-l
Cars with Lowest Adjusted MPG by Model Year
Model
War
Maiiulailurer
Model Name
II11 \ Si/e
< la--
Inerlia
\\ einlil
l)ri\e
1 rail"
< ieai-
1ml
llltllkl
III'
( II)
—M i:i i:< o\o\n --
( il\
ll«\
( oill|io\ile
1975
GM
Toronado
Large
5500
Front
Auto

Carb
175
455
7.7
9.4
8.4
1976
Jaguar
Jensen
Two Seater
4500
Rear
Auto

Carb
250
440
7.7
10.0
8.6
1977
Rolls Royce
Rolls Royce
Compact
5500
Rear
Auto

Carb
170
412
7.8
8.9
8.3
1978
Dodge
Monaco
Midsize
5000
Rear
Auto
3
Carb
240
440
7.5
8.7
8.0
1979
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Subcompact
4500
Rear
Manual
5
Carb
60
326
6.8
9.7
7.9
1980
Aston
Aston Martin
Subcompact
4500
Rear
Manual
5
Carb
275
326
6.8
9.7
7.9
1981
Peugot
605
Compact
3500
Rear
Auto
3
Carb
132
174
3.2
6.0
4.0
1982
Masserati
Quattroporte
Midsize
5000
Rear
Lockup
3
Carb
288
301
7.7
9.8
8.5
1983
Masserati
Quattroporte
Midsize
5000
Rear
Lockup
3
Carb
288
301
7.7
9.8
8.5
1984
Masserati
Quattroporte
Midsize
5000
Rear
Lockup
3
Carb
288
301
7.7
9.8
8.5
1985
Masserati
Quattroporte
Midsize
5000
Rear
Lockup
3
Carb
288
301
7.7
9.8
8.5
1986
Lamborghini
Countach
Two Seater
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
420
315
6.1
10.4
7.5
1987
Lamborghini
Countach
Two Seater
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
420
315
6.1
10.4
7.5
1988
Lamborghini
Countach
Two Seater
3500
Rear
Manual
5
Port
420
315
6.1
10.4
7.5
1989
Lamborghini
Countach
Two Seater
3500
Rear
Manual
5
TBI
420
315
6.0
10.3
7.5
1990
Aston Martin
Aston Martin
Subcompact
5000
Rear
Lockup
3
Port
240
326
8.2
10.7
9.2
1991
Vector
W8
Two Seater
4000
Rear
Auto
3
Port
450
365
7.2
10.5
8.5
1992
Vector
W8
Two Seater
4000
Rear
Auto
3
Port
450
365
7.2
10.5
8.5
1993
Vector
W8
Two Seater
4000
Rear
Auto
3
Port
450
365
7.1
10.4
8.5
1994
Lamborghini
DB132
Two Seater
4000
4wd
Manual
5
Port
492
348
9.0
13.7
10.9
1995
Ferrari
F50
Two Seater
3000
Rear
Manual
6
Port
510
287
7.3
10.7
8.7
1996
Lamborghini
M12
Two Seater
4000
Rear
Manual
5
Port
492
348
8.5
12.2
10.1
1997
Lamborghini
DB132
Two Seater
4000
4wd
Manual
5
Port
492
348
8.7
13.6
10.7
1998
Ferrari
550
Two Seater
4000
Rear
Manual
6
Port
475
334
8.6
14.1
10.8
1999
Ferrari
550
Two Seater
4000
Rear
Manual
6
Port
475
334
8.5
13.4
10.5
2000
Ferrari
550
Two Seater
4000
Rear
Manual
6
Port
475
334
7.9
12.4
9.9
2001
Ferrari
550
Two Seater
4000
Rear
Manual
6
Port
475
334
7.9
12.4
9.8
2002
Lamborghini
L147
Two Seater
4000
4wd
Manual
6
Port
580
378
8.4
12.0
10.1
2003
Ferrari
Enzo
Two Seater
3500
Rear
Auto
6
Port
646
366
7.1
11.6
9.0
2004
Lamborghini
L147
Two Seater
4000
4wd
Manual
6
Port
580
378
8.4
12.5
10.3
2005
Lamborghini
L147
Two Seater
4000
4wd
Manual
6
Port
580
378
8.3
12.5
10.3
2006
Veyron
Bugatti
Two Seater
4500
4wd
Lockup
6
Port
1001
488
7.8
13.8
10.3
2007
Lamborghini
L147
Two Seater
4000
4wd
Manual
6
Port
631
396
8.3
12.8
10.4
2008
Veyron
Bugatti
Two Seater
4500
4wd
Lockup
6
Port
1001
488
7.8
13.0
10.1
2009
Lamborghini
Murcielago
Two Seater
4000
4wd
Manual
6
Port
631
396
8.3
12.8
10.4
a
<*¦
United Stflies
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
EPA-420-R-09-014
C-l
October 2009

-------
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-2
Cars with Highest Adjusted MPG by Model Year
Model
Wiii-
Manulai liner
Model Name
II1" \ Si/e
< la--
Inerlia
\\ einlil
l)ri\e
1 rail"
< ieai-
1ml
Indue!
III'
( II)
—M i:i i:< o\o\n —
( il\
ll«\
( oiii|io<.ile
^s
Honda
Civic CVCC
Minicompact
2000
Front
Manual
5
Carb
52
90
25.4
33.0
28.3
1976
Honda
Civic CVCC
Minicompact
2000
Front
Manual
3
Carb
60
91
28.4
33.4
30.5
1977
Honda
Civic CVCC
Minicompact
2000
Front
Manual

Carb
60
91
35.7
40.2
37.6
1978
VW
Rabbit
Subcompact
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
48
90
35.2
40.7
37.5
1979
vw
Rabbit
Subcompact
2250
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
48
90
36.7
42.6
39.1
1980
VW
Rabbit
Subcompact
2250
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
48
90
37.7
44.1
40.3
1981
vw
Rabbit
Subcompact
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
52
97
37.9
45.4
40.9
1982
vw
Rabbit
Subcompact
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
52
97
40.9
45.1
42.7
1983
Nissan
Sentra
Subcompact
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
55
103
43.4
47.8
45.3
1984
Honda
Civic
Two Seater
2000
Front
Manual
5
Carb
60
82
45.7
51.2
48.1
1985
Suzuki
SA310
Minicompact
1750
Front
Manual
5
Carb
48
61
47.4
52.7
49.6
1986
Geo
Sprint
Minicompact
1750
Front
Manual
5
Carb
46
61
54.8
59.2
56.7
1987
Geo
Sprint
Minicompact
1750
Front
Manual
5
Carb
46
61
52.7
57.4
54.8
1988
Geo
Sprint
Minicompact
1750
Front
Manual
5
Carb
46
61
52.2
57.1
54.4
1989
Honda
Civic CRX
Two Seater
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
62
91
47.9
53.8
50.5
1990
Geo
Metro XFI
Subcompact
1750
Front
Manual
5
TBI
49
61
50.7
56.7
53.4
1991
Geo
Metro XFI
Subcompact
1750
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
50.2
56.3
53.0
1992
Geo
Metro XFI
Subcompact
1750
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
49.6
56.0
52.6
1993
Geo
Metro XFI
Subcompact
1750
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
49.1
55.6
52.2
1994
Geo
Metro XFI
Subcompact
1750
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
49.3
55.3
52.1
1995
Honda
Civic HB
Subcompact
2250
Front
Manual
5
Port
91
91
42.4
53.0
47.2
1996
Suzuki
Swift
Subcompact
2000
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
40.3
46.4
43.2
1997
Geo
Metro
Subcompact
2000
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
61
39.5
46.1
42.7
1998
Geo
Metro
Subcompact
2000
Front
Manual
5
TBI
55
60
38.1
46.1
41.9
1999
VW
Beetle
Subcompact
3000
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
90
116
36.8
45.4
40.9
2000
Honda
Insight
Two Seater
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
67
61
51.8
63.0
57.3
2001
Honda
Insight
Two Seater
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
67
61
50.8
61.8
56.3
2002
Honda
Insight
Two Seater
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
67
61
50.2
60.7
55.5
2003
Honda
Insight
Two Seater
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
67
61
49.4
60.3
54.9
2004
Honda
Insight
Two Seater
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
67
61
48.6
57.9
53.4
2005
Honda
Insight
Two Seater
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
73
61
48.3
57.7
53.3
2006
Honda
Insight
Two Seater
2000
Front
Manual
5
Port
73
61
47.9
57.6
53.0
2007
Toyota
Prius
Midsize
3000
Front
CVT

Port
76
91
47.7
45.1
46.2
2008
Toyota
Prius
Midsize
3000
Front
CVT

Port
76
91
47.7
45.1
46.2
2009
Toyota
Prius
Midsize
3000
Front
CVT

Port
76
91
47.7
45.1
46.2
a
<*¦
United Stflies
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
EPA-420-R-09-014
C-2
October 2009

-------
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-3
Trucks with Lowest Adjusted MPG by Model Year
Model
War
Maiiulailurer
Model Name
l-111 \ Si/e < lav-
Inerlia
\\ einlil
l)ri\e
1 rail"
< ieai-
1ml
Indue!
III'
( II)
—M i:i i:< o\o\n--
( il\
ll«\
( oiii|io<.ile
1975
Ford
F250
Large Pickup
5000
Rear
Auto

Carb
150
360
7.5
7.8
7.6
1976
GM
P20
Midsize Van
6500
Rear
Auto

Carb
245
454
7.3
8.5
7.8
1977
Toyota
Land Cruiser
Midsize SUV
4500
Rear
Auto

Carb
125
258
7.4
8.9
8.0
1978
GM
C20 Suburban
Large SUV
5500
Rear
Auto

Carb
185
454
8.0
8.1
8.0
1979
Ford
Pickup
Large Pickup
5500
Rear
Auto
3
Carb
270
460
8.1
7.7
7.9
1980
GM
Cab Chassis
Large Pickup
6000
Rear
Lockup
3
Carb
155
350
8.1
8.8
8.4
1981
Chrysler
B250 Van
Midsize Van
5500
Rear
Auto
3
Carb
170
360
9.0
10.1
9.4
1982
GM
G35 Sportvan
Large Van
5500
Rear
Lockup
3
Carb
165
350
9.5
10.8
10.1
1983
Ford
E250 Econoline
Large Van
5500
Rear
Auto
3
Carb
143
351
9.8
10.8
10.3
1984
Chrysler
B350 Wagon
Large Van
5500
Rear
Auto
3
Carb
175
360
8.7
10.7
9.5
1985
Ford
E250 Econoline
Large Van
5500
Rear
Auto
3
Carb
154
351
9.5
9.6
9.6
1986
Chrysler
B350 Wagon
Large Van
5500
Rear
Auto
3
Carb
170
360
9.8
11.2
10.4
1987
Chrysler
A150 Ramcharger
Midsize SUV
5000
4wd
Auto
3
Carb
175
360
9.2
11.2
10.0
1988
Chrysler
W100 Pickup
Large Pickup
5000
4wd
Auto
3
Carb
175
360
9.2
10.6
9.8
1989
Chrysler
B350 Wagon
Large Van
5500
Rear
Auto
3
TBI
145
360
9.7
10.9
10.2
1990
GM
C1500 Pickup
Large Pickup
4500
Rear
Auto
3
TBI
230
454
9.3
10.8
10.0
1991
Chrysler
W250 Pickup
Large Pickup
5500
4wd
Auto
3
TBI
190
360
9.1
12.3
10.4
1992
Chrysler
W250 Pickup
Large Pickup
5000
4wd
Auto
4
TBI
203
360
9.0
12.7
10.5
1993
GM
C1500 Pickup
Large Pickup
4500
Rear
Lockup
4
TBI
255
454
9.3
12.0
10.5
1994
Chrysler
B150 Wagon
Midsize Van
5500
Rear
Lockup
4
Port
230
360
11.0
13.8
12.2
1995
Chrysler
B3500 Wagon
Large Van
5500
Rear
Lockup
4
Port
230
360
10.7
14.1
12.2
1996
Chrysler
Ram 1500 Pickup
Large Pickup
5500
4wd
Lockup
4
Port
230
360
10.5
14.6
12.3
1997
Chrysler
B3500 Wagon
Large Van
5500
Rear
Lockup
4
Port
230
360
10.3
14.1
12.0
1998
Ford
E250 Econoline
Large Van
6000
Rear
Lockup
4
Port
235
330
10.7
13.4
11.9
1999
Chrysler
B2500 Wagon
Large Van
6000
4wd
Lockup
4
Port
200
318
10.0
13.3
11.5
2000
Ford
F150
Large Pickup
6500
Rear
Lockup
4
Port
193
330
10.1
13.5
11.7
2001
GM
K1500 Sierra
Large Pickup
5500
4wd
Lockup
4
Port
300
364
10.4
13.3
11.8
2002
GM
C2500 Silverado
Large Pickup
6000
Rear
Lockup
4
Port
300
412
10.2
12.6
11.4
2003
GM
G1500 Chevy Van
Large Van
6000
Rear
Lockup
4
Port
300
364
8.9
13.2
10.9
2004
GM
G1500 Chevy Van
Large Van
6000
Rear
Lockup
4
Port
300
412
8.5
12.5
10.4
2005
GM
K2500 Silverado
Large Pickup
6000
4wd
Lockup
4
Port
300
364
8.5
11.0
9.7
2006
Chrysler
Ram 1500
Large Pickup
6000
Rear
Lockup
4
Port
500
505
8.2
11.5
9.8
2007
Mercedes
G55 AMG
Large SUV
6000
4wd
Lockup
5
Port
493
332
10.8
13.5
12.2
2008
Mercedes
G55 AMG
Large SUV
6000
4wd
Lockup
5
Port
493
332
10.8
13.5
12.2
2009
Mercedes
ML63 AMG
Large SUV
5500
4wd
Lockup
7
Port
503
379
8.8
11.1
9.9
a
<*¦
United Stflies
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
EPA-420-R-09-014
C-3
October 2009

-------
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-4
Trucks with Highest Adjusted MPG by Model Year
Model
War
Maniilai'lurer
Model Name
l-111 \ Si/e < lav-
Inertia
\\ eiuhl
l)ri\e
1 rail"
< ieai-
1 Mel
llltllkl
III'
( II)
—M i:i i:< o\o\n--
( il\
ll«\
( oill|io\ile
1975
Nissan
Pickup
Small Pickup
2750
Rear
Manual

Carb
107
119
18.3
24.8
20.8
1976
Ford
Courier
Midsize Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual

Carb
65
109
21.1
25.9
23.0
1977
Mazda
B1800 Pickup
Midsize Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual

Carb
67
110
25.0
31.1
27.4
1978
Ford
Courier
Midsize Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual

Carb
67
110
26.3
30.0
27.8
1979
Mazda
B2000
Midsize Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual
5
Carb
72
120
24.0
28.7
25.9
1980
Isuzu
Pickup
Small Pickup
2250
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
48
90
35.9
41.6
38.3
1981
Isuzu
Pickup
Small Pickup
2250
Front
Manual
5
Diesel
52
97
33.4
39.7
36.0
1982
VW
Pickup
Small Pickup
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
52
97
36.6
37.4
37.0
1983
vw
Pickup
Small Pickup
2250
Front
Manual
4
Diesel
52
97
37.8
38.7
38.2
1984
Isuzu
P'UP Pickup
Small Pickup
2750
Rear
Manual
4
Diesel
62
137
34.6
38.3
36.1
1985
Isuzu
P'UP Pickup
Small Pickup
2750
Rear
Manual
4
Diesel
62
137
34.6
38.3
36.1
1986
Isuzu
P'UP Pickup
Small Pickup
2750
Rear
Manual
4
Diesel
62
137
34.3
38.1
35.9
1987
Isuzu
P'UP Pickup
Midsize Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual
4
Diesel
60
137
34.0
38.5
36.0
1988
Suzuki
Samari
Small SUV
2250
4wd
Manual
5
Carb
64
81
27.0
28.7
27.7
1989
Suzuki
Sidekick
Small SUV
2250
4wd
Manual
5
Carb
64
79
27.2
28.3
27.7
1990
Suzuki
Samari
Small SUV
2500
4wd
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
27.2
28.1
27.6
1991
Suzuki
Samari
Small SUV
2500
Rear
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
27.0
27.9
27.5
1992
Suzuki
Samari
Small SUV
2500
Rear
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
26.8
27.8
27.3
1993
Suzuki
Samari
Small SUV
2500
Rear
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
26.6
27.7
27.1
1994
Suzuki
Samari
Small SUV
2500
4wd
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
26.4
27.6
27.0
1995
Suzuki
Samari
Small SUV
2500
4wd
Manual
5
TBI
66
79
26.3
27.5
26.9
1996
GM
Sonoma
Midsize Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual
5
Port
118
134
22.3
29.6
25.6
1997
GM
Sonoma
Midsize Pickup
3000
Rear
Manual
5
Port
118
134
22.2
29.5
25.5
1998
Suzuki
X 90
Small SUV
2750
4wd
Manual
5
Port
95
97
22.8
26.5
24.7
1999
Geo
Tracker
Small SUV
3000
4wd
Manual
5
Port
97
97
23.0
26.3
24.7
2000
Suzuki
Vitara
Small SUV
2750
Rear
Manual
5
Port
97
97
22.8
26.3
24.6
2001
Toyota
RAV 4
Small SUV
3000
Front
Manual
5
Port
148
122
22.3
28.6
25.4
2002
Suzuki
Vitara
Small SUV
3000
Rear
Lockup
4
Port
127
118
23.0
28.8
25.9
2003
Toyota
RAV 4
Small SUV
3000
Front
Manual
5
Port
148
122
22.0
28.4
25.2
2004
Toyota
RAV 4
Small SUV
3000
Front
Lockup
4
Port
161
144
21.5
26.7
24.2
2005
Ford
Escape Hybrid
Midsize SUV
4000
Front
CVT

Port
135
140
30.1
27.9
28.8
2006
Ford
Escape Hybrid
Midsize SUV
4000
Front
CVT

Port
135
140
30.0
27.7
28.7
2007
Ford
Escape Hybrid
Midsize SUV
4000
Front
CVT

Port
133
140
31.3
28.5
29.7
2008
Ford
Escape Hybrid
Midsize SUV
4000
Front
CVT

Port
133
140
34.3
29.6
31.5
2009
Ford
Escape Hybrid
Midsize SUV
4000
Front
CVT

Port
155
140
34.0
30.7
32.0
a
<*¦
United Stflies
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
EPA-420-R-09-014
C-4
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-5
Sales Weighted Percentile Distribution of Adjusted Composite Car Fuel Economy
Model
^ rill'
¦ ¦ 	 IVllTlllill' 1 l-M'l	 ¦ ¦
W'liLiI
Amtiihi-
(1%
1%
5%
1(1%
2(1%
25%
5(1%

XII"..
•)ll"..
95%

Hill"..
1975
8.4
9.0
9.8
10.2
10.9
11.2
13.1
16.7
18.0
20.9
23.1
27.4
28.3
13.5
1976
8.6
10.4
11.2
11.7
12.3
12.7
14.6
17.3
18.9
22.9
24.6
28.2
30.5
14.9
1977
8.3
10.6
11.6
12.4
13.5
14.0
15.0
17.3
18.8
24.0
28.0
33.8
37.6
15.6
1978
8.0
11.4
12.6
13.2
14.2
14.9
17.0
19.9
21.3
25.0
28.2
32.7
37.5
16.9
1979
7.9
12.0
13.1
13.7
14.7
15.2
17.1
20.4
21.9
24.6
26.4
31.0
39.1
17.2
1980
7.9
13.8
14.8
15.9
17.3
17.6
19.8
23.1
23.9
26.6
29.1
38.0
40.3
20.0
1981
4.0
14.6
15.8
16.9
18.4
18.6
21.6
25.5
26.2
28.7
31.6
37.9
40.9
21.4
1982
8.5
15.4
16.5
17.0
18.2
19.1
23.3
26.1
27.3
29.6
32.6
38.9
42.7
22.2
1983
8.5
16.3
16.5
17.0
17.8
18.4
22.3
26.9
28.0
31.2
33.1
36.6
45.3
22.1
1984
8.5
16.6
17.0
17.3
18.1
19.3
22.9
26.5
27.3
29.9
32.8
38.2
48.0
22.4
1985
8.5
17.6
17.8
18.4
19.4
19.9
23.1
26.9
27.7
30.0
33.6
39.0
49.6
23.0
1986
7.5
18.3
18.8
19.6
20.3
20.6
24.4
26.7
27.9
30.1
33.7
39.3
56.7
23.7
1987
7.5
18.2
18.6
19.1
20.8
21.2
23.9
27.0
27.9
30.1
31.5
38.1
54.8
23.8
1988
7.5
18.1
19.2
19.4
21.2
22.4
24.4
27.2
27.6
30.5
32.3
37.9
54.4
24.1
1989
7.5
18.9
19.2
19.6
20.9
21.9
23.3
26.3
27.2
29.1
30.9
37.6
50.5
23.7
1990
9.2
18.1
19.0
19.3
21.3
21.5
23.0
26.0
26.2
28.4
30.9
34.6
53.4
23.3
1991
8.5
18.4
19.5
19.8
20.8
21.3
23.2
26.1
26.4
29.2
31.6
36.3
53.0
23.4
1992
8.5
18.3
19.1
19.9
20.4
20.6
22.5
25.6
25.9
28.7
31.5
39.1
52.6
23.1
1993
8.5
18.2
19.0
19.9
21.1
21.3
23.1
25.8
27.3
28.7
31.7
35.7
52.2
23.5
1994
10.9
18.2
19.2
19.6
20.7
21.4
22.9
26.0
26.5
28.5
30.2
35.7
52.1
23.3
1995
8.7
18.5
19.1
19.4
21.2
21.7
22.9
26.0
27.1
29.2
31.4
34.6
47.2
23.4
1996
10.1
19.1
19.3
19.8
21.3
21.4
22.5
25.7
26.4
29.1
30.9
33.8
43.2
23.3
1997
10.7
18.7
19.2
19.8
21.1
21.1
23.1
25.7
26.7
28.7
30.0
33.2
42.7
23.4
1998
10.8
18.6
19.0
20.3
21.3
21.3
22.8
25.3
26.5
29.3
30.0
31.5
41.9
23.4
1999
10.5
18.7
19.2
19.8
21.2
21.4
22.5
24.3
25.5
28.1
29.3
31.3
40.9
23.0
2000
9.9
18.4
19.5
19.8
21.4
21.3
22.2
24.6
25.3
27.8
29.1
31.0
57.3
22.9
2001
9.8
18.5
19.4
19.7
20.8
21.1
22.5
25.7
26.0
28.5
30.9
31.8
56.3
23.0
2002
10.1
18.0
19.3
19.9
21.2
21.5
22.5
24.9
25.3
27.5
30.5
32.7
55.5
23.1
2003
9.0
17.7
19.2
19.9
20.9
21.5
23.1
25.1
25.7
28.3
29.4
34.7
54.9
23.2
2004
10.3
17.5
18.9
19.6
21.0
21.2
23.1
25.4
25.8
28.2
29.7
37.1
53.4
23.1
2005
10.3
17.5
18.6
19.4
21.1
21.7
23.1
25.5
25.8
28.9
29.4
41.8
53.3
23.5
2006
10.3
17.4
18.7
19.6
20.7
21.5
23.3
25.6
25.8
29.7
30.3
42.9
53.0
23.3
2007
10.4
17.3
18.8
20.1
21.2
21.8
24.4
26.6
27.6
29.6
32.5
42.9
46.2
24.1
2008
10.1
17.1
18.7
20.0
21.2
21.7
23.9
26.9
28.3
30.3
32.3
42.9
46.2
24.3
2009
10.4
17.3
18.9
19.8
21.6
21.9
25.0
28.2
28.3
30.1
31.6
42.9
46.2
24.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
C-5
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-6
Sales Weighted Percentile Distribution of Adjusted Composite Truck Fuel Economy
Model
War
¦ ¦ 	 IVlTl-lllill- 1 l-M-l	 ¦ ¦
Actual
\\rraiir
0%
1 %

1(1%
2(1%
25%
5(1%
73'Vo
sir..
•Ml"..
95%

Hill"..
1975
7.6
7.9
8.9
9.2
9.6
9.7
11.7
13.4
15.0
17.8
19.0
19.2
20.8
11.6
1976
7.8
9.0
9.6
10.0
10.4
10.5
11.8
14.2
15.6
17.2
19.6
21.6
23.0
12.2
1977
8.0
8.8
10.3
10.8
11.5
11.6
12.6
15.5
15.8
19.6
21.7
25.6
27.4
13.3
1978
8.0
9.5
10.3
10.6
11.0
11.1
12.2
15.7
16.3
19.5
22.3
24.6
27.8
12.9
1979
7.9
8.1
9.2
9.5
10.3
10.8
12.2
15.5
16.1
19.5
20.7
25.8
25.9
12.5
1980
8.4
10.7
11.4
12.1
13.2
13.3
16.1
19.2
20.3
22.2
23.1
25.8
38.3
15.8
1981
9.4
11.2
12.5
13.4
14.8
15.2
16.1
20.3
21.6
25.0
26.6
31.2
36.0
17.1
1982
10.1
11.1
12.1
13.1
14.8
15.2
17.1
20.9
22.8
24.3
26.4
30.6
37.0
17.4
1983
10.3
11.0
12.0
13.6
14.8
15.4
18.2
22.0
22.7
25.0
26.4
30.0
38.2
17.8
1984
9.5
11.0
12.0
13.2
14.7
15.0
18.3
20.5
21.5
24.2
25.9
29.2
36.1
17.4
1985
9.6
11.4
12.4
13.7
14.0
14.8
18.7
20.8
21.6
23.7
25.0
27.8
36.1
17.5
1986
10.4
11.8
13.5
14.4
15.1
15.7
18.5
21.8
22.9
23.8
25.7
27.7
35.9
18.2
1987
10.0
11.6
13.8
14.2
15.1
16.0
18.5
21.3
22.7
23.7
25.9
27.6
36.0
18.3
1988
9.8
12.2
13.9
14.2
15.2
15.6
18.6
20.1
21.5
23.3
25.0
27.7
27.7
17.9
1989
10.2
11.6
13.8
14.4
15.1
15.5
18.5
19.9
20.2
22.6
24.0
24.6
27.7
17.6
1990
10.0
11.7
13.6
13.9
14.9
15.5
17.7
19.2
20.4
22.4
24.1
24.2
27.6
17.4
1991
10.4
12.3
13.7
14.5
15.6
16.3
18.2
19.6
20.2
22.7
24.0
24.8
27.5
17.8
1992
10.5
12.5
14.0
14.3
15.1
15.8
17.5
19.3
20.1
22.1
23.3
24.6
27.3
17.4
1993
10.5
12.9
14.0
14.5
15.4
15.6
17.7
19.4
19.8
21.8
23.6
24.6
27.1
17.5
1994
12.2
13.1
13.8
14.1
14.9
15.4
17.2
19.6
19.6
22.5
23.2
24.3
27.0
17.6
1995
12.2
12.8
13.9
13.9
14.9
15.1
16.9
18.9
19.2
21.5
23.5
24.1
26.9
17.0
1996
12.3
12.2
13.8
14.3
14.7
15.2
17.4
19.2
19.5
21.8
22.3
24.4
25.6
17.2
1997
12.0
13.2
13.8
14.5
15.0
15.3
17.0
18.6
19.3
21.0
23.0
24.2
25.5
17.0
1998
11.9
13.1
13.6
14.2
14.9
15.4
17.2
19.2
19.6
21.7
22.3
23.9
24.7
17.1
1999
11.5
13.0
13.5
13.9
14.9
15.3
16.8
18.6
19.3
20.3
21.6
23.5
24.7
16.7
2000
11.7
13.1
13.9
14.3
15.5
15.3
16.9
18.8
19.3
20.1
21.5
22.8
24.6
16.9
2001
11.8
12.5
13.6
14.0
15.2
15.4
16.4
18.5
19.1
20.4
21.8
22.9
25.4
16.7
2002
11.4
12.6
13.9
14.5
15.0
15.2
16.2
18.5
19.1
20.1
21.8
23.9
28.7
16.7
2003
10.9
13.6
13.8
14.2
14.8
15.3
16.2
19.2
19.5
20.8
21.9
23.5
29.5
16.9
2004
10.4
13.5
13.9
14.3
14.8
15.2
16.7
18.3
19.2
20.7
21.8
22.8
24.2
16.7
2005
9.8
13.6
14.3
14.5
15.1
15.6
17.2
19.6
19.7
21.1
22.1
23.5
28.8
17.2
2006
9.8
14.0
14.2
14.9
15.3
15.6
17.2
19.7
19.9
21.1
22.3
24.2
28.7
17.5
2007
12.2
14.2
14.6
14.9
15.9
16.3
17.4
19.7
19.8
21.6
23.0
24.0
29.7
17.7
2008
12.2
14.3
14.9
15.0
16.3
16.4
18.2
20.1
20.5
22.4
23.3
24.8
31.3
18.2
2009
10.0
14.4
15.3
15.8
16.6
16.5
18.5
20.2
20.4
22.3
23.0
25.0
32.0
18.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
C-6
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-7
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Tar Sales hv laboratory ( itv MI'f; Band
Model I-loin:
War lo:
0
5
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
80
SO
85
85
90
90
95
95
100
1975

7.1
53.7
26.5
10.1
2.5














1976

0.9
47.2
35.5
10.9
4.9
0.7













1977

0.3
38.8
41.6
9.5
7.4
1.0
1.4












1978

0.3
26.0
49.1
13.8
6.1
3.3
1.4












1979

0.0
18.5
53.7
15.1
10.3
1.9
0.3
0.1











1980

0.0
5.4
41.6
33.4
13.1
4.4
0.8
1.1











1981
0.0
0.0
2.5
36.9
29.5
22.0
5.9
2.2
1.0











1982

0.0
1.1
27.7
33.1
26.0
9.0
2.0
0.8
0.3










1983

0.0
0.3
34.9
26.6
22.2
12.9
2.4
0.5
0.1










1984

0.0
0.0
26.3
33.4
28.9
7.7
2.5
0.8
0.2
0.1









1985

0.0
0.1
29.6
25.3
34.1
8.3
1.4
0.8
0.1
0.4









1986

0.0
0.2
18.7
38.1
30.0
9.0
1.9
1.3
0.5
0.0
0.1
0.2







1987

0.0
0.1
16.2
35.7
34.5
11.2
0.9
0.9
0.3

0.2








1988

0.0
0.2
15.6
34.4
34.7
11.6
1.4
1.8
0.2

0.2








1989

0.0
0.2
13.7
43.1
31.9
8.4
1.1
1.1
0.0
0.3
0.1








1990

0.0
0.2
13.4
49.5
26.5
8.8
1.1
0.2
0.0
0.3
0.1








1991

0.0
0.1
16.4
44.0
27.3
9.4
1.8
0.2
0.6
0.1
0.0








1992

0.0
0.2
19.0
49.1
21.0
7.2
2.4
0.3
0.6
0.1
0.1








1993

0.0
0.1
13.1
47.3
29.0
7.8
1.8
0.1
0.2
0.5
0.1








1994


0.1
15.4
47.0
27.8
7.0
1.6
0.4
0.1
0.5
0.1








1995

0.0
0.1
14.7
47.4
25.7
10.0
1.3
0.5
0.4
0.0









1996

0.0
0.1
12.8
51.5
23.5
10.3
1.3
0.3
0.3










1997


0.1
13.0
49.1
25.0
11.1
1.4
0.1
0.2










1998


0.1
9.9
48.9
28.8
10.9
1.1
0.2
0.2










1999


0.1
10.6
55.2
24.0
9.4
0.5
0.1
0.1










2000

0.0
0.1
10.4
55.2
25.5
8.1
0.4
0.0
0.2



0.1






2001

0.0
0.1
11.0
52.4
25.7
8.3
2.0
0.0
0.2

0.2
0.0
0.0






2002


0.1
9.1
51.2
29.2
8.2
1.7
0.0
0.2

0.3
0.0
0.0






2003

0.0
0.1
8.9
48.2
31.1
9.3
1.5
0.0
0.3
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0






2004


0.1
11.2
47.2
29.1
9.9
1.3
0.2

0.3

0.0
0.6






2005


0.2
11.0
41.3
32.5
11.8
1.2
0.1

0.3

0.0
1.5






2006

0.0
0.3
10.1
46.7
27.5
12.7
1.2
0.0

0.4

0.0
1.1






2007


0.3
8.3
37.8
31.8
15.8
2.7
0.8
0.1
0.4


2.0






2008

0.0
0.3
7.2
40.1
29.1
17.3
2.4
0.7
0.1
0.4


2.3






2009


0.2
8.2
33.4
29.2
19.1
7.1
1.0
0.1
0.4


1.3






EPA-420-R-09-014
C-7
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-8
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Car Sales bv l aboratory Highway MPO Band
Model I-loin:
War lo:
0
5
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
80
80
85
85
90
90
95
95
100
1975


9.1
53.1
15.2
10.5
7.5
2.5
2.0











1976


0.7
40.9
34.9
6.4
10.7
3.8
2.5











1977


0.1
31.9
41.8
9.2
6.1
5.3
3.6
1.3
0.6









1978


0.2
14.0
45.0
18.9
10.3
5.4
4.1
1.8
0.3









1979


0.0
12.3
46.0
17.6
12.3
8.0
3.1
0.6
0.1









1980


0.0
0.8
18.1
33.7
27.2
12.0
6.3
0.7
1.0
0.2








1981

0.0
0.0
0.0
11.0
33.2
25.4
15.9
9.9
2.7
0.5
1.3








1982


0.0
0.0
6.7
25.6
22.2
28.8
9.6
4.7
1.5
0.9








1983


0.0
0.0
5.1
36.3
18.7
18.8
13.1
5.5
2.0
0.4
0.1







1984


0.0
0.0
1.5
30.0
25.5
23.6
12.8
3.3
2.0
1.0
0.2
0.2






1985


0.0
0.0
0.8
20.8
32.2
22.4
15.1
5.7
1.7
0.8
0.0
0.4






1986


0.0
0.0
0.7
12.9
28.2
38.1
13.1
3.4
2.8
0.2
0.3

0.1
0.2




1987


0.0
0.1
0.7
10.4
31.8
35.9
14.1
5.2
1.1
0.2
0.3

0.2





1988


0.0
0.0
0.7
7.8
25.5
42.7
15.7
4.6
2.7

0.2
0.0
0.2





1989


0.0
0.0
0.6
4.2
30.1
44.7
13.4
4.7
1.9
0.0
0.1
0.3
0.1





1990


0.0
0.0
0.4
7.3
30.7
45.7
10.5
4.2
0.7
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1





1991


0.0
0.0
0.3
3.1
34.7
38.4
16.1
5.6
0.9
0.2
0.6
0.1
0.0





1992


0.0
0.0
0.3
2.4
36.6
41.0
10.8
6.2
1.6
0.3
0.5
0.0
0.2





1993


0.0
0.0
0.2
2.4
29.2
42.2
16.8
6.6
1.7
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.1





1994



0.0
0.1
1.6
29.5
42.8
14.3
9.3
1.5
0.2
0.5

0.1





1995


0.0
0.0
0.1
0.9
21.6
51.3
15.5
8.4
1.6
0.3
0.3

0.0





1996



0.0
0.1
0.3
29.9
46.6
12.6
8.0
2.1
0.1
0.3







1997



0.0
0.0
0.6
26.4
45.0
19.8
6.6
1.1
0.2
0.2







1998



0.0
0.0
0.9
16.4
53.4
17.7
10.6
0.6
0.1
0.3







1999



0.0
0.0
0.7
17.8
59.3
14.9
6.3
0.6
0.0
0.2







2000



0.0
0.1
1.1
18.3
58.6
16.6
4.4
0.5
0.2
0.2




0.1


2001



0.0
0.0
1.6
26.8
43.4
17.4
7.1
3.1
0.3
0.2

0.0


0.0


2002



0.0
0.1
1.4
21.7
45.9
20.8
7.1
2.2
0.5
0.2

0.0


0.0


2003



0.0
0.0
1.9
21.5
39.4
26.9
8.5
0.8
0.3
0.7

0.0


0.0


2004



0.0
0.1
2.8
20.5
41.0
25.3
8.7
0.4
0.2
1.0

0.0

0.0



2005



0.0
0.1
1.7
18.1
35.4
32.7
9.4
0.6
0.2
1.8

0.0

0.0



2006



0.0
0.3
2.1
20.2
38.7
26.7
6.4
4.0
0.0
1.1
0.4
0.0

0.0



2007



0.0
0.3
1.7
16.5
33.8
29.7
12.1
3.7

2.0
0.4






2008



0.0
0.3
1.8
13.9
33.4
29.5
13.9
4.2
0.3
2.3
0.4






2009



0.0
0.2
2.1
13.9
26.1
30.4
20.8
3.7
1.0
1.3
0.4






EPA-420-R-09-014
C-8
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-9
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Car Sales hv laboratory 55/45 MPO Band
Model I-loin:
War lo:
0
5
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
80
so
85
85
90
90
95
95
100
1975

0.0
47.9
29.0
14.3
6.4
2.4













1976


25.4
47.8
12.3
10.6
3.2
0.7












1977

0.0
15.8
56.8
10.8
8.6
5.6
1.0
1.3











1978

0.0
5.6
50.2
23.9
10.7
5.6
3.4
0.5











1979

0.0
3.4
47.7
27.2
14.0
6.3
1.0
0.3
0.1










1980

0.0
0.0
19.7
39.2
25.4
11.8
2.0
1.7
0.2










1981

0.0
0.0
10.3
38.0
26.7
16.9
5.3
1.7
1.0










1982

0.0
0.0
13.1
27.3
29.4
20.9
6.6
1.7
0.8
0.3









1983

0.0
0.0
11.6
34.6
18.7
22.1
10.0
2.2
0.6
0.1









1984

0.0
0.0
7.9
33.4
24.8
23.3
7.0
2.7
0.6
0.2
0.1








1985

0.0
0.0
0.8
42.5
15.2
31.1
7.8
1.2
0.9
0.0
0.4








1986

0.0
0.0
0.7
27.7
35.0
24.3
8.5
1.8
1.5
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.2






1987

0.0
0.0
0.7
24.4
31.4
32.3
8.9
0.9
0.9
0.3
0.0
0.1
0.1






1988

0.0
0.0
0.5
18.5
35.9
32.9
8.0
2.0
1.6
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.1






1989

0.0
0.0
0.5
19.8
40.7
29.3
7.2
1.1
1.1

0.3
0.1







1990


0.0
0.5
16.6
51.1
23.6
6.5
1.1
0.2
0.0
0.3

0.1






1991


0.0
0.4
19.4
45.4
24.2
7.7
2.1
0.1
0.1
0.6

0.0






1992


0.0
0.3
26.2
42.6
21.2
6.9
1.7
0.3
0.6
0.1

0.1






1993


0.0
0.3
16.3
49.0
24.3
7.4
1.8
0.1
0.2
0.5

0.1






1994


0.0
0.3
20.7
46.4
23.4
6.8
1.4
0.4
0.1
0.5

0.1






1995


0.0
0.2
16.7
47.6
23.1
10.0
1.5
0.5
0.4
0.0








1996


0.0
0.2
15.4
49.8
23.0
9.8
1.3
0.3
0.3









1997


0.0
0.1
16.0
46.3
25.4
10.6
1.2
0.2
0.2









1998


0.0
0.1
12.2
51.9
23.0
12.0
0.4
0.1
0.3









1999


0.0
0.1
12.9
57.3
18.9
10.3
0.3
0.0
0.2









2000


0.0
0.1
13.3
57.1
20.7
8.1
0.4
0.0
0.2




0.1




2001


0.0
0.1
12.3
53.3
23.4
8.8
1.7
0.0
0.2
0.2

0.0

0.0




2002


0.0
0.1
11.5
52.9
25.9
7.8
1.3
0.0
0.2
0.3

0.0

0.0




2003


0.0
0.2
12.8
47.2
27.4
10.0
1.5
0.0
0.3
0.6

0.0

0.0




2004


0.0
0.2
14.2
45.8
27.0
10.7
1.0
0.2

0.3

0.6
0.0





2005


0.0
0.2
14.6
40.3
29.0
12.6
1.2
0.1

0.3

1.5
0.0





2006


0.0
0.6
14.1
41.2
28.3
12.9
1.4
0.0

0.4

1.1
0.0





2007


0.0
0.5
11.1
36.6
29.4
16.4
2.7
0.9

0.4

2.0






2008


0.0
0.5
9.7
38.8
27.5
17.4
2.4
0.8

0.4

2.3






2009


0.0
0.4
10.7
32.7
27.1
20.2
5.3
1.8

0.4

1.3






EPA-420-R-09-014
C-9
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-10
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Car Sales by Adjusted City MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War lo:
0
5
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
55
60
6(1
65
65
70
70
75
75
SO
SO
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

19.1
52.1
20.8
7.8
0.2














1976

3.1
61.1
22.2
11.1
2.5














1977

4.5
60.1
20.0
8.2
5.4
1.2
0.5












1978

0.7
45.1
34.2
11.1
7.0
1.5
0.3












1979

0.2
43.9
35.9
15.7
3.6
0.4
0.4












1980

0.0
17.1
43.8
28.8
8.1
1.1
1.1












1981
0.0
0.0
9.8
44.3
29.2
12.1
3.5
1.0












1982

0.0
9.3
36.2
36.7
12.7
3.5
1.3
0.3











1983

0.0
13.7
37.0
24.3
18.2
5.8
0.9
0.1











1984

0.0
8.5
38.3
31.7
15.2
5.1
0.9
0.2
0.1










1985

0.0
0.4
47.3
32.0
13.8
5.1
0.8
0.1
0.4










1986

0.0
0.4
43.2
35.8
15.1
3.3
1.3
0.5
0.0
0.3









1987

0.0
0.7
40.1
35.9
20.1
1.7
0.9
0.3

0.2









1988

0.0
0.6
39.6
37.8
17.6
2.2
1.8
0.2
0.1
0.1









1989

0.0
0.5
45.5
35.6
15.6
1.3
1.1
0.1
0.3










1990

0.0
0.6
47.1
37.9
11.3
2.4
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1









1991

0.0
0.5
48.4
37.6
10.4
2.2
0.2
0.6
0.1
0.0









1992

0.0
3.0
53.6
32.0
8.0
2.3
0.4
0.6
0.1










1993

0.0
2.2
47.5
37.4
10.3
1.7
0.2
0.6
0.1










1994

0.0
0.4
52.4
37.0
7.9
1.6
0.2
0.5
0.1










1995

0.0
0.3
54.9
32.6
10.0
1.5
0.3
0.3











1996

0.0
0.2
55.9
31.7
10.5
1.2
0.1
0.3











1997

0.0
0.3
51.8
37.5
8.9
1.3
0.2












1998

0.0
0.3
51.8
35.7
11.6
0.3
0.3












1999

0.0
0.3
60.3
30.8
8.3
0.1
0.2












2000

0.0
0.5
60.1
33.5
5.2
0.3
0.2


0.1









2001

0.0
0.7
61.9
27.6
9.0
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0









2002

0.0
0.6
59.5
31.9
7.6
0.0
0.2
0.3
0.0
0.0









2003

0.0
1.7
55.5
33.2
8.7
0.1
0.4
0.5
0.0










2004

0.0
2.9
55.7
32.1
8.2
0.2
0.3

0.6










2005

0.0
3.0
51.7
33.5
9.9
0.1
0.3

1.5










2006

0.0
2.9
54.9
30.1
10.4
0.2

0.4
1.1










2007

0.0
3.0
44.7
37.6
11.4
0.8
0.1
0.4
2.0










2008

0.0
4.4
44.7
36.2
11.1
0.7
0.1
0.4
2.3










2009

0.0
2.8
40.4
37.7
16.3
1.0
0.1
0.4
1.3










EPA-420-R-09-014
C-10
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-ll
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Car Sales by Adjusted Highway MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War lo:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
7?
75
SO
so
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

0.3
57.2
21.2
12.8
6.0
2.6













1976

0.1
38.9
38.8
9.9
8.4
4.0













1977

0.0
21.4
55.5
8.5
7.2
5.5
1.4
0.5











1978

0.0
8.0
59.2
15.8
9.5
5.3
1.8
0.3











1979

0.0
5.5
61.2
17.9
10.4
4.1
0.6
0.1











1980

0.0
0.7
30.0
34.1
23.9
9.3
0.8
1.1











1981

0.0
0.0
14.9
39.4
27.3
13.6
3.1
1.0
0.7










1982

0.0
0.0
9.2
35.3
32.2
16.0
5.6
0.8
0.8










1983

0.0
0.0
7.8
38.8
28.8
15.8
6.8
1.6
0.3










1984

0.0
0.0
3.7
37.4
24.7
27.7
4.4
1.7
0.2
0.2









1985

0.0
0.0
0.8
40.8
25.7
23.6
6.7
1.7
0.2
0.5









1986

0.0
0.0
0.7
25.3
47.6
19.4
4.6
1.7
0.2
0.0
0.3








1987

0.0
0.0
0.7
21.7
39.4
31.5
5.2
1.1
0.3

0.2








1988


0.0
0.7
17.4
50.8
23.9
5.8
1.0
0.2
0.1
0.1








1989


0.0
0.6
16.4
59.5
18.5
3.9
0.7
0.1
0.3









1990


0.0
0.4
17.0
63.9
14.2
3.6
0.7
0.2
0.1
0.1








1991


0.0
0.5
19.8
53.8
20.9
3.7
0.6
0.6
0.1
0.0








1992


0.0
0.3
19.1
57.9
16.4
5.0
0.5
0.5
0.1
0.1








1993


0.0
0.3
19.0
53.9
20.7
4.9
0.6
0.5
0.0
0.1








1994


0.0
0.2
19.9
54.0
20.5
4.6
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.1








1995


0.0
0.2
16.8
57.4
17.5
7.4
0.3
0.3
0.0









1996


0.0
0.1
14.1
63.4
17.4
4.4
0.3
0.3










1997


0.0
0.1
15.8
57.7
21.8
4.3
0.2
0.2










1998


0.0
0.1
12.6
61.4
22.3
3.1
0.1
0.3










1999


0.0
0.1
13.2
67.2
18.0
1.3
0.1
0.1










2000


0.0
0.2
12.7
70.6
14.4
1.7
0.1
0.2


0.1







2001


0.0
0.3
17.7
61.0
15.7
4.8
0.5

0.0

0.0







2002


0.0
0.2
17.8
63.0
14.5
3.8
0.6
0.0
0.0

0.0







2003


0.0
0.6
19.5
60.8
17.0
1.1
0.8
0.1
0.0

0.0







2004


0.0
0.4
21.3
53.5
22.3
1.4
0.4
0.7

0.0








2005


0.0
0.4
19.1
48.8
29.1
0.7
0.3
1.6

0.0








2006


0.0
0.9
21.4
49.3
22.8
4.0

1.5

0.0








2007


0.0
0.8
17.6
39.1
34.9
5.3

2.4










2008


0.0
0.8
15.1
44.3
32.5
4.2
0.3
2.8










2009


0.0
0.7
15.3
37.7
39.9
4.2
0.5
1.7










EPA-420-R-09-014
C-ll
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-12
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Car Sales by Adjusted 55/45 MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War lo:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
60
6(1
65
65
70
70
75
75
SO
SO
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

6.6
57.3
23.9
9.0
3.1














1976

0.2
57.6
24.4
13.2
3.8
0.7













1977

0.2
44.0
36.7
10.2
6.6
1.5
0.8












1978

0.3
26.8
48.4
13.7
6.9
3.6
0.3












1979

0.0
24.2
48.5
17.9
8.0
1.0
0.4












1980

0.0
5.7
44.7
33.0
12.7
2.7
1.0
0.2











1981
0.0
0.0
2.6
38.1
33.6
18.4
5.1
1.5
0.8











1982

0.0
0.3
31.1
31.7
27.9
7.0
1.2
0.8











1983

0.0
0.3
33.6
29.5
24.8
9.5
1.9
0.4
0.0










1984

0.0
0.1
26.9
33.1
30.8
5.6
3.0
0.4
0.2










1985

0.0
0.1
27.5
28.9
33.8
7.3
1.5
0.4
0.5










1986

0.0
0.3
16.3
36.5
36.8
7.3
1.9
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.2








1987

0.0
0.3
15.3
40.3
33.4
8.7
1.6
0.0
0.3
0.2









1988

0.0
0.3
13.8
40.6
34.2
8.2
2.5
0.0
0.2
0.2









1989

0.0
0.3
13.8
46.6
30.8
6.2
1.9
0.0
0.3
0.1









1990

0.0
0.2
13.4
51.1
28.9
5.3
0.7
0.1
0.3
0.1









1991

0.0
0.2
14.5
50.4
27.3
5.9
0.9
0.7
0.1
0.0









1992

0.0
0.2
11.8
57.5
22.8
5.1
1.6
0.8
0.1
0.1









1993

0.0
0.1
13.1
53.4
25.5
5.5
1.6
0.7
0.0
0.1









1994


0.1
16.1
52.1
24.6
4.9
1.5
0.6
0.0
0.1









1995

0.0
0.1
13.5
52.6
25.8
7.1
0.5
0.4
0.0










1996


0.1
10.4
62.2
21.5
5.1
0.4
0.3











1997


0.1
10.9
59.7
25.2
3.7
0.2
0.2











1998


0.1
9.9
59.4
26.8
3.4
0.1
0.3











1999


0.1
9.9
65.6
22.6
1.6
0.1
0.1











2000

0.0
0.0
9.2
69.8
19.0
1.6
0.2
0.2


0.1








2001

0.0
0.0
11.8
60.7
19.9
7.0
0.1
0.3
0.0

0.0








2002


0.1
10.1
65.8
17.5
5.9
0.2
0.4
0.0

0.0








2003

0.0
0.1
10.7
60.1
24.1
4.1
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.0









2004


0.1
13.1
56.3
27.2
2.2
0.2
0.3
0.6
0.0









2005


0.2
13.5
47.7
30.3
6.4
0.1
0.3
1.5
0.0









2006


0.4
13.8
51.9
23.5
8.9
0.0
0.4
1.1
0.0









2007


0.3
10.1
43.9
32.3
11.1

0.4
2.0










2008


0.3
8.9
44.7
33.2
9.9
0.3
0.4
2.3










2009


0.2
9.9
39.5
35.9
12.2
0.5
0.4
1.3










EPA-420-R-09-014
C-12
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-13
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Truck Sales by Laboratory City MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War hi:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
60
6(1
65
65
70
70
75
75
SO
SO
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

11.3
66.2
20.1
2.5















1976

3.3
72.2
19.2
5.3















1977

2.0
63.2
24.3
9.2
1.3














1978

1.3
64.1
24.5
8.3
1.8














1979

7.2
59.2
22.8
8.7
2.2














1980

0.1
30.5
43.4
21.5
3.9

0.6












1981

0.0
14.0
56.9
15.8
9.1
2.8
1.3












1982


14.6
49.7
23.5
8.4
3.0
0.5
0.2











1983


13.5
45.9
27.8
10.7
1.7
0.4
0.0











1984

0.0
16.6
49.6
24.1
8.5
0.8
0.4
0.0











1985


26.0
37.9
28.1
7.6
0.2
0.2












1986


8.2
52.2
29.1
9.3
1.1
0.1












1987


12.1
47.4
31.5
7.4
1.6
0.1












1988


13.0
58.1
19.7
7.4
1.8













1989


14.4
54.8
23.4
6.9
0.4













1990


15.5
58.9
17.5
8.0
0.2













1991


10.4
59.4
21.5
8.5
0.1













1992


11.3
63.8
20.8
4.0
0.1













1993


9.6
66.9
18.0
5.5
0.0













1994


13.2
59.5
23.0
4.2
0.1













1995


14.6
67.1
14.3
4.1
0.0













1996


12.9
66.9
16.5
3.6














1997


15.5
65.7
13.8
4.9














1998


17.2
62.2
16.1
4.5














1999


19.1
63.3
15.6
2.0














2000


10.4
68.7
19.9
1.0














2001


11.7
67.7
18.9
1.7














2002


6.6
70.7
20.5
2.1



0.0










2003


9.4
63.6
24.6
2.4



0.0










2004


8.9
67.0
22.7
1.4














2005

0.0
4.7
63.0
30.8
1.4

0.1












2006


3.3
62.2
30.3
2.8
0.8
0.6












2007


3.0
64.4
26.3
5.5
0.4
0.3
0.1











2008


2.5
58.4
29.4
8.5
0.4
0.6

0.3










2009


1.4
56.9
34.4
6.7
0.2
0.4

0.1










EPA-420-R-09-014
C-13
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-14
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Truck Sales by Laboratory Highway MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War hi:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
60
6(1
65
65
70
70
75
75
SO
SO
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

0.0
38.6
39.2
12.0
7.6
2.5













1976


32.9
42.6
15.9
3.9
4.7













1977


18.5
45.8
21.9
4.9
7.7
1.3












1978


31.4
37.3
18.9
5.3
6.2
0.9












1979

0.6
33.0
36.4
17.4
7.4
3.2
1.9












1980


3.2
31.7
33.6
14.4
12.7
3.8

0.5
0.1









1981


0.5
14.5
48.1
16.2
11.6
5.8
1.9
0.7
0.7









1982


2.2
13.9
37.7
18.9
18.4
6.7
1.5
0.6










1983


0.8
13.0
34.0
21.0
21.2
7.7
1.4
0.9










1984


0.9
12.5
33.2
26.8
16.0
9.8
0.6
0.3










1985


0.2
20.5
20.6
29.8
23.7
3.7
1.3
0.1










1986


0.1
12.3
23.6
35.8
21.1
7.0
0.1
0.1










1987


0.1
9.0
21.0
38.4
24.6
6.8
0.0
0.0










1988


0.1
7.5
30.7
33.0
20.4
8.3












1989


0.3
5.4
32.8
39.6
17.8
4.2












1990


0.5
4.6
36.0
38.3
16.1
4.4












1991


0.1
2.7
28.4
49.1
17.1
2.7












1992


0.1
1.8
36.8
39.5
16.6
5.2












1993


0.1
0.8
30.2
47.4
18.5
3.1












1994



2.3
35.7
41.6
18.4
1.9












1995



2.4
42.6
28.7
21.1
5.2












1996



2.2
36.4
33.0
25.4
3.0












1997



0.6
38.7
38.6
17.1
5.0












1998



0.0
31.6
38.8
27.1
2.6
0.0











1999



0.2
38.6
38.8
20.7
1.7












2000



0.1
35.7
40.7
22.7
0.9
0.0











2001



0.1
42.0
33.0
23.5
1.4












2002



0.8
44.2
33.7
19.2
2.1












2003



0.0
35.8
36.0
25.9
2.3












2004



0.1
39.8
35.3
22.9
2.0












2005



0.1
30.2
35.6
30.3
3.8












2006



0.0
26.8
37.9
28.4
6.9












2007



0.1
17.2
44.0
30.7
7.8
0.3











2008



0.1
13.3
40.1
33.3
12.9
0.3
0.0










2009



0.2
7.8
42.5
36.0
13.2
0.2
0.1










EPA-420-R-09-014
C-14
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-15
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Truck Sales by Laboratory 55/45 MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War hi:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
60
6(1
65
65
70
70
75
75
SO
SO
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

2.5
68.1
18.4
11.0















1976

0.0
63.2
24.9
9.9
1.9














1977

0.2
52.8
31.9
7.1
6.7
1.3













1978

0.1
58.7
27.5
5.7
7.1
0.9













1979

1.4
55.0
30.1
9.4
3.0
1.1













1980

0.0
17.9
46.5
21.6
11.8
1.5

0.6











1981


7.4
47.6
23.3
14.7
3.7
1.9
1.3











1982


8.2
41.4
26.7
14.8
6.2
2.0
0.6











1983


6.8
35.5
28.5
21.2
5.9
1.8
0.2
0.0










1984


7.5
34.4
37.1
14.4
5.7
0.8
0.1











1985


7.0
31.6
39.3
17.5
4.3
0.3
0.0











1986


2.7
32.5
37.0
22.6
5.1
0.1
0.0











1987


2.6
26.1
44.5
21.7
5.0
0.0
0.0











1988


2.1
36.9
38.3
15.9
6.8













1989


2.9
34.9
43.2
16.3
2.6













1990


3.3
35.8
44.1
13.3
3.5













1991


1.1
29.6
54.0
12.6
2.7













1992


1.3
39.7
45.4
12.4
1.2













1993


0.1
37.4
48.3
13.7
0.5













1994


0.1
38.3
48.5
12.5
0.7













1995


0.2
46.3
39.0
14.2
0.2













1996


1.0
36.6
49.9
12.1
0.4













1997


0.0
40.7
47.8
11.4
0.0













1998


0.0
33.3
53.7
12.6
0.4













1999


0.0
40.9
49.4
9.2
0.5













2000


0.0
36.9
52.4
10.4
0.3













2001


0.1
41.1
48.1
10.2
0.6













2002


0.0
46.7
42.4
9.3
1.5













2003


0.0
42.3
42.1
14.7
0.9

0.0











2004


0.0
41.8
43.4
14.1
0.7













2005


0.1
36.4
43.4
19.3
0.7
0.1












2006


0.0
30.6
47.9
19.2
1.6
0.6












2007



24.0
57.2
16.6
1.9
0.3
0.1











2008



18.6
56.4
20.6
3.5
0.6
0.3











2009


0.1
14.5
58.5
22.9
3.4
0.6
0.1











EPA-420-R-09-014
C-15
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-16
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Truck Sales by Adjusted City MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War lo:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
60
6(1
65
65
70
70
75
75
SO
SO
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

35.5
53.1
11.5
















1976

20.6
60.8
17.1
1.6















1977

6.5
69.8
18.1
4.7
0.9














1978

7.7
70.9
13.1
7.4
0.9














1979

17.7
61.6
16.3
4.4















1980

0.6
48.0
37.5
13.3

0.5
0.1












1981

0.0
44.4
35.6
15.6
2.3
2.1













1982

0.1
32.1
43.5
19.9
3.7
0.2
0.6












1983

0.0
35.5
39.8
21.7
2.0
0.9
0.0












1984

0.8
36.5
41.7
19.7
0.9
0.5
0.0












1985

0.0
34.8
42.5
19.9
2.6
0.2













1986

0.2
31.0
40.6
25.5
2.4
0.1













1987

0.1
25.0
49.8
22.3
2.7
0.1













1988

0.1
33.5
45.0
19.6
1.8














1989

0.1
34.4
50.1
14.8
0.6














1990

0.5
35.6
50.1
13.6
0.3














1991

0.1
33.6
52.9
13.3
0.1














1992

0.1
43.2
47.1
9.6
0.1














1993

0.0
41.7
49.6
8.7
0.0














1994


45.4
43.8
10.8
0.1














1995


49.2
41.5
9.2
0.0














1996


46.4
44.3
9.3















1997


52.1
39.5
8.4















1998


46.7
46.2
7.1















1999


57.3
36.9
5.8















2000


57.9
38.8
3.3















2001


60.3
36.0
3.7















2002


63.3
34.0
2.7


0.0












2003

0.0
57.6
39.9
2.5

0.0













2004

0.0
65.7
32.9
1.4















2005

0.1
55.2
43.3
1.3
0.1
0.1













2006

0.0
53.4
43.0
2.1
1.3
0.1













2007


51.1
43.6
4.6
0.7
0.1













2008


44.1
47.7
6.9
1.0
0.3













2009

0.1
40.5
52.7
6.2
0.5
0.1













EPA-420-R-09-014
C-16
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-17
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Truck Sales by Adjusted Highway MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War lo:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
60
6(1
65
65
70
70
75
75
SO
SO
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

20.1
54.9
14.8
10.1















1976

6.2
66.0
19.3
6.6
1.9














1977

2.5
58.7
25.0
8.1
4.8
0.9













1978

0.9
65.6
21.5
8.2
3.7














1979

10.8
56.2
21.3
8.2
3.5














1980

0.1
28.9
41.1
23.3
5.8

0.5
0.1











1981


12.0
51.6
21.0
11.1
3.0
1.3












1982


12.8
42.8
24.1
16.6
3.1
0.6












1983


10.0
38.0
28.4
19.7
3.1
0.9












1984

0.0
12.0
39.1
32.6
14.5
1.5
0.3












1985

0.0
11.4
31.0
41.3
14.4
1.8
0.1












1986


5.6
33.0
40.6
18.4
2.2
0.1












1987


8.0
23.7
47.5
19.0
1.7
0.0












1988


7.3
34.6
43.5
14.6














1989


4.9
38.9
43.0
13.2














1990


3.3
42.0
45.0
9.6














1991


2.3
38.9
46.9
11.8














1992


1.8
42.8
46.2
9.2














1993


0.9
46.3
43.9
8.9














1994


0.8
50.7
38.8
9.7














1995


2.3
52.8
38.7
6.2














1996


2.1
47.0
41.7
9.2














1997


0.6
56.2
37.3
6.0














1998


0.0
53.2
39.3
7.5
0.0













1999


0.2
63.1
32.2
4.5














2000


0.1
63.4
33.7
2.7
0.0













2001


2.0
61.9
31.3
4.9














2002


1.3
67.6
24.9
6.2














2003


2.2
60.2
33.7
3.9














2004


0.3
60.5
36.2
3.0














2005


0.2
48.7
47.3
3.8














2006


0.2
49.7
43.2
6.9














2007


0.1
48.8
43.0
8.1














2008


0.1
40.1
46.2
13.6
0.0













2009


0.2
35.2
50.8
13.6
0.2













EPA-420-R-09-014
C-17
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-18
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Truck Sales by Adjusted 55/45 MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War lo:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
60
6(1
65
65
70
70
75
75
SO
SO
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

27.6
52.1
17.9
2.5















1976

12.3
66.0
16.6
5.1















1977

3.8
66.0
19.8
9.1
1.3














1978

3.1
68.6
18.9
8.5
0.9














1979

14.4
59.1
18.6
6.7
1.2














1980

0.2
40.7
37.9
19.1
1.5

0.6












1981

0.0
22.8
50.7
16.1
7.1
2.6
0.7












1982


21.8
45.3
23.7
7.9
0.7
0.6












1983


20.8
41.4
27.1
9.7
0.9
0.2












1984

0.1
23.9
42.8
25.4
7.0
0.7
0.1












1985

0.0
27.2
40.2
27.7
4.7
0.3
0.0












1986


19.4
42.0
33.2
5.3
0.1
0.0












1987


16.9
44.2
32.9
6.0
0.0
0.0












1988

0.0
17.4
53.6
22.2
6.8














1989


18.3
54.9
24.2
2.6














1990

0.3
21.4
56.2
18.5
3.5














1991


15.7
61.8
20.5
2.1














1992


18.2
61.7
20.0
0.1














1993


13.1
69.1
17.8
0.0














1994


21.7
62.3
15.8
0.1














1995


23.5
60.8
15.6
0.0














1996


21.0
61.9
17.0
0.1














1997


18.3
69.8
11.9
0.0














1998


21.8
63.4
14.8
0.0














1999


22.4
65.1
12.4















2000


15.7
73.4
10.9















2001


21.1
67.3
11.6
0.1














2002


18.3
69.6
11.7
0.3














2003


22.4
59.7
17.9
0.0














2004


23.5
61.2
15.3















2005

0.0
18.7
62.0
19.1
0.1














2006

0.0
12.3
66.8
19.4
1.4














2007


8.8
71.1
19.2
0.9














2008


8.3
65.3
24.9
1.1
0.3













2009

0.0
3.6
65.9
28.9
1.5
0.1













EPA-420-R-09-014
C-18
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-19
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Light Duty Sales by Laboratory City MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War hi:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
SO
so
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

7.9
56.1
25.2
8.7
2.0














1976

1.4
52.5
32.0
9.7
3.9
0.5













1977

0.7
43.7
38.2
9.4
6.2
0.8
1.1












1978

0.5
34.6
43.5
12.5
5.1
2.6
1.1












1979

1.6
27.6
46.9
13.6
8.5
1.5
0.2
0.1











1980

0.0
9.6
41.9
31.5
11.6
3.7
0.7
1.0











1981
0.0
0.0
4.5
40.4
27.1
19.8
5.3
2.1
0.8











1982

0.0
3.8
32.0
31.2
22.5
7.8
1.7
0.7
0.2










1983

0.0
3.2
37.4
26.9
19.6
10.4
1.9
0.4
0.1










1984

0.0
4.0
31.9
31.2
24.0
6.0
2.0
0.6
0.1
0.1









1985

0.0
6.7
31.7
26.0
27.4
6.2
1.1
0.6
0.0
0.3









1986

0.0
2.4
28.2
35.6
24.2
6.8
1.4
0.9
0.3
0.0
0.1
0.2







1987

0.0
3.5
24.8
34.5
26.9
8.5
0.7
0.7
0.2

0.1








1988

0.0
4.0
28.3
30.0
26.5
8.7
1.0
1.3
0.2

0.1








1989

0.0
4.6
26.3
37.1
24.2
5.9
0.8
0.8
0.0
0.2
0.1








1990

0.0
4.8
27.1
39.9
20.9
6.2
0.7
0.1
0.0
0.2
0.0








1991

0.0
3.4
30.2
36.8
21.3
6.4
1.2
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.0








1992

0.0
3.9
34.0
39.6
15.4
4.8
1.6
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.1








1993

0.0
3.5
32.5
36.8
20.5
5.0
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.1








1994


5.4
33.3
37.3
18.3
4.2
0.9
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.1








1995

0.0
5.6
34.6
34.8
17.5
6.2
0.8
0.3
0.3
0.0









1996

0.0
5.2
34.4
37.5
15.5
6.2
0.8
0.2
0.2










1997


6.6
35.3
34.2
16.5
6.4
0.8
0.1
0.1










1998


7.7
33.4
34.2
17.9
6.0
0.6
0.1
0.1










1999


8.6
34.3
37.4
14.1
5.2
0.3
0.1
0.1










2000

0.0
4.7
36.6
39.3
14.5
4.5
0.2
0.0
0.1



0.0






2001

0.0
5.4
37.2
37.0
14.6
4.5
1.1
0.0
0.1

0.1
0.0
0.0






2002


3.3
39.0
36.3
16.1
4.2
0.9
0.0
0.1

0.1
0.0
0.0






2003

0.0
4.7
36.0
36.5
16.9
4.7
0.8
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.0






2004


4.7
40.2
34.5
14.7
4.8
0.6
0.1

0.1

0.0
0.3






2005

0.0
2.4
36.7
36.1
17.1
6.0
0.7
0.1

0.2

0.0
0.8






2006

0.0
1.7
34.7
39.0
15.8
7.1
0.9
0.0

0.2

0.0
0.6






2007


1.6
34.7
32.4
19.4
8.5
1.5
0.5
0.0
0.2


1.0






2008

0.0
1.3
31.3
35.1
19.4
9.3
1.6
0.4
0.2
0.2


1.2






2009


0.8
31.9
33.9
18.2
9.9
3.8
0.5
0.1
0.2


0.7






EPA-420-R-09-014
C-19
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-20
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Light Duty Sales by Laboratory Highway MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War hi:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
??
60
60
65
65
70
70
7?
75
80
so
85
85
90
90
95
95
100
1975

0.0
14.8
50.4
14.6
9.9
6.6
2.0
1.6











1976


7.5
41.3
30.9
5.9
9.5
3.0
2.0











1977


3.8
34.7
37.8
8.4
6.4
4.5
2.9
1.0
0.5









1978


7.2
19.3
39.1
15.9
9.4
4.4
3.2
1.4
0.3









1979

0.1
7.4
17.7
39.6
15.3
10.3
6.6
2.4
0.5
0.1









1980


0.5
5.9
20.6
30.5
24.8
10.7
5.2
0.6
0.9
0.2








1981

0.0
0.1
2.5
17.4
30.3
23.0
14.1
8.5
2.4
0.5
1.1








1982


0.5
2.8
12.8
24.3
21.4
24.5
8.0
3.9
1.2
0.8








1983


0.2
2.9
11.5
32.9
19.2
16.3
10.5
4.5
1.6
0.3
0.1







1984


0.2
3.0
9.1
29.2
23.3
20.3
9.9
2.6
1.5
0.7
0.1
0.1






1985


0.1
5.2
5.8
23.1
30.0
17.7
11.6
4.3
1.3
0.6
0.0
0.3






1986


0.0
3.5
7.2
19.4
26.2
29.3
9.4
2.4
2.0
0.2
0.2

0.1
0.2




1987


0.0
2.6
6.3
18.2
29.8
27.8
10.2
3.8
0.8
0.1
0.2

0.1





1988


0.0
2.2
9.6
15.3
24.0
32.5
11.0
3.2
1.9

0.1
0.0
0.1





1989


0.1
1.7
10.5
15.1
26.3
32.3
9.3
3.3
1.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1





1990


0.2
1.4
11.1
16.7
26.3
33.2
7.3
3.0
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0





1991


0.0
0.9
9.4
17.9
29.0
26.9
10.9
3.8
0.6
0.1
0.4
0.1
0.0





1992


0.0
0.6
12.5
14.8
29.9
29.0
7.2
4.1
1.1
0.2
0.3
0.0
0.1





1993


0.0
0.3
11.0
18.6
25.3
28.1
10.8
4.2
1.1
0.2
0.3
0.0
0.1





1994



0.9
14.5
17.8
25.0
26.3
8.5
5.5
0.9
0.1
0.3

0.1





1995


0.0
0.9
16.2
11.4
21.4
33.8
9.6
5.2
1.0
0.2
0.2

0.0





1996



0.9
14.6
13.4
28.1
29.1
7.6
4.8
1.3
0.1
0.2







1997



0.2
16.4
16.7
22.4
28.1
11.4
3.8
0.7
0.1
0.1







1998



0.0
14.2
17.9
21.2
30.6
9.8
5.8
0.3
0.1
0.2







1999



0.1
17.4
17.9
19.1
33.4
8.2
3.5
0.3
0.0
0.1







2000



0.1
16.1
18.9
20.3
32.7
9.1
2.4
0.3
0.1
0.1




0.0


2001



0.1
19.4
16.1
25.3
24.0
9.4
3.8
1.7
0.2
0.1

0.0


0.0


2002



0.4
21.4
17.1
20.5
24.7
10.7
3.7
1.1
0.3
0.1

0.0


0.0


2003



0.0
17.8
18.8
23.7
21.0
13.6
4.3
0.4
0.2
0.3

0.0


0.0


2004



0.0
20.8
19.7
21.7
20.7
12.2
4.2
0.2
0.1
0.5

0.0

0.0



2005



0.1
15.0
18.4
24.1
19.8
16.5
4.7
0.3
0.1
0.9

0.0

0.0



2006



0.0
12.8
18.9
24.1
23.7
14.1
3.4
2.1
0.0
0.6
0.2
0.0

0.0



2007



0.0
8.2
21.6
23.1
21.5
15.8
6.4
1.9

1.0
0.2






2008



0.0
6.4
19.9
23.0
23.7
15.7
7.4
2.2
0.2
1.2
0.2






2009



0.1
3.9
21.8
24.7
19.8
15.7
10.7
1.9
0.5
0.7
0.2






EPA-420-R-09-014
C-20
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-21
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Light Duty Sales by Laboratory 55/45 MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War hi:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
so
so
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

0.5
51.8
26.9
13.7
5.1
2.0













1976

0.0
33.4
43.0
11.8
8.8
2.5
0.5












1977

0.0
23.2
51.8
10.1
8.2
4.8
0.8
1.1











1978

0.0
17.6
45.1
19.8
9.9
4.5
2.6
0.4











1979

0.3
14.9
43.8
23.2
11.5
5.1
0.8
0.2
0.1










1980

0.0
3.0
24.1
36.3
23.2
10.1
1.7
1.5
0.2










1981

0.0
1.3
16.8
35.4
24.7
14.6
4.7
1.6
0.8










1982

0.0
1.6
18.7
27.2
26.5
18.0
5.7
1.5
0.6
0.2









1983

0.0
1.6
17.0
33.3
19.3
18.5
8.1
1.7
0.5
0.1









1984

0.0
1.8
14.2
34.2
22.3
19.1
5.6
2.1
0.5
0.2
0.1








1985

0.0
1.8
8.6
41.7
15.8
24.3
5.9
0.9
0.6
0.0
0.3








1986

0.0
0.8
9.7
30.3
31.5
18.9
6.1
1.3
1.1
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.2






1987

0.0
0.8
7.7
30.0
28.7
24.7
6.4
0.7
0.7
0.2
0.0
0.1
0.1






1988

0.0
0.7
11.4
24.4
29.9
25.1
5.6
1.4
1.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.1






1989

0.0
0.9
11.0
27.0
33.2
21.1
5.0
0.8
0.8

0.2
0.1







1990


1.0
11.2
24.9
39.7
17.5
4.5
0.7
0.1
0.0
0.2

0.0






1991


0.4
9.8
30.5
34.8
17.3
5.2
1.4
0.1
0.1
0.4

0.0






1992


0.4
13.5
32.6
32.5
14.5
4.6
1.1
0.2
0.4
0.1

0.1






1993


0.1
13.6
27.8
36.3
15.7
4.8
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.3

0.1






1994


0.0
15.6
31.9
32.7
14.2
4.0
0.8
0.2
0.1
0.3

0.1






1995


0.1
17.7
25.2
35.0
14.4
6.2
0.9
0.3
0.3
0.0








1996


0.4
14.7
29.2
34.7
13.9
5.9
0.8
0.2
0.2









1997


0.0
17.3
29.5
31.5
14.6
6.1
0.7
0.1
0.1









1998


0.0
15.0
30.8
34.3
12.9
6.6
0.2
0.1
0.2









1999


0.0
18.4
29.3
35.7
10.6
5.7
0.1
0.0
0.1









2000


0.0
16.7
30.8
36.1
11.5
4.5
0.2
0.0
0.1




0.0




2001


0.0
19.0
28.8
33.4
12.8
4.7
0.9
0.0
0.1
0.1

0.0

0.0




2002


0.0
22.7
26.5
31.8
14.1
4.0
0.6
0.0
0.1
0.1

0.0

0.0




2003


0.0
21.1
27.3
31.1
14.3
5.0
0.8
0.0
0.1
0.3

0.0

0.0




2004


0.0
21.8
29.4
29.3
13.3
5.1
0.5
0.1

0.1

0.3
0.0





2005


0.1
18.1
28.8
29.9
15.0
6.4
0.6
0.1

0.2

0.8
0.0





2006


0.0
14.8
30.0
30.8
15.7
7.1
0.7
0.0

0.2

0.6
0.0





2007


0.0
11.6
32.8
27.2
16.4
8.8
1.5
0.5

0.2

1.0






2008


0.0
9.1
31.7
30.2
16.2
9.5
1.4
0.4

0.2

1.2






2009


0.1
7.3
34.0
27.9
15.6
10.6
2.8
0.9

0.2

0.7






EPA-420-R-09-014
C-21
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-22
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Light Duty Sales by Adjusted City MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War lo:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
60
(.0
(»5
65
70
70
7?
75
SO
SO
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

22.3
52.3
19.0
6.3
0.2














1976

6.8
61.1
21.1
9.0
2.0














1977

4.9
62.0
19.6
7.5
4.5
1.0
0.4












1978

2.3
50.9
29.4
10.3
5.6
1.2
0.3












1979

4.1
47.8
31.6
13.2
2.8
0.3
0.3












1980

0.1
22.2
42.7
26.2
6.8
1.0
1.0












1981
0.0
0.0
15.8
42.8
26.9
10.4
3.3
0.8












1982

0.1
13.7
37.6
33.4
10.9
2.8
1.2
0.2











1983

0.0
18.5
37.6
23.7
14.6
4.7
0.7
0.1











1984

0.2
15.2
39.1
28.8
11.8
4.0
0.7
0.1
0.1










1985

0.0
9.2
46.1
28.9
11.0
3.9
0.6
0.0
0.3










1986

0.1
9.1
42.5
32.9
11.5
2.4
0.9
0.4
0.0
0.2









1987

0.0
7.4
42.8
32.1
15.3
1.3
0.7
0.2

0.1









1988

0.0
10.4
41.2
32.4
12.9
1.5
1.3
0.2
0.1
0.1









1989

0.0
10.9
46.9
29.2
11.0
0.9
0.8
0.1
0.2










1990

0.1
11.1
48.0
30.6
8.0
1.7
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0









1991

0.0
11.2
49.8
29.8
7.1
1.5
0.1
0.4
0.1
0.0









1992

0.0
16.4
51.4
24.5
5.3
1.5
0.2
0.4
0.1










1993

0.0
16.4
48.2
27.1
6.6
1.1
0.2
0.4
0.1










1994

0.0
18.6
48.9
26.4
4.7
0.9
0.1
0.3
0.1










1995

0.0
18.9
49.8
23.8
6.2
1.0
0.2
0.2











1996

0.0
18.7
51.2
22.7
6.3
0.7
0.1
0.2











1997

0.0
22.2
46.6
25.2
5.1
0.7
0.1












1998

0.0
21.1
49.3
22.9
6.4
0.2
0.2












1999

0.0
25.9
49.8
19.5
4.6
0.0
0.1












2000

0.0
26.3
50.5
20.0
2.9
0.2
0.1


0.0









2001

0.0
28.2
50.0
16.6
4.9
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0









2002

0.0
31.0
47.1
17.7
3.9
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0









2003

0.0
29.4
47.7
18.0
4.4
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.0










2004

0.0
35.6
43.8
16.1
4.0
0.1
0.1

0.3










2005

0.1
28.8
47.5
17.5
5.0
0.1
0.2

0.8










2006

0.0
26.7
49.3
16.9
6.1
0.2

0.2
0.6










2007

0.0
25.6
44.2
22.0
6.3
0.5
0.0
0.2
1.0










2008

0.0
23.1
46.1
22.4
6.3
0.5
0.1
0.2
1.2










2009

0.1
21.1
46.4
22.3
8.6
0.6
0.0
0.2
0.7










EPA-420-R-09-014
C-22
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-23
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Light Duty Sales by Adjusted Highway MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War lo:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
55
60
60
65
65
70
70
75
75
SO
so
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

4.1
56.7
19.9
12.3
4.8
2.1













1976

1.3
44.6
34.7
9.2
7.0
3.1













1977

0.5
28.8
49.4
8.4
6.7
4.6
1.1
0.4











1978

0.2
21.0
50.7
14.1
8.2
4.1
1.4
0.3











1979

2.4
16.8
52.3
15.8
8.9
3.2
0.5
0.1











1980

0.0
5.3
31.9
32.4
21.0
7.8
0.7
1.0











1981

0.0
2.1
21.2
36.2
24.5
11.7
2.8
0.8
0.6










1982

0.0
2.6
15.8
33.1
29.1
13.5
4.6
0.7
0.6










1983

0.0
2.3
14.6
36.5
26.8
13.0
5.5
1.2
0.2










1984

0.0
2.9
12.1
36.2
22.2
21.4
3.5
1.3
0.2
0.1









1985

0.0
2.9
8.5
40.9
22.8
18.1
5.1
1.2
0.1
0.3









1986

0.0
1.6
9.9
29.7
39.3
14.5
3.3
1.2
0.2
0.0
0.2








1987

0.0
2.2
7.1
28.8
33.7
23.2
3.7
0.8
0.2

0.1








1988


2.2
10.8
25.2
40.0
16.8
4.1
0.7
0.1
0.1
0.1








1989


1.5
12.3
24.6
45.3
12.8
2.7
0.5
0.0
0.2









1990


1.0
13.0
25.4
47.5
9.9
2.5
0.5
0.2
0.0
0.0








1991


0.8
12.9
28.5
40.3
14.2
2.5
0.4
0.4
0.1
0.0








1992


0.6
14.5
28.1
41.6
10.9
3.3
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.1








1993


0.3
16.8
28.0
37.7
13.3
3.2
0.4
0.3
0.0
0.1








1994


0.3
20.6
27.5
36.1
12.2
2.7
0.1
0.3
0.0
0.1








1995


0.9
20.2
25.1
38.0
10.9
4.6
0.2
0.2
0.0









1996


0.8
18.9
25.1
41.7
10.5
2.7
0.2
0.2










1997


0.2
23.8
24.9
35.8
12.5
2.5
0.1
0.1










1998


0.0
23.9
24.6
37.3
12.3
1.7
0.1
0.2










1999


0.1
28.4
21.7
39.0
9.9
0.7
0.1
0.1










2000


0.1
28.6
22.1
40.1
7.9
0.9
0.1
0.1


0.0







2001


0.9
28.7
24.0
35.1
8.4
2.6
0.3

0.0

0.0







2002


0.6
32.9
21.2
35.5
7.5
2.0
0.3
0.0
0.0

0.0







2003


1.1
30.2
26.5
32.6
8.6
0.6
0.4
0.1
0.0

0.0







2004


0.2
31.6
29.1
27.2
10.7
0.7
0.2
0.3

0.0








2005


0.1
24.3
33.1
26.5
14.7
0.4
0.2
0.8

0.0








2006


0.1
23.9
31.7
29.3
12.1
2.1

0.8

0.0








2007


0.1
23.4
29.5
24.5
18.5
2.8

1.3










2008


0.1
19.3
29.8
29.8
17.2
2.2
0.2
1.5










2009


0.1
17.5
32.6
26.0
20.5
2.1
0.3
0.9










EPA-420-R-09-014
C-23
October 2009

-------
&EPA
Uoit»d Stflic*
Env«ro«*mentel Protection
Ag«ncy
DRAFT 2009 FE Trends Report
Appendix C: Fuel Economy Distribution Data
Table C-24
Percent of 1975 To 2009 Light Duty Sales by Adjusted Composite MPG Band
Model l-mm:
War hi:
0
J
J
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
35
35
40
40
45
45
50
50
60
6(1
65
65
70
70
75
75
SO
SO
S5
S5
90
90
95
95
100
1975

10.7
56.3
22.7
7.8
2.5














1976

2.8
59.4
22.8
11.5
3.0
0.5













1977

0.9
48.4
33.3
10.0
5.5
1.2
0.7












1978

0.9
36.2
41.7
12.5
5.6
2.8
0.3












1979

3.2
31.9
41.8
15.5
6.5
0.8
0.3












1980

0.0
11.4
43.6
30.7
10.8
2.3
1.0
0.2











1981
0.0
0.0
6.1
40.2
30.6
16.4
4.6
1.3
0.7











1982

0.0
4.5
33.9
30.1
24.0
5.8
1.1
0.6











1983

0.0
4.9
35.3
28.9
21.4
7.6
1.5
0.3
0.0










1984

0.0
5.8
30.7
31.2
25.1
4.4
2.3
0.3
0.1










1985

0.0
7.0
30.7
28.6
26.4
5.5
1.1
0.3
0.3










1986

0.0
5.7
23.6
35.6
27.8
5.3
1.4
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2








1987

0.0
4.9
23.3
38.2
25.8
6.3
1.1
0.0
0.2
0.1









1988

0.0
5.4
25.7
35.1
26.0
5.7
1.8
0.0
0.2
0.1









1989

0.0
5.8
26.4
39.7
22.1
4.3
1.3
0.0
0.2
0.1









1990

0.1
6.6
26.4
41.3
21.2
3.7
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.0









1991

0.0
5.2
29.7
40.8
19.2
4.0
0.6
0.4
0.1
0.0









1992

0.0
6.2
28.5
44.9
15.2
3.4
1.1
0.5
0.1
0.1









1993

0.0
4.8
33.2
40.6
16.3
3.5
1.0
0.4
0.0
0.1









1994


8.8
34.8
37.5
14.7
2.9
0.9
0.4
0.0
0.1









1995

0.0
9.0
31.5
38.6
16.0
4.4
0.3
0.3
0.0










1996


8.5
31.0
44.1
12.9
3.1
0.3
0.2











1997


7.8
35.8
39.4
14.5
2.2
0.1
0.1











1998


9.8
33.9
39.4
14.8
1.9
0.1
0.2











1999


10.1
34.7
41.7
12.4
0.9
0.1
0.1











2000

0.0
7.1
38.1
43.3
10.5
0.9
0.1
0.1


0.0








2001

0.0
9.8
37.4
38.1
10.7
3.8
0.1
0.2
0.0

0.0








2002


8.9
39.0
39.5
9.2
3.0
0.1
0.2
0.0

0.0








2003

0.0
11.2
35.0
39.1
12.2
2.1
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.0









2004


12.3
38.1
35.0
13.1
1.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.0









2005

0.0
9.3
37.5
33.6
15.4
3.2
0.1
0.2
0.8
0.0









2006

0.0
6.0
38.8
36.6
13.1
4.7
0.0
0.2
0.6
0.0









2007


4.3
38.8
32.3
17.5
5.9

0.2
1.0










2008


4.1
35.5
35.4
18.1
5.4
0.2
0.2
1.2










2009

0.0
1.9
37.2
34.4
19.1
6.3
0.3
0.2
0.7










EPA-420-R-09-014
C-24
October 2009

-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Appendix D
Fuel Economy Data Stratified
by Vehicle Type
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

-------
'S'BFA
gS?™**"* p,"*""n	Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-l
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Cars
^ i-:vk
SALKS
(000)
1 KU
i i i:i t:< <>\<>\n
WCIII
1 li
\ <>l
(III
i:m;im:
0-60
i imi:
IOI'
Ni'i:t:i>
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
TO.V
MI'C
(III
mi*(;
(III
ION
MI'C
I.VIi
55/45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
VD.I
((•Ml*
( id
III'
1975
7274
0.711
15.8
12.3
15.1
13.4
4071

293
137
14.1
112
0 s06
0.0333
32.4


1976
8685
0.704
17.5
13.7
16.6
14.9
4044

288
134
14.4
111
0.500
0.0326
35.4


1977
10027
0.710
18.4
14.4
17.4
15.6
3936
106.9
281
134
13.9
112
0.516
0.0337
36.4
2031
3894
1978
10018
0.693
20.0
15.6
19.2
17.0
3572
106.0
252
124
13.6
111
0.537
0.0344
35.9
2193
3816
1979
9727
0.701
20.3
16.0
19.3
17.3
3468
105.9
239
120
13.7
111
0.546
0.0341
35.4
2210
3770
1980
8774
0.776
23.5
18.3
22.6
20.0
3092
102.4
188
101
14.2
107
0.584
0.0324
36.5
2462
3756
1981
7935
0.752
25.1
19.5
24.2
21.4
3079
104.5
184
99
14.3
106
0.589
0.0321
38.9
2689
4081
1982
7007
0.720
26.1
20.1
25.6
22.3
3039
103.4
175
99
14.3
107
0.610
0.0322
40.1
2779
4161
1983
7066
0.686
25.7
19.8
25.4
22.0
3121
106.7
185
105
13.9
108
0.613
0.0334
40.5
2835
4331
1984
9672
0.690
26.3
20.2
26.0
22.4
3091
105.1
180
106
13.7
109
0.636
0.0341
41.0
2843
4309
1985
9807
0.678
26.9
20.6
26.7
23.0
3091
106.0
179
112
13.2
111
0.670
0.0358
41.9
2928
4448
1986
10136
0.660
28.0
21.3
27.7
23.8
3026
105.0
168
111
13.1
111
0.702
0.0363
42.6
3006
4479
1987
9923
0.668
28.2
21.3
27.8
23.9
3013
104.4
162
113
13.0
112
0.732
0.0367
42.7
3001
4460
1988
10122
0.662
28.6
21.5
28.3
24.2
3035
105.4
160
116
12.7
113
0.759
0.0376
43.7
3083
4615
1989
9558
0.661
28.2
20.9
27.9
23.8
3088
106.4
162
121
12.4
115
0.784
0.0388
43.7
3052
4659
1990
8434
0.669
27.8
20.5
27.5
23.4
3167
105.8
163
129
12.1
117
0.830
0.0402
44.2
2987
4687
1991
8158
0.649
28.0
20.5
27.6
23.4
3147
105.6
163
133
11.8
118
0.852
0.0415
44.2
3007
4680
1992
7800
0.641
27.6
20.0
27.5
23.1
3234
107.3
170
141
11.5
121
0.868
0.0429
44.8
3011
4819
1993
7971
0.603
28.1
20.2
27.8
23.4
3210
107.1
167
140
11.5
120
0.868
0.0429
45.3
3059
4859
1994
8055
0.570
28.0
20.0
27.7
23.2
3251
107.2
168
143
11.4
121
0.885
0.0434
45.7
3049
4900
1995
9011
0.595
28.3
19.9
28.1
23.4
3266
107.8
168
154
10.8
125
0.948
0.0463
46.3
3098
4998
1996
7622
0.580
28.3
19.8
28.0
23.3
3276
108.2
166
154
10.8
125
0.958
0.0465
46.5
3106
5036
1997
8037
0.556
28.4
19.8
28.0
23.4
3274
108.0
164
157
10.7
126
0.975
0.0471
46.6
3104
5039
1998
7722
0.534
28.5
19.7
28.0
23.4
3304
108.0
164
159
10.6
127
0.991
0.0476
47.3
3122
5115
1999
8120
0.534
28.2
19.4
27.5
23.0
3361
108.4
166
164
10.5
128
1.007
0.0482
47.5
3088
5157
2000
8826
0.532
28.2
19.3
27.3
22.9
3366
108.9
166
168
10.3
129
1.030
0.0493
47.6
3103
5188
2001
7961
0.510
28.5
19.4
27.5
23.1
3366
108.3
165
169
10.3
130
1.039
0.0495
48.3
3142
5240
2002
7860
0.488
28.8
19.5
27.4
23.2
3379
108.6
166
173
10.1
131
1.063
0.0507
48.9
3176
5316
2003
7442
0.472
28.9
19.4
27.5
23.2
3421
108.4
168
178
10.0
132
1.081
0.0514
49.8
3200
5417
2004
6982
0.444
29.0
19.3
27.6
23.2
3444
108.8
170
182
9.8
133
1.095
0.0522
50.4
3227
5496
2005
7305
0.460
29.7
19.7
27.9
23.6
3444
109.6
167
181
9.8
133
1.104
0.0519
51.8
3353
5703
2006
7179
0.475
29.3
19.4
27.7
23.4
3526
109.5
174
195
9.5
137
1.137
0.0543
52.5
3311
5770
2007
7473
0.489
30.5
20.2
28.5
24.2
3503
109.1
167
190
9.6
135
1.152
0.0533
54.4
3454
5960
2008
6750
0.486
30.6
20.2
28.6
24.3
3529
109.0
167
195
9.5
136
1.175
0.0540
55.1
3471
6025
2009
7521
0.470
30.9
20.4
28.9
24.5
3542
109.9
169
200
9.4
138
1.193
0.0554
55.6
3516
6129
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-l
October 2009

-------
&ERA
United Sl«!«s	.
ISSS™*""Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-l (cont)
Percent of Cars:
MODI I
^ I- \l<
Dll \ \\ \ I S
\ |
in likin
\ I I ll< 1 1 si/1-
1 l«>\ 1
4W 1)
MAM A
1 i
I'OK I
i m
l>\|
1 Wll
11 IK 1 1
1 <>l l<
1 IN 1
SMAI 1
MID
i. \i«;i
1975
6.5

19.2



5.5

0.3






56.2
22.4
21.4
1976
6.0

17.0



3.3

0.3






58.0
22.6
19.3
1977
6.8

16.6



4.3

0.5






54.7
22.2
23.1
1978
9.9

20.2
6.6


5.3

1.0






46.2
33.3
20.4
1979
12.8

22.6
8.5


5.1

2.2






45.3
33.0
21.7
1980
31.1
0.6
31.7
15.5


6.5
0.7
4.1






55.0
34.0
11.0
1981
36.5
0.4
29.8
33.9


6.3
2.9
5.9






51.4
36.6
12.1
1982
46.1
0.4
29.9
51.6


7.5
10.9
4.7






57.6
30.5
11.9
1983
48.1
0.5
25.9
58.7


10.1
19.7
2.1






52.6
32.1
15.3
1984
52.8
0.4
24.4
58.3


15.9
24.1
1.6






58.6
28.6
12.8
1985
62.3
0.1
22.7
58.7


22.4
33.0
0.9






56.3
28.3
15.4
1986
71.2
0.3
25.1
58.0


37.3
28.9
0.3
94.8
3.4
1.7



61.2
26.3
12.5
1987
77.5
0.3
25.5
58.9


42.0
30.6
0.2
84.9
9.6
5.5



65.0
22.7
12.3
1988
82.2
0.4
24.7
66.0


54.0
29.4
0.0
79.4
10.0
10.6



66.3
20.9
12.9
1989
83.1
0.6
21.4
69.1
0.1

62.3
28.1
0.0
75.1
12.1
12.8



59.4
27.1
13.5
1990
85.3
0.4
19.9
72.7
0.0

77.5
21.2
0.0
66.8
5.6
27.6

0.6

59.3
27.8
13.0
1991
83.8
0.9
20.8
73.2
0.0

77.9
22.0
0.1
65.7
6.4
27.9

2.5

61.7
25.9
12.4
1992
81.2
0.7
17.5
76.2
0.0

89.6
10.4
0.1
64.7
4.6
30.7

4.7

56.9
27.2
15.9
1993
85.3
0.6
17.8
76.8
0.0

91.4
8.6

62.3
3.2
34.5

5.0

56.9
29.2
13.8
1994
84.4
0.2
16.8
79.1


94.7
5.3
0.0
58.0
1.9
40.0

8.2

58.6
25.5
15.9
1995
82.2
0.6
16.3
81.9


98.7
1.2
0.1
47.2
1.1
51.7
0.0
10.0

57.6
27.9
14.5
1996
87.2
0.6
14.8
83.5
0.0

98.8
1.1
0.1
42.7
1.0
56.3
0.0
11.9

55.1
31.0
14.0
1997
87.3
0.6
13.4
85.9
0.1

99.1
0.8
0.1
41.2
1.0
57.6
0.1
11.6

55.3
29.8
14.9
1998
88.2
0.8
12.2
87.4
0.1

99.7
0.1
0.2
39.0
1.5
58.7
0.8
18.8

49.8
38.4
11.8
1999
88.3
0.9
10.8
88.6
0.0

99.7
0.1
0.2
35.8
2.1
60.7
1.5
17.2

48.3
38.7
13.0
2000
85.8
0.9
11.2
87.7
0.0

99.7
0.1
0.2
35.4
1.8
61.3
1.6
23.3
0.1
48.3
32.8
18.9
2001
85.1
1.6
11.4
87.5
0.2

99.7

0.3
34.2
2.1
60.9
2.8
28.7
0.0
51.1
31.2
17.8
2002
86.0
2.3
11.0
88.3
0.5

99.6

0.4
31.5
2.0
63.8
2.7
34.7
0.3
48.4
35.7
15.9
2003
82.3
2.3
10.9
88.1
1.0

99.7

0.3
28.0
2.4
66.7
2.9
41.1
0.6
49.7
33.4
16.9
2004
82.0
3.2
10.1
88.1
1.5

99.7

0.3
24.3
1.7
71.6
2.4
44.4
1.0
46.9
36.1
17.0
2005
81.6
3.5
9.2
87.8
2.9

99.6

0.4
22.2
2.1
74.6
1.1
52.7
2.3
43.6
39.5
16.9
2006
76.7
3.9
9.5
87.7
2.7

99.3

0.7
20.4
1.7
77.5
0.3
62.4
1.7
44.5
33.6
21.9
2007
80.9
4.5
7.6
80.3
11.2
0.3
99.6

0.0
15.8
1.0
83.1
0.0
68.3
3.7
43.0
41.3
15.7
2008
78.3
5.7
7.6
79.9
12.5
3.2
96.7

0.1
13.2
0.7
86.2
0.0
65.0
3.7
42.3
36.8
20.8
2009
79.3
5.4
8.2
79.2
11.9
4.0
95.3

0.7
10.9
0.6
88.6
0.0
74.0
3.0
40.4
34.6
24.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-2
October 2009

-------
'S'BFA
gS?™**"* p,"*""n	Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-2
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Wagons
^ i: vu
SAI,KS
(000)
1 KU
i i i:i t:< <>\<>\n
WCIII
1 li
\ <>l
(III
i:m;im:
0-60
iimi:
IOI'
si'i:i:i)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
TON-
MI'C
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
mm;
I.VIi
55/45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
VD.I
((•Ml*
( id
III'
1975
963
0.094
16.1
12.5
15.6
13.8
3957

256
129
14.3
110
0.585
0.0322
32.2


1976
1037
0.084
17.3
13.6
16.4
14.7
4182

276
132
14.7
109
0.526
0.0312
36.2


1977
1273
0.090
18.0
14.3
16.9
15.3
4005
138.1
266
127
14.6
109
0.523
0.0315
36.3
2559
5018
1978
1157
0.080
19.2
15.1
18.3
16.4
3723
135.7
243
123
14.1
110
0.548
0.0327
35.8
2642
4875
1979
1067
0.077
19.7
15.6
18.4
16.7
3637
135.6
234
117
14.5
108
0.535
0.0317
35.8
2694
4864
1980
669
0.059
23.6
18.5
22.5
20.1
3231
128.4
189
96
15.2
104
0.567
0.0297
38.4
3098
4956
1981
798
0.076
25.6
20.0
24.6
21.8
3040
126.2
165
94
14.6
105
0.644
0.0312
39.1
3287
4956
1982
812
0.083
25.3
19.6
24.6
21.6
3188
129.4
178
98
14.8
105
0.603
0.0305
40.4
3334
5245
1983
936
0.091
27.2
21.1
26.3
23.2
3047
123.9
161
94
14.8
104
0.636
0.0305
41.6
3420
5149
1984
1003
0.072
26.4
20.4
25.9
22.6
3175
131.5
166
100
14.6
106
0.645
0.0311
42.1
3546
5543
1985
983
0.068
27.5
21.2
26.9
23.4
3112
130.2
158
101
14.3
107
0.677
0.0320
42.7
3638
5580
1986
878
0.057
27.1
20.7
26.6
23.0
3215
133.3
162
106
14.1
108
0.690
0.0327
43.4
3642
5813
1987
808
0.054
27.2
20.6
26.7
23.0
3248
133.5
162
112
13.6
110
0.730
0.0342
44.1
3660
5911
1988
613
0.040
27.6
20.7
27.0
23.3
3242
133.6
163
114
13.3
111
0.745
0.0352
44.6
3708
5987
1989
461
0.032
26.9
20.0
26.5
22.6
3327
135.5
171
121
13.0
113
0.758
0.0363
44.6
3663
6068
1990
376
0.030
26.7
19.7
26.4
22.4
3367
135.0
165
127
12.6
115
0.815
0.0376
45.0
3624
6080
1991
366
0.029
28.0
20.5
27.6
23.4
3305
134.0
158
124
12.7
114
0.823
0.0372
46.3
3783
6218
1992
307
0.025
27.5
19.9
27.4
23.0
3391
136.2
171
137
12.1
118
0.867
0.0403
46.7
3772
6371
1993
486
0.037
29.6
21.3
29.1
24.6
3154
129.8
150
117
12.8
113
0.811
0.0368
46.8
3894
6087
1994
360
0.026
29.4
20.9
29.1
24.4
3217
130.5
154
128
12.4
116
0.848
0.0390
47.5
3896
6196
1995
385
0.025
29.6
21.0
29.0
24.4
3189
129.7
147
126
12.4
116
0.873
0.0390
47.3
3885
6132
1996
268
0.020
27.7
19.6
27.0
22.8
3453
131.8
155
144
11.8
120
0.945
0.0414
47.9
3677
6323
1997
298
0.021
28.9
20.4
27.9
23.7
3283
128.0
142
138
11.6
119
0.972
0.0419
47.5
3741
6086
1998
250
0.017
28.3
19.8
27.0
23.1
3359
128.1
143
149
11.1
123
1.043
0.0442
47.4
3650
6084
1999
259
0.017
27.7
19.2
26.6
22.6
3460
130.8
148
156
10.9
124
1.062
0.0449
47.9
3650
6280
2000
302
0.018
27.7
19.2
26.2
22.4
3468
130.8
147
158
10.9
125
1.076
0.0454
48.0
3649
6291
2001
447
0.029
26.9
18.7
25.1
21.7
3631
127.0
150
162
11.0
125
1.084
0.0446
49.0
3448
6233
2002
444
0.028
26.7
18.4
24.9
21.5
3610
125.4
149
163
10.9
125
1.109
0.0452
48.4
3378
6090
2003
509
0.032
29.1
20.0
26.5
23.2
3425
121.3
135
155
10.9
124
1.160
0.0453
50.4
3595
6117
2004
556
0.035
27.8
19.0
25.4
22.1
3683
130.9
151
187
10.1
132
1.248
0.0504
51.4
3687
6732
2005
722
0.045
28.0
19.0
25.5
22.2
3652
129.7
158
189
9.9
133
1.220
0.0511
51.4
3705
6678
2006
815
0.054
28.4
19.2
25.8
22.5
3603
128.8
154
188
10.0
133
1.228
0.0514
51.3
3701
6605
2007
612
0.040
29.0
19.5
26.5
23.0
3559
123.3
148
179
10.2
131
1.217
0.0497
51.9
3642
6410
2008
595
0.043
30.3
20.4
27.4
23.9
3495
121.1
142
171
10.4
129
1.211
0.0485
53.2
3732
6459
2009
679
0.042
31.4
21.3
28.1
24.7
3438
117.9
136
166
10.3
128
1.222
0.0480
54.3
3756
6413
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-3
October 2009

-------
&ERA
United Sl«!«s	.
ISSS™*""Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-2 (cont)
Percent of Wagons:
MODI I
^ I- \l<
Dll \ \\ \ I S
\ |
in likin
\ I NK 1 1 sl/l
1 l«>\ 1
4W 1)
MAM A
1 i
I'OK I
i m
l>\|
1 Wll
11 IK 1 1
1 <>l l<
1 IN 1
SMAI 1
MID
i. \i«;i
1975
6.6

25.3



2.7

0.1






49.5
30.0
20.4
1976
4.1

17.5



2.6

0.1






33.3
46.7
20.0
1977
7.0

18.0



3.4

0.3






30.2
43.0
26.8
1978
7.2

19.9
7.5


3.4

0.5






31.2
43.5
25.3
1979
3.8
3.5
19.6
4.1


1.4

1.1






29.0
45.2
25.8
1980
11.3
4.6
35.1
30.2


2.2

9.3






46.4
38.4
15.2
1981
42.4
4.2
36.8
27.5


4.4
0.0
6.5






52.4
34.1
13.5
1982
42.0
4.2
28.0
49.0


4.3
0.3
4.7






47.0
35.0
18.0
1983
41.1
22.3
30.7
42.1


4.4
13.0
1.5






56.7
29.5
13.9
1984
62.9
7.2
22.1
58.4


6.1
26.7
2.0






46.0
36.4
17.6
1985
54.4
21.5
23.6
58.6


12.1
22.7
1.0






50.5
34.7
14.8
1986
69.4
9.2
21.4
58.3


29.8
22.7
0.4
100.0





39.7
46.6
13.7
1987
71.5
10.5
17.3
66.4


48.2
29.2
0.3
90.5
2.2
7.3



44.7
44.4
10.9
1988
73.8
8.5
17.4
67.1


48.9
39.8

91.9
0.3
7.8



41.3
46.4
12.3
1989
71.2
7.7
12.9
73.3


64.1
23.2

85.6
1.1
13.3



34.5
51.9
13.6
1990
68.9
13.7
13.9
76.5


76.4
18.0

70.8

29.2



42.6
49.1
8.3
1991
71.8
12.4
14.7
80.4


80.8
19.2

71.1

28.9



57.1
33.5
9.4
1992
70.2
12.2
15.2
80.2


89.0
11.0

74.3

25.7

0.7

46.6
44.7
8.7
1993
81.3
10.3
18.6
78.7


93.5
6.5

79.6

20.4

0.3

62.1
34.1
3.8
1994
84.9
6.2
15.7
81.7


98.7
1.3

80.4

19.6

4.4

57.3
38.4
4.4
1995
77.5
15.1
16.9
81.7


100.0


63.5

36.5

5.1

51.5
45.8
2.7
1996
66.7
28.3
15.1
84.9


99.5

0.5
42.9

57.1

5.8

33.5
63.0
3.5
1997
65.7
32.9
16.5
83.5


100.0

0.0
45.9

54.1

3.9

50.0
50.0
0.0
1998
50.7
46.3
15.7
84.3


100.0


27.7
1.9
68.1
2.3
6.8

39.0
61.0
0.0
1999
52.9
43.3
14.5
84.8


100.0


22.9
2.3
66.5
8.4
12.3

30.0
70.0
0.0
2000
58.2
37.6
11.1
87.4


100.0


20.1
1.8
69.1
9.0
25.0

22.4
77.6
0.0
2001
66.2
32.2
11.6
88.1


100.0


7.3
1.3
84.0
7.5
22.5

47.3
52.7
0.0
2002
66.5
31.5
14.6
85.1


99.5

0.5
5.9
1.8
86.1
6.3
18.4

53.2
46.8
0.0
2003
73.0
25.5
14.0
85.9


98.7

1.3
4.9
0.9
86.8
7.4
42.5

66.4
33.6
0.0
2004
65.8
33.3
10.5
89.5


99.2

0.8
2.8
1.5
90.6
5.1
41.6

54.0
28.4
17.7
2005
61.4
28.2
10.1
89.9


99.0

1.0
17.8
0.6
79.8
1.8
40.9

50.6
33.0
16.4
2006
67.5
22.5
8.5
91.5


100.0


7.9
2.6
89.5
0.0
44.6

60.5
27.0
12.5
2007
75.6
21.1
8.0
91.6


99.8

0.2
7.4
0.2
92.4
0.0
39.9

63.6
24.5
11.9
2008
72.0
25.0
12.4
87.6

2.7
97.2

0.2
0.7

99.3
0.0
44.8

70.6
25.5
3.8
2009
77.5
22.4
15.5
80.2
3.8
3.6
94.7

1.7


100.0

73.1

80.9
18.0
1.1
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-4
October 2009

-------
'S'BFA
gS?™**"* p,"*""n	Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-3
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Cars and Wagons
^ i: vu
SAI,KS
(000)
1 KU
i i i:i t:< <>\<>\n
WCIII
1 li
\ <>l
(III
i:m;im:
0-60
iimi:
IOI'
si'i:i:i)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
TON-
MI'C
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
mm;
I.VIi
55/45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
VD.I
((•Ml*
( id
III'
1975
8237
0.806
15.8
12.3
15.2
13.5
4058

288
136
14.2
in
0.515
0.0331
32.3


1976
9722
0.788
17.5
13.7
16.6
14.9
4059

287
134
14.4
110
0.502
0.0324
35.5


1977
11300
0.800
18.3
14.4
17.4
15.6
3944
110.4
279
133
14.0
in
0.516
0.0335
36.4
2091
4021
1978
11175
0.773
19.9
15.5
19.1
16.9
3588
109.0
251
124
13.7
in
0.538
0.0342
35.9
2240
3926
1979
10794
0.778
20.3
15.9
19.2
17.2
3485
108.9
238
119
13.8
110
0.545
0.0338
35.4
2258
3878
1980
9443
0.835
23.5
18.3
22.6
20.0
3101
104.2
188
100
14.3
107
0.583
0.0322
36.6
2507
3841
1981
8733
0.827
25.1
19.6
24.2
21.4
3076
106.5
182
99
14.4
106
0.594
0.0320
38.9
2744
4161
1982
7819
0.803
26.0
20.1
25.5
22.2
3054
106.1
175
99
14.4
106
0.609
0.0320
40.1
2836
4273
1983
8002
0.777
25.9
19.9
25.5
22.1
3112
108.7
182
104
14.0
108
0.615
0.0330
40.7
2904
4426
1984
10675
0.761
26.3
20.2
26.0
22.4
3099
107.5
179
106
13.8
109
0.637
0.0339
41.1
2910
4425
1985
10791
0.746
27.0
20.7
26.8
23.0
3093
108.2
177
111
13.3
111
0.671
0.0355
42.0
2992
4551
1986
11015
0.717
27.9
21.2
27.6
23.7
3041
107.3
167
111
13.2
111
0.701
0.0360
42.6
3057
4585
1987
10731
0.722
28.1
21.2
27.7
23.8
3031
106.6
162
112
13.0
112
0.732
0.0365
42.8
3051
4569
1988
10736
0.702
28.6
21.4
28.2
24.1
3047
107.0
160
116
12.8
113
0.759
0.0375
43.7
3119
4693
1989
10018
0.693
28.1
20.9
27.9
23.7
3099
107.7
163
121
12.5
115
0.783
0.0387
43.8
3080
4723
1990
8810
0.698
27.8
20.5
27.5
23.3
3176
107.1
163
129
12.1
117
0.829
0.0401
44.2
3014
4746
1991
8524
0.678
28.0
20.5
27.6
23.4
3154
106.8
163
132
11.8
118
0.851
0.0413
44.3
3040
4746
1992
8108
0.666
27.6
20.0
27.5
23.1
3240
108.4
170
141
11.5
120
0.868
0.0428
44.9
3040
4877
1993
8456
0.640
28.2
20.3
27.9
23.5
3207
108.4
166
138
11.6
120
0.865
0.0425
45.4
3107
4929
1994
8415
0.596
28.0
20.0
27.7
23.3
3250
108.2
168
143
11.4
121
0.884
0.0432
45.7
3086
4955
1995
9396
0.620
28.3
20.0
28.1
23.4
3263
108.7
167
152
10.9
125
0.945
0.0460
46.4
3130
5045
1996
7890
0.600
28.3
19.8
28.0
23.3
3282
109.0
165
154
10.8
125
0.958
0.0464
46.5
3125
5080
1997
8335
0.576
28.4
19.8
28.0
23.4
3274
108.7
164
156
10.7
126
0.974
0.0469
46.7
3127
5076
1998
7972
0.551
28.5
19.7
28.0
23.4
3306
108.6
164
159
10.6
127
0.993
0.0475
47.3
3138
5145
1999
8379
0.551
28.2
19.4
27.5
23.0
3365
109.1
166
164
10.5
128
1.009
0.0481
47.5
3106
5191
2000
9128
0.551
28.2
19.3
27.3
22.9
3369
109.6
165
168
10.4
129
1.032
0.0492
47.6
3121
5224
2001
8408
0.539
28.4
19.4
27.3
23.0
3380
109.3
165
168
10.3
129
1.042
0.0492
48.4
3158
5292
2002
8304
0.515
28.6
19.4
27.2
23.1
3391
109.5
166
173
10.2
131
1.066
0.0504
48.9
3187
5358
2003
7951
0.504
28.9
19.5
27.5
23.2
3421
109.2
166
176
10.0
132
1.086
0.0510
49.9
3225
5462
2004
7538
0.480
28.9
19.3
27.4
23.1
3462
110.4
168
182
9.8
133
1.106
0.0521
50.5
3261
5587
2005
8027
0.505
29.5
19.6
27.6
23.5
3463
111.4
166
182
9.8
133
1.115
0.0518
51.8
3384
5790
2006
7993
0.529
29.2
19.4
27.5
23.3
3534
111.5
172
194
9.6
136
1.146
0.0540
52.4
3351
5855
2007
8085
0.529
30.3
20.1
28.3
24.1
3507
110.2
165
189
9.6
135
1.157
0.0531
54.2
3468
5994
2008
7345
0.528
30.5
20.3
28.5
24.3
3527
110.0
165
193
9.6
136
1.177
0.0536
54.9
3492
6060
2009
8200
0.513
30.9
20.5
28.8
24.5
3533
110.6
167
198
9.5
137
1.195
0.0548
55.5
3536
6153
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-5
October 2009

-------
&ERA
Umt«d Slt#B«on
Agency
Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-3 (cont)
Percent of Cars and Wagons:
MODI I
^ I- \l<
Dll \ \\ \ I S
\ |
in likin
\ I I ll< 1 1 si/1-
1 l«>\ 1
4W 1)
MAM A
1 i
I'OK I
i m
l>\|
1 Wll
11 IK 1 1
1 <>l l<
1 IN 1
SMAI 1
MID
i. \i«;i
1975
6.5

19.9



5.1

0.2






55.4
23.3
21.3
1976
5.8

17.1



3.2

0.3






55.4
25.2
19.4
1977
6.8

16.8



4.2

0.5






51.9
24.5
23.5
1978
9.6

20.2
6.7


5.1

0.9






44.7
34.4
21.0
1979
11.9
0.3
22.3
8.0


4.7

2.1






43.7
34.2
22.1
1980
29.7
0.9
31.9
16.5


6.2
0.7
4.4






54.4
34.4
11.3
1981
37.0
0.7
30.4
33.3


6.1
2.6
5.9






51.5
36.4
12.2
1982
45.6
0.8
29.7
51.4


7.2
9.8
4.7






56.5
31.0
12.5
1983
47.3
3.1
26.5
56.7


9.5
18.9
2.1






53.1
31.8
15.1
1984
53.7
1.0
24.1
58.3


15.0
24.4
1.7






57.4
29.4
13.2
1985
61.6
2.1
22.8
58.7


21.4
32.0
0.9






55.7
28.9
15.4
1986
71.1
1.1
24.8
58.0


36.7
28.4
0.3
95.2
3.2
1.6



59.5
27.9
12.6
1987
77.0
1.1
24.9
59.5


42.5
30.5
0.3
85.3
9.1
5.6



63.5
24.3
12.2
1988
81.7
0.8
24.3
66.1


53.7
30.0
0.0
80.1
9.5
10.4



64.8
22.3
12.8
1989
82.5
1.0
21.0
69.3
0.1

62.4
27.8
0.0
75.6
11.6
12.8



58.3
28.2
13.5
1990
84.6
1.0
19.6
72.9
0.0

77.5
21.1
0.0
67.0
5.4
27.6

0.6

58.6
28.7
12.8
1991
83.2
1.4
20.5
73.5
0.0

78.0
21.8
0.1
65.9
6.2
27.9

2.4

61.5
26.2
12.3
1992
80.8
1.1
17.4
76.4
0.0

89.5
10.4
0.1
65.0
4.4
30.5

4.6

56.5
27.8
15.6
1993
85.1
1.2
17.8
77.0
0.0

91.6
8.4

63.3
3.0
33.7

4.8

57.2
29.5
13.3
1994
84.4
0.4
16.7
79.3


94.9
5.1
0.0
59.0
1.8
39.2

8.0

58.5
26.1
15.4
1995
82.0
1.2
16.3
81.9


98.8
1.2
0.1
47.8
1.1
51.1
0.0
9.8

57.3
28.6
14.0
1996
86.5
1.5
14.8
83.6
0.0

98.8
1.1
0.1
42.7
0.9
56.3
0.0
11.7

54.3
32.0
13.6
1997
86.5
1.7
13.5
85.8
0.1

99.1
0.8
0.1
41.4
1.0
57.5
0.1
11.3

55.1
30.6
14.3
1998
87.0
2.3
12.3
87.3
0.1

99.7
0.1
0.2
38.6
1.5
59.0
0.9
18.4

49.4
39.1
11.4
1999
87.2
2.2
10.9
88.4
0.0

99.7
0.1
0.2
35.4
2.1
60.9
1.7
17.1

47.7
39.7
12.6
2000
84.9
2.1
11.2
87.7
0.0

99.7
0.1
0.2
34.9
1.8
61.5
1.8
23.4
0.1
47.5
34.3
18.2
2001
84.1
3.2
11.4
87.5
0.2

99.7

0.3
32.8
2.1
62.1
3.1
28.3
0.0
50.9
32.3
16.8
2002
84.9
3.8
11.2
88.1
0.4

99.6

0.4
30.1
2.0
65.0
2.9
33.9
0.3
48.6
36.3
15.1
2003
81.7
3.8
11.1
87.9
0.9

99.6

0.4
26.5
2.3
68.0
3.2
41.2
0.6
50.8
33.4
15.9
2004
80.8
5.4
10.2
88.2
1.4

99.7

0.3
22.8
1.7
73.0
2.6
44.2
0.9
47.4
35.5
17.0
2005
79.8
5.8
9.3
88.0
2.6

99.6

0.4
21.8
2.0
75.0
1.2
51.6
2.1
44.2
38.9
16.8
2006
75.8
5.8
9.4
88.1
2.4

99.4

0.6
19.2
1.8
78.7
0.3
60.6
1.5
46.2
32.9
20.9
2007
80.5
5.7
7.6
81.1
10.4
0.3
99.6

0.0
15.2
1.0
83.8
0.0
66.1
3.4
44.6
40.0
15.4
2008
77.8
7.3
8.0
80.5
11.5
3.2
96.8

0.1
12.1
0.6
87.2
0.0
63.4
3.4
44.6
35.9
19.5
2009
79.1
6.8
8.8
79.3
11.2
3.9
95.3

0.8
10.0
0.5
89.5
0.0
73.9
2.7
43.8
33.3
23.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-6
October 2009

-------
'S'BFA
gS?™**"* p,"*""n	Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-4
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Vans



i i i:i t:< <>\<>\n

i:m;im:






SAI.KS

i Mi
AIM
AIM
VD.I
WCIII


0 (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:ak
(000)
1 liU
55/45
on
ll\U
((IMP
1 li
( id
III'
i imi:
n|'i:i:i>
( II)
\\ 1
\ii'<;
1975
457
0.045
13.1
10.6
11.9
11.1
4196
318
143
13.9
113
0.448
0.0341
28.1
1976
502
0.041
13.9
11.1
12.8
11.8
4200
324
146
13.7
114
0.447
0.0347
29.7
1977
514
0.036
14.7
11.9
13.3
12.5
4252
332
152
13.3
116
0.458
0.0359
31.7
1978
625
0.043
14.2
11.6
12.7
12.1
4250
329
149
13.4
115
0.453
0.0351
30.8
1979
481
0.035
13.5
11.1
12.1
11.5
4541
322
144
14.6
111
0.451
0.0317
31.3
1980
242
0.021
16.6
13.3
15.4
14.1
4353
288
131
15.2
108
0.459
0.0299
36.4
1981
245
0.023
17.5
14.0
16.0
14.8
4324
284
129
15.3
108
0.458
0.0298
38.0
1982
311
0.032
17.3
13.9
15.9
14.7
4342
287
132
15.2
109
0.463
0.0303
38.0
1983
383
0.037
17.7
14.1
16.5
15.1
4414
294
136
15.0
109
0.466
0.0307
39.7
1984
676
0.048
18.9
15.0
17.7
16.1
4075
249
126
14.9
108
0.538
0.0307
39.3
1985
855
0.059
19.5
15.5
18.1
16.5
3975
236
129
14.3
110
0.578
0.0322
39.3
1986
1044
0.068
20.6
16.1
19.4
17.5
3998
228
127
14.5
109
0.588
0.0317
41.5
1987
1114
0.075
20.9
16.2
19.8
17.7
3972
226
142
13.3
114
0.657
0.0356
41.7
1988
1133
0.074
21.2
16.2
20.3
17.9
4053
229
147
13.0
116
0.671
0.0363
43.2
1989
1278
0.088
21.1
16.1
20.2
17.8
4057
225
146
13.1
115
0.680
0.0360
43.2
1990
1262
0.100
21.2
16.0
20.4
17.8
4095
225
149
13.0
116
0.682
0.0363
43.8
1991
1034
0.082
21.4
16.0
20.5
17.9
4133
220
149
13.1
115
0.701
0.0359
44.5
1992
1221
0.100
21.5
15.9
20.5
17.9
4151
222
152
12.9
116
0.705
0.0366
44.8
1993
1441
0.109
21.9
16.0
21.0
18.2
4105
218
155
12.6
118
0.730
0.0378
45.0
1994
1418
0.100
21.5
15.7
20.5
17.8
4156
226
159
12.4
119
0.721
0.0383
44.9
1995
1662
0.110
21.8
15.8
21.0
18.1
4110
231
159
12.3
119
0.708
0.0387
45.0
1996
1409
0.107
22.2
15.9
21.4
18.3
4195
220
171
11.8
122
0.790
0.0408
46.8
1997
1266
0.088
22.1
15.7
21.2
18.2
4241
220
174
11.8
123
0.802
0.0410
46.9
1998
1489
0.103
22.7
16.0
22.0
18.7
4183
217
180
11.3
125
0.840
0.0431
47.7
1999
1463
0.096
22.3
15.6
21.5
18.3
4307
223
183
11.4
125
0.832
0.0424
48.1
2000
1691
0.102
22.8
15.9
21.8
18.6
4276
217
183
11.4
125
0.857
0.0428
48.9
2001
1233
0.079
22.1
15.3
21.1
18.0
4519
229
202
10.9
129
0.897
0.0447
50.3
2002
1243
0.077
23.0
15.9
21.9
18.7
4394
218
199
10.8
129
0.929
0.0455
50.9
2003
1232
0.078
23.5
16.0
22.2
19.0
4393
219
202
10.7
130
0.929
0.0459
51.7
2004
953
0.061
23.7
16.0
22.7
19.2
4487
219
214
10.4
133
0.988
0.0477
53.4
2005
1481
0.093
24.0
16.1
22.8
19.3
4430
216
209
10.5
132
0.976
0.0472
53.2
2006
1166
0.077
24.3
16.2
23.1
19.5
4475
216
211
10.5
132
0.984
0.0472
54.4
2007
847
0.055
24.2
16.1
23.1
19.5
4479
219
225
10.0
136
1.034
0.0503
54.3
2008
774
0.056
24.5
16.4
23.4
19.7
4549
222
222
10.4
135
1.008
0.0489
55.9
2009
725
0.045
24.6
16.4
23.6
19.8
4589
223
221
10.7
134
0.995
0.0481
56.7
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-7
October 2009

-------
&ERA
United Sl«!«s	.
ISSS™*""Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-4 (cont)
Percent of Vans:
MODI I
^ I- \l<
Dll \ \\ \ I S
\ 1
in likin
\ I NK 1 1 sl/l
1 l«>\ 1
4W 1)
MAM A
1 i
I'OK I
i m
l>\|
1 Wll
11 IK 1 1
1 <>l l<
1 IN 1
SMAI 1
MID
i. \i«;i
1975


23.3




0.2







0.4
66.1
33.6
1976


20.5




0.3







0.3
61.4
38.3
1977


14.3




0.4







0.4
61.0
38.6
1978


13.0




0.4







0.4
63.8
35.8
1979


14.8
6.8



1.8







1.8
65.1
33.1
1980


26.0
39.0



6.5







6.5
53.8
39.7
1981
0.3

21.9
46.6



4.6







4.6
56.3
39.2
1982


15.7
45.8



3.0
1.8






4.8
58.0
37.2
1983
0.2

12.0
59.3



3.5
4.5






3.7
60.1
36.2
1984
22.3

15.5
45.6


6.6
3.1
1.2






12.2
62.1
25.7
1985
30.4
0.3
10.0
47.4


6.3
2.9
0.3






10.9
70.1
19.0
1986
24.4
1.3
8.5
60.1


21.8
16.3
0.4






9.8
74.9
15.3
1987
27.5
1.9
6.6
67.6


45.8
30.2
0.1






11.3
76.2
12.5
1988
36.3
0.8
3.7
78.7


56.9
42.8
0.1






4.9
83.0
12.1
1989
34.4
0.7
2.9
76.5


58.1
41.8
0.1






2.8
86.1
11.1
1990
46.8
6.6
1.5
93.5


58.1
41.9
0.1






2.4
89.1
8.5
1991
38.2
10.9
1.3
96.5


63.3
36.6
0.1






1.5
91.2
7.3
1992
45.4
5.5
1.6
96.4


71.9
28.1
0.1






3.3
89.1
7.6
1993
49.8
4.5
1.2
97.2


79.0
21.0







0.8
91.8
7.4
1994
52.3
6.4
0.5
97.4


81.2
18.8







0.8
91.4
7.9
1995
61.3
9.1
0.1
98.2


87.4
12.6

95.5
1.0
3.6



0.4
93.4
6.3
1996
73.8
2.3
0.0
98.4


100.0


94.3
1.0
4.7



0.1
92.1
7.8
1997
64.7
4.7

99.6


100.0


93.7
1.1
5.3



0.0
89.0
11.0
1998
78.3
3.2

100.0


100.0


89.6

10.4



0.0
91.1
8.9
1999
76.0
2.7

100.0


100.0


87.5

12.5

8.2

0.0
88.3
11.7
2000
80.6
2.7

100.0


100.0


78.4

21.6

15.0

0.0
90.0
10.0
2001
69.3
8.7

100.0


100.0


77.4

22.6

17.0

0.0
76.1
23.9
2002
84.3
3.0

100.0


100.0


71.6

28.4

20.9

0.0
91.0
9.0
2003
83.5
5.0

100.0


100.0


74.2

25.8

19.6

0.0
91.0
9.0
2004
86.6
4.9

100.0


100.0


47.7

52.3

46.1

0.0
93.7
6.3
2005
89.2
5.5

94.9
5.1

100.0


62.0

38.0

25.0

0.0
96.3
3.7
2006
89.8
4.5

95.3
4.7

100.0


53.2

46.8

36.4

0.0
94.0
6.0
2007
93.8
2.9

95.5
4.5

100.0


46.9

53.1

48.7

0.0
96.3
3.7
2008
92.7
4.1

100.0


100.0


48.2

51.8

47.0

0.0
96.5
3.5
2009
94.3
2.2

100.0


100.0


41.4

58.6

38.8

0.0
96.0
4.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-8
October 2009

-------
'S'BFA
gS?™**"* p,"*""n	Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-5
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 SUVs



i i i:i t:< <>\<>\n

i:m;im:






SAI.KS

1 VIS
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
WCIII


0 (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i: vu
(000)
1 l\A(
55/45
(in
ll\U
((•Ml*
I.IS
(id
III'
i imi:
Ni'i:t:i>
(II)
\\ 1
mm;
1975
187
0.018
13.0
10.6
11.6
11.0
4202
328
146
13.3
115
0.442
0.0357
27.1
1976
243
0.020
13.8
11.1
12.5
11.7
4312
335
141
14.0
112
0.417
0.0331
29.6
1977
283
0.020
15.1
12.2
13.7
12.8
4232
332
144
13.6
113
0.431
0.0343
31.8
1978
380
0.026
14.4
11.6
13.2
12.3
4270
339
149
13.2
114
0.437
0.0351
30.6
1979
401
0.029
12.6
10.4
10.9
10.6
4509
331
143
14.4
111
0.439
0.0322
28.3
1980
185
0.016
15.5
12.5
14.1
13.2
4236
295
131
14.7
109
0.453
0.0307
32.9
1981
136
0.013
16.8
13.4
15.5
14.3
4208
290
132
14.4
109
0.460
0.0315
35.4
1982
162
0.017
17.6
14.0
16.4
15.0
4349
294
129
15.0
108
0.453
0.0303
39.2
1983
289
0.028
19.1
15.0
18.1
16.2
4137
254
124
15.0
108
0.520
0.0303
40.1
1984
625
0.045
19.3
15.1
18.3
16.4
3999
227
120
15.0
107
0.560
0.0301
39.1
1985
736
0.051
19.8
15.4
19.3
16.9
4018
216
122
15.0
107
0.590
0.0301
40.3
1986
774
0.050
20.2
15.7
19.2
17.2
3921
207
127
14.1
110
0.657
0.0325
39.9
1987
873
0.059
20.6
15.9
19.8
17.5
3840
209
137
13.3
114
0.686
0.0355
39.7
1988
968
0.063
20.4
15.7
19.5
17.2
3859
219
144
12.8
116
0.686
0.0373
39.5
1989
926
0.064
20.0
15.2
19.0
16.8
4018
242
155
12.4
119
0.666
0.0388
40.3
1990
708
0.056
19.8
15.0
18.9
16.6
4045
232
154
12.5
118
0.696
0.0384
40.0
1991
1095
0.087
20.3
15.3
19.4
17.0
4070
230
158
12.3
119
0.703
0.0389
41.4
1992
1003
0.082
19.9
14.8
18.9
16.6
4085
229
165
12.0
121
0.737
0.0408
40.6
1993
1311
0.099
19.9
14.7
18.9
16.5
4157
242
179
11.4
125
0.754
0.0434
41.3
1994
1623
0.115
19.7
14.6
18.6
16.4
4209
238
177
11.6
124
0.763
0.0423
41.6
1995
1816
0.120
19.6
14.4
18.4
16.2
4255
241
176
11.7
123
0.755
0.0417
41.7
1996
1890
0.144
20.0
14.5
19.0
16.5
4283
252
185
11.3
126
0.753
0.0434
42.9
1997
2450
0.169
20.1
14.6
18.8
16.5
4329
246
186
11.3
125
0.781
0.0430
43.5
1998
2581
0.179
20.1
14.4
18.9
16.5
4340
246
188
11.3
126
0.789
0.0433
43.7
1999
2831
0.186
20.1
14.4
18.8
16.4
4400
246
198
10.9
129
0.838
0.0450
44.3
2000
3143
0.190
20.1
14.3
18.6
16.3
4458
245
200
10.9
129
0.843
0.0448
44.7
2001
3450
0.221
20.8
14.8
19.1
16.9
4378
229
206
10.5
131
0.929
0.0471
45.6
2002
4191
0.260
20.6
14.4
19.1
16.7
4508
236
222
10.2
135
0.960
0.0491
46.4
2003
4118
0.261
20.8
14.5
19.3
16.8
4611
238
226
10.2
135
0.974
0.0491
48.0
2004
4713
0.300
20.9
14.4
19.4
16.9
4634
244
234
10.0
137
0.982
0.0506
48.5
2005
4084
0.257
21.6
14.8
19.9
17.3
4575
233
234
9.9
137
1.022
0.0509
49.4
2006
3757
0.249
22.1
15.2
20.3
17.7
4547
226
230
9.9
137
1.033
0.0504
50.7
2007
4231
0.277
22.8
15.6
21.0
18.2
4611
228
242
9.7
140
1.081
0.0523
52.7
2008
3987
0.287
23.5
16.0
21.6
18.8
4539
218
239
9.7
139
1.113
0.0524
53.6
2009
5130
0.321
23.6
16.0
22.0
19.0
4561
221
247
9.5
141
1.132
0.0538
54.1
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-9
October 2009

-------
&ERA
United Sl«!«s	.
ISSS™*""Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-5 (cont)
Percent of SUVs:
MODI I
^ I- \l<
Dll \ \\ \ I S
\ |
in likin
\ I I ll< 1 1 si/1-
1 l«>\ 1
4W 1)
MAM A
1 i
I'OK I
i m
l>\|
1 Wll
11 IK 1 1
1 <>l l<
1 IN 1
SMAI 1
MID
i. \i«;i
1975

84.1
41.4












28.6
65.7
5.7
1976

85.3
33.9












24.5
68.9
6.6
1977

82.5
35.9












25.4
68.5
6.1
1978

88.5
34.3












23.9
70.9
5.1
1979

69.3
33.3
0.6




0.2






26.1
46.7
27.2
1980

88.8
43.5
26.2




2.3






32.8
54.4
12.8
1981

90.4
40.9
41.1











31.3
58.3
10.4
1982

79.5
29.8
42.2




15.3






26.2
60.4
13.4
1983

80.7
32.1
51.2




6.7






19.1
70.4
10.6
1984

85.0
29.3
42.9




2.3






23.2
69.0
7.8
1985

80.4
27.9
60.1


3.8
1.5
1.5






15.7
76.5
7.8
1986

86.1
37.3
55.8


23.9
25.7
1.5






22.9
69.6
7.5
1987

83.9
36.8
54.7


33.0
41.8
0.4






29.2
64.3
6.5
1988

83.7
33.4
59.5


47.4
36.7
0.3






29.8
63.1
7.1
1989

82.6
26.1
66.4


46.1
47.4
0.3






24.6
67.4
8
1990

83.9
29.7
66.5


57.3
37.3
0.3






26.8
63.1
10.2
1991

76.6
21.9
76.7


59.6
39.8
0.2






12.4
82.6
5
1992

72.3
22.4
76.9


73.1
26.6







12.8
79.7
7.5
1993

59.5
16.2
83.2


85.7
14.1







11.0
79.2
9.8
1994
0.5
76.1
16.5
81.9


86.2
13.8







11.6
78.0
10.4
1995
0.0
79.2
15.3
84.7


85.7
14.3

84.4

15.6



10.4
76.9
12.7
1996
1.0
71.1
7.5
92.5


100.0

0.0
83.6

16.4



6.4
80.9
12.7
1997
1.2
71.6
11.7
87.4


100.0

0.0
75.7

24.3



20.0
57.2
22.8
1998
1.8
71.0
8.2
91.8


100.0

0.0
76.7
1.5
21.7



12.2
62.9
24.9
1999
2.7
65.7
6.3
93.7


100.0


71.5
1.8
26.6

3.2

11.1
62.3
26.6
2000
2.5
67.1
5.1
94.9


100.0


75.1
1.1
23.8

3.0

12.7
59.3
28
2001
13.8
60.1
4.3
95.7


100.0


59.7
1.2
39.2

13.4

11.3
56.4
32.3
2002
9.4
63.7
3.8
96.1
0.1

100.0


52.1
1.0
46.9

24.0

8.5
43.0
48.5
2003
11.5
63.2
2.9
94.8
2.3

100.0


45.7
0.9
53.4

31.7

6.4
50.8
42.7
2004
12.3
65.1
2.7
95.5
1.7

100.0

0.0
43.8
0.4
55.4
0.4
35.5

5.4
53.1
41.5
2005
17.1
64.7
2.5
95.4
2.1

99.8

0.2
35.1
3.4
61.4
0.2
45.5
0.3
5.3
50.9
43.8
2006
19.6
63.4
2.5
92.7
4.7

99.8

0.2
26.8
5.3
67.8
0.1
54.9
2.7
3.5
56.4
40.1
2007
23.6
60.0
2.0
92.6
5.4

99.8

0.2
33.7
1.5
64.8

52.8
1.4
3.4
50.7
45.8
2008
27.7
59.6
1.5
92.1
6.4
2.0
97.6

0.3
24.2
1.3
74.5

59.6
2.4
3.8
56.0
40.2
2009
30.7
54.7
2.0
91.1
7.0
4.5
95.3

0.2
22.5
0.6
76.9
0.0
64.1
1.2
3.7
48.0
48.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-10
October 2009

-------
'S'BFA
gS?™**"* p,"*""n	Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-6
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Pickups



i i i:i t:< <>\<>\n

i:m;im:






