U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
   Climate Change Adaptation Plan
       Publication Number: EPA 100-K-14-001
               June 2014

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To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so
for informational purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or
regulations, and readers should consult the statutes or regulations to learn what they require.
Neither this document, nor any part of it, is itself a rule or a regulation. Thus, it cannot change
or impose legally binding requirements on EPA, States, the public, or the regulated community.
Further, any expressed intention, suggestion or recommendation does not impose any legally
binding requirements on EPA, States, tribes, the public, or the regulated community. Agency
decision makers remain free to exercise their discretion in choosing to implement the actions
described in  this Plan. Such implementation is contingent upon availability of resources and is
subject to change.

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                                        Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to
the challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate,
outside the range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant
challenges to the EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it
is to continue fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is
therefore anticipating and planning for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill
its mission of protecting human health and the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for
review and comment. The plan relies  on peer-reviewed scientific information and expert
judgment to identify vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate  change. The plan
also presents  10  priority actions that EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules,
and operations will remain effective under future climatic conditions. The priority placed on
mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA complements efforts to encourage and mainstream
adaptation planning across the entire federal government.

Following completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan., each EPA National
Environmental Program Office, all 10 Regional Offices, and several National Support Offices
developed a Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how it will carry
out the work  called for in the agency-wide plan. Each Implementation Plan articulates how the
office will integrate climate adaptation into its planning and work in a manner consistent and
compatible with its goals  and objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation Plans demonstrate how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-
wide priorities presented  in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of
EPA's plans is to build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build
capacity in states, tribes, and local communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by
increasing their awareness of ways that climate change may affect their ability to implement
effective programs, and by providing  them with the necessary data, information, and tools to
integrate climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional  Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial  assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program
vulnerability  assessments" are living documents that will be updated as needed to account for
new knowledge, data, and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's
mission. The  plan then identifies specific priority actions that the office will take to begin
addressing its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming climate change adaptation into its activities.
Criteria for the selection of priorities are discussed. An emphasis is placed on protecting the most
vulnerable people and places, on supporting the development of adaptive capacity in the tribes,
and on identifying clear steps for ongoing collaboration with tribal governments.

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Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they
mainstream climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate their
efforts in order to understand how well different approaches work and how they can be
improved. Each Implementation Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization
will regularly evaluate the effectiveness  of its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where
necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build
the nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal of protecting human health and the
environment. Working with its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and prosperous
nation that is resilient to a changing climate.
                                               Bob Perciasepe
                                               Deputy Administrator

                                               September 2013

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                                   Contributors
This document was produced by the Cross-EPA Work Group on Climate Change Adaptation
Planning. The Work Group members include:


Chair
Senior Advisor for Climate Adaptation
Office of the Administrator/Office of Policy:  Joel D. Scheraga

Office of Administration and
Resources Management (OARM):           Dan Amon

Office of Air and Radiation (OAR):           Bill Perkins, Erika Sasser, Lourdes Morales, Dana
                                        Hyland

Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO):  Wyatt Boyd, Jason Bossie

Office of the Congressional
and Intergovernmental Relations (OCIR):     Reynold Meni

Office of Chemical Safety and
Pollution Prevention (OCSPP):              Richard Dumas

Office of Enforcement
and Compliance Assurance (OECA):          Gerard C. Kraus, Melanie Shepherdson, Carol
                                        Holmes, Nathaniel Folkemer

Office of Environmental Justice (OECA/OEJ):   Victoria Robinson

Office of External Affairs
and Environmental Education (OEAEE):      Cathy Milbourn, Enesta Jones

Office of General Counsel (OGC):            James Curtin, Daniel P. Schramm, Thomas
                                        Marshall

Office of Homeland Security (OHS):          Steve Williams

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Office of International and Tribal
Affairs (OITA):

Office of Policy (OP)
David Guest, Anthony Socci
Gerald Filbin, Catherine Allen
Office of Research and Development (ORD):  Andy Miller, Michael Slimak
Office of Solid Waste
and Emergency Response (OSWER):
Brigid Lowery, Jennifer Brady
Office of Water (OW):
Region 1:     Ken Moraff, Cynthia Greene
Region 2:     Paul Simon, Irene Nielson
Region 3:     Michael Dunn, Joe Piotrowski
Region 4:     Beverly Banister, Kenneth Mitchell
Region 5     Timothy Henry, Kate Balasa
Region 6:     Jim Brown, Jim Yarbrough
Region 7:     Rebecca Weber, Toni Gargas
Region 8:     Laura Farris
Region 9:     Karen Schwinn, Suzanne Marr
Region 10:    Joyce Kelly, Bruce Duncan
Staff Support: Leah Cohen (Office of Policy)
Karen Metchis, Joel Corona

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                                  Dedication
This Plan is dedicated to the memory of our colleague, David Guest, from the Office of
International and Tribal Affairs (OITA). David was a most thoughtful and willing collaborator
and friend in the preparation of the Agency Climate Adaptation Plan. Throughout his work with
this Plan and with EPA he was an ardent advocate for the issues important to tribal
governments, our crucial partners in environmental protection.

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                            Table of Contents
       Section                                                                Page




Climate Change Adaptation: Executive Summary                                      10




Parti: Vision of the Future EPA                                                    14




Part 2: Known Vulnerabilities to EPA's Mission from Climate Change                    18




       2.1 Climate Change and Climate Impacts                                       18




       2.2 Synthesis of EPA's Vulnerabilities                                          19




             2.2.1 Goal 1: Taking Actions on Climate Change




                  and Improving Air Quality                                        20




             2.2.2 Goal 2: Protecting America's Waters                               23




             2.2.3 Goal 3: Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable




                  Development                                                  27




             2.2.4 Goal 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution      29




             2.2.5 Goal 5: Enforcing Environmental Laws                               31




             2.2.6 EPA's Facilities and Operations                                     31




       2.3 Climate Change Impacts on the Most Vulnerable Communities                  34




       2.4 Summary of Key Areas of Known Vulnerability                                37




Part 3: Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation in EPA                               40




       3.1 Building Adaptive Capacity                                                 40




       3.2 Guiding Principles for Adaptation at EPA                                     41




       3.3 Agency-wide Priorities                                                   42




             3.3.1 Priority: Fulfill Strategic Measures in FY2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan   42




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              3.3.2 Priority: Protect Agency Facilities and Operations                      44




              3.3.3 Priority: Factor Legal Considerations into Adaptation Efforts            45




              3.3.4 Priority: Strengthen Adaptive Capacity of EPA Staff and Partners




                   Through Training                                                   46




              3.3.5 Priority: Develop Decision-Support Tools that Enable EPA Staff and




                   Partners to Integrate Climate Adaptation Planning into their Work      47




              3.3.6 Priority: Identify Cross-EPA Science Needs Related to Climate




                   Adaptation                                                        48




              3.3.7 Priority: Partner with Tribes to Increase Adaptive Capacity              49




              3.3.8 Priority: Focus on Most Vulnerable People and Places                  49




              3.3.9 Priority: Measure and Evaluate Performance                          50




              3.3.10 Priority:  Develop Program and Regional Office Implementation Plans   51




       3.4 Importance of Partnerships                                                  54




Part 4:  Measuring and Evaluating Performance                                          57




       4.1 Existing Strategic Performance Measures                                      57




       4.2 New Performance Measures                                                 58




Table: Summary of Program Vulnerabilities to Climate Change



       Impacts by EPA Strategic Goal                                                    60

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Climate Change

Adaptation  Plan:

Executive Summary	

We live in a world in which the climate is
changing at a rate faster than that which
society has experienced in modern history.
Because many of the environmental
outcomes that EPA is working to attain
(e.g., clean air, safe drinking water) are
sensitive to changes in weather and
climate, these changes are posing new
challenges to EPA's ability to fulfill its
mission of protecting human health and the
environment.
To address these challenges, EPA has
developed a Climate Change Adaptation
Plan. The Adaptation Plan relies on peer-
reviewed scientific information  and expert
judgment to begin to identify potential
vulnerabilities to EPA's mission from
climate change. The Adaptation Plan also
presents priority actions the Agency will
take to integrate climate adaptation
planning into its programs, policies, rules,
and operations to ensure they are effective
in a changing climate. EPA's  focus on
climate adaptation is part of a larger federal
effort to promote a healthy and prosperous
nation that is resilient to a changing
climate. EPA's Climate Change Adaptation
Plan provides a road map and commitment
from the Agency to addressing the direction
provided in the President's Climate Action
Plan, and Executive Order 13653, Preparing
the United States for the Impacts of Climate
Change.
Vision of the Future EPA

EPA's Policy Statement on Climate-Change
Adaptation, issued in 2011, called for EPA to
plan for future changes in climate and to
mainstream considerations of climate
change into its activities. As part of that
effort, the Policy Statement called for the
Agency to develop and implement a Climate
Change Adaptation Plan. It also called for
  EPA's Climate Change Adaptation Plan
 > EPA's Adaptation Plan identifies ways in which
 climate change could affect EPA's ability to fulfill
 its mission.
 > EPA's Adaptation Plan describes priority
 actions that EPA will take to ensure that its
 programs, policies, rules, and operations will
 remain effective under future climatic conditions.
each EPA National Environmental Program
Office and all of the Regional Offices to
develop Implementation Plans to explain
how they will carry out the work called for
in the Agency-wide Plan. EPA made these
Implementation Plans available as drafts for
public comment late in 2013 and they have
been revised with this Plan.
EPA's vision is for the Agency to continue to
fulfill its mission of protecting human health
and the environment even as the climate
changes. EPA will build and strengthen its
adaptive capacity and work with its
partners to build capacity in states, tribes,
Adaptive capacity is the ability of a human or
natural system to adjust to climate change
[including climate variability and extremes) by
moderating potential damages, taking advantage
of opportunities, and/or coping with the
consequences.
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and local communities. EPA will empower
its staff and partners by increasing their
awareness of ways that climate change may
affect their ability to implement effective
programs, and by providing them with data,
information, and tools to integrate climate
adaptation into their work.

Identifying Vulnerabilities to
EPA's Mission from Climate
Change
Using the best available science, EPA has
begun to identify ways in which its mission,
facilities, and operations are vulnerable to
climate change. EPA will refine this initial
effort to  identify and understand areas of
vulnerability by
undertaking research,
assessment, and
monitoring activities in
the coming years. EPA's
Climate Change
Adaptation Plan
summarizes  known
vulnerabilities  related to
the Agency's five
strategic goals:

•  Taking Action on Climate Change and
Improving Air Quality. Climate change is
likely to affect  air quality in a variety of
ways. For example, higher air
temperatures, more frequent wildfires,
heavy precipitation events, and changes in
atmospheric transportation patterns may
lead to increased tropospheric ozone levels,
changes in particulate matter exposure,
worsened indoor air quality, changes to the
stratospheric ozone layer, and changes in
Vulnerability assessment is an ongoing
process. EPA's Climate Change Adaptation
Plan should be viewed as a living
document that will be updated as needed
to account for new knowledge, data, and
scientific evidence about the impacts of
climate change on EPA's mission.
deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury
in ecosystems.
   Protecting America's Waters. More
frequent hurricanes, rising sea levels,
increasing water temperatures, ocean
acidification, and changing precipitation
patterns may all have adverse effects on
water quality protection, the operation of
water management infrastructure, the
quality and availability of drinking water
supplies, and the restoration and protection
of watersheds, wetlands, oceans, and
aquatic ecosystems.
   Cleaning Up Communities and
Advancing Sustainable Development.
                Flooding from sea-level
                rise, more  intense and
                frequent storm surges, as
                well as melting
                permafrost could disrupt
                waste management
                networks and may also
                lead to releases from
                     contaminated sites under EPA's jurisdiction.
                     Changes in temperature and precipitation
                     may impact the performance and efficiency
                     of cleanups. Increased frequency and
                     intensity of extreme weather events may
                     affect EPA's capacity to manage debris and
                     respond to emergencies.
                     •  Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and
                     Preventing Pollution.  Climate change may
                     affect exposures to a wide range of
                     chemicals due to changing use patterns and
                     environmental conditions. For example,
                     EPA's decisions about how pesticides are
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registered may be affected by the impact of
climate change on pest pressure and how
and where pesticides are used.
•  Enforcing Environmental Laws. More
frequent extreme weather events might
divert EPA's staff and resources away from
enforcement and toward disaster response
and remediation.
Mainstreaming Climate Change
Adaptation at EPA
Climate change is one of many factors that
can influence the effectiveness of EPA's
activities over time. It is essential for the
Agency to account for climate change as it
designs its programs, policies, and rules, in
the same way that other factors such as
population growth and economic
development are regularly considered.
EPA's Climate Change Adaptation Plan
identifies a broad set of priority actions that
EPA will take to begin addressing its
vulnerabilities and mainstreaming climate
change adaptation  into its activities:
   Continue to fulfill strategic measures in
FY 2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan: EPA's FY
2011-2015 Strategic Plan established the
Agency's first "Strategic Performance
Measures" for integrating climate
adaptation into EPA's day-to-day
operations. The Strategic Plan committed
EPA to integrating considerations about
climate change science and adaptation into
(1) five rulemaking processes, (2) five major
grant, loan, contract or technical assistance
programs, and (3) five major scientific
models or decision-support tools, all by
2015.
•  Protect Agency facilities and operations:
EPA will develop and implement measures
to protect its workforce, operations, and
underlying infrastructure against extreme
weather events such as floods.
   Factor legal considerations into
adaptation efforts: EPA's Climate Change
Adaptation Plan encourages managers in
the Agency's programs and regions to
consult with EPA's attorneys to ensure that
all adaptation work is within the scope of
the Agency's statutory authorities.
•  Strengthen adaptive capacity of EPA
staff and partners through training:  EPA
will design and implement climate change
adaptation training for its staff and its
partners in states, tribes, and local
communities.
   Develop decision-support tools that
enable EPA staff and partners to integrate
climate adaptation planning into their
work: EPA is committed to developing
decision-support tools to improve the
quality and efficacy of decisions that are
sensitive to changes in climate.
•  Identify cross-EPA science needs related
to climate adaptation:  EPA's Office of
Research and Development will coordinate
an effort to identify priority research  needs
for the entire Agency to support the
integration of adaptation planning into
EPA's activities. This will produce research
results that benefit multiple program areas
of EPA.
   Partner with tribes to increase adaptive
capacity: Each EPA Program and Regional
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Office will support the development of
adaptive capacity in the tribes and identify
clear steps for ongoing collaboration with
tribal governments where appropriate.
•  Focus on most vulnerable people and
places:  EPA will help increase the resilience
of the most vulnerable people and places by
improving their capacity to predict, prepare
for, and avoid adverse impacts from climate
change.
•  Measure and evaluate performance:
EPA will evaluate its climate change
adaptation actions on an ongoing basis, in
order to maintain progress toward the long-
term goal of integrating climate adaptation
into the Agency's programs, policies, rules,
and operations.
•  Develop Program and Regional Office
Implementation Plans:  EPA's National
Environmental Program Offices and  all of
the Regional Offices have each developed
their own Implementation Plans and they
are being released along with this EPA
Agency Plan. The Implementation Plans
describe how  the Offices are integrating
climate adaptation  into their planning and
work, and how they are addressing the
cross-EPA priorities identified in this
Agency-wide Adaptation Plan. Each
Implementation Plan  reflects unique
program or regional circumstances and
goals.
Measuring and Evaluating
Performance
Because of the uncertainties involved in
understanding how climate change will
affect EPA's programs and activities, EPA's
adaptation planning will include a
continuing effort of evaluation and
adjustment. In the near term, EPA will
evaluate its adaptation planning efforts
using the three strategic performance
measures from its FY2011-2015 Strategic
Plan. In the longer term, EPA will develop
additional  measures to evaluate the
outcomes  and effectiveness of the broader
set of actions described in its Climate
Change Adaptation Plan.
Based on these assessments, EPA will
 The Importance of Program Evaluation
Because EPA's Programs and Regions will be
learning by experience as they mainstream
climate adaptation planning into their activities,
it will be essential to evaluate their efforts in
order to understand how well different
approaches work and how they can be improved.
identify program areas where its climate
adaptation activities have had the greatest
impact, and program areas needing
improvement. The lessons learned will be
shared across the Agency and with EPA's
partners and other stakeholders. On the
basis of these lessons, EPA will make
adjustments to the way adaptation is
integrated into its activities.
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Part  1: Vision of the Future  EPA
We live in a world in which the climate is changing. Changes in climate have occurred since the
formation of the planet. But humans are now influencing Earth's climate and causing it to
change in unprecedented ways.

It is in this rapidly changing world that EPA is working to fulfill its mission to protect human
health and the environment. Many of the outcomes
EPA is working to attain (e.g., clean air, safe drinking
water) are sensitive to changes in weather and
climate. Until now, EPA has been able to assume that
climate is relatively stable and future climate will
mirror past climate. However, with climate changing
more rapidly than society has experienced in the past, the past is no longer a good predictor of
the future.  Climate change is posing new challenges to EPA's ability to fulfill its mission.
                  Vision
     EPA continues to fulfill its mission of
     protecting human health and the
     environment even as the climate changes.
It is essential that EPA adapt to anticipate and plan for changes in climate. It must integrate, or
mainstream, considerations of climate change into its programs, policies, rules and operations
to ensure they are effective under future climatic conditions. Through climate adaptation
planning, EPA will continue to protect human health and the environment, but in a way that
accounts for the effects of climate change.

EPA has not yet conducted a detailed quantitative assessment of the vulnerability of its mission
to climate change. This Climate Change Adaptation Plan uses expert judgment, combined with
information from peer-reviewed scientific literature  on the impacts of climate change, to
identify potential vulnerabilities. It then presents priority actions the Agency will take to begin
integrating climate adaptation planning into its activities.
EPA's focus on climate adaptation is part of a larger federal effort to increase the nation's
adaptive capacity and promote a healthy and
prosperous nation that is resilient to a changing
climate. A central element of EPA's efforts to adapt
to a changing climate will be to strengthen the
adaptive capacity of its own staff and its partners
across the country. It will increase staff's awareness
of ways that climate change may affect their ability
to implement effective programs. It will empower
staff to integrate climate adaptation into the work
they do by providing them with the necessary data,
             Adaptive Capacity
    Adaptive capacity is the ability of a human
    or natural system to adjust to climate
    change (including climate variability and
    extremes) by moderating potential
    damages, taking advantage of
    opportunities, and/or coping with the
    consequences.
information and tools.
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EPA will also strengthen the adaptive capacity of its partners across the country in ways that are
critical to attaining the Agency's mission. States, tribes, and local communities share
responsibility for protecting human health and the environment, and partnerships with EPA are
at the heart of the country's environmental protection system. These partnerships will be
critical for efficient, effective and equitable implementation of climate adaptation strategies.
EPA's Regional and Program Offices will therefore work with their partners, engage local
stakeholders, and use a diversity of approaches to build adaptive capacity and encourage
climate adaptation planning depending upon state,  local, and tribal needs and conditions. EPA
will continue to work with other federal agencies and  international  partners to enhance
understanding of climate change risks and leverage  collective knowledge about climate
adaptation planning.

EPA Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation

EPA issued its first Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation  in June 2011.1 The Policy
Statement recognized that climate change can pose significant challenges to EPA's ability to
fulfill its mission. It called for the Agency to anticipate  and
                                                        "I skate to where the puck is going to
plan for future changes in climate and incorporate                                „
r                 &                    r                be, not where it has been.
considerations of climate change into its activities.
                                                              —Hockey great, Wayne Gretzky
The Policy Statement noted that many programs
throughout the Agency have already begun to anticipate and address the implications of a
changing climate. These efforts laid a solid foundation on which to build climate adaptation
planning into EPA's activities. Nevertheless, more needs to be done.

The Policy Statement called for the development and implementation of this EPA Climate
Change Adaptation Plan to integrate climate adaptation into the Agency's programs, policies,
rules and operations. Priority activities were also identified to be undertaken by the Program
and Regional Offices, and reflected in the EPA's annual budget submissions. This Plan lays out
the priority actions to begin the long-term process of integrating climate adaptation into the
Agency's activities.

