SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS

This report was prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Sustainable Communities.

Author: Melissa C. Kramer, Ph.D.

Reviewers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency:
•   Office of Sustainable Communities: Susan Conbere, Matt Dalbey, Lynn Desautels, John Frece, Abby Hall, Kate Perry,
    Megan Susman, and Clark Wilson
•   Office of Air and Radiation: Dana Hyland and Victoria Ludwig
•   Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance: Nathaniel Folkemer and Mahri Monson
•   Office of Environmental Justice: Aaron Bell, Carlton Eley, and Suzi Ruhl
•   Office of Policy: Catherine Allen, Lisa Comer, Dennis Cuignet, Matt Massey, and Al McCartland
•   Office of Research and Development: Norman Birchfield, Robert Cantilli, Yusuf Mohamoud, and Joe Williams
•   Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response: Charlie Bartsch, Ann Carroll, and Aimee Storm
•   Office of Water: Eva Birk, Alisha Goldstein, Robert Coo, and Christopher Kloss
•   Region 2:  Rabi Kieber and Maureen Krudner
•   Region 3:  Kenneth Hendrickson and Dominique Lueckenhoff
•   Region 4: Anne Keller, Christine McKay, Chris Plymale, and Suganthi Simon
•   Region 5: Jon  Crosshans and Bob Newport
•   Region 6: James Brown, Carl Edlund, Suzanna Perea, and Joyce Stubblefield
•   Region 7:  David Doyle and Sarah  Hatch
•   Region 8:  Marie Zanowick Bourgeois, Cynthia Cody, Greg Davis, Stacey Eriksen, and David Gwisdalla
•   Region 9:  Charlotte Ely, John Kemmerer, Grace Ma, and Carolyn Mulvihill

Reviewers from other federal  agencies:
•   Council  on Environmental Quality: Chitra Kumar
•   Department of Housing and Urban Development: Joshua Geyer and Sunaree Marshall
•   National Oceanic and  Atmospheric Administration: Nancy Cofer-Shabica, Heidi Stiller, Sarah van der Schalie, and
    Kenneth Walker

External reviewers:
•   Matthew Candland, Borough Manager,  Borough of Carlisle, Pennsylvania
•   Rick Frieben, Engineering Technician, Borough of Carlisle, Pennsylvania
•   Phil Gaebler, Environmental Engineer, Capital Area Regional Planning Commission, Wisconsin
•   Bruce Koziar,  Planning/Zoning/Codes Manager, Borough of Carlisle, Pennsylvania
•   Kamran  Mesbah, Director of Environmental Resources Planning, Capital Area Regional Planning Commission,
•   Wes  Saunders-Pearce, Water Resource Coordinator, City of St. Paul, Minnesota
•   Catherine  Werner,  Sustainability Director, City of St. Louis, Missouri
•   John Zeanah, Program Manager, Memphis and  Shelby County Office of Sustainability

Disclaimer: To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so for
informational purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or regulations, and readers should
consult the statutes or regulations to  learn what they require. Neither this document, nor any part of it, is itself a rule or
a regulation. Thus, it cannot change or impose legally binding requirements on EPA,  states, the public, or the  regulated
community.  Further, any expressed intention, suggestion, or recommendation does not  impose any legally binding
requirements on EPA, states, tribes, the public, or the regulated community.

Front cover photo credits (left to right, top to bottom): Vincent desjardins via flickr.com, Wheat Design Group, Cesar
Rubio, Leonel Ponce via flickr.com, and Jenny Cestnik via flickr.com
Back cover photo credits (left to right, top to bottom): Ruhrfisch via Wikipedia Commons; EPA; Grassroots Gardens of
Buffalo, Inc.; City of Grand Rapids Environmental Services  Department; and Peg Butler

Table  of Contents
Executive Summary	i
I.      Introduction	1
  A.   Green Infrastructure	2
  B.   Sustainable Communities	4
  C.   Green Infrastructure Is an Integral Component of Sustainable Communities	5
    1.    Benefits	5
    2.    Potential Cost Savings Compared to Gray Infrastructure	8
II.     Strategies That Support Sustainable Communities and Green Infrastructure	12
  A.   Preserve and  Restore Open Space, Natural Beauty, and Critical Environmental Areas	13
  B.   Create Parks, Community Gardens, and Other Public Green Spaces	14
  C.   Direct Development Toward Existing Communities	1 5
  D.    Create Compact, Mixed-Use Development	16
  E.   Build Neighborhood Streets and Trails That Encourage Walking and Biking	17
  F.   Cultivate Communities with a Strong Sense of Place	18
  G.   Encourage Community and Stakeholder Collaboration in Development Decisions	20
  H.   Promote Green Building Practices	20
III.     Organizing Stakeholders	22
  A.   Identifying Lead Stakeholders	22
  B.   Involving Government Entities	23
  C.   Involving Community Members	24
IV.     Developing a Sustainable Communities and Green Infrastructure Plan	27
  A.   Developing a Community Vision	27
  B.   Establishing Goals	29
  C.   Assessing Assets and Opportunities	31
  D.   Identifying Potential Approaches to Add Green Infrastructure	32
    1.    Use Existing Public Land	32
    2.    Acquire Additional Public Land	36
    3.    Provide Incentives for Implementing Green  Infrastructure on Private Land	37
    4.    Change Requirements for Private Land	40
  E.   Factoring Brownfields and Hazardous Waste Sites Into Planning	42
  F.   Developing Strategies for Local Funding	45
  G.   Monitoring and  Measuring  Progress	48
  H.   Planning for Long-Term Operations and Maintenance	51
  I.   Identifying Federal Government Resources	53
V.     Conclusion	56
Appendix: Resources	57

Executive  Summary
Communities across the country want to protect their water quality while also getting the
greatest possible benefit out of every investment they make. Many are conserving, restoring, or
enhancing natural areas while incorporating trees, rain gardens, vegetated roofs, and other
practices that mimic natural systems into developed areas to manage rainwater where it falls.
These types of approaches, known as "green infrastructure," are an integral component of
sustainable communities primarily because they can help communities protect the environment
and human health while providing other social and economic benefits, allowing communities to
achieve more for their money. Using green  infrastructure strategies to reduce stormwater runoff
can strengthen efforts to preserve open space and natural areas and  encourage development in
existing communities. Green infrastructure elements help make neighborhood streets and
greenways pleasant and safe for walking and  biking and reinforce a sense of place. Integrating
green infrastructure and sustainable communities encourages collaboration in development
decisions and promotes green building practices.

Engaging the entire community creates a vision for the future based on people's and  businesses'
needs, desires, and aspirations. This vision guides the plan and ultimately implementation. A
sustainable communities and green infrastructure plan will touch nearly every aspect  of a
community's design. Involving a wide range of community members  in developing both the
vision and the plan creates broad support and encourages multiple champions to emerge to
handle different aspects of implementation. Such broad-based involvement also helps ensure
people from all walks of life, including vulnerable and disadvantaged populations, can share in
the benefits that come from implementing a green  infrastructure plan.

Successful plans include clear goals, an assessment of assets and opportunities, a
comprehensive look at how to achieve implementation,  a means for funding implementation, a
way to monitor and measure progress toward achieving the  community's goals, and a strategy
for long-term operations and maintenance. With such a plan in place, a community will be well
on its way to improving quality of life, protecting the environment, improving public health,
becoming economically stronger, and preparing for climate  change impacts.

I.   Introduction
Communities across the country want to protect their water quality while also getting the
greatest possible benefit out of every investment they make. Many are conserving, restoring, or
enhancing natural areas while incorporating trees, rain gardens, vegetated roofs, and other
practices that mimic natural systems  into developed areas to manage rainwater where it falls.
Using these types of approaches, known as "green infrastructure," to reduce stormwater and
pollution runoff is a way of protecting water quality while achieving cobenefits that can include
improved public health, better quality of life, and economic development.

In eastern Los Angeles  County,
California, the organization Amigos
de los Rios is working with a coalition              .  r
                                         Green infrastructure can improve water
of 62 government agencies and other
                                      quality, attract investment,  revive distressed
organizations to implement the
Emerald Necklace Vision, a plan to        neighborhoods, encourage redevelopment,
integrate green infrastructure              and provide recreational opportunities.
throughout a new 1 7-mile loop of
interconnected  parks and
greenways.1  Each park  serves multiple purposes, including improving public health by
encouraging use of the trail system, providing recreation opportunities in underserved
communities, supporting biodiversity and creating habitat, providing job training for young
people, encouraging walking and bicycling, and  reducing ambient air temperatures. For
example, the organization created Lashbrook Park along an existing bike trail by constructing a
bioswale filled with native, drought-tolerant plants along the park's length to infiltrate
stormwater,  adding picnic areas and benches, and installing interpretive signage in the Tongva
Indian language.2
Green infrastructure can not only help improve water quality by better managing stormwater—
sometimes even at a lower cost than conventional alternatives—but also can attract investment;
help revive distressed  neighborhoods; encourage redevelopment; provide recreational
opportunities; and help achieve other social, economic, public health, and environmental goals.
This document aims to help  local governments, water utilities, nonprofit organizations,
1 Amigos de los Rios. "Emerald Necklace Forest to Ocean Expanded Vision Plan." http://www.amigosdelosrios.org/the-
e me raid-necklace-vis ion- plan. Accessed May 28, 2014.
2 Amigos de los Rios. "Multi-Objective Park Projects." http://www.amigosdelosrios.org/multi-benefit-proiects.
Accessed May 28, 2014.

neighborhood groups, and other stakeholders integrate green infrastructure strategies into
plans that can transform their communities. Many communities that want to use green
infrastructure approaches face technical, regulatory, financial, and institutional obstacles that
limit widespread implementation.3 This document serves as a guide to develop a plan that can
overcome these obstacles for neighborhoods, towns, cities, and regions of all sizes. It helps
stakeholders create a vision for how green infrastructure can enhance their communities—a
vision that engages residents and inspires them to take action. It also directs readers to other
resources that provide more detailed information that can be tailored to communities'
particular climate, goals, and circumstances. This introductory section describes:

    A. What green infrastructure is.
    B. What sustainable communities are.
    C. Why green infrastructure is an  integral component  of sustainable communities.

Following the introduction,

    •   Section II describes strategies that support both sustainable communities and green
    •   Section III explains how to organize stakeholders.
    •   Section IV outlines the different activities that are part of developing a sustainable
       communities and green infrastructure plan.
    •   Section V concludes with a  review of best practices for creating a sustainable
       communities and green infrastructure plan.

A.   Green Infrastructure
In developed areas, much of the land is covered by buildings, pavement, and other
impermeable surfaces that prevent rain and snowmelt from soaking into the ground. Instead,
this water runs off, often flowing directly to streams, rivers, and other water bodies. It can carry
pollutants such as oil, chemicals, and lawn fertilizers. In addition, the quantity and speed of
flow can  cause erosion, flooding, and damage to aquatic habitat, property,  and infrastructure.

Green infrastructure includes a range of approaches for managing stormwater near where it
falls. Most green infrastructure uses the natural processes of soils and vegetation to capture,
slow down, and filter runoff, often allowing  it to recharge ground water, but some practices
3 U.S. Water Alliance. Barriers and Gateways to Green Infrastructure. 2011. http://www.uswateralliance.org/news-

   Exhibit 1. Green Infrastructure Approaches. Green infrastructure approaches range from site-scale
   practices, including (A) permeable pavement, (B) rain gardens, (C) cisterns, (D) green roofs, and (E) rain
   barrels, to watershed-level approaches such as (F) wetland preservation.
collect and store rain water for future use. Some techniques, including using  permeable
pavements, bioswales, rain gardens, vegetated or "green" roofs, rain barrels,  and cisterns, work
at the site scale and can fit into individual development,  redevelopment, or retrofit projects.
Larger-scale management strategies, including preserving or restoring flood plains, open space,
wetlands, and forests, can be used at the watershed level.4

In contrast to green infrastructure, stormwater in cities has  historically been managed by
expansive and capital-intensive underground storm sewer systems. This "gray infrastructure"
has the single purpose to collect and carry runoff from city streets, parking lots, and other
impervious surfaces as quickly as  possible. Many communities are now looking to combine  gray
and green infrastructure  approaches to manage stormwater to achieve multiple community
goals. The most appropriate techniques in a given location will depend on goals, budget, and
other context-specific factors,  but green infrastructure can  be designed to work in nearly all
4 For a complete description of different green infrastructure approaches, see: EPA. "What is Green Infrastructure?"
http:/ /water.epa.gov/ infrastructure /green infrastructu re /aLwhat.cfm. Accessed May 7, 201 4.

   Exhibit 2. Green infrastructure in arid climates, Tuscon, Arizona.
   Curb extensions with inlets to collect rainwater from the street show how even
   arid climates can use green infrastructure to manage stormwater and make
   neighborhoods more attractive.
areas. For example,
many people think of
green infrastructure
as an approach only
for wet climates.
However, it can also
manage  stormwater
and conserve water
resources in arid
regions if designers
select plants for their
drought  tolerance and
use other landscaping
techniques that
reduce the need for
B.   Sustainable  Communities
Sustainable communities are places that balance their economic assets, natural resources, and
social priorities so that residents' diverse needs can be  met now and in the future. These
communities prosper by attracting and retaining businesses and people and offering individuals
of all incomes, races, and ethnicities access to the opportunities, services, and amenities they
need to thrive. To become more environmentally and economically sustainable, many
communities use smart growth approaches—a range of strategies that cities, suburbs, towns,
and  rural areas can use to protect the environment and  public health, support economic
development, create strong neighborhoods with diverse housing and transportation options,
and  improve residents' quality of life. Exhibit 3 lists the principles that underlie smart growth
5 For more information about adapting green infrastructure techniques to water-limited regions, see: EPA. Green
Infrastructure in Arid and Semi-Arid Climates. 201 0. http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/arid_cl imates_casestudv.pdf.
6 For more information about sustainable communities and smart growth approaches, see: EPA. "Smart Growth."
http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/index.htm. Accessed May 7, 2014.

    Exhibit 3: Smart Growth Principles
    In 1 996, the Smart Growth Network—a group of more than 30 national organizations representing a range of
    interests including real estate; the environment; community development; affordable housing; and local,
    state, and federal government—developed 10 smart growth principles:

    • Mix land uses.
    • Take advantage of compact building design.
    • Create a range of housing opportunities and choices.
    • Create walkable neighborhoods.
    • Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place.
    • Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas.
    • Strengthen and direct development towards existing communities.
    • Provide a variety of transportation  choices.
    • Make development decisions predictable, fair, and cost effective.
    • Encourage community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions.
    Source: Smart Growth Network. "Why Smart Growth?" http://www.smartgrowth.org/whv.php. Accessed November 26, 201 3.
C.    Green  Infrastructure Is an  Integral Component of

      Sustainable Communities

Green infrastructure is an integral component of sustainable communities primarily because it
can help communities protect the environment and human health while providing other social
and economic  benefits. In addition, green infrastructure and sustainable communities
approaches can help local governments that are struggling to pay for needed upgrades to
stormwater and wastewater infrastructure that is beyond its intended lifespan. These challenges
are likely to grow as a changing climate further strains  public infrastructure and municipal
finances. For example, the projected  increase  in extreme weather events will likely increase
service disruptions  in some locations, particularly those near climate-sensitive environmental
features like coastlines, rivers, storm paths, and vegetation in arid regions.7 Adapting
infrastructure so that it is more resilient to these types  of changes will be expensive.

