&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Marine Beach Sanitary Survey
User Manua
EPA-820-B-1 3-001
March 2013

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SEPA
United States           Office of Water   EPA-820-B-13-001
Environmental Protection Agency  4305       March 2013
            MARINE BEACH SANITARY SURVEY
            USER MANUAL

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Marine Beach Sanitary Survey User Manual
                           March 2013

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                                                         Marine Beach Sanitary Survey User Manual
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Marine Beach Sanitary Survey to
help beach managers in coastal states identify and synthesize beach and watershed information—
including water quality data, pollutant source data, and land use data—so they can improve water
quality for swimming. The intent is to give beach managers a technically sound and consistent
approach to identify pollution sources and to share information.

The beach sanitary survey tool provides valuable information that can be used to address a variety
of beach management purposes. State beach program managers can use the data, collected  and
synthesized by means of a sanitary survey, to characterize the potential human health risks at their
beaches. Managers can then use the risk information to rank their beaches and help determine
appropriate priorities for beach monitoring, notification, and other activities. Beach managers can
also use the sanitary survey to help identify sources of contamination that should be considered for
remediation efforts to reduce human health risks at swimming areas. The beach sanitary survey
provides a documented historical record of beach and watershed water quality, serving as a baseline
for  future assessments, enabling beach managers to do long-range water quality and resource
planning. The tool will help beach managers collect and share pollutant data for watershed
assessments. Beach managers can use sanitary survey data to help develop models to predict daily
bathing beach water quality, if appropriate. Surveys can also be used for other purposes such as
documenting conditions when new beaches open, at the beginning of the swimming season, or
when beaches have been identified as problem areas. Finally,  sanitary surveys are a valuable tool
for  identifying and testing research hypotheses.

The sanitary survey information can be useful to a variety of audiences. Local beach and program
managers and public health officials use the information and it can be a valuable benefit for
stormwater program managers, wastewater facility managers, other local officials, nongovernmental
organizations, academic researchers, and others.

EPA developed two types of beach sanitary surveys—the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey and the
Annual Sanitary Survey—to assist with short- and long-term beach assessments, respectively. The
Routine On-site Sanitary Survey is done at the same time that water quality samples are taken and
includes a form for documenting the methods used to collect data during the survey. The Annual
Sanitary Survey records information about factors in the surrounding watershed that might affect
water quality at the beach including, for example, information on septic tanks in the contributing
watershed and land use information. Both surveys include forms, in paper and electronic format, to
help document the information collected.

This Marine Beach Sanitary Survey is tailored to the marine beach environment. EPA added new
questions appropriate for marine beaches and retained the format and many questions from the
Great Lakes Beach Sanitary Survey. As part of the Great Lakes Regional Collaboration, EPA's state
and local partners helped develop and extensively field test the survey. Since 2006, they have used
the  surveys at more than 500 beaches throughout the Great Lakes.

For more information on beach sanitary surveys and the EPA Beach Program, please contact:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, BEACH Program (4305T),  1200
Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington DC 20460. Information about the Beach Sanitary Survey
Tool is also available on the BEACH Program Web page: www.epa.gov/waterscience/beaches/
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Contents

  1.  Introduction	1
     1.1 Types of surveys	2
     1.2 Organization	2
     1.3 Disclaimers	2
  2.  Types of Beach Sanitary Surveys	3
     2.1 Background	3
     2.2 Survey forms	3
  3.  Steps for Conducting a Beach Sanitary Survey	5
     3.1 Seek the assistance of professional staff	5
     3.2 Make  an initial assessment of a beach	5
     3.3 Make  an initial assessment of the contributing watershed	5
     3.4 Determine the purpose and identify the appropriate form	6
     3.5 Use trained staff	6
     3.6 Collect data	7
     3.7 Document all observations and data sources	7
     3.8 Consider health and safety	7
     3.9 Record data for the Annual Sanitary Survey	8
     3.10 Record management	8
     3.11 Next steps	8
  4.  Data Elements for the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey	10
     4.1 General beach conditions	10
     4.2 Water quality	16
     4.3 Bather load	21
     4.4 Potential pollution sources	22
  5.  Data Elements for the Annual Sanitary Survey	28
     5.1 Basic information	28
     5.2 Description of land use in the watershed	28
     5.3 Weather conditions and physical characteristics	34
     5.4 Beach dimensions	36
     5.5 Bather load	37
     5.6 Beach cleaning	37
     5.7 Information on sampling location	38
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     5.8 Water quality sampling	39
     5.9 Modeling and other studies	44
     5.10 Advisories/closings	46
     5.11 Potential pollution sources	46
     5.12 Description of sanitary facilities and other facilities	47
     5.13  Description of other facilities	47
  6.  References	48
  Appendix A. Marine Beach Routine On-Site Sanitary Survey	A-l
  Appendix B. Marine Beach Routine On-Site Sanitary Survey Methods	B-l
  Appendix C. Marine Beach Annual Sanitary Survey	C-l
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1.  Introduction

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Marine Beach Sanitary Survey to
help beach managers in coastal states identify and synthesize beach and watershed information—
including water quality data, pollutant source data, and land use data—so they can improve water
quality for swimming. The intent is to give beach managers a technically sound and consistent
approach to identify pollution sources and to share information.

The beach sanitary survey tool provides valuable information that can be used to support a variety
of beach management purposes, including the following:

    •   Characterize risk and prioritize beaches. State beach program managers can use the data,
       collected and synthesized by means of a sanitary survey, to characterize the potential human
       health risks at their beaches. Managers can then use the risk information to rank their
       beaches and help determine appropriate priorities for beach monitoring, notification, and
       other activities. For example, a state can use this tool to help prioritize their beaches as part
       of the EPA Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act
       monitoring and notification program. As part of the program, states, territories, and tribes
       are required to prioritize beaches for monitoring and notification efforts.

    •   Identify appropriate remediation. Beach managers can use the sanitary survey to help
       identify sources of contamination that should be considered for remediation efforts  to reduce
       human health risks at swimming areas.

    •   Facilitate beach and water shed planning. The beach sanitary survey facilitates
       documentation of the historical record of beach and watershed water quality. Thus,  it serves
       as a baseline for future assessments of beaches and associated watersheds and enables  beach
       managers to do long-range water quality and resource planning. The tool will  help beach
       managers collect and share pollutant data for watershed assessments.

    •   Develop predictive models. Beach managers can use sanitary survey data (e.g., bacteria
       levels,  source flow, turbidity, rainfall) to develop models to predict daily bathing beach
       water quality, if desired and appropriate

    •   Support other uses. Surveys can be used for other purposes such as documenting conditions
       when new beaches open at the beginning of the swimming season, or when beaches have
       been identified as problem areas. Also, surveys are a valuable tool for identifying and testing
       research hypotheses.

The sanitary survey information can be useful to a variety of audiences. Local beach and program
managers and public health officials use the information and it  can be a valuable benefit for
stormwater program managers, wastewater facility managers, local elected officials, local planning
authorities, local nongovernmental organizations, academic researchers, and other beach and water
quality professionals.

This Marine Beach Sanitary Survey is tailored to the marine beach environment. EPA reviewed
existing marine surveys and consulted with experts to determine what topics would be appropriate
for  marine beaches. EPA chose to retain the format from its previously published Great Lakes
Beach Sanitary Survey., and many of the questions track closely with that survey. As part of the
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Great Lakes Regional Collaboration, EPA's state and local partners helped develop and extensively
field test the survey. Since 2006, they have used the surveys at more than 500 beaches throughout
the Great Lakes.


1.1 Types of surveys
EPA developed two types of beach sanitary surveys—the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey and the
Annual Sanitary Survey—to assist with short- and long-term beach assessments, respectively. The
Routine On-site Sanitary Survey is performed at the same time that water quality samples are taken.
It includes a form that can be used to document the methods used to collect data during the Routine
On-site Sanitary Survey. The Annual Sanitary Survey records information about factors in the
surrounding watershed that might affect water quality at the beach. This survey includes, for
example, information on septic tanks in the contributing watershed and land use information. Both
surveys include forms, in paper and electronic formats, to help document the information collected
during the survey.


1.2 Organization
This user manual is intended to be used as a reference for using the marine sanitary survey forms
that EPA developed. Section 2 describes the sanitary survey forms and provides background
information on the sanitary survey process. Section 3 describes steps to consider in preparing to
conduct a sanitary survey. Sections 4 and 5 provide detailed information on how to complete each
type of survey. The data elements for the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey are in Section 4, and the
data elements for the Annual Sanitary Survey are in  Section 5. The subsection numbers correspond
with the numbered sections of the survey forms.


1.3 Disclaimers
The user manual is a companion document for the Routine and Annual marine sanitary survey
forms. It is intended to provide supplemental discussions, examples and additional references that
may be helpful to beach program managers as they conduct their sanitary surveys. The user manual
does not impose any legally-binding requirements on EPA, States, or the regulated community. It is
informational only and thus does not establish additional requirements for EPA's BEACH program
or other programs. The document may be revised from  time to time.

Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark,
manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,
recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government.  The views and opinions of authors
expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, and shall
not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.

With respect to this document, neither the United States Government nor any of their employees,
makes any warranty, express or implied, including the warranties of merchantability and fitness for
a particular purpose, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness,
or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process  disclosed, or represents that its use
would not infringe privately owned rights.
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2. Types of Beach Sanitary Surveys


2.1  Background
Because beaches are dynamic systems, they need to be gauged frequently for short- and long-term
health risks. EPA has developed two types of beach sanitary surveys—the Routine On-site Sanitary
Survey and the Annual Sanitary Survey—to assist with short- and long-term assessments. The
Routine On-site Sanitary Survey is done with water quality samples, and it supports the annual
survey.


2.2  Survey forms
The beach sanitary survey offers two approaches to collect and assess information. The forms are
briefly described here and fully described in Sections 4 and 5.

    •  The Routine On-site Sanitary Survey is designed to be used each time a water sample is
       collected during regular bacterial monitoring to supplement information collected during
       water quality sampling. The survey will help to provide useful information on water quality
       to support the annual surveys. The Routine On-site Sanitary Survey is used to help identify
       underlying conditions at the beach that can be observed frequently (e.g., wind speed and
       direction, wave height,  rainfall) and that can contribute to microbiological contamination of
       the recreational waters and beach areas. The Routine On-site Sanitary Survey form is in
       Appendix A.

       - The supplemental Methods Form is designed as a companion form to document the
         methods used when collecting data for the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey. The form is
         in Appendix B.

    •  The Annual Sanitary Survey requires the same type of information collected for the Routine
       On-site Sanitary Survey plus area maps, annual and seasonal trends, and additional
       information on potential sources of contamination. This survey expands geographically to
       include the contributing watershed and surrounding shoreline. The Annual Sanitary Survey
       form is in Appendix C.

Routine On-site  Sanitary Survey
This survey is a simple, two-page form, and it should be completed every time water quality
sampling is done throughout the beach season. Over time, collecting additional data with every
sample will aid those looking for correlation between conditions at the beach and water quality
(i.e., fecal indicator bacteria [FIB] levels), leading to the development of predictive models. The
data  can be used to help illustrate whether bacteria levels correlate to other parameters or observable
conditions at a beach. Before you  conduct your first Routine On-site Sanitary Survey, do an initial
assessment of the beach. Review all available information about  the beach, including historical data
and knowledge, uses, and possible sources of bacterial contamination. EPA recommends that you
do at least one Routine On-site Sanitary Survey before the start of the swimming season.
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Supplemental Methods Form
This form, a companion form to the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey, should be completed when
you do the first Routine On-site Sanitary Survey, likely at the beginning of the beach season. You
do not need to complete this form again during the beach season unless any of the methods you use
change.

Annual Sanitary Survey
Ideally, an annual survey should be done on each beach once a year to determine the condition of
the beach, locate potential pollutant sources, and determine whether there are other issues that can
affect water quality. This survey can be performed at the end of a beach season, before the next
season begins. That way, you can determine whether you should make any changes to your
monitoring program before the next season starts.

In addition, a sanitary survey should be conducted as part of any proposal to expand or develop a
recreational beach area or when a newly proposed activity would significantly alter the water
quality in an existing recreational  beach area. Beach managers  should use the findings of the survey
as an important consideration in key operational decisions about beaches. In some states, such as
Maryland, a permit for operating a bathing beach may not be issued if a detailed sanitary survey
reveals sources of pollutants that affect or might affect the bathing beach (Code of Maryland
Regulations [COMAR] 26.08.09.03).

EPA has provided a comprehensive, detailed form covering the key elements of a sanitary survey.
This standard format gives states and localities a consistent way to share and compare the results of
their investigations. In some cases you might want to use only portions of the survey or tailor the
form to better fit your program's needs. For a more detailed discussion of the sanitary survey's
purpose, see Section 3.4.
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3. Steps for Conducting a Beach  Sanitary Survey


3.1 Seek the assistance of professional staff
Before you begin preparing to conduct a beach sanitary survey, if possible, consult a public health
official or a registered sanitarian. EPA recommends that a public health official or registered
sanitarian from a state, tribal, or local agency maintain primary responsibility for overseeing the
performance of annual sanitary surveys at the beach. Lifeguards or citizen volunteers can help
complete or gather information for Routine On-site Sanitary Surveys at the same sampling  stations
at which they perform bacterial monitoring for a state, tribal, or local agency. Volunteers should be
properly trained in completing the survey forms and in using the methods chosen to collect
information for the survey (see Section 3.5).


3.2 Make an initial assessment of a beach
The next step in preparing to conduct a sanitary survey is to make an initial assessment of all
beaches to identify the beaches at which a sanitary survey should be conducted. During this
assessment, compile known data on beaches with past problems and beaches that have and have not
been sampled for microbial analysis.


3.3 Make an initial assessment of the  contributing watershed
The watershed, basin, or land area contributing runoff to a beach can vary widely depending on the
beach. For some beaches, the contributing area could be simply the area from the dunes down to the
shoreline. Some beaches might have a stream, river, or storm drain nearby that is contributing
drainage from a large land area. Some beaches might receive poorer quality water from a different
location through longshore or nearshore currents; in such cases, you might want to investigate the
direction from which water entering the system is coming. During the initial assessment, you might
not be sure about whether an area is a contributing area. The sanitary survey process can be used to
investigate further and rule something out or confirm that it is contributing drainage to the beach.

As part of the initial assessment, you should consider information from other Clean Water Act
programs that might provide relevant water quality data and information on potential sources of
pollutants affecting the beach.

      National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The NPDES permit program
      controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of
      the United States. Industrial, municipal, and other facilities must obtain permits if their
      discharges go directly to surface waters. For more information on the NPDES permit
      program, see http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes.

      Nonpoint Source Management Program (Clean Water Act section 319). The Clean  Water
      Act section 319 Nonpoint Source Management Program helps focus state, tribal,  and local
      government nonpoint source efforts. Under section 319, states, territories, and Indian tribes
      receive  grant money that supports a wide variety of activities, including monitoring to assess
      the success of specific nonpoint source  implementation projects. For more information on
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       the section 319 Nonpoint Source Management Program, see
       http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/nps/cwact.cfm.

       Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. States develop TMDLs for waterbodies that
       are listed as water quality-limited or impaired because of pollution, including fecal
       contamination. A TMDL identifies the pollutant sources and the necessary reductions in
       those sources to meet water quality standards. For more information on the TMDL program,
       see www.epa.gov/owow/tmdl.

       Clean Water Act section 305(b) water quality reports.  Under section 305(b) of the Clean
       Water Act, states are required to submit a biannual report to EPA that provides water quality
       information (including information on 303[d]-listed waters) to the public. The information
       the states provide serves as the basis for EPA's National Water Quality Inventory Report to
       Congress. This document characterizes the water quality, identifies widespread water
       quality problems of national significance and describes various  programs implemented to
       restore and protect waters throughout the United States. For more information on 305(b)
       reports, see http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/guidance/cwa/305b/index.cfm.


3.4 Determine the purpose  and identify the appropriate form
Once the beaches have been assessed and identified for a sanitary survey, determine the purpose of
the survey (e.g., to characterize risk and prioritize beaches, support beach and watershed planning,
develop predictive models), and develop a plan. The plan should have goals and timelines to
identify sources, gather data, conduct monitoring, analyze results, develop a sanitary survey report,
and discuss next steps. EPA developed two types of survey forms (Routine On-site Sanitary Survey
and Annual Sanitary Survey)., along with a supplemental Methods Form., on the basis of how
frequently the surveys would be performed and what resources would be available to the beach
manager. For a detailed description of the forms and their uses, see Section 2.2.

The sanitary survey  forms will help you to determine the following:

    1.   An approach to address all the data elements necessary to complete the  forms and best
       describe the conditions at a beach

    2.   What data elements are currently collected through an existing monitoring plan and what
       additional data elements need to be collected

    3.   The equipment and supplies needed to  collect the data

    4.   The agencies or groups responsible for collecting and analyzing the data

Sections 4 and 5 provide descriptions of the survey data fields. Depending on the purpose of
collecting information you will want to consider tailoring these survey  forms to best fit your
program's needs. Not all the questions on the survey forms are applicable to all beaches. You might
want to collect specific data for your beach that are not included on the forms.