The Policy Statement also directed every EPA Program and Regional Office to develop an
Implementation Plan that provides more detail on how it will meet the priorities and carry out
the work called for in the agency-wide plan. The Policy Statement recognized that each Office is
best positioned to determine how to integrate climate adaptation into its own activities, and
provided each  Office with the flexibility to develop its Implementation  Plan in a  manner
consistent and compatible with its own circumstances and objectives.  EPA is updating its Policy
Statement to reflect the progress that has been made thus far and focus more fully on
implementation activities and on helping states, tribes and communities build their capacity to
adapt to climate change. The updated Policy Statement will be released in June  2014.

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EPA's ongoing work is guided by principles representing EPA's core values. EPA's efforts to
integrate climate adaptation into existing programs and activities will use the best available
science, protect populations and locations most vulnerable to climate change and with the least
ability to adapt, and use sensible analytic methods and approaches for developing adaptation
strategies. Partnerships will be forged that include multiple levels of government, as well as
private and nongovernmental partners throughout the country and internationally.

The Policy Statement acknowledges that mainstreaming adaptation planning will be an
ongoing, long-term activity. The effectiveness of the Agency's adaptation activities will be
monitored and evaluated to continually assess the effectiveness of actions. Lessons will be
learned and shared across the Agency and with its partners at home and abroad. Likewise, EPA
will learn from the experiences  of its international counterparts and partners. Adjustments to
the Agency's approaches and plans will be made as necessary. These adjustments will be
reflected in regular updates to this agency-wide Plan.2

Initial Strategic Measures

EPA has established initial goals for mainstreaming climate adaptation planning into its
activities. The FY2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan  contains the Agency's first "strategic
performance measures" for integrating climate adaptation into its day-to-day operations.3
Explicit commitments to attain the performance measures are now included in EPA's annual
budget submissions to Congress.

The strategic performance measures contained in the FY2011-2015 Strategic Plan commit the
Agency to integrating adaptation planning into five major rulemaking processes and five major
financial assistance mechanisms by 2015, using existing authorities. They also call for the
integration  of adaptation planning into five major scientific models or decision-support tools
used in implementing Agency environmental management programs. These Strategic Plan
commitments represent the Agency's best and  most informed judgment about the most
effective mechanisms for building adaptive capacity and promoting adaptive planning within
EPA and by its partners. They also provide a set of measures for monitoring the Agency's
progress on adaptation planning.

EPA emphasizes the importance of evaluating activities and acting on the lessons learned. EPA
will seek to identify where its climate adaptation activities might have the greatest impact on
protecting human health and the environment, replicate its successes, and identify areas
needing improvement. It will be an ongoing challenge to measure the direct impact of EPA's
adaptation  planning activities on the resilience of its programs, and on the human health and
environmental outcomes it is striving to attain. The Agency will continue to explore,  test and
evaluate other approaches for mainstreaming adaptation planning besides those already
contained in the strategic performance measures. If necessary, it will develop improved

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strategic measures and annual performance measures. This ongoing process of evaluation and
learning is consistent with EPA's commitment to transparency and accountability.

Contribution to a Healthy and Prosperous Nation

The priority placed on mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA complements efforts to
encourage and mainstream adaptation planning across the entire federal government. Federal
agencies now recognize that climate change poses challenges to their missions, operations and
programs. Ensuring the capacity of federal government agencies to maintain essential services
and achieve their missions in the face of climate change is critical for successful adaptation by
the entire nation. Federal agencies are working together to plan for climate change using
approaches that no longer assume past conditions are good indicators of the future. Although
there is no single planning approach appropriate for all agencies, the use of consistent, but
flexible, frameworks facilitates coordination across agencies and allows them to leverage
common tools and methods.4

The federal government has an important and unique role in climate change adaptation, but is
only one part of a broader effort that must include public and private  partners throughout the
country and internationally. Partnerships with states, tribes, local communities, other
governments and international organizations, many of which have already begun to implement
adaptation measures, are essential.

EPA's leadership and commitment to help build the nation's adaptive  capacity  are vital to the
goal of protecting human health and the environment. Working with its partners, the Agency
will help promote a healthy and prosperous nation that is resilient to a changing climate.

Endnotes

1 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation, June 2, 2011,
http://epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/impacts-adaptation/adaptation-statement.pdf.
2 Executive Order 13514 resulted in a process that requires every federal agency to submit annual progress reports
to its sustainability and climate change adaptation plans.
3 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, FY2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan, Achieving Our Vision (2011),
http://epa.gov/planandbudget/strategicplan.html.
4 White House Council on Environmental Quality, Progress Report on the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation
Task Force: Recommended Actions in Support of a National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (Washington, DC,
October 5, 2010).
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Part 2: Known Vulnerabilities to  EPA's Mission  from
Climate  Change

2.1  Climate Change and Climate Impacts

The global climate is changing, and the impacts of this change are being felt across the United
States and the world. These impacts pose new challenges to EPA as it strives to fulfill its mission
of protecting human health and the environment. It is essential for the EPA to adapt if it is to
reduce the vulnerability of its mission to climate change and continue fulfilling its statutory,
regulatory and programmatic requirements. It is vital
that the EPA anticipate and plan for future changes in
climate and incorporate considerations of climate change
into many of its programs, policies, rules, and operations
                                                              Vulnerability
                                                      Vulnerability is the degree to which a
where appropriate to ensure they remain effective under    system is susceptible to, or unable to
                                                      cope with, adverse effects of climate
                                                      change, including climate variability
                                                      and extremes.
future climatic conditions.

During the past 50 years, average temperature across the
United States has risen more than 2ฐF, while
precipitation has increased an average of about 5
percent. Some extreme weather events, such as heat waves, intense precipitation events and
regional droughts, have become more frequent and intense. One of the precipitation trends in
the United States is the increasing frequency and intensity of heavy downpours (the types of
events that cause runoff of pollutants and pathogens into our rivers and streams, and cause
combined sewer systems to overflow in our cities). This change in heavy downpours was
responsible for most of the observed increase in overall precipitation during the last 50 years.1
Also, during the past 50 years, sea level has risen up to 8 inches or more along some coastal
areas of the United States, and has fallen in other locations.2

These trends are expected to continue, partly due to past and future emissions of heat-trapping
greenhouse gases from human activities, but will occur against a background of natural
variations in climate.3  In the United States, temperatures are projected to warm substantially
over the 21st century under all projections of future climate  change. These changes pose risks
for a wide range of human and environmental systems, including public health, the quality of
the air we breathe and the water we drink, freshwater resources, the coastal environment,
wildlife and ecosystems, infrastructure, economic activity, cultural resources and social well-
being. As such, the impacts of climate change introduce vulnerabilities across the mission and
goals of EPA.

Around the world all countries are expected to feel the effects of climate change, although the
specific impacts will vary. The impacts, however, are expected to disproportionately affect
developing countries and those already at risk.4  Within the  United States, certain parts of the
                                                                                  18

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population may be especially vulnerable to climate change5.  For example, EPA recognizes that
climate change may have significant impacts on subsistence resources in rural communities,
Alaskan Native villages, and Indian Country. EPA's efforts to anticipate and adapt to the effects
of climate change on its core mission, therefore will include helping the most vulnerable people
and places reduce their exposure to climate change and improving their capacity to predict,
prepare for and avoid adverse impacts.6
2.2   Synthesis of EPA's Vulnerabilities
The best available science directs our attention to areas where EPA's mission, facilities, and
operations may be adversely affected by climate change. EPA has not yet conducted a detailed
quantitative assessment of the vulnerability of its mission to
climate change. This Climate Change Adaptation Plan uses
expert judgment, combined with information from peer-
reviewed scientific literature on  the impacts of climate
change, to identify potential vulnerabilities.
The assessment of EPA's climate-
related vulnerabilities is an
ongoing process. This summary of
This section summarizes the Agency's known mission,            known vulnerabilities should be
r  ...      ,       -ii     ,.,.....,.               viewed as a living document that
facility, and operational vulnerabilities. As scientific
                                                            will be updated as needed to
understanding increases, other vulnerabilities may join the             . ,
                                                            account for new knowledge, data
list. This summary is organized by EPA's five strategic goals,       and scientific evidence.
which represent EPA's approach to its work and reflect the
results it works to achieve on behalf of the American
people:7
   Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality

•  Goal 2: Protecting America's Waters

   Goal 3: Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable Development

   Goal 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution

   Goal 5: Enforcing Environmental Laws

In addition to known vulnerabilities affecting each of the five goals, EPA has begun to assess the
vulnerabilities of its facilities and operations to a changing climate. EPA must ensure the safety
of its personnel, the safe and continued operation of its buildings and other critical assets (e.g.,
vehicles), and the integrity of its grants and procurement systems. In the event of any
catastrophic weather event, EPA's people, buildings and  operations could be impacted. These
vulnerabilities are summarized in this section.  Finally, this section includes information on
climate change impacts on the most vulnerable communities. For example, the Agency has a
priority focus on children's environmental health and environmental justice, including minority,
low-income, and indigenous populations, and these populations are discussed.
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The assessment of EPA's climate change vulnerabilities is a dynamic process. The extent to
which vulnerabilities have been identified and are understood varies across goals. The science
of climate change will  improve over time, providing greater weight of evidence to evaluate the
consequences of existing and expected impacts. EPA will continue to identify new
vulnerabilities and improve its understanding of known vulnerabilities as it undertakes more
research, assessment, and monitoring activities, and fills in data gaps.
        Examples of Data, Information, and Research Needs to Improve EPA's Assessment of its
                                 Vulnerabilities from Climate Change

  Potential vulnerabilities remain difficult to assess in some areas because of limited scientific understanding of the
  potential impacts of climate change on some of EPA's programs. Examples of data, information, and/or research
  needs include:
  •   Characterization of local impacts to precipitation and hydrology for use in planning long-lived water
      infrastructure.
  •   Monitoring shifts in water quality and aquatic ecosystems in watersheds, and methods for incorporating such
      changes into water quality programs.
  •   The potential impact of more intense weather events on EPA's disaster response planning efforts.
  •   The site-specific impacts of climate change on Brownfields, Corrective Action Facilities under the Resource
      Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Superfund sites, RCRA Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD) facilities,
      non-hazardous solid waste facilities, and Leaking Underground Storage Tanks.
  •   The effect of climate change on energy efficiency programs given changes in energy demand and supply.
  •   The interactions between climate and the stratospheric ozone layer.
  •   The effects of climate change on multi-pollutant interactions in ecosystems.
  •   A characterization of climate-related trends in chemical use [e.g., changing patterns of pesticide use and new
      chemical exposures to people and the environment), and implications for the review process for new chemicals
      or the registration process for new pesticides.
2.2.1 Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
America's communities face health and environmental challenges from air pollution, some of
which are exacerbated by the growing effects of climate change. EPA is working with its
partners to protect public health and the environment with programs that address indoor and
outdoor air quality, climate change, pollution prevention, energy efficiency, industrial air
pollution, pollution from vehicles and  engines, radon, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion,
and radiation protection. Within this broad portfolio, several programmatic areas are
vulnerable to future climate change, presenting challenges for EPA to continue to achieve its
core mission.
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The extent of vulnerability, however, differs across program areas and is tied to EPA's
understanding of the science and projections of future climate change impacts. Some key areas
of known vulnerability for EPA's air programs are:

Tropospheric ozone pollution is  likely to increase in certain regions due to the effects of
climate change. The relationship between temperature changes and tropospheric ozone
formation is well understood. With climate change, higher temperatures and weaker air
circulation in the United States will lead to more ozone formation  even with the same level of
emissions of ozone forming chemicals.8 Studies project that climate change could increase
tropospheric ozone levels over broad areas of the country, especially on the highest-ozone
days.9 Climate change also has the potential to lengthen the ozone season (the months of the
year when weather conditions, along with pollutants in the air, can result in the formation of
ground-level ozone in particular locations around the country), and may increase  individuals'
vulnerability to air pollution.
                           10
                            Climate Change Impacts on Tropospheric Ozone Pollution
EPA is working to reduce
the number of areas in
America that do not meet
air quality standards.
Increases in ozone due to
climate change may make
it more difficult to attain or
maintain ozone standards.
This will need to be taken
into account when
designing effective ozone
precursor emission control
programs.

Increases in tropospheric
ozone concentrations due
to climate change would
increase the public health burden from air pollution. The potential impacts on public health
include more respiratory illnesses and increased risk of premature deaths.11 This is a particular
concern to sensitive subpopulations which are at risk for health effects from exposure to ozone.
In order to better protect human health, Federal, state, tribal, and local governments will need
to respond by improving the effectiveness of existing emissions control  programs for ozone
precursors or by implementing new control measures that will ensure attainment of the ozone
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).
                             Studies project that climate
                             change could increase
                             tropospheric ozone levels over
                             broad areas of the country.
                             Climate change also has the
                             potential to lengthen the
                             ozone season, and may
                             increase
                             individuals' vulnerability to air
                             pollution.
                                                       Photo: U.S. EPA
                             Sources: (1) U.S. EPA (2009). Assessment of the Impacts of Global Change on
                             Regional U.S. Air Quality: A Synthesis of Climate Change Impacts on Ground-
                             Level Ozone. An Interim Report of the U.S. EPA Global Change Research
                             Program. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC,
                             EPA/600/R-07/094F.  (2) K. Katsouyanni, et al., "Air Pollution and Health: A
                             European and North American Approach (APHENA)," HEI Health Review
                             Committee, Research Report #142 (Boston, MA: Health Effects Institute,
                             October 2009), 5-90.
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Particulate matter (PM) levels are likely to be affected through changes in the frequency or
intensity of wildfires. While the impact of climate change on ambient PM levels remains
somewhat uncertain, there is evidence indicating that climate change will affect PM levels
through changes in the frequency or intensity of wildfires.12 The Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC) has reported with very high confidence that in North America,
disturbances such as wildfires are increasing and are likely to intensify in a warmer future with
drier soils and longer growing seasons.13 Forest fires are likely to increase in frequency,
severity, distribution and duration in the Southeast, the Intermountain West and the West due
to climate change. The potential increase in PM resulting from wildfires may increase the public
health burden in affected areas, which may include sensitive subpopulations at risk for
increased health effects from being exposed to PM pollution and also complicate state efforts
to attain the PM NAAQS and address regional transport of air pollution.

Climate change may worsen the quality of indoor air. Climate change may worsen existing
indoor environmental problems and introduce new ones as it alters the frequency or severity of
adverse outdoor conditions. Some examples of potential indoor air quality impacts include:
•  Heavy precipitation events may contribute to increases in indoor dampness and building
   deterioration, increasing occupants' exposure to mold and other biological contaminants
   and  emissions from building materials, as well as outdoor environmental pollutants, due to
   breakdown of the protective building envelope.
   Temperature increases may affect the emergence, evolution and geographic ranges of
   pests, infectious agents and disease vectors. This may lead to shifting patterns of indoor
   exposure to pesticides as  occupants and building owners respond to new infestations.
   Warmer average temperatures may lead to changes in occupant behavior that may create
   health risks. Moreover, residents may weatherize buildings to increase comfort and indoor
   environmental quality in addition to saving energy. Although in general, these actions
   should be encouraged, this may lead to a  reduction in ventilation and an increase in indoor
   environmental pollutants  unless measures are taken to preserve or improve indoor air
   quality.14

These impacts may increase public health risks, particularly to the young, the elderly, and other
disproportionately impacted populations.
Climate change may alter the effects of and strategic priorities within EPA's regulatory and
voluntary programs to help restore the stratospheric ozone layer. The interactions between
the changing climate and ozone layer are complex. Climate change affects the ozone layer
through changes in chemical transport, atmospheric composition and temperature. In turn,
changes in stratospheric ozone can have implications for the weather and climate of the

                                                                                    22

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troposphere. Stratospheric ozone depletion and increases in global tropospheric ozone that
have occurred in recent decades have differing contributions to climate change. Additionally,
climate change may exacerbate the health effects of ozone layer damage at some latitudes and
mitigate them at others.15 Ozone depletion and climate change are also linked because both
ozone depleting substances and most of their principal substitutes are significant greenhouse
gases. While the science continues to evolve, potential climate change  impacts are included in
the planning and implementation of the Agency's programs to protect stratospheric ozone.
Scientific understanding related to ways that climate change may affect the interactions of
sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury deposition with ecosystems is evolving. While there is limited
scientific evidence on this topic, additional research is underway to better understand how
patterns in the atmospheric deposition  of sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury with projected changes
in the climate and carbon cycle will affect ecosystem growth, species changes, surface water
chemistry, and mercury methylation and bioaccumulation.16The potential impacts could have
consequences for the effectiveness of ecosystem protection from Agency emissions reduction
programs.

2.2.2 Goal 2: Protecting America's Waters

The nation's water is the lifeblood of our communities, supporting our economy and way of life,
and is the basis of all ecosystems.

EPA works with its state, local and tribal partners to protect and restore the nation's waters.
Together we protect public health by reducing human exposure to contaminants in drinking
water, fish and shellfish, and recreational waters. We protect and restore watersheds and
aquatic ecosystems by protecting the quality of rivers, lakes, streams, wetlands and coastal and
ocean waters. EPA's programs include support for drinking water, wastewater and stormwater
infrastructure; setting standards for protecting  water quality and regulating municipal, and
industrial discharges of pollutants to waters; working to control nonpoint sources of pollution;
monitoring conditions of surface water, watersheds, beaches and coastal and ocean waters;
and implementing programs to preserve healthy watersheds and to restore impaired  waters.

Climate change alters the hydrological cycle, changing the background conditions in which
natural and man-made systems function.  Changes have already been observed and are
expected to continue, such as warming  air and water,  changes in the location and amount of
rain and snow, increased intensity of rainfall and tropical storms, sea level rise, changes in
ocean chemistry, and indirect effects related to energy generation and  fuel production.17
                                                                                    23

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Climate Change Impacts on Water
While there is relatively high confidence in our ability to project temperature increases due to
climate change, projected changes in precipitation and  its effects on hydrology at the local scale
are less certain. Therefore,
a key challenge will be how
to help local decision
makers understand
potential local impacts, and
how to make long-term
plans under a new range of
uncertainty about future
hydrologic conditions.
Water resource managers
will also need to consider
the local impacts of climate
change as they grapple
Climate change impacts include too little
water in some places, too much water in
other places, and degraded water quality.
Some locations will be subject to all of
these conditions during different times of
the year. Water cycle changes are expected
to continue and will affect water
infrastructure, energy production and use,
human health, transportation, agriculture,
and ecosystems.
 Source: USGCRP, "Global Climate Change
Impacts in the U.S."(2009), Water Sector,
at:
http://globalchange.gov/publications/repo
rts/scientific-assessments/us-impacts/climate-change-impacts-bv-
sector/water-resources
Photo: www.water.ky.gov
with other challenges-
including population
growth, land use changes,
economic constraints, and a variety of stressors to the quality and quantity of our nations
waters.

Protection of water quality, and restoration and protection of watersheds, wetlands, oceans,
and aquatic ecosystems will be greatly challenged by changes in climate throughout the
United States. EPA, working with its state, tribal, and local partners, is responsible for
developing and implementing a portfolio of regulatory and non-regulatory programs to protect
and improve water quality in the nation's watersheds and estuarine, coastal and ocean waters.
As better information is developed for local decision making, changes may be needed in how
EPA and our partners implement water quality programs, including Water Quality Standards,
Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL), Effluent Guidelines, National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES), nonpoint pollution control programs, and other watershed
management programs.