1.     Benefits

Many communities  need significant investments to upgrade existing water infrastructure and
prefer solutions that are not only cost effective but also provide additional benefits. Many
property owners see their role  in stormwater management as solely to ensure that it flows  from
7 Wilbanks, Thomas J., and Steven J. Fernandez. Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities.
U.S. Department of Energy. 2014. http://www.eenews.net/assets/201 4/03/06/document_cw_01 .pdf.

their property as quickly as possible to prevent
flooding—property owners have largely not had to
concern themselves with where stormwater goes.
Now, as communities are facing mounting bills for
safely dealing with that stormwater, they are hoping
to shift public understanding so property owners
recognize stormwater as something they should
either manage on site or pay to have removed,
much as they have long been used to paying for
snow removal and municipal trash service. Green
infrastructure offers a way to address this
challenge: it provides tools for property owners to
manage stormwater themselves, and it offers
additional tangible environmental, economic, public
health, and  social benefits (Exhibit 4).

For example, green  infrastructure and sustainable
communities strategies can  help communities adapt
to climate change. Many communities are not
adequately prepared for current weather extremes,
much less projected future impacts. Depending on
the region, these changes could include higher
temperatures, more extreme weather events,
changes  in precipitation patterns,  and sea-level rise.
These changes can strain water infrastructure,
reduce water supplies, worsen water and air pollution, and increase flooding because of more
intense downpours and higher storm surges.8 Sustainable communities strategies can help
communities become more resilient to these challenges by encouraging development in safer
locations, promoting water- and energy-efficient buildings and neighborhoods, providing
transportation options that people can use every day as well as in an emergency, and helping
protect the populations most vulnerable to climate  change impacts—the very old and very
young; people with chronic health  problems; non-English speakers; and residents of low-
Exhibit 4: Potential Green
Infrastructure Benefits
• Improved water quality.
• Reduced municipal water use.
• Ground water recharge.
• Flood risk mitigation.
• Increased resilience to climate
  change impacts such as heavier
  rainfalls, hotter temperatures, and
  higher storm surges.
• Reduced ground-level ozone.
• Reduced paniculate pollution.
• Reduced air temperatures in
  developed areas.
• Reduced energy use and associated
  greenhouse gas emissions.
• Increased or improved wildlife
• Improved public health from
  reduced air pollution and increased
  physical activity.
• Increased recreation space.
• Improved community aesthetics.
• Cost savings.
• Green jobs.
• Increased property values.
8 For assessments of regional climate change impacts, see: Melillo, Jerry M., Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and Gary W. Yohe,
Eds. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research
Program. 201 4. http://nca201 4.globalchanae.gov.

income, minority, and overburdened communities.9 Incorporating green infrastructure can
further increase community resilience by filtering polluted stormwater, recharging ground water
supplies, reducing ambient air temperatures by adding greenery, and  providing retention areas
that slow runoff.10.11
Recognizing such benefits,
the city of Chicago's
Climate Action Plan calls
for 6,000 new green  roofs,
more than a million new
trees, a watershed plan  that
factors in changes
expected due to climate
change, and other
actions.12 In the first  two
years after implementation,
more than 4 million square
feet of green roofs were
completed or planned, and
32,000 square feet of
Chicago alleyways were
reconstructed with
permeable materials.13
Exhibit 5. Green roof on City Hall, Chicago, Illinois. The city of
Chicago created a green roof on its city hall to test the performance of
the technology and understand how green roofs could help the city
achieve its climate action goals. The roof can be as much as 30 degrees
cooler than surrounding roofs in the summer. It reduces the use of air
conditioning in the building while absorbing rainfall that would otherwise
run into storm sewers.
Unlike gray infrastructure, which serves only to manage stormwater, green infrastructure allows
a local government to make the most of limited public dollars and achieve multiple goals with a
single investment. Many cities already take advantage of the multiple benefits of green
infrastructure. The watershed management plan of Portland, Oregon, for example, prioritizes
areas ripe for redevelopment and infill when deciding where to  make green infrastructure
9 For more information on how sustainable communities strategies can help communities prepare for climate change,
see: EPA. Using Smart Growth Strategies to Create More Resilient Communities in the Washington, D.C., Region. 2013.
10 Garrison, Noah, Robert C. Wilkinson, and Richard Horner. A Clear Blue Future. Natural Resources Defense Council and
the University of California, Santa Barbara. 2009. http://www.nrdc.org/water/lid.
11 For more information on how green infrastructure can create communities more resilient to climate change, see: EPA.
Green Infrastructure for Climate Resiliency. 2014. http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/upload/
12 City of Chicago. Chicago Climate Action Plan. Undated, http://www.chicagoclimateaction.org.
13 City of Chicago. Chicago Climate Action Plan Progress Report 2008-2009: The First Two Years. 201 0.
http://www.chicagoclimateaction.org/pages/ccap_progress_report/81 .php.

investments to simultaneously
encourage economic activity and              Green infrastructure allows a local
improve watershed health in ways         government to make the most of limited
that are cost effective and
                                         p|/Mc ^//a/y ^ ac/?/£?|/£? muMple goa/s
equitable.1' Grand Rapids, Michigan's               wjfh a sjng,e investment
master plan update recognizes that
green infrastructure could solve
several community challenges, including loss of tree canopy and  park space, the demand for
more walking and biking trails, and limited availability of fresh, local food.15  It recommends
strategies to acquire additional parkland in underserved neighborhoods, expand the off-street
bicycle network, and remove barriers to the expansion of community gardening.

2.     Potential Cost Savings Compared to Gray Infrastructure
Every 4 years, the U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prepares a report  to Congress,
based on a survey of states, on the unfunded capital costs  for projects to address water quality
or water quality-related health problems.16 As of 2008, states had identified the need for $63.6
billion to address combined sewer system overflows17 and  $42.3 billion for stormwater

One approach to address  combined sewer overflows is to replace a single combined sewer
system with separate storm and sanitary sewer systems. Directing storm sewer flows directly to
waterways and  sanitary sewer flows to  treatment plants can ensure that the sanitary sewer
system does not exceed capacity during  periods of heavy rain or  snowmelt. However, system
separation  is expensive and leaves untreated stormwater flowing directly to rivers, lakes, and
estuaries. Another approach is to construct  underground facilities that can hold excess
wastewater from combined sewer systems until a treatment plant has the capacity to handle it.
However, underground storage facilities  are expensive and take many years to construct.  By
contrast, cities  can implement green infrastructure solutions over time and produce incremental
results towards achieving  their long-term goals.
14 City of Portland. Actions for Watershed Health: Portland Watershed Management Plan, 2005.
15 City of Grand Rapids. Green Grand Rapids. 2011. http://grcitv.us/design-and-development-services/Planning-
16 EPA. Clean Watersheds Needs Survey. 2008. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/datait/databases/cwns.
17 Combined sewer systems collect stormwater runoff, domestic sewage, and industrial wastewater in the same pipe.
Most of the time, combined sewer systems transport all of their wastewater to a sewage treatment plant. During periods
of heavy rainfall or snowmelt, however, the wastewater volume can exceed the system's capacity resulting in an
overflow to nearby streams, rivers, or other water bodies.

In some cases, green infrastructure can reduce costs by decreasing the amount of stormwater
gray infrastructure systems must be designed to manage. For example, in 201 3, EPA approved
a plan by the Metropolitan Sewer District of Greater Cincinnati to control combined sewer
overflows stemming from the Lower Mill Creek service area using green infrastructure, along
with strategic sewer separation and other methods.18 This approach using both gray and green
infrastructure is projected  to save $1 50 million compared to the city's original plan to construct
a deep tunnel stormwater storage area—even before considering other potential economic
The Philadelphia Water
commissioned a study
comparing alternatives
for controlling its
combined sewer
overflows that measured
the value of various
environmental, social,
public health, and other
benefits.20 Across all city
watersheds, the total net
benefits over 40 years
ranged from $1.9 billion
(in  2009 dollars) for an
option that included
managing 25 percent of
impervious surfaces in the city through green infrastructure to $4.5 billion for an option that
included  managing 1 00 percent of impervious surfaces through green infrastructure. The total
net benefits for options that included managing stormwater through a system of storage
Exhibit 6. Thin Flats, Philadelphia. This eight-unit building in
Philadelphia's Northern Liberties neighborhood achieved LEED Platinum
certification for its environmentally sustainable features that include a
green roof and underground cisterns that store rainwater to irrigate
backyard gardens.
18 EPA. "Hamilton County, Ohio — Revised Original Lower Mill Creek Sewer Overflow Partial Remedy."
http://www.epa.aov/Reqion5/water/lowermillcreek/. Accessed Mar. 11, 201 4.
19 New public investments that make surrounding real estate more desirable and raise property values can result in
unintended adverse consequences for low-income residents without strong community engagement with affected
residents and careful planning to avoid displacement.  For information on strategies and tools to help communities
achieve more equitable development, see: EPA. "Smart Growth and Equitable Development."
20 City of Philadelphia Water Department. Philadelphia Combined Sewer Overflow Long Term Control Plan Update:  Triple
Bottom Line Analysis, 2009. http://www.phillvwatersheds.org/ltcpu/Vol02_TBL.pdf.

tunnels ranged from just $61.6 to $1 40 million over the same period, depending on the size of
the tunnel system.

Green infrastructure can also save money for places that do not have combined sewer systems
needing upgrades. An EPA report on 1 7 projects using site-scale green  infrastructure  found
that in most cases, green infrastructure was cheaper and performed better environmentally
than conventional stormwater management.21 A report by the Natural Resources Defense
Council reviewing published research on the benefits to owners of commercial buildings that
incorporate well-designed green  infrastructure found  that they can command higher rents and
property values, increase retail sales, save energy, reduce  maintenance  costs, reduce flood
damage costs, reduce water bills, lower crime, and improve health and job satisfaction for

Maintenance cost comparisons have also shown that green infrastructure practices can be less
expensive than conventional gray infrastructure, although more research is needed to help
communities make informed  decisions based on their particular context and the types of green
infrastructure approaches used.23 Green infrastructure approaches  have not been  used as
extensively or as long as gray infrastructure for stormwater management, so actual operations
and maintenance costs are not as well documented. However, EPA and the Water Environment
Research  Foundation developed a set of spreadsheet tools to help users calculate  capital  and
long-term maintenance costs  for several green  infrastructure practices, including  retention
ponds, permeable pavement, and green roofs.24

Tools are also available to help communities evaluate  the potential  cost savings and economic
benefits of green infrastructure.  For example, the Center for Neighborhood Technology and
American Rivers developed a method to evaluate the economic, environmental, and social
benefits of green infrastructure.25 Their guide includes examples  illustrating the potential
economic and nonmonetary value of multiple benefits, including reduced water treatment needs,
increased ground water recharge, and improved neighborhood aesthetics. The Center for
21 EPA. Reducing Stormwater Costs Through Low-Impact Development (LID) Strategies and Practices. 2007.
http:/ /water, epa.gov/polwaste /green /costs07_index.cfm.
22 Natural Resources Defense Council. The Green Edge: How Commercial Property investment in Green infrastructure
Creates Value. 2013. http://www.nrdc.org/water/commercial-value-areen-infrastructure.asp.
23 American Rivers and Green for All. Staying Green: Strategies to improve Operations and Maintenance of Green
Infrastructure in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. 2013. http://greenforall.org/focus/water/staving-green-strategies-
24 Pomeroy, Christine and Jeff Moeller. BMP and LID Whole Life Cost Models: Version 2.0. Water Environment Research
Federation. 2009. http://www.werf.org/i/a/Ka/Search/ResearchProfile.aspx?Reportld=SW2R08.
25 Center for Neighborhood Technology and American Rivers. The Value of Green infrastructure: A Guide to Recognizing
its Economic, Environmental and Social Benefits. 2010. http://www.americanrivers.org/newsroom/resources/the-

Neighborhood Technology also developed a National Green Values™ calculator to quickly
estimate the performance, costs, and benefits of green infrastructure compared to conventional
stormwater management practices.26 Other resources for estimating the costs  and benefits of
alternative approaches to stormwater management are available on EPA's Green Infrastructure
26 Center for Neighborhood Technology. "Green Values® National Stormwater Management Calculator."
http://areenvalues.cnt.org/national/calculator.php. Accessed Jan. 27, 201 4.
27 EPA. "Green Infrastructure Cost-Benefit Resources." http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/
gLcostbenefits.cfm. Accessed Jan. 27, 201 4.

II.   Strategies That Support Sustainable  Communities and

     Green  Infrastructure

While storm sewers and other types of gray infrastructure are built below ground, much of
green infrastructure is visible at the ground level. Sustainable communities that fully integrate
green infrastructure approaches use community design to help simultaneously achieve
environmental, economic, and social goals. These goals include improving water quality,
revitalizing neighborhoods, reducing flood risk, and providing recreational areas that
encourage physical activity. Community planners can enhance these and other benefits by
selecting the types and locations of green infrastructure approaches that best support their

Communities need to be particularly thoughtful when applying green infrastructure in areas
where space is most valuable, such as in compact neighborhoods—the very places where past
development has contributed to serious water quality problems. Many older cities and towns
face serious challenges in better managing stormwater to improve water quality, address
overflows from combined storm and sanitary sewer systems, and reduce flooding. Green
infrastructure could help address these problems, but the cobenefits would be greatest  if
designers selected practices that also achieve other community goals. For example, wide
sidewalks with space for outdoor cafes, bike  racks, benches, and other amenities attract people
to a neighborhood, bringing customers to businesses. Downtowns might, therefore, look for
green infrastructure practices that do not compete with these amenities for valuable sidewalk
space. For example, street trees can be planted in tree boxes that hold soil and water
underneath sidewalks made with permeable paving, allowing stormwater to infiltrate and
keeping the trees  healthy without encroaching on the area where people walk.  Designers can
often accommodate green infrastructure in the existing street width by, for example, extending
curbs into the no-parking zone at intersections to both create space for a rain  garden to absorb
stormwater and shorten the distance needed  to walk across the street (see Exhibit 1 4). These
curb extensions also help calm traffic and protect walkers and bicyclists.  Other factors for
designers to consider when selecting green infrastructure practices to support sustainable
communities include how well they enhance the aesthetics of public spaces and create a sense
of place and whether they are compatible with compact development that puts homes and
workplaces near transit stations.

                                                                    Supportive Strategies
Fort Collins, Colorado, tackled this issue by developing a series of prototypes to explore
options for addressing flooding and water quality problems in a nearly 1 00 percent impervious
commercial corridor where development activity is concentrated.28 The city's evaluation
revealed that if individual property owners were responsible for managing their stormwater on-
site, development density would tend to decrease. Further, the city found that dispersed
management responsibilities could jeopardize the long-term effectiveness of this approach.
However, a regional facility located in a low-value area could treat stormwater using
bioinfiltration and detain storm events to reduce downstream flooding while leaving
1 00 percent of the commercial district available for redevelopment. The city could acquire land
for the facility by establishing a stormwater district through which property owners would be
able to spread out the costs of constructing the facility.

The following strategies illustrate how green infrastructure can enhance sustainable
communities' approaches and help achieve a wide range of goals, including to:

    A. Preserve and Restore Open Space, Natural Beauty, and Critical Environmental Areas.
    B. Create Parks, Community Gardens, and Other Public
       Green Spaces.
    C. Direct Development Toward Existing Communities.
    D. Create Compact, Mixed-Use  Development.
    E. Build Neighborhood Streets and Trails  That Encourage Walking and Biking.
    F. Cultivate Communities with a Strong Sense of Place.
    G. Encourage Community and Stakeholder Collaboration in Development Decisions.
    H. Promote Green Building Practices.