3.5 Use trained staff
The staff members who perform  the sanitary surveys should be adequately trained in sampling
procedures, equipment use, completing forms, and health and safety precautions before they begin
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to perform them. EPA recommends that relevant quality assurance (QA) documentation (e.g., QA
project plan, sampling and analysis plan, standard operating procedures [SOPs]) be distributed to all
participants during training. The training should stress the importance and relevance of the sanitary
surveys in helping to identify potential sources of contamination, how to conduct quality control
(QC) activities, and how to follow the protocols specified in the SOPs. The quality of information
produced by the sanitary surveys depends on the quality of the work that the field staff and others
involved in the beach program perform. Follow-up or continuing training should be held as needed
for as long as the sanitary  surveys are performed.


3.6 Collect data
Now that you have identified the beaches to survey and the data to be collected, it's time to collect
data. Gather maps and use tools like global positioning system (GPS) units to identify the locations
of beach sampling stations, pollutant sources, and watershed uses.

Sources of maps and other geographic data include the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),
county/state  offices, online companies (e.g., GoogleEarth), and others. You can order USGS
topographic maps for your watershed by visiting http://topomaps.usgs.gov/ordering_maps.html.
Think about other sources of data for your beach and watershed, such as local or state universities
or other government offices. Sources of data might vary depending on your beach location and the
level of interest in your region. For more ideas on where to find data, see Section 5.2.

Collect water quality data and other parameter data at a beach to complete the Routine On-site
Survey and meet the data needs you identified for the Annual Sanitary Survey.


3.7 Document all observations and data sources
No field data collection is complete without basic information on who collected the data and when.
Sometimes basic field observations that might seem insignificant turn out to be very important, but
they won't be useful unless you document them. Also, other personnel will likely use the data you
collect in the future, and your documentation will be essential to their ability to understand the data.


3.8 Consider health and safety
Health and safety should be a key consideration for all volunteers and others engaged in surveying
and monitoring. The fact that surveying and sampling might focus on areas near combined sewer
overflows (CSOs) and sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs)  and might be conducted during periods of
beach closure suggests that the risk of potential exposure to pathogenic agents will be higher than
that of recreational beach users. Heightened awareness of personal protection is the responsibility of
every member  of the survey team. The effective use of basic personal protective equipment and
supplies can significantly limit exposure to potentially infectious waters. For example,

    •  Limit exposure of any open wounds to survey site waters.

    •  Carry a hand sanitizer, and use it immediately after working at each survey location. (Use
       care when collecting samples not to make any contact with the inside of the sample
       containers.)
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    •  Wear latex, nitrile, or other protective gloves; rubber boots; and safety glasses when contact
       is required or during sampling to minimize the potential for direct exposure to surface
       waters that are potentially contaminated.

    •  Carry a spray bottle with dilute bleach solution as part of your survey supplies for immediate
       disinfection if accidental exposure occurs.

    •  Practice good personal hygiene.

       - Avoid direct hand-to-mouth, -nose, or -face contact in the field.

       - Avoid eating, drinking, or chewing gum during site surveys. Delay drinking or
         consuming snacks and meals until you have removed all personal protective equipment
         and washed your hands and face thoroughly.

       - Promptly shower and wash your clothing with hot water after a day of surveying.

Although your survey activity might not entail longer or closer contact with surface water than the
exposure of bathers, fishermen, or others, surveys might be required in less desirable areas or during
beach closures mandated by measured exceedances of recreational standards.


3.9 Record data for the Annual Sanitary Survey
Once you have collected your data, use the data to complete an Annual Sanitary Survey. All field
data should be entered onto the paper form and stored electronically. It is important to provide all
data to and consult with a sanitarian or public health official when analyzing the data and assessing
the effects of a pollutant source on a beach.


3.10 Record management
Everything should be well documented, including identification of the person who enters the data
and the person who completes the survey form, sources  of information, and so forth. All paper
copies of survey forms should be collected and stored together and scanned into an electronic
format, if possible, so that electronic files can be stored. EPA suggests recording the survey data in
a locally accessible database.


3.11 Next steps
Analysis of survey results.  Although you will perform  some analyses while conducting the
sanitary survey (the annual survey in particular), once you are finished with the surveys, you should
thoroughly go through the survey results and develop a Sanitary Survey Report (see the following
paragraph). For the Routine  On-site Sanitary Survey, you should evaluate the results at the end of
the beach season (which might be done as part of the Annual Sanitary Survey), and periodically
throughout the season. Evaluating the survey results during the beach season can help you identify
trends that you should be aware of, such as "rainfall over 0.5 in. correlates with high bacteria
counts," or "algae growth has become worse and needs to be dealt with." You should also evaluate
whether you are collecting appropriate data, whether your methods of data collection need to be
adjusted, or both.
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Sanitary Survey Report. A written Sanitary Survey Report is needed to integrate the data into a
comprehensive information analysis. This report should include a compilation of all data collected,
an analysis of those data using recognized statistical techniques to determine adverse pollution
conditions, conclusions as to the appropriate monitoring strategy and frequency, and
recommendations for necessary follow-up actions such as remediation efforts or further
investigations.

Resource allocation and beach assessment. Analyzing the sanitary survey will help you determine
data trends and correlations with bacteria sample results. It will provide you with more information
to identify pollutant sources and their contribution to water quality impairment. That information, in
turn, will help you decide on future allocation of resources and possible remediation needs, and help
you to more effectively prioritize beaches for monitoring frequency and resource allocation.

The sanitary survey can help you determine the best frequency of monitoring (e.g., daily, biweekly,
weekly, monthly); the number of samples that should be collected (e.g., one sample collected every
500 meters); and the types of remediation activities that should be performed at your beach (e.g., pet
owner education, improved plumbing at public restrooms).

Remediation steps. The  results of the sanitary survey will help a beach manager identify persistent
problems, sources of pollutants, and the magnitude  of pollution from those sources. The beach
manager will have a documented record of the pollutant sources to use to propose management
actions, enforcement, and options to control sources. Once the source and extent of pollutants are
determined, appropriate remediation activities can be planned with the assistance and collaboration
of federal, state, and local programs.

Modeling. Data from beach sanitary surveys might help a beach  manager identify factors that
correlate with bacteria counts in the water. It might be possible to develop a predictive model using
these data. A predictive model can benefit a beach monitoring and notification program by allowing
beach managers to make  advisory decisions on the basis of predicted high levels of pathogens
before people become exposed. An example of a predictive model that is relatively easy to develop
is the rainfall advisory model that statistically correlates the bacteria results with rainfall  data
collected during the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey. EPA's 2010 report, Predictive Tools for
Beach Notification Volume I: Review and Technical Protocol, summarizes modeling approaches
and associated considerations. This document is at
http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/standards/criteria/health/recreation/upload/P26-Report-
Volume-I-Final_508.pdf.

Sharing information. As part of the sanitary survey process, you might choose to store the survey
data electronically to make it easier for you to share your data with other counties and states.
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4.  Data Elements for the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey

This section describes the data fields for the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey. For each data field, it
gives an example of the data followed by a detailed description and an explanation of methods that
you can use to collect the data. Section 5 provides the data fields for the Annual Sanitary Survey.

The Routine On-site Sanitary Survey is designed to be filled out each time a water sample is taken
for bacterial analysis. The information requested in this form is primarily information that can be
gathered locally at the beach.


4.1 General beach conditions

Air temperature
Example
75 degrees Fahrenheit (°F), 24 degrees Celsius (°C)

Description
Air temperature, in combination with other conditions and situations, such as timing (e.g., after
significant rainfall) or a particular wind direction,  can increase of the likelihood of higher levels of
microorganisms at certain times.

Methods
Li quid-in-glass thermometers are the most common types of thermometers because they are easy to
read and inexpensive to manufacture. Highly accurate electrical thermometers measure temperature
by measuring the electrical resistance of some material. Because the resistance of these materials
changes with temperature, the resistance can be measured and calibrated to the temperature.

Temperature measurements are typically taken at 1.5 meters above grassy surfaces. Ideally, the
thermometer should be housed in an instrument shelter that is away from materials that might
absorb heat and prevent an accurate air temperature reading. All air temperature readings are
conducted in the shade to prevent sunlight from warming the liquid in the thermometer. Instrument
shelters should allow air to flow through freely to  ensure that the air in the shelter is not warmed by
the shelter itself.

Report air temperature in the Fahrenheit or Celsius temperature scale, specifying which one was
used. If both scales are available, the Celsius scale is preferred because it was developed for and is
most commonly used for scientific purposes.

Rainfall

Example
Yes, rainfall occurred during the past 72 hours. Rainfall amount was 1.2 inches.

Description
Bacterial contamination at bathing beaches can result from rain events. CSO discharges can occur
during heavy rainfall events and can reach bathing beaches, causing contamination problems. In
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addition, nonpoint source pollution of bathing beaches can be caused by rainfall or snowmelt
moving over and through the ground and carrying natural and human-made pollutants into the
receiving water.

Rainfall measurements can be used in models to predict bacterial contamination at bathing beaches
during rainfall events (USEPA 1999a). It is also important to document the time since the last
measurable precipitation because an antecedent rain event can have a strong effect on the
contamination levels observed. For example, using 24-hour storm totals can be helpful if the FIB
contamination to an area is surmised to be strongly caused by stormwater (non point source) runoff.

Rain intensity should also be noted. Rain events that are of short duration but high intensity can
cause higher runoff than longer rain events of low intensity, possibly correlating more with
increased bacteria levels in the water. Rain intensity can be noted by using hourly intervals, or
12-hour totals for rainfall events, and this information can be found through the use of radar-based
data such as that available on www.wunderground.com and other database websites.

Methods
Record the amount of rainfall in inches or centimeters, and the time (24, 48, 72, or more hours)
since the rainfall event occurred. If rainfall is measured using a rain gauge near the sampling
stations (weather station or airport), record the distance from the rain gauge in miles. Also note the
intensity of the rainfall (e.g., misting, light rain, steady rain), and how it occurred over the duration
of the storm. If two storms occurred back to back, indicate the relative amounts of rainfall if known,
along with the duration of the storm for each. You can use websites such as www.ncdc.noaa.gov to
gather very specific rainfall estimates for any location in the United States. You can also obtain
rainfall data from your local weather station or from wunderground
(http://www.wunderground.com/wundermap/).

Wind speed and direction

Example
East at 5 knots or light breeze

Description
A description of the wind speed and direction using the Beaufort Wind Scale at
www.spc.noaa.gov/faq/tornado/beaufort.html, might provide valuable  information concerning the
actual  or potential effect of pollutant transport to the area.

Methods
Wind is difficult for forecasters to measure because wind speed  and direction can vary quickly and
abruptly over short distances, especially in cities and other areas with many obstructions.

An anemometer is  the main instrument used to measure the speed of the wind. It consists of three or
four hemispheric cups, mounted on each end of a pair of horizontal arms, which lie at equal angles
to each other. A vertical shaft that the cups turn passes through the center of the arms and a train of
wheel-work counts the number of turns the shaft makes. From the number of turns made in any
given period, the velocity of the wind during that period is calculated.
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Aerovanes are commonly used at many weather stations and airports to measure wind direction and
speed. The tail orients the instrument into the wind for direction, while the propellers measure the
wind speed.

If you don't have the necessary equipment to measure wind speed and direction, you can provide
data from a nearby weather station, ideally one within a 5-mile radius of the beach. If you use this
method, note in the survey the distance to the station.

Wind direction is always reported as the direction from which the wind is coming. In other words, a
north wind pushes  air from the north to the south. When reporting wind speeds, always provide the
units (e.g., miles per hour [mph], kilometers per hour [kmh], knots). (1 knot =1.15 mph.) Also
record whether wind is onshore or offshore. Onshore winds are those that blow from a body of
water and move in the direction of the land (also known as seabreezes). Offshore winds are those
that originate on land and blow toward a body of water (also known as land breezes).

Simple estimates of wind speed can also be useful. The sanitary survey technician can estimate
whether there was no or relatively little wind, medium wind speeds (5-15 knots), and high wind
speeds (more than  15 knots). At beaches, wind can be the driving agent for resuspension of particles
along the beach, often causing resuspension of fecal contamination and bacteria attached to
sediment.

Sky conditions

Example
Partly cloudy, 3/8 to 1/2 cloud cover

Description
The predominant/average sky condition is described by using octants (eighths) of the sky covered
by opaque (not transparent) clouds. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) uses the following scale:
Sky condition
Clear/Sunny
Mostly clear/Mostly sunny
Partly cloudy/Partly sunny
Mostly cloudy/Considerable cloudiness
Cloudy
Cloud coverage
0/8
1/8-2/8
3/8-4/8
5/8-7/8
8/8
Method
Estimate the weather or provide information from a nearby weather station or
www. wunderground. com.
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Wave height and intensity

Example
Normal intensity, 1-2 feet in height (estimated)

Description
Waves are the main source of energy that causes beaches to change in size, shape, and sediment
type. They also move marine debris between the beach and the offshore zone. Waves are generated
by the wind blowing over water. Waves formed where the wind is blowing, which are often
irregular, are called wind waves. As these waves move away from the area where the wind is
blowing, they sort themselves out into groups with similar speeds and form regular patterns known
as swells.

The three main characteristics of waves are the height, the wavelength, and the direction from
which they approach. Wave height is the vertical distance from the wave's crest to the trough.
Wavelength is the time, measured in seconds, between two successive wave crests. Wave direction
is the direction from which the waves approach.

Method
Wave height is measured by carrying a graduated stick or a ranging pole (a pole with measured
sections in red and white) out into the water to just seaward of where the waves are breaking and
then recording where the wave crest and the following wave trough cut the stick. The difference
between the two is the wave height. Alternatively, you can estimate the wave height. Such estimates
should be made in the units with which you are most comfortable. Often it is best to have two
observers independently estimate wave height and then compare their results. Measure or estimate
the height of at least five separate waves, and then take the average. Also note on the survey form
the wave intensity (e.g.,  calm, normal, rough).

Tidal phase
Example
High tide, ebb tide

Description
Tides are the periodic rise and fall of a body of water resulting from gravitational interactions
among the sun, moon, and earth. Noting the tidal phase gives a point  of reference for other pieces of
information that you are collecting.

There are two main approaches for FIB monitoring at tidally influenced beaches and estuaries. The
first approach is to consistently sample on an ebb tide, i.e., the period between high water and the
succeeding low water, to remove the variability associated with tide from the sampling framework
(see Figure 4-1). The guidance for this sampling approach is to sample on the ebb tide (falling from
high tide to low tide) within 3 hours of approaching the actual low tide time (see shaded areas in
Figure 4-1, depicting a diurnal tide fluctuation, with the shaded area highlighting the optimal
sampling window). This sampling window is the case where FIB concentrations in the water are
typically the most representative of the immediate land-water interface because dilution from the
effects of high tide has been minimalized. A second approach is to conduct random sampling, i.e.,
without regard to tide, with  sampling conducted at roughly the same time each day. This ensures
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that sampling is conducted over the wide array of tidal influence and that one portion of the tidal
cycle does not influence sampling more than another. This second approach might also be easier
from a logistical standpoint.
                                      High tide
        12:00          18:00
24:00

  Time of Day
6:00          12:00         18:00
Figure 4-1. Recommended sampling window for a beach with a diurnal tide.

Methods
NOAA (and its predecessor organization) has been tracking tides in U.S. marine waters since the
1800s. In the past, tides were measured using mechanical devices to record water levels. NOAA
now uses measurement devices that collect data every 6 minutes and transmit by satellite to NOAA
headquarters. Information on tides can be obtained from NOAA's Center for Operational
Oceanographic Products and Services, http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/ or from your local weather
service.

Longshore  current speed and direction

Example
Current is moving toward the east at approximately 5 centimeters per second.

Description
A longshore or littoral current is in the surf zone and runs parallel to the shore as a result of waves
breaking at an angle on the shore. The current speed and direction are critical parameters that help
to identify the  actual or potential effect of pollutant transport to the area, and to predict potential
unhealthy conditions from known outfalls in the vicinity of the beach.
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Methods
A number of models are available to accurately measure longshore current speed. They require
several measured parameters and meters to capture the varying current speeds.

It might be possible to estimate the longshore current speed and direction using a stick, line, ball,
and watch. A practical and inexpensive technique for measuring the longshore current speed is
described here, adapted from the Education Program at the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium
(http://www.njseagrant.org/images/education/LessonPlans/longshore_current.pdf). You'll need a
meter stick (or other measuring device), an orange or two, a watch with a second hand, and at least
two people.

Procedure

    1.  Measure off and draw a 10-meter line in the sand parallel to the waterbody.

   2.  Position one person at each end of the line you have drawn. One person should assume the
       role of timekeeper and have a watch with a second hand.

   3.  Throw an orange (or a piece of driftwood) into the water, just behind the line of breakers,
       approximately 2 meters upstream of the beginning of your line. Note: The longshore current is
       closer to the shore than you might expect! All persons should watch the orange as it moves.

   4.  When the orange passes the beginning of the line, the timekeeper starts timing.

   5.  When the orange passes the person stationed at the end of the line, that person tells the
       timekeeper to stop timing.  Record the time.

   6.  If time permits, repeat this process so you can calculate the average of the two (or three)
       trials. You can repeat it in  a different  area along the beach as well.

   7.  Using the formula of speed = (distance / time), calculate the speed of the longshore current
       for all trials, and then calculate the average of the longshore current.

   8.  This procedure is not foolproof. If the orange does not move after a few minutes,  try again.
       If you can't get this to work at all, it might  be because of weather conditions, or there might
       not be a longshore current  at all.