The potential vulnerabilities of EPA's water quality programs to climate change include:
•  Higher air and water temperatures will increase pollutant concentrations and lower
   dissolved oxygen levels, potentially resulting in additional water bodies not meeting water
   quality standards and being listed as impaired.
•  Higher air and water temperatures combined with nutrient pollution will  increase the
   incidence of Harmful Algal Blooms, threatening ecosystems and public health.
                                                          24

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Warmer waters and other ecological shifts will threaten aquatic habitats and aquatic
species, such as cold water fisheries, with the potential for significant impacts on
subsistence fishing tribes.
Increased intensity of rainfall events and storms will cause an increase in the number of
sewer overflows and wastewater bypasses, fouling streams.
Increased intensity of rainfall events and storms will cause increased pollutant loads in
runoff, and the velocity of runoff will scour and erode creek beds.
Areas experiencing periods of less precipitation, drought, lower stream flow and limited
ground water recharge will result in less water flow for dilution of permitted discharges,
alterations of aquatic environments, and increased impairments.  Competition will be
exacerbated for limited water supplies for municipal, industrial, energy, agricultural, and
ecological uses.
Areas with increased intensity of drought or that may experience increases in events such
as wildfires may see alterations in the structure and function of wetlands and watersheds.
Sea-level rise combined with coastal development will challenge the ability of coastal
wetlands to migrate.
Ocean acidification resulting from the absorption of C02 will continue to stress coral reefs.
As the nation pursues alternative strategies for producing energy and fuel, both to reduce
greenhouse gases and to increase energy independence, local or regional demand for
limited water supplies for energy and fuel production may increase, placing additional
pressures on water quality programs.
The ecological effects of climate change, such as shifts in aquatic species and their habitats
or the quality of snowpack, are likely to affect the economic and cultural practices of tribal
communities.
Sea level rise and coastal surges increase erosion that can affect coastal zones that support
aquatic species.
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Climate change will have a significant impact on water infrastructure. In most of the United
States, we enjoy the benefits of clean and safe water resulting from an extensive network of
drinking water, wastewater and stormwater infrastructure. EPA recognizes that this
infrastructure is aging and is being further taxed by the impacts of climate change. Additionally,
as state, tribal and local governments face more demands for increasingly limited resources,
the ability to respond to these growing infrastructure pressures becomes more complicated.
Climate change  will create vulnerabilities in the nation's infrastructure system in the following
ways:
    Changes in rainfall patterns beyond the  design capacity of drinking water, wastewater and
    stormwater  infrastructure, or flooding due to increased intensity of storms, could
    overwhelm and damage infrastructure.
•   Sea-level rise could affect water infrastructure, including drinking water intakes and
    wastewater  outfalls, and could push saline water into coastal aquifers.  Combined with
    tropical storms and associated storm surges, the integrity of coastal water infrastructure
    systems may be at increased risk.
    Drinking water and wastewater utilities  need to take an "all  hazards" approach to planning
    for emergencies and extreme weather events, which may be impacted  by climate change. In
    order to support the efforts of such utilities, it is important for EPA guidance, tools, and
    technical support to also support this all hazards approach.
•   Vulnerable and economically deprived communities may be particularly at risk, both for
    access to clean and safe water as well as for their ability to respond to emergencies during
    extreme events.


Climate change will affect the quality and availability of drinking water supplies. More than
290 million people living in the United States rely on the safety of tap water provided by public
water systems that are subject to national drinking water standards. EPA ensures that these
water systems are sustainable and secure by developing and revising water standards, ensuring
compliance with these standards, and protecting sources of drinking water from contamination.

EPA's role in drinking water is solely to protect the quality of what Americans consume. EPA
does not have a direct role in ensuring adequate water supplies. However,  changes in water
quantity may affect water quality. The issue of water quantity is a significant issue for many
communities, and will be increasingly so especially in the west and  southeast. We can expect
increasing numbers of communities grappling with increased drought, reduced snow pack, and
challenges to water supplies. Such communities will be faced with  managing competition
between municipal supplies, energy production, industrial use, agricultural use, and ecological
needs, and it is likely that EPA and our partners will be called on to address water quality issues
                                                                                    26

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in this context. EPA has identified a number of areas where its programs designed to protect
drinking water are vulnerable to climate change. These vulnerabilities include:
   Higher air and water temperatures will promote increased growth of algae and microbes,
   which will increase the need for drinking water treatment.
   Changes in water temperature can lead to increased risk from invasive species that can
   disrupt water and waste water systems.
   Increased  stormwater runoff will wash sediment and other contaminants into drinking
   water sources, requiring additional treatment.
   Sea-level rise could increase the salinity of both surface water and ground water through
   saltwater intrusion, encroaching upon coastal drinking water supplies.
•  Reduced annual precipitation or increased intensity and duration of drought in some
   regions will affect water supplies, causing drinking water providers to reassess supply plans
   and consider alternative pricing, allocation and water conservation options.
•  Warming temperatures will cause precipitation in some areas to increasingly fall as rain
   rather than snow. Combined with seasonal shifts in springtime snowmelt, areas relying on
   snowpack to serve as a water 'reservoir' may need to develop new plans for ensuring water
   supplies.
   In areas with loss of snowpack or less precipitation, water demand may shift to
   underground aquifers or prompt development of underground storage of treated water,
   which will require EPA to assure the safety of such underground  sources of drinking water.
2.2.3  Goal 3: Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable
       Development

EPA's highest priorities under this goal are to prevent and reduce exposure to contaminants
and accelerate the pace of cleanups across contaminated sites and properties, including
Brownfields, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Facilities,
Superfund sites and Leaking Underground Storage Tanks.18

A range of major climate change stressors may affect contaminated sites, which in turn could
affect how EPA addresses  contamination and manages cleanups. In order to understand the
potential impacts to these sites, EPA has begun to use broad screening analysis mapping to
identify the sites most likely threatened by climate change impacts. EPA has a general
understanding of the potential vulnerabilities at these sites. Key vulnerabilities identified by
EPA include:
                                                                                   27

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                             Increased Temperatures May Represent a Significant Risk for
                             Waste Sites in Alaska

                                     *
Flooding from more intense and frequent storms and sea-level rise, as well as melting
permafrost, may lead to contaminant releases from Corrective Action sites, Superfund sites,
Brownfield sites and
landfills. Inundation and
flooding may lead to
transport of contaminants
through surface soils,
ground water, surface
waters and/or coastal
waters. Saltwater intrusion
and increased ground
water salinity in coastal
aquifers may also increase
the permeability of clay
liners installed at waste
sites, such as landfills,
allowing contaminants to
spread to nearby
properties. Melting
permafrost may allow
contaminants to migrate
and may cause land shifting
                                    -
                                    "1
                                    Ig vi
                                    ~.
                                    a
                                    3 1*
                                          two
                                                 1MS
                                                       • •••:•
                                                          Vw
                                                                    2000
                                                                           2006
and subsidence. These
contaminant releases may
pose an increased risk of
adverse health and
environmental impacts.
Temperature increases associated with climate change may lead to the
melting of permafrost - which acts as a barrier to the transport of
contaminants - in northern latitudes. With increased temperatures, thawing
could allow contaminants to migrate more freely to adjoining areas.
Source: Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson, eds.,
Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (New York, NY:
Cambridge University Press, 2009),
http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-
report.pdf.
Changes in precipitation patterns and temperature may adversely affect the performance of
the cleanup remedy and alter the efficacy of cleanups. To the extent that climate change leads
to more prolonged droughts, water-intensive remedies may be impacted and the risk of
wildfires spreading to contaminated sites may increase. Changes in precipitation may affect the
rate at which vegetation grows at various sites and may affect phytoremediation and ecological
revitalization efforts. The impacts may be positive or negative, depending on conditions at each
site. Ground water processes may also be altered, resulting in potential adverse impacts on the
performance and cost of remediation. To the extent that temperatures increase with climate
change, contaminants at cleanup sites may become more volatile, increasing risks for local
populations. The extent of this effect will depend on the contaminants at individual sites.
                                                                                       28

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Climate change may also affect the ability of EPA's emergency management workforce to
respond to natural disasters. For example, the release of hazardous substances or chemicals
through flooding or storm surge creates demand for emergency response personnel and assets
to monitor environmental conditions and respond.  EPA has several programs to respond and
minimize exposure to human populations and ecosystems, including the Oil Spill Response
Program and Superfund Emergency Response. These programs provide an institutional
framework to use and build upon when responding to climate change impacts.  When
responding to emergencies, EPA often coordinates with other Federal agencies, as well as state,
tribal and local organizations. These organizations will be  important partners in EPA's work
responding to natural disasters of increased severity and frequency.
Flooding from more intense and frequent storms and sea-level rise may disrupt existing
waste management networks  Flooding from sea level rise or severe storms may disrupt the
transportation system in place to handle waste. For example, flooding may disrupt the pick-up
of waste in neighborhoods and business or the work performed at transfer stations. Cities with
transfer stations along waterways are at particular risk.  A major storm event may increase the
amount of solid waste generated and lead to the release of fuel or hazardous materials.
Smaller entities with hazardous materials may lack resources for emergency planning, which
may increase the risk of abandoned hazardous materials during a flooding or storm event.
Changes in precipitation  may impact waste management practices such as composting by
affecting biological processes.


2.2.4  Goal 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
                          Impact of Climate Change on Pesticide Exposure Models
A major component of
EPA's mission is ensuring
the safety of chemicals.
Increasingly, the
chemicals used to make
our products, build our
homes, and support our
way of life end up in the
environment and in our
bodies. A changing
climate can affect
exposures to a wide
range of chemicals. Exposures may change because of changing environmental conditions or
changing use patterns. EPA's efforts to reduce exposures may be affected.
Many of EPA's tools and models
for examining exposure to
chemicals rely on inputs that are
sensitive to climate data (e.g.,
changing weather patterns,
temperatures, stream flow
rates, air currents and
precipitation rates). EPA is in
the early stages of examining the vulnerability of its models to climate change,
beginning with a review of its pesticide exposure models.
Source: U.S. EPA, Memorandum: Transmittal of Meeting Minutes of the FIFRA
Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) held December?, 2010, on Pesticide Exposure
Modeling and Climate Change, March 3, 2011. SAP minutes, No. 2011-01.
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EPA relies heavily on tools and models to help estimate exposures to chemicals when
monitoring data are unavailable. The Agency is in the early stages of examining the ways in
which its models may have to be updated to account for climate change. It has begun with a
review of the potential implications of climate change for its current approaches to evaluating
pesticide exposures to people and the environment.19 These approaches are currently and will
continue to be used to assess exposures to the general population, as well as children,
agricultural workers and other groups who may be disproportionally affected.

EPA consulted with the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Scientific
Advisory Panel (SAP) to provide guidance on its model review and preliminary conclusions, and
on sources of information that may help fill knowledge gaps. The SAP concluded that climate
change is likely to affect future decisions because of its impact on pest pressure, how and
where pesticides are used, and the quantity of pesticides used. Since EPA reviews pesticide
registrations every 15 years using assessment methodologies that are conservative and
protective of human health and the environment, it  is expected that the assessments, and
decisions based on them, will remain protective. However, the SAP also concluded that weather
data used in models that estimate pesticide exposure are becoming dated, and thus may not
adequately reflect recent changes in climate. Some of EPA's exposure models that contain
climate-related variables may have to be updated as weather patterns, temperatures, stream
flow rates, air currents, precipitation rates, and other climate variables continue to change.
The Agency has not yet conducted vulnerability assessments of the potential impacts of climate
change on exposures of people and the environment to other types of chemicals. For example,
there may be increased risk of exposure to lead
and asbestos as homes, buildings, and other
community infrastructure are damaged by fires,
high winds, and flood events. Similarly, climate
change may lead to the development of new
chemicals submitted for Agency review that
have uses for water purification and
desalinization, wastewater treatment,
antimicrobial disinfection, and disease
prevention. EPA will explore the need for future
assessments that evaluate potential impacts like
these.
     Climate Change and FIFRA

An increase in the frequency of emergency
pest problems could lead to an increase in
the need for emergency exemptions under
the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) if currently
registered pesticides are ineffective. This
would allow for the use of chemicals which
are not registered.
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2.2.5  Goal 5: Enforcing Environmental Laws

EPA protects human health and the environment through vigorous and targeted civil and
criminal enforcement and by ensuring compliance with environmental laws. Climate change
may affect decisions related to the enforcement of environmental laws. For example:
   The risks posed by climate change may affect decisions by EPA about where resources
   should be allocated to ensure compliance with rules or regulations it believes to be
   priorities. These enforcement priorities may be derived from a variety of sources, ranging
   from the Administrator's identified goals for EPA, to program-specific guidance memoranda
   to assist enforcement personnel in selecting appropriate enforcement mechanisms
   depending on site-specific circumstances.
•  A flood, hurricane or wildfire can swiftly divert the Agency's focus.20 If climate change leads
   to more intense weather events and increases EPA's involvement in  disaster response and
   remediation, then enforcement efforts (as well as efforts in other EPA programs) could be
   affected due to a scarcity of available staff and resources.
2.2.6  EPA's Facilities and Operations

EPA must ensure the security of its personnel, the safe and continued operation of its buildings
and other critical assets (e.g., vehicles), and the integrity of its grants and procurement systems.
In the event of any catastrophic weather event, EPA's people, buildings and operations could be
affected. Based on the potential for climate change to alter water supplies and increase the
frequency and severity of extreme weather events, EPA has identified the following
vulnerabilities to the Agency's continued safe and efficient operations:
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Increased frequency and severity of extreme weather events may affect Agency facilities,
personnel safety, physical security and emergency communications. Some extreme weather
events are expected to become more commonplace as the climate changes, increasing the
occurrence of flooding, heat waves, lightning and high winds. An increase in these events would
increase the risk to EPA's personnel in the field and EPA facilities. EPA has begun to assess these
vulnerabilities and has identified the following areas of potential impact:
    Severe weather and flooding could cause damage to EPA facilities, especially in coastal
    areas. The Agency has already seen such damage to its Gulf Ecology Division Laboratory in
    Florida. Sea Level rise could also impact low lying coastal facilities and their access roads,
    especially when
    coupled with
    storm surges
    and flooding.
    Extreme
    weather events,
    including severe
    winds and
    lightning could
    cause damage to
    EPA's long-term
    environmental
    monitoring
    assets,
    particularly in
    coastal and
    flood prone
    areas.  The
               EPA's Gulf Ecology Division Laboratory

When Hurricane Ivan tore through Florida's Gulf Coast in September 2004, it served
as a powerful reminder to EPA's Gulf Ecology Division Laboratory facilities that
                           st
intelligent facility design in the 21 century requires the highest standards for safety
and durability, as well as sustainability. Located on Sabine Island, a 16-acre patch of
land off the coast of the Florida Panhandle, the laboratory campus was especially
vulnerable to the hurricane's devastating winds and rain. In the wake of the storm,
six of the 40 buildings at the campus were destroyed and had to be temporarily
replaced with modular structures.
In 2008, these buildings were permanently replaced with a new Computational and
Geospatial Sciences Building. This facility was designed to meet the Florida Building
Code, which requires stringent hurricane mitigation techniques. It has also earned
the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
    ฎ
[LEED ) Silver 2.2 certification for New Construction. This building meets the
demands of its environment in a sustainable manner.
(Source: "Sustainable Facilities at EPA: Computational and Geospatial Science
Building, Gulf Breeze, Florida," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-200-F-09-
002, Washington, DC, 2009.)
   Agency has already seen such damage to equipment at sites in the Clean Air Status and
   Trends Network and the National Atmospheric Deposition Program.
   Seasonal temperature changes and changing weather patterns can affect air quality and the
   general comfort of outdoor activities. Extreme heat, bad air quality or other weather
   conditions exacerbated by climate change may increase the health risks of EPA employees
   and contractors engaged in field work, such as sampling, remediation and inspections.
   Severe winds, lightning and other extreme weather events could cause power outages that
   disrupt EPA's security systems, outdoor lighting and emergency communication systems.
   Some of these systems are not linked to an uninterruptible power supply or backup
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   generators. Outdoor lighting and security cameras are also vulnerable to direct impacts
   from high winds and other severe weather.
An increase in the number of extreme weather events could affect planning and management
of emergency operations. During and after extreme weather events, EPA employees and
contractors are dispatched to assess impacts to the environment and human health. The
Agency also awards acquisitions and grants to support stakeholder emergency response. An
increase in extreme weather events could result in the following impacts:
   An increase in the occurrence of extreme weather events may affect the availability of the
   Agency's personnel and resources to support the dispatch of emergency management
   personnel to assess environmental damage and test sites for air quality, water quality and
   other human health and environmental threats. At the same time, EPA personnel would
   increasingly be drawn away from their normal day-to-day activities to respond to extreme
   weather events or emergencies.
•  EPA's Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) addresses issues related to resiliency
   in the Agency's suppliers, supply chain, and real property procurement under Goal  2:
   Sustainable Buildings and Goal 6: Sustainable Acquisition. Climate change adaptation,
   mitigation, and resiliency planning are incorporated into sustainable procurement
   efforts through the Agency's Balanced Scorecard Initiatives, and acquisition, real property
   and leasing decisions incorporate sustainability through the GreenCheck process. Facility
   locations and siting decisions are driven by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
   process, which reviews all environmental aspects of new facilities, sites, and construction.
•  Changing weather patterns and weather events may increase the demand for protective
   gear and appropriate vehicles and vessels to meet the demands of extreme working
   conditions during research, field work, and emergency management.
•  EPA continues to award and manage acquisitions and grants during severe weather events;
   both those that are required for ongoing needs and those required for emergencies. An
   increase in such events could affect EPA's ability to assess contractor readiness and
   capabilities, process and award contracts, provide financial assistance, enter into
   interagency agreements and train essential personnel.
Changing water supplies may pose a risk to the quality of water used at EPA facilities. Shifts in
snowpack in some regions of the country could mean a change in the disposition of water
supplies and potentially compromise the quality of water available to the Agency.  EPA
laboratories require water to conduct experiments and meet building cooling requirements.
Water shortages and quality issues could have significant impacts on the Agency's ability to
manage its facilities and conduct important research, particularly in drought-prone regions.
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2.3   Climate Change Impacts on the Most Vulnerable Communities

Climate change will have a disproportionate effect on particular geographic locations,
communities, and demographic groups.

The impacts of climate change raise environmental justice issues. Environmental justice
focuses on the health of and environmental conditions affecting minority, low-income, and
indigenous populations. EPA places emphasis on these populations because they have
historically been exposed to a combination of physical, chemical, biological, social, and cultural
factors that have imposed greater environmental burdens on them than those imposed on the
general population. Climate change is likely to exacerbate existing and introduce new
environmental burdens and associated health impacts in communities dealing with
environmental justice challenges across the nation.21 EPA's Policy Statement on Climate Change
Adaptation calls on the Agency to focus on incorporating consideration of environmental justice
into the design and evaluation of adaptation strategies.

The populations most vulnerable to climate change often include, but are not limited to, the
communities that are the focus of EPA's environmental justice program. Children, the elderly,
the poor, the infirm, and tribal and indigenous populations are among the most vulnerable.22
For example, children living and playing outdoors in regions with higher ozone levels resulting
from increased temperature will be at higher risk for experiencing asthma symptoms and
exacerbations. The elderly are more vulnerable to heat stress because they are often in poorer
health, have debilitating chronic diseases and are less able to regulate their body temperature
during periods of extreme heat. They may also be taking medications that increase risk for
dehydration and may live alone or have fewer social contacts, which may further exacerbate
their vulnerabilities.23 Economic constraints can also place low-income households at
disproportionate risk to extreme heat events due to lack of air conditioning or failure to use air-
conditioning to cut down on associated energy costs.24

EPA has a special obligation to work consultatively with the tribes to help them as  sovereign
governments address their climate adaptation concerns. EPA's 1984 Policy for the
Administration of Environmental Programs on Indian Reservations directs the  Agency to work
"in a manner consistent with the overall Federal position in support of Tribal 'self-government'
and 'government-to-government' relations between Federal and Tribal Governments."
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EPA is committed to integrating environmental justice and climate adaptation into its programs,
policies, rules and operations in such a way that to the extent possible, it effectively protects all
demographic groups, geographic locations and communities, and natural resources that are
most vulnerable to climate change.  The Agency will place special emphasis on overburdened
populations that are least able to help themselves, and work in partnership with them to
empower them to effectively adapt to climate change.
                Coastal Climate Change Impacts on Low-Income Minority Communities

  Climate change will affect certain groups of people more than others, depending on where they live and their ability
  to cope with different climate hazards. For example, a combination of sea level rise and land subsidence in coastal
  Louisiana has increased the area's vulnerability to storm surge and hurricane damage.1'2 Hurricane Katrina, though
  not necessarily directly a result of climate change, provides an illustrative example of how storm surges can result in
  catastrophic effects for coastal communities and how social vulnerabilities can be manifested in the form greater
  vulnerability for lower income minority communities and unequal access to resources. Barriers for the community to
  avoid the risks posed by Katrina included the lack of material resources, such as cash and access to transportation,
  for evacuation purposes.3'4'5 These factors contributed to disproportionate impacts on minority and low-income
  communities in New Orleans. For example, African Americans were overrepresented in mortality rates in all age
  categories compared to their proportion of the pre-Katrina population.6 The impacts of Hurricane Katrina were
  devastating and highlight the environmental as well as social vulnerabilities of coastline communities.