SAI.KS

i Mi
AIM
AIM
VD.I
WCIII


0 (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:ak
(000)
1 liU
55/45
on
ll\U
((IMP
1 li
( id
III'
i imi:
n|'i:i:i>
( II)
\\ 1
\ii'<;
1975
1343
0.131
14.0
11.1
13.1
11.9
4012
306
141
13.500
114
0.491
0.0351
28.8
1976
1866
0.151
14.6
11.7
13.4
12.4
4122
316
139
13.900
112
0.466
0.0339
30.9
1977
2026
0.143
16.0
12.9
14.5
13.6
4092
313
146
13.300
115
0.496
0.0357
33.4
1978
2268
0.157
15.7
12.8
14.1
13.3
4104
306
144
13.400
114
0.496
0.0350
33.1
1979
2207
0.159
15.5
12.7
13.9
13.2
4142
287
136
14.200
111
0.502
0.0327
32.9
1980
1437
0.127
19.4
15.5
17.9
16.5
3740
236
118
14.400
108
0.549
0.0315
36.7
1981
1440
0.136
21.0
16.7
19.5
17.9
3679
237
115
14.500
108
0.521
0.0313
39.3
1982
1441
0.148
21.7
17.2
20.3
18.5
3629
228
117
14.300
109
0.545
0.0322
40.1
1983
1628
0.158
22.2
17.5
20.9
18.9
3544
212
112
14.400
108
0.566
0.0317
40.0
1984
2043
0.146
21.5
16.9
20.2
18.3
3619
215
114
14.500
108
0.563
0.0314
39.4
1985
2078
0.144
21.4
16.9
20.1
18.2
3642
221
123
13.700
110
0.588
0.0336
39.6
1986
2532
0.165
22.2
17.5
20.8
18.9
3574
206
120
13.700
110
0.623
0.0336
40.1
1987
2147
0.144
22.5
17.5
21.2
19.0
3526
202
123
13.400
112
0.639
0.0347
40.1
1988
2459
0.161
21.5
16.5
20.4
18.1
3737
229
138
12.900
115
0.627
0.0365
40.5
1989
2232
0.154
21.2
16.2
20.0
17.8
3803
236
143
12.700
116
0.633
0.0373
40.5
1990
1835
0.145
20.7
15.7
19.7
17.4
3928
247
152
12.400
118
0.647
0.0384
41.1
1991
1920
0.153
21.7
16.3
20.7
18.2
3779
232
146
12.400
117
0.658
0.0385
41.4
1992
1840
0.151
20.9
15.5
20.0
17.5
3976
245
151
12.500
117
0.644
0.0379
41.8
1993
2002
0.152
21.1
15.6
20.2
17.6
3996
244
156
12.200
119
0.666
0.0390
42.4
1994
2669
0.189
21.0
15.5
19.9
17.4
4056
248
163
12.000
121
0.687
0.0401
43.0
1995
2271
0.150
20.4
14.9
19.3
16.9
4182
257
167
12.000
121
0.687
0.0399
43.1
1996
1955
0.149
20.8
15.1
19.7
17.1
4190
251
178
11.500
124
0.737
0.0422
43.9
1997
2408
0.167
20.4
14.7
19.4
16.8
4415
264
196
11.100
127
0.756
0.0439
45.3
1998
2415
0.167
20.7
14.8
19.6
17.0
4282
252
190
11.200
127
0.773
0.0439
44.6
1999
2545
0.167
19.9
14.2
18.6
16.3
4487
267
205
10.900
129
0.776
0.0453
44.7
2000
2613
0.158
20.5
14.6
18.9
16.6
4340
255
203
10.800
130
0.803
0.0462
44.4
2001
2519
0.161
19.6
13.9
18.1
15.9
4552
269
216
10.600
132
0.812
0.0470
44.7
2002
2381
0.148
19.5
13.8
17.8
15.7
4690
271
226
10.400
134
0.838
0.0480
45.6
2003
2475
0.157
19.9
14.0
18.2
16.1
4642
264
223
10.500
133
0.847
0.0475
46.3
2004
2506
0.160
19.6
13.7
17.8
15.7
4939
282
249
10.100
138
0.885
0.0501
48.2
2005
2301
0.145
19.7
13.6
18.1
15.8
4988
284
260
9.800
141
0.917
0.0520
49.1
2006
2188
0.145
20.1
13.9
18.4
16.1
4968
278
256
9.900
140
0.925
0.0514
49.8
2007
2113
0.138
20.1
13.8
18.5
16.2
5144
286
269
9.800
142
0.938
0.0519
51.6
2008
1794
0.129
20.5
14.1
18.9
16.5
5161
286
276
9.700
143
0.962
0.0531
53.0
2009
1943
0.121
20.8
14.2
19.3
16.7
5157
289
282
9.400
145
0.975
0.0543
53.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-ll
October 2009

-------
&ERA
United Sl«!«s	.
ISSS™*""Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-6 (cont)
Percent of Pickups:
MODI I
^ I- \l<
Dll \ \\ \ I S
\ 1
in likin
\ I I ll< 1 1 SI/I
1 l«>\ 1
4W 1)
MAM A
1 i
I'OK I
i m
l>\|
1 Wll
11 IK 1 1
1 <>l l<
1 IN 1
SMAI 1
MID
i. \i«;i
1975

13.5
41.1












11.9
4.2
83.9
1976

20.9
38.8












9.3
2.9
87.8
1977

21.4
35.9












11.7
3.4
84.9
1978

27.0
37.4





1.2






11.6
3.3
85.0
1979

12.6
39.9
1.3




2.5






16.2
4.6
79.2
1980
1.8
21.1
58.8
21.9



1.0
4.2






31.5
6.8
61.7
1981
2.3
16.8
57.7
27.5



0.6
7.1






25.6
9.1
65.3
1982
2.2
17.7
53.9
29.5



0.2
10.3






24.0
21.9
54.1
1983
1.9
22.1
56.3
28.0



0.1
4.4






19.2
38.2
42.7
1984
0.6
24.7
54.9
29.3


1.0

2.7






20.7
34.4
44.9
1985

25.4
51.6
33.7


11.4
4.5
1.2






23.9
29.7
46.4
1986

25.2
58.4
30.4


21.2
17.6
0.6






29.4
31.1
39.5
1987
0.0
25.5
58.5
28.9


26.9
32.0
0.3






20.5
49.0
30.5
1988
0.0
28.4
51.0
38.8


35.4
48.3
0.2






13.8
42.9
43.3
1989

28.9
52.4
41.5


38.8
51.1
0.2






15.9
39.8
44.4
1990

27.9
45.8
49.8


52.4
41.4
0.2






15.8
32.7
51.5
1991

24.8
52.2
46.4


47.9
48.7
0.2






16.1
45.5
38.4
1992

26.3
47.1
52.1


58.0
38.6
0.1






13.7
38.9
47.4
1993
0.0
27.6
43.9
55.3


61.2
36.7







13.1
37.1
49.7
1994

29.3
40.0
59.0


69.5
29.7







13.4
39.0
47.6
1995

33.0
39.6
59.5


69.5
30.5

94.5

5.5



13.1
30.8
56.0
1996

29.3
34.7
64.0


99.8

0.2
86.7
4.5
8.7



11.3
35.7
53.0
1997

34.6
25.3
74.7


99.9

0.1
93.3
5.4
1.3



5.4
28.7
65.9
1998

34.8
27.3
71.1


100.0

0.0
88.8

11.2



10.8
34.3
54.9
1999

45.3
17.5
81.5


100.0

0.0
92.3

7.7



8.4
29.9
61.7
2000

38.4
16.7
82.5


100.0


87.3

12.7



3.9
29.3
66.8
2001

38.7
12.0
87.1


100.0


87.2

12.8



3.2
21.6
75.1
2002

42.3
9.5
89.6


100.0


82.2

17.8



8.3
19.6
72.1
2003

39.4
10.3
88.8


100.0


85.5

14.5



7.9
21.3
70.8
2004

46.3
7.0
92.1


100.0


67.6
14.3
18.1

18.9
0.0
6.4
15.1
78.5
2005

46.7
5.7
94.3


100.0


59.2
14.0
26.8

39.1
0.0
0.4
9.4
90.2
2006

45.8
6.2
93.8


100.0


51.0
14.9
34.2

47.5
0.1
0.3
12.5
87.1
2007

45.4
4.4
95.6


100.0


60.0
12.5
27.5

40.0
0.0
0.0
12.5
87.5
2008

47.5
4.0
96.0


100.0


58.7
11.0
30.2

37.8

0.0
15.5
84.5
2009

45.9
4.5
95.2
0.3

100.0


60.2
6.9
32.9

42.3
0.3
0.0
16.8
83.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-12
October 2009

-------
'S'BFA
gS?™**"* p,"*""n	Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-7
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Trucks
^ i: vu
SAI.KS
(000)
1 KV(
i i i:i t:< o\o\n
WCIII
1 li
i:m;im:
0	(.0
1	imi:
Mil'
Ni'i:t:i>
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
mm;
1 VIS
55/45
VD.I
(in
VIM
ll\U
VD.I
( OMI'
(id
III'
197^
1987
0.194
13.7
10.9
12.7
11.6
4072
311
142
13.6
114
0.476
0.0349
28.4
1976
2612
0.212
14.4
11.5
13.2
12.2
4155
319
141
13.8
113
0.458
0.0340
30.5
1977
2823
0.200
15.6
12.6
14.1
13.3
4135
318
147
13.3
115
0.482
0.0356
33.0
1978
3273
0.227
15.2
12.4
13.7
12.9
4151
314
146
13.4
114
0.481
0.0351
32.4
1979
3088
0.222
14.7
12.1
13.1
12.5
4252
298
138
14.3
111
0.486
0.0325
32.1
1980
1863
0.165
18.6
14.8
17.1
15.8
3869
248
121
14.5
108
0.528
0.0313
36.3
1981
1821
0.173
20.1
16.0
18.6
17.1
3806
247
119
14.6
108
0.508
0.0311
38.8
1982
1914
0.197
20.5
16.3
19.0
17.4
3806
243
120
14.5
109
0.524
0.0317
39.7
1983
2300
0.223
20.9
16.5
19.6
17.8
3763
231
118
14.5
108
0.543
0.0313
39.9
1984
3345
0.239
20.5
16.1
19.3
17.4
3782
224
118
14.7
108
0.557
0.0310
39.3
1985
3669
0.254
20.6
16.2
19.4
17.5
3795
224
124
14.1
110
0.586
0.0326
39.6
1986
4350
0.283
21.4
16.8
20.2
18.2
3738
211
123
14.0
110
0.621
0.0330
40.4
1987
4134
0.278
21.6
16.8
20.5
18.3
3713
210
131
13.3
113
0.654
0.0351
40.5
1988
4559
0.298
21.2
16.2
20.2
17.9
3841
227
141
12.9
115
0.650
0.0366
40.9
1989
4435
0.307
20.9
15.9
19.8
17.6
3921
234
146
12.8
116
0.653
0.0372
41.2
1990
3805
0.302
20.7
15.6
19.8
17.4
4005
237
151
12.6
117
0.668
0.0377
41.8
1991
4049
0.322
21.3
15.9
20.3
17.8
3948
228
150
12.6
117
0.681
0.0379
42.2
1992
4064
0.334
20.8
15.5
19.9
17.4
4056
234
155
12.5
118
0.685
0.0382
42.4
1993
4754
0.360
21.0
15.5
20.1
17.5
4073
235
162
12.1
120
0.710
0.0398
42.9
1994
5710
0.404
20.8
15.3
19.7
17.2
4125
239
166
12.0
121
0.717
0.0403
43.0
1995
5749
0.380
20.5
15.0
19.5
17.0
4184
244
168
12.0
121
0.715
0.0401
43.2
1996
5254
0.400
20.8
15.1
19.9
17.2
4225
243
179
11.5
124
0.757
0.0423
44.3
1997
6124
0.424
20.6
14.8
19.5
17.0
4344
248
187
11.4
126
0.775
0.0429
44.9
1998
6485
0.449
20.9
14.9
19.8
17.1
4283
242
187
11.2
126
0.795
0.0435
44.9
1999
6839
0.449
20.5
14.6
19.2
16.7
4412
249
197
11.0
128
0.814
0.0446
45.3
2000
7447
0.449
20.8
14.7
19.4
16.9
4375
242
197
11.0
128
0.832
0.0448
45.6
2001
7202
0.461
20.6
14.6
19.1
16.7
4463
243
209
10.6
131
0.882
0.0466
46.1
2002
7815
0.485
20.6
14.4
19.1
16.7
4546
244
219
10.4
134
0.918
0.0482
46.9
2003
7824
0.496
20.9
14.6
19.3
16.9
4586
243
221
10.4
134
0.927
0.0481
48.0
2004
8173
0.520
20.8
14.3
19.2
16.7
4710
252
236
10.0
137
0.953
0.0501
49.0
2005
7866
0.495
21.4
14.6
19.8
17.2
4668
244
237
10.0
137
0.983
0.0505
50.1
2006
7111
0.471
21.8
14.9
20.1
17.5
4665
240
235
10.0
137
0.992
0.0502
51.0
2007
7192
0.471
22.1
15.1
20.4
17.7
4752
244
248
9.8
140
1.034
0.0520
52.6
2008
6554
0.472
22.7
15.5
21.0
18.2
4710
237
247
9.7
140
1.059
0.0522
53.7
2009
7797
0.487
22.9
15.6
21.4
18.4
4712
238
253
9.6
142
1.080
0.0534
54.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-13
October 2009

-------
&ERA
United Sl«!«s	.
ISSS™*""Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-7 (cont)
Percent of Trucks:
MODI I
^ I- \l<
Dll \ \\ \ I S
\ |
in likii)
\ I I ll< 1 1 si/1-
1 l«>\ 1
4W 1)
MAM A
1 i
I'OK I
i m
l>\|
1 Wll
11 IK 1 1
1 <>l l<
1 IN 1
SMAI 1
MID
i. \i«;i
1975

17.1
37.0




0.1







10.9
24.2
64.9
1976

22.9
34.8




0.1







9.0
20.3
70.7
1977

23.6
32.0




0.1







11.0
20.4
68.5
1978

29.0
32.4




0.1
0.8






10.9
22.7
66.3
1979

18.0
35.2
2.1



0.3
1.8






15.2
19.5
65.3
1980
1.4
25.0
53.0
24.6



1.7
3.5






28.4
17.6
54.0
1981
1.9
20.1
51.6
31.1



1.1
5.6






23.2
19.1
57.7
1982
1.7
20.0
45.7
33.2



0.7
9.3






21.1
31.0
47.9
1983
1.4
25.8
45.9
36.1



0.6
4.7






16.6
45.9
37.6
1984
4.9
31.0
42.1
35.1


1.9
0.6
2.3






19.5
46.4
34.1
1985
7.1
30.6
37.1
42.2


8.7
3.5
1.1






19.2
48.5
32.3
1986
5.9
30.3
42.7
42.0


21.8
18.7
0.7






23.5
48.5
28.0
1987
7.4
31.5
39.9
44.8


33.3
33.6
0.3






19.9
59.6
20.6
1988
9.0
33.3
35.5
53.1


43.3
44.4
0.2






15.0
57.2
27.8
1989
9.9
32.0
32.7
56.8


45.9
47.6
0.2






13.9
58.9
27.2
1990
15.5
31.3
28.1
67.4


55.2
40.8
0.2






13.4
57.1
29.6
1991
9.7
35.3
31.0
67.4


55.0
43.2
0.1






11.4
67.2
21.4
1992
13.6
31.4
27.3
71.5


65.9
32.5
0.1






10.4
64.0
25.6
1993
15.1
29.4
23.3
75.7


73.4
25.7







8.8
65.3
25.9
1994
13.1
36.9
23.5
75.1


77.2
22.5







9.8
63.1
27.2
1995
17.7
40.7
20.5
78.6


79.8
20.2

91.6
0.3
8.1



8.6
63.5
27.9
1996
20.1
37.1
15.6
83.5


99.9

0.1
87.6
2.0
10.4



6.5
67.1
26.4
1997
13.9
43.2
14.6
85.0


100.0

0.0
86.3
2.4
11.3



10.1
52.5
37.3
1998
18.7
42.0
13.4
86.0


100.0

0.0
84.2
0.6
15.2



8.9
58.7
32.4
1999
17.4
44.6
9.1
90.5


100.0


82.7
0.8
16.6

3.1

7.7
55.8
36.5
2000
19.4
42.4
8.0
91.7


100.0


80.1
0.5
19.4

4.7

6.7
55.7
37.5
2001
18.5
43.8
6.3
93.4


100.0


72.4
0.6
27.1

9.3

6.6
47.6
45.9
2002
18.5
47.6
4.9
94.7
0.0

100.0


64.4
0.6
35.1

16.2

7.1
43.5
49.4
2003
19.2
46.5
4.8
93.7
1.2

100.0


62.8
0.5
36.7

19.8

5.9
47.8
46.3
2004
17.2
52.3
3.7
95.0
1.0

100.0

0.0
51.6
4.6
43.6
0.2
31.6
0.0
5.1
46.2
48.7
2005
25.7
48.3
3.0
95.0
2.0

99.9

0.1
47.2
5.9
46.9
0.1
39.8
0.1
2.8
47.3
49.9
2006
25.1
48.4
3.2
93.5
3.3

99.9

0.1
38.6
7.4
54.0
0.1
49.6
1.4
2.0
49.0
49.0
2007
24.9
49.0
2.4
93.9
3.7

99.9

0.1
43.0
4.6
52.5

48.6
0.9
2.0
44.9
53.1
2008
27.8
49.7
2.0
94.1
3.9
1.2
98.6

0.2
36.5
3.8
59.7

52.2
1.4
2.3
49.7
48.0
2009
29.0
47.6
2.4
92.9
4.7
2.9
96.9

0.1
33.7
2.1
64.2
0.0
56.3
0.9
2.5
44.7
52.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-14
October 2009

-------
'S'BFA
gS?™**"* p,"*""n	Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-8
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Light Vehicles
^ i: vu
SAI,KS
(000)
1 KU
i i i:i i:< <>\<>\n
WCIII
1 li
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
si'i:i:i)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
\ii'<;
I.VIi
55/45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
VD.I
((•Ml*
( id
III'
1975
10224
1.000
15.3
12.0
14.6
13.1
4060
293
137
14.1
112
0.507
0.0335
31.6
1976
12334
1.000
16.7
13.2
15.7
14.2
4079
294
135
14.3
111
0.493
0.0328
34.4
1977
14123
1.000
17.7
14.0
16.6
15.1
3982
287
136
13.8
112
0.510
0.0339
35.7
1978
14448
1.000
18.6
14.7
17.5
15.8
3715
266
129
13.6
112
0.525
0.0344
35.1
1979
13882
1.000
18.7
14.9
17.4
15.9
3655
252
124
13.9
110
0.532
0.0335
34.7
1980
11306
1.000
22.5
17.6
21.5
19.2
3228
198
104
14.3
107
0.574
0.0320
36.6
1981
10554
1.000
24.1
18.8
23.0
20.5
3202
193
102
14.4
107
0.580
0.0318
38.9
1982
9732
1.000
24.7
19.2
23.9
21.1
3202
188
103
14.4
107
0.593
0.0320
40.0
1983
10302
1.000
24.6
19.0
23.9
21.0
3257
193
107
14.1
108
0.599
0.0327
40.5
1984
14020
1.000
24.6
19.1
24.0
21.0
3262
190
109
14.0
109
0.618
0.0332
40.7
1985
14460
1.000
25.0
19.3
24.4
21.3
3271
189
114
13.5
110
0.650
0.0347
41.4
1986
15365
1.000
25.7
19.8
25.0
21.8
3238
180
114
13.4
111
0.678
0.0351
42.0
1987
14865
1.000
25.9
19.8
25.3
22.0
3221
175
118
13.1
112
0.710
0.0361
42.1
1988
15295
1.000
25.9
19.6
25.2
21.9
3283
180
123
12.8
114
0.726
0.0372
42.9
1989
14453
1.000
25.4
19.1
24.8
21.4
3351
185
129
12.5
115
0.743
0.0382
43.0
1990
12615
1.000
25.2
18.7
24.6
21.2
3426
185
135
12.2
117
0.781
0.0394
43.5
1991
12573
1.000
25.4
18.8
24.7
21.2
3410
184
138
12.1
118
0.796
0.0402
43.6
1992
12172
1.000
24.9
18.2
24.4
20.8
3512
191
145
11.8
120
0.807
0.0413
44.1
1993
13211
1.000
25.1
18.2
24.4
20.9
3519
191
147
11.8
120
0.809
0.0416
44.5
1994
14125
1.000
24.6
17.8
23.8
20.4
3603
197
152
11.7
121
0.816
0.0420
44.6
1995
15145
1.000
24.7
17.7
24.1
20.5
3613
196
158
11.3
123
0.857
0.0438
45.2
1996
13144
1.000
24.8
17.6
24.0
20.4
3659
197
164
11.1
125
0.878
0.0447
45.6
1997
14459
1.000
24.5
17.4
23.6
20.1
3727
199
169
11.0
126
0.890
0.0452
45.9
1998
14458
1.000
24.5
17.2
23.6
20.1
3744
199
171
10.9
126
0.904
0.0457
46.3
1999
15218
1.000
24.1
16.9
23.0
19.7
3835
203
179
10.7
128
0.921
0.0465
46.5
2000
16574
1.000
24.3
16.9
23.0
19.8
3821
200
181
10.6
129
0.942
0.0472
46.7
2001
15610
1.000
24.2
16.8
22.8
19.6
3879
201
187
10.5
130
0.968
0.0480
47.3
2002
16119
1.000
24.1
16.6
22.5
19.4
3951
203
195
10.3
132
0.994
0.0493
47.9
2003
15775
1.000
24.3
16.7
22.7
19.6
3999
204
199
10.2
133
1.007
0.0496
49.0
2004
15711
1.000
24.0
16.3
22.4
19.3
4111
212
211
9.9
135
1.026
0.0511
49.7
2005
15893
1.000
24.8
16.8
23.1
19.9
4059
205
209
9.9
135
1.049
0.0512
50.9
2006
15105
1.000
25.2
17.0
23.4
20.1
4067
204
213
9.8
137
1.073
0.0522
51.7
2007
15277
1.000
25.8
17.4
24.0
20.6
4093
203
217
9.7
137
1.099
0.0525
53.4
2008
13900
1.000
26.3
17.7
24.4
21.0
4085
199
219
9.7
138
1.122
0.0529
54.4
2009
15997
1.000
26.4
17.8
24.6
21.1
4108
202
225
9.5
139
1.139
0.0541
54.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-15
October 2009

-------
&ERA
United Sl«!«s	.
ISSS™*""Appendix D: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type
Table D-8 (cont.)
Percent of Light Vehicles:
MODI I
^ I- \l<
Dll \ \\ \ I S
\ 1
in likin
\ I I ll< 1 1 si/1-
1 l«>\ 1
4W 1)
MAM A
1 i
I'OK I
i m
l>\|
1 Wll
11 IK 1 1
1 <>l l<
1 IN 1
SMAI 1
MID
i. \i«;i
1975
5.3
3.3
23.2



4.1
0.0
0.2






46.8
23.5
29.8
1976
4.6
4.8
20.9



2.5
0.0
0.2






45.6
24.2
30.3
1977
5.5
4.7
19.8



3.4
0.0
0.4






43.7
23.7
32.5
1978
7.4
6.6
23.0
5.2


3.9
0.0
0.9






37.0
31.7
31.2
1979
9.2
4.3
25.1
6.7


3.7
0.1
2.0






37.3
30.9
31.7
1980
25.0
4.9
35.4
17.8


5.2
0.8
4.3






50.1
31.6
18.3
1981
31.0
4.0
34.1
33.0


5.1
2.4
5.9






46.6
33.4
20.0
1982
37.0
4.6
32.8
47.8


5.8
8.0
5.6






49.6
31.0
19.5
1983
37.0
8.1
30.8
52.1


7.3
14.8
2.7






44.9
34.9
20.1
1984
42.1
8.2
28.4
52.8


11.9
18.7
1.8






48.4
33.4
18.2
1985
47.8
9.3
26.5
54.5


18.2
24.8
0.9






46.5
33.9
19.7
1986
52.6
9.3
29.8
53.5


32.5
25.7
0.4






49.3
33.7
17.0
1987
57.7
9.6
29.1
55.4


39.9
31.4
0.3






51.4
34.1
14.5
1988
60.0
10.5
27.6
62.2


50.6
34.3
0.1






50.0
32.7
17.3
1989
60.2
10.5
24.6
65.5
0.1

57.3
33.9
0.1






44.7
37.6
17.7
1990
63.8
10.1
22.2
71.2
0.0

70.8
27.0
0.1






44.9
37.2
17.8
1991
59.6
12.3
23.9
71.6
0.0

70.6
28.7
0.1






45.3
39.4
15.2
1992
58.4
11.2
20.7
74.8
0.0

81.6
17.8
0.1






41.1
39.9
19.0
1993
59.9
11.3
19.8
76.5
0.0

85.0
14.6







39.8
42.4
17.8
1994
55.6
15.2
19.5
77.6


87.7
12.1
0.0






38.8
41.0
20.1
1995
57.6
16.2
17.9
80.7


91.6
8.4
0.0
64.4
0.8
34.8
0.0
6.1

38.8
41.9
19.3
1996
60.0
15.7
15.1
83.5
0.0

99.3
0.7
0.1
60.7
1.3
38.0
0.0
7.0

35.2
46.0
18.7
1997
55.8
19.3
14.0
85.5
0.0

99.5
0.5
0.1
60.4
1.6
37.9
0.1
6.5

36.0
39.9
24.1
1998
56.4
20.1
12.8
86.7
0.0

99.8
0.1
0.1
59.1
1.1
39.4
0.5
10.1

31.2
47.9
20.8
1999
55.8
21.3
10.1
89.4
0.0

99.9
0.1
0.1
56.6
1.5
41.0
0.9
10.8

29.7
46.9
23.4
2000
55.5
20.2
9.7
89.5
0.0

99.8
0.0
0.1
55.2
1.2
42.6
1.0
15.0
0.0
29.2
43.9
26.9
2001
53.8
21.9
9.0
90.2
0.1

99.9

0.1
51.0
1.4
46.0
1.6
19.6
0.0
30.4
39.4
30.2
2002
52.7
25.0
8.1
91.3
0.2

99.8

0.2
46.7
1.3
50.5
1.5
25.3
0.2
28.5
39.8
31.7
2003
50.7
25.0
8.0
90.8
1.1

99.8

0.2
44.5
1.4
52.5
1.6
30.6
0.3
28.5
40.5
31.0
2004
47.7
29.8
6.8
91.8
1.2

99.9

0.1
37.7
3.2
57.7
1.4
37.6
0.5
25.4
41.1
33.5
2005
53.0
26.8
6.2
91.4
2.3

99.7

0.3
34.4
3.9
61.1
0.6
45.8
1.1
23.7
43.1
33.2
2006
51.9
25.8
6.5
90.6
2.8

99.6

0.4
28.3
4.4
67.1
0.2
55.4
1.5
25.4
40.5
34.1
2007
54.3
26.1
5.2
87.1
7.2
0.2
99.8

0.1
28.3
2.7
69.1
0.0
57.9
2.2
24.6
42.3
33.2
2008
54.2
27.3
5.2
86.9
7.9
2.3
97.6

0.1
23.6
2.1
74.3
0.0
58.1
2.5
24.7
42.4
32.9
2009
54.7
26.7
5.7
86
8.1
3.5
96.1

0.5
21.5
1.3
77.2
0
65.3
1.8
23.6
38.8
37.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
D-16
October 2009

-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Appendix E
Fuel Economy Data Stratified
by Vehicle Type and Size
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-l
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Small Car
Moi)i:i
^ l-.VK
N\l l>
(00(1)
1 K \l
i i i:i i.( o\o\n
WCIII
1 li
\ <>l
(III
i:m;im:
0-60
i imi:
l()l>
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\T
TO.V
Mi*(;
(1 II
MI'C
(1 II
TO.V
MI'C
1 VIS
55/45
VIM
(in
VIM
ll\U
VIM
( OMI'
( id
III'
1975
4088
0.400
18.3
14.4
17.5
15.6
3440

224
113
14.5
108
0.554
0.0323
27.2


1976
5041
0.409
19.9
15.7
18.8
17.0
3474

226
110
14.9
107
0.537
0.0313
29.6


1977
5481
0.388
20.7
16.3
19.5
17.6
3486
95.4
224
114
14.3
108
0.567
0.0324
31.0
1769
2969
1978
4630
0.320
23.2
18.2
22.0
19.7
3029
90.9
177
100
14.2
107
0.625
0.0325
30.3
1901
2765
1979
4405
0.317
23.3
18.3
22.1
19.8
2936
89.2
166
98
14.2
107
0.642
0.0327
29.5
1862
2639
1980
4825
0.427
26.1
20.4
24.8
22.2
2717
90.0
137
86
14.5
104
0.658
0.0314
30.5
2077
2753
1981
4077
0.386
28.5
22.4
26.9
24.2
2648
91.6
129
85
14.4
105
0.681
0.0319
32.5
2311
2988
1982
4039
0.415
29.1
22.6
28.1
24.8
2684
92.2
131
87
14.4
105
0.682
0.0319
33.7
2374
3121
1983
3718
0.361
29.4
22.8
28.6
25.1
2734
95.1
137
91
14.1
106
0.693
0.0329
34.8
2494
3324
1984
5666
0.404
29.4
22.7
28.7
25.1
2776
95.2
140
95
13.8
108
0.706
0.0340
35.3
2479
3363
1985
5519
0.382
29.8
23.1
29.0
25.4
2771
95.8
138
100
13.3
110
0.746
0.0357
35.6
2528
3423
1986
6203
0.404
30.0
23.1
29.1
25.5
2791
96.7
137
101
13.3
110
0.754
0.0355
36.0
2553
3483
1987
6453
0.434
30.1
22.9
29.1
25.4
2803
96.9
134
102
13.3
110
0.777
0.0356
35.9
2534
3484
1988
6706
0.438
30.5
23.1
29.3
25.7
2818
98.5
133
105
13.1
111
0.806
0.0366
36.4
2597
3592
1989
5677
0.393
30.2
22.8
29.0
25.4
2841
98.3
131
108
12.8
112
0.844
0.0375
36.3
2558
3569
1990
4999
0.396
29.8
22.4
28.5
24.9
2897
97.6
131
116
12.2
115
0.906
0.0395
36.4
2486
3550
1991
5032
0.400
30.0
22.3
28.8
25.0
2885
97.6
131
117
12.1
115
0.919
0.0401
36.4
2506
3556
1992
4440
0.365
30.0
22.0
28.9
24.9
2921
97.9
134
123
11.8
117
0.943
0.0416
36.7
2503
3591
1993
4537
0.343
30.5
22.2
29.3
25.3
2903
98.3
133
122
11.8
117
0.933
0.0415
36.9
2541
3628
1994
4720
0.334
30.4
21.9
29.3
25.1
2965
98.7
137
126
11.7
118
0.943
0.0419
37.4
2537
3699
1995
5190
0.343
30.7
21.9
29.7
25.3
2988
99.6
137
134
11.2
121
1.002
0.0443
38.0
2575
3784
1996
4197
0.319
30.8
21.8
29.7
25.3
2977
99.9
136
134
11.1
121
1.008
0.0446
37.8
2573
3775
1997
4443
0.307
30.9
21.7
29.6
25.2
2977
99.2
133
133
11.2
121
1.016
0.0442
37.7
2543
3739
1998
3842
0.266
30.9
21.5
29.7
25.2
3013
98.8
137
138
11.0
122
1.028
0.0452
38.1
2540
3771
1999
3919
0.258
30.3
21.0
28.9
24.6
3085
98.9
141
143
10.9
124
1.036
0.0459
38.0
2477
3769
2000
4266
0.257
30.3
20.9
28.7
24.5
3079
99.4
139
144
10.9
124
1.052
0.0461
37.9
2482
3772
2001
4065
0.260
30.7
21.1
28.9
24.7
3101
99.2
140
149
10.6
126
1.080
0.0475
38.7
2520
3844
2002
3801
0.236
30.7
20.9
28.7
24.6
3125
98.9
141
153
10.6
127
1.098
0.0482
38.8
2504
3841
2003
3698
0.234
30.6
20.7
28.4
24.4
3179
98.6
144
160
10.3
129
1.122
0.0496
39.2
2491
3877
2004
3275
0.208
30.5
20.4
28.4
24.3
3192
99.0
146
165
10.1
130
1.145
0.0510
39.1
2480
3883
2005
3185
0.200
31.1
20.7
28.6
24.6
3163
99.1
144
165
10.0
131
1.166
0.0512
39.2
2518
3903
2006
3196
0.212
31.1
20.6
28.8
24.6
3255
98.8
151
176
9.8
133
1.181
0.0530
40.6
2521
4031
2007
3216
0.211
31.7
21.1
29.2
25.1
3238
99.3
146
173
9.8
133
1.203
0.0525
41.0
2573
4082
2008
2857
0.206
31.7
21.0
29.4
25.1
3284
98.3
148
179
9.8
134
1.220
0.0534
41.6
2550
4103
2009
3040
0.19
32.6
21.6
30.1
25.7
3267
98.5
147
181
9.7
135
1.24
0.054
42.5
2629
4202
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-l	November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-l (cont.)
Percent of Small Car:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l>KI\ l-il KVI\
1 KV\n\||nn|C»\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M Mlil U (>l \ \l \ l>
VVT
in nun)
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \l
1 ()( k
(AT
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM K
H\ 1.
1975
10.0

33.9



9.4

0.5






1976
8.8

29.2



5.0

0.5






1977
11.0

30.3



7.5

0.9






1978
19.9

42.6
5.2


10.3

1.5






1979
24.4

48.5



9.4

2.2






1980
37.8
1.1
52.8
4.1


11.1

3.7






1981
48.1
0.7
54.0
7.8


12.2

5.1






1982
56.2
0.7
50.8
26.7


13.0
6.6
4.0






1983
61.6
1.0
48.6
33.7


18.9
16.1
2.4






1984
63.2
0.6
41.1
37.6


25.4
20.2
2.2






1985
70.9
0.2
39.8
37.8


28.0
27.6
1.4






1986
74.5
0.5
40.0
41.7


36.7
25.9
0.4
91.7
5.6
2.7



1987
80.7
0.4
38.7
44.7


37.2
29.1
0.2
77.0
14.8
8.2



1988
85.2
0.5
36.0
51.6


45.5
33.1
0.0
71.2
13.1
15.7



1989
86.3
1.0
33.8
51.8
0.2

52.1
32.6
0.1
60.9
18.1
21.0



1990
89.0
0.6
31.7
56.9
0.1

69.9
28.3
0.1
48.5
7.5
44.0



1991
87.1
1.4
32.1
59.0
0.1

72.2
27.5
0.2
48.9
8.4
42.7

3.0

1992
88.6
1.2
29.4
60.3
0.0

87.2
12.7
0.1
49.4
7.3
43.2

6.4

1993
90.2
1.0
30.0
61.2
0.0

89.7
10.3

49.7
5.6
44.7

6.5

1994
88.4
0.3
27.7
65.7


92.7
7.3

46.9
3.3
49.8

12.1

1995
86.1
1.0
26.8
70.4


98.3
1.6
0.1
32.8
2.0
65.2
0.0
12.9

1996
89.6
1.0
24.4
73.1
0.0

97.9
2.1

32.4
1.8
65.8
0.0
15.1

1997
89.6
1.0
22.7
76.0
0.1

98.5
1.5
0.0
30.2
1.9
67.7
0.2
15.0

1998
86.1
1.2
22.1
77.0
0.1

99.4
0.3
0.3
29.7
2.1
67.5
0.7
20.1

1999
87.0
1.3
19.7
79.3
0.1

99.6
0.2
0.2
31.7
3.2
64.3
0.8
18.5

2000
83.4
1.1
20.8
77.5
0.0

99.4
0.1
0.5
32.7
2.3
63.4
1.6
25.4
0.1
2001
82.3
2.4
20.4
77.8
0.5

99.4

0.6
27.4
2.3
66.9
3.4
37.5
0.1
2002
79.7
4.1
20.8
77.9
0.9

99.2

0.8
28.6
2.8
65.2
3.4
36.3
0.7
2003
77.7
4.2
20.0
78.0
1.9

99.4

0.6
16.8
2.6
77.2
3.3
42.5
1.3
2004
76.4
5.6
19.1
79.1
1.7

99.5

0.5
15.6
1.9
79.4
3.1
48.7
0.7
2005
77.7
4.9
18.2
80.2
1.5

99.5

0.5
13.6
3.5
81.1
1.8
55.4
0.9
2006
74.0
4.6
18.4
79.7
1.8

98.6

1.4
12.6
3.3
83.6
0.4
66.5
1.0
2007
77.1
5.3
15.6
76.2
6.7
0.8
99.2


10.5
2.3
87.1
0.1
64.4
1.1
EPA-420-R-09-014
E-2
November 2009

-------
United Stains
l~™M'lp««»~,to'	Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
2008
75.0
6.4
15.4
79.9
4.6
3.8
96.2


7.2
1.6
91.2
0.0
62.0
1.1
2009
76.5
6.0
16.2
78.3
4.1
7.0
91.5

1.5
7.6
1.4
91.0
0.0
69.0
1.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
E-3
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-2
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Mid-size Car
Moi)i:i
^ i:\k
SAI.KS
(000)
1 l\A(
i i i:i i.< <>\o\n
WCII 1
1 li
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0-60
i imi:
IOI*
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
TON-
Ml'(;
(III
Mi'(;
(1 II
TON-
Ml'(;
1 VIS
55/45
AIM
(in
VIM
ll\U
VIM
(I)MI'
( id
III'
1975
1631
0.160
13.6
10.5
13.1
11.6
4630

353
158
13.9
115
0.447
0.0341
27.2


1976
1964
0.159
15.7
12.2
15.1
13.4
4558

343
156
13.8
114
0.454
0.0340
30.7


1977
2226
0.158
16.4
12.9
15.7
14.0
4473
112.9
332
151
13.9
114
0.454
0.0337
31.6
1601
3565
1978
3339
0.231
18.6
14.4
17.9
15.8
3820
113.0
292
135
13.4
113
0.464
0.0353
30.3
1823
3422
1979
3211
0.231
19.1
15.0
18.1
16.3
3710
113.1
272
128
13.6
112
0.474
0.0345
30.3
1870
3425
1980
2987
0.264
21.6
16.8
21.0
18.4
3362
113.2
228
113
13.8
109
0.512
0.0336
31.1
2113
3523
1981
2902
0.275
22.9
17.8
22.3
19.6
3346
113.9
220
107
14.2
108
0.509
0.0322
32.9
2255
3746
1982
2136
0.219
24.0
18.4
23.8
20.5
3321
113.9
211
107
14.2
108
0.529
0.0324
34.3
2377
3906
1983
2269
0.220
23.9
18.4
23.6
20.4
3316
113.8
212
111
13.8
109
0.544
0.0336
34.0
2363
3876
1984
2770
0.198
24.1
18.5
23.9
20.6
3318
113.7
210
113
13.6
110
0.563
0.0342
34.3
2373
3896
1985
2777
0.192
24.9
19.0
24.9
21.3
3318
113.6
205
117
13.3
112
0.606
0.0354
35.4
2453
4025
1986
2666
0.174
25.9
19.6
25.9
22.0
3241
113.8
194
118
13.0
113
0.640
0.0364
35.8
2535
4074
1987
2252
0.152
26.0
19.5
26.0
22.1
3247
113.7
188
123
12.7
114
0.684
0.0379
35.9
2540
4087
1988
2113
0.138
26.7
19.7
27.1
22.6
3293
113.4
183
129
12.3
116
0.718
0.0389
37.3
2588
4230
1989
2591
0.179
26.6
19.5
27.1
22.5
3314
113.6
181
131
12.2
117
0.735
0.0396
37.4
2574
4245
1990
2342
0.186
26.2
19.0
26.8
22.1
3450
113.7
187
140
12.0
119
0.758
0.0407
38.2
2528
4342
1991
2114
0.168
26.0
18.8
26.5
21.9
3412
113.5
191
146
11.5
121
0.773
0.0428
37.4
2497
4242
1992
2120
0.174
25.8
18.4
26.3
21.6
3515
113.9
191
151
11.5
122
0.801
0.0427
38.0
2471
4333
1993
2330
0.176
26.1
18.6
26.4
21.8
3515
113.9
192
153
11.4
123
0.812
0.0434
38.4
2497
4376
1994
2057
0.146
25.9
18.3
26.0
21.5
3529
113.5
189
155
11.4
123
0.827
0.0437
38.0
2457
4320
1995
2515
0.166
26.1
18.2
26.5
21.7
3546
114.3
189
166
10.7
127
0.889
0.0465
38.5
2491
4402
1996
2359
0.179
26.5
18.5
26.5
21.9
3527
114.1
181
162
10.9
126
0.906
0.0459
38.6
2505
4407
1997
2399
0.166
26.5
18.4
26.7
21.9
3551
114.5
184
170
10.6
128
0.933
0.0476
39.0
2522
4464
1998
2967
0.205
27.1
18.7
26.9
22.3
3534
114.0
177
169
10.5
128
0.965
0.0477
39.5
2552
4500
1999
3141
0.206
27.1
18.5
26.8
22.2
3540
114.0
175
170
10.5
128
0.984
0.0480
39.4
2538
4485
2000
2894
0.175
27.0
18.4
26.5
22.0
3550
113.6
174
178
10.2
131
1.027
0.0499
39.2
2512
4447
2001
2480
0.159
27.2
18.5
26.5
22.1
3566
113.7
175
180
10.1
132
1.034
0.0503
39.6
2529
4500
2002
2807
0.174
27.7
18.8
26.5
22.4
3549
114.8
177
185
9.8
134
1.055
0.0519
39.8
2581
4571
2003
2483
0.157
28.3
18.9
27.3
22.8
3567
114.6
174
189
9.7
135
1.096
0.0529
40.8
2628
4675
2004
2522
0.161
28.7
19.0
27.5
23.0
3577
114.0
174
190
9.7
135
1.100
0.0528
41.6
2667
4737
2005
2886
0.182
29.8
19.7
28.2
23.8
3544
114.5
168
185
9.8
133
1.096
0.0515
42.8
2793
4900
2006
2413
0.160
29.6
19.6
28.0
23.6
3568
114.0
169
191
9.6
135
1.137
0.0531
42.8
2759
4874
2007
3083
0.202
31.2
20.7
29.1
24.8
3581
113.8
165
191
9.6
135
1.143
0.0524
45.3
2913
5149
2008
2486
0.179
31.4
20.9
29.0
24.8
3564
113.3
163
191
9.5
135
1.161
0.0525
45.4
2937
5142
2009
2606
0.163
31.7
21.1
29.2
25.1
3575
113.5
164
196
9.5
136
1.181
0.0537
45.6
2938
5172
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-4	November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-2 (cont.)
Percent of Mid-size Car:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l)KI\ I IUAIN
1 l\ \\N\I|NN|(>\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MlJIiUOl \ \i \ l>
VVT
in hum)
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 (X k
(AT
(.Di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM K
11\ i:
1975
2.7

0.6



0.7








1976
2.5

0.4



0.6








1977
2.1

0.3



0.7








1978
1.4

1.7
11.1


1.4








1979
5.2

1.9
21.4


2.3

1.4






1980
30.2

7.8
25.3


1.0
1.5
2.5






1981
32.3

5.6
52.2


0.1
2.3
4.0






1982
44.7

2.0
82.6


0.2
15.4
3.8






1983
48.9

1.2
80.0


0.5
17.2
1.7






1984
55.1

0.9
82.0


3.8
25.6
1.0






1985
61.9

1.3
77.6


13.0
37.1
0.3






1986
71.0
0.1
1.8
76.4


25.4
42.3
0.2
100.0





1987
77.3
0.2
1.5
77.6


40.7
43.4
0.4
100.0





1988
87.0
0.1
3.8
91.1


66.9
28.0

93.4
6.5
0.1



1989
86.5
0.1
4.7
91.7


78.3
21.0

94.3
4.9
0.8



1990
85.2
0.2
3.9
93.9


86.6
13.3
0.0
90.6
4.3
5.1

2.3

1991
87.2
0.1
3.6
94.5


88.7
11.2
0.1
89.7
4.9
5.3

2.7

1992
79.1
0.1
2.7
96.6


94.7
5.3

77.0
1.6
21.4

3.6

1993
85.4
0.2
2.3
97.2


95.6
4.4

72.7

27.3

4.0

1994
84.7

2.0
97.7


96.0
4.0

68.1

31.9

3.9

1995
79.6

2.7
97.2


98.9
1.1

61.5

38.5

8.9

1996
91.9

4.3
94.9


99.7

0.3
52.6

47.4

11.0

1997
90.6
0.1
2.5
97.5


99.8

0.2
50.1

49.9

10.1

1998
95.2
0.5
3.0
97.0


99.9

0.1
44.5
1.2
53.1
1.3
22.0

1999
95.2
0.7
3.3
96.3


99.8

0.2
36.1
1.4
59.7
2.7
20.9

2000
92.3
0.9
3.5
95.7


100.0


25.1
1.4
71.1
2.4
29.4

2001
93.0
1.2
3.1
96.1


100.0


28.2
1.8
66.6
3.4
25.3

2002
94.2
0.8
2.6
97.1
0.1

100.0


21.4
0.9
74.7
3.0
45.0

2003
91.7
0.6
2.8
97.0
0.1

100.0


21.9
2.5
72.1
3.6
55.3

2004
91.7
1.0
3.2
94.2
1.9

99.9

0.1
16.2
1.6
80.0
2.2
54.7
1.9
2005
91.4
1.9
3.2
92.4
4.2

99.6

0.4
13.6
1.1
84.6
0.7
68.5
4.9
2006
89.4
3.0
3.7
92.5
3.7

99.8

0.2
12.5
0.2
87.2
0.2
78.5
3.8
2007
89.0
3.8
1.9
77.6
19.8

99.9

0.1
7.3

92.7

79.1
7.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
E-5
November 2009

-------
United Stains
l~™M'lp««»~,to'	Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
2008
85.3
6.5
2.5
68.9
28.6
3.8
96.0

0.1
6.5

93.5

73.1
8.7
2009
85.7
6.2
4.5
65.7
29.5
2.7
97.0

0.3
2.6

97.4

83.6
7.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
E-6
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-3
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Large Car
Moi)i:i
^ i:ak
sai.ks
(000)
1 K V(
i i i:i i:< <>\<>\n
WCIII
1 li
\ <>l
(III
i:m;im:
0-60
1 IMI.
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
TON-
Ml'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
TON-
Ml'(;
1 VIS
55/45
VIM
(in
VIM
ll\U
VIM
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
1555
0.152
13.1
10.2
12.6
11.2
5142

409
180
13.5
117
0.439
0.0348
28.9


1976
1679
0.136
14.2
11.1
13.5
12.1
5156

410
180
13.4
117
0.440
0.0349
31.1


1977
2319
0.164
15.9
12.4
15.2
13.5
4482
128.1
366
165
12.8
118
0.453
0.0370
30.4
1759
3895
1978
2048
0.142
16.8
13.0
16.3
14.3
4394
128.5
357
162
12.8
118
0.457
0.0370
31.7
1869
4071
1979
2111
0.152
17.4
13.7
16.5
14.8
4210
130.0
339
154
12.9
116
0.454
0.0365
31.3
1940
4073
1980
963
0.085
19.1
14.7
18.8
16.3
4130
130.9
314
137
14.0
112
0.440
0.0331
34.0
2156
4448
1981
956
0.091
20.4
15.4
20.8
17.4
4108
131.0
304
133
14.3
111
0.444
0.0325
36.4
2318
4762
1982
832
0.085
20.7
15.6
21.0
17.7
4034
131.0
292
135
13.9
112
0.468
0.0337
36.0
2333
4715
1983
1079
0.105
20.2
15.2
20.6
17.3
4041
131.3
292
140
13.4
113
0.481
0.0347
35.0
2272
4590
1984
1236
0.088
20.5
15.5
21.0
17.5
4022
130.9
294
140
13.4
114
0.478
0.0349
35.3
2298
4622
1985
1512
0.105
22.3
16.6
23.3
19.1
3841
129.3
279
143
12.7
116
0.512
0.0371
36.7
2470
4743
1986
1267
0.082
23.9
17.6
25.4
20.4
3719
127.4
260
147
12.1
119
0.577
0.0396
38.0
2610
4845
1987
1218
0.082
23.9
17.4
25.4
20.3
3696
127.0
259
149
11.8
120
0.587
0.0405
37.6
2588
4774
1988
1303
0.085
24.2
17.6
25.6
20.6
3730
128.1
262
150
11.9
120
0.587
0.0405
38.4
2644
4923
1989
1289
0.089
24.0
17.3
25.3
20.4
3721
127.4
261
158
11.4
122
0.619
0.0427
37.9
2598
4829
1990
1092
0.087
23.7
16.9
25.1
20.0
3799
126.7
258
161
11.4
123
0.639
0.0427
38.0
2542
4819
1991
1012
0.080
23.6
16.8
24.8
19.9
3893
129.0
264
178
10.7
127
0.685
0.0459
38.8
2575
5011
1992
1240
0.102
23.8
16.8
25.0
20.0
3872
129.6
262
185
10.4
130
0.715
0.0480
38.8
2601
5032
1993
1103
0.084
24.2
17.0
25.2
20.3
3831
128.9
256
181
10.5
129
0.720
0.0473
38.9
2627
5024
1994
1277
0.090
24.1
16.8
24.9
20.1
3859
128.3
248
188
10.2
131
0.766
0.0487
38.8
2587
4986
1995
1305
0.086
24.4
16.9
25.4
20.4
3830
127.9
248
206
9.4
138
0.845
0.0539
39.1
2618
5003
1996
1066
0.081
24.3
16.7
25.3
20.3
3894
128.1
250
217
9.2
140
0.879
0.0557
39.5
2601
5058
1997
1195
0.083
24.5
16.8
25.4
20.4
3821
127.4
242
216
9.1
141
0.903
0.0567
39.0
2606
4968
1998
912
0.063
24.6
16.8
25.2
20.4
3784
127.4
240
218
8.9
142
0.922
0.0575
38.5
2601
4909
1999
1059
0.070
24.8
16.8
25.2
20.5
3854
127.0
235
222
8.9
143
0.971
0.0576
39.5
2608
5014
2000
1665
0.100
25.6
17.3
25.7
21.0
3782
124.9
221
215
9.2
141
0.980
0.0564
39.7
2627
4958
2001
1416
0.091
25.4
17.1
25.5
20.8
3774
124.8
221
204
9.5
137
0.932
0.0538
39.3
2607
4912
2002
1252
0.078
26.0
17.4
25.7
21.2
3767
124.0
218
209
9.3
139
0.975
0.0554
39.9
2637
4951
2003
1261
0.080
26.0
17.3
25.6
21.1
3841
124.8
224
208
9.5
138
0.929
0.0538
40.6
2648
5068
2004
1185
0.075
26.0
17.2
25.6
21.1
3858
124.7
225
211
9.4
139
0.944
0.0546
40.6
2642
5073
2005
1234
0.078
26.4
17.4
25.5
21.2
3933
125.0
225
216
9.5
139
0.964
0.0545
41.8
2670
5230
2006
1570
0.104
26.0
17.1
25.2
20.9
4014
124.7
229
238
8.9
145
1.045
0.0589
42.2
2630
5263
2007
1174
0.077
26.0
17.1
25.3
21.0
4026
123.8
229
236
9.0
144
1.036
0.0581
42.5
2623
5256
2008
1407
0.101
27.3
17.8
26.8
22.0
3966
123.2
213
232
9.0
144
1.106
0.0581
43.9
2745
5406
2009
1875
0.117
27.5
18.0
26.8
22.2
3942
123.5
214
238
00
00
146
1.133
0.0599
44.0
2771
5423
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-7	November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-3 (cont.)
Percent of Large Car:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l)KI\ I IUAIN
1 l\ \\N\I|NN|(>\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MlJIiUOl \ \i \ l>
VVT
in hum)
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 (X k
(AT
(.Di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM K
11\ i:
1975
1.5

0.0












1976
1.5

0.0



1.2








1977
1.5





0.5








1978
1.1


2.5


0.2

1.4






1979



6.5


0.2

3.5






1980



41.6



2.0
10.4






1981



89.8



17.1
15.2






1982



93.1



20.1
10.0






1983



99.9



37.3
2.4






1984



99.9



39.0
0.8






1985
31.9


100.0


19.1
44.9
0.3






1986
55.9

0.7
99.2


65.4
15.8

99.3

0.7



1987
60.9

0.5
99.5


69.9
15.2

98.9

1.1



1988
58.7

0.4
99.6


76.9
12.6

98.9

1.1



1989
61.9

0.3
99.7


74.8
22.2

99.2

0.8



1990
69.0

0.2
99.8


92.9
6.0

99.5

0.5



1991
59.8

0.4
99.6


83.3
16.7

99.1

0.9



1992
58.5

0.3
98.5


89.2
10.7
0.1
98.1

1.9

0.7

1993
64.8

0.4
98.2


89.7
10.3

92.0

8.0

0.9

1994
69.2

0.2
99.0


99.9

0.1
82.9

17.1

0.5

1995
71.3

0.2
98.3


100.0

0.0
76.5

23.5

0.7

1996
67.7

0.1
99.3


100.0


61.6

38.4

1.2

1997
72.4

0.4
99.6


100.0


64.4

35.6

1.8

1998
74.2

0.1
99.9


100.0


60.2

39.8

2.5

1999
72.5


100.0


100.0


49.7

50.3

1.8

2000
80.9
0.0

100.0


100.0


60.2
1.2
38.6
0.0
7.2

2001
79.3
0.1

100.0


100.0


64.0
2.3
33.6
0.1
9.1

2002
86.6
0.0

100.0


100.0


62.8
2.1
35.0
0.0
6.9

2003
77.1
0.3

100.0


100.0


72.7
1.7
25.5
0.0
8.9

2004
77.1
1.3

100.0


100.0


65.9
1.4
31.9
0.8
10.6

2005
68.6
3.8

96.7
3.2

100.0


64.4
0.9
34.4
0.4
8.8

2006
62.7
3.8
0.1
96.8
3.0

100.0


48.6
0.9
50.2
0.3
29.2

2007
70.1
3.9
0.1
98.7
1.1

100.0


52.5
0.2
47.2

50.6

2008
72.7
3.0
0.6
99.3

0.9
99.1


37.0
0.0
63.0

57.1

2009
74.9
3.3
0.3
99.5

0.7
99.3


27.6
0.1
72.3

68.6

EPA-420-R-09-014
E-8
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-4
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Small Wagon
Moi)i:i.
^ i:\k
NAM'S
(000)
1 KU
i i i:i i:< o\o\n
WCII 1
1 li
VOI,
(III
i:m;im:
0-60
iimi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
TON-
Ml'(;
(1 II
mm;
(III
TON-
Ml'(;
1 VIS
55/45
VIM
(in
AIM
ll\U
VIM
(l)MI'
(id
III'
1975
477
0.047
22.4
17.4
21.6
19.1
2833

128
87
14.8
104
0.713
0.0307
27.3


1976
345
0.028
23.9
18.7
22.9
20.4
2902

136
86
15.2
103
0.668
0.0297
29.8


1977
384
0.027
25.5
20.2
23.8
21.7
2801
108.0
134
85
14.9
104
0.685
0.0305
30.8
2404
3317
1978
361
0.025
24.3
19.2
22.9
20.7
2805
108.0
134
90
14.3
105
0.709
0.0319
29.5
2291
3176
1979
310
0.022
25.7
20.3
24.3
21.9
2711
105.1
123
81
15.1
102
0.684
0.0295
29.8
2335
3135
1980
310
0.027
28.6
22.6
27.0
24.4
2591
108.2
113
75
15.4
101
0.685
0.0289
32.0
2702
3463
1981
418
0.040
30.0
23.6
28.5
25.6
2531
110.6
108
79
14.4
103
0.755
0.0313
32.6
2858
3601
1982
382
0.039
30.6
23.9
29.4
26.1
2580
112.2
109
75
15.3
101
0.698
0.0289
33.8
2951
3789
1983
531
0.052
32.2
25.3
30.5
27.4
2565
108.2
105
74
15.3
101
0.713
0.0289
35.3
2986
3817
1984
461
0.033
31.9
24.9
30.7
27.2
2620
116.5
107
77
15.2
102
0.719
0.0294
35.9
3206
4180
1985
496
0.034
32.5
25.4
30.9
27.7
2579
117.7
106
78
15.0
102
0.727
0.0300
35.9
3296
4227
1986
348
0.023
31.0
24.2
29.2
26.3
2647
118.4
113
82
14.7
103
0.73
0.0308
35.1
3162
4150
1987
361
0.024
30.7
23.8
28.9
25.9
2795
120.0
116
91
14.2
106
0.788
0.0324
36.5
3152
4378
1988
253
0.017
31.3
24.3
29.0
26.3
2757
118.7
113
93
13.7
107
0.829
0.0336
36.4
3147
4317
1989
159
0.011
31.5
24.2
29.4
26.4
2766
118.6
112
96
13.5
108
0.862
0.0344
36.6
3154
4339
1990
160
0.013
29.6
22.4
27.7
24.7
3026
122.2
120
110
12.9
111
0.92
0.0361
37.4
3047
4577
1991
209
0.017
30.6
22.8
28.9
25.4
3005
123.3
120
106
13.3
110
0.88
0.0350
38.3
3174
4726
1992
143
0.012
30.2
22.3
28.6
25.0
3076
123.7
122
123
12.4
116
1.017
0.0399
38.6
3133
4774
1993
301
0.023
32.5
23.7
31.0
26.9
2882
123.0
118
99
13.5
108
0.842
0.0343
38.9
3342
4784
1994
206
0.015
32.9
23.6
31.7
27.1
2908
122.9
121
103
13.3
110
0.848
0.0352
39.6
3381
4872
1995
198
0.013
33.3
23.9
31.8
27.3
2859
122.1
118
100
13.4
109
0.844
0.0348
39.2
3372
4782
1996
90
0.007
31.6
22.5
30.0
25.8
2952
118.0
122
114
12.5
113
0.928
0.0382
38.2
3079
4507
1997
149
0.010
32.2
22.7
30.8
26.3
2901
119.5
124
117
11.8
116
0.943
0.0404
38.2
3173
4562
1998
98
0.007
32.1
22.3
30.7
26.1
2874
116.9
124
119
11.7
117
0.959
0.0412
37.5
3079
4393
1999
78
0.005
31.5
21.8
30.1
25.5
2923
117.9
125
126
11.3
119
1.004
0.0428
37.4
3046
4413
2000
68
0.004
29.2
20.0
28.2
23.7
3107
119.7
127
143
10.7
123
1.129
0.0459
36.9
2860
4414
2001
212
0.014
27.3
19.0
25.4
22.0
3470
119.6
145
148
11.3
121
1.022
0.0426
38.2
2639
4570
2002
236
0.015
26.1
18.0
24.4
21.1
3504
118.2
145
156
11.0
124
1.085
0.0445
37.1
2504
4384
2003
338
0.021
30.2
20.8
27.1
23.9
3262
115.2
127
146
11.0
123
1.162
0.0448
39.6
2812
4557
2004
300
0.019
31.4
21.6
27.7
24.7
3235
117.5
126
166
10.1
130
1.298
0.0506
40.1
2943
4719
2005
365
0.023
32.4
22.2
28.4
25.3
3160
115.9
122
156
10.4
127
1.268
0.0487
40.3
2984
4671
2006
493
0.033
31.4
21.3
27.8
24.6
3255
118.4
127
160
10.5
128
1.244
0.0486
40.1
2940
4755
2007
389
0.025
31.7
21.5
28.2
24.9
3264
112.0
127
160
10.4
128
1.247
0.0484
40.7
2840
4579
2008
420
0.030
32.3
21.9
28.7
25.3
3300
115.0
130
160
10.5
127
1.228
0.0479
42.0
2961
4849
2009
549
0.034
32.6
22.1
28.9
25.5
3337
114.4
130
159
10.4
127
1.225
0.0474
42.8
2953
4905
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-9	November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-4 (cont.)
Percent of Small Wagon:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l)KI\ I IUAIN
1 l\ \\N\I|NN|(>\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MlJIiUOl \ \i \ l>
VVT
in hum)
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 (X k
(AT
(.Di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM K
11\ i:
1975
13.3

48.6



0.8








1976
12.2

42.8



3.2








1977
23.3

52.9



6.4

0.6






1978
23.0

56.3



6.9








1979
13.3
12.1
59.3



1.0








1980
24.4
9.8
67.3
4.6


1.1

6.3






1981
57.9
8.0
62.0
8.1


4.0

2.2






1982
68.3
8.9
54.0
19.4


4.8
0.7
1.2






1983
55.4
39.3
51.0
23.7


3.7
17.0
0.3






1984
81.4
15.6
43.7
39.2


5.1
32.2
1.6






1985
60.0
39.6
42.7
42.2


6.2
15.4
0.5






1986
78.4
20.7
43.3
29.0


6.8
24.3
0.8
100.0





1987
76.6
23.4
34.4
41.0


29.2
42.6

78.8
4.9
16.3



1988
80.2
19.8
37.8
34.6


30.6
62.8

80.5
0.6
18.9



1989
89.9
10.1
26.6
51.8


41.0
48.8

59.8
3.2
36.9



1990
68.3
31.7
30.6
58.8


59.4
40.6

35.5

64.5



1991
79.1
20.9
24.4
74.1


80.0
20.0

51.4

48.6



1992
73.0
25.5
30.9
68.2


95.3
4.7

54.7

45.3

1.4

1993
83.2
16.2
28.9
70.6


95.8
4.2

73.5

26.5

0.5

1994
88.6
10.6
26.3
72.1


97.8
2.2

79.2

20.8

3.5

1995
92.8
4.6
23.8
76.2


100.0


74.3

25.7

4.5

1996
84.5
11.2
20.8
79.2


100.0


48.9

51.1

4.5

1997
82.9
14.4
19.6
80.4


100.0


59.3

40.7

3.0

1998
78.9
18.3
18.8
81.2


100.0


50.9

45.6
3.5
3.5

1999
71.8
22.8
20.1
77.6


100.0


36.8

58.7
4.4
16.3

2000
71.5
17.9
15.2
78.0


100.0


0.8

95.8
3.4
43.1

2001
92.6
5.1
14.9
84.5


100.0


2.6

95.2
2.2
4.1

2002
82.0
14.9
19.6
79.8


99.1

0.9
4.7
1.6
91.5
2.2
2.2

2003
86.2
11.7
16.6
83.4


98.0

2.0
3.8
1.1
93.2
1.9
48.3

2004
85.7
13.4
15.7
84.3


98.8

1.2
2.5
0.9
95.0
1.6
51.5

2005
89.0
10.7
15.5
84.5


98.9

1.1
20.9
0.6
77.9
0.6
60.4

2006
90.8
8.8
11.9
88.1


100.0


10.4

89.6
0.1
55.5

2007
90.2
9.4
10.4
89.0


100.0


8.3

91.6
0.1
49.3

2008
87.2
12.6
15.6
84.4

1.9
98.1




99.9
0.1
50.9

2009
87.0
12.8
18.0
76.8
4.6
3.8
94.3

1.9


100.0

81.8

EPA-420-R-09-014
E-10
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-5
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Mid-size Wagon
Moi)i:i
^ i:\k
NAI.r.S
(000)
1 K V(
i i i:i i:< o\o\n
WCIII
1 li
VOI,
(III
i:m;im:
0-60
i imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
TON-
Ml'(;
(1 II
MI'C
(III
TON-
Ml'(;
1 VIS
55/45
VIM
(in
VIM
ll\U
VIM
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
289
0.028
13.2
10.2
12.9
11.3
4791

361
162
13.8
115
0.473
0.0338
27.4


1976
485
0.039
16.0
12.6
15.1
13.6
4555

315
142
14.8
110
0.458
0.0311
31.2


1977
548
0.039
16.3
12.9
15.3
13.9
4410
143.6
297
135
15.1
109
0.459
0.0305
30.7
2015
4417
1978
503
0.035
18.6
14.6
17.6
15.8
3836
140.0
258
123
14.4
109
0.484
0.0320
30.5
2240
4266
1979
482
0.035
19.1
15.2
17.9
16.3
3758
139.7
249
118
14.7
108
0.480
0.0313
30.7
2295
4293
1980
257
0.023
21.1
16.5
20.1
18.0
3534
139.7
228
107
15.0
106
0.482
0.0304
31.9
2542
4455
1981
272
0.026
23.1
18.1
21.8
19.6
3285
136.2
193
103
14.5
107
0.562
0.0316
32.4
2714
4417
1982
284
0.029
23.7
18.5
22.6
20.2
3384
136.1
205
108
14.3
108
0.551
0.0320
34.3
2781
4669
1983
276
0.027
24.4
19.1
23.3
20.8
3348
136.2
200
109
14.1
108
0.568
0.0325
35.0
2869
4759
1984
365
0.026
25.0
19.4
24.2
21.3
3298
135.9
172
107
14.1
108
0.633
0.0324
35.3
2922
4793
1985
341
0.024
25.2
19.4
24.6
21.5
3356
134.8
170
112
13.9
109
0.679
0.0334
36.2
2909
4876
1986
409
0.027
26.0
19.8
25.7
22.1
3355
137.8
162
115
13.6
110
0.718
0.0342
37.1
3055
5116
1987
359
0.024
25.6
19.3
25.6
21.8
3434
140.2
173
125
13.0
113
0.735
0.0363
37.4
3059
5245
1988
285
0.019
26.2
19.4
26.5
22.2
3378
139.4
171
126
12.7
114
0.743
0.0372
37.7
3113
5249
1989
239
0.017
25.6
18.8
25.9
21.7
3436
139.9
176
132
12.4
116
0.765
0.0383
37.3
3038
5217
1990
184
0.015
25.3
18.3
25.9
21.3
3498
141.6
181
139
12.0
118
0.782
0.0397
37.4
3030
5298
1991
122
0.010
25.9
18.6
26.4
21.8
3506
142.3
181
140
12.0
118
0.794
0.0401
38.3
3111
5451
1992
137
0.011
26.2
18.6
26.9
21.9
3503
142.6
188
143
11.8
119
0.777
0.0408
38.5
3143
5502
1993
166
0.013
26.2
18.7
26.6
21.9
3498
137.7
188
144
11.7
120
0.790
0.0411
38.4
3028
5296
1994
138
0.010
26.0
18.4
26.4
21.7
3532
137.4
180
151
11.4
122
0.863
0.0428
38.4
2987
5273
1995
176
0.012
26.6
18.8
26.6
22.1
3482
135.9
167
148
11.4
121
0.915
0.0426
38.5
3008
5235
1996
169
0.013
26.3
18.5
25.8
21.7
3661
136.9
161
153
11.6
122
0.965
0.0422
39.8
2982
5458
1997
149
0.010
26.3
18.5
25.5
21.6
3666
136.5
160
158
11.3
123
1.001
0.0434
39.5
2948
5403
1998
153
0.011
26.2
18.5
25.0
21.4
3668
135.3
155
169
10.7
127
1.097
0.0461
39.3
2909
5327
1999
181
0.012
26.3
18.3
25.4
21.5
3691
136.4
157
169
10.8
126
1.087
0.0457
39.7
2940
5419
2000
234
0.014
27.3
18.9
25.7
22.1
3572
134.0
153
162
11.0
125
1.060
0.0452
39.5
2982
5294
2001
236
0.015
26.6
18.5
24.8
21.5
3775
133.6
155
175
10.7
128
1.139
0.0463
40.7
2905
5433
2002
208
0.013
27.4
18.9
25.4
22.0
3731
133.6
152
172
10.7
127
1.136
0.0460
41.0
2953
5477
2003
171
0.011
27.2
18.6
25.4
21.9
3745
133.5
151
174
10.7
127
1.157
0.0463
40.9
2936
5461
2004
158
0.010
26.4
17.9
24.7
21.2
3860
135.0
158
189
10.3
131
1.208
0.0489
41.0
2877
5531
2005
238
0.015
26.0
17.4
24.4
20.8
3839
133.3
183
213
9.3
139
1.195
0.0547
40.0
2810
5338
2006
220
0.015
26.4
17.7
24.7
21.1
3827
135.6
182
221
9.1
142
1.221
0.0570
40.4
2884
5481
2007
150
0.010
27.3
18.4
25.4
21.8
3727
135.4
161
195
9.8
134
1.223
0.0518
40.7
2976
5511
2008
152
0.011
27.1
18.2
25.2
21.6
3808
132.2
163
190
10.1
132
1.175
0.0497
41.2
2876
5449
2009
122
0.008
27.7
18.6
25.6
22.0
3761
131.1
158
191
9.9
133
1.206
0.0505
41.4
2902
5431
EPA-420-R-09-014
E-ll
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envuonrnerual Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-5 (cont.)
Percent of Mid-size Wagon:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l)KI\ I IUAIN
1 l\ \\N\I|NN|(>\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MlJIiUOl \ \i \ l>
VVT
in hum)
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 (X k
(AT
(.Di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM K
11\ i:
1975


4



7.6

0.2






1976


7.1



3.4

0.1






1977


4.6



3.5

0.3






1978


5.3
17.2


3

0.3






1979


5.3
9.1


2.5

2.5






1980


9.9
43.8


4.3

5.9






1981
35.6

12.8
28.5


6.9

5.9






1982
28.2

7.4
62.6


5.7

6.3






1983
32.8

6.2
50.2


7.9

2.3






1984
69.9

5.4
62.5


10.4
20.3
2.5






1985
69.5
4.5
5.9
64.7


25.7
30.5
1.8






1986
82.2
2.1
9.1
71


51.3
28
0.2
100.0





1987
83.9
0.1
4.4
83.6


71.7
22.8
0.8
100.0





1988
87.7
0.7
3.8
87.2


70.2
29.8

100.0





1989
77.5
8.2
7.1
80.7


87.7
12.3

99.0

1.0



1990
81.1
0.4
1.7
87.9


98.5
1.5

96.6

3.4



1991
79.6
1.3
2.4
85.6


99.3
0.7

96.4

3.6



1992
80.8
0.6
1.7
88.9


99.7
0.3

89.7

10.3



1993
87
0.6
1.8
91.2


100


88.4

11.6



1994
89
0.4
1.6
94


100


79.9

20.1

6.2

1995
64.8
27.8
10.1
86.7


100


49.2

50.8

6.1

1996
61
39
12.9
87.1


99.2

0.8
36.5

63.5

6.8

1997
48.5
51.5
13.4
86.6


99.9

0.1
32.4

67.6

4.8

1998
32.7
64.2
13.7
86.3


100


12.9
3.1
82.4
1.6
8.9

1999
44.8
52
12.1
87.9


100


16.9
3.2
69.8
10.1
10.6

2000
54.4
43.3
9.9
90.1


100


25.7
2.3
61.3
10.6
19.8

2001
42.4
56.5
8.5
91.5


100


11.4
2.4
74.0
12.2
39.1

2002
49
50.3
8.9
91.1


100


7.2
1.9
80.0
10.9
36.7

2003
46.9
52.7
8.9
90.8


100


7.0
0.7
74.1
18.2
30.9

2004
40.3
58.2
7.3
92.7


99.4

0.6
5.0
3.7
76.5
14.9
48.6

2005
19.9
49.3
6.8
93.2


98.6

1.4
14.8
1.0
79.8
4.4
31.3

2006
19.7
44.1
4.8
95.2


100


5.9
0.8
93.2

34.1

2007
45.4
42.4
5.4
94.5


100


2.6

97.4

28.2

2008
35.9
54.2
5.4
94.6

5.2
94.8


2.6

97.4

28.6

2009
39.5
60.4
5.5
94.5

3
97




100

33.3

EPA-420-R-09-014
E-12
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-6
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Large Wagon
Moi)i:i
^ i-:vk
SAI.KS
(III III)
1 l\A( '
i i i:i i:< <>\<>\n
WCIII
1 li
\ (>l
(III
i:m;im:
0-60
i imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
TON-
Ml'(;
(1 II
MI'C
(1 II
TON-
Ml'(;
1 \li
55/45
VD.I
(in
VIM
ll\U
VD.I
( OMI'
( id
III'
1975
197
0.019
11.9
9.3
11.6
10.2
5453

410
181
14.0
116
0.441
0.0333
27.9


1976
207
0.017
13.5
10.6
12.9
11.5
5444

416
185
13.7
117
0.445
0.0340
31.4


1977
340
0.024
15.5
12.2
14.6
13.2
4713
163.1
365
161
13.6
115
0.442
0.0342
31.4
2185
5113
1978
293
0.020
15.9
12.4
15.4
13.6
4664
162.4
354
162
13.4
116
0.460
0.0348
31.8
2216
5161
1979
275
0.020
16.1
12.8
15.1
13.7
4466
162.5
333
155
13.4
115
0.465
0.0346
30.7
2240
4996
1980
102
0.009
19.1
14.7
18.9
16.3
4423
161.5
323
134
15.2
109
0.418
0.0304
36.9
2690
5953
1981
108
0.010
19.9
15.0
20.3
17.0
4394
161.4
312
131
15.3
108
0.424
0.0299
38.2
2797
6154
1982
146
0.015
19.2
14.4
19.8
16.4
4396
161.3
306
139
14.6
110
0.456
0.0316
36.5
2677
5877
1983
130
0.013
19.6
14.7
20.2
16.7
4379
161.6
307
142
14.1
112
0.465
0.0325
36.8
2714
5940
1984
176
0.013
19.9
14.9
20.5
17.0
4371
161.7
305
144
13.9
112
0.472
0.0330
37.3
2760
6028
1985
145
0.010
20.9
15.6
21.8
17.9
4354
161.7
305
153
13.2
115
0.504
0.0354
39.0
2894
6299
1986
120
0.008
22.0
16.2
23.3
18.8
4381
161.4
304
146
13.9
113
0.479
0.0334
41.3
3040
6656
1987
88
0.006
22.1
16.3
23.1
18.9
4348
161.8
304
143
14.0
112
0.470
0.0330
41.0
3051
6634
1988
75
0.005
22.8
16.8
23.4
19.4
4349
161.7
304
143
14.0
112
0.470
0.0330
42.1
3131
6807
1989
63
0.004
22.5
16.5
23.0
19.0
4334
161.8
304
143
13.9
112
0.471
0.0332
41.2
3081
6671
1990
31
0.002
22.7
16.5
23.1
19.1
4337
161.6
304
143
13.9
112
0.471
0.0332
41.5
3092
6701
1991
34
0.003
22.9
16.3
24.2
19.4
4402
169.1
304
177
11.9
122
0.581
0.0404
42.6
3273
7207
1992
27
0.002
22.7
15.9
24.3
19.1
4500
170.3
338
177
12.1
121
0.526
0.0394
43.1
3261
7337
1993
19
0.001
22.5
15.6
24.3
19.0
4500
169.3
340
174
12.2
120
0.513
0.0386
42.7
3214
7231
1994
16
0.001
22.9
15.9
24.1
19.2
4500
169.2
350
250
9.1
144
0.714
0.0556
43.3
3254
7321
1995
10
0.001
22.8
15.8
23.9
19.1
4500
169.3
350
250
9.1
144
0.714
0.0556
43.0
3233
7274
1996
9
0.001
23.2
15.9
24.5
19.4
4500
170.2
350
260
8.9
147
0.743
0.0578
43.6
3298
7421
2004
98
0.006
22.0
14.9
20.9
17.8
4769
165.0
215
249
9.6
140
1.158
0.0524
42.4
2936
6996
2005
118
0.007
22.2
14.9
21.1
17.9
4791
165.0
217
244
9.8
139
1.125
0.0510
42.9
2958
7078
2006
102
0.007
21.9
14.8
20.7
17.7
4806
164.4
219
254
9.5
142
1.165
0.0531
42.4
2911
6969
2007
73
0.005
21.9
14.5
21.6
17.9
4785
159.2
237
247
9.7
140
1.048
0.0519
42.8
2849
6811
2008
23
0.002
21.8
14.6
21.0
17.7
5017
160.1
227
256
9.6
140
1.135
0.0512
44.4
2837
7108
2009
7
0.000
21.8
15.0
19.8
17.4
5500
161.7
209
261
10.0
137
1.245
0.0474
48.1
2830
7784
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-13	November 2009

-------
United Stains
l~™M'lp««»~,to'	Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-6 (cont.)
Percent of Large Wagon:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l)KI\ I IUAIN
1 l\ \\N\I|NN|(>\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MlJIiUOl \ \i \ l>
VVT
in hum)
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 (X k
(AT
(.1)1
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM U
11\ i:
1975















1976















1977















1978








1.4






1979















1980



74.0




26.7






1981



100.0



0.2
25.2






1982



100.0




11.0






1983



100.0



24.1
4.6






1984



100.0



25.8
1.5






1985



100.0



29.2
0.4






1986



100.0


23.7


100.0





1987



100.0


30.3


100.0





1988



100.0


30.2


100.0





1989



100.0


33.1


100.0





1990



100.0


32.7


100.0





1991



100.0


19.5
80.5

100.0





1992



100.0



100.0

100.0





1993



100.0



100.0

100.0





1994



100.0


100.0


100.0





1995



100.0


100.0


100.0





1996



100.0


100.0


100.0





2004
46.1
53.9

100.0


100.0




100.0



2005
60.1
39.9

100.0


100.0


14.5

85.5



2006
57.8
42.2

100.0


100.0


0.0
19.0
81.0

14.5

2007
60.0
40.0

100.0


97.9

2.1
12.2
1.6
86.3

13.3

2008
31.7
57.6

100.0


95.2

4.8


100.0

41.0

2009

100.0

100.0


87.8

12.2


100.0

87.8

EPA-420-R-09-014
E-14
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-7
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Small Van
Moi)i:i
^ i-:vk
SAI.KS
(000)
1 K \l
i i i:i i:c <»nc
WCIII
1 li
i:m;im:
0-60
1 IMI.
l()l'
N|'l>
III'
(II)
III'
\VT
TON-
MI'C
1 VIS
55/45
VIM
(in
VIM
ll\U
AIM
( mil'
( id
III'
1975
2
0.000
20.6
16.2
19.6
17.5
3498
118
78
19.1
96
0.656
0.0224
30.7
1976
1
0.000
19.9
15.1
20.1
17.0
3500
120
67
20.9
92
0.558
0.0191
29.8
1977
2
0.000
22.2
17.2
21.5
18.9
3500
120
67
20.8
92
0.558
0.0191
33.1
1978
3
0.000
20.0
15.7
19.1
17.0
3500
120
67
20.9
92
0.558
0.0191
29.8
1979
8
0.001
18.7
14.8
17.6
16.0
3500
120
67
20.9
92
0.558
0.0191
28.0
1980
16
0.001
19.0
14.7
18.6
16.2
3618
120
67
21.4
91
0.558
0.0186
29.4
1981
11
0.001
18.5
14.6
17.4
15.8
3644
120
67
21.6
91
0.558
0.0185
28.7
1982
15
0.002
21.7
17.7
19.4
18.4
3668
111
61
23.4
89
0.550
0.0168
35.6
1983
14
0.001
19.7
15.6
18.4
16.8
3567
118
69
20.9
92
0.583
0.0194
30.3
1984
83
0.006
25.6
20.8
23.0
21.7
3313
120
87
16.6
100
0.721
0.0265
36.4
1985
93
0.006
25.5
20.7
23.1
21.7
3270
121
88
16.2
101
0.727
0.0272
35.6
1986
102
0.007
25.7
20.6
23.1
21.7
3298
131
95
15.3
104
0.728
0.0291
36.0
1987
126
0.008
24.3
19.4
21.9
20.5
3299
134
98
15.0
105
0.736
0.0301
34.0
1988
55
0.004
24.5
19.2
22.3
20.6
3402
134
100
15.1
105
0.751
0.0297
35.2
1989
35
0.002
25.0
19.8
22.4
20.9
3390
130
98
15.3
104
0.755
0.0293
35.5
1990
30
0.002
23.9
18.5
21.8
20.0
3554
140
120
14.0
111
0.855
0.0344
35.6
1991
15
0.001
24.0
18.6
21.5
19.9
3402
124
95
15.8
103
0.761
0.0284
33.8
1992
40
0.003
27.0
20.2
25.3
22.4
3217
129
115
13.0
112
0.901
0.0358
36.1
1993
12
0.001
28.2
20.9
26.4
23.3
3032
121
120
12.0
115
0.991
0.0396
35.4
1994
11
0.001
27.0
19.7
25.7
22.3
3248
135
130
11.9
117
0.966
0.0402
36.3
1995
6
0.000
26.5
19.3
24.8
21.8
3163
134
130
11.7
118
0.967
0.0411
34.6
1996
2
0.000
26.2
18.8
24.9
21.5
3416
142
134
12.1
117
0.949
0.0394
36.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
E-15
November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-7 (cont.)
Percent of Small Van:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l)KI\ I IUAIN
1 l\ \\N\I|NN|(>\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MlJIiUOl \ \i \ l>
VVT
in hum)
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 (X k
( AT
(.Di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM K
11\ i:
1975


43.3




61.1







1976


84.8




100.0







1977


89.9




100.0







1978


85.0




100.0







1979


81.2




100.0







1980


82.9




100.0







1981


81.2




100.0







1982


89.0




61.7
38.3






1983
4.2

76.9




93.6
6.4






1984
20.0

41.9
50.1


54.4
25.6
2.4






1985
18.7
3.2
40.8
53.3


57.7
20.5







1986
22.4
13.1
36.4
60.8


64.5








1987
20.5
17.0
30.4
66.8


65.1
18.1







1988
21.1
16.0
28.4
68.6


81.6
18.4







1989
27.6
21.3
30.0
65.4


99.7
0.3







1990
55.8
22.8
20.8
55.9


99.0
1.0







1991
42.3
28.4
45.2
36.5


100.0








1992
84.4
15.6
26.8
73.2


100.0








1993
98.5
1.5
14.5
85.5


100.0








1994
66.1
33.9
14.1
85.9


100.0


42.9
33.9
23.3



1995
27.3
72.7
18.8
81.2


100.0




100.0



1996
92.3
7.7
3.8
96.2


100.0




100.0



EPA-420-R-09-014
E-16
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-8
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Mid-size Van



i i i:i i:< o\o\n

i:m;im:





Moi)i:i
SAI.KS

1 VIS
VIM
VIM
AIM
WCII 1


0-60
l()l>
III'
III'
TON-
^ i: vu
(000)
1 KU
55/45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
1 li
(id
III'
i imi:
M'l>
(II)
\\ 1
MI'C
1975
302
0.030
13.3
10.8
11.9
11.3
4230
310
141
13.9
112
0.454
0.0334
24.5
1976
308
0.025
14.1
11.3
12.9
12.0
4277
317
143
14.0
112
0.449
0.0334
26.1
1977
313
0.022
14.3
11.6
12.8
12.1
4348
326
149
13.6
114
0.456
0.0343
26.6
1978
399
0.028
13.8
11.3
12.2
11.7
4345
327
152
13.3
115
0.465
0.0351
25.9
1979
313
0.023
14.3
11.8
12.5
12.1
4506
320
137
15.0
109
0.433
0.0305
27.6
1980
130
0.011
16.9
13.5
15.6
14.3
4230
288
136
14.3
111
0.475
0.0321
30.5
1981
138
0.013
17.9
14.3
16.5
15.2
4248
279
134
14.6
110
0.480
0.0315
32.4
1982
180
0.019
17.9
14.3
16.5
15.2
4266
284
139
14.3
111
0.485
0.0324
32.5
1983
230
0.022
18.7
14.8
17.4
15.9
4396
294
141
14.5
111
0.480
0.0320
35.3
1984
420
0.030
19.2
15.1
18.1
16.3
4081
248
127
14.8
109
0.538
0.0309
33.8
1985
600
0.041
19.8
15.8
18.5
16.9
3945
233
131
14.1
111
0.586
0.0330
33.7
1986
782
0.051
20.8
16.2
19.7
17.6
3964
224
129
14.3
110
0.595
0.0323
35.2
1987
848
0.057
21.2
16.3
20.3
18.0
3959
226
146
12.9
116
0.671
0.0368
35.8
1988
941
0.062
21.8
16.6
21.0
18.4
3974
223
148
12.7
117
0.691
0.0373
36.7
1989
1100
0.076
21.8
16.5
20.9
18.3
3980
218
146
12.9
116
0.700
0.0367
36.7
1990
1124
0.089
21.8
16.3
21.0
18.3
4033
219
148
12.9
116
0.693
0.0367
37.1
1991
943
0.075
21.9
16.3
20.9
18.3
4079
214
148
13.0
116
0.714
0.0363
37.5
1992
1088
0.089
21.8
16.2
20.9
18.2
4102
218
152
12.8
117
0.713
0.0369
37.5
1993
1323
0.100
22.3
16.4
21.5
18.6
4033
211
153
12.5
118
0.741
0.0380
37.5
1994
1295
0.092
22.0
16.1
21.0
18.2
4078
219
158
12.4
119
0.732
0.0386
37.3
1995
1552
0.102
22.2
16.0
21.4
18.4
4041
226
158
12.3
119
0.717
0.0390
37.3
1996
1298
0.099
22.8
16.3
22.0
18.8
4115
211
168
11.8
122
0.806
0.0410
38.8
1997
1126
0.078
22.6
16.1
21.7
18.6
4132
210
168
11.8
122
0.810
0.0407
38.5
1998
1357
0.094
23.3
16.4
22.5
19.1
4090
209
176
11.3
125
0.849
0.0431
39.2
1999
1292
0.085
23.0
16.1
22.3
18.9
4199
213
177
11.4
124
0.842
0.0422
39.7
2000
1522
0.092
23.5
16.3
22.6
19.2
4197
208
178
11.4
124
0.869
0.0426
40.3
2001
938
0.060
24.0
16.5
22.9
19.5
4267
206
190
11.0
127
0.930
0.0446
41.7
2002
1131
0.070
23.7
16.3
22.6
19.2
4332
210
197
10.8
129
0.945
0.0456
41.8
2003
1121
0.071
24.1
16.4
22.9
19.5
4313
212
198
10.7
130
0.940
0.0461
42.1
2004
893
0.057
24.1
16.2
23.1
19.5
4431
214
212
10.4
133
0.999
0.0479
43.2
2005
1425
0.090
24.2
16.2
23.0
19.5
4398
213
208
10.5
132
0.983
0.0473
42.9
2006
1096
0.073
24.7
16.4
23.6
19.9
4431
212
210
10.5
132
0.995
0.0474
44.0
2007
815
0.053
24.4
16.3
23.4
19.7
4450
216
225
10.0
136
1.043
0.0505
43.8
2008
746
0.054
24.7
16.5
23.7
19.9
4524
219
222
10.4
135
1.016
0.0491
45.1
2009
696
0.044
24.9
16.5
23.9
20.1
4552
220
219
10.7
134
1.001
0.0482
45.7
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-17	November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-8 (cont.)
Percent of Mid-size Van:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l>KI\ I I U\|\
1 KA\n\||sn|C»\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MIJIiKOI \ \i \ l>
VVT
in nun)
1 UOM
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 <>< k
(AT
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM K
h\ i:
1975


19.1












1976


17.6












1977


11.8












1978


10.6












1979


13.5
10.4











1980


21.9
71.3











1981
0.6

16.0
81.1











1982


10.5
78.7











1983


9.1
77.2




7.1






1984
32.0

12.0
48.7




1.5






1985
40.4

6.1
45.9


0.1
1.0
0.4






1986
29.7

5.7
61.5


10.9
21.7
0.2






1987
33.1

3.9
70.6


36.9
36.8
0.1






1988
42.4

2.6
83.1


49.9
49.8
0.1






1989
39.0
0.1
2.3
80.2


52.0
47.9
0.1






1990
51.0
6.8
1.2
96.2


53.5
46.4
0.1






1991
41.2
11.5
0.7
99.0


60.2
39.7
0.1






1992
47.8
5.6
0.8
98.3


68.6
31.3
0.1






1993
53.4
4.9
1.1
98.6


77.4
22.6







1994
56.7
6.8
0.4
98.7


79.6
20.4

96.6
2.0
1.3



1995
65.5
9.4

99.5


86.9
13.1

95.5
1.1
3.4



1996
80.0
2.5

99.5


100.0


93.9
1.1
5.0



1997
72.6
5.3

99.5


100.0


92.9
1.2
5.9



1998
86.0
3.5

100.0


100.0


88.6

11.4



1999
86.0
3.1

100.0


100.0


85.9

14.1

9.3

2000
89.5
3.0

100.0


100.0


76.0

24.0

16.7

2001
91.0
3.3

100.0


100.0


70.4

29.6

22.3

2002
92.6
3.3

100.0


100.0


68.9

31.1

22.9

2003
91.4
4.9

100.0


100.0


72.0

28.0

21.5

2004
92.4
4.8

100.0


100.0


44.2

55.8

49.2

2005
92.6
5.4

94.7
5.3

100.0


60.6

39.4

26.0

2006
95.5
4.5

95.0
5.0

100.0


50.2

49.8

38.8

2007
97.4
2.6

95.3
4.7

100.0


44.9

55.1

50.6

2008
96.1
3.7

100.0


100.0


46.3

53.7

48.7

2009
98.2
1.8

100.0


100.0


39.0

61.0

40.4

EPA-420-R-09-014
E-18
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-9
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Large Van



i i i:i i:< o\o\n

i:m;im:





Moi)i:i
SAIJ'.S

1 VIS
VIM
VIM
AIM
WCII 1


0-60
l()l>
III'
III'
TON-
^ i:\k
(000)
1 l\A(
55/45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
1 li
(id
III'
i imi:
M'l>
(II)
\\ 1
MI'C
1975
153
0.015
12.6
10.0
11.7
10.7
4135
334
148
13.7
115
0.434
0.0356
22.5
1976
192
0.016
13.4
10.6
12.7
11.4
4081
335
151
13.3
117
0.444
0.0370
23.8
1977
199
0.014
15.5
12.5
14.1
13.2
4110
343
158
12.6
119
0.459
0.0385
27.4
1978
224
0.015
15.0
12.2
13.6
12.8
4088
335
145
13.3
114
0.430
0.0354
26.5
1979
159
0.011
12.1
9.7
11.1
10.3
4665
336
163
13.5
116
0.480
0.0348
24.3
1980
96
0.008
16.0
12.8
14.7
13.6
4639
315
133
15.5
107
0.421
0.0287
31.9
1981
96
0.009
16.8
13.5
15.3
14.3
4513
310
128
15.6
107
0.414
0.0285
32.5
1982
115
0.012
16.1
13.0
14.7
13.7
4548
314
131
15.5
107
0.418
0.0289
31.5
1983
138
0.013
16.2
12.9
15.0
13.8
4532
314
134
15.1
108
0.429
0.0297
31.5
1984
174
0.012
16.4
13.0
15.4
14.0
4421
314
143
14.4
111
0.452
0.0322
31.2
1985
162
0.011
16.1
12.7
15.1
13.7
4491
312
146
14.3
112
0.464
0.0325
30.9
1986
160
0.010
17.6
13.8
16.5
14.9
4610
306
142
14.9
110
0.464
0.0308
34.6
1987
140
0.009
17.0
13.2
16.1
14.4
4659
309
155
13.9
113
0.500
0.0332
33.7
1988
137
0.009
16.9
13.0
16.0
14.3
4858
309
156
14.3
113
0.502
0.0321
34.8
1989
142
0.010
16.8
12.9
15.7
14.1
4821
309
155
14.3
113
0.501
0.0323
34.2
1990
107
0.009
16.5
12.6
15.7
13.9
4901
314
162
14.0
114
0.514
0.0331
34.1
1991
76
0.006
16.7
12.6
15.8
14.0
4943
312
162
14.1
114
0.518
0.0329
34.7
1992
93
0.008
16.9
12.6
16.2
14.2
5132
315
167
14.2
114
0.527
0.0326
36.5
1993
106
0.008
17.0
12.6
16.1
14.1
5132
315
178
13.5
117
0.565
0.0348
36.4
1994
112
0.008
17.0
12.5
16.3
14.2
5156
318
183
13.3
118
0.577
0.0357
36.5
1995
104
0.007
17.1
12.5
16.3
14.2
5185
314
178
13.7
117
0.567
0.0345
36.8
1996
109
0.008
17.1
12.4
16.3
14.1
5153
325
197
12.7
122
0.604
0.0384
36.5
1997
139
0.010
18.6
13.3
17.8
15.3
5121
300
221
11.3
129
0.740
0.0432
39.3
1998
132
0.009
18.3
13.1
17.6
15.1
5137
297
220
11.3
129
0.745
0.0430
38.9
1999
171
0.011
17.9
12.7
17.0
14.7
5124
297
223
11.2
130
0.756
0.0436
37.7
2000
170
0.010
18.0
12.8
16.8
14.7
4988
296
221
11.1
130
0.750
0.0444
36.7
2001
294
0.019
17.7
12.5
16.9
14.5
5322
303
239
10.9
132
0.791
0.0450
38.7
2002
112
0.007
17.9
12.7
16.5
14.6
5025
293
223
11.0
130
0.765
0.0444
36.7
2003
111
0.007
18.7
13.2
17.0
15.1
5203
289
233
11.0
132
0.811
0.0447
39.5
2004
60
0.004
19.4
13.5
17.9
15.7
5314
292
239
10.9
132
0.817
0.0450
41.6
2005
55
0.003
19.4
13.4
17.7
15.6
5241
288
234
11.0
131
0.808
0.0445
40.8
2006
70
0.005
19.4
13.4
17.7
15.6
5171
283
229
11.1
131
0.806
0.0443
40.3
2007
32
0.002
19.8
13.7
18.2
15.9
5229
283
229
11.3
130
0.800
0.0435
41.6
2008
27
0.002
20.1
14.0
18.1
16.1
5232
282
230
11.3
130
0.806
0.0436
42.1
2009
29
0.002
19.7
13.7
17.8
15.8
5477
295
250
10.9
134
0.840
0.0453
43.2
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-19	November 2009

-------
United Stains
l~™M'lp««»~,to'	Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-9 (cont.)
Percent of Large Van:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l>KI\ I I U\|\
1 KANsMlsslON
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MIJIiKOI \ \i \ l>
VVT
in nun)
1 UOM
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 ()( k
(AT
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
IOI u
h\ i:
1975


31.4












1976


24.8












1977


17.4












1978


16.5












1979


13.9












1980


22.2
1.6











1981


23.5
2.6











1982


14.4
0.4











1983


10.3
35.6











1984


11.2
35.8











1985


6.5
49.5











1986


4.8
52.8


47.7

1.2






1987


2.0
50.4


82.8
1.4







1988


1.5
52.5


94.7
4.5







1989


1.2
51.1


95.0
5.0







1990



75.3


94.5
5.5







1991



77.6


95.0
5.0







1992



83.7


97.2
2.8







1993

0.2

80.9


97.3
2.7







1994



83.7


98.1
1.9

100.0





1995
1.7

0.8
80.2


94.5
5.5

100.0





1996



85.1


100.0


100.0





1997
1.2


100.0


100.0


100.0





1998



100.0


100.0


100.0





1999
0.6


100.0


100.0


100.0





2000
1.0


100.0


100.0


100.0





2001

25.8

100.0


100.0


100.0





2002
0.7


100.0


100.0


99.3

0.7



2003
3.9
6.5

100.0


100.0


96.1

3.9



2004

7.3

100.0


100.0


100.0





2005

7.0

100.0


100.0


100.0





2006

5.7

100.0


100.0


100.0





2007

12.5

100.0


100.0


100.0





2008

14.8

100.0


100.0


100.0





2009

13.8

100.0


100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
E-20
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-10
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Small SUV



i i i:i i:< <>\<>\n

i:m;i si-





Moi)i:i
SAIJ'.S

1 VIS
VIM
VIM
AIM
WCII 1


(1-60
l()l'
III'
III'
TON-
^ i: vu
((Mill)
1 l\A(
55/45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
1 li
md
III'
iimi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
MI'C
1975
53
0.005
16.1
12.7
15.1
13.7
2897
273
118
11.9
117
0.429
0.0416
19.8
1976
60
0.005
15.9
12.8
14.5
13.5
2980
273
108
12.7
112
0.397
0.0367
20.3
1977
72
0.005
17.0
13.7
15.5
14.5
3055
274
111
12.7
112
0.405
0.0367
22.2
1978
91
0.006
16.9
13.5
15.4
14.3
2986
275
109
12.6
112
0.398
0.0370
21.4
1979
104
0.008
16.7
13.9
14.5
14.2
3192
261
117
12.7
113
0.463
0.0367
22.6
1980
60
0.005
18.8
15.3
17.0
16.0
3083
227
95
14.6
105
0.454
0.0306
24.9
1981
43
0.004
20.4
16.3
18.7
17.3
3054
224
102
13.6
108
0.475
0.0335
26.7
1982
42
0.004
20.5
16.6
18.5
17.4
2922
207
97
13.9
107
0.495
0.0331
25.5
1983
55
0.005
21.4
17.4
19.1
18.1
2830
210
100
13.3
109
0.505
0.0349
25.6
1984
145
0.010
21.6
17.3
19.8
18.3
3302
186
101
14.7
106
0.563
0.0308
30.3
1985
115
0.008
22.1
17.2
21.3
18.8
3438
167
98
15.5
103
0.596
0.0285
32.3
1986
177
0.012
23.7
18.5
22.3
20.1
3231
167
118
13.0
112
0.734
0.0361
32.4
1987
254
0.017
24.2
18.9
22.6
20.4
3169
161
112
13.4
110
0.723
0.0347
32.3
1988
288
0.019
24.2
18.8
22.4
20.4
3128
157
112
13.2
111
0.739
0.0351
31.9
1989
228
0.016
22.8
17.7
21.0
19.1
3443
171
120
13.3
111
0.731
0.0347
33.0
1990
189
0.015
23.4
18.1
21.3
19.5
3329
162
115
13.4
110
0.749
0.0345
32.6
1991
136
0.011
23.6
18.7
20.5
19.5
3195
145
110
14.0
109
0.769
0.0339
31.4
1992
129
0.011
23.4
18.4
20.3
19.3
3087
146
117
13.0
113
0.811
0.0373
30.2
1993
144
0.011
23.2
18.2
20.1
19.1
3113
150
121
12.8
114
0.814
0.0383
30.0
1994
188
0.013
24.1
18.6
20.9
19.7
3049
139
115
12.9
113
0.842
0.0373
30.3
1995
189
0.013
24.2
18.6
20.9
19.7
2965
138
117
12.4
115
0.864
0.0391
29.5
1996
120
0.009
28.5
21.3
25.1
23.1
2896
107
106
12.8
111
0.988
0.0365
33.5
1997
489
0.034
22.8
16.7
20.7
18.6
3473
182
152
11.2
122
0.861
0.0434
32.4
1998
316
0.022
23.8
17.5
21.3
19.3
3474
162
154
11.2
123
0.970
0.0440
33.9
1999
314
0.021
24.1
17.7
21.3
19.4
3522
157
148
11.5
121
0.969
0.0418
34.6
2000
400
0.024
22.5
16.4
19.9
18.1
3742
171
154
11.7
121
0.929
0.0411
34.2
2001
390
0.025
24.9
18.0
21.6
19.8
3483
153
152
11.1
123
1.026
0.0437
35.0
2002
354
0.022
24.7
17.7
21.6
19.7
3528
156
157
10.9
124
1.048
0.0447
35.3
2003
264
0.017
25.2
17.8
22.2
20.0
3498
161
160
10.7
125
1.040
0.0458
35.4
2004
256
0.016
24.7
17.1
22.1
19.6
3587
181
174
10.2
130
0.999
0.0488
35.6
2005
215
0.014
24.3
16.9
21.5
19.3
3521
178
173
10.1
130
1.009
0.0492
34.8
2006
132
0.009
21.5
15.0
19.2
17.2
3774
200
183
10.2
130
0.955
0.0485
33.5
2007
145
0.009
22.4
15.7
19.8
17.8
4054
207
186
10.6
128
0.926
0.0462
36.3
2008
151
0.011
22.8
15.8
20.5
18.1
4142
215
187
10.8
128
0.892
0.0454
37.7
2009
191
0.012
23.5
16.3
21.1
18.7
4009
202
190
10.3
130
0.967
0.0476
37.8
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-21	November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-10 (cont.)
Percent of Small SUV:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l>KI\ I I U\|\
1 KA\n\||sn|C»\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MIJIiKOI \ \i \ l>
VVT
in nun)
1 UOM
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 <>< k
(AT
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
I OI U
h\ i:
1975

88.3
100.0












1976

85.9
84.6












1977

79.1
90.1












1978

85.5
86.9












1979

87.3
77.5












1980

100.0
88.6












1981

100.0
90.5
8.8











1982

74.2
67.4
6.8











1983

77.2
70.5
6.6











1984

97.9
42.2
3.2











1985

100.0
55.1
44.0




0.0






1986

100.0
60.2
37.4


62.3








1987

91.0
65.3
25.3


44.0
4.2







1988

86.7
67.3
27.3


51.7
2.3







1989

84.9
60.4
31.1


53.9
26.0







1990

85.8
64.6
31.6


48.2
36.0







1991

65.6
61.0
33.9


39.3
59.4







1992

62.6
66.5
28.8


49.7
47.9







1993

66.4
63.5
31.0


57.3
40.4







1994

67.1
59.6
26.9


63.9
36.1

90.6

9.4



1995

86.6
70.4
29.6


78.9
21.1

100.0





1996
14.9
65.6
39.7
60.3


100.0




100.0



1997
6.2
78.3
41.6
53.9


100.0


52.7

47.3



1998
8.8
73.6
42.6
57.4


100.0


28.6

71.4



1999
8.7
79.0
35.4
64.6


100.0


38.1

61.9



2000
5.4
67.2
27.1
72.9


100.0


62.9

37.1



2001
10.4
62.9
20.6
79.4


100.0


46.7

53.3

22.3

2002
20.2
67.3
20.4
79.5
0.1

100.0


34.6

65.4

27.1

2003
20.4
77.1
22.5
77.5
0.0

100.0


40.3

59.7

29.2

2004
15.5
80.7
23.4
76.6


100.0


33.2

66.8

30.4

2005
18.9
78.9
23.5
76.5


100.0


33.0

67.0

38.2

2006

100.0
35.1
64.9


100.0


54.7

45.3

2.4

2007

92.4
25.2
74.8


100.0


69.7

30.3

1.5

2008

96.2
22.8
77.2


100.0


79.9

20.1

0.8

2009

94.4
23.6
76.4


100.0


64.7

35.3

3.5

EPA-420-R-09-014
E-22
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-ll
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Mid-size SUV
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
SAI.KS
(000)
1 l\A(
i i i:i i:< o\o\n
WCII 1
1 li
i:m;im:
0-60
i imi:
l()l>
M'l>
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
TON-
MI'C
1 VIS
55/45
VIM
(in
VIM
ll\U
AIM
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
123
0.012
12.1
9.9
10.6
10.2
4724
349
156
14.0
113
0.445
0.0330
24.3
1976
168
0.014
13.3
10.7
12.0
11.3
4730
354
150
14.5
112
0.422
0.0318
26.7
1977
194
0.014
14.6
11.8
13.2
12.4
4610
349
153
13.9
113
0.439
0.0334
28.7
1978
270
0.019
13.8
11.1
12.7
11.8
4653
358
160
13.4
115
0.449
0.0345
27.4
1979
187
0.013
11.9
9.7
10.5
10.1
4807
344
153
14.5
112
0.446
0.0318
24.3
1980
100
0.009
14.3
11.5
13.0
12.1
4708
324
145
14.8
110
0.448
0.0308
28.9
1981
79
0.008
15.6
12.4
14.5
13.3
4664
317
140
15.0
109
0.445
0.0301
31.3
1982
98
0.010
16.4
13.1
15.2
13.9
4732
320
140
15.2
109
0.441
0.0297
34.2
1983
203
0.020
18.8
14.6
18.0
16.0
4312
250
126
15.3
107
0.537
0.0293
35.4
1984
431
0.031
18.9
14.8
18.1
16.1
4092
226
123
15.0
107
0.571
0.0299
33.7
1985
563
0.039
19.7
15.3
19.2
16.8
4011
212
122
14.9
108
0.602
0.0304
34.3
1986
538
0.035
19.7
15.4
18.7
16.7
4006
204
126
14.4
109
0.653
0.0315
33.9
1987
562
0.038
19.8
15.2
19.1
16.8
3975
216
141
13.3
114
0.679
0.0357
33.6
1988
610
0.040
19.5
14.9
18.8
16.5
4017
234
152
12.6
118
0.675
0.0384
33.3
1989
624
0.043
19.5
14.9
18.6
16.5
4026
254
161
12.0
121
0.650
0.0406
33.4
1990
447
0.035
19.1
14.4
18.4
16.1
4079
243
162
12.1
121
0.689
0.0404
32.9
1991
904
0.072
20.2
15.1
19.5
16.9
4112
236
163
12.0
120
0.699
0.0399
35.0
1992
799
0.066
19.9
14.7
19.1
16.6
4106
233
170
11.7
123
0.735
0.0418
34.1
1993
1038
0.079
20.0
14.7
19.3
16.7
4115
242
183
11.0
127
0.764
0.0449
34.5
1994
1265
0.090
19.8
14.5
18.8
16.4
4192
238
182
11.2
126
0.772
0.0437
34.6
1995
1397
0.092
19.6
14.3
18.7
16.3
4213
237
179
11.4
125
0.766
0.0428
34.5
1996
1528
0.116
20.0
14.5
19.1
16.5
4196
249
182
11.2
126
0.740
0.0438
34.9
1997
1401
0.097
20.5
14.8
19.1
16.8
4220
235
178
11.5
124
0.780
0.0425
35.6
1998
1623
0.112
20.8
14.9
19.5
17.0
4151
236
178
11.3
125
0.774
0.0431
35.4
1999
1762
0.116
21.0
15.1
19.4
17.1
4175
228
189
10.8
128
0.856
0.0454
35.8
2000
1863
0.112
21.0
14.9
19.4
17.0
4170
229
188
10.9
128
0.846
0.0452
35.6
2001
1944
0.125
21.7
15.3
20.0
17.5
4110
214
194
10.5
131
0.936
0.0475
36.2
2002
1802
0.112
21.8
15.4
19.9
17.6
4090
204
198
10.3
132
0.989
0.0486
36.1
2003
2093
0.133
22.4
15.6
20.6
18.0
4131
205
200
10.3
132
0.995
0.0486
37.4
2004
2502
0.159
22.5
15.5
20.7
18.1
4179
214
209
10.0
134
0.994
0.0501
37.9
2005
2079
0.131
23.0
15.8
21.0
18.4
4187
204
209
10.0
134
1.043
0.0499
38.6
2006
2117
0.140
23.6
16.2
21.4
18.8
4236
204
209
10.0
134
1.041
0.0493
40.2
2007
2147
0.141
24.7
17.0
22.2
19.6
4154
194
213
9.9
136
1.116
0.0511
41.0
2008
2234
0.161
25.5
17.5
22.8
20.2
4139
188
212
9.8
136
1.135
0.0510
42.2
2009
2463
0.154
25.3
17.3
23.0
20.2
4212
194
221
9.7
138
1.155
0.0523
42.7
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-23	November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-ll (cont.)
Percent of Mid-size SUV:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l)KI\ I IUAIN
1 l\ \\N\I|NN|(>\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MlJIiUOl \ \i \ l>
VVT
in hum)
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 (X k
(AT
(.Di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM K
11\ i:
1975

88.4
18.3












1976

91.1
17.7












1977

89.5
17.8












1978

93.9
17.7












1979

90.3
19.1
1.2











1980

95.8
22.4
29.7




2.9






1981

96.8
21.0
48.6











1982

93.0
19.8
45.0




13.5






1983

89.2
26.3
56.1




4.3






1984

86.9
28.2
50.0




1.2






1985

81.4
25.1
59.4


5.0
2.0
0.8






1986

87.3
33.8
57.1


13.9
36.9
1.3






1987

85.5
27.6
63.6


31.4
53.4
0.2






1988

87.1
21.1
70.2


50.8
46.1
0.1






1989

86.4
16.7
75.4


48.7
49.2
0.1






1990

89.8
19.6
75.9


70.4
28.0
0.1






1991

79.6
17.3
81.7


64.9
34.6
0.0






1992

74.4
17.4
82.6


82.6
17.4







1993

57.9
11.6
88.4


99.4
0.6







1994
0.7
78.7
12.3
87.7


99.7
0.3

86.0
5.5
8.5



1995
0.0
79.4
10.3
89.7


100.0


80.3

19.7



1996

70.8
6.1
93.9


100.0


88.8

11.2



1997

68.5
5.9
94.1


100.0


75.8

24.2



1998
1.2
71.6
4.7
95.3


100.0


80.3

19.7



1999
2.7
68.7
3.8
96.2


100.0


69.5
2.0
28.5

5.2

2000
3.1
69.1
2.8
97.2


100.0


69.7

30.3

4.8

2001
20.6
57.7
3.2
96.8


100.0


54.2

45.8

13.0

2002
15.8
62.2
4.6
95.1
0.1

100.0


36.0

64.0

24.6

2003
18.9
63.1
2.9
95.2
1.9

100.0


36.9
0.0
63.1

32.2

2004
19.4
65.7
2.7
94.0
3.3

100.0


38.8

61.2

33.7

2005
24.1
64.4
2.5
96.9
0.6

99.6

0.4
25.9

74.1

43.8
0.5
2006
26.3
60.5
2.2
93.1
4.7

99.7

0.3
27.7
1.5
70.9

51.6
4.7
2007
31.9
58.6
2.1
91.6
6.3

99.9

0.1
16.2

83.8

66.3
2.9
2008
34.8
58.1
1.1
87.8
11.1
1.5
98.4

0.1
12.3

87.7

68.4
3.9
2009
34.9
54.8
2.2
89.4
8.7
2.4
97.6


13.6

86.4

75.5
2.1
EPA-420-R-09-014
E-24
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-12
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Large SUV
Moi)i:i
^ i:\k
SAIJ'.S
(lllllll
1 l\A(
11 1:1 i:< o\o\n
WCII 1
1 li
i:m;im:
0-60
1 imi:
IOI'
M'l>
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
TON-
MI'C
1 VIS
55/45
VIM
(in
VIM
ll\U
AIM
( OMI'
(id
III'
197s
11
0.001
12.2
10.0
10.7
10.3
4728
364
171
13.0
118
0.467
0.0361
24.5
1976
16
0.001
12.7
10.1
11.6
10.8
4904
373
166
13.9
115
0.440
0.0338
26.6
1977
17
0.001
13.6
11.1
12.2
11.6
4870
371
170
13.6
116
0.453
0.0348
28.6
1978
19
0.001
13.2
10.8
11.7
11.2
4953
373
168
13.5
116
0.455
0.0342
27.9
1979
109
0.008
11.1
9.3
9.4
9.4
5260
375
152
15.8
109
0.403
0.0288
24.8
1980
23
0.002
14.3
11.3
13.4
12.2
5188
340
160
14.7
112
0.471
0.0309
31.8
1981
14
0.001
15.3
12.3
14.1
13.0
5127
338
170
13.9
115
0.502
0.0331
33.4
1982
22
0.002
18.9
14.4
18.9
16.1
5410
344
146
16.5
107
0.427
0.0273
45.0
1983
30
0.003
17.6
13.6
17.1
15.0
5327
355
153
15.8
109
0.435
0.0290
41.5
1984
49
0.003
16.9
13.0
16.5
14.4
5247
351
157
15.1
111
0.450
0.0302
38.6
1985
57
0.004
16.9
12.9
16.8
14.4
5248
350
161
14.9
112
0.460
0.0308
38.4
1986
58
0.004
16.8
12.8
16.7
14.3
5227
350
162
14.7
112
0.464
0.0311
37.9
1987
57
0.004
17.0
12.9
16.6
14.4
5501
350
205
12.7
122
0.587
0.0373
39.8
1988
69
0.005
16.6
12.6
16.2
14.0
5518
351
199
13.0
120
0.568
0.0361
38.9
1989
74
0.005
16.7
12.4
16.6
14.1
5716
351
208
12.9
121
0.594
0.0365
40.5
1990
72
0.006
16.7
12.4
16.6
14.1
5720
351
208
12.9
121
0.595
0.0365
40.4
1991
54
0.004
16.2
12.1
15.7
13.6
5570
328
197
13.3
119
0.603
0.0353
38.1
1992
75
0.006
15.7
11.6
15.2
13.1
5578
331
204
12.9
121
0.629
0.0365
36.7
1993
129
0.010
16.3
12.1
15.7
13.6
5652
345
210
12.6
122
0.612
0.0373
38.6
1994
169
0.012
16.4
12.2
15.5
13.6
5628
343
210
12.6
122
0.616
0.0374
38.4
1995
230
0.015
16.6
12.2
15.7
13.8
5576
347
206
12.7
122
0.594
0.0370
38.4
1996
241
0.018
17.3
12.6
16.5
14.3
5534
344
247
10.9
133
0.719
0.0447
39.6
1997
560
0.039
17.5
12.6
16.8
14.5
5348
328
234
11.1
131
0.714
0.0438
38.7
1998
642
0.044
17.4
12.4
16.7
14.3
5243
313
227
11.2
130
0.736
0.0434
37.6
1999
754
0.050
17.2
12.2
16.6
14.2
5290
323
239
10.8
133
0.743
0.0455
37.6
2000
879
0.053
17.6
12.5
16.7
14.4
5395
312
246
10.7
134
0.797
0.0458
39.0
2001
1115
0.071
18.5
13.2
17.1
15.1
5158
283
244
10.4
135
0.882
0.0475
38.9
2002
2034
0.126
19.1
13.3
18.0
15.6
5050
277
253
10.0
139
0.918
0.0503
39.3
2003
1760
0.112
18.8
13.0
17.6
15.3
5347
288
266
10.0
140
0.939
0.0501
40.7
2004
1955
0.124
18.9
13.0
17.7
15.3
5352
289
274
9.8
142
0.965
0.0515
41.0
2005
1790
0.113
19.9
13.6
18.6
16.1
5152
272
269
9.7
142
1.001
0.0522
41.4
2006
1508
0.100
20.4
13.9
19.1
16.4
5053
259
263
9.7
141
1.028
0.0521
41.5
2007
1939
0.127
21.0
14.2
19.9
17.0
5158
268
279
9.4
145
1.054
0.0541
43.7
2008
1601
0.115
21.2
14.3
20.2
17.2
5134
259
282
9.3
146
1.104
0.0549
44.1
2009
2476
0.155
22.2
14.9
21.1
17.9
4950
250
276
9.2
146
1.121
0.0558
44.3
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-25	November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-12 (cont.)
Percent of Large SUV:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l)KI\ I IUAIN
1 l\ \\N\I|NN|(>\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MlJIiUOl \ \i \ l>
VVT
in hum)
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 (X k
(AT
(.Di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM K
11\ i:
1975

13.5
13.4












1976

22.8
14.6












1977

18.4
13.9












1978

26.9
19.3












1979

16.1
15.3





0.7






1980

30.0
17.8
78.6




5.9






1981

25.4
3.1
96.9











1982

28.7
1.1
98.9




53.2






1983

30.5
0.9
99.1




35.0






1984

30.2
1.0
99.0




19.3






1985

31.3
0.9
99.1




11.5






1986

32.8
0.6
99.4




8.3






1987

36.2
0.6
99.4



95.6
4.4






1988

41.0
0.5
99.5



96.9
3.1






1989

43.4
0.5
99.5



97.6
2.4






1990

42.8
0.3
99.7



97.8
2.2






1991

54.1

100.0


21.2
76.3
2.5






1992

67.5
0.6
99.4


11.2
88.8







1993

64.6
0.5
99.5


6.8
93.2







1994

67.0
0.4
99.6


10.3
89.7

90.5

9.5



1995

71.9
0.2
99.8


4.1
95.9

96.1

3.9



1996

75.7

100.0


99.9

0.1
92.3

7.7



1997

73.4

100.0


100.0

0.0
95.6

4.4



1998

68.4

100.0


100.0

0.0
91.4
6.2
2.4



1999

53.1

100.0


100.0


90.1
2.2
7.7



2000

62.9

100.0


100.0


92.0
4.1
4.0

0.6

2001
3.2
63.1
0.5
99.5


100.0


73.8
3.6
22.6

11.1

2002
1.9
64.5
0.1
99.9


100.0


69.3
2.1
28.6

23.0

2003
1.4
61.3
0.1
96.8
3.1

100.0


57.1
2.0
40.9

31.5

2004
2.8
62.4
0.0
100.0


100.0

0.0
51.5
1.0
46.6
0.9
38.5

2005
8.7
63.4
0.0
95.9
4.0

100.0


46.0
7.7
45.9
0.4
48.3

2006
12.1
64.4
0.2
94.6
5.2

100.0

0.0
23.1
11.1
65.5
0.2
64.0

2007
16.1
59.2
0.1
95.1
4.8

99.7

0.3
50.3
3.3
46.4

41.8

2008
20.4
58.2
0.1
99.4
0.5
2.9
96.3

0.7
35.4
3.3
61.3

52.9
0.5
2009
28.9
51.6
0.2
93.9
5.9
6.8
92.7

0.4
28.2
1.2
70.6
0.1
57.4
0.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
E-26
November 2009

-------
Stains
Environment! Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-13
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Small Pickup
MODCI
^ i:\k
SAIJ'.S
(000)
1 K V(
i i i:i i:c <»nc
WCIII
1 li
i:m;im:
0-60
i imi:
l()l>
M'l>
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
TON-
Ml'(;
1 \li
55/45
VIM
(in
AIM
ll\U
VIM
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
160
0.016
22.5
17.3
22.2
19.2
2756
118
96
13.3
108
0.814
0.0347
26.6
1976
173
0.014
23.8
18.3
23.4
20.3
2775
119
98
13.2
109
0.828
0.0353
28.3
1977
238
0.017
25.5
19.9
24.5
21.7
2768
120
97
13.2
109
0.807
0.0349
30.2
1978
264
0.018
25.6
20.4
23.6
21.7
2799
119
92
13.8
107
0.774
0.0331
30.5
1979
358
0.026
22.8
17.9
21.6
19.4
2793
120
86
14.5
104
0.715
0.0308
27.5
1980
452
0.040
24.3
19.4
22.5
20.7
2790
122
88
14.2
105
0.724
0.0317
29.3
1981
369
0.035
28.2
22.5
26.0
23.9
2819
130
85
15.0
103
0.655
0.0302
34.4
1982
346
0.036
27.3
21.9
25.1
23.2
2899
137
89
14.8
104
0.651
0.0309
34.4
1983
312
0.030
26.9
21.6
24.8
22.9
2976
142
96
14.0
106
0.679
0.0324
34.5
1984
423
0.030
26.1
20.9
24.0
22.2
3035
142
97
14.1
106
0.684
0.0321
34.1
1985
497
0.034
26.7
21.4
24.5
22.7
3098
143
103
13.6
108
0.718
0.0334
35.4
1986
743
0.048
25.9
20.5
24.0
21.9
3141
145
105
13.5
109
0.726
0.0338
34.7
1987
441
0.030
26.0
20.3
24.1
21.9
3135
147
107
13.3
110
0.732
0.0345
34.5
1988
340
0.022
25.0
19.6
22.8
21.0
3200
148
113
13.0
111
0.758
0.0354
33.7
1989
354
0.025
23.9
18.6
21.8
20.0
3328
153
119
12.9
112
0.774
0.0360
33.5
1990
289
0.023
24.8
19.2
22.6
20.7
3293
153
129
12.0
116
0.844
0.0396
34.3
1991
309
0.025
25.0
19.2
22.8
20.8
3324
152
128
12.1
116
0.845
0.0389
34.7
1992
252
0.021
24.6
18.7
22.4
20.4
3321
152
126
12.3
115
0.828
0.0383
34.1
1993
263
0.020
26.3
19.8
23.8
21.6
3232
147
123
12.3
115
0.835
0.0383
35.2
1994
358
0.025
24.9
18.7
22.6
20.5
3355
151
125
12.4
114
0.829
0.0377
34.5
1995
298
0.020
24.4
18.3
22.0
20.0
3385
157
138
11.6
119
0.879
0.0411
33.9
1996
221
0.017
24.6
18.3
22.0
20.1
3362
159
147
11.0
122
0.926
0.0439
33.7
1997
131
0.009
24.9
18.5
22.1
20.2
3349
146
134
11.7
118
0.918
0.0405
33.8
1998
260
0.018
24.5
18.0
21.8
19.8
3462
160
151
11.0
123
0.947
0.0439
34.4
1999
213
0.014
23.2
17.0
20.5
18.7
3600
173
160
10.9
124
0.928
0.0445
33.7
2000
101
0.006
26.3
19.1
23.0
21.0
3307
148
143
11.1
121
0.966
0.0435
34.8
2001
81
0.005
26.5
19.2
22.9
21.1
3357
147
142
11.3
121
0.967
0.0427
35.4
2002
197
0.012
23.2
16.8
20.0
18.5
3735
177
164
11.0
124
0.934
0.0440
34.6
2003
194
0.012
23.2
16.6
20.4
18.5
3769
178
167
11.0
125
0.945
0.0443
35.0
2004
161
0.010
22.6
16.0
19.7
17.9
3796
184
171
10.8
126
0.933
0.0452
34.1
2005
8
0.001
25.8
17.6
23.5
20.5
4000
150
184
10.7
128
1.229
0.0461
41.3
2006
7
0.000
26.9
18.3
24.3
21.3
3921
150
178
10.8
127
1.187
0.0455
42.0
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-27	November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-13 (cont.)
Percent of Small Pickup:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l)KI\ I IUAIN
1 l\ \\N\I|NN|(>\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MlJIiUOl \ \i \ l>
VVT
in hum)
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 (X k
(AT
(.Di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM K
11\ i:
1975


88.4












1976


80.1












1977


79.6












1978

8.8
88.5












1979

26.3
90.3












1980
5.8
24.5
91.2




3.3
2.5






1981
9.1
31.6
94.8
0.1



2.5
22.0






1982
9.3
30.7
92.3
0.3



1.0
19.7






1983
9.8
30.9
90.4
1.6



0.4
6.0






1984
2.9
32.5
88.7
3.2


4.6

4.6






1985

31.7
85.0
6.9


13.8

1.9






1986

29.9
85.1
7.9


10.5
28.1
1.0






1987

29.6
81.3
9.9


9.0
39.2







1988

38.4
83.2
8.5


40.4
31.4







1989

38.0
79.9
14.1


51.1
34.9







1990

31.5
81.5
14.3


88.4








1991

34.7
79.6
14.9


100.0








1992

36.8
80.8
13.3


100.0








1993

27.1
81.8
12.2


100.0








1994

39.5
81.4
11.5


100.0


87.3
12.7




1995

37.8
73.2
20.0


100.0


69.9

30.1



1996

36.6
69.2
18.7


100.0



40.2
59.8



1997

20.8
79.6
20.4


100.0



100.0




1998

39.7
62.9
22.9


100.0




100.0



1999

45.3
46.4
42.4


100.0


7.9

92.1



2000

0.7
48.5
30.9


100.0




100.0



2001


49.2
24.6


100.0




100.0



2002

32.9
30.5
58.9


100.0




100.0



2003

39.3
28.7
59.9


100.0




100.0



2004

40.5
24.7
60.7


100.0




100.0



2005

100.0
20.6
79.4


100.0




100.0



2006

100.0
21.4
78.6


100.0




100.0



EPA-420-R-09-014
E-28
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-14
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Mid-size Pickup



i i i:i i:< <>\<>\n

i:m;i si-





Moi)i:i
SAIJ'.S

1 VIS
VIM
VIM
AIM
WCII 1


(1-60
l()l'
III'
III'
TON-
^ i: vu
((Mill)
1 l\A(
55/45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
1 li
md
III'
iimi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
MI'C
1975
56
0.005
21.1
16.8
19.6
17.9
3000
109
67
18.6
95
0.615
0.0223
26.9
1976
54
0.004
22.9
18.1
21.6
19.5
3000
109
65
18.9
94
0.596
0.0217
29.7
1977
69
0.005
29.6
23.3
28.1
25.2
3000
124
72
17.5
96
0.581
0.0240
38.0
1978
75
0.005
29.3
23.4
27.1
24.9
3000
124
72
17.6
96
0.581
0.0239
37.7
1979
101
0.007
25.9
20.6
24.1
22.0
2971
131
80
16.2
100
0.609
0.0270
33.3
1980
98
0.009
25.9
20.5
24.1
22.0
2944
133
82
15.7
101
0.621
0.0282
32.9
1981
130
0.012
26.4
20.8
24.8
22.5
2909
131
84
15.2
102
0.641
0.0290
33.2
1982
315
0.032
26.7
20.8
25.7
22.7
2936
152
98
13.8
108
0.648
0.0333
33.6
1983
621
0.060
26.5
20.7
25.4
22.6
3016
146
91
14.8
104
0.626
0.0303
34.3
1984
703
0.050
25.7
19.9
24.8
21.9
3093
148
92
14.9
104
0.626
0.0299
34.1
1985
616
0.043
25.7
19.9
25.1
21.9
3064
154
97
14.2
106
0.637
0.0319
33.9
1986
788
0.051
26.1
20.2
24.9
22.1
3081
147
102
14.0
108
0.687
0.0329
34.3
1987
1052
0.071
25.4
19.5
24.3
21.5
3163
159
106
13.8
109
0.672
0.0334
34.2
1988
1055
0.069
25.3
19.3
24.1
21.3
3205
165
110
13.6
110
0.670
0.0343
34.4
1989
887
0.061
24.8
18.9
23.5
20.8
3278
177
116
13.2
111
0.671
0.0353
34.4
1990
600
0.048
24.7
18.7
23.3
20.6
3338
175
120
13.0
112
0.697
0.0358
34.7
1991
873
0.069
24.6
18.4
23.4
20.5
3352
190
125
12.7
114
0.674
0.0372
34.6
1992
716
0.059
23.8
17.6
22.8
19.8
3493
195
131
12.7
115
0.685
0.0373
34.9
1993
743
0.056
23.7
17.4
22.6
19.7
3521
198
135
12.5
116
0.694
0.0383
34.8
1994
1040
0.074
24.0
17.7
22.6
19.9
3618
197
145
12.1
118
0.744
0.0398
36.3
1995
700
0.046
24.7
18.0
23.3
20.4
3631
190
141
12.3
117
0.768
0.0387
37.5
1996
698
0.053
24.8
17.9
23.4
20.4
3668
187
140
12.4
117
0.775
0.0381
37.7
1997
690
0.048
24.2
17.4
22.7
19.8
3728
195
147
12.3
118
0.769
0.0390
37.4
1998
829
0.057
23.9
17.1
22.4
19.5
3713
191
146
12.2
118
0.780
0.0390
36.8
1999
761
0.050
22.5
16.0
21.0
18.3
3761
200
149
12.1
118
0.762
0.0393
34.9
2000
766
0.046
22.8
16.2
21.2
18.6
3740
192
148
12.2
119
0.788
0.0395
35.0
2001
545
0.035
21.8
15.4
20.2
17.7
3835
207
165
11.5
123
0.804
0.0427
34.1
2002
466
0.029
21.1
14.8
19.4
17.0
4019
226
180
11.0
127
0.808
0.0447
34.5
2003
527
0.033
22.8
15.9
21.0
18.4
3850
196
157
11.9
121
0.818
0.0407
35.6
2004
378
0.024
21.8
15.1
20.0
17.5
4070
219
192
10.6
130
0.884
0.0470
35.8
2005
216
0.014
23.6
16.2
21.5
18.8
3789
192
178
10.6
128
0.934
0.0469
35.9
2006
274
0.018
24.1
16.5
21.8
19.2
3820
197
188
10.3
131
0.959
0.0491
36.8
2007
263
0.017
23.5
16.2
21.1
18.7
3926
202
193
10.3
132
0.958
0.0490
36.9
2008
277
0.020
24.0
16.6
21.4
19.0
3902
201
192
10.3
132
0.961
0.0490
37.3
2009
326
0.020
24.6
17.0
21.9
19.5
3987
206
202
10.0
134
0.982
0.0504
39.0
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-29	November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-14 (cont.)
Percent of Mid-size Pickup:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l>KI\ I I U\|\
1 KA\n\||sn|C»\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MIJIiKOI \ \i \ l>
VVT
in nun)
1 UOM
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 <>< k
(AT
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
IOI u
h\ i:
1975


68.8












1976


85.5












1977


91.8












1978


86.9












1979


80.2












1980


83.7












1981


88.1












1982

4.1
68.7
28.8




2.1






1983

17.3
72.6
14.2




3.5






1984

19.6
71.1
16.8




2.0






1985

19.8
65.1
32.7


13.2
14.2
0.7






1986

16.8
73.0
23.7


30.7
26.7
0.2






1987

20.5
67.2
28.9


24.4
26.5
0.3






1988

19.8
65.0
32.6


32.7
39.2







1989

18.7
62.9
35.6


33.8
46.7







1990

16.7
61.6
38.4


59.3
27.9







1991

14.8
63.5
36.5


36.6
56.4







1992

15.5
59.9
40.1


59.0
32.7







1993

18.0
59.4
40.6


65.5
28.9







1994

16.9
55.3
44.7


86.1
11.9

100.0





1995

15.6
59.8
40.2


82.8
17.2

100.0





1996

14.3
52.9
47.1


100.0


99.9

0.1



1997

17.4
48.9
51.1


100.0


100.0





1998

19.9
44.1
55.9


100.0


100.0





1999

28.2
32.7
67.3


100.0


100.0





2000

28.8
27.5
72.5


100.0


99.4

0.6



2001

30.5
21.8
78.2


100.0


95.2

4.8



2002

41.8
15.8
84.2


100.0


88.5

11.5



2003

28.5
21.3
78.7


100.0


90.5

9.5



2004

42.1
17.1
82.9


100.0


73.5

26.5

17.7

2005

29.3
22.7
77.3


100.0


39.4

60.6

49.4

2006

14.8
19.7
80.3


100.0


22.6

77.4

67.9

2007

28.8
15.7
84.2


100.0


24.1

75.9

45.2

2008

32.5
16.4
83.6


100.0


22.2

77.8

48.8

2009

34.0
19.3
80.7


100.0


10.0

90.0

45.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
E-30
November 2009

-------
Stains
Envwonrrwrtfal Protection
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-15
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Large Pickup
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
SAIJ'.S
((Mill)
1 l\A(
11 1:1 i:< o\o\n
WCII 1
1 li
i:m;im:
0-6(1
1 imi:
IOI'
sl'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
TON-
MI'C
1 VIS
55/45
VIM
(in
VIM
ll\U
AIM
( OMI'
(id
III'
197s
1126
0.110
13.1
10.4
12.2
11.1
4241
343
151
13.3
115
0.438
0.0358
24.1
1976
1639
0.133
13.9
11.2
12.7
11.8
4301
344
146
13.8
113
0.423
0.0341
25.9
1977
1719
0.122
14.9
12.1
13.4
12.7
4318
347
156
13.1
116
0.449
0.0363
27.8
1978
1928
0.133
14.7
12.0
13.1
12.4
4326
339
154
13.2
116
0.454
0.0357
27.4
1979
1748
0.126
14.3
11.8
12.6
12.1
4486
330
149
14.1
113
0.452
0.0334
27.8
1980
887
0.078
17.2
13.7
15.8
14.6
4312
305
137
14.3
110
0.452
0.0318
32.0
1981
940
0.089
18.6
14.8
17.3
15.9
4124
293
132
14.2
110
0.452
0.0320
33.0
1982
780
0.080
18.6
14.8
17.3
15.9
4233
299
136
14.2
111
0.457
0.0323
34.1
1983
695
0.067
18.1
14.3
16.9
15.4
4270
302
138
14.2
111
0.461
0.0325
33.5
1984
917
0.065
17.8
14.0
16.7
15.1
4291
301
138
14.3
111
0.459
0.0323
32.9
1985
964
0.067
17.7
14.0
16.5
15.0
4292
305
149
13.4
114
0.490
0.0348
32.7
1986
1001
0.065
18.2
14.4
17.0
15.5
4283
298
146
13.6
113
0.495
0.0341
33.3
1987
654
0.044
17.7
13.9
16.5
15.0
4375
309
162
12.8
118
0.523
0.0370
32.9
1988
1064
0.070
18.0
13.9
17.2
15.2
4436
318
173
12.2
121
0.542
0.0390
33.9
1989
990
0.068
18.1
13.8
17.2
15.2
4444
318
175
12.2
121
0.548
0.0395
34.0
1990
945
0.075
18.0
13.6
17.4
15.2
4497
320
178
12.1
122
0.555
0.0398
34.3
1991
738
0.059
18.2
13.6
17.6
15.3
4476
315
178
12.1
122
0.562
0.0397
34.4
1992
872
0.072
18.3
13.6
17.8
15.3
4562
312
174
12.5
120
0.556
0.0382
35.1
1993
996
0.075
18.7
13.7
18.0
15.6
4552
303
180
12.1
122
0.600
0.0396
35.5
1994
1271
0.090
18.4
13.5
17.6
15.3
4612
316
189
11.7
124
0.601
0.0411
35.3
1995
1273
0.084
18.0
13.1
17.2
14.9
4672
316
188
11.9
123
0.598
0.0403
35.0
1996
1036
0.079
18.2
13.2
17.4
15.1
4718
315
210
11.1
129
0.671
0.0446
35.7
1997
1587
0.110
18.9
13.6
18.1
15.6
4801
303
222
10.6
132
0.737
0.0464
37.5
1998
1326
0.092
18.6
13.2
17.8
15.3
4799
308
225
10.5
133
0.735
0.0470
36.8
1999
1571
0.103
18.5
13.2
17.5
15.2
4958
313
238
10.3
135
0.762
0.0483
37.6
2000
1746
0.105
19.3
13.8
17.9
15.7
4663
289
230
10.2
136
0.800
0.0492
36.7
2001
1893
0.121
18.9
13.4
17.5
15.4
4809
292
233
10.3
135
0.807
0.0485
37.0
2002
1717
0.107
18.7
13.2
17.2
15.2
4982
294
246
10.1
137
0.836
0.0493
37.8
2003
1753
0.111
18.9
13.3
17.3
15.3
4977
294
249
10.1
138
0.845
0.0499
38.0
2004
1967
0.125
19.0
13.3
17.3
15.3
5200
301
266
9.9
141
0.881
0.0511
39.7
2005
2076
0.131
19.4
13.4
17.8
15.6
5117
294
268
9.7
142
0.914
0.0526
39.8
2006
1906
0.126
19.6
13.6
18.0
15.8
5137
290
265
9.8
141
0.919
0.0517
40.4
2007
1850
0.121
19.7
13.6
18.2
15.9
5318
298
279
9.7
143
0.935
0.0524
42.2
2008
1516
0.109
20.0
13.7
18.5
16.1
5391
302
292
9.6
146
0.962
0.0538
43.5
2009
1616
0.101
20.1
13.7
18.8
16.2
5394
306
298
9.3
147
0.974
0.0551
43.8
EPA-420-R-09-014	E-31	November 2009

-------
Stains
Environ
Agency
Appendix E: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Size
Table E-15 (cont.)
Percent of Large Pickup:
MODCI
^ i-:vk
l)KI\ I IUAIN
1 l\ \\N\I|NN|(>\
i i i:i mi i i:ui\(.
M MlJIiUOl \ \i \ l>
VVT
in hum)
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \i
1 (X k
(AT
(.Di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM K
11\ i:
1975