To measure direction, you can observe the direction the orange flows in the above procedure.
Alternatively, you can use a dye tablet. For this, place the dye tablet into the water (this can be done
at the same time you place the orange in the water  for the above procedure). The observers on the
beach watch and record the direction in which the dye moves. Current direction, recorded in
degrees, is the direction toward which the current is moving (as in 0 to 180 degrees, 0 being north,
45 east, 90 south, and 135 west). If a current  is going from north to south, the current direction is
recorded as south or south-going;  similarly, a current going from east to west is recorded as west or
west-going. (This is the opposite of wind direction, which is recorded as the direction from which
the wind is blowing.)

Measurements of speed and direction can be  repeated at several different places  along the beach to
see if the current speed and direction are the same or if they vary.

In addition, satellite imagery might be available for you to use to detect the movement of a plume
along the beach.
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4.2 Water quality

Bacteria samples  collected

Example
Sample Point: 1-A

Sample ID: 100002

Parameter: Enterococcus

Comments: Grab sample collected at knee depth

Description
FIB have been used as an indicator of the possible presence of pathogens in surface waters and
therefore as marks of the risk of disease, because of epidemiological evidence of gastrointestinal
disorders from ingesting contaminated surface water. Contact with contaminated water can lead to
ear or skin infections, and ingesting and inhaling contaminated water can cause respiratory diseases.
The pathogens responsible for these diseases can be bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi, or parasites
that live in the gastrointestinal tract and are shed in the feces of warm-blooded animals. Enterococci
are one of the most commonly used indicators of fecal  contamination and, therefore, are termed
fecal indicator bacteria or FIB.

Methods
Samples are to be taken using an appropriate sterile plastic container, with the technician wearing
gloves or using a sampling stick. Samples are to be taken in an oncoming wave, in 3- to 24-inch
water depth, taking care not to disturb bottom sediment or sand. In general, you should collect
samples at the desired depth(s) directly into sterilized containers, sealed, labeled, and place on ice in
a cooler, out of direct sunlight and heat for transport. If you are taking samples while wading, take
care not to disturb bottom sediments or substrates as you sample.

The first sample collected for the day should be a field blank. A field blank is simply a volume of
reagent water or sterilized buffer solution transported to the field and transferred into a sample
container to assess potential contamination from the sampling technique.

Duplicate samples, if included in the monitoring design, should be collected simultaneously if
possible (if two containers can be held at once in one hand).  If two containers can't be managed
without spillage, the duplicates  should be collected sequentially. A sampling stick can be easily
configured with clamps to permit duplicate and triplicate simultaneous sampling for very little cost.
Local laboratory support is critical because laboratory analysis for FIB should be initiated within
24 hours of collection (the measurement holding time). Samples collected for compliance purposes
must adhere to applicable regulatory requirements for the measurement of FIB. Generally these
measurements need to be initiated within 8 hours of collection (6 hours for transport to the
laboratory and 2 hours to initiate processing in  the laboratory).
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Analytical methods
Membrane filter tests for enterococci:
    EPA Method 1600 (mEI media)
    EPA Method 1106.1 (mE media)
    Standard Method 923 OC

qPCR test for enterococci:
    EPA Method A

Methods can be found at
http://water.epa.gov/scitech/methods/cwa/bioindicators/biological_index.cfm and
www.standardmethods.org.

Water temperature

Example
68 °F, 20 °C

Description
This parameter is measured for use in taking temperature-dependent measurements such as pH and
conductivity. Water temperature can also be important in assessing the quality of potential habitat
for aquatic species and for some less-desirable pathogenic organisms.

Methods
With relative ease, you can measure water temperature by using multiprobes or other handheld
electronic measurement devices or by using simple, graduated thermometers. The accuracy of
common,  widescale thermometers and electronic instruments can be verified with simple ice-point
(0 °C or 32 °F) and boiling point (100 °C or 212 °F) measurements. If the ice point and boiling point
do not register correct temperatures, the results for the two measurements can be plotted on simple
graph paper to translate field measurements to corrected values. Electronic meters can be
professionally calibrated if the manufacturer's specifications do not include calibration procedures.
Local and regional water temperatures for recreational beaches are also generally broadcast on
NOAA Weatherband radios and local radio stations. Water temperature ranges can be expected to
be in the 60s, 70s, and 80s (in Fahrenheit) during the recreational swimming seasons.

Multiprobes are electronic instruments used to measure an array of parameters (e.g., dissolved
oxygen  [DO], pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity) in situ (in place) by special sensors.
Multiprobes are usually portable, handheld devices that are used to collect instantaneous water
quality measurements during focused environmental investigations; they can also be deployed for
extended periods for specialized studies to capture the diurnal  (24-hour) quality cycle. Multiprobes
are favored for routine environmental investigations because they can collect data for parameters
like DO and pH, which have extremely limited holding times,  and they don't call for the transport
and use of field chemistry test kits or necessitate the disposal of waste reagents or spent samples
after measurement. (Field test kits often use acids or other toxics that require specialized disposal or
pretreatment before  disposal.)
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For larger counties or regional coordinators, using multiprobes can be a cost-effective way to gather
a large amount of information relatively quickly. Because multiprobes are reasonably portable and
are subject to calibration, the uncertainty and subjectivity associated with measurement are highly
controlled. Some jurisdictions or regional survey programs might already include the use of
multiprobes.

Odor
Example
Sulfur, sewage, diatomaceous earth, septic system leachate

Description
An odor given off by a waterbody can indicate pollution, such as sewage, present at the beach.

Method
As you walk around the beach, note whether there is any detectable odor and mark it down on the
survey form.

Turbidity
Example
Clear or 0 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units)

Description
Turbidity is a measure of the cloudiness of water and is also measured in situ. It is an aggregate
property of the solution.  Turbidity is not specific to the types of particles in the water. They can be
suspended or colloidal matter, and they can be inorganic, organic, or biological. At high
concentrations, turbidity is perceived as cloudiness or haze or an  absence of clarity in the water.

Methods
The most common instrument for measuring scattered light in a water sample is a nephelometer. A
nephelometer measures light scattered at a right angle (90°) to the light beam. Light scattered at
other angles can also be measured, but the 90° angle defines a nephelometric measurement. The
light source for nephelometric measurements can be one of two types to meet EPA or International
Organization  for Standardization (ISO) specifications. EPA specifies a tungsten lamp with a color
temperature of 2,200-3,000 K (Kelvin). The unit of measurement for the EPA method is the NTU.
The ISO specifies a light-emitting diode (LED) with a wavelength of 860 nanometers and a spectral
bandwidth less than or equal to 60 nanometers. The unit of measurement for the ISO  method is the
formazin nephelometric unit (FNU). Also see  the description of multiprobes, which are available
with turbidity sensors, in this section under Water Temperature.

Turbidity is not the same as total suspended solids (TSS), and in  some cases it may be useful to
have both measurements at a beach. However, turbidity is much easier and less time consuming to
measure. Some agencies use TSS and turbidity measurements as  proxies for one another. However,
to do this you need to perform a side-by-side comparison of the two to demonstrate equivalency
because they are not strongly correlated in all  waterbodies.
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Salinity and conductivity
Example
Salinity: 5 parts per thousand (ppt); Conductivity: 5 Siemens per meter (S/m)

Description
Salinity is a measurement of the salt content in water. Typically, salinity is measured in ppt or %o.
Conductivity is the measure of the ability to conduct electricity. Conductivity is generally measured
as S/m, but it can also be reported in microsiemens (|iS) or millisiemens (mS) per centimeter (jiS or
mS/cm). The two measures can be calculated from each other, if you know what the water
temperature is.

Method
You can use physical and chemical methods to measure salinity. Typically, physical methods are
quicker and more convenient than chemical methods. Three common physical methods are
measuring with a hydrometer, conductivity meter, or refractometer. The chemical methods
determine chlorinity (the chloride concentration), which is closely related to salinity.  Conductivity
is typically measured with a conductivity meter.

A hydrometer measures the specific gravity (the  ratio of the mass of a liquid to the mass of an equal
volume of pure water) of liquids. Hydrometers are calibrated for different reference and  sample
temperatures  to account for changes to the density of a liquid changes with changes in temperature.
To measure salinity with a hydrometer, a sample of water is taken and a hydrometer is used to
measure the specific gravity and temperature of the water, and this information is converted into a
salinity measure using a hydrometer conversion table.

You can use a conductivity meter to measure the electrical conductivity in a sample of water.
Conductivity is an approximation of salinity—a  salty solution that is full of charged particles
conducts electricity. Conductivity can be converted into a measure of salinity that is dependent on
the temperature of the water.

A refractometer measures how light bends as it passes through a material. In water, the amount of
bending is related to how much salt is dissolved  in the water. When using a refractometer,  a sample
is placed on an optical prism in the  sample window. As light shines through the sample,  it  is bent
according to the salinity of the water, and it casts a shadow on the scale that can be read  directly
through the eyepiece. Using a refractometer is a  cheap,  consistent, and reliable way to measure
salinity in water samples, and because they require little calibration.

Some multiprobes also have the ability to measure salinity or conductivity in addition to other
parameters. Instructions for using a multi-probe will be specific to the instrument, and you should
follow the manufacturer's instructions. When using a multiprobe, regular calibration  is required.
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Dissolved oxygen (DO)

Example
5 milligrams per liter (mg/L)

Description
DO is the measure of the amount of gaseous oxygen (62) in aqueous solution, and it can
significantly affect the health of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of DO in a waterbody vary over
time and can be affected by a number of physical, chemical, and biological factors. During the day,
oxygen is produced by photosynthesis of aquatic plants, and concentrations fall at night when
photosynthesis ceases. On a given day, the amount of sunlight can affect the amount of DO
produced in the waterbody. DO concentrations can vary by depth. For instance, in estuaries in the
late spring and summer, vertical stratification occurs as a result of warmer, fresher waters flowing
over colder, saltier waters. This stratification can limit the transfer of oxygen between the upper and
lower layers. Stratification can be affected by changing seasons or storms, allowing oxygen-rich,
surface water to mix with the oxygen-poor, deep water. Because of this variation, it is important to
sample year-round to get an accurate picture of DO concentrations in the waterbody you are
sampling. It is useful to sample at approximately the same time of day so that measurements can be
more easily compared. Consider taking samples at different depths.

Method
DO can be measured with a meter or test kit. To use a test kit, a water sample is collected and
titrated using the Winkler method. If titration is not done in the field, the sample should be fixed in
the field and measured in a lab within 8 hours. Measuring DO with a meter (or probe) is a much
more straightforward process; each meter should be calibrated according to the manufacturer's
instructions. As discussed in the temperature section, many mulitprobe devices can measure DO
concentrations along with other parameters. A multiprobe should be calibrated regularly to ensure
accurate DO measurements.

Total suspended solids (TSS)

Example
100 mg/L

Description
TSS is the amount of materials suspended in the water column.

Method
To measure TSS, a sample of water is taken and analyzed in a lab. In the lab the sample is filtered,
and the remaining residue on the filter is weighed to determine the total  solids. Samples should be
preserved at 4 °C and measured within 7 days. More detail about methods for preserving and
measuring TSS are in EPA Method 160.2 (http://www.epa.gov/region9/qa/pdfs/160_2.pdf [USEPA
1999b]) or Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, published by the
American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment
Federation (1998). TSS is not the same as turbidity, and if one measure is to be replaced by the
other, a side-by-side assessment of the two should be conducted to assess equivalency.
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4.3 Bather load

Example
200 people at the beach, 50 people in the water

Description
The sanitary survey should include a discussion of the effects of bather load on recreational areas,
particularly for recreational areas with poor water circulation. If there is poor water circulation,
heavy bather loads can cause significant elevation in bacterial counts for total and fecal coliform
bacteria and enterococcus bacteria. High-use areas with poor water circulation might also indicate a
need for increased monitoring of FIB and might require that you pay attention to the potential for
blue-green algae blooms.

Methods
When performing the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey, count the number of people at the beach and
note the proximity of people to the beach. If you perform the count in the morning when bather
density is low or zero, note that on the form and try to obtain bather density data from the lifeguards
or park gate. Lifeguards often maintain records of bather density throughout the day. You can also
use gate or visitor numbers for the beach if available.

The following are some examples of methods for estimating bather load:

    •  Count by hand the number of people at the beach. Count the total number of people and
       estimate the number of people in the water as a percentage of the total number of people at
       the beach. If the beach is large, choose a representative area to use to count the number of
       people and extrapolate the number to the entire beach using the size of the area as it
       compares to the total size of the beach.

    •  Take photos of the  beach and count the number of people in them. Make  sure to note how
       much of the beach area each  photo covers. If possible, try to cover the entire beach using
       photos, but make sure the photos do not overlap and that people  are not counted twice.
       Photos will also provide information on the proximity of people  to the beach.

    •  Count people or take photos from a helicopter or plane flying over the beach.

    •  Count the number of cars at parking lots used for beach parking  and use that number to
       estimate bather load.

    •  Count the number of visitors by using a laser counting device. Laser counting devices have
       been used at beaches in Encinitas, California, to count the number of bathers visiting a
       beach. The devices can be installed alongside stairwells leading to the beach. To tally
       visitors, the counters use a laser beam that is directed across the  stairwells or narrow paths
       leading to a beach.  Each person walking through the beam  registers 0.5 on the counter to
       count a person arriving and departing as one visitor. The laser counter has its limitations. All
       beach entrances need to have a counter, and entrances need to be clearly defined. Laser
       counters would not work at a beach where the main beach entrance is several blocks long or
       where visitors can access the beach from several  other areas or side  streets. Also, people
       who walk past several times are counted as more than one person.
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The following data should be recorded when counting beach attendance:

    •  Number of people at the beach.

    •  Number of people in the water (e.g., swimming, diving, fishing, surfing).

    •  Number of people not recreating in or on the water.

You might also want to record the types of activities in which people are engaged (e.g., swimming,
boating, sunbathing) and the number of people engaged in each activity.


4.4 Potential pollution sources
The person performing the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey should identify visible sources of
pollution up to 500 feet from the beach boundary and, if possible, quantify the sources.

Sources of pollutants
Example
A storm drain's discharge is brown and has a bad odor. The discharge is to the east of the
designated beach area, about 500 feet away from the beach.

Description
Visible sources, including rivers,  estuaries, outfalls, discharges (such as storm drains), and ponds,
might carry contaminants that affect bathing beach water quality. Ground water, usually not visible,
might also be a pollutant source. Investigating ground water as a pollution source is not addressed in
this sanitary survey. The level of investigation of potential pollution sources will vary depending on
the resources available for the investigation and on priorities.

Documenting the river or stream discharge (or the volume of water passing a certain point per unit
time) of the waterbody and the concentration of contaminant or FIB allows  managers to calculate an
approximate load for that period.  Measuring the discharge and the concentration of these sources
can provide information about the magnitude of the potential pollutant loads carried by these
sources to the bathing beach. It is important to have information on both the concentration in a
stream and the stream discharge because with that information a total load per day can be
calculated.

Methods
Identify visible sources that are affecting the beach up to 500 feet from the sampling station. If
visible sources are suspected of affecting water quality, you might collect bacteria samples from
these sources and take discharge measurements, estimate discharge, or find discharge measurements
from the USGS or another agency.

Document the name of each visible source and the corresponding velocity or flow rate on the
Routine On-site Sanitary Survey form. In the Comments/Observations section, add additional notes
such as whether the visible sources occur only in conjunction with specific weather conditions.  If
you take bacteria samples from any pollutant sources, indicate that on the routine form. Also note if
those samples are included in the water quality table on the form.
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Discharge or Flow Measurement
Stream or river discharge is sometimes called flow. A discharge measurement is a combination of a
velocity measurement and a cross-sectional area measurement. It is important to measure the flow
of the potential pollutant sources.

Velocity
Measure velocity in a straight section of the stream or reach that has a stable bottom. Velocity can be
measured using a velocity meter (sometimes called a flow meter). It is important to stand downstream
and to the side of the velocity meter when taking measurements and to operate the meter properly.

    •  Current velocity meters are available as mechanical or electronic units. A current velocity
       meter consists of a sensor or current meter, the support system for the sensor, and a counter.
       The signal from the sensors or current meter is processed or read by the counter. Many
       factors should be considered when selecting the  proper current measuring equipment. In
       general, you should know if you will be measuring current from an overhead structure or
       while wading. It also helps to know the approximate speed of the water to be measured
       because specialty meters are available for very slow currents, and those are most likely what
       is present in recreational waters. Training and experience are necessary to operate current
       velocity meters consistently and to select appropriate stream reaches for taking measurements.

    •  Velocity estimates can be obtained using an orange or a floating ball and a stopwatch. The
       measurement is the time it takes the floating object to travel downstream a pre-measured
       (and pre-marked) distance (e.g., 10 meters). See the procedure given earlier for longshore
       current speed measurement.

    •  USGS stream flow data for the stream of interest might be available from the USGS's
       National Water Information System (NWIS). The NWIS is a comprehensive and distributed
       application that supports the acquisition, processing, and long-term storage of water data.
       Data for a large network of rivers and streams are available for stream levels, stream flow
       (discharge), reservoir and lake levels, surface-water quality, and rainfall. The data are
       collected by automatic recorders and manual field measurements at installations across the
       nation. For more information, see http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/sw.