  1.  Sources:USGCRP (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States .  Karl, T.R., J.M. Melillo, and T.C.
      Peterson (eds.). United States Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA.
  2.  CCSP (2008). Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Transportation Systems and Infrastructure: Gulf Coast
      Study, Phase I. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change
      Research. Savonis, M. J., V.R. Burkett, and J.R. Potter (eds.). Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, USA,
      445 pp.
  3.  Elliott, James R. and Jeremy Pais. 2006. "Race, class, and Hurricane Katrina: Social Differences in Human Responses
      to Disaster," Social Science Research, 35: 295-321.
  4.  Fothergill, A., and L. Peek. 2004. "Poverty and disasters in the United States: A review of recent sociological
      findings." Natural Hazards Journal 32(1): 89-110.
  5.  Berube, A., and B. Katz. 2005 "Katrina's Window: Confronting Concentrated Poverty Across America." The
      Brookings Institution Special Analysis in Metropolitan Policy.
  6.  Sharkey, P. 2007. Survival and Death in New Orleans: An Empirical Look at the Human Impact of Katrina. Journal of
      Black Studies, 37:482-501.
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                          Climate Change Impacts on Tribal Communities

Indigenous people are among the most vulnerable communities in North America.1 Tribes are more vulnerable
to climate change impacts because of their dependence upon a specific geographic area for their livelihoods,
the degree to which those geographic areas embody climate-sensitive environments, and their unique cultural,
economic, or political characteristics and contexts. Also, tribes generally have fewer resources to prepare for,
respond to, and recover from natural hazards, including those related to climate change.2 The disproportionate
vulnerability of tribes to climate change affects EPA's mission to protect human health and the environment in
Indian country.
Examples of the impacts climate change is already having on tribes include:
•   The coastal Inupiat village of Shismaref Alaska is one of many coastal villages in Alaska facing relocation
    due to threats from flooding and erosion related to a rise in sea level and a decrease in sea ice. Sea walls
    have been broken and homes washed away. Residents have decided to relocate farther inland for safety,
    giving up their traditional fishing, sealing, and home-building sites.3
•   Drought is perhaps the most pervasive climate-induced weather impact on tribes. Water is at the heart of
    many tribal cultures and the foundation of their livelihoods, economies, subsistence, and treaty rights.
    Water is essential to the sustainability of the fish, wildlife, and plants on which tribes rely. The recent trend
    toward more severe and frequent droughts, especially in the American Southwest, threatens the very
    underpinnings of tribal communities. The Southwest is already in the midst of a 10-15 year drought, and
    climate projections suggest the Southwest may transition to a more arid climate on a permanent basis over
    the next century and beyond.4 In fact, climate observations indicate that this transition may have already
    begun.
•   Moose, a species important to many tribes in the Great Lakes region, are suffering the impacts of warmer
    weather. In a recent study of moose at the southern edge of their range in northwest Minnesota,
    researchers found that over the past 40 years, declines in the moose population are related to increases in
    mean temperature with winter and summer temperatures increasing by an average of 12ฐF and 4ฐF,
    respectively, over this period. Lack of food resources and increased exposure to deer parasites associated
    with warmer summer temperatures appear to be the primary causes of more decline.6
Sources:
1. Ml. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (eds). Contribution of Working Group II to the
Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007. "Climate Change 2007: Working Group II:
Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA,
2007.
2. Cutter, S.L. and C. Finch. 2008. "Temporal  and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards." Proceedings of the
National Academy of Science 105(7): 2301-2306.
3. National Research Council, Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change, America's Climate Choices: Panel on Adapting to the
Impacts of Climate Change, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2010.
4. Solomon, S., G-K Plattner, R. Knutti, and P. Friedlingstein, 2009. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(6): 1,704-1,709. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0812721106; Johanson, C.M., and Q.
Fu, 2009: Hadley Cell Widening: Model Simulations versus Observations. Journal of Climate, 22:2,713-2,725.
5.  Seager, R., et al., 2007. Model Projections of an Imminent Transition to a More Arid Climate in Southwestern North America.
Science, 316:1,181-1,184.
6.  U.S. Fish and  Wildlife Service. Rising to the Urgent Challenge: Strategic Plan for Responding to Accelerating Climate Change
http://www.fws.gov/home/climatechange/pdf/CCStrategicPlan.pdf
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2.4   Summary of Key Areas of Known Vulnerability

The current list of known vulnerabilities of EPA's programs to climate change are summarized in
the table at the end of this report. The vulnerabilities listed in the table help to guide the
Agency in identifying areas to focus its adaptation planning efforts. For several of the
vulnerabilities, current scientific understanding is that the climate impact is likely or very likely
to occur and EPA's best judgment is that there is a high  likelihood the program will be affected.
The Agency, as part of its efforts to mainstream adaptation into its programs (addressed  in Part
3 of this document), will conduct a more comprehensive vulnerability assessment to determine
which programs and areas are most suitable to initiate action. This qualitative assessment has
been done at a national  level. It identifies vulnerabilities to entire programs within EPA to help
focus the Agency's climate adaptation efforts. However, there is a "regional texture" to the
impacts of climate change. The severity and importance of known vulnerabilities will vary
across regions. EPA's Program and Regional Climate Change Adaptation Implementation  Plans
capture the regional differences and identify the vulnerabilities of greatest importance,
including identifying the most vulnerable people and places within these programs. The
Implementation Plans describe how climate change adaptation will be integrated into Program
and Regional planning and work in a manner consistent and compatible with their own
circumstances and objectives.
Endnotes
1 Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson, eds., Global Climate Change Impacts in the United
States (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2009),
http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-report.pdf.
2 Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson, eds., Global Climate Change Impacts in the United
States (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2009),
http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-report.pdf.
3 Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson, eds., Global Climate Change Impacts in the United
States (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2009),
http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-report.pdf.
4 Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Parry, M.L, Canziani, O. F., Palutikof, J. P., van der
Linden, P. J., et. al., contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change 2007, "Summary for Policy Makers" (2007), 11-12.
5 Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson, eds., Global Climate Change Impacts in the United
States (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 89-106,
http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-report.pdf.
6 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation, June 2, 2011,
http://epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/impacts-adaptation/adaptation-statement.pdf.
7 While the discussion of vulnerabilities is organized by goal, some of the impacts of climate change are expected
to cut across goals. For example, climate change may increase the number of weather-related emergencies to

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which the Agency is called to respond, potentially drawing staff from multiple locations and program areas. Staff
participating in emergency response work would be unavailable to complete their normal program responsibilities.
Climate change is also expected to affect many of the models that EPA programs and the states use to make
environmental decisions.
8 Denman, K.L, et al. (2007). Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry. In: Climate
Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental  Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt,
M. Tignor and H.L Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
9 U.S. EPA (2009). Assessment of the Impacts of Global Change on Regional U.S. Air Quality: A Synthesis of Climate
Change Impacts on  Ground-Level Ozone. An Interim Report of the U.S. EPA Global Change Research Program. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-07/094F.
10 Katsouyanni, K., et al.; HEI Health Review Committee (2009). Air pollution and health: a European and North
American approach (APHENA). Research Report Health Effects Institute. 2009 Oct;(142):5-90.
  U.S. EPA. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (2006 Final). U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency,  Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-05/004aF-cF, 2006.
12 Committee on  Environment and Natural Resources, "Scientific Assessment of the Effects of Global Change on
the United States" (Committee on Environment and Natural Resources of the National Science and Technology
Council, U.S. Climate Change Science Program, 2008), http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/scientific-
assessment/Scientif ic-AssessmentFINAL.pdf.
13 C.B. Field et al., "North America," Chapter 14 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability,
Contribution of Working Group  II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, ed. M.L Parry, O.F.  Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (Cambridge, United
Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
14 Institute of Medicine, Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health (Washington, DC: The National
Academies Press, 2011).
15 World Meteorological Organization, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and
Monitoring Project—Report No. 52 (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011).
16 Burns,  D.A., Lynch, J.A., Cosby, B.J., Fenn, M.E., Baron, J.S., US EPA Clean Air Markets Div., 2011,National Acid
Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress 2011: An Integrated Assessment, National Science and
Technology Council, Washington, DC, 114 p.
17 "Global Climate Change Impacts in the U.S."(2009), Water Sector, at:
http://globalchange.gov/publications/reports/scientific-assessments/us-impacts/climate-change-impacts-by-
sector/water-resources.
18 There may be additional sites not included in this list that occur as a result of emergency response activities or
unanticipated events.
19 Conclusions from EPA consultations with the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Scientific
Advisory Panel (SAP), a panel of external experts established under FIFRA to provide the Agency with advice on
pesticide-related science matters.
20 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "FY 2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan, Achieving our Vision" (2011), 43,
http://epa.gov/planandbudget/strategicplan.html.
21 Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson, eds., Global Climate Change Impacts in the United
States (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 89-106,
http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-report.pdf.
                                                                                                    38

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22 Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson, eds., Global Climate Change Impacts in the United
States (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 89-106,
http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-report.pdf.
23 G. Luber et al., "Climate Change and Extreme Heat Events," Am J Prev Med 35(5), August 2008.
24 Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson, eds., Global Climate Change Impacts in the United
States (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 89-106,
http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-report.pdf.
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Part 3: Mainstream ing Climate Change Adaptation in  EPA

3.1   Building Adaptive Capacity
EPA's Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation acknowledges the importance of
adapting to climate change if the Agency is to continue fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and
programmatic requirements. It is vital that the EPA anticipate and plan for future changes in
climate and incorporate considerations of climate change into many of its programs, policies,
rules and operations to ensure they remain effective under
future climatic conditions.1
EPA will continue to protect human
health and the environment, but in a
way that accounts for the effects of
Climate change is one of many factors that can influence the
           0              '                               climate change.
effectiveness of EPA's activities over time. It is essential the
Agency account for climate change as it designs its programs,
policies and rules, in the same way other factors such as population growth and economic
development are regularly considered. EPA will  integrate, or mainstream, climate change
adaptation by strengthening the adaptive capacity of its own staff. EPA will empower them to
account for climate change in the normal course of doing business. It will increase staff's
awareness of ways that climate change may affect their ability to implement effective
programs, and provide them with the necessary data, information and tools to integrate
climate adaptation into the work they do.

EPA will work to strengthen partners' adaptive capacities. The Agency will work with its state,
tribal and local partners and will strive to ensure that to the greatest extent possible, their
human health and environmental protection programs are resilient to climate change.  This is
particularly important since the Agency authorizes many states and tribes to implement various
environmental programs. Also, EPA's efforts to help communities become more
environmentally and  economically sustainable could be affected by the impacts of climate
change. EPA will work with its partners in states, tribes and communities to look for
opportunities to create co-benefits from implementation of adaptation plans. For instance,
where communities take steps to improve storm water system resilience by reducing combined
sewer overflows, these actions may also reduce energy use for water. EPA will  need to  ensure
that its tools, research,  and technical assistance evolve to help communities and other  entities
take projected climate changes into account as they plan development. International
partnerships and collaboration on adaptation will  also be important to address the
transboundary impacts of climate change.

The Agency's investment in building adaptive capacity is an ongoing effort.  It will require a
sustained, long-term  commitment to empower  EPA's workforce and  partners by providing the
information and tools necessary to account for climate change.

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 3.2    Guiding Principles for Adaptation at EPA
 EPA has adopted a set of principles to guide all of its efforts to integrate climate adaptation into
 its programs, policies and rules. The principles affirm EPA's approach of integrating climate
 adaptation into existing programs and activities to ensure their effectiveness as the climate
 changes. They uphold EPA's core values of using the best available science, protecting
 populations and locations most vulnerable to climate change, and using sensible analytic
 methods and approaches for developing and implementing adaptation strategies. EPA has an
                                Guiding Principles for Adaptation

 •  Adopt integrated approaches: Adaptation should be incorporated into core policies, planning, practices and
    programs whenever possible.
    Prioritize the most vulnerable: Adaptation plans should prioritize helping people, places and infrastructure
    that are most vulnerable to climate impacts and be designed and implemented with meaningful involvement
    from all parts of society.
 •  Use best-available science: Adaptation should be grounded in the best-available scientific understanding of
    climate change risks, impacts and vulnerabilities.
    Build strong partnerships: Adaptation requires coordination across multiple sectors and scales and should
    build on the existing efforts and knowledge of a wide range of public and private stakeholders.
 •  Apply risk-management methods and tools: Adaptation planning should incorporate risk-management
    methods and tools to help identify, assess and prioritize options to reduce vulnerability to potential
    environmental, social and economic implications of climate change.
 •  Apply ecosystem-based approaches: Adaptation should, where relevant, take into account strategies to
    increase ecosystem resilience and protect critical ecosystem services on which humans depend to reduce
    vulnerability of human and natural systems to climate change.
    Maximize mutual benefits: Adaptation should, where possible, use strategies that complement or directly
    support other related climate or environmental initiatives, such as efforts to improve disaster preparedness,
    promote sustainable resource management, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions including the
    development of cost-effective technologies.
    Continuously evaluate performance: Adaptation plans should include measureable goals and performance
    metrics to continuously assess whether adaptive actions are achieving desired outcomes.
 (Source: The White House Council on Environmental Quality,  "Progress Report of the Interagency Climate Change
 Adaptation Task Force: Recommended Actions in Support of a National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy,"
 Octobers, 2010, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ceq/lnteragency-Climate-Change-
 Adaptation-Progress-Report.pdf.)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^•^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^•^^^
  important and unique role in climate adaptation, but is only one partner in a broader effort that
  must include multiple levels of government, as well as private, nongovernmental, and
  international partners. The  principles call for ongoing evaluation of the effectiveness of climate
                                                                                              41

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change adaptation approaches, recognizing that the Agency will continue to learn how to adapt
effectively over time.

3.3   Agency-wide Priorities

EPA has identified priority actions it will take to begin integrating climate change adaptation
into its programs, policies, rules and operations. These priorities represent EPA's commitment
to address the known vulnerabilities of its mission to climate change, and to continue to
identify other vulnerabilities its programs may have to climate change.
                                     Agency-wide Priorities

                    Fulfill Strategic Measures in FY2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan
                    Protect Agency facilities and operations
                    Factor legal considerations into adaptation efforts
                    Strengthen adaptive capacity of EPA staff and partners through training
                    Develop decision-support tools that enable EPA staff and partners to integrate
                    climate adaptation planning into their work
                    Identify cross-EPA science needs related to climate adaptation
                    Partner with tribes to increase adaptive capacity
                    Focus on most vulnerable people and places
                    Measure and evaluate performance
                    Develop and Implement Program and Regional Office Implementation Plans
3.3.1  Priority: Fulfill Strategic Measures in FY2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan
EPA expects that its understanding of how to integrate climate adaptation into its programs,
policies, rules and operations will improve overtime. The FY 2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan
identified three initial mechanisms through which the Agency will begin mainstreaming climate
adaptation by 2015:2
                     Strategic Measures in FY2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan

              By 2015:
              1.   Integrate climate change adaptation into rulemaking processes.
              2.   Integrate climate adaptation into financial mechanisms.
              3.   Develop decision-support tools.
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1.  Integration of climate change adaptation into rulemaking processes: EPA will integrate
   climate change trend and scenario information into five rulemaking processes to further
   EPA's mission, consistent with existing authorities. The integration of climate adaptation
   into Agency rulemaking processes will help ensure the rules are effective as the climate
   changes.3 A variety of "entry points" can be considered, including the development of the
   rule itself;  related policy and guidance development; and post-rule permitting, monitoring
   and enforcement.
   EPA will enhance the ability of rule makers to address the implications of climate change
   through updates to the Action Development Process (ADP). This process was developed by
   EPA to guide the Agency's rulemaking activities from the start of the rulemaking process
   through the analysis of regulatory options to the final publication of a regulation. EPA will
   integrate climate adaptation into the ADP by:
   •   Identifying process points where climate change adaptation considerations need to  be
       identified, analyzed and   	
       discussed. The
       rulemaking process4
       includes opportunities to
       discuss climate change
       adaptation
       considerations, both
       internally and with
       stakeholders.  An Analytic
       Blueprint  spells out a
       workgroup's plan for data
       collection and analyses to
       support development of a
       specific action. The
       development of an
       Analytic Blueprint
       provides an  early
       opportunity to articulate
  Progress is already being made to fulfill the Strategic Measures

EPA is already making progress to fulfill the three Strategic Measures. For
example, the Agency issued guidance in October 2011 encouraging all Offices
to include climate adaptation evaluation criteria into announcements of
competitive funding opportunities The guidance is relevant to announcements
in which the outcomes to be supported by the awards are sensitive to changes
in climate [e.g., ability to attain air quality standards; effectiveness of water
infrastructure), or the projects being solicited would be more effective if they
addressed climate change adaptation issues [e.g., development of models and
tools to support decision making). EPA is also making progress on integrating
climate adaptation into its categorical funding mechanisms such as the Clean
Water and Safe Drinking Water State Revolving Funds in the Water Program
and Brownfields Restoration Grants in the Office of Solid Waste and
Emergency Response.

EPA is also already developing tools to support climate adaptation  planning.
For example, the BASINS tool that is designed for use by regional, state, and
local agencies in performing watershed and water quality-based studies now
includes a Climate Assessment Tool  (CAT). CAT provides a capability for
understanding how water resources could be affected by a range of potential
changes in climate, and the possible effectiveness of management practices
for increasing resilience of water resources to climate change.
       any climate change
       adaptation issues that
       need analysis.
       Developing guidance
       documents and training rule writers to understand the implications of climate change
       impacts. EPA has guidance on addressing children's health and environmental justice for
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       all of its rulemakings. EPA will develop a similar guide for climate change adaptation,
       and provide training. This will improve the regulatory work groups' understanding of
       climate change adaptation and how to consider it in rulemaking, when appropriate.
   •   Tracking and monitoring rulemakings where climate change adaptation may be an
       important consideration. To help identify rulemakings where climate change adaptation
       may be relevant, EPA will use its internal regulatory tracking databases to manage and
       report on regulatory development. This will allow EPA workgroups and stakeholders to
       plan and allow for integration of climate change considerations when identified in the
       critical process points described above.
2. Integration of Climate Change into financial assistance mechanisms: EPA will integrate
   considerations of climate change impacts and adaptive measures into five major grant, loan,
   contract or technical assistance programs. This will further EPA's mission, consistent with
   existing authorities. The integration of "climate adaptation criteria" into financial
   mechanisms will encourage recipients to account for climate change.
   Although this Strategic Measure is limited to a goal of five major financial assistance
   mechanisms by 2015, the ultimate goal is to integrate climate adaptation into all financial
   assistance agreements, where appropriate.
3. Development and use of decision-support tools: EPA will integrate climate change trend
   and scenario information into five major scientific  models or decision-support tools used to
   implement Agency environmental management programs. The development of decision-
   support tools will help build the adaptive  capacity  of the Agency's workforce and its
   partners.
These three mechanisms represent different  pathways through which the Agency can integrate
climate change into ongoing programs and priorities, to attain desired environmental and
human health outcomes and sustain them as the climate changes. EPA will continue to explore
more pathways through which the resilience  of the Agency's mission can be enhanced.

3.3.2  Priority: Protect Agency Facilities and Operations
EPA is committed to the safety of its personnel, the integrity of its buildings, and the efficiency
of its operations, but the increasing frequency and severity of extreme weather events poses
risks to meeting these objectives. Climate change could disrupt the operation of the Agency's
programs, compromise the safety of its staff, or affect the integrity of its physical infrastructure.
Adaptation planning to protect  EPA's workforce, operations and underlying infrastructure is
crucial.

EPA will develop and  implement measures to protect its workforce and increase the resilience
of its facilities and operations to climate change. For example, where possible, EPA will
enhance the resilience of existing facilities in  coastal areas  to protect them from severe
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weather, flood damage, and sea level rise. The Agency will also work with other government
agencies, particularly the General Services Administration, to account for climate change in the
design and construction of new facilities, or when new buildings are leased.

3.3.3 Priority: Factor Legal Considerations into Adaptation Efforts

As a general matter, the Agency's broad mandates to protect human health and the
environment afford a large reservoir of legal authority to support EPA adaptation work.
However, specific legal questions that may arise in the course of adaptation issues cannot be
answered in the abstract.