A.   Preserve  and Restore Open Space,  Natural  Beauty, and Critical
      Environmental Areas
Forests, wetlands, and other natural areas provide recreational space, shape regional identity,
and support regional economies through tourism, agriculture, and other activities. In addition,
protecting natural areas is often the least expensive,  most efficient way to keep stormwater
pollution from further degrading waterways. Natural areas serve a wealth of ecological
functions that cannot be easily replaced. For example, wetlands can absorb floodwaters and
buffer storm surges,  protecting communities from flooding while performing ecological
28 City of Fort Collins. City Plan Fort Collins: Stormwater Report. 2011. http://www.fcgov.com/planfortcollins/pdf/

Supportive Strategies
services like providing wildlife habitat and filtering excess nutrients and contaminants from
stormwater. During Hurricane Sandy, communities with healthy dune systems had natural
buffers that protected adjacent neighborhoods, while communities without healthy dunes
generally suffered more damage.29 The city of Crystal Lake, Illinois, created a green
infrastructure plan that established the priority areas of the city for protection, including highly
important resource areas such as river corridors and watersheds that are critical for the city's
environmental health and economic vitality and secondary resource areas that could serve as
important connectors in a green network.30 The plan's benefits include reduced flooding,
conservation of wildlife habitat and biodiversity, reduced infrastructure costs, and a stronger
sense of place and community identity. Saratoga PLAN, a nonprofit land trust in Saratoga
Springs, New York, created a toolkit for municipalities considering voluntary, incentive-based,
and regulatory strategies to preserve open lands, including conservation easements, the
purchase of development rights, and zoning.31

B.   Create Parks, Community Gardens, and Other Public
     Green Spaces
Parks,  community gardens, and other public green spaces create opportunities in built-up areas
for people to gather, exercise, and connect with nature. These spaces are particularly important
in low-income and disadvantaged neighborhoods because  they provide critical health, social,
and environmental  benefits. These types of places can also readily incorporate green
infrastructure into their design.

The Chicago region's comprehensive plan CO TO 2040 recommends  investing  in increasing the
supply of urban  parks, protecting the region's most critical natural areas, and creating a
network that links the region's green spaces.32 The Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning,
the regional planning organization, recognized that having these places helps make the
Chicago area a healthier and better place to live and work, attracting  residents and employees
and improving economic competitiveness. Low-income communities  in the region do not have
enough parks for their residents, and one of CO TO 2040's recommendations was for the
29 The City of New York. A Stronger, More Resilient New York, 201 3. http://www.nvc.aov/html/sirr/html/report/
30 City of Crystal Lake and Cowhey, Cudmundson & Leder. Green Infrastructure Vision. 201 2.
http://www.chicagowilderness.org/files/471 3/6854/3682/Crvstal_Lake_Creenl nfrastructureVision.pdf.
31 Saratoga PLAN. "Tools for Community Planning and Conservation." http://www.saratoaaplan.org/
communityplanning.html. Accessed Jun. 20, 2014.
32 Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning. CO TO 2040: Comprehensive Regional Plan. 201 0.

                                                                       Supportive Strategies
Illinois legislature to reduce
the required local match for
state funds to acquire land
for parks and open space for
these communities. In 201 3,
the Illinois legislature
reduced the local match from
50  percent to  1 0 percent for
distressed communities,
which should help distribute
open space in the region
more equitably.33
                                  Exhibit 7. Lurie Garden, Chicago, Illinois. Lurie Garden in
                                  Millennium Park is a 2.5-acre rooftop garden on top of a parking
                                  garage. Native plants provide critical wildlife habitat while creating an
                                  urban oasis for residents and visitors.
C.  Direct Development Toward  Existing Communities

Investing in existing communities brings jobs and services for residents and takes advantage of
past infrastructure investments. Redevelopment also spurs cleanup of historical environmental
and health hazards at contaminated properties that often disproportionately affect
disadvantaged populations. These actions can revitalize areas that have suffered from
disinvestment, replacing underused or vacant lands with productive businesses, parks, and
other community amenities. Very low levels of impervious cover have been shown to degrade
watershed  health.34 Developing compactly on a redevelopment site can avoid creating new
impervious surfaces that could further degrade water quality.

For example, the city of Buffalo, New York, started  a program through which the city clears
vacant lots to make way for rain gardens and other green infrastructure that can help improve
property values and  provide neighborhood parks and green space while helping the city meet
33 Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning. Moving Forward2013. 2014. http://www.cmap.illinois.gov/documents/
10180/1 12663/FY14-0047%202013%20CMAP%20IMPLEMENTATION%20POSTER_FINAL.pdf/2a2f4ee3-1f36-41 13-
34 For a review of research on the levels of impervious cover at which watershed effects are apparent, see: EPA. Our Built
and Natural Environments. 201 3. http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/built.htm.

Supportive Strategies
its goal of reducing the number
of combined sewer overflow
discharges.35 In its 2012
comprehensive plan, Ranson,
West Virginia, encourages
selecting green infrastructure
techniques to manage
stormwater that can allow
additional development in the
city's Old Town while preserving
its character.36 Improving Old
Town's infrastructure will ensure
that the city can accommodate
development downtown where it
has the least impact on natural
areas and the greatest economic
Exhibit 8. University Heights Collaborative Community
Garden, Buffalo, New York. This newly planted community
garden in Buffalo was built with the help of Grassroots Gardens,
an organization dedicated to helping residents create and sustain
community gardens on vacant properties in the city. Several
entities, including churches, community centers,  and nonprofit
organizations, help maintain it.
D.  Create Compact, Mixed-Use  Development

Compact, mixed-use development puts buildings close together, creating neighborhoods
where  residents are near shops, restaurants, and services; public transit, walking, and biking
are viable transportation options; and jobs are easily accessible. Strategies include constructing
buildings with a mix of uses such as retail on the ground floor and offices or apartments above;
reducing (or eliminating) the distance between buildings; positioning buildings closer to the
street; rightsizing surface parking to  meet demand while minimizing the amount of developable
land it uses; and narrowing road lanes where  feasible. These approaches help  make a
neighborhood more walkable by reducing distances between destinations and  calming traffic.
They also minimize the amount of land and impervious surface that is necessary for a given
35 Buffalo Sewer Authority. "Ongoing Projects." http://bsacsoimprovements.ora/cso-control-plan/onaoing-proiects-2.
Accessed Mar. 11, 2014.
36 City of Ranson. 2012 Comprehensive Plan. 201 2. http://ransonrenewed.com/wp-content/uploads/201 2/04/
RansonCompPlan_201 2_Adopted-Reduced.pdf.

                                                                     Supportive Strategies
unit of development, leaving more land undeveloped and able to continue to absorb rainwater
and perform other ecological functions. Compact building design can be one of the most cost-
effective ways to prevent additional stormwater pollution because it requires no construction or
maintenance  beyond what is already occurring.

The city of Chicago's comprehensive plan, Adding Creen to Urban Design, recognizes that the
city's use of resources is much more efficient than would be the case if the population were
more spread out,  requiring more roads and other impervious area, using more energy to
operate water and wastewater infrastructure, and necessitating driving greater distances.37 In
other words, the compactness of the city is a necessary and important strategy for achieving
many of its environmental goals, including improving water quality, reducing energy use, and
lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Likewise, Ranson, West Virginia, established compact
development  as a stormwater best management practice in its 2012 comprehensive plan,
recognizing that land left undeveloped is one of the most valuable and cost-effective ways to
prevent additional stormwater pollution.38

E.   Build  Neighborhood Streets and Trails That  Encourage Walking
     and Biking
Walkable neighborhoods have streets,  sidewalks, and paths that are safe and appealing for
pedestrians and bicyclists. Streets designed for the safety of all users are also known  as
"complete streets," which can encourage residents to lead healthier lifestyles. Green
infrastructure plays an important role in designing streets to make a neighborhood walkable.
Street trees provide shade, filter airborne pollutants, and help reduce ambient air temperatures,
making walking outdoors in hot weather more comfortable. In general, adding greenery, such
as a vegetated buffer between people and traffic, can also help to make the area feel more
inviting. Walking and biking trails can be designed as linear community parks that link
destinations,  create opportunities to get around without a car, improve public health by
encouraging physical activity, integrate green infrastructure throughout a community, and
provide green space  in underserved neighborhoods.

Roads designed primarily for automobiles are wider and tend to encourage single-story
development  with large areas of surface parking. All  of this impervious area creates more
37 City of Chicago. Adding Creen to Urban Design: A City for Us and Future Generations. 2008.
http://www.citvofchicaao.org/city/en/depts/dcd/supp_info/green_u rban_design.html.
38 City of Ranson. Op. cit.

Supportive Strategies
stormwater runoff. Although site-scale
green infrastructure practices can help
such places improve stormwater
management, they cannot readily replace
the full range of ecological functions
provided by natural areas. Taking into
consideration opportunities to limit
impervious surfaces and preserve or
restore natural areas by planning for
green infrastructure across an entire
neighborhood, town, or city can lead to
more effective stormwater management
and help maximize the other benefits of
green infrastructure.

The city of Maplewood, Minnesota,
adopted a living streets policy framework,
under which the city will rebuild streets
after infrastructure upgrades to better
accommodate walkers, bikers, and transit
users while incorporating green infrastructure such as trees and rain gardens on street edges.39
The plan helps the city turn the need to replace aging drinking water and wastewater
infrastructure into an opportunity to improve streets. The city can save money by achieving
multiple goals, including improving safety and environmental quality, with a single project.

F.   Cultivate Communities  with a Strong  Sense of Place
Development that represents the values, history, culture,  economy, and geography of a
community is key to supporting a strong economy, vibrant neighborhoods, and a high quality
of life. Green infrastructure approaches can help create vibrant, interesting neighborhoods with
a strong  sense of place—a unique combination of characteristics that makes a place  special.
Many green infrastructure approaches use plants adapted to each region's climate, helping to
create a distinct identity and contribute to a neighborhood's overall aesthetic appeal, while gray
Exhibit 9. Green Street, Maplewood, Minnesota.
Rain gardens along the curb capture stormwater from
the street and make the neighborhood a more
enjoyable place to walk.
39 Environmental Initiative. "Maplewood Living Streets Policy and Demonstration Project." http://www.environmental-
initiative.org/proiects/environmental-initiative-awards/201 4-award s-f in all sts/maplewood-l iving-street s-policv-an ri-
de monstrat ion-project. Accessed Jun. 23, 201 4.

                                                                         Supportive Strategies
    Exhibit 10. Tanner Springs Park, Portland, Oregon. Tanner Springs Park collects rain falling on the park
    to recreate a portion of the wetland that once surrounded Tanner Creek in Portland's Pearl District. Native
    plants and art installations that use reclaimed railroad track and glass from a local company contribute to the
    sense of place.
infrastructure is almost entirely underground where it is out of sight and out of mind. Public art
and green infrastructure can be integrated into a single site, each reinforcing the sense of place
established by the other. Features such as fountains fed by rain water, living walls, or artist-
designed stormwater infrastructure can help enliven a space and educate visitors about ways to
protect water quality (see Exhibit 1 7).

The city of St. Paul,  Minnesota, studied how public art could be integrated into green
infrastructure along the city's 11 -mile light rail line to manage stormwater, catalyze and
support transit-oriented development, and provide benefits to all residents. The city collected
examples from across the country that demonstrate community enhancements and could serve
as models for its own projects (see Exhibit 1 I).40

In rural regions, vegetated areas such  as forests, wetlands, grasslands, and working farms often
shape the  region's sense of place. Protecting  and conserving these areas by directing
development to existing neighborhoods and employment centers can help maintain the
character that attracts tourism and supports the quality of life residents value while  protecting
valuable water resources. For example, Saratoga County, New York, developed a green
infrastructure plan to safeguard and expand its network of parks, recreational trails, open
40 City of St. Paul. Strategic Stormwater Solutions for Transit-Oriented Development. 201 3.
http:/ /www. corridorsofopportunitv.org /sites /defau It /files/Strateaic_Stormwater_Solutions_for_TOD_Final_Report.pdf.

Supportive Strategies
spaces, working lands, and protected areas to maintain the county's character and support its
continued economic prosperity.41

G.   Encourage Community and Stakeholder Collaboration  in
     Development Decisions
Sustainable communities strategies involve residents, business owners, community-based
organizations, and other stakeholders early and often to define and implement the community's
vision and goals. Likewise, because green infrastructure can help transform how a community
looks and functions, public involvement in the planning process is equally important.
Community leaders might  need to adapt outreach efforts to reach populations that are
disadvantaged, vulnerable  to displacement, and often left out of development decisions.
Engaging all stakeholders early in the planning process can create needed support and help
form partnerships that maintain momentum for the plan during a long implementation period.

Watershed Watch in Kentucky, Inc., a statewide organization dedicated to improving water
quality, developed  a plan to help communities adopt green infrastructure approaches by
empowering individuals  to take action through "citizen action plan teams."42 Strategies it
suggests to help residents influence local decisions about stormwater management include
assessing what information resources are available; identifying applicable laws, ordinances, and
regulations; coordinating planning with other interested stakeholders; identifying funding
opportunities; and  monitoring green infrastructure performance.

H.   Promote Green Building Practices
The term "green building"  refers to the practice of creating structures and using processes that
are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle from
siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and deconstruction. An
important aspect of green  building is designing sites and structures to allow the capture, use,
infiltration, or evapotranspiration of stormwater to reduce some of development's negative
effects on water quality. Many green building certification programs look beyond the building
envelope to techniques for environmentally sustainable stormwater management such as green
41 Saratoga County. Green Infrastructure Plan for Saratoga County. 2006. http://www.saratoaaplan.org/
42 Watershed Watch in Kentucky, Inc. The Kentucky Green Infrastructure Action Plan for Stormwater & Wet Weather
Sewage Management. 2012. http://kwalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/201 3/01 /kv_green_infrstruc_action_plan.pdf.

                                                                        Supportive Strategies
roofs, cisterns, and site-scale green infrastructure.43 These approaches can have many benefits,
including reducing stormwater runoff and storing water for landscaping and other nonpotable
uses, which is particularly important in regions where water is scarce or is projected to become
scarcer due to climate change.

In Redmond, Washington, the Green Building and Green Infrastructure Incentive  Program
encourages developers and homebuilders to incorporate green building and site-scale green
infrastructure techniques into new residential developments. Techniques include retaining
native vegetation, reducing impervious surface area, collecting rainwater from roofs for
nonpotable uses, using pervious materials, and installing green roofs. Incentives include
priority building permit processing, reductions in the required minimum lot size, and additions
to allowed density.44
43 To learn about the major green building certification programs, see: EPA. "Green Building Standards."
44 City of Redmond. "Green Building Program." http://www.redmond.qov/BusinessDevelopment/
DeveloperServicesCenter/CreenBuildingProgram. Accessed Mar. 1 2, 201 4.

  I.  Organizing Stakeholders
The strategies that support sustainable communities and green infrastructure are diverse and
touch on many aspects of a community. A variety of stakeholders can directly implement or
indirectly support these strategies, and organizing these stakeholders is an important step for
an organized and inclusive process. This section discusses:

   A.  Who can take the lead?
   B.  Which government entities need  to be involved?
   C.  Which community members  need to be involved?
   D.  How can the federal government help?