    •  National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is  another resource that might be useful. The NHD is
       a comprehensive set of digital spatial data that encodes information about naturally
       occurring and constructed bodies of water, paths through which water flows, and related
       entities. The data support many applications, such as making maps, modeling the flow of
       water, and maintaining data. The NHD is the culmination of cooperative efforts of EPA and
       the USGS. For more information, see http://nhd.usgs.gov/index.html.

    •  Volume is another way to document the amount  of discharge from a pollutant source. This is
       often how information from a wastewater treatment plant is reported and recorded  on a
       Discharge Monitoring Report.

    •  Estimated amount is used if you aren't able to measure the flow or volume of a discharge to
       the beach. In this case, you can enter a general amount of high (H), medium (M), or low (L)
       to indicate the significance of the discharge. This information could be useful for making
       relative comparisons over a beach season, as long as the people making the measurements
       have the same idea of what constitutes high, medium, and low.
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Tide pools present

Example
Yes. One tide pool is present measuring 1 meter by 3 meters; 18 inches deep at deepest point.

Description
Tide pools are areas where water is left behind when the ocean recedes at low tide. They can be big
or small, shallow or deep, and sandy or rocky depending on the type of beach.  Tide pools can be
formed in either rocky depressions or along sandy beaches.

Method
Visiting the beach at low tide, you might see tide pools left when the tide went out. You should note
whether tide pools are common at your beach and whether people recreate in them. In some cases,
seaweed and wrack in the tide pools can serve as a substrate for FIB growth, and if possible, you
should quantify it.

Floatables present

Example
Yes, floatables are present in the water. Types found include trash such as household waste and
medical items.

Description
Floatable debris causes problems at beaches because it can easily come into contact with aquatic
animals, people, boats, fishing nets, and other objects. Communities also lose money if beaches
need to be closed or cleaned up, and the fishing industry and recreational and commercial boaters
spend thousands of dollars every year to repair vessels damaged by floatable debris (USEPA
2002a).  Floatable debris also can be a source of bacterial contamination to bathing beaches.

Types of floatables present in water include street litter (e.g., cigarette butts, filters, and filter
elements), medical items (e.g., syringes), resin pellets, food packaging, beverage containers,
sewage-related items (condoms, tampons, applicators), pieces of wood and siding from construction
projects, fishing equipment (e.g., nets, lures, lines, bait boxes, ropes, and rods), household trash,
plastic bags and sheeting, and beverage yokes (six-pack rings for beverage containers) (USEPA
2002a).

Methods
Record the types and amount of floatable debris. For further guidance on measuring floatable
debris, see EPA's Assessing and Monitoring Floating Debris (USEPA 2002a)  at
http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/marinedebris/upload/2006_10_6_oceans_debris_floatingdebris_debr
is-final.pdf.

Amount and type of beach debris/litter on beach

Example
Low (1%-20%) amount of beach has litter present. Types of litter found are street litter, household
waste, and tar.
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Description
Beach debris or litter can cause problems similar to those caused by floatable debris (described
above) because they can easily be washed into the bathing beach water and affect wildlife. In
addition, the presence of certain materials, such as medical waste and sewage-related items, on the
beach can pose an immediate health hazard to beachgoers and can be a source of bacterial
contamination to the beach.

Methods
Record the types of beach debris or litter observed, along with the percentage of the beach length
that has each type of debris or litter.  Describe additional types of debris or litter not already
provided on the form next to "Other."

Amount of algae in nearshore water/beach

Example
Low (1%-20%) amount of beach has algae present. Type of algae found is free floating. Color is
bright green.

Description
Algae can be a nuisance at beaches.  Decaying algae can produce a foul odor that can deter people
from visiting affected bathing beaches. Algae also have been suspected of harboring FIB, which can
lead to beach advisories or closures.

Methods
Record the amount of algae found in the nearshore water and covering the beach.  The form has
separate fields for algae in the nearshore water and for algae on the beach itself. The types of algae
present, if known, should be recorded along with the color of the algae. If algae are known to be
harmful, indicate that on the form and describe the algae. Additional information can be given, if
needed, in the Comments and Observations section of the form.

Presence of a harmful algal bloom

Example
Yes. A harmful algal bloom is present.

Description
An algal bloom is a large accumulation of algae—either microscopic species or the larger,
multicellular species. A harmful algal bloom (HAB) is visible to the human eye and can affect
aquatic species, pets, wildlife, and humans. HABs can have a variety of effects on the environment
and humans. In some cases, algae might not be toxic but can discolor water, form piles  on beaches,
or cause drinking water and fish to taste bad. HABs can cause depletion of oxygen in the water
column or clog the gills of aquatic organisms, leading to death of aquatic species. HABs can also be
a nuisance for people trying to recreate in or on the water. Some HAB species are toxic and can kill
aquatic organisms or cause illness to humans, pets, or wildlife when they come into contact with or
ingest water containing the HAB. HABs can appear as scum, mat, or filamentous mass  in the
waterbody.
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Method
Although it is not possible to determine whether an algal bloom is toxic through observation, or
whether enough biomass has accumulated to cause oxygen depletion, visual monitoring for algal
blooms is the first step in identifying an HAB.

In addition, research programs such as NOAA's Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal
Blooms (ECOHAB) Program collect data used to predict HAB development for coastal states.

Presence of wildlife and domestic animals

Example
20 gulls on the beach (on sand below high tide line) and 20 gulls in the water.

Description
The presence of wildlife and domestic animals at bathing beaches affects water quality. Waste from
these animals, whether entering the water directly from waterfowl droppings or indirectly from
runoff carrying waste from dogs and other animals, can cause bacteria concentrations to rise to the
point where recreational standards are  exceeded, resulting in beach closure. Data like the types and
numbers of animals present at the bathing beach could be used to help identify major sources of
bacterial contamination and potential best management practices (e.g., pet owner education, better
trash management to reduce available food sources at the beach) that could be used to reduce the
amount of animal waste reaching the bathing beach.

Methods
Determine the presence of animals at the bathing beach through visual observation. Use binoculars
and a handheld counter to keep track of the number of animals present.

Record both the types and number of animals present on the beach. Next, count the number of
animals that are actually in the water. If you can note the proximity of the animals to the water
(e.g., below high tide line, above high tide line), this can be useful information. Note the presence of
any types of animals not already listed on the form next to Other. Note in the Comments and
Observations section the number of each type  of animal present in the water, on the beach, and in
the air.

Birds found dead on the beach

Example
Common loons (2), long-tailed ducks (1)

Description
Bird die-offs indicate problems in water quality

Methods
As you walk the beach to conduct the sanitary survey,  look for any dead birds on the shore or in the
water. If you find dead birds but can't identify the species, write a description of the bird and take a
photo if possible.
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Dead fish on the beach

Example
Found 4 dead fish on the beach—2 at the east end at the same location, 1 in the middle, and 1 on the
west end.

Description
Fish die-offs indicate problems in water quality.

Methods
As you walk the beach to conduct the sanitary survey, look for any dead fish on the shore or in the
water. If you can't identify the species, write a description of the fish and take a photo if possible.
Note the location of any dead fish, especially as it relates to the swimming area.
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5. Data Elements for the Annual Sanitary Survey

This section includes descriptions of the types of data you should consider collecting if you are
conducting an Annual Sanitary Survey. Make sure that you document all sources of information,
including dates that data were collected or recorded. In addition, if you used the Internet to obtain
information (such as maps), note the most recent date for the Web page.


5.1  Basic information
In the first section of the Annual Sanitary Survey form, list the basic information about your beach,
such as the name, ID, and location. The Beach IDs you use should include the one you submit to
EPA for the Program tracking, beach Advisories, Water quality standards, and Nutrients (PRAWN)
database. If you have a separate ID for other purposes, you may list that as well. Also include dates
of the beach season.


5.2  Description of land use in the watershed

Current land use  in watershed and overall development
You  can use beach characterization data, including surrounding land uses, to evaluate potential risk
and rank beaches. Pollutant loadings into nearby bathing beaches and other surface waters generally
increase as a watershed becomes more developed and more impervious surfaces are created. Using
environmentally sound land use planning techniques and implementing controls can help reduce the
impacts of development on bathing beaches.

Land use maps, aerial photos of the watershed, or other geographic data can usually be obtained
through a city, county, or state planning department. In addition, NOAA maintains a coastal land
cover database (http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/ccapregional/index.html). Some land use
and land cover (LULC) data are also available from the USGS for the conterminous United States
and Hawaii, although coverage is not complete for all areas. The website for LULC information is
http://eros.usgs.gov/#/Find_Data/Products_and_Data_Available/LULC. Websites like
www.googleearth.com can also be helpful in providing maps. When using these types of sources,
make sure to note the most recent date on which updates were made to the Web page and when
updates are expected.

You  can use the information provided by these sources to estimate the percentage of various land
uses, including residential, industrial, commercial,  and agricultural, in the watershed. You can also
use it to visually confirm locations of potential pollutant sources like wastewater treatment plants
and concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). In addition, you can use this information to
determine the overall percentages of developed and undeveloped area in the watershed, including
the percent of impervious cover.

In addition, you should consider conducting site visits throughout the watershed to verify or update
land  use data and maps and to collect visual data in unknown areas or areas suspected of being
sources of contamination.
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Uses
You can use beach use information to identify potential sources of pollutants. For example, if small
oil or gasoline spills are often noted, you can investigate nearby motorized boats as a potential
source of bacterial contamination. You can determine beach uses through direct observations of
activities that occur at the beach and services offered at the beach (e.g., boat rentals). The uses
included on the Annual Sanitary Survey form are swimming, boating, fishing, surfing, windsurfing,
diving, kayaking, jet skiing, beachcombing, vehicular traffic, kiteboarding, and other. Select the
uses that occur at your beach, and describe them further, if necessary, in the Comments section on
the form. Describe any uses not listed on the form in the space next to the Other category. In
addition, if the Routine On-site Beach Sanitary Survey was conducted, you can summarize the
results from Part III, Bather Load, collected over the course of the season; Part III asks for
information on beach use.

Mapping
You can use maps and other geographic information to help identify  potential impacts on the beach
in the watershed or along adjacent shoreline. Geographic information can help you determine the
proximity  of pollutant sources to the beach. Even simple maps like those obtained from places such
as GoogleEarth can be useful. Attach copies of any maps you have to the Annual Sanitary Survey,
or list the locations of the files if hard copies are not available.

You can obtain topographic maps from USGS directly or through a retailer. Information on ordering
these maps is on USGS's website at http://topomaps.usgs.gov/ordering_maps.html. Topographic
maps provide an indication of geographic boundaries and contours that influence stormwater flow
and, ultimately, pollutant loads to recreational waters. You can use topographic maps to delineate
surface watershed boundaries, if this has not been done already.

Detailed maps of survey areas are valuable to understanding the annual surveys and to ensuring the
consistency and continuity of the annual  survey program. Maps help  you to document specific
conditions about waterfront and adjacent properties being developed, which can include pollutant
sources or pollutant management controls. Graphic representations of key features help future
surveyors verify and document the effects of nearshore development activities and pollutant control
or sanitation enhancements from one year to the next.

Local governments maintain maps of their jurisdictions in their planning and zoning offices. You
should note on such maps the key features identified in the survey, including

    •  Primary (central) GPS locations for survey reaches or sub-reaches (permanent structural
       markers such as buildings [addresses], light poles, or utility poles might serve as references
       to the location of GPS measurements because some GPS measurement devices have greater
       resolution than others).

    •  Locations of water sampling and physical measurement stations.

    •  Location and direction of any digital photos (to serve as an index).

    •  Locations of significant potential sources (e.g., CSO/SSO or other discharge conveyances or
       apparent stormwater runoff, marinas, docks with recreational  watercraft).
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    •  Surrounding development and land uses, including any active construction.

    •  Permanent or temporary sanitary facilities for swimmers and beach patrons.

A map of sufficiently small scale should provide an opportunity to make notations regarding most
features or perspectives for most of the detailed observations on the Annual Sanitary Survey form.

The survey includes a list of possible items to include on the map, such as pollutant sources,
marinas, sanitary facilities, and bounding structures. Check to see if the things on the list that are
applicable to your beach are on the map, and in the Other category add any additional things that are
not on the list.

Erosion/accretion measurements
High water levels, storms, wind, ground water seepage, surface water runoff, ice, and frost are
important factors that cause beach erosion. Jetties and seawalls intended to protect against storm
waves can actually accelerate beach erosion and reduce the capacity of beaches to absorb storm
energy. Erosion can result in public losses to recreational facilities, roads, public works, and homes
along the shore (Surfrider Foundation 2011).

Recent research has examined the effect of beach erosion and accretion on the redistribution of
enterococci, and some ongoing research has indicated that the movement of sand by erosion and
accretion has the potential to redistribute enterococci.

To determine whether a beach is eroding or accreting over time, and whether you need to
implement an erosion control plan, you can take measurements from a fixed object behind the
beach, such as a building or parking lot, to the high watermark, and compare changes over time.
The high watermark is the highest point that waves reach on the day the measurement is taken. It
can usually be identified as the line on the beach between where it is wet and where it is dry or by a
line of debris  (e.g., seaweed, shells). If there is more than one line of debris on the beach, use the
line closest to the waterbody because other debris lines farther from the beach might be the  result of
previous storms (UNESCO 2005).

Two people are needed to perform this measurement. For beaches at least one mile long, choose at
least three points along the beach for the erosion/accretion measurements. You can add additional
points as needed. For instance, you can take measurements directly in front of and adjacent  to man-
made bounding structures to study their effects (UNESCO 2005).

At the first point (point A), select the fixed object and record a description of it on the sanitary
survey form. In addition, take pictures of both the high watermark location and a corresponding
fixed object and record a description of these photos on the sanitary survey form. One person should
stand at the high watermark and lay the tape measure on the ground. The other should stretch the
tape  measure to the fixed object and pull the tape measure taut. One of the persons should record on
the sanitary survey form the distance in feet or meters.  Then proceed to the next point,  repeating the
measurement and recording corresponding information on the sanitary survey form. Finally, the two
people should measure the distances between sampling points (UNESCO 2005) and record  them on
the sanitary survey form. A GPS device might also be used to take these measurements.

The University of Minnesota Extension Service's website provides examples of some best
management practices that can be used to reduce erosion at beaches:
www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/naturalresources/components/DD6946g.html.
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Shoreline hardening and circulation control structures
Alterations of the coastal environment can be made by installing man-made shoreline hardening
(bounding) structures like jetties, groins, piers, and seawalls/bulkheads. Alterations affect coastal
dynamics and have far-reaching effects on coastal ecosystems, hydrodynamic and tidal regimes, and
sediment transport rates. Usually, shoreline hardening structures are placed in environments to
counteract erosion in sediment-deficient areas or to deter accretion in dynamic areas such as inlets.
Adjacent downdrift areas typically experience increased erosion after these structures have been
installed (NFS 2011).

Groins are perpendicular structures used to maintain updrift beaches or to restrict longshore
sediment transport. Jetties, another type of perpendicular hard structure, are normally placed
adjacent to tidal inlets to control inlet migration and to minimize sediment deposition in the inlet.
Seawalls, bulkheads, and revetments are shore-parallel structures designed to protect the beach in
front of a property or properties. Structures like breakwaters, headlands, sills, and reefs are designed
to alter the effects of waves and stop or alter natural coastal changes (NFS 2011). Piers are designed
more for recreational use but can alter the beach area as well. For more information on these
structures, see www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/coastal/human_impact.cfm and
http: //www2. nature. np s. gov/geol ogy/coastal/hardeng. cfm.

Shoreline hardening and circulation control structures can affect water circulation, and this can
affect FIB concentrations at the beach. Features such as breakwaters or groins can promote non-
uniform distribution of FIB (Bertke 2007). For example, Bordalo (2003) reports significant
differences in bacterial water quality and in temperature and salinity for two beaches separated by a
250-meter-long jetty. A schematic drawing showing the beach and relevant features is presented in
Figure 5-1. Observed trends at both beaches (response to rainfall events, diurnal variation in FIB
density, variations with tidal cycle) were similar, but one beach had consistently higher FIB density.
The beach with the consistently higher density was confined on both sides by jetties, whereas the
other beach was described as more open to the ocean.  Higher densities in the confined waters can be
explained by  reduced dilution from the inhibition of mixing by the jetties.

On a Lake Michigan beach, breakwaters are also believed to influence mixing, retaining FIB (and
other pollution) originating from terrestrial sources (beach sands, runoff) and carried in along-shore
currents at Chicago beaches (Whitman and Nevers 2008). Among the 23 Lake Michigan beaches
studied by these researchers, E. coli densities exhibited similar time variation at all beaches but
three during a 5-year study; it was surmised that the physical features of the three beaches,
particularly the presence of breakwaters, caused the different temporal fluctuations  observed at
those beaches.

The mobilization of FIB from sands and sediments is related to waves which, in turn, are related to
the beach physical configuration. Yamahara et al. (2007) used an TV-way ANOVA to determine
which factors influenced presence/absence and density of enterococci and E. coli in beach sands at
multiple beaches along the California coast. Among other factors,  presence and density were most
influenced by wave action and presence of a source. Sheltered beaches (low wave action) with an
FIB source had the highest sand enterococci densities among beaches studied.
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                                Sheltered beach
                                     Primary
                                     indicator
                                     source
Source: Bordalo 2003
Figure 5-1. Illustration of beach features promoting non-uniform
indicator density in parts of a beach.