As a federal agency, EPA derives its authority to act from the U.S.  Constitution and the laws
passed by Congress. The Agency is committed to ensuring that its actions are constitutional,
authorized by statute, consistent with Congress's vision and intent, and otherwise  legally
supported.  The 2011 EPA Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation called on the Agency
to "identify for the Office of General Counsel areas where legal analysis is needed to carry out
agency actions called for in this policy statement." Because the legality of its actions is such a
high priority for EPA, program managers and staff are encouraged to freely and frequently
consult with the appropriate attorneys in the Office of General Counsel (OGC), Offices of
Regional Counsel (ORC), and the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) as
they conduct their adaptation work.

Important variation exists among the statutes EPA administers, as well as the regulatory
programs EPA designs, implements, and enforces  under those laws. Some of these laws, like
the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act, give EPA regulatory powers, such as the authority to
write regulations, set standards, issue permits, ensure compliance, and authorize state and
tribal environmental programs. Other laws govern EPA actions in a variety of areas essential to
its mission,  such as research and development, budget and personnel management, contracts,
and the  award of financial assistance. Still other laws impose obligations on EPA, such as
responsibilities to evaluate the effect of its activities on state and  local governments,
overburdened communities, small businesses, and endangered species, among others.

Each of these laws, whether granting EPA authority or imposing an obligation, may deserve
special attention and analysis in resolving legal questions related to adaptation work.  For
example, EPA may need to determine the extent of its authority to incorporate adaptation
measures into the terms and conditions of financial assistance mechanisms; evaluate the legal
basis for considering climate change impacts in setting standards or issuing permits under the
Clean  Air Act and Clean Water Act; or review the adequacy of its emergency response
authorities in the context of more frequent natural disasters. These examples are merely
illustrative of the diversity of ways in which legal issues may arise for EPA as it mainstreams
climate adaptation.

Important variation also exists in the level of scientific understanding of climate change impacts
and the  sensitivity of EPA programs to those impacts. These variations inform the  analysis of

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EPA's legal authority and responsibilities.  For instance, under the Administrative Procedure
Act, federal agencies like EPA have a basic obligation to act transparently and rationally. This is
generally demonstrated through an administrative record that documents the analysis and
reasoning leading to a final decision and responds appropriately to concerns raised by
interested parties and the public, using the information available to the Agency at the time of
its decision. The relative weight climate change considerations should  be given in evaluating
options for EPA action may depend on factors such as the time and geographic scale of the
potentially relevant climate impacts compared to the temporal and spatial scale of the
proposed EPA action; the strength of the scientific  understanding of the climate impacts; and
the environmental and economic consequences estimated to result from including or choosing
not to include climate change adaptation measures or considerations in the EPA action.

Considerations such as these are by definition case specific. Over time, however,  EPA
anticipates that more detailed policy principles and legal precedents will emerge to further
guide and inform EPA's adaptation efforts.

3.3.4 Priority: Strengthen Adaptive Capacity of EPA Staff and Partners Through
Training

An organization with adaptive capacity has the ability to craft and adopt new means to achieve
its goals as circumstances change. EPA needs its personnel and partners in states, tribes, and
local communities to have adaptive capacity if it is to achieve its mission in the midst of climate
change. EPA will build adaptive capacity through ongoing education and training. Equipped
with an understanding of expected climate-related changes and adaptation approaches, and
provided with and trained on how to use new decision-support tools, EPA and its partners will
be able to incorporate climate change  adaptation into their plans and decisions.

EPA's training, education and outreach programs that are focused on climate adaptation will
evolve over time. As an initial step, EPA will design  and implement a training program for its
staff and its partners focused on topics relevant to  EPA's mission. One goal is to increase
awareness about the importance of climate change adaptation, and to encourage all EPA staff
and partners to consider the changing  climate in the normal course of business. A second goal
of EPA's training will be to expose its staff and partners to specific approaches and tools for
integrating climate adaptation into decision-making processes.
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                                                   The assumption of stationarity

                                           Until now, EPA (for those programs not explicitly focused
                                           on climate change) has been able to assume stationarity
                                           of climate; that is, climate is relatively stable and future
                                           climate will mirror past climate. But the past is no longer
                                           a good predictor of the future.
3.3.5  Priority: Develop Decision-Support Tools that Enable EPA Staff and
Partners to Integrate Climate Adaptation Planning into their Work
The fact that the climate is no longer relatively stable, but will continue to change in new ways,
presents a major challenge for decision
makers working to protect human health
and the environment. Many standard
practices may no longer be effective
unless they account for climate change.
For example, standard methods used for
estimating the probability and  expected
frequency of floods for flood plain
mapping, designing infrastructure
systems, and estimating runoff of pollutants and sediments into rivers and streams are based
on the assumption of climate stationarity.5 The end of climate stationarity means that EPA and
its partners need to alter their standard  practices and decision routines to account for a
continuously changing climate.

The development of decision-support tools  plays a central role in EPA's overall efforts to adapt
to climate change. Following the recommendations of the National Research Council, EPA is
committed to developing decision-support tools to improve the quality and efficacy of decisions
related to outcomes that are sensitive to changes in climate.6 These tools will empower staff to
consider climate, as well as
changes in social and economic
conditions that are influenced
by climate change. They will
enable staff to integrate climate
adaptation planning into their
work and decision-making
processes. Priority will be given
to the development of tools that
would  benefit end-users in
multiple areas of EPA.
                                                  Decision Support Tools

                                  "The effectiveness of any decision support tool depends on whether it
                                  provides information that is relevant to decision makers. Tools need
                                  to be useful at space and time scales that are meaningful and
                                  relevant for specific decisions and decision makers, and they also
                                  need to be based on up-to-date and reliable information"

                                  (Source: National Research Council, Informing an Effective Response
                                  to Climate Change, America's Climate Choices: Panel on Informing
                                  Effective Decisions and Actions Related to Climate Change, The
                                  National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2010.)
EPA will also support capacity-
building for state, tribal, local, and international partners by working with them to develop and
use effective decision-support tools. EPA will coordinate with other Federal agencies on
developing decision-support tools with partners, when appropriate.
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3.3.6  Priority: Identify Cross-EPA Science Needs Related to Climate Adaptation
Implementing effective strategies to adapt to the changing climate requires that decisions be
grounded in the best available science on climate change risks, impacts and vulnerabilities, and
adaptive management practices. Throughout EPA, there is a growing need for up-to-date
information on the existing models, tools, data and information relevant to climate change
adaptation.

EPA has made great  progress in climate-related research and with the development of models
and tools. However,  the complex interactions of climate change impacts mean that
uncertainties and data gaps persist and that multiple Agency stakeholders have a role to play in
developing a research agenda. In order to identify the  most pressing science needs for
improved adaptation decision making, priority research needs related to climate change
adaptation  will be identified and periodically updated for the entire Agency through a
coordinated approach. This approach is designed to produce research results that benefit end-
users in multiple areas of EPA.

EPA will advance a rigorous basic and applied science program that will inform, enable and
deliver innovative and sustainable solutions to environmental problems in a changing climate.
The EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) has the primary responsibility of
coordinating with the Program and Regional Offices to identify the priority science needs of the
Agency and its partners. This coordination is essential since some of the priority science needs
will be  met by ORD's research program, and some by scientists in Program and Regional Offices.
In cases where other agencies could produce the scientific information needed, ORD will play a
major role representing EPA's needs to other federal agencies. For example, ORD is EPA's
primary representative to the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which
coordinates and integrates climate change research across 13 federal departments and
agencies.

Available data, tools, and information will be shared across the Agency and with its partners to
avoid redundancy given the Agency's limited resources. To facilitate the ongoing sharing of
information, EPA will establish a central repository of data (and associated metadata), models,
tools and information related to climate adaptation that are produced by the Agency. The
repository will also include  information ("lessons learned") about methods for mainstreaming
climate adaptation that have been  used by particular EPA Offices that may be applicable to
other users across the Agency. Where relevant to the adaptation efforts of EPA and its partners,
the repository will be linked to other databases and repositories of information within EPA, as
well as those produced by other federal agencies and non-federal entities.
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3.3.7  Priority:  Partner with Tribes to Increase Adaptive Capacity
EPA is committed to strengthening its partnerships with tribes on their priorities related to
climate change adaptation. A unique government-to-government relationship exists between
the U.S. Government and the 565 federally recognized tribes. EPA gives special consideration to
tribes in developing policies that may affect their interests. EPA recognizes that tribes will likely
be disproportionately vulnerable to climate change. This disproportionate vulnerability is partly
due to their dependence on specific geographic areas for their livelihood; unique cultural,
economic and political characteristics; and  limited resources to prepare for, respond to and
recover from climate-related hazards (i.e., limited adaptive
capacity).7
EPA is committed to an ongoing
partnership with tribes to build their
adaptive capacity and address their
adaptation-related priorities.
Each Program and Regional Office Implementation Plan will
support the development of adaptive capacity in the tribes
and identify clear steps for ongoing collaboration with
tribal governments where appropriate. These efforts will include increasing tribal capacity to
identify vulnerabilities in order to adapt to a changing climate. EPA will work with tribes to
support the effectiveness of national climate change adaptation programs in Indian country.
The Agency will support the development of climate science to meet priority research needs
and decision-support tools useful to the tribes. EPA will also work with the tribes to identify and
support the use of climate change relevant traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in decision
making. EPA recognizes that TEK, as an expression of key information that links historical,
cultural and local ecological conditions, may help tribes choose how they adapt to climate
change while also protecting resources and resource uses important  to their culture and
livelihood. These efforts will leverage existing EPA partnerships with the tribes and tribal
networks.

On a national level, EPA will work with other Federal agencies to collectively support tribes as
they assess their vulnerabilities to climate change and plan and implement adaptation actions.
Regional Offices will seek opportunities to work together with other Federal agencies' regional
offices to provide strong support to tribes on their particular climate  change challenges.

3.3.8:  Priority: Focus on Most Vulnerable People and Places

The Agency places special emphasis on, and works in partnership with, overburdened
populations. As discussed  in  Part 2  of this report, certain parts of the population, such as
children, the elderly, the poor, Tribes and indigenous people can be especially vulnerable to the
impacts of climate change. This may be due to susceptibility to health impacts of
environmental contaminants, economic status, health status, education or access to
information. Also, certain communities will be particularly vulnerable, such as those that are in
low-lying coastal areas or subsistence fishing tribal communities. EPA is also concerned about

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the potential impacts on human health and the environment in rural communities, including
agricultural communities. In these communities, some climate change effects such as long-term
drought or severe storms have the potential to cause severe effects on local economies.  EPA's
efforts to anticipate and adapt to the effects of climate change on its core mission, therefore,
will include helping the most vulnerable people and places reduce their exposure to climate
change and improving their capacity to predict, prepare for and avoid adverse impacts. For
example, Program and Regional implementation plans will include a focus on  understanding the
environmental-justice implications of climate change impacts, identifying populations and
communities vulnerable to climate change and with limited ability to adapt, and incorporating
consideration of environmental justice issues into the design and evaluation of adaptation
strategies.
The Agency will make special efforts to connect with populations that have  been historically
underrepresented in decision-making in order to support the development of adaptation plans
that are culturally sensitive and that improve their capacity to predict, prepare for, and avoid
climate change impacts. The Agency will also continue to focus on life stages vulnerable to
climate change.8 The development of effective adaptation plans and strategies will also be
improved by examining the interaction of multiple stressors, including climate change, on
communities and populations.

3.3.9 Priority:  Measure and Evaluate Performance
Evaluation is a systematic way to learn from experiences. In its Strategic Plan, EPA emphasizes
the importance of evaluating activities and acting on the lessons learned. Through systematic
evaluation, the Agency can identify where activities have the greatest impact on protecting
human health and the environment; provide the roadmap needed to replicate successes; and
conversely, identify areas needing improvement.

EPA will evaluate its climate change adaptation actions on an ongoing basis to assess the
Agency's progress toward attaining the desired long-term outcome of mainstreaming climate
change adaptation into the Agency's programs, policies, rules and operations. Based on lessons
learned about the most effective climate change adaptation strategies, EPA can make
adjustments to the way adaptation is integrated into its activities.

EPA's commitment to measuring and evaluating the progress it is making to integrate climate
adaptation into its programs, policies, rules, and operations is discussed in greater detail in Part
4.
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3.3.10 Priority: Develop and Implement  Program and Regional Office
Implementation Plans
EPA includes National Environmental Program Offices and National Support Offices
headquartered in Washington, D.C., and 10 Regional Offices around the country. The 2011 EPA
Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation directed the development of programmatic
Implementation Plans. EPA National Environmental  Program Offices9 and Regional Offices
developed their own Implementation Plans providing more detail on how they will integrate
climate adaptation into their planning and work, and help address the cross-EPA priorities
identified in this agency-wide plan. The National  Environmental Program and Regional Offices
had flexibility to develop their Implementation Plans in a manner consistent with their own
circumstances and objectives. Support Offices will assist with the implementation of the
Agency-wide Plan and National Environmental Program and Regional Office Plans as they do for
other initiatives. The ultimate goal of the Implementation Plans is to focus on the core missions
and priorities of the Program and Regional Offices, and to ensure that their  programs and
operations are resilient and effective in a changing climate.

While flexibility was essential to produce Implementation Plans that are effective and
responsive in meeting each specific organization's needs, Environmental Program and Regional
Offices cooperated as they developed their respective plans, shared experiences and lessons
learned, and coordinated on issues that cut across Agency programs and regions. The EPA
National Water Program developed a second iteration of its National Water Program Strategy:
Response to Climate Change. The 2008 Strategy and 2012  revision provided opportunities for
lessons learned and examples of how other EPA programs could approach development of their
plans.
10
The Cross-EPA Work Group on Climate Adaptation Planning will oversee the development of
the Implementation Plans and identify required interim products (e.g., comprehensive
vulnerability assessments) that will facilitate the development of the Plans.
                   Common Areas of Focus for Implementation Plans

           1.  Vulnerability assessments
           2.  Priority actions on climate adaptation
           3.  Agency-wide Strategic Measures on climate adaptation
           4.  Legal and enforcement issues
           5.  Training and outreach
           6.  Partnerships with tribes
           7.  Vulnerable populations and places
           8.  Evaluation and cross-Office pilot projects
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Annual highlights of progress from each Environmental Program and Region will be included in
updates to the agency-wide Climate Change Adaptation Plan that will be submitted on an
annual basis with the Agency's Sustainability Plan. The Implementation Plans will also be used
to provide input to the Agency's annual planning and budgeting process, where appropriate.

In order to promote consistency, the Implementation Plans for all Environmental Program and
Regional Offices have several common areas of focus, as outlined in the table below. There is
diversity among the plans and some offices may have a broader scope in some  areas than
others. For instance, Regional Offices focus their efforts on particular geographic locations
more than National Program Offices.

   1. Vulnerability assessments: Each Implementation Plan (Office or Region) contains an
   initial assessment of the implications of climate change for the organization's priorities and
   objectives. This assessment builds on the work presented in Part 2 of this document.
   Program and Regional Offices are at different stages of understanding and addressing the
   ways climate change may affect their respective missions. Some Implementation Plans
   therefore have more detailed information on vulnerabilities than others.

   2. Priority actions for climate adaptation: Each Implementation Plan describes the
   organization-specific priorities related to climate change adaptation. At the core of each
   Implementation Plans a description of the activities that the Program or Regional Office will
   pursue over time to integrate climate change adaptation into its programs,  policies and
   operations. The Plans describe  how these activities address both organization-specific
   priorities and the cross-Agency priorities. In addition, Implementation Plans describe how
   Program and Regional Offices will work together on actions that are most effectively
   accomplished by more than one Office or Region.

   For each action, the Implementation Plan identifies the organization's key partners at the
   international, federal, state, tribal,  local, public and private sector levels, including state,
   tribal and local co-regulators. Attention will be given to engaging those partners who have
   been historically under-represented.

   Activities include both short- and long-term actions. Short-term activities include actions
   that are readily achievable, such as specific training needed to begin building adaptive
   capacity. Short-term activities also focus on areas where the organization has relative
   certainty about climate impacts, and therefore feels that action cannot be delayed. The
   more immediate actions enable the organization to learn what works. Armed with the
   lessons learned, the organization can move forward with insights and information as it
   tackles additional issues. Longer-term activities will focus more broadly on building resilient,
   healthy communities that have the knowledge and tools needed to inform decisions.
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3. Agency-wide Strategic Measures on climate adaptation: At a minimum, the
Implementation Plans consider activities that address the three existing Agency-wide
Strategic Measures (discussed in Section 3.3.1 and in Part 4), to the extent they are
applicable to the organization.

4. Legal and enforcement issues: Specific legal questions may have arisen as each Program
and Regional Office integrates adaptation planning into its programs, policies, and rules.
Each Office describes how its program managers and staff will consult with the appropriate
attorneys in the Office of General Counsel (OGC), Offices of Regional Counsel (ORC), and the
Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA), as they conduct their adaptation
work.

5. Training and outreach: All Program and Regional Offices will benefit from Agency-wide
training activities that they will work together to develop and implement under the auspices
of the Cross-EPA Work Group on Climate Change Adaptation. Each Implementation Plan
describes the ways in which  the organization will use the Agency-wide training resources to
educate its staff. Each Implementation Plan also indicates how the organization will then,
overtime, integrate climate  adaptation where appropriate into existing Office-specific
training programs used by its workforce and external partners. Regional Offices, working in
coordination with HQ Program Offices as needed, may also choose to take the lead on
cross-media training and awareness-building among states and other external partners.

6. Partnerships with tribes:  Each Program and Regional Office Implementation Plan
includes actions to address the tribes' adaptation issues relevant to the Office. The
Implementation Plans identify how the Office will work collaboratively with tribes to
increase the adaptive capacity of the tribes. This partnership will help ensure that priority
tribal adaptation needs are addressed, and efforts to build adaptive capacity within tribes
are effective. The Office of International and Tribal Affairs (OITA) will support the efforts of
all Offices to consult and partner with the tribes to develop and implement the actions.
Also, OITA will  help coordinate the interactions of EPA Offices with tribes to promote
unified EPA consultations with individual tribes.

7. Vulnerable  populations and places. Each  implementation plan describes how the
Program or Regional office will identify vulnerable populations and places to climate
change. The process of conducting vulnerability assessments and determining priority
actions for climate adaptation should consider how each Program and Regional Office can
help vulnerable populations and places reduce their exposure to climate change and how to
improve their capacity to predict, prepare for, and avoid adverse impacts. The plans are a
useful tool to account for the regional variability in how climate change will impact people
and places already overburdened by environmental pollution or other stressors.
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   8. Evaluation and cross-organization pilot projects: Each Implementation Plan includes a
   process for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness over time. Program and Regional
   Offices are encouraged to partner with each other to conduct pilot projects that test
   climate  adaptation approaches that are broadly applicable. Relevant Implementation Plans
   describe these joint efforts, as well as Office-specific pilot projects. The goal is to learn what
   approaches work and why. The Implementation Plans will periodically be adjusted to
   improve the organization's efforts to integrate climate adaptation into its activities.

3.4    Importance of Partnerships

EPA believes strong partnerships are critical to fulfilling its mission of protecting human  health
and the environment. As stated in the EPA Strategic Plan, successful partnerships make  the
most effective use of
partners' respective
bodies of knowledge,
resources and talents.
Partnerships are keys to
effective  integration of
climate change adaptation
considerations into the
protection of human
health and the
environment. In general,
EPA will focus adaptation
work on existing
geographic-based
partnerships with the goal
of increasing effectiveness
in climate change adaptation efforts.

States, tribes, and local communities share responsibility for protecting human health and the
environment, and partnerships with EPA are at the heart of the country's environmental
protection system. These partnerships will be critical for efficient, effective and equitable
implementation of climate adaptation strategies.  EPA's Regional and Program Offices will
therefore work with  their partners, engage local stakeholders, and use a diversity of
approaches to form the development of adaptive capacity and encourage climate adaptation
planning depending upon state, tribal, and local needs and conditions.