A.   Identifying Lead Stakeholders
Every community needs an individual, organization,  or entity to take the lead in developing a
sustainable communities and green infrastructure plan—a  local champion committed to
improving a  neighborhood, city, or region's quality of life and sustainability. Most successful
plans involve many stakeholders, and coordination is important so that everyone understands
how  individual activities fit into the overall framework that  moves the community forward. In
many communities, a local government agency takes the lead in organizing stakeholders and
developing the green infrastructure plan because it will help that agency serve its core mission.
Other times, stakeholders have coordinated broad-ranging community visioning exercises and
developed plans. For example, in Pittsburgh,  Pennsylvania, a nonprofit, community-based
development organization took the  lead in developing the  East Liberty Green Vision, a plan for
integrating green features into public and private development in the East Liberty neighborhood.
Two  private foundations and the Pennsylvania Department  of Conservation and Natural
Resources funded the effort.45 In Detroit, the  Lower  Eastside Action Plan began as a
conversation  among community development organizations serving  neighborhoods in the
southeastern part of the city. The organizations collaborated with a diverse group of other
stakeholders  to develop a 1 0-year vision for the area that aims to stabilize neighborhood
property values,  improve stormwater management, and benefit the city as a whole  by
45 East Liberty Development, Inc. East Liberty's Green Vision. Undated, http://www.eastlibertv.org/communitv-

                                                                    Organizing Stakeholders
repurposing vacant land for urban gardening, forest regeneration, greenway development, and
other uses.46

B.    Involving Government  Entities
Although a variety of entities can spearhead successful sustainable communities and green
infrastructure plans, participation and support from local government is crucial. Local
governments manage not only publicly owned land  but also streets, parking lots, and other
places that often accommodate
green infrastructure. If local
governments lead by example
by using green infrastructure
approaches on public land,
private property owners can
see and learn about these
techniques and might  be more
likely to adopt them. Local
governments can also  ensure
that policies and programs are
consistent with the
community's vision, and the
city's demonstrated leadership
and commitment to the plan
objectives help keep
stakeholders engaged. The
most appropriate government
players will vary but often
       The mayor and other elected leaders.
       City departments, including the departments of planning, transportation, housing,
       public works, parks and recreation, economic development, engineering, and the
       Leadership and staff from adjacent jurisdictions.
Exhibit 11. Public art and green infrastructure, Portland,
Oregon. The Portland Bureaus of Environmental Services and
Transportation worked with the Regional Arts and Culture Council to
create new bicycle parking that incorporates public art and green
infrastructure. The sculpture by artists Peg Butler and Buster Simpson
parks ten bicycles and redirects stormwater from an adjacent
brewery's rooftop through a canopy-planter made of repurposed oil
barrels into a rain garden filled with native plants.
46 LEAP. Reinventing Detroit's Lower Eastside. 201 2. https:/ /docs.google.com/file/d/OB3Dg7xnK5aiaSF9kZCIvQXdlbWs/
edit?usp=drive_web&pli = 1.

Organizing Stakeholders
    •   State and county government agencies.
    •   Federal government agencies that control land in the community such as the National
       Park Service and the U.S. Forest Service.
    •   Quasi-government partners, for example, water, sewer, and stormwater utilities;
       regional councils; development authorities; and school districts.

Each of these entities has a different interest and role in the process, and including a broad
range of stakeholders will help  ensure that the team can get early buy-in from important
participants and explore a range of opportunities. For example, school districts might own
large properties, including some that are no longer in use, that could be locations for pilot
projects to evaluate the effectiveness of different green infrastructure strategies and provide a
venue for  environmental education. The water utility  might be able to help set realistic
expectations about service costs under different development scenarios that would provide
important information for community planning.

C.   Involving Community Members
It might take years for a community to fully implement a sustainable communities and green
infrastructure plan, so early and ongoing involvement of stakeholders throughout the
community is important to maintain enthusiasm and  momentum. In addition, because private
property owners are often responsible for maintaining site-scale green infrastructure practices
on their sites, they must understand how they work and appreciate their value. Participants will
vary, but successful sustainable communities and green infrastructure plans often involve:

    •   Residents, including people from underserved communities that often have the least
       green space in their neighborhoods.47
    •   Property owners, developers, and homeowner associations.
    •   Neighborhood groups such as garden clubs and civic improvement organizations.
    •   Business organizations such as the local chamber of commerce.
    •   Nonprofit organizations such as watershed groups,  environmental justice organizations,
       and faith-based institutions.
    •   Academic and health institutions such as universities and hospitals.
47 To learn about strategies that low-income, minority, tribal, and overburdened communities can use to shape
development so it responds to their needs and reflects their values, see: EPA. Creating Equitable, Healthy, and
Sustainable Communities. 2013. http://www.epa.gov/smartarowth/eguitable_development_report.htm.

                                                                     Organizing Stakeholders
                                          Exhibit 12. Bikeshare and green infrastructure,
                                          Brooklyn, New York. A tree pit designed to capture
                                          stormwater from the street and a bikeshare station make
                                          Dean Street in Brooklyn an appealing place to walk and bike.
New York City formalized its
stakeholder engagement through a
Green Infrastructure Citizens Group
and a Green Infrastructure Steering
Committee including representatives
from the development community,
environmental and other nonprofit
groups, academia, and design
professionals, to help develop ideas
and address concerns about the
city's implementation of its green
infrastructure initiatives.48 The
Metropolitan Sewer District of
Greater Cincinnati used  multiple
mechanisms to solicit community
input when developing a master plan
for the Lick Run Watershed, including
open houses, design workshops, public tours, meetings with community organizations, a
website, outreach at local festivals, and letters mailed to residents of the watershed.49

Partnerships with the private  sector, academic institutions, nonprofit organizations, and  private
foundations help local government make limited  resources go further. These partnerships can
help the other organizations  in various ways. For example, universities could help with ongoing
performance monitoring to improve scientific understanding of best practices for local
conditions and provide real-world  training for students. The University of Wisconsin-Madison's
Department of Urban and Regional Planning offers a course for graduate students that provides
practical training in planning. In 201 0, the program worked with the city of Freeport,  Illinois, to
help the city use green infrastructure  planning to reduce flooding, make neighborhoods  more
attractive, revitalize downtown, create jobs, and clean up contaminated  properties so they could
be developed into assets for the community.50
48 The City of New York. "Get Involved and Find Resources." http://www.nvc.gov/html /dep/html /stormwater/nvc_
green_infrastructure_outreach.shtml. Accessed Dec. 9, 201 3.
49 Project Groundwork. "Lick Run Master Plan—May 201 2." http://www.proiectgroundwork.org/proiects/lowermillcreek/
sustainable/lickrun/cdwl .htm. Accessed Mar. 11, 201 4.
50 University of Wisconsin-Madison. Freeport Revita/ization Project. 201 3. http://urpl.wisc.edu/academics/workshop/
91 2_Freeport/index.html.

Organizing Stakeholders
State Farm Insurance and the Surdna Foundation funded the Center for Neighborhood
Technology to pilot a "Wetrofit" program that facilitates the retrofit of properties in the Chicago
region to better manage stormwater and reduce flooding through green infrastructure.51 The
program coordinates the services of multiple agencies to provide tailored solutions for
individual properties. Public-private partnerships like these can help finance, construct, and/or
maintain green infrastructure projects in ways that benefit both the public and private

EPA developed a guide for leaders trying to build a stakeholder engagement group around
activities to improve watershed health.52 It includes information on how to build a group and
maintain engagement as well as other resources to help with stakeholder involvement and
51 The Center for Neighborhood Technology. "Neighborhood Flood Reduction." http://www.cnt.org/water/proiects/
neighborhood-flood-reduction/. Accessed Dec. 9, 201 3.
52 EPA. Getting in Step: Engaging Stakeholders in your Watershed. 2nd Edition. 2013. http://cfpub.epa.gov/npstbx/files/

IV.  Developing a Sustainable Communities and Green

     Infrastructure Plan

To most effectively attain the  benefits of green infrastructure, it is important for stakeholders to
develop a good plan of action that can transform a community vision into reality. Specific
components of the plan will vary from place to place, but plan developers should consider
several steps that can help the plan succeed in the long term, including:

    A.  Developing a community vision.
    B.  Establishing goals.
    C.  Assessing  assets and  opportunities.
    D.  Identifying potential approaches to add green infrastructure and help create sustainable
    E.  Factoring brownfields and hazardous waste sites into planning.
    F.  Developing strategies for funding.
    G.  Monitoring and measuring progress.
    H.  Planning for long-term operations and maintenance.
    I.  Identifying federal government resources.

A.   Developing a Community Vision
Green infrastructure is an important component of many types of local plans at the
neighborhood, city, and regional levels, including those for water resource management,
hazard mitigation, climate adaptation and resilience, sustainability, environmental justice, and
economic development. However,  many communities are also developing stand-alone green
infrastructure plans that complement other efforts. Whether green infrastructure is one aspect
of a broader plan or is the central  purpose of a plan, and whether the plan focuses on a
neighborhood or an  entire region, the first step in a planning effort is typically developing a
vision for what the community will look like once the plan is fully implemented. The vision
brings people together to determine a common view of the future and guides the plan and its

One benefit of green infrastructure is that people can usually see and enjoy it, often right in
their front yard, on their building's roof, and in their neighborhood streets and parks. Green
infrastructure affects the look and feel of a neighborhood—usually for the better—but people
are more likely to be happy with the results if they had a hand in deciding where it will be and
what it will look like.

Developing a Plan
Community goals and
values can affect the
alternatives that property
owners or local
governments consider and
influence how they weigh
factors for selecting among
options. For example, a
neighborhood with a strong
artist community could
have artist-designed
downspouts, rain barrels,
or planter boxes, which can
foster support  for green
infrastructure and long-
term stewardship among
residents. The Whitefish Bay
Civic Foundation in
Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin,
sponsored a rain barrel art project in which local businesses exhibited artist-designed rain
barrels that were then auctioned off to residents.53

Meaningful stakeholder involvement from the outset will help ensure that the community's
vision  effectively incorporates local knowledge, experience, and insight. Developing a vision for
widespread implementation of sustainable communities approaches and green infrastructure
has other benefits, including:

    •    Encourages private investment consistent with the vision. Private-sector entities that
        initiate  and finance the bulk of new investment in the community, including property
        owners, developers, investors, and businesses, will have a guide to understand the
        community's expectations and preferences for future development.
    •    Garners broad-based support. Individuals, businesses, and organizations such as
        neighborhood groups, nonprofits, schools, health  care institutions, and foundations can
Exhibit 13. Design concept for Second Street, Frankfort,
Kentucky. The city of Frankfort hosted a public design workshop as part
of EPA's Greening America's Capitals Program to develop a vision for a
historic commercial corridor. The city wanted to help the community
visualize how design improvements  could improve pedestrian and bicycle
safety, reduce stormwater runoff, and encourage economic revitalization
in the area. For more information on The Greening America's Capitals
program see: EPA. "Greening America's Capitals." http://epa.gov/
53 Whitefish Bay Civic Foundation. "Rain Barrel Street Art Project." http://wfbcivicfoundation.org/index.php?option =
com_content&view=article&id = 1 8<emid=26. Accessed Apr. 4, 201 4.

                                                                        Developing a Plan
       be inspired and encouraged to participate in implementing the vision when the
       community can clearly demonstrate its support.
   •   Leads to supportive policies and programs. Local governments can use the vision to
       guide development of policies, regulations, capital improvement plans, incentive
       structures, city department budget priorities, development review and approval
       procedures, and other programs that help implement the vision.
   •   Builds support for public expenditures to manage stormwater. Educating the community
       about the cost of needed infrastructure repairs or upgrades requires significant,
       ongoing public engagement. The public is more  likely to support government spending
       on green infrastructure, as well as possible tax increases or higher utility rates and fees
       should they be necessary, if they understand and support the longer-term investment
       plan and its benefits. Once plan implementation  begins, the green  infrastructure itself
       allows property owners to see the benefits of the investment of public money.
   •   Enables better coordination of efforts. Articulating how the vision supports multiple
       community goals can encourage collaboration across organizations and local
       government agencies with  different missions. The most successful green infrastructure
       plans identify connections  to other ongoing efforts, such as those promoting economic
       development, preparation for climate change impacts, and environmental sustainability,
       to help identify the most impactful projects.54

B.   Establishing  Goals
In many communities, the  initial impetus for developing a sustainable communities and green
infrastructure plan might be to manage stormwater and improve water quality, and the  plan's
goals would naturally include improvement in indicators of watershed health. For example, the
primary goal might be to eliminate combined sewer overflows or to have water clean enough to
allow fishing or swimming  in the community's rivers, lakes,  and beaches.

However, regardless of the initial reason for developing  a sustainable communities and  green
infrastructure plan, one of its main advantages is that implementation can achieve a diverse
array of community goals,  such as improving the local economy, revitalizing struggling
neighborhoods and commercial  corridors, improving quality of life for residents,  reducing
flooding, and protecting the environment for generations to come (see Section I.C.I). Plans
54 EPA. Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green Infrastructure, 201 0.
http://nepis. epa.gov/Exe /ZvPURL.cgi?Dockev=P1 OOFTEM.TXT.

Developing a Plan
might also explicitly set goals like fostering community pride through signs of new investment
in the community—visible results that can make community members want to join in the
revitalization. Goals will vary depending on the  community's characteristics, such as whether it
is growing or losing population; whether it has  combined or separate storm and sanitary
sewers; and whether it  is  rural, suburban, or urban. This community context helps create
specific, feasible strategies to implement the plan.

Fort Campbell, Kentucky,  created a green infrastructure plan with the primary goal of improving
the personal resiliency and health of soldiers and  their families.55 The plan aims to ensure that
residents can get to community facilities without having to use a car so they can get the
physical and mental health benefits  associated with exercise and time spent outdoors. The plan
recognizes improved stormwater management and environmental sustainability as valuable

The Wasatch Front  Regional Council in Utah led a  collaborative effort to create (Re)Connect, a
green infrastructure plan  to complement its regional plan for development and transportation,
Wasatch Choice for 2040. One of the first steps in developing  (ReJConnectwas to identify goals
for the process itself, including:

     •   "Increase  public support and awareness  regarding the benefits of a green
         infrastructure approach and an interconnected green infrastructure network.
     •   Collaboratively map an interconnected network by identifying and prioritizing the
         region's existing green infrastructure  assets and resources.
     •   Identify existing green  infrastructure lands and propose objectives and strategies to
         plan, design, and manage the region's green  infrastructure network.
     •   Bring together local and regional stakeholders that play a part in planning,
         engineering,  studying,  managing, and maintaining green infrastructure.
     •   Support an interconnected green infrastructure network in order to provide environmental,
         social,  recreational,  psychological, public health, and economic benefits.
     •   Encourage the incorporation of green  infrastructure planning  and implementation
         strategies into existing plans and studies."56
55 Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Fort Campbell Green Infrastructure Plan. 201 4. http://www.campbell.armv.mil/campbell/
56 Wasatch Front Regional Council. (Re)Connect: The Wasatch Front Green Infrastructure Plan. Undated, http://wfrc.org/

                                                                        Developing a Plan
For many communities, green infrastructure will be a complement to, not a replacement for,
gray infrastructure. Integrated planning for gray and green infrastructure can allow
communities to select the most cost-effective
solutions by using green infrastructure where it
can reduce the size and cost of needed gray          Integrated planning for gray and
infrastructure. By considering both approaches        green infrastructure can allow
together from the beginning, communities can
                                                   communities to select the most
incorporate green infrastructure early enough to           cost-effective solutions.
potentially reduce the amount of gray
infrastructure needed to meet water quality
objectives cost-effectively and on schedule. EPA compiled case studies of public entities that
have evaluated the economic impacts of their green infrastructure programs to help
communities understand the potential benefits of their own programs,  and it highlights several
cases where green infrastructure, in  combination with gray infrastructure, can reduce costs.57

C.   Assessing Assets and  Opportunities
Planning for sustainable communities and green infrastructure involves assessing  the
community's existing assets and opportunities. The features the community inventories and
maps will vary depending on the  community's goals, but many communities collect data on:

    •   The amount of impervious surface.
    •   The number and/or  amount of roads, parking lots, and buildings that could incorporate
       green infrastructure.
    •   Land ownership and use,  including vacant and contaminated properties.
    •   Existing green space and  trails.
    •   Watershed boundaries.
    •   Condition of water bodies.
    •   Areas at risk of flooding.
    •   Rainfall amounts and patterns, soil type, topography, depth to ground water, and other
       factors that affect green infrastructure design and functionality.

This information can  help communities select the most appropriate sites for green
infrastructure and design the most effective green infrastructure solutions for particular sites.
57 EPA. Case Studies Analyzing the Economic Benefits of Low Impact Development and Green Infrastructure Programs.
201 3. http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/green/upload/Iid-ai-programs_report_8-6-1 3_combined.pdf.