Groin extensions and jetties can cause or exacerbate adverse water quality by enclosing beaches. In
some cases, a beach area already suffers from poor circulation, and a groin extension exacerbates
the problem (e.g., Cabrillo Beach in southern California). In some cases the jetty or groin extension
can actually cause the enclosure (e.g., Baby Beach in Dana Point, California). Enclosed beaches
have been noted as a significant problem for water quality (Largier and Taggart 2006),  and are the
locations of the greatest beach water quality issues in the State of California. Some states such as
Rhode Island have existing controls on the building of further future shoreline hardening structures.
State policy makers have noted the adverse impacts of these structures on water quality and wave
action that is primarily responsible for natural sand movement along the coast.

Shoreline hardening structures  retain shore based pollution through trapping, and attempts to
promote circulation may assist the manager. Contaminated groundwater contributed to  areas with
reduced circulation due to  shoreline hardening structures degrades coastal water quality and may
require promotion of advective mixing and diffusion in the beach boundary layer.

Due to the strong impacts of shoreline hardening structures on beach water quality, take photos of
shoreline hardening structures.  Record corresponding descriptions of the pictures on the sanitary
survey form in the Photos section. In areas where groins and jetties have created enclosed beaches
note the collection or trapping  of materials along the beach where the public is recreating.
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Examples may be collection or trapping of seaweed wrack, surface scums or mats of algal, areas
where trash and debris has collected, to name a few. During period where materials are trapped at
the beach, note wind speed and direction and alongshore flow of water.

Beach materials/sediments
Beaches can be characterized by the types of materials or sediments present. Sediment type can
correlate to bacteria densities at some beaches. Changes in the types of materials or sediments
present over time (e.g., from fine-grain to coarse sand) can indicate erosion problems. If beach
nourishment projects are undertaken, the grain size of the replacement sand should match as closely
as possible the existing sand grain sizes to avoid problems like beach narrowing.

Simple, subjective observations (e.g., "sandy, very") can be used to describe the materials or
sediments present at a beach. This is adequate for most beaches.

If you have the time and resources, collecting sediment samples and sending them to a lab for
analysis will provide better data. If you do this, the following is a simple procedure for collecting
samples (recommended by Richard Whitman of the USGS, 2006).

   1.  Choose up to three plots that are 1 square meter in dimension. Plots should be approximately
       1 meter beachward (i.e., away from the water) from the waterline. If the sediments at your
       beach are fairly uniform, one plot is likely enough.

   2.  Describe the locations of the plots and note them on a diagram or photo so that they can be
       revisited in the future.

   3.  Within each plot, collect five equally sized sediment samples—one from each corner of the
       square plot and one from the center of the square. Composite the samples into one pre-
       labeled bottle or bag.

   4.  Send the samples to a lab to analyze the sediment size. The lab should determine the mean
       grain size diameter, and the uniformity coefficient.

Grain size is classified on the Udden-Wentworth scale with the following sizes for each type of
sand: very coarse sand = 1-2 millimeter (mm), coarse sand = 0.5-1 mm, medium sand = 0.25-0.5
mm, fine sand = 0.125-0.25 mm, and very fine sand = 0.0625-0.125 mm. One commonly used term
is sugar sand. Sugar sand is approximately 0.15-0.2 mm, similar to fine sand.

Shellfish growing areas
States that have shellfish growing areas will typically have a shellfish sanitation monitoring
program. The Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference typically oversees these programs. You
should determine whether a shellfish growing area is near your beach because data collected for that
area might also be applicable to your beach. If shellfish growing areas and swimming beaches
overlap, the shellfish and beach programs should consider combining efforts to address pollution
sources affecting both resources.

On the Annual Sanitary Survey you should include information about the general size of the area,
proximity to the swimming area, type of harvest, summary of closures and advisories, and any other
information that might correlate to health risk to swimmers. Cite and attach relevant summary
reports if they exist. Certain types of shellfish can be problematic to human health because of the
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risk of cuts and scrapes on shell exteriors and the potential for Vibrio spp. infections, especially
during warm months, so documenting oyster growing areas in proximity to high-use recreational
areas is necessary.

Photos
Photos are a good way to document beach and watershed conditions. Take some general photos
showing the overall beach condition and the locations of fixed objects. These photos can be used as
reference points to  determine whether changes have occurred from year to year. In addition, take
photos of beach use, bounding structures, sediments, habitat, sampling locations, pollutant sources,
evidence of pollutants (such as  pluming from creeks and streams, runoff, and mysterious pipes,
evident in aerial photos), sanitary facilities, and other facilities. If you are using a digital camera,
write down the photo number, a description, the date and time, and the file name (once the file is
uploaded to a computer) for each photo. Attach relevant photos to the survey form.

Habitat
Changes in the types of habitats present at a beach over time can indicate erosion problems. For
example, if dunes are starting to disappear, beach restoration efforts might be needed to slow the
erosion process. Special measures might be needed to maintain critical habitat for a threatened
species at a beach,  such as the piping plover (Charadrius melodus).

Record on the sanitary survey form the types of habitat present at a beach (e.g., dunes, wetlands,
river/stream, forest, park, urban area, boardwalk, or protected habitat or reserve).


5.3  Weather conditions and physical  characteristics
One  or more weather parameters might correlate with bacteria densities in the water. For this part of
the survey,  you should closely examine the data you have collected over the previous season(s), if
applicable,  and look for trends and possible correlations with the bacteria sample results. For
example, once you display the data graphically, you might notice that bacteria counts are usually
high when the water temperature is at its highest. Or perhaps bacteria sample results at certain
sample points at one beach are higher than at other sample points, possibly because a current
typically moves from west to east along the shore.

In addition, if sky conditions (such as sunny or cloudy) were observed using the Routine On-site
Sanitary Survey, you should examine the survey results to determine the typical sky condition for
the beach. You can also examine  sky conditions from the routine survey along with the bacteria
sampling results to determine whether there is any correlation  between the sky  conditions and the
sampling results. Indicate when there is a correlation between weather and bacteria  concentrations.

You  can use the results of the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey to  calculate the average, typical, or
maximum measurements of air temperature, water temperature, and wind speed and direction
during beach  season. If those data are not available, the National Weather Service website or other
websites might be a source of data. The following is a list of Internet sources that you can use to
access historical weather data.
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NOAA
http: //ti desandcurrents. noaa.gov/stati on_retri eve. shtml

This website allows you to purchase data from 1996 to the present collected by major airport
weather stations. The data include daily temperature extremes, precipitation, and winds. Some
current data are available for free, but additional data come in the form of monthly or annual
records and can be purchased.

NOAA-NCDC
http://www7. ncdc.noaa.gov/IPS/coop/coop. html;jsessionid=BEABA568FF9763BCD7B6F047029B
E636

This website contains records for weather stations in the United States ranging from 1800 to two or
three months ago. The database is searchable by state and city. It gives results as .pdf files showing
scanned monthly logs with a daily account of temperature extremes (participating locations) and
precipitation, snow, and snow depth. Data are available for the thousands of sites that are a part of
the cooperative observing network in the United States. This information is free online.

NOAA-National Weather Service
http: //www. weather. gov/

The National Weather Service site provides locations of weather stations and weather radio
information. Archived data for the previous year are available.

Winds
Recent research has examined the effect of wind speed and direction on bacteria concentrations, and
some studies have shown that there is a correlation between onshore wind speed and concentrations
of bacteria in a water quality sample. Onshore winds can prevent pollutants from moving away
from the beach area or bring submarine effluents toward the shore. More information about
collecting information on wind speeds and direction is in Section 4.

Waves
As part of the annual survey, you should describe the typical wave conditions during the beach
season.

Correlation with bacteria levels
The mobilization of FIB from sands and sediments is related to waves which, in turn, are related to
the beach physical  configuration. Yamahara et al. (2007) used an TV-way ANOVA to determine
which factors influenced presence/absence and density of enterococci and E. coli in beach sands at
multiple beaches along the California coast. Among other factors, presence and density were most
influenced by wave action and presence of a source. Sheltered beaches (low wave action) with an
FIB source had the highest sand  enterococci densities among beaches studied. Pollutants from
stormwater and other effluent outfalls can be carried to the beach as waves travel toward the shore,
and wave action can resuspend bacteria that have been deposited in the sand layer.
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Tides
Water movement from tidal fluctuations can cause erosion, transportation and deposition of beach
sediment, and redistribution of associated microorganisms (WHO 2003). Water quality at beach
areas can be related to tidal extent and manifestation, and tidal river/stream discharges. For instance,
during high tide, the swimming zone is moved onshore, where more human activities take place,
and this can affect bacteria concentrations in area waters. In a 2005 study, Boehm and Weisberg
found that during spring-ebb tides bacteria levels can be higher; during tidal events, enterococci
densities were found at beaches with no obvious point source. This study points to several potential
sources for enterococci, including beach sands and sediments, decaying plant material, and polluted
ground water—all of which were affected by the strength of the spring tides. You should also note
how tidal flow is manifest and whether the tides create  a cross-current. Information on whether tidal
rivers or streams discharge near the beach and the relationship of tidal flow to known point or
nonpoint pollution sources can also provide information that can be useful in beach management
decisions.

Tide pools
Tide pools are areas where water is left behind when the ocean recedes at low tide. They can be big
or small, shallow or deep, and sandy or rocky depending on the type of beach.

Because of the lack of movement of water in and out of tide pools, they  could harbor bacteria for
longer periods. At some beaches, tide pools are popular playing areas for small children, so you
should note whether tide pools are  common at your beach and whether people recreate in them.

Longshore and nearshore currents
Review data from the prior beach season(s) and determine the significance  of longshore currents,
cross currents, and nearshore currents. Examine the current data alongside the bacteria sample
results at each sample point to determine whether there might be a correlation between the currents
and bacteria concentrations at certain sample points. For more information on measuring currents or
data sources, see the description of currents in Section 4.


5.4 Beach dimensions

Beach length or dimensions
Comparing beach dimensions over several years can provide information on how local development
might be affecting the beach. For instance, uncontrolled development near the beach can prevent
natural dune restoration, which in turn can decrease the width of the beach. Beach length
measurements can be used to help identify sampling locations and other features. Beach dimensions
can also be useful in calculating how much sand will be needed for a beach nourishment project.

Two people are  needed to measure the length of the section of beach to which the sanitary survey
applies. Note on the sanitary survey form the fixed objects or beach formations that will be used as
boundaries for the length of beach (e.g., lifeguard chair to lifeguard chair, edge of building to inlet).
Before using objects like lifeguard chairs, make sure they are actually fixed objects and are not
moved from year to year. In addition, take pictures of the boundaries and record descriptions of
these photos on  the sanitary survey form. To measure the beach, one person should stand at one end
of the beach and lay a tape measure on the ground. The second person should stretch the tape
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measure to the other end of the beach or as far as it will allow. If the beach is longer than the length
of the tape measure, take incremental beach length measurements in a field notebook. Add the
incremental measurements, and record them on the sanitary survey form.

Enter on the sanitary survey form the three previously made beach width measurements (distance
from fixed object to high watermark) for the erosion/accretion measurements for width Zl, width
Z2, and width Z3. Average the three measurements and enter the value on the form for width
(average) (UNESCO 2005).

Alternatively, you can take GPS readings to determine beach length or dimensions, or you can
estimate the distances by pacing the beach. Make sure you document on the survey form the method
you use to calculate beach length or dimensions.

Date and description of the last beach rehabilitation
Beach rehabilitation can help restore major habitats and reduce pollutant sources. Major
rehabilitation could include projects such as planting beach grass and erecting fences to protect
dune ecosystems, removing litter, dredging, adding sand, and conducting beach nourishment. In part
11 of the form, Potential Pollutant Sources, list other types of rehabilitation and physical structures,
such as constructing bathroom facilities.


5.5 Bather load
It is important for the beach manager to know the number or approximate number of people using
the beach. You can collect the bather load numbers using several different approaches to determine
annual, seasonal, and daily cycles. Bather load is best if measured during times of the day when
people are most likely to be at the beach. Lifeguards in many counties routinely collect daily counts
during swimming season,  and, therefore, might have data that are of use in the survey. County
health departments or beach program managers might also have historical beach attendance data
that could be used in the annual or routine surveys. For details on how to measure bather load, see
Section 4.3.

Bather load numbers should be reviewed alongside bacteria sample results to determine whether
there is any type of correlation between beach use and bacteria concentrations. Evaluate each
sample point separately because one sample point might be more affected by bather load than the
others. Describe any trends detected or any particular days when there might have been a
correlation between these  data sets.


5.6 Beach cleaning

Cleanup activities
Beaches are typically cleaned using mechanical cleaners, volunteers (e.g., Adopt-a-Beach programs,
county- or city-sponsored  beach cleanup days), or both. Mechanical beach cleaners groom the sand
by mechanically raking and sifting it, and they can be used to remove both large and small pieces of
debris. This process might or might not be followed by leveling of the sand. Beach grooming
without leveling has been  shown to significantly reduce the amount of bacterial contamination
during dry-weather events. Mechanical beach cleaning can be performed daily during the early
morning or late evening.
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Volunteers can perform manual beach cleaning in year-round Adopt-a-Beach programs that require
participants to clean a designated area of beach at least five times a year and include litter
monitoring, cleanup, and simple monitoring activities (Alliance for the Great Lakes 2004).
Municipalities or counties might also sponsor beach cleanup events one or more times a year.

In this part of the survey, note the frequency of any beach cleaning activities and give a short
description of any activities performed at the beach. Also list any type of equipment that was used
for beach cleaning, if known.

Amount and types of f I eatables
Estimate what types of floatables are found in the water. Include the types of floatables found,
including tar, oil or grease, trash, plastic, or medical waste. This type of information might be
available from routine surveys or other documentation of this type of activity.

Amount and types of beach debris/litter on  the beach
Review the results of the routine survey, or other documentation of this type of activity, and
estimate how frequently debris or litter is found on the beach and whether it is causing a problem.
Note which types of debris or litter are found, including tar, oil or grease, trash, plastic, or medical
waste. Any known source of debris should also be noted.


5.7 Information on sampling location

Sampling  location
Describe the sampling locations, including details about each sample point. List the time of day that
samples are usually taken. EPA recommends that water quality  samples be taken in the middle of a
typical bathing area. Samples can be taken at a point corresponding to each lifeguard chair, or every
500 meters. If a beach is more than 5 miles long, take samples at the most populated/used areas of
the beach and spread out along the length of the beach (USEPA 2002b).

You can use measurements and landmarks to identify specific locations and to ensure future
consistency in sample collection. A more precise way to identify your sampling location is to take a
GPS reading and record the coordinates.

Collect samples in the morning, if possible, to ensure that the holding times are met and that the
laboratory has the maximum time to process the samples.

Hydro metric network
A hydrometric network is the network of monitoring stations that collect data such as flow and
rainfall. Check to see if flowmeters or rain gauges are in place in the watershed, and note their
locations and owners. NOAA might be able to provide rainfall data (for website information, see
Section 5.3). However, you might want to operate your own rain gauge or weather station so that it
is in the immediate vicinity of your beach. You could also coordinate with a local university that
might be interested in these data or might have a rain gauge or weather station of its own.

Flow data  might also be available from the USGS NWIS (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/sw). The
NWIS is a comprehensive and distributed application that supports the acquisition, processing, and
long-term  storage of water data. Data are available for stream levels, stream flow (discharge),
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reservoir and lake levels, surface-water quality, and rainfall. The data are collected by automatic
recorders and manual field measurements at installations across the nation.

The NHD might also be useful (http://nhd.usgs.gov/index.html). The NHD is a comprehensive set
of digital spatial data that encodes information about naturally occurring and constructed bodies of
water, paths through which water flows, and related entities. The data support many applications,
such as making maps, modeling the flow of water, and maintaining data. The NHD is the
culmination of the cooperative efforts of EPA and USGS.


5.8  Water quality sampling

Sampling plan, equipment maintenance and calibration procedures
Before the beach season, beach managers and their staff should review the sampling plan and
equipment maintenance and calibration procedures (if applicable). Keep these documents on-hand
so that before each sampling event field staff can review them as needed. Review these documents
during the Annual Sanitary Survey., and if there are any changes in factors such as beach use,
number of swimmers, new sources, or equipment used, make any adjustments in the sample plan  or
equipment maintenance and calibration procedures.

Laboratory information
Use this section to provide the name of the laboratory that analyzes the beach water samples. List
the approximate distance from the beach to the laboratory and how long it takes to get the samples
to the lab.

Duration and  identification of algal species
Algae in marine waters range from single-celled forms (microalgae) to seaweed (macroalgae).
Cyanobacteria are of particular concern because of their ability to produce toxins. They have some
characteristics of algae and some of bacteria (WHO 2003).

Macroalgae
Although not generally harmful to human health, macroalgae can be a nuisance at some marine
beaches, affecting the visual appearance of the beach by reducing transparency, discoloring water,
forming scum on the surface of the water or beach, and causing odors (WHO 2003). Cladophora
species have been found in the nearshore water and on beaches themselves. Cladophora species
have been reported to have a foul odor that can deter people from visiting affected bathing beaches.
Explain whether macroalgae are growing or commonly found at this beach and how extensive their
coverage is.