EPA will continue to  build and maintain strong partnerships with other federal agencies. For
example, EPA will continue to actively participate in the interagency Council on Climate
Preparedness and Resilience established under EO 13653 and related  working groups. EPA is
Climate Change Collaboration - One potential model of
place-based collaboration is C3 (the Climate Change
Collaboration) in EPA Region 10 (Seattle, Washington). C3
includes 13 agencies focused on climate change that meet
monthly (http://www.c3.gov/). The group was formed
through a bottom-up approach when representatives from
several agencies realized they were working (redundantly]
on the same topics. Through its participation in C3, Region 10
has gained better access to information and technical
assistance to support adaptation efforts at local and regional
levels; it was also able to learn from the adaptation efforts of
states and communities within and outside the region.
Similar efforts beyond Region 10 include those in New
England, the Southeast, the Great Lakes, and the Gulf Coast.
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                                    Cross-cutting national strategies relevant to adaptation
                                                         planning at EPA

                                    President's Climate Action Plan
                                    Executive Order 13653 - Preparing the United States for the Impacts of
                                    Climate Change
                                    National Action Plan: Priorities for Managing Freshwater Resources in a
                                    Changing Climate
                                    Draft National Fish, Wildlife and Plants Climate Adaptation Strategy
                                    Draft National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan
                                (For more information:
                                http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/initiatives/adaptation)
part of the Federal Agency
Climate Change Adaptation
Community of Practice, a
forum that allows agency
staff working on adaptation
to share knowledge  and
experience on adaptation
planning, implementation
and evaluation. The
Program and Regional
Office Implementation
Plans identify specific areas
of collaboration with other
federal agencies, such as in
delivering support to tribes.
Finally, climate change impacts do not stop at our borders, but instead can pose risks globally.
EPA is committed to working with our international partners to share expertise, practical
experiences, information and data to address adaptation issues.

Endnote
1 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation, June 2, 2011,
http://epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/impacts-adaptation/adaptation-statement.pdf.
2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "FY 2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan, Achieving Our Vision" (2011), 43,
http://epa.gov/planandbudget/strategicplan.html.
3 It will also be important, as EPA moves forward, to examine what impact rules being developed now could have
in the future, taking climate into consideration.
 ICF Incorporated, "The Reg Map: Informal Rulemaking," 2003,
http://www.reginfo.gov/public/reginfo/Regmap/regmap.pdf.
5 National Research Council, Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate, Panel on Strategies and Methods for
Climate-Related Decision Support, Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Division of Behavioral
and Social Sciences and Education (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009).
  National Research Council, Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate, Panel on Strategies and Methods for
Climate-Related Decision Support, Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Division of Behavioral
and Social Sciences and Education (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009).
7 S.L Cutter and C. Finch, 'Temporal and Spatial Changes in Social Vulnerability to Natural Hazards," Proceedings of
the National Academy of Science 105(7) (2008), 2301-2306.
8 In 2005 EPA started using the term life stages to refer to age-defined groups.  The term life stage refers to a
distinguishable time frame in an individual's life characterized by unique and relatively stable behavioral and/or
physiological characteristics that are associated with development and growth. For example,  EPA views childhood
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as a sequence of lifestages. There are other lifestages that may be important to consider when assessing human
exposure and risk including, pregnancy, nursing, and middle and later years.
g
  This includes the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR), Office of Water (OW), Office of Research and Development
(ORD), Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
(OECA), Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP) and the Office of International and Tribal
Affairs (OITA).
  National Water Program Strategy: Response to Climate Change. 2008 and 2012. Available at:
http://www.epa.gov/water/climatechange
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Part 4:   Measuring and Evaluating Performance

4.1 Existing Strategic Performance Measures
The FY2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan outlines the Agency's long-term goals, objectives, and strategic
measures, which are the
measurable human health and
environmental results the
Agency is working to achieve.1
The EPA Strategic Plan
acknowledges that the ability
of communities to respond to
changes in climate over the
coming decades is critical to
achieving many of the
environmental outcomes the
Agency is working towards.
Consequently, the EPA
Strategic Plan contains three
strategic measures intended to
promote the integration of
climate adaptation planning
into the Agency's activities.2
The three strategic measures
are focused on core Agency
activities that influence its ability to fulfill its mission: (1) rule-making processes; (2) the distribution of
financial resources and technical assistance; and (3) the development of science models and decision-
support tools.

The strategic measures are used by the Agency to design annual performance measures that are
presented in EPA's Annual Plans and Budgets, and to establish priorities in the annual National
Program Manager (NPM) Guidance. The Agency then reports on its performance against these annual
measures in the Annual Performance Reports.
  FY 2011-2015 Strategic Measures on Climate Adaptation

By 2015, EPA will account for climate change by integrating climate
change science trend and scenario information into five rule-making
processes to further EPA's mission, consistent with existing authorities
[preference for one related to air quality, water quality, cleanup
programs, and chemical safety.)

By 2015, EPA will build resilience to climate change by integrating
considerations of climate change impacts and adaptive measures into
five major grants, loan, contract, or technical assistance programs to
further EPA's mission, consistent with existing authorities (preference
for one related to air quality, water quality, cleanup programs, and
scientific research).

By 2015, EPA will integrate climate change science trend and scenario
information into five major scientific models and/or decision-support
tools used in implementing Agency environmental management
programs to further EPA's mission, consistent with existing authorities
[preference for one related to air quality, water quality, cleanup
programs, and chemical safety.)
1 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "FY 2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan, Achieving Our Vision" (2011), 43,
http://epa.gov/planandbudget/strategicplan.html.
  Performance measures can be used to provide accountability, as well as to guide decisions about program refinement
and prioritization. They can be used to provide program managers and staff, and other external stakeholders, with
valuable information about whether a  project or program is meeting the desired goals. Measures can help identify when
program goals are not being met and whether changes need to be made to meet those goals.
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In its FK2011-2015 Strategic Plan, EPA emphasizes the importance of continuously evaluating
activities based on their         	
progress and performance, and
acting on lessons learned. EPA
is already using the three
strategic measures pertaining
            Importance of Program Evaluation
Because EPA programs and regions will be learning by experience as we
integrate climate change adaptation into regulation, financial
to climate change adaptation to   mechanisms and information tools, it will be essential to apply
                                evaluation as a tool to better understand how well approaches work and
begin evaluating its actions on
                                how they can be improved upon.
an ongoing basis. Through
ongoing evaluation, the Agency
will learn how to effectively mainstream climate adaptation planning into its activities. EPA will
evaluate what worked and why, as well as what didn't work and why not. Based on the lessons, EPA
will make adjustments to the way adaptation is integrated into its activities.

4.2 New Performance Measures

Over time, the Agency will identify where its adaptation activities have or can have the greatest
impact on protecting human health and the environment. However, it  will be an ongoing challenge to
measure the direct impact of EPA's adaptation planning activities on the resilience of its programs,
and on the human health and environmental outcomes it is striving to  attain. Metrics that enable one
to attribute changes in resilience of environmental and human health outcomes to EPA's adaptation
efforts, where this is possible, do not yet exist. Such metrics need to be developed over time.

Although the three existing strategic measures do not directly attribute changes in resilience of
environmental and human health outcomes to EPA's adaptation efforts, they are focused on essential
processes and outcomes (e.g., increased adaptive capacity gained through changes in knowledge and
changes in behavior) that are important steps toward achieving the long-term goal of resilience to
climate change.

As the Agency works to fulfill each of the three existing strategic measures, it might be possible to
identify additional actions that must be taken to successfully attain the measures. For example, as
EPA Program Offices integrate climate change adaptation into major rulemaking processes, they may
discover that an effective approach is through the development of guidance for states and tribes
authorized to implement Federal environmental programs. Identification of key steps like this might
lead to the development of additional measures (e.g., numbers of states applying climate-related
aspects of EPA guidance) for evaluating EPA's progress.

As EPA works with interested states and tribes to consider climate adaptation as they implement
environmental programs, it could work with them to explore ways to measure changes in their
adaptive capacity. Metrics could reflect changes in knowledge (e.g., number of partners taking formal
training to increase their awareness of the importance of adaptation planning), changes in behavior
(e.g., increases in the use of decision  support tools to integrate climate adaptation planning into state

                                                                                          58

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and local planning activities such as infrastructure planning decisions), and changes in state/condition
(e.g., changes in the ability of communities to withstand more frequent and intense storm events and
avoid, for example, combined sewer overflow events).

Some of the pilot projects that will appear in Program and Regional Office Implementation Plans may
also explore innovative ways for measuring changes in adaptive capacity through changes in
knowledge, changes in behavior, or changes in state/condition. These will also inform the
development of future Agency strategic measures.

EPA recognizes that the integration of climate adaptation planning into its programs, policies, rules,
and operations will occur over time. This change will happen in stages and measures  should reflect
this evolution. The earliest changes in many programs will be changes in knowledge and awareness
(e.g., increase in the awareness of EPA staff and their external partners of the relevance of
adaptation planning to their programs). Building on this knowledge, they then will begin to change
their behavior (e.g., increase their use of available decision support tools to integrate adaptation
planning into their work). As programs mature, there will be evidence of more projects implemented
as a result of increased attention to climate-related programmatic issues. Finally, in the long-term,
adaptation planning efforts will lead to changes in condition (e.g., percentage of flood-prone
communities that have increased  their resilience to storm events) to directly support EPA's  mission to
protect human health and the environment.
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          Summary of Program Vulnerabilities to Climate Change Impacts by EPA Strategic Goal
    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS
                                                                         EPA PROGRAMMATIC IMPACTS
  Climate Change Impact
                      d  Likelihood of
                           Impacte
• Increased tropospheric
  ozone pollution in
  certain regions
                         • Likely1
   Focus of Associated EPA
          Program
• Protecting public health and
  the environment by setting
  National Ambient Air Quality
  Standards (NAAQS) and
  implementing programs to
  help meet the standards
Likelihood EPA
 Program will
be Affected by
   Impact'
. High
          Example of Risks if Program were Impacted
• Could become more difficult to attain NAAQS for ozone in many
  areas with existing ozone problems
• Increased frequency or
  intensity of wildfires
                         • Likely
• Protecting public health and
  the environment by setting
  National Ambient Air Quality
  Standards (NAAQS) and
  implementing programs to
  help meet the standards
• Medium
• Could complicate Agency efforts to protect public health and the
  environment from risks posed by particulate matter (PM)
  pollution in areas affected by more frequent wildfires
• Increasing extreme
  temperatures
• Increasing heavy
  precipitation events
                         • Very Likely
                         • Likely
• Protect public health by
  promoting healthy indoor
  environments through
  voluntary programs and
  guidance
• Medium
• Could increase public health risks, including risks for the young,
  the elderly, the chronically ill, and socioeconomically
  disadvantaged populations
• Effects on the
  stratospheric ozone
  layer
                         • Likely1
• Restoring the stratospheric
  ozone layer
• Preventing UV-related
  disease
• Providing a smooth transition
  to safer alternatives
• High
• Unable to restore ozone concentrations to benchmark levels as
  quickly at some latitudes
• Effects on response of    • Likely
  ecosystems to
  atmospheric deposition
  of sulfur, nitrogen, and
  mercury
                                       • Ecosystem protections from
                                         Agency emissions reduction
                                         programs
                             • Low
              • Based on evolving research, could have consequences for the
                effectiveness of ecosystem protections under those programs
                                                                                                                                 60

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            CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS
Goal       ..      .             d  Likelihood of
          Climate Change Impact             e
                                    Impact
                                                   EPA PROGRAMMATIC IMPACTS c
                  Focus of Associated EPA
                         Program
        • Increasing heavy
          precipitation events
        • Increasing intensity of
          hurricanes
        • Sea-level rise
        • Decreasing
          precipitation days and
          increasing drought
          intensity
        • Ocean acidification
        • Increased water
          temperatures	
• Likely
• Likely
• Very likely
• Likely7
• Certain
• Very Likely9
  Restoring and protecting
  watersheds, aquatic
  ecosystems and wetlands
                               Likelihood EPA
                                Program will
                               be Affected by
                                 Impact
• High
                          Example of Risks if Program were Impacted
• Increased number of sewer overflows and wastewater bypasses,
  as well increased pollutant loads in runoff, fouling streams and
  threatening public health.
• Challenges to coastal wetlands' ability to migrate.
• Reduced streamflow, altering the aquatic environments and
  increasing impairments.
• Continued stress on coral reefs.
• Shifts in aquatic habitat will threaten the economic and cultural
  practices of tribal communities.
        • Increasing heavy
          precipitation events
        • Increasing intensity of
          hurricanes
        • Sea-level rise
        • Increasing intensity of
          hurricanes
        • Increasing flood risk
• Likely

• Likely3

• Very likely6
• Likely3

• Likely7
• Drinking water, wastewater
  and stormwater
  infrastructure
• High
• Water infrastructure could be overwhelmed or damaged.
• Drinking water intakes and wastewater outfalls could be
  affected.
• Integrity of coastal water infrastructure systems could be put at
  increased risk.
• Drinking water and wastewater utilities will need an 'all hazards'
  approach to planning for emergencies and extreme weather
  events.
• Problems of safety as well as access to clean and safe water will
  be exacerbated for vulnerable and economically deprived
  communities.
        • Increased water
          temperatures
        • Increasing heavy
          precipitation events
        • Sea-level rise
        • Decreasing
          precipitation days and
          increasing drought
          intensity
          Loss of snowpack
• Very likely

• Likely3

• Very likely6
• Likely7
• Very likely
• The quality and availability of
  safe drinking water
• Medium
• High water temperatures and increased stormwater runoff will
  increase the need for drinking water treatment, raising costs.
• May cause saltwater intrusion in surface water and ground water,
  placing increased demands on drinking water treatment.
• Water supplies may be affected, forcing communities to seek
  alternative sources.
* Water demand may shift to underground aquifers or prompt
  development of reservoirs or underground storage of treated
  water, requiring EPA to ensure safety.
                                                                                                                                               61

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           CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS
Goal       ..       .            d  Likelihood of
         Climate Change Impact            e
                                   Impact
                                                                            EPA PROGRAMMATIC IMPACTS c
       • Sea Level Rise
       • Increasing heavy
         precipitation events
       • Increasing risk of floods
       • Changes in
         temperature
                         • Very likely6
                         • Likely7
                           Likely7
                           Very likely3
                                           Focus of Associated EPA
                                                  Program
  Cleaning up Contaminated
  Sites and Waste
  Management
                              Likelihood EPA
                               Program will
                              be Affected by
                                 Impact
• Medium
                         Example of Risks if Program were Impacted
• Increased risk of contaminant release from EPA Sites
• May need to alter selected remedies to ensure protection.
• Hazardous waste permitting may need to be updated to reflect
  climate change impacts.
       • Melting permafrost in
         Northern Regions
                           Likely
• Cleaning up Contaminated
  Sites and Waste
  Management
. High
• Increased risk of contaminant release at sites and potential impact
  to drinking water where permafrost was utilized as a containment
  remedy.
• May need to implement new remedies to contain contaminants at
  sites previously protected by permafrost.
                                 •  Likely
• Increasing intensity of
  hurricanes
• Increasing heavy
  precipitation events
• Increasing risk of floods   . Likely7
• Emergency Response
                                 •  Likely
• Medium
• Increased need for emergency response.
• Possible limitations to response capability due to staff and
  financial resource constraints.
• Current waste management capacity, including interim capacity,
  may be insufficient to handle surges in necessary treatment and
  disposal of hazardous and municipal wastes, as well as mixed
  wastes generated from severe weather events.
        •  Increasing extreme
          temperatures
        •  Increasing heavy
          precipitation events
                         • Very likely    • Protecting human health and
                                          ecosystems from chemical
                         • Likely"         risks.
                              • Low
               • Assure that chemical exposure models reflect changes in the
                environment
               • Changing in planting timing or location may affect the volume and
                timing of agricultural chemical use which could impact the
                appropriate risk management decisions.
        •  Increased Water
          Temperatures
        •  Decreasing
          precipitation days and
          increasing drought
          intensity
                         • Very likely

                         • Likely7
• Water usage at EPA facilities
• High
• Water temperatures impact research activities or cooling
  requirements.
• Facilities could be located in areas with water shortages
                                                                                                                                             62

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           CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS
Goal      ..      .             d   Likelihood of
         Climate Change Impact            e
                                   Impact
       • Increasing risk of floods
       •  Increasing intensity of
                                                 EPA PROGRAMMATIC IMPACTS c
         hurricanes
       • Sea level rise
       • Increasing extreme
         temperatures
• Very likely
• Very likely3
                 Focus of Associated EPA
                        Program
• Operations of Agency
  facilities, personnel safety,
  physical security, and
  emergency communications
• Emergency management
  mission support (protective
  gear and acquisition)
                             Likelihood EPA
                              Program will
                             be Affected by
                                Impact
                                            • Medium
          Example of Risks if Program were Impacted
• Facilities in coastal or flood-prone areas
• Personnel engaged in field work and vulnerable to extreme
  temperatures or events
• Security, lighting and communication systems without backup
  power
• Personnel and real property supporting emergency response and
  management
                                                                                                                                         63

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Footnotes for Summary of Climate Change Vulnerabilities to Climate Change
Impacts by EPA Goal Table

 aThis table summarizes vulnerabilities by goal for four of the five goals in EPA's
Strategic Plan.  Goal 5 "Enforcing Environmental Laws" is not included in this table.
Please note that the table also summarizes vulnerabilities to EPA facilities and
operations; this is not part of the EPA Strategic Plan goal  structure but is an
important element of EPA's vulnerability assessment.  Please see Section 2 of this
document for a fuller discussion of impacts.
 bClimate Change Impacts are based upon peer-reviewed scientific literature
 c Programmatic Impacts are based upon EPA best professional judgment at this time.
 d Impacts can vary by season and  location.
 e In general, the sources cited in this section  use Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC)  likelihood of outcome terminology where the term 'very
likely'means 90-100% probability and the term'likely'means 66-100%
probability.  For some impacts in the table, additional discussion on the likelihood
term is provided in the associated footnote.
 f High assumes the program will be affected by the impact; Medium assumes the
program could be affected under some conditions by the impact; Low assumes that
there is a potential for the program to be impacted or uncertainty currently exists
as to the potential nature and extent of the impact. This assessment is based on
best professional judgment within  EPA at this time. Please note, this column does
not reflect several important considerations.  For example it does not distinguish
timeframes (current, near-term, long-term).  It does not account for regional and
local variations. And it does not reflect the priority of actions the agency may
undertake now or in the future.
   5) Burns, D.A., Lynch, J.A., Cosby, B.J., Fenn, M.E., Baron, J.S., US EPA Clean Air Markets Div.,
2011,National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress 2011: An Integrated
Assessment, National Science and Technology Council, Washington, DC,  p. 114.
   6) IPCC, 2012: "It is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in
extreme coastal high water levels in the future."
   7) USGCRP, 2009: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States . Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M.
Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson (eds.). United States Global Change Research Program. Cambridge
University Press, New York, NY, USA.
   8 ) NRC, 2010: National Research Council of the National Academies, America's Climate
Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change, 2010. p41. "One of the most certain
outcomes from increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere is the acidification of the world's
oceans." For purposes of this table, the term "certain" is used.
   9) USGCRP, 2009: p. 46.  [In the case of freshwater] "Increased air temperatures lead to higher
water temperatures, which have already been detected in many streams, especially during
low-flow periods." For the purposes of this table "very likely" is  used.
   10) Bates, B.C., Z.W. Kundzewicz, S. Wu and J.P. Palutikof, Eds., 2008: Climate
Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
IPCC Secretariat, Geneva,  p. 130
    1) Denman, K.L., et al. (2007). Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and
Biogeochemistry. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working
Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
[Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller
(eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
    2) C.B. Field et al., "North America," Chapter 14 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation
and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel  on Climate Change, ed. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van
der Linden and C.E. Hanson (Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge
University Press, 2007).
    3) IPCC,  2012: Summary for Policymakers. In:  Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and
Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J.
Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea,K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M.
Midgley (eds.)]. A Special  Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-19.
    4) World Meteorological Organization, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global
Ozone Research and Monitoring Project—Report No. 52 (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011). Note: the
word "expected" is used in the report to characterize projected climate change impacts on the
stratospheric ozone layer. For purposes of this table the word "likely" has been used as a proxy for
"expected."
                                                                                                                                                                    64

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EPA OFFICE OF AIR AND
 RADIATION CLIMATE
 CHANGE ADAPTATION
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
      June 26, 2014

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To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so for
informational purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or regulations, and
readers should consult the statutes or regulations to learn what they require. Neither this document,
nor any part of it, is itself a rule or a regulation. Thus, it cannot change or impose legally binding
requirements on EPA,  States,  the  public, or the regulated  community. Further, any expressed
intention, suggestion or recommendation does not impose any legally binding requirements on EPA,
States, tribes, the public, or the regulated community. Agency decision makers remain free to exercise
their discretion in choosing to implement the actions described in this Plan. Such implementation is
contingent upon availability of resources and is subject to change.