Developing a Plan
One useful tool for analysis is EPA's National Stormwater Calculator, which estimates the
amount of stormwater runoff from a site and how runoff volumes could change with the use of
a given site-scale green infrastructure technique  based on local soil conditions, land use, and
historical and projected  precipitation  patterns.58

Analysis of economic conditions and population demographics can help identify areas where
the economic and social benefits of sustainable community and green infrastructure
approaches could have the most  impact, including areas  where residents might be vulnerable to
displacement. This information can help community planners address the specific needs of
vulnerable populations as areas are revitalized. It can also serve as a baseline against which the
community can measure changes over time.

The development of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District's Regional Creen
Infrastructure Plan involved analysis of impervious area, soils, land use, property ownership,
ground water, topography, separate and combined  sewer areas, tree canopy, and other data.
This analysis allowed the district  to estimate the storage  volume that new green infrastructure
could accommodate and how much it would cost  to install and maintain.59

D.  Identifying  Potential Approaches  to Add Green Infrastructure
In developing an overall plan, stakeholders need to identify a variety of approaches and
opportunities to incorporate green infrastructure  into their community—on both  public and
private land, using both incentives and requirements. These approaches can fall into one of
four categories:

    1.  Use existing public land.
    2.  Acquire  additional public  land.
    3.  Provide incentives for implementing  green infrastructure on private land.
    4.  Require  green infrastructure on private land.

1.     Use Existing Public Land
Local governments can build support for a green  infrastructure plan  when they lead by example.
For example, at the larger scale, local governments sometimes control sizable, contiguous
areas of natural land whose preservation maintains community character and sustains vital
58 EPA. "National Stormwater Calculator." http://www.epa.aov/nrmrl/wswrd/wg/models/swc. Accessed Feb. 5, 201 4.
59 Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. Regional Creen Infrastructure Plan. 201 3. http://www.freshcoast740.com/

                                                                         Developing a Plan
ecological functions. At the site scale, green infrastructure projects in public spaces can achieve
multiple benefits, including:

    •   Providing opportunities to educate people about the problems of poorly managed
       stormwater and potential solutions.
    •   Demonstrating the aesthetic and other values of green infrastructure to build public
    •   Providing opportunities to collect performance and cost data and learn about local
       challenges to implementation.
    •   Developing maintenance schedules and protocols that private property owners can  use.
    •   Creating a demand for workers who can install and maintain green infrastructure.

Most importantly, green infrastructure on public land sends a clear message to other
community stakeholders that the  local government is committed to the green infrastructure
plan. A demonstrated commitment by the local government is often critical to getting the
private sector to invest in the plan as well.
Many routine local government activities
could integrate site-scale green infrastructure
practices. For example, a community could        Gree" infrastructure on public land
plan to incorporate green infrastructure          sends a message to Stakeholders that
during underground  utility work or road          the local government is committed to
maintenance and repair projects and when           the green infrastructure vision.
government facilities are built or renovated.
Adding green infrastructure elements to these
projects during project planning would have little or even no additional cost. The city of Tucson,
Arizona, created a green streets policy that requires all publicly funded  road construction and
reconstruction projects to incorporate green infrastructure that can capture and absorb the  first
quarter-inch of rain.60 The city is applying this policy not just for water quality benefits, but
also to ensure that trees are added to streets in lower-income communities. Milwaukee's Creen
Streets Stormwater Management Plan helps the city select appropriate strategies for planned
60 City of Tucson. "Creen Streets." 201 3. http://www.tucsonaz.gov/files/transportation/Creen_Streets_APC_Signed_bv_

Developing a Plan
repaving or reconstruction projects
to ensure that green infrastructure is
factored into the project design from
the start to minimize costs.61

Similarly, the Chicago Department of
Transportation has policies and
guidelines for integrating
environmental performance goals
into planning for all of its
transportation projects.62 Under
these guidelines, all projects, from
routine resurfacing to alley
improvements to major roadway
realignments, must consider water
quality objectives and opportunities
for site-scale green  infrastructure.
Such advance planning for retrofits can
capital improvement project.
    Exhibit 14. Broadway Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona.
    Broadway Boulevard's redesigned streetscape includes
    sidewalk extensions at intersections to reduce the distance
    pedestrians need to cross, planters that incorporate drought-
    tolerant trees that will provide much-needed shade, curb
    cuts to allow stormwater from the street to enter planting
    beds, and space for bike parking.
make green infrastructure a small additional cost in a
In 201 0, New York City's  Department of Environmental Protection established a Green
Infrastructure Task Force of commissioners from various city agencies to identify capital
projects that could  incorporate site-scale green  infrastructure.63 The task force also developed
standard design and siting guidelines and established maintenance procedures for some types
of green infrastructure. In addition, the New York City Departments of Environmental Protection,
Transportation, and Parks and Recreation signed a memorandum of understanding in 2011 to
establish responsibilities  and improve coordination for site-scale green infrastructure in public
rights of way.64
61 CH2MHMI. Green Streets Stormwater Management Plan. City of Milwaukee. 2013. http://citv.milwaukee.gov/
lmageLibrarv/Croups/citvCreenTeam/documents/201 3/Creen_Streets_Stormwater_Manag.pdf.
62 Chicago Department of Transportation. Sustainable Urban Infrastructure. 201 3. http://www.citvofchicago.org/citv/
en/depts/cdot/supp_info/sustainable_urbani nfrastuctureguidelines.html.
63 The City of New York. NYC Green Infrastructure Plan. 2011. http://www.nvc.gov/html/dep/pdf/green_infrastructure
/gi_annual_report_201 2.pdf.
64 The City of New York. Memorandum of Understanding. 2011. http://www.nvc.goV/html/dep/pdf/mou/11 092011_

                                                                                   Developing a Plan
Exhibit 1 5: Using Vacant Property for Green Infrastructure
Some communities are struggling to manage a large number of vacant lots and abandoned buildings that
are waiting for demolition because the market currently does not support redeveloping the land. Some of
these communities have recognized that if they use a vacant property for green infrastructure, they could
remove a source of blight, reduce stormwater pollution, provide a community amenity, and spur interest
in  redevelopment. In short, green infrastructure could help convert vacant property from a liability to an
The obstacles to creating a vacant lot  program for green infrastructure can be difficult for municipalities
to  overcome. Many vacant properties are privately owned, so local governments have to acquire them
outright or acquire an easement for their use. However, land banks or other mechanisms for acquiring
and holding property are often not available or can be time consuming and labor intensive to use. The
community needs to determine which  properties it should acquire to get the  size and location of green
infrastructure that will  produce the most public benefit, an approach that generally requires a public
process and engineering consultations. Property might also be contaminated with hazardous  substances
and need to be evaluated and/or cleaned up. Finally, the community will need a strategy to fund and
maintain the green infrastructure. Although all green  infrastructure on public land needs funding and
maintenance, the costs can be a particular burden in a distressed community struggling with  a vacant
property problem.
The New York City Soil & Water Conservation District evaluated  several successful and early-stage
programs. They found  several lessons for communities hoping to remedy a vacant lot problem through
green infrastructure, including:
•   Water agencies can be valuable long-term partners because programs often  address stormwater
•   Successful programs have multiple goals in addition to stormwater management. Sometimes the
    design and use of new green space is a compromise between what is ideal for stormwater
    management and what the community will embrace and support.
•   Spatial analysis on the regional, watershed, and subwatershed scales; stakeholder input;  and site
    visits are all important when selecting properties to acquire.
•   Communities often establish a separate program for green infrastructure on  vacant property because
    the goals of the program often  span  multiple  agencies or offices without fitting neatly into any one,
    and the programs generally require a unique combination of expertise and dedicated staff.
•   Programs have different acquisition strategies, financing tools,  ownership structures, and
    maintenance programs (often a combination of them). No one approach works best in all
Source: New York City Soil & Water Conservation District. Greening Vacant Lots: Planning and implementation Strategies.
201 2.  http://docs.nrdc.orq/water/wall 3022701 .asp.

Developing a Plan
Incorporating green infrastructure into sustainable communities approaches can transform
neighborhoods. In Nashville, Tennessee, the city remade the street connecting the Metro
Courthouse and the state capitol using a variety of green infrastructure practices, including
shade trees, bioswales, and permeable sidewalk paving. The city's efforts not only reduced
stormwater runoff by more than 1  million gallons per year but also revitalized a formerly
dilapidated part of the city, attracting more pedestrians and investment in new businesses and
restaurants.65'66 In Minneapolis, the redevelopment of former public  housing projects into a
900-unit, mixed-use neighborhood used open spaces  and  site-scale green infrastructure
woven throughout a series of parks to manage stormwater  and create attractive new
recreational amenities for residents.67'68

2.     Acquire Additional  Public Land
The local government could strategically acquire land in areas where green infrastructure could
provide the greatest benefits for water quality, community revitalization, or other goals. In
some cases, particularly in communities that have seen significant population declines,
acquiring vacant land for green infrastructure can stabilize  property values and allow the local
government to assemble land  best suited for open space or green infrastructure approaches
that can manage stormwater from several surrounding  properties. Given the power of such
efforts to transform entire communities, early and  ongoing engagement of residents in affected
neighborhoods is critical.

Milwaukee developed the Greenseams Program to acquire outright or purchase conservation
easements69 for the conservation or restoration of land along streams, shorelines, and wetlands
and in areas that serve critical  water storage functions and  are subject to development
pressure.70 Between 2001 and 201 2, the program purchased 2,500 acres of land and restored
65 Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County, Tennessee. "Accomplishments."
http://www.nashville.aov/Mavors-Office/Priorities/Environment-and-Sustainabilitv/Accomplishments.aspx. Accessed
Dec. 9, 2013.
66 Johnson, Elizabeth. "Renovated Deaderick Street Enhances Nashville's City Core." The Tennessean. Jun. 15, 2010.
http://www.tennessean.com/article/2010061 5/DAVIDSON/1 0061 5071.
67 City of Minneapolis. "Heritage Park." http://www.ci.minneapolis.mn.us/cped/projects/cped_heritage_park. Accessed
Dec. 9, 2013.
68 City of Minneapolis. "Heritage Park Stormwater Brochure." Undated, http://www.ci.minneapolis.mn.us/www/groups/
public/@cped/documents/webcontent/convert_2 86 760.pdf.
69 Conservation easements limit the type or amount of development that can occur on property that remains under
private ownership.
70 The Conservation Fund. "Greenseams: Milwaukee Flood Management." http://www.conservationfund.org/proiects/
greenseams-green-infrastructure-miIwaukee/. Accessed May  1 6, 2014.

                                                                            Developing a Plan
500 acres of forest, prairie, or wetlands.71  In 201 0, the mayor of Detroit assembled a steering
committee consisting of business, nonprofit, government, and philanthropic stakeholders for
long-range planning. The committee developed a vision for the city's future that recommended
assembling large, contiguous tracts of land for new public open space that could manage
stormwater and provide other community amenities like parks and community gardens.72 In
addition, the steering committee recommended that the city acquire some vacant lots to
provide open space for parks, forest, and greenways to help stabilize neighborhood property
values and encourage redevelopment. One community plan the city is considering to inform
citywide planning efforts is the Lower Eastside Action  Plan, which was put together by a group
of individuals and organizations in the neighborhood. The plan identifies  larger, contiguous,
and ecologically valuable areas that could be managed as natural lands; areas that could  be
used for large-scale stormwater facilities; and areas that would benefit from additional

3.     Provide  Incentives for Implementing Green  Infrastructure on Private  Land
Many strategic locations for green infrastructure will be on privately owned  land, so private-
sector involvement will be necessary to implement an  effective, comprehensive green
infrastructure plan.  Communities can encourage private property owners to participate  in the
community visioning process so they have a stake in its  implementation. Beyond that critical
step, communities across the country have developed  many innovative programs to encourage
private-sector participation.74

Beginning in 2006, the city of Portland, Oregon, allowed developers to build higher-density
buildings in the central city area than otherwise allowed under zoning codes if they installed a
green  roof.  The amount of additional developed space allowed on a building's footprint is
determined by the percentage of the footprint that the green  roof covers.75'76 As of 2008,
developers  participating in the program had installed  260,000 square feet (6 acres) of green
71 The Conservation Fund and the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewer District. Creenseams 2012 Year in Review,
http://www.conservationfund.org/wp-content/uploads/201 2/08 /Green seams-201 2-Year-in-Review.pdf.
72 City of Detroit. Detroit Future City. 201 2. http://detroitfuturecitv.com/wp-content/uploads/201 4/02 /DFC_Full_
73 Leap. Op. cit.
74 For more  information on incentive mechanisms to encourage the use of green infrastructure on private property, see:
EPA. Managing Wet Weather with Green Infrastructure Municipal Handbook: Incentive Mechanisms. 2009.
75 Garrison,  Noah, and Karen Hobbs. Rooftops toRivers II: Green Strategies for Controlling Stormwater and Combined
Sewer Overflows. Natural Resources Defense Council. 2011. http://www.nrdc.ora/water/pollution/rooftopsii.
76 City of Portland. "Ecoroof Floor Area Ratio Bonus Option." 2009. https://www. port Ian doreaon.gov/bes/article/

Developing a Plan
roofs, creating an additional 600,000
square feet of development that
would not have been otherwise
permitted.77 The  city of Chicago
offers another type of incentive,
offering developers an expedited
permit process and reductions in
building permit fees if they include
site-scale green infrastructure and
other environmentally sustainable
building designs, including solar
panels and geothermal systems.78

Many municipalities discount
stormwater utility fees as an
incentive to install certain green
infrastructure practices. Minneapolis
offers a credit of up to 50 percent off the stormwater utility fee for practices that reduce
stormwater volume or filter out pollutants, such as rain gardens, vegetated swales, and  green
roofs. The city offers credits of up to 1 00 percent for practices that can accommodate on-site
stormwater from a 1 00-year storm event.79'80

Communities also use other types of financial incentives. In 2008, New York City passed a
measure to allow a one-year property tax abatement of up to $4.50 per square foot for
buildings with green  roofs.81 Philadelphia's Stormwater Management Incentives Program offers
low-interest loans of $75,000 to $1 million to non-residential property owners to implement
certain green infrastructure practices.82
Exhibit 16. The Louisa, Portland, Oregon. This LEED
Cold-certified, mixed-use building in Portland's Pearl District
has a green roof that serves as a private outdoor gathering
place for residents while reducing stormwater runoff and
helping to cool the city.
77 David Evans and Associates, Inc. and ECONorthwest. Cost Benefit Evaluation of Ecoroofs. City of Portland. 2008.
htt ps://www. portlandoreaon.gov/bes /article /261 053.
78 City of Chicago. "Overview of the Green Permit Program." http://www.citvofchicaao.org/citv/en/depts/bldas/
supp_info/overview_of_the_areenpermitproaram.html. Accessed Jan. 7, 201 4.
79 A 1 00-year storm event is a storm that has a 1 percent probability of occurring in any given year.
80 City of Minneapolis. "How Can You Reduce Your Stormwater Fee?" http://www.minneapolismn.gov/publicworks/
stormwater/fee/stormwater_fee_stormwater_mngmnt_feecredits. Accessed Jan. 7,  201 4.
81 City of New York. "Green Roof Tax Abatement." http://www.nvc.gov/html/gbee/html/incentives/roof.shtml.
Accessed Jan. 7, 2014.
82 Philadelphia Water Department. "Green Infrastructure Projects." http://www.phillvwatersheds.org/whats_in_it_for_
you/businesses/green-infrastructure-projects. Accessed Jan. 7, 2014.