    • Field personnel can reference websites with electronic field guides on marine algae. The
      Smithsonian website includes  a marine flora bibliography that provides references to
      regional guides. For more information, see http://botany.si.edu/projects/algae/biblio.htm.

Current and historical amounts of macroalgae
    • Record on the Annual Sanitary Survey form the amount of algae found in the nearshore
      water. Select the type of algae present, if known, or note the color(s) of algae seen.
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    •  Record the amount of algae found covering the beach. This should be measured as the
       percentage of the length of the beach that has algae present. In the Comments and
       Observations section of the form, record the type of algae present, if known.

    •  Review the results of the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey for previous years and summarize
       them on the Annual Sanitary Survey to determine whether there are any long-term issues and
       whether there is a correlation between the presence of algae and bacterial sample results.

Microalgae
Although the risk is generally low at most marine beaches, certain types of algae can be a risk to
human health. Certain type of marine cyanobacteria can cause cyanobacterial dermatitis (i.e.,
swimmer's itch) or other types of skin irritation (WHO 2003). Exposure to Pfiesteria has been
shown to increase the risk of developing a clinical syndrome that causes difficulty in learning and
higher cognitive function (WHO 2003). Blooms ofNodularia spumigena (a cyanobacteria) have not
been shown to affect humans. However, they have poisoned ducks, cattle, and sheep, so it is
possible that humans, especially small children, could be affected (WHO 2003). Dianoflagellates of
the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).
PSP  causes neurological symptoms that can result in paralysis or death through respiratory arrest
(Lewitus et al.  2012). Diatoms of Pseudo-nitzschia produce domoic acid which causes amnesic
shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans. ASP  can be life-threatening and can result in gastrointestinal
and neurological disorders within 24-48 hours of eating toxic shellfish (Lewitus et al. 2012). One of
the most recent incidents of PSP on the west coast occurred in 2010 in southeast Alaska, resulting in
five illnesses and two deaths (Lewitus et al. 2012). Alexandrium and Pseudo-nitzschia cause most
of the blooms in California (NOAA no date). On the annual survey form state whether any visible
microalgal blooms were observed during the beach season and include the type of bloom, dates,
species, and  effects, if known.

HABs
Algae can cause HABs in marine waters and can affect nearby beaches. Summarize on the annual
survey whether any HABs occurred over the past year and how they affected the beach water
quality and recreational activities.

On the annual survey form  state whether any HABs were observed during the beach season and
include the type of bloom, dates, species, and effects, if known. State whether the bloom was
determined to be toxic or harmful.

Dangerous  aquatic organisms
You might want to list any  other aquatic organisms that were found near the swimming area at your
beach, such as jellyfish, sea nettles, and so forth. These are not known to affect bacteria
concentrations or water quality in general, but this can be useful information from a public safety
standpoint. Describe the location of where these organisms were found (e.g.,  swimming area, beach
near swimming area, downshore of swimming area).

Historical  presence of wildlife and domestic animals
You can visually determine the presence of animals at the bathing beach. This should be performed
routinely (during the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey). Use binoculars and a handheld counter to
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keep track of the number of animals present. Record on the Annual Sanitary Survey form both the
types and number of animals present at the beach. Note next to Other the presence at the beach of
any types of animals not already listed on the form. Also note in the Comments and Observations
section the number of each type of animal present in the water, on the beach, and in the air. Review
the results from the Routine On-site Sanitary Survey conducted during prior seasons and summarize
them on the Annual Sanitary Survey. Look to see how often animals were found at the beach and
whether their presence can be correlated with bacteria sampling results. Also include a discussion of
whether any fecal droppings were actually seen or are a common occurrence. If routine surveys
were not performed and there are no historical data, note the current presence of any wildlife and
domestic animals. If wildlife management areas are near the beach, indicate this and describe on the
form.

Note whether any dead birds or animals have been found on the beach, particularly near the
swimming area. Describe the suspected cause of death and attach any photos.

Bacteria samples collected at the beach
Beach managers should compile FIB concentrations—E. coli or enterococcus or both (USEPA
1986)—and calculate trends, geometric mean, annual/seasonal averages, minimum concentration,
and maximum concentrations to assist in measuring the beach water quality. Bacteria concentrations
should be compared to previous years' data to determine whether any significant changes have
occurred or whether any trends can be detected. Bacteria data should be examined alongside all
other data collected, including weather, rainfall, algae,  debris, wildlife, flow, and water quality.
Consider doing a statistical analysis on data correlation.

Describe where samples are collected, relative to any potential pollution sources. If samples are
collected from pollution sources (such as an outfall or river), describe this on the survey form.

Water quality
Water quality data (including water temperature, pH, rainfall, turbidity, and conductivity) should be
compared to previous years' data. You should also examine data alongside bacteria results to
determine whether there are any correlations between bacteria concentrations and water quality
results. The following paragraphs give more details on specific water quality parameters.

Water temperature
    •  You can measure water temperature with relative ease using one of the following:

       - A multiprobe

       - Other handheld electronic measurement device

       - Graduated thermometer

         The accuracy of common, widescale thermometers and electronic instruments can be
         verified with simple ice point (0 °C or 32 °F) and boiling point (100 °C or 212 °F)
         measurements. If the ice point and boiling point do not register correct temperatures, you
         can plot results for the two measurements  on simple graph paper to translate field
         measurements to corrected values. Electronic meters can be professionally calibrated if
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         the manufacturer's specifications do not include calibration procedures (USGS 2006). See
         the description for multiprobe in Section 4 under the methods used for water temperature.

    •  Local and regional water temperatures for recreational beaches are generally broadcast on
       NOAA Weatherband radios and local radio stations. Temperature ranges can be expected to
       be in the 60s, 70s, and 80s (in degrees Fahrenheit) during the recreational  swimming
       seasons.

pH
    •  You can measure pH using one of the following:

       - Simple pH strips.

       - Field test kits.

       - Handheld electronic meters (see the description for multiprobe in the previous section
         under the methods listed for water temperature).

    •  Common pH strips of a range expected for recreational waters are generally accurate enough
       for routine surveys. They usually cost less than $0.15 per strip.

Rainfall
    •  You can measure rainfall using a rain gauge near the sampling station(s). You can purchase
       relatively inexpensive rain gauges ($50.00 to $150.00) that can also provide historical
       rainfall records through vendors like Ben Meadows Company (www.benmeadows.com) and
       Weather Connection (www.weatherconnection.com).

    •  You can obtain rainfall measurements from another agency (e.g., NOAA,
       http://www7.ncdc.noaa.gov/IPS/hpd/hpd.html) or from a local weather station (e.g., a local
       airport). The distance from the airport to the sampling station should be noted, and whether
       they are in the same watershed. Record on the Annual Sanitary Survey form the amount of
       rainfall in inches or centimeters  and the  time from the previous rainfall event. The websites
       listed under Weather Conditions could also be a source of rainfall data. More information
       about sources of precipitation data is available in Section 4.

Turbidity
    •  You can use simple, subjective observations (e.g., "slightly turbid, clear") to describe the
       turbidity of nearshore waters.

    •  You can use test kits (using a visual or titrimetric test method), such as the LaMotte test kit
       for turbidity, for interpreting turbidity results. The results from using this method are
       reported in Jackson turbidity units (JTU). Visual methods use reagents to react with a
       substance in the sample, causing a change in color. The concentration of the substance can
       be determined using the included color comparators or color sheets. Titrimetric methods use
       a titrant solution that is added to the sample in precise quantities until a color change
       indicates a completed reaction. The amount of titrant added is used to determine
       concentration.
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    •  These are two common methods using instruments to measure turbidity.

       - Instruments can measure the attenuation of a light beam passing through a sample. In the
         attenuation method, the intensity of a light beam passing through turbid sample is
         compared with the intensity passing through a turbidity-free sample at 180° from the light
         source. This method is good for highly turbid samples.

       - Instruments can measure the scattered light from a light beam passing through a sample.
         The most common instrument for measuring scattered light in a water sample is a
         nephelometer, which measures light scattered at a right angle (90°) to the light beam.
         Light scattered at other angles can also be measured, but the 90° angle defines a
         nephelometric measurement. The light source for nephelometric measurements can be
         one of two types to meet EPA or ISO specifications. EPA specifies a tungsten lamp with
         a color temperature of 2,200-3,000 K. The unit of measurement for the EPA method is
         the NTU. The ISO specifies an LED with a wavelength of 860 nanometers and a spectral
         bandwidth less than or equal to 60 nanometers. The unit of measurement for the ISO
         method is the formazin nephelometric unit, or FNU (APHA 1998).

    •  Portable turbidimeters are available for use in the field. Water is first collected in the vial
       provided in the turbidimeter kit and then placed in the turbidimeter to obtain measurements.
       The results, provided  in NTUs, are based on comparisons to known turbidity standards (also
       provided in the kit) through instrument calibration. Also refer to the information on
       multiprobes given in the previous section under the methods for water temperature.

Conductivity
    •  A conductivity meter is commonly included in several types of multiprobes. Conductivity is
       measured electronically primarily, using a device called the Wheatstone bridge that
       measures the conductance across two electrodes. Also refer to the information on
       multiprobes given in the previous section under the methods for water temperature.

    •  Conductivity is highly correlated with, the concentration of dissolved solids  in the water
       column. It is one way to measure the overall health of a lake because aquatic organisms
       require a relatively constant concentration of the major dissolved ions in the water. Levels
       too high or too low can limit survival, growth, or reproduction.

    •  By measuring conductivity (how easily electric current passes through the seawater),
       scientists can obtain a measurement of that water sample's salinity because electric current
       passes much more easily through water with a higher salt content. If you know the
       conductivity of the water, you can calculate how much salt is in the water.

Salinity
    •  Salinity is measured in one of several ways—with a hydrometer, a refractometer, or by
       using a conductivity meter and translating the measure of conductivity into to salinity. Some
       multi-probes can be used to measure salinity.

    •  If salinity measures are routinely taken, note if there is any correlation to bacteria
       concentrations at the sampling site. Some types of bacteria may be affected by water column
       salinity. For instance, the rate of growth of E. coli can be slowed in saline environments.
       Enterococcus is  less likely to die off in saline waters.
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DO
    •  DO concentrations can be affected by wave and tidal actions. Movement of water can lead
       to a higher concentration of DO in the waterbody.

    •  You can measure DO with a test kit or oxygen meter. More information about measuring
       DO is in Section 4.

7SS
    •  TSS is a measure of solids suspended in water. These materials can be soils from erosion,
       silt, decaying plant and animal matter, and other materials discharged into a waterbody
       (e.g., via runoff).  Solids are measured by filtering a sample of water and weighing the
       residue.


5.9 Modeling and other studies
In this section on the Annual Sanitary Survey you provide details on predictive models used at your
beach. You can also provide information on other studies that have been done that provide
information related to beach water quality, including quantitative microbial risk assessment
(QMRA), microbial source tracking (MST), tests for optical brighteners, smoke testing for sanitary
sewer cross connections, and results of visual screening for pollutants. If other studies were done,
summarize those as well.

Predictive  models
Predictive models are used to estimate FIB concentrations (USEPA 2010; Gonzalez et al. 2012).
They are based on single or multiple correlations between hydrologic meteorology or other data
with FIB counts. In most cases, several years of data have been used to develop a good model.
These correlations are useful information in a sanitary survey because they might provide
information on sources of contamination on or near the beach that could be remediated. The
usefulness of models to predict FIB counts is mostly in the models' timeliness. Culture methods for
analyzing bacteria samples currently take at least 18 hours to analyze,  and models can predict
bacteria counts—or the likelihood of an exceedance of the water quality standard—more quickly so
that timely decisions can be made. Predictive models do not replace the need for sampling.
Successfully managed beach programs that use models  continually verify their models. And models
might change as remediation efforts take place or as conditions change.

If your beach already has had a model developed for it,  you should collect information on the type
of model, how it was developed, how it is applied to the beach, the frequency of use, and results
from its application. If the model used is a rainfall advisory, investigate and document how this
advisory was developed and how the rainfall threshold level was determined. If you are not using
models but have plans to use them in the future, describe your plans in the  Comments/Observations
section.

Quantitative  microbial risk assessment (QMRA)
QMRA can be used to predict the illness risk to beachgoers from pathogens attributed to nonpoint
sources at recreational beaches. If a QMRA has been done on your beach you should summarize the
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conclusions from the study in the Annual Sanitary Survey and consider the results as you review
other pollution source data.

Microbial source tracking (MST)
MST methods are sometimes used to help identify nonpoint sources responsible for the fecal
pollution of water systems. MST tools are now being applied in developing TMDLs as part of Clean
Water Act requirements and in the evaluation of the effectiveness of best management practices.
MST might be a useful tool for beach managers too. MST can be used to detect and quantify
specific types of fecal contamination to a beach, estuary, or other waterbody. The studies need to be
done over a range of conditions, and it is important to make measurements of markers that are
relevant for use in your geographic area.

Selection of MST tools and approaches are dependent on the goals of the study and the availability
of technical and financial support. If MST has been done at your beach you should summarize the
conclusions from the study in the Annual Sanitary Survey and consider the results as you review
other pollution source data.

Optical brighteners
Optical brighteners are often used in commercial or retail products such as detergents and personal
care products. Excess product is typically flushed down the drain, so the presence of optical
brighteners in water can indicate human sources of contamination (i.e., from an illicit
discharge/straight pipe or graywater, or malfunctioning septic system) (Maine Healthy Beaches
Program 2010). A beach or program manager can determine whether a test for optical brighteners
would be useful at a beach. If test for optical brighteners has been done you should summarize the
results in the Annual Survey and consider them as you review other pollution source data. Optical
brightener data should be treated with care because specific compounds can cause false positive
readings. Therefore, newer approaches such as that presented by Cao et al. (2013) should be used to
ensure that false positives have been appropriately assessed.

Smoke  testing for sanitary sewer cross connections
Smoke testing can be used to find leaks in sewer systems responsible for inflow and infiltration that
could lead to high flows during storm events. It can be used to find cross connections between
sanitary and storm sewers. During the test, smoke-filled air is forced through a sewer system,  and
leaks are  detected by points where the smoke escapes. Leaks can be from things such as broken
pipes, cracks in pavement, and improper connections. You can check with your public utilities to
see whether smoke testing has been done for the sewer system near your beach.

Visual screening
A visual inspection of the beach area can provide useful information for beach management. You
can walk or drive around the area to inspect for pollution sources and issues. Take notes of what
you find and make sure they are documented, as appropriate. This type of inspection could also
provide details about what types of issues might need future investigation.
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5.10 Advisories/closings
Beach advisory and closing data from the previous season provide useful information about water
quality and potential sources of contamination. Beach managers should maintain records of this
information in a central file to facilitate compiling advisory and closing data from previous beach
seasons and comparing those data with data from the current beach season.

By finding out the number of days the beach was under advisory or closed during a season, a beach
manager can determine whether overall water quality at a bathing beach is improving or declining.
A beach manager can determine whether the dates the beach was under advisory or closed during a
season correlate with other beach conditions, such as rain events, elevated water temperatures,
pollutant discharges, high winds,  or high wildlife counts. The beach manager should be able to
obtain notes on the beach conditions during sample collection on corresponding Routine On-site
Sanitary Survey forms. The table  on the Annual Sanitary Survey form can be expanded as needed to
include all advisories and closings.


5.11 Potential pollution sources
The most important objectives of the beach sanitary  survey are to identify sources that affect the
beach, determine their exact location, and measure or calculate the source contribution. The beach
manager should compile potential pollution information from previously completed Routine On-site
Sanitary Surveys. The  beach manager should also use mapping tools; review the topographic map
and the detailed map developed for the Annual Sanitary Survey to determine what nearby sources
(e.g., landfills, marinas, bathhouses) might be affecting bathing beach water quality; and add this
information, along with corresponding latitude and longitude data, to this part of the Annual
Sanitary Survey form.  The beach  manager, with the assistance of a sanitarian or public health
official, should then estimate the percent annual contribution  and peak contribution amounts for
each potential pollution source. This information will be very useful for prioritizing the potential
sources for further investigation.

Potential pollution sources are listed in Section 11 of the Annual Sanitary Survey form. Some
resources might be useful in helping you locate pollution sources. For example, you can access the
Permit Compliance System (PCS) to find dischargers in the watershed. You can check for other
state and county documents that might contain information on things like dischargers, industries,
and utilities in the area. You can walk or drive around the entire watershed,  looking for signs of
pollution and potential sources of discharge. You can use the  aerial photos on  map sites like
GoogleEarth.

Identify whether the source is a high, medium, or low contributor to beach pollution. If possible,
determine  when the source contributes to beach bacteria pollution; the frequency of occurrence; the
amount of contamination; and how it is influenced during dry, wet, and storm  conditions.
Depending on the source, this information might be available from city,  county, or state reports, or
you might be able to estimate  contributions until further investigations can be  done to quantify the
pollutants.
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5.12 Description of sanitary facilities and other facilities
You should examine the sanitary facilities (bathhouses and portable sanitation units) to determine
whether they could be a source of pollutants to the beach. Note the number of toilets, showers,
sinks, and the like to determine whether the facilities are adequate to accommodate the average and
peak bather loads. Note their condition, their general location, and their distance from the beach and
the water line.