16.1
33.0












1976

23.8
32.9












1977

25.2
27.7












1978

30.5
28.5





1.4






1979

10.5
27.3
1.7




3.1






1980

21.6
39.5
35.5




5.5






1981

13.4
38.9
42.1




2.3






1982

17.3
30.9
42.8




9.4






1983

22.3
26.4
52.2




4.5






1984

25.1
26.7
50.9




2.4






1985

25.8
25.7
48.1


9.1
0.7
1.2






1986

28.3
27.0
52.5


21.7
2.6
0.7






1987
0.0
30.8
29.1
41.6


43.1
36.0
0.4






1988
0.0
33.8
26.8
54.5


36.5
62.6
0.5






1989

34.8
33.2
56.6


38.8
60.8
0.4






1990

33.9
24.9
68.0


37.0
62.6
0.4






1991

32.5
27.3
71.3


39.5
60.1
0.4






1992

32.1
26.8
73.1


45.0
54.7
0.3






1993
0.0
35.0
22.4
77.6


47.9
52.1







1994

36.6
16.0
84.0


47.3
52.7

98.9
0.9
0.1



1995

41.5
20.7
79.3


55.1
44.9

97.2

2.8



1996

37.9
15.0
85.0


99.7

0.3
96.3

3.7



1997

43.3
10.5
89.5


99.9

0.1
98.1

1.9



1998

43.2
9.8
90.2


99.9

0.1
99.2

0.8



1999

53.6
6.3
93.7


100.0

0.0
100.0





2000

44.8
10.0
90.0


100.0


87.0

13.0



2001

42.7
7.6
92.4


100.0


88.7

11.3



2002

43.6
5.4
94.6


100.0


89.9

10.1



2003

42.8
5.0
95.0


100.0


93.5

6.5



2004

47.6
3.5
96.5


100.0


72.0
18.2
9.8

20.6
0.0
2005

48.3
3.9
96.1


100.0


61.4
15.5
23.0

38.2
0.1
2006

50.1
4.2
95.8


100.0


55.2
17.1
27.7

44.8
0.1
2007

47.8
2.8
97.2


100.0


65.1
14.3
20.6

39.2
0.0
2008

50.2
1.8
98.2


100.0


65.4
13.0
21.5

35.8

2009

48.3
1.5
98.1
0.4

100.0


70.4
8.3
21.4

41.7
0.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
E-32
November 2009

-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Appendix F
Fuel Economy Car Data Stratified
by EPA Car Class
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	~ _ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-l
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Two-Seater
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
SALKS
(0(111)
1 l\A(
i i i:i i:< <>\o\n
WCII 1
1 li
\()l
(III
i:m;im:
0-60
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
mm;
(III
mm;
(1 II
ION MI'(;
1 VIS
55 45
VD.I
(in
AIM
ll\U
VD.I
( OMI'
( id
III'
1975
244
0.030
19.7
15.1
19.5
16.8
3015

173
125
12.6
117
0.764
0.0406
25.2


1976
203
0.021
19.4
14.9
19.2
16.5
3032

187
136
12.1
120
0.752
0.0429
25.1


1977
221
0.020
20.0
15.5
19.5
17.1
3062
50.0
183
134
12.4
119
0.755
0.0421
26.2
880
1308
1978
191
0.017
19.4
15.0
19.1
16.6
3079
50.0
187
143
11.8
122
0.795
0.0446
25.5
855
1276
1979
256
0.024
20.1
15.3
20.0
17.1
3026
50.0
180
128
12.2
118
0.735
0.0411
26.1
887
1305
1980
200
0.021
20.6
15.6
20.8
17.6
2954
50.0
180
121
12.3
116
0.702
0.0400
26.3
904
1315
1981
162
0.019
21.9
17.1
21.1
18.7
3005
50.0
202
142
10.6
124
0.758
0.0469
28.3
959
1415
1982
263
0.034
25.7
19.7
25.5
21.9
2726
50.0
146
106
13.0
112
0.734
0.0377
30.5
1141
1523
1983
137
0.017
23.9
18.4
23.4
20.3
2756
50.0
146
115
11.8
116
0.778
0.0411
28.3
1038
1416
1984
348
0.033
26.7
20.3
27.0
22.8
2886
50.0
174
121
12.1
117
0.717
0.0410
33.9
1215
1694
1985
335
0.031
26.9
20.5
26.9
23.0
2826
50.1
158
123
11.6
118
0.806
0.0425
33.4
1234
1672
1986
303
0.028
28.1
21.3
28.2
24.0
2915
50.0
166
130
11.7
119
0.818
0.0430
35.7
1278
1784
1987
282
0.026
27.5
20.5
27.7
23.3
2920
50.0
167
134
11.5
121
0.830
0.0442
35.2
1259
1758
1988
203
0.019
27.4
20.3
27.5
23.2
2940
50.0
170
138
11.2
122
0.845
0.0455
35.3
1268
1765
1989
113
0.011
26.9
19.9
26.9
22.7
3030
50.0
198
160
10.2
130
0.891
0.0509
35.6
1264
1782
1990
177
0.020
27.7
20.5
27.1
23.2
2979
50.0
164
160
10.3
130
1.019
0.0511
35.2
1239
1759
1991
178
0.021
29.0
21.4
27.9
24.2
2890
50.0
149
150
10.8
127
1.040
0.0491
35.7
1305
1784
1992
81
0.010
26.7
19.4
26.1
22.3
3022
50.0
187
183
10.0
137
1.018
0.0565
33.8
1189
1690
1993
118
0.014
28.4
20.6
27.6
23.6
2975
50.0
169
178
9.6
137
1.138
0.0572
35.8
1255
1791
1994
84
0.010
26.0
18.7
25.5
21.6
3134
50.0
207
197
00
00
143
1.073
0.0613
34.4
1132
1718
1995
79
0.008
26.3
18.7
25.9
21.8
3176
50.0
204
199
8.9
142
1.077
0.0606
35.0
1144
1752
1996
65
0.008
26.0
18.2
25.8
21.5
3168
50.0
216
205
8.6
145
1.050
0.0632
34.1
1101
1705
1997
72
0.009
26.7
18.7
26.1
21.9
3056
50.0
178
198
8.7
144
1.157
0.0628
33.9
1131
1693
1998
78
0.010
24.4
17.0
24.0
20.0
3458
50.0
243
255
7.7
160
1.108
0.0732
35.1
1021
1753
1999
118
0.014
25.8
17.9
25.0
21.1
3179
50.0
208
225
7.9
153
1.152
0.0695
33.6
1076
1682
2000
122
0.013
25.9
17.9
25.0
21.1
3124
50.0
208
232
7.7
156
1.192
0.0723
33.8
1125
1688
2001
143
0.017
26.2
18.0
25.1
21.3
3207
50.0
200
239
7.6
158
1.292
0.0732
34.6
1100
1732
2002
132
0.016
24.9
16.9
24.1
20.2
3397
50.0
224
251
7.6
159
1.212
0.0732
34.6
1040
1732
2003
180
0.023
25.0
16.9
24.1
20.3
3439
50.0
229
266
7.3
164
1.223
0.0765
35.0
1031
1749
2004
168
0.022
24.5
16.4
23.5
19.8
3540
50.0
235
271
7.4
164
1.203
0.0762
35.3
1004
1763
2005
163
0.020
24.6
16.3
23.6
19.8
3502
50.0
241
291
7.1
172
1.243
0.0828
34.9
1004
1745
2006
168
0.021
25.3
16.8
24.3
20.4
3378
50.0
226
282
7.1
171
1.288
0.0824
34.6
1037
1731
2007
154
0.019
25.6
16.9
24.7
20.6
3398
50.0
227
290
7.0
173
1.344
0.0843
35.2
1044
1759
2008
148
0.020
27.5
18.3
26.0
22.0
3187
50.4
207
270
7.7
168
1.359
0.0806
35.5
1173
1790
2009
154
0.019
26.8
17.7
25.7
21.5
3314
50.0
220
287
7.4
172
1.348
0.0827
36.1
1146
1804
EPA-420-R-09-014
F-l
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«d Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	_ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-l (cont.)
Percent of Two-Seater:
moi)i:i
^ i: vk
l>KI\ I I u\\\
1 K\\n\IInn|<>\
i i i:i mi:i i:kim;
M MIJIiKOI \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iiuii)
I-IM»M
4\\ 1)
M VM \\
1 ()( k
( \ 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
l\\(>
i iiuii:
IOI l\
11\ i:
1975


74.6



42.4








1976


70.5



37.1








1977


70.5



40.2








1978


71.8



46.9








1979


72.8



31.5








1980


74.0
13.6


34.4








1981


61.3
20.1


55.4








1982
47.8

69.2
9.5


23.3
9.5







1983
17.1

81.0
4.5


40.3








1984
17.9

60.4
33.7


20.5
53.1







1985
25.0

67.4
26.3


53.3
11.6







1986
29.8

62.4
30.7


70.0
11.7

81.2
7.3
11.5



1987
32.7

64.0
28.5


71.3
14.6

70.4
22.2
7.4



1988
41.9

62.1
27.4


73.9
26.1

76.2

23.8



1989
32.6
16.5
51.5
36.6


85.8
14.2

61.5

38.5



1990
31.3

66.9
27.2


88.5
11.5

33.0

67.0



1991
34.9

68.5
21.1


81.4
18.6

33.1

66.9

1.8

1992
16.1
0.1
55.3
26.3


86.3
13.7

49.7

50.3

8.7

1993
42.3
0.0
59.8
35.5


94.4
5.6

51.4

48.6

22.1

1994
24.1
0.1
57.5
35.6


100.0


34.4

65.6

22.0

1995
23.5
0.1
57.9
31.4


100.0


33.9

65.4
0.7
31.2

1996
4.7
0.0
55.6
40.8


100.0


35.3

64.3
0.4
27.1

1997
10.8
0.1
64.0
34.3


100.0


14.8

84.3
0.9
51.8

1998

0.1
36.6
61.2


100.0


38.2

61.1
0.7
45.3

1999
28.5
0.1
54.1
42.6


100.0


26.1
7.7
65.2
0.9
22.6

2000
4.6

63.0
34.6


100.0


26.9

72.7
0.5
49.1
4.6
2001
5.0
7.1
60.9
36.1
1.1

100.0


24.4
9.6
56.8
9.2
42.4
2.4
2002
3.0
2.9
47.3
49.8
1.0

100.0


26.5
5.6
63.3
4.6
30.6
1.5
2003
1.5
0.8
45.8
53.8
0.4

100.0


19.3
13.6
64.9
2.2
50.6
0.6
2004
1.0
9.5
38.9
60.2
0.2

100.0


20.0
8.3
69.0
2.8
51.4
0.3
2005
0.7
0.8
38.2
60.8
0.2

100.0


21.7
7.5
69.8
1.0
50.5
0.4
2006
0.8
0.5
50.7
47.5
0.2

100.0


19.8
4.8
74.4
0.3
75.1
0.5
2007

0.5
43.9
56.1

3.0
97.0


24.5
0.9
74.6

71.3

2008
1.3
2.2
35.8
64.1

2.7
97.3


23.1
1.8
75.1
0.0
69.5

2009
1.0
2.1
29.2
50.4

6.8
93.2


20.4
0.8
78.8
0.1
67.7

EPA-420-R-09-014
F-2
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	~ _ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-2
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Minicompact
Moi)i:i
^ i: vk
SAIJ'.S
((Hill)
1 K \l
i i i:i i:< o\o\n
WCIII
Ili
\()l
(III
i:m;im:
11-611
ii mi:
l()l'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
mm;
(1 II
MI'C
(III
ION MI'C
1 Alt
55 45
AIM
(in
VD.I
ll\U
A l).l
( OMI'
( id
III'
1975
941
0.114
23.0
17.6
22.8
19.6
2721

128
82
15.2
102
0.669
0.0298
27.4


1976
913
0.094
26.0
20.2
25.2
22.2
2688

124
80
15.1
102
0.673
0.0297
30.1


1977
915
0.081
27.9
21.7
26.8
23.8
2544
78.8
116
83
14.0
105
0.756
0.0326
30.7
1957
2420
1978
901
0.081
27.4
21.7
25.6
23.3
2583
79.1
120
83
14.1
105
0.730
0.0322
30.6
1920
2422
1979
436
0.040
27.6
21.7
26.3
23.5
2450
79.7
113
77
14.4
103
0.689
0.0312
29.0
1906
2315
1980
383
0.041
28.1
22.1
26.8
24.0
2458
82.8
116
78
14.4
103
0.675
0.0314
29.6
2031
2449
1981
227
0.026
34.3
27.6
31.3
29.1
2164
82.6
92
67
14.5
101
0.723
0.0307
31.9
2472
2639
1982
178
0.023
35.5
28.5
32.3
30.1
2193
82.7
95
70
14.6
102
0.727
0.0311
33.7
2604
2792
1983
156
0.020
35.7
28.4
33.3
30.4
2273
82.0
99
77
14.2
104
0.754
0.0327
35.3
2630
2901
1984
42
0.004
25.6
19.5
25.7
21.8
2855
75.9
151
141
10.5
125
0.927
0.0484
31.6
1721
2400
1985
73
0.007
36.0
28.0
34.9
30.7
2300
79.2
114
95
13.1
111
0.818
0.0380
37.6
2896
2994
1986
176
0.016
30.7
23.3
30.4
26.1
2407
80.5
113
104
12.8
114
0.881
0.0403
33.4
2458
2693
1987
71
0.007
30.7
23.3
30.0
26.0
2636
77.2
128
130
11.3
123
0.985
0.0469
35.8
2294
2786
1988
43
0.004
31.1
23.7
29.8
26.2
2619
77.9
128
129
11.7
122
0.954
0.0462
36.4
2408
2861
1989
28
0.003
26.9
20.2
25.9
22.6
2866
77.2
146
148
10.7
128
0.985
0.0504
32.9
1810
2561
1990
76
0.009
26.3
19.6
25.6
22.1
3019
80.7
148
145
10.5
125
0.969
0.0475
33.4
1799
2696
1991
95
0.011
28.6
21.3
27.3
23.8
2912
75.5
127
137
10.8
123
1.076
0.0464
34.9
1820
2639
1992
118
0.015
31.4
23.2
29.7
26.0
2691
81.0
110
118
11.2
118
1.073
0.0435
35.0
2140
2834
1993
74
0.009
30.0
22.1
28.3
24.8
2818
79.5
118
130
10.9
121
1.089
0.0454
35.0
2012
2778
1994
39
0.005
28.1
20.2
27.3
23.3
3146
81.0
132
163
10.3
129
1.202
0.0501
36.4
1934
2957
1995
56
0.006
27.3
19.6
26.3
22.5
3218
79.9
147
166
9.9
131
1.122
0.0513
36.3
1823
2906
1996
43
0.006
26.9
19.0
26.1
22.1
3270
76.8
157
179
9.8
134
1.127
0.0538
36.5
1763
2820
1997
43
0.005
26.6
18.7
25.9
21.9
3338
76.6
154
185
9.7
136
1.194
0.0547
36.8
1713
2833
1998
37
0.005
25.8
17.9
25.4
21.2
3522
78.9
169
195
9.6
137
1.146
0.0548
37.5
1688
2960
1999
51
0.006
25.2
17.3
25.1
20.7
3602
79.3
181
220
9.0
145
1.199
0.0609
37.5
1658
2983
2000
40
0.004
24.2
16.6
23.9
19.9
3729
79.6
192
244
8.3
152
1.300
0.0656
37.2
1599
2970
2001
80
0.010
24.9
16.9
24.4
20.3
3711
80.5
178
228
00
00
147
1.293
0.0615
37.9
1650
3059
2002
96
0.012
25.6
17.4
24.5
20.7
3649
81.5
187
238
8.5
150
1.301
0.0646
38.0
1728
3102
2003
92
0.012
27.8
18.7
26.4
22.3
3407
82.1
152
199
9.8
140
1.309
0.0571
38.4
1894
3156
2004
132
0.018
27.6
18.4
26.2
22.1
3491
82.3
149
185
10.2
134
1.241
0.0522
38.8
1860
3196
2005
107
0.013
28.5
19.0
26.8
22.7
3368
81.7
142
186
9.9
136
1.328
0.0544
38.4
1901
3144
2006
111
0.014
28.7
19.1
27.0
22.9
3353
81.4
150
197
9.4
140
1.338
0.0578
38.5
1903
3136
2007
88
0.011
29.6
19.7
27.7
23.6
3380
80.8
159
215
9.0
146
1.375
0.0625
40.3
1971
3258
2008
69
0.009
30.9
20.5
28.7
24.5
3342
81.0
147
203
9.4
142
1.389
0.0595
41.4
2049
3357
2009
92
0.011
31.8
21.2
29.3
25.1
3352
81.0
146
203
9.3
142
1.426
0.0595
42.6
2103
3449
EPA-420-R-09-014
F-3
November 2009

-------

Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn
Aflwey
Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-2 (cont.)
Percent of Minicompact:
moi)i:i
^ i: vk
l)UI\ I I U Vl\
1 KV\n\||nn|C»\
i i i:i mi:i i:kim;
M MIJIiKOI \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iiuii)
I-IM»M
4\\ 1)
MVM \\
1 ()( k
( \ 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
l\\(>
i iiuii:
IOI l\
11\ i:
1975
19.6

67.7



11.5








1976
22.1

63.5



4.5








1977
25.4

70.6



1.9








1978
22.3

63.0



1.5








1979
44.8

73.4



3.4








1980
47.2

60.0



1.6








1981
83.2

81.2



1.0








1982
80.4

80.8



6.4








1983
81.8

80.9
0.2


20.6








1984
30.6

84.3
0.2


92.6








1985
67.7

86.1
0.1


46.9








1986
54.6

82.7
5.1


52.2


94.2

5.8



1987
54.9

81.9
3.9


85.9


81.4

18.6



1988
62.4

76.6
8.3


77.0


76.5

23.5



1989
62.4
3.5
65.3
16.1


100.0


63.1

36.9



1990
11.4

61.6
32.1


100.0


17.4
79.4
3.2



1991
50.9

59.8
36.3


100.0


9.4

90.6

4.0

1992
71.5

55.3
41.3


100.0


8.2

91.8

4.9

1993
64.9

52.5
45.7


100.0


18.0

82.0

6.6

1994
44.5

43.2
51.4


100.0


5.4

94.6

29.5

1995
17.3

40.8
50.6


100.0


5.3

94.7

23.1

1996
37.7
6.7
36.3
50.2


100.0


19.2

80.8

45.3

1997
48.1
4.7
47.8
50.2


100.0


17.7

82.3

40.3

1998
38.5
1.1
34.4
64.6


100.0


8.9

91.1

54.4

1999
25.7
3.2
38.4
55.9


100.0



11.8
88.2

62.5

2000
8.3
13.5
46.9
48.4


100.0



22.8
59.1
18.1
54.2

2001
33.7
16.0
37.2
59.2


100.0



7.6
81.8
10.7
47.0

2002
29.0
10.7
38.8
55.4
3.3

100.0




94.0
6.0
64.1

2003
58.3
7.0
44.4
46.0
9.7

100.0


16.6

76.4
6.9
39.4

2004
65.0
5.4
28.8
62.9
7.2

100.0


11.1

79.7
9.2
34.3

2005
67.0
2.3
39.1
49.1
11.8

100.0


12.9

79.7
7.5
32.5

2006
64.5
5.2
37.7
51.6
10.6

100.0




98.2
1.8
35.4

2007
71.4
7.2
34.7
63.6
1.7
23.6
76.4




100.0

78.3

2008
77.3
8.0
30.6
67.2
2.3
23.4
76.6



0.4
99.6

68.8

2009
79.5
4.3
30.3
61.4

34.4
65.6




100.0

83.6

EPA-420-R-09-014
F-4
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	~ _ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-3
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Subcompact
Moi)i:i
^ i: vk
NAI.KN
((Hill)
1 K \l
i i i:i i:< <>\o\n
WCII 1
1 li
\ <>l
(III
i:m;im:
11-611
ii mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
\M'<;
(1 II
mm;
(III
ION MI'C
1 VIS
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
VD.I
( OMI'
( id
III'
1975
1011
0.123
19.2
15.0
18.6
16.4
3242

206
107
14.2
108
0.585
0.0329
26.8


1976
1368
0.141
22.2
17.4
21.1
18.9
3033

181
97
14.7
106
0.607
0.0316
28.8


1977
1577
0.140
23.9
18.8
22.6
20.3
2966
90.7
174
98
14.2
107
0.633
0.0325
30.7
1983
2783
1978
2056
0.184
24.6
19.4
23.4
21.0
2842
89.7
159
93
14.4
106
0.649
0.0321
30.4
2032
2726
1979
3044
0.282
24.1
19.0
22.8
20.5
2847
90.4
155
94
14.2
106
0.659
0.0323
29.6
1955
2674
1980
3552
0.376
27.1
21.3
25.7
23.1
2640
89.9
128
82
14.7
103
0.669
0.0308
30.8
2148
2768
1981
2712
0.311
29.3
23.3
27.3
24.9
2604
90.3
124
81
14.7
103
0.676
0.0308
32.9
2334
2971
1982
2329
0.298
29.1
22.8
27.7
24.8
2657
91.8
133
86
14.5
105
0.666
0.0317
33.6
2377
3077
1983
1968
0.246
30.0
23.4
29.0
25.6
2687
93.3
136
90
14.0
106
0.693
0.0330
34.9
2505
3262
1984
2545
0.238
29.6
22.9
28.8
25.2
2737
93.3
140
97
13.5
108
0.722
0.0348
35.0
2457
3265
1985
2181
0.202
30.1
23.3
29.2
25.6
2734
93.9
136
100
13.2
110
0.760
0.0358
35.4
2506
3325
1986
2376
0.216
30.6
23.6
29.5
25.9
2764
94.7
136
100
13.4
109
0.765
0.0354
36.2
2560
3434
1987
2088
0.195
31.1
23.9
29.7
26.3
2728
92.7
128
99
13.7
109
0.795
0.0350
36.1
2528
3348
1988
2143
0.200
32.0
24.6
30.1
26.9
2668
93.2
122
99
13.5
110
0.823
0.0358
36.2
2615
3375
1989
1950
0.195
31.2
23.6
29.6
26.1
2748
93.1
129
104
13.0
111
0.852
0.0369
36.2
2545
3377
1990
1974
0.224
31.5
23.9
29.5
26.3
2762
94.5
117
108
12.5
113
0.962
0.0385
36.5
2557
3456
1991
2303
0.270
31.5
23.4
29.9
26.2
2779
94.8
124
111
12.3
114
0.938
0.0392
36.6
2562
3474
1992
2021
0.249
31.8
23.5
30.3
26.4
2806
93.8
122
117
12.0
116
0.987
0.0408
37.4
2570
3509
1993
1872
0.221
32.0
23.3
30.4
26.4
2797
94.4
124
120
11.8
117
0.977
0.0418
37.3
2585
3522
1994
1995
0.237
31.6
22.7
30.4
26.0
2879
94.4
134
125
11.7
118
0.973
0.0423
37.8
2547
3568
1995
1623
0.173
31.5
22.5
30.4
25.9
2949
93.6
141
134
11.3
121
1.015
0.0443
38.5
2531
3610
1996
1108
0.140
32.9
23.3
31.4
26.9
2875
94.9
136
131
11.2
121
1.024
0.0446
38.9
2649
3691
1997
1487
0.178
32.5
23.1
30.5
26.4
2909
95.5
126
128
11.5
119
1.058
0.0431
38.6
2588
3693
1998
1601
0.201
31.6
22.1
30.0
25.7
2984
96.4
138
135
11.1
122
1.022
0.0447
38.5
2529
3714
1999
1382
0.165
31.3
21.8
29.5
25.3
2973
96.4
137
137
11.0
122
1.032
0.0454
37.8
2490
3646
2000
1492
0.163
30.7
21.3
28.7
24.7
3026
96.5
145
144
10.7
124
1.040
0.0469
37.6
2433
3629
2001
644
0.077
28.4
19.4
27.1
22.9
3226
93.5
173
173
9.9
133
1.035
0.0528
37.2
2195
3480
2002
575
0.069
28.2
19.1
27.0
22.8
3293
94.3
183
186
9.5
137
1.074
0.0557
37.7
2201
3555
2003
614
0.077
26.8
18.2
25.2
21.5
3488
90.5
181
189
9.7
136
1.072
0.0538
37.7
2006
3416
2004
453
0.060
27.3
18.3
25.7
21.9
3365
95.9
174
191
9.5
138
1.144
0.0559
37.1
2154
3555
2005
573
0.071
28.0
18.7
26.2
22.4
3352
97.3
170
189
9.4
137
1.170
0.0555
37.7
2226
3667
2006
1098
0.137
31.3
20.7
29.1
24.8
3223
98.0
149
171
9.9
132
1.178
0.0521
40.5
2508
3973
2007
1252
0.155
31.8
21.1
29.4
25.2
3190
98.2
147
171
9.8
132
1.195
0.0526
40.6
2556
3984
2008
1218
0.166
32.2
21.4
29.8
25.5
3261
97.7
147
177
9.8
133
1.212
0.0530
41.9
2574
4099
2009
1180
0.144
33.2
22.0
30.5
26.2
3193
97.6
141
175
9.8
134
1.242
0.0534
42.2
2631
4114
EPA-420-R-09-014
F-5
November 2009

-------

Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn
Aflwey
Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-3 (cont.)
Percent of Subcompact:
moi)i:i
^ i: vk
l)UI\ I I U Vl\
1 K\\n\IInn|<>\
i i i:i mi:i i:kim;
M MIJIiKOI \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iiuii)
I-IM»M
4\\ 1)
MVM \\
1 ()( k
( \ 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
l\\(>
i iiuii:
IOI l\
11\ i:
1975
17.6

40.9



8.9








1976
13.1

42.8



3.1








1977
19.4

46.5



12.5

1.2






1978
22.3

54.4



11.7

1.8






1979
25.9

51.5



7.3

1.5






1980
35.3
0.4
58.2
3.5


10.9

3.4






1981
36.0
0.3
58.9
8.5


12.1

5.5






1982
39.8
0.2
55.1
23.6


14.8
3.2
4.1






1983
53.4
0.2
55.8
32.0


21.5
2.7
1.2






1984
49.8
0.5
51.5
35.1


28.9
3.0
1.7






1985
58.7
0.3
49.4
34.1


28.8
5.1
0.2






1986
64.5
1.1
50.3
34.0


36.5
4.9
0.1
82.5
13.8
3.7



1987
69.1
0.5
51.3
39.4


40.3
6.8
0.1
59.7
26.9
13.4



1988
77.7
1.2
53.6
40.0


35.7
15.2
0.0
53.6
21.8
24.6



1989
72.3
1.1
46.5
45.3
0.6

44.5
20.6
0.0
58.1
12.6
29.3



1990
87.9
0.5
44.9
51.1
0.2

71.5
24.0

35.0
8.2
56.8



1991
84.3
1.4
39.1
56.2
0.2

59.6
40.3

45.1
11.8
43.1

5.7

1992
84.2
1.6
38.0
56.4
0.0

84.5
15.5

41.6
11.0
47.4

12.3

1993
84.6
1.7
42.6
51.9
0.0

91.7
8.3

43.3
11.5
45.2

13.4

1994
81.8
0.2
37.7
58.0


93.6
6.4

45.2
7.8
47.0

17.6

1995
72.1
1.4
40.4
55.4


95.0
5.0

34.9
3.1
62.0

18.0

1996
75.8
1.1
41.4
52.1
0.1

92.2
7.8

32.4
2.6
64.9

26.0

1997
83.3
0.6
31.4
64.9
0.4

95.5
4.5

21.3

78.7

26.9

1998
81.3
0.6
30.1
68.3
0.3

99.1
0.7
0.2
39.1
2.4
58.4

28.2

1999
83.2
0.5
27.5
71.0
0.1

99.2
0.6
0.2
41.3
6.8
51.7
0.2
24.7

2000
76.7
0.5
26.2
71.9
0.1

99.2
0.3
0.5
45.3
1.5
51.4
1.8
22.5

2001
57.7
0.8
32.1
64.4
0.2

98.9

1.1
47.4
1.4
47.5
3.7
27.7

2002
51.0
5.9
34.2
65.5
0.1

98.6

1.4
47.5
4.8
44.0
3.7
23.8

2003
62.4
6.7
26.2
72.7
1.1

99.3

0.7
30.2
5.0
61.5
3.3
15.0

2004
44.3
6.6
34.2
64.6
1.2

99.5

0.5
38.8
4.4
53.8
2.9
21.1

2005
59.1
4.8
25.5
73.7
0.9

99.5

0.5
21.8
12.8
63.6
1.8
36.7

2006
75.3
3.8
21.2
78.3
0.5

99.5

0.5
13.3
6.9
79.0
0.7
60.9

2007
73.6
4.3
19.6
79.7
0.2

100.0


10.8
5.7
83.4
0.0
64.7

2008
76.3
2.9
17.3
78.3
4.3
3.2
96.8


4.9
3.4
91.7
0.0
72.7

2009
78.3
3.7
19.2
76.9
3.8
7.3
92.7


3.3
3.3
93.4
0.0
78.4

EPA-420-R-09-014
F-6
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	~ _ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-4
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Compact
Moi)i:i
^ i: vk
SAIJ'.S
((Hill)
1 K \l
i i i:i i:< o\o\n
WCIII
Ili
\()l
(III
i:m;im:
11-611
ii mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
mm;
(1 II
MI'C
(III
ION Ml'(;
1 Alt
55 45
AIM
(in
VD.I
ll\U
A l).l
( OMI'
( id
III'
1975
1893
0.230
16.2
12.9
15.0
13.8
3958

287
129
14.6
110
0.454
0.0322
27.6


1976
2557
0.263
17.5
13.9
16.4
14.9
4025

289
125
15.2
108
0.434
0.0307
30.2


1977
2767
0.245
17.9
14.2
16.7
15.2
4128
107.3
291
131
14.6
110
0.452
0.0315
31.6
1655
3391
1978
1482
0.133
20.2
15.8
19.3
17.2
3552
105.1
236
113
14.5
108
0.506
0.0318
30.6
1842
3221
1979
668
0.062
19.5
15.4
18.3
16.6
3624
105.3
246
117
14.4
109
0.495
0.0321
30.4
1783
3201
1980
690
0.073
22.4
17.4
21.6
19.1
3184
106.2
186
102
14.4
107
0.577
0.0324
30.7
2078
3265
1981
976
0.112
26.7
20.7
26.1
22.8
2825
104.3
142
91
14.2
106
0.671
0.0325
32.4
2433
3377
1982
1268
0.162
29.0
22.2
28.8
24.8
2794
102.9
128
86
14.6
104
0.695
0.0310
34.8
2591
3579
1983
1456
0.182
28.8
22.2
28.2
24.5
2844
103.2
141
91
14.4
105
0.677
0.0318
35.2
2602
3633
1984
2731
0.256
29.7
23.0
28.8
25.3
2798
103.1
136
90
14.3
106
0.687
0.0321
35.7
2672
3682
1985
2929
0.271
29.8
23.1
29.0
25.5
2804
102.9
138
98
13.5
109
0.727
0.0347
36.0
2684
3706
1986
3348
0.304
29.8
23.0
28.9
25.3
2819
103.2
137
98
13.5
109
0.735
0.0346
36.0
2669
3713
1987
4012
0.374
29.7
22.7
28.9
25.2
2836
102.8
135
100
13.3
109
0.759
0.0351
35.9
2631
3688
1988
4317
0.402
29.9
22.6
28.9
25.2
2889
103.6
136
106
13.0
111
0.794
0.0365
36.6
2652
3793
1989
3585
0.358
29.9
22.5
28.8
25.1
2886
102.8
130
108
12.7
112
0.837
0.0372
36.4
2611
3738
1990
2771
0.315
29.0
21.6
28.1
24.3
2984
103.3
138
118
12.3
115
0.857
0.0393
36.4
2534
3755
1991
2455
0.288
29.0
21.4
27.9
24.2
2984
104.5
136
120
12.1
116
0.887
0.0400
36.3
2568
3797
1992
2221
0.274
28.6
20.9
27.8
23.8
3034
104.3
143
127
11.8
118
0.893
0.0416
36.2
2509
3776
1993
2473
0.292
29.6
21.5
28.6
24.5
2982
104.1
139
121
12.0
116
0.886
0.0405
36.7
2584
3821
1994
2602
0.309
29.8
21.5
28.7
24.6
3023
103.9
138
124
11.9
117
0.912
0.0408
37.3
2584
3874
1995
3432
0.365
30.6
21.8
29.5
25.1
2998
103.9
134
132
11.2
121
0.992
0.0439
37.8
2642
3927
1996
2981
0.378
30.3
21.4
29.3
24.9
3007
103.1
134
133
11.1
121
0.999
0.0441
37.5
2589
3865
1997
2840
0.341
30.3
21.2
29.3
24.8
3004
102.6
135
133
11.1
121
0.988
0.0442
37.3
2568
3829
1998
2126
0.267
30.9
21.4
29.7
25.2
3010
102.7
131
134
11.0
121
1.028
0.0444
38.0
2619
3902
1999
2368
0.283
30.1
20.8
28.8
24.4
3135
103.2
139
141
11.0
122
1.028
0.0448
38.4
2557
3962
2000
2612
0.286
30.5
21.0
28.9
24.6
3097
103.6
132
138
11.1
121
1.049
0.0441
38.3
2587
3964
2001
3197
0.380
31.7
21.8
29.6
25.5
3055
103.0
130
139
11.0
122
1.074
0.0449
39.1
2670
4032
2002
2998
0.361
31.8
21.6
29.5
25.4
3065
102.5
128
140
11.0
122
1.091
0.0451
39.2
2651
4012
2003
2812
0.354
32.1
21.7
29.6
25.5
3087
104.0
131
146
10.6
124
1.121
0.0467
39.8
2710
4138
2004
2521
0.334
31.9
21.3
29.5
25.3
3122
103.6
135
153
10.4
127
1.137
0.0483
39.8
2669
4119
2005
2341
0.292
32.7
21.8
29.8
25.7
3084
103.8
130
150
10.4
126
1.152
0.0479
40.0
2723
4146
2006
1819
0.228
31.8
21.2
29.3
25.1
3256
104.8
145
167
10.0
130
1.164
0.0506
41.3
2704
4333
2007
1722
0.213
32.4
21.6
29.7
25.6
3251
105.4
137
162
10.2
128
1.188
0.0491
41.8
2752
4404
2008
1421
0.193
31.8
21.1
29.5
25.2
3311
104.6
142
170
10.0
131
1.204
0.0506
41.9
2698
4384
2009
1613
0.197
32.9
21.8
30.3
25.9
3312
104.8
143
173
9.9
132
1.218
0.0513
43.3
2799
4540
EPA-420-R-09-014
F-7
November 2009

-------

Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn
Aflwey
Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-4 (cont.)
Percent of Compact:
moi)i:i
^ i: vk
l)UI\ I I U Vl\
1 K\\n\IInn|<>\
i i i:i mi:i i:kim;
M MIJIiKOI \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iiuii)
I-IM»M
4\\ 1)
MVM \\
1 ()( k
( \ 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
l\\(>
i iiuii:
IOI l\
11\ i:
1975
2.4

8.1



4.4

1.0






1976
2.5

6.3



3.6

0.9






1977
2.3

4.4



3.8

1.1






1978
17.8

10.0
16.3


9.1

2.2






1979
13.6

9.0



14.8

8.0






1980
56.8
5.8
14.5
6.7


10.8

8.4






1981
81.4
2.1
32.9
5.8


8.0

6.0






1982
84.8
1.9
34.8
39.7


8.3
13.1
5.3






1983
74.7
2.2
32.3
42.4


13.2
37.4
4.4






1984
82.0
0.8
28.4
41.0


21.6
32.4
2.8






1985
85.3
0.2
28.3
42.8


24.0
46.9
2.4






1986
86.6
0.2
28.5
50.0


33.0
43.4
0.7
99.0

1.0



1987
90.5
0.4
29.5
49.3


32.4
42.2
0.3
86.4
8.3
5.3



1988
91.2
0.2
25.6
59.0


48.7
42.7

79.6
9.5
10.9



1989
95.8
0.5
26.0
56.2


54.9
40.0
0.1
62.4
21.8
15.8



1990
95.5
0.8
19.3
63.6


66.7
33.2
0.1
60.0
5.5
34.5



1991
95.0
1.6
21.7
65.3


82.3
17.3
0.4
55.1
6.1
38.8

0.5

1992
96.1
0.9
19.2
66.2


89.0
10.8
0.2
58.8
4.7
36.6

1.0

1993
97.5
0.5
18.3
69.9


87.7
12.3

55.5
1.5
43.0

0.6

1994
96.2
0.4
18.8
72.8


91.7
8.3

49.3

50.7

7.4

1995
95.4
0.8
19.5
78.7


99.8

0.2
32.3
1.5
66.2

9.9

1996
97.3
0.9
17.2
81.9


100.0


32.5
1.5
65.9

10.3

1997
95.5
1.1
16.8
83.2


100.0

0.0
35.5
2.9
61.3
0.3
7.4

1998
93.8
1.8
15.3
84.4


99.6

0.4
22.6
1.9
74.2
1.2
12.5

1999
93.5
1.7
13.1
86.4


99.7

0.3
27.0
0.7
71.1
1.2
13.7

2000
92.0
1.4
15.3
83.2


99.5

0.5
26.2
2.5
69.9
1.3
25.5

2001
92.0
2.2
15.8
82.8
0.5

99.5

0.5
24.2
2.0
70.9
2.9
39.0

2002
90.2
3.5
16.5
82.3
0.9

99.2

0.8
26.0
2.4
68.4
3.2
38.1
0.8
2003
86.6
3.8
16.2
81.8
2.0

99.3

0.7
13.7
1.5
81.4
3.3
48.0
1.7
2004
87.8
5.2
14.6
83.9
1.5

99.5

0.5
11.3
1.1
84.7
2.8
54.2
0.9
2005
88.1
5.3
14.1
84.6
1.3

99.5

0.5
11.1
1.2
86.2
1.6
61.3
1.2
2006
80.6
5.4
12.5
85.2
2.2

97.8

2.2
12.3
1.3
86.3
0.1
71.0
1.7
2007
86.7
6.3
9.3
76.0
12.3

100.0


9.6
0.0
90.3
0.1
62.8
2.1
2008
81.5
9.7
11.0
83.6
5.4
3.5
96.5


7.9
0.0
92.0
0.0
51.6
2.3
2009
82.3
8.1
12.0
83.0
5.0
5.3
91.9

2.8
10.0
0.1
89.9

61.4
2.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
F-8
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	~ _ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-5
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Mid-Size Car
Moi)i:i
^ i: vk
SAIJ'.S
((Hill)
1 K \l
i i i:i i:< o\o\n
WCIII
Ili
\()l
(III
i:m;im:
11-611
ii mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
mm;
(1 II
MI'C
(III
ION Ml'(;
1 Alt
55 45
AIM
(in
VD.I
ll\U
A l).l
( OMI'
( id
III'
1975
1631
0.198
13.6
10.5
13.1
11.6
4630

353
158
13.9
115
0.447
0.0341
27.2


1976
1964
0.202
15.7
12.2
15.1
13.4
4558

343
156
13.8
114
0.454
0.0340
30.7


1977
2226
0.197
16.4
12.9
15.7
14.0
4473
112.9
332
151
13.9
114
0.454
0.0337
31.6
1601
3565
1978
3339
0.299
18.6
14.4
17.9
15.8
3820
113.0
292
135
13.4
113
0.464
0.0353
30.3
1823
3422
1979
3211
0.297
19.1
15.0
18.1
16.3
3710
113.1
272
128
13.6
112
0.474
0.0345
30.3
1870
3425
1980
2987
0.316
21.6
16.8
21.0
18.4
3362
113.2
228
113
13.8
109
0.512
0.0336
31.1
2113
3523
1981
2902
0.332
22.9
17.8
22.3
19.6
3346
113.9
220
107
14.2
108
0.509
0.0322
32.9
2255
3746
1982
2136
0.273
24.0
18.4
23.8
20.5
3321
113.9
211
107
14.2
108
0.529
0.0324
34.3
2377
3906
1983
2269
0.284
23.9
18.4
23.6
20.4
3316
113.8
212
111
13.8
109
0.544
0.0336
34.0
2363
3876
1984
2770
0.260
24.1
18.5
23.9
20.6
3318
113.7
210
113
13.6
110
0.563
0.0342
34.3
2373
3896
1985
2777
0.257
24.9
19.0
24.9
21.3
3318
113.6
205
117
13.3
112
0.606
0.0354
35.4
2453
4025
1986
2666
0.242
25.9
19.6
25.9
22.0
3241
113.8
194
118
13.0
113
0.640
0.0364
35.8
2535
4074
1987
2252
0.210
26.0
19.5
26.0
22.1
3247
113.7
188
123
12.7
114
0.684
0.0379
35.9
2540
4087
1988
2113
0.197
26.7
19.7
27.1
22.6
3293
113.4
183
129
12.3
116
0.718
0.0389
37.3
2588
4230
1989
2591
0.259
26.6
19.5
27.1
22.5
3314
113.6
181
131
12.2
117
0.735
0.0396
37.4
2574
4245
1990
2342
0.266
26.2
19.0
26.8
22.1
3450
113.7
187
140
12.0
119
0.758
0.0407
38.2
2528
4342
1991
2114
0.248
26.0
18.8
26.5
21.9
3412
113.5
191
146
11.5
121
0.773
0.0428
37.4
2497
4242
1992
2120
0.261
25.8
18.4
26.3
21.6
3515
113.9
191
151
11.5
122
0.801
0.0427
38.0
2471
4333
1993
2330
0.276
26.1
18.6
26.4
21.8
3515
113.9
192
153
11.4
123
0.812
0.0434
38.4
2497
4376
1994
2057
0.244
25.9
18.3
26.0
21.5
3529
113.5
189
155
11.4
123
0.827
0.0437
38.0
2457
4320
1995
2515
0.268
26.1
18.2
26.5
21.7
3546
114.3
189
166
10.7
127
0.889
0.0465
38.5
2491
4402
1996
2359
0.299
26.5
18.5
26.5
21.9
3527
114.1
181
162
10.9
126
0.906
0.0459
38.6
2505
4407
1997
2399
0.288
26.5
18.4
26.7
21.9
3551
114.5
184
170
10.6
128
0.933
0.0476
39.0
2522
4464
1998
2967
0.372
27.1
18.7
26.9
22.3
3534
114.0
177
169
10.5
128
0.965
0.0477
39.5
2552
4500
1999
3141
0.375
27.1
18.5
26.8
22.2
3540
114.0
175
170
10.5
128
0.984
0.0480
39.4
2538
4485
2000
2894
0.317
27.0
18.4
26.5
22.0
3550
113.6
174
178
10.2
131
1.027
0.0499
39.2
2512
4447
2001
2480
0.295
27.2
18.5
26.5
22.1
3566
113.7
175
180
10.1
132
1.034
0.0503
39.6
2529
4500
2002
2807
0.338
27.7
18.8
26.5
22.4
3549
114.8
177
185
9.8
134
1.055
0.0519
39.8
2581
4571
2003
2483
0.312
28.3
18.9
27.3
22.8
3567
114.6
174
189
9.7
135
1.096
0.0529
40.8
2628
4675
2004
2522
0.335
28.7
19.0
27.5
23.0
3577
114.0
174
190
9.7
135
1.100
0.0528
41.6
2667
4737
2005
2886
0.360
29.8
19.7
28.2
23.8
3544
114.5
168
185
9.8
133
1.096
0.0515
42.8
2793
4900
2006
2413
0.302
29.6
19.6
28.0
23.6
3568
114.0
169
191
9.6
135
1.137
0.0531
42.8
2759
4874
2007
3083
0.381
31.2
20.7
29.1
24.8
3581
113.8
165
191
9.6
135
1.143
0.0524
45.3
2913
5149
2008
2486
0.338
31.4
20.9
29.0
24.8
3564
113.3
163
191
9.5
135
1.161
0.0525
45.4
2937
5142
2009
2606
0.318
31.7
21.1
29.2
25.1
3575
113.5
164
196
9.5
136
1.181
0.0537
45.6
2938
5172
EPA-420-R-09-014
F-9
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«d Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	_ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-5 (cont.)
Percent of Mid-Size Car:
moi)i:i
^ i: vk
l)UI\ I I U Vl\
1 K\\n\IInn|<>\
i i i:i mi:i i:kim;
M MIJIiKOI \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iiuii)
I-IM»M
4\\ 1)
MVM \\
1 ()( k
( \ 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
l\\(>
i iiuii:
IOI l\
11\ i:
1975
2.7

0.6



0.7








1976
2.5

0.4



0.6








1977
2.1

0.3



0.7








1978
1.4

1.7
11.1


1.4








1979
5.2

1.9
21.4


2.3

1.4






1980
30.2

7.8
25.3


1.0
1.5
2.5






1981
32.3

5.6
52.2


0.1
2.3
4.0






1982
44.7

2.0
82.6


0.2
15.4
3.8






1983
48.9

1.2
80.0


0.5
17.2
1.7






1984
55.1

0.9
82.0


3.8
25.6
1.0






1985
61.9

1.3
77.6


13.0
37.1
0.3






1986
71.0
0.1
1.8
76.4


25.4
42.3
0.2
100.0





1987
77.3
0.2
1.5
77.6


40.7
43.4
0.4
100.0





1988
87.0
0.1
3.8
91.1


66.9
28.0

93.4
6.5
0.1



1989
86.5
0.1
4.7
91.7


78.3
21.0

94.3
4.9
0.8



1990
85.2
0.2
3.9
93.9


86.6
13.3
0.0
90.6
4.3
5.1

2.3

1991
87.2
0.1
3.6
94.5


88.7
11.2
0.1
89.7
4.9
5.3

2.7

1992
79.1
0.1
2.7
96.6


94.7
5.3

77.0
1.6
21.4

3.6

1993
85.4
0.2
2.3
97.2


95.6
4.4

72.7

27.3

4.0

1994
84.7

2.0
97.7


96.0
4.0

68.1

31.9

3.9

1995
79.6

2.7
97.2


98.9
1.1

61.5

38.5

8.9

1996
91.9

4.3
94.9


99.7

0.3
52.6

47.4

11.0

1997
90.6
0.1
2.5
97.5


99.8

0.2
50.1

49.9

10.1

1998
95.2
0.5
3.0
97.0


99.9

0.1
44.5
1.2
53.1
1.3
22.0

1999
95.2
0.7
3.3
96.3


99.8

0.2
36.1
1.4
59.7
2.7
20.9

2000
92.3
0.9
3.5
95.7


100.0


25.1
1.4
71.1
2.4
29.4

2001
93.0
1.2
3.1
96.1


100.0


28.2
1.8
66.6
3.4
25.3

2002
94.2
0.8
2.6
97.1
0.1

100.0


21.4
0.9
74.7
3.0
45.0

2003
91.7
0.6
2.8
97.0
0.1

100.0


21.9
2.5
72.1
3.6
55.3

2004
91.7
1.0
3.2
94.2
1.9

99.9

0.1
16.2
1.6
80.0
2.2
54.7
1.9
2005
91.4
1.9
3.2
92.4
4.2

99.6

0.4
13.6
1.1
84.6
0.7
68.5
4.9
2006
89.4
3.0
3.7
92.5
3.7

99.8

0.2
12.5
0.2
87.2
0.2
78.5
3.8
2007
89.0
3.8
1.9
77.6
19.8

99.9

0.1
7.3

92.7

79.1
7.8
2008
85.3
6.5
2.5
68.9
28.6
3.8
96.0

0.1
6.5

93.5

73.1
8.7
2009
85.7
6.2
4.5
65.7
29.5
2.7
97.0

0.3
2.6

97.4

83.6
7.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
F-10
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	~ _ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-6
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Large Car
Moi)i:i
^ i: vk
SAIJ'.S
((Hill)
1 K \l
i i i:i i:< o\o\n
WCIII
Ili
\()l
(III
i:m;im:
11-611
ii mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
mm;
(1 II
MI'C
(III
ION Ml'(;
1 Alt
55 45
AIM
(in
VD.I
ll\U
A l).l
( OMI'
( id
III'
1975
1555
0.189
13.1
10.2
12.6
11.2
5142

409
180
13.5
117
0.439
0.0348
28.9


1976
1679
0.173
14.2
11.1
13.5
12.1
5156

410
180
13.4
117
0.440
0.0349
31.1


1977
2319
0.205
15.9
12.4
15.2
13.5
4482
128.1
366
165
12.8
118
0.453
0.0370
30.4
1759
3895
1978
2048
0.183
16.8
13.0
16.3
14.3
4394
128.5
357
162
12.8
118
0.457
0.0370
31.7
1869
4071
1979
2111
0.196
17.4
13.7
16.5
14.8
4210
130.0
339
154
12.9
116
0.454
0.0365
31.3
1940
4073
1980
963
0.102
19.1
14.7
18.8
16.3
4130
130.9
314
137
14.0
112
0.440
0.0331
34.0
2156
4448
1981
956
0.109
20.4
15.4
20.8
17.4
4108
131.0
304
133
14.3
111
0.444
0.0325
36.4
2318
4762
1982
832
0.106
20.7
15.6
21.0
17.7
4034
131.0
292
135
13.9
112
0.468
0.0337
36.0
2333
4715
1983
1079
0.135
20.2
15.2
20.6
17.3
4041
131.3
292
140
13.4
113
0.481
0.0347
35.0
2272
4590
1984
1236
0.116
20.5
15.5
21.0
17.5
4022
130.9
294
140
13.4
114
0.478
0.0349
35.3
2298
4622
1985
1512
0.140
22.3
16.6
23.3
19.1
3841
129.3
279
143
12.7
116
0.512
0.0371
36.7
2470
4743
1986
1267
0.115
23.9
17.6
25.4
20.4
3719
127.4
260
147
12.1
119
0.577
0.0396
38.0
2610
4845
1987
1218
0.113
23.9
17.4
25.4
20.3
3696
127.0
259
149
11.8
120
0.587
0.0405
37.6
2588
4774
1988
1303
0.121
24.2
17.6
25.6
20.6
3730
128.1
262
150
11.9
120
0.587
0.0405
38.4
2644
4923
1989
1289
0.129
24.0
17.3
25.3
20.4
3721
127.4
261
158
11.4
122
0.619
0.0427
37.9
2598
4829
1990
1092
0.124
23.7
16.9
25.1
20.0
3799
126.7
258
161
11.4
123
0.639
0.0427
38.0
2542
4819
1991
1012
0.119
23.6
16.8
24.8
19.9
3893
129.0
264
178
10.7
127
0.685
0.0459
38.8
2575
5011
1992
1240
0.153
23.8
16.8
25.0
20.0
3872
129.6
262
185
10.4
130
0.715
0.0480
38.8
2601
5032
1993
1103
0.130
24.2
17.0
25.2
20.3
3831
128.9
256
181
10.5
129
0.720
0.0473
38.9
2627
5024
1994
1277
0.152
24.1
16.8
24.9
20.1
3859
128.3
248
188
10.2
131
0.766
0.0487
38.8
2587
4986
1995
1305
0.139
24.4
16.9
25.4
20.4
3830
127.9
248
206
9.4
138
0.845
0.0539
39.1
2618
5003
1996
1066
0.135
24.3
16.7
25.3
20.3
3894
128.1
250
217
9.2
140
0.879
0.0557
39.5
2601
5058
1997
1195
0.143
24.5
16.8
25.4
20.4
3821
127.4
242
216
9.1
141
0.903
0.0567
39.0
2606
4968
1998
912
0.114
24.6
16.8
25.2
20.4
3784
127.4
240
218
8.9
142
0.922
0.0575
38.5
2601
4909
1999
1059
0.126
24.8
16.8
25.2
20.5
3854
127.0
235
222
8.9
143
0.971
0.0576
39.5
2608
5014
2000
1665
0.182
25.6
17.3
25.7
21.0
3782
124.9
221
215
9.2
141
0.980
0.0564
39.7
2627
4958
2001
1416
0.168
25.4
17.1
25.5
20.8
3774
124.8
221
204
9.5
137
0.932
0.0538
39.3
2607
4912
2002
1252
0.151
26.0
17.4
25.7
21.2
3767
124.0
218
209
9.3
139
0.975
0.0554
39.9
2637
4951
2003
1261
0.159
26.0
17.3
25.6
21.1
3841
124.8
224
208
9.5
138
0.929
0.0538
40.6
2648
5068
2004
1185
0.157
26.0
17.2
25.6
21.1
3858
124.7
225
211
9.4
139
0.944
0.0546
40.6
2642
5073
2005
1234
0.154
26.4
17.4
25.5
21.2
3933
125.0
225
216
9.5
139
0.964
0.0545
41.8
2670
5230
2006
1570
0.196
26.0
17.1
25.2
20.9
4014
124.7
229
238
8.9
145
1.045
0.0589
42.2
2630
5263
2007
1174
0.145
26.0
17.1
25.3
21.0
4026
123.8
229
236
9.0
144
1.036
0.0581
42.5
2623
5256
2008
1407
0.192
27.3
17.8
26.8
22.0
3966
123.2
213
232
9.0
144
1.106
0.0581
43.9
2745
5406
2009
1875
0.229
27.5
18.0
26.8
22.2
3942
123.5
214
238
00
00
146
1.133
0.0599
44.0
2771
5423
EPA-420-R-09-014
F-ll
November 2009

-------

Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn
Aflwey
Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-6 (cont.)
Percent of Large Car:
moi)i:i
^ i: vk
l)UI\ I I U Vl\
1 K\\n\IInn|<>\
i i i:i mi:i i:kim;
M MIJIiKOI \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iiuii)
I-IM»M
4\\ 1)
MVM \\
1 ()( k
( \ 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
l\\(>
i iiuii:
IOI l\
11\ i:
1975
1.5

0.0












1976
1.5

0.0



1.2








1977
1.5





0.5








1978
1.1


2.5


0.2

1.4






1979



6.5


0.2

3.5






1980



41.6



2.0
10.4






1981



89.8



17.1
15.2






1982



93.1



20.1
10.0






1983



99.9



37.3
2.4






1984



99.9



39.0
0.8






1985
31.9


100.0


19.1
44.9
0.3






1986
55.9

0.7
99.2


65.4
15.8

99.3

0.7



1987
60.9

0.5
99.5


69.9
15.2

98.9

1.1



1988
58.7

0.4
99.6


76.9
12.6

98.9

1.1



1989
61.9

0.3
99.7


74.8
22.2

99.2

0.8



1990
69.0

0.2
99.8


92.9
6.0

99.5

0.5



1991
59.8

0.4
99.6


83.3
16.7

99.1

0.9



1992
58.5

0.3
98.5


89.2
10.7
0.1
98.1

1.9

0.7

1993
64.8

0.4
98.2


89.7
10.3

92.0

8.0

0.9

1994
69.2

0.2
99.0


99.9

0.1
82.9

17.1

0.5

1995
71.3

0.2
98.3


100.0

0.0
76.5

23.5

0.7

1996
67.7

0.1
99.3


100.0


61.6

38.4

1.2

1997
72.4

0.4
99.6


100.0


64.4

35.6

1.8

1998
74.2

0.1
99.9


100.0


60.2

39.8

2.5

1999
72.5


100.0


100.0


49.7

50.3

1.8

2000
80.9
0.0

100.0


100.0


60.2
1.2
38.6
0.0
7.2

2001
79.3
0.1

100.0


100.0


64.0
2.3
33.6
0.1
9.1

2002
86.6
0.0

100.0


100.0


62.8
2.1
35.0
0.0
6.9

2003
77.1
0.3

100.0


100.0


72.7
1.7
25.5
0.0
8.9

2004
77.1
1.3

100.0


100.0


65.9
1.4
31.9
0.8
10.6

2005
68.6
3.8

96.7
3.2

100.0


64.4
0.9
34.4
0.4
8.8

2006
62.7
3.8
0.1
96.8
3.0

100.0


48.6
0.9
50.2
0.3
29.2

2007
70.1
3.9
0.1
98.7
1.1

100.0


52.5
0.2
47.2

50.6

2008
72.7
3.0
0.6
99.3

0.9
99.1


37.0
0.0
63.0

57.1

2009
74.9
3.3
0.3
99.5

0.7
99.3


27.6
0.1
72.3

68.6

EPA-420-R-09-014
F-12
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	~ _ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-7
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Small Wagon
Moi)i:i
^ i: vk
SAIJ'.S
((Hill)
1 K \l
i i i:i i:< o\o\n
WCIII
Ili
\()l
(III
i:m;im:
11-611
ii mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
mm;
(1 II
MI'C
(III
ION Ml'(;
1 Alt
55 45
AIM
(in
VD.I
ll\U
A l).l
( OMI'
( id
III'
1975
477
0.058
22.4
17.4
21.6
19.1
2833

128
87
14.8
104
0.713
0.0307
27.3


1976
345
0.036
23.9
18.7
22.9
20.4
2902

136
86
15.2
103
0.668
0.0297
29.8


1977
384
0.034
25.5
20.2
23.8
21.7
2801
108.0
134
85
14.9
104
0.685
0.0305
30.8
2404
3317
1978
361
0.032
24.3
19.2
22.9
20.7
2805
108.0
134
90
14.3
105
0.709
0.0319
29.5
2291
3176
1979
310
0.029
25.7
20.3
24.3
21.9
2711
105.1
123
81
15.1
102
0.684
0.0295
29.8
2335
3135
1980
310
0.033
28.6
22.6
27.0
24.4
2591
108.2
113
75
15.4
101
0.685
0.0289
32.0
2702
3463
1981
418
0.048
30.0
23.6
28.5
25.6
2531
110.6
108
79
14.4
103
0.755
0.0313
32.6
2858
3601
1982
382
0.049
30.6
23.9
29.4
26.1
2580
112.2
109
75
15.3
101
0.698
0.0289
33.8
2951
3789
1983
531
0.066
32.2
25.3
30.5
27.4
2565
108.2
105
74
15.3
101
0.713
0.0289
35.3
2986
3817
1984
461
0.043
31.9
24.9
30.7
27.2
2620
116.5
107
77
15.2
102
0.719
0.0294
35.9
3206
4180
1985
496
0.046
32.5
25.4
30.9
27.7
2579
117.7
106
78
15.0
102
0.727
0.0300
35.9
3296
4227
1986
348
0.032
31.0
24.2
29.2
26.3
2647
118.4
113
82
14.7
103
0.730
0.0308
35.1
3162
4150
1987
361
0.034
30.7
23.8
28.9
25.9
2795
120.0
116
91
14.2
106
0.788
0.0324
36.5
3152
4378
1988
253
0.024
31.3
24.3
29.0
26.3
2757
118.7
113
93
13.7
107
0.829
0.0336
36.4
3147
4317
1989
159
0.016
31.5
24.2
29.4
26.4
2766
118.6
112
96
13.5
108
0.862
0.0344
36.6
3154
4339
1990
160
0.018
29.6
22.4
27.7
24.7
3026
122.2
120
110
12.9
111
0.920
0.0361
37.4
3047
4577
1991
209
0.025
30.6
22.8
28.9
25.4
3005
123.3
120
106
13.3
110
0.880
0.0350
38.3
3174
4726
1992
143
0.018
30.2
22.3
28.6
25.0
3076
123.7
122
123
12.4
116
1.017
0.0399
38.6
3133
4774
1993
301
0.036
32.5
23.7
31.0
26.9
2882
123.0
118
99
13.5
108
0.842
0.0343
38.9
3342
4784
1994
206
0.025
32.9
23.6
31.7
27.1
2908
122.9
121
103
13.3
110
0.848
0.0352
39.6
3381
4872
1995
198
0.021
33.3
23.9
31.8
27.3
2859
122.1
118
100
13.4
109
0.844
0.0348
39.2
3372
4782
1996
90
0.011
31.6
22.5
30.0
25.8
2952
118.0
122
114
12.5
113
0.928
0.0382
38.2
3079
4507
1997
149
0.018
32.2
22.7
30.8
26.3
2901
119.5
124
117
11.8
116
0.943
0.0404
38.2
3173
4562
1998
98
0.012
32.1
22.3
30.7
26.1
2874
116.9
124
119
11.7
117
0.959
0.0412
37.5
3079
4393
1999
78
0.009
31.5
21.8
30.1
25.5
2923
117.9
125
126
11.3
119
1.004
0.0428
37.4
3046
4413
2000
68
0.007
29.2
20.0
28.2
23.7
3107
119.7
127
143
10.7
123
1.129
0.0459
36.9
2860
4414
2001
212
0.025
27.3
19.0
25.4
22.0
3470
119.6
145
148
11.3
121
1.022
0.0426
38.2
2639
4570
2002
236
0.028
26.1
18.0
24.4
21.1
3504
118.2
145
156
11.0
124
1.085
0.0445
37.1
2504
4384
2003
338
0.042
30.2
20.8
27.1
23.9
3262
115.2
127
146
11.0
123
1.162
0.0448
39.6
2812
4557
2004
300
0.040
31.4
21.6
27.7
24.7
3235
117.5
126
166
10.1
130
1.298
0.0506
40.1
2943
4719
2005
365
0.045
32.4
22.2
28.4
25.3
3160
115.9
122
156
10.4
127
1.268
0.0487
40.3
2984
4671
2006
493
0.062
31.4
21.3
27.8
24.6
3255
118.4
127
160
10.5
128
1.244
0.0486
40.1
2940
4755
2007
389
0.048
31.7
21.5
28.2
24.9
3264
112.0
127
160
10.4
128
1.247
0.0484
40.7
2840
4579
2008
420
0.057
32.3
21.9
28.7
25.3
3300
115.0
130
160
10.5
127
1.228
0.0479
42.0
2961
4849
2009
549
0.067
32.6
22.1
28.9
25.5
3337
114.4
130
159
10.4
127
1.225
0.0474
42.8
2953
4905
EPA-420-R-09-014
F-13
November 2009

-------

Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn
Aflwey
Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-7 (cont.)
Percent of Small Wagon:
moi)i:i
^ i: vk
l)UI\ I I U Vl\
1 KV\n\||nn|C»\
i i i:i mi:i i:kim;
M MIJIiKOI \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iiuii)
I-IM»M
4\\ 1)
MVM \\
1 ()( k
( \ 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
l\\(>
i iiuii:
IOI l\
11\ i:
1975
13.3

48.6



0.8








1976
12.2

42.8



3.2








1977
23.3

52.9



6.4

0.6






1978
23.0

56.3



6.9








1979
13.3
12.1
59.3



1.0








1980
24.4
9.8
67.3
4.6


1.1

6.3






1981
57.9
8.0
62.0
8.1


4.0

2.2






1982
68.3
8.9
54.0
19.4


4.8
0.7
1.2






1983
55.4
39.3
51.0
23.7


3.7
17.0
0.3






1984
81.4
15.6
43.7
39.2


5.1
32.2
1.6






1985
60.0
39.6
42.7
42.2


6.2
15.4
0.5






1986
78.4
20.7
43.3
29.0


6.8
24.3
0.8
100.0





1987
76.6
23.4
34.4
41.0


29.2
42.6

78.8
4.9
16.3



1988
80.2
19.8
37.8
34.6


30.6
62.8

80.5
0.6
18.9



1989
89.9
10.1
26.6
51.8


41.0
48.8

59.8
3.2
36.9



1990
68.3
31.7
30.6
58.8


59.4
40.6

35.5

64.5



1991
79.1
20.9
24.4
74.1


80.0
20.0

51.4

48.6



1992
73.0
25.5
30.9
68.2


95.3
4.7

54.7

45.3

1.4

1993
83.2
16.2
28.9
70.6


95.8
4.2

73.5

26.5

0.5

1994
88.6
10.6
26.3
72.1


97.8
2.2

79.2

20.8

3.5

1995
92.8
4.6
23.8
76.2


100.0


74.3

25.7

4.5

1996
84.5
11.2
20.8
79.2


100.0


48.9

51.1

4.5

1997
82.9
14.4
19.6
80.4


100.0


59.3

40.7

3.0

1998
78.9
18.3
18.8
81.2


100.0


50.9

45.6
3.5
3.5

1999
71.8
22.8
20.1
77.6


100.0


36.8

58.7
4.4
16.3

2000
71.5
17.9
15.2
78.0


100.0


0.8

95.8
3.4
43.1

2001
92.6
5.1
14.9
84.5


100.0


2.6

95.2
2.2
4.1

2002
82.0
14.9
19.6
79.8


99.1

0.9
4.7
1.6
91.5
2.2
2.2

2003
86.2
11.7
16.6
83.4


98.0

2.0
3.8
1.1
93.2
1.9
48.3

2004
85.7
13.4
15.7
84.3


98.8

1.2
2.5
0.9
95.0
1.6
51.5

2005
89.0
10.7
15.5
84.5


98.9

1.1
20.9
0.6
77.9
0.6
60.4

2006
90.8
8.8
11.9
88.1


100.0


10.4

89.6
0.1
55.5

2007
90.2
9.4
10.4
89.0


100.0


8.3

91.6
0.1
49.3

2008
87.2
12.6
15.6
84.4

1.9
98.1




99.9
0.1
50.9

2009
87.0
12.8
18.0
76.8
4.6
3.8
94.3

1.9


100.0

81.8

EPA-420-R-09-014
F-14
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	~ _ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-8
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Mid-Size Wagon
Moi)i:i
^ i: vk
SAIJ'.S
((Hill)
1 K \l
i i i:i i:< o\o\n
WCIII
Ili
\()l
(III
i:m;im:
11-611
ii mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
mm;
(1 II
MI'C
(III
ION Ml'(;
1 Alt
55 45
AIM
(in
VD.I
ll\U
A l).l
( OMI'
( id
III'
1975
289
0.035
13.2
10.2
12.9
11.3
4791

361
162
13.8
115
0.473
0.0338
27.4


1976
485
0.050
16.0
12.6
15.1
13.6
4555

315
142
14.8
110
0.458
0.0311
31.2


1977
548
0.048
16.3
12.9
15.3
13.9
4410
143.6
297
135
15.1
109
0.459
0.0305
30.7
2015
4417
1978
503
0.045
18.6
14.6
17.6
15.8
3836
140.0
258
123
14.4
109
0.484
0.0320
30.5
2240
4266
1979
482
0.045
19.1
15.2
17.9
16.3
3758
139.7
249
118
14.7
108
0.480
0.0313
30.7
2295
4293
1980
257
0.027
21.1
16.5
20.1
18.0
3534
139.7
228
107
15.0
106
0.482
0.0304
31.9
2542
4455
1981
272
0.031
23.1
18.1
21.8
19.6
3285
136.2
193
103
14.5
107
0.562
0.0316
32.4
2714
4417
1982
284
0.036
23.7
18.5
22.6
20.2
3384
136.1
205
108
14.3
108
0.551
0.0320
34.3
2781
4669
1983
276
0.034
24.4
19.1
23.3
20.8
3348
136.2
200
109
14.1
108
0.568
0.0325
35.0
2869
4759
1984
365
0.034
25.0
19.4
24.2
21.3
3298
135.9
172
107
14.1
108
0.633
0.0324
35.3
2922
4793
1985
341
0.032
25.2
19.4
24.6
21.5
3356
134.8
170
112
13.9
109
0.679
0.0334
36.2
2909
4876
1986
409
0.037
26.0
19.8
25.7
22.1
3355
137.8
162
115
13.6
110
0.718
0.0342
37.1
3055
5116
1987
359
0.033
25.6
19.3
25.6
21.8
3434
140.2
173
125
13.0
113
0.735
0.0363
37.4
3059
5245
1988
285
0.027
26.2
19.4
26.5
22.2
3378
139.4
171
126
12.7
114
0.743
0.0372
37.7
3113
5249
1989
239
0.024
25.6
18.8
25.9
21.7
3436
139.9
176
132
12.4
116
0.765
0.0383
37.3
3038
5217
1990
184
0.021
25.3
18.3
25.9
21.3
3498
141.6
181
139
12.0
118
0.782
0.0397
37.4
3030
5298
1991
122
0.014
25.9
18.6
26.4
21.8
3506
142.3
181
140
12.0
118
0.794
0.0401
38.3
3111
5451
1992
137
0.017
26.2
18.6
26.9
21.9
3503
142.6
188
143
11.8
119
0.777
0.0408
38.5
3143
5502
1993
166
0.020
26.2
18.7
26.6
21.9
3498
137.7
188
144
11.7
120
0.790
0.0411
38.4
3028
5296
1994
138
0.016
26.0
18.4
26.4
21.7
3532
137.4
180
151
11.4
122
0.863
0.0428
38.4
2987
5273
1995
176
0.019
26.6
18.8
26.6
22.1
3482
135.9
167
148
11.4
121
0.915
0.0426
38.5
3008
5235
1996
169
0.021
26.3
18.5
25.8
21.7
3661
136.9
161
153
11.6
122
0.965
0.0422
39.8
2982
5458
1997
149
0.018
26.3
18.5
25.5
21.6
3666
136.5
160
158
11.3
123
1.001
0.0434
39.5
2948
5403
1998
153
0.019
26.2
18.5
25.0
21.4
3668
135.3
155
169
10.7
127
1.097
0.0461
39.3
2909
5327
1999
181
0.022
26.3
18.3
25.4
21.5
3691
136.4
157
169
10.8
126
1.087
0.0457
39.7
2940
5419
2000
234
0.026
27.3
18.9
25.7
22.1
3572
134.0
153
162
11.0
125
1.060
0.0452
39.5
2982
5294
2001
236
0.028
26.6
18.5
24.8
21.5
3775
133.6
155
175
10.7
128
1.139
0.0463
40.7
2905
5433
2002
208
0.025
27.4
18.9
25.4
22.0
3731
133.6
152
172
10.7
127
1.136
0.0460
41.0
2953
5477
2003
171
0.022
27.2
18.6
25.4
21.9
3745
133.5
151
174
10.7
127
1.157
0.0463
40.9
2936
5461
2004
158
0.021
26.4
17.9
24.7
21.2
3860
135.0
158
189
10.3
131
1.208
0.0489
41.0
2877
5531
2005
238
0.030
26.0
17.4
24.4
20.8
3839
133.3
183
213
9.3
139
1.195
0.0547
40.0
2810
5338
2006
220
0.027
26.4
17.7
24.7
21.1
3827
135.6
182
221
9.1
142
1.221
0.0570
40.4
2884
5481
2007
150
0.019
27.3
18.4
25.4
21.8
3727
135.4
161
195
9.8
134
1.223
0.0518
40.7
2976
5511
2008
152
0.021
27.1
18.2
25.2
21.6
3808
132.2
163
190
10.1
132
1.175
0.0497
41.2
2876
5449
2009
122
0.015
27.7
18.6
25.6
22.0
3761
131.1
158
191
9.9
133
1.206
0.0505
41.4
2902
5431
EPA-420-R-09-014
F-15
November 2009

-------

Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn
Aflwey
Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-8 (cont.)
Percent of Mid-Size Wagon:
moi)i:i
^ i: vk
l)UI\ I I U Vl\
1 KV\n\||nn|C»\
i i i:i mi:i i:kim;
M MIJIiKOI \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iiuii)
I-IM»M
4\\ 1)
MVM \\
1 ()( k
( \ 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
l\\(>
i iiuii:
IOI l\
11\ i:
1975


4.0



7.6

0.2






1976


7.1



3.4

0.1






1977


4.6



3.5

0.3






1978


5.3
17.2


3.0

0.3






1979


5.3
9.1


2.5

2.5






1980


9.9
43.8


4.3

5.9






1981
35.6

12.8
28.5


6.9

5.9






1982
28.2

7.4
62.6


5.7

6.3






1983
32.8

6.2
50.2


7.9

2.3






1984
69.9

5.4
62.5


10.4
20.3
2.5






1985
69.5
4.5
5.9
64.7


25.7
30.5
1.8






1986
82.2
2.1
9.1
71.0


51.3
28.0
0.2
100.0





1987
83.9
0.1
4.4
83.6


71.7
22.8
0.8
100.0





1988
87.7
0.7
3.8
87.2


70.2
29.8

100.0





1989
77.5
8.2
7.1
80.7


87.7
12.3

99.0

1.0



1990
81.1
0.4
1.7
87.9


98.5
1.5

96.6

3.4



1991
79.6
1.3
2.4
85.6


99.3
0.7

96.4

3.6



1992
80.8
0.6
1.7
88.9


99.7
0.3

89.7

10.3



1993
87.0
0.6
1.8
91.2


100.0


88.4

11.6



1994
89.0
0.4
1.6
94.0


100.0


79.9

20.1

6.2

1995
64.8
27.8
10.1
86.7


100.0


49.2

50.8

6.1

1996
61.0
39.0
12.9
87.1


99.2

0.8
36.5

63.5

6.8

1997
48.5
51.5
13.4
86.6


99.9

0.1
32.4

67.6

4.8

1998
32.7
64.2
13.7
86.3


100.0


12.9
3.1
82.4
1.6
8.9

1999
44.8
52.0
12.1
87.9


100.0


16.9
3.2
69.8
10.1
10.6

2000
54.4
43.3
9.9
90.1


100.0


25.7
2.3
61.3
10.6
19.8

2001
42.4
56.5
8.5
91.5


100.0


11.4
2.4
74.0
12.2
39.1

2002
49.0
50.3
8.9
91.1


100.0


7.2
1.9
80.0
10.9
36.7

2003
46.9
52.7
8.9
90.8


100.0


7.0
0.7
74.1
18.2
30.9

2004
40.3
58.2
7.3
92.7


99.4

0.6
5.0
3.7
76.5
14.9
48.6

2005
19.9
49.3
6.8
93.2


98.6

1.4
14.8
1.0
79.8
4.4
31.3

2006
19.7
44.1
4.8
95.2


100.0


5.9
0.8
93.2

34.1

2007
45.4
42.4
5.4
94.5


100.0


2.6

97.4

28.2

2008
35.9
54.2
5.4
94.6

5.2
94.8


2.6

97.4

28.6

2009
39.5
60.4
5.5
94.5

3.0
97.0




100.0

33.3

EPA-420-R-09-014
F-16
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	~ _ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-9
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Large Wagon
Moi)i:i
^ i: vk
SAIJ'.S
((Hill)
1 K \l
i i i:i i:< o\o\n
WCIII
Ili
\()l
(III
i:m;im:
11-611
ii mi:
l()l'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
mm;
(1 II
MI'C
(III
ION MI'C
1 Alt
55 45
AIM
(in
VD.I
ll\U
A l).l
( OMI'
( id
III'
1975
197
0.024
11.9
9.3
11.6
10.2
5453

410
181
14.0
116
0.441
0.0333
27.9


1976
207
0.021
13.5
10.6
12.9
11.5
5444

416
185
13.7
117
0.445
0.0340
31.4


1977
340
0.030
15.5
12.2
14.6
13.2
4713
163.1
365
161
13.6
115
0.442
0.0342
31.4
2185
5113
1978
293
0.026
15.9
12.4
15.4
13.6
4664
162.4
354
162
13.4
116
0.460
0.0348
31.8
2216
5161
1979
275
0.026
16.1
12.8
15.1
13.7
4466
162.5
333
155
13.4
115
0.465
0.0346
30.7
2240
4996
1980
102
0.011
19.1
14.7
18.9
16.3
4423
161.5
323
134
15.2
109
0.418
0.0304
36.9
2690
5953
1981
108
0.012
19.9
15.0
20.3
17.0
4394
161.4
312
131
15.3
108
0.424
0.0299
38.2
2797
6154
1982
146
0.019
19.2
14.4
19.8
16.4
4396
161.3
306
139
14.6
110
0.456
0.0316
36.5
2677
5877
1983
130
0.016
19.6
14.7
20.2
16.7
4379
161.6
307
142
14.1
112
0.465
0.0325
36.8
2714
5940
1984
176
0.017
19.9
14.9
20.5
17.0
4371
161.7
305
144
13.9
112
0.472
0.0330
37.3
2760
6028
1985
145
0.013
20.9
15.6
21.8
17.9
4354
161.7
305
153
13.2
115
0.504
0.0354
39.0
2894
6299
1986
120
0.011
22.0
16.2
23.3
18.8
4381
161.4
304
146
13.9
113
0.479
0.0334
41.3
3040
6656
1987
88
0.008
22.1
16.3
23.1
18.9
4348
161.8
304
143
14.0
112
0.470
0.0330
41.0
3051
6634
1988
75
0.007
22.8
16.8
23.4
19.4
4349
161.7
304
143
14.0
112
0.470
0.0330
42.1
3131
6807
1989
63
0.006
22.5
16.5
23.0
19.0
4334
161.8
304
143
13.9
112
0.471
0.0332
41.2
3081
6671
1990
31
0.004
22.7
16.5
23.1
19.1
4337
161.6
304
143
13.9
112
0.471
0.0332
41.5
3092
6701
1991
34
0.004
22.9
16.3
24.2
19.4
4402
169.1
304
177
11.9
122
0.581
0.0404
42.6
3273
7207
1992
27
0.003
22.7
15.9
24.3
19.1
4500
170.3
338
177
12.1
121
0.526
0.0394
43.1
3261
7337
1993
19
0.002
22.5
15.6
24.3
19.0
4500
169.3
340
174
12.2
120
0.513
0.0386
42.7
3214
7231
1994
16
0.002
22.9
15.9
24.1
19.2
4500
169.2
350
250
9.1
144
0.714
0.0556
43.3
3254
7321
1995
10
0.001
22.8
15.8
23.9
19.1
4500
169.3
350
250
9.1
144
0.714
0.0556
43.0
3233
7274
1996
9
0.001
23.2
15.9
24.5
19.4
4500
170.2
350
260
8.9
147
0.743
0.0578
43.6
3298
7421
2004
98
0.013
22.0
14.9
20.9
17.8
4769
165.0
215
249
9.6
140
1.158
0.0524
42.4
2936
6996
2005
118
0.015
22.2
14.9
21.1
17.9
4791
165.0
217
244
9.8
139
1.125
0.0510
42.9
2958
7078
2006
102
0.013
21.9
14.8
20.7
17.7
4806
164.4
219
254
9.5
142
1.165
0.0531
42.4
2911
6969
2007
73
0.009
21.9
14.5
21.6
17.9
4785
159.2
237
247
9.7
140
1.048
0.0519
42.8
2849
6811
2008
23
0.003
21.8
14.6
21.0
17.7
5017
160.1
227
256
9.6
140
1.135
0.0512
44.4
2837
7108
2009
7
0.001
21.8
15.0
19.8
17.4
5500
161.7
209
261
10.0
137
1.245
0.0474
48.1
2830
7784
EPA-420-R-09-014
F-17
November 2009

-------
Ur>it«rt Ssaiffs
Environmental Pn	.	_. __	__ _ __	__	~ _ _ __ __ .
a»*w	Appendix F: Car Fuel Economy Data Stratified by EPA Car Class
Table F-9 (cont.)
Percent of Large Wagon:
moi)i:i
^ i: vk
l)UI\ I I U Vl\
1 KV\n\||nn|C»\
i i i:i mi:i i:kim;
M MIJIiKOI \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iiuii)
I-IM»M
4\\ 1)
MVM \\
llllk
(\ 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
l\\(>
i iiuii:
IOI l\
11\ i:
1975















1976















1977















1978








1.4






1979















1980



74.0




26.7






1981



100.0



0.2
25.2






1982



100.0




11.0






1983



100.0



24.1
4.6






1984



100.0



25.8
1.5






1985



100.0



29.2
0.4






1986



100.0


23.7


100.0





1987



100.0


30.3


100.0





1988



100.0


30.2


100.0





1989



100.0


33.1


100.0





1990



100.0


32.7


100.0





1991



100.0


19.5
80.5

100.0





1992



100.0



100.0

100.0





1993



100.0



100.0

100.0





1994



100.0


100.0


100.0





1995



100.0


100.0


100.0





1996



100.0


100.0


100.0





2004
46.1
53.9

100.0


100.0




100.0



2005
60.1
39.9

100.0


100.0


14.5

85.5



2006
57.8
42.2

100.0


100.0


0.0
19.0
81.0

14.5

2007
60.0
40.0

100.0


97.9

2.1
12.2
1.6
86.3

13.3

2008
31.7
57.6

100.0


95.2

4.8


100.0

41.0

2009

100

100


87.8

12.2


100

87.8

EPA-420-R-09-014
F-18
November 2009

-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Appendix G
Fuel Economy Data Stratified by
Vehicle Type and Weight Class
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-l
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 1750 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.(
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1985
37
0.003
57.4
46.7
51.5
48.8
1750
82.6
61
48
15.7
96
0.787
0.0274
42.8
4037
3533
1986
81
0.005
55.9
45.4
49.4
47.1
1750
84.6
61
46
16.3
95
0.759
0.0264
42.0
4052
3546
1987
38
0.003
56.8
45.4
50.5
47.6
1750
84.4
61
46
16.2
95
0.756
0.0264
41.9
4043
3537
1988
55
0.004
51.6
41.2
45.1
42.9
1750
84.6
61
47
16.3
95
0.766
0.0267
38.3
3695
3234
1989
25
0.002
59.4
46.9
51.4
49.0
1750
90.9
61
49
15.4
96
0.806
0.0281
42.8
4453
3896
1990
4
0.000
65.3
50.7
56.7
53.4
1750
89.1
61
49
15.5
96
0.803
0.0280
46.7
4755
4161
1991
4
0.000
65.3
50.2
56.3
53.0
1750
89.1
61
55
14.1
100
0.902
0.0314
46.3
4719
4129
1992
8
0.001
65.3
49.6
56.0
52.6
1750
89.1
61
55
14.1
100
0.902
0.0314
46.0
4684
4098
1993
10
0.001
65.3
49.1
55.6
52.2
1750
89.1
61
55
14.1
100
0.902
0.0314
45.7
4649
4068
1994
8
0.001
65.8
49.3
55.3
52.1
1750
89.1
61
55
14.1
100
0.902
0.0314
45.6
4645
4065
Percent of 1750 lb. Cars:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \\N\I|NS|()\
i i i.i mi. i i.kim;
M Mlil'.K <)l \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in liuii)
1 l\( >\ 1
4\\ 1)
M VM
1 ()( k
( \ 1
<;i>i
I'OKI
i id
DM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
I OI u
11\ i:
1985
100.0

90.1












1986
100.0

64.7






100.0





1987
100.0

100.0






100.0





1988
100.0

59.5




2.8

100.0





1989
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1990
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1991
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1992
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1993
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1994
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
G-l
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-2
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2000 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
105
0.010
31.4
24.5
30.1
26.7
2000

83
54
15.9
97
0.655
0.0272
26.9


1976
154
0.012
32.6
25.5
31.0
27.8
2000

83
56
15.6
97
0.670
0.0279
28.0


1977
157
0.011
36.0
28.2
34.3
30.7
2000
73.7
84
61
14.4
100
0.739
0.0307
31.4
2307
2307
1978
270
0.019
34.9
27.8
32.5
29.7
2000
80.3
90
62
14.3
101
0.695
0.0312
30.0
2423
2423
1979
234
0.017
32.0
25.4
29.9
27.2
2000
80.1
88
62
14.3
101
0.712
0.0312
27.5
2208
2208
1980
280
0.025
33.0
26.1
30.9
28.0
2000
85.7
90
63
14.3
101
0.696
0.0314
28.4
2434
2434
1981
209
0.020
38.4
30.8
35.0
32.6
2000
86.7
86
64
14.0
102
0.744
0.0321
33.0
2857
2857
1982
157
0.016
40.3
32.3
36.9
34.2
2000
87.3
86
61
14.5
100
0.715
0.0308
34.6
3022
3022
1983
94
0.009
43.6
34.9
40.2
37.1
2000
86.0
84
61
14.4
100
0.728
0.0308
37.4
3216
3216
1984
92
0.007
44.3
35.4
40.8
37.7
2000
73.5
86
67
13.5
103
0.776
0.0335
38.2
2802
2802
1985
62
0.004
44.4
35.5
40.9
37.7
2000
60.2
89
69
13.3
105
0.782
0.0348
38.7
2343
2343
1986
58
0.004
36.6
28.4
34.9
31.0
2000
72.3
76
56
15.4
98
0.750
0.0281
33.0
2253
2253
1987
106
0.007
40.0
31.7
36.2
33.6
2000
79.9
70
55
15.9
97
0.799
0.0276
35.0
2735
2735
1988
186
0.012
43.6
34.8
38.3
36.4
2000
91.0
77
59
15.0
99
0.770
0.0293
37.0
3341
3341
1989
135
0.009
43.5
34.7
37.6
36.0
2000
92.4
76
59
15.2
99
0.782
0.0294
36.8
3357
3357
1990
71
0.006
47.5
36.8
42.2
39.2
2000
92.7
72
58
15.2
99
0.813
0.0290
39.6
3667
3667
1991
142
0.011
47.1
36.2
41.4
38.6
2000
88.8
67
58
15.3
98
0.866
0.0288
39.1
3475
3475
1992
120
0.010
47.3
36.2
41.2
38.5
2000
88.8
64
56
15.6
98
0.886
0.0282
38.9
3461
3461
1993
111
0.008
48.6
36.7
42.3
39.3
2000
91.1
67
58
15.2
99
0.870
0.0291
39.8
3625
3625
1994
97
0.007
48.9
36.9
41.9
39.3
2000
91.9
62
56
15.7
98
0.902
0.0281
39.8
3656
3656
1995
33
0.002
53.7
39.7
46.0
42.7
2000
99.9
63
57
15.4
98
0.900
0.0284
42.8
4272
4272
1996
37
0.003
52.3
38.6
44.4
41.4
2000
99.9
72
60
14.8
99
0.846
0.0298
41.5
4151
4151
1997
13
0.001
54.4
39.5
46.1
42.7
2000
90.5
61
55
15.7
97
0.902
0.0275
42.7
3866
3866
1998
11
0.001
53.6
38.1
46.1
41.9
2000
89.7
60
55
15.7
97
0.917
0.0275
41.9
3761
3761
1999
8
0.001
50.3
35.4
43.5
39.3
2000
88.0
61
55
15.7
97
0.902
0.0275
39.3
3458
3458
2000
11
0.001
61.6
42.7
51.6
47.1
2000
68.1
61
61
13.2
100
1.005
0.0306
48.8
3150
3150
2001
2
0.000
75.6
50.8
61.8
56.3
2000
50.0
61
67
11.0
103
1.098
0.0335
56.3
2814
2814
2002
1
0.000
75.3
50.2
60.7
55.5
2000
50.0
61
67
11.0
103
1.098
0.0335
55.5
2776
2776
2003
0
0.000
75.1
49.4
60.3
54.9
2000
50.0
61
67
11.0
103
1.098
0.0335
54.9
2747
2747
2004
0
0.000
73.8
48.6
57.9
53.4
2000
50.0
61
67
11.0
103
1.098
0.0335
53.4
2672
2672
2005
0
0.000
74.3
48.3
57.7
53.3
2000
50.0
61
73
11.2
107
1.197
0.0365
53.3
2663
2663
2006
0
0.000
73.8
47.9
57.6
53.0
2000
50.0
61
73
11.0
107
1.197
0.0365
53.0
2649
2649
2008
22
0.002
49.5
33.4
40.5
37.1
2000
50.0
61
70
13.3
105
1.148
0.0350
37.1
1857
1857
2009
22
0.001
49.5
33.4
40.5
37.1
2000
50.0
61
70
12.8
105
1.148
0.0350
37.1
1857
1857
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-2
November 2009

-------
«gm
™ ™	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-2 (cont.)
Percent of 2000 lb. Cars:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975
100.0

100.0












1976
92.5

89.7












1977
100.0

87.0












1978
100.0

100.0












1979
100.0

100.0












1980
100.0

83.9












1981
82.7

90.6












1982
85.1

93.0
2.5











1983
91.9

100.0



8.1








1984
98.7

96.7
3.1


1.3








1985
100.0

94.7
5.3


11.9








1986
100.0

100.0






100.0





1987
100.0

80.5



6.3


73.6
26.4




1988
93.9
6.1
99.0



14.0
0.0

82.5
17.5




1989
100.0

65.0



37.9
19.3

91.7
6.1
2.1



1990
100.0

89.8



50.5
46.9

97.0
2.6




1991
100.0

68.4



29.1
69.2

98.7
1.3




1992
100.0

53.4



13.0
86.6

99.6





1993
100.0

76.2



28.7
71.3

98.2
1.8




1994
100.0

52.3



1.5
98.5

98.5
1.5




1995
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1996
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1997
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1998
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1999
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





2000
52.4

100.0



52.4
47.6

47.6

52.4

52.4
52.4
2001
100.0

100.0



100.0




100.0

100.0
100.0
2002
100.0

100.0



100.0




100.0

100.0
100.0
2003
100.0

100.0



100.0




100.0

100.0
100.0
2004
100.0

100.0



100.0




100.0

100.0
100.0
2005
100.0

100.0



100.0




100.0

100.0
100.0
2006
100.0

100.0



100.0




100.0

100.0
100.0
2008



100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

2009






100.0




100.0

100.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-3
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-3
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2250 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ w
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
375
0.037
28.3
21.6
28.4
24.2
2250

89
66
15.3
100
0.749
0.0294
27.4


1976
570
0.046
29.6
23.2
28.2
25.2
2250

91
66
15.3
100
0.736
0.0296
28.6


1977
851
0.060
32.1
25.0
30.8
27.3
2250
85.5
90
68
14.8
101
0.762
0.0303
31.3
2385
2683
1978
886
0.061
31.9
25.2
29.9
27.1
2250
85.6
89
67
15.0
100
0.758
0.0298
31.3
2394
2694
1979
699
0.050
31.4
24.7
29.6
26.7
2250
88.0
88
65
15.2
100
0.745
0.0291
30.5
2394
2694
1980
1162
0.103
32.4
25.6
30.4
27.5
2250
89.6
92
67
15.0
100
0.722
0.0296
31.6
2515
2830
1981
1191
0.113
34.4
27.2
32.4
29.3
2250
91.3
96
68
14.8
101
0.710
0.0302
33.5
2713
3052
1982
884
0.091
35.6
28.2
33.3
30.3
2250
92.5
94
66
15.0
100
0.703
0.0294
34.5
2833
3187
1983
985
0.096
36.2
28.6
34.1
30.8
2250
96.4
94
67
14.9
101
0.709
0.0298
35.1
3003
3379
1984
899
0.064
37.1
29.3
34.8
31.5
2250
97.2
94
68
14.8
101
0.721
0.0303
36.0
3113
3502
1985
840
0.058
37.5
29.8
34.9
31.9
2250
96.9
94
70
14.4
102
0.748
0.0312
36.3
3130
3521
1986
745
0.048
38.5
30.6
35.2
32.5
2250
93.1
93
68
14.8
101
0.737
0.0304
37.0
3068
3451
1987
461
0.031
39.0
30.9
35.3
32.8
2250
89.7
90
69
14.6
102
0.766
0.0308
37.2
2971
3343
1988
401
0.026
38.9
30.6
35.1
32.6
2250
91.7
90
73
14.0
104
0.808
0.0325
36.9
3013
3390
1989
280
0.019
38.7
30.2
34.8
32.2
2250
93.4
89
78
13.3
106
0.876
0.0347
36.6
3041
3422
1990
97
0.008
39.6
30.9
35.0
32.7
2250
87.6
86
77
13.5
105
0.891
0.0341
37.3
2856
3213
1991
129
0.010
38.1
29.3
33.9
31.3
2250
90.3
88
81
12.9
107
0.921
0.0360
35.9
2836
3190
1992
146
0.012
39.7
30.1
35.4
32.5
2250
93.2
89
82
12.8
108
0.924
0.0365
37.5
3107
3495
1993
136
0.010
38.7
29.2
34.3
31.5
2250
94.4
88
81
12.8
108
0.921
0.0362
36.0
3023
3401
1994
117
0.008
39.6
29.4
35.3
32.1
2250
95.5
86
76
13.6
105
0.885
0.0340
36.5
3104
3492
1995
161
0.011
40.4
30.0
35.6
32.6
2250
95.8
84
76
13.7
105
0.903
0.0339
37.0
3149
3543
1996
135
0.010
38.9
28.7
34.1
31.2
2250
95.7
90
78
13.5
106
0.869
0.0349
35.3
2998
3373
1997
87
0.006
39.3
28.7
34.4
31.4
2250
92.1
81
72
14.2
103
0.891
0.0322
35.5
2913
3278
1998
26
0.002
39.0
28.4
33.7
31.0
2250
89.8
80
80
13.0
107
1.002
0.0356
35.1
2799
3149
1999
23
0.002
38.6
27.8
33.4
30.6
2250
88.1
80
81
13.0
107
1.003
0.0359
34.5
2704
3042
2000
43
0.003
39.6
28.2
34.3
31.2
2250
92.3
83
89
12.2
111
1.063
0.0395
35.2
2905
3268
2001
24
0.002
39.3
27.9
33.6
30.7
2250
86.6
80
81
12.8
107
1.015
0.0361
35.2
2671
3005
2002
3
0.000
51.5
35.9
42.4
39.2
2250
77.9
78
88
10.6
111
1.125
0.0393
45.6
2967
3338
2003
2
0.000
50.8
35.0
41.8
38.5
2250
82.9
81
93
10.5
113
1.136
0.0414
44.4
3113
3502
2004
0
0.000
64.5
44.5
48.8
46.8
2250
53.2
63
68
11.1
101
1.073
0.0301
53.0
2467
2775
2005
5
0.000
34.1
23.6
29.0
26.4
2250
65.4
101
157
8.0
145
1.520
0.0698
31.4
1924
2165
2006
2
0.000
34.3
23.4
29.6
26.6
2250
50.0
100
166
7.5
149
1.615
0.0739
32.3
1434
1613
2007
1
0.000
29.9
20.3
26.6
23.5
2250
50.0
110
232
5.7
182
2.110
0.1031
26.4
1175
1322
2008
0
0.000
29.9
20.4
26.7
23.5
2250
50.0
110
229
5.8
180
2.082
0.1018
26.5
1177
1324
2009
0
0.000
30.0
20.4
26.7
23.6
2250
50.0
110
225
0.0
178
2.045
0.1
26.5
1179
1326
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-4
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-3 (cont.)
Percent of 2250 lb. Cars:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\||ss|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975
46.1

90.3



22.6








1976
37.5

72.2



5.7








1977
43.0

78.9



14.4

1.9






1978
41.6

80.6



16.7

4.1






1979
44.8

87.0



15.6

5.5






1980
57.9

80.7



14.9

9.3






1981
69.8

82.7
5.0


6.5

9.2






1982
79.8

74.9
6.8


5.7

4.7






1983
93.2
1.6
72.6
10.2


8.0
12.1
1.4






1984
91.1

71.8
13.5


6.8
16.5
2.6






1985
97.1
0.3
65.3
21.6


1.6
8.6
0.1






1986
96.3

65.5
20.1


7.7
6.3
0.0
94.4
5.6




1987
96.3

70.5
14.1


9.9
3.4

50.5
47.9
1.6



1988
100.0

69.9
18.0


9.4
28.1

51.6
20.4
28.0



1989
100.0

63.5
15.0
4.5

5.1
28.0

36.5
40.4
23.1



1990
95.4
4.6
70.3
3.6
2.5

39.4
20.3

33.7
46.9
19.3



1991
95.7
4.3
69.6
22.3
2.4

80.3
18.8

13.1
68.8
18.1



1992
99.8
0.2
80.0
12.5
0.2

97.8
2.0

22.1
57.3
20.6



1993
98.6
1.4
76.0
13.3
0.5

98.2
1.8

12.2
71.8
16.1



1994
100.0

79.9
16.6


96.5
3.5

37.7
54.8
7.5



1995
100.0

48.7
27.7


69.9
30.1

62.1
6.2
31.6



1996
100.0

29.5
32.8


63.1
36.9

56.8
4.8
38.4



1997
100.0

39.1
4.4


38.2
61.8

82.7

17.3



1998
100.0

22.8



100.0




100.0



1999
100.0

23.5



100.0




100.0



2000
40.6

39.3



100.0




100.0

33.9

2001
100.0

15.3

6.2

100.0


65.6

34.4

16.5
6.2
2002
100.0

54.4

45.6

100.0




100.0

100.0
45.6
2003
100.0

65.3

34.7

100.0




100.0

100.0
34.7
2004
100.0

6.4

93.6

100.0




100.0

100.0
93.6
2005
37.0

93.7

6.3

100.0




100.0

100.0
6.3
2006
20.0

80.0

20.0

100.0




100.0

100.0
20.0
2007


100.0



100.0




100.0

100.0

2008


100.0



100.0




100.0

100.0

2009






100.0




100.0

100.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-5
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-4
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2500 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
406
0.040
24.4
18.8
23.8
20.8
2500

95
73
15.2
101
0.774
0.0292
26.1


1976
349
0.028
26.2
20.2
25.8
22.4
2500

97
73
15.1
101
0.755
0.0294
28.3


1977
465
0.033
29.3
23.0
27.9
24.9
2500
90.3
98
75
14.9
102
0.764
0.0299
31.5
2278
2847
1978
782
0.054
27.9
22.1
26.2
23.8
2500
91.6
101
74
15.1
101
0.734
0.0297
30.0
2197
2746
1979
1078
0.078
27.9
22.2
25.8
23.7
2500
90.6
101
72
15.4
100
0.710
0.0287
29.8
2163
2703
1980
1172
0.104
28.0
22.3
26.0
23.8
2500
92.3
104
71
15.6
100
0.680
0.0283
30.0
2218
2772
1981
1531
0.145
29.4
23.2
27.6
25.0
2500
94.8
108
76
14.8
102
0.711
0.0305
31.5
2398
2997
1982
1442
0.148
31.2
24.4
29.7
26.6
2500
91.5
106
72
15.4
101
0.683
0.0289
33.6
2469
3086
1983
1240
0.120
32.2
25.3
30.5
27.4
2500
94.8
106
75
15.0
102
0.705
0.0300
34.6
2643
3303
1984
1529
0.109
32.7
25.6
31.2
27.8
2500
96.3
107
78
14.7
103
0.726
0.0312
35.2
2721
3401
1985
1699
0.118
32.8
25.6
31.5
28.0
2500
98.0
109
82
14.0
105
0.760
0.0330
35.4
2789
3486
1986
1622
0.106
33.7
26.3
31.8
28.6
2500
100.0
106
80
14.3
104
0.759
0.0321
36.0
2881
3602
1987
1975
0.133
33.4
26.0
31.3
28.2
2500
98.9
104
78
14.6
103
0.749
0.0311
35.5
2809
3512
1988
1802
0.118
34.1
26.5
31.5
28.6
2500
99.5
100
78
14.5
103
0.785
0.0314
36.0
2868
3585
1989
1335
0.092
34.4
26.4
31.8
28.7
2500
98.0
98
85
13.6
106
0.865
0.0339
36.1
2829
3536
1990
942
0.075
35.1
26.9
32.1
29.2
2500
94.0
97
89
13.0
108
0.920
0.0356
36.7
2767
3458
1991
748
0.059
35.8
27.2
32.7
29.6
2500
94.2
96
91
12.8
109
0.957
0.0365
37.2
2818
3522
1992
525
0.043
35.9
26.8
33.1
29.6
2500
94.1
97
94
12.5
110
0.980
0.0376
37.3
2816
3520
1993
517
0.039
36.5
26.9
33.9
30.0
2500
93.9
99
93
12.5
110
0.956
0.0374
37.8
2844
3555
1994
424
0.030
36.0
26.3
33.5
29.5
2500
94.4
100
91
12.8
109
0.930
0.0366
37.3
2826
3532
1995
484
0.032
37.5
27.0
35.1
30.6
2500
94.1
100
99
12.0
113
0.991
0.0396
38.5
2907
3634
1996
329
0.025
37.4
26.6
34.9
30.3
2500
95.3
103
102
11.8
114
0.999
0.0407
38.2
2931
3664
1997
329
0.023
37.0
26.2
34.2
29.9
2500
94.8
101
98
12.2
112
0.976
0.0393
37.6
2872
3590
1998
207
0.014
37.3
26.0
34.9
30.0
2500
99.6
104
97
12.1
112
0.948
0.0390
37.6
3001
3752
1999
253
0.017
35.9
24.9
33.3
28.8
2500
93.1
105
103
11.7
114
0.983
0.0411
36.2
2721
3401
2000
166
0.010
36.7
25.4
33.7
29.3
2500
95.2
103
107
11.3
116
1.049
0.0428
36.8
2834
3543
2001
214
0.014
36.2
25.0
32.6
28.7
2500
99.8
100
102
11.7
114
1.032
0.0408
36.1
2889
3611
2002
149
0.009
37.3
25.3
34.2
29.5
2500
100.1
106
101
11.7
114
0.968
0.0406
37.1
2975
3718
2003
39
0.002
40.8
28.0
35.3
31.6
2500
93.6
94
112
10.9
119
1.185
0.0448
39.8
3017
3771
2004
7
0.000
40.8
27.8
35.1
31.5
2500
92.6
94
112
10.8
119
1.197
0.0450
39.6
2975
3718
2005
10
0.001
41.1
27.8
35.1
31.5
2500
95.7
93
111
11.0
118
1.193
0.0443
39.5
3052
3815
2006
2
0.000
41.6
28.6
34.3
31.6
2500
97.4
91
106
11.3
116
1.165
0.0424
39.5
3079
3849
2007
159
0.010
42.4
28.9
35.3
32.2
2500
99.1
91
106
11.3
116
1.165
0.0424
40.3
3193
3991
2008
121
0.009
42.1
28.8
34.9
32
2500
98.7
91
106
11.3
116
1.165
0.0424
40.0
3157
3946
2009
116
0.007
42.0
28.8
34.8
31.9
2500
97.6
91
106
11.3
116
1.165
0.0424
39.9
3116
3894
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-6
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-4 (cont.)
Percent of 2500 lb. Cars:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975
36.0

75.3



20.4








1976
18.3

67.5



12.9








1977
20.7

69.3



12.5

1.2






1978
34.3

53.2



8.0








1979
43.7
3.5
56.8



2.3

0.6






1980
47.9
3.9
52.5



3.8

2.8






1981
53.6
2.7
52.4
0.9


4.1

2.5






1982
69.3
0.6
57.3
8.6


4.6

3.0






1983
68.9
13.1
51.3
20.7


3.2
0.1
0.4






1984
75.4
2.4
47.3
26.4


11.9
1.6
2.2






1985
77.1
9.2
53.7
19.8


15.7
4.2
1.7






1986
94.3
0.9
49.5
22.1


16.9
5.3
1.0
97.3
1.9




1987
97.7
0.8
47.7
32.6


13.6
19.5

79.3
18.1
2.7



1988
99.7
0.3
48.3
41.8


11.9
51.5

68.2
18.2
13.6



1989
97.8
2.2
52.0
37.6


24.7
47.3

55.3
20.2
24.5



1990
94.4
0.1
56.7
34.2
0.1

44.5
51.0

41.3
11.5
47.2



1991
94.7
0.1
62.7
36.6
0.1

64.0
36.0

33.9
23.0
43.1

5.1

1992
94.7
0.0
53.6
46.3
0.0

82.6
17.4

35.7
13.7
50.6

8.9

1993
95.8
0.0
61.9
32.8
0.0

76.7
23.3

44.9
19.3
35.8

4.6

1994
95.2

50.7
41.6


75.4
24.6

31.6
21.0
47.3

3.1

1995
95.9

48.4
45.6


100.0


33.6
19.0
47.4

1.4

1996
94.2

50.1
43.7


100.0


34.9
20.5
44.6

8.8

1997
94.4

47.0
53.0


100.0


39.6
21.6
38.8

1.8

1998
100.0

38.9
61.1


100.0


46.0
31.7
22.2

2.8

1999
100.0

41.9
58.1


100.0


40.1
32.5
27.4



2000
88.4

45.3
54.7


100.0


29.0
19.2
51.8

29.3

2001
96.8

36.1
63.9


100.0


26.6
12.8
60.6

26.6

2002
96.4

38.0
62.0


100.0


56.6
17.0
26.5

24.2

2003
86.7

23.9
76.1


100.0




100.0

100.0

2004
84.7

32.3
67.7


100.0




100.0

100.0

2005
90.7

15.0
85.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

2006
100.0

29.5
70.5


100.0




100.0

100.0

2007
100.0

18.2
81.8


100.0




100.0

100.0

2008
100.0

16.8
83.2


100.0




100.0

100.0

2009
100.0

15.9
84.1


100.0




100.0

100.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-7
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-5
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2750 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
281
0.027
21.7
16.6
21.6
18.5
2750

127
100
12.8
110
0.799
0.0365
25.9


1976
203
0.016
24.5
19.0
23.7
20.9
2750

121
95
13.4
108
0.794
0.0348
29.1


1977
349
0.025
24.8
19.2
24.1
21.1
2750
80.3
126
96
13.3
109
0.765
0.0350
29.4
1728
2375
1978
498
0.034
24.8
19.3
24.1
21.2
2750
88.6
129
94
13.4
108
0.740
0.0344
29.4
1892
2602
1979
459
0.033
24.0
18.5
23.7
20.5
2750
82.2
132
94
13.6
108
0.710
0.0341
28.4
1720
2365
1980
973
0.086
26.1
19.9
26.0
22.2
2750
96.0
141
93
13.6
107
0.665
0.0339
30.9
2176
2992
1981
714
0.068
27.7
21.6
26.7
23.6
2750
107.2
136
92
13.8
107
0.678
0.0333
32.7
2533
3482
1982
961
0.099
28.8
22.0
28.5
24.5
2750
104.3
124
87
14.4
105
0.707
0.0316
33.8
2566
3528
1983
863
0.084
30.2
23.6
28.9
25.7
2750
106.3
124
88
14.2
105
0.712
0.0320
35.6
2756
3790
1984
2050
0.146
30.1
23.3
29.3
25.7
2750
102.7
127
89
14.1
106
0.705
0.0324
35.5
2653
3648
1985
1878
0.130
30.6
23.7
29.6
26.0
2750
103.3
128
93
13.6
108
0.735
0.0340
36.0
2707
3722
1986
1899
0.124
30.6
23.6
29.7
26.0
2750
102.0
125
95
13.4
108
0.769
0.0347
36.0
2667
3667
1987
1896
0.128
30.8
23.6
29.7
26.1
2750
101.7
124
96
13.3
109
0.790
0.0350
36.0
2658
3655
1988
1519
0.099
31.5
23.9
30.3
26.5
2750
102.1
123
97
13.1
109
0.804
0.0354
36.6
2717
3735
1989
1204
0.083
31.8
24.0
30.4
26.6
2750
101.7
118
96
13.3
109
0.820
0.0349
36.8
2718
3737
1990
1081
0.086
31.9
24.1
30.1
26.6
2750
98.7
111
100
12.9
110
0.919
0.0364
36.7
2635
3624
1991
1462
0.116
32.5
24.1
31.0
27.0
2750
100.3
112
100
12.9
110
0.913
0.0364
37.3
2723
3744
1992
1280
0.105
32.6
24.0
31.1
27.0
2750
98.5
110
106
12.3
113
0.972
0.0386
37.4
2680
3685
1993
1651
0.125
33.0
24.0
31.4
27.2
2750
101.9
112
106
12.4
113
0.955
0.0384
37.6
2788
3833
1994
1521
0.108
33.6
24.3
32.1
27.7
2750
101.2
109
108
12.1
114
1.001
0.0394
38.2
2815
3870
1995
1747
0.115
33.9
24.4
32.1
27.8
2750
102.6
109
111
12.0
115
1.017
0.0403
38.4
2864
3938
1996
1240
0.094
33.9
24.2
31.7
27.6
2750
101.5
108
117
11.5
118
1.086
0.0427
38.2
2815
3870
1997
1637
0.113
34.0
24.1
31.8
27.6
2750
100.5
109
112
11.7
116
1.039
0.0409
38.1
2786
3831
1998
1622
0.112
34.5
24.2
32.4
27.9
2750
100.5
110
117
11.3
118
1.071
0.0427
38.6
2818
3875
1999
1348
0.089
34.6
24.2
32.0
27.8
2750
100.5
110
118
11.3
118
1.078
0.0428
38.4
2806
3858
2000
1318
0.080
34.3
23.8
31.5
27.4
2750
100.5
108
120
11.2
119
1.118
0.0437
37.9
2767
3805
2001
1184
0.076
35.9
24.7
33.0
28.6
2750
99.6
108
121
11.0
119
1.122
0.0440
39.6
2873
3950
2002
913
0.057
36.3
24.8
33.0
28.7
2750
99.6
107
119
11.2
119
1.121
0.0434
39.8
2883
3964
2003
691
0.044
37.1
25.1
33.5
29.2
2750
100.8
106
123
10.9
120
1.154
0.0447
40.3
2963
4075
2004
729
0.046
36.9
24.8
33.2
28.9
2750
101.6
105
120
11.1
119
1.144
0.0436
39.9
2954
4062
2005
941
0.059
37.3
25.0
33.1
29.0
2750
102.1
106
121
11.1
119
1.144
0.0439
40.1
2976
4092
2006
628
0.042
37.8
25.3
33.4
29.3
2750
101.0
104
119
11.3
118
1.142
0.0432
40.5
2982
4100
2007
549
0.036
38.2
25.4
33.9
29.7
2750
102.0
104
120
11.2
119
1.145
0.0435
40.9
3044
4186
2008
437
0.031
37.9
25.2
33.7
29.4
2750
102.5
104
119
11.2
118
1.147
0.0434
40.6
3042
4182
2009
560
0.035
39.4
26.4
34.3
30.4
2750
103.5
105
123
11.3
120
1.179
0.0449
41.9
3159
4344
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-8
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-5 (cont.)
Percent of 2750 lb. Cars:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\||ss|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975
0.4

70.7



3.9








1976
0.9

63.5



3.6








1977
2.0

67.5



9.4








1978
0.9

66.7



5.5








1979
5.4

59.6



6.1








1980
47.9

53.6



13.8








1981
70.0

36.0



18.3

0.6






1982
77.9
3.1
33.7
30.2


6.4
5.8
0.4






1983
89.4
4.0
31.2
33.0


12.3
40.6
0.6






1984
87.7
2.2
30.5
36.3


12.2
42.4
1.0






1985
93.3
2.8
21.8
45.1


14.5
59.5
0.4






1986
92.7
2.9
34.7
47.5


32.1
52.6
0.3
82.5
14.6
3.0



1987
95.7
1.9
31.5
44.0


24.7
58.4
0.2
73.6
19.5
6.9



1988
97.4
1.8
31.0
58.1


18.9
59.8

72.8
19.3
7.9



1989
97.5
1.1
29.6
59.2


21.8
63.8
0.3
11.4
9.4
13.1



1990
99.0
0.9
25.7
65.5


56.5
43.0
0.2
53.1

46.5



1991
99.3
0.2
28.1
68.0


63.5
36.1
0.3
53.0
2.7
44.2

6.6

1992
99.5
0.5
30.1
64.4


85.9
14.0
0.1
41.2
5.2
53.6

11.0

1993
98.4
1.6
27.3
69.4


93.8
6.2

47.1
1.7
51.2

12.1

1994
98.7
0.1
32.1
66.4


99.7
0.3

32.6

67.4

20.1

1995
99.9
0.0
27.6
72.4


100.0


25.3

74.7

13.3

1996
100.0

25.1
74.8
0.1

100.0


12.0

88.0

17.3

1997
100.0

22.1
77.5
0.4

100.0


24.3

75.7

16.8

1998
100.0

22.3
77.1
0.3

100.0


16.8

83.2

22.1

1999
100.0

19.1
80.3
0.2

100.0


16.7

83.3

20.8

2000
96.9

21.1
77.2
0.1

100.0


7.8
3.1
89.1

42.0

2001
94.2

20.1
78.4
0.1

100.0


6.9

93.1

65.9

2002
98.5

22.1
77.0
0.4

100.0


6.2

93.8

63.4

2003
98.2

21.3
77.4
1.3

100.0




100.0

80.0

2004
98.8

23.0
75.7
1.3

100.0




99.6

78.4

2005
99.6

16.8
82.2
1.0

100.0


6.8

93.2

75.4

2006
96.7

17.1
81.5
1.5

100.0


8.2

91.8

86.1

2007
97.6

10.5
85.1


100.0


12.2

87.8

79.7

2008
96.3

19.3
80.7


100.0


2.0

98.0

60.7

2009
98.3

12.8
86.2


100.0




100.0

94.9

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-9
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-6
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 3000 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
828
0.081
21.4
16.6
20.9
18.3
3000

147
98
14.4
107
0.674
0.0329
27.8


1976
884
0.072
23.5
18.1
23.1
20.1
3000

147
95
14.6
106
0.657
0.0317
30.4


1977
584
0.041
23.2
18.1
22.3
19.8
3000
87.6
146
104
13.7
109
0.715
0.0347
30.1
1771
2656
1978
903
0.062
22.5
17.7
21.3
19.2
3000
97.3
164
102
13.9
108
0.637
0.0339
29.1
1885
2828
1979
1286
0.093
22.1
17.2
21.3
18.9
3000
96.3
162
100
13.9
108
0.634
0.0333
28.6
1834
2751
1980
2026
0.179
23.6
18.3
23.0
20.1
3000
100.9
164
100
13.8
108
0.624
0.0334
30.3
2040
3060
1981
1626
0.154
24.4
19.0
23.4
20.8
3000
103.8
165
101
13.9
108
0.619
0.0335
31.4
2168
3252
1982
1554
0.160
25.7
19.7
25.4
21.9
3000
104.2
163
103
13.6
109
0.640
0.0343
33.3
2319
3479
1983
1515
0.147
25.8
19.8
25.6
22.0
3000
105.4
161
104
13.4
110
0.658
0.0349
33.4
2346
3520
1984
1994
0.142
26.4
20.2
26.2
22.5
3000
104.9
157
107
13.3
111
0.689
0.0357
34.1
2381
3571
1985
2037
0.141
27.1
20.7
26.9
23.1
3000
106.7
153
110
13.0
112
0.727
0.0366
35.0
2489
3734
1986
2829
0.184
27.5
21.0
27.1
23.4
3000
106.6
151
108
13.2
111
0.723
0.0359
35.3
2513
3770
1987
2743
0.185
27.9
21.2
27.4
23.6
3000
106.3
147
111
12.9
112
0.767
0.0371
35.8
2539
3808
1988
3146
0.206
28.4
21.4
27.8
24.0
3000
105.3
145
114
12.6
113
0.797
0.038
36.3
2547
3820
1989
3402
0.235
28.4
21.2
27.7
23.9
3000
105.2
146
118
12.3
115
0.815
0.0393
36.0
2525
3787
1990
2856
0.226
28.6
21.3
27.7
23.9
3000
103.9
142
121
12.0
116
0.867
0.0405
36.0
2496
3745
1991
2714
0.216
28.1
20.8
27.3
23.5
3000
104.0
145
124
11.8
118
0.868
0.0414
35.4
2457
3686
1992
1918
0.158
28.4
20.8
27.6
23.6
3000
102.7
146
127
11.6
119
0.885
0.0423
35.6
2437
3656
1993
2021
0.153
28.7
20.8
27.8
23.8
3000
102.6
147
125
11.8
118
0.863
0.0417
35.8
2454
3681
1994
2033
0.144
29.1
21.0
28.0
24.0
3000
102.9
143
124
11.8
117
0.881
0.0413
36.2
2480
3720
1995
1933
0.128
29.7
21.2
28.8
24.5
3000
103.6
139
135
10.9
122
0.988
0.0452
36.9
2545
3818
1996
1796
0.137
29.9
21.1
29.2
24.6
3000
103.1
137
133
11.0
121
0.980
0.0444
37.0
2543
3815
1997
1765
0.122
30.0
21.0
29.0
24.5
3000
102.5
136
134
11.0
121
0.993
0.0447
36.9
2520
3780
1998
1153
0.080
30.1
21.0
28.8
24.5
3000
101.1
132
131
11.2
120
0.997
0.0436
37.0
2493
3740
1999
923
0.061
30.1
20.9
28.4
24.4
3000
99.9
128
128
11.4
119
1.001
0.0426
36.8
2454
3680
2000
1470
0.089
30.6
21.3
28.6
24.7
3000
102.0
126
127
11.6
119
1.007
0.0423
37.3
2543
3815
2001
1256
0.080
31.6
21.8
29.1
25.3
3000
102.5
125
129
11.4
119
1.031
0.0429
38.3
2627
3940
2002
1588
0.099
31.4
21.6
28.9
25.1
3000
104.2
124
132
11.2
121
1.064
0.0439
38.0
2641
3962
2003
1776
0.113
32.8
22.4
29.8
26.0
3000
104.4
121
133
11.0
121
1.098
0.0443
39.5
2747
4120
2004
1577
0.100
33.5
22.6
30.4
26.4
3000
105.5
123
135
10.7
122
1.103
0.0452
40.3
2841
4262
2005
1738
0.109
34.2
23.0
30.6
26.8
3000
106.1
121
134
10.6
122
1.110
0.0449
41.3
2935
4402
2006
1673
0.111
34.9
23.3
31.4
27.3
3000
103.4
120
138
10.4
123
1.156
0.0462
42.1
2913
4369
2007
1780
0.117
36.4
24.3
32.4
28.4
3000
104.5
120
137
10.4
123
1.143
0.0457
43.9
3081
4622
2008
1662
0.120
37.5
25.1
33.2
29.2
3000
104.2
118
135
10.4
122
1.144
0.045
45.2
3155
4733
2009
1812
0.113
37.4
25.0
33.1
29.1
3000
104.0
117
138
10.4
123
1.174
0.046
44.5
3099
4649
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-10
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-6 (cont.)
Percent of 3000 lb. Cars:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\||ss|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \l \ l>
\ \ 1
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \|
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
l'< IK 1
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975
3.5

48.6



17.1








1976
2.5

50.4



9.8








1977
3.6

51.3



22.4








1978
4.4

35.2



18.0








1979
2.6

39.7



14.1

0.1






1980
32.0

30.9
1.0


7.5

0.5






1981
45.4

21.6
0.7


11.9

0.4






1982
53.2

17.0
65.1


18.6
26.9
0.7






1983
63.0

17.2
62.7


22.7
26.5
0.7






1984
73.9
0.2
16.2
58.2


27.6
29.6
0.8






1985
77.9
0.5
14.4
53.5


37.5
34.7
0.4






1986
82.2
1.0
15.1
56.4


35.7
49.0
0.2
97.7

2.3



1987
84.1
1.9
15.7
63.5


49.6
49.5
0.0
89.4

10.6



1988
90.6
1.2
17.2
66.8


69.9
30.1
0.0
77.4
8.1
14.6



1989
91.3
1.4
16.4
71.5


73.4
24.0

66.4
18.7
15.0



1990
95.0
0.7
20.8
68.8


74.9
25.0

53.3
10.7
36.0



1991
93.3
1.5
18.4
72.4


75.7
24.3

58.2
8.0
33.8



1992
94.2
0.7
20.3
66.3


87.2
12.8

63.5
7.1
29.4



1993
94.6
0.9
19.7
68.9


86.8
13.2

61.8
1.2
37.0



1994
99.1
0.3
16.4
75.6


89.5
10.5

62.8

37.2



1995
95.4
2.6
22.1
77.9


98.6
1.4

34.5

65.5

9.9

1996
96.7
1.8
20.7
79.3


100.0


38.1

61.9

12.4

1997
95.5
2.3
19.8
80.1


99.9

0.1
30.9

68.9

7.6

1998
94.6
2.7
24.2
75.5


99.0

1.0
42.6

57.2

21.0

1999
94.4
2.5
26.9
72.0


99.0

1.0
50.1

49.4

24.9

2000
95.7
1.2
21.2
77.1


98.6

1.4
51.8

45.2
2.9
17.3

2001
95.9
0.7
22.8
74.8
1.3

98.6

1.4
43.5

51.1
5.5
26.4

2002
98.2
0.2
19.2
78.9
1.5

98.9

1.1
35.6

63.0
1.4
27.7
1.4
2003
97.0
1.4
19.4
77.9
2.7

99.0

1.0
14.4

84.2
1.4
40.1
2.6
2004
97.6
1.2
15.2
79.7
5.1

99.4

0.6
7.3

92.1

46.5
4.5
2005
98.0
0.8
15.9
75.6
8.5

99.7

0.3
8.1

91.6

62.6
8.5
2006
97.2
1.2
17.0
75.8
7.2

99.9

0.1
5.3

94.7

71.7
7.1
2007
97.3
0.8
14.3
68.2
17.5
1.2
98.8


3.7

96.3

55.9
10.7
2008
98.0
0.9
12.0
67.0
21.1
1.3
98.7


1.9

98.1

63.8
12.3
2009
98.7
0.5
15.4
62.3
21.5
1.7
98.3


1.9

98.1

66.7
7.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-ll
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-7
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 3500 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
1029
0.101
18.2
14.3
17.1
15.5
3500

227
102
15.6
104
0.463
0.0292
27.6


1976
933
0.076
19.4
15.5
18.0
16.5
3500

231
100
15.8
104
0.447
0.0286
29.2


1977
724
0.051
20.2
16.1
18.8
17.2
3500
102.4
232
104
15.3
105
0.458
0.0297
30.5
1789
3132
1978
2991
0.207
20.2
15.8
19.2
17.2
3500
111.1
257
119
13.8
111
0.468
0.0342
30.2
1919
3358
1979
2684
0.193
20.2
16.0
18.8
17.2
3500
112.3
252
120
13.7
111
0.477
0.0342
30.1
1934
3385
1980
2147
0.190
20.7
16.3
19.8
17.7
3500
111.3
244
115
14.1
109
0.477
0.0329
31.1
1980
3465
1981
1829
0.173
22.2
17.3
21.4
18.9
3500
113.3
234
113
14.3
108
0.487
0.0322
33.3
2160
3780
1982
1421
0.146
22.4
17.3
21.8
19.1
3500
112.0
237
118
14.0
110
0.505
0.0338
33.8
2170
3798
1983
1669
0.162
22.8
17.5
22.6
19.5
3500
111.8
238
122
13.6
112
0.524
0.0348
34.3
2199
3848
1984
2220
0.158
22.9
17.5
22.8
19.5
3500
109.6
236
127
13.2
113
0.556
0.0363
34.5
2167
3792
1985
2461
0.170
23.4
17.7
23.7
20.0
3500
111.9
228
133
12.7
116
0.603
0.0379
35.1
2246
3930
1986
2760
0.180
24.4
18.2
25.1
20.8
3500
113.5
225
141
12.0
119
0.654
0.0404
36.5
2377
4160
1987
2520
0.170
24.6
18.0
25.7
20.9
3500
114.0
217
147
11.6
121
0.703
0.0421
36.7
2399
4199
1988
2693
0.176
25.4
18.5
26.5
21.5
3500
113.5
212
151
11.4
122
0.732
0.0431
37.9
2464
4311
1989
2688
0.186
25.1
18.2
26.2
21.3
3500
114.2
207
151
11.4
122
0.751
0.0431
37.4
2444
4277
1990
2704
0.214
25.5
18.3
26.4
21.5
3500
113.0
194
150
11.4
122
0.795
0.0429
37.7
2442
4274
1991
2137
0.170
25.4
18.2
26.0
21.3
3500
111.2
195
156
11.1
124
0.822
0.0446
37.4
2386
4175
1992
2822
0.232
25.6
18.2
26.2
21.4
3500
113.6
192
155
11.2
123
0.829
0.0442
37.6
2447
4282
1993
2848
0.216
26.0
18.5
26.5
21.7
3500
114.2
194
156
11.1
124
0.825
0.0447
38.1
2494
4364
1994
2770
0.196
26.1
18.4
26.5
21.7
3500
111.7
191
156
11.1
124
0.837
0.0445
38.1
2437
4265
1995
3628
0.240
26.4
18.5
26.9
22.0
3500
111.9
188
166
10.6
127
0.906
0.0473
38.5
2465
4314
1996
3154
0.240
26.5
18.5
26.6
21.9
3500
111.5
181
164
10.7
127
0.925
0.047
38.5
2455
4296
1997
3196
0.221
26.7
18.5
26.8
22.0
3500
112.4
181
170
10.4
129
0.957
0.0486
38.7
2487
4352
1998
3995
0.276
27.1
18.6
27.0
22.3
3500
111.5
178
170
10.4
129
0.969
0.0485
39.1
2494
4364
1999
4610
0.303
27.2
18.6
26.8
22.3
3500
110.8
174
170
10.4
129
0.993
0.0486
39.1
2475
4332
2000
4666
0.282
27.1
18.5
26.7
22.2
3500
111.5
175
174
10.2
131
1.013
0.0498
38.9
2479
4338
2001
4315
0.276
27.2
18.5
26.5
22.1
3500
110.6
174
177
10.1
131
1.029
0.0505
38.9
2461
4306
2002
4295
0.266
27.7
18.7
26.6
22.4
3500
111.7
176
183
9.8
134
1.063
0.0524
39.4
2516
4402
2003
4119
0.261
28.0
18.7
26.9
22.6
3500
111.1
175
185
9.8
134
1.076
0.0528
39.7
2529
4425
2004
3561
0.227
28.1
18.7
26.9
22.6
3500
110.4
176
188
9.6
136
1.097
0.0538
39.8
2516
4403
2005
3264
0.205
28.9
19.2
27.3
23.1
3500
111.8
170
185
9.8
134
1.111
0.0528
40.7
2608
4563
2006
3024
0.200
29.2
19.3
27.4
23.2
3500
111.4
167
188
9.7
135
1.144
0.0537
41.0
2618
4581
2007
3018
0.198
29.9
19.9
28.0
23.8
3500
110.4
160
184
9.8
134
1.163
0.0525
42.0
2658
4652
2008
2483
0.179
30.6
20.3
28.4
24.3
3500
111.0
155
183
9.8
134
1.194
0.0524
42.8
2725
4769
2009
2675
0.167
31.4
20.8
29.1
24.9
3500
112.1
151
182
9.8
133
1.216
0.0521
43.9
2822
4939
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-12
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-7 (cont.)
Percent of 3500 lb. Cars:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\||ss|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \l \ l>
\ \ 1
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \|
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
l'< IK 1
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975


19.3



6.5

1.9






1976


17.2



5.7

1.4






1977


16.2



6.1

2.7






1978


4.7
6.4


1.4

0.5






1979


4.0
16.9


1.3

0.8






1980
0.2
0.4
3.1
37.9


2.2

1.7






1981

0.5
3.4
84.4


3.0

2.5






1982
0.5
0.6
6.9
88.4


5.1
4.4
4.9






1983
0.9
0.8
8.7
83.4


9.1
5.3
2.6






1984
8.2
0.2
7.7
88.9


23.5
12.1
1.4






1985
35.2
0.0
8.3
88.8


37.6
32.3
0.7






1986
49.2
0.5
8.6
88.5


59.4
20.7
0.1
98.9

1.1



1987
64.1
0.4
8.8
87.8


77.1
15.0
0.4
96.9

3.1



1988
72.8
0.2
7.9
89.7


88.2
11.4

93.9
i.i
5.0



1989
80.6
0.2
6.8
88.2


87.8
12.2
0.0
92.3

6.9



1990
84.5
1.9
6.3
89.6


97.2
2.8
0.0
87.4

12.3



1991
79.7
2.7
7.4
88.2


96.0
3.9
0.1
83.6

16.1



1992
78.6
1.7
5.2
92.2


98.0
1.9
0.1
76.0

24.0

2.4

1993
87.5
1.6
4.6
93.7


99.6
0.4

75.6

24.4

2.6

1994
84.8
0.9
7.4
91.5


100.0


73.8

26.2

9.0

1995
79.4
1.4
7.1
91.8


100.0


62.6

37.4

10.5

1996
89.0
2.5
7.3
91.8


99.8

0.2
53.0

47.0

12.3

1997
88.8
2.9
6.2
93.8


99.9

0.1
51.3

48.2

12.5

1998
88.0
2.7
5.7
94.2


100.0


44.9

53.5
1.3
17.8

1999
90.0
2.6
5.9
93.7


100.0


36.6

60.4
2.4
16.5

2000
88.4
2.5
6.4
93.0


100.0


34.3

63.6
1.8
22.5

2001
88.8
1.9
7.1
92.3


99.9

0.1
35.2
1.2
60.8
2.8
21.3

2002
88.3
2.6
7.7
92.0
0.1

99.7

0.3
32.3
1.1
63.2
3.4
33.6

2003
87.1
1.7
8.4
91.3
0.2

99.7

0.3
33.4

62.3
3.4
40.7

2004
84.1
2.6
8.6
90.7
0.2

99.6

0.4
33.4

63.3
2.8
37.6

2005
85.9
4.4
7.2
92.4
0.1

99.4

0.6
29.4

68.8
1.3
47.3
0.6
2006
85.4
4.1
8.8
91.0


98.6

1.4
21.5

78.4

57.4

2007
86.8
3.7
7.2
79.8
12.1

99.8


12.8

86.2

67.9
0.2
2008
86.8
6.0
7.7
75.9
16.3
2.4
97.6


6.0

93.9

63.4
0.3
2009
88.0
5.7
9.2
76.4
14.2
3.3
94.6

2.1
2.3

97.6

78.8
0.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-13
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-8
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 4000 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
1089
0.106
15.6
12.4
14.5
13.3
4000

292
130
14.5
110
0.443
0.0325
27.0


1976
1977
0.160
17.7
14.0
16.5
15.0
4000

280
122
15.4
108
0.433
0.0305
30.4


1977
3323
0.235
17.9
14.2
16.7
15.2
4000
113.5
293
133
14.2
111
0.453
0.0333
30.6
1739
3477
1978
2235
0.155
18.0
14.1
17.1
15.3
4000
114.9
305
145
13.1
115
0.474
0.0362
30.9
1782
3563
1979
2643
0.190
17.8
14.0
16.7
15.1
4000
119.6
311
147
13.0
116
0.472
0.0367
30.5
1830
3660
1980
1316
0.116
18.8
14.6
18.3
16.1
4000
122.4
302
136
13.9
112
0.453
0.0339
32.6
2003
4007
1981
1312
0.124
20.3
15.5
20.3
17.3
4000
123.2
295
133
14.0
112
0.458
0.0334
35.2
2171
4343
1982
1215
0.125
20.6
15.6
20.9
17.6
4000
126.4
287
135
13.8
112
0.479
0.0339
35.6
2244
4487
1983
1445
0.140
20.3
15.4
20.6
17.4
4000
126.7
287
139
13.4
113
0.490
0.0348
35.0
2211
4422
1984
1702
0.121
20.6
15.5
20.9
17.6
4000
126.3
289
139
13.4
113
0.485
0.0347
35.3
2225
4449
1985
1671
0.116
21.7
16.4
22.3
18.6
4000
125.3
294
148
12.8
116
0.508
0.0371
37.3
2337
4674
1986
918
0.060
22.1
16.5
22.6
18.8
4000
124.9
299
154
12.4
118
0.520
0.0384
37.8
2366
4732
1987
912
0.061
21.7
16.3
22.0
18.5
4000
122.2
294
157
12.3
119
0.551
0.0392
37.1
2275
4549
1988
829
0.054
22.2
16.4
22.7
18.8
4000
125.8
289
160
12.1
120
0.569
0.0400
37.9
2391
4782
1989
860
0.060
23.0
16.8
23.5
19.4
4000
125.1
275
154
12.5
118
0.576
0.0386
39.1
2447
4894
1990
986
0.078
23.0
16.7
23.7
19.4
4000
123.1
263
165
12.0
122
0.643
0.0412
39.0
2400
4799
1991
1114
0.089
23.3
16.7
24.1
19.6
4000
124.9
265
186
10.7
129
0.718
0.0466
39.4
2459
4917
1992
1166
0.096
23.4
16.7
24.1
19.7
4000
123.4
258
198
10.2
133
0.788
0.0495
39.5
2440
4880
1993
1059
0.080
23.6
16.7
24.1
19.7
4000
121.9
253
198
10.3
133
0.806
0.0494
39.6
2414
4828
1994
1342
0.095
23.5
16.6
24.0
19.6
4000
121.5
248
204
10.0
135
0.842
0.0510
39.3
2389
4779
1995
1281
0.085
23.5
16.4
24.2
19.6
4000
121.3
253
219
9.4
140
0.885
0.0547
39.3
2386
4772
1996
1092
0.083
23.9
16.6
24.6
19.9
4000
124.1
249
218
9.5
139
0.885
0.0546
39.9
2476
4952
1997
1259
0.087
23.8
16.4
24.3
19.8
4000
123.1
248
225
9.3
142
0.913
0.0562
39.6
2439
4878
1998
918
0.063
23.8
16.4
24.0
19.7
4000
123.0
247
234
8.9
145
0.963
0.0585
39.5
2426
4853
1999
1179
0.077
24.2
16.4
24.5
19.9
4000
123.5
238
233
9.0
144
1.003
0.0582
40.0
2468
4937
2000
1382
0.083
24.4
16.5
24.5
20.0
4000
122.3
234
240
00
00
147
1.036
0.0600
40.2
2459
4917
2001
1331
0.085
24.6
16.6
24.5
20.2
4000
121.2
227
226
9.2
142
1.021
0.0565
40.5
2455
4909
2002
1256
0.078
24.8
16.7
24.3
20.2
4000
116.6
223
230
9.1
143
1.052
0.0574
40.5
2369
4737
2003
1013
0.064
25.1
16.8
24.5
20.4
4000
114.0
215
233
9.0
144
1.106
0.0584
40.9
2343
4685
2004
1286
0.082
25.4
16.8
24.9
20.6
4000
113.7
211
238
00
00
146
1.147
0.0596
41.4
2359
4718
2005
1636
0.103
25.7
16.9
25.0
20.7
4000
115.1
214
240
8.7
147
1.138
0.0600
41.7
2406
4812
2006
2240
0.148
26.0
17.2
25.1
21.0
4000
116.3
215
245
8.6
148
1.159
0.0613
42.2
2459
4917
2007
2197
0.144
27.0
17.8
25.9
21.7
4000
114.4
208
241
8.6
147
1.177
0.0603
43.9
2513
5026
2008
2283
0.164
26.9
17.7
26.1
21.7
4000
113.6
209
247
8.5
149
1.202
0.0619
43.7
2487
4974
2009
2590
0.162
27.1
17.8
26.2
21.8
4000
114.9
216
255
8.3
152
1.201
0.0639
44.1
2531
5062
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-14
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-8 (cont.)
Percent of 4000 lb. Cars:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\||ss|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
l'< IK 1
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975