                                                                            Developing a Plan
Education can also encourage property owners to use green infrastructure approaches.
Education can include creating demonstration projects, publishing technical design materials,
creating outreach materials, and offering technical assistance programs. Communities should
make sure that their educational materials are understandable to people of all education levels
and backgrounds, which generally means using plain language and perhaps translating
materials into multiple languages.83 Oklahoma City developed a Green Infrastructure Education
Program that created opportunities for local professionals to share their expertise with others
in the community through a speaker series.84

EPA and academic researchers studied the potential to reduce stormwater volume using a reverse
auction, in which homeowners are asked to bid for the amount they would need to be paid to
participate in the program and install stormwater controls on their property. The study  found that
55 percent of homeowners that participated in the program were willing to do so without any
financial incentive, demonstrating the potential for an education campaign to encourage action.85
In addition, it found that compared to paying homeowners a flat fee for installing stormwater
controls on their property, a reverse auction mechanism was a more cost-effective way to reduce
stormwater volume. Communities might want to experiment with innovative programs like this
one to see what works best  to encourage private landowners to participate.

Award and recognition programs are another low-cost way to encourage property owners to
implement green infrastructure approaches. For example, the nonprofit organization  Lake
Champlain International has a certification program  for residential  properties in the Lake
Champlain watershed in Vermont that reduce stormwater runoff.86 Washington, D.C.,  sponsored
a Green Infrastructure Challenge, inviting applicants to design innovative green infrastructure
solutions for selected sites.87 DC Water awarded $1  million for the design and construction of
the winning  proposals. To help communities host design competitions, the Water Environment
83 EPA has outreach materials that state and local governments can customize for use available at: EPA. "Stormwater
Outreach Materials and Reference Documents." http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/npdes/stormwater/Stormwater-
Out reach - Mate rials-and-Re ference-Docu men ts.cfm. Accessed Aug. 1 2, 201 4.
84 The City of Oklahoma City. "Green Infrastructure Initiative." http://www.okc.aov/plannina/gii/education. Accessed
Jan. 7, 2014.
85 Thurston, Hale W., Michael A. Taylor, William D. Shuster, Allison H. Roy, and Matthew A. Morrison. "Using a Reverse
Auction to Promote Household Level Stormwater Control." Environmental Science & Policy 1 3.5 (201 0): 405-41 4.
86 Lake Champlain International,  Inc. "The BLUE Program." http://www.mvchamplain.net/blue-program. Accessed Jan.
23, 2014.
87 DC Water. "Green Infrastructure Challenge." http://www.dcwater.com/greenchallenge. Accessed May 1 6, 201 4.

Developing a Plan
Federation developed a white paper on effective approaches based on the experiences of
multiple cities.88

4.     Change Requirements for Private Land
Municipalities can change their codes and regulations to require stormwater to be effectively
managed on the site where it falls or as  near to that site as  practical. Stormwater  regulations
are the most direct means to achieve this goal. In addition,  regulations can  help make sure that
green infrastructure is implemented when it is most cost effective to do so—at the time of
initial site planning for both new and redevelopment projects. Many municipalities are investing
significant resources to correct existing  problems by retrofitting areas to incorporate green
infrastructure and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff generated by development (see
Exhibits  1 2, Exhibit 1 4, and Exhibit 20). If every new development project increases the amount
of stormwater that the gray
infrastructure system must handle,
the community will need more
expensive retrofits of existing
development to avoid further
degrading water quality. Stormwater
regulations can, therefore, be an
important tool to control overall
costs for mitigating stormwater

In 201 1, the city of San Jose,
California, approved a stormwater
management policy that establishes
specific requirements to control
stormwater runoff from new
development and  redevelopment
projects.89 The policy requires
developers to minimize runoff
Exhibit 1 7. Roosevelt Community Center, San Jose,
California, The community center incorporates green
infrastructure throughout the site, including two installations
by artist Jackie Brookner that create a lively public space as
well as capture and filter stormwater. Developing the center
involved cleaning up and repurposing a former brownfield,
which has helped catalyze revitalization of the neighborhood.
88 Water Environment Federation. Hosting a Low Impact Development Design Competition, 201 3.
http://stormwater.wef.org/201 3/06/lid-design-competition/.
89 City of San Jose. "Post-Construction Urban Runoff Management." 2011. http://www3.sanioseca.gov/clerk/

                                                                           Developing a Plan
through site design decisions that minimize impervious cover and protect natural areas and to
treat stormwater with site-scale green infrastructure.

Stormwater regulations generally apply to individual sites, so they cannot address larger land
use practices and development patterns.  In most communities, other municipal codes and
regulations, including parking requirements, street design standards, and zoning ordinances,
are important complements to stormwater regulations because they help determine the amount
of impervious cover. For example, most communities have minimum parking requirements for
development. The more parking required, the more impervious surface is created.
Oversupplying parking  also often reduces space for pedestrian amenities or forces pedestrians
to cross large parking lots, which can discourage walking. By contrast, mixed-use
neighborhoods generally need less parking because facilities that have different peak usage
patterns can  share parking spaces, and people can get around easily without a personal vehicle.
As a result, these neighborhoods can often reduce or even eliminate  parking minimums, which
can reduce the amount of impervious surface—and give developers more flexibility in how they
use their land.90

EPA developed a Water Quality Scorecard'to help local governments identify opportunities to
remove barriers  and revise or create codes, ordinances,  and  incentives to better protect water
quality.91 The tool covers ways to protect natural resources (including trees) and open space;
promote efficient, compact development  patterns and infill;  design streets that reduce overall
imperviousness and create safer conditions for walkers and  bicyclists; encourage efficient
parking; and  adopt green infrastructure stormwater management provisions. EPA also has a
Sustainable Design and Creen Building Toolkit for Local Governments that helps local
governments evaluate codes and ordinances that affect the design, construction, renovation,
and operation and maintenance of a building and its immediate site to ensure that they allow
sustainable design and  green building practices.92
90 For more information on parking strategies that reduce impervious surface and provide other community benefits,
see: EPA. Parking Spaces / Community Places: Finding the Balance Through Smart Growth Solutions. 2006.
91 EPA. Water Quality Scorecard: Incorporating Creen Infrastructure Practices at the Municipal, Neighborhood, and Site
Scale. 2009. http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/water_scorecard.htm.
92 EPA. Sustainable Design and Creen Building Toolkit for Local Governments. 2013. http://www.epa.gov/region4/

Developing a Plan
E.   Factoring  Brownfields and  Hazardous Waste Sites  Into  Planning
Past industrial and commercial activity has left a legacy of soil and water pollution at sites
across the country. Thousands of potentially contaminated properties, or brownfields, are
located in densely populated neighborhoods, often near places where residents gather and
children play. When cleaned up, brownfields and hazardous waste sites can become attractive
locations for green infrastructure, which can help convert a neighborhood liability into an asset
for the community. Repurposed, cleaned up brownfields and hazardous waste sites improve the
value of neighboring properties,93 help to
revitalize entire neighborhoods, and take
advantage of the  surrounding
development's existing infrastructure.
Nevertheless, using green infrastructure
on potentially contaminated sites requires
careful planning to avoid contaminating
ground water.
The city of Emeryville, California, is
located on formerly industrial land along
the San Francisco Bay. The area is densely
developed with relatively little open space
and has contaminated soils in many areas.
The city needed to carefully consider how
best to implement green infrastructure
approaches to ensure that infiltration of
stormwater would not contaminate
ground water with pollutants picked up as
water percolates through contaminated
soils. EPA funded a grant to develop
Stormwater Guidelines for Dense, Creen Redevelopment that the Emeryville City Council
adopted in 2005 and  that could help other cities facing similar challenges.94 Green
Exhibit 18. EmeryStation East, Emeryville,
California. This 20,000-square-foot office building
next to the Amtrak Intermodal Transit Center in
Emeryville uses bioswales along the side of the
building to capture and filter rainwater from the roof
while adding greenery to the neighborhood.
93 Haninger, Kevin, Lala Ma, and Christopher Timmins. "Estimating the Impacts of Brownfield Remediation on
Housing Property Values." Duke University Working Paper EE 1 2-08. 201 2. http://sites.nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/
environmentaleconomics/files/201 3/01 /WP-EE-1 2-08.pdf.
94 EPA. Stormwater Guidelines for Creen, Dense Redevelopment. 2005. http:/ /www.epa.gov/smartgrowth /

                                                                          Developing a Plan
infrastructure solutions in this context included tree preservation, green roofs, permeable
pavement, and stormwater storage and use. These strategies help the city manage stormwater
while continuing to attract residents and businesses and improve the overall quality of life.95

Green infrastructure planning on a brownfield site should begin early, ideally at the time of site
assessment and cleanup so site  planners can avoid techniques that might mobilize
contaminants. Information about the location and concentration of contaminants is critical for
the design, engineering, and placement of remediation measures and green infrastructure in a
new development. Often only part of a site is contaminated, and site  planners can design the
layout of the development to ensure that green  infrastructure practices will not  mobilize
contaminants and pollute ground water. Stormwater infiltration should generally not be
considered in areas with certain types of contaminants—e.g., those that are independently
mobile, water soluble, or biodegradable. However,  many green infrastructure techniques do not
require  the infiltration of stormwater into the soil to function, including green roofs and
cisterns. Alternatively, on many  brownfield sites, designers place an impervious barrier or cap
over contaminated soil. This cap is then covered with clean soil and vegetation that filter and
evapotranspire stormwater before it reaches an  underdrain (located above the cap) that is
connected to the stormwater system.96

Incorporating brownfield sites into an overall green infrastructure plan can  help ensure that
these properties return to productive use. Revitalization of the area surrounding a brownfield
site is as critical to the successful  reuse of the property as its assessment, cleanup, and
redevelopment. Green infrastructure can play an important role in revitalization by helping
remedy brownfields-related environmental and  public health problems while encouraging new
development and creating job opportunities for site-scale green infrastructure installation and
maintenance. These efforts  can  build on the work of community-based partnerships,
particularly in underserved or economically disadvantaged neighborhoods.  Several  approaches
can help ensure that low- and moderate-income families are not displaced following
redevelopment and that communities historically plagued with blighted properties and
environmental contamination reap the benefits of environmental cleanup and new green
infrastructure initiatives. These approaches include:
95 EPA. Case Studies for Stormwater Management on Compacted, Contaminated Soils in Dense Urban Areas. 2008.
96 For more information on considerations when planning green infrastructure on brownfields, see: EPA. implementing
Stormwater infiltration Practices at Vacant Parcels and Brownfield Sites. 2013. http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/
green infrastructure/ upload /brownfieldj nfiltration_decision_tool.pdf.

Developing a Plan
    •   Creating affordable housing in revitalizing neighborhoods.
    •   Working with minority- and women-owned businesses for environmental remediation
       services and site-scale green infrastructure installation and maintenance.
    •   Partnering with local land trusts.
    •   Redeveloping brownfield sites for civic purposes such  as parks.97
The city of Milwaukee
worked with partner
agencies and organizations
to develop a plan to
revitalize the 30th Street
Industrial Corridor.  The
plan incorporates green
infrastructure to manage
stormwater to improve
water quality and promote
economic development.
Because the area is  a
former industrial corridor
with more than  200
brownfield sites in or
adjacent to  the  corridor,
the city had to consider the
potential for environmental contamination when developing a plan for the area. The city
planned for the  corridor as a whole, which enabled it to prioritize sites for redevelopment and
cleanup to achieve its vision of creating a new job center and economic engine in the region.98

EPA's Brownfields Program has a variety of funding sources that local governments can use for
brownfields assessment,  cleanup, and associated job training programs.99 EPA also has a guide
of all federal programs that can help repurpose brownfield sites.100
Exhibit 19. The Hank Aaron State Trail, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Redevelopment of a former 1,200-acre brownfield in the Menomonee
River Valley incorporates a stormwater park with a multi-use trail. The
area now houses the Harley Davidson Museum and more than a dozen
other businesses that have created roughly 4,200 jobs since 1 998.
97 EPA. Addressing Environmental Justice in EPA Brownfields Communities. 2009. http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/
policv/e i_brochure_2009.pdf.
98 City of Milwaukee and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 30th Street Industrial Corridor EPA Assessment
Funding Final Report. 2012. http://citv.milwaukee.qov/lmaaeLibrarv/Croups/citvDCD/30thStreet/documents/
99 EPA. "Grants & Funding." http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/grantjnfo. Accessed. Jul. 31, 201 4.

                                                                           Developing a Plan
F.   Developing Strategies for Local  Funding
To fulfill its sustainable communities and green infrastructure vision, a community needs to
have a way to pay for implementing the  plan. A plan based on a community-wide vision can
generate enthusiasm from funders and/or reduce opposition to new fees or taxes.

Federal and state funding programs (as discussed in Section IV.I) can seed a local effort but are
generally not sufficient to cover all costs for plan implementation.  Communities usually need to
rely on  locally generated money as a long-term funding source. Most successful models for
locally funded implementation of a large-scale green infrastructure plan establish a dedicated
revenue source for capital  projects, operations, and maintenance. Often this source can be a
stormwater utility. Property owners pay the utility through a fee on their water bill for the cost
of managing stormwater flowing from the property. A survey of states by the Natural Resources
Defense Council found that more than half of states have specifically delegated authority to
establish a stormwater utility to local governments, although in most states, municipalities do
have the legal authority to establish a  utility if the rate structure is clearly set up to collect fees
for local services rather than taxes.101  By one estimate, between 1,800 and 2,000 stormwater
utilities exist in the United States.102

A stormwater utility fee is generally more equitable than other revenue sources because  it can
be based on the actual cost the city incurs to manage stormwater from each property.  How
finely the community can calibrate the fees depends on how able it is to implement a more
complicated program. Many communities use a flat fee, especially  for residential properties,
that is based on the average imperviousness of a residence in the locality. A fee structured in
this way is  much easier to  implement than one in which each property's impervious cover is
calculated and tracked. However, a system based on actual rather than average impacts might
be more legally defensible.103 Another benefit of stormwater utility fees is that even tax-
exempt properties, such as universities and hospitals, can be required to pay their  share of the
costs incurred by the municipality for stormwater management.104 Utilities can also encourage
100 EP/\ Brownfields Federal Programs Guide, 201 3. http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/partners/brownfields-federal-
proarams-guide-201 3.pdf.
101 Natural Resources Defense Council. "Funding and Gaining Support for Stormwater Programs."
http://www.nrdc.ora/water/pollution/storm/chap4.asp. Accessed August 11, 201 4.
102 Western Kentucky University. Stormwater Utility Survey. 201 3. http://www.wku.edu/engineering/civil/fpm/
103 American Rivers and Green for All. Op. cit.
104 van der Tak, Laurens, Keith Bishton, Bruce Taylor, and Mike Matichich. "Trends in Stormwater Utility Implementation.
Stormwater. Jun. 27, 201 2. http://www.stormh2o.com/SW/Editorial/Trends_in_Stormwater_UtiIityjimplementation.
1 7636.aspx.