5.13  Description of other facilities
If other facilities, such as restaurants, play areas, or parking lots that could be a  source of pollutants
are present at the beach, examine them as well. You can consult with a sanitarian, city official, or
public health official to access the plans and layouts of any sewer lines in the beach area to
determine their original intended capacity.
March 2013                                                                               47

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                                                         Marine Beach Sanitary Survey User Manual
6.  References

APHA (American Public Health Association). 1998. Standard Methods for the Examination of
       Water and Wastewater, 20th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.

Bertke, E.E. 2007. Composite analysis for Escherichia coli at coastal beaches. Journal of Great
       Lakes Research 33:335-341.

Boehm, A.B., and S.B. Weisberg. 2005. Tidal forcing of enterococci at marine recreational beaches
       at fortnightly and semi-diurnal frequencies. Environmental Science and Technology
       39(15):5575-5583.

Bordalo, A. A. 2003. Microbiological water quality in urban coastal beaches: The influence of water
       dynamics and optimization of the sampling strategy. Water Research 37:3233-3241.

Cao, Y., M. Sivaganesan, J. Kinzelman, A.D. Blackwood, R.T. Noble, R.A. Haugland, J.F. Griffith,
       and S.B. Weisberg. 2013. Effect of platform, reference material, and quantification model on
       enumeration of Enterococcus by quantitative PCR methods. Water Research 47(1):233-241.

Gonzalez, R.A., K.E. Conn, J. Crosswell, and R.T. Noble. 2012.  Application of empirical predictive
       modeling using conventional and alternative fecal indicator bacteria in eastern North
       Carolina waters. Water Research 46(18):5871-5882

Google Earth. No date. Google Earth homepage, . Accessed November
       2012.

Largier, J., and M. Taggart. 2006. Improving Water Quality at Enclosed Beaches: A Report on the
       Enclosed Beach Symposium and Workshop (Clean Beaches Initiative).
       . Accessed December 2012.

Lewitus, A.J., R.A. Horner, D.A. Caron, E. Garcia-Mendoza, B.M. Hickey, M. Hunter, D.D.
       Huppert, R.M. Kudela, G.W. Langlois, J.L. Largier, EJ. Lessard, R. RaLonde, J.E.J. Rensel,
       P.G. Strutton, V.L. Trainer, and J.F. Tweddle. 2012. Harmful algal blooms along the North
       American west coast region: History, trends, causes, and  impacts. Harmful Algae. 19: 133-
       159.

Maine Healthy Beaches Program. 2010. Municipal Guide To Clean  Water: Conducting Sanitary
       Surveys to Improve Coastal Water Quality. Maine Healthy Beaches Program, Waldoboro,
       ME. . Accessed October 2010.

New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium. Longshore Current. 2003.
       .
       Accessed September 11, 2007.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). No date. Tides and Currents. NOAA
       Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services.
       . Accessed September 2012.
48                                                                              March 2013

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                                                        Marine Beach Sanitary Survey User Manual
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). No date. Harmful Algal Bloom
      Research in California. NOAA National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science.
      .
      Accessed November 2012.

NFS (National Parks Service). 2011. Coastal Geology in Our National Parks: Engineering Impacts
      on the Coastal Environment. National Parks Service.
      . Accessed September 2012.

Surfrider Foundation. 2011. State of the Beach, . Accessed September 2012.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization). 2005. Introduction
      to Sandwatch: An Educational Tool for Sustainable Development.  Coastal region and small
      island papers 19. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris.
      . Accessed September 2012.

USEPA (U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency). 1986. Ambient Water Quality Criteria for
      Bacteria—1986. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and
      Development, Microbiology and Toxicology Division, and Office  of Water Regulations and
      Standards, Criteria and Standards Division, Washington, DC.

USEPA (U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency). 1999a. Review of Potential Modeling Tools and
      Approaches to Support the BEACH Program. Final Draft. March 1999. U.S. Environmental
      Protection Agency, Office of Science and Technology, Washington, DC.

USEPA (U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency). 1999b. EPA Method 160.2. U.S. Environmental
      Protection Agency, . Accessed September
      2012.

USEPA (U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency). 2002a. Assessing and Monitoring Floating
      Debris. U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency, Office of Water, Office of Wetlands,
      Oceans, and Watersheds, Oceans and Coastal Protection Division,  Washington, DC.

USEPA (U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency). 2002b. National Beach Guidance and Required
      Performance Criteria for Grants. EPA-823-B-02-004. U.S. Environmental Protection
      Agency,  Office of Water, Washington, DC.

USEPA (U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency) and the Ocean Conservancy. 2006. Volunteer
      Estuary Monitoring: A Methods Manual, Second Edition. Washington, DC.
        Accessed September 2012.

USEPA (U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency). 2010. Predictive Tools for Beach Notification
       Volume I: Review and Technical Protocol. EPA-823-R-10-003. U.S. Environmental
       Protection Agency, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology.
       . Accessed September 2012.
March 2013                                                                             49

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                                                        Marine Beach Sanitary Survey User Manual
USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 1982. Measurement and Computation of 'Stream/low:, Volume 1.
       Measurement of Stage and Discharge, Volume 2 Computation of Discharge. Water Supply
       Paper 2175 . Accessed September 2012.
USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2005. Topographic Mapping.
       . Accessed September 2012.
USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2006. National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality
       Data: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9,
       chapters A1-A9. . Accessed September 2012.
Weather Underground. No date, . Accessed November 2012.
Whitman, Richard. USGS. March 2006. Personal communication.
Whitman, R.L., and M.B. Nevers. 2008. Summer E. coli patterns and responses along 23 Chicago
       beaches. Environmental Science and Technology 42:9217-9224.
WHO (World Health Organization). 2003. Guidelines for Safe Recreational Water Environments,
       Volume 1—Coastal and Fresh Waters. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland.
Yamahara, K.M., B.A. Layton, A.E. Santoro, and A.B. Boehm. 2007. Beach sands along the
       California coast are diffuse sources of fecal bacteria to coastal waters. Environmental
       Science and Technology 41:4515-4521.
50                                                                             March 2013

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                                          Marine Beach Sanitary Survey User Manual
Appendix A. Marine Beach Routine On-Site Sanitary
              Survey
March 2013                                                         A-1

-------
vvEPA
                                     MARINE BEACH ROUTINE ON-SITE SANITARY SURVEY
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
                                                                                                    EPA 820-F-13-008
 Name of Beach:
                                                              Date and Time of Survey:
 Beach ID:
                                                             Surveyor Name(s):
 Sampling Station(s)/ID:
                                                             Surveyor Affiliation:
 STORE! Organizational ID:
 PART I - GENERAL BEACH CONDITIONS
 Air Temperature:           °Cor°F     Wind:  Speed (mph)
                                            Direction (e.g., Eor90°
 Rainfall: D <24 hours  Q <48 hours  Q <72  Q >72 hours since last rain event and  	
 Rain Intensity:     d Misting     Q Light Rain         Q Steady Rain       Q Heavy Rain
 Weather Conditions:
                                                                           Is wind: n onshore  or  d offshore
                                                                           	  (From which direction the wind is coming)
                                                                                  inches or
                                                                     cm rainfall measured
                                                                                            Other
Sky Condition
Amount of cloud coverage
Wave Intensity:
Tidal phase:
D Sunny
No Clouds
D Mostly Sunny
1/8 to 1/4
D Partly Sunny
3/8 to 1/2
D Calm D Normal Q Rough Wave Height: ft
D High n Low n Ebbing
n Flooding
D Mostly Cloudy
5/8 to 7/8
D Cloudy
Total Coverage
Q Estimated or Q Actual
D Other
 Reference point:                               Orientation of tide to the beach:
 Longshore current speed and direction (cm/sec, S or 180°):	
 Describe the longshore currents:
 Are there visible rip currents?
 Comments or Observations
                            yes
                                   no
                                           Describe:
PART II -WATER QUALITY
Bacteria Samples Collected (list samples collected from beach water and potential pollution sources, if applicable— see Part IV)
Sample Point




Sample #




Parameter (enterococci, E. coll, etc.)




Comments:




 Water Temperature:
 Odor:    Q None
 Turbidity:  Q Clear
 Salinity:
 DO:
                     Q Septic      [
                     D Slightly Turbid
                     DO-5 ppt
                     TSS:
Where are water quality measurements taken?
°Cor°F   Change in Color?  Dyes
         Algae    D Sulfur      C
           n Turbid   n Opaque
           D5-15ppt  D15-40 ppt
           Other:
HI no If yes, describe
 Other
  or
        NTU:
  or Conductivity:
 Comments or Observations
 PART III - BATHER LOAD
 Number of people in the water:
 Number of people at the beach:
 List of Activities Seen (optional):
                                                         Number of people out of the water:
Type of Activity
Number of People












 Comments or Observations
                                                                                                          March 2013

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vvEPA
            MARINE BEACH ROUTINE ON-SITE SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
 PART IV- POTENTIAL POLLUTION SOURCES
 Sources of Discharge:
Type
Name(s) of Source(s)
Amount (H, M, L)
Flow Rate (m/sec)
Volume
Characteristics
River(s)





Pond(s)





Wetland(s)





Outfall(s)





Other (specify):





Did you collect any bacteria samples from the sources listed in the table above?    Q yes      Q no
If Yes, did you list the samples in the table in Part II, Water Quality?              Q yes      Q no
Are tide pools present? Q yes  Q no    If yes, how many:                           Average size:

Floatables present:    Q yes  Q no     Please indicate which floatables have been found (examples below):
Debris/Litter present:
 | yes  n no     Please indicate what debris or litter was found (examples below):
Amount of Beach Debris/Litter on Beach:
                    None
                 Low(1%-20%)
                   Moderate (21 %-50%)  Q High (> 50%)
Examples of Floatables and Debris or Litter Found:
Street litter
(e.g.,
cigarette
filters)
Food-related
litter
(e.g.,
packaging,
containers)
Medical items
(e.g.,
syringes)
Sewage-
related
(e.g.,
condoms,
tampons)
Building
materials
(e.g., wood,
siding)
Fishing
related
(e.g., fishing
line, nets,
lures)
Household
waste
(e.g., household
trash, plastic
bags)
Amount of Algae in Nearshore Water: Q None nLow(1%-20%) Q Moderate
Amount of Algae on Beach: Q None nLow(1%-20%) Q Moderate
Circle the types of algae found:
Type
Description
Periphyton
Attached to rocks, stringy
Globular
Blobs of floating materials
Free floating
No obvious mass of materials
Tar/Oil
(e.g., tar
balls)
Oil/Grease
(e.g., oil
slick)
Other:
(21%-50%) |H High (> 50%)
(21%-50%) n High (> 50%)
Other
Please describe
Circle the color of algae found:
     Light green
Bright green
Dark green
Yellow
Brown
Other
Presence of a harmful algal bloom? Q yes Q no   Describe:
Presence of Wildlife and Domestic Animals
Type
Number
Geese

Gulls

Shorebirds

Ducks

Pigeons

Turtles

Dogs

Horses

Rodents (specify)

Other (specify)

List the number of each species of bird found dead on the beach

Type

Number found dead
Common
loons


Herring
gulls


Ring-billed
gulls


Double
crested
cormorants

Long-tailed
ducks


White-
winged
scoter

Horned
grebes


Red-
necked
grebes

Other



Number of dead fish found on the beach:
Comments or Observations (continue on back if necessary):
                                                                                                         March 2013

-------

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                                         Marine Beach Sanitary Survey User Manual
Appendix B. Marine Beach Routine On-Site Sanitary
             Survey Methods
March 2013                                                        B-1

-------
&EPA
             MARINE BEACH ROUTINE ON-SITE SANITARY SURVEY METHODS
    United States
    Environmental Protection*
    Agency
PART I - GENERAL BEACH CONDITIONS
Air Temperature:    Q Liquid-in-glass thermometer       Q Electronic thermometer
n Weather report from local weather station     Q Other (describe):
                                                                    | Weather report from local airport
Wind Speed and Direction:
n Wind vane for direction       Q Wind sock for direction and speed         Q Anemometer for wind speed
n Aerovane for wind direction and speed    n Weather report from local airport     n Weather report from local weather station
n Other (describe):
                                                                                    Distance from station:
                                                                                                   (ft/mi)
Weather Conditions: n Visual observations  n Other (describe):
Rainfall:  n Rain gauge     Q Weather report
                                     Other (describe):
G Distance from station or gauge:

Longshore Current Speed:
n Other (describe):
                             (ft/mi)
               | Stick with fishing reel with water balloon on end
                                                Ball and tether
Wave Height:    n Visual examination of wave height
n Other (describe):
Tidal Phase: n Visual examination   n Weather report (source:
                                        Graduated stick and ranging pole
                                                                                  Other (describe):
Rip Currents: n Visual examination  n Weather report (source:
                                                                                   Other (describe):
PART II-WATER QUALITY
Water Temperature:   Q Multiprobe   Q Electronic meter   Q Graduated thermometer
D Report from NOAA weatherband radio   Q Other (describe):	
                                                                       Report from local radio station
Turbidity:   Q Simple visual observation  Q Visual test kit  Q Titrimetric test kit
n Other (describe):
Salinity:    D Multiprobe   D Salinity meter
                                                                 Nephelometer/Turbidimeter
                                   | Conductivity meter    Other (describe):
DO:
DO meter
Multiprobe
| Other (describe:)
PART III - BATHER LOAD
Numbers of People Participating in Various Activities:    n Counting by surveyor
D Turnstyles     Q Other (describe):	
                                                              | Counting by lifeguards
                                                                          Photos
                                                                                                              March 2013

-------
    United States
    Environmental Protection*
    Agency
                      MARINE BEACH ROUTINE ON-SITE SANITARY SURVEY METHODS (continued)
PART IV- POTENTIAL POLLUTION SOURCES
Sources of Discharge:
(a) Source identification:   d Visual observation   d WWTP Notification/Report     Q Other (describe):
 (b) Flow/velocity or  D Mechanical flow meter  Q Electric flow meter   d USGS Gauging Station   Q WWTP Notification/Report
 Volume measured:  [J Orange (float) and stopwatch       Q Other (describe):
Tide Pools:         Describe how size was estimated:
Floatables Present:  Q Visual observation   d Cleanup event results  Q Other (describe):
Amount and Type of Beach Debris/Litter on Beach:     Q Visual observation      Q Cleanup event results
n Other (describe):
Harmful Algal Bloom:   Q Visual observation   Q Other (describe or list source):
Algae in Nearshore Water and Beach:
(a) Amount and Color:    Q Visual observation    Q Other (describe):
(b) Identification:   Q Field guide or internet site for taxonomic identification (describe):
n Other (describe):
Presence of Wildlife and Domestic Animals:    Q Counting using hand-held counter, and if necessary, binoculars
n Other (describe):
Dead birds:
(a) Number:      n Visual observation   Q Other (describe):
(b) Identification:   Q Field guide or internet site for taxonomic identification (describe):
D Other (describe):	
Dead fish:
(a) Number:      n Visual observation   Q Other (describe):
(b) Identification:   Q Field guide or internet site for taxonomic identification (describe):
n Other (describe):  	
                                                                                                              March 2013

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                                          Marine Beach Sanitary Survey User Manual
Appendix C. Marine Beach Annual Sanitary Survey
March 2013                                                          C-1

-------
                                            MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
                                                                                                  EPA 820-F-13-007
 1. BASIC INFORMATION
Name of Beach:
Beach ID:
Town/City/County/State:
Sampling Station(s)/ID:
STORE! Organizational ID:
Date(s) of Survey:
Name of Waterbody:
Number of Routine Surveys Used:
Name(s) of Surveyor(s):
Surveyor Affiliation:
Dates of Beach Season: Start: End:
2. DESCRIPTION OF LAND USE IN THE WATERSHED

Current Land Use in the Watershed
Type
Percentage
% Impervious
Residential


Industrial


Commercial


Agricultural


Other (specify):


Development
Describe
% undeveloped
% developed


How was land use measured:
Beach Uses:
 D Swimming   Q Boating    Q Fishing   Q Surfing   Q Windsurfing    Q Diving   Q Kayaking
 D Jet skiing    Q Beachcombing    D Vehicular traffic   Q Kiteboarding   D Other (specify)	
Are maps of the beach area attached? f_| yes
                        no
Are maps of the watershed attached?  f_| yes   f_| no
List maps and their sources:
Do the maps include locations of:
Sample points
Weather stations and
rain/flow gauges
Pollutant sources
Boat traffic
Marinas
Boat dockage
Fishing
Bathing/swimming
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
dyes
D no
D no
D no
D no
D no
D no
D no
EH no
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
    Bounding structures:
Jetty
Groin
Seawall/bulkhead
Other
Sanitary facilities
Restaurants/bars
Playground
Parking lot(s)
Shellfish-growing areas
Other
dyes
dyes
dyes
dyes
dyes
dyes
dyes
dyes
dyes
dyes
d no
d no
d no
d no
d no
d no
d no
d no
d no
d no
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
                                                                                                         March 2013

-------
                                         MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
Erosion/Accretion Measurements as Needed
High Watermark
Location Identification
A
B
C
D (optional)
E (optional)
Fixed Object Description
(e.g., tree, building)





GPS Reading





Distance from Fixed
Object to High
Watermark (m)





Distance between High
Watermark Locations (m)
A«*B:
B«*C:
C«*D:
D«*E:

Shoreline Hardening and Circulation Control Structures
Structure
Jetty
Groin
Seawall
Natural formation
Pier
Other (specify):
Number






Description or Comment (include linear extent and width)






Discuss whether shoreline hardening or circulation control structures are likely to affect water quality circulation and thus bacteria
concentrations at the beach (include relevant studies, if available):
Beach Materials/Sediments
     Sugar sand
Fine sand
I Coarse sand
I Wet sand
I Sand/shell mix
     Mucky
Pebbles
 Rocky
 Shell
 Other:
Additional description, if needed:
OR Beach Materials/Sediments Lab Analysis (attach diagram or photographs of plot locations)
Name of lab used:
Date of sample collection:
Plot ID



Average
Mean Grain
Size Diameter






Uniformity
Coefficient




Description of Plot Location:




Describe the results and conclusion of the sediment analysis and potential effects of the sediment distribution at this beach:
                                                                                                                March 2013

-------
                                         MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency


 Shellfish Growing Area
 Describe any shellfish-growing areas near the beach, including size, distance from the swimming area, condition, issues, and results of
 any recent shellfish sanitary surveys (attach any relevant data or reports and cite sources):
Photos Taken in the Beach Area or Surrounding Watershed (attach copies of photos)
Image
Number









Date/Time









File Name









Description of Photo
(e.g., Land Use, High Watermark, Fixed Objects, Pollution Sources, Tide Pools)









Habitat around the beach:
D Dunes Q Wetlands Q River/stream Q Forest Q Park Q Protected habitat or reserve
n Urban/boardwalk Q Parking d Other:
3. WEATHER CONDITIONS AND PHYSICIAL CHARACTERISTICS

Examine the weather data (at the beach) collected over the prior beach season(s) along with bacteria sampling results.
Do the bacteria concentrations at this beach appear to correlate with any of the following? Include the rvalue if calculated.