7.6



0.6








1976


6.9



0.4

0.6






1977


3.3



0.5

0.4






1978


3.0
10.4


0.9

0.7






1979
5.3

2.2
10.4


2.8

2.3






1980
10.9
2.3
0.9
40.1


2.5
4.9
9.6






1981
11.1
0.9
0.9
82.8


1.2
10.3
13.2






1982
11.1
1.3

89.6


1.8
18.7
9.4






1983
12.5
1.3

94.6


2.0
38.0
4.4






1984
12.8
1.1

95.8


2.1
41.1
2.8






1985
13.0
0.0
0.1
94.8


3.8
41.4
2.0






1986
0.2
0.7
0.2
92.5


48.3
4.4
0.5
98.9

1.1



1987
1.1
0.4
4.0
87.9


50.9
3.2
1.2
95.5

4.5



1988
6.3
0.3
1.6
92.7


75.0
2.2

94.5

5.5



1989
8.9
0.0
2.5
92.5


84.4
13.6

96.0

4.0



1990
33.2
0.1
1.8
95.5


95.3
4.6
0.1
89.5

10.5

5.5

1991
38.6
0.9
1.9
95.4


86.8
12.9
0.4
89.6

10.4

6.1

1992
41.3
1.9
1.6
97.3


94.8
5.2

79.5

20.5

8.5

1993
39.2
0.7
0.9
97.1


95.7
4.3

68.6

31.4

8.1

1994
45.6
0.2
0.8
97.3


100.0


58.3

41.7

6.0

1995
44.7
0.6
1.1
96.4


99.6

0.4
58.1

41.9

6.8

1996
51.6
0.7
1.1
97.1


99.8

0.2
51.7

48.3

4.2

1997
50.7
0.9
1.0
99.0


99.8

0.2
51.8

48.2

7.0

1998
50.5
4.4
1.2
98.8


99.6

0.4
45.1
4.3
48.9
1.7
12.2

1999
55.1
3.8
1.5
98.5


99.6

0.4
40.5
4.8
52.5
2.2
11.4

2000
55.7
4.0
2.1
97.9


100.0


47.8
4.0
45.3
2.9
13.4

2001
51.4
12.9
3.3
96.7


100.0


39.7
4.3
51.7
4.4
19.4

2002
51.9
15.7
2.5
97.3
0.2

100.0


29.5
4.8
60.6
5.1
23.1

2003
46.2
16.8
3.1
96.0
0.9

100.0


22.5
12.0
57.6
8.0
26.4

2004
61.0
17.1
3.7
95.8
0.5

99.9

0.1
17.8
6.3
70.3
5.5
47.9

2005
53.4
13.3
4.1
93.0
2.9

99.4

0.6
21.3
7.5
69.3
1.9
44.2

2006
52.5
10.4
3.9
93.3
2.8

99.8

0.2
23.5
4.7
71.3

56.6
0.2
2007
64.5
12.1
2.4
89.3
7.3

99.9

0.1
24.9
2.0
73.1

71.5
3.3
2008
60.2
12.4
3.8
92.4
3.8
5.8
94.1

0.2
24.4
1.8
73.7

65.5
1.5
2009
64.1
10.2
3.9
90.2
5.9
6.5
93.3

0.3
21.8
1.5
76.7

71.0
2.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-15
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-9
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 4500 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
1791
0.175
14.3
11.1
13.7
12.2
4500

347
158
13.6
116
0.455
0.0351
27.7


1976
2223
0.180
15.7
12.3
15.1
13.4
4500

346
157
13.5
115
0.454
0.0349
30.4


1977
3496
0.248
16.5
13.0
15.6
14.1
4500
118.7
346
157
13.4
115
0.454
0.0349
31.9
1680
3780
1978
1997
0.138
16.3
12.6
16.1
13.9
4500
123.8
356
161
13.1
117
0.453
0.0358
31.6
1739
3912
1979
1527
0.110
16.5
12.8
15.9
14.0
4500
127.6
353
157
13.4
115
0.445
0.0349
31.9
1808
4068
1980
363
0.032
19.0
14.4
19.0
16.2
4500
137.3
350
137
15.1
109
0.394
0.0305
37.3
2273
5115
1981
318
0.030
20.4
15.4
20.9
17.5
4500
137.1
343
127
16.1
106
0.374
0.0282
40.4
2459
5532
1982
183
0.019
21.0
15.8
21.6
17.9
4500
148.3
323
127
16.1
106
0.401
0.0283
41.5
2696
6067
1983
188
0.018
19.9
14.8
20.8
17.0
4500
146.6
311
143
14.4
111
0.463
0.0318
38.7
2512
5651
1984
185
0.013
20.2
15.1
21.0
17.3
4500
152.0
308
148
14.0
113
0.482
0.0329
39.0
2630
5918
1985
104
0.007
21.0
15.6
22.1
18.0
4500
160.2
306
150
13.8
113
0.490
0.0333
40.5
2884
6490
1986
101
0.007
21.5
15.9
22.5
18.3
4500
156.5
308
150
14.0
113
0.485
0.0333
41.5
2903
6532
1987
78
0.005
22.3
16.3
23.5
19.0
4500
160.2
306
140
14.6
110
0.458
0.0311
42.7
3043
6846
1988
105
0.007
22.6
16.6
23.3
19.2
4500
144.8
305
144
14.4
111
0.474
0.0321
43.4
2796
6292
1989
87
0.006
21.8
16.0
22.2
18.4
4500
141.1
306
151
14.1
114
0.494
0.0336
41.7
2638
5935
1990
67
0.005
20.3
14.8
20.9
17.2
4500
130.1
322
178
12.6
122
0.555
0.0397
39.2
2306
5188
1991
72
0.006
20.9
15.0
21.7
17.6
4500
133.6
312
201
11.3
129
0.648
0.0448
40.2
2444
5499
1992
113
0.009
22.1
15.5
23.3
18.6
4500
137.2
334
191
11.6
126
0.587
0.0424
42.1
2590
5827
1993
84
0.006
22.1
15.4
23.8
18.7
4500
141.4
339
187
11.8
124
0.567
0.0416
42.1
2658
5980
1994
88
0.006
22.4
15.6
23.4
18.8
4500
136.8
344
255
9.0
145
0.747
0.0567
42.4
2601
5853
1995
110
0.007
22.4
15.6
23.2
18.7
4500
127.7
310
257
9.0
146
0.867
0.0572
42.3
2413
5428
1996
96
0.007
22.9
15.8
23.8
19.1
4500
131.5
323
260
8.9
147
0.826
0.0578
43.1
2525
5680
1997
37
0.003
22.2
15.5
22.1
18.4
4500
109.2
257
271
8.7
150
1.057
0.0602
41.5
2028
4563
1998
31
0.002
22.0
15.3
21.9
18.2
4500
100.4
272
287
8.3
155
1.059
0.0637
41.0
1846
4153
1999
25
0.002
22.1
15.3
21.8
18.2
4500
93.9
264
276
8.6
152
1.058
0.0614
41.1
1728
3889
2000
67
0.004
21.9
15.1
21.5
18.0
4500
114.9
281
287
8.2
155
1.023
0.0638
40.6
2080
4681
2001
78
0.005
22.0
15.0
21.6
18.0
4500
117.4
270
283
8.3
154
1.067
0.063
40.6
2122
4775
2002
96
0.006
22.3
15.2
21.6
18.2
4500
116.5
274
266
8.9
149
0.988
0.0592
41.0
2135
4804
2003
307
0.019
22.8
15.3
22.5
18.6
4500
116.6
280
256
9.1
145
0.920
0.057
42.1
2213
4979
2004
318
0.020
22.9
15.2
22.7
18.7
4500
132.6
267
252
9.3
144
0.956
0.056
42.0
2477
5573
2005
355
0.022
23.1
15.4
22.4
18.7
4500
132.1
283
272
00
00
150
0.967
0.0605
42.2
2481
5582
2006
371
0.025
22.6
14.9
22.3
18.4
4500
132.0
289
296
8.2
158
1.030
0.0658
41.5
2436
5482
2007
328
0.022
22.5
14.8
22.3
18.3
4500
124.9
295
312
7.9
162
1.060
0.0694
41.5
2301
5178
2008
297
0.021
22.4
14.7
22.2
18.2
4500
122.0
284
303
8.1
160
1.079
0.0674
41.2
2236
5030
2009
383
0.024
23.2
15.3
22.9
18.9
4500
117.6
282
316
7.8
164
1.135
0.0702
42.7
2239
5038
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-16
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-9 (cont.)
Percent of 4500 lb. Cars:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\||ss|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \l \ l>
\ \ 1
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
l'< IK 1
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975
0.9

0.6



1.6








1976
2.0

0.1



2.3








1977
1.3

0.1



1.6








1978
2.7


12.9


3.1

1.5






1979
4.4

0.0
9.3


3.4

5.5






1980
7.5

0.0
54.2


0.0

28.7






1981
8.6


61.7



29.7
44.2






1982
6.3

0.0
99.8




45.3






1983
1.4

0.0
100.0




12.3






1984
0.6

0.0
100.0




4.2






1985
0.1

0.0
100.0



0.0
1.1






1986


0.0
91.2


8.7


100.0





1987


0.0
100.0


0.1


100.0





1988


0.0
100.0


2.9


100.0





1989


0.0
96.2


8.0


100.0





1990



84.4


20.5
30.5

95.8

4.2



1991


0.7
82.1


26.2
73.8

88.4

11.6

3.2

1992


0.2
89.6


12.2
87.8

95.0

5.0

5.5

1993


0.2
96.0


10.6
89.4

90.7

9.3

3.1

1994


0.2
93.6


100.0


91.1

8.9

7.0

1995

0.5
0.5
82.4


100.0


64.7

35.3

6.0

1996

0.4
0.4
90.7


100.0


76.5

23.5

14.9

1997


0.1
99.9


100.0


3.2

96.8

79.2

1998

0.0
0.2
99.8


100.0


5.6

94.4

97.9

1999


0.1
99.9


100.0


1.9
36.9
61.2

60.8

2000

1.0
0.3
99.7


100.0


4.1
29.2
65.7

25.9

2001

11.3
1.1
98.9


100.0


6.0
50.0
32.6
11.3
34.6

2002

6.9
0.7
99.3


100.0


38.8
34.6
19.7
6.9
20.7

2003

12.6
0.2
99.8


100.0


79.5
8.8
9.3
2.4
7.5

2004
14.3
7.2
0.4
99.6


100.0


55.8
8.4
31.3
4.4
18.9

2005
13.9
9.6
0.4
99.3


100.0


66.8
5.2
24.4
3.5
16.6

2006
15.8
9.9
0.1
99.4


100.0


58.1
5.4
34.3
2.2
19.9

2007
13.3
8.0
0.1
99.6


100.0


47.7

51.7

33.5
1.0
2008
3.8
19.3
0.8
98.3

6.0
94.0


48.4

51.3

34.3
0.3
2009
5.0
27.2
1.1
97.7

6.7
93.3


40.6

59.2

56.7
0.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-17
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-10
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 5000 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
1505
0.147
12.9
10.0
12.5
11.0
5000

388
166
14.0
115
0.429
0.0333
27.8


1976
1494
0.121
14.6
11.5
13.9
12.5
5000

378
166
13.9
115
0.440
0.0333
31.2


1977
1051
0.074
14.1
10.9
13.8
12.1
5000
129.7
387
175
13.3
117
0.453
0.0351
30.3
1571
3927
1978
477
0.033
14.6
11.1
14.5
12.4
5000
132.3
403
179
13.1
118
0.445
0.0358
31.3
1663
4157
1979
182
0.013
14.4
11.1
14.2
12.3
5000
126.5
396
169
13.7
115
0.426
0.0339
31.3
1587
3968
1980
2
0.000
12.5
9.9
11.9
10.7
5000
121.9
382
156
14.6
112
0.409
0.0312
26.8
1320
3299
1981
2
0.000
11.7
9.3
11.1
10.0
5000
122.2
387
156
14.6
112
0.402
0.0311
25.1
1231
3078
1982
2
0.000
11.2
00
00
10.6
9.5
5000
121.4
378
176
13.7
117
0.482
0.0353
23.8
1160
2900
1983
1
0.000
11.5
9.1
10.9
9.8
5000
126.4
373
157
14.7
112
0.426
0.0314
24.6
1246
3115
1984
2
0.000
11.2
00
00
10.6
9.5
5000
122.1
374
176
13.7
117
0.485
0.0351
23.9
1171
2928
1985
1
0.000
10.9
8.5
10.3
9.2
5000
113.5
394
187
12.9
121
0.494
0.0375
23.1
1050
2626
1986
1
0.000
10.7
8.3
10.2
9.1
5000
114.2
378
205
12.2
125
0.574
0.0409
22.8
1039
2598
1987
1
0.000
11.4
9.0
10.6
9.7
5000
113.0
410
191
12.4
122
0.466
0.0382
24.2
1095
2738
1988
1
0.000
12.3
9.5
11.7
10.4
5000
112.0
408
207
11.6
126
0.509
0.0413
26.1
1170
2924
1989
1
0.000
12.4
9.5
11.7
10.4
5000
112.9
410
206
11.6
126
0.502
0.0411
26.1
1180
2949
1990
0
0.000
10.9
8.2
10.7
9.2
5000
95.9
326
240
10.3
135
0.736
0.0480
23.1
885
2212
1992
10
0.001
17.3
12.8
16.7
14.5
5000
126.0
283
297
9.1
152
1.041
0.0594
36.8
1851
4627
1993
16
0.001
18.9
13.9
18.3
15.8
5000
125.8
247
263
9.8
142
1.072
0.0526
39.7
1995
4987
1994
11
0.001
20.4
14.6
20.2
17.0
5000
124.5
254
266
9.8
143
1.051
0.0532
43.0
2141
5352
1995
16
0.001
19.6
14.1
19.0
16.3
5000
119.6
284
298
00
00
152
1.048
0.0595
40.9
1961
4902
1996
7
0.001
19.9
13.9
20.3
16.6
5000
125.5
286
303
8.6
153
1.058
0.0605
41.6
2092
5231
1997
9
0.001
20.2
14.0
20.5
16.8
5000
125.1
288
304
8.6
154
1.057
0.0608
42.1
2107
5268
1998
6
0.000
20.2
14.0
20.2
16.7
5000
126.1
283
299
8.7
152
1.059
0.0598
41.9
2114
5284
1999
8
0.001
19.7
13.6
19.5
16.3
5000
124.0
290
306
8.5
154
1.060
0.0613
40.8
2030
5074
2000
1
0.000
18.3
12.4
18.8
15.2
5000
120.1
325
324
8.1
159
0.996
0.0648
38.0
1826
4566
2001
1
0.000
18.2
12.3
18.7
15.1
5000
120.1
327
325
8.0
160
0.995
0.0650
37.7
1813
4534
2002
0
0.000
19.1
13.5
17.7
15.5
5000
121.2
303
302
8.5
153
0.997
0.0604
38.8
1880
4699
2003
1
0.000
19.6
13.0
20.1
16.2
5000
124.6
346
373
7.9
173
1.057
0.0747
40.6
2017
5043
2004
54
0.003
21.7
14.9
20.3
17.5
5000
164.2
217
253
9.9
139
1.161
0.0506
43.8
2880
7199
2005
70
0.004
21.7
14.7
20.6
17.5
5000
164.1
218
254
9.9
139
1.163
0.0508
43.9
2883
7207
2006
25
0.002
21.5
14.6
20.3
17.4
5000
162.4
224
264
9.7
142
1.172
0.0528
43.5
2828
7069
2007
30
0.002
20.9
13.7
21.0
17.1
5000
143.8
281
319
8.6
158
1.119
0.0638
42.9
2478
6196
2008
24
0.002
20.2
13.4
20.0
16.5
5000
134.6
308
370
7.6
172
1.189
0.0740
41.6
2253
5633
2009
25
0.002
20.7
13.7
20.7
17.0
5000
122.9
318
406
6.8
182
1.287
0.0813
42.7
2101
5253
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-18
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-10 (cont.)
Percent of 5000 lb. Cars:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
(\ 1
cm
l'< ll\ 1
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975















1976
0.3














1977
3.3





0.7








1978
4.9


14.1


0.4

0.9






1979






0.9

9.1






1980






6.7








1981






42.6
57.4







1982



14.2


44.2
41.5







1983



6.5


19.3
74.2







1984



15.8


37.4
46.8







1985



16.3


83.7








1986



30.6


69.4


100.0





1987



1.8


100.0


100.0





1988



4.9


100.0


100.0





1989






100.0


100.0





1990



100.0


100.0


100.0





1992






89.1

10.9
10.9

89.1

89.1

1993






100.0


6.5

93.5

59.7

1994






94.0

6.0
6.0

94.0

65.1

1995






97.3

2.7
2.7

97.3

97.3

1996



100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

1997



100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

1998



100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

1999



100.0


100.0


8.0

92.0

93.0

2000



100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

2001



100.0


100.0


97.7
1.2
1.1

98.8

2002



100.0


100.0



100.0




2003



100.0


100.0


21.9

78.1

78.1

2004

98.1

100.0


100.0




99.1



2005
30.8
67.6

100.0


100.0



1.2
98.5

1.9

2006

94.6

100.0


100.0



2.7
96.7

6.0

2007
1.2
90.7

100.0


100.0



7.4
92.6

31.7

2008
1.1
68.8

100.0

2.0
98.0



1.1
98.9

18.2

2009

58.3

100.0

30.8
69.2



12.7
87.3

35.1

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-19
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-ll
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 5500 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
828
0.081
12.2
9.4
11.8
10.4
5500

458
208
12.6
123
0.454
0.0378
28.6


1976
934
0.076
13.3
10.4
12.7
11.3
5500

460
203
12.7
121
0.443
0.0370
31.2


1977
298
0.021
12.6
9.6
12.6
10.8
5500
131.8
447
194
13.2
119
0.435
0.0353
29.7
1421
3908
1978
134
0.009
12.8
9.7
12.9
10.9
5500
130.7
445
191
13.3
118
0.429
0.0348
30.1
1437
3951
1979
2
0.000
11.0
00
00
10.1
9.4
5500
112.7
417
174
14.4
114
0.417
0.0317
25.8
1060
2916
1980
0
0.000
10.7
8.6
9.8
9.1
5500
100.7
412
170
14.7
113
0.413
0.0309
25.2
922
2534
1981
0
0.000
10.5
8.3
9.9
8.9
5500
98.8
412
170
14.7
113
0.413
0.0309
24.6
888
2442
1982
0
0.000
10.1
8.0
9.5
8.6
5500
92.5
412
170
14.7
113
0.413
0.0309
23.7
798
2194
1983
0
0.000
10.9
8.5
10.7
9.3
5500
92.3
412
170
14.7
113
0.413
0.0309
25.7
862
2370
1984
0
0.000
11.0
8.5
10.7
9.3
5500
92.6
412
170
14.7
113
0.413
0.0309
25.7
866
2382
1985
0
0.000
11.0
8.5
10.8
9.4
5500
92.5
412
170
14.7
113
0.413
0.0309
25.7
866
2382
1986
0
0.000
11.0
8.4
10.7
9.3
5500
92.4
412
170
14.7
113
0.413
0.0309
25.6
861
2369
1987
0
0.000
10.9
8.5
10.3
9.2
5500
92.0
412
187
13.7
117
0.454
0.0340
25.5
854
2348
1988
0
0.000
12.2
9.4
11.4
10.3
5500
91.3
412
205
12.6
122
0.498
0.0373
28.2
937
2577
1989
0
0.000
12.5
9.6
11.9
10.5
5500
103.8
412
259
10.7
136
0.630
0.0472
29.0
1097
3018
1990
1
0.000
13.1
10.0
12.5
11.0
5500
107.2
412
250
11.0
134
0.607
0.0455
30.3
1182
3250
1991
1
0.000
13.2
10.0
12.4
11.0
5500
107.5
412
237
11.4
131
0.577
0.0432
30.4
1186
3263
1992
0
0.000
14.1
10.2
14.4
11.9
5500
107.2
412
258
10.7
136
0.625
0.0468
32.8
1279
3518
1993
1
0.000
15.6
11.5
15.1
13.0
5500
126.5
374
290
10.4
144
0.777
0.0527
36.1
1677
4612
1994
3
0.000
17.7
12.8
17.3
14.7
5500
141.3
356
262
10.5
137
0.735
0.0476
40.7
2106
5790
1995
3
0.000
18.2
13.2
17.6
15.1
5500
143.1
354
252
10.7
134
0.712
0.0459
41.8
2185
6009
1996
3
0.000
17.8
13.1
16.7
14.7
5500
155.8
357
261
10.4
137
0.734
0.0475
40.6
2310
6354
1997
1
0.000
18.1
12.6
18.4
15.1
5500
149.9
315
312
9.0
150
1.011
0.0567
42.0
2328
6401
1998
2
0.000
17.0
11.4
18.9
14.4
5500
142.7
287
303
9.2
148
1.062
0.0551
39.6
2060
5665
1999
0
0.000
14.9
10.4
14.9
12.4
5500
98.1
412
349
8.2
160
0.847
0.0635
34.1
1216
3344
2000
2
0.000
18.1
12.6
17.5
14.9
5500
160.0
284
279
9.8
141
0.984
0.0507
41.0
2390
6572
2001
0
0.000
16.1
11.3
15.3
13.2
5500
123.3
328
322
00
00
153
0.982
0.0585
36.4
1630
4481
2002
0
0.000
16.1
11.3
15.3
13.2
5500
120.5
328
322
00
00
153
0.982
0.0585
36.3
1589
4370
2004
4
0.000
18.8
12.5
18.9
15.4
5500
123.8
309
391
7.8
171
1.268
0.0711
43.0
1952
5368
2005
5
0.000
16.7
11.0
17.3
13.9
5500
107.8
347
491
6.5
198
1.409
0.0893
38.6
1529
4205
2006
21
0.001
19.9
13.6
18.7
16.1
5500
157.1
245
295
9.6
146
1.213
0.0536
44.6
2559
7037
2007
15
0.001
20.5
13.9
19.4
16.6
5500
154.1
243
314
9.6
151
1.275
0.0571
46.3
2619
7203
2008
11
0.001
21.6
14.9
19.6
17.3
5500
146.8
246
320
8.7
152
1.284
0.0582
48.3
2576
7083
2009
11
0.001
21.9
15.1
19.9
17.5
5500
145.8
250
320
8.5
152
1.271
0.0582
48.9
2585
7110
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-20
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-ll (cont.)
Percent of 5500 lb. Cars:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
(\ 1
cm
l'< IK 1
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975
8.2














1976
7.4





2.9








1977
15.9





3.1








1978
33.7





30.0








1979















1980






5.0








1981






100.0








1982






100.0








1983






100.0








1984






100.0








1985






100.0








1986






100.0


100.0





1987






100.0


100.0





1988






100.0


100.0





1989






100.0


100.0





1990






100.0


100.0





1991






100.0


100.0





1992



100.0


100.0


100.0





1993



56.9


71.8
28.2

56.9

43.1

43.1

1994



92.4


100.0


92.4

7.6

7.6

1995



100.0


100.0


100.0





1996



100.0


100.0


100.0





1997
73.2


100.0


100.0


26.8

73.2



1998
94.1


100.0


100.0


5.9

94.1



1999



100.0


100.0


100.0





2000
92.1


100.0


100.0


7.8

92.2



2001



100.0


100.0


100.0





2002



100.0


100.0


100.0





2004
11.6
76.2

100.0


100.0




52.7
47.3
88.4

2005
5.9
85.4

100.0


100.0




84.0
16.0
94.1

2006

98.4

100.0


100.0



91.8
7.1
1.1
78.2

2007

91.6

100.0


89.8

10.2

13.5
86.5

75.6

2008

94.3

100.0

3.3
87.2

9.5


100.0

88.0
18.3
2009

92.8

100.0

26.6
65.2

8.2

1.8
98.2

90.0
21.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-21
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-12
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 6000 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\<>l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1985
0
0.000
10.1
8.0
9.5
8.6
6000
157.5
412
170
15.7
110
0.413
0.0283
25.9
1358
4075
1986
0
0.000
10.1
8.0
9.5
8.6
6000
157.5
412
170
15.7
110
0.413
0.0283
25.8
1355
4064
1987
0
0.000
10.4
8.3
9.5
00
00
6000
157.5
412
173
15.5
111
0.420
0.0288
26.5
1391
4173
1988
0
0.000
11.8
9.3
10.8
10.0
6000
157.5
412
205
13.5
119
0.498
0.0341
29.9
1571
4712
1993
1
0.000
17.6
13.0
16.8
14.7
6000
145.5
350
175
15.3
111
0.500
0.0292
44.0
2134
6402
1994
0
0.000
13.9
9.9
14.2
11.7
6000
90.6
412
241
11.9
128
0.585
0.0402
35.1
1060
3179
1995
0
0.000
13.9
9.9
14.2
11.7
6000
90.6
412
280
10.7
137
0.679
0.0466
35.0
1058
3175
1996
0
0.000
14.9
10.5
15.0
12.4
6000
88.9
412
350
00
00
155
0.850
0.0583
37.3
1106
3318
1997
0
0.000
14.9
10.5
15.0
12.4
6000
88.9
412
350
00
00
155
0.850
0.0583
37.3
1104
3311
1998
0
0.000
14.9
10.4
14.9
12.4
6000
88.9
412
350
00
00
155
0.850
0.0583
37.2
1102
3305
1999
2
0.000
19.3
13.3
19.2
15.9
6000
145.8
279
300
10.0
142
1.075
0.0500
47.8
2325
6974
2000
0
0.000
15.0
10.4
14.8
12.4
6000
112.8
412
350
00
00
155
0.850
0.0583
37.2
1399
4197
2001
3
0.000
17.6
12.2
17.1
14.4
6000
168.6
303
289
10.3
140
0.961
0.0481
43.6
2474
7421
2002
2
0.000
17.6
12.1
17.1
14.4
6000
15.4
296
294
10.3
141
0.990
0.0490
43.6
185
554
2003
2
0.000
18.2
12.3
18.1
15.0
6000
157.3
287
285
10.5
139
0.992
0.0476
45.2
2379
7138
2004
1
0.000
18.5
12.3
18.5
15.2
6000
149.9
294
295
10.3
141
0.998
0.0492
46.1
2318
6955
2005
1
0.000
17.3
11.7
16.9
14.2
6000
138.4
313
320
9.8
147
1.013
0.0533
43.3
2019
6058
2006
3
0.000
15.4
10.0
16.3
12.8
6000
114.9
369
545
6.2
204
1.478
0.0908
38.6
1477
4431
2007
5
0.000
16.2
10.7
16.9
13.5
6000
111.2
348
514
7.0
196
1.451
0.0857
40.6
1520
4561
2008
3
0.000
16.4
10.8
17.0
13.6
6000
112.5
342
505
7.1
194
1.445
0.0842
41.0
1553
4660
2009
3
0.000
16.1
10.6
16.6
13.3
6000
111.5
350
523
6.9
198
1.472
0.0872
40.1
1498
4494
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-22
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-12 (cont.)
Percent of 6000 lb. Cars:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
(\ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 wo
i iiki.i:
Mil U
i in i:
1985






100.0








1986






100.0


100.0





1987






100.0


100.0





1988






100.0


100.0





1993



100.0


0.5
99.5

100.0





1994



100.0


100.0


100.0





1995



100.0


100.0


100.0





1996



100.0


100.0


100.0





1997



100.0


100.0


100.0





1998



100.0


100.0


100.0





1999
100.0


100.0


100.0




100.0



2000



100.0


100.0


100.0





2001
81.6


100.0


100.0


18.4

81.6



2002
86.8


100.0


100.0


13.2

86.8



2003
93.9


100.0


100.0


6.1

93.9



2004
88.6


100.0


100.0


11.4

88.6



2005
74.5


100.0


100.0


25.5

74.5



2006

92.9

100.0


100.0




100.0

92.9

2007
24.3
68.9

100.0


100.0




100.0

68.9

2008
28.6
69.8

100.0


100.0




100.0

69.8

2009
21.8
72.3

100.0


100.0




100.0

72.3

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-23
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-13
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 6500 lb. Cars
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ U
i i i.i i.( o\o\n
\\<;ii I
I it
\()l
(III
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	imi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
(III
MI'C
(III
ION
M I'C
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1994
0
0.000
13.6
9.8
13.7
11.4
6500
140.2
412
241
12.7
125
0.585
0.0371
37.1
1602
5205
1998
0
0.000
13.8
9.7
13.9
11.5
6500
140.1
412
300
10.6
139
0.728
0.0461
37.4
1615
5247
2000
0
0.000
15.2
10.6
15.1
12.6
6500
88.9
412
325
10.0
144
0.789
0.0500
41.0
1121
3643
2001
0
0.000
15.2
10.5
15.1
12.6
6500
88.9
412
377
8.9
157
0.914
0.0580
40.9
1119
3636
2002
0
0.000
15.2
10.5
15.0
12.6
6500
88.9
412
325
10.0
144
0.789
0.0500
40.8
1116
3628
2003
0
0.000
15.2
10.4
14.9
12.5
6500
88.9
412
325
10.0
144
0.789
0.0500
40.7
1114
3620
2004
0
0.000
18.9
12.7
18.9
15.5
6500
133.2
281
234
13.0
123
0.833
0.0360
50.5
2072
6734
2006
2
0.000
17.9
12.0
17.5
14.6
6500
144.4
279
275
11.4
133
0.986
0.0423
47.6
2113
6869
2007
3
0.000
19.1
12.7
19.0
15.6
6500
129.7
281
234
13.0
123
0.833
0.0360
50.8
2027
6587
2008
1
0.000
16.6
11.0
16.7
13.7
6500
131.8
323
375
9.5
156
1.136
0.0578
44.8
1834
5959
2009
1
0.000
17.8
11.9
17.7
14.6
6500
139.0
293
310
10.7
141
1.046
0.0478
47.8
2051
6667
Percent of 6500 lb. Cars:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \\N\I|NS|()\
i i i.i mi. i i.kim;
M Mlil'.K <>l \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in nun)
1 l\( >\ 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \\
1 ()( k
(\ 1
(.1)1
I'OUI
1 lil
l>N|
1 wo
i iiuii:
MM l\
1 l\ 1.
1994



100.0


100.0


100.0





1998



100.0


100.0


100.0





2000



100.0


100.0


100.0





2001



100.0


100.0


100.0





2002



100.0


100.0


100.0





2003



100.0


100.0


100.0





2004



100.0


100.0


100.0





2006
100.0


100.0


100.0




100.0



2007



100.0


100.0


99.9





2008
59.4


100.0


100.0



20.9
79.1



2009
86.2


100.0


100.0



7.1
92.9



EPA-420-R-09-014
G-24
November 2009

-------
«gm
Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-14
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2250 lb. Vans



i i i.i i.(








moi)i:i
NVI l>

1 Alt
VIM
VIM
VIM
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
II (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:vk
llllllll
1 K VC
55 45
(in
ll\M
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
sl'l)
(II)
W 1
Mi'(;
1983
0
0.0
39.0
33.5
32.3
32.9
2250
97
52
18.3
93
0.536
0.0231
37.2
1984
2
0.0
38.6
33.5
31.7
32.6
2250
97
52
18.3
93
0.536
0.0231
36.9
Percent of 2250 lb. Vans:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vk
l)KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 K \\n\IIns|()\
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
M MHI'.K <)l \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in liuii)
1 l(()\ 1
4\\ 1)
M VM VI
1 CM k
( \ 1
cm
I'OKI
i id
DM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
IOI u
11\ i:
1983
100.0

33.3





100.0






1984
100.0

40.0





100.0






Table G-15
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2750 lb. Vans



i i i.i i.(o\()\n








MODII
s\l l>

1 Ali
VD.I
Vl).l
\l).l
WCII 1
i:m;im:
II (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
¦ linn i
1 l\ U
55 45
(in
ll\M
( OMI'
1 Ii
(id
III'
11 mi:
sl'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1984
14
0.001
29.8
24.0
26.9
25.3
2750
122
88
14.1
105
0.721
0.032
34.8
1985
8
0.001
29.8
23.5
28.2
25.4
2750
122
88
14.0
105
0.721
0.032
35.0
1986
5
0.000
29.4
23.6
26.7
24.9
2750
122
88
14.1
105
0.721
0.032
34.3
1987
4
0.000
29.3
23.3
26.4
24.7
2750
122
88
14.1
105
0.721
0.032
34.0
Percent of 2750 lb. Vans:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l)l\l\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\llss|ON
I I I.i mi. ii.kinc;
M Mlil'.K C)l \ VI \ l>
\ \ 1
in liKii)
1 l(()\ 1
4\\ 1)
M VM VI
1 CM k
C \ 1
c;di
I'OUI
I lii
DM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
IOI K
11\ i:
1984
100.0

42.3
57.7











1985
100.0

77.4
22.6











1986
100.0

52.5
47.5











1987
100.0

47.8
52.2











EPA-420-R-09-014
G-25
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-16
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 3000 lb. Vans
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.c o\o\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
0 (ill
11 mi:
IC)I'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( C)\ll'
(id
III'
1975
0
0.000
21.2
16.1
21.6
18.2
3000
109
67
18.6
95
0.615
0.0223
27.2
1984
31
0.002
25.7
20.4
23.8
21.8
3000
134
92
14.6
105
0.691
0.0307
33.0
1985
56
0.004
26.1
21.1
23.7
22.2
3000
128
94
14.5
105
0.733
0.0313
33.4
1986
50
0.003
26.9
21.3
24.9
22.8
3000
128
92
14.6
104
0.717
0.0306
34.3
1987
59
0.004
26.6
21.2
23.9
22.4
3000
130
96
14.2
106
0.742
0.0320
33.6
1988
17
0.001
27.4
21.5
24.9
23.0
3000
124
97
14.0
107
0.782
0.0323
34.5
1989
13
0.001
26.3
20.6
23.8
22.0
3000
124
97
14.0
107
0.783
0.0323
33.0
1990
5
0.000
26.4
20.3
24.3
22.0
3000
137
116
12.4
114
0.842
0.0387
33.1
1991
8
0.001
26.2
20.3
23.5
21.7
3000
122
96
14.1
106
0.789
0.0321
32.6
1992
23
0.002
28.3
21.2
26.4
23.4
3000
119
114
12.4
113
0.963
0.0379
35.3
1993
11
0.001
28.5
21.1
26.6
23.5
3000
120
119
12.0
115
0.994
0.0397
35.4
1994
5
0.000
28.4
20.8
26.7
23.4
3000
127
124
11.6
118
0.981
0.0414
35.3
1995
4
0.000
27.7
20.1
26.1
22.8
3000
130
127
11.4
118
0.974
0.0422
34.3
1996
0
0.000
27.7
19.9
26.0
22.6
3000
134
127
11.4
119
0.954
0.0424
34.1
Percent of 3000 lb. Vans:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \\N\I|NS|()\
i i i i mi. i i.kim;
M Mlil'.K C)l \ \\ \ |>
\ \ i
in liuii)
1 RON 1
4\\ 1)
M VM
1 CM k
C \ 1
c;di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
I C)I u
11\ i:
1975


71.4




100.0







1984
69.4

32.4
23.6


30.6








1985
51.2
5.3
22.2
50.3


43.5








1986
43.5
26.9
62.2
32.2


29.6








1987
38.2
14.4
31.7
68.3


69.3








1988
68.9
19.5
41.5
58.5


100.0








1989
73.5
18.0
35.0
65.0


99.3
0.7







1990
71.5
8.5
57.2
42.8


97.2
2.8







1991
78.8
21.2
32.2
67.8


100.0








1992
99.5
0.5
35.3
64.7


100.0








1993
100.0

13.3
86.7


100.0








1994
51.0
49.0
21.4
78.6


100.0


4.8
49.0
46.2



1995
40.5
59.5
16.4
83.6


100.0




100.0



1996
100.0

13.2
86.8


100.0




100.0



EPA-420-R-09-014
G-26
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-17
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 3500 lb. Vans
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
O (ill
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
17
0.002
19.0
14.5
18.9
16.2
3500
214
98
15.9
103
0.466
0.0280
28.4
1976
12
0.001
19.5
15.4
18.3
16.6
3500
211
96
16.3
102
0.460
0.0273
29.1
1977
9
0.001
20.2
16.4
18.2
17.1
3500
201
92
16.8
101
0.471
0.0264
30.1
1978
11
0.001
19.4
15.6
17.7
16.5
3500
200
101
15.8
104
0.509
0.0288
28.9
1979
8
0.001
18.7
14.8
17.6
16.0
3500
120
67
20.9
92
0.558
0.0191
28.0
1980
17
0.002
19.0
14.9
17.9
16.1
3500
151
77
19.3
95
0.524
0.0219
28.3
1981
16
0.001
19.3
15.5
17.7
16.4
3500
172
81
18.6
97
0.490
0.0230
28.8
1982
25
0.003
20.9
16.9
18.9
17.8
3500
179
81
18.7
97
0.473
0.0233
31.9
1983
10
0.001
19.5
15.5
18.2
16.6
3500
119
69
20.5
93
0.582
0.0198
29.4
1984
164
0.012
24.2
19.3
22.4
20.6
3500
139
96
16.1
102
0.694
0.0275
36.3
1985
292
0.020
23.5
18.7
21.9
20.0
3500
154
102
15.4
105
0.673
0.0293
35.2
1986
320
0.021
24.3
19.1
22.7
20.6
3500
152
102
15.3
105
0.674
0.0292
36.2
1987
329
0.022
24.1
18.7
22.7
20.4
3500
162
120
13.8
111
0.735
0.0343
35.8
1988
262
0.017
24.5
18.8
23.2
20.6
3500
166
123
13.5
112
0.736
0.0353
36.2
1989
263
0.018
24.3
18.7
22.5
20.3
3500
159
120
13.9
111
0.753
0.0343
35.7
1990
213
0.017
25.2
19.0
23.9
21.1
3500
170
129
13.0
114
0.758
0.0368
36.9
1991
63
0.005
25.3
19.2
23.5
21.0
3500
161
109
14.9
107
0.674
0.0312
36.9
1992
84
0.007
25.7
19.4
23.7
21.3
3500
156
110
14.6
107
0.707
0.0314
37.3
1993
220
0.017
25.3
18.6
24.0
21.0
3500
176
133
12.6
116
0.755
0.0380
36.7
1994
144
0.010
24.7
18.3
22.9
20.4
3500
173
131
12.8
115
0.755
0.0374
35.6
1995
237
0.016
25.1
18.4
23.4
20.6
3500
171
137
12.2
117
0.807
0.0391
36.1
1996
32
0.002
27.0
19.4
25.6
22.1
3500
145
144
11.6
120
1.013
0.0411
39.0
1997
33
0.002
24.2
17.6
22.2
19.7
3500
145
133
12.4
115
0.927
0.0379
34.6
1998
16
0.001
27.0
19.3
24.9
21.9
3500
138
150
11.3
122
1.087
0.0429
38.4
1999
1
0.000
26.9
19.3
24.3
21.7
3500
138
150
11.3
122
1.087
0.0429
37.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-27
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-17 (cont.)
Percent of 3500 lb. Vans:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\||ss|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\( IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil U
i in i:
















1975


18.7




6.1







1976


24.4




13.3







1977


28.8




23.2







1978


28.4




23.4







1979


81.2




100.0







1980


62.8
25.0



70.1







1981


55.9
34.3



50.6







1982


62.9
32.5



25.1
15.0






1983


79.6




96.9
3.1






1984
68.8

27.1
15.7


21.6
9.6







1985
76.3

15.2
14.6


10.1
6.6







1986
71.0

9.6
23.5


22.0
2.7







1987
75.9
1.8
9.6
52.8


50.5
8.5







1988
80.7
1.7
7.3
63.9


63.5
36.5







1989
84.5
1.3
5.6
30.6


53.6
46.4







1990
92.4
1.3
5.0
90.9


72.1
27.9







1991
81.4
3.6
4.1
95.9


28.9
71.1







1992
85.5
7.3
8.6
91.4


35.5
64.5







1993
96.5
0.1
2.9
97.1


80.2
19.8







1994
96.5
0.7
2.8
97.2


73.4
26.6

99.3





1995
95.4
0.8
0.2
99.8


87.5
12.5

85.7

14.3



1996
76.3
0.4
0.1
99.9


100.0


24.5

75.5



1997
73.1


100.0


100.0


26.9

73.1



1998
100.0


100.0


100.0




100.0



1999
100.0


100.0


100.0




100.0



EPA-420-R-09-014
G-28
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-18
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 4000 lb. Vans



i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
O (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1975
262
0.026
14.0
11.2
12.9
11.9
4000
310
136
14.0
112
0.434
0.0340
24.5
1976
293
0.024
14.1
11.2
13.1
12.0
4000
323
142
13.5
114
0.437
0.0356
24.7
1977
262
0.019
16.1
13.0
14.6
13.7
4000
323
148
12.9
116
0.457
0.0371
27.7
1978
310
0.021
15.6
12.7
14.1
13.3
4000
321
142
13.2
115
0.444
0.0356
27.0
1979
83
0.006
16.5
13.5
14.8
14.0
4000
275
128
14.3
110
0.468
0.0320
28.4
1980
90
0.008
18.4
14.6
17.0
15.6
4000
263
121
15.0
108
0.466
0.0304
31.4
1981
81
0.008
18.7
14.9
17.4
15.9
4000
262
120
15.2
107
0.463
0.0300
32.1
1982
85
0.009
18.8
15.0
17.4
16.0
4000
264
117
15.8
106
0.445
0.0292
32.4
1983
102
0.010
18.8
15.0
17.5
16.0
4000
261
112
16.1
105
0.433
0.0281
32.4
1984
160
0.011
18.0
14.3
16.8
15.3
4000
276
116
15.5
106
0.427
0.0290
31.0
1985
184
0.013
19.8
15.6
18.6
16.8
4000
272
137
13.7
113
0.510
0.0342
34.1
1986
316
0.021
21.1
16.3
20.5
18.0
4000
232
134
13.9
112
0.590
0.0335
36.0
1987
401
0.027
21.7
16.6
21.0
18.4
4000
222
148
12.8
117
0.689
0.0371
36.8
1988
559
0.037
22.2
16.8
21.7
18.8
4000
214
149
12.6
117
0.717
0.0374
37.6
1989
674
0.047
22.5
16.9
21.9
18.9
4000
207
145
12.9
115
0.722
0.0364
37.9
1990
684
0.054
22.2
16.6
21.5
18.7
4000
199
143
13.2
115
0.722
0.0357
37.5
1991
686
0.055
22.5
16.8
21.5
18.8
4000
194
144
13.0
115
0.756
0.0361
37.8
1992
758
0.062
22.6
16.7
21.7
18.9
4000
198
146
12.9
116
0.745
0.0365
37.8
1993
826
0.063
22.6
16.5
22.0
18.9
4000
196
149
12.6
117
0.768
0.0373
37.8
1994
849
0.060
22.7
16.5
21.9
18.8
4000
203
151
12.5
117
0.752
0.0378
37.8
1995
990
0.065
22.9
16.4
22.4
19.0
4000
217
152
12.5
118
0.713
0.0380
38.0
1996
956
0.073
23.5
16.8
22.6
19.4
4000
201
166
11.7
122
0.828
0.0415
38.8
1997
792
0.055
23.4
16.6
22.5
19.2
4000
196
164
11.8
121
0.835
0.0409
38.6
1998
1116
0.077
23.8
16.7
23.0
19.5
4000
202
174
11.2
125
0.863
0.0435
39.1
1999
822
0.054
23.9
16.6
23.2
19.6
4000
198
168
11.5
123
0.857
0.0420
39.2
2000
947
0.057
24.2
16.7
23.3
19.7
4000
194
171
11.3
124
0.892
0.0427
39.5
2001
462
0.030
24.6
16.9
23.4
20.0
4000
194
183
10.7
128
0.953
0.0457
40.0
2002
451
0.028
24.9
17.0
23.8
20.2
4000
196
186
10.6
129
0.956
0.0464
40.4
2003
493
0.031
25.4
17.2
24.2
20.5
4000
199
185
10.6
128
0.934
0.0462
41.1
2004
186
0.012
25.1
16.8
24.2
20.3
4000
203
185
10.6
129
0.917
0.0463
40.6
2005
380
0.024
25.5
17.0
24.0
20.4
4000
198
182
10.8
128
0.926
0.0456
40.9
2006
160
0.011
25.7
17.2
24.2
20.6
4000
190
183
10.7
128
0.969
0.0457
41.2
2007
115
0.008
25.8
17.2
24.3
20.7
4000
193
181
10.8
127
0.938
0.0452
41.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-29
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-18 (cont.)
Percent of 4000 lb. Vans:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\||ss|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975


34.8












1976


30.9












1977


23.4












1978


22.6












1979


34.8
29.1











1980


41.3
43.7



4.1







1981
0.8

33.7
50.9



4.0







1982


23.9
55.3



3.5
2.3






1983


28.5
40.0



3.3







1984


21.2
29.8



3.4







1985
0.2

10.2
58.0


0.2
3.2







1986
0.1

6.5
86.3


21.1
51.1







1987
7.6
1.7
4.7
90.3


48.9
46.1







1988
33.5
0.2
2.6
93.8


60.7
39.3







1989
30.6
0.4
2.4
96.5


67.7
32.3







1990
57.0
10.0
0.9
97.1


69.4
30.6







1991
49.2
12.6
1.2
98.4


79.7
20.3







1992
60.7
1.8
0.6
99.4


85.2
14.8







1993
59.4
1.1
1.1
98.9


90.4
9.6







1994
70.6
3.1
0.2
99.8


90.2
9.8

95.4
2.7
1.9



1995
79.7
10.1

100.0


96.0
4.0

97.0
1.4
1.7



1996
90.3


100.0


100.0


94.7
1.1
4.2



1997
87.9


100.0


100.0


93.7
1.1
5.2



1998
96.2


100.0


100.0


88.4

11.6



1999
95.7


100.0


100.0


84.1

15.9

8.5

2000
95.9


100.0


100.0


74.3

25.7

13.9

2001
95.8


100.0


100.0


67.4

32.6

18.6

2002
95.7


100.0


100.0


67.0

33.0

24.5

2003
96.9


100.0


100.0


80.4

19.6

15.5

2004
92.6


100.0


100.0


84.7

15.3

12.0

2005
95.4


89.6
10.4

100.0


79.3

20.7



2006
100.0


78.1
21.9

100.0


60.7

39.3

6.3

2007
100.0


85.4
14.6

100.0


76.6

23.4



EPA-420-R-09-014
G-30
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-19
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 4500 lb. Vans



i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
O (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1975
165
0.016
11.6
9.5
10.3
9.8
4500
333
155
13.6
115
0.464
0.0345
22.2
1976
188
0.015
13.3
10.7
12.3
11.3
4500
330
153
13.8
114
0.463
0.0340
25.7
1977
222
0.016
13.5
11.0
12.0
11.4
4500
342
157
13.5
115
0.458
0.0348
25.9
1978
289
0.020
13.0
10.7
11.4
11.0
4500
341
157
13.4
115
0.460
0.0348
24.9
1979
273
0.020
13.6
11.1
12.0
11.5
4500
329
145
14.3
112
0.443
0.0322
26.3
1980
91
0.008
16.3
13.1
15.1
13.9
4500
313
141
14.6
110
0.449
0.0313
31.5
1981
121
0.011
17.1
13.7
15.7
14.6
4500
305
138
14.8
109
0.453
0.0306
33.0
1982
164
0.017
16.8
13.5
15.3
14.2
4500
307
145
14.3
112
0.474
0.0323
32.3
1983
215
0.021
17.3
13.7
16.1
14.7
4500
308
149
14.0
113
0.485
0.0332
33.3
1984
245
0.017
17.0
13.4
16.0
14.4
4500
309
152
13.8
114
0.493
0.0339
32.8
1985
258
0.018
16.1
12.8
14.9
13.7
4500
309
156
13.5
115
0.503
0.0346
30.9
1986
284
0.019
17.5
13.8
16.2
14.8
4500
304
148
14.1
112
0.485
0.0328
33.4
1987
252
0.017
17.3
13.5
16.2
14.7
4500
313
163
13.0
117
0.521
0.0363
33.1
1988
184
0.012
17.9
13.9
16.8
15.1
4500
320
169
12.6
119
0.528
0.0376
34.0
1989
223
0.015
17.5
13.5
16.5
14.8
4500
322
175
12.4
121
0.541
0.0389
33.3
1990
268
0.021
18.7
14.1
17.9
15.7
4500
305
174
12.4
121
0.569
0.0387
35.6
1991
211
0.017
19.1
14.3
18.4
16.0
4500
294
170
12.7
119
0.580
0.0377
36.3
1992
242
0.020
19.2
14.3
18.3
16.0
4500
288
179
12.2
122
0.626
0.0398
36.5
1993
251
0.019
19.8
14.6
19.0
16.5
4500
281
180
12.1
122
0.646
0.0400
37.3
1994
278
0.020
19.3
14.2
18.3
16.1
4500
283
186
11.7
124
0.664
0.0414
36.4
1995
291
0.019
19.1
14.0
18.1
15.8
4500
292
189
11.5
125
0.662
0.0421
35.9
1996
291
0.022
20.6
14.8
20.0
17.1
4500
248
177
12.2
121
0.716
0.0393
38.8
1997
275
0.019
20.7
14.8
19.9
17.1
4500
252
182
11.9
123
0.727
0.0405
38.8
1998
188
0.013
21.5
15.3
20.6
17.7
4500
242
186
11.6
124
0.770
0.0413
39.9
1999
426
0.028
22.1
15.5
21.2
18.1
4500
234
192
11.3
126
0.826
0.0428
40.8
2000
578
0.035
22.3
15.5
21.4
18.2
4500
232
192
11.4
126
0.832
0.0426
41.2
2001
462
0.030
23.5
16.2
22.5
19.1
4500
216
196
11.2
127
0.908
0.0436
43.2
2002
623
0.039
23.3
16.0
22.2
18.9
4500
220
206
10.8
130
0.941
0.0458
42.8
2003
564
0.036
23.6
16.1
22.4
19.1
4500
222
211
10.6
132
0.955
0.0468
43.1
2004
644
0.041
24.2
16.2
23.1
19.5
4500
216
221
10.1
135
1.033
0.0492
44.1
2005
955
0.060
24.1
16.1
22.9
19.4
4500
218
219
10.2
134
1.012
0.0487
43.7
2006
927
0.061
24.5
16.3
23.5
19.8
4500
216
215
10.4
133
1.000
0.0477
44.5
2007
734
0.048
24.2
16.1
23.3
19.6
4500
219
230
9.9
137
1.051
0.0510
44.1
2008
713
0.051
24.7
16.4
23.6
19.9
4500
218
220
10.4
135
1.014
0.0490
44.8
2009
623
0.039
24.8
16.5
23.7
20.0
4500
218
216
10.8
133
0.996
0.0479
45.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-31
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-19 (cont.)
Percent of 4500 lb. Vans:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975


6.2












1976


5.0












1977


3.8












1978


2.6












1979


11.3
0.9











1980


14.5
47.9











1981
0.2

13.3
48.8











1982


6.8
46.6











1983


3.4
68.7











1984


2.9
76.7











1985


1.0
73.3











1986


0.6
78.0


21.6

0.0






1987


1.0
56.3


32.2
45.0
0.0






1988


0.9
60.4


16.5
82.8
0.0






1989

0.1
0.8
71.9


20.8
79.1
0.0






1990

4.2
0.0
89.1


9.2
90.8
0.0






1991

10.8
0.1
94.3


12.7
87.2
0.0






1992

13.6
0.0
97.4


31.2
68.8







1993
1.3
14.9

98.7


32.3
67.7







1994
0.0
14.8

96.6


49.7
50.3

98.4
1.3




1995

7.5

97.8


56.0
44.0

97.5
1.0
1.5



1996
52.1
6.1

97.8


100.0


98.3
1.3




1997
35.5
13.3

98.0


100.0


97.8
1.7




1998
40.3
14.7

100.0


100.0


95.4

4.6



1999
76.0
4.8

100.0


100.0


88.2

11.8

11.8

2000
78.4
3.7

100.0


100.0


78.9

21.1

21.1

2001
88.5
1.9

100.0


100.0


72.8

27.2

26.7

2002
90.9
2.8

100.0


100.0


75.3

24.7

23.9

2003
88.6
6.0

100.0


100.0


69.9

30.1

29.3

2004
93.2
5.0

100.0


100.0


35.2

64.8

64.8

2005
92.3
6.6

96.2
3.8

100.0


57.4

42.6

38.8

2006
95.6
4.4

97.9
2.1

100.0


48.0

52.0

44.7

2007
97.2
2.8

98.3
1.7

100.0


43.4

56.6

56.2

2008
96.1
3.9

100.0


100.0


48.3

51.7

51.0

2009
98.0
2.0

100.0


100.0


43.5

56.5

45.1

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-32
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-20
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 5000 lb. Vans
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
O (ill
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
12
0.001
12.0
9.7
10.7
10.2
5000
398
200
12.3
124
0.497
0.0401
25.5
1976
8
0.001
12.4
10.1
10.9
10.5
5000
369
169
13.9
115
0.455
0.0338
26.3
1977
18
0.001
12.4
10.0
11.2
10.5
5000
404
187
12.6
121
0.464
0.0375
26.3
1978
12
0.001
12.5
10.3
11.0
10.6
5000
389
183
12.9
119
0.470
0.0365
26.5
1979
96
0.007
11.8
9.6
10.6
10.0
5000
347
155
14.9
111
0.446
0.0309
25.4
1980
35
0.003
14.2
11.4
13.1
12.1
5000
334
148
15.3
109
0.441
0.0295
30.3
1981
26
0.002
14.8
11.9
13.6
12.6
5000
325
145
15.5
109
0.448
0.0290
31.8
1982
36
0.004
15.1
12.1
13.8
12.8
5000
320
144
15.6
108
0.450
0.0288
32.3
1983
49
0.005
17.1
13.5
16.0
14.5
5000
336
143
15.7
108
0.431
0.0286
38.0
1984
54
0.004
15.6
12.3
14.7
13.3
5000
329
155
14.9
111
0.472
0.0310
34.1
1985
52
0.004
15.4
12.2
14.4
13.1
5000
323
157
14.6
112
0.486
0.0315
33.3
1986
61
0.004
16.0
12.5
15.0
13.5
5000
326
162
14.4
113
0.495
0.0324
34.2
1987
64
0.004
15.9
12.3
15.0
13.4
5000
322
167
14.0
115
0.516
0.0334
33.8
1988
100
0.007
16.7
12.8
16.1
14.2
5000
312
156
14.7
112
0.500
0.0313
35.6
1989
99
0.007
16.5
12.5
15.8
13.9
5000
315
159
14.5
113
0.503
0.0318
34.9
1990
83
0.007
16.5
12.5
15.7
13.9
5000
317
165
14.1
114
0.519
0.0331
34.8
1991
55
0.004
16.6
12.5
15.8
13.9
5000
315
165
14.1
114
0.522
0.0330
34.9
1992
92
0.008
17.5
13.1
16.7
14.7
5000
305
169
13.8
115
0.557
0.0339
36.9
1993
101
0.008
17.7
13.1
16.9
14.8
5000
306
184
12.8
120
0.607
0.0369
37.1
1994
108
0.008
17.6
12.9
17.0
14.7
5000
308
190
12.5
121
0.623
0.0381
36.8
1995
106
0.007
17.8
13.0
16.9
14.7
5000
302
184
12.9
120
0.613
0.0367
36.9
1996
100
0.008
17.8
12.9
17.0
14.8
5000
317
203
12.0
125
0.644
0.0407
37.0
1997
135
0.009
19.0
13.7
18.1
15.7
5000
296
219
11.1
129
0.743
0.0438
39.3
1998
135
0.009
18.6
13.3
17.8
15.4
5000
295
217
11.2
129
0.738
0.0433
38.5
1999
176
0.012
18.2
13.0
17.3
15.0
5000
296
218
11.2
129
0.741
0.0437
37.4
2000
145
0.009
18.4
13.1
17.1
15.0
5000
292
219
11.2
129
0.751
0.0437
37.6
2001
174
0.011
19.1
13.4
17.9
15.5
5000
284
226
10.8
131
0.800
0.0452
39.0
2002
155
0.010
18.7
13.2
17.3
15.2
5000
262
210
11.5
127
0.813
0.0420
38.1
2003
137
0.009
19.3
13.5
17.7
15.6
5000
252
204
11.8
125
0.820
0.0409
39.1
2004
101
0.006
20.4
13.9
19.4
16.5
5000
241
205
11.7
126
0.857
0.0410
41.4
2005
130
0.008
20.7
14.0
19.6
16.7
5000
234
202
11.9
125
0.869
0.0404
41.9
2006
63
0.004
19.9
13.7
18.1
15.9
5000
267
216
11.3
129
0.810
0.0432
39.9
2007
23
0.002
20.4
14.1
18.7
16.4
5000
268
205
11.8
126
0.761
0.0411
41.0
2008
51
0.004
23.9
16.1
22.5
19.2
5000
248
232
10.7
133
0.939
0.0464
48.6
2009
86
0.005
25.2
16.7
24.2
20.3
5000
244
244
10.2
136
1.001
0.0488
50.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-33
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-20 (cont.)
Percent of 5000 lb. Vans:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
(\ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975


13.1












1976


1.9












1977


2.7












1978


1.0












1979


4.3
6.5











1980


5.0
19.9











1981


4.8
31.7











1982


4.7
29.4











1983


2.6
69.4




26.9






1984


3.5
51.9




8.4






1985


1.5
65.2




2.8






1986


0.7
58.7


23.5

1.4






1987


0.4
48.1


40.0
13.6
0.6






1988


0.0
74.2


84.0
14.3
0.7






1989


0.0
76.6


83.0
16.5
0.5






1990

0.3

86.9


81.8
17.5
0.7






1991



86.4


82.8
16.3
0.8






1992

15.4

81.4


90.0
9.5
0.5






1993

18.3

86.4


94.3
5.7







1994

18.3

88.0


98.0
2.0

100.0





1995
1.7
22.7
0.7
87.0


90.2
9.8

100.0





1996

15.2

93.1


100.0


100.0





1997

16.9

100.0


100.0


100.0





1998

15.3

100.0


100.0


100.0





1999
0.1
11.3

100.0


100.0


99.9





2000

16.7

100.0


100.0


100.0





2001

12.7

100.0


100.0


100.0





2002
32.1
13.3

100.0


100.0


67.9

32.1



2003
37.7
15.3

100.0


100.0


62.3

37.7



2004
52.5
10.0

100.0


100.0


47.5

52.5



2005
58.9
10.5

100.0


100.0


41.1

58.9



2006

13.0

100.0


100.0


100.0





2007



100.0


100.0


100.0





2008
63.9


100.0


100.0


36.1

63.9



2009
84.2


100.0


100.0


15.8

84.2



EPA-420-R-09-014
G-34
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-21
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 5500 lb. Vans
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
O (ill
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1979
16
0.001
11.4
9.5
9.9
9.7
5500
377
168
15.6
112
0.438
0.0305
26.9
1980
8
0.001
12.4
10.0
11.2
10.5
5500
356
154
16.0
108
0.431
0.0279
28.9
1981
0
0.000
12.3
9.9
11.2
10.5
5500
346
154
15.9
109
0.447
0.0281
29.0
1982
0
0.000
13.4
10.9
12.1
11.4
5500
337
143
16.8
106
0.427
0.0260
31.4
1983
5
0.000
18.2
14.2
17.5
15.5
5500
369
140
17.2
105
0.383
0.0255
46.3
1984
6
0.000
14.5
11.4
13.9
12.4
5500
362
158
15.8
109
0.438
0.0287
37.1
1985
5
0.000
12.9
10.3
12.0
11.0
5500
351
180
14.1
115
0.512
0.0327
30.4
1986
6
0.000
15.0
12.0
13.7
12.7
5500
286
158
15.9
110
0.594
0.0288
36.6
1987
4
0.000
14.6
11.3
13.8
12.4
5500
346
195
13.2
119
0.564
0.0356
34.6
1988
10
0.001
14.2
11.0
13.3
12.0
5500
346
195
13.2
119
0.562
0.0355
33.4
1989
5
0.000
14.4
11.2
13.4
12.1
5500
343
192
13.5
118
0.559
0.0349
34.0
1990
9
0.001
14.4
10.7
14.3
12.2
5500
347
199
13.0
120
0.574
0.0363
33.7
1991
10
0.001
15.2
11.3
14.9
12.8
5500
334
187
13.8
117
0.556
0.0340
35.3
1992
18
0.002
15.9
11.8
15.3
13.3
5500
323
178
14.4
115
0.548
0.0323
36.8
1993
31
0.002
16.1
12.1
15.2
13.4
5500
321
178
14.3
115
0.553
0.0324
37.1
1994
27
0.002
16.2
12.1
15.1
13.5
5500
316
174
14.6
114
0.550
0.0316
37.2
1995
27
0.002
16.2
12.0
15.1
13.4
5500
314
172
14.8
113
0.545
0.0312
37.1
1996
25
0.002
15.8
11.6
14.8
13.1
5500
314
169
15.0
112
0.536
0.0308
36.0
1997
27
0.002
17.3
12.4
16.7
14.3
5500
288
212
12.4
124
0.743
0.0385
39.6
1998
31
0.002
17.4
12.4
16.9
14.4
5500
296
217
12.1
125
0.738
0.0395
39.7
1999
36
0.002
17.5
12.3
16.9
14.4
5500
294
226
11.8
127
0.772
0.0410
39.7
2000
17
0.001
17.2
12.2
16.3
14.1
5500
296
221
12.1
126
0.752
0.0402
39.0
2001
66
0.004
17.4
12.1
16.9
14.3
5500
314
249
10.8
133
0.798
0.0452
39.3
2002
11
0.001
17.5
12.3
16.4
14.2
5500
298
228
11.6
128
0.780
0.0415
39.4
2003
21
0.001
18.2
12.9
16.6
14.7
5500
312
263
10.4
137
0.844
0.0479
40.6
2004
6
0.000
19.1
13.3
17.5
15.4
5500
298
251
10.8
134
0.842
0.0457
42.4
2005
4
0.000
19.3
13.3
17.8
15.5
5500
301
260
10.6
136
0.859
0.0472
42.8
2006
7
0.000
19.2
13.2
17.6
15.4
5500
293
250
10.9
134
0.847
0.0454
42.4
2007
2
0.000
19.2
13.2
18.0
15.6
5500
325
295
9.4
146
0.908
0.0536
42.8
2008
5
0.000
19.3
13.6
17.3
15.5
5500
325
301
9.2
147
0.926
0.0547
42.5
2009
3
0.000
19.5
13.6
17.5
15.6
5500
325
301
9.3
147
0.926
0.0547
42.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-35
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-21 (cont.)
Percent of 5500 lb. Vans:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
(\ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil U
i in i:
1979


3.1












1980



0.8











1981


4.4












1982


2.3
2.5











1983


0.6
83.2




61.2






1984


1.0
59.3




32.8






1985



44.9











1986


32.4
35.0




32.4






1987



50.7


11.6
39.1







1988



29.0


71.4
24.3
1.1






1989



45.0


66.2
33.5
0.3






1990



95.1


82.5
17.5
0.0






1991



100.0


89.0
10.9
0.0






1992



93.7


92.9
7.1







1993

0.6

78.0


89.5
10.5







1994



74.1


90.9
9.1

100.0





1995



70.8


94.9
5.1

100.0





1996



61.5


100.0


100.0





1997
5.9


100.0


100.0


100.0





1998



100.0


100.0


100.0





1999
2.8


100.0


100.0


100.0





2000
9.9


100.0


100.0


100.0





2001
1.9
17.8

100.0


100.0


98.1

1.9



2002
7.1


100.0


100.0


92.9

7.1



2003
1.4
1.9

100.0


100.0


98.6

1.4



2004

24.9

100.0


100.0


100.0





2005

39.2

100.0


100.0


100.0





2006

33.6

100.0


100.0


100.0





2007

100.0

100.0


100.0


100.0





2008

48.5

100.0


100.0


100.0





2009

49.7

100.0


100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
G-36
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-22
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 6000 lb. Vans
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
O (ill
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
0
0.000
11.1
9.1
9.7
9.4
6000
317
148
17.1
105
0.470
0.0248
28.5
1976
0
0.000
11.9
9.7
10.6
10.1
6000
325
144
17.5
103
0.445
0.0240
30.5
1977
1
0.000
13.0
10.9
11.2
11.0
6000
318
148
17.3
105
0.468
0.0247
33.2
1978
1
0.000
12.5
10.4
10.9
10.6
6000
324
154
16.8
106
0.475
0.0256
31.9
1979
3
0.000
10.6
8.4
10.1
9.1
6000
460
270
10.8
135
0.587
0.0450
27.2
1980
1
0.000
10.9
9.1
9.4
9.2
6000
400
187
14.6
114
0.467
0.0312
27.7
1982
0
0.000
11.9
9.5
10.8
10.1
6000
350
165
16.1
109
0.471
0.0275
30.3
1983
0
0.000
12.6
10.1
11.6
10.7
6000
366
150
17.4
105
0.410
0.0250
32.2
1984
0
0.000
12.9
10.3
11.8
10.9
6000
366
150
17.4
105
0.410
0.0250
32.8
1985
1
0.000
21.3
16.2
21.5
18.2
6000
376
133
19.2
101
0.354
0.0222
55.7
1986
1
0.000
23.1
17.5
22.9
19.6
6000
379
130
19.5
100
0.343
0.0217
58.9
1987
0
0.000
22.9
17.4
22.4
19.4
6000
379
130
19.5
100
0.343
0.0217
58.1
1988
0
0.000
21.7
16.1
21.9
18.4
6000
379
126
20.0
99
0.332
0.0210
55.1
1989
0
0.000
21.3
16.0
20.8
18.0
6000
379
130
19.5
100
0.343
0.0217
53.9
1990
0
0.000
21.5
15.8
21.7
18.2
6000
379
135
18.9
101
0.356
0.0225
54.5
1991
0
0.000
20.4
15.2
19.8
17.1
6000
379
140
18.4
103
0.369
0.0233
51.4
1992
4
0.000
15.0
10.8
15.2
12.6
6000
352
202
13.7
118
0.574
0.0337
38.0
1993
0
0.000
21.3
15.7
20.2
17.7
6000
379
145
17.9
104
0.383
0.0242
53.0
1994
6
0.000
15.5
11.2
15.4
13.0
6000
351
204
13.6
119
0.582
0.0341
39.0
1995
6
0.000
16.1
11.5
15.9
13.4
6000
344
197
14.1
117
0.570
0.0328
40.3
1996
5
0.000
16.1
11.5
15.9
13.4
6000
350
205
13.5
119
0.587
0.0342
40.2
1997
3
0.000
16.3
11.6
16.1
13.6
6000
331
226
12.5
124
0.683
0.0377
40.8
1998
2
0.000
16.4
11.6
16.1
13.6
6000
330
226
12.5
124
0.684
0.0376
40.9
1999
3
0.000
16.0
11.3
15.7
13.3
6000
329
234
12.2
126
0.709
0.0390
39.8
2000
3
0.000
16.2
11.6
15.2
13.3
6000
330
250
11.5
130
0.759
0.0417
39.9
2001
67
0.004
16.0
11.2
15.4
13.1
6000
330
260
11.2
132
0.787
0.0433
39.4
2002
4
0.000
17.1
12.0
16.0
13.9
6000
330
254
11.4
131
0.771
0.0424
41.7
2003
17
0.001
18.5
12.8
17.4
15.0
6000
322
281
10.5
138
0.871
0.0468
45.3
2004
16
0.001
18.7
13.1
17.2
15.1
6000
324
278
10.6
137
0.857
0.0463
45.5
2005
11
0.001
18.2
12.7
16.5
14.7
6000
325
278
10.6
137
0.856
0.0463
44.0
2006
8
0.001
18.2
12.6
16.6
14.6
6000
326
283
10.5
138
0.868
0.0471
44.0
2007
6
0.000
18.1
12.6
16.5
14.6
6000
325
295
10.1
141
0.908
0.0492
43.8
2008
5
0.000
17.6
12.4
15.8
14.1
6000
325
310
9.7
145
0.955
0.0517
42.3
2009
12
0.001
17.8
12.5
16
14.3
6000
325
301
9.9
143
0.926
0.0502
42.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-37
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-22 (cont.)
Percent of 6000 lb. Vans:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
(\ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil U
i in i:
1975


85.3












1976


85.7












1977


65.6












1978


64.3












1979















1980















1982



100.0











1983















1984















1985


2.1
97.9




91.2






1986


2.2
97.8




100.0






1987


0.6
99.4




100.0






1988


0.9
99.1




100.0






1989


1.4
98.6




100.0






1990



100.0




100.0






1991



100.0




100.0






1992



100.0


95.4

4.6






1993



100.0


100.0








1994



100.0


100.0


100.0





1995



100.0


100.0


100.0





1996



100.0


100.0


100.0





1997



100.0


100.0


100.0





1998



100.0


100.0


100.0





1999



100.0


100.0


100.0





2000



100.0


100.0


100.0





2001

95.2

100.0


100.0


100.0





2002



100.0


100.0


100.0





2003

39.1

100.0


100.0


100.0





2004

17.8

100.0


100.0


100.0





2005

18.6

100.0


100.0


100.0





2006

19.0

100.0


100.0


100.0





2007

28.6

100.0


100.0


100.0





2008

32.9

100.0


100.0


100.0





2009

21.2

100.0


100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
G-38
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-23
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 6500 lb. Vans



i i i.i i.(








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
0 (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ w
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1975
1
0.0
10.6
8.9
9.0
9.0
6500
321
150
18.6
103
0.468
0.0231
29.2
1976
1
0.0
11.5
9.4
10.4
9.8
6500
324
144
19.2
102
0.447
0.0222
31.9
1977
1
0.0
12.3
10.3
10.6
10.4
6500
316
142
19.3
101
0.453
0.0219
34.0
1978
1
0.0
11.7
9.7
10.3
9.9
6500
328
155
18.1
104
0.474
0.0239
32.3
2000
0
0.0
14.2
10.1
13.5
11.7
6500
330
193
15.1
113
0.585
0.0297
37.9
Percent of 6500 lb. Vans:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ WsMlsslON
i i i.i mi.i i.kim;
M Mlil'.K <)l \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in nun)
1 l(()\ 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \\
1 ()( k
(\ 1
(.di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
ioi K
11\ i.
1975















1976


0.2












1977















1978















2000



100.0


100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
G-39
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-24
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2000 lb. SUVs



i i i.i i.(








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
0 (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ U
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1979
1
0.000
25.7
20.9
23.0
21.8
2000
49
41
19.7
89
0.837
0.0205
21.8
1980
3
0.000
25.2
20.3
22.9
21.4
2000
49
41
19.7
89
0.837
0.0205
21.4
1981
1
0.000
25.2
20.3
22.9
21.4
2000
49
41
19.7
89
0.837
0.0205
21.4
1982
1
0.000
25.2
21.3
21.3
21.3
2000
59
45
18.3
92
0.763
0.0225
21.3
1983
1
0.000
25.2
21.3
21.3
21.3
2000
59
45
18.3
92
0.763
0.0225
21.3
Percent of 2000 lb. SUVs:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ WsMlsslON
I I I I Ml. II.KIN(;
M Mlil'.K <)l \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in nun)
1 l(()\ 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \\
1 C>( K
(\ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
MM U
11\ 1.
1979

100.0
100.0












1980

100.0
100.0












1981

100.0
100.0












1982

100.0
100.0












1983

100.0
100.0












EPA-420-R-09-014
G-40
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-25
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2250 lb. SUVs



i i i.i i.c o\o\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Ali
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
0 (ill
IC)I'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ U
55 45
(in
ll\U
( C)\ll'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1982
2
0.000
24.8
20.9
21.1
21.0
2250
59
45
20.1
90
0.763
0.0200
23.6
1983
3
0.000
24.8
20.9
21.1
21.0
2250
59
45
20.0
90
0.763
0.0200
23.6
1984
5
0.000
28.8
25.3
23.1
24.2
2250
59
45
20.0
90
0.763
0.0200
27.3
1985
6
0.000
28.8
25.3
23.1
24.2
2250
61
45
20.0
90
0.738
0.0200
27.3
1986
37
0.002
33.1
27.0
29.1
27.9
2250
81
64
15.3
99
0.790
0.0284
31.4
1987
63
0.004
33.1
26.8
29.0
27.8
2250
81
64
15.3
99
0.790
0.0284
31.3
1988
83
0.005
33.3
27.0
28.7
27.7
2250
81
64
15.3
99
0.790
0.0284
31.2
1989
5
0.000
33.4
27.0
28.4
27.7
2250
80
64
15.3
99
0.797
0.0284
31.1
Percent of 2250 lb. SUVs:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \\N\I|NS|()\
i i i.i mi. i i.kim;
M Mlil'.K C)l \ \\ \ I.S
\ \ 1
in liuii)
1 RON 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \l
1 CM k
C \ 1
c;di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 wo
i iiki.i:
I C)I u
11\ i:
1982

100.0
100.0












1983

100.0
100.0












1984

100.0
100.0












1985

100.0
100.0












1986

100.0
100.0












1987

100.0
100.0












1988

100.0
100.0












1989

100.0
100.0












EPA-420-R-09-014
G-41
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-26
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2500 lb. SUVs
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ U
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
0 (ill
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1982
11
0.001
23.6
20.7
19.1
19.9
2500
151
84
13.7
106
0.556
0.0336
24.9
1983
13
0.001
23.2
20.4
18.7
19.6
2500
151
87
13.3
107
0.580
0.0350
24.5
1984
3
0.000
22.6
19.7
18.3
19.1
2500
150
93
12.6
110
0.620
0.0372
23.8
1989
39
0.003
31.3
25.3
26.8
26.0
2500
97
80
14.1
104
0.825
0.0320
32.6
1990
34
0.003
31.9
25.4
27.4
26.3
2500
94
78
14.3
103
0.827
0.0310
32.9
1991
15
0.001
31.2
24.8
26.7
25.7
2500
91
75
14.7
102
0.829
0.0300
32.2
1992
19
0.002
30.0
23.7
25.5
24.6
2500
94
77
14.4
103
0.827
0.0310
30.8
1993
19
0.001
29.4
23.0
25.0
24.0
2500
96
79
14.2
104
0.825
0.0317
30.0
1994
30
0.002
29.4
23.0
24.9
23.9
2500
95
79
14.3
104
0.829
0.0315
30.0
1995
20
0.001
29.7
22.8
25.4
24.0
2500
97
81
13.9
105
0.840
0.0325
30.1
1996
3
0.000
29.3
22.3
25.1
23.6
2500
97
95
12.3
111
0.979
0.0380
29.6
1997
4
0.000
28.4
21.6
23.9
22.8
2500
97
95
12.4
111
0.979
0.0380
28.5
1998
6
0.000
28.5
21.5
23.9
22.7
2500
97
95
12.3
111
0.979
0.0380
28.4
Percent of 2500 lb. SUVs:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \\N\I|NS|()\
i i i i mi. i i.kim;
M Mlil'.K <>l \ \l \ l>
\ \ 1
in hum)
1 l«)\ 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \l
1 C>( K
( \ 1
<;i>i
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
I OI u
11\ 1.
1982















1983















1984















1989

100.0
56.2
43.8



100.0







1990

95.5
100.0




100.0







1991

20.6
100.0




100.0







1992

11.5
75.8
24.2



100.0







1993

2.4
67.2
32.8


6.5
93.5







1994

11.0
60.4
39.6


7.4
92.6

97.7

2.3



1995

5.9
60.8
39.2


10.0
90.0

100.0





1996


66.6
33.4


100.0




100.0



1997


27.2
72.8


100.0




100.0



1998


52.5
47.5


100.0




100.0



EPA-420-R-09-014
G-42
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-27
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2750 lb. SUVs
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ w
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	1 Mi-
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Ali
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
47
0.005
16.8
13.5
15.5
14.3
2750
275
120
ll.4
119
0.429
0.0435
19.8
1976
41
0.003
17.8
14.7
15.5
15.1
2750
268
102
12.6
111
0.379
0.0371
20.8
1977
44
0.003
18.6
15.2
16.6
15.8
2750
271
103
12.4
112
0.381
0.0377
21.8
1978
58
0.004
18.1
14.8
16.2
15.4
2750
270
102
12.5
111
0.379
0.0373
21.2
1979
9
0.001
20.8
17.5
17.7
17.6
2750
121
80
15.4
102
0.661
0.0291
24.2
1986
0
0.000
25.6
20.0
24.2
21.7
2750
96
86
14.2
104
0.896
0.0313
29.8
1989
0
0.000
29.3
23.9
24.9
24.3
2750
97
80
15.4
102
0.825
0.0291
33.5
1990
14
0.001
28.7
23.2
24.4
23.7
2750
97
80
15.4
102
0.825
0.0291
32.6
1991
28
0.002
28.9
23.0
24.8
23.8
2750
97
80
15.2
102
0.825
0.0291
32.8
1992
27
0.002
29.0
22.8
24.8
23.8
2750
97
82
14.8
103
0.849
0.0300
32.7
1993
24
0.002
29.0
22.7
24.7
23.6
2750
97
81
15.0
102
0.836
0.0295
32.6
1994
41
0.003
28.6
22.3
24.3
23.3
2750
97
83
14.8
103
0.857
0.0302
32.0
1995
39
0.003
28.4
21.8
24.2
23.0
2750
97
95
13.3
108
0.979
0.0345
31.6
1996
44
0.003
28.5
21.6
24.5
23.0
2750
99
97
13.1
109
0.980
0.0353
31.7
1997
12
0.001
28.6
21.6
24.4
22.9
2750
100
98
13.0
110
0.980
0.0358
31.6
1998
9
0.001
28.5
21.5
23.9
22.7
2750
97
95
13.3
108
0.979
0.0345
31.2
1999
2
0.000
31.0
22.9
26.3
24.6
2750
97
97
12.9
109
1.001
0.0354
33.8
2000
1
0.000
31.1
22.8
26.3
24.6
2750
97
97
12.9
109
1.000
0.0353
33.8
2001
0
0.000
31.0
22.7
26.0
24.4
2750
122
97
12.9
109
0.795
0.0353
33.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-43
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-27 (cont.)
Percent of 2750 lb. SUVs:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in liuii)
1 l\( IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
Clll
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
1(11 u
i in i:
1975

100.0
100.0












1976

100.0
89.1












1977

100.0
92.5












1978

100.0
89.7












1979















1986

100.0
100.0












1989

100.0

100.0



100.0







1990

100.0

100.0



100.0







1991

100.0
56.7
43.3



100.0







1992

84.1
63.7
36.3


15.9
84.1







1993

92.9
60.6
39.4


21.8
78.2







1994

92.4
49.8
50.2


20.8
79.2

79.2

20.8



1995

97.2
46.1
53.9


100.0


100.0





1996
8.5
59.5
51.5
48.5


100.0




100.0



1997
13.6
81.0
48.4
51.6


100.0




100.0



1998

99.4
45.8
54.2


100.0




100.0



1999
1.4

100.0



100.0


95.9

4.1



2000


100.0



100.0


100.0





2001


100.0



100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
G-44
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-28
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 3000 lb. SUVs
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
0	(ill
1	1 Mi-
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1976
10
0.001
15.4
12.3
14.2
13.1
3000
304
120
ll.S
116
0.395
0.0400
19.7
1977
13
0.001
16.8
13.7
15.1
14.3
3000
304
120
11.8
116
0.395
0.0400
21.5
1978
20
0.001
16.8
13.5
15.3
14.2
3000
304
120
11.8
116
0.395
0.0400
21.4
1979
52
0.004
17.2
14.3
14.9
14.6
3000
258
120
11.7
116
0.465
0.0400
21.9
1980
43
0.004
19.7
16.0
17.6
16.7
3000
222
92
14.4
105
0.440
0.0307
25.3
1981
38
0.004
20.9
16.8
19.0
17.7
3000
223
101
13.5
108
0.469
0.0338
26.9
1982
26
0.003
20.3
16.0
19.2
17.3
3000
239
104
13.2
110
0.447
0.0348
26.2
1983
37
0.004
20.5
16.3
19.0
17.4
3000
250
110
12.6
112
0.444
0.0367
26.2
1984
70
0.005
22.7
18.3
20.6
19.3
3000
202
102
13.5
108
0.528
0.0339
29.1
1985
20
0.001
24.2
19.1
22.8
20.6
3000
152
97
14.0
107
0.639
0.0324
31.0
1986
5
0.000
24.0
19.2
21.7
20.3
3000
150
111
12.5
112
0.735
0.0369
30.7
1987
12
0.001
22.8
18.2
20.6
19.2
3000
150
117
12.0
115
0.780
0.0390
28.9
1988
8
0.001
22.8
18.1
20.4
19.1
3000
150
117
12.0
115
0.780
0.0390
28.8
1989
20
0.001
22.2
17.4
20.0
18.6
3000
150
117
12.0
115
0.780
0.0390
27.9
1990
29
0.002
23.4
18.4
20.6
19.4
3000
136
111
12.5
112
0.830
0.0370
29.4
1991
11
0.001
27.0
21.6
22.9
22.2
3000
99
87
15.3
102
0.876
0.0289
33.4
1992
29
0.002
23.7
18.5
20.8
19.5
3000
139
123
11.7
117
0.890
0.0409
29.6
1993
42
0.003
24.1
18.8
21.0
19.8
3000
135
120
11.9
116
0.899
0.0400
30.0
1994
58
0.004
23.8
18.4
20.5
19.4
3000
135
116
12.3
114
0.865
0.0387
29.4
1995
110
0.007
23.5
18.1
20.1
19.1
3000
138
116
12.4
114
0.847
0.0389
28.9
1996
78
0.006
28.2
20.9
25.2
22.9
3000
114
113
12.6
113
0.986
0.0376
34.5
1997
153
0.011
27.9
20.5
24.9
22.6
3000
127
124
11.7
117
0.980
0.0413
34.0
1998
53
0.004
28.9
21.1
25.5
23.2
3000
114
116
12.2
114
1.024
0.0389
34.9
1999
55
0.004
29.4
21.5
25.5
23.5
3000
122
125
11.5
118
1.024
0.0417
35.3
2000
46
0.003
29.3
21.2
25.4
23.3
3000
121
126
11.4
118
1.044
0.0421
35.0
2001
74
0.005
29.5
21.2
25.5
23.3
3000
122
138
10.6
123
1.135
0.0462
35.1
2002
69
0.004
30.3
21.3
26.6
24.0
3000
121
144
10.3
125
1.191
0.0480
36.0
2003
60
0.004
29.6
20.8
25.8
23.3
3000
122
141
10.5
124
1.158
0.0471
35.1
2004
40
0.003
30.7
21.4
26.7
24.1
3000
144
161
9.4
132
1.117
0.0537
36.2
2005
41
0.003
30.8
21.3
26.6
24.0
3000
144
161
9.4
132
1.118
0.0537
36.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-45
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-28 (cont.)
Percent of 3000 lb. SUVs:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\( IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1976

100.0
54.6












1977

100.0
70.2












1978

100.0
70.0












1979

100.0
88.6












1980

100.0
100.0












1981

100.0
90.6
8.7











1982

96.6
87.8
12.2











1983

100.0
90.1
9.9











1984

98.6
76.6
23.4











1985

73.2
62.9
37.1











1986

54.7
83.3
16.7



44.8







1987

87.3
98.4
1.6



100.0







1988

85.5
98.3
1.7



100.0







1989

97.0
99.6
0.4



100.0







1990

97.5
99.7
0.3


26.2
73.8







1991

96.5
71.5
28.5


38.3
61.7







1992

98.3
97.8
2.2


100.0








1993

92.3
86.7
13.3


100.0








1994

88.3
79.8
20.2


86.1
13.9

85.3

14.7



1995

95.1
80.7
19.3


80.1
19.9

100.0





1996
18.2
67.7
35.5
64.5


100.0


5.8

94.2



1997
18.7
36.7
39.9
45.8


100.0




100.0



1998
52.0
35.3
26.8
73.2


100.0




100.0



1999
50.1
31.2
32.5
67.5


100.0


39.8

60.2



2000
46.1
24.1
24.5
75.5


100.0


53.9

46.1



2001
54.6
10.5
21.4
78.6


100.0


45.4

54.6

54.6

2002
90.1
9.9
14.7
85.3


100.0


25.3

74.7

74.7

2003
89.4
10.6
12.6
87.4


100.0


32.3

67.7

67.7

2004
98.7

6.7
93.3


100.0




100.0

98.7

2005
99.1

6.2
93.8


100.0




100.0

99.1

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-46
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-29
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 3500 lb. SUVs
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
O (ill
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1976
0
0
14.3
11.4
13.3
12.2
3500
350
161
10.6
126
0.459
0.0459
21.3
1979
38
0.003
15.6
13
13.4
13.2
3500
304
122
13.1
112
0.402
0.0349
23.2
1980
12
0.001
16.3
13.1
14.8
13.8
3500
285
115
14.1
109
0.401
0.0329
24.3
1981
2
0
17.2
13.3
16.8
14.7
3500
304
130
12.5
115
0.428
0.0371
25.7
1982
0
0
16.6
14.6
13.4
14
3500
173
110
14.5
107
0.636
0.0314
24.5
1983
34
0.003
24.4
18.6
24.4
20.8
3500
169
108
14.5
107
0.643
0.0309
36.6
1984
218
0.016
21.7
17.1
20.6
18.5
3500
168
104
15.1
105
0.619
0.0297
32.5
1985
319
0.022
22.2
17.2
21.6
18.9
3500
167
104
15
105
0.63
0.0299
33.3
1986
373
0.024
21.9
17.1
20.6
18.5
3500
171
119
13.5
111
0.706
0.0342
32.6
1987
429
0.029
22.3
17.2
21.5
18.9
3500
191
134
12.5
116
0.71
0.0382
33.2
1988
413
0.027
21.4
16.2
20.7
18
3500
210
147
11.6
121
0.712
0.0421
31.7
1989
296
0.021
21.1
16
20.2
17.7
3500
236
157
11
124
0.673
0.0449
31.2
1990
216
0.017
21
15.7
20.3
17.6
3500
235
160
10.9
125
0.687
0.0456
30.9
1991
221
0.018
20.5
15.6
19.2
17.1
3500
219
156
11.3
124
0.714
0.0446
30.1
1992
195
0.016
20
15
18.8
16.6
3500
227
174
10.3
131
0.764
0.0499
29.3
1993
186
0.014
19.9
14.8
18.7
16.5
3500
228
177
10.2
131
0.772
0.0505
29
1994
180
0.013
20.2
14.9
19
16.7
3500
224
177
10
132
0.797
0.0507
29.4
1995
153
0.01
19.8
14.4
18.9
16.4
3500
233
184
9.7
134
0.793
0.0526
28.9
1996
210
0.016
20.4
14.8
19.4
16.8
3500
232
185
9.5
134
0.807
0.053
29.6
1997
330
0.023
22.6
16.7
20.3
18.4
3500
176
150
11.5
122
0.881
0.0429
32.6
1998
364
0.025
24
17.6
21.4
19.4
3500
161
148
11.6
121
0.951
0.0422
34.6
1999
342
0.022
25.3
18.5
22.3
20.4
3500
142
147
11.5
121
1.058
0.042
36
2000
421
0.025
24
17.4
21.2
19.3
3500
157
152
11.3
123
1.019
0.0436
34.2
2001
652
0.042
24.7
17.6
22.1
19.8
3500
155
164
10.6
127
1.08
0.047
35
2002
578
0.036
25.8
18.2
23.1
20.6
3500
155
169
10.4
128
1.094
0.0482
36.4
2003
634
0.04
26.2
18.2
23.7
20.9
3500
156
168
10.4
128
1.082
0.0481
36.8
2004
497
0.032
26.5
18.3
23.8
21
3500
156
171
10.2
129
1.098
0.0488
37
2005
520
0.033
27
18.7
23.8
21.3
3500
153
166
10.4
128
1.093
0.0476
37.5
2006
463
0.031
28.2
19.4
24.8
22.2
3500
147
162
10.6
126
1.106
0.0464
38.9
2007
429
0.028
28.9
20
25.3
22.7
3500
145
162
10.7
126
1.12
0.0464
39.9
2008
521
0.038
29.1
20
25.5
22.8
3500
148
168
10.3
128
1.137
0.0481
40.1
2009
485
0.03
29.9
20.5
26.3
23.5
3500
146
172
10.1
130
1.175
0.0492
41.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-47
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-29 (cont.)
Percent of 3500 lb. SUVs:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1976


15.6












1979

100.0
78.6












1980

100.0
44.2












1981

100.0
76.8
23.2











1982



100.0











1983

38.3
57.3
42.7











1984

79.1
33.2
31.9











1985

74.2
42.4
57.2


6.0
3.5
0.4






1986

84.8
49.6
49.3


29.5
22.3
0.1






1987

78.3
46.0
48.4


57.0
19.7
0.0






1988

73.8
33.9
62.3


74.2
13.9







1989

63.8
26.9
69.6


66.6
19.8







1990

73.6
27.6
69.1


77.2
9.0







1991

62.7
28.9
68.0


71.7
27.5







1992

61.0
24.4
72.4


84.4
14.1







1993

58.3
25.4
70.4


85.9
12.4







1994

58.5
26.9
59.1


99.3
0.7

100.0





1995
0.2
77.8
25.8
74.2


100.0


96.6

3.4



1996

70.1
12.7
87.3


100.0


87.3

12.7



1997

87.0
43.9
56.1


100.0


54.1

45.9



1998
5.3
76.0
37.5
62.5


100.0


35.7

64.3



1999
7.4
75.3
24.9
75.1


100.0


20.5

79.5



2000
6.2
79.2
14.5
85.5


100.0


36.0

64.0



2001
18.7
66.1
10.4
89.6


100.0


20.7

79.3

7.1

2002
25.1
68.0
10.7
88.8
0.5

100.0


8.0

92.0

31.5

2003
37.4
61.6
8.7
84.9
6.4

100.0


4.5

95.5

31.4

2004
31.8
66.4
10.6
85.8
3.5

100.0




100.0

46.4

2005
49.5
49.6
13.3
86.3
0.3

100.0


4.1

95.9

39.3

2006
59.9
39.9
8.5
91.5


100.0




100.0

50.0

2007
76.7
23.2
5.8
75.2
19.0

100.0




100.0

70.5
1.7
2008
80.6
19.4
3.3
72.5
24.1

100.0




100.0

63.4

2009
74.0
23.0
9.6
62.5
27.9

100.0




100.0

70.8

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-48
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-30
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 4000 lb. SUVs
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
O (ill
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
26
0.003
13.2
10.4
12.4
11.2
4000
315
132
14.1
111
0.419
0.0329
22.6
1976
35
0.003
13.3
10.4
12.6
11.3
4000
324
137
13.6
113
0.426
0.0344
23.1
1977
48
0.003
14.5
11.5
13.6
12.4
4000
321
139
13.5
113
0.435
0.0347
25.1
1978
56
0.004
14.2
11.2
13.4
12.1
4000
332
139
13.3
113
0.423
0.0348
24.5
1979
13
0.001
14.4
11.6
13.0
12.2
4000
248
110
16.2
104
0.440
0.0275
24.8
1980
7
0.001
16.0
13.0
14.4
13.6
4000
250
100
17.3
101
0.402
0.0251
27.4
1981
7
0.001
16.9
13.4
15.7
14.4
4000
260
113
15.7
105
0.434
0.0282
28.8
1982
8
0.001
19.4
15.3
18.2
16.5
4000
257
111
15.9
104
0.431
0.0277
33.4
1983
67
0.007
21.9
16.7
21.8
18.7
4000
175
110
16.0
104
0.631
0.0275
37.4
1984
122
0.009
21.8
16.6
22.0
18.6
4000
177
110
16.0
104
0.626
0.0275
37.4
1985
173
0.012
22.0
16.6
22.6
18.8
4000
173
110
16.0
104
0.636
0.0275
37.7
1986
154
0.010
21.1
16.2
20.6
17.9
4000
165
121
14.8
108
0.738
0.0304
36.4
1987
184
0.012
20.4
15.5
20.0
17.3
4000
172
127
14.3
109
0.737
0.0317
34.7
1988
259
0.017
20.8
15.9
19.8
17.6
4000
190
135
13.7
112
0.723
0.0337
35.3
1989
348
0.024
21.2
16.2
20.0
17.8
4000
213
146
12.8
116
0.703
0.0366
35.7
1990
202
0.016
20.5
15.7
19.2
17.2
4000
196
141
13.1
114
0.738
0.0353
34.5
1991
463
0.037
20.9
15.7
20.0
17.5
4000
231
155
12.3
119
0.681
0.0388
35.1
1992
371
0.030
20.4
15.1
19.7
17.1
4000
232
165
11.8
122
0.713
0.0412
34.3
1993
576
0.044
20.5
15.0
19.9
17.1
4000
250
189
10.5
130
0.761
0.0472
34.4
1994
565
0.040
19.7
14.5
18.7
16.3
4000
241
184
10.7
128
0.774
0.0459
32.9
1995
575
0.038
19.5
14.3
18.5
16.1
4000
237
183
10.8
128
0.784
0.0457
32.4
1996
537
0.041
19.9
14.5
18.9
16.4
4000
249
187
10.5
129
0.765
0.0469
33.1
1997
617
0.043
20.2
14.7
18.9
16.6
4000
239
188
10.5
129
0.799
0.0470
33.4
1998
841
0.058
20.7
14.8
19.5
17.0
4000
238
185
10.7
129
0.790
0.0463
34.0
1999
964
0.063
21.2
15.2
19.6
17.3
4000
226
188
10.5
130
0.850
0.0470
34.7
2000
944
0.057
21.1
15.1
19.4
17.1
4000
226
186
10.6
129
0.841
0.0466
34.4
2001
936
0.060
21.7
15.3
19.9
17.5
4000
217
194
10.3
132
0.917
0.0486
35.3
2002
884
0.055
21.9
15.5
20.0
17.7
4000
204
193
10.3
131
0.965
0.0483
35.7
2003
875
0.055
22.9
16.0
20.8
18.4
4000
201
198
10.2
133
0.997
0.0494
37.0
2004
1177
0.075
23.0
15.7
21.3
18.5
4000
212
203
10.0
134
0.969
0.0508
37.2
2005
1059
0.067
23.9
16.4
21.8
19.1
4000
197
199
10.1
133
1.019
0.0498
38.5
2006
986
0.065
24.1
16.5
22.0
19.2
4000
196
198
10.1
133
1.021
0.0495
39.0
2007
1173
0.077
25.4
17.4
23.0
20.2
4000
186
207
9.8
136
1.134
0.0517
40.7
2008
1016
0.073
26.4
18.1
23.7
20.9
4000
178
199
10.1
133
1.134
0.0498
42.3
2009
1213
0.076
26.5
18.0
24.1
21.0
4000
179
204
10.0
135
1.156
0.0510
42.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-49
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-30 (cont.)
Percent of 4000 lb. SUVs:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
l'< IK 1
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975

60.2
43.9












1976

68.4
41.6












1977

61.1
48.1












1978

71.0
45.1












1979

50.4
94.0
4.7











1980

94.9
66.3
4.4











1981

97.1
32.7
67.3











1982

90.9
30.7
69.3











1983

100.0
28.9
71.1











1984

95.4
21.9
73.5











1985

100.0
17.9
82.1











1986

100.0
31.9
68.1


23.4
73.4
3.2






1987

100.0
19.9
80.1


5.4
94.6
0.0






1988

100.0
32.8
67.2


33.2
66.8







1989

99.0
30.4
66.9


43.8
56.2







1990

95.8
41.0
58.5


65.6
34.4







1991

71.0
20.9
79.0


42.5
57.5







1992

58.4
20.3
79.7


64.7
35.3







1993

33.5
10.4
89.6


99.2
0.8







1994
1.5
60.9
15.8
84.2


99.5
0.5

80.2
3.0
16.9



1995

66.7
14.1
85.9


100.0


77.2

22.8



1996

64.0
6.9
93.1


100.0


86.0

14.0



1997

61.0
8.5
91.5


100.0


69.6

30.4



1998

52.9
4.8
95.2


100.0


74.9

25.1



1999
2.3
53.4
7.0
93.0


100.0


67.1

32.9

9.5

2000
3.3
39.5
7.5
92.5


100.0


69.5

30.5

9.5

2001
15.9
39.2
5.0
95.0


100.0


60.9

39.1

20.5

2002
21.2
40.5
6.4
93.6


100.0


42.0

58.0

22.6

2003
20.8
52.7
6.1
87.6
6.2

100.0


41.4

58.6

36.1

2004
29.8
49.4
5.4
89.1
5.5

100.0


51.0

49.0

29.2

2005
37.0
58.6
2.1
90.0
7.9

100.0


41.7

58.3

26.7
1.0
2006
38.4
56.1
4.3
88.7
6.9

100.0


30.7

69.3

31.8
2.1
2007
38.5
54.4
2.4
91.6
6.0

100.0


26.5

73.5

53.8
1.2
2008
34.0
59.7
2.1
90.7
7.2
3.3
96.7


18.7

81.3

62.3
3.6
2009
46.1
47.7
2.2
89.2
8.6
4.4
95.6


22.1

77.9

64.2
1.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-50
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-31
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 4500 lb. SUVs
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
O (ill
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
41
0.004
13.5
10.7
12.6
11.5
4500
351
157
13.4
115
0.446
0.0348
26.0
1976
47
0.004
13.9
11.0
13.0
11.8
4500
349
150
14.0
113
0.430
0.0333
26.8
1977
101
0.007
15.4
12.3
14.2
13.1
4500
345
150
13.8
113
0.436
0.0334
29.6
1978
119
0.008
14.7
11.7
13.6
12.5
4500
343
157
13.3
115
0.459
0.0350
28.2
1979
56
0.004
12.9
10.4
11.7
10.9
4500
334
140
14.6
110
0.420
0.0311
24.8
1980
50
0.004
14.5
11.7
13.1
12.3
4500
313
138
14.8
110
0.446
0.0308
28.4
1981
42
0.004
15.8
12.5
14.7
13.4
4500
317
137
14.8
109
0.435
0.0304
30.5
1982
50
0.005
15.7
12.4
14.6
13.3
4500
316
139
14.6
110
0.443
0.0309
30.3
1983
55
0.005
15.7
12.5
14.6
13.3
4500
317
135
14.9
109
0.430
0.0301
30.4
1984
61
0.004
14.8
11.8
13.7
12.6
4500
320
134
15.0
108
0.420
0.0298
28.7
1985
60
0.004
15.0
12.0
13.9
12.8
4500
321
145
14.1
112
0.456
0.0323
29.2
1986
46
0.003
15.6
12.3
14.6
13.2
4500
325
142
14.4
111
0.438
0.0315
30.3
1987
32
0.002
14.6
11.4
13.7
12.4
4500
325
144
14.2
111
0.450
0.0320
28.2
1988
34
0.002
15.0
11.8
13.8
12.7
4500
311
147
14.0
112
0.494
0.0328
28.8
1989
31
0.002
14.9
11.6
13.8
12.5
4500
311
151
13.8
113
0.505
0.0335
28.4
1990
58
0.005
17.5
13.4
16.5
14.7
4500
221
153
13.6
114
0.740
0.0341
33.6
1991
262
0.021
19.8
14.7
19.1
16.6
4500
227
167
12.6
118
0.742
0.0371
37.4
1992
260
0.021
19.4
14.6
18.4
16.2
4500
220
167
12.6
118
0.764
0.0372
36.6
1993
298
0.023
19.7
14.6
18.6
16.4
4500
217
167
12.6
118
0.778
0.0372
36.9
1994
546
0.039
19.9
14.7
19.0
16.6
4500
229
177
12.1
121
0.776
0.0393
37.4
1995
645
0.043
19.9
14.5
18.9
16.5
4500
233
174
12.3
120
0.754
0.0386
37.4
1996
736
0.056
20.2
14.5
19.5
16.7
4500
251
176
12.2
121
0.708
0.0391
37.7
1997
832
0.058
19.8
14.3
18.8
16.3
4500
252
181
11.9
123
0.724
0.0402
36.9
1998
719
0.050
20.1
14.4
19.1
16.5
4500
251
184
11.8
124
0.745
0.0410
37.3
1999
746
0.049
19.7
14.1
18.4
16.1
4500
259
199
11.1
128
0.777
0.0442
36.3
2000
904
0.055
19.9
14.1
18.6
16.2
4500
254
196
11.2
127
0.783
0.0437
36.6
2001
1006
0.064
20.4
14.4
19.0
16.6
4500
237
207
10.7
130
0.886
0.0460
37.5
2002
1525
0.095
19.9
14.0
18.6
16.2
4500
243
225
10.1
136
0.931
0.0501
36.5
2003
939
0.060
20.7
14.4
19.3
16.8
4500
237
227
10.0
137
0.969
0.0506
37.9
2004
1197
0.076
21.3
14.7
19.8
17.2
4500
234
230
9.9
138
0.997
0.0512
38.8
2005
976
0.061
21.6
14.7
20.0
17.3
4500
227
237
9.6
140
1.051
0.0527
39.2
2006
924
0.061
22.7
15.6
20.7
18.1
4500
223
234
9.4
139
1.055
0.0520
41.3
2007
1189
0.078
22.6
15.5
20.7
18.1
4500
224
243
9.3
142
1.091
0.0541
41.0
2008
1176
0.085
23.1
15.7
21.3
18.5
4500
221
247
9.3
143
1.121
0.0549
41.8
2009
1814
0.113
23.3
15.8
21.7
18.7
4500
221
250
9.2
143
1.133
0.0555
42.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-51
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-31 (cont.)
Percent of 4500 lb. SUVs:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975

56.9
12.0












1976

57.7
12.5












1977

74.2
13.7












1978

81.5
13.3












1979

84.3
11.2





1.3






1980

92.3
25.0
12.8




8.6






1981

94.4
31.1
41.3











1982

89.6
28.2
31.6











1983

98.0
22.8
39.5











1984

93.0
29.0
1.9











1985

72.2
23.2












1986

80.7
14.0
32.4


22.5








1987

70.4
16.4
22.7


7.0








1988

76.8
1.6
45.1


31.5
21.5







1989

74.0
1.9
47.3


34.2
26.0







1990

91.6
2.2
77.7


79.9
8.4







1991

99.3
14.6
83.3


97.9
0.7







1992

99.7
15.3
84.7


100.0








1993

99.7
13.1
86.9


100.0








1994

100.0
8.1
91.9


100.0


88.1
9.6
2.3



1995

90.4
5.7
94.3


100.0


78.5

21.5



1996

74.7
3.2
96.8


100.0


90.6

9.4



1997

79.0
2.5
97.5


100.0


92.5

7.5



1998

89.8
1.6
98.4


100.0


90.2
5.5
4.4



1999

91.2
0.9
99.1


100.0


90.1

9.9



2000

91.6
1.7
98.3


100.0


87.4

12.6



2001
16.4
71.8
1.6
98.4


100.0


71.2

28.8

15.1

2002

73.4
0.8
99.1


100.0


64.1

35.9

25.7

2003
0.0
67.6
0.4
99.6


100.0


47.9

52.1

40.2

2004
2.5
74.3
0.6
99.4


100.0


40.0

60.0

38.7

2005
0.9
67.3
0.9
99.1


99.1

0.9
28.6

71.4

63.7

2006
8.1
60.4
1.1
87.0
11.9

99.3

0.7
17.8

82.2

74.1
8.6
2007
14.2
66.8
2.4
91.1
6.4

100.0

0.0
19.0

81.0

58.8
3.3
2008
18.6
67.1
1.7
96.1
2.2

100.0

0.0
21.0

79.0

57.6
2.2
2009
26.8
58.6
1.4
94.2
4.7

99.2


14.2

85.8

61.3
0.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-52
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-32
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 5000 lb. SUVs



i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
O (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1975
67
0.007
11.1
9.4
9.4
9.4
5000
347
157
14.4
112
0.453
0.0315
23.6
1976
101
0.008
12.8
10.5
11.5
10.9
5000
357
151
15.0
110
0.421
0.0301
27.3
1977
66
0.005
13.6
11.2
12.0
11.5
5000
350
160
14.4
113
0.457
0.0320
29.0
1978
114
0.008
13.0
10.5
11.7
11.0
5000
370
168
13.7
115
0.454
0.0336
27.6
1979
172
0.012
11.4
9.5
9.9
9.6
5000
351
152
15.2
110
0.433
0.0303
24.2
1980
60
0.005
14.0
11.2
12.9
11.9
5000
343
159
14.3
112
0.463
0.0317
30.0
1981
43
0.004
15.3
12.2
14.1
13.0
5000
328
154
14.7
111
0.473
0.0309
32.9
1982
37
0.004
15.1
12.0
14.1
12.9
5000
330
156
14.6
112
0.476
0.0311
32.8
1983
54
0.005
15.7
12.3
15.0
13.4
5000
328
157
14.5
112
0.482
0.0315
34.1
1984
121
0.009
15.3
12.0
14.6
13.0
5000
330
163
14.1
114
0.497
0.0327
33.2
1985
133
0.009
15.7
12.3
15.0
13.4
5000
330
168
13.7
115
0.510
0.0337
33.9
1986
135
0.009
16.4
12.7
15.8
14.0
5000
324
163
14.1
114
0.503
0.0326
35.1
1987
97
0.007
15.7
12.2
14.9
13.3
5000
326
175
13.5
117
0.535
0.0350
33.7
1988
101
0.007
16.1
12.4
15.3
13.6
5000
330
181
13.2
119
0.545
0.0362
34.2
1989
112
0.008
15.9
12.2
15.2
13.4
5000
328
178
13.3
118
0.540
0.0357
33.9
1990
83
0.007
16.0
11.9
15.7
13.5
5000
331
184
12.9
120
0.553
0.0369
33.9
1991
51
0.004
15.8
11.8
15.3
13.3
5000
312
188
12.7
121
0.604
0.0375
33.3
1992
36
0.003
15.7
11.6
15.2
13.1
5000
292
174
13.5
117
0.622
0.0348
33.0
1993
46
0.003
16.1
11.9
15.5
13.5
5000
313
200
11.9
124
0.646
0.0400
33.8
1994
51
0.004
16.5
12.2
15.7
13.7
5000
310
202
11.8
125
0.659
0.0404
34.4
1995
70
0.005
17.0
12.4
16.3
14.1
5000
322
199
12.0
124
0.625
0.0398
35.4
1996
82
0.006
17.0
12.4
16.1
14.1
5000
318
216
11.3
129
0.685
0.0431
35.3
1997
119
0.008
18.0
13.0
17.1
14.8
5000
308
226
10.8
132
0.738
0.0453
37.3
1998
265
0.018
17.3
12.4
16.7
14.3
5000
317
223
10.9
131
0.705
0.0446
35.9
1999
356
0.023
17.4
12.4
16.6
14.3
5000
307
234
10.6
134
0.779
0.0468
36.0
2000
254
0.015
17.6
12.4
16.8
14.5
5000
295
229
10.7
132
0.784
0.0459
36.4
2001
160
0.010
17.1
12.0
16.4
14.0
5000
282
233
10.6
134
0.847
0.0467
35.2
2002
404
0.025
18.9
13.2
17.8
15.4
5000
255
244
10.2
137
0.976
0.0489
38.6
2003
638
0.040
19.3
13.4
18.2
15.7
5000
259
256
9.8
140
1.002
0.0513
39.3
2004
683
0.044
19.6
13.4
18.5
15.9
5000
263
264
9.6
142
1.025
0.0529
39.8
2005
634
0.040
19.5
13.3
18.4
15.8
5000
259
261
9.7
141
1.028
0.0522
39.6
2006
826
0.055
20.0
13.7
18.8
16.2
5000
251
255
9.9
140
1.026
0.0510
40.5
2007
594
0.039
20.4
13.9
19.2
16.5
5000
249
259
9.8
141
1.053
0.0518
41.5
2008
699
0.050
21.4
14.5
20.1
17.2
5000
240
260
9.6
141
1.096
0.0519
43.7
2009
943
0.059
21.9
14.9
20.6
17.7
5000
244
274
9.2
145
1.139
0.0547
44.7
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-53
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-32 (cont.)
Percent of 5000 lb. SUVs:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
l'< IK 1
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975

98.7
19.5












1976

97.9
18.9












1977

96.4
21.0












1978

97.3
19.7












1979

68.1
14.7
0.9











1980

78.4
18.9
55.3











1981

75.3
7.8
62.7











1982

79.2
8.9
51.5











1983

72.6
5.7
66.6











1984

76.2
6.5
55.5











1985

73.0
4.6
64.6


6.7








1986

72.8
4.9
76.8


21.1








1987

97.3
7.1
62.0


32.4
43.2







1988

99.1
6.3
59.4


54.9
42.9







1989

99.4
6.6
63.0


59.4
40.6







1990

100.0
4.8
86.4


63.3
36.7







1991

100.0
3.1
91.6


70.6
29.4







1992

99.9
4.7
94.1


97.4
2.6







1993

100.0
4.4
95.6


98.6
1.4







1994

100.0
3.4
96.6


98.5
1.5

68.5

31.5



1995

75.9
2.3
97.7


75.2
24.8

87.3

12.7



1996

72.0
2.6
97.4


100.0


77.5

22.5



1997

26.2

100.0


100.0


79.4

20.6



1998

58.8

100.0


100.0


100.0





1999

54.4

100.0


100.0


85.4
14.6




2000

68.0

100.0


100.0


97.8

2.2

2.2

2001

97.1
0.3
99.7


100.0


79.7

20.3

20.3

2002

88.4
4.5
95.5


100.0


37.5
10.8
51.7

45.2

2003

86.9
0.1
99.9


100.0


28.5
4.1
67.4

56.1

2004

79.3
0.2
99.8


100.0


26.5

73.5

58.7

2005

82.8
0.1
99.9


100.0


29.3
3.1
67.6

62.4

2006
0.9
83.7
0.4
99.6


100.0


34.9
11.3
53.8

63.5

2007
7.9
81.4
0.3
99.7


99.0

1.0
41.3
4.4
54.4

57.9

2008
17.0
71.5
0.1
96.4
3.5

98.4

1.1
30.4
2.3
67.3

65.9
3.5
2009
18.0
70.0
0.4
96.8
2.8
12.5
87.0

0.6
22.4
1.6
76.0

80.3
2.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-54
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-33
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 5500 lb. SUVs
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
O (ill
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
6
0.001
10.5
8.5
9.6
8.9
5500
429
210
12.5
123
0.488
0.0381
24.7
1976
7
0.001
11.2
9.1
10.2
9.6
5500
412
197
13.3
120
0.475
0.0359
26.4
1977
10
0.001
11.7
9.4
10.7
10.0
5500
419
193
13.4
119
0.459
0.0351
27.6
1978
12
0.001
11.8
9.6
10.6
10.1
5500
410
188
13.5
117
0.461
0.0343
27.7
1979
59
0.004
10.6
8.9
9.1
9.0
5500
405
176
14.5
114
0.432
0.0320
24.9
1980
6
0.000
13.8
11.0
12.9
11.7
5500
350
165
15.0
111
0.471
0.0300
32.3
1981
3
0.000
14.1
11.4
12.9
12.0
5500
350
175
14.3
114
0.500
0.0318
33.0
1982
23
0.002
21.2
16.5
20.4
18.0
5500
350
134
17.8
103
0.382
0.0243
50.5
1983
20
0.002
20.2
15.6
19.8
17.3
5500
372
139
17.4
104
0.375
0.0252
48.9
1984
21
0.001
17.9
13.9
17.4
15.3
5500
364
148
16.6
107
0.408
0.0269
43.6
1985
18
0.001
16.1
12.3
16.0
13.7
5500
355
159
15.5
110
0.450
0.0289
38.3
1986
18
0.001
15.7
11.9
15.6
13.4
5500
353
162
15.3
110
0.459
0.0294
37.1
1987
52
0.004
16.8
12.8
16.4
14.3
5500
350
209
12.5
123
0.596
0.0379
39.3
1988
65
0.004
16.5
12.5
16.1
14.0
5500
350
200
12.9
121
0.572
0.0364
38.6
1989
41
0.003
17.5
12.9
17.8
14.8
5500
350
209
12.4
123
0.596
0.0380
40.9
1990
41
0.003
17.3
12.7
17.6
14.7
5500
350
209
12.4
123
0.597
0.0380
40.3
1991
25
0.002
17.2
12.6
17.2
14.5
5500
350
209
12.4
123
0.597
0.0380
39.9
1992
45
0.004
16.3
12.1
15.8
13.7
5500
350
210
12.4
123
0.600
0.0382
37.6
1993
71
0.005
16.8
12.4
16.3
14.1
5500
350
210
12.4
123
0.600
0.0382
38.7
1994
92
0.007
16.8
12.4
16.1
14.0
5500
351
209
12.4
123
0.598
0.0381
38.5
1995
142
0.009
16.9
12.4
16.0
14.0
5500
350
205
12.6
122
0.586
0.0373
38.5
1996
141
0.011
17.4
12.7
16.6
14.4
5500
350
250
10.7
134
0.714
0.0455
39.7
1997
307
0.021
17.4
12.5
16.7
14.4
5500
334
238
11.2
131
0.713
0.0432
39.6
1998
273
0.019
17.0
12.1
16.3
14.0
5500
327
234
11.3
130
0.720
0.0426
38.6
1999
199
0.013
17.5
12.3
17.0
14.4
5500
333
252
10.7
134
0.759
0.0459
39.7
2000
302
0.018
18.2
13.0
17.1
14.9
5500
306
253
10.7
135
0.841
0.0460
41.1
2001
402
0.026
18.5
13.3
16.7
15.0
5500
306
259
10.5
136
0.857
0.0472
41.3
2002
278
0.017
18.4
12.9
17.3
15.0
5500
310
267
10.2
138
0.862
0.0486
41.2
2003
317
0.020
18.3
12.8
16.9
14.8
5500
297
258
10.5
136
0.867
0.0469
40.8
2004
483
0.031
18.4
12.8
17.0
14.9
5500
302
280
10.0
142
0.933
0.0509
41.0
2005
365
0.023
18.6
12.8
17.2
15.0
5500
296
287
9.7
144
0.978
0.0522
41.3
2006
231
0.015
18.7
12.9
17.4
15.1
5500
303
289
9.7
144
0.959
0.0526
41.6
2007
165
0.011
19.0
13.1
17.5
15.3
5500
290
305
9.3
148
1.058
0.0554
42.2
2008
92
0.007
19.4
13.3
18.3
15.7
5500
283
327
8.7
154
1.175
0.0595
43.4
2009
193
0.012
20.4
13.8
19.3
16.5
5500
298
322
00
00
153
1.101
0.0586
45.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-55
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-33 (cont.)
Percent of 5500 lb. SUVs:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
l'< IK 1
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
111 mi-
Mil K
i in i:
1975

84.6
15.4












1976

72.3
9.9












1977

77.0
8.8












1978

79.0
8.2












1979

26.5
21.0












1980

84.1

100.0











1981

100.0
6.8
93.2











1982

66.8
10.8
89.2




89.3






1983

68.3
1.3
98.7




75.1






1984

74.8
2.3
97.7




49.3






1985

100.0
2.8
97.2




16.9






1986

100.0
1.9
98.1




9.6






1987

37.9
0.2
99.8



98.4
1.6






1988

40.7
0.2
99.8



98.8
1.2






1989

2.2

100.0



98.6
1.4






1990

1.0

100.0



98.9
1.1






1991

1.3

100.0



98.6
1.4






1992

46.2

100.0



100.0







1993

35.6

100.0



100.0







1994

39.3

100.0


1.5
98.5

100.0





1995

66.5

100.0



100.0

100.0





1996

74.9

100.0


100.0

0.0
100.0





1997

85.1

100.0


100.0


100.0





1998

85.1

100.0


100.0


96.6

3.4



1999

14.8

100.0


100.0


95.7

4.3



2000

40.6

100.0


100.0


84.2
ll.s
4.0



2001

45.7

100.0


100.0


76.3
10.0
13.7



2002

19.9

100.0


100.0


71.2

28.8



2003

20.0

100.0


100.0


75.3
2.7
22.0



2004

47.7

100.0


100.0


52.8
3.8
39.8
3.7
30.3

2005

56.9

100.0


100.0


53.6

44.3
2.0
39.0

2006

62.1

100.0


100.0


56.5

41.9
1.6
43.5

2007

84.3

100.0


100.0


38.9

61.1

38.1

2008

94.1
0.1
99.9

43.7
56.3


39.6

60.4

55.8

2009

63.2
0.2
99.8

20.4
79.3

0.3
64.7
2.1
32.5

51.7

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-56
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-34
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 6000 lb. SUVs



i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
O (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1975
0
0.000
10.3
8.3
9.3
8.7
6000
400
170
15.7
110
0.425
0.0283
26.2
1976
1
0.000
11.9
9.5
11.0
10.1
6000
400
170
15.6
110
0.426
0.0284
30.4
1977
1
0.000
11.9
9.5
11.0
10.1
6000
400
180
15.0
113
0.450
0.0300
30.4
1978
1
0.000
11.4
9.2
10.2
9.7
6000
400
180
15.0
112
0.449
0.0300
29.0
1980
3
0.000
13.4
10.3
13.2
11.4
6000
350
165
16.1
109
0.470
0.0274
34.2
1982
4
0.000
21.2
16.5
20.5
18.1
6000
350
130
19.5
100
0.371
0.0217
54.2
1983
4
0.000
20.8
16.0
20.4
17.7
6000
379
130
19.5
100
0.343
0.0217
53.2
1984
4
0.000
21.0
16.1
20.8
17.9
6000
379
130
19.5
100
0.343
0.0217
53.8
1985
7
0.000
21.4
16.2
21.7
18.3
6000
378
131
19.4
100
0.348
0.0219
55.3
1986
5
0.000
22.1
16.7
22.1
18.8
6000
379
130
19.5
100
0.343
0.0217
56.5
1987
3
0.000
20.9
15.9
20.5
17.8
6000
376
137
18.9
102
0.366
0.0229
54.1
1988
3
0.000
18.3
13.9
17.8
15.5
6000
368
162
16.9
108
0.445
0.0270
47.9
1989
32
0.002
15.8
11.9
15.4
13.3
6000
351
206
13.6
119
0.586
0.0343
40.2
1990
32
0.003
16.0
12.0
15.6
13.5
6000
351
206
13.5
119
0.588
0.0344
40.6
1991
18
0.001
15.7
11.7
15.2
13.2
6000
351
207
13.5
119
0.591
0.0345
39.7
1992
21
0.002
14.9
10.9
14.7
12.5
6000
350
210
13.3
120
0.600
0.0350
37.5
1993
49
0.004
15.8
11.6
15.3
13.2
6000
350
210
13.3
120
0.600
0.0350
39.6
1994
60
0.004
16.1
12.0
15.0
13.3
6000
350
210
13.3
120
0.600
0.0350
40.0
1995
61
0.004
15.7
11.6
14.9
13.1
6000
350
210
13.3
120
0.599
0.0350
39.2
1996
58
0.004
16.8
12.1
16.3
13.9
6000
350
250
11.5
130
0.713
0.0416
41.8
1997
74
0.005
16.7
12.0
15.9
13.8
6000
350
250
11.5
130
0.713
0.0416
41.4
1998
50
0.003
16.1
11.5
15.7
13.4
6000
323
230
12.3
125
0.715
0.0383
40.1
1999
166
0.011
16.5
11.7
16.1
13.6
6000
319
237
12.1
127
0.747
0.0395
41.0
2000
269
0.016
16.6
11.9
15.5
13.6
6000
325
257
11.3
132
0.795
0.0429
40.8
2001
219
0.014
16.8
12.0
15.4
13.6
6000
326
274
10.7
136
0.842
0.0457
41.0
2002
453
0.028
17.7
12.4
16.6
14.4
6000
332
294
10.2
141
0.885
0.0491
43.5
2003
654
0.041
17.4
12.1
16.4
14.2
6000
328
279
10.6
137
0.851
0.0465
42.7
2004
634
0.040
17.4
12.1
16.2
14.1
6000
330
287
10.4
139
0.869
0.0479
42.4
2005
490
0.031
18.2
12.5
16.9
14.7
6000
330
302
9.9
143
0.917
0.0504
44.2
2006
327
0.022
18.1
12.4
16.9
14.6
6000
318
306
9.8
144
0.973
0.0510
43.9
2007
681
0.045
19.8
13.3
19.0
16.0
6000
329
322
9.5
148
0.979
0.0537
48.3
2008
442
0.032
19.5
13.2
18.7
15.8
6000
324
333
9.2
151
1.031
0.0554
47.7
2009
451
0.028
19.8
13.3
19.0
16.1
6000
326
331
9.1
150
1.019
0.0552
48.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-57
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-34 (cont.)
Percent of 6000 lb. SUVs:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OKI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975

100.0
12.7












1976

100.0
12.8












1977

100.0
11.6












1978

100.0
15.5












1980

3.4

100.0











1982

100.0

100.0




100.0






1983

100.0

100.0




100.0






1984

100.0

100.0




100.0






1985

47.3

100.0




95.9






1986

49.0

100.0




100.0






1987

56.8
9.1
90.9



9.1
90.9






1988

70.0
7.3
92.7



37.7
62.3






1989

97.2
1.0
99.0



94.6
5.4






1990

97.5
0.7
99.3



95.2
4.8






1991

96.2

100.0



96.1
3.9






1992

100.0

100.0



100.0







1993

100.0

100.0



100.0







1994

100.0

100.0



100.0

100.0





1995

100.0

100.0


1.0
99.0

100.0





1996

100.0

100.0


99.5

0.5
100.0





1997

100.0

100.0


99.6

0.4
100.0





1998

100.0

100.0


99.7

0.3
87.0

13.0



1999

100.0

100.0


100.0


70.2

29.8



2000

100.0

100.0


100.0


86.4

13.6



2001

93.4

100.0


100.0


77.0

23.0



2002

84.5

100.0


100.0


92.7

7.3



2003

75.1

100.0


100.0


92.2

7.7

2.1

2004

78.2

100.0


99.9

0.1
86.6

13.1

7.3

2005

76.6

100.0


100.0


63.4
24.1
12.5

34.9

2006

77.2

100.0


99.8

0.2
36.9
32.1
31.0

63.0

2007

56.7

100.0


99.7

0.3
85.2
5.4
9.4

28.9

2008

57.2

98.2
1.8

97.9

1.2
62.7
8.3
29.1

41.8
1.8
2009

53.4

97.9
2.1
i.i
97.9

1.0
65.5
2.2
32.3

37.1
2.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-58
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-35
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 6500 lb. SUVs



i i i.i i.c <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
NVI l>

1 Alt
VIM
VIM
VIM
\\ t; 111
i:m;im:
0 (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
llllllll
1 l\ VC
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I li
(id
III'
11 mi:
sl'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1991
1
0.000
20.2
14.7
20.4
17.0
6500
379
140
19.6
101
0.369
0.0215
55.2
2008
40
0.003
18.4
12.5
17.5
14.9
6500
344
375
8.9
156
1.09
0.0577
48.6
2009
31
0.002
18.6
12.7
17.6
15.1
6500
346
381
8.7
158
1.103
0.0587
49.1
Percent of 6500 lb. SUVs:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ V\sMlsMO\
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
M Mlil'.K <)l \ VI \ l>
\ \ 1
in nun)
1 KO\ 1
4\\ 1)
M VM VI
1 CM k.
(\ 1
Cl)l
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
IOI u
11\ 1.
1991

100.0

100.0




100.0






2008

100.0

100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

2009

100.0

100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

Table G-36
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2000 lb. Pickup



i i i.i i.( ()\o\n








MODII
sVI l>

1 Alt
VIM
VIM
VIM
\\(;ii I
i:m;im:
0 (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
llllllll
1 l\ vc
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
sl'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi*(;
1980
0
0.000
25.2
20.3
22.9
21.4
2000
49
41
19.7
89
0.837
0.0205
21.4
1981
0
0.000
25.2
20.3
22.9
21.4
2000
49
41
19.7
89
0.837
0.0205
21.4
Percent of 2000 lb. Pickups:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l)l\l\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\l|ss|ON
I I I I mi. ii.kinc;
M Mlil'.K C)l \ VI \ l>
\ \ i
in likii)
1 RON 1
4\\ 1)
M VM VI
1 CM k
C \ 1
c;di
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
IOI u
11\ i:
1980

100.0
100.0












1981

100.0
100.0












EPA-420-R-09-014
G-59
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-37
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2250 lb. Pickup



i i i.i i.c o\o\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Ali
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
0 (ill
IC)I'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ u
55 45
(in
ll\U
( C)\ll'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1979
0
0.000
25.0
20.1
22.9
21.2
2250
49
41
21.6
88
0.837
0.0182
23.9
1980
25
0.002
32.0
25.3
30.0
27.2
2250
94
64
15.9
99
0.677
0.0284
32.4
1981
24
0.002
41.5
33.2
38.1
35.2
2250
97
52
17.9
93
0.536
0.0231
39.7
1982
11
0.001
43.1
35.7
37.6
36.5
2250
96
52
18.0
93
0.539
0.0231
41.2
1983
1
0.000
39.2
32.6
34.0
33.2
2250
91
51
18.3
93
0.571
0.0226
39.1
1984
0
0.000
28.8
25.3
23.1
24.2
2250
59
45
20.1
90
0.763
0.0200
27.3
Percent of 2250 lb. Pickups:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ WsMlsslON
I I I I Ml. ii.kinc;
M Mlil'.K C)l \ \\ \ |>
\ \ 1
in liuii)
1 RON 1
4\\ 1)
M VM
1 CM k
C \ 1
c;di
I'OUI
1 lil
l)s|
1 WO
i iiki.i:
I C)I U
11\ i:
1979

100.0
100












1980
100.0

100




54.6
45.4






1981
100.0

100





100.0






1982
98.8
1.2
100





98.8






1983
84.5
15.5
100





84.5






1984

100.0
100












EPA-420-R-09-014
G-60
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-38
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2500 lb. Pickup



i i i.i i.<








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Ali
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
0 (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ U
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1978
23
0.002
27.2
21.2
26.3
23.2
2500
97
67
16.0
98
0.691
0.0268
29.1
1979
39
0.003
27.5
21.7
26.1
23.5
2500
97
67
16.0
98
0.691
0.0268
29.4
1980
16
0.001
25.8
19.9
25.2
22
2500
97
68
15.8
99
0.701
0.0272
27.5
1981
27
0.003
28.4
22.4
26.7
24.2
2500
108
73
14.9
101
0.683
0.0294
30.2
1982
25
0.003
29.7
23.1
28.8
25.3
2500
123
80
14.0
104
0.655
0.0321
31.7
1983
21
0.002
32.6
24.6
33.1
27.8
2500
128
86
13.3
107
0.670
0.0343
34.9
1984
15
0.001
28.1
22.2
26.3
23.9
2500
102
70
16.4
99
0.700
0.0279
30.1
1985
4
0.000
29.6
23.5
27.4
25.2
2500
109
73
15.0
101
0.670
0.0292
31.5
1986
5
0.000
30
23.6
27.9
25.4
2500
109
73
15.0
101
0.670
0.0292
31.7
1987
1
0.000
29.8
23.4
27.5
25.1
2500
109
73
15.0
101
0.670
0.0292
31.4
Percent of 2500 lb. Pickups:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \\N\I|NS|()\
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
M Mlil'.K <)l \ \\ \ l>
\ \ 1
in liuii)
1 l\( >\ 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \l
1 ()( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
i id
l)s|
1 WO
i iiki.i:
IOI U
11\ i:
1978

100.0
100.0












1979

100.0
100.0












1980
9.5
90.5
90.5




9.5







1981
34.2
65.8
100.0




34.2







1982
71.2
28.8
83.6




13.5







1983
78.8
21.2
95.7
4.3



4.2







1984
36.0
64.0
96.0
4.0











1985

100.0
95.6
4.4











1986

100.0
100.0












1987

100.0
100.0












EPA-420-R-09-014
G-61
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-39
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 2750 lb. Pickup



i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
0 (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1975
156
0.015
22.7
17.4
22.4
19.4
2750
119
95
13.3
108
0.799
0.0347
26.7
1976
162
0.013
24.1
18.6
23.8
20.6
2750
120
97
13.1
109
0.815
0.0355
28.4
1977
226
0.016
25.7
20.0
24.7
21.9
2750
121
97
13.2
109
0.801
0.0352
30.2
1978
183
0.013
25.8
20.7
23.7
22.0
2750
121
97
13.1
109
0.801
0.0353
30.3
1979
240
0.017
22.7
17.8
21.6
19.3
2750
126
91
13.7
106
0.722
0.0330
27.0
1980
324
0.029
25.2
20.0
23.4
21.4
2750
126
91
13.6
107
0.728
0.0333
29.7
1981
222
0.021
27.9
22.2
26.0
23.8
2750
130
90
13.8
106
0.695
0.0329
32.9
1982
227
0.023
28.3
22.4
26.3
24.0
2750
130
91
13.7
106
0.699
0.0331
33.3
1983
340
0.033
28.8
22.9
26.7
24.5
2750
132
87
14.2
105
0.658
0.0315
33.9
1984
314
0.022
28.2
22.5
26.1
24.0
2750
130
87
14.2
105
0.670
0.0317
33.3
1985
238
0.016
29.9
23.7
27.8
25.4
2750
130
90
13.8
106
0.692
0.0328
35.1
1986
311
0.020
29.5
23.3
27.4
25.0
2750
132
92
13.6
107
0.694
0.0334
34.6
1987
240
0.016
29.7
23.2
27.7
25.1
2750
134
93
13.5
107
0.694
0.0338
34.6
1988
120
0.008
27.8
21.7
25.5
23.3
2750
136
98
12.9
109
0.721
0.0356
32.2
1989
76
0.005
27.6
21.6
25.1
23.1
2750
135
97
12.9
109
0.721
0.0354
31.9
1990
31
0.002
26.0
20.4
23.0
21.6
2750
144
102
12.4
111
0.708
0.0371
29.7
1992
19
0.002
28.2
21.3
25.7
23.3
2750
144
112
11.6
115
0.778
0.0407
32.0
Percent of 2750 lb. Pickups:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \\N\I|NS|()\
i i i i mi. i i.kim;
M Mlil'.K <>l \ \l \ l>
\ \ 1
in hum)
1 l«)\ 1
4\\ 1)
M VM \l
1 C>( K
( \ 1
<;i>i
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiuii:
IOI u
H\ 1.
1975


88.7












1976


80.2












1977


79.9












1978


86.1












1979


85.8












1980


86.9












1981


90.3





1.4






1982
1.4

87.1
4.9




1.7






1983
4.0
0.1
89.4
0.2



0.1
0.9






1984
2.2
0.1
88.1
0.3


1.2

0.7






1985


92.5



1.5

0.4






1986


89.0





0.4






1987


90.6












1988


99.4



0.6








1989


100.0












1990


100.0












1992


100.0



100.0








EPA-420-R-09-014
G-62
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-40
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 3000 lb. Pickup



i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
O (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1975
60
0.006
20.7
16.4
19.4
17.6
3000
107
70
18.2
96
0.667
0.0234
26.6
1976
63
0.005
22.3
17.5
21.2
19.0
3000
108
70
18.3
96
0.667
0.0234
29.0
1977
78
0.006
28.6
22.4
27.2
24.3
3000
122
75
17.2
98
0.629
0.0249
37.0
1978
124
0.009
27.5
21.9
25.5
23.4
3000
123
77
16.7
99
0.631
0.0258
35.5
1979
174
0.013
23.9
18.9
22.4
20.3
3000
124
80
16.2
100
0.649
0.0266
31.2
1980
169
0.015
23.6
18.8
21.9
20.1
3000
127
84
15.5
101
0.666
0.0281
30.7
1981
211
0.020
27.1
21.6
25.2
23.1
3000
136
83
16.0
101
0.613
0.0278
35.6
1982
353
0.036
26.4
20.8
25.0
22.5
3000
156
96
14.4
106
0.616
0.0322
34.4
1983
377
0.037
26.4
20.7
25.0
22.5
3000
149
93
14.7
105
0.626
0.0310
34.3
1984
475
0.034
26.6
20.8
25.4
22.6
3000
147
93
14.6
105
0.636
0.0310
34.5
1985
582
0.040
26.3
20.6
25.0
22.4
3000
153
100
13.6
108
0.656
0.0334
33.9
1986
784
0.051
26.8
20.9
25.3
22.7
3000
144
100
13.8
108
0.689
0.0333
34.3
1987
728
0.049
27.0
20.8
25.7
22.8
3000
146
100
13.8
108
0.684
0.0334
34.4
1988
715
0.047
27.4
21.1
25.9
23.1
3000
146
98
14.0
107
0.672
0.0328
34.9
1989
575
0.040
27.6
21.2
25.8
23.2
3000
146
102
13.5
109
0.699
0.0340
34.9
1990
413
0.033
28.2
21.6
25.9
23.5
3000
143
109
12.8
112
0.765
0.0365
35.4
1991
577
0.046
27.5
20.8
25.6
22.9
3000
149
109
12.8
112
0.735
0.0364
34.5
1992
318
0.026
27.1
20.4
25.2
22.5
3000
148
112
12.5
113
0.760
0.0375
33.9
1993
364
0.028
27.4
20.4
25.5
22.6
3000
150
115
12.2
114
0.771
0.0385
34.1
1994
275
0.019
28.0
20.9
25.5
23.0
3000
143
117
12.0
115
0.818
0.0390
34.6
1995
171
0.011
27.3
20.4
24.6
22.3
3000
145
128
11.2
119
0.883
0.0429
33.5
1996
103
0.008
27.2
20.1
24.5
22.1
3000
148
139
10.5
123
0.938
0.0462
33.2
1997
66
0.005
26.6
19.6
23.9
21.6
3000
146
134
10.8
121
0.917
0.0446
32.5
1998
80
0.006
27.3
20.0
24.2
22.0
3000
149
142
10.3
125
0.954
0.0473
33.0
1999
50
0.003
27.2
19.8
24.0
21.8
3000
149
142
10.3
125
0.953
0.0473
32.8
2000
40
0.002
26.7
19.5
23.2
21.3
3000
149
142
10.3
125
0.953
0.0473
32.0
2001
23
0.001
27.1
19.7
23.2
21.5
3000
149
142
10.3
125
0.953
0.0473
32.3
2002
20
0.001
27.7
19.6
24.3
22.0
3000
149
142
10.3
125
0.953
0.0473
32.9
2003
21
0.001
27.7
19.6
24.1
21.9
3000
149
142
10.3
125
0.953
0.0473
32.8
2004
23
0.001
27.6
19.4
23.9
21.7
3000
149
142
10.3
125
0.953
0.0473
32.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-63
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-40 (cont.)
Percent of 3000 lb. Pickups:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\( IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975