Developing a Plan
private property owners to use green infrastructure approaches by reducing their fees.105 When
green infrastructure projects benefit just a small number of property owners, e.g., to reduce a
localized flooding problem, a local government can create a special assessment district to
charge just those property owners a fee that pays for the installation and maintenance of those

In trying to garner support for any new revenue stream, local  governments can help property
owners recognize that gray infrastructure comes with maintenance costs as well—costs that can
sometimes be higher than maintenance for green infrastructure.106 In addition, costs for site-
scale green infrastructure practices will generally come down  as the market for new
technologies develops. Some communities are reducing costs by developing innovative public-
private partnerships to design, build, operate, and maintain green infrastructure retrofits.107 In
a public-private partnership, the municipality contracts with a private firm that gets paid only if
it meets established performance goals. Cost savings would come from economies of scale and
standardization of practices, scheduling routes, and other maintenance procedures. Prince
George's County, Maryland, created a public-private partnership to retrofit about 8,000 acres of
existing properties with green infrastructure. The county used the potential cost savings and
the jobs the program is expected to create to install and maintain an estimated 40,000 to
50,000 green infrastructure practices as a selling point for the county's retrofit program.108

Stormwater utility fees are generally the most effective  means to ensure a stable,  consistent
revenue stream to implement a green infrastructure plan. To  be funded through general funds
or with  bonds (which must be repaid from general funds and  contribute to overall debt
burdens), green infrastructure would  have to compete with schools, public safety, and  other
public expenditures.  In addition, general funds  often come from property taxes, which fluctuate,
and tax-exempt properties such as churches and schools often have large  impervious  surfaces,
which creates concerns about how equitably the costs are shared among property owners.109
Some communities have used financing mechanisms such as  permit and inspection fees,
development impact fees, and a dedicated portion of local tax revenues. However, as with using
general funds, with these financing options, green infrastructure has to compete with other
105 University of Maryland Environmental Finance Center. Local Government Stormwater Financing Manual: A Process for
Program Reform. 2014. http://www.efc.umd.edu/assets/publications/2efc_stormwater_financina_manual_final_(1).pdf.
106 American Rivers and Green for All. Op. cit.
107 Water Environment Federation. "Financing Urban Retrofits via a Public-Private Partnership." Jul. 31, 201 3.
http://stormwater.wef.org/201 3/07/financing-urban-retrofits-via-a-public-private-partnership.
108 Ibid.
109 American Rivers and Green for All. Op. cit.

                                                                              Developing a Plan
community priorities, making the revenue stream more uncertain. For more information on
stormwater funding mechanisms and types of stormwater programs, see EPA's Funding
Stormwater Programs.] ] °
In 2004, San Mateo County,
California, enacted legislation
establishing a vehicle registration fee
of $4 for the management of traffic
congestion and stormwater pollution
from vehicles. The county has used
the fee to develop a Sustainable
Creen Streets and Parking Lots
Design Guidebook and install several
demonstration projects.111

In 2008, Minnesota voters voted to
increase the state sales tax by
0.375  percent, with one-third of the
collected revenues going to a Clean
Water  Fund that  provides grants to
local projects.112 Among the funded
projects is one installing rain
gardens, stormwater planters,
infiltration trenches, and more than
5 miles of tree trenches that support
running through St. Paul.113
      Exhibit 20. Brisbane City Hall, San Mateo County,
      California. Redesigning the parking lot for the Brisbane City
      Hall created space for a rain garden that captures stormwater
      from the building and parking lot. The redesigned parking lot
      accommodates the same number of cars. The city also gained
      an outdoor gathering space, room for bicycle parking, and a
      safer and more inviting entrance to the building.
more than 1,000 trees along portions of a light rail line
The private sector can fund green infrastructure projects independently or collaboratively
through mechanisms such as a business improvement district, in which property owners agree
to pay fees to an organization that takes care of various improvements in  the area. A local
improvement district in Portland, Oregon, installed a green street on Northeast 97th Avenue
110 EPA. Funding Stormwater Programs. 2009. http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/upload/
111 Nevue Ngan Associates and Sherwood Design Engineers. San Mateo County Sustainable Creen Streets and Parking
Lots Design Guidebook. 2009. http://www.flowstobav.org/greenstreets.
112 The Minnesota State Legislature. "About the Funds." http://www.legacv.leg.mn/about-funds. Accessed Jan. 7, 201 4.
113 Capitol Region Watershed District. "Creen Line Creen Infrastructure Practices - Water Quality."
http:/ /www.capitolregionwd.org/our-work/watershed-planning/cclrt_wq/. Accessed Jan. 7, 201 4.

Developing a Plan
that incorporated vegetated swales and street trees.114 Local governments can work with the
private sector to encourage these types of investment by providing education, technical
assistance, and/or partial funding through fee reductions, tax credits, or grants. Greenville
County, South Carolina, created a voluntary stormwater banking program that allows
developers to increase density in  residential developments in exchange for designing projects
that better manage stormwater and protect water quality. Developer fees to participate in the
program go to a fund used for stormwater retrofits in strategic locations throughout the

G.  Monitoring  and Measuring Progress
A process to measure how well sustainable communities and green infrastructure approaches
help the community achieve its environmental, social, and economic goals is an important
component of an overall plan. Performance metrics can be used to communicate with
stakeholders about progress in implementing the plan,  demonstrate ongoing commitment to
the community vision, encourage accountability, and suggest course corrections that can help
ensure continued progress toward goals. Involving stakeholders in choosing performance
metrics and setting up the monitoring process can help ensure that residents and property
owners, particularly those in disadvantaged communities, understand and support the goals.

Establishing target dates to achieve needed policy changes helps  hold local  governments
accountable and sends clear signals to the private sector about when local policies and
regulations will support their efforts.  For example, the city of Chicago developed an
implementation roadmap as part of its comprehensive plan to plot out the changes it would
need to achieve each  key action in the plan. The roadmap specifies target dates for a draft or
pilot and for completion. It also lists the lead agency responsible  for meeting those targets.116

Recognizing the importance of monitoring how well the city's efforts are controlling combined
sewer overflows,  New York City will use modeling plus three other methods to estimate flow
volume to track overflow events at the 422 outfall locations distributed  across the city. In
addition to tracking stormwater flows, the city is also continuing  its water quality monitoring
114 City of Portland. "NE 97th Avenue Green Street." http://www.portlandoreaon.gov/transportation/article/3031 01.
Accessed Jan. 7, 201 4.
115 Greenville County. Stormwater Banking Program Manual for Users. 2012. http://www.greenvillecountv.org/County.
WHOLE, pdf.
116 City of Chicago. Adding Green to Urban Design: A City for Us and Future Generations. 2008.

                                                                             Developing a Plan
   Exhibit 21. High Line, New York City. An elevated former railroad
   track in New York City has become a linear park more than 20 blocks
   long. The entire length incorporates native, drought-resistant plants that
   absorb and filter rainfall. The park provides a place for recreation and
   cultural events and creates a safe way for bicyclists and pedestrians to
   travel in the city. Real estate development along the line has
   skyrocketed, helping to make the popular park a successful economic
   development project.
program and increasing the
number of monitoring
stations at the mouths of
key tributaries to help track
how pathogen levels are
affected by reductions  in
combined sewer overflow

The  Northeast Ohio
Regional Sewer District
(covering Cleveland and
surrounding counties) plans
to monitor not just
reductions in stormwater
discharges due to green
infrastructure approaches,
but also cobenefits,
       "Life-cycle costs for green infrastructure as compared to gray infrastructure.
       Ecological benefits and ecosystem services, including habitat improvements and the
       flood and erosion control benefits of green infrastructure.
       Socioeconomic and/or quality of life benefits to low-income or minority populations
       including improved access to safe and maintained green spaces and recreational
       opportunities and increased property values due to additional neighborhood amenities.
       Provision of recreational  benefits, such as  bicycle lanes  and walking trails, within
       underserved communities of the District's combined sewer system area.
       Climate change-related  effects, including change in carbon footprint and reduction in
       the overall carbon impact of the District's implementation  of gray infrastructure per the
       Consent Decree.
       Energy savings as a result of increased green infrastructure implementation.
       Air quality benefits of additional green space, trees, and plantings within neighborhoods.
117 The City of New York. NYC Green infrastructure Plan: A Sustainable Strategy for Green Waterways, 201 0.
http:/ /www. nvc.gov/html/dep/pdf/areen_infrastructu re /NYCCreen I nfrastructurePlan_LowRes.pdf.

Developing a Plan
    •   Aesthetics and improvements in the look and feel of neighborhoods as a result of green
       infrastructure implementation.
    •   Jobs resulting from the deployment of site-based green infrastructure control measures
       and the growth of local expertise related to green infrastructure.
    •   Property value increases as a result of the collective impact of green infrastructure
       projects within a neighborhood."118

In a similar approach, the city of Grand Rapids,  Michigan, created a series of targets in its
2017-2015Sustainability Plan. These targets are benchmarks the city can use to track and
measure progress under the Green Grand Rapids Master Plan update. These targets include:

    •   "Achieve 1 00% compliance with water quality permits annually.
    •   Eliminate three of the remaining seven combined sewer overflow points by 201 5.
    •   Protect and  restore at least three
       properties identified in the
       Ecological Framework Plan by
    •   Increase the number and square
       footage of green roofs by 201 5.
    •   Increase the percentage  of city
       tree canopy to at least 35.7% by
    •   Achieve 5%  pervious pavement in
       new roads by 201 5.
    •   Increase on-street bike lanes to
       100 miles by 2014.
    •   Increase the number of people
       living within !4 mile of a park or
       open space by 1 0% by 201 5.
       Ensure 1 00% compliance with
       stream protection ordinance by
Exhibit 22. River of Dreams rain garden, Grand
Rapids, Michigan. The city of Grand Rapids'
Environmental Services Department installed a rain
garden on an old tank site that is able to divert 1.5
million gallons of untreated stormwater from the Grand
River annually.
118 Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District. Green Infrastructure Plan. 201 2. http://www.neorsd.org/LLibrarv.php?a=
download_file&LIBRARY_RECORD_ID = 5526.

                                                                       Developing a Plan
   •   Increase riverfront property available for economic development and people-oriented
       activities by 201 5."119

These examples demonstrate some of the
ways a local government can monitor and
track progress toward implementing a green      A dear set of targets developed with
infrastructure plan. Articulating a clear set of     //|p|/f fmm stakeholders helps ensure
targets developed with input from
                                              that implementation addresses their
stakeholders helps ensure that
                                                      desires and concerns.
implementation addresses the desires and
concerns of residents and stakeholders for a
greener, more attractive community.

H.   Planning for  Long-Term Operations and Maintenance
All stormwater infrastructure requires maintenance, including structural repairs and
replacement and removal of trash, sediment, and debris. Both gray and green infrastructure
require establishment of clear responsibilities for maintenance, a funding mechanism, and an
inspection system. Best practices for both types of infrastructure also include having
established maintenance and inspection schedules with a system for tracking activities,
standard maintenance protocols, an operations and maintenance training program, and a
database indicating where infrastructure  is located. However, some green infrastructure
systems will require different maintenance practices, resources, and  expertise to maintain than
gray infrastructure, such as those required to properly identify plants and maintain plant health.
While the local government agency that traditionally maintains stormwater infrastructure might
not have this expertise, it can often be found  in other parts of the government,  such as the
local parks department, state land grant universities, and county extension programs or
conservation  districts.120 In addition, green infrastructure is well suited for workforce
development programs to create local jobs because of a growing need for employees with skills
to install and maintain site-scale practices. Training for these positions generally does not
119 City of Grand Rapids. Green Grand Rapids. 2011. http://arcitv.us/desian-and-development-services/Planning-
Department/Documents/CCR_REPORT_3_1 _1 2_low%20rz.pdf.
120 American Rivers and Green for All. Op. cit.

Developing a Plan
require a high level of formal education and can create opportunities for middle-skilled

Operations and maintenance costs will vary based on the particular approaches used and local
conditions. Effective green infrastructure  plans  identify a dedicated source of funding for these
activities. Many green infrastructure funding sources like the Clean Water State Revolving Fund
programs provide loans for capital costs but cannot be used for ongoing operations and
maintenance expenses—activities that are critical to ensure the long-term performance of
green infrastructure and ultimately the success  of a green infrastructure plan. Residents and
property owners who are  unfamiliar with green  infrastructure approaches could lose confidence
in their ability to deliver promised benefits if initial projects fall into disrepair and stop working.

When a city's green infrastructure plan involves private property, maintenance agreements are
critical to ensure the  plan's long-term success by helping property owners understand their
responsibility to maintain green infrastructure practices in working order. Best practices for
maintenance agreements  include specifying required activities and their frequency, inspection
and reporting requirements, and necessary easements (as appropriate). Requirements to
periodically renew maintenance agreements can help sustain engagement and remind
homeowners of their responsibilities to maintain their systems. Communities can provide a list
of contractors qualified to maintain green infrastructure practices to give property owners
additional options and create a market for maintenance services.122 The Northeast Ohio
Regional Sewer District has prepared templates  for an easement allowing the construction,
operation, inspection, and maintenance of site-scale green infrastructure and a template fora
cooperative agreement for operations and maintenance.123

EPA created a document that examines the operations and maintenance practices of 22 green
infrastructure projects funded  through Clean Water State Revolving Fund programs.124 It
discusses challenges to implementing an effective operations and maintenance program and
best practices learned from the experiences of the communities that implemented these
121 Cordon, Emily, Jeremy Hays, Ethan Pollack, Daniel Sanchez, and Jason Walsh. Water Works: Rebuilding Infrastructure,
Creating Jobs, Greening the Environment. Green for All. 2011. http://areenforall.org/focus/water/water-works-
122 American Rivers and Green for All. Op. cit.
123 Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District. Op. cit.
124 EPA.  The Importance of Operation and Maintenance for the Long-Term Success of Green Infrastructure. 2013.
http://water.epa.aov/arants_funding/cwsrf/upload/Creen-l nfrastructure-OM-Report.pdf.

                                                                          Developing a Plan
I.    Identifying Federal  Government  Resources
The federal government has numerous funding and technical assistance programs that could
help communities implement a sustainable communities and green infrastructure plan.
For example:

    •   Pittsburgh used $50,000 from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
       Development's Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program to fund a pilot
       project called the Green Up Program. Under this program, the city  identified vacant lots
       that could be converted to other productive uses including community gardens, urban
       agriculture, passive green space, and redevelopment. After a successful pilot, the
       Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development gave the Green Up
       Program $500,000 to expand. The program has transformed more than 120 lots into
       community assets that help manage stormwater, stabilize property values, and attract
       new development.125
    •   In 201 2, the city of Hartford, Connecticut, received a Transportation Investment
       Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) grant from the U.S. Department of Transportation
       to improve connections between its historic Main Street and the city's regional
       transportation hub. Part of this grant funded the incorporation of green infrastructure
       into streets as they were redesigned to facilitate walking and biking.126
    •   The city of Kinston, North Carolina, used funding from the Federal Emergency
       Management Agency to buy property damaged by Hurricane Floyd in 1 999 to mitigate
       flood risk. The city developed a plan to  incorporate green  infrastructure into the new
       open space, which will help the city adapt to climate change and provide amenities the
       entire community can enjoy.127
    •   The city of Aiken, South Carolina, received  $3.34 million from the  Clean Water State
       Revolving Fund program for the design, construction, and post-construction monitoring
       of green infrastructure, including bioswales, pervious pavement, and a cistern.128 The
       goals of the project were to capture, store,  infiltrate, and treat stormwater downtown to
125 City of Pittsburgh. "Office of Neighborhood Initiatives: Program History." http://pittsburahpa.gov/
neigh borhoodinitiatives/green up/hi story. Accessed Feb. 5, 201 4.
126 U.S. Department of Transportation.  Tiger 2012 Awards. 2012. http://www.dot.gov/sites/dot.dev/files/docs/
127 U.S. Department of Homeland Security. "CIS Becomes a New Method for Floodplain Management in Kinston."
https://www.llis.dhs.gov/content/gis-becomes-new-method-floodplain-management-kinston?mitssld = 844. Accessed
Apr. 4, 2014.
128 Clemson University. Sand River Headwaters Green infrastructure Project. City of Aiken. 201 3.
http:/ /www. clemson.edu/public/ecology/aiken_green/ index, html.

Developing a Plan
       address chronic stormwater erosion in a
       2,1 00 acre urban forest a few blocks from         Communities that have a
       the historic downtown.                        comprehensive vision for green
Comprehensive listings of federal funding and        infrastructure are often best able
technical assistance programs are available on         to take advantage of the myriad
ERA'S green infrastructure website'" and the         funding and technical assistance
website for the federal Partnership for                        resources available
Sustainable  Communities.130 Communities that
have a comprehensive vision for green
infrastructure that recognizes  its multiple benefits are often best able to take advantage of the
myriad funding and technical assistance resources available from the federal government (and
other sources) because they can tailor applications to emphasize aspects of the plan that match
a specific program's criteria. Communities can  complete green  infrastructure projects
incrementally as funding becomes available, and the projects' benefits begin to accrue even
before the overall plan is realized.