Weather Conditions
Rainfall
Air temperature
Water temperature
Cloud cover
Wind speed
Wind direction
Other weather
L






yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
L






no
no
no
no
no
no
no
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Physical Characteristics
Wave height or intensity
Tide stage
Longshore current
Other physical
characteristics
Dyes
dyes
Dyes
Dyes
LJno
L~H n°
D no
D no
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Have any statistical analyses been done to calculate the degree of correlation? D  yes  D no
Average air temperature during beach season:
Average air temperature in the following
seasons (for beaches that are open more
than 3-4 months):
Average water temperature in the following
seasons (for beaches that are open more
than 3-4 months):
Spring
Spring
°C
°C

°C

or°F
or°F

or°F

Average water temperature during
Summer
°C or °F

Summer
°C or °F

Fall
°C
beach season:
or°F

FaH
°C

or°F

Winter
°C
°C
or°F
or°F

Winter
°C

or°F

Average wind speed and direction during beach season (e.g., E or 90° at 15 mph):
Typical weather
conditions in spring:
Sunny   Q Mostly Sunny   Q Partly Cloudy   d Mostly Cloudy  Q Overcast  Q Rainy
                                                                                                                March 2013

-------
                                          MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency
Typical weather ,-, (
conditions in summer: '
Typical weather ,— , c ,
.... . , .. M Sunny
conditions in fall: '
Typical weather ,— , „ r
conditions in winter: ^
Rainfall total for the beach season (in):
ID Mostly Sunny
HI Mostly Sunny
HI Mostly Sunny
G Partly Cloudy G Mostly Cloudy [
G Partly Cloudy G Mostly Cloudy [
G Partly Cloudy G Mostly Cloudy [
ID Overcast |
HI Overcast |
HI Overcast |
HI Rainy
HI Rainy
HI Rainy
| Average rainfall for all beach seasons (in):
Number of significant rain events during beach season:        What constitutes "significant?" (e.g., 1 inch or more rain)

Describe any tropical storms or hurricanes that occurred (dates, magnitude, storm surge height, proximity to beach) and their effects on the
beach:
Describe any analyses done and any trends or correlations found (add lines if needed to describe in detail):
Winds	
What is the prevailing wind speed?	
What is the prevailing wind direction?	
How does the prevailing wind blow:     Q from beach to water     Q from water to beach     Q across beach-sand interface
(sideways)	
Describe any effects the prevailing winds have on bacteria concentrations at the beach:
Waves	
Describe the typical wave conditions during the beach season and how those conditions affect bacteria concentrations:
Tides	
Tidal extent:	Mean high:	Mean low:	
How does tidal flow manifest itself?	
Do the tides create a cross-current?	
Do tidal rivers or streams discharge near the beach?   Q yes  Q no    If yes, describe flow, tidal influence, salinity, proximity to
swimming area, and so forth:	
Describe the relationship of tidal flow to known point or nonpoint pollution sources:

Tide Pools	
Describe the type of tide pools,  if found, at this beach:

Are tide pools common at this beach? Q yes   Q no  How many pools are typically seen?	
Average size:	Duration pools remain filled:
Are samples collected from tide pools? Q yes   Q no      If yes, describe:
Do children frequently play in the tide pools? Q yes  Q no      If yes, describe:

Longshore and Nearshore Currents	
What is the highest speed of longshore or nearshore currents?
What is the typical direction of longshore or nearshore currents?
                                                                                                                   March 2013

-------
                                         MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency
Do currents change with the tidal phase?
 lyes
no      Describe:
Do the currents carry effluents from WWTP, CSOs, or other dischargers?
Provide any additional characterization of longshore or nearshore currents, including modeling results if available (attach or cite any
relevant reports):
Additional comments or observations:
4. BEACH DIMENSIONS

Beach length or dimensions (indicate Z1, Z2, and Z3 on a map for each beach area)
Length (m):
Width (average setback) (average, in m):
Width Z1 (m):
Width Z2 (m):
                        Width Z3 (m):
Which direction does the beach face?
Describe the splash zone at the beach (include sediment makeup, rate of erosion, presence of seaweed wrack):
Description and date of last beach rehabilitation (example: new sand, nourishment, dredging, etc.; physical structures will be described in
Sections 12 and 13):
Additional comments or observations:
5. BATHER LOAD (NUMBER OF BEACH USERS)

Is bather load measured?      d yes     d no
If yes, describe how beachgoer numbers are calculated (e.g., turnstile, counting at noon, photographs):
 Beach Use
                                                       Number of People Per Day Using the Beach
Beachgoer Category
Total people in the water
Total people out of the water
Total people at the beach
Peak Use for
the Season
(Daily Use)



Seasonal
Average
(Daily Use)



Holiday
Average
(Daily Use)



Weekend
Average
(Daily Use)



Weekday
Average
(Daily Use)



Off-Season Average
if applicable
(Daily Use)



 Breakdown of Activities (if activities were broken down on the Routine-Onsite Sanitary Survey, summarize them here)
Activity 1 :
Activity 2:
Activity 3:
Activity 4:
Activity 5:
Activity 6:




































                                                                                                               March 2013

-------
                                         MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
 Frequency of measurements (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly)
Examine bather load data along with sampling results for the past beach season(s). Look at each sampling point or different area of the
beach (light use versus heavy use). Does bather load appear to correlate with bacteria concentrations at any of these areas? Does the
number of people in the water or out of the water correlate with bacteria concentrations? Has a statistical analysis been done? Describe
(add additional pages as needed, or attach a separate report if available):
Additional comments or observations:
6. BEACH CLEANING
Beach cleaning frequency during season:
Description of cleanup activities:

Check activities
that were done
Specify
equipment used
(if applicable)
Leveling of
Sand


Trimming or
Removing
Vegetation


Removing
Debris


Removing
Trash


Construction and Maintenance
of a Temporary Pathway
Directly to Open Water


Other (specify):


How often are floatables found at the beach?
                           Never
Sometimes
Frequently     Q Very frequently
Known sources of floatables:
Types of floatables found:
   Street litter
   Building materials
Food-related litter    Q Medical items     Q Sewage-related
   D Fishing-related     Q Household waste    Q Other:
How often is beach debris/litter found on the beach? Q Never
D Sometimes Q Frequently Q Very frequently
Known sources of debris:
Types of debris/litter found:
D Street litter
D Fishing-related
D Food-related litter
D Household waste
D Medical items
D Tar/oil
D Sewage-related
D Oil/grease
D Building materials
D Other:
Additional comments or observations:
 7. INFORMATION ON SAMPLING LOCATION
 Description of Sample Points (include beach water and potential pollution sources):
Sample Point Name/ID






Location (include
lat/long)






Description






Sample
Frequency






Time of Day of
Sample Collection






Tidal Stage
during Sample
Collection






                                                                                                                March 2013

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                                        MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
Are any of the sample locations near a possible pollution source?  Q yes Q no   If yes, describe:
Description of hydrometric network (note that this is a network of monitoring stations that collect data such as rainfall and stream flow):
Additional comments or observations:
8. WATER QUALITY SAMPLING
Name of laboratory:                                       Distance to laboratory:                   miles

What is the time between sample collection and sample arrival at the lab?


Algae	
Percent of beach season when macroalgae were present in significant amounts in the nearshore water:
DNone	DLow(1%-20%)	D Moderate (21 %-50%)	D High (> 50%)
Percent of beach season where macroalgae was present in significant amounts on the beach:
DNone	DLow(1%-20%)	D Moderate (21 %-50%)	D High (> 50%)
List types of algae found:

Colors of algae most commonly found:

Are microalgae commonly found at this beach? D yes  Q no
Describe occurrence of microalgae (species, amount found, effects):



Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB)	
Have HABs been observed during the beach season? (If so, specify dates, duration, species, and effects)
Were any dangerous aquatic organisms found at the beach?              Q yes Q no
Describe (include species, numbers, dates of occurrence, effects):
                                                                                                             March 2013

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                                          MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency

 Presence of Wildlife and Domestic Animals
Type
Geese
Gulls
Shorebirds
Ducks
Pigeons
Turtles
Dogs
Horses
Rodents (specify):
Other (specify):
Degree of
Presence
(Low, Mod,
High)










Does the Presence
Appear to Correlate with
Bacteria Results? (Yes,
No, Don't Know)










Describe further. Do people feed waterfowl? Is there any management of pet
waste? Are fecal droppings frequently seen? Are there ways to reduce the
presence or effects of these wild and domestic animals?










Describe any wildlife management areas near the beach:
Were significant numbers of dead birds found on the beach during beach season?
Describe types and numbers found and possible causes (attach photos):
                                                                                lyes
                                                                                             no
Were significant numbers of dead fish found on the beach during the beach season?
Describe numbers found and possible causes (attach photos):
                                                                                lyes
                                                                                             no
 Bacteria Samples Collected at the Beach
Who conducts the sampling (job title, agency)?
What is the sampling frequency?
What time of day are samples collected?
                                                             Is the sampling time tide-dependent? Explain:
What year did you begin monitoring water quality at this beach?
Do you test for Enterococcus?     Q yes
Do you test for Escherichia co//?   Q yes
                                              no     Analytical method used:
                                              no     Analytical method used:
Do you test for fecal coliform?
                                  yes
                                              no     Analytical method used:
 List any additional bacteria for which you tested and associated analytical methods:
 Do you composite any bacteria samples? |_| yes   |_| no     If yes, explain:
 How do this past season's bacteria results compare to those of previous years?
 Do the bacteria results correlate to other parameters, such as water quality, weather, flow, tidal stage, wind,
 longshore currents, bather load, or algae?                                                           d yes   Q no
 Describe in detail analyses that were performed on the water quality data (add additional lines/pages as needed or attach separate report):
                                                                                                                 March 2013

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                                         MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
Did you collect bacteria samples from any potential pollution sources, such as streams or outfalls?  D yes  Q no	
Describe in detail analyses that were performed on sample results from pollution sources (add additional lines or pages as needed or attach
a separate report if available):
Water Quality (check all that are measured regularly):
Temperature

pH

Rainfall

Turbidity

Conductivity

Salinity

TSS

DO

Other

Describe where water quality measurements are taken:
What is the trend in water quality data—improving, deteriorating, or about the same?
Examine the water quality data collected over the prior beach season. Do the bacteria concentrations at this beach appear to correlate with
any of the following? Include the rvalue if calculated.
Temperature
pH
Rainfall
Turbidity
Conductivity
Salinity
DO
TSS
Other:
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
Dyes
EH no
Pino
Pino
EH no
Pino
Pino
EH no
EH no
Pino
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
Describe:
What factor appears to have the greatest effect on bacteria levels at the beach (add lines or pages as needed or attach a separate report if
available)?
Were there any unusual results, such as extremely high or low values detected, or unusual trends?
what was found and any potential causes:
                                                                                           lyes
no  If yes, explain
Are water quality annual trend data attached?    Dyes   EH no
Do you sample during adverse (e.g., wet-weather) conditions? EH
                                                           yes
                                                                   no
Additional Comments or Observations:
9. MODELING AND OTHER STUDIES
Are models being used?    EH yes   EH no
If yes, list types of models being used and briefly describe the models:
Have you tested for stormwater cross-connections in the sanitary sewer?  Dyes  EH no  If yes, describe results:
                                                                                                                March 2013

-------
                                         MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
Have you tested for human sources of contamination? Q yes  Q no    If yes, describe results:


Have you performed visual screening to isolate discharge areas during dry and wet weather? Q yes  Q no    If yes, describe:


Has microbial source tracking been done at this beach? d yes  d no    If yes, describe results and cite any reports:


Additional comments or observations:
10. ADVISORIES/CLOSINGS

List any advisories and closings that occurred, whether bacteria levels were high, and any possible reasons for the advisory or closing or
high bacteria level, such as stormwater runoff, sewage spill, or wildlife on the beach.
Advisory or Closing
(specify one)












Start and End Dates












Length of
Advisory or
Closing (Days)












Did Bacteria
Concentrations
Exceed GM or
SSM Criteria?












Reason for Advisory or Closing or Possible
Contributing Factors












Total number of closings issued:
Total number of advisories issued:
Total number of days under an advisory:
Total number of days beach was closed:
Criteria used to issue advisory or close beach:
Additional comments or observations:
                                                             10
                                                              March 2013

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                                          MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency
11. POTENTIAL POLLUTION SOURCES
Type of Source
Wastewater discharges
POTW outfalls
OBDs
Other?
Other?
Sewage overflows
Septic systems
Cesspools
Stormwater outfalls
Drains and pipes nearby
Stream or wetland drainage
Urban runoff, industrial waste
Natural outfalls
CAFOsorAFOs
Wildlife (general)
Wildlife (significant areas)
Agriculture runoff
Land application of biosolids
and manure
Marinas, harbors
Mooring boats
Domestic animals
Unsewered areas
Erosion-prone areas
Landfills, open dumps
Groundwater seepage
Bathhouse leakage
Wetland drainage
Vacant areas
Other (specify):
Other (specify):
Other (specify):
Level of
Concern
(H, M, L, or
NA)































Distance
to beach
(in m or
km)































Latitude/
Longitude*































Does this source
directly affect
beach water
quality (Y or N)?































Describe how this source might contribute
to beach pollution and frequency of
contribution































*lf latitude and longitude are unknown, show the location on the detailed map and describe in the additional comments or observations section below.
Have potential pollution sources identified above been included on the detailed map?
lyes
I no   Describe:
Given your understanding of the beach, which fecal pollution sources are most likely to affect the levels of bacteria at the beach? If you
have specific concerns about any of the fecal pollution sources as sources of specific pathogens, please describe.
                                                              11
                                  March 2013

-------
                                         MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency
Has this beach been associated with the following?   D Cases of swimmer's itch
                                   Outbreaks of diarrheal disease?
    High incidence of skin infections
Other adverse health outcomes     If any are checked, describe:
Has a TMDL for bacteria been done on this waterbody or on any that discharge to it?   Q yes
If yes, summarize the results and attach report:
                                              no
Are there any discharge reports available for dischargers near this beach?    Q yes     Q no
If yes, attach report or pertinent sections and summarize here, including permit limits for bacteria:
Have any sources been remediated, or have steps been taken to remediate sources?
                                   lyes
I no     Describe:
Additional comments or observations:
12. DESCRIPTION OF SANITARY FACILITIES
Bathhouses: Total number of bathhouses and portable sanitation units (PSUs) at the beach:
Number or ID




Type (bathhouse
or PSU)




Location




Condition
(good, fair, poor)




Distance from Waterline
(feet)




Frequency of Cleaning
(Daily, weekly, monthly)




How are the sanitary wastes handled? Q Public sewers Q On-site treatment Q Septic field Q Pump-out Q Other:
Describe further. Include the number of toilets, showers, sinks, etc., and whether these facilities are adequate to support beach use.
Litter Bins: Total number of litter bins at the beach:
Number or ID




Location




Condition
(good, fair, or poor)




Distance from Waterline
(feet)




Frequency of Emptying
(daily, weekly, monthly)




                                                            12
                                                                   March 2013

-------
                                         MARINE BEACH ANNUAL SANITARY SURVEY (continued)
      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency
 Describe further, including whether number and location of litter bins are adequate to support beach use:
 13. DESCRIPTION OF OTHER FACILITIES

 List facilities in the beach area, such as marinas, restaurants, bars, playgrounds, parking lots, and dog parks:
Facility Name/Type







Location







Condition
(good, fair, poor)







Distance
from Beach
(feet)







What Is the Sewage
Disposal Method Used (if
applicable)?







How Might This Facility
Contribute to Water Quality
Problems?







Are there boat pump-outs nearby? d yes  fj no  If yes, describe:
Additional comments or observations:
                                                            13
March 2013

-------