69.3












1976


84.5












1977


88.8












1978


88.1












1979

31.7
88.1












1980

56.9
93.2












1981

44.0
93.7
0.1




25.5






1982

21.0
74.1
22.7




17.0






1983

16.4
73.6
9.6




8.8






1984

9.4
74.8
11.5


3.4

4.7






1985

9.9
68.8
26.0


16.8
14.0
1.8






1986

4.1
78.9
16.7


19.3
33.6
0.9






1987

4.6
11A
15.9


20.3
39.9
0.4






1988

1.0
77.9
15.9


28.3
37.0







1989


82.7
11.6


31.0
45.2







1990


86.3
10.7


70.8
10.1







1991


88.1
9.0


51.5
37.9







1992


85.9
9.4


53.1
28.2







1993


87.3
8.3


63.2
25.2







1994


85.5
5.3


92.5


100.0





1995


79.0
9.2


100.0


81.9

18.1



1996


72.2
2.1


100.0



39.0
60.9



1997


82.0
18.0


100.0



99.1




1998


54.3



100.0




100.0



1999


52.2



100.0




100.0



2000


47.6



100.0




100.0



2001


47.6



100.0




100.0



2002


47.2



100.0




100.0



2003


45.1



100.0




100.0



2004


42.9



100.0




100.0



EPA-420-R-09-014
G-64
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-41
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 3500 lb. Pickup
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
O (ill
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
39
0.004
15.1
11.9
14.4
12.9
3500
348
156
li.i
124
0.447
0.0445
22.7
1976
71
0.006
16.5
13.1
15.5
14.1
3500
319
138
12.3
117
0.440
0.0394
25.0
1977
65
0.005
17.1
13.6
15.9
14.6
3500
328
143
12.1
119
0.442
0.0408
25.8
1978
89
0.006
18.5
14.6
17.4
15.8
3500
275
132
12.9
115
0.497
0.0377
27.8
1979
22
0.002
18.9
15.1
17.5
16.1
3500
208
106
15.0
106
0.531
0.0304
28.6
1980
53
0.005
18.7
15.2
16.8
15.9
3500
213
113
14.3
108
0.557
0.0323
28.1
1981
105
0.010
21.3
16.9
19.8
18.1
3500
247
112
14.2
108
0.472
0.0319
31.9
1982
120
0.012
22.3
17.7
21.0
19.0
3500
210
108
14.4
107
0.545
0.0310
33.4
1983
231
0.022
23.4
18.2
22.5
19.9
3500
178
107
14.6
106
0.618
0.0305
35.1
1984
356
0.025
22.7
17.8
21.7
19.4
3500
174
104
15.0
105
0.615
0.0297
34.2
1985
342
0.024
23.3
18.3
22.3
19.9
3500
180
109
14.3
107
0.641
0.0313
35.0
1986
432
0.028
23.2
18.1
22.0
19.7
3500
167
119
13.5
111
0.726
0.0341
34.7
1987
478
0.032
22.9
17.6
21.9
19.4
3500
178
121
13.4
111
0.696
0.0347
34.1
1988
491
0.032
22.8
17.5
21.8
19.3
3500
183
129
12.7
114
0.719
0.0370
33.9
1989
439
0.030
22.6
17.3
21.5
19.0
3500
195
132
12.6
115
0.696
0.0376
33.5
1990
316
0.025
23.1
17.5
21.9
19.4
3500
186
135
12.3
116
0.741
0.0386
34.0
1991
413
0.033
23.9
17.9
22.8
20.0
3500
199
137
12.1
117
0.712
0.0393
35.1
1992
413
0.034
24.7
18.3
23.4
20.5
3500
187
131
12.6
115
0.719
0.0374
36.2
1993
444
0.034
24.5
18.2
23.2
20.4
3500
186
134
12.4
116
0.738
0.0384
35.9
1994
736
0.052
25.3
18.6
23.7
20.9
3500
178
132
12.7
115
0.752
0.0377
36.8
1995
578
0.038
26.3
19.1
24.6
21.6
3500
167
131
12.6
115
0.804
0.0375
38.2
1996
568
0.043
26.3
19.1
24.6
21.6
3500
157
129
12.8
114
0.828
0.0368
38.1
1997
457
0.032
27.0
19.5
24.9
22.0
3500
154
123
13.1
112
0.815
0.0353
38.9
1998
630
0.044
26.1
18.7
24.1
21.2
3500
157
130
12.6
115
0.840
0.0373
37.5
1999
493
0.032
24.9
17.7
23.0
20.2
3500
162
133
12.4
116
0.827
0.0380
35.8
2000
545
0.033
24.9
17.6
22.9
20.1
3500
163
135
12.3
116
0.842
0.0386
35.5
2001
348
0.022
24.5
17.4
22.3
19.7
3500
161
138
12.1
118
0.867
0.0395
34.8
2002
213
0.013
24.9
17.6
22.3
19.9
3500
168
146
11.5
120
0.884
0.0417
35.3
2003
293
0.019
25.7
17.8
23.5
20.6
3500
154
135
12.4
116
0.889
0.0385
36.3
2004
131
0.008
25.9
18.0
23.1
20.6
3500
158
149
11.4
121
0.944
0.0425
36.3
2005
92
0.006
25.9
17.7
23.5
20.6
3500
167
159
10.8
125
0.960
0.0455
36.3
2006
100
0.007
26.1
17.7
23.9
20.8
3500
164
160
10.7
126
0.984
0.0459
36.6
2007
89
0.006
26.0
17.8
23.5
20.6
3500
160
159
10.8
125
0.995
0.0455
36.5
2008
89
0.006
26.7
18.3
23.8
21.1
3500
159
157
10.9
124
0.991
0.0448
37.2
2009
87
0.005
27.9
19.2
24.6
21.9
3500
154
156
11.0
124
1.010
0.0445
38.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-65
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-41 (cont.)
Percent of 3500 lb. Pickups:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\||ss|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975


5.9












1976


11.9












1977


9.3












1978


20.5












1979


35.1












1980


42.1
49.3











1981

6.1
62.3
31.0











1982

31.5
80.0
16.2











1983

59.4
66.6
28.0



0.1
1.6






1984

62.0
67.5
25.4




2.5






1985

60.9
71.5
25.0


14.2
3.5
0.7






1986

67.4
69.0
30.2


35.6
30.1
0.3






1987

56.2
55.2
44.0


28.5
30.0
0.2






1988

55.6
54.0
45.2


54.5
40.6







1989

37.3
51.7
47.9


53.8
44.0







1990

30.7
52.7
47.3


77.5
22.5







1991

21.3
52.4
47.6


59.0
41.0







1992

18.4
65.1
34.9


70.5
29.5







1993

19.1
64.4
35.6


76.2
23.8







1994

9.0
63.2
36.8


86.6
13.4

98.1
1.7




1995

7.7
69.5
30.5


83.1
16.9

93.1

6.9



1996

7.5
66.2
33.8


100.0


85.2
5.9
8.9



1997

1.0
67.9
32.1


100.0


90.8
8.7




1998

8.5
57.8
42.2


100.0


81.1

18.9



1999

7.5
46.9
53.1


100.0


83.9

16.1



2000

5.4
41.0
59.0


100.0


80.3

19.7



2001

2.8
40.2
57.1


100.0


65.6

34.4



2002


34.7
60.6


100.0


45.2

54.8



2003

1.4
36.1
60.4


100.0


66.8

33.2



2004


38.5
53.7


100.0


22.6

77.4

12.7

2005


37.7
62.3


100.0


22.1

77.9

51.5

2006

1.2
35.8
64.2


100.0


13.3

86.7

59.5

2007


32.3
67.7


100.0


10.8

89.2

89.2

2008


25.7
74.3


100.0


12.6

87.4

92.4

2009


28.6
71.4


100.0


3.0

97.0

99.6

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-66
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-42
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 4000 lb. Pickup



i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
O (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1975
733
0.072
14.1
11.0
13.6
12.0
4000
330
143
13.2
115
0.433
0.0358
24.6
1976
906
0.073
15.3
12.2
14.3
13.1
4000
327
135
13.8
112
0.412
0.0338
26.8
1977
855
0.061
16.7
13.4
15.3
14.2
4000
322
144
13.2
115
0.445
0.0359
28.9
1978
951
0.066
16.1
13.0
14.4
13.6
4000
318
144
13.1
115
0.453
0.0361
28.0
1979
606
0.044
15.9
12.9
14.4
13.5
4000
305
142
13.2
114
0.465
0.0356
27.4
1980
439
0.039
18.7
14.9
17.4
15.9
4000
282
127
14.3
109
0.451
0.0317
32.1
1981
587
0.056
19.2
15.2
17.9
16.3
4000
286
128
14.2
110
0.451
0.0320
33.0
1982
396
0.041
18.7
14.9
17.4
15.9
4000
292
130
14.2
110
0.446
0.0325
32.2
1983
332
0.032
18.5
14.7
17.4
15.8
4000
291
130
14.2
110
0.446
0.0324
32.0
1984
406
0.029
18.5
14.6
17.4
15.7
4000
287
127
14.5
109
0.442
0.0317
32.0
1985
385
0.027
18.5
14.8
17.2
15.8
4000
292
139
13.5
114
0.479
0.0349
31.9
1986
465
0.030
19.2
15.2
17.7
16.3
4000
276
134
13.8
112
0.505
0.0336
32.8
1987
271
0.018
19.1
15.1
17.6
16.2
4000
273
141
13.3
114
0.530
0.0353
32.5
1988
370
0.024
19.7
15.2
18.7
16.6
4000
282
154
12.3
118
0.555
0.0385
33.4
1989
369
0.026
20.1
15.3
19.3
17.0
4000
269
159
12.1
120
0.607
0.0397
34.2
1990
342
0.027
20.2
15.1
19.4
16.9
4000
271
162
11.9
121
0.612
0.0405
34.0
1991
353
0.028
20.4
15.2
19.6
17.1
4000
262
159
12.1
120
0.623
0.0397
34.3
1992
332
0.027
20.4
15.1
19.7
17.1
4000
250
154
12.4
118
0.628
0.0386
34.3
1993
313
0.024
20.5
15.2
19.5
17.1
4000
236
155
12.3
119
0.669
0.0388
34.3
1994
536
0.038
20.9
15.4
19.8
17.3
4000
241
169
11.5
123
0.715
0.0423
34.8
1995
292
0.019
20.9
15.4
19.5
17.3
4000
230
164
11.7
122
0.727
0.0411
34.7
1996
286
0.022
21.6
15.7
20.3
17.8
4000
239
173
11.2
124
0.734
0.0432
35.7
1997
425
0.029
21.5
15.5
20.2
17.6
4000
246
184
10.7
128
0.756
0.0461
35.3
1998
437
0.030
21.3
15.3
19.9
17.4
4000
236
178
11.0
126
0.766
0.0446
34.9
1999
420
0.028
20.7
14.9
19.1
16.9
4000
231
172
11.3
124
0.755
0.0431
33.8
2000
481
0.029
20.8
14.9
19.1
16.9
4000
222
171
11.4
124
0.779
0.0429
33.9
2001
436
0.028
20.7
14.8
18.8
16.7
4000
226
184
10.7
128
0.819
0.0460
33.6
2002
385
0.024
20.9
15.0
18.6
16.8
4000
220
183
10.8
128
0.836
0.0457
33.7
2003
396
0.025
21.4
15.2
19.2
17.2
4000
213
178
11.1
126
0.844
0.0445
34.5
2004
380
0.024
21.8
15.2
19.6
17.4
4000
208
189
10.5
130
0.910
0.0473
35.0
2005
293
0.018
23.1
15.9
20.9
18.4
4000
211
206
9.9
136
0.978
0.0516
37.1
2006
282
0.019
23.4
16.1
21.1
18.7
4000
209
202
10.1
134
0.970
0.0505
37.5
2007
209
0.014
22.8
15.7
20.6
18.2
4000
212
199
10.2
133
0.941
0.0498
36.6
2008
186
0.013
23.2
16.0
20.8
18.5
4000
213
199
10.2
133
0.938
0.0498
37.1
2009
193
0.012
24.2
16.7
21.6
19.2
4000
217
210
9.8
137
0.971
0.0524
38.7
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-67
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-42 (cont.)
Percent of 4000 lb. Pickups:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ \Ns\||ss|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975

0.7
33.1












1976

1.0
33.8












1977

1.2
30.6












1978

1.1
30.5





0.7






1979

6.3
33.8
4.8











1980

5.6
51.5
17.4











1981

7.3
44.3
35.1











1982

9.4
32.9
28.4











1983

4.8
27.0
49.0




0.2






1984

6.3
34.2
39.9




0.0






1985

7.8
26.7
32.0


13.8
0.0







1986

13.5
36.8
33.5


28.0
11.0







1987
0.1
17.6
40.2
35.5


48.8
17.6







1988
0.0
18.0
43.2
40.1


39.6
60.4







1989

37.0
39.8
54.8


28.4
71.6







1990

27.6
36.9
57.8


31.6
68.4







1991

40.0
42.4
57.6


36.0
64.0







1992

32.0
37.3
62.7


54.4
45.6







1993

42.3
38.0
62.0


68.8
31.2







1994

43.7
38.4
61.6


66.0
34.0

91.6
8.4




1995

53.8
38.4
61.6


77.2
22.8

83.0

17.0



1996

44.0
31.7
68.3


100.0


77.6
5.1
17.3



1997

26.0
31.3
68.7


100.0


89.1
6.1
4.8



1998

42.1
35.5
64.5


100.0


84.5

15.5



1999

52.4
26.1
73.9


100.0


84.0

16.0



2000

45.0
21.0
79.0


100.0


86.4

13.6



2001

43.1
16.7
83.3


100.0


78.5

21.5



2002

38.1
19.7
80.3


100.0


60.0

40.0



2003

36.3
15.4
84.6


100.0


65.5

34.5



2004

41.3
16.3
83.7


100.0


46.6

53.4

20.3

2005

35.2
17.1
82.9


100.0


22.1

77.9

72.5

2006

29.8
17.1
82.9


100.0


17.3

82.7

80.5

2007

27.6
14.1
85.8


100.0


34.1

65.9

53.6

2008

31.3
13.9
86.1


100.0


36.5

63.5

44.0

2009

17.5
18.1
81.9


100.0


22.9

77.1

43.2

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-68
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-43
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 4500 lb. Pickup



i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
O (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1975
180
0.018
11.8
9.6
10.6
10.0
4500
365
166
12.9
118
0.451
0.0369
22.6
1976
375
0.030
12.6
10.3
11.3
10.7
4500
365
161
13.2
117
0.439
0.0358
24.3
1977
539
0.038
13.7
11.2
12.2
11.6
4500
369
169
12.6
119
0.459
0.0377
26.3
1978
578
0.040
13.6
11.2
12.1
11.5
4500
361
163
12.9
117
0.453
0.0363
26.3
1979
631
0.045
14.2
11.8
12.7
12.2
4500
320
145
14.3
112
0.459
0.0323
27.9
1980
247
0.022
15.7
12.6
14.3
13.3
4500
323
147
14.1
112
0.456
0.0326
30.3
1981
210
0.020
16.8
13.4
15.5
14.3
4500
314
147
14.0
112
0.472
0.0327
32.6
1982
193
0.020
17.1
13.7
15.7
14.5
4500
311
156
13.4
115
0.504
0.0347
33.2
1983
247
0.024
17.0
13.5
15.8
14.5
4500
310
151
13.8
113
0.488
0.0335
33.0
1984
385
0.027
16.8
13.4
15.6
14.3
4500
310
150
13.9
113
0.483
0.0333
32.6
1985
428
0.030
16.8
13.4
15.5
14.3
4500
310
159
13.1
116
0.513
0.0354
32.4
1986
439
0.029
17.4
13.8
16.1
14.8
4500
307
155
13.5
115
0.503
0.0344
33.5
1987
353
0.024
17.2
13.5
16.0
14.6
4500
316
168
12.7
119
0.531
0.0374
33.0
1988
596
0.039
17.8
13.7
16.9
15.0
4500
322
174
12.4
120
0.539
0.0387
33.9
1989
641
0.044
17.8
13.6
16.9
15.0
4500
320
174
12.4
121
0.542
0.0388
33.9
1990
506
0.040
18.0
13.6
17.2
15.1
4500
318
171
12.5
120
0.536
0.0381
34.3
1991
435
0.035
18.1
13.5
17.5
15.2
4500
315
176
12.3
121
0.555
0.0390
34.4
1992
513
0.042
18.4
13.6
17.8
15.4
4500
310
171
12.6
120
0.550
0.0380
34.8
1993
614
0.046
19.0
13.9
18.4
15.8
4500
306
177
12.2
121
0.579
0.0394
35.8
1994
684
0.048
18.7
13.7
18.0
15.6
4500
311
186
11.7
124
0.600
0.0414
35.1
1995
744
0.049
18.6
13.5
17.8
15.4
4500
308
182
11.9
123
0.593
0.0404
34.8
1996
543
0.041
18.9
13.7
17.9
15.6
4500
305
201
11.1
129
0.660
0.0447
35.3
1997
611
0.042
19.8
14.2
18.8
16.3
4500
283
212
10.4
132
0.753
0.0472
36.8
1998
585
0.040
19.8
14.2
18.8
16.3
4500
289
216
10.3
133
0.752
0.0481
36.8
1999
624
0.041
19.9
14.2
18.6
16.2
4500
287
224
10.1
136
0.780
0.0497
36.7
2000
766
0.046
20.0
14.3
18.6
16.3
4500
281
224
10.1
136
0.798
0.0498
36.8
2001
518
0.033
20.0
14.1
18.4
16.2
4500
264
210
10.6
131
0.796
0.0468
36.5
2002
555
0.034
19.8
14.0
18.2
16.0
4500
262
213
10.5
132
0.811
0.0473
36.1
2003
511
0.032
20.2
14.2
18.5
16.3
4500
261
212
10.5
132
0.814
0.0472
36.8
2004
350
0.022
20.5
14.3
18.8
16.5
4500
257
215
10.4
133
0.841
0.0478
37.2
2005
374
0.024
20.8
14.3
19.2
16.7
4500
247
227
10.0
137
0.924
0.0505
37.7
2006
368
0.024
21.3
14.6
19.5
17.1
4500
240
233
9.8
138
0.980
0.0518
38.4
2007
252
0.017
21.4
14.7
19.5
17.1
4500
237
233
9.8
138
0.993
0.0517
38.5
2008
200
0.014
21.5
14.8
19.7
17.3
4500
234
230
9.8
137
0.990
0.0511
38.9
2009
222
0.014
22.0
15.1
20.1
17.6
4500
240
243
9.4
142
1.019
0.0541
39.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-69
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-43 (cont.)
Percent of 4500 lb. Pickups:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975

55.4
51.3












1976

64.5
45.2












1977

58.2
31.0












1978

68.5
31.7





3.5






1979

16.4
25.6





0.3






1980

30.9
32.0
44.4




2.6






1981

25.2
18.6
60.3




1.8






1982

20.0
15.7
64.1




0.8






1983

34.0
21.4
55.4




0.9






1984

34.6
18.6
58.4




0.4






1985

33.6
16.9
64.9


8.0

0.0






1986

36.8
19.9
66.3


22.3

0.0






1987

35.5
21.6
45.7


41.5
45.8
0.1






1988

38.3
20.3
61.7


35.5
63.9
0.1






1989

37.7
32.4
58.1


45.1
54.7
0.1






1990

34.2
25.5
66.5


51.7
48.2
0.1






1991

28.6
23.7
75.3


48.0
51.9
0.1






1992

21.1
27.9
72.0


59.3
40.6
0.1






1993
0.0
16.9
19.5
80.5


55.4
44.6







1994

14.5
17.3
82.7


59.9
40.1

100.0





1995

18.4
26.6
73.4


58.9
41.1

99.3





1996

11.9
19.0
81.0


100.0


98.6

1.4



1997

16.3
12.5
87.5


100.0


98.8

1.2



1998

9.6
11.4
88.6


100.0


99.4





1999

18.1
9.4
90.6


100.0


100.0





2000

17.7
10.3
89.7


100.0


92.7

7.3



2001

16.0
11.0
89.0


100.0


90.9

9.1



2002

27.1
8.7
91.3


100.0


84.6

15.4



2003

27.6
12.5
87.5


100.0


87.8

12.2



2004

31.9
10.9
89.1


100.0


90.9

9.1

6.0

2005

35.7
7.6
92.4


100.0


61.9

38.1

38.1

2006

48.2
7.0
93.0


100.0


38.9

61.1

61.1

2007

52.3
7.3
92.7


100.0


43.8

56.2

47.4

2008

57.6
9.1
90.9


100.0


40.6

59.4

50.9

2009

66.3
10.7
89.3


100.0


19.0

81.0

47.6

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-70
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-44
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 5000 lb. Pickup
moi)i:i
^ i:\k
N\l l>
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n
\\<;ii I
I it
i:m;im:
O (ill
11 mi:
IOI'
M'l)
III'
(II)
III'
\\ 1
ION
Mi'(;
1 Alt
55 45
VD.I
(in
VD.I
ll\U
\l).l
( OMI'
(id
III'
1975
122
0.012
11.0
9.0
9.7
9.3
5000
371
165
14.1
114
0.443
0.0331
23.4
1976
188
0.015
11.7
9.6
10.3
9.9
5000
367
159
14.5
112
0.430
0.0318
24.9
1977
172
0.012
12.9
10.6
11.4
11.0
5000
378
167
14.0
115
0.440
0.0334
27.5
1978
198
0.014
12.8
10.5
11.3
10.8
5000
370
170
13.5
116
0.462
0.0341
27.2
1979
404
0.029
12.9
10.8
11.2
11.0
5000
372
157
15.1
112
0.419
0.0315
28.5
1980
147
0.013
15.9
12.7
14.6
13.5
5000
351
153
14.9
111
0.436
0.0306
35.2
1981
53
0.005
16.9
13.5
15.6
14.4
5000
333
141
15.8
107
0.425
0.0282
37.2
1982
97
0.010
18.9
15.0
17.5
16.0
5000
336
140
15.9
107
0.420
0.0280
41.8
1983
69
0.007
18.0
14.1
17.1
15.3
5000
334
150
15.0
110
0.458
0.0301
39.7
1984
85
0.006
17.4
13.6
16.6
14.8
5000
322
155
14.6
111
0.487
0.0311
37.9
1985
92
0.006
16.3
12.7
15.7
13.9
5000
322
162
14.1
113
0.505
0.0324
35.5
1986
93
0.006
16.3
12.7
15.6
13.8
5000
321
162
14.1
113
0.507
0.0324
35.1
1987
74
0.005
16.0
12.5
15.0
13.6
5000
332
183
12.9
119
0.550
0.0366
34.2
1988
164
0.011
16.4
12.6
15.7
13.9
5000
342
193
12.3
122
0.565
0.0387
35.0
1989
129
0.009
16.0
12.4
15.0
13.5
5000
322
187
12.7
120
0.588
0.0373
34.0
1990
223
0.018
16.4
12.4
15.9
13.8
5000
337
198
12.1
124
0.591
0.0397
34.8
1991
138
0.011
16.2
12.2
15.4
13.5
5000
333
198
12.1
123
0.598
0.0396
34.0
1992
235
0.019
16.7
12.4
16.2
14.0
5000
330
189
12.7
121
0.571
0.0377
35.2
1993
258
0.020
16.9
12.5
16.3
14.1
5000
333
199
12.0
124
0.599
0.0399
35.4
1994
414
0.029
17.0
12.5
16.2
14.1
5000
336
202
11.9
125
0.601
0.0404
35.4
1995
453
0.030
16.8
12.3
16.1
14.0
5000
337
202
11.9
125
0.601
0.0405
35.0
1996
390
0.030
17.3
12.5
16.7
14.4
5000
334
225
10.9
131
0.675
0.0451
36.1
1997
573
0.040
18.2
13.1
17.4
15.0
5000
319
229
10.7
132
0.722
0.0459
37.7
1998
525
0.036
17.6
12.5
17.0
14.6
5000
327
236
10.4
134
0.724
0.0473
36.4
1999
628
0.041
18.1
13.0
17.0
14.9
5000
322
245
10.2
137
0.763
0.0491
37.2
2000
707
0.043
18.4
13.2
17.0
15.0
5000
317
252
9.9
139
0.797
0.0504
37.6
2001
928
0.059
18.6
13.2
17.3
15.1
5000
314
255
9.8
140
0.813
0.0509
37.9
2002
780
0.048
18.7
13.2
17.1
15.1
5000
305
260
9.7
141
0.854
0.0521
37.9
2003
870
0.055
18.9
13.3
17.2
15.2
5000
304
259
9.7
141
0.852
0.0518
38.2
2004
707
0.045
19.2
13.4
17.4
15.4
5000
311
269
9.5
144
0.862
0.0537
38.6
2005
679
0.043
19.4
13.4
17.8
15.6
5000
304
272
9.4
145
0.892
0.0545
39.1
2006
608
0.040
19.9
13.8
18.1
16.0
5000
297
265
9.6
143
0.891
0.0530
40.0
2007
443
0.029
20.0
13.7
18.5
16.1
5000
282
244
10.3
137
0.866
0.0489
40.3
2008
257
0.019
20.3
14.0
18.7
16.3
5000
270
233
10.7
134
0.862
0.0466
40.9
2009
334
0.021
20.5
14.1
18.9
16.5
5000
274
245
10.3
137
0.897
0.0490
41.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-71
November 2009

-------
«gm
<_» ; „	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-44 (cont.)
Percent of 5000 lb. Pickups:
\i< >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975

26.4
27.9












1976

26.9
28.8












1977

23.5
24.6












1978

36.6
32.8





0.0






1979

8.3
18.5





13.0






1980

53.2
21.5
65.3




28.8






1981

55.4
31.1
57.2




32.9






1982

43.4
26.2
65.1




56.0






1983

65.2
23.9
66.1




26.4






1984

74.8
26.8
68.4




14.7






1985

85.9
28.0
61.2




6.8






1986

89.6
22.2
64.0


4.2

3.8






1987

95.4
31.5
47.0


20.5
58.7
2.0






1988

74.8
17.8
61.4


25.5
71.2
2.1






1989

78.9
27.4
56.9


43.5
55.1
1.4






1990

65.5
13.4
82.7


23.9
75.3
0.8






1991

86.9
17.5
78.2


31.2
67.9
0.9






1992

78.2
14.7
85.1


43.8
55.8
0.4






1993

86.6
13.7
86.3


38.8
61.2







1994

87.0
10.0
90.0


45.0
55.0

100.0





1995

83.9
11.0
89.0


52.3
47.7

100.0





1996

70.7
7.9
92.1


99.8

0.2
100.0





1997

60.1
5.7
94.3


100.0

0.0
100.0





1998

75.4
5.1
94.9


100.0

0.0
100.0





1999

73.5
2.6
97.4


100.0


100.0





2000

78.9
1.6
98.4


100.0


91.1

8.9



2001

46.9
1.7
98.3


100.0


95.9

4.1



2002

51.3
2.0
98.0


100.0


94.5

5.5



2003

49.6
1.5
98.5


100.0


95.3

4.7



2004

46.5
1.4
98.6


100.0


90.9

8.8


0.0
2005

33.5
2.3
97.7


100.0


85.0

14.8

15.0
0.1
2006

28.9
3.8
96.2


100.0


79.8

19.8

20.2
0.1
2007

17.1
3.2
96.8


100.0


89.7
3.8
6.5

20.8
0.1
2008

16.1
1.8
98.2


100.0


91.7
3.2
5.0

1.7

2009

30.0
0.9
99.1


100.0


94.7
1.7
3.6

13.6

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-72
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-45
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 5500 lb. Pickup



i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
O (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1975
53
0.005
10.0
8.3
8.7
8.5
5500
374
170
14.9
113
0.452
0.0310
23.4
1976
102
0.008
11.4
9.3
10.2
9.7
5500
383
171
14.9
113
0.443
0.0311
26.8
1977
91
0.006
11.8
9.7
10.4
10.0
5500
396
183
14.1
116
0.458
0.0333
27.8
1978
120
0.008
12.1
10.0
10.8
10.3
5500
377
172
14.6
113
0.457
0.0312
28.4
1979
83
0.006
11.3
9.5
9.8
9.6
5500
400
191
13.8
118
0.473
0.0348
26.8
1980
14
0.001
13.3
10.7
12.2
11.3
5500
353
165
14.9
111
0.467
0.0299
31.3
1981
2
0.000
13.3
10.5
12.4
11.3
5500
351
143
16.5
105
0.407
0.0260
31.1
1982
17
0.002
22.4
17.5
21.3
19.1
5500
350
130
18.1
102
0.371
0.0236
52.4
1983
10
0.001
22.1
17.3
21.2
18.9
5500
379
130
18.1
102
0.343
0.0236
51.9
1984
8
0.001
21.9
17.3
20.5
18.6
5500
379
130
18.1
102
0.343
0.0236
51.2
1985
5
0.000
21.1
16.5
20.2
18.0
5500
379
130
18.1
102
0.343
0.0236
49.5
1986
3
0.000
21.1
16.4
20.1
17.9
5500
379
130
18.1
102
0.343
0.0236
49.3
1987
1
0.000
21.1
16.3
20.1
17.9
5500
379
130
18.1
102
0.343
0.0236
49.1
1988
1
0.000
16.9
13.4
15.2
14.2
5500
363
178
14.4
115
0.495
0.0324
40.7
1989
1
0.000
19.2
14.8
17.9
16.1
5500
370
153
16.6
108
0.417
0.0278
45.3
1990
1
0.000
18.6
14.3
17.2
15.5
5500
370
159
15.8
110
0.434
0.0289
44.0
1991
3
0.000
17.5
13.2
16.7
14.7
5500
364
176
14.6
114
0.489
0.0321
41.7
1992
9
0.001
16.3
12.2
15.6
13.7
5500
353
200
12.9
121
0.570
0.0364
38.0
1993
8
0.001
17.0
12.6
16.3
14.2
5500
352
199
13.0
120
0.569
0.0363
39.4
1994
21
0.001
16.9
12.5
15.9
14.0
5500
364
205
12.6
122
0.568
0.0373
39.0
1995
29
0.002
15.9
11.6
15.2
13.2
5500
358
215
12.2
125
0.605
0.0392
36.5
1996
64
0.005
15.3
11.0
15.0
12.8
5500
345
225
11.7
127
0.655
0.0410
35.3
1997
275
0.019
17.0
12.1
16.6
14.1
5500
347
240
11.1
131
0.693
0.0437
38.9
1998
112
0.008
16.4
11.7
16.0
13.6
5500
330
225
11.7
127
0.684
0.0410
37.5
1999
130
0.009
16.3
11.5
15.9
13.5
5500
344
242
11.1
132
0.704
0.0440
37.1
2000
72
0.004
16.2
11.3
15.9
13.4
5500
347
244
11.0
132
0.705
0.0444
36.9
2001
258
0.017
16.3
11.5
15.5
13.4
5500
340
251
10.7
134
0.740
0.0456
36.9
2002
280
0.017
17.0
11.9
16.0
13.9
5500
322
255
10.6
135
0.795
0.0464
38.4
2003
271
0.017
17.2
12.1
15.9
13.9
5500
319
263
10.4
137
0.827
0.0479
38.4
2004
538
0.034
17.9
12.5
16.5
14.5
5500
316
286
9.8
143
0.901
0.0521
40.0
2005
549
0.035
18.3
12.6
16.8
14.7
5500
318
292
9.6
145
0.913
0.0531
40.6
2006
570
0.038
18.7
13.0
17.3
15.1
5500
313
283
9.8
143
0.902
0.0515
41.6
2007
688
0.045
19.5
13.5
18.0
15.7
5500
317
297
9.4
146
0.934
0.0541
43.3
2008
706
0.051
20.1
13.7
18.6
16.2
5500
319
311
9.1
150
0.974
0.0566
44.9
2009
731
0.046
20.1
13.7
18.9
16.3
5500
323
317
8.9
151
0.980
0.0576
44.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-73
November 2009

-------
«gm
^!1>"	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-45 (cont.)
Percent of 5500 lb. Pickups:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \l \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\< IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
IIM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1975

84.9
1.1












1976

87.1
2.9












1977

76.0
1.0












1978

91.0
0.4





0.0






1979

3.9
40.8





0.1






1980

84.0
44.1
40.9











1981

44.3
62.0












1982

100.0
16.7
83.3




100.0






1983

100.0
10.0
90.0




100.0






1984

97.0
13.1
86.9




100.0






1985

83.2
11.9
88.1




100.0






1986

84.4
14.5
85.5




100.0






1987

80.0
7.7
92.3




100.0






1988

97.8
62.7
37.3



54.9
45.1






1989

100.0
36.0
64.0



31.7
68.3






1990

94.8
41.0
59.0



32.0
68.0






1991

97.5
8.7
91.3



52.2
47.8






1992

99.6
30.4
69.2


0.7
86.5
12.8






1993

99.9
13.3
86.7


16.0
84.0







1994

95.5
14.9
85.1


47.8
52.2

100.0





1995

96.8
9.4
90.6


79.9
20.1

100.0





1996

99.1
4.7
95.3


96.2

3.8
100.0





1997

99.7
0.7
99.3


99.8

0.2
100.0





1998

94.7
3.9
96.1


99.7

0.3
100.0





1999

92.7
3.5
96.5


100.0


100.0





2000

85.8
2.2
97.8


100.0


100.0





2001

97.7
1.8
98.2


100.0


100.0





2002

73.6
1.1
98.9


100.0


100.0





2003

65.6
0.9
99.1


100.0


100.0





2004

43.3
0.8
99.2


100.0


72.6
21.4
6.0

21.4
0.0
2005

60.5
0.5
99.5


100.0


67.0
19.5
13.6

33.0
0.1
2006

56.6
0.3
99.7


100.0


66.6
18.8
14.6

33.4
0.3
2007

48.5
0.2
99.8


100.0


76.3
10.8
13.0

23.7
0.0
2008

46.9
0.2
99.8


100.0


81.5
7.0
11.5

18.6

2009

38.3

100.0


100.0


78.6
7.6
13.7

37.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-74
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-46
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 6000 lb. Pickup



i i i.i i.< <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Alt
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
O (ill
IOI'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ W
55 45
(in
ll\U
( OMI'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1978
0
0.000
12.6
10.4
11.1
10.7
6000
325
153
16.8
106
0.474
0.0256
32.3
1979
7
0.001
10.9
9.0
9.7
9.3
6000
390
153
17.9
106
0.386
0.0255
27.9
1980
0
0.000
9.9
8.1
00
00
8.4
6000
350
155
16.9
106
0.443
0.0258
25.2
1985
0
0.000
19.6
16.0
17.5
16.6
6000
379
130
18.8
100
0.343
0.0217
49.8
1988
0
0.000
19.6
16.1
16.7
16.4
6000
379
140
17.8
103
0.369
0.0233
49.1
1989
0
0.000
21.2
17.3
18.0
17.6
6000
379
126
19.3
99
0.332
0.0210
52.8
1990
0
0.000
20.5
16.4
17.8
17.0
6000
379
135
18.3
101
0.356
0.0225
51.1
1991
0
0.000
19.5
15.6
16.7
16.1
6000
379
140
17.8
103
0.369
0.0233
48.4
1994
3
0.000
18.1
13.6
16.7
15.0
6000
395
179
15.0
112
0.455
0.0299
45.0
1995
3
0.000
18.1
13.4
16.9
15.0
6000
395
180
15.0
112
0.455
0.0300
45.0
1996
0
0.000
18.7
13.7
17.4
15.4
6000
395
180
15.0
113
0.456
0.0300
46.2
1997
1
0.000
18.7
13.7
17.3
15.4
6000
395
180
15.0
113
0.456
0.0300
46.1
1998
46
0.003
15.6
10.9
15.6
13.0
6000
359
233
12.2
126
0.651
0.0389
38.9
1999
200
0.013
16.8
12.0
16.1
13.9
6000
350
254
11.4
131
0.727
0.0424
41.6
2000
2
0.000
15.8
10.8
16.0
13.1
6000
352
242
11.8
128
0.688
0.0404
39.3
2001
6
0.000
15.8
10.9
15.8
13.1
6000
343
239
11.9
127
0.698
0.0398
39.3
2002
146
0.009
17.5
12.3
16.3
14.3
6000
329
283
10.5
138
0.861
0.0472
42.9
2003
112
0.007
17.6
12.3
16.5
14.3
6000
329
295
10.1
141
0.895
0.0491
43.1
2004
376
0.024
18.1
12.6
16.6
14.6
6000
324
290
10.3
140
0.894
0.0484
43.8
2005
311
0.020
18.0
12.5
16.4
14.5
6000
325
294
10.2
141
0.901
0.0490
43.5
2006
260
0.017
17.6
12.3
16.1
14.2
6000
329
298
10.0
142
0.906
0.0497
42.7
2007
430
0.028
18.5
12.8
17.2
15.0
6000
333
325
9.4
149
0.974
0.0541
45.0
2008
355
0.026
18.7
12.8
17.4
15.1
6000
334
334
9.2
151
0.999
0.0557
45.3
2009
375
0.023
19.0
13.0
17.9
15.4
6000
333
335
9.1
151
1.003
0.0558
46.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-75
November 2009

-------
«gm
™ ™	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-46 (cont.)
Percent of 6000 lb. Pickups:
mc >¦>¦-: i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ VNn\||nn|CIN
I I I.I Ml. 1 I.KIM;
Nl MI5I.K (II \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in iskiii
1 l\( IN 1
4\\ II
M \NI \l
1 (>( K
( \ 1
cm
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
Mil K
i in i:
1978

3.7
77.6












1979

62.2













1980



100.0











1985

100.0
100.0





100.0






1988

100.0
100.0





100.0






1989

100.0
100.0





100.0






1990

100.0
100.0





100.0






1991

100.0
100.0





100.0






1994

100.0
1.0
99.0


100.0


100.0





1995

100.0
0.5
99.5


100.0


100.0





1996

100.0

100.0




100.0
100.0





1997

100.0

100.0




100.0
100.0





1998

100.0
0.5
99.5


98.4

1.6
100.0





1999

100.0
0.1
99.9


100.0

0.0
100.0





2000

100.0
3.0
97.0


100.0


100.0





2001

100.0
17.0
83.0


100.0


100.0





2002

71.3
0.1
99.9


100.0


97.7

2.3



2003

69.1
0.0
100.0


100.0


100.0





2004

87.8
0.0
100.0


100.0


36.1
63.9


63.9

2005

88.5
0.0
100.0


100.0


32.1
67.9


67.9

2006

93.0
0.0
100.0


100.0


17.0
83.0


83.0

2007

83.6

100.0


100.0


35.5
40.3
24.2

64.5

2008

86.2

100.0


100.0


23.0
39.3
37.7

78.0

2009

88.1

98.3
1.7

100.0


50.5
19.3
30.2

61.3
1.7
EPA-420-R-09-014
G-76
November 2009

-------
«gm
•¦™"* ""	Appendix G: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Weight Class
Table G-47
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 6500 lb. Pickup



i i i.i i.c <>\<>\n








moi)i:i
N\l l>

1 Ali
VD.I
VD.I
\l).l
\\<;ii I
i:m;im:
0 (ill
ICM'
III'
III'
ION
^ i:\k
lIHIIIi
1 l\ w
55 45
(in
ll\U
( C)\ll'
I it
(id
III'
11 mi:
M'l)
(II)
\\ 1
Mi'(;
1978
0
0.000
11.8
9.7
10.4
10.0
6500
322
153
18.3
104
0.475
0.0235
32.6
1980
1
0.000
12.0
9.5
11.3
10.3
6500
368
150
18.5
103
0.408
0.0231
33.3
2005
3
0.000
16.3
11.4
14.9
13.2
6500
330
300
10.6
139
0.909
0.0462
42.8
2006
0
0.000
15.2
10.6
14.2
12.4
6500
330
445
7.7
173
1.348
0.0685
40.2
2007
0
0.000
15.1
10.6
13.9
12.2
6500
330
445
7.7
173
1.348
0.0685
39.8
2008
0
0.000
16.0
11.0
15.0
13.0
6500
330
445
7.7
173
1.348
0.0685
42.2
Percent of 6500 lb. Pickups:
Moi)i:i
^ i: vu
l>KI\ I.IK Vl\
1 l\ WsMlsslON
I I I I Ml. II.KIN(;
M Mlil'.K <)l \ \\ \ l>
\ \ i
in liuii)
1 l(()\ 1
4\\ 1)
M VM
1 ()( K
(\ 1
Cl)l
I'OUI
1 lil
DM
1 WO
i iiki.i:
1'C»l l\
11\ i:
1978















1980















2005

100.0

100.0


100.0



100.0


100.0

2006

100.0

100.0


100.0


100.0



100.0

2007

100.0

100.0


100.0



100.0


100.0

2008

100.0

100.0


100.0



100.0


93.2

EPA-420-R-09-014
G-77
November 2009

-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Appendix H
Fuel Economy Data Stratified by
Vehicle Type and Drive Type
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

-------
.AI I.'
(Ill III)
539
561
774
1075
1283
2804
3235
3568
3784
5737
6648
7831
8267
8768
8267
7455
7096
6551
7195
7104
7701
6829
7213
6937
7305
7752
7073
7052
6495
6094
6403
6057
6509
5716
6489
¦014
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-l
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Front Drive Cars
-I I I.I l!< <>\<>\M-
I |{ \<
I.AIi
55/45
\l).l
(in
\d.i
iin ^
A I). I
< ()\ir
\\(.ii i
i it
\<>i
(i-ii
i \<. i \i
< id
in*
I Mill
I I Ml
l()l'
sn>
nr
< id
nr
\\ I
iov
MI'C
( I -II-
\ir<;

-------
Um»»d Siasafl
Environmental PtoToclion
Agency
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-l (cont.)
Percent of Front Drive Cars:
moi)i:i
^ 1. Vl<
1 l\
n i.i mi: i i:m\<.
\ I NK 1 i: SI/I-
M MlJIikOI \.\l \ I S
\ \ 1
in limn
M\M \l
1 (X K
< A 1
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
l)S|
SM \l 1
Mil)
1 Al«.l
1 WO
i nm:i:
IOI U
H\ 1.
1975
66.8



17.6


87.4
8.3
4.3






1976
59.7



18.9


86.9
8.8
4.4






1977
68.2



31.3

2.8
89.5
6.1
4.4






1978
70.4



31.0

3.6
93.6
4.2
2.2






1979
67.4



19.6

5.6
87.0
13.0
0.0






1980
48.8
1.0


9.5
1.6
6.8
67.8
32.2
0.0






1981
46.7



5.4
1.8
5.4
68.1
31.9
0.0






1982
41.0
32.2


5.0
13.9
2.7
71.0
29.0
0.0






1983
37.4
38.9


5.8
25.1
1.3
68.3
31.7
0.0






1984
30.3
42.4


8.6
27.9
1.6
69.0
31.0
0.0






1985
26.3
48.6


21.0
33.5
0.7
63.3
29.4
7.2






1986
27.1
52.4


33.1
34.2
0.3
62.5
28.5
9.1
94.3
4.5
1.3



1987
26.2
56.5


38.0
36.7
0.0
66.3
24.7
9.0
82.1
11.7
6.1



1988
25.5
64.6


48.5
35.1

67.5
23.8
8.7
76.9
11.1
12.0



1989
21.7
68.6
0.2

58.0
31.4
0.0
61.0
29.3
9.7
73.1
12.9
14.0



1990
19.7
73.1
0.0

75.2
23.6
0.0
61.1
28.8
10.1
65.6
5.4
29.0



1991
21.0
73.7


77.5
22.3
0.1
64.1
27.3
8.5
64.6
7.3
28.1

1.9

1992
18.5
75.4


90.3
9.7
0.0
61.6
27.3
11.1
65.5
5.5
29.0

3.4

1993
18.7
76.3


91.9
8.1

60.4
29.7
9.9
62.1
3.5
34.5

3.8

1994
17.4
78.8


93.9
6.1

61.3
26.3
12.4
56.2
2.2
41.6

7.7

1995
16.8
82.4


98.6
1.4

60.4
27.5
12.1
46.3
1.3
52.4

9.9

1996
14.6
84.4
0.0

98.7
1.3
0.1
56.2
33.3
10.6
38.9
1.1
60.0

11.6

1997
13.1
86.1
0.1

99.0
0.9
0.0
56.9
31.1
12.0
39.2
1.0
59.7
0.0
9.7

1998
11.5
88.0
0.1

99.7
0.2
0.2
48.8
41.4
9.8
37.3
0.9
61.3
0.5
17.3

1999
10.0
89.4
0.0

99.8
0.1
0.1
47.4
42.0
10.5
33.7
1.1
64.0
1.2
15.9

2000
9.7
89.3
0.0

99.7

0.3
46.5
36.1
17.4
33.5
0.9
64.1
1.4
22.5
0.1
2001
9.9
88.8
0.3

99.7

0.3
50.1
34.0
15.9
32.7
0.4
64.8
2.1
26.6
0.0
2002
9.5
89.8
0.5

99.5

0.5
45.7
38.9
15.4
30.3
0.4
67.1
2.3
33.7
0.4
2003
10.0
88.8
1.1

99.5

0.5
48.8
36.3
15.0
26.2

71.0
2.8
41.9
0.7
2004
8.5
89.6
1.7

99.6

0.4
45.3
39.0
15.7
21.8

76.3
1.9
43.9
1.2
2005
8.2
88.9
2.8

99.5

0.5
43.7
41.9
14.3
21.3

77.9
0.8
54.1
2.6
2006
8.3
88.9
2.8

99.3

0.7
46.5
36.3
17.2
18.7

81.2
0.1
62.3
2.0
2007
6.3
80.4
12.4
0.3
99.7


43.5
43.2
13.3
14.5

85.5

68.0
4.2
2008
6.9
78.4
14.7
2.0
98.0


43.9
38.1
18.0
11.6

88.4

66.7
4.3
2009
8.3
77.3
14.2
2.0
97.2

0.9
43.2
35.1
21.6
8.7

91.3

77.7
3.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
H-2
November 2009

-------
.A I IS
(IIIIH)
7698
9161
10526
10100
9474
6553
5436
4188
3973
4830
3918
3068
2347
1879
1654
1268
1310
1467
1161
1274
1585
943
977
855
888
1186
1063
933
1151
1035
1163
1475
1113
1095
1152
¦014
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-2
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Rear Drive Cars
-I I I.I l!< <>\<>\M-
I |{ \<
I.AIi
55/45
\l).l
(in
\d.i
iiw ^
A I). I
< ()\ir
\\(.ii i
i it
\<>i
(i-ii
i \<. i \i
< id
in*
I Mill
I I Ml
l()l'
sn>
nr
< id
nr
\\ I
iov
MI'C
( I -II-
\ir<;

-------
Um»»d Siasafl
Environmental PtoToclion
Agency
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-2 (cont.)
Percent of Rear Drive Cars:
moi)i:i
^ 1. Vl<
1 l\
n i.i mi: i i:m\<.
\ I NK 1 i: SI/I-
M MIJIiKOI \.\l \ I S
\ \ 1
in limn
M\M \l
1 (X K
< A 1
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
l)S|
SM \l 1
Mil)
1 Al«.l
l\\<>
111 ui:i:
IOI U
H\ 1.
1975
16.6



4.3

0.3
53.2
24.4
22.4






1976
14.5



2.2

0.3
53.5
26.2
20.3






1977
13.0



2.2

0.3
49.2
25.9
24.9






1978
14.9
7.4


2.3

0.6
39.5
37.6
23.0






1979
15.9
9.2


2.7

1.6
37.6
37.2
25.2






1980
24.4
23.4


4.9
0.3
3.5
48.0
35.7
16.2






1981
20.3
53.3


6.6
3.1
6.3
41.0
39.4
19.6






1982
19.5
68.0


9.2
6.4
6.4
43.6
33.1
23.4






1983
14.3
76.4


13.5
14.1
2.9
35.7
33.9
30.4






1984
16.1
77.7


22.8
20.8
1.8
42.7
28.0
29.2






1985
15.1
77.0


22.9
31.3
1.3
40.8
29.2
30.0






1986
17.0
74.4


46.0
14.9
0.3
50.6
27.2
22.1
97.5

2.5



1987
18.3
73.0


58.9
9.8
1.0
52.0
24.0
24.1
96.0

4.0



1988
16.1
76.2


78.8
5.3
0.0
51.1
16.2
32.7
95.5
1.5
3.0



1989
14.9
75.9


83.3
10.7
0.0
43.4
23.1
33.5
89.2
5.4
5.4



1990
17.5
73.3


90.5
6.8
0.2
41.1
29.8
29.1
77.9
5.1
17.0

4.2

1991
15.8
75.2


79.5
20.1
0.5
44.0
22.4
33.7
77.6
0.3
22.1

5.6

1992
10.6
83.0


85.7
14.0
0.3
31.3
31.8
36.9
64.5

35.5

10.2

1993
11.4
81.8


89.4
10.6

34.4
30.5
35.1
75.2

24.8

11.3

1994
12.6
82.0


99.9

0.1
42.1
25.8
32.1
73.8

26.2

10.3

1995
12.9
80.5


99.6

0.4
42.5
33.2
24.3
58.3

41.7
0.0
10.2

1996
14.5
79.6


99.7

0.3
42.2
20.3
37.5
73.9

26.0
0.0
13.1

1997
13.9
85.9


99.7

0.3
43.3
22.9
33.8
61.8
1.2
37.0
0.1
24.7

1998
15.7
84.0


99.6

0.4
57.1
15.4
27.5
57.2
6.3
36.5
0.1
27.5

1999
15.9
83.3


99.5

0.5
52.1
15.1
32.8
56.0
10.5
33.4
0.1
25.8

2000
18.3
79.3


99.6
0.4

56.3
16.9
26.8
49.1
7.5
43.3
0.0
29.0

2001
16.8
82.8


100.0


58.9
13.8
27.3
41.7
12.8
45.4
0.1
38.7

2002
18.3
81.2


100.0


67.1
15.1
17.9
38.7
14.3
46.9
0.1
36.5

2003
15.5
84.5


100.0


58.5
16.7
24.8
32.4
15.6
51.9
0.1
39.0

2004
17.2
82.6


100.0


57.2
17.9
24.8
37.1
9.5
53.1
0.2
46.9

2005
13.1
86.6


99.4

0.6
47.7
22.9
29.3
32.4
11.1
56.4
0.0
43.2

2006
12.5
87.2


99.6

0.4
46.6
17.8
35.6
25.8
8.4
65.7

53.8

2007
14.1
85.8

0.4
99.4

0.2
51.2
21.4
27.4
24.9
6.8
68.2

59.5
0.3
2008
11.8
88.0

5.7
94.0

0.3
48.5
20.0
31.5
21.0
4.1
74.9

54.5
0.1
2009
11.5
85.2

7.8
91.6

0.6
46.3
18.3
35.4
21.6
3.8
74.6

57.8
0.1
EPA-420-R-09-014
H-4
November 2009

-------
\l I.'
III III)
37
85
61
63
245
107
224
116
118
89
96
86
118
90
100
36
109
118
144
179
186
190
273
318
305
410
462
461
463
535
559
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-3
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Four Wheel Drive Cars
-I I I.I l!< <>\<>\M-
I |{ \<
I.AIi
55/45
\l).l
(in
\d.i
iiw ^
A I). I
< ()\ir
\\(.ii i
i it
\<>i
(i-ii
i \<. i \i
< id
in*
I Mill
I I Ml
l()l'
sn>
nr
< id
nr
\\ I
iov
MI'C
( I -II-
\ir<;

-------
Um»»d Siasafl
Environmental PtoToclion
Agency
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-3 (cont.)
Percent of Four Wheel Drive Cars:
moi)i:i
^ 1. Vl<
IKA\s\||\SI<>\
n i.i mi: i i:m\<.
\ I NK 1 i: SI/I-
M MIJIiKOI \ Al \ I S
\ \ 1
in limn
M\M \l
1 ()( k
< A 1
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
l)S|
SM \l 1
Mil)
1 Al«.l
1 WO
111 ui:i:
IOI U
H\ 1.
1979
100.0






100.0
0.0
0.0






1980
53.5






100.0
0.0
0.0






1981
73.3
26.7





100.0
0.0
0.0






1982
67.5
32.5





100.0
0.0
0.0






1983
55.8
14.5


1.0


100.0
0.0
0.0






1984
59.2
35.4


7.8


100.0
0.0
0.0






1985
54.0
36.7


9.8


93.1
6.9
0.0






1986
72.4
0.0


34.7


90.3
9.7
0.0
100.0





1987
69.7
0.5


27.6
6.8

94.9
5.1
0.0
94.9
5.1




1988
76.8
6.2


35.2
44.3

95.3
4.7
0.0
75.2
14.7
10.1



1989
60.9
15.4


78.1
21.0

77.1
22.9
0.0
58.2
1.1
40.7



1990
45.8
45.1
2.4

82.1
17.9

95.0
5.0
0.0
28.6
5.9
65.5



1991
42.4
45.0
3.1

87.5
12.5

97.3
2.7
0.0
15.1
5.2
79.6



1992
49.3
38.0
0.1

100.0


97.7
2.3
0.0
37.7
0.5
61.9



1993
32.6
63.9
0.8

93.4
6.6

93.8
6.2
0.0
14.6
2.0
83.3



1994
29.2
61.6


100.0


98.4
1.6
0.0
83.3

16.7



1995
30.7
69.3


100.0


55.1
44.9
0.0
5.8

94.2



1996
31.0
67.5


100.0


44.4
55.6
0.0
15.4

84.6

2.4

1997
27.9
72.1


100.0


45.3
54.7
0.0
11.3

84.8
4.0
1.4

1998
24.3
75.7


100.0


36.7
63.3
0.0
1.2

77.8
21.0
17.9

1999
22.7
77.1


100.0


36.7
63.3
0.0
1.2

70.9
27.9
22.7

2000
25.4
74.4


100.0


32.0
67.6
0.3


69.0
31.0
23.7

2001
27.7
71.9


100.0


39.9
59.4
0.7

3.7
56.7
39.6
32.9

2002
27.5
72.2


100.0


59.5
40.3
0.2

2.9
72.1
25.1
30.3

2003
17.1
82.9


100.0


64.4
34.6
1.0
9.4
1.9
65.9
22.7
33.2

2004
17.2
82.7


100.0


54.7
28.6
16.7

6.8
73.5
19.6
40.8

2005
14.2
78.8
7.0

100.0


42.3
37.4
20.4
1.3
6.5
83.1
9.1
39.1

2006
13.3
81.5
5.2

100.0


41.0
36.8
22.2
3.6
4.9
88.3
3.2
59.6

2007
9.6
80.3
6.0

99.7

0.3
44.5
39.3
16.2
1.1
0.2
98.2
0.5
55.3

2008
11.3
88.1
0.6
10.7
89.1

0.2
44.1
45.5
10.5
0.2

99.6
0.2
46.6
0.4
2009
9.4
90.4

18.9
80.9

0.2
45.1
42.4
12.5
0.8

99.1
0.0
62.9
0.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
H-6
November 2009

-------
\l I.'
(Ill III)
1
0
151
260
255
307
411
439
590
395
554
718
741
1019
1040
819
1166
1112
1363
854
1048
1029
825
1321
1047
795
717
684
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-4
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Front Drive Vans
-I I I.I l!< <>\<>\M-
I |{ \<
I.AIi
55/45
\l).l
(in
\d.i
iin ^
A I). I
< ()\ir
\\(.ii i
i it
i:\«;im:
< id
nr
iu.ii
11 mi:
l()l'
SI'I)
ill'
< id
nr
\\ I
iov
\ir<;
0.003
17.9
13.8
17.5
15.2
4115
318
135
13.7
111
0.425
0.0329
31.3
0.002
39.0
33.5
32.3
32.9
2250
97
52
18.3
93
0.536
0.0231
37.2
0.223
24.7
19.6
23.1
21.0
3340
143
97
15.3
104
0.680
0.0293
35.3
0.304
23.7
18.9
21.9
20.1
3422
148
100
15.2
104
0.681
0.0294
34.5
0.244
24.4
19.2
22.8
20.7
3442
150
100
15.4
104
0.669
0.0291
35.7
0.275
24.6
19.1
23.1
20.8
3503
163
122
13.6
111
0.741
0.0347
36.4
0.363
24.1
18.3
23.1
20.3
3714
173
133
13.2
114
0.765
0.0359
37.7
0.344
24.1
18.4
22.8
20.2
3724
168
131
13.5
113
0.776
0.0350
37.7
0.468
23.9
17.9
23.0
20.0
3828
184
135
13.3
113
0.733
0.0354
38.4
0.382
23.8
17.9
22.5
19.9
3919
186
136
13.5
113
0.727
0.0346
38.9
0.454
23.8
17.6
22.7
19.8
3894
187
138
13.2
114
0.742
0.0355
38.6
0.498
23.8
17.4
22.9
19.8
3838
188
143
12.7
116
0.763
0.0373
37.9
0.523
23.5
17.1
22.5
19.5
3902
193
145
12.7
116
0.755
0.0373
38.1
0.613
23.5
16.9
22.8
19.5
3889
206
146
12.6
117
0.722
0.0375
37.9
0.738
23.5
16.7
22.7
19.4
4061
202
166
11.8
122
0.824
0.0409
39.4
0.647
23.5
16.7
22.7
19.4
4048
195
161
12.0
120
0.832
0.0400
39.2
0.783
23.8
16.7
23.1
19.6
4025
201
173
11.3
124
0.864
0.0431
39.4
0.760
23.5
16.4
22.9
19.3
4147
204
175
11.4
124
0.863
0.0423
40.0
0.806
23.8
16.5
23.0
19.4
4168
202
178
11.4
124
0.888
0.0427
40.5
0.693
24.3
16.7
23.3
19.8
4242
201
189
10.9
128
0.946
0.0447
42.0
0.843
24.0
16.5
22.9
19.5
4318
207
197
10.8
129
0.959
0.0458
42.1
0.835
24.4
16.6
23.2
19.7
4293
209
199
10.6
130
0.955
0.0464
42.3
0.866
24.3
16.3
23.4
19.6
4428
212
212
10.4
133
1.007
0.0480
43.5
0.892
24.4
16.3
23.3
19.6
4392
212
208
10.5
132
0.984
0.0474
43.2
0.898
24.7
16.5
23.7
19.9
4424
213
210
10.4
132
0.992
0.0475
44.1
0.938
24.4
16.3
23.4
19.7
4449
217
225
10.0
136
1.040
0.0505
43.8
0.927
24.8
16.5
23.8
20.0
4523
219
220
10.4
134
1.007
0.0487
45.3
0.943
24.9
16.6
23.9
20.1
4553
220
219
10.7
133
0.997
0.0480
45.8
H-7
November 2009

-------
Um»»d Siasafl
Environmental PtoToclion
Agency
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-4 (cont.)
Percent of Front Drive Vans:
moi)i:i
^ 1. Vl<
1 l\
m i.i mi:ii:ri\(.
\ I NK 1 i: SI/I-
m mi{i:roi \.\i \ i s
\ \ 1
in limn
M\M \l
1 (X K
< A 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
l>S|
SM \l 1
Mil)
1 Al«.l
1 wo
1 Ilk II
IOI U
H\ 1.
1981
100.0






0.0
100.0
0.0






1983
33.3





100.0
100.0
0.0
0.0






1984
25.1
5.6




1.3
11.0
89.0
0.0






1985
12.4
4.4


0.1


6.7
93.3
0.0






1986
8.7
6.1



0.1

9.0
91.0
0.0






1987
5.5
54.1


51.6
0.2

8.4
91.6
0.0






1988
3.0
78.4


79.2
20.8

2.9
97.1
0.0






1989
2.6
58.8


72.7
27.3

2.2
97.8
0.0






1990
1.9
96.7


67.9
32.1

2.9
97.1
0.0






1991
0.2
99.8


70.5
29.5

1.6
98.4
0.0






1992
2.4
97.6


82.0
18.0

6.1
93.9
0.0






1993
1.6
98.4


88.8
11.2

1.7
98.3
0.0






1994
0.6
99.4


90.8
9.2

1.0
99.0
0.0
99.7

0.3



1995
0.1
99.9


93.2
6.8

0.2
99.7
0.2
96.7

3.3



1996

100.0


100.0


0.1
99.9
0.0
94.4

5.6



1997

100.0


100.0


0.0
99.8
0.2
92.5

7.5



1998

100.0


100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
88.0

12.0



1999

100.0


100.0


0.0
99.9
0.1
83.6

16.4

10.8

2000

100.0


100.0


0.0
99.9
0.1
73.2

26.8

18.6

2001

100.0


100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
67.4

32.6

24.5

2002

100.0


100.0


0.0
99.9
0.1
66.3

33.7

24.7

2003

100.0


100.0


0.0
99.6
0.4
69.1

30.9

23.5

2004

100.0


100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
42.7

57.3

50.1

2005

97.0
3.0

100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
62.0

38.0

26.2

2006

96.6
3.4

100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
51.8

48.2

38.6

2007

96.8
3.2

100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
46.1

53.9

51.0

2008

100.0


100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
48.0

52.0

48.9

2009

100.0


100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
39.7

60.3

40.1

EPA-420-R-09-014
H-8
November 2009

-------
\l I.'
III III)
457
502
514
625
480
242
244
310
382
525
593
776
786
713
829
589
526
600
658
585
492
336
387
274
311
282
272
157
141
81
79
66
28
24
25
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-5
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Rear Drive Vans
-I I I.I l!< <>\<>\M-
I |{ \<
I.AIi
55/45
\l).l
(in
\d.i
iiw ^
A I). I
<>\ir
\\(.ii i
i it
i:\«;im:
< id
nr
ii-(.n
11 mi:
l()l'
SI'I)
ill'
< id
nr
\\ I
iov
MI'C
1.000
13.1
10.6
11.9
11.1
4196
317
143
13.9
113
0.448
0.0341
23.8
1.000
13.9
11.1
12.8
11.8
4200
324
146
13.7
114
0.447
0.0347
25.2
1.000
14.7
11.9
13.3
12.5
4252
332
152
13.3
116
0.458
0.0359
26.9
1.000
14.2
11.6
12.7
12.1
4249
329
149
13.4
115
0.453
0.0351
26.1
1.000
13.5
11.1
12.1
11.5
4541
322
144
14.6
111
0.451
0.0317
26.5
1.000
16.6
13.3
15.4
14.1
4353
288
130
15.2
108
0.459
0.0299
31.0
0.997
17.5
14.0
16.0
14.8
4325
284
129
15.3
108
0.458
0.0298
32.3
1.000
17.3
13.9
15.9
14.7
4342
287
132
15.2
109
0.463
0.0303
32.3
0.998
17.7
14.1
16.5
15.1
4418
295
136
15.0
109
0.466
0.0307
33.7
0.777
17.7
14.0
16.6
15.1
4286
280
134
14.8
110
0.497
0.0311
32.9
0.693
18.0
14.3
16.8
15.3
4222
275
142
14.0
112
0.533
0.0335
32.9
0.743
19.5
15.3
18.4
16.6
4198
255
137
14.2
111
0.559
0.0327
35.1
0.705
19.6
15.2
18.7
16.6
4169
253
151
13.1
116
0.622
0.0362
34.9
0.630
19.8
15.1
19.0
16.7
4256
262
155
12.9
117
0.615
0.0366
35.7
0.649
19.8
15.0
19.1
16.7
4239
257
155
13.0
117
0.627
0.0366
35.7
0.467
19.3
14.5
18.6
16.2
4369
270
162
12.8
118
0.619
0.0372
35.6
0.509
20.1
15.0
19.3
16.8
4305
249
157
12.9
117
0.664
0.0366
36.4
0.491
19.8
14.7
19.0
16.6
4360
256
163
12.7
118
0.664
0.0375
36.3
0.456
20.2
14.9
19.5
16.9
4350
249
166
12.5
119
0.692
0.0383
36.8
0.413
19.5
14.3
18.6
16.2
4439
268
176
12.1
122
0.669
0.0397
36.1
0.296
19.0
13.9
18.0
15.7
4535
289
186
11.7
124
0.660
0.0414
35.8
0.239
19.2
13.9
18.2
15.9
4560
273
185
11.9
123
0.691
0.0406
36.3
0.306
19.8
14.2
18.8
16.3
4579
269
200
11.2
128
0.748
0.0436
37.3
0.184
19.5
13.9
18.5
16.0
4759
280
209
11.1
129
0.750
0.0441
38.1
0.213
18.9
13.5
17.8
15.5
4822
285
208
11.3
128
0.731
0.0431
37.3
0.167
19.1
13.6
17.8
15.6
4718
283
208
11.1
129
0.735
0.0440
36.9
0.221
18.9
13.3
17.9
15.4
4958
290
225
10.8
132
0.779
0.0454
38.3
0.126
18.7
13.2
17.2
15.1
4807
284
213
11.0
130
0.752
0.0445
36.5
0.114
19.4
13.6
17.7
15.6
4930
283
218
11.1
130
0.767
0.0441
38.6
0.085
20.1
13.9
18.5
16.2
4947
281
221
10.9
131
0.785
0.0448
39.9
0.054
19.9
13.8
18.2
16.0
4846
277
214
11.1
129
0.769
0.0442
38.6
0.057
19.4
13.4
17.7
15.6
5139
281
225
11.1
130
0.800
0.0438
40.0
0.033
20.0
13.8
18.4
16.1
5159
277
220
11.5
128
0.785
0.0424
41.5
0.031
20.3
14.1
18.3
16.2
5189
277
222
11.5
128
0.794
0.0425
42.0
0.034
20.0
13.8
18.1
16.0
5420
290
242
11.1
132
0.826
0.0442
43.4
H-9
November 2009

-------
Um»»d Siasafl
Environmental PtoToclion
Agency
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-5 (cont.)
Percent of Rear Drive Vans:
moi)i:i
^ 1. Vl<
IKANSMISSION
n i.i mi: i i:m\<.
\ I NK 1 i: SI/I-
M MIJIiKOI \ Al \ I S
\ \ 1
in limn
M\M \l
1 ()( k
< A 1
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
l)S|
SM \l 1
Mil)
1 Al«.l
1 WO
111 ui:i:
IOI U
H\ 1.
1975
23.3




0.2

0.4
66.1
33.6






1976
20.5




0.3

0.3
61.4
38.3






1977
14.3




0.4

0.4
61.0
38.6






1978
13.0




0.4

0.4
63.8
35.8






1979
14.8
6.8



1.8

1.8
65.1
33.1






1980
26.0
39.0



6.5

6.5
53.8
39.7






1981
21.7
46.8



4.6

4.6
56.1
39.3






1982
15.7
45.8



3.0
1.8
4.8
58.0
37.2






1983
12.0
59.4



3.5
4.4
3.6
60.2
36.2






1984
12.7
57.1


8.6
4.0
1.2
12.6
54.3
33.1






1985
8.4
66.5


9.1
4.2
0.4
12.3
60.3
27.4






1986
6.9
78.8


29.4
21.9
0.5
8.5
70.9
20.6






1987
5.1
74.1


43.0
42.8
0.1
10.0
72.2
17.8






1988
3.1
79.6


43.5
56.0
0.2
4.9
75.9
19.2






1989
2.5
86.3


49.9
50.0
0.1
2.2
80.7
17.1






1990
1.0
90.4


44.4
55.4
0.1
1.1
80.6
18.2






1991
1.5
94.3


53.1
46.7
0.1
0.8
84.8
14.4






1992
0.7
95.2


60.3
39.6
0.1
0.0
84.5
15.5






1993
0.8
95.6


66.3
33.7

0.0
83.8
16.2






1994
0.3
94.7


66.6
33.4

0.0
80.9
19.1
97.4
0.2
2.4



1995

94.4


71.6
28.4

0.0
79.2
20.8
96.7

3.3



1996

93.2


100.0


0.0
67.4
32.6
94.7
3.2
2.1



1997

98.6


100.0


0.0
64.4
35.6
96.9
2.2
0.9



1998

100.0


100.0


0.0
51.8
48.2
97.7

2.3



1999

100.0


100.0


0.0
45.4
54.6
100.0





2000

100.0


100.0


0.0
40.5
59.5
100.0





2001

100.0


100.0


0.0
19.8
80.2
100.0





2002

100.0


100.0


0.0
29.3
70.7
100.0





2003

100.0


100.0


0.0
29.4
70.6
100.0





2004

100.0


100.0


0.0
31.4
68.6
100.0





2005

100.0


100.0


0.0
35.1
64.9
100.0





2006

100.0


100.0


0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0





2007

100.0


100.0


0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0





2008

100.0


100.0


0.0
4.5
95.5
100.0





2009

100.0


100.0


0.0
0.0
100.0
100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
H-10
November 2009

-------
\l I.'
III III)
3
13
21
9
9
83
113
67
65
91
150
33
59
48
40
46
107
38
62
47
81
53
25
32
16
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-6
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Four Wheel Drive Vans
-I I I.I l!< <>\<>\M-
I l< \<
0.003
0.013
0.019
0.008
0.007
0.066
0.109
0.055
0.045
0.064
0.091
0.023
0.047
0.032
0.027
0.027
0.087
0.030
0.050
0.049
0.055
0.045
0.029
0.041
0.022
I.AIi
55/45
25.0
25.1
24.2
26.2
23.4
20.1
20.6
20.3
20.3
20.7
21.7
20.0
20.0
20.2
20.4
20.5
17.3
19.8
20.7
21.6
22.4
22.7
22.7
22.3
21.6
\l).l
(in
19.2
19.1
19.0
20.0
17.9
15.2
15.5
15.1
15.0
15.1
15.7
14.5
14.3
14.4
14.4
14.5
12.1
13.8
14.3
14.8
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.2
14.8
\l).l
iin ^
24.8
24.8
22.4
25.1
22.0
19.1
19.6
19.3
19.5
19.9
20.9
19.0
19.0
19.3
19.3
19.2
16.5
18.8
19.5
20.1
20.6
20.9
20.8
20.6
19.8
AIM
< <>\ir
21.4
21.4
20.5
22.1
19.6
16.9
17.2
16.9
16.9
17.2
18.0
16.5
16.4
16.6
16.7
16.7
14.2
16.1
16.8
17.4
18.0
18.2
18.2
17.9
17.3
\\<;n i
i ii
3000
3000
3459
3378
3567
4050
4076
4409
4571
4408
4209
4727
4693
4713
4747
4764
5614
4772
4839
4731
4645
4669
4695
4651
4822
i:\«;im.
< id
122
122
128
125
135
202
200
212
229
219
208
244
243
238
250
252
300
240
239
228
206
205
214
226
239
nr
94
97
106
151
152
161
174
169
159
177
179
180
186
181
241
195
202
222
213
214
238
270
274
I	Mill
II	mi:
14.9
14.9
15.8
15.2
15.1
12.7
12.6
12.9
12.5
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.4
12.4
12.1
12.4
11.3
11.7
11.6
10.5
10.7
10.7
9.9
8.9
ior
SI'I)
103
103
102
104
105
117
117
117
120
120
118
120
120
121
122
120
130
125
126
133
131
131
138
148
147
III'
( II)
0.721
0.721
0.739
0.777
0.781
0.765
0.778
0.774
0.765
0.781
0.775
0.735
0.741
0.762
0.745
0.717
0.805
0.824
0.854
0.994
1.051
1.052
1.129
1.211
1.175
nr
\\ i
0.0293
0.0293
0.0276
0.0289
0.0299
0.0375
0.0374
0.0366
0.0381
0.0383
0.0378
0.0375
0.0380
0.0382
0.0393
0.0380
0.0428
0.0411
0.0416
0.0471
0.0460
0.0459
0.0507
0.0582
0.0572
H-ll
November 2009

-------
Um»»d Siasafl
Environmental PtoToclion
Agency
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-6 (cont.)
Percent of Four Wheel Drive Vans:
moi)i:i
^ 1. Vl<
IKA\s\||\SI<>\
n i.i mi: i i:m\<.
\ I NK 1 i: SI/I-
M MIJIiKOI \ Al \ I S
\ \ 1
in limn
M\M \l
1 ()( k
< A 1
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
l)S|
SM \l 1
Mil)
1 Al«.l
1 WO
111 ui:i:
IOI U
H\ 1.
1985
100.0






100.0
0.0
0.0






1986
100.0






100.0
0.0
0.0






1987
77.1
22.9


67.5


100.0
0.0
0.0






1988
89.7
10.3


100.0


100.0
0.0
0.0






1989
61.4
37.2


100.0


82.6
17.4
0.0






1990
3.2
92.5


85.0
15.0

8.4
91.6
0.0






1991
4.5
95.4


85.9
14.1

3.8
96.2
0.0






1992
3.3
96.7


91.1
8.9

9.3
90.7
0.0






1993
0.2
99.5


100.0


0.3
99.4
0.3






1994
0.5
99.5


97.5
2.5

4.0
96.0
0.0
65.1
31.7
3.2



1995
0.4
99.6


100.0


2.9
97.1
0.0
83.0
10.9
6.2



1996
0.1
99.9


100.0


0.4
99.6
0.0
84.7
11.8
3.6



1997

100.0


100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
89.8
8.0
2.2



1998

100.0


100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
82.1

17.9



1999

100.0


100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0





2000

100.0


100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0





2001

100.0


100.0


0.0
28.9
71.1
100.0





2002

100.0


100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0





2003

100.0


100.0


0.0
88.4
11.6
100.0





2004

100.0


100.0


0.0
90.7
9.3
44.4

55.6

55.6

2005

55.2
44.8

100.0


0.0
95.2
4.8
25.2

74.8

30.0

2006

62.4
37.6

100.0


0.0
92.4
7.6
23.1

76.9

39.3

2007

48.4
51.6

100.0


0.0
84.1
15.9
15.9

84.1

32.5

2008

100.0


100.0


0.0
87.4
12.6
12.6

87.4

41.0

2009

100.0


100.0


0.0
75.8
24.2
24.2

75.8

45.4

EPA-420-R-09-014
H-12
November 2009

-------
Um»»d Siasafl
Environmental PtoToclion
Agency
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-7
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Front Drive SUYs



—i i i.i i:< o\o\n —

i:\ci \i.






\l<>1)1.1
^ I.Ak
SAI IS
(III III)
1 |{ \<
I.AIi
55/45
\l).l
(in
\l).l
iin ^
AIM
(o\ir
WCII 1
1 li
( id
III'
ll-(.ll
11 mi:
ior
SI'I)
nr
( id
nr
W 1
l(>\-
MI'C

1994
9
0.005
20.4
15.5
18.4
16.8
4000
183
160
12.0
120
0.871
0.0401
33.6

1995
0
0.000
25.6
18.8
23.5
21.0
3500
122
94
16.0
102
0.770
0.0269
36.7

1996
18
0.010
30.6
22.4
27.9
24.9
2947
122
120
11.7
116
0.984
0.0408
36.7

1997
30
0.012
29.7
21.7
26.6
24.0
2987
122
120
11.8
116
0.984
0.0402
35.9

1998
47
0.018
29.1
21.2
25.8
23.4
3204
121
125
12.1
116
1.035
0.0394
37.4

1999
75
0.027
27.5
19.9
24.4
22.1
3466
139
161
10.8
126
1.148
0.0459
38.2

2000
79
0.025
26.8
19.3
23.8
21.5
3561
145
170
10.6
128
1.163
0.0471
38.2

2001
476
0.138
24.8
17.2
23.2
20.1
3960
190
188
10.4
130
1.018
0.0479
39.7

2002
395
0.094
26.3
18.2
24.2
21.1
3658
165
180
10.2
131
1.099
0.0493
38.6

2003
473
0.115
26.5
18.3
24.2
21.2
3636
163
177
10.3
130
1.088
0.0487
38.5

2004
579
0.123
26.0
17.7
24.0
20.8
3821
182
192
10.1
133
1.062
0.0504
39.7

2005
698
0.171
26.3
18.0
23.7
20.9
3764
175
187
10.1
132
1.069
0.0496
39.3

2006
738
0.196
26.6
18.1
24.0
21.1
3873
178
189
10.2
131
1.069
0.0488
41.0

2007
997
0.236
26.4
17.9
24.0
21.0
3967
180
207
9.8
136
1.147
0.0518
41.7

2008
1104
0.277
26.8
18.1
24.5
21.3
4017
179
210
9.7
136
1.166
0.0519
42.9

2009
1575
0.307
26.4
17.8
24.5
21.1
4148
187
220
9.6
138
1.178
0.0528
43.7

Percent of Front Drive SUYs:












MODII
11{\\S\||SS|()\
n i:i mi: i i:m\<;
\ i i IK i .i: si/i:
m mi{i:roi \ \i \ i:s


^ 1. \l<
M\M \l
1 ()( l\
( A 1
(.Di
roui
1 lil
DM
SMAI 1
Mil)
1 Ak(.l
1 wo
i NKi:i:
IOI U
11\ i:
\ \ i
in limn
1994
54.8
45.2


100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
26.2

73.8



1995
100.0



100.0


0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0





1996
23.2
76.8


100.0


100.0
0.0
0.0


100.0



1997
27.1
72.9


100.0


100.0
0.0
0.0


100.0



1998
13.0
87.0


100.0


59.1
40.9
0.0


100.0



1999
5.8
94.2


100.0


36.5
63.5
0.0


100.0

29.7

2000
3.2
96.8


100.0


27.2
72.8
0.0


100.0

39.4

2001
3.7
96.3


100.0


8.5
84.1
7.4
45.5

54.5

23.0

2002
6.1
93.7
0.3

100.0


18.1
72.2
9.7
18.1

81.9

43.1

2003
7.3
82.4
10.3

100.0


11.4
83.6
5.0
7.6

92.4

42.5

2004
5.1
88.0
6.9

100.0


6.9
83.8
9.3
13.8

86.2

51.0

2005
4.1
90.7
5.2

100.0


5.8
71.8
22.4
17.4

82.6

37.1
0.6
2006
2.8
89.2
8.0

100.0


0.0
75.4
24.6
9.1

90.9

46.6
3.8
2007
1.6
89.9
8.5

100.0


0.0
68.6
31.4
10.4

89.6

58.5
2.7
2008
1.0
89.5
9.5
1.8
98.2


0.0
70.4
29.6
5.9

94.1

66.7
2.5
2009
1.8
89.2
9.4
6.3
93.7


0.0
54.6
45.4
7.7

92.3

67.6
1.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
H-13
November 2009

-------
\l I.'
III III)
30
36
49
44
123
21
13
33
56
93
144
107
140
158
161
114
256
277
531
379
377
529
666
701
896
954
902
1124
1042
1064
743
635
694
507
748
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-8
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Rear Drive SUYs
-I I I.I l!< <>\<>\M-
I l< \<
0.159
0.147
0.175
0.115
0.307
0.112
0.096
0.205
0.193
0.150
0.196
0.139
0.161
0.163
0.174
0.161
0.234
0.277
0.405
0.234
0.208
0.280
0.272
0.271
0.317
0.304
0.261
0.268
0.253
0.226
0.182
0.169
0.164
0.127
0.146
I.AIi
55/45
13.3
13.2
14.6
13.8
11.6
14.5
16.0
20.4
21.1
19.8
20.1
19.6
20.6
20.7
20.6
20.0
21.2
20.9
20.1
20.9
20.3
20.6
20.7
20.6
20.0
20.3
20.5
20.1
19.7
19.9
20.1
20.4
20.8
21.0
21.4
\l).l
(in
10.6
10.3
11.6
10.9
9.7
11.4
12.8
16.3
16.6
15.3
15.4
15.0
15.5
15.5
15.4
14.9
15.9
15.6
14.8
15.4
14.8
14.8
15.0
14.8
14.2
14.4
14.6
14.0
13.7
13.7
13.7
13.9
14.1
14.2
14.5
\l).l
iin ^
12.5
12.6
13.5
13.0
9.9
13.6
14.7
19.0
19.9
19.3
20.1
19.1
20.5
20.4
20.2
19.5
20.1
19.7
19.3
19.8
19.3
19.6
19.5
19.4
18.8
18.9
18.8
18.7
18.4
18.5
18.8
19.2
19.5
19.8
20.2
AIM
<>\ir
11.3
11.2
12.4
11.8
9.8
12.3
13.6
17.4
18.0
16.9
17.2
16.6
17.5
17.5
17.4
16.8
17.7
17.4
16.7
17.4
16.8
17.0
17.0
16.9
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.3
16.0
16.0
16.2
16.5
16.8
17.0
17.3
\\<;n i
i ii
4374
4423
4379
4410
4915
5039
4895
4138
3921
4112
4033
4142
4074
4064
4078
4290
3918
3882
3994
3990
4179
4199
4222
4223
4455
4360
4382
4626
4901
4874
4979
4869
5159
5087
5022
i:\«;im.
< id
324
326
317
316
344
341
326
267
237
247
237
248
232
244
262
264
228
221
247
230
240
241
240
247
263
248
244
256
270
274
273
264
281
275
278
III1
148
145
146
147
144
161
162
126
122
128
128
139
151
155
163
170
151
158
181
170
168
180
186
190
203
198
209
229
244
250
262
255
272
279
281
I	Mill
II	mi:
13.8
14.1
13.9
13.7
15.6
14.2
13.9
14.8
14.5
14.5
14.3
13.7
12.7
12.3
11.9
12.0
12.5
12.0
11.0
11.5
12.0
11.4
11.1
10.9
10.8
10.9
10.4
10.1
10.0
9.8
9.6
9.7
9.6
9.4
9.2
ior
SI'I)
113
112
113
113
109
113
114
109
108
109
109
112
117
118
121
121
118
120
127
124
122
125
126
128
129
129
132
136
138
140
142
141
143
145
147
III'
( II)
0.452
0.445
0.461
0.470
0.430
0.472
0.497
0.492
0.548
0.549
0.571
0.603
0.676
0.662
0.641
0.666
0.674
0.726
0.745
0.761
0.728
0.769
0.800
0.792
0.793
0.818
0.878
0.905
0.911
0.919
0.967
0.973
0.972
1.016
1.017
nr
\\ i
0.0335
0.0327
0.0332
0.0334
0.0292
0.0321
0.0330
0.0313
0.0316
0.0313
0.0318
0.0338
0.0372
0.0387
0.0405
0.0400
0.0384
0.0406
0.0453
0.0427
0.0406
0.0430
0.0440
0.0450
0.0454
0.0453
0.0476
0.0496
0.0501
0.0516
0.0527
0.0524
0.0529
0.0548
0.0560
H-14
November 2009

-------
Um»»d Siasafl
Environmental PtoToclion
Agency
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-8 (cont.)
Percent of Rear Drive SUYs:
moi)i:i
^ 1. Vl<
IKA\s\||\SI<>\
n i.i mi: i i:m\<.
\ I NK 1 i: SI/I-
M MIJIiKOI \.\l \ I S
\ \ 1
in limn
M\M \l
1 ()( k
< A 1
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
l)S|
SM \l 1
Mil)
1 Al«.l
1 WO
111 ui:i:
IOI U
H\ 1.
1975
33.4






21.1
47.9
31.1






1976
35.8






23.6
41.7
34.7






1977
42.3






30.3
41.1
28.6






1978
46.4






30.1
37.4
32.5






1979
19.9
1.8





10.8
14.7
74.5






1980
14.9
84.2




0.0
0.0
20.4
79.6






1981
2.3
97.7





0.0
19.6
80.4






1982
1.7
60.7




23.5
32.9
20.7
46.4






1983
11.6
63.9




11.4
22.6
39.5
38.0






1984
11.5
74.6




5.6
3.3
60.3
36.4






1985
9.7
78.8



3.3
2.5
0.0
72.6
27.4






1986
10.0
86.0


0.0
47.9
2.3
0.0
63.4
36.5






1987
9.6
87.6


22.1
70.4
0.9
16.3
57.8
25.9






1988
17.0
81.3


33.3
65.6
0.7
24.3
49.8
25.8






1989
19.5
78.5


29.9
68.6
0.6
21.4
52.7
25.9






1990
20.9
73.9


38.5
57.8
0.7
23.7
40.2
36.2






1991
20.0
79.2


45.3
53.7
0.3
18.3
72.0
9.8






1992
22.5
77.5


63.6
35.3

17.4
73.8
8.8






1993
10.2
89.8


83.0
16.4

9.1
82.3
8.6






1994
17.6
75.8


78.4
21.6

16.3
68.9
14.8
91.6

8.4



1995
15.2
84.8


77.5
22.5

6.7
76.1
17.1
88.8

11.2



1996
10.2
89.8


100.0


4.4
84.5
11.1
74.8

25.2



1997
11.5
85.2


100.0


11.4
66.3
22.3
66.6

33.4



1998
6.8
93.2


100.0


7.9
63.1
28.9
74.5
5.6
19.8



1999
4.4
95.6


100.0


4.3
56.2
39.5
76.1
4.0
19.9



2000
3.6
96.4


100.0


11.5
54.3
34.2
75.5
3.8
20.7

0.6

2001
3.4
96.6


100.0


11.6
46.7
41.7
74.4

25.6

5.1

2002
2.3
97.7


100.0


3.9
35.3
60.8
63.2

36.8

13.5

2003
1.0
99.0


100.0


0.6
36.3
63.1
64.6

35.4

19.5

2004
1.1
98.9


100.0


0.9
35.1
64.0
59.3

40.7

27.5

2005
0.8
99.2


100.0


0.7
32.2
67.2
46.0
9.0
45.0

42.9

2006
1.1
98.9


100.0


0.0
44.2
55.8
38.2
11.1
50.7

52.5

2007
0.7
99.3


99.9

0.1
1.6
29.4
69.0
60.6
6.0
33.4

35.7

2008
0.4
98.8
0.7

100.0

0.0
1.1
31.3
67.6
47.2
7.6
45.2

45.9
0.7
2009
0.4
99.1
0.6

100.0


1.4
33.9
64.6
50.0
1.8
48.2

47.7
0.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
H-15
November 2009

-------
.AI I.'
(Ill III)
157
208
234
336
278
164
123
129
233
531
592
666
733
810
765
594
839
726
780
1235
1439
1343
1754
1833
1859
2110
2072
2671
2602
3069
2643
2384
2540
2376
2807
¦014
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-9
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Four Wheel Drive SUYs
-I I I.I l!< <>\<>\M-
I l< \<
0.841
0.853
0.825
0.885
0.693
0.888
0.904
0.795
0.807
0.850
0.804
0.861
0.839
0.837
0.826
0.839
0.766
0.723
0.595
0.761
0.792
0.711
0.716
0.710
0.657
0.671
0.601
0.637
0.632
0.651
0.647
0.634
0.600
0.596
0.547
I.AIi
55/45
12.9
13.9
15.2
14.5
13.0
15.7
16.9
17.0
18.6
19.2
19.7
20.3
20.7
20.4
19.8
19.8
20.1
19.5
19.7
19.4
19.4
19.7
19.8
19.7
20.0
19.8
20.2
20.2
20.5
20.6
21.0
21.5
22.2
22.8
22.9
\l).l
(in
10.6
11.3
12.3
11.7
10.8
12.6
13.5
13.6
14.6
15.1
15.4
15.9
16.0
15.7
15.2
15.0
15.1
14.5
14.6
14.4
14.3
14.3
14.3
14.2
14.3
14.1
14.4
14.2
14.3
14.2
14.4
14.8
15.2
15.6
15.6
\l).l
iin ^
11.5
12.5
13.7
13.2
11.4
14.2
15.6
15.8
17.8
18.2
19.1
19.3
19.7
19.3
18.7
18.8
19.2
18.6
18.7
18.3
18.2
18.7
18.5
18.6
18.6
18.3
18.5
18.6
19.0
19.1
19.4
19.7
20.4
20.9
21.2
AIM
< <>\ir
11.0
11.8
12.9
12.3
11.1
13.3
14.4
14.5
15.9
16.3
16.8
17.2
17.5
17.2
16.7
16.6
16.8
16.3
16.4
16.1
16.0
16.3
16.2
16.2
16.3
16.1
16.4
16.3
16.6
16.6
16.9
17.2
17.8
18.2
18.4
\\<;n i
i ii
4169
4293
4200
4251
4329
4135
4134
4403
4188
3979
4014
3885
3795
3819
4005
3998
4117
4162
4267
4278
4275
4335
4392
4414
4411
4536
4472
4585
4672
4703
4676
4670
4713
4665
4669
i:\«;im.
< id
329
337
335
342
325
289
286
300
257
223
210
200
204
214
237
226
230
232
239
240
241
258
250
249
241
247
232
238
239
245
236
230
233
224
225
III1
145
140
143
149
143
127
128
130
124
119
120
125
134
141
153
151
160
168
177
179
178
188
187
188
197
202
208
224
227
237
238
236
248
245
252
I	Mill
II	mi:
13.2
14.0
13.5
13.2
13.9
14.8
14.5
15.1
15.1
15.1
15.1
14.2
13.4
12.9
12.5
12.6
12.3
11.9
11.6
11.6
11.6
11.3
11.4
11.4
11.0
11.0
10.6
10.2
10.2
10.0
9.9
9.9
9.7
9.7
9.4
ior
SI'I)
115
112
113
115
113
108
109
108
107
107
107
110
113
115
118
117
119
122
124
124
124
126
125
126
128
128
131
135
135
137
138
137
140
140
142
III'
( II)
0.440
0.412
0.425
0.433
0.442
0.451
0.456
0.443
0.513
0.561
0.594
0.666
0.688
0.691
0.671
0.701
0.712
0.741
0.761
0.763
0.761
0.744
0.770
0.781
0.847
0.842
0.930
0.962
0.978
0.989
1.026
1.038
1.085
1.109
1.137
nr
\\ i
0.0361
0.0332
0.0345
0.0353
0.0336
0.0306
0.0313
0.0300
0.0300
0.0299
0.0297
0.0323
0.0352
0.0370
0.0385
0.0381
0.0391
0.0409
0.0421
0.0422
0.0420
0.0436
0.0426
0.0428
0.0448
0.0446
0.0466
0.0489
0.0487
0.0503
0.0508
0.0504
0.0523
0.0521
0.0538
H-16
November 2009

-------
Um»»d Siasafl
Environmental PtoToclion
Agency
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-9 (cont.)
Percent of Four Wheel Drive SUYs:
moi)i:i
^ 1. Vl<
IKA\s\||\SI<>\
n i.i mi: i i:m\<.
\ I NK 1 i: SI/I-
M MIJIiKOI \.\l \ I S
\ \ 1
in limn
M\M \l
1 ()( k
< A 1
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
l)S|
SM \l 1
Mil)
1 Al«.l
1 WO
111 ui:i:
IOI U
H\ 1.
1975
42.9






30.0
69.1
0.9






1976
33.6






24.7
73.5
1.8






1977
34.6






24.3
74.3
1.4






1978
32.8






23.1
75.3
1.6






1979
39.2





0.3
32.8
60.9
6.3






1980
47.2
18.8




2.6
37.0
58.7
4.3






1981
45.0
35.1





34.7
62.4
2.9






1982
37.0
37.4




13.2
24.5
70.7
4.8






1983
37.0
48.2




5.6
18.3
77.7
4.0






1984
32.5
37.4




1.7
26.7
70.5
2.8






1985
32.3
55.6


4.8
1.1
1.2
19.5
77.5
3.0






1986
41.7
50.9


27.8
22.1
1.4
26.5
70.6
2.9






1987
42.1
48.5


35.1
36.3
0.3
31.6
65.6
2.8






1988
36.6
55.3


50.2
31.1
0.2
30.8
65.7
3.5






1989
27.5
63.8


49.5
42.9
0.2
25.3
70.5
4.2






1990
31.3
65.0


60.9
33.3
0.2
27.4
67.5
5.2






1991
22.4
76.0


63.9
35.5
0.1
10.6
85.9
3.5






1992
22.4
76.7


76.7
23.3

11.1
81.9
7.0






1993
20.2
78.8


87.5
12.5

12.2
77.1
10.7






1994
15.9
84.1


88.5
11.5

10.2
80.6
9.2
86.0
5.6
8.4



1995
15.3
84.7


87.8
12.2

11.4
77.1
11.5
83.2

16.8



1996
6.2
93.8


100.0

0.0
5.9
80.5
13.6
88.2

11.8



1997
11.4
88.6


100.0

0.0
21.8
54.7
23.4
80.5

19.5



1998
8.5
91.5


100.0


12.7
63.4
24.0
79.6

20.4



1999
7.3
92.7


100.0


13.4
65.1
21.5
72.2
0.9
26.9

3.7

2000
5.8
94.2


100.0


12.7
61.0
26.2
77.7

22.3

2.8

2001
4.8
95.2


100.0


11.9
54.2
34.0
56.5
1.9
41.5

14.9

2002
4.1
95.8
0.1

100.0


8.9
41.9
49.1
52.4
1.6
46.0

25.7

2003
2.9
95.3
1.8

100.0


7.8
50.7
41.4
45.1
1.4
53.5

34.7

2004
2.8
95.8
1.4

100.0

0.0
6.7
53.5
39.7
44.1
0.6
54.7
0.6
35.3

2005
2.6
95.6
1.8

99.7

0.3
6.4
50.7
42.9
36.7
2.7
60.3
0.3
48.4
0.2
2006
2.8
92.2
5.0

99.7

0.3
5.6
53.7
40.7
29.2
5.4
65.2
0.2
58.0
3.0
2007
2.5
91.9
5.6

99.7

0.3
5.3
49.5
45.2
35.5
0.8
63.7

55.3
1.4
2008
2.0
91.8
6.3
2.5
96.9

0.6
6.1
54.6
39.3
27.7
0.6
71.7

59.2
2.7
2009
2.6
90.0
7.4
4.6
95.0

0.4
6.4
48.1
45.5
23.5
0.5
75.9
0.0
66.5
1.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
H-17
November 2009

-------
^EPA
Um»»d Siasafl
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-10
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Front Drive Pickup Trucks



—i i i.i i:< o\o\n —

i:\«;im.






\l<>1)1.1
^ I.Ak
SAI IS
(III III)
1 |{ \(
I.AIi
55/45
\l).l
(in
\d.i
IIN ^
AIM
< <>\ir
\\<;n i
i ii
< id
III'
IM.II
11 mi:
ior
SI'I)
ill'
< id
nr
W 1
l()\-
MI'C

1980
26
0.018
31.3
24.8
29.4
26.7
2265
94
65
15.8
99
0.685
0.0286
32.0

1981
33
0.023
36.9
29.1
34.8
31.4
2318
99
59
16.9
96
0.592
0.0253
37.1

1982
32
0.022
33.0
25.8
31.7
28.1
2439
119
72
15.2
101
0.605
0.0295
35.1

1983
31
0.019
31.1
23.8
31.0
26.5
2604
133
89
13.5
107
0.665
0.0341
34.8

1984
12
0.006
28.1
21.2
28.6
24.0
2640
135
90
13.3
107
0.667
0.0342
31.7

1987
0
0.000
20.0
14.5
21.4
17.0
4000
249
135
13.7
112
0.542
0.0337
34.1

1988
0
0.000
20.8
15.2
21.9
17.7
4000
275
155
12.2
119
0.564
0.0387
35.4

1993
0
0.000
20.9
14.4
22.7
17.6
4500
299
200
10.9
128
0.669
0.0444
39.6

Percent of Front Drive Pickup Trucks:











M()l)i:i
1 K\\S\||SM<>\
m i:i. mi: i i:m\<;
\ i i IK i .i: si/i:
m Mi{i:u()i \ \i \ i:s


^ 1. \l<
M\M \l
1 (X K
( A 1
(.Di
I'OKI
1 lil
DM
SMAI 1
Mil)
1 Al«.l
1 wo
i NKi:i.
IOI U
H\ 1.
\ \ 1
IIMiKII)
1980
94.0




57.3
42.7
100.0
0.0
0.0






1981
100.0




27.2
72.8
100.0
0.0
0.0






1982
77.4




10.7
34.0
100.0
0.0
0.0






1983
55.7




2.8
2.7
100.0
0.0
0.0






1984
71.0






100.0
0.0
0.0






1987

100.0



100.0

0.0
0.0
100.0






1988

100.0



100.0

0.0
0.0
100.0






1993

100.0


100.0


0.0
0.0
100.0






EPA-420-R-09-014
H-18
November 2009

-------
AI I .'
(Ill III)
1161
1476
1593
1656
1930
1108
1164
1154
1238
1526
1550
1895
1598
1760
1586
1322
1443
1356
1449
1886
1521
1382
1574
1574
1392
1610
1544
1373
1498
1345
1226
1185
1154
942
1051
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-ll
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Rear Drive Pickup Trucks
-I I I.I l!< <>\<>\M-
I l< \<
0.865
0.791
0.786
0.730
0.874
0.771
0.808
0.801
0.761
0.747
0.746
0.748
0.745
0.716
0.711
0.721
0.752
0.737
0.724
0.707
0.670
0.707
0.654
0.652
0.547
0.616
0.613
0.577
0.606
0.537
0.533
0.542
0.546
0.525
0.541
I.AIi
55/45
14.5
15.4
16.8
16.7
15.5
20.1
21.1
22.0
22.6
22.1
21.9
23.0
23.5
22.5
22.2
21.7
22.9
21.9
22.2
22.3
21.8
22.0
21.9
22.3
21.5
21.6
20.7
20.5
21.0
20.4
20.4
20.9
20.9
21.4
21.5
\l).l
(in
11.4
12.3
13.5
13.6
12.7
16.0
16.7
17.4
17.9
17.4
17.3
18.1
18.2
17.3
16.9
16.4
17.1
16.3
16.3
16.3
15.9
15.9
15.7
15.9
15.3
15.3
14.6
14.5
14.7
14.2
14.0
14.4
14.3
14.6
14.7
\l).l
iin ^
13.8
14.2
15.3
15.0
13.8
18.6
19.6
20.6
21.3
20.9
20.6
21.6
22.2
21.4
21.0
20.7
21.8
21.1
21.2
21.1
20.7
20.8
20.7
21.0
20.3
20.1
19.2
18.8
19.2
18.6
18.8
19.1
19.3
19.7
19.9
AIM
< <>\ir
12.4
13.1
14.2
14.2
13.2
17.1
17.9
18.7
19.2
18.8
18.7
19.5
19.9
19.0
18.7
18.2
19.1
18.3
18.5
18.4
18.0
18.1
18.0
18.2
17.6
17.5
16.8
16.6
16.9
16.4
16.4
16.8
16.8
17.1
17.3
\\<;n i
i ii
3885
3948
3928
3901
4170
3689
3707
3595
3463
3519
3527
3439
3385
3578
3633
3759
3608
3810
3825
3861
3960
3992
4123
4021
4113
4113
4341
4473
4445
4712
4752
4747
4915
4929
4946
i:\«;im.
< id
299
305
299
291
291
235
243
230
210
212
218
201
195
220
226
236
222
235
234
235
239
235
244
231
241
237
252
256
247
267
272
266
273
271
280
III1
139
136
141
138
136
117
117
117
111
112
121
117
119
130
137
146
139
145
150
156
158
167
184
177
186
190
204
214
206
234
247
241
251
259
268
I	Mill
II	mi:
13.4
13.8
13.2
13.3
14.3
14.3
14.4
14.1
14.3
14.4
13.6
13.6
13.4
13.1
12.7
12.4
12.4
12.5
12.2
12.0
12.0
11.7
11.2
11.3
11.0
11.0
10.7
10.5
10.8
10.2
9.9
10.0
10.0
9.9
9.5
ior
SI'I)
114
112
115
114
111
108
108
109
108
108
111
110
111
113
115
117
116
117
118
120
120
122
126
125
127
128
130
132
130
136
140
138
139
141
143
III'
( II)
0.499
0.476
0.508
0.506
0.495
0.545
0.511
0.542
0.564
0.562
0.585
0.619
0.635
0.620
0.630
0.651
0.656
0.645
0.668
0.695
0.703
0.744
0.770
0.788
0.787
0.810
0.818
0.841
0.843
0.878
0.910
0.911
0.920
0.951
0.960
nr
\\ i
0.0355
0.0343
0.0359
0.0352
0.0327
0.0318
0.0316
0.0326
0.0320
0.0318
0.0340
0.0340
0.0348
0.0360
0.0373
0.0386
0.0383
0.0380
0.0391
0.0403
0.0399
0.0416
0.0440
0.0436
0.0448
0.0455
0.0464
0.0475
0.0459
0.0492
0.0518
0.0507
0.0508
0.0519
0.0539
H-19
November 2009

-------
Um»»d Siasafl
Environmental PtoToclion
Agency
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-ll (cont.)
Percent of Rear Drive Pickup Trucks:
moi)i:i
^ 1. Vl<
IKANSMISSION
m i.i mi:ii:ri\(.
\ I NK 1 i: SI/I-
m mi{i:roi \ ai \ r.s
\ \ 1
in limn
M\M \l
1 ()( k
< A 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
l>S|
SM \l 1
Mil)
1 Al«.l
1 wo
1 Ilk II
IOI U
H\ 1.
1975
41.5






13.8
4.8
81.4






1976
40.3






11.7
3.7
84.6






1977
39.0






14.9
4.3
80.8






1978
40.0





1.6
14.5
4.5
80.9






1979
36.3
1.5




2.8
13.7
5.2
81.1






1980
55.8
23.4




4.3
28.4
8.8
62.8






1981
52.6
31.0




6.2
18.8
11.2
70.0






1982
49.4
32.9




9.8
18.0
26.2
55.8






1983
53.3
31.1



0.0
4.3
14.9
41.5
43.6






1984
52.1
32.9


1.3

2.7
17.9
37.0
45.0






1985
47.9
36.2


11.0
5.7
1.1
21.9
31.9
46.2






1986
56.7
30.8


18.6
17.5
0.6
27.5
34.6
37.9






1987
58.0
28.4


23.7
33.1
0.3
19.4
52.3
28.3






1988
51.5
37.9


30.1
48.7
0.1
11.9
48.1
40.0






1989
52.5
41.5


34.0
52.4
0.1
13.9
45.5
40.7






1990
46.2
49.1


52.0
39.6
0.1
15.0
37.8
47.2






1991
53.7
44.9


46.1
49.6
0.1
14.0
51.5
34.5






1992
48.3
50.6


57.4
38.1
0.1
11.7
44.6
43.7






1993
45.2
53.7


60.6
36.5

13.2
42.1
44.7






1994
42.3
56.4


72.5
26.4

11.5
45.8
42.7
99.3
0.7
0.1



1995
45.2
53.4


72.9
27.1

12.2
38.9
48.9
96.4

3.6



1996
38.5
59.6


99.9

0.1
10.1
43.3
46.6
88.3
5.3
6.4



1997
31.2
68.8


100.0

0.0
6.6
36.2
57.2
92.6
6.6
0.9



1998
31.3
66.4


100.0

0.0
10.0
42.2
47.9
89.7

10.3



1999
22.6
75.7


100.0


8.4
39.2
52.4
91.6

8.4



2000
20.4
78.3


100.0


6.2
33.8
59.9
87.7

12.3



2001
14.5
84.1


100.0


5.3
24.5
70.2
86.2

13.8



2002
11.4
87.1


100.0


9.6
19.8
70.6
78.9

21.1



2003
12.3
86.2


100.0


7.9
25.2
67.0
84.2

15.8



2004
8.6
89.7


100.0


7.1
16.3
76.6
69.8
8.2
22.0

13.5

2005
7.2
92.8


100.0


0.0
12.5
87.5
61.6
8.6
29.8

35.8
0.1
2006
7.8
92.2


100.0


0.0
19.7
80.3
55.2
8.9
35.8

42.6
0.1
2007
5.6
94.4


100.0


0.0
16.3
83.7
63.4
7.5
29.0

38.5
0.0
2008
5.1
94.9


100.0


0.0
19.9
80.1
61.6
6.5
31.9

34.3

2009
4.7
95.0
0.3

100.0


0.0
20.5
79.5
58.5
5.4
36.1

44.3
0.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
H-20
November 2009

-------
AI I .'
(Ill III)
182
390
433
612
277
302
242
255
359
505
528
638
548
699
645
512
477
484
553
783
750
573
834
841
1152
1003
975
1008
976
1161
1074
1003
959
852
891
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-12
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Four Wheel Drive Pickup Trucks
I l< \<
0.135
0.209
0.214
0.270
0.126
0.211
0.168
0.177
0.221
0.247
0.254
0.252
0.255
0.284
0.289
0.279
0.248
0.263
0.276
0.293
0.330
0.293
0.346
0.348
0.453
0.384
0.387
0.423
0.394
0.463
0.467
0.458
0.454
0.475
0.459
-i i i.i i:< <>\<>\m-
I.AIi
55 45
11.4
12.4
13.6
13.5
15.6
16.9
19.6
19.7
20.3
19.7
19.9
20.2
20.0
19.3
19.0
18.6
18.9
18.5
18.8
18.6
18.0
18.3
18.2
18.3
18.2
18.9
18.1
18.2
18.5
18.7
19.0
19.3
19.3
19.6
20.0
\l).l
(in
9.3
10.1
11.1
11.1
13.0
13.6
15.7
15.8
16.1
15.6
15.7
15.9
15.7
14.9
14.6
14.0
14.2
13.8
13.9
13.7
13.2
13.3
13.1
13.1
13.1
13.6
12.9
12.9
13.1
13.1
13.2
13.4
13.3
13.5
13.7
\l).l
iin ^
10.2
11.2
12.1
12.0
14.2
15.4
18.1
18.2
19.0
18.4
18.7
18.9
18.7
18.2
17.9
17.7
17.9
17.7
17.8
17.5
17.0
17.3
17.3
17.4
17.0
17.3
16.6
16.7
16.9
17.0
17.4
17.6
17.7
18.1
18.6
AIM
< <>\ir
9.7
10.5
11.5
11.5
13.5
14.3
16.7
16.8
17.3
16.8
16.9
17.1
16.9
16.3
16.0
15.6
15.8
15.5
15.6
15.4
14.9
15.1
15.0
15.1
14.9
15.4
14.7
14.8
14.9
15.0
15.3
15.5
15.5
15.8
16.1
\\<;n i
i ii
4822
4780
4695
4654
3947
4054
3732
3934
3901
3943
3981
3974
3937
4137
4221
4364
4299
4442
4444
4528
4633
4668
4965
4771
4937
4705
4885
4985
4944
5202
5257
5228
5420
5417
5407
i:\«;im.
< id
353
359
363
348
260
251
224
236
224
226
230
219
222
253
259
273
262
272
270
278
292
291
302
291
299
284
295
291
291
298
297
291
302
303
300
III1
154
154
164
160
132
126
115
119
117
120
129
130
137
156
158
166
167
167
172
180
185
204
218
213
227
224
235
242
248
266
274
272
289
295
297
I	Mill
II	mi:
14.2
14.2
13.4
13.5
14.2
14.6
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.8
14.0
14.0
13.4
12.6
12.7
12.5
12.2
12.6
12.3
12.1
11.9
11.2
11.1
11.0
10.8
10.5
10.3
10.3
10.1
9.9
9.7
9.7
9.5
9.4
9.3
ior
SI'I)
113
113
116
115
110
108
107
107
107
107
110
110
113
117
117
119
120
119
120
122
123
128
129
130
132
133
135
136
138
141
143
142
145
146
147
III'
( II)
0.437
0.428
0.452
0.468
0.551
0.552
0.561
0.552
0.564
0.564
0.597
0.634
0.648
0.644
0.638
0.637
0.666
0.638
0.661
0.668
0.655
0.719
0.729
0.745
0.763
0.791
0.802
0.834
0.855
0.892
0.926
0.942
0.960
0.974
0.993
nr
\\ i
0.0322
0.0323
0.0351
0.0345
0.0325
0.0308
0.0307
0.0306
0.0301
0.0302
0.0323
0.0327
0.0347
0.0375
0.0372
0.0380
0.0388
0.0376
0.0386
0.0396
0.0400
0.0437
0.0439
0.0445
0.0459
0.0473
0.0481
0.0486
0.0500
0.0511
0.0523
0.0522
0.0534
0.0544
0.0548
H-21
November 2009

-------
Um»»d Siasafl
Environmental PtoToclion
Agency
Appendix H: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Drive Type
Table H-12 (cont.)
Percent of Four Wheel Drive Pickup Trucks:
moi)i:i
^ 1. Vl<
IKANSMISSION
m i.i mi:ii:ri\(.
\ I NK 1 i: SI/I-
m mi{i:roi \ ai \ i s
\ \ 1
in limn
M\M \l
1 ()( k
< A 1
(.di
I'OKI
1 lil
l>S|
SM \l 1
Mil)
1 Al«.l
1 wo
1 Ilk II
IOI U
H\ 1.
1975
38.4






0.0
0.0
100.0






1976
33.3






0.0
0.0
100.0






1977
24.7






0.0
0.0
100.0






1978
30.2





0.0
3.8
0.0
96.2






1979
64.9





0.0
34.0
0.0
66.0






1980
66.8
18.6




0.3
36.7
0.0
63.3






1981
76.4
14.7




2.3
48.1
0.0
51.9






1982
71.4
17.7




9.6
41.8
5.1
53.1






1983
66.6
19.9



0.1
4.8
26.8
30.0
43.2






1984
62.7
19.1


0.1

2.7
27.2
27.3
45.5






1985
62.4
26.2


12.7
1.1
1.5
29.8
23.1
47.1






1986
63.3
29.4


29.0
17.7
0.7
34.9
20.7
44.4






1987
59.9
30.1


36.4
28.8
0.4
23.8
39.4
36.7






1988
49.7
40.9


48.7
47.1
0.4
18.7
29.9
51.4






1989
52.3
41.5


50.5
47.8
0.3
20.9
25.7
53.4






1990
44.9
51.7


53.5
46.1
0.3
17.8
19.6
62.6






1991
47.5
50.8


53.5
46.1
0.4
22.5
27.2
50.3






1992
43.7
56.2


59.7
40.0
0.3
19.2
22.9
57.9






1993
40.5
59.5


62.9
37.1

12.9
24.2
63.0






1994
34.6
65.4


62.2
37.8

18.1
22.5
59.5
94.3
5.7




1995
28.3
71.7


62.8
37.2

15.0
14.5
70.5
90.5

9.5



1996
25.5
74.5


99.6

0.4
14.1
17.4
68.5
82.9
2.8
14.3



1997
14.0
86.0


99.9

0.1
3.3
14.4
82.4
94.7
3.3
2.0



1998
19.9
80.1


99.9

0.1
12.3
19.7
68.1
87.0

13.0



1999
11.4
88.6


100.0


8.4
18.6
73.0
93.1

6.9



2000
10.7
89.3


100.0


0.1
22.0
77.9
86.7

13.3



2001
8.0
92.0


100.0


0.0
17.0
83.0
88.9

11.1



2002
7.0
93.0


100.0


6.4
19.3
74.2
86.8

13.2



2003
7.3
92.7


100.0


7.8
15.4
76.8
87.6

12.4



2004
5.1
94.9


100.0


5.6
13.7
80.7
65.1
21.3
13.6

25.0

2005
4.0
96.0


100.0


0.8
5.9
93.3
56.3
20.2
23.4

42.9
0.0
2006
4.2
95.8


100.0


0.7
4.0
95.2
45.9
21.9
32.2

53.3
0.2
2007
2.8
97.2


100.0


0.0
7.9
92.1
55.8
18.6
25.7

41.7
0.0
2008
2.9
97.1


100.0


0.0
10.6
89.4
55.5
16.0
28.4

41.7

2009
4.2
95.4
0.4

100


0
12.4
87.6
62.2
8.6
29.2

39.9
0.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
H-22
November 2009

-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Appendix I
Fuel Economy Data Stratified by
Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-1
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Other Cars
modi i
M \l<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ \(
1 M 1 1 < <>\1
(III
1 N(.IM
H till
1 IMI
i<>r
M'D
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
1 < >\
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III
|o\ Ml'(.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
< II)
III'
1978
45
0.004
28.7
23.8
25.1
24.3
2151
85.7
92
64
14.7
100
0.698
0.0299
26.3
2097
2272
1979
131
0.012
29.3
24.1
25.9
24.9
2251
86.0
96
68
14.6
101
0.715
0.0304
28.6
2206
2471
1980
91
0.010
34.2
27.9
30.5
29.0
2132
88.4
93
73
13.2
105
0.789
0.0344
31.2
2581
2758
1981
51
0.006
34.9
27.9
32.0
29.6
2250
87.8
96
78
13.1
106
0.816
0.0349
33.4
2603
2928
1982
37
0.005
36.6
29.3
33.5
31.1
2200
87.8
91
67
14.4
101
0.740
0.0307
34.2
2734
3003
1983
36
0.005
35.4
28.3
32.7
30.1
2277
89.2
94
70
14.3
102
0.748
0.0309
34.4
2706
3067
1984
3
0.000
33.1
26.4
30.6
28.2
2545
93.5
117
88
13.4
107
0.758
0.0348
35.8
2643
3352
1986
0
0.000
23.0
17.4
23.2
19.6
2750
50.0
170
160
8.8
136
0.941
0.0582
27.0
981
1348
1990
1
0.000
21.1
15.2
22.1
17.8
3500
59.9
220
247
7.5
157
1.123
0.0706
31.2
1069
1871
1991
1
0.000
21.1
15.1
22.0
17.8
3500
59.9
220
247
7.5
157
1.123
0.0706
31.2
1067
1867
1992
1
0.000
22.4
15.9
23.5
18.9
3500
62.6
193
239
7.7
154
1.245
0.0683
33.1
1184
2072
2007
35
0.004
25.2
16.5
24.7
20.4
4500
115.7
281
380
6.6
183
1.352
0.0844
45.9
2360
5309
2008
33
0.005
24.7
16.4
23.9
19.9
4497
113.8
284
382
6.4
184
1.343
0.0853
44.9
2272
5120
2009
67
0.008
24.4
16.2
23.8
19.8
4487
113.8
283
382
6.6
184
1.348
0.0853
44.4
2251
5060
Percent of Other Cars:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ V|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K (>1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK id
1 KoM
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 \\ o
1 IIKI 1
ion;
1 IN 1
1978
100.0











1979
100.0











1980
100.0











1981
100.0











1982
100.0











1983
100.0











1984
100.0


10.9








1986



100.0








1990



100.0








1991



100.0








1992



100.0








2007



100.0




100.0

100.0

2008

6.3
8.4
91.6




100.0

100.0
6.3
2009

22.6
10.3
89.7




100.0

100.0
3.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
1-1
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-2
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-3 Cars



1 M 1 1 < <>\1


H till
i<>r
III'
III'
1 < >\
(III
(III
M \l<
(IUHI)
1 l\ \(
55 45

11W ^
( oMI'
1 II
(III
( II)
III'
1 1 Ml
M'D
( II)
U 1
Ml'«.
Ml'(.
|o\ Ml'(.
1978
47
0.004
22.3
17.3
21.6
19.0
3441
113.5
219
100
15.0
104
0.459
0.0293
32.7
2173
3708
1979
23
0.002
22.1
17.4
20.9
18.8
3584
111.7
224
102
15.2
104
0.458
0.0286
33.8
2122
3783
1980
17
0.002
21.1
16.9
19.5
18.0
3526
109.1
228
111
14.2
107
0.485
0.0314
31.8
1964
3464
1981
9
0.001
21.4
16.9
20.2
18.2
3500
103.7
229
115
13.7
109
0.501
0.0328
31.9
1892
3311
Percent of M-3 Cars:
modi i
M W<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIN(.
M MI'I l\ (>1 \ \l.\ 1 S
\ 1
in ukid
1 K(>M
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oK 1
1 l*.l
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
ion;
1 IN 1
1978












1979












1980












1981












EPA-420-R-09-014
1-2
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-3
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-4 Cars
modi i
M \l<
S\IIS
(000)
1 l\ \(
1 11 I. I < < >\< >\h
Ul.lll
\ < >1
(III
1 N(.IM
II fill
1 IMI
i<>r
M'D
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
1 < >\
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III
|(>\ Ml'(.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK id
1 l\( >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1






3.7






1979
32.0
2.5

9.8

2.7






1980
47.2
2.6

8.3

7.7






1981
62.3
3.4

4.3

6.9






1982
69.6
3.7

4.4
3.6
3.5






1983
65.4
7.8

7.5
13.0
3.5






1984
61.2
5.5

5.7
28.8
3.7






1985
74.5
0.8

9.0
18.4
0.4






1986
74.2
0.9

14.4
9.1
0.1






1987
92.0
1.0

14.2
31.2







1988
97.9
0.6

19.5
36.1







1989
99.3
0.3

20.9
44.7







1990
99.6


31.9
58.4







1991
100.0


69.5
30.1







1992
100.0


97.5
2.5







1993
100.0


95.8
4.2







1994
100.0


100.0



100.0




1995
100.0


100.0




100.0



1996
100.0


100.0




100.0



EPA-420-R-09-014
1-3
November 2009

-------
»\ll'
((Kill)
1037
742
1173
1263
1210
1543
1908
2019
2239
2328
2116
1784
1528
1599
1299
1416
1329
1476
1125
1096
954
870
941
851
779
689
532
561
514
458
389
447
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-4
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-5
Cars
I Mi
55 45
M)J
M)J
11W
M) I
< >m r
\ < >1
< I I
II fill
I I Ml
(III
\M'(.
(Ill
I (>\ M
1-4
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-4 (cont.)
Percent of M-5 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\|N 1 1 l\ \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K < >1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK ID
1 l\< >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
|M )|\ I
1 III
DM
|\\()
1 IIKI 1
1 € >( \<
1 IN 1
1978
20.5


5.8








1979
33.8


16.3

2.0






1980
39.2


19.5

2.4






1981
49.8


20.2

5.3






1982
56.1
0.2

20.2

4.9






1983
66.4
6.1

25.0
7.0
0.8






1984
69.6
1.4

31.0
8.9
3.2






1985
70.3
5.8

33.2
9.3
2.0






1986
78.6
3.6

45.7
12.0
1.1






1987
79.2
3.4

45.6
16.3
0.2






1988
83.0
3.1

48.7
25.3







1989
83.2
3.2

59.0
24.3
0.2






1990
83.5
2.6

77.0
20.9
0.1






1991
84.3
3.1

75.9
23.6
0.3






1992
85.1
3.4

86.4
13.5
0.1






1993
89.3
2.3

86.3
13.7







1994
88.7
1.0

90.2
9.8

38.6
1.9
59.5

14.4

1995
86.1
2.2

97.1
2.9

31.0
2.5
66.5
0.0
14.2

1996
86.6
3.1

96.3
3.3
0.4
30.8
2.1
67.0

19.2

1997
86.4
3.4

98.1
1.6
0.3
30.6
2.5
66.7
0.3
17.9

1998
83.8
4.5

97.6
1.2
1.2
29.3
2.3
65.7
2.6
26.6

1999
83.5
4.7

98.1
0.9
1.0
28.6
2.8
64.5
4.1
26.6

2000
78.9
4.3

97.9
0.5
1.6
31.8
2.3
59.7
6.2
33.3
0.6
2001
82.2
4.6

98.4

1.6
26.5
2.4
61.7
9.5
36.8
0.2
2002
78.7
9.1

98.2

1.8
23.8
2.5
67.5
6.1
34.9
0.1
2003
82.7
5.9

97.1

2.9
17.2

75.0
7.8
37.8
0.9
2004
83.1
6.7

97.9

2.1
13.2

82.1
4.7
47.0
0.9
2005
83.0
7.5

98.4

1.6
9.7
5.3
83.5
1.4
62.1
0.9
2006
80.2
6.4

96.8

3.2
9.2
6.2
84.5
0.1
65.6
0.1
2007
79.3
5.3
0.5
99.5


6.8
8.1
85.1

63.3

2008
77.9
9.6
0.4
99.6


3.8
7.3
88.8

62.1

2009
85.3
6.3
1.2
98.8


1.0
5.1
93.9

80.3

EPA-420-R-09-014
1-5
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-5
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-6 Cars
modi i
M \l<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 K \(
1 M 1 1 < <>mt\i\
Ul.lll
\ < >1
(III
1 M.IM
H till
1 IMI
i<>r
M'D
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
1 < >\
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III
|o\ Ml'(.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
< II)
III'
1989
4
0.000
22.7
16.0
25.0
19.3
3500
50.0
350
240
7.7
154
0.686
0.0686
33.8
967
1691
1990
7
0.001
22.3
15.7
24.2
18.9
3503
50.0
350
302
6.6
177
0.864
0.0863
33.1
945
1654
1991
6
0.001
21.9
15.3
23.8
18.5
3583
53.3
346
296
6.8
173
0.857
0.0831
33.3
981
1770
1992
6
0.001
22.7
15.9
24.2
19.1
3531
52.8
338
303
6.5
177
0.914
0.0860
33.8
1008
1784
1993
14
0.002
22.8
15.9
24.0
19.1
3540
73.4
332
284
6.9
169
0.896
0.0804
34.0
1416
2512
1994
27
0.003
23.0
15.9
24.6
19.3
3607
79.5
324
276
7.2
165
0.932
0.0765
35.0
1551
2809
1995
35
0.004
22.6
15.5
24.3
19.0
3637
79.2
310
269
7.3
162
0.934
0.0740
34.7
1522
2774
1996
27
0.003
21.9
14.9
23.6
18.4
3623
73.2
323
291
6.9
170
0.954
0.0807
33.6
1369
2509
1997
26
0.003
22.3
15.1
23.7
18.6
3675
79.4
309
320
6.5
180
1.090
0.0875
34.9
1530
2840
1998
23
0.003
23.4
15.8
24.5
19.5
3654
76.5
327
319
6.4
180
1.002
0.0878
36.0
1517
2799
1999
43
0.005
24.2
16.4
24.8
20.0
3537
72.6
294
300
6.7
175
1.075
0.0845
35.6
1462
2616
2000
78
0.009
24.6
16.7
24.5
20.2
3405
75.5
240
271
7.0
167
1.284
0.0790
34.5
1560
2653
2001
105
0.013
24.4
16.6
24.0
19.9
3511
73.5
210
274
7.2
166
1.450
0.0779
35.2
1466
2620
2002
148
0.018
26.1
17.6
25.4
21.2
3361
82.8
202
249
7.5
159
1.375
0.0734
35.9
1800
3006
2003
196
0.025
26.6
18.0
25.4
21.5
3355
82.4
187
251
7.6
160
1.409
0.0738
36.3
1817
3017
2004
234
0.031
25.8
17.3
24.8
20.8
3469
87.1
186
253
7.7
159
1.427
0.0723
36.5
1854
3206
2005
184
0.023
26.0
17.3
24.9
20.9
3437
83.8
186
262
7.5
163
1.548
0.0757
36.3
1797
3087
2006
235
0.029
26.6
17.6
25.5
21.4
3458
86.3
184
258
7.6
161
1.491
0.0743
37.2
1887
3267
2007
227
0.028
27.7
18.3
26.4
22.2
3476
89.9
177
248
8.0
157
1.484
0.0709
39.0
2060
3561
2008
196
0.027
27.4
18.1
26.2
22.0
3488
90.6
187
264
7.7
162
1.481
0.0749
38.9
2060
3563
2009
296
0.036
28.9
19.1
27.4
23.1
3472
94.4
176
247
7.8
157
1.479
0.0704
41.1
2283
3934
Percent of M-6 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
DKIN 1 1 K V|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K (>1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK id
1 l\( >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
1989



100.0








1990



100.0








1991



100.0








1992



100.0








1993
6.4


100.0








1994
12.1


100.0


75.8

24.2

4.5

1995
6.0
1.5

100.0


84.1

15.9

20.2

1996

13.3

100.0


96.3

2.6
1.1
24.2

1997

10.6

100.0


80.8

16.8
2.3
33.9

1998

2.8

100.0


85.8

12.9
1.3
21.0

1999
7.0
3.7

100.0


62.6

36.7
0.7
29.5

2000
15.1
10.2

100.0


38.9

52.2
8.9
47.8

2001
2.8
34.7

100.0


26.1
2.6
40.1
31.2
33.5

2002
37.4
11.4

100.0


24.6
0.8
62.7
11.9
53.0

2003
43.0
5.9

100.0


9.1
0.2
83.7
6.9
65.8

2004
32.1
14.8

100.0


18.7
0.1
72.5
8.7
57.3

2005
33.3
12.7

100.0


20.0

74.0
6.0
60.0

2006
38.6
12.1

100.0


13.2
0.1
86.0
0.6
78.7

2007
44.7
17.2
5.4
94.6


9.2
4.6
85.8
0.5
65.1

2008
47.2
11.8
19.0
81.0


8.8
0.1
90.8
0.3
77.6

2009
57.2
8.2
15.4
77.8

6.8
12.1
1.5
86.3
0.1
79.6

Table 1-6
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-7 Cars



1 II 1 1 ( (>\(t\l\


1 M.IM







modi i
S M 1 S

1 Ml
M)J
M)J
M) 1
W (. 11 1
N ol


H till
lol'
III'
III'
1 (>\
(III
(III
M \i<
(000)
1 K \(
55 45
(in
11W
( oMI'
1 11
(III
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SI'D
( II)
N 1
Ml'(.
Ml'(.
|o\ Ml'(.
2009
0
0.000
19.0
12.6
18.9
15.6
4000
50.0
262
450
5.3
216
1.718
0.1125
31.1
778
1556
Percent of M-7 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
DKIN | | K M\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K ol N M.N I S
N 1
in UK id
1 l\( >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN I
2009


100.0





100.0

100.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
1-6
November 2009

-------
»\ll'
((Kill)
8125
7462
4814
3027
1251
1158
1667
1798
1742
1498
892
815
535
368
394
351
267
67
71
49
21
18
27
21
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-7
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 A-3 Cars
I Mi
55 45
M)J
M)J
11W
M) I
< >m r
\ < >1
( I I
II fill
I I Ml
(III
Ml'(.
(Ill
I (>\ M
1-7
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-7 (cont.)
Percent of A-3 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\|N 1 1 l\ \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K < >1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK ID
1 l\< >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
|M )|\ I
1 III
DM
|\\()
1 IIKI 1
1 € >( \<
1 IN 1
1978
3.9


3.2

0.5






1979
5.6


3.0

1.9






1980
29.3
0.8

3.9
0.9
2.3






1981
56.9


5.9
5.1
1.8






1982
76.5


8.9
0.1
1.8






1983
76.1
5.6

7.0
7.1
1.0






1984
94.0
0.4

13.1
12.2
0.4






1985
92.8
1.1

18.0
34.9
0.1






1986
92.0
1.8

22.6
42.7







1987
96.0
2.4

22.2
56.9







1988
96.9
1.7

54.3
37.3







1989
95.9
2.8

64.8
30.3







1990
97.9
1.0

73.6
26.4







1991
97.8
1.2

79.6
20.4







1992
97.8
1.6

77.4
22.6







1993
99.4
0.6

85.4
14.6







1994
99.8
0.2

81.1
18.9

87.0
12.3
0.7



1995
100.0


43.4
56.6

56.6
43.4




1996
100.0


30.8
69.2

69.2
30.8




1997
100.0



100.0

100.0





1998
100.0


100.0


1.9

98.1



1999
100.0


100.0


5.0

95.0



2000
12.2


100.0


5.4

94.6



2001
100.0


100.0


85.4

14.6



EPA-420-R-09-014
1-8
November 2009

-------
M I
HUH
42
57
57
135
230
183
206
200
154
181
142
147
117
131
100
83
65
91
44
1
7
28
70
48
17
16
7
2
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-8
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 A-4 Cars
I Mi
55 45
M)J
M)J
11W
M) I
< >m r
\ < >1
( I I
II fill
I I Ml
I < >\
Ml'(.
(Ill
Ml'(.
(Ill
I (>\ M
1-9
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-8 (cont.)
Percent of A-4 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\|N 1 1 l\ \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K < >1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK ID
1 l«>M
4U 1)
(.1)1
|M )|\ I
1 III
DM
|\\()
1 IIKI 1
ion;
1 IN 1
1978



15.1

48.3






1979



23.5

56.1






1980



39.8

60.2






1981



32.1

26.5






1982



32.7
24.5
19.4






1983
10.1
4.2

59.5

27.5






1984



80.0

20.0






1985



82.3

17.7






1986



95.8

4.2






1987



87.1

12.9






1988
5.9


99.5

0.5






1989
4.0


99.8

0.2






1990
7.5
0.4

98.3

1.7






1991
11.3
5.1

95.4

4.6






1992
10.4
5.0

96.0

4.0






1993
10.8
0.9

100.0








1994
2.2


98.9

1.1
16.6

83.4

25.7

1995



93.8

6.2
4.7

95.3

27.7

1996



94.0

6.0
1.8

98.2

2.6

1997



100.0


100.0



100.0

1998
95.2


100.0


64.7

35.3

4.8

1999
100.0


100.0




100.0



2000
100.0


100.0




100.0



2001
100.0


100.0




100.0



2002
100.0


100.0


8.8

91.2



2004
100.0


100.0




100.0



2005
100.0


100.0




100.0



2006
100.0


100.0




100.0



EPA-420-R-09-014
1-10
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-9
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 A-5 Cars
modi i
M \l<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ \(
1 ll 1 1 < < >\< t\i\
Ul.lll
\ < >1
(III
1 N(.IM
ll till
1 IMI
i<>r
M'D
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
1 < >\
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III
|o\ Ml'(.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
( II)
III'
1990
2
0.000
21.5
15.9
21.5
18.1
4000
50.0
181
228
9.0
143
1.260
0.0570
36.3
907
1814
1991
3
0.000
21.9
15.8
22.3
18.4
4000
50.0
181
228
9.0
143
1.260
0.0570
36.8
921
1842
1992
6
0.001
20.1
14.7
19.7
16.8
4372
104.8
191
228
9.6
138
1.192
0.0523
36.8
1739
3853
1993
6
0.001
19.7
14.4
19.1
16.4
4941
114.6
193
228
10.6
133
1.180
0.0462
40.5
1869
4645
1994
5
0.001
22.8
16.1
23.3
19.1
4853
102.1
195
217
10.9
130
1.113
0.0448
46.3
1940
4779
1995
13
0.001
23.1
16.2
23.4
19.3
4500
109.6
195
217
10.2
134
1.113
0.0482
43.3
2111
4750
1996
9
0.001
23.1
16.2
23.3
19.2
4500
105.4
195
217
10.2
134
1.113
0.0482
43.2
2025
4556
1997
1
0.000
22.4
15.5
22.8
18.6
3000
50.0
151
201
7.9
148
1.331
0.0670
27.9
931
1396
1998
1
0.000
22.4
15.4
22.7
18.6
3000
50.0
151
201
7.9
148
1.331
0.0670
27.9
928
1393
1999
6
0.001
22.5
15.3
23.1
18.7
3239
62.0
178
246
7.2
161
1.378
0.0754
30.2
1158
1905
2000
5
0.001
23.0
15.5
23.2
18.9
3292
59.9
187
254
7.1
163
1.358
0.0770
31.1
1133
1882
2001
6
0.001
22.6
15.2
22.8
18.6
3338
62.5
192
276
6.8
170
1.423
0.0823
31.0
1158
1949
2002
5
0.001
23.6
15.9
23.1
19.2
3327
61.4
197
273
6.8
169
1.381
0.0816
32.0
1184
1990
2004
2
0.000
23.6
15.7
23.2
19.2
3500
62.8
199
282
6.9
169
1.410
0.0806
33.7
1204
2107
2005
1
0.000
26.0
17.4
24.4
20.8
3500
50.0
176
255
7.4
160
1.453
0.0729
36.4
1041
1822
2006
2
0.000
26.4
17.7
24.7
21.1
3500
50.0
182
269
7.1
165
1.478
0.0769
36.9
1055
1846
2009
22
0.003
49.5
33.4
40.5
37.1
2000
50.0
61
70
12.8
105
1.148
0.0350
37.1
1857
1857
Percent of A-5 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ V|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill l< Ol \ M.N 1 s
N 1
in UK id
1 l\( >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1990



100.0








1991



100.0








1992



100.0








1993



100.0








1994



100.0




100.0



1995



100.0




100.0



1996



100.0




100.0



1997



100.0




100.0

100.0

1998



100.0




100.0

100.0

1999

5.4

100.0




100.0

100.0

2000

6.7

100.0




100.0

100.0

2001

22.2

100.0




100.0

100.0

2002

14.4

100.0




100.0

100.0

2004

28.0

100.0




100.0

100.0

2005



100.0




100.0

100.0

2006



100.0




100.0

100.0

2009



100.0




100.0

100.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
1-11
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-10
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 A-6 Cars
modi i
M \l<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 K \(
1 ll 1 1 < < >\< t\i\
Ul.lll
\ < >1
(III
1 N(.IM
ll till
1 IMI
i<>r
M'D
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
1 < >\
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III
|o\ Ml'(.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
< II)
III'
1998
0
0.000
13.3
9.3
13.4
11.1
3500
50.0
213
375
5.4
203
1.761
0.1071
19.5
556
974
1999
1
0.000
13.9
9.7
14.1
11.6
3500
50.0
215
382
5.3
205
1.775
0.1091
20.4
583
1021
2005
1
0.000
15.9
11.2
14.4
12.8
4500
129.5
259
396
6.3
188
1.529
0.0880
28.9
1662
3739
2006
2
0.000
16.9
11.3
16.8
13.9
4337
116.9
259
392
6.2
190
1.515
0.0907
30.0
1616
3531
2007
1
0.000
16.8
11.4
16.4
13.8
4500
129.5
259
396
6.3
188
1.529
0.0880
31.0
1781
4007
2008
3
0.000
18.5
12.2
18.5
15.2
4485
107.4
260
399
6.3
189
1.536
0.0891
34.1
1621
3641
2009
6
0.001
17.7
11.8
17.6
14.6
4268
97.1
266
427
5.8
204
1.600
0.1020
31.3
1429
3136
Percent of A-6 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
DKIN 1 1 K V|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K (>1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK id
1 l\( >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
	










	

1999



100.0





100.0
100.0

2005



100.0




100.0

100.0

2006



100.0




100.0

100.0

2007



100.0




100.0

100.0

2008



100.0




100.0

100.0

2009



100.0




100.0

100.0

Table 1-11
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 A-7 Cars



1 11 1 1 ( (>\(t\l\


1 M.IM







modi i
S M 1 S

1 Nil
M)J
NDJ
M)J
W (. 11 1
N ol


ll (.ll
lol'
III'
III'
1 (>\
(III
(III
M NK
((Mill)
1 K \(
55 45
(in
11W
( oMI'
1 ll
(III
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SI'I)
( ID
N 1
Ml'(.
Ml'(.
ION Ml'(.
2009
3
0.000
28.0
18.6
26.5
22.4
3593
73.9
229
374
5.5
200
1.635
0.1044
40.2
1652
2968
Percent of A-7 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
DKIN | | K M\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K ol N M.N I S
N 1
in UK id
1 KoM
4W 1)
(.1)1
l'( >l\ 1
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN I
2009

30.7
100.0





100.0

100.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
1-12
November 2009

-------
»\ll'
((Kill)
749
869
1339
2261
3031
2832
3927
3203
2990
2679
3027
2467
1980
1765
1634
1421
899
893
671
611
438
359
505
289
70
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-12
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-3
Cars
I Mi
55 45
M)J
M)J
11W
M) I
< >m r
\ < >1
( I I
II fill
I I Ml
(III
Ml'(.
(Ill
I (>\ M
1-13
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-12 (cont.)
Percent of L-3 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\|N 1 1 l\ \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K < >1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK ID
1 l«>M
4U 1)
(.1)1
|M )|\ I
1 III
DM
|\\()
1 IIKI 1
1 € >( \<
1 IN 1
1978