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                                         Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to
the challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate, outside
the range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant challenges to
the EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it is to continue
fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is therefore
anticipating and planning for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill its mission of
protecting human health and the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for
review and comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and  expert judgment
to identify vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate change. The plan also presents
10 priority actions that EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules, and operations will
remain effective under future climatic conditions. The priority placed on mainstreaming climate
adaptation within EPA complements efforts to encourage and mainstream adaptation planning
across the entire federal government.

Following completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan, each EPA National
Environmental Program Office, all 10 Regional Offices,  and several National Support Offices
developed a Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how it will carry
out the work called for in the agency-wide plan. Each Implementation Plan articulates how the
office will integrate climate adaptation into its planning and work in a manner consistent and
compatible with its goals and objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation Plans demonstrate how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-wide
priorities presented in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of EPA's plans
is to build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build capacity in states,
tribes, and local communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by increasing their
awareness of ways that climate change may affect their ability to implement effective programs, and
by providing them with the necessary data, information, and tools to integrate climate adaptation
into their work.

Each Program and Regional Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program
vulnerability assessments" are living documents that will be updated as needed to  account for new
knowledge, data, and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's mission.
The plan then identifies specific priority actions that the office will take  to begin addressing its
vulnerabilities and mainstreaming climate change adaptation into its activities. Criteria for the
selection of priorities are discussed. An emphasis is placed on protecting the most vulnerable people
and places, on supporting the development of adaptive capacity in the tribes, and on identifying
clear steps for ongoing collaboration with tribal governments.

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Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they
mainstream climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate their
efforts in order to understand how well different approaches work and how they can be improved.
Each Implementation Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization will regularly
evaluate the effectiveness of its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build the
nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal of protecting human health and the
environment. Working with its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and prosperous
nation that is resilient to a changing climate.
                                               Bob Perciasepe
                                               Deputy Administrator

                                               September 2013

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EPA Office  of Air and Radiation Climate
Change Adaptation  Implementation  Plan

Contents
Disclaimer	2
Background	6
Programmatic Vulnerability Assessment	6
  I. Introduction	6
  II. OAR Vulnerabilities to Climate Change Impacts	6
  III. Conclusion	10
  IV. Programmatic Vulnerability Summary Table	11
Priority Actions	13
  I. Introduction	13
  II. OAR Categories of Priority Actions	14
    Category 1: Outreach and Education	14
    Category 2: Research and Collaboration	14
    Category 3: Modeling and Analysis	14
  III. Agency-wide Priorities	15
    Partnerships with Tribes	15
    Vulnerable Populations and Vulnerable Places	16
Measuring and Evaluating Performance	17
  I. Introduction	17
  II. Measures and Evaluation	17
    Strategic Performance Measures	17
    Training	17
    Outreach	17
  III. Conclusion	18
References	19

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Background

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to the
challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment. EPA's Policy
Statement on Climate Change Adaptation, issued in June of 2011, calls for the Agency to anticipate
and plan for future changes in climate and incorporate considerations of climate change into its
activities. In response, the EPA drafted an agency-wide Climate Adaptation Plan in June 2012. This
document recognized that climate change can pose significant challenges to EPA's ability to fulfill
its mission. It also directed every Program  and Regional Office within the EPA to develop an
Implementation Plan detailing how they will integrate climate adaptation into their work, and address
the priorities identified in the Agency-wide plan. This document is the Implementation Plan for EPA's
Office of Air and Radiation (OAR).


Programmatic Vulnerability Assessment
I. Introduction

The OAR Programmatic Vulnerability Assessment builds on the work presented in Part 2 of the EPA
Climate Change Adaptation Plan. OAR's contribution to this plan is based on Goal 1: Taking Action
on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality in the EPA's FY 2011-2015 Strategic Plan. OAR
primarily relied on the Fourth  Assessment Report to the International Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC), the US Global Change Research Program's 2009 report Global Climate Change Impacts in
the United States, and assessment reports from the National Academies of Science to identify OAR
program vulnerabilities. The brief summaries below also identify where limitations in the current
science exist. As the science continues to grow and evolve in key areas, OAR will evaluate and update
its vulnerabilities as needed. A summary table at the end of this section provides an overview of the
programmatic vulnerabilities identified in the narrative.

OAR intends to fulfill its mission, even in the face of a changing climate. The Office must consider
climate change impacts and vulnerabilities in the regular course of work, all while meeting its goals
and building more resilient and  climate-responsive programs. This vulnerability assessment focuses
on evaluating how climate change may affect the OAR mission and programs, using the best available
science. This is an evaluation of program vulnerabilities rather than an assessment of all potential
impacts of climate change.  Therefore, it does not include discussion of all impacts whether negative
or potentially positive.
II. OAR Vulnerabilities to Climate Change Impacts

Tropospheric ozone pollution is likely to increase in certain regions due to the effects of climate
change. The relationship between temperature changes and tropospheric ozone formation is well
understood. With climate change, higher temperatures and weaker air circulation in the United States
will lead to more ozone formation even with the same level of emissions of ozone forming chemicals.1
Studies project that climate change could increase tropospheric ozone levels over broad areas of the

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country, especially on the highest-ozone days." Climate change also has the potential to lengthen the
ozone season (the months of the year when weather conditions, along with pollutants in the air, can
result in the formation of elevated levels of ground-level ozone in particular locations around the
country), and may increase individuals' vulnerability to air pollution.111

Increases in tropospheric ozone concentrations due to climate change would increase the public health
burden from air pollution. The potential impacts on public health include more respiratory illnesses
and increased risk of premature deaths.1V This is a particular concern to sensitive subpopulations
which are at greater risk for  health effects from exposure to ozone. Furthermore, potential increases
in tropospheric ozone, also  known as surface  ozone, due to  climate change would lead to more
pollution controls being required to attain or maintain ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQS) than would be necessary under the present day climate.

There  are  uncertainties associated with  the  precise timing and  location  of expected climate
impacts. While there is a consensus that ozone air quality levels will increase, different regional
climate models provide varying estimates of the magnitude of the ozone increases from a changing
climate. On-going changes in emissions levels (expected to decline over the next decade) and the
significant year-to-year variability in ozone levels we already see from natural variability in weather
patterns are additional complicating factors. The  state-of-the-science  continues to evolve and  will
serve to inform specific measures to counteract this vulnerability. EPA will continue to evaluate and
improve our regional climate tools to allow for more refined estimates  of ozone impacts for specific
climate scenarios. Additionally, we will continue  to monitor and assess trends of ozone air quality.
To the extent that it becomes apparent that a changing climate is preventing attainment of national air
quality goals and depending on the specific circumstances, Clean Air Act provisions may require
identification of additional control measures at both the State and national levels.

Particulate matter (PM) levels are likely to be affected through changes in the frequency or
intensity of wildfires. While the impact of climate change on ambient  PM levels remains somewhat
uncertain, there is evidence indicating that climate change will affect PM levels through changes in
the frequency or intensity of wildfires.v The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has
reported  with very high confidence  that in North America, disturbances  such as wildfires are
increasing and are likely to intensify in a warmer future with drier soils and longer growing seasons."
Forest fires are likely to increase in frequency, severity, distribution and duration in the Southeast,
the Intermountain West and  the West due to climate change. PM emissions will also be affected by
changes in the production of wind-blown dust due to changes in soil moisture/" There are technical
challenges associated with  assessing  the specific impacts that climate change will have on  PM
concentrations. As an example, it is particularly difficult to accurately determine how precipitation
and wildfire patterns will evolve in a changing climate. These second-order climate effects have the
potential to significantly impact future aerosol air  quality. Coupled climate and air quality modeling
systems can show significant variation of  future impacts on particulate matter by season and by
region. As with ozone, this uncertainty will need to be taken into account.

The potential increase in PM resulting from wildfires may also increase the public health burden in
affected areas, which may include sensitive subpopulations at risk for  increased health effects from
being exposed to PM pollution. This potential increase may also complicate state efforts to attain the
PM NAAQS and address regional transport of air pollution.


                                                                                           7

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Climate change may worsen the quality of indoor air.1 Climate change may worsen existing indoor
environmental problems and introduce new ones  as it alters the  frequency or severity of adverse
outdoor conditions.

Heavy precipitation events may contribute to increases in indoor dampness and building deterioration,
increasing occupants' exposure to mold and other biological contaminants and  emissions from
building materials, as well as outdoor environmental pollutants, due to breakdown of the protective
building envelope. As more  severe flooding and storms are expected, the built environment will be
more susceptible to damage. This may require increased engagement across public and private sectors
as mold and moisture problems become more pervasive in some areas.

Additionally, due to climate  projections of increased storms and flooding events, the availability of
biomass fuels for cooking in  developing nations may be affected. More research is required to better
understand the influence that climate change has on indoor air quality and biomass burning in low-
income  countries.

Temperature increases may affect the emergence, evolution and geographic ranges of pests, infectious
agents and disease vectors. This may  lead to  shifting patterns  of indoor exposure to pesticides as
occupants and building owners respond to new infestations.

Increased stress on the building envelope from temperature shifts  and more  extreme weather events
may decrease the capability of homes and buildings to protect occupants from shifts in the numbers
or types of organisms  in a given area. In addition, increased outdoor temperatures may lead rodents
and other pests into the indoor environment, leading to potential increases in pesticide use. Exposures
to the pests themselves, and  the pesticides used to respond to infestations, can contribute to illness
and disease, including allergy and asthma exacerbation. More research on the relationships between
climate  changes, pest  infestation, and prevention and adaptation strategies by occupants is needed.
EPA may need to increase its intra- and inter-agency interactions,  as well as update its guidance and
messaging to ensure climate projections are accounted for in comprehensive asthma intervention
programs.

Warmer average temperatures may lead to changes in occupant behavior that may create health risks.
For example, residents may  spend more time indoors and in so doing,  may become more prone to
health risks from indoor environmental  conditions. Moreover, residents may weatherize buildings to
increase comfort and indoor environmental quality in addition to saving energy. Although in general
these actions should be encouraged, this may lead to a reduction in ventilation and an increase in
indoor environmental pollutants unless measures are taken to preserve or improve indoor air quality.

EPA has developed practical guidance for improving or maintaining indoor environmental quality
during home energy upgrades or remodeling in  single-family homes and schools. EPA's guidance
and protocols may need to be revised to include state and local considerations for projected climatic
changes. In addition, these programs may need to increase partnerships with other Federal agencies
to address training needs and workforce development for building owners, managers, and others, as
1 All information in this section is cited from the following: Institute of Medicine, Climate Change, the Indoor
Environment, and Health (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2011).

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well as develop  new  tracking mechanisms  to  assess  the  effectiveness  of weatherization and
remodeling techniques as they relate to indoor environmental quality.

As  homes and buildings are constructed or weatherized/recommissioned  with greater  energy
conservation in mind, potential reductions in ventilation or changes in pressurization could occur.
These actions might increase exposure to radon and its decay products. For example, shielding spaces
from extreme shifts in temperature may involve increased building below ground level, which may
be more cost effective in saving energy, but if spaces are occupied, could lead to increased levels of
radon exposure. EPA may need to update its voluntary guidance or increase its work with other federal
and industry partners to ensure that homes and buildings continue to be built with or near materials
that have low radium content, and that buildings are built or modified to ensure that effective exposure
prevention mechanisms are in place.

Climate change may alter the effects of and strategic priorities within EPA's regulatory and
partnership programs to help restore the stratospheric ozone layer. The interactions between the
changing  climate and ozone layer are complex.  Climate change  affects the ozone layer  through
changes in chemical  transport, atmospheric  composition and temperature. In turn,  changes  in
stratospheric  ozone  can have implications for  the weather and  climate of the troposphere.
Stratospheric ozone depletion and increases in global tropospheric ozone that have occurred in recent
decades have differing contributions to climate change. Additionally, climate change may exacerbate
the health effects of ozone layer damage at some latitudes  and mitigate them at others/111 Ozone
depletion  and climate change  are also linked because both ozone depleting substances and their
principal substitutes are significant greenhouse gases. While the science continues to evolve, potential
climate change impacts are included in the planning and implementation of the Agency's programs
to protect  stratospheric ozone.

Specific potential vulnerabilities of EPA stratospheric ozone programs include:

   •   Different ozone depleting substances (ODS) have different atmospheric lifetimes and patterns
       of transport in the atmosphere. If climate change increases the heterogeneity of processes that
       influence ozone destruction and production, increased regional disparities may need to  be
       taken into account when implementing programmatic priorities.
   •   Climate change may lead to increased use  of cooling devices in commercial, residential, and
       transportation applications as well as increased use of insulation foams containing  ODS or
       their substitutes. Such  a shift  in demand might impact how EPA plans  and operates  its
       programs concerned with the ODS that are used to produce and operate these devices and
       materials. A shift in demand for ODS may also increase imports of ODS, which could affect
       EPA's oversight of such imports.
   •   EPA's  Significant New  Alternatives  Policy (SNAP) program evaluates and regulates
       substitutes for ODS, seeking a constantly improving suite of chemicals for protection of the
       environment. Evaluation of substitutes can depend on factors influenced by climate change,
       for example the effectiveness of various refrigerants varying with ambient temperature. A
       changing climate may  influence priority setting and operation  of SNAP in relation to the
       suitability of substitutes.

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Scientific understanding related to ways that climate change may affect the interactions  of
sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury deposition with ecosystems is evolving. While there is limited
scientific evidence on this topic, additional research is underway to better understand how patterns in
the atmospheric deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury with projected changes in the climate and
carbon cycle will affect ecosystem growth,  species changes, surface water chemistry, and mercury
methylation and  bioaccumulation.lx  The potential  impacts  could have  consequences  for the
effectiveness of ecosystem protection from Agency emissions reduction programs.

Additional areas of interest and exploration:

Climate change may increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather events and may
affect the Agency's capacity to reliably monitor and assess the effectiveness of certain Agency
programs. As the climate changes, extreme weather events such as regional droughts and heat waves
have already increased. These patterns are projected to continue in the coming years, bringing heavier
precipitation, stronger hurricanes, and an increase in conditions favorable to severe thunderstorms.x

Specific potential vulnerabilities related  to an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme
weather events may include:

   •   Extreme weather events, including severe winds and lightning, could  cause damage to EPA's
       long-term environmental monitoring assets, particularly in coastal and flood prone areas. The
       Agency has already seen such damage to equipment at sites in the Clean Air Status and Trends
       Network (CASTNET) and the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP).
   •   More frequent and intense weather events could impact  OAR's disaster response planning
       efforts, requiring consideration of more frequent events and more complex responses.


III. Conclusion
This is an initial assessment of the potential vulnerabilities EPA's Office of Air and Radiation may
face due to a changing climate. It provides a foundation on which to examine OAR's programs and
is meant to provide flexibility so that emerging scientific understanding may  be incorporated over
time.
                                                                                       10

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IV. Programmatic Vulnerability Summary Table
      CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS b
                                            EPA PROGRAMMATIC IMPACTS'
      Climate Change Impact
Likelihood
of Impacte
Focus of Associated EPA Program
Likelihood EPA Program
  will be Affected by
     Impactf
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted
• Increased tropospheric
ozone pollution in
certain regions
• Increased frequency
and intensity of
wildfires
• Increasing extreme
temperatures
• Increasing heavy
precipitation events
• Effects on the
stratospheric ozone
layer
• Effects on response of
ecosystems to
atmospheric deposition
of sulfur, nitrogen, and
mercury
• Increased frequency
and severity of severe
weather events
• Likely1
• Likely2
• Very
Likely3
• Likely3
• Likely4
• Likely6
• Very
Likely7
• Protecting public health and the environment
by setting National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS) and implementing
programs to help meet the standards
• Protecting public health and the environment
by setting National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS) and implementing
programs to help meet the standards
• Protect public health by promoting healthy
indoor environments through voluntary
programs and guidance
• Restoring the stratospheric ozone layer
• Preventing UV-related disease
• Providing a smooth transition to safer
alternatives
• Ecosystem protections from Agency
emissions reduction programs
• Monitoring and assessing the benefits and
effectiveness of Agency emissions reduction
programs
• Agency disaster response planning
• High
• Medium
• Medium
• High
• Low
• Medium
• Could become more difficult to attain NAAQS for
ozone in many areas with existing ozone problems
• Could complicate Agency efforts to protect public
health and the environment from risks posed by
particulate matter (PM) pollution in areas affected
by more frequent wildfires
• Could increase public health risks, including risks
for the young, the elderly, the chronically ill, and
socioeconomically disadvantaged populations
• Unable to restore ozone concentrations to
benchmark levels as quickly at some latitudes
• Based on evolving research, could have
consequences for the effectiveness of ecosystem
protections under those programs
• Could decrease the amount and/or quality of data
collected by the Agency
                                                                                                                                11

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Footnotes for Program Vulnerability Summary Table
 aThis table summarizes vulnerabilities by goal in EPA's Strategic Plan. OAR's program
vulnerabilities all fall under Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving
Air Quality.
 bClimate Change Impacts are based upon peer-reviewed scientific literature
 c Programmatic Impacts are based upon EPA best professional judgment at this time.
 d Impacts can vary by season and location.
 e In general, the sources cited in this section use Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) likelihood of outcome terminology where the term 'very likely' means
90-100% probability and the term 'likely' means 66-100% probability. For some
impacts in the table, additional discussion on the likelihood term is provided in the
associated footnote.
 f High assumes the program will be affected by the impact; Medium assumes the
program could be affected under some conditions by the impact; Low assumes that there
is a potential for the program to be impacted or uncertainty currently exists as to the
potential nature and extent of the impact. This assessment is based on best professional
judgment within EPA at this time. Please note, this column does not reflect several
important considerations. For example it does not distinguish timeframes (current, near-
term, long-term). It does not account for regional and local variations. And it does not
reflect the priority of actions the agency may undertake now or in the future.
    1) Denman, K.L., et al. (2007).  Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System
and Biogeochemistry. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis.
Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z.
Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
   2) C.B. Field et al., "North America," Chapter 14 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts,
Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth
Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. M.L. Parry,
O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, PJ. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (Cambridge, United
Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2007).
   3) IPCC, 2012: Summary for Policymakers. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme
Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field,  C.B., V. Barros,
T.F.  Stacker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea,KJ.  Mach, G.-K.
Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. A Special  Report of Working
Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1 -19.
   4) World Meteorological Organization, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion:
2010, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project—Report No. 52 (Geneva,
Switzerland, 2011). Note: the word "expected" is used in the report to characterize
projected climate change impacts on the stratospheric ozone layer. For purposes of this
table the word "likely" has been used as a proxy for "expected."
   5) USGCRP, 2009: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, "Energy
Use and Supply" Chapter. Thomas  R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson
(eds.). United States Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press,
New York, NY, USA. Note: The USGCRP chapter "Energy Use and Supply"
characterizes some impacts discussed above as "likely" and others as "very likely." For
this table we use "very likely" to indicate that at least one impact related to energy
production is characterized this way in the assessment literature.
   6) Burns, DA., Lynch, J.A., Cosby, B.J., Fenn, M.E., Baron, IS., US EPA Clean Air
Markets Div., 2011, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress
2011: An Integrated Assessment, National Science and Technology Council,
Washington, DC, p. 114.
   7) USGCRP, 2009: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, "Energy
Use and Supply" Chapter. Thomas  R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson
(eds.). United States Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press,
New York, NY, USA. Note: The USGCRP chapter "Energy Use and Supply"
characterizes some impacts discussed above as "likely" and others as "very likely." For
this table we use "very likely" to indicate that at least one impact related to severe
weather events is characterized this way in the assessment literature.
                                                                                                                                                                   12

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EPA's Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) works to fulfill EPA's Strategic Goal 1: Taking Action on
Climate Change and Improving Air Quality. In doing so, OAR implements programs  including those that
address air quality, climate change, stratospheric ozone, atmospheric deposition and indoor air. OAR
works closely with EPA's Program and Regional Offices and other federal agencies  to implement many
of the  programs  and  establishes  collaborative partnerships  with  the business   community when
implementing certain programs. OAR also  collaborates closely with researchers and modelers to more
fully understand, characterize and project the potential impacts of climate change on air quality, indoor
air, and  other  environmental  and public  health endpoints  that are the subject of OAR programs.
Furthermore, OAR works with an extensive set of stakeholders from states and local  communities, tribal
nations, and various business,  environmental, and health organizations to effectively reach the public.
Many of these efforts provide opportunities to consider factoring in climate change.