The federal  government also has many resources that could help communities develop or
implement a sustainable communities and green infrastructure  plan. Several EPA websites have
compiled these resources, including:

   •   The green infrastructure website covers basic information about green infrastructure
       and compiles tools, case studies, and available research.131
   •   The smart growth website includes research, tools, and  case studies to help
       communities grow in ways that expand  economic opportunity, protect public health and
       the environment, and create and enhance the places that people love.132
   •   The brownfields and land revitalization website compiles information, success stories,
       tools,  and technical information about the cleanup and reuse of potentially
       contaminated properties, including how to safely plan for green infrastructure.133
129 EPA. "Green Infrastructure Funding Opportunities." http://water.epa.gov/infrastructu re /green infrastructu re /gi_
funding.cfm. Accessed Feb. 5, 2014.
130 EPA, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development formed the
partnership to help communities nationwide improve access to affordable housing, increase transportation options, and
lower transportation costs while protecting the environment. For information on Partnership assistance programs see:
Partnership for Sustainable Communities. "Partnership Grants, Assistance & Programs."
131 EPA. "Green Infrastructure." http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/index.cfm.
132 EPA. "Smart Growth." http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth.
133 EPA. "Brownfields and Land Revitalization." http://www.epa.gov/brownfields.

                                                                             Developing a Plan
       The Superfund website includes resources for planning green infrastructure at
       hazardous waste sites.134
       The Urban Waters website includes information on how to improve access to, restore,
       and benefit from urban waters and the surrounding land.135
       The green building website includes information on creating and using healthier and
       more resource-efficient models of construction, renovation,  operation, maintenance,
       and demolition.136
       The environmental justice website includes information about grants, programs, and
       other resources that help communities work with minority, low-income, tribal, and other
       vulnerable populations to protect the environment and public health.137
134 EPA. "Green Infrastructure: Thinking Regionally." http://www.epa.gov/superfund/proarams/recvcle/activities/
135 EPA. "Urban Waters." http://www2.epa.gov/urbanwaters.
136 EPA. "Green Building." http://www.epa.gov/greenbuilding/index.htm.
137 EPA. "What is Environmental lustice?" http://www.epa.gov/environmentaliustice/index.html.

V.  Conclusion
Communities across the country are creating sustainable communities and green infrastructure
plans that can help achieve a broad range of goals, including improving water and air quality,
reducing flood risk, increasing resilience to climate change impacts, improving public health,
providing more recreation opportunities, and creating green jobs. Best practices learned from
these plans include:

   •   Identify an individual, organization, or entity to take the lead in organizing stakeholders
       and developing a plan—a local champion committed to improving a neighborhood, city,
       or region's quality of life and sustainability.
   •   Get local government support, making sure that public land incorporates green
       infrastructure approaches and that regulations, policies, and programs are consistent
       with the plan.
   •   Engage stakeholders early and often to develop the plan and maintain enthusiasm and
       momentum during its  implementation.
   •   Develop a vision for what the community will look like after plan implementation that
       incorporates local knowledge, experience, and insight.
   •   Set explicit goals that the plan could achieve, spanning a range of areas from
       stormwater management to economic development and climate change resilience.
   •   Assess assets and opportunities for green infrastructure approaches in the community
       to achieve the maximum benefits for each investment.
   •   Look for opportunities to increase the amount  of green infrastructure by using existing
       public land, acquiring  new public land, giving incentives to private property owners, and
       ensuring that regulations are consistent with the community's goals.
   •   Incorporate brownfields cleanup and reuse into the plan to help ensure that these
       properties are returned to productive use, and  carefully plan green infrastructure
       implementation to  make sure that contamination is not spread.
   •   Explore options for establishing a dedicated  revenue source for capital projects,
       operations,  and maintenance so that lack of funding does not slow plan implementation.
   •   Develop a process to measure how well the plan's implementation helps the community
       achieve its environmental, social, and economic goals.
   •   Plan for how green infrastructure will  be maintained over its lifetime at the time of
       project planning so residents can see it deliver promised benefits.
   •   Tailor grant and/or loan applications to emphasize aspects of the  plan that match a
       specific program's  criteria to increase the number of funding sources available for


Appendix: Resources
Benefits and Costs

  Center for Neighborhood Technology and American Rivers. The Value of Green Infrastructure: A Guide
  to Recognizing Its Economic, Environmental and Social Benefits. 2010. http://www.americanrivers.org/

  David Evans and Associates, Inc. and ECONorthwest. Cost Benefit Evaluation of Ecoroofs. City of Portland.
  2008. https://www.portlandoreqon.qov/bes/article/261053.

  EPA. Case Studies Analyzing the Economic Benefits of Low Impact Development and Green Infrastructure
  Programs. 2013.  http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/green/upload/lid-qi-proqrams_report_8-6-1 3_

  EPA. Reducing Stormwater Costs Through Low-Impact Development (LID) Strategies and Practices. 2007.

  Garrison, Noah, and Karen Hobbs. Rooftops to Rivers II: Green Strategies for Controlling Stormwater and
  Combined Sewer Overflows. Natural Resources Defense Council. 2011. http://www.nrdc.org/water/

  Gordon, Emily, Jeremy Hays, Ethan Pollack, Daniel Sanchez, and Jason Walsh. Water Works: Rebuilding
  Infrastructure, Creating Jobs, Greening the Environment. Green for All. 2011. http://qreenforall.org/

  Natural Resources Defense Council. The Green Edge: How Commercial Property Investment in Green
  Infrastructure Creates Value. 201 3. http://www.nrdc.org/water/commercial-value-qreen-

  U.S. Water Alliance. Barriers and Gateways to Green Infrastructure. 2011.


  EPA. Addressing Environmental Justice in EPA Brownfields Communities. 2009. http://www.epa.gov/
  brownf ie Id s/policv/e i_brochure_2009.pdf.

  EPA. "Brownfields and Land Revitalization." http://www.epa.gov/brownfields.

  EPA. Brownfields  Federal Programs Guide. 201 3. http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/partners/
  brownf ields-federal-programs-guide-201 3.pdf.

  EPA. Case Studies for Stormwater Management on Compacted, Contaminated Soils in Dense Urban Areas.
  2008. http://www.epa.gov/brownfields/tools/swcs0408.pdf.

  EPA. "Green Infrastructure: Thinking Regionally." http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/recvcle/
  activities/green infrastructure, htm I.

  EPA. Implementing Stormwater Infiltration Practices at Vacant Parcels and Brown fieldSites. 201 3.
  http://water.epa.gov/infrastructu re/greeninfrastructu re/upload/brownf ield_infiltration_decision_

Climate Change

  EPA. "Climate Resiliency Infographic." http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/

  EPA. Green Infrastructure for Climate Resiliency. 2014. http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/
  g ree n i nfrastructu re/upload/cl imate_res_fs.pdf.

  Garrison, Noah, Robert C. Wilkinson, and Richard Horner. A Clear Blue Future. Natural Resources
  Defense Council and the University of California, Santa Barbara. 2009. http://www.nrdc.org/water/lid.

Context-Sensitive Approaches

  EPA. Green Infrastructure in Arid and Semi-Arid Climates. 2010. http://www.epa.qov/npdes/pubs/arid_

  New York City Soil & Water Conservation District. Greening Vacant Lots: Planning and Implementation
  Strategies. 201 2. http://docs.nrdc.orq/water/wat_1 3022701 .asp.

  EPA. Stormwater Guidelines for Green, Dense Redevelopment. 2005. http://www.epa.gov/smartqrowth/

Environmental Justice

  EPA. Creating Equitable, Healthy, and Sustainable Communities. 2013. http://www.epa.gov/
  smartgrowth/egu itable_development_report.htm.

  EPA. "What is Environmental Justice?" http://www.epa.gov/environmentaliustice/index.html.

Funding and Financing

  EPA. Funding Stormwater Programs. 2009. http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/

  Natural Resources Defense Council. "Funding and Gaining Support for Stormwater Programs."
  http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/storm/chap4.asp. Accessed August 11,2014.

  University of Maryland Environmental Finance Center. Local Government Stormwater Financing Manual:
  A Process for Program Reform. 2014. http://www.efc.umd.edu/assets/publications/2efc_stormwater_
  financing_manual_final_(1 ).pdf.

  Water Environment Federation. "Financing Urban Retrofits via a  Public-Private Partnership." Jul. 31, 201 3.
  http://stormwater.wef.org/201 3/07/financing-urban-retrofits-via-a-public-private-partnership.

  Partnership for Sustainable Communities. "Partnership Grants, Assistance & Programs."

  van derTak,  Laurens, Keith Bishton, Bruce Taylor, and Mike Matichich. "Trends in Stormwater Utility
  Implementation." Stormwater. Jun. 27, 2012. http://www.stormh2o.com/SW/Editorial/Trends_in_
  Stormwater_Utilitv_lmplementation_1 7636.aspx.

Green Building

  EPA. "Green Building." http://www.epa.gov/greenbuilding/index.htm.

  EPA. Sustainable Design and Green Building Toolkit for Local Governments. 201 3. http: / /www.epa.gov/
  region4/recycle/green-build ing-toolkit.pdf.

Municipal Policies

  EPA. Green Infrastructure Case Studies: Municipal Policies for Managing Stormwater with Green
  Infrastructure. 2010. http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey= PI OOFTEM.TXT.

  EPA. Managing Wet Weather with Green Infrastructure Municipal Handbook: Incentive Mechanisms. 2009.
  http://water.epa.gov/infrastructu re /greeninfrastructu re /upload/gi_mu nichandbook_incentives.pdf.

  EPA. Water Quality Score card: Incorporating Green Infrastructure Practices at the Municipal,
  Neighborhood, and Site Scale. 2009. http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/water_scorecard.htm.

Operations and Maintenance

  American Rivers and Green for All. Staying Green: Strategies to Improve Operations and Maintenance of
  Green Infrastructure in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. 2013.  http://qreenforall.org/focus/water/

  EPA. The Importance of Operation and Maintenance for the Long-Term Success of Green Infrastructure.
  201 3. http: //wate r.e pa.qov/qrants_fundinq/cwsrf/upload/Green-lnfrastructure-OM-Report.pdf.

Smart Growth

  EPA. "Smart Growth." http://www.epa.gov/smartqrowth.

  EPA. Using Smart Growth Strategies to Create More Resilient Communities in the Washington, D.C.,
  Region. 201 3. http://www.epa.qov/smartqrowth/sqia_communities.htm#dc.

  EPA. "Greening America's Capitals." http://epa.qov/smartqrowth/qreencapitals.htm.

Stakeholder Engagement

  EPA. Getting in Step: Engaging Stakeholders in your Watershed. 2nd Edition. 201 3. http: / /cfpub.epa.gov/
  npstbx/files/stake holderguide.pdf.

  EPA. "Stormwater Outreach Materials and Reference Documents." http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/npdes/
  stormwater/Stormwater-Outreach-Materials-and-Reference-Documents.cfm. Accessed Aug. 12, 2014.

  Water Environment Federation. Hosting a Low Impact Development Design Competition. 201 3.
  http://stormwater.wef.org/201 3/06/1 id-design-competition/.


  Center for Neighborhood Technology. "Green Values® National Stormwater Management Calculator."
  http://greenvalues.cnt.org/national/calculator.php. Accessed  Jan. 27, 2014.

  EPA. "National Stormwater Calculator." http://www.epa.gov/nrmrl/wswrd/wg/models/swc. Accessed Feb.
  5, 2014.

  Saratoga PLAN. "Tools for Community Planning and  Conservation." http://www.saratogaplan.org/
  communityplanning.html. Accessed Jun. 20, 2014.

Community Plans Mentioned  in the Report

  Amigos de los Rios. "Emerald Necklace Forest to Ocean Expanded Vision Plan."
  http://www.amigosdelosrios.org/the-emerald-necklace-vision-plan. Accessed May 28, 2014.

  CH2MHMI. Green Streets Stormwater Management Plan. City of Milwaukee. 201 3.
  http://city.milwaukee.gov/lmageLibrary/Groups/cityGreenTeam/documents/201 3/Green_Streets_

  Chicago Department of Transportation. Sustainable Urban Infrastructure. 201 3.

  Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning. CO TO 2040: Comprehensive Regional Plan. 2010.

  Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning. Moving Forward2013. 2014. http://www.cmap.illinois.gov/
  documents/1 01 80/1 1 2663/FY14-0047%20201 3%20CMAP%20IMPLEMENTATION%20POSTER_FINAL.pdf/

  City of Chicago. Adding Green to Urban Design: A City for Us and Future Generations. 2008.
  http: //www.citvofchicaqo.orq/citv/en/depts/dcd/supp_info/q reen_urban_desiqn.htm I.

  City of Chicago. Chicago Climate Action Plan. Undated, http://www.chicaqoclimateaction.org.

  City of Crystal Lake and Cowhey, Gudmundson & Leder. Green Infrastructure Vision. 2012.
  http://www.chicaqowilderness.org/files/471 3/6854/3682/Crvstal_Lake_Greenlnf rastructureVision.pdf.

  City of Detroit. Detroit Future City. 201 2. http://detroitfuturecity.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/

  City of Fort Collins. City Plan Fort Collins: Stormwater Report. 2011. http: / /www.fcqov.com/

  City of Grand Rapids. Green Grand Rapids. 2011. http://qrcitv.us/desiqn-and-development-services/

  The City of New York. NYC Green Infrastructure Plan. 2011. http://www. nyc.gov/htm I/dep/pdf/qreen_
  infrastructure/qi_annual_report_201 2.pdf.

  The City of New York. NYC Green Infrastructure Plan: A Sustainable Strategy for Green Waterways. 2010.
  http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/qreen_infrastructu re/NYCGreenlnfrastructurePlan_LowRes.pdf.

  The City of New York. A Stronger, More Resilient New York. 201 3. http://www.nvc.gov/html/sirr/

  City of Portland. Actions for Watershed Health: Portland Watershed Management Plan. 2005.

  City of Ranson. 2012 Comprehensive Plan. 201 2. http://ransonrenewed.com/wp-content/uploads/
  201 2/04/RansonCompPlan_201 2_Adopted-Reduced.pdf.

  City of St. Paul. Strategic Stormwater Solutions for Transit-Oriented Development. 201 3.
  http://www.corridorsofopportu nitv.org/sites/default/files/Strateqic_Stormwater_Solutions_for_TOD_Fin

  City of Tucson. "Green  Streets." 201 3. http://www.tucsonaz.qov/files/transportation/Green_Streets_

  East Liberty Development, Inc.  East Liberty's Green Vision. Undated, http://www.eastliberty.org/
  community-plan ning/plans-and-studies/east-liberty-green-vision.

  Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Fort Campbell Green Infrastructure Plan. 2014.

  LEAP. Reinventing Detroit's Lower Easts ide. 201 2. https://docs.qooqle.com/file/d/
  OB3Dq7xnK5aiaSF9kZGIvQXdlbWs/edit?usp=drive_web&pli = 1.

  Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. Regional Green Infrastructure Plan. 201 3.

Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District. Green Infrastructure Plan. 201 2. http://www.neorsd.orq/

Saratoga County. Green Infrastructure Plan for Saratoga County. 2006. http: / /www.saratoqaplan.orq /

Wasatch Front Regional Council. (Re)Connect: The Wasatch Front Green Infrastructure Plan. Undated.

Watershed Watch in Kentucky, Inc. The Kentucky Green Infrastructure Action Plan for Stormwater & Wet
Weather Sewage Management. 201 2. http://kwalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/201 3/01 /ky_qreen_


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