1979












1980
2.0




8.3






1981

0.7


0.3
11.9






1982
33.0
0.7

2.0
15.7
5.2






1983
41.4
1.3

1.0
21.8
1.4






1984
51.2
1.0

6.5
31.0
0.7






1985
59.5
1.3

7.0
49.2
0.1






1986
72.1


9.7
61.8







1987
88.4


14.4
56.2







1988
97.7


25.3
58.8







1989
99.2
0.1

27.8
60.3







1990
99.9
0.1

42.1
56.0







1991
100.0


43.2
56.8







1992
100.0


79.2
20.8







1993
100.0


80.4
19.6







1994
100.0


78.3
21.7

81.8
5.0
13.3



1995
100.0


96.9
3.1

40.7

59.3



1996
100.0


100.0


47.1

52.9



1997
100.0


100.0


39.2

60.8



1998
100.0


100.0


38.0

62.0



1999
100.0


100.0


43.1

56.9



2000
94.5


100.0


37.0

63.0

17.0

2001
87.2


100.0


19.4

80.6

36.2

2002
100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
1-14
November 2009

-------
»\ll'
((Kill)
219
650
986
1708
2295
3127
3400
3702
4069
4475
4441
4503
4559
5077
5748
6772
5895
6394
6261
6688
6877
6239
6276
5300
4840
4655
3780
3012
2911
2991
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-13
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-4 Cars
I Mi
55 45
M)J
U)l
11 \\
M) I
< >m r
\ < >i
< i i
h iiH
I I Ml
(III
\M'(.
(Ill
I (>\ M
1-15
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-13 (cont.)
Percent of L-4 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\|N 1 1 l\ \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K < >1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK ID
1 l\< >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
|M )|\ I
1 III
DM
|\\()
1 IIKI 1
1 € >( \<
1 IN 1
1980




8.9







1981




10.4







1982
14.8


2.3
19.7
4.6






1983
17.5


6.6
37.0
1.9






1984
18.2


14.5
35.8
0.8






1985
42.4
1.3

28.5
31.5
0.5






1986
57.3


62.3
6.7
0.1






1987
62.2
0.0

69.6
11.6







1988
66.4
0.1

79.9
9.7







1989
72.0
0.3

84.2
10.8







1990
78.2
0.8

95.2
4.0







1991
76.9
1.2

91.9
8.1







1992
72.5
0.7

94.8
5.2







1993
80.2
1.3

96.3
3.7







1994
81.8
0.4

99.0
1.0

60.1

39.9

8.0

1995
80.5
1.1

100.0


53.2
0.5
46.3

10.0

1996
86.3
1.3

100.0


44.5
0.5
55.0

11.5

1997
87.5
1.5

100.0


43.8
0.7
55.5

10.3

1998
90.2
1.7

100.0


41.6
0.7
57.7

16.8

1999
91.3
1.5

100.0


37.8
0.9
61.3
0.0
14.9

2000
91.3
1.5

100.0


38.4
0.7
60.7
0.2
19.6

2001
92.4
1.4

99.9

0.1
38.9
0.1
61.0

22.4

2002
94.0
1.5

99.7

0.3
36.3
0.1
63.5
0.1
28.5

2003
91.8
2.0

99.8

0.2
35.7

64.2
0.2
32.7

2004
90.7
2.8

100.0


32.2

67.8
0.1
32.0

2005
90.2
3.1

100.0


30.7

69.3

37.9

2006
90.8
3.2

100.0


30.5

69.5

42.6

2007
94.6
2.5

100.0


32.4

67.6

47.2
0.0
2008
86.9
4.1

100.0


25.0

75.0

47.9
0.1
2009
86.9
4.1
0.3
99.7


20.8

79.2

58.6
0.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
1-16
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-14
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-5 Cars
modi i
M \l<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ \(
1 M 1 1 < <>\1
(III
1 N(.IM
H till
1 IMI
i<>r
M'D
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
1 < >\
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III
|o\ Ml'(.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
< II)
III'
1993
9
0.001
20.7
14.6
21.3
17.4
4247
116.2
243
280
8.0
156
1.153
0.0662
36.8
2017
4285
1994
22
0.003
21.8
15.3
22.7
18.3
4011
110.0
222
258
8.2
152
1.164
0.0643
36.7
2013
4034
1995
29
0.003
22.5
15.7
23.2
18.8
4301
110.8
233
271
8.3
152
1.167
0.0630
40.5
2085
4492
1996
26
0.003
22.1
15.4
22.4
18.4
4309
106.7
245
258
8.8
148
1.054
0.0592
39.5
1972
4234
1997
150
0.018
24.5
17.0
24.4
20.2
4027
107.3
217
236
9.0
144
1.097
0.0582
40.9
2196
4400
1998
261
0.033
25.3
17.5
24.9
20.8
3923
105.7
202
233
8.9
145
1.165
0.0590
41.0
2215
4334
1999
363
0.043
25.4
17.4
25.2
20.8
3826
106.2
187
223
9.1
143
1.214
0.0578
40.0
2232
4257
2000
622
0.068
24.7
16.8
24.3
20.2
3822
109.7
195
222
9.1
143
1.151
0.0576
38.7
2233
4249
2001
828
0.099
24.9
17.0
24.2
20.3
3792
108.3
185
220
9.0
143
1.210
0.0578
38.6
2207
4184
2002
950
0.114
25.5
17.3
24.7
20.7
3788
105.6
184
219
9.0
142
1.218
0.0575
39.3
2207
4162
2003
1619
0.204
26.8
17.9
25.9
21.7
3670
104.6
179
212
9.1
142
1.205
0.0576
40.0
2310
4200
2004
1603
0.213
27.2
18.1
26.2
21.9
3703
107.6
174
211
9.2
141
1.222
0.0568
40.8
2387
4402
2005
2046
0.255
27.5
18.2
26.5
22.1
3749
111.0
186
215
9.2
141
1.174
0.0570
41.8
2498
4658
2006
2247
0.281
28.3
18.7
27.0
22.6
3716
112.5
189
220
9.0
143
1.184
0.0584
42.5
2595
4780
2007
2243
0.277
29.6
19.5
28.1
23.6
3596
111.2
169
198
9.6
137
1.182
0.0542
42.8
2676
4771
2008
1597
0.217
30.8
20.3
29.0
24.5
3527
109.8
161
195
9.6
137
1.219
0.0542
43.5
2744
4798
2009
1888
0.230
31.1
20.4
29.5
24.8
3574
114.2
163
196
9.6
136
1.209
0.0539
44.5
2867
5083
Percent of L-5 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ V|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K (>1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK id
1 l\( >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
1993



100.0








1994



100.0




100.0

35.2

1995



100.0


2.0

98.0

21.5

1996
16.2
11.4

100.0


32.2

67.8

72.4

1997
2.0
5.4

98.2

1.8
2.6
7.8
86.0
3.6
46.4

1998
7.5
10.6

98.7

1.3
0.4
20.6
61.6
17.3
56.2

1999
17.3
11.7

98.7

1.3
0.8
25.7
45.2
28.4
50.1

2000
26.8
6.6

98.9

1.1
3.7
14.4
67.6
14.4
54.9

2001
31.8
13.1

100.0


0.1
17.3
65.3
17.3
61.1

2002
38.0
14.3

100.0



14.9
68.4
16.7
57.8

2003
54.5
9.2

100.0


2.6
11.5
76.4
9.5
65.2

2004
65.0
11.8

99.4

0.6
0.6
5.7
86.7
7.0
73.6

2005
64.3
8.9

98.9

1.1
8.9
4.9
84.0
2.2
79.2
0.9
2006
68.3
6.6

99.7

0.3
9.9
2.4
87.7
0.1
81.7
0.2
2007
76.6
5.0
0.1
99.9


6.3
1.3
92.5

83.4
0.2
2008
81.0
5.4

100.0


4.6
1.0
94.4

80.2

2009
88.1
4.7
0.2
99.8


4.5
0.7
94.8

87.9

EPA-420-R-09-014
1-17
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-15
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-6 Cars



I II 1 II ()M )\\\


1 M.IM







modi i
M Vl<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ V(
1 Ml
55 45
VDI
1
(III
( ID
III'
H i.H
1 IMI
lor
SI'D
III'
( ID
III'
N 1
1 (>\
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III
|o\ Ml'(.
2000
0
0.000
14.5
9.8
15.2
12.1
3500
50.0
219
394
5.2
210
1.799
0.1126
21.2
606
1060
2001
0
0.000
14.5
9.7
15.1
12.1
3500
50.0
219
394
5.2
210
1.799
0.1126
21.2
605
1058
2002
23
0.003
22.5
15.1
22.5
18.5
4351
113.6
257
333
7.1
172
1.311
0.0773
40.8
2153
4742
2003
71
0.009
24.4
16.3
23.9
19.8
3980
101.7
206
263
8.7
153
1.269
0.0651
39.6
2024
4080
2004
172
0.023
24.6
16.3
24.3
20.0
3996
109.1
216
264
8.5
154
1.218
0.0653
40.1
2199
4410
2005
322
0.040
26.2
17.3
25.2
21.1
3897
113.0
193
228
9.2
143
1.179
0.0578
41.3
2417
4702
2006
851
0.106
27.6
18.2
26.4
22.1
3745
107.0
183
224
9.0
144
1.239
0.0595
41.7
2396
4483
2007
1100
0.136
27.3
18.0
26.3
21.9
3871
110.2
194
242
8.6
149
1.255
0.0622
42.6
2431
4717
2008
1197
0.163
27.2
17.9
26.4
21.9
3880
109.5
194
249
8.4
151
1.298
0.0639
42.7
2419
4696
2009
1312
0.160
27.8
18.3
26.8
22.4
3878
109.4
193
248
8.3
151
1.301
0.0635
43.7
2479
4797
Percent of L-6 Cars:
















Mol)l 1
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M
Mill l\ o
\ VI.\ 1
s







M Vl<
1 KoM
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oK 1
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
ion;
1 IN 1
N 1
in UK ID





2000



100.0





100.0
100.0






2001



100.0





100.0
100.0






2002



100.0




98.0
2.0
100.0






2003
25.0


100.0


16.8

74.2
9.0
75.0






2004
14.2
8.4

99.4

0.6
9.0

77.3
13.7
84.7






2005
55.8
11.9

98.7

1.3
7.7

86.0
6.3
43.4






2006
48.7
10.6

96.7

3.3
5.8

92.8
1.3
73.2






2007
60.5
14.7
0.8
99.2


2.2

97.7
0.1
59.0
0.3





2008
55.1
18.6
14.7
85.3


2.1

97.8
0.1
59.9
0.1





2009
57.6
17.1
18.5
78.7

2.7
2.6

97.4
0.0
70.8
0.1





EPA-420-R-09-014
1-18
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-16
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-7 Cars



1 M 1 1 < <>\1


H till
i<>r
III'
III'
1 < >\
(III
(III
M \l<
((Kill)
1 l\ \(
55 45
MI'
1 11
(III
< II)
III'
1 IMI
M'D
( II)
N 1
Ml'(.
Ml'(.
|o\ Ml'(.
2004
34
0.005
21.9
14.6
21.6
17.9
4161
93.4
296
298
7.5
163
1.006
0.0718
37.3
1684
3547
2005
39
0.005
22.9
15.2
22.5
18.6
3951
79.1
279
293
7.3
165
1.066
0.0745
36.8
1469
2965
2006
166
0.021
23.7
15.8
22.7
19.1
4171
111.0
226
268
8.3
154
1.211
0.0650
40.1
2136
4522
2007
170
0.021
23.0
15.3
22.4
18.6
4295
108.8
246
300
7.9
162
1.236
0.0698
40.2
2039
4423
2008
178
0.024
23.9
15.8
23.0
19.3
4227
106.5
239
294
7.8
161
1.240
0.0695
41.1
2070
4402
2009
247
0.03
24.5
16.2
23.8
19.8
4157
101.3
243
313
7.3
168
1.298
0.0753
41.5
2029
4239
Percent of L-7 Cars:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ V|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K (>1 N M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK id
1 KoM
4W 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol \<
1 IN 1
2004



100.0



100.0




2005



100.0



75.9
24.1

26.1

2006

11.7

100.0



37.4
62.6

71.5

2007

12.7

97.7

2.3

0.7
99.3

70.6

2008

23.4

97.4

2.6

0.2
99.8

24.4

2009

21.8
0.9
96.0

3.1

1.1
98.9

46.4

EPA-420-R-09-014
1-19
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-17
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 CVT Cars
modi i
M \l<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 K \(
1 M 1 1 < <>mt\i\
Ul.lll
\ < >1
(III
1 M.|\|
H till
1 IMI
i<>r
M'D
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
1 < >\
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III
|o\ Ml'(.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
< II)
III'
1989
12
0.001
39.6
32.0
33.6
32.8
2250
88.6
73
66
15.3
100
0.904
0.0293
36.9
2904
3267
1990
3
0.000
37.7
31.2
30.5
30.9
2299
88.7
73
73
14.3
103
1.000
0.0318
35.5
2740
3150
1991
4
0.000
37.3
30.7
30.0
30.4
2289
88.7
73
73
14.3
103
1.000
0.0319
34.7
2693
3082
1992
0
0.000
38.8
31.0
32.1
31.5
2295
88.5
73
73
14.3
103
1.000
0.0319
36.2
2796
3205
1993
1
0.000
37.2
30.0
29.9
30.0
2290
88.5
73
73
14.3
103
1.000
0.0319
34.3
2654
3039
1996
1
0.000
40.4
30.1
34.5
32.3
2750
97.1
97
115
11.5
117
1.186
0.0418
44.4
3132
4307
1997
7
0.001
41.9
31.0
35.7
33.3
2750
99.5
97
115
11.5
117
1.186
0.0418
45.8
3310
4552
1998
5
0.001
42.4
30.9
36.2
33.5
2750
97.1
97
115
11.5
117
1.186
0.0418
46.1
3254
4474
1999
2
0.000
41.8
30.2
35.6
32.9
2750
97.1
97
115
11.5
117
1.186
0.0418
45.2
3192
4389
2000
2
0.000
41.9
30.0
35.5
32.8
2750
97.1
97
115
11.5
117
1.186
0.0418
45.0
3181
4374
2001
19
0.002
55.7
41.8
41.3
41.5
2924
96.3
90
74
17.1
98
0.827
0.0255
61.2
4012
5917
2002
36
0.004
43.3
30.9
35.4
33.2
3084
98.4
103
101
15.5
106
0.947
0.0318
54.8
3536
5396
2003
74
0.009
41.3
28.7
34.8
31.8
3125
98.5
104
114
11.2
112
1.075
0.0359
52.5
3374
5196
2004
103
0.014
46.6
32.5
37.4
35.1
3067
104.6
100
103
10.8
108
1.012
0.0331
57.8
4045
6142
2005
208
0.026
45.4
31.5
36.3
34.1
3224
111.5
109
109
10.2
108
0.971
0.0327
59.6
4232
6637
2006
194
0.024
42.5
29.1
35.2
32.3
3312
111.6
115
125
10.2
113
1.067
0.0363
58.1
4026
6448
2007
838
0.104
37.9
26.1
31.8
29.0
3410
112.6
133
155
9.9
124
1.144
0.0446
51.9
3477
5833
2008
842
0.115
38.4
26.3
32.5
29.5
3343
111.7
133
152
9.9
124
1.128
0.0448
51.6
3498
5756
2009
921
0.112
37.1
25.3
31.7
28.6
3371
110.8
139
164
9.8
128
1.161
0.0480
49.9
3319
5526
Table 1-17 (cont.)
Percent of CVT Cars:
MODI 1
M \l<
DKIN 1 1 K V|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K (>1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK id
1 KoM
4U 1)
(. Dl
I'oK 1
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
1989
100.0











1990
30.8
69.2

100.0








1991

100.0

100.0








1992
54.5
45.5

100.0








1993

100.0

100.0








1996
100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

1997
100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

1998
100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

1999
100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

2000
100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

2001
100.0


100.0




100.0

95.9
7.8
2002
100.0


100.0




79.3
20.7
68.5
67.0
2003
100.0


100.0


35.5

43.6
20.8
55.6
55.1
2004
100.0


100.0


17.7

69.8
12.5
64.7
64.5
2005
84.5
15.5

100.0


10.7

85.1
4.2
69.8
68.8
2006
87.7
12.3

100.0


16.1

81.3
2.6
65.9
61.3
2007
96.7
3.3

100.0


3.9

96.1

96.6
31.9
2008
99.6
0.4
1.9
98.1


3.8

96.2

94.2
29.0
2009
100.0

0.7
99.3


3.7

96.3

99.3
22.7
Table 1-18
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Other Vans



1 II 1 |( ()M )\\\

1 M.IM





modi i
S M 1 S

1 Ml
M)J
M)J
M) 1
W (. 11 1


H (ill
lol'
III'
III'
ION
M \l<
(000)
1 K \(
55 45
(in
11W
( oMI'
1 11
( ID
III'
1 IMI
SI'I)
( II)
N 1
Ml'(.
1984
0
0.000
32.4
25.9
30.0
27.6
2750
122
88
14.3
105
0.721
0.0320
37.9
1987
2
0.002
18.4
15.4
15.4
15.4
4000
129
90
18.3
97
0.698
0.0225
30.8
1989
0
0.000
18.6
15.3
15.5
15.4
4500
129
90
20.4
95
0.698
0.0200
34.7
1990
0
0.000
18.5
15.3
15.3
15.3
4500
129
90
20.8
95
0.698
0.0200
34.4
Percent of Other Vans:
modi i
M \l<
DKIN | | K M\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K ol N M.N I S
N 1
in UK id
1 l\( >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN |
1984
100.0











1987

100.0

100.0








1989

100.0

100.0








EPA-420-R-09-014
1-20
November 2009

-------
w Prattawn	Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
EPA-420-R-09-014
1-21
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-19
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-3 Vans



1 M 1 1 < <>\r
III'
III'
1 < >\
M Vl<
((Kill)
1 l\ V<
55 45
MI'
1 11
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SIM)
( II)
N 1
Ml'(.
1979
40
0.083
17.3
14.1
15.7
14.8
4248
264
129
14.6
108
0.490
0.0304
31.6
1980
29
0.121
19.0
15.1
17.7
16.1
4172
275
126
14.6
108
0.464
0.0304
33.7
1981
20
0.082
19.9
15.9
18.4
16.9
4166
274
125
14.7
108
0.461
0.0301
35.3
1982
12
0.039
20.1
16.1
18.4
17.1
4177
276
117
15.4
105
0.428
0.0281
35.6
1983
11
0.029
19.9
15.9
18.4
17.0
4227
279
118
15.5
105
0.424
0.0279
35.8
1984
14
0.020
20.7
16.6
19.0
17.6
4096
285
118
15.2
106
0.414
0.0288
36.1
1985
7
0.008
20.8
16.8
18.7
17.6
4034
287
132
13.8
111
0.465
0.0327
35.6
1986
5
0.004
20.9
16.9
18.7
17.6
4023
281
136
13.5
112
0.488
0.0337
35.6
1987
1
0.001
20.6
16.4
18.6
17.4
4069
266
161
11.8
120
0.605
0.0396
35.3
Percent of M-3 Vans:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
SI Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DS|
1 \V o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1979












1980












1981












1982












1983












1984












1985












1986












1987




100.0







EPA-420-R-09-014
1-22
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-20
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-4 Vans



1 M 1 1 < <>\r
III'
III'
ION
M Vl<
((Kill)
1 l\ V<
55 45
MI'
1 11
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SIM)
( II)
N 1
MI'i.
1979
31
0.065
15.0
12.0
13.7
12.7
4224
272
125
15.7
107
0.470
0.0290
27.2
1980
33
0.139
19.3
15.1
18.6
16.5
3938
207
94
18.1
99
0.476
0.0236
32.5
1981
34
0.137
19.5
15.5
18.2
16.6
4048
230
99
17.7
100
0.451
0.0243
33.8
1982
36
0.118
21.1
16.8
19.5
17.9
3927
208
92
18.8
98
0.463
0.0231
35.8
1983
34
0.090
20.1
15.8
19.1
17.1
3953
217
98
17.6
100
0.473
0.0245
34.0
1984
50
0.074
21.3
16.7
20.1
18.1
3774
196
100
16.4
102
0.559
0.0265
34.4
1985
31
0.036
22.5
17.9
20.9
19.2
3751
180
98
16.6
101
0.600
0.0263
36.1
1986
16
0.016
21.2
16.7
19.6
17.9
3799
191
102
16.1
102
0.582
0.0269
34.4
1987
13
0.011
20.0
15.7
18.3
16.8
3903
190
107
16.1
103
0.601
0.0272
33.0
1988
3
0.003
20.6
16.4
18.5
17.3
3885
172
111
15.8
105
0.666
0.0284
33.7
1989
3
0.002
21.5
17.2
19.0
18.0
4050
168
107
16.8
102
0.662
0.0263
36.4
1990
3
0.003
21.8
17.6
18.8
18.1
4000
129
90
18.9
97
0.698
0.0225
36.3
1991
0
0.000
18.5
15.2
15.4
15.3
4311
129
90
19.6
96
0.698
0.0209
32.9
Percent of M-4 Vans:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
l)S|
1 \V o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1979




22.1







1980




38.7







1981
2.4



27.1







1982




20.7
15.6






1983
0.3



30.1
0.6






1984
17.7



31.6
0.4






1985
10.4



55.5
0.3






1986
6.5


40.4
15.0
0.4






1987



76.2
6.3
0.1






1988



70.3
29.1
0.6






1989



73.7
25.1
1.2






1990

6.6

100.0








1991

100.0

100.0








EPA-420-R-09-014
1-23
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-21
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-5 Vans



I II 1 II ()M )\\\

1 M.IM





modi i
M Vl<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ V(
1 Ml
55 45
VDI
\
Ml'(.
1983
0
0.001
33.9
29.8
27.3
28.6
3198
97
49
24.7
87
0.505
0.0160
45.5
1984
41
0.061
27.8
21.6
26.7
23.7
3370
129
89
16.1
101
0.689
0.0266
39.9
1985
47
0.055
27.4
21.3
26.5
23.3
3301
128
95
15.1
104
0.743
0.0290
38.5
1986
68
0.065
26.0
20.1
24.9
22.1
3377
143
100
14.8
105
0.708
0.0300
37.3
1987
58
0.052
25.5
19.5
24.7
21.6
3408
147
108
14.3
107
0.738
0.0316
36.9
1988
39
0.035
24.6
18.5
24.3
20.8
3607
167
116
14.1
109
0.714
0.0321
37.7
1989
35
0.027
24.1
18.0
23.7
20.3
3673
170
120
13.9
109
0.724
0.0326
37.5
1990
19
0.015
25.2
18.8
24.4
21.2
3584
159
123
13.5
111
0.777
0.0344
38.2
1991
14
0.013
23.8
17.8
22.6
19.9
3719
146
117
14.4
108
0.802
0.0314
36.9
1992
19
0.016
26.3
19.4
25.0
21.8
3407
141
117
13.2
111
0.854
0.0347
37.2
1993
17
0.012
24.4
17.6
24.1
20.4
3723
156
118
14.2
108
0.762
0.0318
38.1
1994
7
0.005
25.9
18.7
25.1
21.4
3542
154
115
14.0
109
0.755
0.0325
38.0
1995
2
0.001
23.9
17.9
21.5
19.6
3942
138
119
14.7
109
0.874
0.0321
38.4
1996
0
0.000
28.3
20.9
25.5
23.0
3210
133
127
11.9
116
0.955
0.0395
37.0
Percent of M-5 Vans:












Mol)l 1
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M
Mill l\ o
\ VI.\ 1
s




M Vl<
1 KoM
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 \\ o
1 IIKI 1
ion;
1 IN 1
N 1
in UK id


iy oj
Z4.Z




1UU.U








1984
70.9


29.1

1.9








1985
61.6
6.3

32.0
0.1









1986
31.1
19.7

33.1
4.4
2.9








1987
29.3
24.5

47.5
12.7









1988
31.8
20.3

63.1
36.9









1989
32.2
15.7

68.7
31.3









1990
56.8
12.7

64.9
35.1









1991
6.4
35.6

99.0
1.0









1992
67.5
11.3

78.6
21.4









1993
66.5
0.6

66.0
34.0

2.7

7.8





1994
68.5
7.0

48.1
51.9

83.2
7.0
9.9





1995
67.2
32.8

100.0


41.0

59.0





1996
58.1
41.9

100.0




100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
1-24
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-22
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 A-3 Vans
modi i
M Vl<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ V<
1 M 1 1 < <>\r
SIM)
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
ION
MI'i.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
( II)
III'
1979
377
0.784
13.0
10.7
11.6
11.1
4625
334
148
14.5
112
0.445
0.0321
25.9
1980
85
0.350
15.2
12.2
13.9
12.9
4657
315
137
15.5
108
0.437
0.0294
30.3
1981
77
0.314
16.0
12.9
14.5
13.6
4511
309
130
15.6
107
0.425
0.0290
30.8
1982
119
0.385
15.6
12.6
14.2
13.3
4518
314
135
15.2
108
0.431
0.0299
30.1
1983
110
0.286
15.7
12.7
14.3
13.4
4399
316
133
15.1
109
0.424
0.0304
29.6
1984
263
0.390
17.8
14.2
16.4
15.1
3962
249
127
14.5
109
0.548
0.0319
30.6
1985
365
0.427
19.2
15.5
17.6
16.4
3827
218
121
14.7
108
0.593
0.0314
31.9
1986
328
0.314
21.0
16.7
19.4
17.8
3843
204
115
15.2
106
0.597
0.0299
34.5
1987
286
0.257
19.3
15.3
17.6
16.3
4098
239
136
14.1
111
0.593
0.0329
33.8
1988
199
0.176
19.4
15.3
17.5
16.3
4172
247
139
14.2
112
0.578
0.0329
34.6
1989
262
0.205
20.8
16.3
18.8
17.4
3899
208
131
14.1
111
0.667
0.0333
34.5
1990
53
0.042
18.7
14.8
16.4
15.6
4326
260
151
13.5
115
0.615
0.0352
33.7
1991
19
0.018
17.3
13.8
14.9
14.3
4608
276
142
14.9
110
0.527
0.0307
33.0
1992
23
0.019
16.4
12.9
14.4
13.6
4897
306
174
13.4
118
0.564
0.0358
33.5
1993
24
0.017
16.6
13.0
14.6
13.7
5074
303
160
14.7
113
0.526
0.0318
34.9
1994
29
0.021
16.4
12.7
14.4
13.5
4956
307
175
13.5
118
0.568
0.0359
33.5
1995
27
0.016
16.3
12.6
14.2
13.4
5030
305
168
14.1
115
0.549
0.0339
33.7
1996
23
0.016
15.9
12.1
14.0
13.0
5066
305
170
14.1
116
0.554
0.0342
33.0
1997
5
0.004
16.0
12.1
14.2
13.1
4500
318
215
10.3
133
0.676
0.0478
29.4
Percent of A-3 Vans:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ |
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
l)S|
1 \V o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1979




0.4







1980




3.2







1981




2.7







1982




1.4







1983
0.4



2.6
0.4






1984
39.7



2.1
0.5






1985
59.2



1.5







1986
66.3


0.9








1987
43.2


16.7
24.5







1988
38.1


29.9
68.8







1989
64.6


46.7
53.3







1990
16.3
6.7

70.3
29.7







1991



100.0








1992



100.0








1993

1.0

100.0








1994



100.0


100.0





1995



100.0


100.0





1996



100.0


100.0





1997



100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
1-25
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-23
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 A-4 Vans



1 M 1 1 < <>\r
III'
III'
ION
M \l<
((Kill)
1 l\ \<
55 45

11W
< oMI'
1 11
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SIM)
( II)
N 1
MI'i.
1990
6
0.005
14.5
11.2
13.5
12.2
4709
348
184
12.1
122
0.530
0.0393
28.7
1991
3
0.003
14.4
11.1
13.2
12.0
4639
344
182
12.1
122
0.530
0.0394
27.9
1992
1
0.001
13.6
10.4
12.5
11.3
4856
360
203
11.5
126
0.564
0.0421
27.4
Percent of A-4 Vans:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
SI Mill K < >| \ M.\ I S
\ |
in UK id
1 KoS |
4W 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DS|
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
1990




100.0







1991




100.0







1992




100.0







EPA-420-R-09-014
1-26
November 2009

-------
w Prattawn	Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-24
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-3 Vans
modi i
M Vl<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ V<
1 M 1 1 < <>\1'
SIM)
< II)
N 1
1 < >\
MI'i.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
< II)
III'
1979
33
0.068
14.7
12
13
12.4
4227
301
136
14.4
111
0.452
0.0322
26.6
1980
94
0.39
16.6
13.3
15.3
14.1
4283
296
139
14.2
111
0.471
0.0325
30.2
1981
114
0.466
17.6
14.1
16.3
15
4307
285
137
14.5
111
0.482
0.0318
32.4
1982
142
0.458
17.9
14.4
16.5
15.2
4315
285
142
14.3
112
0.493
0.0327
32.9
1983
26
0.068
19.7
15.9
17.8
16.7
4000
225
95
18.1
99
0.422
0.0237
33.5
1984
101
0.149
18.4
14.6
17
15.6
4208
266
131
14.9
109
0.499
0.0309
32.9
1985
150
0.175
17.2
13.8
15.6
14.6
4369
285
149
13.7
114
0.531
0.034
32
1986
183
0.175
17.5
14
16
14.8
4365
288
146
13.9
113
0.518
0.0333
32.4
1987
228
0.205
22
17.1
20.7
18.6
3773
207
137
13
115
0.702
0.0368
35.2
1988
367
0.324
22.7
17.3
22
19.2
3853
194
143
12.6
116
0.76
0.0374
37.1
1989
111
0.087
20.9
16.1
19.6
17.6
3871
215
138
13.1
114
0.682
0.036
34.2
1990
308
0.244
23.3
17.7
21.9
19.5
3789
186
125
14.1
110
0.677
0.0331
37.1
1991
225
0.218
23.5
17.9
21.7
19.6
3892
183
125
14.4
109
0.687
0.032
38.3
1992
258
0.211
24
18.1
22.3
19.9
3902
179
128
14
111
0.718
0.0329
39
1993
274
0.19
24.6
18.2
23.1
20.4
3632
179
132
13
114
0.737
0.0365
37
1994
259
0.182
23
17.2
21.2
19
3800
190
142
12.8
116
0.745
0.0374
36.2
1995
226
0.136
24.4
18
22.5
20
3647
184
136
12.8
115
0.737
0.0374
36.6
1996
243
0.172
23.7
17.4
21.9
19.5
4042
182
153
12.5
118
0.845
0.0378
39.5
1997
204
0.161
23.5
17
21.7
19.2
4047
183
149
12.8
116
0.822
0.0367
39
1998
113
0.076
24.1
17.3
22.5
19.7
4059
173
153
12.5
117
0.898
0.0377
40.3
1999
78
0.053
23.7
17
21.7
19.2
4111
168
155
12.5
118
0.953
0.0378
40
2000
76
0.045
24.1
17.1
22.1
19.5
4097
165
155
12.5
118
0.961
0.0377
40.5
2001
39
0.031
23
16.6
20.4
18.5
4136
172
156
12.5
118
0.941
0.0378
38.8
2002
17
0.014
21.5
15.4
19
17.2
4219
186
160
12.4
118
0.896
0.038
36.9
2003
5
0.004
17.7
13.2
14.8
14
4516
239
175
12.2
121
0.732
0.0388
31.7
Percent of L-3 Vans:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
r< >K i
Mil
l)S|
1 \V o
1 III* 1 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1979












1980












1981












1982












1983












1984
8.3











1985
7.4











1986
8.3











1987
72.9


68.2








1988
87.8


87.8
12.2







1989
63.5


63.5
36.5







1990
90.1


30.6
69.4







1991
90.8


39.1
60.9







1992
94.0


63.0
37.0







1993
96.8


72.7
27.3







1994
78.6


75.0
25.0

100.0





1995
91.2


69.3
30.7

100.0





1996
90.2


100.0


87.1

12.9



1997
86.5


100.0


81.7

18.3



1998
88.4


100.0


56.4

43.6



1999
78.5


100.0


21.5

78.5



2000
81.2


100.0


18.8

81.2



2001
74.1


100.0


25.9

74.1



2002
58.1


100.0


41.9

58.1



2003



100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
1-27
November 2009

-------
Ml*
((Kill)
0
201
207
255
445
526
524
867
872
772
919
1127
1123
1406
1143
1039
1376
1385
1615
1194
1028
977
505
952
656
406
213
116
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-25
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-4 Vans
I Mi
55 45
M)J
M)J
11W
M) I
< <>MI'
1-28
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-25 (cont.)
Percent of L-4 Vans:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\|N 1 1 l\ \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K < >1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK ID
1 l«>M
4U 1)
(.1)1
|M )|\ I
1 III
DM
|\\()
1 IIKI 1
1 € >( \<
1 IN 1
1981












1983





8.1






1984



15.9

3.0






1985
0.1


15.3
0.9
1.0






1986
0.1


44.0
37.0
0.4






1987

0.9

50.9
48.9
0.2






1988

0.2

45.0
54.8
0.2






1989
21.7
0.4

60.4
39.5
0.1






1990
33.6
8.8

67.1
32.8
0.1






1991
24.5
13.9

69.1
30.8
0.1






1992
32.5
7.1

73.6
26.4
0.1






1993
39.2
5.8

80.3
19.7

0.3

0.6



1994
47.5
8.1

82.4
17.6

95.7
2.6
1.7



1995
57.7
10.7

90.0
10.0

94.7
1.2
4.1



1996
71.8
2.9

100.0


95.7
1.3
3.0



1997
61.9
4.9

100.0


95.9
1.3
2.8



1998
77.5
3.5

100.0


92.4

7.6



1999
75.8
2.9

100.0


91.3

8.7

8.7

2000
80.6
2.8

100.0


81.2

18.8

15.7

2001
69.1
8.9

100.0


79.1

20.9

17.5

2002
81.7
3.7

100.0


86.0

14.0

10.8

2003
79.8
6.3

100.0


93.0

7.0

4.4

2004
79.9
4.1

100.0


90.0

10.0

8.8

2005
89.5
2.1

100.0


96.5

3.5

1.3

2006
88.0
1.9

100.0


94.6

5.4

3.4

2007
92.2
1.0

100.0


98.0

2.0

17.4

2008
86.7
1.9

100.0


100.0



36.3

2009
75.3
3.4

100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
1-29
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-26
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-5 Vans



I II 1 II ()M )\\\

1 \(.IM





modi i
S\IIS

1 Ml
VDJ
VDJ
VI) 1
U(.lll


0 ill)
lol'
III'
III'
1 (>\
M VK
(000)
1 K V(
55 45
\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 \\ o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
N 1
in UK ID


1997

47.3

100.0


100.0







2002
100.0


100.0




100.0

75.0



2003
100.0


100.0




100.0

79.4



2004
94.2
5.8

100.0




100.0

88.1



2005
94.7
5.3

100.0




100.0

79.0



2006
95.4
4.6

100.0




100.0

88.5



2007
98.0
2.0

100.0




100.0

84.9



2008
96.0
4.0

100.0




100.0

87.7



2009
97.8
2.2

100.0




100.0

83.3



Table 1-27
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-6 Vans



1 M 1 1 ( (>\(t\i\

1 M.IM





modi i
s VI I s

1 \ li
V1) J
\I)J
V1) J
W (. 11 1


0 (.0
lor
III'
III'
ION
M \K
(000)
1 K \(
55 45
(in
11W
( oMI'
1 11
( ID
III'
1 IMI
SI'I)
( II)
N 1
Ml'(.
2008
234
0.303
24.1
16.0
23.2
19.5
4569
229
199
11.4
127
0.871
0.0434
44.6
2009
271
0.373
24.4
16.2
23.5
19.7
4634
233
197
11.6
126
0.846
0.0423
45.7
Percent of L-6 Vans:
modi i
M VK
l)l\IN 1 1 K Vl\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoM
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oK 1
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
	
93."
0.3




	

31.9



2009
98.2
1.8

100.0


67.9

32.1



EPA-420-R-09-014
1-30
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-28
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 CVT Vans



1 M 1 1 < <>\r
III'
III'
1 < >\
M VK
((Kill)
1 K V(
55 45

11W
( < >MI'
1 11
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SIM)
( II)
N 1
Ml'(.
2005
76
0.051
25.4
17.3
23.2
20.2
4239
182
203
10.3
132
1.115
0.0480
42.8
2006
55
0.047
25.7
17.4
23.6
20.5
4181
182
203
10.2
133
1.115
0.0487
42.8
2007
38
0.045
25.7
17.4
23.6
20.5
4168
182
203
10.2
133
1.115
0.0489
42.7
Percent of CVT Vans:
modi i
M VK
l)l\IN 1 1 K MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
SI Mill K < >| \ M.\ I S
\ |
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DS|
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
2005
52.1
47.9

100.0




100.0



2006
63.9
36.1

100.0




100.0



2007
66.4
33.6

100.0




100.0



Table 1-29
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Other SUVs



I II 1 II OSl )\\\

1 S(.|\|





modi i
S\||S

1 Ml
M)J
M)J
M) 1
W (. 11 1


H (ill
lol'
III'
III'
los
M vk
((Kill)
1 K v(
55 45

11W ^
( oMI'
1 11
( ID
III'
1 IMI
SIM)
( II)
N 1
Ml'(.
1983
1
0.003
13.7
10.6
13.3
11.6
5000
318
160
14.3
113
0.503
0.0320
29.1
Percent of Other SUVs:
modi i
M VK
l)l\IN 1 1 K MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
SI Mill |< Ol \ vl.\ I S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoS |
4W 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
l)S|
1 \\ o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
1983

100.0










EPA-420-R-09-014
1-31
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-30
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-3 SUVs



1 M 1 1 < <>\r
III'
III'
ION
M Vl<
((Kill)
1 l\ V<
55 45
MI'
1 11
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SIM)
( II)
N 1
MI'i.
1979
83
0.207
16.6
13.8
14.4
14.0
3272
276
120
12.6
113
0.436
0.0370
23.0
1980
19
0.106
15.6
12.5
14.1
13.2
4780
310
140
15.2
108
0.451
0.0291
31.7
1981
9
0.066
16.5
13.4
14.9
14.0
4693
304
131
15.6
106
0.430
0.0278
33.1
1982
9
0.058
16.3
13.1
14.9
13.9
4657
307
136
15.1
108
0.442
0.0290
32.4
1983
8
0.028
17.5
14.0
16.0
14.8
4705
308
137
15.0
108
0.447
0.0291
35.2
1984
4
0.006
15.6
12.2
15.0
13.3
5066
311
161
14.0
113
0.518
0.0317
33.8
1985
12
0.016
16.9
13.6
15.5
14.4
4793
306
150
14.2
111
0.489
0.0313
34.8
1986
9
0.012
16.7
13.3
15.4
14.2
4884
307
146
14.8
109
0.474
0.0298
34.8
1987
6
0.007
16.4
13.0
14.9
13.8
5047
314
164
13.9
114
0.522
0.0326
35.1
1988
3
0.003
15.6
12.2
14.4
13.1
5098
340
192
12.5
121
0.563
0.0377
33.6
1989
3
0.003
15.8
12.3
14.5
13.3
5111
326
174
13.5
116
0.531
0.0340
34.1
1990
1
0.001
14.9
11.4
14.0
12.5
5203
343
199
12.2
122
0.578
0.0383
32.6
1991
0
0.000
15.0
11.6
13.6
12.5
5000
348
207
11.4
126
0.593
0.0414
31.3
1992
19
0.019
21.2
16.0
19.7
17.6
3500
242
190
9.3
136
0.785
0.0543
30.8
Percent of M-3 SUVs:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
SI Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 l«)S|
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
l)S|
1 \V o
IIIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1979

97.7










1980

84.2



1.7






1981

96.7










1982

100.0










1983

100.0










1984

100.0










1985

100.0

14.2








1986

100.0

33.9








1987

100.0

51.0
39.0







1988

100.0

12.3
83.8







1989

100.0

40.7
59.3







1990

100.0


100.0







1991

100.0


100.0







1992

100.0

100.0








EPA-420-R-09-014
1-32
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-31
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-4 SUVs



1 M 1 1 < <>\r
III'
III'
ION
M Vl<
((Kill)
1 l\ V<
55 45
MI'
1 11
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SIM)
( II)
N 1
MI'i.
1979
50
0.126
12.4
10.1
11.1
10.5
4888
322
153
14.5
ill
0.479
0.0311
25.9
1980
61
0.330
19.1
15.4
17.2
16.2
3184
222
95
14.9
104
0.462
0.0299
26.1
1981
47
0.343
20.1
16.0
18.7
17.1
3293
235
105
14.0
107
0.467
0.0323
28.3
1982
28
0.175
19.5
15.4
18.2
16.6
3634
245
107
15.0
105
0.472
0.0299
30.4
1983
47
0.163
20.7
16.4
19.4
17.6
3403
212
106
14.5
107
0.538
0.0313
30.2
1984
83
0.133
20.6
16.3
19.2
17.5
3603
204
105
15.2
105
0.555
0.0294
31.8
1985
58
0.078
22.0
17.3
20.7
18.7
3529
158
95
16.2
102
0.630
0.0268
33.4
1986
27
0.035
21.6
17.1
20.0
18.3
3616
198
114
14.1
108
0.610
0.0317
33.6
1987
18
0.021
20.1
15.7
18.7
17.0
3872
193
118
14.5
107
0.639
0.0307
34.3
1988
1
0.001
27.1
21.2
24.7
22.7
3348
150
117
13.0
111
0.780
0.0351
38.0
1992
16
0.016
22.1
16.5
20.8
18.4
3484
239
188
9.3
136
0.788
0.0539
32.0
Percent of M-4 SUVs:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
l)S|
1 \V o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1979

55.3



1.5






1980

100.0



6.6






1981

100.0










1982

98.0



8.2






1983

93.9










1984

95.5










1985

88.3


9.0







1986

84.8


53.0







1987

79.1

6.4
67.8







1988

69.7


100.0







1992

67.7

100.0








EPA-420-R-09-014
1-33
November 2009

-------
M I
HUH
10
38
96
135
252
297
318
239
209
239
190
212
268
278
141
286
210
179
160
148
160
121
122
57
47
33
21
58
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-32
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-5 SUVs
I Mi
55 45
M)J
M)J
11W
M) I
< <>MI'
1-34
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-32 (cont.)
Percent of M-5 SUVs:
modi i
M \K
DKIN 1 1 K \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K < >1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK ID
1 l\< >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
l'( )|\ I
1 III
DM
|\\()
1 IIKI 1
1 € >( K
1 IN 1
1982

100.0










1983

90.4










1984

92.7










1985

94.7

11.9
1.2
0.6






1986

97.4

27.3
15.5
2.0






1987

96.7

33.2
19.9
0.1






1988

91.7

50.4
12.9







1989

86.8

51.3
33.9







1990

88.6

54.9
34.3







1991

78.5

70.5
28.8







1992

69.9

66.0
32.5







1993

74.4

84.8
13.7

0.4





1994
1.8
73.4

82.7
17.3

77.8
6.5
15.6



1995
0.1
79.2

92.0
8.0

79.9

20.1



1996
2.9
59.0

100.0


47.1

52.9



1997
2.9
70.3

100.0


48.9

51.1



1998
2.9
74.4

100.0


49.7

50.3



1999
2.4
75.5

100.0


52.2

47.8



2000
1.6
76.8

100.0


59.2

40.8



2001
11.8
67.7

100.0


47.1

52.9

10.7

2002
14.9
68.9

100.0


35.9

64.1

12.6

2003
28.6
62.4

100.0


39.9

60.1

19.1

2004
23.9
66.1

100.0


39.7

60.3

16.8

2005
50.2
43.7

100.0


0.4

99.6

27.6

2006
43.9
48.0

100.0




100.0

34.6

2007
49.6
48.8

100.0


5.1

94.9

49.4

2008
51.4
47.5

100.0


3.8

96.2

66.5

2009
45.4
53.3

100.0


5.5

94.5

62.7

Table 1-33
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-6 SUVs
modi i
M \K
S M 1 S
((Kill)
1 K \(
I II 1 II ()M )\\\
W (. 11 1
1 11
1 M.|\|
H (ill
1 IMI
lor
M'l)
III'
( II)
ill'
\\T
1 (>\
Ml'(.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-34
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 A-3 SUVs
modi i
M Vl<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ V<
1 M 1 1 < <>\r
SIM)
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
ION
MI'i.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
( II)
III'
1979
265
0.661
11.7
9.7
10.1
9.9
4823
349
149
14.9
ill
0.432
0.0310
23.9
1980
56
0.303
13.7
11.1
12.4
11.6
4496
326
140
14.6
110
0.429
0.0312
26.2
1981
24
0.179
14.2
11.5
12.8
12.1
4743
326
142
15.0
109
0.439
0.0301
28.6
1982
45
0.280
15.7
12.9
13.7
13.3
4178
281
129
14.6
109
0.472
0.0312
27.5
1983
47
0.164
16.2
13.2
14.4
13.7
4116
276
126
14.6
109
0.476
0.0313
28.0
1984
173
0.277
16.4
13.1
15.0
13.9
4141
258
128
14.8
109
0.518
0.0307
29.1
1985
88
0.120
14.2
11.4
13.0
12.0
4717
337
165
13.4
116
0.492
0.0349
28.5
1986
53
0.069
14.5
11.5
13.3
12.3
4653
337
158
13.8
114
0.469
0.0338
28.7
1987
58
0.067
14.6
11.5
13.3
12.3
4604
327
152
14.0
113
0.464
0.0330
28.5
1988
61
0.063
14.9
11.7
13.7
12.6
4649
331
160
13.6
115
0.484
0.0344
29.3
1989
60
0.065
14.5
11.4
13.2
12.2
4610
330
162
13.4
116
0.488
0.0350
28.1
1990
14
0.020
15.9
12.4
14.3
13.3
3991
307
128
14.3
110
0.418
0.0320
26.6
1991
11
0.010
16.4
12.8
14.8
13.7
3847
283
167
11.3
125
0.625
0.0447
26.4
1992
6
0.006
16.1
13.0
13.7
13.3
3500
242
190
9.3
136
0.785
0.0543
23.3
1993
8
0.006
18.0
14.2
15.6
14.8
3500
242
190
9.3
136
0.785
0.0543
26.0
1994
25
0.016
22.1
17.3
18.9
18.0
3500
134
118
13.7
110
0.881
0.0337
31.6
Percent of A-3 SUVs:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 l«)S|
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
l)S|
1 \V o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1979

63.7










1980

99.7










1981

100.0










1982

72.5










1983

71.1










1984

92.5










1985

81.2



0.4






1986

91.9










1987

93.2

11.9








1988

95.6

39.8
17.1







1989

94.7

36.8
25.3







1990

100.0

0.7








1991

100.0

65.3








1992

100.0

100.0








1993

100.0

100.0








1994



100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
1-36
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-35
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 A-4 SUVs



1 M 1 1 < <>\r
III'
III'
ION
M Vl<
((Kill)
1 l\ V<
55 45
MI'
1 11
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SIM)
( II)
N 1
MI'i.
1987
15
0.017
21.0
17.4
18.0
17.7
3500
156
109
14.6
107
0.699
0.0311
30.9
1988
7
0.008
20.1
16.5
17.1
16.8
3500
156
109
14.6
107
0.699
0.0311
29.4
1989
9
0.010
19.4
15.8
16.5
16.1
4000
181
143
13.0
115
0.790
0.0357
32.3
1990
13
0.019
15.5
11.9
14.4
13.0
4728
312
169
13.1
117
0.557
0.0358
31.0
1991
5
0.004
15.8
12.1
14.5
13.2
4748
313
169
13.1
117
0.550
0.0357
31.4
1992
0
0.000
13.0
10.0
11.9
10.9
5000
357
193
12.3
122
0.541
0.0386
27.2
1997
22
0.009
25.9
19.4
22.6
21.0
3000
149
142
10.4
125
0.953
0.0473
31.4
Percent of A-4 SUVs:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
l)S|
1 \V o
IIIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1987

100.0










1988

100.0










1989

100.0

100.0








1990

54.6

9.0
91.0







1991

56.6

6.9
93.1







1992

91.2

6.9
93.1







1997



100.0




100.0



EPA-420-R-09-014
1-37
November 2009

-------
w Prattawn	Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-36
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-3 SUVs
modi i
M Vl<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ V<
1 M 1 1 < <>\1'
SIM)
< ID
N 1
1 < >\
MI'i.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
< ID
III'
1979
2
0.006
13.1
10.8
11.5
11.1
4720
340
152
14.3
112
0.447
0.0322
26.3
1980
48
0.262
14.4
11.4
13.4
12.2
5042
342
161
14.3
113
0.470
0.0319
30.9
1981
56
0.411
16.0
12.7
14.9
13.6
4659
318
149
14.3
112
0.468
0.0319
31.8
1982
25
0.157
16.7
13.2
15.8
14.2
4284
313
135
14.5
110
0.436
0.0316
30.7
1983
26
0.090
15.7
12.5
14.6
13.4
4280
330
135
14.5
110
0.410
0.0317
28.9
1984
51
0.082
20.8
17.0
18.7
17.7
3364
174
104
14.7
106
0.607
0.0311
29.7
1985
63
0.086
20.6
16.6
18.7
17.5
3441
166
105
14.9
106
0.632
0.0305
30.2
1986
83
0.108
20.0
16.2
17.8
16.9
3549
178
117
13.9
109
0.669
0.0330
30.1
1987
24
0.027
17.9
14.3
16.1
15.1
4114
212
141
13.4
113
0.702
0.0345
31.0
1988
5
0.005
17.6
13.7
16.6
14.9
4500
318
145
14.2
112
0.456
0.0322
33.5
1989
17
0.019
29.6
24.1
25.3
24.6
2500
97
80
14.3
104
0.825
0.0320
30.8
1990
14
0.020
28.7
23.2
24.4
23.7
2750
97
80
15.4
102
0.825
0.0291
32.6
1991
46
0.042
22.5
18.4
18.7
18.6
3269
133
88
16.3
101
0.681
0.0270
30.4
1992
34
0.034
22.1
18.0
18.2
18.1
3146
128
94
15.0
104
0.748
0.0300
28.7
1993
37
0.028
22.0
17.9
18.0
18.0
3145
128
94
15.0
104
0.749
0.0301
28.4
1994
42
0.026
24.6
19.2
21.0
20.1
2830
126
104
13.5
110
0.834
0.0360
28.7
1995
45
0.025
24.1
18.7
20.6
19.6
2870
130
113
12.5
114
0.893
0.0387
28.6
1996
18
0.009
27.4
21.2
22.9
22.0
2736
97
95
13.3
108
0.979
0.0347
30.1
1997
37
0.015
20.7
15.5
18.2
16.8
3335
188
147
11.4
122
0.808
0.0437
28.1
1998
32
0.012
20.4
15.3
17.7
16.5
3300
191
150
11.2
123
0.812
0.0448
27.4
1999
31
0.011
18.8
13.9
16.7
15.3
3915
226
171
11.2
124
0.758
0.0434
29.9
2000
37
0.012
19.1
14.1
16.8
15.4
3934
230
173
11.1
125
0.755
0.0438
30.3
2001
28
0.008
18.9
14.0
16.4
15.2
3951
233
175
11.0
126
0.753
0.0442
30.0
2002
27
0.007
18.4
13.6
15.7
14.7
3969
236
190
10.4
131
0.805
0.0478
29.1
Percent of L-3 SUVs:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
r< >K i
Mil
l)S|
1 \V o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1979












1980

63.9










1981

77.2










1982

95.6










1983

99.9










1984

100.0










1985

94.8










1986

84.3


13.8







1987

77.1


77.2







1988




100.0







1989

100.0


100.0







1990

100.0


100.0







1991

33.1


100.0







1992

28.8


100.0







1993

25.0

5.0
95.0







1994

71.9

37.6
62.4

91.7

8.3



1995

81.9

82.5
17.5

100.0





1996

61.2

100.0




100.0



1997

92.3

100.0


80.5

19.5



1998

89.8

100.0


76.6

23.4



1999

97.6

100.0


100.0





2000

98.9

100.0


100.0





2001

100.0

100.0


100.0





2002

100.0

100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
1-38
November 2009

-------
w Prattawn	Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-37
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-4 SUVs
modi i
M \l<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ \<
1 M 1 1 < <>\1'
SIM)
< ID
N 1
1 < >\
MI'i.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
< ID
III'
1982
43
0.265
19.4
14.9
19.0
16.5
5287
336
146
16.3
108
0.437
0.0279
44.9
1983
122
0.423
20.2
15.5
20.0
17.2
4549
256
131
15.7
107
0.545
0.0288
39.6
1984
217
0.347
20.1
15.4
20.0
17.2
4406
241
130
15.3
108
0.567
0.0295
38.0
1985
379
0.515
20.6
15.7
20.7
17.6
4164
218
123
15.3
107
0.586
0.0294
36.7
1986
348
0.450
19.2
14.7
18.9
16.4
4266
233
140
13.9
112
0.643
0.0333
34.8
1987
454
0.520
20.1
15.2
19.9
17.0
4089
228
152
12.8
117
0.689
0.0375
34.7
1988
571
0.590
19.7
15.0
19.2
16.7
4071
240
158
12.3
119
0.679
0.0395
33.9
1989
597
0.645
19.8
15.0
19.0
16.7
4168
263
168
11.9
122
0.652
0.0410
34.6
1990
456
0.645
19.0
14.2
18.4
15.9
4315
259
171
12.1
122
0.680
0.0404
34.3
1991
794
0.725
19.9
14.8
19.3
16.7
4215
247
167
12.0
121
0.687
0.0401
35.2
1992
737
0.735
19.2
14.2
18.5
16.1
4260
247
176
11.7
123
0.723
0.0419
34.2
1993
1053
0.804
19.4
14.2
18.8
16.2
4301
257
188
11.2
127
0.743
0.0444
34.8
1994
1287
0.793
19.2
14.1
18.3
16.0
4389
255
187
11.4
126
0.747
0.0431
35.1
1995
1494
0.822
19.1
13.9
18.2
15.8
4431
257
184
11.6
125
0.734
0.0422
35.1
1996
1730
0.916
19.7
14.2
18.8
16.3
4356
260
189
11.2
127
0.741
0.0438
35.5
1997
1808
0.738
19.6
14.2
18.5
16.2
4467
259
197
11.1
128
0.786
0.0442
36.1
1998
1928
0.747
19.7
14.1
18.7
16.2
4447
256
197
11.0
128
0.795
0.0444
36.1
1999
2226
0.786
19.9
14.2
18.6
16.2
4477
252
204
10.8
130
0.843
0.0456
36.3
2000
2556
0.813
19.9
14.2
18.5
16.2
4514
250
205
10.8
130
0.850
0.0455
36.5
2001
2739
0.794
20.9
14.8
19.1
16.9
4394
230
206
10.6
131
0.929
0.0469
37.1
2002
3065
0.731
20.8
14.6
19.2
16.8
4534
235
224
10.2
135
0.978
0.0494
38.1
2003
2933
0.712
20.7
14.4
19.2
16.8
4669
240
228
10.2
135
0.974
0.0489
38.9
2004
2875
0.610
21.0
14.5
19.5
16.9
4650
245
230
10.1
136
0.961
0.0496
39.2
2005
1882
0.461
21.7
14.9
19.8
17.4
4634
237
235
10.0
137
1.009
0.0504
40.0
2006
1471
0.391
22.3
15.3
20.4
17.9
4481
223
225
10.1
136
1.028
0.0499
40.0
2007
1473
0.348
22.5
15.4
20.8
18.1
4754
239
238
10.1
137
1.012
0.0497
42.8
2008
1208
0.303
23.6
16.1
21.7
18.9
4435
216
220
10.2
134
1.038
0.0492
41.7
2009
1107
0.216
23.8
16.2
21.9
19.0
4330
207
217
10.1
135
1.062
0.0496
41.4
Percent of L-4 SUVs:
modi i
M \l<
DI\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill K < >| \ M N I S
\ 1
in iM\iD
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
l'< >l\ 1
MM
l)S|
I W O
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
1982

55.6



52.3






1983

70.8



15.9






1984

67.8



6.7






1985

71.0

2.7
1.2
2.5






1986

77.2

32.4
38.4
1.9






1987

74.1

39.3
60.0
0.7






1988

78.4

47.9
51.6
0.5






1989

78.8

45.5
54.1
0.4






1990

81.6

63.4
36.1
0.4






1991

78.3

60.0
39.8
0.2






1992

74.1

76.8
23.2







1993

57.4

88.6
11.4

0.5





1994
0.3
78.3

88.3
11.7

88.5
4.0
7.5



1995

79.1

84.6
15.4

84.7

15.3



1996
0.8
72.1

100.0

0.0
87.4

12.6



1997
1.2
73.4

100.0

0.0
76.8

23.2



1998
2.1
74.2

100.0


76.8

23.2



1999
3.2
66.4

100.0


70.0

30.0

4.1

2000
3.0
68.2

100.0


74.0

26.0

3.5

2001
16.7
57.7

100.0


57.0

43.0

12.9

2002
12.1
61.4

100.0


42.9

57.1

29.3

2003
12.4
60.1

100.0


46.0

54.0

33.2

2004
12.1
60.7

100.0


50.2

49.8

30.5

2005
21.1
58.7

100.0


37.9
5.6
56.5

32.4

2006
24.1
58.4

100.0


28.9
6.3
64.8

41.8

2007
20.3
54.5

100.0


55.3

44.7

28.6
0.5
2008
28.2
55.2

100.0


40.0

60.0

34.2
0.2
2009
25.7
56.9

100.0


31.6

68.4

55.4
0.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
1-39
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-38
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-5 SUVs



I II 1 II ()M )\\\

1 M.IM





modi i
S\||S

1 Ml
VDJ
VDJ
VI) 1
U(.lll


H (ill
lol'
III'
III'
ION
M Vl<
((Kill)
1 l\ V(
55 45
\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
N 1
in UK ID


1997

64.6

100.0


100.0







1998

53.0

100.0


90.4
9.6






1999

54.8

100.0


86.8
13.2






2000

53.2

100.0


86.3
9.2
4.5

1.4



2001

67.8

100.0


75.0
7.5
17.5

17.5



2002

69.5

100.0


83.4
4.7
11.9

9.5



2003
2.8
74.1

100.0


50.1
3.7
46.2

26.4



2004
10.2
72.5

100.0


36.2
1.2
62.5

41.6



2005
12.2
70.1

99.6

0.4
35.1
1.1
63.8

55.9



2006
16.8
63.9

99.6

0.4
29.9
0.0
70.1

59.6



2007
22.5
62.2

99.8

0.2
27.4

72.6

63.6



2008
22.3
62.6

99.9

0.1
24.2
0.0
75.8

69.9



2009
23.9
56.7

100.0


26.1

73.9

74.0



EPA-420-R-09-014
1-40
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-39
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-6 SUVs



I II 1 II ()M )\\\

1 M.IM





modi i
M VK
S\||S
((Kill)
1 K V(
1 Ml
55 45
VDJ
\
Ml'(.
2004
49
0.010
19.3
13.2
18.4
15.7
5410
232
274
10.1
141
1.175
0.0510
42.6
2005
67
0.016
19.1
12.9
18.1
15.5
5585
263
293
9.6
145
1.127
0.0530
43.2
2006
157
0.042
18.8
12.7
18.0
15.3
5580
271
302
9.4
147
1.122
0.0545
42.6
2007
651
0.154
21.6
14.5
20.7
17.5
4954
242
289
8.8
150
1.237
0.0583
43.2
2008
859
0.216
21.9
14.7
21.0
17.7
4992
239
285
9
148
1.217
0.0572
44.2
2009
1742
0.340
22.9
15.3
21.9
18.5
4908
237
276
9.1
146
1.190
0.0562
45.3
Percent of L-6 SUVs:












Mol)l 1
l)l\IN 1 1 K Vl\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M
Mill K o
\ VI.\ 1
s




M VK
1 KoM
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
IIIKI 1
ion;
1 IN 1
N 1
in UK id


2004

100.0

98.7

1.3
1.3

62.6
36.1
98.7



2005

83.4

100.0


1.9
16.6
70.7
10.8
98.1



2006

85.6

99.6

0.4
3.8
35.9
58.0
2.4
96.2



2007
31.7
60.1

99.9

0.1
15.4
9.3
75.3

70.7



2008
35.6
56.5
9.3
90.7

0.0
7.8
6.0
86.2

76.4



2009
40.6
47.7
12.6
87.3

0.1
18.5
1.4
80.0
0.1
55.1







Table 1-40
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-7 SUVs








I II 1 II ()M )\\\

1 M.IM





modi i
M \K
S\||S
(000)
1 K \(
i \u
55 45
vl)l
(in
\I)J
11W ^
VDJ
( oMI'
W (. 11 1
( ID
III'
0	(.0
1	IMI
lor
SI'I)
ill'
( id
III'
\\T
ION
Ml'(.
2006
50
0.013
21.0
14.4
19.3
16.8
5000
233
275
9.2
145
1.201
0.0551
42.3
2007
63
0.015
20.2
14.0
18.4
16.2
5290
252
302
8.7
150
1.204
0.0570
43.2
2008
68
0.017
20.8
14.3
19.1
16.7
5474
247
297
9.0
146
1.206
0.0541
46.1
2009
115
0.022
21.6
14.8
20.0
17.4
5046
240
307
8.4
154
1.29
0.0613
43.9
Percent of L-7 SUVs:
modi i
M VK
l)l\IN 1 1 K Vl\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 l\( >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
2006

100.0

100.0



100.0


78.2

2007

100.0

91.5

8.5

4.0
96.0

8.5

2008

100.0

83.2

16.8

0.9
99.1



2009

87.4

92.6

7.4

3.5
96.5

46.8

EPA-420-R-09-014
1-41
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-41
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 CVT SUVs



I II 1 II ()M )\\\

1 M.IM





modi i
M VK
S\||S
((Kill)
1 K V(
1 Ml
55 45
VDJ
\
Ml'(.
2002
3
0.001
27.4
19.9
24.1
22.0
3500
132
141
11.8
119
1.067
0.0403
39.0
2003
95
0.023
26.6
18.6
23.8
21.1
3787
179
200
9.9
135
1.105
0.0522
40.0
2004
82
0.017
26.2
18.1
23.5
20.8
3892
197
222
9.2
142
1.123
0.0567
40.5
2005
85
0.021
26.8
18.7
23.3
21.1
3990
203
229
8.9
143
1.120
0.0574
42.4
2006
178
0.047
30.2
21.9
24.1
23.1
4308
200
216
8.2
135
1.072
0.0502
50.8
2007
228
0.054
28.6
20.3
23.8
22.2
3989
183
204
9.3
135
1.112
0.0510
44.8
2008
257
0.064
32.1
23.3
25.5
24.5
3962
163
176
9.9
126
1.096
0.0446
49.0
2009
361
0.070
29.0
20.4
24.5
22.5
4055
182
210
9.4
136
1.157
0.0516
46.1
Percent of CVT SUVs:












Mol)l 1
l)l\IN 1 1 K \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M
Mill K o
\ VI.\ 1
s




M VK
1 KoM
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
IIIKI 1
ion;
1 IN 1
\ |
in UK id


2002
39.5
60.5

100.0


13.3

86.7





2003
51.3
48.7

100.0


0.1

99.9

57.4



2004
49.0
51.0

100.0




100.0

78.5



2005
42.8
57.2

100.0




100.0

85.4
12.6


2006
33.2
66.8

100.0




100.0

88.4
56.3


2007
37.2
62.8

100.0




100.0

93.7
23.6


2008
40.7
57.8

100.0


3.1

96.9

83.7
36.0


2009
41.0
57.8
1.7
98.3


2.6

97.4

96.8
14.8


Table 1-42
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Other Pickup Trucks



1 II 1 1 ( (>\()\\\

1 M.IM





modi i
s VI I s

1 \ 11
V1) J
\I)J
V1) J
W (. 11 1


II (.11
lor
III'
III'
ION
M \K
((Mill)
1 K \(
55 45
(in
11W
( oMI'
1 11
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SIM)
( II)
N 1
Ml'(.
1983
6
0.004
15.6
12.3
14.5
13.2
4498
280
132
15.9
108
0.465
0.0292
30.2
1996
1
0.000
15.5
11.3
14.7
12.8
5385
346
227
11.3
129
0.657
0.0422
34.5
Percent of Other Pickup Trucks:
modi i
M \K
l)l\IN 1 1 K VIS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KOM
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'OK 1
1 III
DS|
1 \\ o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1983

59.1










1996

77.0

100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
1-42
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-43
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-3 Pickup Trucks



1 M 1 1 < <>\MI'
Ul.lll
( II)
III'
II fall
1 IMI
h>r
SIM)
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
ION
MI'i.
1979
230
0.104
17.7
14.4
16.0
15.1
4181
272
127
14.6
108
0.469
0.0304
31.7
1980
267
0.186
17.5
13.9
16.1
14.8
4282
293
135
14.2
110
0.464
0.0315
32.1
1981
221
0.154
19.2
15.3
17.7
16.3
4126
285
127
14.4
109
0.449
0.0308
33.9
1982
151
0.105
18.7
15.0
17.2
15.9
4145
289
128
14.4
109
0.445
0.0310
33.3
1983
125
0.077
18.9
15.1
17.3
16.0
4269
296
129
14.6
108
0.438
0.0304
34.5
1984
86
0.042
19.6
15.6
18.3
16.7
4259
289
129
14.7
108
0.445
0.0302
35.7
1985
165
0.079
18.2
14.7
16.6
15.5
4352
302
141
13.8
112
0.469
0.0325
34.1
1986
170
0.067
18.5
14.8
16.7
15.6
4329
299
137
14.2
110
0.459
0.0316
34.0
1987
119
0.056
17.7
14.2
15.9
14.9
4454
303
155
13.1
115
0.512
0.0350
33.4
1988
67
0.027
17.9
14.2
16.1
15.1
4462
311
164
12.6
118
0.527
0.0368
33.7
1989
72
0.032
17.7
14.0
15.8
14.8
4559
307
157
13.3
115
0.511
0.0345
34.1
1990
27
0.015
16.6
12.9
15.2
13.9
4671
316
169
12.8
118
0.534
0.0362
33.0
1991
14
0.007
16.8
13.1
15.2
14.0
4644
314
171
12.6
118
0.545
0.0369
33.1
1992
5
0.003
18.1
14.3
15.7
15.0
4556
300
150
13.6
113
0.499
0.0330
34.1
1993
3
0.002
18.7
14.7
16.2
15.4
4555
300
159
13.1
115
0.528
0.0349
35.2
Percent of M-3 Pickup Trucks:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
l)S|
1 \V o
IIIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1979

9.7










1980

32.2



0.0






1981

24.9










1982

32.5










1983

41.8










1984

23.3



1.3






1985

54.3

5.2

0.6






1986

51.0

17.9

0.4






1987

54.8

71.4
22.2
0.2






1988

49.2

55.1
42.4
1.0






1989

55.8

74.8
24.6
0.6






1990

67.4

42.1
56.6
1.3






1991

62.1

44.1
54.1
1.8






1992

55.3

100.0








1993

56.4

100.0








EPA-420-R-09-014
1-43
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-44
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-4 Pickup Trucks
modi i
M Vl<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ V<
1 M 1 1 < <>\r
SIM)
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
ION
MI'i.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
( II)
III'
1979
527
0.239
17.8
14.5
16.5
15.4
3692
220
118
14.3
108
0.592
0.0314
28.8
1980
377
0.263
23.2
18.3
21.7
19.7
3104
156
92
14.9
104
0.644
0.0297
31.0
1981
355
0.247
24.6
19.4
23.2
20.9
3253
190
98
14.8
105
0.567
0.0300
34.2
1982
327
0.227
25.5
20.1
24.2
21.7
3166
181
101
14.0
107
0.601
0.0322
34.5
1983
409
0.251
26.5
20.9
24.9
22.5
3035
159
92
14.6
104
0.606
0.0306
34.4
1984
460
0.225
22.9
18.1
21.5
19.5
3412
192
101
14.9
105
0.564
0.0298
33.7
1985
316
0.152
26.4
20.7
25.2
22.5
3135
180
102
13.8
107
0.606
0.0327
35.5
1986
294
0.116
26.6
20.8
25.1
22.6
3206
181
104
13.8
108
0.617
0.0328
36.4
1987
276
0.129
26.1
20.3
24.6
22.1
3235
182
109
13.5
109
0.629
0.0338
35.9
1988
110
0.045
26.2
20.8
23.5
22.0
2947
146
106
12.7
111
0.723
0.0361
32.4
1989
57
0.026
25.6
20.2
22.9
21.4
2955
157
107
12.6
111
0.698
0.0365
31.4
1990
51
0.028
26.0
20.2
23.4
21.6
2988
156
110
12.5
112
0.721
0.0371
32.3
1991
5
0.003
20.3
15.4
19.0
16.9
4271
249
143
13.6
113
0.606
0.0338
35.9
1992
45
0.024
18.9
14.0
18.4
15.9
4312
279
161
12.6
118
0.576
0.0372
34.3
1993
24
0.012
17.7
13.2
16.7
14.7
4813
313
190
12.0
123
0.606
0.0394
35.7
1994
17
0.007
17.4
13.0
16.2
14.4
4946
326
198
11.8
124
0.609
0.0400
36.0
1995
11
0.005
17.6
13.0
16.6
14.6
4961
331
199
11.7
124
0.604
0.0401
36.3
Percent of M-4 Pickup Trucks:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
l)S|
1 \V o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1979

29.9



0.1






1980
5.5
28.8


3.1
2.5






1981
4.8
22.7


1.4
4.9






1982
4.8
15.9


0.4
5.7






1983
1.1
16.7


0.1
3.5






1984
0.4
27.0



1.9






1985

10.1

2.5
18.1
0.7






1986

9.0

4.6
30.7
0.5






1987

7.3

22.3
41.7
0.2






1988

0.8

3.2
38.5







1989

6.6

6.2
13.0







1990

5.5

33.5
4.9







1991

59.6

65.9
16.6
0.1






1992

46.1

57.2
42.1
0.8






1993

67.6

19.7
80.3







1994

74.7

11.4
88.6

100.0





1995

68.9

11.3
88.7

100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
1-44
November 2009

-------
Ml*
((Kill)
124
200
254
298
383
575
590
1013
859
1076
1040
763
983
816
852
1051
889
677
608
660
446
435
303
227
256
171
94
95
66
50
59
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-45
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-5 Pickup Trucks
I Ml
55 45
M)J
M)J
11W
M) I
< >m r
1-45
November 2009

-------

Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-45 (cont.)
Percent of M-5 Pickup Trucks:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\|N 1 1 l\ \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K < >1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK ID
1 l\< >\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
|M )|\ I
1 III
DM
|\\()
1 IIKI 1
1 € >( \<
1 IN 1
1979












1980
2.1
3.8


0.8
1.3






1981
6.5
19.5


1.7
25.0






1982
3.0
27.1


0.7
22.3






1983
3.3
31.0


0.1
7.4






1984
1.2
30.0

2.6

4.1






1985

35.2

18.8
1.3
1.9






1986

28.7

19.1
21.9
0.8






1987

28.2

22.9
20.5
0.4






1988

29.1

45.1
27.6







1989

28.2

48.9
36.6







1990

27.4

68.3
22.5







1991

21.8

56.6
37.9







1992

23.0

63.3
29.9







1993

24.2

73.9
21.6







1994

24.5

89.1
9.0

96.1
3.7
0.2



1995

23.0

84.8
15.2

92.0

8.0



1996

21.5

100.0


75.5
10.1
14.5



1997

19.2

100.0


81.6
17.1
1.3



1998

25.3

100.0


74.9

25.1



1999

29.4

100.0


79.6

20.4



2000

24.6

100.0


77.7

22.3



2001

25.9

100.0


69.2

30.8



2002

31.1

100.0


52.8

47.2



2003

28.0

100.0


64.5

35.5



2004

34.3

100.0


50.5

49.5

5.7

2005

26.1

100.0


39.0

61.0

43.7

2006

23.6

100.0


32.9

67.1

53.2

2007

19.7

100.0


31.0

69.0

86.2

2008

25.6

100.0


24.0

76.0

76.0

2009

34.6

100.0


10.3

89.7

97.5

EPA-420-R-09-014
1-46
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-46
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 M-6 Pickup Trucks
modi i
M \K
S\||S
((Kill)
1 K \(
I II 1 II ()M )\\\
U(.lll
1 M.IM
H (ill
1 IMI
lor
SIM)
III'
( II)
ill'
\\T
1 (>\
Ml'(.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK id

1 KoM
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
2004



100.0




100.0



2005

48.3

100.0


29.1

70.9

70.9

2006

50.7

100.0


37.4

62.6

62.6

2007

54.9

100.0


35.0

65.0

39.7

2008

53.3

100.0


43.7

56.3

12.4

2009

62.4

100.0


11.5

88.5

31.7

Table 1-47
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 A-3 Pickup Trucks



1 II 1 1 ( (>\()\\\

1 M.IM





modi i
S M I S

1 Nil
M)J
NDJ
M)J
W (. 11 1


II (.11
lor
III'
III'
ION
M NK
(OHO)
1 K \(
55 45
(in
11W
( oMI'
1 11
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SIM)
( II)
N 1
Ml'(.





i:.3


331


113

mm33o

1980
277
0.193
17.3
14.0
15.5
14.7
3944
278
129
14.1
110
0.492
0.0327
29.1
1981
207
0.144
17.6
14.2
16.0
15.0
3968
287
125
14.5
109
0.455
0.0315
29.9
1982
196
0.136
17.1
13.9
15.3
14.5
3987
292
129
14.1
110
0.459
0.0325
29.3
1983
239
0.147
17.9
14.4
16.3
15.2
3705
248
116
14.6
108
0.502
0.0313
28.7
1984
297
0.146
17.1
13.8
15.6
14.6
3855
269
130
14.1
111
0.501
0.0334
28.4
1985
268
0.129
16.5
13.4
14.9
14.0
4106
306
154
12.8
117
0.507
0.0372
29.1
1986
236
0.093
17.7
14.3
15.9
14.9
4023
288
145
13.3
115
0.516
0.0358
30.4
1987
200
0.093
16.7
13.4
15.1
14.1
4318
303
157
13.0
117
0.522
0.0363
30.7
1988
199
0.081
16.8
13.3
15.2
14.1
4441
309
168
12.5
119
0.546
0.0380
31.6
1989
101
0.045
16.0
12.7
14.4
13.4
4501
318
170
12.6
119
0.533
0.0378
30.5
1990
47
0.026
16.4
13.0
14.6
13.7
4323
328
183
11.6
125
0.566
0.0422
30.9
Percent of A-3 Pickup Trucks:
modi i
M \K
DKIN | | K \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K ol N M.N I S
N 1
in UKII)
1 KoM
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
l)S|
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN I
1979

7.5



4.2






1980
0.6
15.9


0.6







1981

10.5










1982
3.7
14.1










1983
5.7
18.6


0.1
0.1






1984
1.2
30.9



0.5






1985

22.4

2.3

0.2






1986

19.7

8.9

0.1






1987

25.5

44.4
21.6







1988

31.0

44.5
53.5







1989

37.7

56.4
43.6







1990

12.2

2.5
97.5







EPA-420-R-09-014
1-47
November 2009

-------
w Prattawn	Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-48
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 A-4 Pickup Trucks
modi i
M Vl<
S\||S
((Kill)
1 l\ V<
1 M 1 1 < <>\1'
SIM)
< ID
N 1
1 < >\
MI'i.
1 Ml
55 45
M)J
MI'
< ID
III'
1981
6
0.004
26.5
21.5
23.9
22.5
2750
144
98
13.1
109
0.681
0.0356
30.9
1982
42
0.029
19.6
15.2
19.2
16.7
3715
262
131
13.2
113
0.525
0.0353
31.0
1983
9
0.006
26.6
22.0
23.1
22.5
2788
144
99
13.1
109
0.685
0.0354
31.4
1984
27
0.013
24.6
20.6
21.0
20.8
2809
144
100
13.1
110
0.694
0.0356
29.3
1985
38
0.018
25.1
21.0
21.6
21.3
3018
144
107
13.2
110
0.741
0.0354
32.3
1986
47
0.019
23.4
19.6
19.8
19.7
3133
144
107
13.4
110
0.745
0.0346
31.2
1987
72
0.034
26.1
21.1
23.0
22.0
3040
142
103
13.7
109
0.725
0.0340
33.7
1988
53
0.022
24.7
20.1
21.3
20.6
3112
142
108
13.4
110
0.765
0.0351
32.4
1989
34
0.016
27.1
21.5
23.9
22.6
3024
141
109
13.0
111
0.773
0.0361
34.2
1990
32
0.018
17.8
13.8
16.2
14.9
4047
259
153
12.5
117
0.635
0.0379
30.8
1991
27
0.014
20.0
15.7
17.8
16.6
3683
213
135
12.7
115
0.684
0.0369
31.1
1992
16
0.009
24.8
19.5
21.5
20.4
3105
156
118
12.5
114
0.767
0.0377
32.0
1993
16
0.008
26.3
20.2
23.2
21.6
3000
144
112
12.6
113
0.778
0.0373
32.4
1994
25
0.010
26.3
20.0
23.1
21.5
3000
144
112
12.6
113
0.778
0.0373
32.2
1995
20
0.009
26.3
20.0
22.9
21.4
3000
147
132
11.1
121
0.897
0.0442
32.1
1996
26
0.014
25.9
19.5
22.7
21.0
3000
149
142
10.4
125
0.953
0.0473
31.5
1998
37
0.015
26.5
19.7
22.9
21.3
3000
149
142
10.4
125
0.953
0.0473
31.9
1999
24
0.009
26.5
19.6
22.8
21.2
3000
149
142
10.4
125
0.953
0.0473
31.8
2000
21
0.008
26.2
19.4
22.4
20.9
3000
149
142
10.4
125
0.953
0.0473
31.3
2001
21
0.008
26.0
19.2
22.0
20.6
3213
149
142
11.0
122
0.953
0.0444
33.1
2002
21
0.009
27.0
19.5
23.1
21.3
3238
149
142
11.1
122
0.953
0.0441
34.5
2003
22
0.009
27.0
19.3
23.0
21.2
3234
149
142
11.0
122
0.953
0.0442
34.3
2004
23
0.009
27.0
19.2
22.9
21.1
3216
149
142
11.0
122
0.953
0.0444
34.0
Percent of A-4 Pickup Trucks:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
r< >K i
Mil
l)S|
1 \V o
1 III* 1 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1981












1982












1983












1984



17.1








1985



28.4








1986



33.5








1987

5.3

9.7








1988

7.2

54.3








1989

4.9

61.9








1990

37.1

37.7
62.3







1991

28.4

61.7
38.3







1992

3.9

96.0
4.0







1993



100.0








1994



100.0


100.0





1995



100.0


31.8

68.2



1996



100.0




100.0



1998



100.0




100.0



1999



100.0




100.0



2000



100.0




100.0



2001



100.0




100.0



2002



100.0




100.0



2003



100.0




100.0



2004



100.0




100.0



EPA-420-R-09-014
1-48
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-49
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-3 Pickup Trucks



1 M 1 1 < <>\MI'
Ul.lll
( II)
III'
II fall
1 IMI
h>r
SIM)
III'
( II)
III'
N 1
ION
MI'i.
1979
29
0.013
16.2
13.1
14.6
13.7
4000
290
132
14.2
ill
0.454
0.0330
27.5
1980
315
0.219
17.0
13.6
15.7
14.5
4469
313
142
14.4
ill
0.458
0.0320
33.0
1981
343
0.238
18.3
14.6
17.0
15.6
4221
290
139
14.0
112
0.483
0.0331
33.1
1982
275
0.191
20.1
15.9
18.9
17.1
3768
245
130
13.6
112
0.546
0.0346
32.2
1983
119
0.073
19.0
15.0
17.8
16.1
4100
277
139
13.9
113
0.503
0.0338
33.1
1984
193
0.095
18.5
14.7
17.2
15.7
4164
276
137
14.1
111
0.502
0.0328
32.8
1985
234
0.113
17.8
14.2
16.3
15.1
4204
279
147
13.4
114
0.536
0.0350
31.8
1986
206
0.081
18.0
14.4
16.4
15.3
4155
279
146
13.3
114
0.535
0.0350
31.7
1987
134
0.063
20.0
15.7
18.5
16.9
3751
251
125
14.0
111
0.502
0.0334
31.8
1988
99
0.040
19.5
15.2
18.1
16.4
3825
247
123
14.3
109
0.512
0.0322
31.4
1989
40
0.018
19.4
15.3
17.5
16.3
3835
230
117
15.0
107
0.533
0.0304
31.2
1990
24
0.013
18.7
14.8
16.6
15.6
3919
242
132
14.1
111
0.556
0.0334
30.7
1991
13
0.007
17.0
13.1
15.6
14.2
4272
294
156
12.9
117
0.531
0.0366
30.4
1992
5
0.003
18.1
14.1
16.1
15.0
4043
239
127
14.5
109
0.531
0.0314
30.3
1993
4
0.002
18.5
14.4
16.4
15.3
4039
239
127
14.5
109
0.531
0.0315
30.9
Percent of L-3 Pickup Trucks:
modi i
M Vl<
l)l\IN 1 1 l\ MS
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 l\|S<,
si Mill |< ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 KoS |
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
l)S|
1 \V o
IIIKI 1
1 ol K
1 IN 1
1979












1980

17.8



15.2






1981

10.4



6.2






1982

5.9










1983

3.0


0.2
0.6






1984

1.1

0.1

0.1






1985

0.1


2.5







1986

3.8


3.3







1987

21.6


4.9







1988

13.1


100.0







1989




100.0







1990




100.0







1991




100.0







1992



100.0








1993



100.0








EPA-420-R-09-014
1-49
November 2009

-------
»\ll'
((Kill)
53
150
337
405
465
564
485
855
886
890
877
953
1103
1575
1350
1251
1749
1660
2008
2097
1982
1903
1674
1771
1398
1299
1298
1056
517
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-50
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-4 Pickup Trucks
I Ml
55 45
M)J
M)J
11W
M) I
< >m r
1-50
November 2009

-------

Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-50 (cont.)
Percent of L-4 Pickup Trucks:
modi i
M \l<
l)l\|N 1 1 l\ \|\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K < >1 \ M.N 1 S
N 1
in UK ID
1 l\< >\ 1
4W 1)
(.1)1
|M )|\ I
1 III
DM
|\\()
1 IIKI 1
1 € >( \<
1 IN 1
1981












1982

19.3



42.0






1983

20.1



8.3






1984

23.3



5.0






1985

29.6

20.0
4.9
2.3






1986

31.8

46.6
22.2
1.1






1987
0.1
28.0

28.5
65.7
0.5






1988
0.0
31.9

26.6
71.8
0.5






1989

30.2

24.9
73.3
0.4






1990

29.7

44.8
53.9
0.3






1991

27.6

38.5
60.5
0.3






1992

28.5

52.5
46.9
0.2






1993

29.8

51.6
48.1







1994

32.5

56.6
43.4

98.8
1.2




1995

39.8

59.5
40.5

97.0

3.0



1996

34.1

99.7

0.3
94.7
1.6
3.7



1997

39.8

99.9

0.1
97.2
1.5
1.3



1998

38.5

99.9

0.1
95.9

4.1



1999

48.6

100.0


96.0

4.0



2000

40.7

100.0


89.8

10.2



2001

41.3

100.0


90.0

10.0



2002

44.4

100.0


85.5

14.5



2003

42.1

100.0


86.6

13.4



2004

48.7

100.0


61.4
20.2
18.4

26.1

2005

48.6

100.0


63.9
23.0
13.0

35.6
0.1
2006

45.5

100.0


63.1
25.0
11.9

36.5
0.2
2007

44.2

100.0


76.0
19.1
4.8

31.7
0.0
2008

47.0

100.0


76.6
18.2
5.2

28.0

2009

39.0

100.0


89.3

10.7

18.1

EPA-420-R-09-014
1-51
November 2009

-------
Afltwicy
Appendix I: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Transmission Type
Table 1-51
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 L-5 Pickup Trucks



I II 1 II ()M )\\\

1 M.IM





modi i
S\||S

1 Ml
VDJ
VDJ
VI) 1
U(.lll


H (ill
lol'
III'
III'
1 (>\
M VK
((Kill)
1 K V(
55 45
\ 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 W o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
N 1
in UK ID


1997

42.2

100.0


100.0







1998

58.9

100.0


100.0







1999

69.3

100.0


100.0







2000

71.5

100.0


100.0







2001

36.7

100.0


95.6

4.4





2002

40.0

100.0


91.2

8.8





2003

38.3

100.0


96.1

3.9





2004

44.6

100.0


97.1

2.9





2005

45.7

100.0


54.5

45.5

43.3



2006

48.9

100.0


33.1

66.9

65.0



2007

47.8

100.0


42.9

57.1

41.3



2008

46.0

100.0


41.3

58.7

38.8



2009

41.2

100.0


46.8

53.2

56.1



Table 1-52
Characteristic*. nf tn 200** T fi Pickup Trucks



I II 1 II ()M )\\\

1 M.IM





modi i
s VI I s

1 VII
V1) J
V1) J
VI) 1
W (. 11 1


II (ill
lol'
III'
ill'
1 (>\
M VK
(000)
1 K V(
55 45
(in
11 \\
( oMI'
1 11
( ID
III'
1 IMI
SI'I)
( II)
\\T
Ml'(.
2007
147
0.069
19.2
13.2
17.9
15.5
5752
339
372
8.1
163
1.094
0.0646
44.6
2008
145
0.081
18.9
13.0
17.6
15.2
5848
345
379
8.1
164
1.096
0.0648
44.6
2009
564
0.290
19.9
13.5
18.9
16.1
5683
332
335
8.8
154
1.008
0.0591
46
Percent of L-6 Pickup Trucks:











MoDl 1
DKIM IKVIN

II 1 M
1 1 KIM.
M Mill K o
\ VI.\ 1
s




M VK
1 KoN 1
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oKI
1 III
DM
1 \\ o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
N 1
in UK id


2007

56.4

100.0


2.1
11.0
86.9

86.9



2008

63.4

100.0


5.8
3.6
90.6

96.4



2009

58.9

100.0


58.9
23.7
17.3

39.7



Table 1-53
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 CVT Pickup Trucks



I II 1 1 ( OM t\l\

1 M.IM





modi i
s VI I s

1 \ 11
V1) J
\I)J
V1) J
W (. 11 1


II (.0
lor
III'
III'
ION
M \K
(000)
1 K \(
55 45
(in
11W
( oMI'
1 11
( II)
III'
1 IMI
SI'I)
( II)
N 1
Ml'(.
2009
6
0.003
28.2
21.1
21.7
21.5
6000
364
332
7.4
150
0.912
0.0553
64.4
Percent of CVT Pickup Trucks:
modi i
M VK
DKIN 1 1 K Vl\
1 II 1 Ml 1 1 KIM.
M Mill K ol \ VI.\ 1 S
\ 1
in UK id
1 K(>M
4U 1)
(.1)1
I'oK 1
1 III
DS|
1 \\ o
1 IIKI 1
lol K
1 IN 1
2009

52.8

100.0


100.0



100.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
1-52
November 2009

-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Appendix J
Fuel Economy Data Stratified by
Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-l
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Other Cylinder Cars
MODI 1
s\l 1
iiniil.


Wl.ll 1
\OI
(III

II 611
11 Ml
HHH|
"l-l)
111*
III*
ION
Mil.
<111-
i«in mi><;
i vi:
\RI
CI 1 ^
MM
ll\*
\ 11.1
,n>
HI-
1975
2
0.000
11.5
8.8
11.4
9.8
4500

326
285
8.2
154
0.874
0.0633
22.1


1976
2
0.000
11.0
8.5
10.7
9.4
4500

326
244
9.3
142
0.748
0.0542
21.1


1977
2
0.000
11.2
8.7
10.9
9.6
4445
91.6
326
244
9.2
142
0.748
0.0550
21.3
878
1948
1978
1
0.000
11.4
9.0
10.7
9.7
4500
93.4
326
268
8.6
149
0.822
0.0595
21.8
906
2038
1979
1
0.000
11.0
8.8
10.2
9.4
4500
92.4
326
244
9.3
142
0.748
0.0542
21.1
866
1949
1980
0
0.000
13.1
9.9
13.3
11.2
4224
89.5
326
267
8.2
152
0.818
0.0633
24.1
1027
2157
1982
1
0.000
16.5
12.4
17.0
14.1
4000
87.3
326
262
8.0
154
0.804
0.0655
28.3
1234
2468
1983
2
0.000
16.5
12.4
17.2
14.1
3989
86.5
325
264
8.0
155
0.813
0.0663
28.2
1226
2448
1984
3
0.000
16.6
12.4
17.1
14.2
3997
84.9
326
262
8.0
154
0.806
0.0657
28.3
1204
2408
1985
4
0.000
16.5
12.4
16.9
14.1
4000
84.1
325
265
7.9
155
0.816
0.0663
28.2
1189
2377
1986
5
0.000
16.2
12.1
16.7
13.9
3996
82.5
324
270
7.9
157
0.833
0.0676
27.9
1157
2313
1987
3
0.000
16.7
12.5
16.7
14.2
3991
75.4
324
276
7.8
159
0.855
0.0692
28.7
1094
2185
1988
9
0.001
16.1
11.9
16.4
13.7
4157
94.0
318
280
7.9
157
0.884
0.0674
28.6
1301
2730
1989
11
0.001
16.4
12.0
16.8
13.9
4310
85.4
318
279
8.1
155
0.880
0.0650
30.2
1203
2598
1990
9
0.001
16.8
12.2
17.2
14.2
4379
82.7
317
280
8.2
155
0.889
0.0642
31.2
1182
2589
1991
7
0.001
16.6
12.0
17.3
14.1
4409
87.0
312
305
7.7
162
0.977
0.0695
31.1
1234
2727
1992
5
0.001
16.3
11.8
16.7
13.7
4458
87.2
334
317
7.7
165
0.949
0.0715
30.7
1191
2691
1993
3
0.000
16.8
11.9
17.5
14.2
4412
81.0
377
364
6.8
182
0.981
0.0848
31.1
1131
2592
1994
7
0.001
17.2
12.1
17.7
14.4
4158
70.8
407
354
6.7
183
0.878
0.0876
29.9
1009
2149
1995
5
0.001
16.7
11.7
17.3
14.0
4432
82.3
390
373
6.6
183
0.975
0.0853
31.3
1159
2629
1996
4
0.001
18.3
12.6
19.3
15.4
4131
79.8
408
381
6.2
193
0.950
0.0952
31.8
1233
2668
1997
4
0.001
17.1
11.5
18.8
14.4
4218
75.6
403
405
6.0
199
1.018
0.0992
30.8
1112
2458
1998
3
0.000
17.5
11.9
18.6
14.7
4222
79.4
388
395
6.2
195
1.027
0.0963
31.4
1198
2626
1999
3
0.000
16.1
10.9
17.2
13.5
4274
75.2
394
412
6.1
200
1.062
0.1002
29.4
1044
2364
2000
4
0.000
16.4
10.9
17.8
13.8
4150
71.5
405
412
5.9
203
1.033
0.1032
28.9
1001
2188
2001
6
0.001
17.5
11.6
18.8
14.7
4239
86.4
389
398
6.2
196
1.034
0.0968
32.1
1347
2983
2002
4
0.000
17.6
11.5
19.0
14.7
4126
80.7
399
410
5.9
202
1.042
0.1021
31.0
1247
2683
2003
5
0.001
17.0
11.2
18.2
14.2
4101
82.0
408
482
5.1
226
1.216
0.1206
29.7
1199
2594
2004
8
0.001
16.3
10.6
17.3
13.6
4322
74.1
391
496
5.2
226
1.311
0.1194
29.8
1034
2398
2005
10
0.001
16.3
10.7
17.1
13.6
4630
82.2
384
524
5.2
226
1.390
0.1164
31.6
1124
2717
2006
15
0.002
16.5
10.7
17.3
13.7
4628
98.1
358
515
5.3
223
1.468
0.1142
31.7
1347
3182
2007
17
0.002
16.7
10.9
17.3
13.9
4907
101.2
338
525
5.5
219
1.557
0.1084
34.1
1419
3511
2008
14
0.002
16.8
11.0
17.5
13.9
4646
94.5
353
531
5.1
228
1.528
0.1174
32.5
1324
3129
2009
12
0.001
17.0
11.2
17.6
14.1
4676
88.9
365
535
5.2
229
1.494
0.1180
33.0
1255
3010
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-l
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-l (cont.)
Percent of Other Cylinder Cars:
MODI 1
1975
I)K1\ 1

Tli

¦¦¦

mi m
IM 111 |
100.0
1 1 KIM.


M MISI U<
• 1 \ VI \ 1



1976






100.0








1977


10.9



100.0








1978






100.0








1979






100.0








1980


11.5



64.5








1982






100.0








1983


2.2



100.0








1984


0.6



100.0








1985


2.8



100.0








1986


6.4



100.0


93.6

6.4



1987


11.0



100.0


89.0

11.0



1988


5.4
32.7


100.0


94.6

5.4



1989


3.9
33.8


98.4
1.6

96.1

3.9



1990


4.8
37.0


100.0


95.2

4.8



1991
1.6

12.2
53.4


100.0


94.7

5.3



1992

1.1
14.4
24.4


100.0


73.6

26.4

20.6

1993

0.4
30.9
25.9


100.0


56.6

43.4

40.5

1994

1.5
40.5
36.8


100.0


75.0

25.0

24.9

1995

0.8
32.3
30.4


100.0


57.6

42.4

53.5

1996

0.6
44.5
55.5


100.0


73.1

26.9

55.5

1997

1.8
40.8
59.2


100.0


52.8

47.2

61.6

1998

2.9
37.0
63.0


100.0


60.3

39.7

67.2

1999

5.2
47.1
52.9


100.0


54.2

45.8

58.9

2000


56.6
43.4


100.0


46.1

53.9

33.8

2001

2.7
39.7
60.3


100.0


43.3
38.9
17.9

21.8

2002

2.4
41.0
59.0


100.0


34.9
44.4
20.7

11.1

2003

1.6
49.4
50.6


100.0


36.8
26.0
37.2

22.4

2004

32.5
37.6
62.4


100.0



22.4
77.6

49.5

2005

37.1
24.9
75.1


100.0


16.5
20.9
60.3
2.3
80.0

2006

31.2
12.1
87.9


100.0


10.5
8.8
78.8
1.0
89.4

2007

41.6
5.1
94.9


100.0



20.6
79.4

68.3

2008

39.7
18.5
81.5

12.9
87.1


9.9
4.2
85.9

78.5

2009

35.4
22.7
74.4

11.7
88.3


11.7
13.8
74.5

64.6

EPA-420-R-09-014
J-2
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-2
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Two-Cylinder Cars
MODI 1
'l 1 Mi
Mils
(000)
1 U \<

\\(.ll 1
1 IS
\OL
(III

0-60
11 Ml
IOI'
-.ri>
III*
( II)
III*
\V[
TO\-
Ml*(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III-
l«>\ MI'G
1 \li
55/45
MM
(in
MM
11W N
MM
( OMI»
( id
III*
1975
51
0.006
15.8
12.2
15.4
13.5
2899

152
129
10.9
121
0.849
0.0444
19.5


1976
27
0.003
20.4
15.8
19.9
17.4
2952

156
132
10.8
121
0.846
0.0447
25.8


1977
16
0.001
22.3
17.0
22.3
19.1
2965
91.1
157
133
10.8
121
0.846
0.0448
28.5
1747
2596
1978
2
0.000
20.9
16.3
20.1
17.8
2855
94.2
154
131
10.6
122
0.848
0.0459
25.5
1683
2416
1979
52
0.005
20.4
15.3
21.1
17.5
2750
50.0
140
125
10.6
121
0.893
0.0455
24.0
873
1201
1980
52
0.006
19.8
14.8
20.8
17.0
2750
50.0
140
100
12.6
110
0.714
0.0364
23.4
850
1168
1981
34
0.004
23.7
18.4
23.0
20.2
2500
50.0
140
100
11.7
113
0.714
0.0400
25.3
1012
1265
1982
51
0.007
23.7
18.4
22.9
20.2
2500
50.0
140
100
11.7
113
0.714
0.0400
25.3
1011
1264
1983
61
0.008
22.7
17.6
22.0
19.3
2516
50.0
140
100
11.8
113
0.714
0.0398
24.3
968
1216
1984
41
0.004
22.0
16.5
22.5
18.8
2577
50.0
144
109
11.4
116
0.749
0.0420
24.2
940
1210
1985
59
0.005
22.1
16.6
22.6
18.9
2567
50.0
143
106
11.5
115
0.739
0.0412
24.2
944
1212
1986
51
0.005
23.0
17.0
23.9
19.6
2925
79.4
160
146
9.9
127
0.912
0.0500
28.7
1558
2278
1987
51
0.005
22.8
16.8
23.6
19.4
3000
50.0
160
152
9.8
129
0.953
0.0508
29.1
971
1457
1988
39
0.004
22.6
16.6
23.4
19.2
3111
50.0
160
150
10.2
127
0.938
0.0485
29.9
960
1493
1989
9
0.001
22.9
16.6
23.8
19.4
3141
50.0
160
163
9.6
131
1.021
0.0523
30.4
969
1520
1990
10
0.001
22.9
16.5
23.7
19.3
3169
50.0
160
162
9.7
131
1.014
0.0515
30.6
967
1529
1991
8
0.001
22.8
16.4
23.5
19.2
3202
50.0
160
161
9.8
130
1.007
0.0506
30.7
961
1536
1993
10
0.001
23.5
16.7
24.1
19.7
3000
50.0
160
255
6.5
170
1.594
0.0850
29.5
984
1476
1994
3
0.000
23.5
16.6
24.0
19.6
3000
50.0
160
255
6.5
170
1.594
0.0850
29.4
981
1471
1995
0
0.000
22.9
16.0
23.5
19.1
3000
50.0
160
255
6.5
170
1.594
0.0850
28.7
957
1435
2004
35
0.005
23.8
16.3
22.0
19.1
3500
96.3
160
223
8.2
148
1.397
0.0639
33.4
1841
3221
2005
18
0.002
23.8
16.2
22.0
19.0
3500
96.3
80
220
8.3
147
2.752
0.0629
33.3
1834
3210
2006
6
0.001
24.0
16.3
22.3
19.2
3500
96.3
79
227
8.1
149
2.870
0.0648
33.7
1853
3242
2007
6
0.001
24.0
16.3
22.3
19.3
3500
96.3
79
225
8.1
149
2.852
0.0644
33.7
1855
3246
2008
2
0.000
24.0
16.3
22.3
19.2
3500
96.3
79
226
8.1
149
2.865
0.0647
33.7
1854
3244
2009
8
0.001
24.0
16.3
22.3
19.3
3500
96.3
79
223
8.2
148
2.823
0.0637
33.7
1855
3247
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-3
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-2 (cont.)
Percent of Two-Cylinder Cars:
MODI 1
I>K1\ 1
IK UN
Tl<
50.5
.\\x\llxM
mn

1 l 1 1 Ml
l>( )|> |
11 MM.
1 1*1


M Mill K<
>1 \ \l \ 1 X



1975
1976


40.1












1977


61.7












1978


66.3












1979


90.1












1980


90.5












1981


91.4












1982


89.6












1983


92.2












1984


91.4
8.6



22.4







1985


87.2
12.8


14.6








1986


82.4
17.6


100.0


100.0





1987


85.5
14.5


100.0


100.0





1988


86.2
13.8


100.0


100.0





1989


74.1
25.9


100.0


100.0





1990


72.8
27.2


100.0


100.0





1991


74.7
25.3


100.0


100.0





1993


84.8
15.2


100.0


100.0





1994


88.0
12.0


100.0


100.0





1995


87.6
12.4


100.0


100.0





2004


64.9
35.1


100.0


100.0





2005


56.5
43.5


100.0


100.0





2006


56.7
43.3


100.0


100.0





2007


51.3
48.7


100.0


100.0





2008


55.0
45.0


100.0


100.0





2009


55.0
45.0


100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
J-4
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-3
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Three-Cylinder Cars
MODI 1
1 vu
VI 1
(000)
1 UV(

\\(.ll1
1 IS
\OL
(III

0-60
11 Ml
ior
^I'li
III'
( ll>
III*
\Yl
TOV
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III-
l(>\ MI'G
1 VIS
55/45
VIM
(in
VIM
ll\^
VIM
( <>\ir
(n>
III'
1985
37
0.003
57.4
46.7
51.5
48.8
1750
82.6
61
48
15.7
96
0.787
0.0274
42.8
4037
3533
1986
81
0.007
55.9
45.4
49.4
47.1
1750
84.6
61
46
16.3
95
0.759
0.0264
42.0
4052
3546
1987
78
0.007
50.8
40.8
44.8
42.5
1878
84.8
63
51
16.2
96
0.810
0.0271
40.3
3660
3413
1988
103
0.010
47.2
37.6
41.6
39.4
1866
86.6
65
54
15.4
98
0.824
0.0286
37.3
3471
3224
1989
85
0.008
47.5
37.8
41.1
39.3
1975
90.9
64
55
15.9
97
0.843
0.0276
39.4
3675
3581
1990
46
0.005
48.7
38.3
42.0
40.0
2021
87.9
63
54
16.2
96
0.854
0.0269
41.3
3643
3646
1991
111
0.013
48.2
37.4
41.8
39.4
2008
85.5
62
56
15.6
98
0.907
0.0280
40.2
3458
3459
1992
111
0.014
48.6
37.2
42.1
39.5
1984
87.6
61
55
15.8
97
0.902
0.0278
39.7
3528
3490
1993
88
0.010
51.1
38.9
43.8
41.2
1979
88.6
61
56
15.5
98
0.906
0.0282
41.4
3734
3678
1994
100
0.012
50.0
37.6
42.7
40.0
1981
91.7
61
55
15.7
97
0.904
0.0280
40.3
3736
3690
1995
29
0.003
54.5
40.3
46.8
43.3
2000
99.9
61
55
15.7
97
0.902
0.0275
43.3
4331
4331
1996
25
0.003
54.8
40.3
46.4
43.2
2000
99.9
61
55
15.7
97
0.902
0.0275
43.2
4321
4321
1997
13
0.002
54.4
39.5
46.1
42.7
2000
90.5
61
55
15.7
97
0.902
0.0275
42.7
3866
3866
1998
11
0.001
53.6
38.1
46.1
41.9
2000
89.7
60
55
15.7
97
0.917
0.0275
41.9
3761
3761
2000
11
0.001
61.6
42.7
51.6
47.1
2000
68.1
61
61
13.2
100
1.005
0.0306
48.8
3150
3150
2001
3
0.000
71.2
49.3
56.3
52.9
2111
50.0
61
66
11.1
102
1.084
0.0315
55.9
2658
2794
2003
1
0.000
69.0
47.4
53.0
50.4
2167
50.0
61
66
11.1
101
1.076
0.0304
54.6
2528
2730
2004
0
0.000
68.5
46.7
51.9
49.5
2175
50.0
61
65
11.1
101
1.075
0.0303
53.8
2481
2691
2005
0
0.000
69.7
46.6
52.7
49.9
2140
50.0
61
68
11.1
103
1.123
0.0322
53.4
2504
2670
2006
1
0.000
70.3
46.7
53.6
50.4
2111
50.0
61
72
11.1
105
1.182
0.0343
53.2
2529
2661
2008
22
0.003
49.5
33.4
40.5
37.1
2000
50.0
61
70
13.3
105
1.148
0.0350
37.1
1857
1857
2009
22
0.003
49.5
33.4
40.5
37.1
2000
50.0
61
70
12.8
105
1.148
0.0350
37.1
1857
1857
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-5
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-3 (cont.)
Percent of Three-Cylinder Cars:
MODI 1
l)KI\ 1 1 K UN
IKVNXM1XMON

M MIII KOI \ VI \ l x


100.0



( V J

PI in ¦




1 01 K

1985
90.1

1986
100.0

64.7






100.0





1987
100.0

73.5



8.6


86.5
13.5




1988
89.0
11.0
76.5



13.2
1.5

68.6
31.4




1989
100.0

64.3

14.9

13.0
57.5

70.5
29.5




1990
89.0
11.0
77.7

6.4

24.2
70.1

79.3
20.7




1991
94.5
5.5
61.0

3.3

7.8
89.7

91.9
8.1




1992
99.6
0.4
50.1

0.2

1.9
97.4

98.8
1.2




1993
97.7
2.3
69.2

0.9

4.6
95.4

95.4
4.6




1994
100.0

53.9



2.4
97.6

97.6
2.4




1995
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1996
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1997
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





1998
100.0

100.0




100.0

100.0





2000
52.4

100.0



52.4
47.6

47.6

52.4

52.4
52.4
2001
100.0

55.8

44.2

100.0




100.0

100.0
100.0
2003
100.0

33.2

66.8

100.0




100.0

100.0
100.0
2004
100.0

29.8

70.2

100.0




100.0

100.0
100.0
2005
100.0

44.0

56.0

100.0




100.0

100.0
100.0
2006
100.0

55.7

44.3

100.0




100.0

100.0
100.0
2008



100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

2009






100.0




100.0

100.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
J-6
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-4
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Four-Cylinder Cars
MODI 1
1975
*>M 1 s
1805
l'R VI
1111 i (ovnn
NC.II 1
\ <>l
(III
1 M.IM
o <>n
11 Ml
ior
III'
III'
0.0298
TOV
HHH
Ml'<.
I 1 1 1
lu\ MI'G
i m;
MM
MM
23.8
Mil
coaii-
.ID
III"
0.219
24.3
18.7
20.7
2651

112
79
15.1
102
0.716
27.6


1976
2017
0.207
26.5
20.5
25.8
22.6
2613

111
77
15.2
102
0.706
0.0296
29.7


1977
2287
0.202
28.7
22.4
27.6
24.4
2523
86.8
106
78
14.6
103
0.742
0.0308
31.2
2178
2718
1978
2926
0.262
28.3
22.3
26.7
24.1
2511
88.9
108
77
14.7
103
0.727
0.0308
30.7
2196
2731
1979
3157
0.292
27.1
21.2
25.7
23.1
2564
90.1
110
77
14.9
102
0.707
0.0300
29.8
2121
2695
1980
4511
0.478
28.1
22.0
26.8
23.9
2573
93.0
116
78
14.8
102
0.681
0.0303
31.0
2267
2891
1981
4469
0.512
29.8
23.4
28.3
25.4
2555
97.7
115
79
14.6
103
0.693
0.0308
32.7
2515
3192
1982
4251
0.544
30.9
24.1
29.8
26.3
2595
97.8
114
78
14.9
102
0.686
0.0300
34.4
2609
3367
1983
4158
0.520
31.2
24.4
29.8
26.6
2622
101.2
118
81
14.7
103
0.694
0.0307
35.2
2737
3556
1984
5744
0.538
31.4
24.4
30.2
26.7
2655
100.3
119
85
14.3
105
0.718
0.0320
35.8
2720
3586
1985
5865
0.543
31.5
24.6
30.3
26.9
2671
101.9
120
90
13.8
107
0.752
0.0336
36.1
2774
3685
1986
6462
0.587
31.3
24.2
30.0
26.6
2719
102.5
121
91
13.9
106
0.753
0.0332
36.3
2753
3725
1987
6679
0.622
31.1
24.0
29.7
26.3
2732
102.1
121
92
13.8
107
0.772
0.0336
36.1
2710
3689
1988
6333
0.590
31.7
24.3
30.1
26.7
2739
101.8
118
95
13.6
108
0.805
0.0343
36.7
2748
3742
1989
5671
0.566
31.1
23.6
29.6
26.1
2794
101.5
120
100
13.1
110
0.840
0.0357
36.6
2678
3718
1990
4925
0.559
30.7
23.1
29.1
25.6
2857
100.8
122
108
12.6
112
0.901
0.0378
36.7
2605
3706
1991
4843
0.568
30.8
23.0
29.3
25.7
2846
100.9
120
108
12.5
113
0.913
0.0380
36.7
2620
3709
1992
3946
0.487
30.9
22.8
29.4
25.7
2885
100.7
120
112
12.3
114
0.947
0.0388
37.2
2613
3746
1993
4267
0.505
31.6
23.1
30.1
26.1
2866
101.9
119
110
12.4
113
0.930
0.0383
37.6
2689
3831
1994
4190
0.498
31.6
22.9
30.1
26.0
2899
102.0
120
113
12.3
114
0.955
0.0390
37.9
2682
3868
1995
4620
0.492
32.2
23.1
30.7
26.4
2889
102.7
118
120
11.7
117
1.016
0.0413
38.3
2737
3932
1996
3982
0.505
31.6
22.5
30.1
25.9
2936
102.8
121
123
11.6
118
1.023
0.0420
38.1
2684
3919
1997
4481
0.538
31.8
22.4
30.2
25.9
2947
102.4
121
124
11.5
118
1.024
0.0420
38.2
2671
3920
1998
4098
0.514
32.0
22.4
30.3
25.9
3015
103.4
122
127
11.5
118
1.044
0.0421
39.2
2701
4057
1999
4057
0.484
31.4
21.9
29.7
25.4
3072
103.7
123
129
11.5
119
1.051
0.0421
39.1
2655
4064
2000
4400
0.482
31.2
21.6
29.2
25.2
3072
104.4
123
130
11.4
119
1.063
0.0425
38.7
2645
4049
2001
4180
0.497
31.7
21.8
29.5
25.4
3102
104.9
124
132
11.4
119
1.067
0.0425
39.6
2699
4167
2002
4331
0.522
31.5
21.5
29.1
25.1
3135
106.7
126
138
11.1
121
1.099
0.0440
39.6
2710
4234
2003
4136
0.520
32.2
21.8
29.6
25.5
3161
107.1
126
142
10.9
123
1.135
0.0449
40.6
2767
4359
2004
3744
0.497
32.6
21.9
29.9
25.8
3153
107.3
126
145
10.7
124
1.153
0.0458
41.0
2805
4405
2005
4363
0.544
33.2
22.2
30.1
26.1
3143
108.3
126
145
10.6
124
1.151
0.0459
41.5
2877
4506
2006
4039
0.505
33.3
22.2
30.2
26.2
3185
108.1
127
150
10.5
125
1.183
0.0470
42.2
2878
4572
2007
4679
0.579
34.4
23.0
31.0
26.9
3206
108.0
127
149
10.4
125
1.176
0.0464
43.8
2972
4746
2008
4265
0.581
34.6
23.1
31.1
27.1
3218
108.4
127
151
10.4
125
1.185
0.0466
44.2
3001
4806
2009
4908
0.599
35.0
23.4
31.5
27.4
3224
108.9
127
153
10.3
126
1.201
0.0473
44.6
3030
4871
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-7
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-4 (cont.)
Percent of Four-Cylinder Cars:
MODI I
l>KI\l Ik UN
I K\\s\|lxsl«>\
I I I I Mill KIM.
M MHI KOI \ \l \1 s
975
25.2
68.9
14.4
0.8
976
22.0
63.9
6.7
0.6
977
28.3
69.5
11.9
1.8
978
31.8
67.4
10.4
1.7
979
33.5
1.2
65.9
7.0
2.1
980
44.8
1.0
60.3
9.1
3.6
981
60.6
0.9
55.2
1.7
7.5
4.0
982
72.1
0.9
49.5
21.4
7.5
11.2
2.6
983
76.2
5.1
45.0
26.2
11.7
21.0
1.0
984
81.3
1.4
39.9
30.4
15.4
28.3
1.6
985
84.0
3.7
36.7
31.8
18.7
33.6
0.8
89.5
1.5
36.5
37.0
24.4
38.9
0.4
92.4
5.4
2.2
987
92.0
1.5
34.4
43.0
24.9
43.2
0.1
78.1
14.4
7.4
94.1
1.0
35.2
50.3
32.7
45.9
69.8
15.1
15.1
989
93.2
1.5
31.8
53.5
43.7
41.3
0.1
61.2
19.7
19.2
990
93.2
1.5
30.6
57.9
62.9
35.3
0.0
47.6
9.4
43.0
991
92.5
2.1
31.2
60.9
68.9
31.0
0.1
47.1
10.6
42.3
2.8
992
88.5
1.2
30.1
61.4
86.6
13.4
0.0
41.8
49.4
4.9
993
94.1
2.0
29.3
62.9
88.1
11.9
45.2
5.8
49.0
5.4
994
97.1
0.7
27.4
67.1
92.1
7.9
39.4
3.6
57.0
12.1
995
90.2
2.2
27.4
70.7
98.3
1.7
24.7
2.2
73.1
12.3
996
95.9
2.5
24.0
73.8
0.0
98.3
1.5
0.1
21.6
1.9
76.6
14.6
997
95.8
2.8
21.5
77.3
0.1
98.7
1.2
0.1
23.9
1.6
74.3
0.2
11.6
998
95.6
3.0
19.3
79.9
0.1
99.7
0.3
19.5
1.6
78.1
0.8
22.0
999
96.0
3.1
17.6
81.2
0.1
99.6
0.2
0.2
19.7
2.0
76.4
1.8
18.7
2000
95.2
2.9
17.0
80.7
0.0
99.5
0.5
20.8
1.7
75.4
2.2
24.7
2001
95.9
3.1
17.2
80.7
0.4
99.5
0.5
18.0
0.7
77.7
3.7
31.7
2002
95.2
3.7
16.9
81.9
0.7
99.2
0.8
16.8
0.6
78.8
3.7
42.8
0.6
2003
95.4
3.5
15.8
82.6
1.6
99.3
0.7
7.6
88.1
4.3
52.1
2004
95.3
3.6
14.4
82.5
2.7
99.4
0.6
4.0
92.5
3.5
55.1
1.9
2005
94.4
4.3
13.0
83.0
3.8
99.3
0.7
5.6
92.9
1.5
66.6
3.4
2006
94.5
4.4
13.5
82.8
3.6
98.9
4.5
95.3
0.2
73.0
2.9
2007
95.5
3.3
9.3
73.5
15.7
0.5
99.5
2.8
97.2
70.0
5.7
2008
94.4
4.6
10.0
72.1
17.9
3.2
96.8
1.0
99.0
68.2
5.8
2009
95.1
4.3
11.4
72.3
15.8
3.4
95.5
0.7
99.3
78.9
4.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-8
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-5
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Five-Cylinder Cars
MODI 1
*>M 1 s
iiiini.
,K,
1111 i (<>\ll
lor
Nl'l)
III'
III'
0.0220
TOV
HHH
Ml'<.
< 1 1 1 -
n>\ xiit;
i m;
MM
MM
24.5
Mil
coaii-
.ID
HP
1975
5
0.001
26.8
21.5
22.8
3500

183
77
19.3
95
0.421
39.8


1976
12
0.001
24.4
20.0
21.7
20.7
4000

183
77
21.5
93
0.421
0.0192
41.4


1977
12
0.001
24.9
20.7
21.6
21.1
4000
105.0
183
77
21.5
93
0.421
0.0192
42.2
2214
4428
1978
39
0.003
20.9
16.5
19.6
17.8
3411
103.6
152
102
15.1
106
0.690
0.0306
31.5
1873
3249
1979
43
0.004
22.8
18.4
20.7
19.4
3596
106.0
162
100
16.1
104
0.636
0.0284
35.9
2090
3818
1980
66
0.007
23.8
18.7
22.6
20.3
3357
105.3
152
92
16.3
102
0.630
0.0281
35.4
2208
3744
1981
59
0.007
25.4
20.1
23.8
21.6
3358
105.3
155
98
15.6
104
0.650
0.0297
37.4
2330
3971
1982
58
0.007
26.9
21.5
24.7
22.9
3601
105.8
163
114
14.3
108
0.705
0.0319
42.3
2460
4501
1983
64
0.008
27.4
22.0
25.1
23.3
3660
106.1
165
114
14.5
108
0.696
0.0313
43.6
2505
4638
1984
116
0.011
24.6
19.4
23.3
21.0
3326
110.3
148
109
13.9
109
0.748
0.0330
35.8
2334
3929
1985
99
0.009
24.0
18.9
22.8
20.5
3360
110.2
151
117
13.3
111
0.788
0.0352
34.9
2265
3837
1986
71
0.006
23.3
17.9
22.7
19.8
3035
111.0
136
116
12.3
114
0.854
0.0383
30.2
2206
3357
1987
44
0.004
23.9
18.3
23.0
20.2
3095
110.7
139
127
11.7
117
0.914
0.0409
31.7
2253
3499
1988
18
0.002
24.3
18.4
23.7
20.5
3047
104.6
140
129
11.4
119
0.920
0.0422
31.5
2155
3288
1989
15
0.002
23.8
18.0
22.8
20.0
3415
108.5
140
135
12.0
117
0.969
0.0398
34.3
2173
3725
1990
18
0.002
23.9
18.0
22.8
20.0
3407
105.1
141
138
11.8
118
0.980
0.0406
34.4
2124
3628
1991
15
0.002
24.5
18.1
24.0
20.5
3460
106.7
142
141
11.9
119
1.002
0.0407
36.1
2230
3870
1992
27
0.003
26.1
19.2
25.1
21.7
3497
100.9
150
170
10.3
129
1.135
0.0486
38.2
2210
3865
1993
41
0.005
27.1
19.5
26.7
22.5
3509
108.2
149
169
10.3
128
1.133
0.0481
39.6
2445
4288
1994
54
0.006
26.1
18.7
25.8
21.7
3504
114.7
147
184
9.7
134
1.252
0.0524
38.0
2491
4363
1995
60
0.006
26.5
18.7
26.5
22.0
3512
118.6
146
185
9.6
134
1.271
0.0528
38.6
2609
4579
1996
84
0.011
26.3
18.5
25.9
21.7
3500
115.6
148
180
9.8
133
1.221
0.0515
38.0
2513
4398
1997
51
0.006
26.2
18.3
25.8
21.6
3500
117.1
148
181
9.7
133
1.224
0.0518
37.8
2532
4432
1998
97
0.012
25.7
17.9
25.0
21.1
3609
120.1
148
185
9.8
133
1.251
0.0514
38.0
2530
4571
1999
64
0.008
26.2
18.2
25.3
21.4
3663
121.2
148
180
10.1
131
1.213
0.0492
39.2
2598
4750
2000
60
0.007
26.0
17.9
25.1
21.2
3667
121.3
148
182
10.0
131
1.233
0.0497
38.8
2571
4710
2001
82
0.010
25.9
18.0
24.2
20.9
3745
121.3
148
195
9.7
135
1.322
0.0522
39.4
2546
4764
2002
77
0.009
27.0
18.4
25.5
21.8
3769
118.8
148
191
9.9
133
1.287
0.0507
41.0
2584
4880
2003
36
0.005
26.8
18.1
25.6
21.6
3778
118.7
150
191
9.9
133
1.270
0.0506
40.9
2572
4866
2004
109
0.015
26.8
18.0
25.4
21.6
3804
119.2
152
199
9.7
135
1.312
0.0524
41.1
2571
4896
2005
134
0.017
27.6
18.3
26.1
22.1
3656
113.9
152
183
10.1
131
1.202
0.0498
40.4
2513
4602
2006
190
0.024
28.5
18.8
27.2
22.8
3562
107.4
151
171
10.3
129
1.130
0.0480
40.6
2445
4366
2007
201
0.025
28.6
18.9
27.2
22.9
3541
107.1
151
166
10.5
127
1.096
0.0468
40.5
2447
4336
2008
175
0.024
29.5
19.5
28.0
23.6
3473
104.5
151
174
10.0
131
1.148
0.0500
40.9
2463
4275
2009
134
0.016
29.6
19.6
27.8
23.6
3462
102.5
151
173
9.9
130
1.141
0.0499
40.8
2416
4180
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-9
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-5 (cont.)
Percent of Five-Cylinder Cars:
MODI I
l)l<]\ I nni\
I l< V\>»Mlxs|0\
975
100.0
976
100.0
977
100.0
978
58.9
58.9
41.1
979
40.4
38.0
62.0
980
56.i
18.5
41.9
58.1
981
51.0
21.5
40.:
59.2
982
37.1
11.0
35.3
64.7
983
32.2
11.7
29.0
71.0
984
65.:
18.2
31.i
985
63.1
15.6
67.3
32.7
986
84.9
12.6
28.4
97.5
2.5
100.0
987
70.4
24.0
36.5
94.4
100.0
36.0
56.1
100.0
989
86.:
10.9
29.2
97.7
2.3
100.0
990
74.5
19.0
30.:
93.5
86.9
13.1
991
16.4
24.5
55.2
85.4
14.i
86.2
13.:
992
17.1
72.5
10.3
13.4
86.i
993
93.3
15.7
79.4
100.0
4.9
95.1
67.1
994
99.1
0.9
90.2
100.0
100.0
54.9
995
97.i
2.4
91.3
100.0
100.0
996
100.0
95.2
100.0
100.0
53.2
997
100.0
3.2
100.0
100.0
46.9
998
78.i
21.4
100.0
100.0
50.9
999
72.i
27.4
97.4
100.0
100.0
51.9
2000
74.9
25.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
2001
67.1
32.9
2.6
97.4
100.0
100.0
100.0
2002
73.2
26.:
100.0
100.0
100.0
2003
64.5
25.1
4.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2004
62.4
37.i
100.0
100.0
100.0
2005
76.3
23.7
11.2
100.0
100.0
67.3
2006
86.1
13.9
11.3
100.0
100.0
39.2
2007
11.0
12.7
87.3
100.0
100.0
22.:
2008
2.0
14.2
85.:
100.0
100.0
16.1
2009
10.:
100.0
100.0
23.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-10
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-6
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Six-Cylinder Cars
MODI 1
1975
*>M 1 s
1533
l'R VI
1111 i (ovnn
WC.II 1
\OI
1 1 1 1
1 M.IM
o <>n
IOI'
«I'J)
III'
('ID
0.485
III'
0.0295
ION
BHH
Ml').
(III-
l<>\ MI'G
i m;
MM
MM
MM
< OMI1

m-
0.186
18.4
14.6
17.2
15.7
3625

225
105
15.7
105
28.5


1976
1935
0.199
19.3
15.4
17.9
16.4
3715

231
100
16.7
103
0.445
0.0273
30.6


1977
1851
0.164
19.6
15.6
18.2
16.7
3753
106.6
229
105
16.1
104
0.471
0.0284
31.4
1782
3364
1978
2325
0.208
20.2
15.9
19.2
17.2
3482
108.6
221
107
14.8
107
0.495
0.0311
30.0
1878
3273
1979
2187
0.203
20.4
16.1
19.2
17.4
3421
108.8
217
109
14.4
108
0.508
0.0319
29.7
1893
3245
1980
2644
0.280
21.6
16.9
20.6
18.4
3332
111.0
213
110
13.9
109
0.530
0.0334
30.7
2050
3411
1981
2394
0.274
22.6
17.6
21.7
19.2
3382
111.6
215
110
14.1
108
0.522
0.0328
32.6
2153
3650
1982
2080
0.266
23.0
17.7
22.5
19.6
3404
112.9
213
114
13.8
110
0.548
0.0338
33.5
2230
3802
1983
1858
0.232
23.8
18.3
23.5
20.3
3373
111.0
211
116
13.6
111
0.565
0.0346
34.3
2265
3824
1984
2455
0.230
24.1
18.5
23.8
20.5
3364
111.3
205
117
13.4
111
0.586
0.0350
34.6
2291
3854
1985
2498
0.232
24.1
18.2
24.3
20.6
3387
111.8
206
124
12.9
114
0.617
0.0368
34.8
2304
3902
1986
2694
0.245
24.9
18.7
25.5
21.2
3377
112.0
200
134
12.1
117
0.683
0.0398
35.9
2391
4045
1987
2489
0.232
25.1
18.5
26.1
21.4
3414
112.9
198
143
11.6
120
0.733
0.0419
36.5
2423
4138
1988
2985
0.278
25.9
18.9
26.8
21.9
3397
113.6
193
142
11.5
120
0.744
0.0418
37.4
2505
4257
1989
3157
0.315
25.7
18.6
26.6
21.7
3423
114.8
194
146
11.4
121
0.762
0.0429
37.2
2502
4281
1990
2989
0.339
25.4
18.3
26.4
21.5
3504
114.0
197
150
11.4
122
0.773
0.0431
37.7
2457
4305
1991
2635
0.309
25.3
18.2
26.0
21.3
3490
113.6
197
156
11.0
124
0.796
0.0448
37.2
2429
4240
1992
3067
0.378
25.4
18.0
26.2
21.3
3500
114.3
199
158
10.9
125
0.810
0.0454
37.3
2442
4274
1993
3255
0.385
25.8
18.3
26.2
21.5
3488
113.9
199
158
10.9
125
0.805
0.0454
37.6
2462
4294
1994
3127
0.372
25.6
18.0
26.0
21.3
3534
113.2
198
159
10.9
125
0.812
0.0451
37.7
2419
4274
1995
3667
0.390
26.0
18.2
26.6
21.7
3532
113.1
195
172
10.3
129
0.888
0.0487
38.3
2457
4336
1996
3020
0.383
26.1
18.1
26.5
21.6
3552
113.6
194
172
10.3
129
0.894
0.0485
38.4
2460
4372
1997
3006
0.361
25.9
17.8
26.3
21.4
3574
114.5
197
179
10.1
131
0.918
0.0502
38.3
2457
4395
1998
3090
0.388
26.2
17.9
26.5
21.6
3542
113.3
194
180
10.0
132
0.934
0.0507
38.3
2451
4344
1999
3589
0.428
26.2
17.8
26.2
21.5
3577
113.2
192
186
9.8
134
0.980
0.0521
38.5
2438
4366
2000
3910
0.428
26.3
17.8
26.2
21.5
3585
113.9
191
189
9.7
135
1.001
0.0528
38.6
2459
4412
2001
3463
0.412
26.3
17.8
26.0
21.5
3586
112.9
191
194
9.5
136
1.025
0.0540
38.6
2433
4365
2002
3273
0.394
26.6
17.9
25.9
21.6
3606
113.0
195
200
9.3
138
1.036
0.0555
39.0
2451
4417
2003
3118
0.392
26.8
17.9
26.2
21.7
3602
112.3
194
201
9.3
139
1.040
0.0558
39.2
2449
4411
2004
3087
0.410
26.6
17.6
25.8
21.5
3692
113.5
199
209
9.1
140
1.061
0.0567
39.7
2448
4525
2005
2927
0.365
26.7
17.6
25.8
21.5
3776
115.9
202
214
9.1
141
1.066
0.0566
40.7
2503
4736
2006
3068
0.384
26.8
17.7
25.7
21.5
3837
115.5
202
225
8.8
144
1.119
0.0588
41.4
2494
4798
2007
2668
0.330
26.8
17.7
25.9
21.6
3885
114.1
206
233
8.7
146
1.140
0.0601
42.1
2474
4817
2008
2401
0.327
27.0
17.7
26.2
21.7
3943
113.5
206
242
8.5
148
1.184
0.0615
43.0
2475
4889
2009
2418
0.295
27.3
17.9
26.4
21.9
3973
113.6
209
251
8.3
151
1.209
0.0634
43.7
2504
4981
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-ll
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-6 (cont.)
Percent of Six-Cylinder Cars:
MODI 1
DK1M IK UN
1 KV\*«M|VslO\

M MHI KOI \ \l M




19.3



l>( )|> |



1 illxJjJ J



1975
8.3

1976


15.2



4.7








1977


11.9



6.7








1978


9.1
8.3


5.3








1979
0.5

9.1
8.2


6.9








1980
22.0
1.5
8.2
25.7


4.3

0.2






1981
14.2
0.8
5.4
58.8


6.8

0.3






1982
19.5
1.1
5.3
89.3


9.8
8.0
2.6






1983
22.4
1.7
6.6
90.1


12.3

2.0






1984
31.5
0.9
6.1
91.9


21.0
8.8
1.4






1985
48.6
0.0
6.3
92.7


41.1
21.6
0.6






1986
63.4
0.3
6.9
91.1


64.7
15.4
0.3
98.9

1.1



1987
73.0
0.2
7.9
89.2


88.8
7.9
0.8
95.9

4.1



1988
83.8
0.2
5.8
92.5


97.6
2.3

93.7
1.0
5.3



1989
84.1
0.3
5.0
93.0


99.8
0.2

93.2
0.7
6.1



1990
86.3
0.1
3.9
94.3


99.8
0.1
0.0
91.5
0.1
8.3



1991
87.8
0.4
4.3
93.6


99.9

0.1
90.0
0.1
9.9

0.6

1992
88.6
1.3
4.2
93.1


99.9
0.1
0.0
85.8
0.4
13.8

3.1

1993
88.2
0.3
4.3
93.8


100.0
0.0

81.9

18.1

2.6

1994
86.4
0.2
4.3
94.2


100.0

0.0
79.3

20.7

2.2

1995
87.4
0.2
4.4
93.9


99.8

0.2
70.2

29.8

6.7

1996
88.9
0.7
4.2
94.3


99.9

0.1
65.9

34.1

8.3

1997
87.8
0.6
3.5
96.5


99.9

0.1
64.3
0.4
35.3

9.8

1998
87.8
1.1
4.0
96.0


99.9

0.1
63.1
1.6
34.2
1.2
13.3

1999
87.9
1.1
4.0
95.8


99.9

0.1
49.9
1.9
46.3
1.9
16.2

2000
85.7
1.0
5.0
94.9


100.0


48.1
1.3
48.9
1.7
22.8

2001
82.1
3.1
4.9
94.9


100.0


48.7
2.5
45.9
2.8
25.0

2002
83.3
4.0
3.8
96.0
0.1

100.0


46.5
2.8
48.5
2.2
23.6

2003
77.7
3.7
5.2
94.5
0.2

100.0


47.2
3.2
47.3
2.3
31.8

2004
76.9
6.6
4.5
95.3
0.1

100.0


41.1
2.4
55.0
1.5
33.6

2005
72.4
7.1
3.1
95.4
1.4

99.8

0.2
41.5
2.1
55.9
0.5
33.0
0.7
2006
63.8
7.2
3.7
94.6
1.6

99.8

0.2
32.8
0.5
66.5
0.1
52.5
0.1
2007
66.7
9.4
2.9
93.1
3.9

99.9

0.1
33.0

67.0

67.4
0.3
2008
60.4
12.6
2.8
93.9
3.3
3.0
96.8

0.2
27.0
0.1
72.9

63.8
0.0
2009
61.8
12.2
3.1
90.7
5.9
5.4
94.2

0.3
22.4

77.6

76.6
0.1
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-12
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-7
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Eight-Cylinder Cars
MODI 1
1975
*>M 1 s
4840
l'R VI
1111 i (ovnn
NC.II 1
\OI
1 1 1 1
1 M.IM
o <>n
M>1'
III'
III'
0.0354
TOV
HHH
Ml'<.
< 1 1 1 -
n>\ xiit;
i m;
MM
MM
MM
< OMI1

HP
0.588
13.4
10.5
12.9
11.5
4732

376
167
13.4
117
0.446
27.3


1976
5728
0.589
15.1
11.9
14.4
12.9
4689

368
165
13.4
116
0.448
0.0352
30.3


1977
7132
0.631
16.2
12.7
15.3
13.8
4450
119.0
348
158
13.2
116
0.455
0.0356
30.8
1651
3665
1978
5882
0.526
17.2
13.4
16.7
14.7
4166
119.2
335
154
12.8
117
0.460
0.0371
30.8
1777
3680
1979
5354
0.496
17.6
13.8
16.7
15.0
4060
120.6
324
149
12.9
116
0.460
0.0368
30.6
1826
3698
1980
2169
0.230
19.1
14.7
18.7
16.3
3920
120.6
309
135
13.6
113
0.439
0.0346
32.4
1999
3939
1981
1778
0.204
20.2
15.4
20.3
17.3
3973
123.0
307
133
14.0
112
0.440
0.0337
34.9
2168
4331
1982
1377
0.176
20.3
15.3
20.7
17.3
3940
123.4
305
138
13.5
114
0.457
0.0355
34.6
2169
4320
1983
1859
0.232
20.1
15.1
20.6
17.2
3946
125.0
298
143
12.9
115
0.482
0.0364
34.0
2154
4274
1984
2316
0.217
20.3
15.3
20.9
17.4
3913
122.3
300
144
12.8
116
0.483
0.0371
34.1
2130
4202
1985
2229
0.207
21.7
16.3
22.4
18.6
3895
122.8
296
151
12.4
118
0.509
0.0389
36.2
2284
4471
1986
1651
0.150
22.5
16.7
23.4
19.2
3813
120.2
299
152
12.0
120
0.511
0.0403
36.6
2315
4440
1987
1387
0.129
22.2
16.4
22.9
18.9
3846
120.2
299
155
12.0
120
0.520
0.0407
36.3
2278
4406
1988
1247
0.116
22.6
16.5
23.4
19.2
3854
121.5
301
164
11.6
123
0.544
0.0430
37.0
2338
4540
1989
1070
0.107
22.7
16.5
23.6
19.2
3831
121.5
300
160
11.6
122
0.535
0.0423
36.9
2342
4523
1990
812
0.092
22.3
16.1
23.3
18.9
3947
121.4
294
173
11.3
125
0.597
0.0441
37.3
2299
4568
1991
905
0.106
22.8
16.3
23.7
19.2
3947
122.0
298
198
10.0
134
0.669
0.0504
37.9
2351
4672
1992
951
0.117
22.9
16.3
23.8
19.3
4006
124.1
295
208
9.8
136
0.714
0.0523
38.7
2406
4847
1993
791
0.094
22.8
16.0
23.8
19.1
4010
123.8
296
215
9.6
139
0.736
0.0542
38.4
2382
4805
1994
933
0.111
22.9
16.1
23.7
19.2
3989
121.2
292
225
9.2
142
0.776
0.0566
38.3
2330
4678
1995
1013
0.108
22.9
15.9
23.8
19.1
4005
120.3
289
230
9.0
143
0.803
0.0575
38.3
2307
4642
1996
775
0.098
23.3
16.1
24.1
19.4
4018
122.9
289
241
8.7
147
0.841
0.0602
39.0
2385
4816
1997
780
0.094
23.2
16.0
23.7
19.3
4001
122.2
279
247
8.5
149
0.891
0.0620
38.6
2356
4719
1998
672
0.084
23.1
15.9
23.3
19.1
3971
117.6
280
256
8.2
153
0.918
0.0647
38.0
2251
4486
1999
666
0.079
23.2
15.8
23.5
19.2
3968
119.0
283
251
8.4
151
0.890
0.0635
38.0
2284
4550
2000
743
0.081
23.3
15.8
23.4
19.2
3986
117.5
281
277
7.7
159
0.989
0.0697
38.3
2264
4531
2001
674
0.080
23.4
15.8
23.5
19.2
3994
116.6
279
261
8.2
154
0.939
0.0657
38.4
2245
4507
2002
618
0.074
23.5
15.8
23.1
19.2
4002
109.3
281
270
8.0
157
0.964
0.0680
38.4
2104
4232
2003
655
0.082
23.1
15.5
22.8
18.9
4178
107.7
281
276
8.1
156
0.985
0.0669
39.5
2058
4335
2004
555
0.074
23.2
15.3
23.0
18.9
4181
113.3
282
277
8.2
157
0.984
0.0671
39.6
2151
4552
2005
574
0.072
23.2
15.4
22.7
18.8
4226
112.7
294
297
7.8
163
1.011
0.0713
39.9
2132
4558
2006
673
0.084
22.8
15.1
22.5
18.6
4214
115.1
304
311
7.4
167
1.025
0.0747
39.2
2146
4559
2007
514
0.064
22.7
14.9
22.5
18.5
4232
111.3
305
324
7.3
171
1.063
0.0775
39.2
2064
4413
2008
466
0.063
22.4
14.8
22.2
18.3
4264
112.1
304
324
7.4
171
1.066
0.0770
39.1
2058
4429
2009
697
0.085
23.0
15.1
22.8
18.7
4228
115.6
299
327
7.3
172
1.098
0.0780
39.7
2177
4618
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-13
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-7 (cont.)
Percent of Eight-Cylinder Cars:
MODI 1
l)M\ 1
1 K\|\
11
H\s\||xs|o\
	

1 1 1 1 M
1 1 KIM.


M MISI KOI \ \l M »
	



1975
1KOM
1.7
4WJJ
1.6



0.7


TOO





1976
2.0

1.2



1.4








1977
1.8

1.0



1.1








1978
2.1

1.2
9.5


1.9

0.6






1979
3.7

1.4
12.9


2.2

2.6






1980
7.6

0.8
40.5


1.4
3.0
9.8






1981
8.8

1.1
80.4


0.8
13.0
16.8






1982
5.5

3.9
90.8


1.3
9.1
11.7






1983
9.6

3.5
95.5


1.0
34.4
2.2






1984
9.3

3.2
95.8


5.2
32.5
0.7






1985
18.2

2.5
96.0


5.1
42.4
0.1






1986
12.2

4.3
93.2


36.2
12.2

99.8

0.2



1987
14.2

4.4
92.4


42.0
13.9

99.8

0.2



1988
16.4

6.2
91.5


56.4
19.8

99.8

0.2



1989
21.2

7.2
90.3


54.0
36.9

99.8

0.2



1990
28.4

6.7
91.4


85.9
10.1

92.2

7.8

6.6

1991
20.5
0.1
5.1
92.7


70.9
29.1

92.6

7.4

6.4

1992
21.9
0.0
3.7
94.3


78.6
21.4

91.6

8.4

8.9

1993
23.2
0.0
5.3
92.8


84.7
15.3

83.4

16.6

7.3

1994
19.3
0.0
6.1
92.3


100.0


78.1

21.9

7.2

1995
24.1

6.5
91.4


100.0


73.5

26.4
0.1
6.8

1996
27.9

6.7
93.3


100.0


63.8

36.2
0.0
5.4

1997
28.3
0.3
5.2
94.8


100.0


55.3

44.6
0.1
12.8

1998
32.5
0.3
7.2
92.8


100.0


47.4
0.8
51.8
0.1
15.4

1999
31.4
0.3
7.8
92.1


100.0


55.3
3.6
40.9
0.2
8.5

2000
22.0
0.8
8.2
91.8


100.0


51.3
4.9
42.9
0.9
11.3

2001
24.1
1.4
9.3
90.7


100.0


46.5
8.4
44.0
1.1
15.3

2002
23.7
1.0
10.9
89.1


100.0


39.9
8.0
51.5
0.6
17.3

2003
15.5
5.8
9.7
90.3


100.0


48.5
12.9
38.0
0.7
13.7

2004
15.0
4.8
10.2
89.8


100.0


46.8
9.2
40.7
3.3
21.1

2005
11.2
5.7
10.5
89.3


100.0


47.3
16.9
33.2
2.6
30.4

2006
17.4
4.8
8.9
90.8


100.0


49.7
19.1
29.5
1.5
28.6

2007
15.5
5.7
13.4
86.4


100.0


40.7
14.4
44.5
0.4
41.6

2008
14.7
6.0
13.4
86.0

4.6
95.4


42.8
9.2
47.8
0.3
33.7
0.5
2009
28.3
6.9
9.1
90.1

3.5
96.5


33.2
6.1
60.7
0.1
39.4
0.3
EPA-420-R-09-014	J-14	November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-8
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Four-Cylinder Vans
MODI 1
N 1 Mi
Mllv
(000)
1 IU(

\\<.ll1
1 It

0 (>0
11 Ml
IOI>
s|*l>
III*
( II)
III*
\VT
• ;
i us
55/45
MM
(in
MM
ll\^
MM
( OMI*
( id
IIP
ION MPG
1975
2
0.004
20.6
16.2
19.6
17.5
3498
118
78
19.1
96
0.656
0.0224
30.7
1976
1
0.003
19.9
15.1
20.1
17.0
3500
120
67
20.9
92
0.558
0.0191
29.8
1977
2
0.004
22.2
17.2
21.5
18.9
3500
120
67
20.8
92
0.558
0.0191
33.1
1978
3
0.004
20.0
15.7
19.1
17.0
3500
120
67
20.9
92
0.558
0.0191
29.8
1979
8
0.018
18.7
14.8
17.6
16.0
3500
120
67
20.9
92
0.558
0.0191
28.0
1980
16
0.065
19.0
14.7
18.6
16.2
3618
120
67
21.4
91
0.558
0.0186
29.4
1981
11
0.046
18.5
14.6
17.4
15.8
3644
120
67
21.6
91
0.558
0.0185
28.7
1982
15
0.048
21.7
17.7
19.4
18.4
3668
111
61
23.4
89
0.550
0.0168
35.6
1983
14
0.037
19.7
15.6
18.4
16.8
3567
118
69
20.9
92
0.583
0.0194
30.3
1984
217
0.321
24.7
19.7
22.8
21.0
3380
136
94
15.8
103
0.694
0.0281
35.7
1985
341
0.399
24.0
19.2
22.1
20.4
3409
142
97
15.5
104
0.690
0.0287
34.9
1986
354
0.339
24.7
19.6
22.9
20.9
3425
146
99
15.4
104
0.681
0.0290
36.0
1987
268
0.241
24.6
19.3
22.7
20.7
3401
143
100
15.2
105
0.702
0.0296
35.4
1988
143
0.127
25.3
19.8
23.2
21.3
3464
145
98
15.7
103
0.678
0.0283
37.0
1989
224
0.176
24.7
19.2
22.6
20.7
3505
149
110
14.7
107
0.743
0.0316
36.3
1990
101
0.080
25.5
19.5
23.6
21.3
3544
149
109
15.0
107
0.736
0.0310
37.8
1991
146
0.141
23.9
18.2
22.2
19.9
3791
148
120
14.5
109
0.814
0.0316
37.8
1992
141
0.116
25.0
18.8
23.2
20.7
3588
145
117
14.1
109
0.812
0.0325
37.2
1993
92
0.064
24.6
18.3
23.1
20.4
3638
147
118
14.2
109
0.809
0.0324
37.2
1994
66
0.046
24.7
18.3
23.0
20.4
3604
149
116
14.4
109
0.782
0.0322
36.8
1995
87
0.053
25.1
18.6
22.9
20.6
3621
143
130
13.2
114
0.921
0.0360
37.2
1996
66
0.047
24.8
18.2
22.9
20.3
3817
142
149
12.1
118
1.050
0.0392
38.9
1997
66
0.053
24.9
18.1
22.9
20.3
3831
142
144
12.5
116
1.008
0.0375
39.0
1998
139
0.094
25.2
17.8
24.0
20.6
3941
165
173
11.1
125
1.047
0.0439
40.7
1999
132
0.090
24.8
17.4
23.5
20.2
3999
166
171
11.4
124
1.027
0.0428
40.4
2000
62
0.037
26.0
18.2
24.4
21.1
4000
148
150
12.5
117
1.014
0.0375
42.1
2001
29
0.023
25.4
18.0
22.9
20.4
4000
148
150
12.5
117
1.014
0.0375
40.8
2002
38
0.031
25.6
17.6
24.2
20.7
4000
148
150
12.5
117
1.014
0.0375
41.4
2003
20
0.017
26.9
18.4
25.1
21.6
4000
148
150
12.5
117
1.014
0.0375
43.2
2004
6
0.006
25.9
17.5
24.2
20.8
4000
148
150
12.5
117
1.014
0.0375
41.5
2005
20
0.014
25.9
17.4
24.1
20.7
4000
148
150
12.5
117
1.014
0.0375
41.4
2006
18
0.015
25.9
17.4
24.1
20.7
4000
148
150
12.5
117
1.014
0.0375
41.4
2007
8
0.010
25.9
17.4
24.3
20.8
4000
148
150
12.5
117
1.014
0.0375
41.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-15
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-8 (cont.)
Percent of Four-Cylinder Vans:
MODI I
l)l<]\ I nni\
I l< V\>»Mlxs|0\
975
43.3
61.1
976
84.:
100.0
977
100.0
978
85.0
100.0
979
81.2
100.0
980
82.9
100.0
981
81.2
100.0
982
61.7
38.3
983
4.2
76.9
93.i
984
30.2
19.1
20.7
0.9
985
76.0
0.9
19.9
15.3
15.:
7.4
986
72.0
17.:
19.9
21.:
2.4
987
59.:
19.9
32.5
31.1
10.3
67.7
18.1
27.:
31.i
989
83.9
3.4
14.2
46.0
54.0
990
80.2
14.1
70.3
44.7
55.3
991
34.0
11.2
7.5
90.i
70.4
29.i
992
61.9
9.4
11.9
62.0
38.0
993
59.:
4.7
90.2
53.1
46.9
994
10.1
92.2
44.2
55.:
62.9
7.4
29.:
995
71.1
lO.i
67.4
32.i
32.i
67.4
996
87.7
99.9
100.0
100.0
997
92.7
2.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
998
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
999
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
52.7
2000
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2001
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2002
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2003
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2004
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2005
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2006
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2007
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-16
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-9
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Five-Cylinder Vans












MODI 1
Mllv

1 V It
VIM
VIM
VIM
\\(.ll 1


0 (>0
IOI'
III*
III*
MB

M Vlt
(000)
1 U \(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( OMI'
1 U
( ID
ill-
1IMI
s|»l)
( ID
\V1
ION Mi'C

1993
11
0.007
21.0
16.0
19.0
17.4
4157
150
log
16.6
103
0.727
0.0263
36.1

1994
0
0.000
20.1
15.1
18.6
16.6
4260
150
109
16.8
102
0.727
0.0257
35.4

1995
2
0.001
19.6
14.8
17.5
16.1
5000
150
109
19.1
98
0.727
0.0218
40.2

Percent of Five-Cylinder Vans:












MODI 1
Dltl\ 1
1 It VIN
1 ltV\sM|-.x|0\

1 1 1 1 Ml
1 1 ItlM.

M MISI ItOI \ VI \ 1 ^


^ 1 Vlt
1 ItOM
4\\ l>
M VM VI
1 (M k
CAT
(.1)1
I'Oltl
1 Itl
IM
l\\()
111Itl 1
1 Ol It
1 l\ 1
V \ T
in isitii)
1993
100

35.7
64.3


100








1994
100

48.0
52.0


100


100





1995
100

43.8
56.2


100


100





EPA-420-R-09-014
J-17
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-10
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Six-Cylinder Vans
Ml >1)1 1
1975
SVI 1 s
117
l'R VI
11 11 it i>\u\n
NC.II 1
1 M.IM
o <>n
IOI<
SI'I)
III'
III'



MM
\l).l
i (»ir

op
0.256
16.3
13.0
14.9
13.8
3967
271
102
16.9
101
0.380
0.0257
27.8
1976
128
0.255
17.4
14.1
15.6
14.7
4023
271
102
17.1
101
0.380
0.0253
29.9
1977
107
0.208
18.0
14.7
16.1
15.3
4039
278
113
15.9
105
0.408
0.0280
30.9
1978
152
0.244
17.2
14.1
15.3
14.6
4086
280
119
15.3
106
0.430
0.0293
30.0
1979
96
0.200
16.6
13.6
14.7
14.1
4233
263
121
15.5
106
0.465
0.0287
30.1
1980
114
0.473
18.4
14.7
16.9
15.6
4182
266
118
15.6
105
0.449
0.0284
32.7
1981
119
0.488
18.7
15.0
17.1
15.9
4191
268
117
15.9
105
0.438
0.0279
33.3
1982
121
0.389
18.7
15.0
17.3
15.9
4181
266
111
16.5
103
0.419
0.0266
33.4
1983
117
0.307
18.9
15.1
17.4
16.1
4206
265
110
16.7
103
0.418
0.0263
33.9
1984
144
0.214
18.6
14.7
17.4
15.8
4118
272
112
16.2
104
0.413
0.0273
32.8
1985
182
0.213
20.6
16.2
19.6
17.6
4002
269
136
13.8
113
0.509
0.0343
35.4
1986
391
0.374
20.9
16.1
20.1
17.7
4049
237
132
14.2
111
0.574
0.0327
36.0
1987
566
0.509
21.8
16.8
21.0
18.5
3930
219
149
12.5
117
0.703
0.0381
36.4
1988
735
0.649
22.2
16.8
21.6
18.8
3940
213
149
12.5
117
0.722
0.0380
37.0
1989
777
0.608
22.1
16.7
21.4
18.6
3992
212
146
12.8
116
0.713
0.0367
37.3
1990
935
0.741
22.2
16.6
21.4
18.6
4011
208
144
13.0
115
0.705
0.0360
37.4
1991
742
0.718
22.0
16.5
21.1
18.4
4084
212
147
13.0
115
0.706
0.0360
37.8
1992
902
0.739
22.1
16.4
21.2
18.5
4118
213
149
13.0
116
0.711
0.0362
38.1
1993
1174
0.815
22.5
16.5
21.7
18.7
4047
208
152
12.6
117
0.742
0.0377
37.8
1994
1160
0.818
22.2
16.2
21.2
18.4
4085
213
154
12.5
118
0.734
0.0378
37.7
1995
1375
0.828
22.5
16.2
21.7
18.6
4050
221
155
12.4
118
0.711
0.0384
37.7
1996
1230
0.873
22.7
16.2
21.9
18.7
4148
214
167
11.9
121
0.788
0.0405
38.9
1997
1069
0.845
22.5
16.0
21.6
18.5
4178
213
169
11.9
122
0.800
0.0406
38.8
1998
1250
0.839
23.0
16.2
22.2
18.9
4136
214
177
11.4
125
0.826
0.0428
39.1
1999
1200
0.820
22.7
15.8
21.9
18.6
4254
218
178
11.5
124
0.822
0.0420
39.6
2000
1523
0.900
23.1
16.1
22.2
18.9
4234
212
180
11.4
125
0.860
0.0427
40.0
2001
961
0.780
23.6
16.3
22.5
19.2
4310
210
191
11.0
128
0.920
0.0446
41.5
2002
1140
0.917
23.4
16.1
22.2
19.0
4368
214
199
10.8
129
0.936
0.0456
41.6
2003
1148
0.932
23.8
16.2
22.6
19.2
4345
215
199
10.7
130
0.933
0.0459
41.9
2004
907
0.951
23.9
16.1
23.0
19.4
4447
215
212
10.4
133
0.994
0.0478
43.2
2005
1425
0.963
24.1
16.1
22.9
19.4
4413
214
208
10.5
132
0.979
0.0473
42.9
2006
1103
0.946
24.5
16.3
23.4
19.7
4451
214
211
10.5
132
0.989
0.0473
44.0
2007
819
0.967
24.3
16.2
23.2
19.6
4470
218
226
10.0
136
1.038
0.0505
43.8
2008
764
0.987
24.6
16.4
23.5
19.8
4533
220
221
10.4
134
1.009
0.0488
45.0
2009
710
0.979
24.8
16.5
23.8
20.0
4561
221
219
10.7
134
0.996
0.0480
45.7
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-18
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-10 (cont.)
Percent of Six-Cylinder Vans:
MODI I
l)l<]\ I nni\
I l< V\>»Mlxs|0\
975
16.:
976
21.7
977
15.5
978
14.0
979
43.1
9.2
980
40.3
33.0
981
34.6
35.1
982
27.5
38.3
983
26.i
40.:
984
22.2
44.4
985
71.0
986
6.3
76.7
19.1
41.2
987
25.9
86.7
63.4
33.i
42.7
2.2
90.7
70.2
29.:
989
32.2
0.2
91.:
71.0
29.0
990
54.4
33.4
991
46.5
13.0
0.4
97.4
31.:
992
51.7
0.3
76.9
23.1
993
55.5
5.2
0.3
97.9
84.9
15.1
994
60.1
7.3
85.9
14.1
97.:
2.2
995
10.3
94.i
5.4
996
79.:
100.0
997
70.9
5.4
100.0
100.0
998
82.2
3.9
100.0
100.0
999
81.7
100.0
100.0
95.:
4.2
4.2
2000
85.5
3.0
100.0
100.0
80.0
20.0
16.7
2001
85.9
3.2
100.0
100.0
74.1
25.9
21.:
2002
100.0
100.0
72.4
27.6
22.7
2003
87.9
100.0
100.0
74.1
25.9
21.0
2004
90.4
4.7
100.0
100.0
45.7
54.3
48.5
2005
91.2
5.4
94.7
100.0
62.0
38.0
26.0
2006
93.3
4.4
95.0
100.0
52.2
47.:
38.5
2007
94.9
2.5
95.4
100.0
46.2
53.:
50.4
2008
93.9
3.7
100.0
100.0
47.5
52.5
47.i
2009
100.0
100.0
40.2
59.:
39.i
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-19
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-ll
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Eight-Cylinder Vans
Ml >1)1 1
S\l 1 X
llll III.
TK„
iiii 11 ovnn
NC.II 1
1 M.IM
o <>n
IOI<
SI'I)
III'
III'

HHHH
CI 1 ^
MM
IIWl
mi

OP
1975
338
0.741
12.2
9.9
11.1
10.4
4278
334
158
12.8
117
0.470
0.0370
22.5
1976
372
0.742
12.9
10.3
12.0
11.0
4263
342
161
12.5
119
0.470
0.0380
23.6
1977
405
0.788
14.0
11.4
12.7
11.9
4312
347
163
12.5
119
0.471
0.0380
25.8
1978
470
0.752
13.5
11.0
12.0
11.4
4307
346
159
12.7
117
0.460
0.0371
24.8
1979
376
0.782
12.9
10.5
11.4
10.9
4643
342
152
14.2
113
0.445
0.0328
25.6
1980
111
0.462
14.9
11.9
13.7
12.7
4630
334
152
14.0
113
0.456
0.0330
29.4
1981
114
0.466
16.3
13.0
15.0
13.8
4530
316
148
14.0
112
0.469
0.0328
31.5
1982
175
0.563
16.2
13.0
14.8
13.8
4511
316
153
13.6
114
0.486
0.0340
31.3
1983
251
0.656
17.1
13.6
16.0
14.6
4560
318
152
13.9
113
0.481
0.0335
33.9
1984
315
0.465
16.4
13.0
15.5
14.0
4534
317
154
13.7
114
0.487
0.0341
32.2
1985
332
0.389
15.9
12.6
14.7
13.5
4542
314
157
13.4
115
0.501
0.0348
30.9
1986
300
0.287
16.9
13.4
15.8
14.4
4607
312
155
13.7
114
0.497
0.0338
33.2
1987
279
0.251
16.9
13.1
16.0
14.3
4603
319
167
13.1
118
0.521
0.0363
33.0
1988
255
0.225
17.2
13.2
16.4
14.6
4708
322
168
13.2
117
0.520
0.0359
34.4
1989
276
0.216
17.0
12.9
16.3
14.3
4689
326
174
12.9
119
0.533
0.0374
33.8
1990
226
0.179
17.1
12.9
16.4
14.4
4692
332
186
12.2
123
0.560
0.0400
33.8
1991
145
0.141
17.1
12.7
16.5
14.3
4724
331
186
12.2
123
0.560
0.0397
33.9
1992
178
0.146
17.0
12.7
16.3
14.2
4769
332
196
11.8
125
0.590
0.0416
34.0
1993
164
0.114
17.5
12.8
16.9
14.6
4784
334
202
11.4
127
0.606
0.0425
34.9
1994
191
0.135
17.2
12.6
16.6
14.4
4777
331
207
11.2
128
0.626
0.0437
34.3
1995
197
0.119
17.4
12.7
16.7
14.5
4734
336
199
11.5
126
0.594
0.0423
34.3
1996
113
0.080
17.2
12.4
16.6
14.3
4930
332
219
11.0
130
0.660
0.0447
35.3
1997
130
0.103
18.0
12.9
17.3
14.9
4965
322
228
10.7
132
0.709
0.0460
37.1
1998
100
0.067
17.9
12.7
17.3
14.8
5109
322
231
10.8
132
0.720
0.0454
37.8
1999
131
0.090
17.8
12.5
17.1
14.6
5101
322
233
10.7
133
0.726
0.0458
37.3
2000
107
0.063
17.7
12.5
16.9
14.5
5027
322
237
10.5
134
0.738
0.0473
36.6
2001
243
0.197
17.6
12.3
16.9
14.4
5406
313
248
10.7
134
0.795
0.0460
39.0
2002
64
0.052
17.4
12.3
16.1
14.2
5080
321
241
10.4
135
0.753
0.0476
36.2
2003
64
0.052
18.3
12.9
16.7
14.8
5399
319
261
10.2
138
0.819
0.0484
40.0
2004
40
0.042
19.1
13.3
17.5
15.4
5446
307
259
10.4
137
0.843
0.0476
42.0
2005
35
0.024
19.0
13.2
17.4
15.3
5366
303
256
10.4
137
0.844
0.0478
41.0
2006
45
0.039
19.0
13.2
17.3
15.3
5257
295
248
10.5
135
0.839
0.0472
40.1
2007
19
0.023
21.1
14.4
19.7
17.0
5054
270
244
10.4
135
0.902
0.0478
42.9
2008
10
0.013
18.4
12.9
16.5
14.8
5751
325
306
9.5
146
0.941
0.0532
42.4
2009
15
0.021
18.1
12.7
16.3
14.5
5910
325
301
9.8
144
0.926
0.0510
42.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-20
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-ll (cont.)
Percent of Eight-Cylinder Vans:
MODI I
l)l<]\ I nni\
I l< V\>»Mlxs|0\
975
25.5
976
19.9
977
13.i
978
12.3
979
980
50.i
981
0.7
63.3
982
54.9
983
71.3
984
2.2
64.4
2.0
985
0.7
67.4
986
0.4
85.7
25.5
0.6
987
0.2
62.i
24.4
42.5
0.3
72.5
32.:
65.7
989
84.1
31.5
68.1
0.3
990
93.5
28.:
70.:
0.4
991
31.7
67.:
992
94.5
53.9
45.7
0.4
993
0.3
97.:
50.5
49.5
994
94.1
65.7
34.3
100.0
995
45.7
54.3
100.0
996
94.2
100.0
100.0
997
95.:
100.0
100.0
998
100.0
100.0
100.0
999
100.0
100.0
100.0
2000
100.0
100.0
100.0
2001
31.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
2002
100.0
100.0
100.0
2003
11.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
2004
10.:
100.0
100.0
100.0
2005
11.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2006
100.0
100.0
100.0
2007
44.5
20.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
2008
40.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
2009
26.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-21
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-12
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Other Cylinder SUVs












MODI 1
x\l 1

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
WC.ll 1


0-60
IOP
IIP
III'
Wtm

V 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\<
55/45
(in
IINV
( OMP
1 IS
( ID
III'
1IMI
XPD
( ID
VM
ION MPG

2002
0
0.000
34.1
35.1
25.0
28.7
3500
122
148
11.4
121
1.213
0.0423
50.3

2003
0
0.000
40.9
34.8
26.3
29.5
3500
122
148
11.4
121
1.213
0.0423
51.6

2004
1
0.000
22.8
15.4
21.8
18.4
6000
300
310
9.7
145
1.033
0.0517
55.3

2006
1
0.000
21.7
14.8
20.0
17.4
6000
300
310
9.6
145
1.033
0.0517
52.2

2007
0
0.000
21.7
14.8
20.0
17.4
6000
300
310
7.2
145
1.033
0.0517
52.2

2008
0
0.000
21.7
14.8
20.0
17.4
6000
300
310
7.1
145
1.033
0.0517
52.2

Percent of Other Cylinder SUVs:












MODI I
DKI\ 1
1 K \|N
IK W^MIsslON

1 1 1 1 M
1 1 KIM.




1 1 \K
1 KO\ I
4\\ 1)
M VM M
IO(K
( \ 1
(.1)1
I'OKI
1 lil
D»l
1 wo
1 IIKI 1
1 Ol K
1 |\ 1
\ \ 1
IIMSRID
2002
100.0



100.0

100.0


100.0





2003
100.0



100.0

100.0


100.0





2004

100.0

100.0




100.0
100.0





2006

100.0

100.0




100.0
100.0





2007

100.0

100.0




100.0
100.0





2008

100.0

100.0




100.0
100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
J-22
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-13
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Four-Cylinder SUVs
MODI 1
^ 1 M<
(000)
I U U
11 11 i ((>N<>\n
WC.II 1
1 It
1 M.I M
0-60
11 Ml
IOI'
^ri>
III'
( II)
III'
YV1
TOVMI'G
i
55/45
MM
cm
MM
IINY
MM
( «>\ll>
( II)
III*
1975
6
0.034
12.0
9.0
12.2
10.2
4000
257
110
15.7
104
0.428
0.0275
20.5
1979
14
0.034
19.0
15.8
16.4
16.1
3032
136
76
17.1
99
0.600
0.0259
24.2
1980
19
0.102
22.8
18.9
19.8
19.3
2893
137
81
15.8
101
0.624
0.0278
27.9
1981
13
0.098
24.4
20.2
21.3
20.7
2941
145
81
15.7
101
0.573
0.0276
30.5
1982
18
0.110
24.0
20.6
19.8
20.3
2557
136
78
15.0
102
0.589
0.0303
25.9
1983
23
0.080
23.7
20.2
19.9
20.0
2647
130
80
15.1
103
0.634
0.0303
26.6
1984
71
0.113
23.6
19.1
21.3
20.0
3118
139
89
15.6
102
0.644
0.0285
31.3
1985
93
0.127
24.3
19.5
22.2
20.6
3325
139
94
15.7
103
0.680
0.0282
34.4
1986
191
0.248
25.2
20.0
23.1
21.3
3355
131
97
15.2
104
0.745
0.0291
35.8
1987
207
0.237
25.2
20.0
22.9
21.3
3130
127
95
14.7
104
0.755
0.0303
33.2
1988
191
0.197
25.0
19.9
22.5
21.0
3123
122
94
14.8
104
0.773
0.0298
32.6
1989
123
0.133
24.0
18.9
21.5
20.0
3226
131
103
14.0
107
0.790
0.0322
32.3
1990
115
0.162
25.0
19.7
22.1
20.8
3100
124
99
14.1
107
0.808
0.0321
32.3
1991
129
0.118
24.0
19.1
20.6
19.8
3228
128
97
14.9
105
0.775
0.0302
32.1
1992
113
0.113
24.4
19.3
21.0
20.1
3035
125
101
13.8
108
0.814
0.0333
30.8
1993
123
0.094
24.3
19.1
20.7
19.9
3058
126
103
13.7
108
0.822
0.0337
30.7
1994
175
0.108
24.9
19.3
21.5
20.4
3032
121
103
13.7
108
0.848
0.0339
31.0
1995
195
0.108
24.9
19.1
21.4
20.2
3005
126
108
13.0
111
0.869
0.0362
30.6
1996
150
0.080
27.5
20.6
24.3
22.3
3028
115
111
12.7
112
0.974
0.0368
33.8
1997
390
0.159
25.8
19.1
22.7
20.9
3289
133
126
12.3
115
0.957
0.0385
34.4
1998
343
0.133
26.3
19.3
23.2
21.2
3391
128
129
12.4
115
1.011
0.0382
36.1
1999
353
0.125
26.6
19.5
23.3
21.3
3443
129
138
11.9
118
1.075
0.0402
36.9
2000
354
0.113
26.2
19.1
22.8
20.9
3467
127
137
12.0
118
1.084
0.0397
36.5
2001
505
0.146
26.4
19.1
22.9
21.0
3461
132
144
11.6
120
1.102
0.0418
36.6
2002
469
0.112
27.4
19.4
24.1
21.8
3477
137
150
11.2
122
1.102
0.0433
38.1
2003
576
0.140
27.4
19.2
24.3
21.8
3539
140
152
11.3
122
1.085
0.0431
38.6
2004
497
0.105
27.6
19.2
24.4
21.8
3562
145
158
11.0
124
1.091
0.0448
38.9
2005
525
0.129
28.3
19.6
24.6
22.2
3551
143
157
10.9
124
1.101
0.0446
39.5
2006
537
0.143
28.7
19.9
25.0
22.5
3629
142
157
11.0
123
1.101
0.0434
41.0
2007
751
0.178
28.5
19.6
25.1
22.4
3738
142
170
10.8
126
1.195
0.0454
42.0
2008
853
0.214
29.3
20.2
25.5
23.0
3744
143
167
10.8
125
1.174
0.0449
43.2
2009
947
0.185
29.2
20.0
25.8
23.0
3760
144
173
10.6
127
1.208
0.0461
43.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-23
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-13 (cont.)
Percent of Four-Cylinder SUVs:
MODI I
l)l<]\ I nni\
I l< V\>»Mlxs|0\
975
100.0
979
32.5
32.5
980
99.9
100.0
981
100.0
982
38.4
38.4
983
41.0
44.3
984
94.3
25.3
985
91.2
29.i
20.7
12.1
95.i
86.3
13.2
18.9
21.i
2.7
987
85.0
7.7
18.1
19.7
97.:
83.3
12.:
40.1
989
95.6
72.5
27.5
42.1
49.:
990
90.9
83.1
15.9
36.0
61.1
991
63.3
36.4
36.0
62.i
992
50.9
67.2
32.:
42.:
54.5
993
54.2
63.7
36.3
50.0
47.3
994
56.0
25.1
61.2
38.:
10.1
995
0.2
80.3
72.4
27.i
79.5
20.5
97.3
2.7
996
12.0
59.7
45.4
54.6
100.0
91.2
997
65.6
43.1
51.3
100.0
18.2
81.:
10.4
998
13.7
33.2
100.0
999
14.9
27.2
72.:
100.0
16.9
83.1
2000
13.5
21.7
78.3
100.0
21.2
78.:
2001
20.5
58.i
17.2
82.:
100.0
25.3
74.7
19.:
2002
31.3
17.2
82.3
100.0
13.5
86.5
54.4
2003
38.0
13.1
79.:
7.0
100.0
91.7
55.5
2004
38.3
59.i
13.7
82.:
100.0
100.0
67.9
2005
44.2
55.6
10.7
2.4
100.0
58.1
2.0
2006
46.5
53.5
100.0
62.3
2007
48.i
51.4
3.9
83.3
12.:
100.0
100.0
82.1
2.9
2008
52.4
47.i
2.3
74.4
23.3
3.9
100.0
83.2
4.3
2009
54.:
43.7
74.7
19.3
5.7
94.3
100.0
84.:
2.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-24
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-14
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Five-Cylinder SUVs












MODI 1
x\l 1

i us
VIM
MM
\l).l
\\(.ll1


0-60
l()P
IIP
111*


^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(II)
III'
1IMI
XPI)
( II)
VM
ION MPG

2003
4
0.001
23.3
15.9
22.1
18.9
4885
154
207
11.4
127
1.344
0.0425
46.1

2004
55
0.012
24.0
16.3
22.6
19.3
4365
183
232
9.6
140
1.279
0.0540
42.0

2005
40
0.010
23.2
15.8
21.4
18.6
4486
175
225
10.0
137
1.298
0.0511
41.6

2006
98
0.026
20.7
14.6
18.3
16.5
4976
196
217
11.1
129
1.123
0.0436
41.1

2007
46
0.011
19.4
13.5
17.6
15.6
5000
223
245
10.1
137
1.099
0.0490
38.9

2008
23
0.006
19.4
13.5
17.6
15.6
5000
223
245
10.1
137
1.099
0.0490
38.9

2009
32
0.006
20.5
14.3
18.2
16.3
5000
223
245
10.1
137
1.099
0.0490
40.8

Percent of Five-Cylinder SUVs:












Ml >l>l 1
1IKI 1
1 l\ \|\
1 l\ \\-\||v.|n\

1 1 1 1 M
1 1 KIM.




1 1 \|{
1 l«>\ I
|W 1)
M\M \l
KM k
( \ 1
(.III
I'OKI
1 lil
IM
iwo
1 IIKI 1
1 ( >1 l\
1 W 1
\ \ 1
IIMiRID
2003
9.3
90.7

100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

2004
17.3
82.7

100.0


100.0




100.0

49.6

2005
21.0
79.0

100.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

2006
10.2
89.8
3.0
97.0


100.0




100.0

100.0

2007

100.0
3.6
96.4


100.0


100.0



100.0

2008

100.0
3.5
96.5


100.0


100.0



100.0

2009

100.0
10.0
90.0


100.0


100.0



100.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
J-25
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-15
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Six-Cylinder SUVs
Ml >1)1 1
SVI 1 s
iiiini.
,K,
11 11 11ovnn
NC.II 1
1 M.IM
II (ill
IOI<
SI'I)
III'
III'

HHHH

MM
mi

HP
1975
12
0.062
17.8
14.7
15.5
15.1
3152
237
95
14.7
105
0.399
0.0307
23.6
1976
45
0.184
15.7
12.7
14.3
13.4
3255
253
101
14.3
106
0.400
0.0318
22.1
1977
49
0.174
16.7
13.4
15.2
14.2
3323
253
105
14.1
107
0.413
0.0320
23.8
1978
60
0.157
16.4
13.1
15.1
13.9
3217
255
104
13.8
107
0.407
0.0327
22.5
1979
63
0.158
16.9
13.9
14.8
14.3
3211
257
120
12.4
114
0.466
0.0379
23.0
1980
54
0.293
17.8
14.4
16.0
15.1
3590
258
100
15.5
104
0.393
0.0285
27.2
1981
44
0.327
18.5
14.8
17.2
15.8
3564
266
113
14.0
109
0.428
0.0327
28.0
1982
41
0.256
18.9
14.9
17.9
16.1
3601
264
112
14.3
108
0.426
0.0318
29.1
1983
150
0.518
21.3
16.5
20.8
18.2
3728
206
112
14.8
107
0.563
0.0305
34.2
1984
368
0.589
21.3
16.6
20.5
18.1
3677
188
108
15.1
106
0.590
0.0298
33.6
1985
444
0.604
21.6
16.5
21.5
18.4
3736
178
109
15.2
105
0.617
0.0293
34.6
1986
388
0.501
20.8
16.1
19.9
17.6
3670
182
126
13.4
112
0.701
0.0345
32.4
1987
491
0.562
21.3
16.2
20.8
18.0
3694
198
138
12.7
116
0.709
0.0377
33.4
1988
582
0.602
21.1
16.0
20.5
17.8
3681
211
147
12.0
119
0.706
0.0402
32.9
1989
595
0.643
21.1
16.0
20.1
17.7
3770
231
155
11.7
121
0.680
0.0413
33.6
1990
423
0.597
20.5
15.5
19.6
17.2
3813
219
154
11.9
120
0.716
0.0408
32.9
1991
875
0.799
20.4
15.2
19.6
17.1
4067
233
163
11.9
121
0.704
0.0404
34.9
1992
793
0.791
19.9
14.8
19.1
16.6
4071
230
170
11.6
123
0.743
0.0424
34.0
1993
950
0.725
20.3
15.0
19.5
16.9
4083
234
181
11.0
127
0.777
0.0448
34.6
1994
1152
0.710
19.9
14.7
19.0
16.6
4185
230
180
11.3
125
0.785
0.0434
34.8
1995
1242
0.684
19.8
14.5
18.8
16.4
4205
230
177
11.5
124
0.777
0.0426
34.7
1996
1285
0.680
20.4
14.7
19.5
16.9
4189
241
180
11.3
125
0.751
0.0434
35.4
1997
1331
0.543
20.3
14.7
19.1
16.7
4219
237
180
11.3
125
0.770
0.0431
35.3
1998
1499
0.581
20.6
14.8
19.4
16.9
4190
237
182
11.2
126
0.778
0.0438
35.5
1999
1600
0.565
20.8
14.9
19.2
16.9
4206
231
190
10.8
128
0.837
0.0454
35.6
2000
1751
0.557
20.8
14.8
19.2
16.9
4183
229
187
10.9
128
0.829
0.0450
35.4
2001
2072
0.601
21.3
15.1
19.7
17.3
4178
219
200
10.4
132
0.930
0.0481
36.2
2002
2611
0.623
20.9
14.7
19.4
16.9
4300
222
213
10.1
135
0.972
0.0497
36.5
2003
2228
0.541
21.5
14.9
19.9
17.3
4320
220
221
9.8
137
1.012
0.0513
37.5
2004
2655
0.563
21.8
15.0
20.4
17.6
4344
223
224
9.8
137
1.010
0.0516
38.3
2005
2458
0.602
22.1
15.1
20.4
17.7
4364
217
226
9.7
138
1.047
0.0519
38.7
2006
2329
0.620
22.5
15.3
20.7
18.0
4409
218
226
9.7
137
1.041
0.0513
40.0
2007
2439
0.577
23.0
15.7
21.1
18.4
4409
218
236
9.5
140
1.088
0.0536
40.8
2008
2436
0.611
23.3
15.9
21.6
18.7
4469
216
239
9.4
141
1.115
0.0537
42.0
2009
3313
0.646
23.6
16.0
22.0
18.9
4503
218
248
9.2
143
1.142
0.0552
42.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-26
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-15 (cont.)
Percent of Six-Cylinder SUVs:
MODI I
l)l<]\ I nni\
I K\\s\|lx>«10\
975
79.:
976
73.:
75.9
977
63.0
83.:
978
70.2
84.1
979
92.9
86.0
0.3
980
83.0
3.9
981
78.4
21.i
982
95.9
77.i
22.4
983
86.7
51.3
46.2
984
86.1
33.3
43.1
985
82.1
30.1
68.6
986
30.0
68.2
28.4
40.6
987
82.1
28.i
45.2
46.9
82.0
27.3
71.0
56.0
38.7
989
82.2
24.i
71.9
51.i
42.4
990
86.4
26.3
72.0
72.9
20.:
991
79.i
17.9
81.3
33.9
992
75.2
18.i
80.i
82.5
17.5
993
63.3
13.9
85.3
99.4
0.6
994
0.6
77.9
13.7
99.6
0.4
83.2
6.0
10.7
995
77.9
lO.i
100.0
77.i
22.4
996
5.4
94.i
100.0
86.5
13.5
997
71.2
91.2
100.0
79.2
20.:
998
93.i
100.0
80.5
16.9
999
5.2
94.:
100.0
70.i
2.2
27.2
5.7
2000
65.9
4.7
95.3
100.0
74.3
2.0
23.i
2001
18.0
57.4
2.9
97.1
100.0
57.6
41.0
16.7
2002
9.5
64.1
3.0
96.9
100.0
43.:
55.1
28.4
2003
11.4
65.3
2.0
95.5
2.5
100.0
34.:
64.0
42.4
2004
14.3
65.5
2.3
95.3
2.4
100.0
37.3
62.1
40.:
2005
18.i
65.3
95.1
2.9
100.0
30.3
48.:
2006
20.5
62.2
91.1
100.0
26.i
71.7
52.9
3.4
2007
25.9
2.2
92.4
5.4
99.7
0.3
26.0
74.0
52.9
2008
27.0
61.3
22.5
77.5
55.5
2009
31.9
56.9
93.:
4.7
95.0
0.3
17.1
82.9
63.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-27
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-16
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Eight-Cylinder SUVs
MODI 1
1975
^ \l 1 •»
11H H11


Wt.ll 1

II (.il
inr
SN>
III'
III*

i vr.
mi
\IM
ll\M
MI.I

UP
169
0.905
12.8
10.5
11.4
10.9
4281
337
151
13.2
116
0.445
0.0363
23.1
1976
199
0.816
13.4
10.8
12.2
11.4
4551
354
149
14.0
113
0.421
0.0334
25.8
1977
234
0.826
14.8
11.9
13.4
12.5
4423
348
152
13.5
115
0.435
0.0348
27.7
1978
321
0.843
14.1
11.3
12.9
12.0
4465
354
157
13.1
116
0.442
0.0356
26.7
1979
323
0.808
11.8
9.8
10.3
10.0
4825
353
151
14.7
111
0.426
0.0314
24.2
1980
112
0.605
13.9
11.1
12.8
11.8
4776
339
154
14.1
112
0.453
0.0323
28.4
1981
78
0.575
15.2
12.1
14.1
12.9
4790
329
150
14.5
111
0.459
0.0314
31.2
1982
103
0.634
16.4
13.0
15.4
14.0
4961
333
145
15.3
109
0.441
0.0296
36.3
1983
116
0.401
16.2
12.8
15.4
13.8
4962
339
148
15.1
110
0.442
0.0301
35.6
1984
186
0.298
15.4
12.1
14.5
13.1
4971
336
156
14.5
112
0.467
0.0315
33.5
1985
198
0.269
15.6
12.2
14.9
13.3
4977
335
162
14.1
114
0.486
0.0327
33.7
1986
194
0.251
16.2
12.5
15.6
13.8
4981
330
159
14.3
113
0.484
0.0321
34.8
1987
175
0.200
15.9
12.3
15.2
13.5
5090
336
181
13.3
118
0.537
0.0355
34.8
1988
194
0.201
16.1
12.3
15.3
13.6
5115
338
183
13.2
118
0.541
0.0357
35.1
1989
208
0.224
16.0
12.2
15.4
13.5
5196
336
186
13.2
119
0.551
0.0357
35.5
1990
170
0.241
16.2
12.1
15.9
13.6
5257
338
192
12.9
120
0.569
0.0367
36.1
1991
91
0.083
16.2
12.1
15.8
13.6
5293
339
199
12.6
122
0.589
0.0377
36.3
1992
96
0.096
15.9
11.7
15.5
13.3
5428
340
201
12.7
121
0.591
0.0371
36.2
1993
237
0.181
16.9
12.4
16.5
14.1
5019
334
209
11.5
128
0.629
0.0429
35.3
1994
295
0.182
17.0
12.5
16.2
14.1
5003
334
209
11.5
128
0.629
0.0431
35.2
1995
378
0.208
17.0
12.4
16.2
14.1
5066
334
206
11.7
126
0.621
0.0417
35.5
1996
454
0.241
17.5
12.6
16.8
14.5
4965
328
225
10.8
132
0.687
0.0458
35.9
1997
729
0.298
17.6
12.7
16.9
14.6
5084
323
228
10.9
131
0.707
0.0452
37.1
1998
738
0.286
17.3
12.3
16.6
14.3
5086
320
225
11.0
131
0.707
0.0447
36.3
1999
877
0.310
17.4
12.3
16.8
14.4
5138
319
236
10.7
133
0.744
0.0463
36.9
2000
1037
0.330
17.6
12.5
16.7
14.5
5262
311
243
10.6
134
0.783
0.0464
38.0
2001
873
0.253
17.7
12.6
16.4
14.4
5380
310
255
10.4
136
0.824
0.0476
38.8
2002
1110
0.265
18.0
12.6
17.0
14.7
5436
311
271
10.0
140
0.871
0.0500
40.0
2003
1309
0.318
18.0
12.6
16.8
14.7
5576
311
266
10.4
138
0.859
0.0480
40.9
2004
1505
0.319
18.1
12.6
16.8
14.7
5507
314
278
10.0
141
0.885
0.0507
40.3
2005
1062
0.260
18.5
12.7
17.2
14.9
5573
315
288
9.7
143
0.917
0.0518
41.6
2006
793
0.211
18.6
12.8
17.4
15.0
5521
309
293
9.6
145
0.952
0.0533
41.5
2007
994
0.235
19.5
13.2
18.5
15.8
5747
320
313
9.4
148
0.978
0.0546
45.6
2008
674
0.169
19.3
13.1
18.3
15.6
5782
321
330
9.0
152
1.030
0.0572
45.3
2009
837
0.163
19.8
13.4
18.8
16.0
5676
322
324
9.0
152
1.008
0.0573
45.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-28
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-16 (cont.)
Percent of Eight-Cylinder SUVs:
MODI 1
JkKI\ 1
ll(U\
Tl<

>\


1 1 1 1 Ml
1 1 KIM.


M MISI li<
>1 \ \l M x



1975

87.5
37.3













1976

88.0
24.4












1977

86.7
25.8












1978

91.9
25.1












1979

66.3
23.1
0.6











1980

82.4
14.9
41.4











1981

84.3
9.9
59.3











1982

79.9
8.9
57.5




24.1






1983

80.8
4.7
67.6




16.7






1984

79.4
6.4
49.3




7.8






1985

71.7
3.3
55.5


4.5

4.8






1986

75.2
3.6
72.9


20.0

3.4






1987

73.9
2.9
69.9


16.7
53.7
1.9






1988

74.9
2.6
70.9


29.0
60.1
1.5






1989

76.0
3.0
73.6


32.9
60.0
1.1






1990

73.0
2.0
86.9


32.8
62.1
1.2






1991

70.6
1.4
89.7


30.1
64.0
1.8






1992

73.8
1.3
98.2


30.7
69.3







1993

47.3
0.9
99.1


49.4
50.6







1994

81.1
1.4
98.6


48.6
51.4

100.0





1995

82.9
1.2
98.8


41.7
58.3

100.0





1996

78.6
0.8
99.2


99.9

0.1
100.0





1997

75.5
0.1
99.9


100.0

0.0
100.0





1998

75.1

100.0


100.0

0.0
100.0





1999

58.7

100.0


100.0


95.2
1.9
2.9



2000

69.6

100.0


100.0


94.8

5.2

0.5

2001

67.2

100.0


100.0


84.6
1.1
14.2

2.2

2002

64.4

100.0


100.0


87.8
1.2
11.0

0.9

2003

61.0

100.0


100.0


81.0
0.7
18.3

2.8

2004

65.6

100.0


100.0


71.3
0.3
27.2
1.2
14.9

2005

67.3

100.0


100.0


64.9
11.5
22.9
0.7
29.6

2006

70.6

100.0


100.0


48.7
20.1
30.7
0.5
49.9

2007

63.4

100.0


100.0


74.9
6.3
18.8

28.3

2008

67.1
0.0
98.8
1.2
2.1
97.9


57.9
7.8
34.3

43.1
1.2
2009

56.9
0.1
98.8
1.1
2.5
97.4

0.1
66.6
3.4
29.8
0.2
41.8
1.3
EPA-420-R-09-014	J-29	November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-17
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Other Cylinder Pickups












MODI 1
Mllv

1 V It
VIM
VIM
VIM
\\(.ll 1


0 (.11
IOI'
III*
III*
Wtm

M Vlt
(000)
1 U \(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( OMP
1 U
( ID
III'
1IMI
s|»l)
( ID
\V1
ION MPC

2004
3
0.001
13.0
8.6
13.6
10.8
5135
505
500
5.9
206
0.990
0.0975
27.8

2005
5
0.002
12.3
8.4
12.1
10.2
5825
505
500
6.5
195
0.990
0.0860
29.7

2006
2
0.001
12.3
8.4
12.1
10.2
5833
505
500
6.5
195
0.990
0.0859
29.6

Percent of Other Cylinder Pickups:












MODI 1
Dltl\ 1
1 It VIN
1 ltV\sM|-.x|0\

1 1 1 1 Ml
1 1 KIM.

M MISI ItOI \ VI M ^


^ 1 Vlt
1 ItOM
4\\ l>
M VM VI
1 (M k
CAT
(.1)1
I'Oltl
1 Itl
DM
IWO
111Itl 1
1 Ol It
1 l\ 1
V \ T
in isitii)
2004


100.0



100.0




100.0



2005


35.0
65.0


100.0


100.0





2006


33.4
66.6


100.0


100.0





EPA-420-R-09-014
J-30
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-18
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Two-Cylinder Pickups












MODI 1
Mllv

1 V It
VIM
VIM
VIM
\\(.ll 1


0 (>ll
IOI'
III*
III*
Wtm

M Vlt
(000)
1 U \(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( OMP
1 U
( ID
III'
1IMI
s|»l)
( ID
\V1
ION MPC

1975
3
0.002
15.5
11.7
15.9
13.2
3000
80
135
10.7
122
1.688
0.0450
19.9

1976
4
0.002
16.4
12.4
16.8
14.1
3000
80
135
10.7
122
1.688
0.0450
21.1

1977
2
0.001
19.3
14.7
19.4
16.5
3000
80
135
10.7
122
1.688
0.0450
24.8

Percent of Two-Cylinder Pickups:












MODI 1
Dltl\ 1
1 It VIN
1 ltV\sM|-.x|0\

1 1 1 1 Ml
1 1 ItlM.

M MISI ItOI \ VI \ 1 ^


^ 1 Vlt
1 ItOM
4\\ l>
M VM VI
1 (M k
CAT
(.1)1
I'Oltl
1 Itl
IM
l\\()
111Itl 1
1 Ol It
1 l\ 1
V \ T
in it rid
1975


68.2












1976


81.1












1978


85.1












EPA-420-R-09-014
J-31
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-19
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Four-Cylinder Pickups
Ml >1)1 1
S\l 1 X
llll III.
,K,
llll I (
NC.II 1
1 M.IM
o <>n
IOI<
SI'I)
III'
III'

HHHH

¦¦¦
IIWl
mi

OP
1975
214
0.159
22.2
17.2
21.6
19.0
2817
116
88
14.7
105
0.750
0.0314
26.8
1976
224
0.120
23.7
18.4
23.1
20.2
2826
117
89
14.6
105
0.757
0.0318
28.7
1977
304
0.150
26.4
20.6
25.3
22.5
2819
122
91
14.2
106
0.748
0.0324
32.0
1978
339
0.150
26.3
21.0
24.3
22.4
2844
120
88
14.7
104
0.731
0.0310
32.1
1979
459
0.208
23.4
18.4
22.1
19.9
2832
123
84
14.9
103
0.692
0.0300
28.7
1980
550
0.383
24.6
19.6
22.8
20.9
2818
124
87
14.5
104
0.705
0.0311
29.9
1981
497
0.346
27.7
22.1
25.7
23.6
2841
130
85
15.1
103
0.652
0.0298
34.1
1982
485
0.337
27.8
22.1
25.7
23.6
2885
133
87
14.9
104
0.657
0.0304
34.6
1983
707
0.434
27.6
22.0
25.6
23.5
2921
135
88
14.8
104
0.651
0.0303
34.7
1984
795
0.389
27.2
21.7
25.2
23.1
2973
134
89
14.9
104
0.661
0.0300
34.7
1985
819
0.394
27.4
21.9
25.3
23.3
3034
141
97
14.0
107
0.693
0.0322
35.5
1986
1256
0.496
27.0
21.3
25.1
22.9
3054
139
97
14.2
106
0.696
0.0318
35.1
1987
1064
0.496
27.1
21.1
25.3
22.9
3050
140
96
14.2
106
0.686
0.0316
35.0
1988
913
0.371
27.1
21.1
25.1
22.8
3070
142
97
14.2
106
0.685
0.0317
35.2
1989
773
0.347
26.8
20.8
24.7
22.5
3084
143
102
13.7
108
0.710
0.0331
34.8
1990
554
0.302
27.1
20.9
24.8
22.6
3096
144
110
13.0
111
0.765
0.0356
35.1
1991
632
0.329
27.3
20.9
25.0
22.7
3119
145
108
13.2
110
0.749
0.0349
35.5
1992
471
0.256
27.1
20.5
24.8
22.4
3194
143
110
13.3
110
0.767
0.0347
35.9
1993
478
0.239
27.3
20.5
24.9
22.5
3210
143
112
13.2
111
0.782
0.0351
36.2
1994
706
0.265
27.3
20.4
24.9
22.4
3333
141
113
13.4
110
0.799
0.0342
37.4
1995
653
0.288
26.8
19.8
24.4
21.9
3425
147
124
12.8
113
0.848
0.0365
37.8
1996
556
0.284
27.0
19.7
24.9
22.1
3420
142
124
12.8
113
0.871
0.0366
38.0
1997
465
0.193
27.5
20.0
24.9
22.3
3457
140
120
13.2
111
0.853
0.0349
38.8
1998
615
0.255
27.0
19.5
24.6
21.9
3462
145
127
12.7
114
0.877
0.0370
38.1
1999
392
0.154
26.5
19.0
24.1
21.4
3451
147
127
12.7
114
0.867
0.0371
37.2
2000
437
0.167
26.0
18.5
23.6
21.0
3466
145
127
12.7
114
0.879
0.0368
36.5
2001
277
0.110
25.8
18.4
23.0
20.6
3501
145
132
12.5
115
0.906
0.0378
36.3
2002
166
0.070
26.3
18.8
23.0
20.9
3525
149
143
11.7
119
0.958
0.0407
37.1
2003
289
0.117
26.3
18.3
23.7
21.0
3527
142
133
12.5
115
0.933
0.0377
37.1
2004
155
0.062
26.2
18.3
23.1
20.7
3542
152
147
11.5
120
0.972
0.0418
36.8
2005
126
0.055
26.0
17.7
23.6
20.7
3740
159
162
11.1
124
1.017
0.0434
38.7
2006
165
0.075
25.8
17.6
23.6
20.6
3749
160
162
11.2
123
1.012
0.0434
38.6
2007
139
0.066
25.6
17.5
23.2
20.3
3712
161
164
11.0
125
1.015
0.0443
38.0
2008
128
0.072
26.7
18.4
23.7
21.1
3698
159
162
11.1
124
1.015
0.0438
39.1
2009
154
0.080
27.3
18.8
24.1
21.5
3727
157
157
11.4
122
0.999
0.0423
40.1
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-32
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-19 (cont.)
Percent of Four-Cylinder Pickups:
MODI I
l)l<]\ I nni\
I l< V\>»Mlxs|0\
975
83.5
976
81.4
977
82.3
978
6.9
979
20.5
980
20.2
2.7
2.0
981
23.0
93.1
16.3
982
23.4
90.:
2.3
0.7
15.4
983
4.3
18.9
86.3
0.2
5.7
984
20.i
2.5
2.5
4.2
985
22.4
84.6
18.3
10.7
986
19.:
85.9
7.9
14.3
22.6
0.7
987
17.3
84.5
7.9
11.7
26.:
0.3
15.2
84.9
9.3
27.3
29.7
989
15.3
84.9
lO.i
34.5
36.i
990
13.1
84.9
12.9
10.5
991
12.4
85.3
12.0
67.3
23.0
992
13.:
86.:
10.1
77.i
993
14.:
86.:
9.9
87.0
4.2
994
12.2
85.2
11.2
0.4
99.:
0.2
995
15.3
79.9
17.0
97.3
2.7
82.3
17.7
996
76.i
18.i
100.0
64.:
15.9
19.3
997
5.9
78.0
22.0
100.0
71.4
28.1
998
11.1
27.1
100.0
64.4
35.i
999
10.5
57.4
36.5
100.0
65.4
34.i
2000
7.9
48.0
47.2
100.0
65.0
35.0
2001
48.5
43.:
100.0
46.0
54.0
2002
12.5
47.9
39.6
100.0
99.9
2003
lO.i
38.:
53.i
100.0
46.3
53.7
2004
12.4
42.3
42.4
100.0
100.0
12.5
2005
17.i
43.0
57.0
100.0
100.0
2006
15.0
37.9
62.1
100.0
100.0
79.7
2007
33.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
2008
10.:
29.:
70.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
2009
11.0
34.3
65.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-33
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-20
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Five-Cylinder Pickups












MODI 1
Mih

i us
mi
MM
MM
WC.ll 1


0-60
IOI>
IIP
111*
Wtm

M \K
(000)
1 U\<
55/45
(in
IINV
( OMP
1 IS
( ID
IIP
1IMI
»I*D
( ID
VM
ION MPG

2004
95
0.038
23.9
16.4
22.0
19.1
4076
211
215
9.5
138
1.019
0.0530
39.0

2005
131
0.057
23.2
15.8
21.5
18.6
4141
211
215
9.6
137
1.019
0.0521
38.5

2006
78
0.036
23.5
16.0
21.7
18.8
4162
211
215
9.7
137
1.019
0.0519
39.1

2007
49
0.023
21.3
14.4
20.0
17.2
4160
223
207
10.0
134
0.931
0.0497
35.7

2008
53
0.03
22.1
14.9
20.9
17.8
4124
223
190
10.6
129
0.853
0.0464
36.7

2009
41
0.021
21.8
15.1
19.6
17.4
4618
223
245
9.5
141
1.099
0.0538
40.0

Percent of Five-Cylinder Pickups:












MODI I
DKI\ 1
1 K \|N
IK W^MIsslON

1 1 1 1 M
1 1 KIM.




1 1 \K
1 KO\ I
4\\ 1)
M VM M
IO(K
( \ 1
(.1)1
I'OKI
1 lil
D»l
1 wo
1 IIKI 1
1 Ol K
1 |\ 1
\ \ 1
IIMSRID
2004

43.9
2.9
97.1


100.0




100.0

100.0

2005

51.2
2.4
97.6


100.0




100.0

100.0

2006

51.9
2.1
97.9


100.0




100.0

100.0

2007

48.9

100.0


100.0


100.0



100.0

2008

49.6

100.0


100.0


100.0



100.0

2009

69.9
6.2
93.8


100.0


100.0



100.0

EPA-420-R-09-014
J-34
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-21
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Six-Cylinder Pickups
Ml >1)1 1
S\l 1 X
llll III.
,K,
llll I (
Wt.ll 1
1 M.IM
o <>n
IOI<
SI'I)
III'
III'

HHHH

¦¦¦
mi

,n>
1975
144
0.107
17.1
13.7
15.8
14.6
4020
270
103
17.0
101
0.384
0.0256
29.5
1976
272
0.146
18.9
15.1
17.4
16.0
4007
267
103
16.9
101
0.389
0.0257
32.3
1977
254
0.125
19.0
15.3
17.3
16.2
4044
271
109
16.2
103
0.405
0.0272
32.9
1978
346
0.153
18.5
14.9
16.8
15.7
4054
274
116
15.5
106
0.428
0.0287
32.1
1979
355
0.161
17.5
14.3
15.6
14.8
4173
266
122
15.1
107
0.464
0.0294
31.3
1980
387
0.269
19.1
15.2
17.7
16.3
4027
271
121
14.8
107
0.451
0.0300
32.9
1981
472
0.328
20.1
16.0
18.7
17.1
3934
274
120
14.6
108
0.444
0.0306
33.9
1982
480
0.333
21.7
17.1
20.5
18.5
3578
236
113
14.2
108
0.502
0.0321
33.2
1983
484
0.297
21.6
16.9
20.7
18.4
3653
228
112
14.6
107
0.516
0.0310
33.7
1984
687
0.336
21.0
16.4
20.1
17.9
3676
227
110
14.8
106
0.510
0.0304
33.0
1985
591
0.284
21.7
16.9
20.8
18.5
3588
227
117
14.0
109
0.535
0.0327
33.1
1986
600
0.237
21.1
16.5
19.9
17.9
3705
228
129
13.3
113
0.604
0.0354
33.1
1987
631
0.294
21.4
16.5
20.4
18.1
3647
222
136
12.5
116
0.638
0.0378
33.0
1988
746
0.304
21.4
16.4
20.5
18.1
3695
229
142
12.2
117
0.644
0.0388
33.4
1989
732
0.328
20.9
16.0
19.8
17.6
3869
239
145
12.5
117
0.627
0.0378
34.1
1990
593
0.323
21.0
15.9
20.1
17.7
3959
240
147
12.5
117
0.637
0.0376
35.0
1991
769
0.400
21.9
16.3
21.0
18.3
3807
236
147
12.2
118
0.641
0.0390
34.8
1992
792
0.430
21.2
15.7
20.4
17.7
3950
242
146
12.6
117
0.622
0.0375
35.0
1993
916
0.458
21.3
15.7
20.4
17.7
3944
239
150
12.4
118
0.645
0.0384
35.0
1994
1057
0.396
21.3
15.6
20.3
17.7
3983
245
161
11.8
121
0.675
0.0410
35.2
1995
679
0.299
20.8
15.1
19.9
17.2
4122
256
161
12.1
120
0.645
0.0396
35.4
1996
628
0.321
21.0
15.3
19.9
17.3
4104
249
168
11.7
122
0.688
0.0412
35.7
1997
674
0.280
21.5
15.4
20.3
17.6
4100
247
185
10.8
128
0.753
0.0453
36.2
1998
729
0.302
21.3
15.2
19.9
17.4
4064
238
180
11.0
126
0.760
0.0443
35.4
1999
794
0.312
20.9
14.9
19.4
17.0
4045
230
174
11.3
124
0.763
0.0430
34.4
2000
921
0.353
20.9
14.9
19.3
17.0
4080
228
175
11.3
125
0.774
0.0430
34.7
2001
854
0.339
20.7
14.7
19.0
16.8
4127
232
184
11.0
127
0.798
0.0447
34.6
2002
842
0.354
20.6
14.6
18.7
16.6
4192
232
186
11.0
127
0.806
0.0444
34.8
2003
852
0.344
20.9
14.7
18.9
16.8
4251
233
187
11.1
127
0.807
0.0441
35.7
2004
595
0.238
20.8
14.5
18.9
16.7
4256
227
192
10.8
128
0.849
0.0452
35.6
2005
529
0.230
21.1
14.5
19.2
16.9
4398
239
215
10.3
134
0.901
0.0492
37.1
2006
595
0.272
21.4
14.8
19.5
17.1
4450
237
221
10.1
135
0.937
0.0499
38.1
2007
506
0.239
21.4
14.8
19.5
17.1
4513
238
219
10.3
134
0.923
0.0489
38.7
2008
434
0.242
21.4
14.8
19.5
17.1
4527
239
220
10.3
134
0.928
0.0490
38.8
2009
420
0.216
21.9
15.1
19.9
17.5
4506
239
230
9.9
138
0.967
0.0515
39.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-35
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-21 (cont.)
Percent of Six-Cylinder Pickups:
MODI I
l)l<]\ I nni\
I l< V\>»Mlxs|0\
975
16.3
976
35.3
977
10.:
29.6
978
11.4
30.9
0.3
979
11.7
61.4
2.4
980
12.i
65.4
19.5
0.2
981
10.2
61.1
21.9
982
56.i
30.2
983
23.5
53.0
32.1
984
25.:
49.:
30.5
985
26.:
52.4
33.5
986
30.7
53.0
30.9
23.3
26.:
987
33.1
46.1
45.7
50.4
31.2
34.3
49.:
42.0
53.9
46.1
989
33.i
51.5
43.:
52.7
47.3
990
30.0
46.3
50.3
62.2
37.:
991
25.:
51.7
48.3
43.i
56.4
992
23.2
48.i
51.4
56.4
43.i
993
24.2
45.3
54.7
58.5
41.5
994
27.0
39.0
61.0
71.1
28.9
94.6
5.4
995
28.1
42.7
57.3
30.4
996
27.2
33.5
100.0
10.1
997
21.5
27.:
72.2
100.0
95.:
4.2
998
28.7
28.0
72.0
100.0
92.9
999
33.0
23.9
76.1
100.0
92.4
2000
31.4
21.7
78.3
100.0
93.0
7.0
2001
28.2
16.4
83.6
100.0
11.6
2002
32.5
15.1
84.9
100.0
19.:
2003
30.5
15.0
85.0
100.0
86.1
13.9
2004
34.0
15.i
84.4
100.0
82.1
17.9
2005
30.2
12.4
87.i
100.0
65.9
34.1
34.1
2006
36.5
10.:
100.0
49.i
50.4
50.4
2007
34.9
91.2
100.0
54.5
45.5
38.7
2008
34.9
7.3
92.7
100.0
54.4
45.i
19.5
2009
46.7
7.4
92.6
100.0
36.4
63.6
25.7
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-36
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
1^—Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-22
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Eight-Cylinder Pickups
Ml >1)1 1
1975
SVI 1 s
982
l'R VI
1111 11 n\o\n
NC.II 1
1 M.IM
II (ill
!(>]>
si-ii
HHHB
¦ m>
III'

HHHH
¦¦¦¦¦
m\^
mi
< (rsii-

OP
0.732
12.6
10.0
11.8
10.8
4274
353
158
12.7
118
0.446
0.0373
23.3
1976
1367
0.732
13.2
10.6
12.0
11.2
4360
359
155
13.1
116
0.430
0.0358
24.6
1977
1466
0.723
14.4
11.7
12.9
12.2
4366
360
164
12.6
119
0.457
0.0378
26.9
1978
1582
0.698
14.0
11.5
12.5
11.9
4386
353
162
12.7
118
0.460
0.0373
26.4
1979
1392
0.631
13.6
11.3
12.1
11.6
4566
346
156
13.8
115
0.449
0.0344
27.0
1980
500
0.348
15.9
12.8
14.6
13.6
4532
331
150
13.9
113
0.453
0.0333
31.3
1981
470
0.326
17.4
13.8
16.1
14.8
4311
312
143
13.8
113
0.461
0.0334
32.2
1982
476
0.331
17.8
14.2
16.5
15.1
4437
317
150
13.7
114
0.475
0.0341
34.4
1983
437
0.269
17.2
13.6
16.1
14.7
4430
317
152
13.5
114
0.483
0.0346
33.3
1984
561
0.275
16.9
13.3
15.9
14.4
4463
316
154
13.4
115
0.489
0.0347
32.6
1985
668
0.321
16.7
13.2
15.6
14.2
4437
315
159
13.0
117
0.506
0.0361
31.9
1986
675
0.267
17.4
13.6
16.3
14.7
4424
311
157
13.1
116
0.503
0.0356
32.8
1987
451
0.210
17.0
13.2
15.9
14.3
4482
320
169
12.6
119
0.527
0.0379
32.3
1988
800
0.325
17.5
13.4
16.7
14.8
4537
329
180
12.1
122
0.544
0.0397
33.6
1989
726
0.326
17.5
13.3
16.8
14.7
4502
330
184
11.9
124
0.556
0.0411
33.3
1990
687
0.375
17.3
13.0
16.8
14.5
4572
335
189
11.8
124
0.561
0.0414
33.4
1991
519
0.271
17.3
12.9
16.8
14.5
4542
331
190
11.6
125
0.573
0.0420
33.0
1992
577
0.313
17.4
12.9
17.0
14.6
4652
330
190
11.9
124
0.573
0.0410
34.0
1993
608
0.304
17.7
13.0
17.2
14.8
4691
331
200
11.3
127
0.606
0.0429
34.8
1994
906
0.339
17.6
12.9
16.9
14.7
4706
334
205
11.1
128
0.615
0.0437
34.5
1995
939
0.414
17.3
12.6
16.6
14.4
4751
333
201
11.4
127
0.606
0.0425
34.2
1996
771
0.394
17.7
12.8
17.0
14.6
4815
332
226
10.5
133
0.680
0.0470
35.3
1997
1269
0.527
18.3
13.1
17.6
15.1
4933
318
228
10.6
133
0.721
0.0465
37.3
1998
1071
0.443
18.0
12.8
17.3
14.8
4902
323
232
10.4
134
0.723
0.0477
36.4
1999
1359
0.534
18.1
12.9
17.1
14.9
5043
324
245
10.2
137
0.758
0.0490
37.5
2000
1255
0.480
18.8
13.4
17.5
15.3
4836
313
249
9.7
140
0.798
0.0517
37.1
2001
1388
0.551
18.2
12.9
17.0
14.8
5022
316
252
9.9
139
0.801
0.0503
37.4
2002
1373
0.577
18.3
12.9
16.9
14.8
5137
310
261
9.8
140
0.843
0.0511
38.2
2003
1333
0.539
18.5
13.0
16.9
14.9
5133
311
265
9.7
141
0.854
0.0518
38.3
2004
1658
0.661
18.5
13.0
16.9
14.9
5364
317
280
9.7
143
0.881
0.0524
40.1
2005
1509
0.656
18.7
12.9
17.2
15.1
5370
316
286
9.5
145
0.906
0.0536
40.5
2006
1349
0.617
19.0
13.1
17.3
15.2
5390
314
284
9.6
144
0.904
0.0529
41.1
2007
1419
0.672
19.2
13.3
17.8
15.5
5544
318
299
9.5
146
0.937
0.0539
43.1
2008
1178
0.657
19.6
13.4
18.2
15.8
5601
321
313
9.2
150
0.974
0.0559
44.6
2009
1327
0.683
19.9
13.5
18.7
16.0
5547
322
314
9.1
150
0.971
0.0566
44.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-37
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
Appendix J: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Cylinder Count
Table J-22 (cont.)
Percent of Eight-Cylinder Pickups:
MODI I
l)l<]\ I nni\
I l< V\>»Mlxs|0\
975
18.0
35.4
976
27.5
32.4
977
27.7
27.3
978
34.7
27.9
979
10.2
18.i
3.7
980
28.5
19.5
47.9
981
17.0
16.:
62.2
4.5
982
20.7
13.7
56.5
15.4
983
25.i
11.5
984
29.1
12.:
65.7
3.9
985
27.:
10.3
64.4
13.1
986
30.2
11.9
72.0
32.2
987
34.1
14.4
54.:
30.0
45.3
0.0
38.1
13.4
27.4
71.4
989
38.:
18.:
72.1
29.3
70.2
990
38.0
14.0
79.1
30.2
991
38.5
12.7
85.3
30.:
992
40.7
12.5
87.4
44.2
55.4
0.4
993
0.0
43.0
91.9
45.1
54.9
994
45.4
93.9
46.3
53.7
100.0
995
48.9
9.4
90.i
50.1
49.9
100.0
996
45.0
94.7
99.5
100.0
997
52.2
95.4
99.9
100.0
998
52.i
95.9
99.9
100.0
999
62.5
2.4
97.i
100.0
0.0
100.0
2000
54.1
2.0
100.0
90.:
9.2
2001
51.2
2.0
100.0
94.7
2002
52.0
100.0
93.4
6.6
2003
51.5
100.0
93.i
2004
54.1
99.4
100.0
72.:
21.i
21.i
0.0
2005
54.7
0.4
99.i
100.0
21.4
11.9
33.3
2006
53.4
0.4
99.i
100.0
24.1
15.2
39.4
0.2
2007
52.7
0.2
99.:
100.0
18.i
15.0
32.5
0.0
2008
56.0
0.2
99.:
100.0
64.9
16.:
18.3
35.0
2009
49.0
99.5
100.0
73.5
10.1
16.4
39.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
J-38
November 2009

-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Appendix K
Fuel Economy Data Stratified
by Vehicle Type, Engine Type
and Valve Per Cylinder
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE

United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-l
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Carbureted Cars














MODI 1
^ 1 Mi
Mih
(000)
1 K\(
1 Mi
55/45
MM
(in
MM
ll\^
MM
( (IMP
\\(.ll1
1 IS
VOL
(III
(n>
111*
0-C>0
1IMI
IOI>
s|»l>
III'
( II)
111*
VM
TO\-
MP(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III-
IO\ MI'G
1986
3805
0.345
29.8
22.8
29.1
25.3
2871
105.7
160
96
14.0
107
0.658
0.0330
36.6
2755
3872
1987
2871
0.268
30.6
23.5
29.3
25.9
2802
102.9
148
92
14.3
106
0.688
0.0322
36.4
2731
3756
1988
1747
0.163
32.5
25.0
30.5
27.3
2725
101.7
131
88
14.3
105
0.746
0.0319
37.2
2846
3803
1989
973
0.097
33.2
25.4
31.0
27.8
2703
100.0
118
87
14.1
105
0.799
0.0322
37.4
2817
3768
1990
121
0.014
31.2
23.6
29.4
26.1
2966
106.0
148
96
14.0
106
0.765
0.0326
38.0
2762
4111
1991
3
0.000
39.2
30.4
34.3
32.2
2078
88.1
73
64
14.4
101
0.877
0.0308
33.6
2857
2966
1992
1
0.000
41.0
31.6
35.7
33.5
2087
88.6
73
66
14.1
102
0.904
0.0317
34.9
2970
3095
2006
1
0.000
16.4
11.0
16.2
13.5
3595
55.8
271
484
4.6
239
1.792
0.1351
24.2
746
1369
Percent of Other Carbureted Cars:
MODI 1
M \l<
1986
Dim i i k\in
1 K\Ns\||nn|ii\
1 l« IN 1
IM l>
M Wl \l
1 < H K
66.7
2.0
34.1
50.0
1987
72.6
2.7
37.3
51.7
1988
82.0
1.0
43.8
51.9
1989
89.9
0.1
41.2
53.4
1990
73.0
0.0
40.6
59.4
1991
100.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
1992
100.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
2006
0.0
0.0
17.5
82.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-l
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-2
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 TBI 2 Valve Cars
MODI 1
^ 1 Mi
Mih
(000)
1 K\(

\\(.ll1
1 IS
VOL
(III

0-C>0
1IMI
IOI>
s|»l>
III'
( II)
III'
\\T
TO\-
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III-
io\ MPt:
1 Mi
55/45
MM
(in
MM
ll\^
MM
( (IMP
(n>
111*
1986
3132
0.284
28.5
21.7
27.9
24.2
2999
108.8
158
98
14.1
107
0.637
0.0326
36.3
2649
3954
1987
3274
0.305
29.3
22.2
28.7
24.8
2920
107.4
147
97
13.9
107
0.671
0.0330
36.3
2683
3901
1988
3027
0.282
30.7
23.2
29.7
25.9
2840
107.0
141
97
13.7
108
0.709
0.0339
36.9
2795
3945
1989
2345
0.234
29.7
22.1
29.2
25.0
2954
107.9
157
105
13.4
110
0.699
0.0351
37.1
2737
3999
1990
1477
0.168
30.5
22.6
29.8
25.5
2925
105.5
145
101
13.5
109
0.717
0.0344
37.4
2725
3949
1991
1446
0.170
29.5
21.5
29.2
24.6
3032
106.8
164
108
13.3
110
0.698
0.0352
37.4
2669
4011
1992
688
0.085
29.5
21.6
28.6
24.6
3099
109.6
180
111
13.5
110
0.682
0.0349
38.0
2770
4200
1993
579
0.069
30.6
22.3
29.4
25.4
3037
110.0
166
104
13.7
108
0.690
0.0336
38.5
2864
4257
1994
431
0.051
34.2
25.1
31.6
28.0
2622
100.4
118
84
14.3
104
0.741
0.0318
37.2
2916
3722
1995
109
0.012
38.9
28.8
34.4
31.4
2365
102.6
93
73
14.6
102
0.831
0.0308
37.9
3374
3881
1996
86
0.011
42.5
31.4
36.7
33.9
2144
99.9
86
65
14.7
101
0.778
0.0306
37.0
3486
3701
1997
67
0.008
40.3
29.6
34.8
32.1
2201
90.5
75
67
14.8
101
0.889
0.0304
35.9
2970
3247
1998
11
0.001
53.6
38.1
46.1
41.9
2000
89.7
60
55
15.7
97
0.917
0.0275
41.9
3761
3761
1999
8
0.001
50.3
35.4
43.5
39.3
2000
88.0
61
55
15.7
97
0.902
0.0275
39.3
3458
3458
2000
5
0.001
50.8
35.8
43.0
39.3
2000
88.0
61
55
15.7
97
0.902
0.0275
39.3
3461
3461
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-2
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-2 (cont.)
Percent of TBI 2 Valve Cars:
MulH 1
*1 1 \|{
i>ki\ I I k \|\
1 K \\«.\||«.x|ii\
1 K<>\ 1
4\\l>
M Wl M
1 ¦ K K
1986
85.4
0.0
10.0
66.2
1987
92.7
0.2
14.9
59.1
1988
95.4
1.3
19.9
69.1
1989
91.6
0.8
14.3
75.2
1990
93.1
1.0
14.0
76.4
1991
80.8
1.0
15.3
81.5
1992
70.1
0.0
19.5
72.1
1993
77.7
1.1
24.8
69.7
1994
100.0
0.0
30.3
58.0
1995
100.0
0.0
39.9
25.4
1996
100.0
0.0
42.9
0.0
1997
100.0
0.0
26.3
0.0
1998
100.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
1999
100.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
2000
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-3
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-3
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 TBI 3 Valve Cars
MODI 1
M
Mllv
(000)
1 IU(

\\(.ll 1
1 U
\OL
(III

o <>n
11 Ml
IMI'
s|»l)
111*
( II)
III*
\VT
TOV
MP(.
(III
MP(.
(III-
l()N MI'G
i us
55/45
MM
(in
MM
ll\^
MM
( (IMP
( id
iii-
1989
246
0.025
34.5
26.5
32.0
28.9
2508
101.0
98
go
12.9
109
0.918
0.0359
36.3
2925
3667
1991
72
0.008
34.9
26.1
32.8
29.0
2602
91.9
97
95
12.7
110
0.979
0.0366
37.8
2681
3475
1992
60
0.007
34.2
25.4
32.0
28.3
2750
91.9
97
95
13.3
108
0.979
0.0345
39.2
2620
3602
1993
41
0.005
35.3
26.2
32.5
29.0
2596
91.9
97
90
13.2
108
0.928
0.0347
37.7
2676
3464
Percent of TBI 3 Valve Cars:
Mum i
*1 1 M\
l)KI\ 1 1 K\|\
1 l\ \\<.M|nn|(»>
1 l«>\ 1
4\\ 1)
M \M M
1 OCK
1989
99.6
0.4
53.4
46.6
1991
100.0
0.0
59.5
0.0
1992
100.0
0.0
47.4
0.0
1993
100.0
0.0
61.5
0.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-4
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-4
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 TBI 4 Valve Cars














MODI 1
Mlh

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\(.ll1
\ OL


0-60
ior
III'
111*
T()\-
(III
(III-
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(III
(n>
111*
1IMI
s|»l>
( II)
VM
Ml'(.
Ml'(.
io\ Mi'c;
1988
194
0.018
38.1
29.9
34.6
31.9
2379
94.5
91
71
15.0
101
0.775
0.0298
38.1
3029
3604
1989
199
0.020
36.2
28.0
32.9
30.2
2434
95.8
91
92
12.3
in
1.012
0.0381
36.9
2908
3538
1990
382
0.043
36.5
28.0
33.1
30.3
2513
97.7
94
91
12.7
109
0.971
0.0363
38.1
2964
3724
1991
344
0.040
35.5
27.3
31.8
29.3
2589
95.8
93
97
12.5
111
1.041
0.0375
38.1
2827
3649
1992
95
0.012
31.7
24.0
28.9
26.1
2744
93.9
98
106
12.3
113
1.076
0.0386
35.9
2459
3373
1993
93
0.011
31.1
23.2
28.7
25.6
2856
102.6
106
120
11.6
117
1.121
0.0417
36.8
2656
3775
Percent of TBI 4 Valve Cars:
MUIH 1
1IKI 1
1 l\\|\
1 l\ \\-N\llxxlli\


4\\l>
MVM M

1988
100.0
0.0
57.1
42.9
1989
99.8
0.0
53.9
46.1
1990
100.0
0.0
59.2
40.8
1991
100.0
0.0
45.5
54.5
1992
100.0
0.0
16.3
83.7
1993
99.9
0.0
30.7
65.7
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-5
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-5
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 2 Valve Fixed Timing Cars














MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\(.ll1
\ OL


0-60
ior
III'
111*
T()\-
(III
(III-
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(III
(n>
111*
1IMI
s|»l>
( II)
VM
Ml'(.
Ml'(.
io\ Mi'c;
1986
3698
0.336
25.6
19.2
25.9
21.8
3271
109.2
187
136
11.7
119
0.768
0.0414
35.7
2411
3928
1987
3815
0.356
25.2
18.8
25.7
21.5
3307
110.4
192
139
11.6
120
0.762
0.0418
35.6
2396
3953
1988
4713
0.439
26.0
19.2
26.4
22.0
3319
111.0
193
136
11.9
118
0.736
0.0409
36.6
2463
4084
1989
4804
0.480
26.1
19.1
26.4
22.0
3321
112.2
190
135
12.0
118
0.739
0.0406
36.6
2490
4123
1990
4388
0.498
25.9
18.8
26.4
21.8
3407
112.9
194
139
12.0
118
0.739
0.0405
37.2
2486
4218
1991
4162
0.488
26.3
19.0
26.6
22.1
3351
112.7
190
143
11.6
120
0.768
0.0423
37.1
2521
4193
1992
4574
0.564
26.4
18.8
26.9
22.1
3372
113.0
193
147
11.4
122
0.777
0.0432
37.3
2518
4235
1993
4773
0.564
27.2
19.3
27.4
22.7
3306
112.3
188
141
11.6
120
0.766
0.0423
37.5
2573
4234
1994
4533
0.539
26.8
18.9
27.1
22.3
3389
112.8
195
147
11.5
121
0.766
0.0428
37.8
2540
4283
1995
4377
0.466
27.0
18.8
27.5
22.5
3402
113.8
198
158
11.0
125
0.804
0.0457
38.3
2588
4363
1996
3273
0.415
27.0
18.8
27.3
22.4
3426
112.7
196
159
10.9
125
0.822
0.0460
38.4
2542
4337
1997
3374
0.405
27.4
19.0
27.5
22.6
3383
113.2
191
159
10.8
126
0.840
0.0463
38.3
2578
4335
1998
3052
0.383
27.1
18.6
27.2
22.3
3391
111.9
194
164
10.6
127
0.848
0.0478
37.8
2513
4243
1999
2943
0.351
27.1
18.5
26.9
22.2
3412
111.6
195
163
10.7
127
0.843
0.0472
37.9
2491
4234
2000
3157
0.346
27.3
18.6
27.0
22.3
3449
112.2
194
168
10.6
128
0.868
0.0481
38.5
2519
4334
2001
2694
0.320
27.6
18.6
27.1
22.4
3452
112.3
195
170
10.4
129
0.875
0.0487
38.8
2535
4365
2002
2466
0.297
28.2
18.9
27.3
22.8
3428
111.9
196
171
10.3
130
0.883
0.0495
39.1
2568
4387
2003
2044
0.257
27.1
18.1
26.6
22.0
3625
113.7
208
184
10.0
132
0.893
0.0505
39.9
2524
4558
2004
1670
0.221
26.9
17.7
26.4
21.8
3648
114.3
219
194
9.7
135
0.891
0.0531
39.8
2506
4572
2005
1621
0.202
27.1
17.8
26.3
21.8
3712
116.3
222
201
9.7
137
0.918
0.0537
40.5
2553
4733
2006
1297
0.162
26.4
17.3
25.9
21.3
3806
116.6
238
221
9.2
142
0.931
0.0576
40.7
2509
4771
2007
681
0.084
25.5
16.7
25.0
20.6
3793
112.5
237
216
9.5
141
0.922
0.0566
39.0
2339
4426
2008
454
0.062
24.6
16.0
24.5
20.0
3986
113.7
266
245
8.8
149
0.919
0.0620
39.9
2293
4591
2009
277
0.034
24.2
15.8
24.2
19.7
4098
111.6
286
269
8.4
156
0.963
0.0668
40.5
2208
4587
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-6
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-5 (cont.)
Percent of Port 2 Valve Fixed Timing Cars:
MulH 1
*1 1 \|{
i>ki\ I I k \|\
1 K \\«.\||«.x|ii\
1 K<>\ 1
4\\l>
M Wl M
1 ¦ K K
1986
62.8
1.1
23.1
62.5
1987
65.3
0.9
20.1
67.4
1988
69.9
0.5
15.8
71.2
1989
74.3
0.8
13.0
73.5
1990
80.0
0.2
10.1
79.1
1991
82.0
0.1
10.3
80.3
1992
83.3
0.7
8.1
83.7
1993
84.1
0.2
9.8
83.5
1994
78.6
0.7
8.8
86.9
1995
78.9
0.1
10.0
89.9
1996
78.4
0.5
9.9
90.1
1997
81.8
0.4
9.8
90.2
1998
84.0
0.1
9.0
90.8
1999
83.1
0.0
8.8
91.2
2000
81.7
0.0
9.8
90.1
2001
83.6
0.0
8.2
91.1
2002
85.3
0.0
8.4
91.5
2003
80.4
1.4
5.4
94.6
2004
77.0
0.0
5.9
94.1
2005
76.4
0.4
4.4
95.6
2006
70.2
0.9
3.9
96.1
2007
58.5
0.7
4.8
92.8
2008
50.6
0.2
7.1
92.9
2009
27.1
1.2
8.7
91.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-7
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-6
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 3 Valve Fixed Timing Cars














MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\(.ll1
\ OL


0-60
ior
III'
111*
T()\-
(III
(III-
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(III
(n>
111*
1IMI
s|»l>
( II)
VM
Ml'(.
Ml'(.
io\ Mi'c;
1986
169
0.015
32.2
25.1
30.4
27.3
2626
92.1
112
105
11.8
114
0.943
0.0401
35.8
2500
3304
1987
185
0.017
32.4
24.9
30.9
27.3
2654
92.7
114
106
11.8
114
0.939
0.0401
36.3
2519
3369
1988
282
0.026
28.9
21.9
27.9
24.4
3051
107.6
131
122
11.9
116
0.942
0.0400
37.3
2633
4010
1989
567
0.057
28.4
21.3
27.5
23.9
3019
102.4
132
121
11.9
116
0.920
0.0401
36.2
2458
3710
1990
386
0.044
29.0
21.7
28.0
24.3
2915
99.9
131
119
11.8
116
0.915
0.0408
35.6
2453
3564
1991
451
0.053
31.5
23.6
29.5
26.2
2710
102.2
113
103
12.4
112
0.921
0.0379
35.6
2702
3640
1992
299
0.037
31.7
23.7
29.6
26.3
2667
100.6
114
104
12.2
113
0.923
0.0387
35.2
2682
3543
1993
211
0.025
35.2
26.4
31.8
28.8
2451
96.8
92
92
12.5
110
0.988
0.0373
35.5
2827
3443
1994
155
0.018
36.0
27.0
31.9
29.2
2392
96.3
89
85
13.0
108
0.955
0.0356
35.2
2843
3392
1995
102
0.011
37.1
26.9
34.2
30.2
2475
99.6
90
91
12.7
109
1.004
0.0368
37.4
3015
3727
1996
74
0.009
36.4
26.1
33.5
29.5
2478
100.7
91
91
12.7
109
1.002
0.0367
36.6
2975
3684
1997
83
0.010
35.3
25.0
33.0
28.6
2641
100.7
102
105
12.2
113
1.025
0.0391
37.9
2928
3814
1998
119
0.015
31.8
22.2
30.2
25.8
3116
104.6
138
150
11.1
124
1.058
0.0459
39.9
2745
4193
1999
175
0.021
30.1
20.9
28.8
24.5
3246
99.5
155
166
10.7
128
1.052
0.0486
39.4
2511
3937
2000
162
0.018
29.0
20.0
27.8
23.6
3403
105.4
162
173
10.8
129
1.054
0.0484
39.8
2534
4214
2001
174
0.021
26.1
17.8
25.0
21.2
3731
103.0
205
219
9.2
142
1.067
0.0571
39.4
2222
4078
2002
168
0.020
25.5
17.4
24.2
20.6
3727
103.0
199
213
9.5
140
1.071
0.0557
38.3
2162
3960
2003
186
0.023
23.8
16.2
22.8
19.3
3971
98.3
233
255
8.4
151
1.098
0.0636
38.5
1925
3819
2004
127
0.017
23.5
15.8
22.4
19.0
4037
101.5
233
254
8.7
150
1.088
0.0624
38.5
1952
3942
2005
105
0.013
23.9
16.0
22.8
19.3
4031
100.1
234
253
8.7
150
1.079
0.0622
39.0
1944
3920
2006
61
0.008
21.2
14.1
20.7
17.2
4261
106.7
299
320
7.3
169
1.065
0.0756
36.8
1840
3971
2007
17
0.002
19.4
13.0
19.1
15.8
4342
103.0
328
368
6.8
182
1.120
0.0843
34.3
1631
3575
2008
3
0.000
21.5
14.5
20.5
17.4
3976
64.7
262
358
6.8
184
1.325
0.0879
34.8
1115
2259
2009
4
0.000
17.4
11.5
17.6
14.3
4687
98.6
351
530
5.3
225
1.521
0.1145
33.5
1402
3375
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-8
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-6 (cont.)
Percent of Port 3 Valve Fixed Timing Cars:
MulH 1
*1 1 \|{
i>ki\ I I k \|\
1 K \\«.\||«.x|ii\
1 K<>\ 1
4\\l>
M Wl M
1 ¦ K K
1986
100.0
0.0
65.9
34.1
1987
100.0
0.0
53.1
46.9
1988
89.8
0.0
39.2
60.8
1989
84.2
0.0
41.0
59.0
1990
81.9
1.3
42.1
50.6
1991
97.9
1.4
38.7
59.5
1992
99.9
0.1
43.9
56.0
1993
99.0
1.0
55.9
30.7
1994
100.0
0.0
50.0
28.8
1995
100.0
0.0
35.8
35.7
1996
100.0
0.0
32.1
38.3
1997
85.9
0.0
33.3
66.7
1998
55.0
0.0
18.3
81.7
1999
46.9
0.0
14.0
86.0
2000
45.0
0.0
13.5
86.5
2001
15.8
5.9
13.2
86.8
2002
15.1
5.5
12.3
87.7
2003
0.0
3.2
0.3
99.7
2004
0.0
22.1
0.1
99.9
2005
0.0
28.6
0.0
100.0
2006
0.0
13.0
2.7
97.3
2007
0.0
6.7
67.6
32.4
2008
0.0
0.0
14.2
85.8
2009
0.0
0.0
9.8
90.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-9
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-7
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 4 Valve Fixed Timing Cars














MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\(.ll1
\ OL


0-60
ior
III'
111*
T()\-
(III
(III-
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(III
(n>
111*
1IMI
s|»l>
( II)
VM
Ml'(.
Ml'(.
io\ Mi'c;
1986
176
0.016
27.8
21.4
26.9
23.6
3032
89.0
125
144
10.6
124
1.150
0.0470
36.1
2112
3189
1987
560
0.052
29.7
22.7
28.6
25.1
3067
98.9
125
130
11.5
119
1.046
0.0423
38.8
2536
3849
1988
772
0.072
28.9
21.9
28.0
24.4
3085
98.2
131
137
11.1
121
1.046
0.0441
37.9
2430
3728
1989
879
0.088
28.6
21.5
27.7
24.0
3082
99.4
132
139
11.0
122
1.054
0.0449
37.2
2419
3702
1990
1998
0.227
28.9
21.7
27.5
24.1
3021
98.5
125
134
11.2
121
1.068
0.0440
36.6
2399
3609
1991
1826
0.214
28.7
21.4
27.2
23.9
3040
98.1
129
138
10.9
122
1.076
0.0451
36.4
2369
3582
1992
2015
0.249
29.0
21.3
27.8
24.1
3103
101.5
129
138
11.1
122
1.069
0.0443
37.5
2485
3819
1993
2357
0.279
28.9
21.0
27.9
24.0
3140
103.7
138
142
11.0
122
1.035
0.0448
37.8
2527
3921
1994
2620
0.311
28.6
20.6
27.7
23.7
3170
104.7
143
147
10.9
124
1.037
0.0456
37.6
2514
3942
1995
3879
0.413
29.2
20.8
28.4
24.1
3146
105.1
141
148
10.7
125
1.060
0.0466
38.0
2561
3991
1996
3528
0.447
28.8
20.3
28.1
23.7
3206
107.5
147
152
10.7
125
1.046
0.0469
38.0
2571
4091
1997
3856
0.463
28.9
20.2
28.2
23.7
3205
107.1
146
153
10.7
126
1.052
0.0471
38.0
2563
4085
1998
3276
0.411
29.4
20.4
28.5
24.0
3241
108.0
145
153
10.7
125
1.065
0.0467
39.0
2617
4212
1999
3736
0.446
28.8
19.8
27.9
23.4
3344
109.3
150
162
10.5
127
1.083
0.0480
39.2
2580
4295
2000
3539
0.388
28.2
19.4
27.2
22.9
3365
110.1
152
165
10.5
128
1.083
0.0484
38.6
2539
4254
2001
2954
0.351
28.0
19.1
26.9
22.7
3419
110.7
154
164
10.6
127
1.067
0.0476
38.9
2528
4315
2002
2624
0.316
27.6
18.8
26.2
22.3
3408
109.7
158
173
10.2
131
1.103
0.0502
37.9
2459
4170
2003
2206
0.277
28.6
19.4
26.9
23.0
3353
108.3
153
165
10.4
129
1.089
0.0488
38.5
2504
4180
2004
2229
0.296
28.6
19.1
27.0
22.9
3410
111.5
156
174
10.1
131
1.121
0.0506
39.0
2566
4364
2005
2062
0.257
28.5
19.0
26.7
22.7
3476
113.1
157
179
9.9
132
1.142
0.0510
39.4
2579
4485
2006
1736
0.217
28.2
18.8
26.4
22.5
3549
115.9
161
187
9.8
134
1.167
0.0521
39.9
2607
4638
2007
2030
0.251
29.7
19.7
27.8
23.6
3444
112.2
154
179
9.9
132
1.171
0.0514
40.8
2679
4586
2008
2115
0.288
29.8
19.8
27.9
23.7
3473
112.0
159
185
9.8
134
1.164
0.0524
41.3
2695
4637
2009
1673
0.204
29.3
19.4
27.5
23.3
3529
112.8
172
198
9.5
138
1.156
0.055
41.4
2680
4667
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-10
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-7 (cont.)
Percent of Port 4 Valve Fixed Timing Cars:
MulH 1
*1 1 \|{
i>ki\ I I k \|\
1 K \\«.\||«.x|ii\
1 K<>\ 1
4\\l>
M Wl M
1 ¦ K K
1986
56.6
0.0
72.2
23.1
1987
83.4
0.0
43.9
54.1
1988
91.5
1.2
35.2
63.5
1989
85.4
4.5
30.5
66.9
1990
89.1
2.8
32.1
67.2
1991
83.0
5.1
35.8
62.6
1992
78.6
2.8
30.5
68.8
1993
89.8
3.5
25.7
73.3
1994
92.0
0.2
23.1
75.2
1995
84.4
2.6
20.5
77.7
1996
93.6
2.8
15.8
82.8
1997
93.6
3.2
13.9
86.1
1998
93.4
4.2
11.7
87.6
1999
94.8
3.5
9.2
89.6
2000
92.0
3.2
7.4
89.9
2001
93.9
3.7
8.4
89.9
2002
90.6
5.7
10.4
88.9
2003
88.0
5.2
13.7
85.5
2004
89.9
7.1
10.4
87.8
2005
79.2
11.0
9.2
87.7
2006
76.1
9.6
9.1
87.3
2007
82.7
9.7
7.5
89.5
2008
75.2
12.1
6.8
91.5
2009
73.7
9.8
5.2
94.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-ll
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-8
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 5 Valve Fixed Timing Cars
MODI 1
^ 1 Mi
Mih
(000)
1 K\(

\\(.ll1
1 IS
\ OL
(III

0-60
1IMI
l()l>
s|»l>
III'
( II)
111*
VM
TOV
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III-
io\ Mi'c;
1 Mi
55/45
MM
(in
MM
ll\^
MM
( (IMP
(n>
III*
1997
8
0.001
28.0
19.3
28.2
23.1
3341
101.6
109
150
10.8
124
1.376
0.0451
38.6
2347
3916
1998
33
0.004
29.0
19.8
28.9
23.8
3463
109.8
109
150
11.1
122
1.376
0.0434
41.3
2620
4539
1999
73
0.009
28.6
19.4
28.6
23.4
3471
112.5
109
150
11.1
122
1.376
0.0433
40.7
2644
4590
2000
111
0.012
28.1
19.4
26.8
22.8
3374
104.4
116
166
10.2
129
1.416
0.0490
38.5
2397
4035
2001
182
0.022
27.6
19.0
26.3
22.4
3409
101.1
117
175
9.8
132
1.490
0.0512
38.2
2278
3859
2002
201
0.024
27.5
18.6
26.5
22.3
3582
102.7
122
186
9.7
134
1.552
0.0519
40.0
2323
4120
2003
212
0.027
28.2
19.0
26.8
22.7
3581
107.0
120
182
9.8
132
1.539
0.0510
40.6
2435
4349
2004
160
0.021
27.8
18.5
26.4
22.3
3660
106.5
121
184
10.0
132
1.534
0.0502
40.8
2383
4351
2005
64
0.008
28.3
18.8
26.8
22.6
3636
103.6
112
175
10.2
129
1.561
0.0483
41.2
2346
4263
2006
6
0.001
29.7
19.9
27.4
23.6
3840
87.9
109
174
10.8
127
1.596
0.0460
45.4
2083
4001
2007
2
0.000
20.3
13.4
20.2
16.6
4151
101.9
254
344
6.7
178
1.354
0.0831
34.5
1695
3510
Percent of Port 5 Valve Fixed Timing Cars:
MODI 1
1997
DKI\ 1 1 l\\|\
1 l\ \\»\N>.x|oN
IKON 1
4WD
MVNI M

31.8
68.2
34.9
65.1
1998
76.8
23.2
49.1
50.9
1999
80.3
19.7
33.6
66.4
2000
72.5
27.5
48.7
51.3
2001
64.2
35.8
56.5
43.5
2002
68.7
31.3
31.0
65.3
2003
74.4
25.6
30.0
62.7
2004
64.5
35.5
24.8
67.1
2005
71.1
28.9
23.5
64.4
2006
95.5
4.3
11.1
10.2
2007
0.0
100.0
49.4
50.6
EPA-420-R-09-014	K-12
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-9
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 2 Valve Variable Timing Cars
MODI 1
^ 1 Mi
Mih
(000)
1 K\(

\\(.ll1
1 IS
\ OL
(III

0-60
1IMI
ior
s|»l>
III'
( II)
111*
VM
T()\-
Ml'(,
(III
MP(.
(III-
l(>\ MI'G
1 Mi
55/45
MM
(in
MM
ll\^
MM
( OMI>
(n>
III*
1992
5
0.001
18.2
13.3
18.0
15.3
4500
50.0
303
322
7.4
165
1.063
0.0716
34.4
765
1721
1993
0
0.000
17.9
12.9
18.1
15.1
4000
82.3
329
345
6.4
181
1.049
0.0862
30.2
1242
2484
1994
0
0.000
16.6
11.0
19.8
14.2
4500
90.8
340
377
6.6
182
1.109
0.0838
32.0
1290
2902
1995
8
0.001
22.2
15.5
23.0
18.6
3581
57.7
229
275
7.1
165
1.209
0.0768
33.2
1061
1930
1996
8
0.001
21.0
14.6
21.5
17.5
3646
68.2
236
296
6.8
172
1.276
0.0816
32.2
1193
2225
1997
7
0.001
21.3
14.7
21.8
17.7
3597
65.1
230
292
6.8
171
1.282
0.0816
32.0
1152
2105
1998
3
0.000
21.4
14.8
21.6
17.7
3806
78.3
253
286
7.2
165
1.152
0.0754
33.6
1362
2676
1999
3
0.000
22.0
15.0
22.7
18.3
4153
118.0
266
304
7.3
165
1.149
0.0735
37.9
2168
4476
2001
38
0.005
25.6
17.4
24.9
20.8
3455
101.8
173
177
9.7
132
1.023
0.0512
36.0
2124
3659
2005
71
0.009
36.3
24.7
31.2
28.1
3000
116.6
110
131
11.1
120
1.188
0.0435
42.1
3274
4911
2006
158
0.020
28.3
18.9
26.6
22.6
3605
116.2
202
212
9.3
142
1.062
0.058
40.9
2692
4780
2007
513
0.063
28.5
18.6
27.6
22.9
3836
117.1
212
205
9.5
137
0.973
0.0535
43.9
2691
5150
2008
406
0.055
27.8
18.0
27.8
22.5
3980
117.9
216
215
9.4
139
0.991
0.054
44.9
2666
5307
2009
505
0.062
27.4
17.7
27.3
22.1
4038
118.3
235
234
9.0
144
0.996
0.0577
44.9
2637
5317
Percent of Port 2 Valve Variable Timing Cars:
Ml >l>l 1
*1 1
l>KI\ 1 1 K \|\
1 l\ WsMl^xM >\'
1 1
|\M>
M Wl M
1 (X k
1992
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1993
0.0
0.0
51.5
48.5
1994
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
1995
0.0
0.0
79.7
7.2
1996
0.0
34.9
14.3
14.6
1997
0.0
29.3
78.1
9.7
1998
0.0
11.7
59.3
30.6
1999
0.0
84.7
0.0
100.0
2001
98.1
0.0
46.2
53.8
2005
100.0
0.0
8.5
91.5
2006
93.4
3.2
7.3
92.7
2007
100.0
0.0
0.9
99.4
2008
98.5
0.0
0.0
100.0
2009
89.8
0.2
3.1
96.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-13
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-10
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 3 Valve Variable Timing Cars














MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\(.ll1
\ OL


0-60
l()l>
III'
111*
T()\-
(III
(III-
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(III
(n>
111*
1IMI
s|»l>
( II)
VM
Ml'(.
Ml'(.
io\ Mi'c;
2005
54
0.007
22.8
15.2
22.0
18.5
3969
96.4
283
310
7.0
170
1.090
0.0781
36.7
1788
3542
2006
86
0.011
22.4
15.0
21.5
18.1
4269
108.6
270
299
7.7
163
1.113
0.0713
38.6
1962
4287
2007
60
0.007
23.1
15.3
22.4
18.7
3760
97.9
280
303
6.8
172
1.082
0.0809
35.1
1831
3438
2008
41
0.006
22.8
15.1
22.1
18.5
4000
98.0
280
304
7.1
168
1.086
0.0760
36.9
1810
3620
2009
40
0.005
22.4
14.9
21.8
18.2
4026
98.2
283
310
7.1
169
1.094
0.0768
36.7
1790
3599
Percent of Port 3 Valve Variable Timing Cars:
MiilH 1
1 \K
1 >1x1 \ 1 1 l\ \|\
1 K \\-\||NX|||\
1 Kl>N 1
4\\l>
M \\l \l
1 < >1 'K
2005
0.0
0.0
54.8
45.2
2006
0.0
17.2
35.1
64.9
2007
0.0
0.0
59.5
40.5
2008
0.0
0.0
68.1
31.9
2009
0.0
0.0
67.6
32.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-14
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-ll
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 4 Valve Variable Timing Cars
MODI 1
N 1 Mi
>*M 1 ^
((H)(1)
1 IU(

\\(.ll 1
1 li
VOL
(III

0-60
1 1 Ml
IOI>
"»l'l>
III'
( II)
111*
VM
TO\-
Ml'(,
(III
Ml'(.
(III-
IO\ MI'G
i us
55/45
MM
(in
MM
ll\^
MM
( OMI*
(n>
111*
1990
54
0.006
23.0
17.1
22.6
19.3
4000
111.9
249
252
8.3
151
1.013
0.0630
38.7
2165
4330
1991
208
0.024
30.2
22.2
29.4
25.2
3141
99.7
145
157
10.5
127
1.104
0.0482
40.0
2614
3979
1992
366
0.045
28.5
20.8
27.7
23.7
3256
99.7
150
167
10.2
129
1.133
0.0498
39.1
2471
3888
1993
402
0.047
29.2
21.2
28.1
24.2
3213
96.8
140
161
10.3
128
1.168
0.0487
39.0
2401
3772
1994
675
0.080
30.2
21.8
29.0
24.9
3216
98.8
132
150
10.8
124
1.154
0.0459
40.2
2509
3980
1995
914
0.097
29.7
21.2
28.5
24.4
3275
102.3
142
159
10.4
127
1.135
0.0479
40.1
2535
4105
1996
912
0.116
29.8
21.2
28.7
24.5
3222
103.3
141
155
10.5
126
1.113
0.0474
39.6
2562
4089
1997
933
0.112
29.2
20.6
28.1
23.9
3294
101.2
149
167
10.2
130
1.137
0.0498
39.6
2469
4012
1998
1423
0.179
29.5
20.6
28.3
24.1
3283
103.7
146
163
10.3
129
1.122
0.0491
39.6
2529
4119
1999
1360
0.162
28.8
20.0
27.6
23.4
3318
104.5
150
171
10.0
131
1.135
0.0508
39.0
2480
4090
2000
2070
0.227
29.3
20.2
27.9
23.7
3253
105.6
147
172
9.8
132
1.171
0.0523
38.7
2542
4100
2001
2265
0.269
30.6
21.0
28.6
24.6
3203
104.9
142
166
10.0
131
1.167
0.0511
39.8
2651
4180
2002
2748
0.331
30.3
20.6
28.3
24.3
3308
108.1
148
172
10.0
132
1.162
0.0514
40.3
2669
4374
2003
3186
0.401
30.6
20.6
28.7
24.5
3296
107.8
148
176
9.8
133
1.180
0.0527
40.5
2686
4384
2004
3223
0.428
30.2
20.2
28.3
24.1
3371
108.2
151
181
9.8
134
1.191
0.0529
40.8
2658
4429
2005
3815
0.475
30.8
20.5
28.6
24.4
3344
109.0
149
177
9.9
133
1.184
0.0520
41.0
2713
4485
2006
4459
0.558
30.5
20.2
28.4
24.2
3433
108.5
154
188
9.6
135
1.211
0.0538
41.7
2671
4539
2007
4477
0.554
31.1
20.6
28.9
24.6
3462
108.4
156
191
9.6
136
1.217
0.0540
42.8
2725
4660
2008
3839
0.523
31.5
20.9
29.2
24.9
3452
108.0
153
190
9.6
136
1.230
0.0540
43.2
2742
4683
2009
5094
0.621
31.9
21.2
29.5
25.3
3437
109.7
154
190
9.7
136
1.225
0.0540
43.5
2817
4793
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-15
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-ll (cont.)
Percent of Port 4 Valve Variable Timing Cars:
MulH 1
*1 1 \|{
i>ki\ I I k \|\
1 K \\«.\||«.x|ii\
1 K<>\ 1
4\\l>
M Wl M
1 ¦ K K
1990
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
1991
64.9
0.0
29.0
71.0
1992
60.4
0.0
31.0
64.8
1993
67.3
0.0
30.0
65.9
1994
80.6
0.0
28.4
69.1
1995
83.2
0.0
23.0
74.4
1996
87.0
0.0
23.7
76.1
1997
74.8
0.0
21.3
77.9
1998
83.6
0.1
17.4
82.2
1999
83.1
0.2
17.1
82.3
2000
82.6
0.8
16.1
83.6
2001
79.9
2.1
14.0
85.0
2002
84.7
2.9
12.6
87.2
2003
83.2
2.7
11.9
88.1
2004
80.5
4.5
11.6
88.3
2005
84.2
4.1
10.9
89.1
2006
78.6
5.4
10.7
89.0
2007
81.0
5.7
8.1
79.2
2008
81.7
5.7
8.9
76.8
2009
84.9
5.6
9.8
75.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-16
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-12
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 5 Valve Variable Timing Cars
MODI 1
^ 1 Mi
Mih
(000)
1 U\<

\\(.ll1
1 IS
\ OL
(III

0-60
1IMI
ior
s|»l>
III'
( II)
111*
VM
T()\-
Ml'»,
(III
Ml'(.
(III-
io\ Mi'c;
1 Mi
55/45
MM
(in
MM
ll\^
MM
( (IMP
(n>
111*
1995
0
0.000
13.7
9.5
14.5
11.5
4000
50.0
213
375
6.1
191
1.761
0.0937
23.1
577
1153
1996
0
0.000
13.8
9.5
14.7
11.6
3500
50.0
213
375
5.5
203
1.761
0.1071
20.4
582
1018
1997
1
0.000
13.8
9.5
14.7
11.6
3500
50.0
213
375
5.5
203
1.761
0.1071
20.3
581
1017
1998
38
0.005
24.2
16.3
25.2
20.1
3701
108.1
169
196
9.5
136
1.156
0.0533
37.3
2186
4051
1999
67
0.008
24.1
16.1
25.4
20.0
3689
111.4
170
197
9.5
136
1.156
0.0535
37.1
2251
4158
2000
56
0.006
23.8
16.3
23.7
19.6
3736
119.3
178
211
9.1
140
1.180
0.0565
36.6
2351
4377
2001
75
0.009
23.7
16.0
23.4
19.4
3767
115.1
177
211
9.2
140
1.188
0.0561
36.6
2243
4230
2002
38
0.005
25.0
16.9
24.4
20.4
3787
115.1
177
213
9.2
141
1.197
0.0564
38.8
2371
4494
2003
39
0.005
24.8
16.6
24.1
20.1
3975
115.5
178
219
9.5
140
1.218
0.0550
40.3
2357
4688
2004
36
0.005
22.9
15.3
22.2
18.6
4159
110.6
213
275
8.3
156
1.275
0.0662
39.2
2113
4415
2005
30
0.004
23.6
15.7
22.7
19.0
4124
109.9
209
273
8.2
155
1.310
0.0657
39.5
2132
4366
2006
14
0.002
23.1
15.4
22.1
18.7
4310
104.9
237
309
7.6
164
1.300
0.0715
40.3
1956
4247
2008
0
0.000
19.3
13.1
18.3
15.6
3500
50.0
255
344
5.8
192
1.349
0.0983
27.3
781
1366
2009
0
0.000
19.3
13.1
18.3
15.6
3500
50.0
255
344
5.8
192
1.349
0.0983
27.3
781
1366
Percent of Port 5 Valve Variable Timing Cars:
Ml >l>l 1
*1 1 VK
l>KI\ 1 1 l\V|\
1 l\ \\-nMI>.x|ii\
1 1
4\\l>
M VNl VI
1 < >< 'Iv
1995
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
1996
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
1997
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
1998
20.0
78.7
24.7
74.7
1999
42.9
55.6
16.5
82.3
2000
48.0
50.9
19.9
80.1
2001
42.0
57.0
14.3
85.7
2002
54.7
43.5
7.6
92.4
2003
59.6
38.1
0.8
90.8
2004
28.6
65.6
14.8
85.2
2005
21.2
78.2
13.4
83.0
2006
0.0
100.0
8.4
91.6
2008
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
2009
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-17
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-13
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 GDI 4 Valve Fixed Timing Cars














MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\(.ll1
\ OL


0-60
ior
III'
111*
T()\-
(III
(III-
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(III
(n>
111*
1IMI
s|»l>
( II)
VM
Ml'(.
Ml'(.
io\ Mi'c;
2007
4
0.000
30.6
20.2
28.8
24.3
3000
77.2
98
168
9.0
135
1.714
0.0560
36.5
1879
2819
2008
109
0.015
30.5
20.2
28.5
24.2
3751
104.3
121
200
9.4
137
1.653
0.0536
45.4
2523
4728
2009
120
0.015
29.6
19.9
27.0
23.4
3730
103.3
121
204
9.2
138
1.683
0.0548
44.3
2440
4558
Percent of GDI 4 Valve Fixed Timing Cars:
MODI 1
1 M<
DKI\ 1 1 l\\|\
1 l\ W^MI^ION
1 KO\ 1
4\\l>
\l \M M
1 < K "K
2007
100.0
0.0
47.9
52.1
2008
75.5
24.5
13.6
74.5
2009
67.3
32.7
13.8
80.8
Table K-14
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 GDI 5 Valve Fixed Timing Cars














MODI 1
Ml 1

1 Mi
M).l
MM
M).l
\\(.II1
\OL


0-60
ior
III'
III*
TOV
(III
<111-
>l 1 M<
(000)
1 U\(
55/45
on
ll^^^
( OMI»
1 li
(III
( ID
lll>
11 Ml
M'D
( II)
AYT
Ml'(.
Mil.
1 ON MI'G
2008
1.0
0.0
20.4
13.5
20.3
16.7
4181
102.9
254
344
6.7
178
1.354
0.0825
34.9
1716
3581
2009
0.0
0.0
20.4
13.4
20.3
16.7
4500
89.0
254
344
7.1
172
1.354
0.0764
37.5
1483
3338
Percent of GDI 5 Valve Fixed Timing Cars:
MODI 1
DKI\ 1 1 l\ MN
1 l\ \\«.\||NX|||\
1 KoN 1
4VVI)
M VM M

2008
0.0
100.0
45.7
54.3
2009
0.0
100.0
30.5
69.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-18
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-15
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 GDI 4 Valve Variable Timing Cars














MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\(.ll1
\OL


0-60
ior
III'
III*
TOV
(III
(III-
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(III
( id
III'
1IMI
si»i»
( II)
\VT
MP(.
Ml'(.
io\ Mi'c;
2007
21
0.003
34.4
23.1
30.7
26.9
3108
75.0
103
193
8.4
143
1.860
0.0618
42.0
2068
3164
2008
123
0.017
26.4
17.5
25.3
21.2
3872
105.9
201
275
7.7
159
1.420
0.0704
41.3
2268
4374
2009
199
0.024
28.0
18.6
26.5
22.4
3887
101.2
184
275
7.8
160
1.548
0.0705
43.7
2288
4433
Percent of GDI 4 Valve Variable Timing Cars:
MODI 1
M U<
2007
DKI\ 1 1 K \|\
1 l{\N^M|sslo\
IliUM
78.4
4\\ I)
M \M \l
59.3
1 i ii 'K
40.7
0.0
2008
25.5
23.8
18.9
79.0
2009
23.5
32.0
15.4
81.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-19
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-16
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Diesel 2 Valve Fixed Timing Cars
MODI 1
^ 1 Mi
Mih
(000)
1 IU(

\\(.ll1
1 IS
VOI,
(III

0 (>ll
11 Ml
IOI>
s|*l>
III*
( II)
III*
\\T
TOV
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'(.
(III-
io\ Mi'c;
1 Mi
55/45
MM
(in
MM
ll\^
MM
( OMI*
( id
III*
1986
35
0.003
40.5
32.0
37.5
34.3
2906
106.2
123
74
17.8
97
0.584
0.0246
50.2
3759
5329
1987
27
0.003
30.5
24.3
27.5
25.7
3584
110.8
172
129
13.4
113
0.737
0.0355
46.5
2909
5135
1988
1
0.000
37.4
29.5
33.6
31.3
3000
95.9
152
93
14.6
105
0.612
0.0310
47.0
3003
4505
1989
4
0.000
45.5
35.0
41.6
37.9
2813
103.0
102
55
20.6
91
0.541
0.0195
53.3
3928
5491
1990
4
0.000
36.7
28.1
33.4
30.5
3280
107.5
141
93
16.9
102
0.643
0.0273
50.6
3398
5424
1991
11
0.001
35.3
26.9
32.0
29.2
3346
107.4
148
96
16.6
102
0.635
0.0276
49.4
3267
5293
1992
5
0.001
32.3
24.5
29.4
26.6
3691
110.2
154
115
14.9
107
0.737
0.0308
49.1
3011
5415
1994
1
0.000
27.8
20.0
26.9
23.0
5000
123.7
210
148
15.2
109
0.705
0.0296
57.5
2843
7108
1995
0
0.000
27.8
19.9
26.8
22.9
5000
123.7
210
148
15.2
109
0.705
0.0296
57.3
2833
7083
1996
5
0.001
47.2
33.8
42.7
37.8
3500
119.6
116
90
16.5
100
0.776
0.0257
66.2
4525
7919
1997
3
0.000
49.6
35.0
44.7
39.4
3323
110.1
116
90
15.8
101
0.776
0.0272
65.5
4340
7227
1998
12
0.001
51.1
35.8
45.5
40.3
3000
100.7
116
90
14.6
104
0.776
0.0300
60.5
4062
6093
1999
9
0.001
52.1
36.5
45.2
40.7
3000
99.9
116
90
14.7
104
0.776
0.0300
61.1
4067
6101
2000
21
0.002
49.8
34.3
43.8
38.9
3000
100.0
116
90
14.8
104
0.776
0.0300
58.6
3902
5854
2001
22
0.003
49.1
33.5
43.1
38.2
3103
100.1
116
90
15.2
103
0.776
0.0291
59.4
3839
5942
2002
33
0.004
47.8
32.3
42.2
37.1
3226
101.7
116
90
15.7
102
0.776
0.0281
59.9
3793
6106
2003
29
0.004
49.9
33.5
43.1
38.3
3207
105.7
116
90
15.6
102
0.776
0.0282
61.5
4063
6529
2004
22
0.003
44.3
29.1
39.8
34.3
3319
106.7
117
105
14.3
107
0.897
0.0317
57.1
3680
6102
2005
23
0.003
43.4
28.5
38.5
33.5
3470
111.0
117
105
14.8
106
0.899
0.0303
58.0
3712
6446
2006
45
0.006
44.5
29.9
37.6
33.9
3474
105.1
116
100
15.4
104
0.862
0.0288
58.8
3560
6185
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-20
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-16 (cont.)
Percent of Diesel 2 Valve Fixed Timing Cars:
MulH 1
*1 1 \|{
i>ki\ I I k \|\
1 l\ w«.\||«.x|ll\
1 K<>\ 1
4\\l>
M Wl M
1 ¦ K K
1986
72.5
0.0
70.5
10.9
1987
13.4
0.0
13.8
0.0
1988
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1989
91.6
0.0
91.6
0.0
1990
44.8
0.0
44.8
0.0
1991
44.4
0.0
44.4
0.0
1992
20.1
0.0
20.1
0.0
1994
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1995
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1996
100.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
1997
100.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
1998
100.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
1999
100.0
0.0
96.4
3.6
2000
100.0
0.0
68.6
31.4
2001
100.0
0.0
60.1
39.9
2002
100.0
0.0
43.1
56.9
2003
100.0
0.0
68.5
31.5
2004
100.0
0.0
50.0
50.0
2005
100.0
0.0
38.9
61.1
2006
100.0
0.0
36.7
63.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-21
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-17
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Diesel 4 Valve Fixed Timing Cars
MODI 1
^ 1 Mi
Mih
(000)
1 K\(

\\(.ll1
1 IS
\ OL
(III

o <>n
1IMI
IMI'
s|'l)
III'
( II)
III'
\VT
TOV
Ml'(.
(III
Ml'( i
(III-
IO\ MI'G
1 Mi
55/45
MM
(in
MM
ll\^
MM
( (IMP
( id
III'
1995
5
0.001
34.5
25.1
31.9
28.2
4000
106.4
183
134
13.7
112
0.732
0.0335
56.3
2996
5992
1996
3
0.000
35.8
25.6
33.5
29.1
4000
110.3
183
134
13.7
112
0.732
0.0335
58.2
3212
6424
1997
3
0.000
33.9
24.1
31.5
27.5
4000
110.1
182
134
13.7
112
0.736
0.0335
54.9
3022
6044
1998
3
0.000
34.9
24.1
33.6
28.3
4000
110.1
182
174
11.1
125
0.956
0.0435
56.6
3117
6235
1999
5
0.001
34.8
23.9
33.2
28.1
4000
110.1
182
174
11.1
125
0.956
0.0435
56.3
3098
6196
2005
6
0.001
35.5
23.1
33.4
28.0
4000
111.6
197
201
9.9
134
1.020
0.0502
56.0
3127
6254
2006
5
0.001
35.5
23.1
33.4
28.0
4000
111.6
197
201
9.9
134
1.020
0.0502
56.0
3127
6254
2007
4
0.000
31.8
20.9
30.0
25.3
4572
130.7
182
212
9.4
132
1.164
0.0474
57.6
3281
7584
2008
4
0.001
32.5
21.6
29.8
25.6
4358
123.6
182
211
7.4
134
1.160
0.0493
55.6
3146
6911
2009
64
0.008
43.4
28.4
38.7
33.5
3581
107.7
127
148
8.2
120
1.165
0.0413
60.1
3625
6473
Percent of Diesel 4 Valve Fixed Timing Cars:
MODI 1
*1 1 M{
DKI \ 1 1 K\|\
1 l< \\nM|n«.|0\
1 l«i\ 1
IN 1)
M \M M
1 < >1 K
1995
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1996
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1997
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
1998
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
1999
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2005
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2006
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2007
0.0
38.2
0.0
100.0
2008
0.0
23.9
0.0
100.0
2009
88.1
1.4
31.6
68.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-22
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-18
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Diesel 2 Valve Variable Timing Cars














MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\(.ll1
\OI


0 (>0
ior
III'

BBHBB
BHBHi
I 1 1 1-
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 u\<
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(III
(n>
111*
1IMI
s|»l>
< ll>

Ml'».
Ml'(.
h>n \irc;
2005
6
0.001
36.1
23.4
34.2
28.6
3500
110.6
121
134
12.3
116
1.107
0.0383
50.0
3159
5529
Percent of Diesel 2 Valve Variable Timing Cars:
I K \\-\I|nx|i
2005
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-23
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-19
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Hybrid Cars














MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\(.ll 1
\OL


o <>n
IMI'
III'
III'
TOV
(III
(III-
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 U
(III
( id
III'
1IMI
s|'l)
( II)
\VT
Ml'(.
Ml'(.
IO\ MI'G
2000
6
0.001
76.4
51.8
63.0
57.3
2000
50.0
61
67
11.0
103
1.098
0.0335
57.3
2867
2867
2001
3
0.000
71.2
49.3
56.3
52.9
2111
50.0
61
66
11.1
102
1.084
0.0315
55.9
2658
2794
2002
25
0.003
58.4
43.7
42.0
42.8
2933
96.3
89
70
17.8
96
0.786
0.0239
62.6
4097
6059
2003
47
0.006
56.9
40.8
42.8
41.9
2982
100.1
84
80
11.7
100
0.957
0.0269
62.5
4189
6261
2004
71
0.009
62.4
45.0
44.7
44.8
2994
108.4
88
79
10.9
99
0.901
0.0263
67.3
4883
7317
2005
168
0.021
59.1
41.8
43.0
42.5
3054
110.6
100
95
9.8
105
0.918
0.0305
65.9
4800
7291
2006
123
0.015
62.0
44.0
44.5
44.3
3029
109.2
92
91
10.2
103
0.984
0.0296
67.4
4887
7376
2007
275
0.034
56.7
40.8
40.8
40.8
3297
110.9
108
105
10.0
106
0.963
0.0311
67.6
4636
7502
2008
249
0.034
59.4
42.7
42.2
42.5
3180
110.8
101
96
9.9
104
0.940
0.0296
67.8
4803
7524
2009
223
0.027
54.7
39.2
40.0
39.6
3371
110.5
111
112
9.9
108
0.994
0.0323
67.2
4507
7429
Percent of Hybrid Cars:
MODI 1
*1 1 M{
DKI \ 1 1 K\|\
1 l\ \\nM|n«.|ON
1 l«i\ 1
IN 1)
M \M M
1 < >1 K
2000
100.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
2001
100.0
0.0
55.8
0.0
2002
100.0
0.0
2.6
0.0
2003
100.0
0.0
13.8
0.0
2004
100.0
0.0
6.6
0.0
2005
100.0
0.0
3.0
11.5
2006
100.0
0.0
0.4
3.4
2007
98.8
0.0
0.0
2.9
2008
98.8
0.8
0.0
2.0
2009
98.3
1.1
0.0
6.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-24
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-20
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 2 Valve Fixed Timing Vans
MODI 1
M
Mllv
(000)
1 U \(

WC.II 1
1 U

0-60
11 Ml
IOI'
s|»D
111*
( II)
III*
\V1
TON
MI'ti
55/45
mmmm
(in
ll\^
mi
( OMI'
< n>
111*
1999
1281
0.875
22.0
15.4
21.2
18.0
4331
229
183
11.4
125
0.806
0.0422
39.2
2000
1325
0.784
22.4
15.6
21.5
18.3
4306
226
182
11.5
125
0.812
0.0423
39.6
2001
954
0.774
21.6
15.0
20.7
17.6
4602
241
204
11.0
128
0.855
0.0443
40.8
2002
890
0.716
22.8
15.7
21.6
18.5
4407
226
194
11.0
127
0.865
0.0441
41.1
2003
914
0.742
23.4
16.0
22.2
19.0
4381
226
196
10.9
128
0.874
0.0448
41.7
2004
454
0.477
23.0
15.5
21.9
18.6
4445
233
198
10.9
128
0.857
0.0446
41.4
2005
919
0.620
23.6
15.9
22.3
19.0
4388
224
199
10.8
129
0.890
0.0453
41.7
2006
617
0.529
23.5
15.7
22.3
18.9
4504
226
198
11.1
128
0.880
0.0440
42.6
2007
327
0.386
23.3
15.5
22.3
18.8
4498
226
197
11.1
128
0.875
0.0439
42.2
2008
295
0.382
23.8
15.9
22.6
19.2
4573
225
176
12.3
120
0.783
0.0384
43.9
2009
300
0.414
23.6
15.8
22.6
19.1
4593
228
178
12.3
121
0.778
0.0385
43.8
Percent of Port 2 Valve Fixed Timing Vans:
MODI 1
1999
DKI\ 1 1 K \|N
1l\ W^MI'-slON

IVM,
M VN1 M

72.6
3.1
0.0
100.0
2000
75.2
3.5
0.0
100.0
2001
60.3
11.2
0.0
100.0
2002
78.1
4.2
0.0
100.0
2003
77.8
6.8
0.0
100.0
2004
77.7
4.6
0.0
100.0
2005
89.1
2.2
0.0
100.0
2006
87.3
2.0
0.0
100.0
2007
90.3
1.2
0.0
100.0
2008
90.4
1.4
0.0
100.0
2009
90.4
1.3
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-25
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-21
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 4 Valve Fixed Timing Vans











Ml >1)1 1
Mih




MM
\\«.ll 1


0 <)ll
IMI'
III'
III*
TON
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 U\<
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
( id
III*
1IMI
s|»l>
( II)
\V1
MI'ti
1999
62
0.043
25.6
18.0
24.1
20.8
3998
148
150
12.5
117
1.015
0.0375
41.6
2000
112
0.066
24.6
17.3
22.9
19.9
4000
150
159
12.0
120
1.061
0.0397
40.0
2001
69
0.056
23.9
16.9
21.8
19.3
4045
151
158
12.1
119
1.043
0.0391
39.0
2002
93
0.075
22.0
15.3
20.6
17.8
4570
184
176
12.3
120
0.966
0.0384
40.8
2003
77
0.062
21.5
14.9
20.0
17.4
4706
193
182
12.3
121
0.952
0.0386
41.1
2004
59
0.062
21.6
14.4
21.1
17.6
4897
206
190
12.2
122
0.926
0.0388
43.0
2005
191
0.129
23.5
15.8
22.2
18.9
4494
191
194
11.2
127
1.022
0.0435
42.4
2006
125
0.107
24.9
16.7
23.3
19.9
4288
198
212
10.2
134
1.076
0.0494
42.7
2007
107
0.126
24.6
16.5
23.1
19.7
4344
207
222
9.9
137
1.074
0.0510
42.8
2008
115
0.148
24.4
16.3
23.4
19.7
4642
227
254
9.3
143
1.123
0.0549
45.9
2009
143
0.198
24.9
16.5
23.9
20.1
4753
234
253
9.5
142
1.081
0.0533
47.9
Percent of Port 4 Valve Fixed Timing Vans:
MODI 1
1999
IIKIN 1 1 K M\
1 l\ \NxM|«.x|li\

4\\1>
M VN1 M

100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2000
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2001
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2002
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2003
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2004
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2005
81.1
18.9
0.0
60.5
2006
84.1
15.9
0.0
55.9
2007
88.1
11.9
0.0
64.5
2008
87.1
12.9
0.0
100.0
2009
96.6
3.4
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-26
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-22
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 2 Valve Variable Timing Vans
MODI 1
M
Mllv
(000)
1 U \(

WC.II 1
1 U

0 (>0
11 Ml
IOI'
s|»l)
111*
( II)
III*
\V1
TON
MI'ti
55/45
mmmm
(in
ll\^
mi
( OMI'
( id
III'
2006
4
0.004
24.1
16.0
23.4
19.5
4500
237
240
9.4
140
1.013
0.0533
43.9
2007
71
0.083
24.1
16.0
23.4
19.5
4500
237
240
9.4
140
1.013
0.0533
43.9
2008
77
0.1
24.0
15.9
23.2
19.4
4500
237
240
9.4
140
1.013
0.0533
43.7
Percent of Port 2 Valve Variable Timing Vans:
MODI 1
M \l<
2006
DKI\ 1 1 K \|N
1 li\Nx\ll>«xl«)\
IUHM
100.0
4\\ 1)
M \M \l
0.0
1 III 'K
100.0
0.0
2007
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2008
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-27
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-23
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 4 Valve Variable Timing Vans











Ml >1)1 1
Mih




MM
\\«.ll 1


0-60
l()l>
III'
111*
ION
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 U\<
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(ll>
111*
1 IMI
s|»l>
( II)
VM
Ml'»,
1999
120
0.082
24.1
16.7
23.4
19.7
4210
195
196
10.5
130
1.008
0.0467
41.6
2000
253
0.150
24.0
16.5
23.3
19.6
4241
197
197
10.5
130
1.004
0.0466
41.6
2001
209
0.170
24.3
16.7
23.2
19.8
4295
200
207
10.2
133
1.041
0.0484
42.4
2002
259
0.209
24.3
16.7
23.2
19.7
4287
200
226
9.5
139
1.133
0.0527
42.3
2003
241
0.196
24.3
16.5
23.2
19.6
4342
203
229
9.5
139
1.129
0.0527
42.6
2004
439
0.461
24.9
16.7
23.8
20.1
4474
206
233
9.6
139
1.132
0.0520
44.9
2005
371
0.250
25.2
16.8
24.2
20.3
4500
207
242
9.4
141
1.165
0.0538
45.8
2006
420
0.361
25.3
16.8
24.3
20.4
4488
207
229
9.8
137
1.108
0.0511
45.9
2007
342
0.404
25.1
16.7
23.9
20.2
4500
212
250
9.2
143
1.179
0.0555
45.4
2008
286
0.370
25.5
17.0
24.3
20.5
4500
212
253
9.1
144
1.194
0.0561
46.2
2009
281
0.388
25.6
17.0
24.5
20.6
4500
212
250
9.5
144
1.183
0.0556
46.4
Percent of Port 4 Valve Variable Timing Vans:
MODI 1
1999
l>KI\ 1 1 l\\|\
1 l\ W««MI>.xHi\

4\\1>
MVN1 M

100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2000
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2001
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2002
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2003
100.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2004
94.1
5.9
0.0
100.0
2005
93.5
6.5
0.0
100.0
2006
95.1
4.9
0.0
100.0
2007
97.7
2.3
0.0
100.0
2008
95.4
4.6
0.0
100.0
2009
97.4
2.6
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-28
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-24
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 2 Valve Fixed Timing SUVs
Ml >1)1 1
^ 1 Mi
Mih
(000)
1 U\<

\\«.ll 1
1 IS

0-60
11 Ml
ior
s|»l>
III'
( II)
111*
VM
TON
MI'ti
55/45
(in
ll\^
MM
( (IMP
(II)
III*
1999
2024
0.715
19.2
13.7
18.2
15.8
4543
272
203
10.9
129
0.752
0.0448
35.7
2000
2360
0.751
19.3
13.7
18.1
15.8
4588
269
206
10.9
129
0.774
0.0451
36.1
2001
2059
0.597
19.8
14.1
18.3
16.1
4573
261
212
10.6
131
0.821
0.0464
36.8
2002
2181
0.521
19.4
13.6
18.1
15.8
4796
269
232
10.3
135
0.866
0.0484
37.8
2003
1883
0.457
19.2
13.4
17.9
15.6
5029
278
237
10.5
134
0.856
0.0472
39.0
2004
2063
0.438
19.5
13.4
18.1
15.7
4921
278
239
10.2
136
0.859
0.0486
38.6
2005
1433
0.351
20.1
13.8
18.7
16.2
4857
271
240
10.1
137
0.888
0.0493
39.3
2006
951
0.253
19.9
13.6
18.5
16.0
4848
268
240
10.2
137
0.893
0.0494
38.8
2007
1279
0.302
20.9
14.3
19.6
16.9
5069
274
253
10.1
138
0.919
0.0497
42.7
2008
863
0.216
21.2
14.4
19.7
17.0
4918
262
243
10.2
137
0.919
0.0490
41.8
2009
992
0.193
21.6
14.6
20.3
17.4
4913
265
248
10.0
138
0.929
0.0500
42.6
Percent of Port 2 Valve Fixed Timing SUVs:
MODI 1
IIKIN 1 1 K M\
1 l\ \NxM|«.x|li\
1 l\( >N 1
4\\1>
MVN1 M

1999
0.0
66.3
4.6
95.4
2000
0.0
69.5
4.0
96.0
2001
10.5
56.9
3.4
96.6
2002
3.3
64.2
2.6
97.3
2003
1.9
62.3
2.6
97.4
2004
3.9
65.6
2.4
97.6
2005
8.5
67.7
2.5
97.5
2006
3.7
70.7
3.8
96.2
2007
8.1
59.9
2.7
97.3
2008
7.5
66.3
3.8
96.2
2009
12.3
54.1
2.7
97.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-29
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-25
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 3 Valve Fixed Timing SUVs
Ml >1)1 1
^ 1 Mi
Mih
(000)
1 U \(

\\«.ll 1
1 IS

0-60
11 Ml
IOI'
s|»l>
111*
( II)
III*
\V1
TON
MI'ti
55/45
mmmm
(in
ll\^
mi
( OMI'
< n>
III'
1999
52
0.018
20.3
14.7
18.6
16.6
5000
215
232
10.7
133
1.080
0.0464
41.4
2000
36
0.011
20.8
15.0
18.8
16.9
5500
195
215
12.1
125
1.103
0.0391
46.4
2001
40
0.012
20.8
14.8
19.0
16.8
5500
214
231
11.6
129
1.085
0.0420
46.3
2002
43
0.010
19.1
13.7
17.0
15.4
5000
227
237
10.5
135
1.059
0.0475
38.5
2003
36
0.009
18.8
13.5
16.6
15.1
5138
239
243
10.5
135
1.024
0.0472
38.7
2004
19
0.004
18.8
13.5
16.4
15.0
5535
245
246
11.0
132
1.007
0.0444
41.5
2005
21
0.005
18.7
13.3
16.4
14.9
5047
247
252
10.1
138
1.018
0.0497
37.7
2006
11
0.003
18.5
12.7
17.3
15.0
5023
303
304
8.5
153
1.001
0.0605
37.6
2007
27
0.006
18.9
12.8
18.2
15.4
5026
282
295
8.8
151
1.044
0.0587
38.7
2008
17
0.004
18.9
12.7
18.4
15.4
5066
282
298
8.8
151
1.054
0.0588
39.0
2009
19
0.004
20.2
13.7
19.2
16.4
5110
291
312
8.5
154
1.067
0.0609
41.8
Percent of Port 3 Valve Fixed Timing SUVs:
MODI 1
IIKIN 1 1 K M\
1 1* \NxM|«.x|li\
1 l\( >N 1
4\\1>
MVNl M

1999
0.0
31.6
0.0
100.0
2000
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2001
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2002
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2003
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2004
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2005
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2006
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2007
0.0
79.2
0.0
100.0
2008
0.0
82.4
0.0
100.0
2009
0.0
80.4
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-30
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-26
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 4 Valve Fixed Timing SUVs











Ml >1)1 1
Mih




MM
\\«.ll 1


0 <)ll
l()l>
III'
111*
TON
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 U\<
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
< n>
111*
1IMI
s|»l>
( II)
VM
Ml'«,
1999
663
0.234
22.9
16.7
20.5
18.5
3969
174
176
11.1
126
1.031
0.0442
36.7
2000
652
0.207
22.8
16.6
20.2
18.4
3988
170
171
11.3
124
1.026
0.0428
36.6
2001
887
0.257
22.6
16.1
20.5
18.2
4019
180
184
10.8
128
1.044
0.0461
36.5
2002
958
0.229
21.9
15.5
19.8
17.6
4121
192
189
10.7
129
0.999
0.0463
36.3
2003
892
0.217
22.5
15.6
20.6
18.1
4113
198
195
10.5
131
1.003
0.0476
37.2
2004
957
0.203
22.1
15.3
20.3
17.7
4275
209
211
10.1
134
1.028
0.0496
37.9
2005
754
0.185
24.0
16.5
21.6
19.1
3967
179
190
10.4
130
1.068
0.0478
37.9
2006
706
0.188
24.9
17.0
22.6
19.8
3887
178
180
10.6
128
1.028
0.0465
38.6
2007
672
0.159
24.2
16.5
22.1
19.3
4232
194
225
9.7
138
1.152
0.0526
40.9
2008
675
0.169
24.5
16.8
22.4
19.6
4182
197
224
9.6
139
1.134
0.0531
40.8
2009
809
0.158
24.4
16.4
22.9
19.6
4290
198
228
9.6
139
1.155
0.0530
42.0
Percent of Port 4 Valve Fixed Timing SUVs:
MODI 1
l>KI\ 1 1 l\\|\
1 l\ \\»Mlx<»HiN
1 l\( >\ 1
4\\1>
MVN1 M

1999
8.0
65.1
12.9
87.1
2000
7.3
63.2
10.0
90.0
2001
16.9
62.2
7.0
93.0
2002
16.0
56.7
8.6
91.1
2003
26.4
55.0
5.6
89.9
2004
21.3
64.0
5.6
92.6
2005
41.6
47.4
6.1
93.6
2006
49.6
42.0
5.1
94.9
2007
45.1
50.3
2.5
97.5
2008
42.0
51.9
1.1
98.9
2009
47.3
46.1
2.7
97.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-31
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-27
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 2 Valve Variable Timing SUVs
Ml >1)1 1
^ 1 Mi
Mlh
(000)
1 U \(

\\«.ll 1
1 IS

0-60
11 Ml
ior
s|»l>
III'
( II)
111*
VM
TON
Ml'«,
55/45
mmmm
(in
ll\^
mi
( OMI'
< n>
111*
2006
55
0.015
25.8
17.2
24.6
20.7
4000
213
255
8.2
152
1.197
0.0637
41.5
2007
146
0.035
18.6
12.5
18.2
15.2
5683
327
351
8.6
158
1.075
0.0611
43.1
2008
92
0.023
19.1
12.9
18.6
15.6
5480
314
330
8.8
154
1.053
0.0594
42.7
2009
153
0.030
19.9
13.6
18.7
16.1
5242
312
319
8.7
155
1.026
0.0605
42.3
Percent of Port 2 Valve Variable Timing SUVs:
Mum i
*1 1 \K
1 >1x1 \ 1 1 l\ M\
1 K \\-M|nx|ii\
1 l«l\ 1
4\\l>
M Wl \l
1 CM'Iv
2006
57.4
42.6
0.0
100.0
2007
0.0
92.6
1.2
98.8
2008
0.0
90.0
0.9
99.1
2009
0.0
76.4
2.1
97.9
Table K-28
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 3 Valve Variable Timing SUVs
MODI 1
2005
x\l 1
117
0.029
1 MS
18.0
1 1 1 1 1 (
M).l
12.3
< )M )M^
MM
16.8
M).l
14.5
\\«.ll 1
6000
KM
330
IM
300
0-60
9.9
ior
142
III'
0.909
III*
0.0500
TON
43.6
2006
187
0.050
18.9
12.9
17.7
15.3
5559
294
291
9.6
144
1.013
0.0527
42.4
2007
36
0.009
18.3
12.3
17.8
14.9
6000
330
300
9.9
142
0.909
0.0500
44.7
2008
35
0.009
18.5
12.4
18.0
15.1
6000
330
300
9.9
142
0.909
0.0500
45.3
2009
10
0.002
20.5
13.8
19.5
16.6
6000
330
310
9.7
145
0.939
0.0517
49.8
Percent of Port 3 Valve Variable Timing SUVs:
MODI 1
2005
1 >1x1 \ 1 1 l\ M\
1 K \\-M|nx|ii\
0.0


100.0
42.9
0.0
2006
0.0
62.3
0.0
100.0
2007
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2008
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
2009
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-32
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-29
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 4 Valve Variable Timing SUVs
Ml >1)1 1
^ 1 Mi
Mih
(000)
1 U \(

\\«.ll 1
1 IS

0-60
11 Ml
ior
s|»l>
III'
( II)
111*
VM
TON
Ml'«,
55/45
mmmm
(in
ll\^
mi
( OMI'
(ll>
111*
1999
91
0.032
23.6
17.0
21.5
19.1
4000
183
220
9.2
140
1.202
0.0550
38.2
2000
95
0.030
23.2
16.6
21.1
18.7
4058
188
224
9.2
140
1.193
0.0551
38.1
2001
464
0.134
22.5
16.0
20.5
18.2
4096
185
215
9.7
137
1.171
0.0523
37.4
2002
1007
0.240
22.4
15.6
20.8
18.1
4233
205
228
9.5
139
1.121
0.0535
38.4
2003
1306
0.317
22.5
15.6
20.8
18.1
4333
206
230
9.6
139
1.122
0.0528
39.3
2004
1655
0.351
22.4
15.4
20.8
18.0
4462
220
241
9.5
141
1.106
0.0537
40.2
2005
1733
0.424
22.3
15.2
20.5
17.9
4504
218
243
9.5
141
1.122
0.0538
40.2
2006
1735
0.462
22.4
15.3
20.6
18.0
4563
217
239
9.7
139
1.110
0.0522
41.0
2007
2001
0.473
23.9
16.4
21.8
19.1
4344
203
233
9.6
140
1.166
0.0535
41.6
2008
2116
0.531
24.3
16.5
22.4
19.4
4409
202
238
9.6
140
1.182
0.0536
42.9
2009
2850
0.556
24.4
16.5
22.5
19.5
4438
209
245
9.4
142
1.182
0.0549
43.3
Percent of Port 4 Valve Variable Timing SUVs:
MODI 1
1999
l>KI\ 1 1 l\\|\
1 l\ W««MI>.xHi\
1U( >\ 1
4\\1>
MVN1 \l

24.5
75.5
0.0
100.0
2000
32.6
61.6
0.0
100.0
2001
23.6
66.4
3.4
96.6
2002
16.9
68.1
1.8
98.0
2003
15.4
69.1
1.8
94.0
2004
17.9
64.5
1.6
94.5
2005
14.9
70.5
1.2
94.6
2006
16.9
68.0
1.3
94.2
2007
28.2
61.8
1.6
89.7
2008
33.5
57.7
0.9
91.4
2009
33.6
55.7
1.7
87.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-33
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-30
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 5 Valve Variable Timing SUVs











Ml >1)1 1
Mih




MM
\\(.ll 1


0 <)ll
ior
III'
111*
TON
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 U\<
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(ll>
111*
11 Ml
s|»l>
( II)
VM
Ml'«,
2004
18
0.004
18.0
12.3
17.1
14.6
5500
255
310
9.0
150
1.216
0.0564
40.2
2005
7
0.002
18.0
12.3
17.0
14.6
5500
255
310
9.0
150
1.216
0.0564
40.1
2006
4
0.001
18.0
12.3
17.0
14.6
5500
255
310
9.0
150
1.216
0.0564
40.1
Percent of Port 5 Valve Variable Timing SUVs:
MODI 1
1 \K
l>KI\ 1 1 l\ M\
1 l\ W^MI^ION
1 KliN 1
4\\l>
M \M \l
1 < K "K
2004
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2005
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2006
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
Table K-31
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 GDI 4 Valve Variable Timing SUVs










-
MODI 1
Ml 1

1 \li
M).l
M).l
MM
\\(.ll1


0-60
ior
III'
III*
TON
^ 1 M<
(000)
1 U\<
55/45
on
ll\M
( OMI"
1 IS
( ID
lll>
11 Ml
^I'D
( ID
WT
Ml'(.
2008
80
0.020
21.8
14.8
20.4
17.6
4883
193
283
8.9
149
1.510
0.0584
42.7
2009
222
0.043
23.7
16.0
22.2
19.0
4850
200
278
9.0
148
1.422
0.0572
46.2
Percent of GDI 4 Valve Variable Timing SUVs:
MODI 1
DKI\ 1 1 l\ M\
1 K \\«.M|nx|o\
IKON 1
4WII
M VM M

2008
24.9
75.1
0.3
99.7
2009
42.0
58.0
1.3
98.7
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-34
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-32
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 GDI 5 Valve Variable Timing SUVs











Ml >1)1 1
Mih




MM
\\(.ll 1


0-60
ior
III'
111*
TON
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 u\<
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
< n>
111*
11 Ml
s|»l>
( II)
VM
MP(.
2009
1
0.000
18.9
12.7
18.2
15.4
5500
254
350
8.2
160
1.378
0.0636
42.2
Percent of GDI 5 Valve Variable Timing SUVs:
Ml >1)1 1
1 >1x1 \ 1 1 l\ M\
1 K \\-M|nx|ii\
1 WIN 1
-mil
MVM M

2009
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
Table K-33
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Diesel 2 Valve Fixed Timing SUVs





KM
IM




,
Ml >1)1 1
x\l 1

HHH||
HHHB
¦¦¦HM
MM
\\(.ll1


0 (>0
IOP
IIP
IIP
TON
^ 1 M<
(000)
1 U\(
55/45
(in
IINN
( OMP
1 IS
( II)
IIP
11 Ml
^Pll
( II)
AYT
MP(.
2004
1
0.000
22.8
15.4
21.8
18.4
6000
300
310
9.7
145
1.033
0.0517
55.3
2006
1
0.000
21.7
14.8
20.0
17.4
6000
300
310
9.6
145
1.033
0.0517
52.2
2007
0
0.000
21.7
14.8
20.0
17.4
6000
300
310
7.2
145
1.033
0.0517
52.2
2008
0
0.000
21.7
14.8
20.0
17.4
6000
300
310
7.1
145
1.033
0.0517
52.2
Percent of Diesel 2 Valve Fixed Timing SUVs:
Ml >1)1 1
1 M\
1IKI \ 1 1 l\\|\
1 l\ \\»Mlx<»lli\
1 Kll\ 1
4\\l>
M \M M
1 1 K "K
2004
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2006
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2007
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2008
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-35
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-34
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Diesel 4 Valve Fixed Timing SUVs











Ml >1)1 1
Mih




MM
\\(.ll 1


0-60
l()l>
III'
111*
TON
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
< n>
111*
11 Ml
s|»l>
( II)
VM
Ml'(.
2005
8
0.002
28.1
19.4
24.7
22.1
4500
171
160
13.1
116
0.936
0.0356
49.7
2006
7
0.002
27.2
19.0
23.5
21.3
4500
171
160
10.1
116
0.936
0.0356
48.0
2007
3
0.001
25.4
17.7
22.4
20.1
4921
182
215
11.1
129
1.181
0.0438
49.4
2008
13
0.003
26.0
18.0
23.0
20.5
5393
182
215
8.7
126
1.181
0.0402
55.3
2009
8
0.002
25.7
17.4
23.6
20.5
5377
182
210
8.4
124
1.154
0.0394
54.9
Percent of Diesel 4 Valve Fixed Timing SUVs:
Mum i
1 \|{
1 >1x1 \ 1 1 l\ M\
1 K \\-M|nx|ii\
1 KO\ |
4NII
M \M M
1 < X "K
2005
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2006
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2007
0.0
84.2
0.0
100.0
2008
0.0
98.2
0.0
100.0
2009
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
Table K-35
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Diesel 4 Valve Variable Timing SUVs











MODI 1
Ml 1

1 \li
MM
MM
MM
W (. 111


0-60
ior
III'
III*
TON
>l 1 M<
(000)
1 U\<
55/45

lll>
11 Ml
^i'i>
( II)
\\ 1
Ml'(.
2007
5
0.001
27.1
18.6
24.1
21.4
5290
182
215
7.4
126
1.181
0.0409
56.5
2009
2
0.000
24.8
16.4
24.1
20.0
5838
181
225
8.5
125
1.243
0.0386
58.5
Percent of Diesel 4 Valve Variable Timing SUVs:
MODI 1
1 M{
DKI\ 1 1 l\ M\
1 K WxMInxIiiX
1 Ko\ 1
IN II
M \M M
1 (H "K
2007
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2009
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-36
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-36
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Hybrid SUVs











Ml >1)1 1
Mih




MM
\\«.ll 1


0 <)ll
IOI>
III*
III*
TON
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 U\<
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(II)
III*
11 Ml
s|*l>
( ll>
\\ T
Ml'(r
2005
11
0.003
37.6
28.8
26.9
27.7
4000
140
135
11.7
112
0.964
0.0337
55.4
2006
100
0.027
35.3
27.3
25.2
26.1
4397
189
193
7.8
127
1.016
0.0437
57.3
2007
61
0.014
35.4
26.9
25.8
26.3
4261
180
186
8.5
126
1.028
0.0435
56.0
2008
95
0.024
35.6
27.5
25.5
26.3
4562
192
191
8.6
124
0.995
0.0411
60.1
2009
62
0.012
34.8
26.1
26.0
26.1
4825
214
222
8.2
131
1.059
0.0454
62.8
Percent of Hybrid SUVs:
Mum i
1 \K
l>KI\ 1 1 KM\
1 l\ \\<.m|nn|(i>
1 1
|W I)
M \M \l
1 < H K
2005
39.3
60.7
0.0
0.0
2006
28.3
71.7
0.0
0.0
2007
43.1
56.9
0.0
12.2
2008
29.1
66.9
0.0
2.3
2009
31.0
62.3
0.0
24.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-37
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-37
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 2 Valve Fixed Timing Pickup Trucks











MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\«.ll1


0 <)ll
IMI'
111*
III*
TON
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 U\<
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
( id
III*
1IMI
x|'D
( II)
\V1
MI'ti
1999
2349
0.923
19.7
14.0
18.5
16.1
4565
275
208
10.9
130
0.763
0.0453
36.7
2000
2280
0.873
20.3
14.4
18.9
16.5
4391
262
205
10.8
130
0.786
0.0462
36.3
2001
2197
0.872
19.3
13.6
18.0
15.7
4642
279
221
10.5
133
0.795
0.0473
36.5
2002
1958
0.822
19.0
13.4
17.6
15.4
4832
287
236
10.3
136
0.822
0.0487
37.2
2003
2116
0.855
19.6
13.7
17.9
15.8
4749
275
230
10.5
134
0.834
0.0479
37.5
2004
1695
0.676
19.3
13.5
17.6
15.5
4971
291
253
10.0
139
0.864
0.0507
38.5
2005
1360
0.591
19.3
13.3
17.8
15.5
5053
294
260
9.9
140
0.879
0.0514
39.2
2006
1112
0.508
19.7
13.6
18.1
15.9
5083
292
257
10.1
139
0.875
0.0505
40.3
2007
1154
0.546
19.9
13.7
18.4
16.0
5273
298
271
9.9
141
0.904
0.0512
42.2
2008
992
0.553
20.4
14.0
18.9
16.4
5285
296
273
9.9
142
0.917
0.0515
43.7
2009
914
0.470
20.2
13.8
18.9
16.3
5323
300
282
9.6
144
0.936
0.0528
43.5
Percent of Port 2 Valve Fixed Timing Pickup Trucks:
MODI 1
DKI\ 1 1 K \|N
1l\ \Nx\HxxlON
1 l\( >N 1
4MD
M VN1 M

1999
0.0
45.7
15.1
84.9
2000
0.0
38.1
14.8
85.2
2001
0.0
39.4
9.5
90.5
2002
0.0
44.7
6.1
93.9
2003
0.0
40.4
7.8
92.2
2004
0.0
44.6
5.1
94.9
2005
0.0
44.5
3.5
96.5
2006
0.0
41.2
4.2
95.8
2007
0.0
44.2
1.6
98.4
2008
0.0
44.3
2.2
97.8
2009
0.0
48.2
0.5
99.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-38
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-38
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 3 Valve Fixed Timing Pickup Trucks











MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\«.ll1


0 <)ll
IMI'
111*
III*
TON
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 U\<
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
(II)
III*
1IMI
s|»D
( II)
\V1
MI'ti
2007
16
0.008
19.1
12.9
18.5
15.6
5019
281
295
8.8
151
1.048
0.0587
39.1
2008
9
0.005
17.9
12.2
17.1
14.6
5408
302
351
8.2
161
1.153
0.0643
39.4
2009
46
0.024
20.9
14.2
19.7
16.9
5620
280
292
9.6
144
1.043
0.0521
47.4
Percent of Port 3 Valve Fixed Timing Pickup Trucks:
MODI 1
M U<
2007
DKI\ 1 1 K \|N
1 li\Nx\ll>«xlo\
IUHM
0.0
4\\l>
M \M \l
0.0
1 III 'K
100.0
62.7
2008
0.0
43.2
0.0
100.0
2009
0.0
41.1
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-39
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-39
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 4 Valve Fixed Timing Pickup Trucks











MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MI.I
WC.II 1


0 <)ll
IMI'
III'
III'
ION
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 U \(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( OMI'
1 U
( id
III'
1IMI
M'l)
( II)
VM
Ml'(r
1999
196
0.077
23.6
17.3
20.8
19.0
3544
170
159
10.8
125
0.935
0.0449
33.7
2000
332
0.127
21.6
15.8
19.1
17.4
3993
204
186
10.6
128
0.918
0.0462
34.7
2001
322
0.128
22.2
16.2
19.5
17.8
3932
196
180
10.8
127
0.928
0.0455
35.1
2002
423
0.178
21.8
15.7
19.2
17.5
4031
200
181
11.0
126
0.912
0.0445
35.4
2003
358
0.145
22.4
15.9
19.7
17.9
4005
200
182
10.8
127
0.926
0.0452
36.0
2004
339
0.135
21.6
15.3
19.1
17.2
4147
208
188
10.9
128
0.919
0.0451
35.8
2005
40
0.017
27.5
19.0
24.2
21.7
3696
144
151
11.7
120
1.046
0.0408
40.1
2006
33
0.015
28.1
19.3
25.0
22.2
3595
142
150
11.5
121
1.051
0.0416
40.0
2007
97
0.046
22.9
16.0
20.1
18.1
4195
241
236
9.0
143
0.980
0.0565
38.0
2008
113
0.063
22.7
15.9
20.0
18.0
4256
241
236
9.1
142
0.980
0.0558
38.2
2009
161
0.083
23.0
16.0
20.5
18.2
4276
241
236
9.2
142
0.979
0.0554
39.0
Percent of Port 4 Valve Fixed Timing Pickup Trucks:
MODI 1
DKI\ 1 1 K \|\
1l\ \\»\ll>«xlON
1 l\( >N 1
4MD
M VN1 M

1999
0.0
40.6
46.4
41.4
2000
0.0
40.2
29.2
64.6
2001
0.0
33.6
28.9
64.4
2002
0.0
31.5
25.3
69.8
2003
0.0
33.9
25.4
68.5
2004
0.0
33.8
23.1
70.0
2005
0.0
20.7
40.8
59.2
2006
0.0
22.5
39.6
60.4
2007
0.0
39.1
6.8
93.2
2008
0.0
46.3
8.6
91.4
2009
0.0
47.2
9.8
90.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-40
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-40
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 2 Valve Variable Timing Pickup Trucks











MODI 1
Mllv

i us
MM
MM
MI.I
WC.II 1


0 (>0
IOI'
111*
III*
TON
M M<
(000)
1 U \(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( OMI'
1 U
( id
III'
11 Ml
s|»l)
( II)
\V1
MI'ti
2006
0
0.000
15.2
10.6
14.2
12.4
6500
330
445
7.7
173
1.348
0.0685
40.2
2007
112
0.053
21.1
14.4
19.6
17.0
4630
241
204
11.0
129
0.852
0.0445
39.3
2008
61
0.034
21.5
14.5
20.6
17.4
4368
244
219
10.2
134
0.880
0.0493
37.8
2009
249
0.128
20.2
13.7
19.2
16.4
5422
330
332
8.5
156
1.012
0.0613
44.3
Percent of Port 2 Valve Variable Timing Pickup Trucks:
MODI 1
*1 1 M\
DKI\ 1 1 l\ MN
1 K \\-\||NX|||\
1 KO\ I
4\\l>
M \NI M
1 OC'Iv
2006
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
2007
0.0
21.6
10.2
89.8
2008
0.0
54.2
0.0
100.0
2009
0.0
44.2
1.9
98.1
Table K-41
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 3 Valve Variable Timing Pickup Trucks
MODI 1
2004
Mih
358
0.143
1 Mi
18.1
1 1 1 1 1 (
M).l
12.6
()N()\h
MM
16.7
MM
f 4 ) VI1*
14.6
\\«.ll1
5833
KN't
330
INI
300
0-60
9.7
ior
Sl*ll
144
III'
0.909
111*
0.0515
TON-
\l
42.7
2005
322
0.140
18.2
12.6
16.6
14.6
5835
330
300
9.7
144
0.909
0.0515
42.7
2006
325
0.149
18.0
12.5
16.5
14.5
5828
330
300
9.7
144
0.909
0.0516
42.2
2007
248
0.117
18.1
12.5
16.6
14.6
5848
330
300
9.7
144
0.909
0.0514
42.6
2008
188
0.105
18.5
12.7
17.2
14.9
5854
330
301
9.7
144
0.911
0.0515
43.7
2009
88
0.045
20.1
13.8
18.5
16.2
5817
330
310
9.4
147
0.939
0.0534
47.0
Percent of Port 3 Valve Variable Timing Pickup Trucks:
MODI 1
1 M\
DKI\ 1 1 l\MN
1 l\ \N»\||<.x|oN
1 HON 1
4\\l>
\l \N 1 M
1 <)("K
2004
0.0
69.0
0.0
100.0
2005
0.0
67.4
0.0
100.0
2006
0.0
67.4
0.0
100.0
2007
0.0
67.6
0.0
100.0
2008
0.0
70.3
0.0
100.0
2009
0.0
65.9
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-41
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-42
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Port 4 Valve Variable Timing Pickup Trucks











MODI 1
Mih

1 Mi
MM
MM
MM
\\(.ll 1


0-60
l()l>
III'
111*
TOV
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 K\(
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 li
< n>
III'
1IMI
sl'l)
( II)
VM
Ml>(.
2004
115
0.046
24.0
16.5
22.1
19.3
4020
204
207
9.7
136
1.017
0.0517
38.7
2005
577
0.251
21.5
14.9
19.5
17.2
4450
244
243
9.4
142
1.002
0.0545
38.3
2006
714
0.326
21.6
14.9
19.5
17.3
4458
239
238
9.5
140
1.004
0.0532
38.4
2007
484
0.229
21.2
14.6
19.4
17.0
4791
255
267
9.4
144
1.043
0.0546
40.5
2008
429
0.239
21.1
14.5
19.3
16.9
4918
262
289
9.2
148
1.091
0.0572
41.3
2009
477
0.246
21.5
14.8
19.7
17.3
4822
255
263
9.6
142
1.031
0.0534
41.4
Percent of Port 4 Valve Variable Timing Pickup Trucks:
MUIH 1
2004
IIKI\ 1 1 l\\|\
11* \ns\ii-s-,hi\
Il« >\ 1
4\\D
M VM M
LOCK
0.0
38.0
8.5
91.5
2005
0.0
42.2
11.7
88.3
2006
0.0
44.1
10.6
89.4
2007
0.0
43.0
11.6
88.4
2008
0.0
44.3
9.6
90.4
2009
0.0
38.5
12.9
87.1
Table K-43
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Diesel 2 Valve Fixed Timing Pickup Trucks











MODI 1
^M h

1 MS
MM
MM
MM
\\(.ll 1


0-f>0
IOI>
III'
111*
TON
1 1 M<
(000)
1 u u
55/45

1 li
( ID
III'
11 Ml
*»PD
( ID
\\T
Mil.
1999
0
0.000
18.9
13.5
17.7
15.5
6000
395
180
15.0
113
0.456
0.0300
46.4
Percent of Diesel 2 Valve Fixed Timing Pickup Trucks:
MODI 1
DKI\ 1 1 l\\|\
1 K W««MI>.xHi\
1 UOS 1
4WD
MVM M

1999
0.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-42
November 2009

-------
x^EPA
United Siaiws
. ™	Appendix K: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type, Engine Type and Valves Per Cylinder
Table K-44
Characteristics of 1975 to 2009 Hybrid Pickup Trucks











Ml >1)1 1
Mih




MM
\\«.ll 1


0-60
ior
III'
111*
TON
^ 1 Mi
(000)
1 U\<
55/45
(in
ll\^
( (IMP
1 IS
< id
III*
11 Ml
s|»l>
( II)
VM
Ml'«,
2004
0
0.000
21.2
15.4
17.9
16.7
5318
325
295
9.1
148
0.908
0.0556
44.4
2005
1
0.000
21.2
15.3
17.9
16.7
5151
325
295
6.5
149
0.908
0.0574
43.0
2006
3
0.001
21.3
15.2
18.4
16.9
5346
325
295
6.8
147
0.908
0.0553
45.0
2007
0
0.000
21.7
15.5
18.7
17.1
5211
325
295
6.7
149
0.908
0.0567
44.6
2009
6
0.003
28.2
21.1
21.7
21.5
6000
364
332
7.4
150
0.912
0.0553
64.4
Percent of Hybrid Pickup Trucks:
Mum i
1 \|{
1 >1x1 \ 1 1 l\ M\
1 K \\-M|nx|ii\
1 KO\ |
4NII
M \M \l
1 < X "K
2004
0.0
63.7
0.0
100.0
2005
0.0
30.2
0.0
100.0
2006
0.0
69.3
0.0
100.0
2007
0.0
42.3
0.0
100.0
2009
0.0
52.8
0.0
0.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
K-43
November 2009

-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2009
Appendix L
Fuel Economy Data Stratified by
Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
technical developments.
Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division
and
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NOTICE
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA420-R-09-014
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-l
MY19'T5 (n MY2009 Cars Ad justed Composite Fuel F.conoim In Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
llonda
Nissan
Ilk
VW
BMW
All
1975
12.9
12.0
13.1
18.1
26.7
21.5

22.5
14.7
13.4
1976
14.2
14.2
14.1
21.4
28.0
22.8

23.4
15.6
14.9
1977
15.2
14.1
14.0
24.6
30.8
23.1

24.6
16.9
15.6
1978
16.3
15.9
16.3
23.0
28.8
23.0

23.2
16.4
17.0
1979
16.4
16.3
18.0
20.4
24.6
22.7

24.4
16.7
17.3
1980
18.7
19.1
19.5
23.3
24.6
26.4

26.3
21.3
20.0
1981
19.9
19.5
22.3
26.4
26.0
25.8

29.1
21.8
21.4
1982
20.9
20.8
23.0
26.0
28.2
26.0

28.1
21.6
22.3
1983
20.1
20.2
24.1
26.9
29.9
27.7

25.6
21.6
22.0
1984
20.9
21.5
24.2
27.9
29.9
26.9

24.3
23.0
22.4
1985
21.9
22.1
24.0
27.3
28.7
25.1

25.6
21.7
23.0
1986
23.1
22.6
24.3
27.4
28.4
25.7
29.5
25.1
21.2
23.8
1987
23.2
22.5
23.4
27.8
27.7
24.9
29.0
24.4
20.3
23.9
1988
23.9
22.8
24.0
27.5
26.7
25.8
28.7
25.4
18.0
24.2
1989
23.2
22.8
23.5
26.7
26.2
25.3
27.7
25.4
18.2
23.8
1990
23.0
22.1
23.0
25.4
25.3
23.7
27.6
24.2
18.3
23.4
1991
22.9
22.6
22.9
25.4
25.2
24.2
27.2
24.9
19.1
23.4
1992
22.4
22.2
23.0
24.0
25.8
24.9
25.8
24.2
19.9
23.1
1993
22.8
22.8
23.1
23.9
26.6
24.2
25.6
22.5
20.9
23.4
1994
22.9
22.2
21.8
23.9
26.4
24.6
26.9
23.4
20.8
23.2
1995
22.7
22.6
23.3
24.6
26.9
24.1
25.4
23.7
20.8
23.4
1996
23.1
21.6
22.5
24.1
26.0
24.8
26.0
23.3
22.3
23.3
1997
23.2
22.0
22.4
24.3
26.1
24.2
25.3
23.5
21.0
23.4
1998
22.6
22.4
23.3
24.6
25.9
24.6
24.9
23.5
20.7
23.4
1999
22.5
22.3
22.2
24.6
25.0
24.1
24.9
23.2
20.7
23.0
2000
22.6
22.0
22.5
24.7
25.0
22.7
24.3
23.3
20.2
22.9
2001
22.9
21.8
22.4
25.1
25.8
22.8
24.8
23.0
20.1
23.1
2002
23.1
21.9
22.1
24.6
25.5
23.2
24.4
23.4
21.1
23.2
2003
23.0
21.5
22.9
25.7
26.1
22.3
24.1
23.6
21.5
23.2
2004
23.3
20.9
23.0
25.7
26.0
22.5
23.3
22.9
21.2
23.2
2005
23.1
21.7
22.4
27.1
26.0
23.3
23.8
22.9
21.6
23.6
2006
22.7
21.6
20.6
26.9
26.5
23.0
24.4
23.8
21.7
23.4
2007
23.0
22.2
22.3
27.3
26.5
24.9
25.9
22.8
22.2
24.2
2008
22.7
22.5
22.5
28.3
26.8
25.3
26.8
23.1
21.9
24.3
2009
23.3
22.8
21.9
27.7
26.4
25.7
25.8
24
22.5
24.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-l
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-2
MY19'T5 (n MY2009 Wagons Adjusted Composite Fuel F.conoim In Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
Toyota
llonda
Nissan
Ilk
NAN
BMW
All
1975
12.5
11.6
13.6
19.4

17.8

23.3

13.8
1976
13.2
13.9
14.5
21.0
25.1
23.4

23.8

14.7
1977
14.4
13.8
14.1
23.7
27.1
23.0

24.5

15.3
1978
15.2
15.9
15.1
21.7
26.7
21.7

22.0

16.4
1979
15.1
16.6
15.6
21.2
25.3
23.7

21.3

16.7
1980
17.2
19.1
16.5
23.3
27.6
27.3

34.1

20.1
1981
18.0
21.4
21.4
24.7
28.6
26.7

34.5

21.8
1982
18.6
21.5
23.2
24.9
31.2
27.2

25.4

21.6
1983
19.5
21.9
23.3
29.5
31.2
29.5

26.1

23.2
1984
20.6
22.3
23.9
28.8
30.7
29.9

21.2

22.6
1985
20.9
22.9
22.9
29.9
29.5
25.6

22.1

23.4
1986
21.6
23.2
22.6
27.2
29.2
24.0

19.4

23.0
1987
21.8
22.4
22.6
27.5
28.8
23.6

22.5

23.0
1988
22.5
22.4
24.5
26.5
28.6
23.6

26.0

23.3
1989
22.0
21.7
25.9
25.6
28.9
27.0

24.6

22.6
1990
22.2
21.3
26.9
25.0
29.1
27.9

23.8

22.4
1991
21.5
24.0

25.6
23.9


22.6

23.4
1992
21.1
23.7

23.9
22.6


22.4
19.5
23.0
1993
22.4
25.7
22.6
24.6
22.8


19.8
20.3
24.6
1994
22.7
25.5

24.3
23.9


19.6
19.7
24.4
1995
22.9
25.4

25.3
23.8


19.6
20.2
24.4
1996
23.2
22.7

25.1
23.3

24.9
22.6

22.8
1997
27.4
24.0


22.0

24.9
20.2

23.7
1998
27.6
22.5




24.1
21.3

23.1
1999
26.3
22.2




23.6
21.8
19.4
22.6
2000
23.4
22.4




23.5
20.5
20.1
22.4
2001
23.4
21.7
21.8




19.7
20.3
21.7
2002
22.5
22.3
20.5




22.4
20.7
21.5
2003
26.7
22.3
20.6
27.5



22.8
20.7
23.2
2004
27.0
21.2
19.7
28.0



22.2
20.8
22.1
2005
26.3
22.2
19.3
28.4



23.3
20.6
22.2
2006
24.8
22.4
20.1
28.1



23.5
21.2
22.5
2007
24.7
22.2
20.0
28.2
30.6

21.9
23.5
21.5
23.0
2008
26.0
18.7
20.7
25.6
30.7

22.0
23.4
20.6
23.9
2009
25.2
19.2
21.7
25.3
30.5
28.7
23.5
26.3
20.7
24.7
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-2
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-3
MY19'T5 (n \1Y2009 Cars and Wagons Adjusted Composite Fuel F.conoim lt\ Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
Ford
Cli rxsler
To\ota
llonda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
12.9
11.9
13.2
18.8
26.7
21.4

22.6
14.7
13.5
1976
14.1
14.2
14.2
21.3
27.8
22.9

23.4
15.6
14.9
1977
15.1
14.1
14.0
24.5
30.2
23.1

24.6
16.9
15.6
1978
16.2
15.9
16.1
22.8
28.6
22.8

23.2
16.4
16.9
1979
16.3
16.4
17.7
20.5
24.7
22.8

24.4
16.7
17.2
1980
18.7
19.1
19.2
23.3
24.8
26.6

26.6
21.3
20.0
1981
19.8
19.9
22.2
26.3
26.2
25.9

29.2
21.8
21.4
1982
20.7
20.9
23.0
25.9
28.4
26.1

28.0
21.6
22.2
1983
20.1
20.5
24.0
27.7
30.0
27.9

25.6
21.6
22.1
1984
20.9
21.6
24.2
28.0
29.9
27.2

24.2
23.0
22.4
1985
21.8
22.1
24.0
28.0
28.8
25.1

25.4
21.7
23.0
1986
23.0
22.7
24.2
27.3
28.5
25.4
29.5
25.0
21.2
23.7
1987
23.1
22.5
23.4
27.8
27.7
24.8
29.0
24.4
20.3
23.8
1988
23.8
22.8
24.0
27.5
26.7
25.7
28.7
25.5
18.0
24.1
1989
23.2
22.7
23.6
26.6
26.2
25.3
27.7
25.3
18.2
23.7
1990
23.0
22.0
23.0
25.4
25.4
23.8
27.6
24.2
18.3
23.3
1991
22.8
22.7
22.9
25.4
25.2
24.2
27.2
24.8
19.1
23.4
1992
22.4
22.3
23.0
24.0
25.7
24.9
25.8
24.2
19.9
23.1
1993
22.8
23.1
23.1
24.0
26.5
24.2
25.6
22.3
20.8
23.5
1994
22.9
22.5
21.8
24.0
26.4
24.6
26.9
23.3
20.7
23.3
1995
22.7
22.9
23.3
24.7
26.8
24.1
25.4
23.5
20.8
23.4
1996
23.1
21.7
22.5
24.2
26.0
24.8
25.9
23.2
22.3
23.3
1997
23.2
22.1
22.4
24.3
26.1
24.2
25.3
23.4
21.0
23.4
1998
22.7
22.4
23.3
24.6
25.9
24.6
24.9
23.4
20.7
23.4
1999
22.5
22.3
22.2
24.6
25.0
24.1
24.8
23.1
20.6
23.0
2000
22.6
22.0
22.5
24.7
25.0
22.7
24.3
23.1
20.2
22.9
2001
22.9
21.8
22.3
25.1
25.8
22.8
24.8
22.7
20.2
23.0
2002
23.1
21.9
21.7
24.6
25.5
23.2
24.4
23.3
21.1
23.1
2003
23.1
21.5
22.2
25.8
26.1
22.3
24.1
23.5
21.5
23.2
2004
23.4
20.9
21.9
25.9
26.0
22.5
23.3
22.8
21.2
23.1
2005
23.3
21.7
21.2
27.2
26.0
23.3
23.8
22.9
21.6
23.5
2006
22.9
21.6
20.4
27.0
26.5
23.0
24.4
23.8
21.7
23.3
2007
23.1
22.2
21.6
27.3
26.7
24.9
25.6
22.9
22.1
24.1
2008
23.0
22.4
22.2
28.1
27.1
25.3
26.5
23.1
21.9
24.3
2009
23.5
22.7
21.9
27.4
26.6
25.8
25.7
24.2
22.5
24.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-3
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-4
MY19'T5 (n \1Y2009 Vans Ad justed Composite Fuel F.conoim h\ Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
llonda
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
B\I\Y
All
1975
12.2
10.7
10.7
17.5



17.6

11.1
1976
11.9
11.4
12.1




17.0

11.8
1977
12.7
13.2
11.7




18.9

12.5
1978
11.9
12.8
11.4




17.0

12.1
1979
12.4
10.3
11.7




16.0

11.5
1980
14.2
13.8
14.1




16.2

14.1
1981
15.3
14.3
14.8




15.8

14.8
1982
15.2
13.8
15.0




18.4

14.7
1983
16.0
13.8
15.3




16.4

15.1
1984
15.5
14.1
17.2
22.9



17.6

16.1
1985
15.9
13.8
17.8
22.6



18.1

16.5
1986
16.4
16.7
18.6
22.2



16.2

17.5
1987
16.8
16.6
18.9
21.5

18.9

15.9

17.7
1988
17.1
16.4
19.4
21.6

18.8

16.7

17.9
1989
17.0
16.7
19.0
21.5

18.6

17.4

17.8
1990
17.4
16.3
19.3


21.3

17.2

17.8
1991
17.4
16.6
19.0
19.1

21.7

17.3

17.9
1992
17.4
16.4
18.9
18.6

21.3



17.9
1993
17.3
17.4
19.6
18.1

18.1

17.4

18.2
1994
17.5
16.6
18.5
18.2

18.8

16.6

17.8
1995
17.1
18.0
19.0
18.6
20.9
19.0

16.1

18.1
1996
17.7
17.7
18.8
18.4
23.3
18.9



18.3
1997
18.0
17.1
18.7
18.2
20.2
18.6

15.3

18.2
1998
18.2
18.4
19.2
19.8
21.9
18.6



18.7
1999
18.0
17.2
18.8
19.7
19.8
19.0

15.7

18.3
2000
18.0
17.8
19.1
19.6
19.6
18.7

15.6

18.6
2001
18.7
14.7
19.0
20.0
19.6
18.4

16.7

18.0
2002
18.2
17.7
19.3
19.9
19.7
18.4
16.2
16.8

18.7
2003
18.8
17.9
19.7
19.9
19.7

16.2
16.7

19.0
2004
18.6
17.4
19.8
20.5
19.6
19.9
17.3


19.2
2005
18.2
18.8
19.6
19.9
21.0
19.9
17.3


19.3
2006
18.4
18.1
19.7
20.0
21.0
20.1
19.2


19.5
2007
18.2
19.7
19.2
20.8
19.9
19.7
19.2


19.5
2008
18.4
19.3
19.7
20.8
20.4
19.7
19.2


19.7
2009
15.8
19.5
19.8
20.9
20.5
19.7
19.2
19.4

19.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-4
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-5
MY19'T5 (n \1Y2009 SUVs Ad justed Composite Fuel F.conoim h\ Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
llonda
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
B\I\Y
All
1975
10.0
9.0
12.5
10.2





11.0
1976
11.1
11.6
12.7
9.3





11.7
1977
12.5
12.3
13.5
11.6





12.8
1978
11.9
11.2
13.3
10.9





12.3
1979
9.5
9.3
13.1
11.7





10.6
1980
12.4
11.8
14.3
11.7





13.2
1981
13.7
12.8
15.7
12.2





14.3
1982
16.4
12.5
15.8
12.1





15.0
1983
17.7
13.0
15.6
12.0





16.2
1984
17.5
15.6
15.5
14.7





16.4
1985
17.7
16.0
15.6
18.0





16.9
1986
16.8
16.8
16.4
19.8





17.2
1987
16.9
17.3
16.8
19.1

15.7



17.5
1988
16.8
17.0
16.3
17.0

15.6



17.2
1989
17.2
16.2
16.2
16.5

15.9



16.8
1990
16.7
15.8
16.7
16.3

16.3



16.6
1991
17.5
16.9
16.3
15.4

16.3



17.0
1992
16.6
16.7
16.6
14.2

16.3



16.6
1993
16.8
16.8
16.3
14.4

16.1



16.5
1994
16.6
16.7
16.0
14.4
16.6
15.4



16.4
1995
16.4
16.3
16.0
15.3

15.7
20.0


16.2
1996
16.7
16.3
16.0
18.5
16.0
16.3
19.1


16.5
1997
16.2
15.5
16.4
18.6
20.0
16.1
19.3


16.5
1998
17.0
15.5
15.7
18.6
20.5
15.9
19.7


16.5
1999
16.5
15.4
15.7
18.3
20.6
15.9
19.7


16.4
2000
16.2
15.5
15.7
18.0
20.8
15.9
18.8

14.3
16.3
2001
15.9
17.3
15.7
18.1
20.2
16.0
19.2

15.6
16.9
2002
16.2
16.3
15.8
18.1
21.0
16.0
19.3

16.3
16.7
2003
16.0
15.9
16.7
17.9
20.0
17.5
18.2

16.2
16.8
2004
16.2
15.9
16.5
18.3
19.7
16.4
18.3
15.4
17.4
16.9
2005
16.7
17.0
16.1
18.6
19.5
17.2
18.8
16.0
17.2
17.3
2006
17.4
17.0
16.1
19.6
19.8
17.2
18.9
16.2
17.2
17.7
2007
17.1
18.0
17.3
19.6
20.5
17.9
20.0
15.7
18.8
18.2
2008
17.8
19.3
17.8
20.0
20.7
18.6
20.0
16.3
18.5
18.8
2009
18.2
19.7
18.2
19.9
20.5
18.9
20.0
19.1
17.9
19.0
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-5
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-6
MY19'T5 (n MY2009 Pickups Ad justed Composite Fuel Fconoim In Marketing Group
YFAR
(;\i
Ford
Cli rxsler
loxola
llonda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
12.2
10.7
11.1
18.2

20.1



11.9
1976
12.4
11.8
11.9
18.9

20.9



12.4
1977
12.9
13.6
12.3
23.1

21.3



13.6
1978
12.5
13.5
12.3
20.9

21.7



13.3
1979
12.9
12.6
12.7
16.6

19.7



13.2
1980
15.7
15.3
16.8
18.3

21.3

26.7

16.5
1981
17.0
16.4
16.9
22.5

23.6

31.4

17.9
1982
18.6
15.5
18.1
21.8

23.6

33.3

18.5
1983
18.2
17.3
19.9
21.7

23.3

27.9

18.9
1984
17.6
16.6
16.5
21.4

22.3



18.3
1985
17.4
17.3
15.8
23.0

21.8



18.2
1986
17.7
17.5
17.1
22.4

20.9



18.9
1987
18.1
17.7
17.9
22.4

21.2



19.0
1988
17.2
17.8
17.5
21.1

20.8



18.1
1989
17.3
17.2
16.8
19.6

20.8



17.8
1990
16.1
17.5
16.1
19.3

22.6



17.4
1991
17.9
17.6
15.8
19.7

22.4



18.2
1992
17.0
17.2
16.1
19.6

22.2



17.5
1993
16.8
17.6
15.8
19.6

21.8



17.6
1994
16.6
17.7
15.6
20.0

21.0



17.4
1995
16.7
16.8
14.7
19.1

20.4



16.9
1996
17.6
17.6
14.4
19.2

20.5



17.1
1997
16.9
17.3
14.7
16.6

20.2



16.8
1998
17.3
17.0
14.9
19.2

20.6



17.0
1999
16.2
16.6
14.6
18.7

18.8



16.3
2000
16.9
16.7
15.1
16.7

17.6



16.6
2001
16.5
16.0
14.3
17.0

17.9



15.9
2002
15.4
16.2
14.6
16.7

17.6



15.7
2003
16.2
16.1
14.7
16.8

17.9



16.1
2004
16.1
15.6
14.5
16.5

18.5



15.7
2005
16.4
15.4
14.7
17.2

15.7



15.8
2006
16.6
15.3
15.4
17.2
17.2
15.9



16.1
2007
16.4
15.6
15.4
17.0
17.2
16.2



16.2
2008
16.8
16.0
16.3
16.9
17.2
15.7



16.5
2009
16.6
17.2
16.0
17.8
17.6
15.8



16.7
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-6
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-7
MY19'T5 (n MY2009 Trucks Ad justed Composite Fuel Fconoim In Marketing Group
YFAR
(;\i
Ford
Cli rxsler
Toyota
llonda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
12.0
10.7
11.2
16.1

20.1

17.6

11.6
1976
12.2
11.7
12.2
16.0

20.9

17.0

12.2
1977
12.8
13.4
12.3
19.5

21.3

18.9

13.3
1978
12.3
13.2
12.3
18.1

21.7

17.0

12.9
1979
12.3
11.9
12.5
16.4

19.7

16.0

12.5
1980
15.2
14.8
15.4
18.2

21.3

21.5

15.8
1981
16.5
15.8
16.0
22.3

23.6

25.1

17.1
1982
17.9
14.8
16.6
21.4

23.6

23.6

17.4
1983
17.6
16.3
17.6
21.2

23.3

17.3

17.8
1984
17.2
16.0
16.5
21.2

22.3

17.6

17.4
1985
17.2
16.4
16.7
22.5

21.8

18.1

17.5
1986
17.1
17.2
17.6
22.1

20.9

16.2

18.2
1987
17.4
17.3
18.0
21.8

19.9

15.9

18.3
1988
17.1
17.4
18.0
20.5

19.1

16.7

17.9
1989
17.2
16.9
17.7
19.4

19.9

17.4

17.6
1990
16.6
16.9
18.0
18.2

21.1

17.2

17.4
1991
17.7
17.2
17.6
18.6

20.6

17.3

17.8
1992
17.0
16.9
17.8
18.1

19.9



17.4
1993
16.9
17.4
17.7
18.3

19.6

17.4

17.5
1994
16.8
17.2
17.0
18.1
16.6
18.9

16.6

17.2
1995
16.7
17.1
16.6
17.4
20.9
18.4
20.0
16.1

17.0
1996
17.2
17.2
16.7
18.9
18.5
18.7
19.1


17.2
1997
16.8
16.6
16.7
18.4
20.0
18.2
19.3
15.3

17.0
1998
17.4
16.6
16.5
19.0
20.6
18.2
19.7


17.1
1999
16.6
16.3
16.3
18.6
20.4
17.3
19.7
15.7

16.7
2000
16.9
16.4
16.7
17.8
20.2
16.9
18.8
15.6
14.3
16.9
2001
16.5
16.3
15.9
17.9
20.0
16.7
19.2
16.7
15.6
16.7
2002
16.1
16.4
16.2
17.8
20.4
16.6
18.3
16.8
16.3
16.7
2003
16.4
16.2
16.8
17.6
19.9
17.6
17.6
16.7
16.2
16.9
2004
16.3
15.9
16.0
18.2
19.7
17.1
18.1
15.4
17.4
16.7
2005
16.7
16.4
16.9
18.4
19.9
16.9
18.4
16.0
17.2
17.2
2006
17.1
16.3
16.9
18.8
19.8
16.9
18.9
16.2
17.2
17.5
2007
16.9
16.7
17.3
18.8
20.0
17.5
19.8
15.7
18.8
17.7
2008
17.4
17.8
18.0
19.0
20.3
17.7
19.9
16.3
18.5
18.2
2009
17.6
18.7
17.9
19.3
20.4
18.0
19.9
19.2
17.9
18.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-7
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-8
MY19'T5 (n MY2009 All Ad justed Composite Fuel Fconoim In Marketing Group
YFAR
(;\i
Ford
Cli rxsler
Toyota
llonda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
12.7
11.6
12.8
18.4
26.7
21.1

22.6
14.7
13.1
1976
13.7
13.4
13.7
20.5
27.8
22.4

23.4
15.6
14.2
1977
14.6
13.9
13.6
23.6
30.2
22.7

24.6
16.9
15.1
1978
15.2
15.0
14.9
21.9
28.6
22.6

23.1
16.4
15.8
1979
15.3
14.8
15.8
19.5
24.7
22.3

23.9
16.7
15.9
1980
18.1
17.7
18.2
22.1
24.8
25.4

26.0
21.3
19.2
1981
19.3
18.4
20.8
25.4
26.2
25.5

28.6
21.8
20.5
1982
20.1
18.9
20.9
24.8
28.4
25.5

27.4
21.6
21.1
1983
19.6
18.8
22.0
26.0
30.0
27.0

24.5
21.6
21.0
1984
20.0
19.5
21.0
25.2
29.9
26.0

23.6
23.0
21.0
1985
20.5
20.0
20.8
25.6
28.8
24.1

24.7
21.7
21.3
1986
21.4
20.4
21.0
24.9
28.5
23.3
29.5
24.5
21.2
21.8
1987
21.5
20.4
20.8
25.3
27.7
23.5
29.0
23.8
20.3
22.0
1988
21.3
20.6
20.8
24.9
26.7
23.6
28.7
25.2
18.0
21.9
1989
20.9
20.4
20.2
24.2
26.2
23.8
27.7
25.1
18.2
21.4
1990
20.6
19.9
20.1
23.2
25.4
23.0
27.6
23.7
18.3
21.2
1991
20.8
20.2
20.1
22.9
25.2
23.0
27.2
24.3
19.1
21.2
1992
20.3
19.7
19.7
22.2
25.7
23.5
25.8
24.2
19.9
20.8
1993
20.3
20.4
19.6
22.1
26.5
22.5
25.6
21.4
20.8
20.9
1994
20.0
19.7
18.4
21.7
25.9
22.5
26.9
23.2
20.7
20.4
1995
19.8
19.9
19.0
22.2
26.5
21.5
24.9
23.4
20.8
20.5
1996
20.4
19.3
18.3
22.4
25.4
22.7
25.3
23.2
22.3
20.4
1997
20.1
18.8
18.3
22.1
25.2
21.7
24.2
23.3
21.0
20.1
1998
20.1
18.8
18.0
22.3
25.0
22.1
23.9
23.4
20.7
20.1
1999
19.5
18.6
17.6
22.0
23.9
21.6
23.8
23.0
20.6
19.7
2000
19.5
18.6
18.2
21.2
23.8
19.7
23.2
23.0
19.9
19.8
2001
19.4
18.3
17.7
21.3
24.0
19.4
23.4
22.6
19.0
19.6
2002
18.8
18.2
17.6
20.9
23.9
20.1
22.3
23.2
20.1
19.4
2003
18.7
17.9
17.9
21.6
23.3
20.4
21.7
23.4
20.4
19.6
2004
18.9
17.2
17.7
21.2
23.1
19.4
21.3
21.7
20.2
19.3
2005
19.2
18.2
18.2
22.7
23.1
20.1
21.2
22.2
20.2
19.9
2006
19.6
18.1
18.1
22.4
23.0
20.0
22.3
23.4
20.8
20.1
2007
19.2
18.9
18.6
23.3
23.3
21.3
22.9
21.9
21.5
20.6
2008
19.7
19.4
19.3
22.8
23.9
21.9
23.7
22.3
21.2
21.0
2009
19.9
20.5
18.7
23.2
23.6
21.6
23.4
22.8
21.6
21.1
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-8
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-9
MY1975 to MY2009 Cars LAB 55/45 Fuel Economy by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
B\I\Y
All
1975
15.1
14.0
15.4
21.2
31.4
25.2

26.4
17.2
15.8
1976
16.7
16.7
16.6
25.0
32.9
26.8

27.5
18.4
17.5
1977
17.8
16.6
16.4
28.8
36.2
27.2

28.8
19.8
18.4
1978
19.1
18.6
19.2
27.0
34.0
27.0

27.2
19.2
20.0
1979
19.3
19.2
21.1
23.9
29.0
26.6

28.6
19.5
20.3
1980
22.0
22.4
22.9
27.4
28.9
31.1

30.8
25.0
23.5
1981
23.3
22.9
26.2
31.1
30.6
30.4

34.1
25.6
25.1
1982
24.4
24.4
26.9
30.5
33.2
30.5

32.9
25.4
26.1
1983
23.6
23.7
28.3
31.7
35.2
32.5

30.0
25.3
25.7
1984
24.4
25.2
28.4
32.8
35.1
31.6

28.5
27.0
26.3
1985
25.6
25.9
28.2
32.1
33.7
29.4

30.0
25.4
26.9
1986
27.1
26.6
28.7
32.3
33.5
30.2
34.9
29.6
25.0
28.0
1987
27.3
26.6
27.7
33.0
32.8
29.4
34.5
28.9
23.9
28.2
1988
28.2
27.0
28.4
32.7
31.8
30.7
34.3
30.2
21.2
28.6
1989
27.5
27.0
28.0
31.9
31.2
30.2
33.1
30.3
21.6
28.2
1990
27.3
26.3
27.4
30.4
30.3
28.3
33.1
28.9
21.7
27.8
1991
27.2
27.0
27.5
30.6
30.4
29.0
32.7
29.8
22.7
28.0
1992
26.7
26.5
27.7
28.9
31.0
29.9
31.2
29.1
23.8
27.6
1993
27.3
27.3
27.9
28.9
32.2
29.1
31.1
27.0
24.9
28.1
1994
27.5
26.6
26.2
29.0
32.1
29.8
32.7
28.2
24.9
28.0
1995
27.3
27.2
28.2
30.0
32.9
29.2
30.9
28.8
25.1
28.3
1996
27.8
26.1
27.2
29.5
31.9
30.2
31.8
28.3
27.0
28.3
1997
28.1
26.6
27.2
29.8
32.2
29.6
31.0
28.8
25.4
28.4
1998
27.5
27.2
28.3
30.2
32.0
30.2
30.7
28.8
25.1
28.5
1999
27.4
27.2
27.0
30.4
30.9
29.6
30.6
28.4
25.2
28.2
2000
27.6
27.0
27.6
30.5
31.0
28.0
30.0
28.8
24.6
28.2
2001
28.1
26.8
27.7
31.3
32.2
28.3
30.7
28.5
24.7
28.5
2002
28.5
27.1
27.3
30.7
32.0
28.9
30.3
29.1
26.0
28.8
2003
28.4
26.6
28.6
32.2
32.7
27.9
30.1
29.5
26.6
28.9
2004
28.9
25.9
28.8
32.4
32.7
28.2
29.1
28.6
26.2
29.0
2005
28.8
27.2
28.2
34.5
32.9
29.4
29.9
28.6
26.9
29.7
2006
28.3
26.9
25.6
34.2
33.5
29.1
30.6
29.9
27.0
29.3
2007
28.6
27.8
28.1
34.9
33.4
31.6
32.7
28.5
27.5
30.5
2008
28.3
28.0
28.2
36.3
33.8
32.2
34.0
28.9
27.2
30.6
2009
29.1
28.6
27.4
35.5
33.3
32.7
32.6
30.2
28.0
30.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-9
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-10
MY1975 to MY2009 Wagons LAB 55/45 Fuel Economy by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
li\l\V
All
1975
14.6
13.6
15.9
22.8

20.9

27.2

16.1
1976
15.6
16.4
17.0
24.6
29.4
27.4

27.9

17.3
1977
16.9
16.1
16.6
27.8
31.9
27.1

28.7

18.0
1978
17.9
18.6
17.7
25.5
31.5
25.5

25.7

19.2
1979
17.8
19.5
18.3
24.9
29.9
27.9

25.0

19.7
1980
20.2
22.4
19.3
27.4
32.5
32.2

40.1

23.6
1981
21.1
25.1
25.1
29.1
33.7
31.4

40.6

25.6
1982
21.7
25.2
27.2
29.3
36.7
32.0

29.8

25.3
1983
22.8
25.7
27.4
34.8
36.7
34.6

30.6

27.2
1984
24.2
26.1
28.1
33.9
36.1
35.1

24.8

26.4
1985
24.4
26.8
27.0
35.1
34.8
30.0

25.9

27.5
1986
25.4
27.3
26.7
32.1
34.6
28.2

22.8

27.1
1987
25.7
26.5
26.8
32.6
34.2
27.8

26.7

27.2
1988
26.5
26.5
29.1
31.5
34.2
28.0

31.0

27.6
1989
26.0
25.7
31.0
30.6
34.7
32.3

29.3

26.9
1990
26.3
25.3
32.5
29.9
35.2
33.5

28.3

26.7
1991
25.5
28.6

30.8
28.7


26.9

28.0
1992
25.1
28.3

28.9
27.1


26.7
23.2
27.5
1993
26.7
31.0
27.4
29.7
27.6


23.7
24.3
29.6
1994
27.2
30.8

29.5
29.0


23.6
23.5
29.4
1995
27.6
30.8

30.8
29.0


23.7
24.4
29.6
1996
28.0
27.5

30.6
28.5

30.2
27.6

27.7
1997
33.5
29.2


27.2

30.4
24.6

28.9
1998
33.9
27.5




29.5
25.9

28.3
1999
32.4
27.2




28.9
26.5
23.6
27.7
2000
28.8
27.6




28.9
25.0
24.5
27.7
2001
28.9
26.9
27.0




24.2
24.9
26.9
2002
27.8
27.8
25.4




27.7
25.5
26.7
2003
34.0
27.9
25.6
35.2



28.4
25.6
29.1
2004
34.6
26.4
24.6
36.1



27.6
25.8
27.8
2005
33.7
28.0
24.1
37.0



29.2
25.7
28.0
2006
31.5
28.2
25.2
36.5



29.6
26.4
28.4
2007
31.3
27.9
25.0
36.5
39.8

27.4
29.5
26.7
29.0
2008
33.0
23.1
26.0
32.8
39.9

27.5
29.4
25.5
30.3
2009
31.9
23.7
27.5
32.4
39.9
37.9
29.7
33.5
25.7
31.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-10
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-ll
MY11)"7? lo MY2009 Cars and \Yai>ons T.AB 55/45 Fuel F.conoim b\ Markelini> Group
YFAR
(;\i
Ford
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
BMW
All
1975
15.1
14.0
15.5
22.0
31.4
25.0

26.5
17.2
15.8
1976
16.6
16.7
16.6
25.0
32.6
26.9

27.5
18.4
17.5
1977
17.7
16.6
16.4
28.7
35.5
27.2

28.8
19.8
18.3
1978
19.0
18.6
18.9
26.8
33.7
26.8

27.2
19.2
19.9
1979
19.1
19.2
20.8
24.0
29.0
26.8

28.6
19.5
20.3
1980
21.9
22.4
22.6
27.4
29.2
31.2

31.2
25.0
23.5
1981
23.2
23.3
26.1
30.9
30.8
30.5

34.2
25.6
25.1
1982
24.2
24.5
27.0
30.4
33.4
30.7

32.8
25.4
26.0
1983
23.5
24.0
28.2
32.6
35.3
32.7

30.0
25.3
25.9
1984
24.4
25.3
28.4
32.9
35.2
31.9

28.4
27.0
26.3
1985
25.5
26.0
28.1
32.8
33.8
29.5

29.9
25.4
27.0
1986
27.0
26.7
28.6
32.3
33.6
29.9
34.9
29.4
25.0
27.9
1987
27.2
26.5
27.7
32.9
32.8
29.3
34.5
28.9
23.9
28.1
1988
28.1
27.0
28.5
32.7
31.8
30.6
34.3
30.3
21.2
28.6
1989
27.4
26.9
28.0
31.8
31.3
30.2
33.1
30.2
21.6
28.1
1990
27.3
26.2
27.4
30.4
30.4
28.4
33.1
28.9
21.7
27.8
1991
27.1
27.2
27.5
30.6
30.3
29.0
32.7
29.7
22.7
28.0
1992
26.6
26.7
27.7
28.9
30.9
29.9
31.2
29.0
23.8
27.6
1993
27.3
27.8
27.9
29.0
32.2
29.1
31.1
26.8
24.9
28.2
1994
27.5
27.1
26.2
29.1
32.1
29.8
32.7
28.1
24.9
28.0
1995
27.3
27.6
28.2
30.0
32.8
29.2
30.9
28.6
25.1
28.3
1996
27.8
26.2
27.2
29.5
31.8
30.2
31.7
28.2
27.0
28.3
1997
28.1
26.8
27.2
29.8
32.1
29.6
30.9
28.6
25.4
28.4
1998
27.6
27.2
28.3
30.2
32.0
30.2
30.6
28.7
25.1
28.5
1999
27.4
27.2
27.0
30.4
30.9
29.6
30.5
28.3
25.1
28.2
2000
27.6
27.0
27.6
30.5
31.0
28.0
29.9
28.5
24.6
28.2
2001
28.1
26.8
27.5
31.3
32.2
28.3
30.7
28.1
24.7
28.4
2002
28.5
27.1
26.9
30.7
32.0
28.9
30.3
29.0
26.0
28.6
2003
28.6
26.7
27.7
32.4
32.7
27.9
30.1
29.3
26.5
28.9
2004
29.1
25.9
27.4
32.7
32.7
28.2
29.1
28.5
26.2
28.9
2005
29.0
27.2
26.6
34.7
32.9
29.4
29.9
28.7
26.9
29.5
2006
28.6
26.9
25.5
34.5
33.5
29.1
30.6
29.9
27.0
29.2
2007
28.8
27.8
27.1
34.9
33.9
31.6
32.4
28.6
27.5
30.3
2008
28.6
27.9
27.8
36.0
34.3
32.2
33.6
28.9
27.2
30.5
2009
29.3
28.4
27.4
35.2
33.7
32.8
32.4
30.5
28.0
30.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-ll
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-12
MY1975 to MY2009 Vans LAB 55/45 Fuel Economy by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
B\I\Y
All
1975
14.4
12.6
12.6
20.5



20.7

13.1
1976
14.0
13.4
14.2




19.9

13.9
1977
15.0
15.5
13.8




22.2

14.7
1978
14.1
15.0
13.4




20.0

14.2
1979
14.7
12.1
13.8




18.7

13.5
1980
16.7
16.2
16.6




19.0

16.6
1981
18.0
16.8
17.4




18.5

17.5
1982
17.9
16.2
17.7




21.7

17.3
1983
18.9
16.3
18.0




19.3

17.7
1984
18.2
16.6
20.2
27.0



20.7

18.9
1985
18.7
16.2
21.0
26.6



21.3

19.5
1986
19.4
19.7
22.0
26.3



19.2

20.6
1987
19.8
19.6
22.3
25.5

22.4

18.9

20.9
1988
20.2
19.4
23.0
25.8

22.3

19.9

21.2
1989
20.2
19.8
22.6
25.9

22.2

20.8

21.1
1990
20.7
19.3
23.0


25.4

20.8

21.2
1991
20.8
19.8
22.8
22.9

26.0

20.9

21.4
1992
20.8
19.7
22.7
22.3

25.6



21.5
1993
20.7
20.8
23.6
21.9

21.8

21.0

21.9
1994
21.0
19.9
22.4
22.0

22.7

20.1

21.5
1995
20.6
21.7
23.0
22.6
25.5
23.0

19.6

21.8
1996
21.5
21.4
22.8
22.4
28.5
22.9



22.2
1997
21.9
20.7
22.7
22.3
24.9
22.6

18.5

22.1
1998
22.2
22.3
23.3
24.2
27.0
22.7



22.7
1999
22.0
20.9
23.0
24.1
24.1
23.1

19.1

22.3
2000
22.1
21.8
23.4
24.1
23.9
22.8

19.0

22.8
2001
22.9
18.0
23.4
24.7
24.0
22.6

20.7

22.1
2002
22.3
21.9
23.8
24.7
24.2
22.6
20.0
20.9

23.0
2003
23.2
22.2
24.5
24.7
24.2

20.0
20.9

23.5
2004
23.1
21.5
24.5
25.4
24.2
24.6
21.1


23.7
2005
22.6
23.5
24.3
24.7
26.0
24.7
21.3


24.0
2006
22.9
22.6
24.4
24.8
26.1
24.9
23.8


24.3
2007
22.6
24.6
23.8
26.1
24.7
24.5
23.8


24.2
2008
22.8
24.0
24.4
26.1
25.2
24.5
23.8


24.5
2009
19.7
24.2
24.6
26.2
25.4
24.5
23.8
24.1

24.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-12
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-13
MY1975 to MY2009 SUVs LAB 55/45 Fuel Economy by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
B\I\Y
All
1975
11.8
10.6
14.6
12.0





13.0
1976
13.1
13.7
15.0
10.9





13.8
1977
14.7
14.5
15.8
13.6





15.1
1978
14.0
13.2
15.6
12.7





14.4
1979
11.3
11.0
15.4
13.8





12.6
1980
14.5
14.0
16.8
13.8





15.5
1981
16.2
15.1
18.4
14.3





16.8
1982
19.3
14.8
18.5
14.2





17.6
1983
20.7
15.3
18.4
14.1





19.1
1984
20.5
18.3
18.3
17.3





19.3
1985
20.7
18.8
18.3
21.1





19.8
1986
19.7
19.8
19.3
23.3





20.2
1987
19.9
20.4
19.9
22.7

18.7



20.6
1988
19.9
20.2
19.3
20.3

18.5



20.4
1989
20.4
19.3
19.3
19.7

19.0



20.0
1990
19.9
18.7
19.9
19.5

19.5



19.8
1991
21.0
20.1
19.5
18.5

19.5



20.3
1992
19.9
20.0
19.9
17.0

19.6



19.9
1993
20.1
20.2
19.5
17.4

19.4



19.9
1994
20.0
20.1
19.3
17.4
20.2
18.6



19.7
1995
19.8
19.6
19.3
18.5

19.1
24.3


19.6
1996
20.2
19.7
19.3
22.7
19.4
19.8
23.4


20.0
1997
19.7
18.8
19.9
22.9
24.7
19.6
23.7


20.1
1998
20.7
18.8
19.1
22.9
25.4
19.5
24.4


20.1
1999
20.2
18.8
19.1
22.7
25.7
19.5
24.4


20.1
2000
19.9
18.9
19.2
22.4
26.0
19.6
23.5

17.5
20.1
2001
19.7
21.2
19.2
22.5
25.3
19.8
23.8

19.2
20.8
2002
19.9
20.0
19.5
22.6
26.3
19.9
24.0

20.1
20.6
2003
19.7
19.5
20.7
22.4
25.0
21.8
22.6

20.0
20.8
2004
20.0
19.7
20.4
22.9
24.7
20.3
22.9
19.0
21.5
20.9
2005
20.7
21.2
20.0
23.4
24.5
21.3
23.4
19.8
21.3
21.6
2006
21.5
21.2
20.0
24.9
24.9
21.4
23.6
20.0
21.2
22.1
2007
21.2
22.4
21.6
24.8
25.7
22.3
25.2
19.5
23.4
22.8
2008
22.0
24.1
22.3
25.2
26.1
23.2
25.1
20.2
22.9
23.5
2009
22.5
24.6
22.7
25.1
25.8
23.7
25.1
23.8
22.3
23.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-13
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-14
MY1975 to MY2009 Pickups LAB 55/45 Fuel Economy by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
BMW
All
1975
14.3
12.6
13.0
21.3

23.6



14.0
1976
14.6
13.9
14.0
22.1

24.5



14.6
1977
15.2
15.9
14.5
27.2

25.0



16.0
1978
14.7
15.9
14.5
24.6

25.6



15.7
1979
15.2
14.8
15.0
19.5

23.2



15.5
1980
18.5
18.0
19.8
21.5

25.1

31.3

19.4
1981
20.0
19.3
19.9
26.5

27.7

36.9

21.0
1982
21.9
18.3
21.2
25.6

27.8

39.2

21.7
1983
21.3
20.3
23.4
25.5

27.4

32.8

22.2
1984
20.7
19.5
19.4
25.1

26.2



21.5
1985
20.4
20.3
18.6
27.0

25.7



21.4
1986
20.8
20.6
20.2
26.4

24.7



22.2
1987
21.3
20.9
21.2
26.6

25.1



22.5
1988
20.4
21.2
20.8
25.1

24.7



21.5
1989
20.5
20.4
19.9
23.5

24.8



21.2
1990
19.2
20.8
19.1
23.1

27.1



20.7
1991
21.4
21.0
18.8
23.8

26.9



21.7
1992
20.3
20.6
19.2
23.7

26.7



20.9
1993
20.2
21.2
18.9
23.8

26.4



21.1
1994
20.0
21.4
18.8
24.3

25.6



21.0
1995
20.2
20.3
17.8
23.3

24.9



20.4
1996
21.3
21.4
17.4
23.6

25.2



20.8
1997
20.5
21.0
17.7
20.4

24.9



20.4
1998
21.1
20.8
18.0
23.7

25.5



20.7
1999
19.8
20.3
17.7
23.2

23.3



19.9
2000
20.8
20.5
18.4
20.8

21.8



20.5
2001
20.4
19.8
17.3
21.2

22.2



19.6
2002
19.1
20.0
17.9
20.9

22.0



19.5
2003
20.1
20.0
18.2
21.0

22.4



19.9
2004
20.0
19.4
17.9
20.6

23.2



19.6
2005
20.4
19.1
18.2
21.6

19.4



19.7
2006
20.7
19.0
19.0
21.7
21.4
19.8



20.1
2007
20.3
19.4
19.0
21.3
21.4
20.1



20.1
2008
20.9
19.9
20.2
21.1
21.4
19.4



20.5
2009
20.6
21.4
19.8
22.3
22.0
19.6



20.8
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-14
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-15
MY1975 to MY2009 Trucks LAB 55/45 Fuel Economy by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
B\I\Y
All
1975
14.1
12.5
13.2
18.9

23.6

20.7

13.7
1976
14.3
13.8
14.3
18.8

24.5

19.9

14.4
1977
15.1
15.8
14.5
22.9

25.0

22.2

15.6
1978
14.5
15.5
14.4
21.3

25.6

20.0

15.2
1979
14.5
14.0
14.7
19.2

23.2

18.7

14.7
1980
17.9
17.4
18.2
21.4

25.1

25.2

18.6
1981
19.4
18.6
18.8
26.2

27.7

29.5

20.1
1982
21.0
17.5
19.5
25.2

27.8

27.8

20.5
1983
20.7
19.1
20.7
25.0

27.4

20.3

20.9
1984
20.2
18.8
19.4
24.9

26.2

20.7

20.5
1985
20.2
19.3
19.6
26.5

25.7

21.3

20.6
1986
20.2
20.3
20.7
26.1

24.7

19.2

21.4
1987
20.5
20.5
21.3
25.9

23.5

18.9

21.6
1988
20.2
20.6
21.4
24.4

22.7

19.9

21.2
1989
20.4
20.1
21.0
23.2

23.7

20.8

20.9
1990
19.7
20.2
21.4
21.8

25.3

20.8

20.7
1991
21.2
20.5
21.1
22.4

24.8

20.9

21.3
1992
20.3
20.2
21.3
21.9

24.0



20.8
1993
20.3
20.8
21.2
22.1

23.7

21.0

21.0
1994
20.2
20.8
20.5
22.0
20.2
22.9

20.1

20.8
1995
20.1
20.6
20.1
21.2
25.5
22.4
24.3
19.6

20.5
1996
20.8
20.8
20.2
23.1
22.5
22.9
23.4


20.8
1997
20.4
20.2
20.2
22.6
24.7
22.3
23.7
18.5

20.6
1998
21.2
20.2
20.0
23.4
25.5
22.3
24.4


20.9
1999
20.3
19.8
19.9
23.0
25.2
21.2
24.4
19.1

20.5
2000
20.7
20.1
20.4
22.0
25.0
20.8
23.5
19.0
17.5
20.8
2001
20.4
20.1
19.5
22.3
24.7
20.7
23.8
20.7
19.2
20.6
2002
19.8
20.2
20.0
22.2
25.3
20.7
22.8
20.9
20.1
20.6
2003
20.2
20.0
20.9
22.0
24.8
21.9
21.9
20.9
20.0
20.9
2004
20.2
19.7
19.8
22.7
24.6
21.2
22.5
19.0
21.5
20.8
2005
20.8
20.4
20.9
23.1
24.9
20.9
22.8
19.8
21.3
21.4
2006
21.3
20.2
21.0
23.7
24.8
21.0
23.6
20.0
21.2
21.8
2007
20.9
20.8
21.5
23.7
25.1
21.8
24.9
19.5
23.4
22.1
2008
21.6
22.2
22.4
23.9
25.5
22.0
24.9
20.2
22.9
22.7
2009
21.8
23.4
22.2
24.2
25.5
22.5
24.9
23.9
22.3
22.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-15
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-16
MY1975 to MY2009 All LAB 55/45 Fuel Economy by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
B\I\Y
All
1975
14.9
13.6
15.0
21.6
31.4
24.7

26.4
17.2
15.3
1976
16.1
15.7
16.1
24.0
32.6
26.3

27.4
18.4
16.7
1977
17.2
16.3
16.0
27.7
35.5
26.7

28.8
19.8
17.7
1978
17.9
17.6
17.5
25.7
33.7
26.5

27.1
19.2
18.6
1979
18.0
17.4
18.6
22.9
29.0
26.2

28.0
19.5
18.7
1980
21.3
20.8
21.4
25.9
29.2
29.8

30.5
25.0
22.5
1981
22.6
21.6
24.5
29.9
30.8
30.0

33.5
25.6
24.1
1982
23.5
22.2
24.5
29.1
33.4
30.0

32.2
25.4
24.7
1983
22.9
22.0
25.8
30.5
35.3
31.7

28.7
25.3
24.6
1984
23.5
22.9
24.7
29.7
35.2
30.5

27.7
27.0
24.6
1985
24.0
23.5
24.4
30.0
33.8
28.4

29.0
25.4
25.0
1986
25.2
24.0
24.8
29.4
33.6
27.5
34.9
28.9
25.0
25.7
1987
25.3
24.1
24.6
30.0
32.8
27.8
34.5
28.2
23.9
25.9
1988
25.2
24.4
24.7
29.6
31.8
28.1
34.3
30.0
21.2
25.9
1989
24.8
24.3
24.1
28.9
31.3
28.4
33.1
29.9
21.6
25.4
1990
24.5
23.7
23.9
27.8
30.4
27.5
33.1
28.3
21.7
25.2
1991
24.8
24.2
24.1
27.5
30.3
27.6
32.7
29.2
22.7
25.4
1992
24.2
23.5
23.7
26.8
30.9
28.2
31.2
29.0
23.8
24.9
1993
24.3
24.5
23.5
26.7
32.2
27.1
31.1
25.8
24.9
25.1
1994
24.1
23.8
22.2
26.4
31.5
27.3
32.7
28.1
24.9
24.6
1995
23.9
24.0
22.9
27.0
32.4
26.1
30.4
28.4
25.1
24.7
1996
24.7
23.3
22.2
27.4
31.1
27.7
30.9
28.2
27.0
24.8
1997
24.4
22.8
22.2
27.1
31.0
26.6
29.7
28.5
25.4
24.5
1998
24.5
22.8
21.9
27.4
30.9
27.1
29.4
28.7
25.1
24.5
1999
23.8
22.6
21.5
27.1
29.6
26.5
29.3
28.2
25.1
24.1
2000
24.0
22.8
22.3
26.2
29.4
24.3
28.7
28.4
24.3
24.3
2001
23.9
22.5
21.7
26.5
29.9
24.1
29.0
28.0
23.3
24.2
2002
23.2
22.4
21.7
26.0
29.8
25.0
27.8
28.8
24.8
24.1
2003
23.2
22.1
22.3
27.1
29.1
25.4
27.0
29.2
25.2
24.3
2004
23.4
21.3
22.0
26.6
28.9
24.1
26.5
27.0
24.9
24.0
2005
23.9
22.7
22.6
28.8
29.1
25.1
26.6
27.8
25.1
24.8
2006
24.4
22.6
22.5
28.4
28.9
25.0
28.0
29.4
25.8
25.2
2007
23.8
23.6
23.2
29.6
29.3
26.8
28.8
27.4
26.7
25.8
2008
24.4
24.2
24.2
29.0
30.1
27.6
30.0
27.9
26.3
26.3
2009
24.7
25.6
23.2
29.4
29.7
27.2
29.4
28.6
26.9
26.4
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-16
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-17
MY1975 to MY2009 Cars Inertia Weight by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
4486
4166
4142
2746
2000
2589

2353
3214
4071
1976
4375
4211
4036
2742
2001
2547

2336
3178
4044
1977
4158
4333
4131
2623
2058
2537

2348
3056
3936
1978
3758
3882
3652
2611
2113
2510

2406
3065
3572
1979
3726
3617
3390
2708
2313
2502

2388
3151
3468
1980
3355
3180
3046
2622
2337
2469

2379
3064
3092
1981
3417
3110
2825
2555
2351
2535

2400
3005
3079
1982
3327
3066
2949
2576
2363
2575

2470
2980
3039
1983
3425
3229
2848
2744
2389
2523

2521
3019
3121
1984
3326
3192
2804
2712
2387
2653

2621
2905
3091
1985
3299
3208
2874
2778
2440
2749

2643
3191
3091
1986
3144
3217
2869
2769
2576
2777
2500
2643
3232
3026
1987
3162
3222
2889
2822
2639
2875
2500
2682
3240
3013
1988
3137
3243
2958
2778
2772
2776
2500
2667
3581
3035
1989
3173
3279
3077
2829
2805
2837
2580
2715
3507
3088
1990
3244
3405
3215
2959
2889
3026
2636
2882
3599
3167
1991
3236
3301
3188
2920
2899
3081
2628
2887
3568
3147
1992
3301
3447
3172
3096
3004
3026
2768
2940
3639
3234
1993
3265
3351
3179
3144
2969
3097
2786
3081
3638
3210
1994
3276
3461
3361
3144
3047
3035
2672
3070
3654
3251
1995
3339
3424
3205
3175
2986
3143
2805
3083
3757
3266
1996
3337
3507
3333
3204
3041
3121
2710
3118
3464
3276
1997
3308
3455
3355
3232
3013
3122
2791
3118
3577
3274
1998
3369
3373
3230
3313
3173
3283
2798
3188
3599
3304
1999
3409
3425
3515
3304
3220
3341
2883
3225
3669
3361
2000
3441
3473
3393
3260
3195
3381
2942
3228
3678
3366
2001
3445
3482
3473
3242
3189
3305
2965
3278
3738
3366
2002
3406
3479
3483
3352
3218
3368
3066
3370
3678
3379
2003
3490
3619
3428
3217
3283
3430
3114
3400
3579
3421
2004
3428
3719
3426
3330
3295
3528
3251
3497
3594
3444
2005
3482
3652
3516
3263
3308
3521
3198
3592
3507
3444
2006
3584
3683
3934
3288
3335
3525
3394
3633
3621
3526
2007
3581
3581
3765
3370
3333
3483
3296
3680
3691
3503
2008
3659
3671
3787
3319
3386
3463
3187
3651
3787
3529
2009
3666
3634
3904
3324
3407
3421
3438
3656
3697
3542
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-17
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-18
MY1975 to MY2009 Wagons Inertia Weight by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
4594
4427
4250
2693

3000

2500

3957
1976
4723
4544
4129
2703
2250
2693

2500

4182
1977
4490
4418
4151
2661
2250
2646

2500

4005
1978
4122
3822
4031
2701
2250
2668

2500

3723
1979
4099
3599
3901
2622
2250
2457

2500

3637
1980
4038
3273
3768
2605
2250
2415

2500

3231
1981
4125
2949
2941
2584
2250
2497

2500

3040
1982
3814
3088
2925
2562
2250
2511

2750

3188
1983
3669
3129
2902
2498
2250
2466

2806

3047
1984
3531
3193
2808
2573
2250
2458

3122

3175
1985
3611
3156
3004
2515
2317
2626

3066

3112
1986
3584
3199
3105
2618
2374
2935

3245

3215
1987
3615
3305
3077
2902
2390
2999

2847

3248
1988
3645
3303
2942
2919
2599
2977

2553

3242
1989
3643
3380
2779
2941
2536
2767

2766

3327
1990
3617
3457
2706
2995
2666
2692

3176

3367
1991
3784
3221

2937
3238


3386

3305
1992
3825
3295

3073
3500


3359
4000
3391
1993
3500
3034
3063
3096
3500


3634
4000
3154
1994
3432
3079

3205
3500


3790
4000
3217
1995
3431
3044

3230
3500


3702
4000
3189
1996
3428
3526

3227
3500

3000
3711

3453
1997
2749
3306


3500

3000
3793

3283
1998
2749
3477




3000
3739

3359
1999
2983
3582




3000
3675
4000
3460
2000
3307
3571




3000
3612
3751
3468
2001
3488
3623
3516




3882
3844
3631
2002
3607
3602
3500




3695
3862
3610
2003
3069
3553
3500
3000



3757
3826
3425
2004
3061
3811
4115
2927



3822
3756
3683
2005
3093
3572
4206
2880



3882
3821
3652
2006
3368
3641
3978
2848



3753
4000
3603
2007
3389
3647
3961
3000
2750

3736
3899
4000
3559
2008
3426
4305
3781
3359
2750

3839
3745
4290
3495
2009
3485
4355
3500
3399
2750
3000
3685
3649
4236
3438
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-18
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-19
MY1975 to MY2009 Cars and Wagons Inertia Weight by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
4494
4200
4155
2718
2000
2606

2371
3214
4058
1976
4398
4252
4053
2735
2021
2568

2343
3178
4059
1977
4183
4340
4136
2628
2085
2555

2358
3056
3944
1978
3786
3876
3712
2622
2126
2534

2410
3065
3588
1979
3759
3615
3444
2701
2308
2494

2389
3151
3485
1980
3383
3190
3095
2620
2330
2461

2385
3064
3101
1981
3444
3080
2839
2557
2343
2530

2403
3005
3076
1982
3368
3069
2946
2575
2354
2568

2478
2980
3054
1983
3445
3214
2854
2663
2380
2516

2526
3019
3112
1984
3345
3192
2804
2697
2380
2633

2631
2905
3099
1985
3322
3203
2881
2708
2432
2738

2655
3191
3093
1986
3173
3215
2882
2761
2565
2801
2500
2653
3232
3041
1987
3191
3233
2897
2831
2633
2882
2500
2687
3240
3031
1988
3158
3248
2957
2786
2770
2786
2500
2657
3581
3047
1989
3191
3287
3073
2836
2800
2836
2580
2716
3507
3099
1990
3255
3409
3214
2961
2884
3025
2636
2893
3599
3176
1991
3248
3293
3188
2921
2913
3081
2628
2903
3568
3154
1992
3310
3433
3172
3096
3015
3026
2768
2955
3649
3240
1993
3271
3307
3178
3142
2977
3097
2786
3104
3647
3207
1994
3279
3416
3361
3145
3055
3035
2672
3086
3661
3250
1995
3340
3382
3205
3177
2995
3143
2805
3102
3761
3263
1996
3339
3508
3333
3204
3046
3121
2728
3140
3464
3282
1997
3302
3442
3355
3232
3019
3122
2800
3138
3577
3274
1998
3362
3380
3230
3313
3173
3283
2803
3207
3599
3306
1999
3405
3435
3515
3304
3220
3341
2888
3254
3681
3365
2000
3439
3479
3393
3260
3195
3381
2946
3255
3681
3369
2001
3445
3492
3483
3242
3189
3305
2965
3328
3741
3380
2002
3407
3488
3487
3352
3218
3368
3066
3400
3683
3391
2003
3473
3615
3448
3200
3283
3430
3114
3443
3586
3421
2004
3415
3726
3623
3295
3295
3528
3251
3535
3596
3462
2005
3462
3648
3756
3223
3308
3521
3198
3617
3509
3463
2006
3562
3682
3949
3236
3335
3525
3394
3638
3628
3534
2007
3566
3584
3822
3362
3289
3483
3321
3699
3697
3507
2008
3640
3686
3786
3322
3333
3463
3222
3659
3794
3527
2009
3649
3654
3873
3331
3356
3410
3451
3655
3705
3533
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-19
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-20
MY1975 to MY2009 Vans Inertia Weight by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
4183
4135
4263
3500



3497

4196
1976
4225
4081
4326




3500

4200
1977
4276
4110
4404




3500

4252
1978
4313
4088
4387




3500

4250
1979
4553
4665
4450




3500

4541
1980
4338
4625
4137




3619

4353
1981
4374
4509
4050




3644

4324
1982
4447
4544
4031




3668

4342
1983
4551
4516
4099




3625

4414
1984
4523
4389
3679
3396



3627

4075
1985
4287
4464
3645
3274



3656

3975
1986
4240
4218
3674
3435



3764

3998
1987
4214
4247
3707
3285

3500

3818

3972
1988
4210
4358
3798
3515

3611

3868

4053
1989
4215
4274
3825
3552

3738

4042

4057
1990
4265
4317
3876


3452

4020

4095
1991
4289
4283
3972
4000

3382

4021

4133
1992
4304
4427
3970
4000

3500



4151
1993
4364
4280
3823
4000

4000

4157

4105
1994
4316
4437
3971
4025

4000

4260

4156
1995
4337
4182
3837
4104
3500
4000

5000

4110
1996
4419
4214
4156
4065
3500
4000



4195
1997
4354
4410
4152
4137
3500
4000

5490

4241
1998
4291
4205
4141
4000
3500
4000



4183
1999
4327
4578
4170
4000
4500
4000

4897

4307
2000
4323
4470
4157
4000
4500
4000

5116

4276
2001
4275
5337
4430
4000
4500
4000

4850

4519
2002
4307
4570
4374
4000
4500
4000
5000
4638

4394
2003
4347
4613
4286
4000
4500

5000
4564

4393
2004
4360
4620
4382
4500
4500
4500
5000


4487
2005
4532
4464
4285
4500
4500
4500
5000


4430
2006
4715
4530
4361
4500
4500
4500
4500


4475
2007
4726
4283
4401
4500
4500
4500
4500


4479
2008
4704
4500
4554
4500
4500
4500
4500


4549
2009
5477
4500
4611
4500
4500
4500
4500
4565

4589
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-20
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-21
MY1975 to MY2009 SUVs Inertia Weight by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
4867
5000
3561
4000





4202
1976
4906
5000
3600
4082





4312
1977
4692
5000
3637
4030





4232
1978
4702
5000
3611
4078





4270
1979
5169
5000
3589
4039





4509
1980
5071
4738
3509
4001





4236
1981
5013
4686
3504
4239





4208
1982
5203
4677
3528
4342





4349
1983
4376
4673
3489
4463





4137
1984
4266
3989
3637
3939





3999
1985
4169
3978
3805
3727





4018
1986
4181
3975
3721
4029





3921
1987
4228
3902
3677
3730

4000



3840
1988
4315
3910
3651
4018

4000



3859
1989
4264
4314
3637
4103

4000



4018
1990
4336
4399
3560
4276

4000



4045
1991
4063
4371
3564
4492

4000



4070
1992
4160
4361
3456
4515

4000



4085
1993
4414
4366
3746
4499

4304



4157
1994
4481
4370
3726
4484
4000
4352



4209
1995
4569
4538
3681
4379

4204
3500


4255
1996
4627
4515
3795
3735
4329
4000
3500


4283
1997
4796
4735
3811
3633
3689
4399
3500


4329
1998
4463
4754
4101
3861
3617
4398
3500


4340
1999
4523
4818
4273
4112
3605
4338
3500


4400
2000
4786
4804
4201
4174
3617
4293
3500

5000
4458
2001
4889
4271
4232
4197
3809
4306
3734

4797
4378
2002
5003
4418
4408
4215
3778
4296
3819

5000
4508
2003
5122
4809
4290
4302
4020
4234
4152

5000
4611
2004
5127
4818
4275
4379
4033
4731
4133
5508
4508
4634
2005
5027
4529
4510
4351
4049
4714
4086
5500
4562
4575
2006
4740
4709
4586
4426
4041
4734
4098
5527
4543
4547
2007
5274
4531
4416
4322
4096
4645
4078
5568
4581
4611
2008
5016
4297
4397
4481
4065
4591
4120
5572
4753
4539
2009
4960
4417
4475
4487
4141
4523
4171
4678
4901
4561
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-21
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-22
MY1975 to MY2009 Pickups Inertia Weight by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
4073
4181
4345
2750

2750



4012
1976
4193
4229
4338
2819

2750



4122
1977
4214
4189
4335
2780

2750



4092
1978
4248
4216
4226
2866

2786



4104
1979
4495
4144
4041
2814

2781



4142
1980
4157
4032
3430
2865

2830

2265

3740
1981
4012
3890
3564
2888

2893

2318

3679
1982
3850
3972
3470
3013

2894

2310

3629
1983
3931
3579
3311
3033

3041

2516

3544
1984
3962
3768
3638
3036

3156



3619
1985
3926
3688
3798
3107

3137



3642
1986
3893
3793
3626
3129

3229



3574
1987
3751
3761
3611
3114

3169



3526
1988
4013
3791
3652
3181

3239



3737
1989
3976
4023
3681
3377

3239



3803
1990
4250
3994
3991
3396

3167



3928
1991
3845
3986
4035
3413

3203



3779
1992
4088
4178
4046
3366

3229



3976
1993
4189
4109
4111
3394

3257



3996
1994
4256
4097
4346
3382

3333



4056
1995
4270
4322
4516
3533

3365



4182
1996
4304
4065
4697
3508

3355



4190
1997
4597
4315
4765
4086

3350



4415
1998
4311
4277
4783
3432

3604



4282
1999
4763
4281
4795
3549

3788



4487
2000
4401
4310
4662
4110

3918



4340
2001
4592
4562
4905
4046

3880



4552
2002
4988
4519
5011
4140

3944



4690
2003
4713
4592
5108
4148

3945



4642
2004
4951
5140
5140
4296

3870



4939
2005
4891
5288
5093
4476

4895



4988
2006
4878
5369
5191
4485
4500
4811



4968
2007
5213
5259
5291
4929
4500
4771



5144
2008
5257
5174
5268
4978
4500
5140



5161
2009
5356
5062
5362
4679
4500
5172



5157
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-22
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-23
MY1975 to MY2009 Trucks Inertia Weight by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
4159
4182
4080
2966

2750

3497

4072
1976
4265
4208
4151
3037

2750

3500

4155
1977
4266
4198
4178
3018

2750

3500

4135
1978
4301
4239
4090
3066

2786

3500

4151
1979
4585
4283
4028
2862

2781

3500

4252
1980
4252
4172
3592
2880

2830

2770

3869
1981
4118
4023
3663
2906

2893

2652

3806
1982
4028
4151
3633
3042

2894

3002

3806
1983
4128
3809
3528
3069

3041

3488

3763
1984
4131
3909
3655
3133

3156

3627

3782
1985
4063
3863
3724
3175

3137

3656

3795
1986
4049
3923
3672
3248

3229

3764

3738
1987
4004
3922
3668
3208

3338

3818

3713
1988
4118
3940
3723
3303

3444

3868

3841
1989
4096
4143
3743
3457

3352

4042

3921
1990
4270
4125
3819
3675

3335

4020

4005
1991
3985
4167
3885
3759

3383

4021

3948
1992
4158
4280
3878
3685

3476



4056
1993
4289
4217
3836
3657

3603

4157

4073
1994
4335
4229
3983
3686
4000
3718

4260

4125
1995
4388
4310
3936
3895
3500
3741
3500
5000

4184
1996
4455
4246
4172
3618
3969
3694
3500


4225
1997
4624
4470
4211
3676
3653
3841
3500
5490

4344
1998
4357
4447
4306
3713
3605
3985
3500


4283
1999
4608
4533
4362
3925
3843
4112
3500
4897

4412
2000
4521
4528
4275
4117
4036
4104
3500
5116
5000
4375
2001
4685
4544
4523
4123
4095
4157
3734
4850
4797
4463
2002
4922
4474
4562
4168
4092
4163
4147
4638
5000
4546
2003
4869
4695
4545
4230
4162
4164
4378
4564
5000
4586
2004
5002
4962
4576
4383
4148
4567
4333
5508
4508
4710
2005
4926
4869
4561
4413
4179
4752
4325
5500
4562
4668
2006
4795
5003
4645
4459
4227
4746
4186
5527
4543
4665
2007
5222
4899
4592
4531
4242
4667
4161
5568
4581
4752
2008
5090
4653
4618
4630
4192
4744
4186
5572
4753
4710
2009
5102
4643
4720
4551
4251
4692
4222
4634
4901
4712
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-23
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-24
MY1975 to MY2009 All Inertia Weight by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
4427
4195
4141
2748
2000
2640

2375
3214
4060
1976
4370
4240
4074
2773
2021
2610

2350
3178
4079
1977
4199
4299
4144
2685
2085
2595

2366
3056
3982
1978
3896
3982
3815
2694
2126
2580

2420
3065
3715
1979
3926
3806
3613
2733
2308
2541

2433
3151
3655
1980
3493
3455
3207
2672
2330
2531

2420
3064
3228
1981
3537
3373
2981
2621
2343
2596

2437
3005
3202
1982
3488
3349
3125
2677
2354
2637

2539
2980
3202
1983
3579
3421
3029
2754
2380
2603

2618
3019
3257
1984
3495
3413
3076
2845
2380
2748

2702
2905
3262
1985
3494
3401
3175
2889
2432
2845

2724
3191
3271
1986
3363
3467
3202
2959
2565
2981
2500
2691
3232
3238
1987
3383
3468
3222
2966
2633
2984
2500
2742
3240
3221
1988
3442
3482
3313
2942
2770
2955
2500
2679
3581
3283
1989
3474
3562
3405
3004
2800
2956
2580
2749
3507
3351
1990
3559
3663
3529
3132
2884
3109
2636
2947
3599
3426
1991
3498
3624
3512
3173
2913
3170
2628
2949
3568
3410
1992
3587
3787
3576
3242
3015
3132
2768
2955
3649
3512
1993
3632
3676
3567
3285
2977
3261
2786
3261
3647
3519
1994
3698
3788
3768
3317
3084
3249
2672
3090
3661
3603
1995
3758
3787
3619
3369
3016
3381
2847
3126
3761
3613
1996
3765
3866
3882
3322
3099
3280
2783
3140
3464
3659
1997
3839
3991
3914
3371
3096
3375
2896
3161
3577
3727
1998
3778
3974
3990
3455
3231
3510
2917
3207
3599
3744
1999
3927
4028
4120
3536
3345
3570
2992
3266
3681
3835
2000
3934
4037
3987
3623
3381
3701
3034
3268
3721
3821
2001
4017
4085
4161
3639
3427
3710
3120
3340
3964
3879
2002
4202
4091
4230
3732
3461
3680
3366
3417
3910
3951
2003
4265
4277
4267
3624
3626
3694
3494
3455
3811
3999
2004
4282
4558
4236
3862
3633
4058
3612
3753
3807
4111
2005
4257
4375
4279
3711
3659
4034
3654
3753
3803
4059
2006
4179
4448
4376
3811
3735
4037
3649
3705
3779
4067
2007
4487
4286
4327
3808
3712
3959
3663
3878
3860
4093
2008
4404
4271
4307
3953
3681
3926
3555
3817
3961
4085
2009
4442
4162
4526
3855
3728
3985
3712
3897
3888
4108
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-24
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-25
MY1975 to MY2009 Cars LAB 55/45 Ton-MPG by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
34.1
29.7
32.4
29.2
31.5
33.4

31.1
28.4
32.4
1976
36.5
35.4
33.8
34.4
33.2
34.8

32.2
29.2
35.4
1977
37.2
36.1
34.3
38.3
38.2
35.4

34.6
30.5
36.4
1978
36.2
36.1
35.6
35.9
36.3
34.6

34.0
29.5
35.9
1979
36.2
34.6
35.9
32.7
33.6
33.7

35.8
30.8
35.4
1980
37.0
35.6
35.0
36.2
34.0
38.7

38.6
38.8
36.5
1981
39.9
35.8
37.3
40.0
36.2
38.9

43.1
38.9
38.9
1982
40.9
37.6
40.0
39.5
39.5
40.0

42.9
38.4
40.1
1983
40.5
38.4
40.9
43.6
42.4
41.6

39.1
38.5
40.5
1984
40.9
40.6
40.1
44.7
42.3
42.5

38.6
39.3
41.0
1985
42.4
41.8
40.7
44.8
41.4
40.8

40.9
40.8
41.9
1986
42.9
42.9
41.5
44.8
43.4
42.2
43.7
40.0
40.7
42.6
1987
43.4
42.9
40.1
46.7
43.5
42.4
43.2
39.2
39.1
42.7
1988
44.4
43.9
42.2
45.5
44.4
42.9
43.0
40.5
38.4
43.7
1989
43.8
44.3
43.3
45.2
44.1
42.9
42.9
41.4
37.9
43.7
1990
44.4
44.8
44.0
45.1
44.2
43.0
43.8
41.8
39.1
44.2
1991
44.1
44.7
43.8
44.7
44.4
45.0
43.2
43.4
40.7
44.2
1992
44.1
45.8
44.0
44.6
47.3
45.7
43.2
43.0
43.3
44.8
1993
44.6
45.8
44.4
45.4
48.3
45.3
43.4
41.6
45.5
45.3
1994
45.1
46.2
44.1
45.6
49.3
45.5
43.9
43.4
45.6
45.7
1995
45.6
46.8
45.1
47.6
49.4
46.1
43.6
44.5
47.0
46.3
1996
46.5
45.9
45.3
47.2
48.8
47.4
43.3
44.5
46.7
46.5
1997
46.5
46.1
45.6
48.2
48.9
46.4
43.4
45.3
45.5
46.6
1998
46.4
46.0
45.8
50.3
50.9
49.6
43.0
46.8
45.2
47.3
1999
46.7
46.6
47.4
50.3
50.0
49.5
44.1
46.4
46.1
47.5
2000
47.5
46.9
46.8
49.9
49.8
47.3
44.1
47.3
45.3
47.6
2001
48.4
46.9
48.2
51.5
51.9
46.8
45.5
47.5
46.2
48.3
2002
48.6
47.1
47.7
52.1
51.8
49.1
46.6
50.1
48.0
48.9
2003
49.5
48.2
49.3
52.3
54.4
48.2
46.9
50.8
47.6
49.8
2004
49.5
48.1
49.4
55.3
54.6
50.1
47.4
50.7
47.1
50.4
2005
50.2
49.7
49.4
58.5
55.0
51.8
47.8
52.3
47.3
51.8
2006
50.8
49.7
50.5
58.1
56.9
51.5
51.9
55.7
49.1
52.5
2007
51.3
50.2
53.4
60.9
56.8
55.7
54.0
52.8
51.1
54.4
2008
51.9
51.9
53.8
63.5
58.0
56.2
54.2
53.1
52.0
55.1
2009
53.8
52.3
53.8
61.0
57.5
56.3
56.1
57.1
52.4
55.6
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-25
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-26
MY1975 to MY2009 Wagons LAB 55/45 Ton-MPG by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
li\l\V
All
1975
33.7
31.0
33.7
30.8

31.5

34.1

32.2
1976
36.6
37.3
35.7
33.4
33.1
37.0

34.9

36.2
1977
38.1
35.8
34.7
37.2
36.1
36.2

36.4

36.3
1978
37.0
35.5
35.9
34.9
35.6
34.6

32.4

35.8
1979
36.6
35.1
35.7
32.9
33.7
34.3

31.3

35.8
1980
41.4
36.7
36.4
35.9
36.9
39.0

50.5

38.4
1981
44.1
37.2
36.9
37.7
38.0
39.5

50.7

39.1
1982
41.6
39.1
39.9
37.5
41.6
40.6

41.8

40.4
1983
41.8
40.2
40.0
43.5
41.5
42.7

45.2

41.6
1984
42.6
42.0
39.5
43.8
40.7
43.4

40.4

42.1
1985
43.9
42.5
40.6
44.2
40.5
39.9

39.9

42.7
1986
45.2
43.7
41.6
42.2
41.1
41.6

37.1

43.4
1987
46.2
43.8
41.3
47.3
41.0
41.9

38.4

44.1
1988
48.1
43.8
43.0
46.1
44.6
41.8

39.6

44.6
1989
47.1
43.5
43.2
45.1
44.2
44.7

40.4

44.6
1990
47.4
43.7
44.0
45.0
47.0
45.1

44.7

45.0
1991
48.0
46.3

45.4
46.6


45.5

46.3
1992
47.8
46.8

44.5
47.5


44.7
46.4
46.7
1993
46.4
47.2
42.0
46.3
48.3


43.1
48.5
46.8
1994
46.5
47.8

47.2
50.8


44.7
47.0
47.5
1995
47.1
47.2

49.6
50.9


43.9
48.8
47.3
1996
47.7
48.4

49.3
50.0

45.3
55.0

47.9
1997
46.1
48.2


47.8

45.6
47.0

47.5
1998
46.7
47.7




44.3
48.5

47.4
1999
48.1
48.6




43.4
48.9
47.4
47.9
2000
47.7
49.3




43.4
45.4
46.1
48.0
2001
50.4
48.9
47.5




47.2
47.9
49.0
2002
50.1
49.9
44.5




52.1
49.3
48.4
2003
52.3
49.5
44.9
52.9



55.6
49.1
50.4
2004
53.0
50.4
50.3
52.9



54.2
48.4
51.4
2005
52.6
50.0
50.5
53.3



59.1
49.1
51.4
2006
53.1
51.3
50.0
51.9



55.8
52.9
51.3
2007
53.1
51.1
49.3
54.7
54.8

51.2
57.9
53.5
51.9
2008
56.6
49.7
49.1
55.1
54.9

52.8
55.1
54.7
53.2
2009
55.7
51.7
48.2
55.0
54.9
56.9
55.0
63.0
54.3
54.3
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-26
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-27
MY!1)"? lo MY20n<) Cars and \Va»ons T.AB 55/45 Ton-MPG 1>\ Markclin» Group
YKAR
(;\i
I'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
BMW
All
1975
34.0
29.9
32.5
30.0
31.5
33.3

31.5
28.4
32.3
1976
36.5
35.6
34.1
34.3
33.2
35.1

32.3
29.2
35.5
1977
37.2
36.1
34.4
38.2
37.9
35.5

34.7
30.5
36.4
1978
36.2
36.0
35.6
35.8
36.3
34.6

33.9
29.5
35.9
1979
36.3
34.7
35.9
32.7
33.6
33.8

35.8
30.8
35.4
1980
37.1
35.7
35.1
36.2
34.2
38.7

39.2
38.8
36.6
1981
40.0
36.0
37.2
39.8
36.3
38.9

43.4
38.9
38.9
1982
41.0
37.8
40.0
39.3
39.7
40.1

42.9
38.4
40.1
1983
40.7
38.6
40.8
43.6
42.3
41.7

39.2
38.5
40.7
1984
41.1
40.8
40.1
44.6
42.2
42.6

38.6
39.3
41.1
1985
42.5
41.9
40.7
44.6
41.4
40.7

40.9
40.8
42.0
1986
43.0
43.0
41.5
44.7
43.3
42.1
43.7
39.9
40.7
42.6
1987
43.6
43.0
40.2
46.7
43.4
42.4
43.2
39.2
39.1
42.8
1988
44.6
43.9
42.2
45.6
44.4
42.8
43.0
40.4
38.4
43.7
1989
43.9
44.2
43.3
45.2
44.1
42.9
42.9
41.4
37.9
43.8
1990
44.5
44.7
44.0
45.1
44.2
43.0
43.8
41.9
39.1
44.2
1991
44.2
44.9
43.8
44.7
44.5
45.0
43.2
43.5
40.7
44.3
1992
44.2
45.9
44.0
44.6
47.3
45.7
43.2
43.0
43.4
44.9
1993
44.7
46.0
44.4
45.5
48.3
45.3
43.4
41.7
45.6
45.4
1994
45.1
46.4
44.1
45.6
49.3
45.5
43.9
43.5
45.6
45.7
1995
45.7
46.8
45.1
47.7
49.5
46.1
43.6
44.5
47.1
46.4
1996
46.5
46.1
45.3
47.3
48.8
47.4
43.4
44.9
46.7
46.5
1997
46.4
46.3
45.6
48.2
48.8
46.4
43.5
45.4
45.5
46.7
1998
46.4
46.1
45.8
50.3
50.9
49.6
43.0
46.8
45.2
47.3
1999
46.7
46.7
47.4
50.3
50.0
49.5
44.1
46.5
46.2
47.5
2000
47.5
47.1
46.8
49.9
49.8
47.3
44.1
47.1
45.3
47.6
2001
48.4
47.0
48.0
51.5
51.9
46.8
45.5
47.4
46.2
48.4
2002
48.6
47.3
46.9
52.1
51.8
49.1
46.6
50.3
48.0
48.9
2003
49.7
48.2
48.1
52.3
54.4
48.2
46.9
51.4
47.6
49.9
2004
49.7
48.2
49.6
55.1
54.6
50.1
47.4
51.1
47.2
50.5
2005
50.3
49.7
49.8
57.9
55.0
51.8
47.8
52.9
47.3
51.8
2006
51.0
49.8
50.3
57.3
56.9
51.5
51.9
55.7
49.2
52.4
2007
51.5
50.2
52.2
60.7
56.6
55.7
53.8
53.3
51.2
54.2
2008
52.3
51.9
53.1
62.9
57.7
56.2
54.1
53.3
52.0
54.9
2009
54.0
52.3
53.4
60.3
57.3
56.3
56.0
57.7
52.4
55.5
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-27
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-28
MY1975 to MY2009 Vans LAB 55/45 Ton-MPG by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
B\I\Y
All
1975
30.9
26.4
27.4
35.9



36.2

28.1
1976
30.6
28.0
30.8




34.9

29.7
1977
32.4
32.2
30.5




38.9

31.7
1978
31.1
31.2
29.7




35.0

30.8
1979
33.9
28.6
31.0




32.9

31.3
1980
36.4
37.9
34.6




34.4

36.4
1981
39.5
38.3
35.6




33.8

38.0
1982
39.8
37.1
35.9




42.1

38.0
1983
43.4
37.1
37.3




35.3

39.7
1984
41.3
36.8
38.4
45.9



37.5

39.3
1985
40.5
36.4
38.9
43.6



39.0

39.3
1986
41.4
41.8
40.8
45.2



36.2

41.5
1987
42.0
42.0
41.8
41.8

39.1

36.2

41.7
1988
42.8
42.5
43.9
45.4

40.3

38.6

43.2
1989
42.9
42.6
43.7
45.9

41.4

42.2

43.2
1990
44.3
42.0
44.8


43.9

41.9

43.8
1991
44.9
42.6
45.6
45.7

44.0

42.1

44.5
1992
45.1
43.6
45.4
44.6

44.8



44.8
1993
45.3
44.7
45.3
43.8

43.5

43.7

45.0
1994
45.5
44.3
44.8
44.3

45.4

42.8

44.9
1995
44.9
45.4
44.5
46.3
44.7
46.0

48.9

45.0
1996
47.5
45.3
47.6
45.5
49.8
45.8



46.8
1997
47.7
45.6
47.3
46.0
43.6
45.2

50.8

46.9
1998
47.6
47.0
48.4
48.4
47.2
45.4



47.7
1999
47.7
48.1
48.0
48.2
54.2
46.1

46.7

48.1
2000
48.0
48.8
48.9
48.2
53.8
45.7

48.5

48.9
2001
49.3
48.0
52.0
49.5
54.0
45.1

50.0

50.3
2002
48.6
50.1
52.4
49.5
54.5
45.1
50.0
48.3

50.9
2003
50.5
51.3
52.6
49.5
54.5

50.0
47.6

51.7
2004
50.4
49.7
53.6
57.3
54.5
55.3
52.9


53.4
2005
51.5
52.6
52.0
55.6
58.6
55.5
53.3


53.2
2006
54.0
51.5
53.1
55.8
58.7
56.1
53.5


54.4
2007
53.5
52.7
52.4
58.9
55.5
55.0
53.5


54.3
2008
53.7
54.0
55.7
58.8
56.8
55.1
53.5


55.9
2009
53.9
54.6
56.8
59.0
57.2
55.1
53.5
55.0

56.7
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-28
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-29
MY1975 to MY2009 SUVs LAB 55/45 Ton-MPG by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
B\I\Y
All
1975
29.0
26.5
25.8
24.0





27.1
1976
32.2
34.5
26.8
22.3





29.6
1977
34.7
36.3
28.5
28.3





31.8
1978
33.2
33.1
27.9
26.4





30.6
1979
29.2
27.5
27.6
27.8





28.3
1980
36.9
33.2
29.8
27.6





32.9
1981
40.7
35.8
32.4
30.3





35.4
1982
51.4
34.9
32.6
30.9





39.2
1983
45.7
36.2
31.9
31.6





40.1
1984
43.9
36.8
33.7
35.1





39.1
1985
43.3
37.8
35.3
41.2





40.3
1986
41.4
39.4
36.6
47.8





39.9
1987
41.8
40.0
37.1
43.4

37.4



39.7
1988
42.8
39.4
35.4
41.4

37.1



39.5
1989
43.3
41.9
35.3
41.1

37.9



40.3
1990
42.7
41.5
35.5
41.8

39.0



40.0
1991
42.5
44.0
34.9
41.8

39.0



41.4
1992
41.2
43.7
34.5
38.7

39.2



40.6
1993
44.1
44.2
36.6
39.1

41.8



41.3
1994
44.6
43.9
35.9
39.0
40.4
40.4



41.6
1995
45.1
44.7
35.5
40.8

40.0
42.7


41.7
1996
46.5
44.6
36.8
42.5
42.1
39.7
41.0


42.9
1997
47.1
44.4
38.0
41.7
45.8
43.1
41.6


43.5
1998
46.1
44.5
39.2
44.4
46.1
42.9
42.7


43.7
1999
45.6
45.1
40.8
46.6
46.5
42.4
42.7


44.3
2000
47.4
45.3
40.4
46.6
47.1
42.0
41.1

43.6
44.7
2001
47.9
45.5
40.6
47.3
48.1
42.7
44.8

46.1
45.6
2002
49.6
44.2
43.1
47.6
49.6
42.7
46.0

50.4
46.4
2003
50.2
46.6
44.5
48.1
50.2
46.5
47.4

50.2
48.0
2004
51.2
47.2
43.4
50.2
49.8
48.2
47.7
52.4
48.3
48.5
2005
51.8
48.2
45.2
51.0
49.7
50.3
48.1
54.8
48.4
49.4
2006
51.0
50.2
46.0
56.5
50.3
50.8
48.6
55.7
48.1
50.7
2007
55.7
51.0
47.9
54.4
53.0
51.9
51.3
54.5
53.5
52.7
2008
55.3
52.4
49.1
57.2
53.3
53.6
51.7
56.4
54.4
53.6
2009
56.1
54.5
50.9
56.9
53.7
53.7
52.4
55.6
54.5
54.1
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-29
November 2009

-------

Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-30
MY1975 to MY2009 Pickups LAB 55/45 Ton-MPG
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
BMW
All
1975
29.6
26.9
28.5
29.3

32.5



28.8
1976
31.1
30.2
30.7
31.1

33.8



30.9
1977
32.5
34.6
31.5
37.8

34.4



33.4
1978
31.9
34.6
30.9
35.3

35.7



33.1
1979
35.0
31.5
31.2
27.5

32.4



32.9
1980
38.9
37.0
34.2
30.9

35.8

37.6

36.7
1981
40.5
38.1
35.6
38.7

40.9

43.6

39.3
1982
42.3
36.9
37.2
39.0

40.9

46.2

40.1
1983
42.2
37.2
39.5
38.8

42.0

42.6

40.0
1984
41.3
37.5
36.2
38.3

41.7



39.4
1985
40.4
38.2
36.1
42.2

40.3



39.6
1986
40.8
39.4
37.4
41.6

39.9



40.1
1987
40.2
39.8
38.9
41.6

39.9



40.1
1988
41.2
40.4
38.5
40.1

40.1



40.5
1989
41.0
41.4
37.2
40.0

40.2



40.5
1990
41.0
42.0
38.7
39.6

43.1



41.1
1991
41.2
42.3
38.4
40.8

43.1



41.4
1992
41.6
43.4
39.0
40.3

43.3



41.8
1993
42.2
43.8
39.0
40.8

43.2



42.4
1994
42.9
44.1
41.0
41.4

42.7



43.0
1995
43.6
44.2
40.5
41.2

42.0



43.1
1996
46.2
44.0
40.8
41.3

42.2



43.9
1997
47.2
45.7
42.2
41.7

41.7



45.3
1998
45.9
44.6
43.1
40.8

46.1



44.6
1999
47.1
43.5
42.5
41.2

44.3



44.7
2000
45.9
44.1
43.0
42.5

43.1



44.4
2001
46.7
45.0
42.6
42.9

43.5



44.7
2002
47.5
45.2
44.9
43.3

43.6



45.6
2003
47.2
46.0
46.5
43.6

44.3



46.3
2004
49.5
49.6
46.1
44.2

45.1



48.2
2005
49.9
50.4
46.4
48.3

47.5



49.1
2006
50.4
50.8
49.5
48.6
48.1
47.6



49.8
2007
53.0
51.0
50.3
52.2
48.1
48.0



51.6
2008
54.8
51.2
55.0
52.2
48.1
49.7



53.0
2009
55.3
54.0
53.1
52.0
49.4
50.6



53.5
n Marketing Group
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-30
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-31
MY1975 to MY2009 Trucks LAB 55/45 Ton-MPG by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
B\I\Y
All
1975
29.8
26.8
27.2
28.5

32.5

36.2

28.4
1976
31.1
29.8
29.8
29.6

33.8

34.9

30.5
1977
32.7
34.1
30.4
36.0

34.4

38.9

33.0
1978
31.9
33.8
29.6
33.8

35.7

35.0

32.4
1979
34.1
30.8
30.1
27.5

32.4

32.9

32.1
1980
38.4
36.9
33.0
30.9

35.8

36.4

36.3
1981
40.4
38.0
34.7
38.6

40.9

41.2

38.8
1982
42.5
36.8
35.8
38.8

40.9

44.1

39.7
1983
43.1
37.1
37.3
38.7

42.0

36.2

39.9
1984
41.9
37.2
36.4
39.4

41.7

37.5

39.3
1985
41.3
37.9
37.3
42.4

40.3

39.0

39.6
1986
41.1
40.0
38.8
42.6

39.9

36.2

40.4
1987
41.1
40.5
39.7
41.8

39.4

36.2

40.5
1988
41.9
40.7
40.4
40.5

39.4

38.6

40.9
1989
41.9
41.9
40.0
40.4

39.8

42.2

41.2
1990
42.3
41.9
41.5
40.3

42.5

41.9

41.8
1991
42.2
42.9
41.7
42.3

42.2

42.1

42.2
1992
42.3
43.5
41.9
40.7

42.0



42.4
1993
43.4
44.1
41.2
40.9

42.9

43.7

42.9
1994
43.9
44.1
41.3
40.9
40.4
42.8

42.8

43.0
1995
44.4
44.7
40.0
41.4
44.7
42.2
42.7
48.9

43.2
1996
46.5
44.5
42.7
41.9
45.5
42.4
41.0


44.3
1997
47.2
45.2
42.9
41.7
45.4
42.8
41.6
50.8

44.9
1998
46.3
45.1
43.4
43.6
46.2
44.6
42.7


44.9
1999
46.8
44.9
43.7
45.1
48.6
43.8
42.7
46.7

45.3
2000
46.8
45.5
44.0
45.3
50.3
42.9
41.1
48.5
43.6
45.6
2001
47.7
45.6
44.6
46.0
50.6
43.1
44.8
50.0
46.1
46.1
2002
48.8
45.2
46.1
46.3
51.7
43.1
47.1
48.3
50.4
46.9
2003
49.1
46.8
47.8
46.6
51.5
46.0
48.1
47.6
50.2
48.0
2004
50.5
48.6
45.4
50.2
51.0
48.6
48.9
52.4
48.3
49.0
2005
51.0
49.7
48.2
51.1
52.2
49.8
49.5
54.8
48.4
50.1
2006
51.0
50.6
49.1
53.8
52.5
50.0
49.7
55.7
48.1
51.0
2007
54.5
51.1
49.5
54.1
53.4
51.1
51.7
54.5
53.5
52.6
2008
55.0
52.0
52.2
55.9
53.7
52.6
52.0
56.4
54.4
53.7
2009
55.8
54.3
52.5
55.5
54.3
52.9
52.6
55.4
54.5
54.2
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-31
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-32
MY1975 to MY2009 All LAB 55/45 Ton-MPG by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
lo\ola
llonria
Nissan
Ilk
Y\Y
B\I\Y
All
1975
33.2
29.1
31.5
29.8
31.5
33.1

31.5
28.4
31.6
1976
35.4
34.0
33.2
33.7
33.2
34.8

32.4
29.2
34.4
1977
36.4
35.5
33.6
37.9
37.9
35.3

34.7
30.5
35.7
1978
35.3
35.4
34.0
35.4
36.3
34.8

33.9
29.5
35.1
1979
35.8
33.6
34.2
31.7
33.6
33.6

35.7
30.8
34.7
1980
37.3
36.0
34.6
35.1
34.2
38.2

38.9
38.8
36.6
1981
40.1
36.7
36.8
39.6
36.3
39.3

43.1
38.9
38.9
1982
41.3
37.6
38.9
39.2
39.7
40.2

43.0
38.4
40.0
1983
41.1
38.1
39.9
42.5
42.3
41.8

38.9
38.5
40.5
1984
41.2
39.7
38.9
42.8
42.2
42.4

38.5
39.3
40.7
1985
42.2
40.7
39.5
43.8
41.4
40.6

40.7
40.8
41.4
1986
42.6
41.9
40.4
43.8
43.3
41.1
43.7
39.8
40.7
42.0
1987
43.0
42.1
40.0
45.0
43.4
41.7
43.2
39.0
39.1
42.1
1988
43.8
42.8
41.4
44.0
44.4
41.9
43.0
40.4
38.4
42.9
1989
43.3
43.5
41.7
43.9
44.1
42.2
42.9
41.4
37.9
43.0
1990
43.8
43.7
42.7
44.0
44.2
42.9
43.8
41.9
39.1
43.5
1991
43.5
44.1
42.8
44.0
44.5
44.2
43.2
43.4
40.7
43.6
1992
43.6
44.9
42.8
43.6
47.3
44.8
43.2
43.0
43.4
44.1
1993
44.2
45.3
42.5
44.2
48.3
44.5
43.4
42.0
45.6
44.5
1994
44.7
45.3
42.3
44.1
49.0
44.7
43.9
43.5
45.6
44.6
1995
45.2
45.9
42.2
46.0
49.3
44.6
43.6
44.6
47.1
45.2
1996
46.5
45.3
43.6
45.7
48.6
46.0
43.2
44.9
46.7
45.6
1997
46.8
45.7
43.8
46.2
48.4
45.2
43.2
45.4
45.5
45.9
1998
46.4
45.5
44.1
47.9
50.3
48.0
43.0
46.8
45.2
46.3
1999
46.7
45.7
44.7
48.4
49.7
47.8
43.8
46.5
46.2
46.5
2000
47.2
46.2
44.9
48.0
49.9
45.4
43.6
47.2
45.3
46.7
2001
48.1
46.2
45.8
49.0
51.5
45.1
45.4
47.5
46.2
47.3
2002
48.7
46.0
46.4
49.4
51.8
46.7
46.7
50.2
48.4
47.9
2003
49.4
47.4
47.9
50.0
53.3
47.4
47.3
51.3
48.1
49.0
2004
50.1
48.5
46.9
52.5
53.1
49.3
47.9
51.3
47.4
49.7
2005
50.7
49.7
48.7
55.1
53.9
51.0
48.5
53.0
47.6
50.9
2006
51.0
50.3
49.6
55.7
54.9
50.9
51.2
55.7
49.0
51.7
2007
53.2
50.7
50.5
58.2
55.2
53.8
53.0
53.4
51.6
53.4
2008
53.7
51.9
52.5
59.5
56.1
54.9
53.4
53.5
52.4
54.4
2009
55.0
53.3
52.7
58.3
56.1
54.8
54.8
57.2
52.8
54.9
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-32
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-33
Model Year 1975 To 2009 Cars Engine Size (CID) by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
343
304
298
129
83
117

96
161
293
1976
329
302
290
116
83
112

100
159
288
1977
314
320
299
108
88
111

99
148
281
1978
288
280
251
112
90
110

98
147
252
1979
283
248
222
113
98
112

98
150
239
1980
222
204
182
115
100
106

100
136
188
1981
224
192
157
114
100
114

106
131
184
1982
209
179
169
118
101
118

109
142
175
1983
221
205
154
124
102
118

118
146
185
1984
210
197
144
118
105
125

119
143
180
1985
207
198
151
122
105
128

114
160
179
1986
189
190
147
116
108
129
90
115
175
168
1987
190
186
153
115
110
125
90
114
172
162
1988
179
189
153
111
115
117
90
112
186
160
1989
186
184
152
115
113
124
99
112
178
162
1990
182
194
161
122
120
144
103
117
181
163
1991
187
182
161
121
123
143
102
115
166
163
1992
192
202
163
129
125
137
101
121
156
170
1993
189
189
169
132
119
138
105
140
162
167
1994
185
202
180
131
121
135
98
130
164
168
1995
191
194
157
135
117
148
109
133
167
168
1996
188
197
157
134
124
145
104
133
162
166
1997
183
195
159
137
122
146
109
132
182
164
1998
191
183
144
143
128
146
109
131
185
164
1999
188
186
163
142
135
148
115
130
179
166
2000
189
190
154
141
134
158
116
131
180
166
2001
190
190
163
141
134
150
118
131
186
165
2002
194
187
164
154
136
165
122
127
174
166
2003
192
199
163
143
141
177
126
127
168
168
2004
192
208
158
147
139
177
138
134
171
170
2005
193
193
177
141
141
166
135
143
163
167
2006
201
194
226
144
139
166
151
146
185
174
2007
192
185
184
146
139
163
142
151
185
167
2008
194
192
179
142
142
161
132
151
185
167
2009
196
184
202
145
145
160
155
146
175
169
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-33
November 2009

-------

Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-34
Model Year 1975 To 2009 Wagons Engine Size (CID
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
327
307
294
113

119

89

256
1976
336
304
279
114
91
109

97

276
1977
325
308
281
109
91
110

96

266
1978
299
255
269
114
91
115

97

243
1979
292
228
261
107
91
96

97

234
1980
284
200
240
114
91
98

90

189
1981
287
147
169
116
91
105

97

165
1982
248
164
157
115
91
105

105

178
1983
230
169
150
97
91
107

108

161
1984
195
179
140
95
91
106

125

166
1985
202
177
141
98
91
123

121

158
1986
197
167
158
98
91
120

136

162
1987
205
168
155
116
91
128

124

162
1988
209
173
139
113
93
122

111

163
1989
208
182
102
115
92
98

116

171
1990
206
182
93
115
92
98

118

165
1991
228
160

111
119


123

158
1992
250
170

122
132


129
152
171
1993
210
144
129
130
132


170
152
150
1994
198
146

130
132


169
170
154
1995
197
141

131
132


166
154
147
1996
197
155

131
132

110
156

155
1997
116
147


132

109
168

142
1998
116
149




110
150

143
1999
122
159




121
131
189
148
2000
144
148




121
154
169
147
2001
168
146
149




150
159
150
2002
165
146
148




138
160
149
2003
115
145
148
110



135
158
135
2004
113
153
180
104



137
152
151
2005
118
143
202
101



135
152
158
2006
131
143
184
98



136
183
154
2007
131
143
190
110
91

152
140
183
148
2008
132
190
168
134
91

156
141
183
142
2009
137
191
148
137
91
110
144
131
183
136
by Marketing Group
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-34
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-35
Model Year 1975 To 2009 Cars and Wagons Engine Size (CID) by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
llonda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
342
305
298
121
83
117

95
161
288
1976
329
302
288
115
84
112

100
159
287
1977
314
319
295
108
88
111

99
148
279
1978
289
277
254
113
90
111

98
147
251
1979
284
246
226
113
97
109

98
150
238
1980
225
204
186
115
100
105

99
136
188
1981
226
183
159
114
100
113

106
131
182
1982
212
177
167
118
100
117

109
142
175
1983
222
199
154
115
101
116

118
146
182
1984
208
195
144
116
104
123

119
143
179
1985
207
196
150
116
104
128

115
160
177
1986
190
187
148
115
107
128
90
115
175
167
1987
191
184
153
115
109
125
90
114
172
162
1988
180
188
153
111
115
118
90
112
186
160
1989
186
184
152
115
112
124
99
112
178
163
1990
183
193
161
122
119
144
103
117
181
163
1991
188
180
161
120
122
143
102
115
166
163
1992
193
199
163
129
125
137
101
121
156
170
1993
189
183
169
132
119
138
105
142
162
166
1994
185
195
180
131
121
135
98
131
164
168
1995
191
188
157
135
117
148
109
134
167
167
1996
188
194
157
134
124
145
104
134
162
165
1997
182
191
159
137
122
146
109
133
182
164
1998
190
181
144
143
128
146
109
132
185
164
1999
187
184
163
142
135
148
115
130
179
166
2000
189
188
154
141
134
158
117
132
179
165
2001
190
187
160
141
134
150
118
132
185
165
2002
194
184
160
154
136
165
122
128
174
166
2003
189
196
159
140
141
177
126
128
168
166
2004
189
204
165
143
139
177
138
134
171
168
2005
189
190
186
137
141
166
135
142
163
166
2006
194
192
212
138
139
166
151
145
185
172
2007
187
184
186
145
135
163
142
150
185
165
2008
189
192
177
141
137
161
133
150
185
165
2009
190
185
198
145
141
158
154
145
175
167
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-35
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-36
Model Year 1975 To 2009 Vans Engine Size (CID) by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
306
334
313
133



109

318
1976
321
336
314




120

324
1977
325
343
327




120

332
1978
328
335
327




120

329
1979
319
336
321




120

322
1980
297
314
278




120

288
1981
285
310
271




120

284
1982
291
314
276




111

287
1983
306
313
270




119

294
1984
301
313
201
122



117

249
1985
286
311
189
122



117

236
1986
279
242
186
137



129

228
1987
284
236
193
137

146

129

226
1988
286
240
189
137

146

129

229
1989
290
229
187
137

146

129

225
1990
258
240
200


146

129

225
1991
262
236
199
149

146

129

220
1992
266
239
198
149

146



222
1993
269
220
194
148

181

150

218
1994
265
237
208
149

181

150

226
1995
269
239
201
149
132
181

150

231
1996
257
235
208
149
132
181



220
1997
248
229
208
149
132
181

170

220
1998
240
227
203
183
138
181



217
1999
243
238
208
183
212
200

170

223
2000
241
225
204
183
212
200

170

217
2001
234
296
213
183
212
200

170

229
2002
235
238
210
183
212
200
213
170

218
2003
228
241
213
183
212

213
170

219
2004
232
253
211
202
212
214
213


219
2005
231
223
214
202
212
214
213


216
2006
231
232
213
202
212
214
231


216
2007
251
205
216
211
212
214
231


219
2008
250
213
221
211
212
214
231


222
2009
295
213
225
211
212
213
231
232

223
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-36
November 2009

-------

Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-37
Model Year 1975 To 2009 SUVs Engine Size (CID)
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
350
302
317
257





328
1976
359
302
320
258





335
1977
357
302
324
258





332
1978
355
362
323
258





339
1979
371
351
285
258





331
1980
341
321
266
258





295
1981
317
321
261
258





290
1982
329
319
261
258





294
1983
237
318
266
258





254
1984
226
226
237
194





227
1985
214
226
223
170





216
1986
215
226
213
151





207
1987
220
215
242
157

175



209
1988
242
217
251
175

181



219
1989
262
235
246
180

181



242
1990
253
250
243
178

181



232
1991
246
238
235
190

181



230
1992
244
238
231
179

181



229
1993
261
240
250
195

181



242
1994
251
239
251
196
190
181



238
1995
262
255
241
187

181
122


241
1996
271
261
256
185
191
200
122


252
1997
284
278
242
178
137
200
122


246
1998
262
278
263
180
136
200
122


246
1999
267
278
270
188
135
200
122


246
2000
272
279
265
193
131
199
122

268
245
2001
273
233
261
190
149
207
139

212
229
2002
273
243
244
194
163
204
146

203
236
2003
275
258
250
212
175
210
182

205
238
2004
279
253
256
219
177
262
185
223
185
244
2005
268
227
257
215
178
248
178
217
194
233
2006
247
233
255
213
178
248
174
219
196
226
2007
281
219
235
212
171
240
178
231
204
228
2008
256
201
229
218
168
228
177
227
204
218
2009
251
203
229
222
176
229
185
169
209
221
n Marketing Group
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-37
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-38
Model Year 1975 To 2009 Pickups Engine Size (CID) by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
321
325
338
133

119



306
1976
329
332
335
133

119



316
1977
325
335
341
134

119



313
1978
322
327
326
134

119



306
1979
304
318
272
134

119



287
1980
269
287
206
134

119

94

236
1981
259
281
218
143

133

99

237
1982
244
292
217
143

133

99

228
1983
244
233
189
144

141

103

212
1984
243
251
224
144

145



215
1985
241
251
250
144

146



221
1986
238
249
218
144

151



206
1987
231
235
221
144

151



202
1988
270
233
226
147

151



229
1989
275
248
234
154

152



236
1990
302
245
255
156

149



247
1991
257
245
264
154

149



232
1992
276
251
257
154

150



245
1993
281
246
263
155

150



244
1994
287
240
283
152

152



248
1995
278
264
296
171

153



257
1996
273
230
305
174

146



251
1997
289
248
309
203

146



264
1998
267
244
299
170

146



252
1999
293
247
307
175

166



267
2000
272
247
292
219

177



255
2001
279
268
306
210

178



269
2002
302
262
290
218

179



271
2003
277
262
294
219

182



264
2004
302
281
301
221

177



282
2005
289
286
298
246

290



284
2006
287
292
290
245
212
280



278
2007
298
284
296
274
212
270



286
2008
298
277
298
277
212
291



286
2009
310
268
301
256
212
292



289
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-38
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-39
Model Year 1975 To 2009 Trucks Engine Size (CID) by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
321
327
319
153

119

109

311
1976
331
332
323
155

119

120

319
1977
328
336
331
158

119

120

318
1978
326
331
325
154

119

120

314
1979
314
323
290
139

119

120

298
1980
278
294
237
136

119

104

248
1981
266
287
244
144

133

104

247
1982
257
299
242
145

133

105

243
1983
254
253
225
147

141

117

231
1984
249
258
218
143

145

117

224
1985
242
257
214
143

146

117

224
1986
242
244
202
144

151

129

211
1987
242
232
214
145

154

129

210
1988
267
232
214
150

158

129

227
1989
275
240
213
156

156

129

234
1990
279
244
220
163

154

129

237
1991
255
241
220
159

156

129

228
1992
266
245
216
157

160



234
1993
273
237
224
161

161

150

235
1994
272
240
238
163
190
165

150

239
1995
270
253
239
175
132
167
122
150

244
1996
270
241
246
178
166
170
122


243
1997
279
256
247
180
136
172
122
170

248
1998
260
254
253
177
136
173
122


242
1999
276
257
258
183
155
191
122
170

249
2000
266
255
248
201
170
191
122
170
268
242
2001
269
258
263
196
175
198
139
170
212
243
2002
279
250
247
201
184
196
165
170
203
244
2003
269
258
251
213
186
204
190
170
205
243
2004
284
267
266
216
186
242
191
223
185
252
2005
272
254
250
221
188
258
187
217
194
244
2006
262
261
249
222
192
257
187
219
196
240
2007
286
252
243
232
186
246
188
231
204
244
2008
272
232
240
234
181
245
186
227
204
237
2009
272
226
246
232
187
246
192
194
209
238
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-39
November 2009

-------
¦HER^
Appendix L: Fuel Economy Data Stratified by Vehicle Type and Marketing Group
Table L-40
Model Year 1975 To 2009 All Engine Size (CID) by Marketing Group
YKAR
(;\i
l-'ord
Cli rxsler
loxola
Honda
Nissan
Ilk
V\\
BMW
All
1975
338
310
302
125
83
118

95
161
293
1976
330
311
295
120
84
114

100
159
294
1977
317
324
302
115
88
112

99
148
287
1978
297
293
273
119
90
112

98
147
266
1979
290
268
244
118
97
111

99
150
252
1980
232
228
198
119
100
107

100
136
198
1981
232
216
173
119
100
116

106
131
193
1982
220
208
187
124
100
120

109
142
188
1983
228
218
172
122
101
120

118
146
193
1984
216
214
167
125
104
128

119
143
190
1985
215
214
172
126
104
133

115
160
189
1986
201
207
170
127
107
137
90
116
175
180
1987
203
201
179
125
109
131
90
115
172
175
1988
206
203
181
123
115
128
90
113
186
180
1989
214
202
182
126
112
132
99
112
178
185
1990
212
211
192
132
119
147
103
117
181
185
1991
211
203
188
132
122
147
102
115
166
184
1992
217
218
193
136
125
142
101
121
156
191
1993
219
205
202
140
119
146
105
143
162
191
1994
220
215
218
141
123
144
98
131
164
197
1995
223
217
203
146
118
156
110
134
167
196
1996
219
217
215
147
126
152
106
134
162
197
1997
222
226
217
150
124
155
111
134
182
199
1998
219
222
221
155
129
155
111
132
185
199
1999
226
223
231
157
139
161
116
131
179
203
2000
224
223
217
166
142
172
117
133
182
200
2001
226
227
227
165
145
173
122
133
191
201
2002
238
224
220
176
149
177
134
129
179
203
2003
235
234
228
170
159
187
146
129
174
204
2004
241
246
230
181
158
210
156
144
174
212
2005
234
228
227
172
160
204
156
148
171
205
2006
228
232
234
177
163
204
163
148
187
204
2007
242
220
223
178
158
197
161
158
189
203
2008
233
216
217
186
155
191
151
156
188
199
2009
235
206
235
182
160
198
167
157
180
202
EPA-420-R-09-014
L-40
November 2009

-------
Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel
Econ