While OAR has initiated certain regulatory  actions under the Clean Air Act to reduce greenhouse gases,
the primary pollutants that cause climate change, this plan is designed to address adaptation of OAR's
programs in response to climate change, including considering when and how analytical tools relied upon
can be adapted to better reflect a changing climate.

OAR derived its priority actions from the vulnerabilities in the Agency's Climate  Change Adaptation
Plan. In determining these priority actions, OAR considered the following:
   •   The strength of the science
   •   The extent of the threat to the program
   •   Complexity in implementation
   •   How easily OAR can integrate climate change adaptation into a particular program
   •   Legal authorities

The three categories below represent different types of efforts and timeframes over which OAR intends
to implement these priority actions. The categories range from relatively easily incorporating adaptation
into ongoing programs to actions that will  require an initial step before  implementation. For example,
before recalibrating any regulatory or program models, OAR would follow all existing Clean Air Act
procedures for public engagement and initiate a process for a transparent and methodological approach to
incorporate climate change. Consistency across OAR programs, and across the Agency, will be important.
While OAR is committed to accomplishing the following actions, implementation of these actions will
depend on availability of appropriate resources (e.g.; staff and funding). This list of priority actions reflects
the Office's best current understanding and is designed to be amended as the science and knowledge about
vulnerabilities and adaptation issues expands.
                                                                                             13

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II. OAR Categories of Priority Actions


Category 1: Outreach and Education
These actions are considered achievable in the short-term by leveraging and building on existing OAR
efforts.

    •   Work within EPA and with external stakeholders, as necessary, to review and revise information
       for  citizens, especially  at  risk populations,  on the impact of climate  change on ozone  health
       impacts, particulate matter (PM) health impacts, and indoor air quality.
    •   Incorporate climate  change adaptation information into guidance, ongoing  outreach tools,  and
       communications for partnership program participants and other federal agencies, state, local, and
       tribal stakeholders.
    •   Updating existing indoor air guidance to  incorporate climate change adaptation  strategies  and
       equip stakeholders to build adaptive capacity in communities.


Category 2: Research and Collaboration
These actions are stepping stones that will inform potential future actions.

    •   Promote and foster research, internally and externally, on climate change adaptation and its effects
       on OAR programs.
    •   Collaborate with the environmental research  community on climate change  interactions with
       atmospheric deposition of pollutants and ecosystem impacts. This also includes collaborating with
       the long-term monitoring community on the impacts of climate change and extreme weather events
       on atmospheric deposition, and consideration of potential implications for long-term monitoring
       sites and networks.
       Collect information necessary to consider the effects of climate change in the implementation of
       the ozone-depleting substances (ODS) phase-out.


Category 3: Modeling and Analysis
These actions require additional considerations prior to implementation; they constitute potential long-
term actions for OAR. A good deal is known about the impacts of climate change (e.g., on tropospheric
ozone, indoor air, etc.) and as the science continues to grow, existing processes will be utilized to
incorporate the science. However, incorporating scientific projections of future climate change into
analytical tools, including ones that are relied upon for regulatory purposes, require additional steps to
assure transparency and consistency. OAR will plan to engage in and, as appropriate, facilitate that
process prior to implementing the actions identified below.

    •   Incorporate the latest research on ozone,  PM, and climate change into National Ambient Air
       Quality Standards (NAAQS) development  and implementation.
    •   Determine if modifications to the air quality monitoring program, guidance and procedures are
       necessary to account for a changing climate.
    •   As  appropriate, adjust  air quality modeling tools and guidance to incorporate projections of
       meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, precipitation) and potential changes in emissions
       resulting from climate change.

                                                                                            14

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       Incorporate climate change and adaptation (e.g., costs) to a greater extent in economic modeling.
       Re-calibrate models of transition of refrigerants and refrigerant-containing equipment due to the
       effects of a warmer climate (e.g., changes in effectiveness  of refrigeration and air conditioning
       systems under different temperature scenarios).
       Integrate climate change into models of skin cancer incidence and other health risks.
III. Agency-wide Priorities
Partnerships with Tribes
EPA values its unique government-to-government relationship with Indian tribes in planning and decision
making.  Existing policies recognize and  support  the  sovereign decision-making  authority of tribal
governments.

Supporting the development of adaptive capacity among tribes is  a priority for the EPA. Tribes are
particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to the integral nature of the environment
within their traditional lifeways and culture. OAR is committed to developing adaptation actions that help
to reduce or avoid the impact of climate change on Indian tribes.

EPA engaged tribes through a formal consultation process in the development of the Agency's Climate
Change Adaptation Plan.  Tribes identified some of the most  pressing issues as erosion, temperature
change, drought and various changes in  access to and quality of water. Tribes recommended a number of
tools and strategies to address these issues, including improving access to data and information; supporting
baseline research to better track the effects of climate change; developing community-level education and
awareness materials; and providing financial and technical support. At the same time, tribes challenged
EPA to coordinate climate change activities among federal agencies so that resources are better leveraged
and administrative burdens are reduced.

OAR's efforts outlined in this plan will  benefit from the expertise provided by our tribal partners and the
Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK)  they  possess. TEK is a valuable body of knowledge  in
understanding the current and future impacts of climate change and has been used by  tribes for millennia
as a tool to adapt to changing surroundings. Consistent with the principles in the 1984 EPA Policy for the
Administration of Environmental Programs on Indian Reservations, TEK is viewed as a complementary
resource that can inform planning and decision-making.

Existing networks, partnerships, and sources of funding and training/technical assistance will be used to
assist tribes with climate change issues, including Regional Tribal Operations Committees, the National
Tribal Air Association, the Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals,  and the  Indian General
Assistance Program. Additionally, efforts will be made to coordinate with other Regional and Program
Offices in EPA, since climate change has many impacts that transcend media and regional boundaries.
Transparency and information-sharing will be a focus, in order to leverage activities already taking place
within EPA Offices  and tribal governments.
                                                                                             15

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Vulnerable Populations and Vulnerable Places
Certain parts of the population, such as children, the elderly, minorities, the poor, persons with underlying
medical conditions and disabilities, those with limited access to information, and tribal and indigenous
populations, can be especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.  Also,  certain geographic
locations and communities are particularly vulnerable, such as those located in low-lying coastal areas or
living in isolated or segregated areas.

One of the principles guiding EPA's efforts to integrate climate adaptation into its programs, policies and
rules calls for its adaptation plans to prioritize helping people,  places and infrastructure that are most
vulnerable to climate impacts, designing and implementing the plan with meaningful involvement from
all parts of society. OAR currently integrates environmental justice and tribal issues into its voluntary
indoor air program guidance, but may have to increase its work with partners and regional staff to update
or change guidance so that it further addresses the adaptive  capacity to climate change impacts among
disproportionately impacted populations.

This Implementation Plan identifies key programmatic vulnerabilities and the priority actions that will be
taken to address those vulnerabilities over time. As the work called for in this Plan is conducted, where
appropriate and technically possible, the  communities and demographic groups most vulnerable to the
impacts of climate change will be identified. The Agency will then work in partnership with these
communities to increase their adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change impacts. These efforts
can be informed  by experiences with previous extreme weather events (e.g., Hurricane  Katrina  and
Superstorm Sandy) and the subsequent recovery efforts.
                                                                                              16

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Measuring and Evaluating Performance
I. Introduction

EPA's Climate Change Adaptation Plan emphasizes the need for measuring and evaluating performance
in order to ensure that climate change adaptation is successfully integrated into the Agency's operations.

The integration of climate adaptation planning into Agency programs, policies, rules, and operations will
occur gradually over time. This will happen in stages and measures should reflect this evolution. The
earliest changes in many programs may be changes in knowledge and awareness, followed by changes in
behavior and the incorporation into and use of climate change adaptation tools, and then implementation
of projects that build adaptive capacity and lead to changes in state, condition, and preparedness.

OAR plans to update the information and analysis in this implementation plan,  evaluate the status of
activities, and continually improve the process of EPA programmatic adaptation to climate change. Since
this is an emerging field, OAR's initial measurement and evaluation plan will focus on learning and the
capacity building  elements of the plan. OAR will utilize existing mechanisms and forums whenever
possible and ensure that these efforts do not include any new budget implications.


II. Measures and Evaluation
Strategic Performance Measures
The FY 2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan contains the Agency's first strategic performance measures for
integrating climate adaptation into its activities. These strategic performance measures commit the Agency
to integrate adaptation planning into five major rulemaking processes and five major financial assistance
mechanisms by 2015. They also call for the integration of adaptation planning into five major scientific
models or decision-support tools used in implementing Agency environmental management programs.
Keeping this in mind, OAR will evaluate its priority actions to determine which of these strategic measures
we are able to support.


Training
OAR will participate in the Agency workgroup tasked with developing an Agency-wide climate change
adaptation training module for EPA staff.  Training for staff will be focused on both raising awareness of
the elements of climate change in general, as well as how climate change is likely to impact our mission.
OAR will evaluate the Office's participation level in this training in an ongoing basis.


Outreach
OAR supports activities to cooperate with other EPA offices, Federal agencies, and other organizations
interested in addressing the impacts of a changing climate on EPA programs. These ongoing activities
provide an opportunity to measure internal and external engagement levels in adaptation awareness.
   •   OAR will track the number of hits on the adaptation pages of the climate change website and
       overlay that data with information  about new additions to the site in order to determine interest
       levels.

                                                                                           17

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   •   OAR will continue to publish the State and Local Climate and Energy Newsletter, which includes
       adaptation related resources and events. OAR will measure listserv membership levels, with a goal
       of increasing the number of addresses in 2013.
   •   OAR will work to increase  engagement with EPA Regions to support adaptation efforts and
       qualitatively evaluate these relationships in an ongoing basis.
   •   OAR will continue to aggregate the number of health care professionals trained annually on indoor
       environments and health. Moving forward,  training will be supplemented to include climate
       impacts and adaptation approaches.
   •   OAR will continue to track the number of outreach, training and technical assistance activities to
       advance indoor air programs and guidance for health buildings, and foster implementation of
       climate adaptation activities.

OAR will periodically evaluate its climate change adaptation activities, particularly the identified priority
actions, to assess progress toward mainstreaming climate change adaptation into our programs.

OAR will also review emerging scientific understanding  on climate impacts and vulnerabilities,  OAR
programs, and Agency practices on an ongoing basis. As new information emerges, OAR is prepared to
update this plan accordingly.

The initial focus of our evaluation will be a qualitative narrative description of the outputs and outcomes
of the  identified priority actions. This may include successes  and  accomplishments,  what efforts and
strategies are working well - and why - as well as an identification of those activities that are not proving
successful, the reasons, and any recommendations for new  or different approaches that would yield better
results and outcomes. This type of evaluation will best allow OAR to highlight our progress, and learn
from our efforts in order to continually improve the effectiveness of our climate change adaptation efforts.


III. Conclusion

Measurement  and  evaluation of progress toward adaptation goals is  an important component of the
overarching  climate change adaptation strategy as it facilitates robust understanding of the effectiveness
of our programs. OAR must ensure that its policies and procedures continue to protect human health while
being cognizant of the additional programmatic burdens as a result of climate change.

Evaluating progress on these actions is particularly important because climate change adaptation is a new
field and there will be a lot of learning throughout the process. Based on lessons learned about the most
effective climate change adaptation actions, OAR will make appropriate adjustments to its approach.

This implementation plan is not an endpoint. It is intended to be a living document that will change and
mature as the Agency's knowledge of, and experience with, climate change adaptation grows.
                                                                                             18

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References
1 Denman, K.L., et al. (2007). Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry. In: Climate Change
2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.
Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

11 U.S. EPA (2009). Assessment of the Impacts of Global Change on Regional U.S. Air Quality: A Synthesis of Climate
Change Impacts on Ground-Level Ozone. An Interim Report of the U.S. EPA Global Change Research Program. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-07/094F.

111 Katsouyanni, K., et al.; HEI Health Review Committee (2009). Air pollution and health: a European and North American
approach (APHENA). Research Report Health Effects Institute. 2009 Oct; (142):5-90.
lv U.S. EPA. Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants (2006 Final). U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-05/004aF-cF, 2006.

v Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, "Scientific Assessment of the Effects of Global Change on the United
States" (Committee on Environment and Natural Resources of the National Science and Technology Council, U.S. Climate
Change Science Program, 2008), http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/scientific-assessment/Scientific-
AssessmentFINAL.pdf.
vl C.B. Field et al., "North America," Chapter 14 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability,
Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed.
M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, PJ. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York,
NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

vn Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, "Scientific Assessment of the Effects of Global Change on the United
States" (Committee on Environment and Natural Resources of the National Science and Technology Council, U.S. Climate
Change Science Program, 2008), http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/scientific-assessment/Scientific-
AssessmentFINAL.pdf.
vm World Meteorological Organization, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and
Monitoring Project—Report No. 52 (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011).
1X Burns, D.A., Lynch, J.A., Cosby, B.J., Fenn, M.E., Baron, J.S., US EPA Clean Air Markets Div., 2011, National Acid
Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress 2011: An Integrated Assessment, National Science and Technology
Council, Washington, DC, 114 p.

x USGCRP, 2009: Global Climate Change Impacts  in the United States. Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C.
Peterson (eds.). United States Global Change Research Program.  Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA.
                                                                                                          19

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

   Climate Change Adaptation Plan

Office of Administration and Resources Management
                (OARM)
              June 2014

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                                      Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to
the challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate,
outside the range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant
challenges to the EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it is
to continue fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is
therefore anticipating and planning for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill
its mission of protecting human health and the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for
review and comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and  expert
judgment to identify vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate change. The plan
also presents 10 priority actions that EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules,
and operations will remain effective under future climatic  conditions. The priority placed on
mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA complements efforts to encourage and
mainstream  adaptation planning across the entire federal  government.

Following completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan, each EPA National
Environmental Program Office, all 10 Regional Offices, and several National Support Offices
developed a Climate Adaptation  Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how it will
carry out the work called for in the agency-wide plan. Each Implementation Plan articulates
how the office will integrate climate adaptation into its planning and work in a manner
consistent and compatible with its goals and objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation Plans demonstrate how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-
wide priorities presented in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central  element of all of
EPA's plans is to build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build
capacity in states, tribes, and local communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by
increasing their awareness of ways that climate change may affect their ability to implement
effective programs, and by providing them with the necessary data, information, and tools to
integrate climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and  objectives. These "program
vulnerability assessments" are living documents that will be updated as needed to account for
new knowledge, data,  and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's
mission. The plan then identifies specific priority actions that the office will take to begin
addressing its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming climate change adaptation into its activities.
Criteria for the selection of priorities are discussed. An emphasis is placed on protecting the
most vulnerable people and places, on supporting the development of adaptive capacity in the
tribes,  and on identifying clear steps for ongoing collaboration with tribal governments.

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Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they
mainstream climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate
their efforts in order to understand how well different approaches work and how they can be
improved. Each Implementation Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization
will regularly evaluate the effectiveness of its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where
necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build
the nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal  of protecting human health and the
environment. Working with  its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and
prosperous nation that is resilient to a changing climate.
                                              Bob Perciasepe
                                              Deputy Administrator

                                              September 2013

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 Office of Administration and Resources Management
    Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan
                         June 2014
CONTENTS

1. Introduction

2. High-level Vulnerability Assessment

3. Current Efforts to Address Climate Change

4. Possible New Action Items

5. Monitoring and Evaluation

6. Appendix: Potential Analysis Tools

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Introduction
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to the safety of its personnel, the
efficient operation of its buildings, and the sustainability of the communities in which its
facilities are located. One of the areas where EPA demonstrates its mission  is preparing for and
mitigating the potential effects of global climate change, including severe weather events,
water shortages, and sea level rises. Adaptation planning to protect EPA's workforce and
increase the resiliency of its facilities to ensure
continued operations is a critical part of OARM's
mission.
As the office within EPA responsible for facilities,
transportation, security, health and safety, human
resources, grants, and procurement, OARM is
responsible for ensuring the safe and continued
operation of the Agency's buildings, contracts, grants,
and personnel. EPA's people, buildings, and
operations could be impacted by any number of
potential climate change effects. As required by the
EPA Policy Statement on Climate Change Adaptation
(June 2014), OARM has revised its Climate Change
Adaptation  Implementation Plan (dated June 2013).

EPA has made great strides in both preparing for and
mitigating climate change effects wherever possible.
The Agency's Strategic Sustainability Performance
Plan (SSPP), for example, outlines numerous goals and
achievements in reducing the Agency's greenhouse
gas (GHG) emissions, energy dependence, water use
requirements, solid waste, pollution, and  other
environmental impacts. EPA also has in place an
extensive continuity of operations plan (COOP)
designed to address natural disasters and other
events that could interrupt Agency operations.

Where necessary, EPA will develop and implement
new action  items to protect its workforce, facilities,
and operations against climate change effects and
become more resilient to these effects. For example,
EPA will consider enhancing the resilience of existing
facilities in coastal areas to protect them from severe
weather, flood damage, and sea level rise. The Agency
will also work with other government agencies,
particularly the U.S. General Services Administration
(GSA), to account for climate change effects and
resiliency in the design and construction of new
facilities, or when new buildings are leased. Before
undertaking any actions, EPA will assess the need and
OARM Primary Functions
Office of Human Resources (OHR): Manages
traditional human resource functions and
provides Agency-wide policy development,
strategic planning, and direction for EPA's
human resource programs.
Office of Administration (OA): Enables,
manages, and maintains sustainable, safe
and secure workplaces and manages
facilities, safety, and security activities in
support of the Agency's mission.
Office of Grants and Debarment (OGD):
Provides cradle-to-grave administrative
management of all Headquarters-
administered grants, loans, cooperative
agreements, fellowships, interagency
agreements, and Suspension and
Debarment program management.
Office of Acquisition Management (OAM):
Manages the planning, awarding, and
administering of contracts and procurement
policy for the Agency.

Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ):
Conducts hearings and renders decisions in
proceedings between the EPA and persons,
businesses, government entities,  and other
organizations that are, or are alleged to be,
regulated under environmental laws.

Environmental Appeals Board (EAB): Acts as
the final Agency decision maker on
administrative appeals under all major
environmental statutes that the Agency
administers.

Office of Diversity, Advisory Committee
Management and Outreach (ODACMO):
provides strategic leadership in furthering
the EPA's commitment to building a high
performing organization that draws on the
talents, experience and perspectives from
all segments of society and the EPA
workforce.

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evaluate the potential for effectiveness of each activity, as well as estimate the resources
needed to implement it.

This plan includes the following key components:
    •   High-level vulnerability assessment
    •   Current efforts to address climate change
    •   Possible new action items
    •   Measurement and performance evaluation
    •   Additional analysis tools and criteria for prioritizing action items

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High-Level Vulnerability Assessment
In 2011, OARM developed a high-level assessment of the Agency's vulnerabilities to climate
change specific to its functional areas. Based on the potential effects of climate change, OARM
has identified the following vulnerabilities as medium to high priority. Note: This assessment
does not address EPA research capabilities that might be affected, only its ability to maintain
the facilities, operations, procurement, security, and personnel in support of those needs.
Water Quality and Supply: Changes to water ecosystems—including
increasing water temperatures, decreasing precipitation days, and increasing
drought intensity—could mean a change in the disposition of water supplies
and potentially compromise the quality and quantity of water available for
use. EPA laboratories require water to conduct experiments and meet
building cooling requirements. Water shortages and quality issues will require
better water conservation planning, especially in drought-prone regions.

Severe Weather or Flooding Damage: Facilities in coastal or flood-prone
areas could face the effects of increasing floods, intense hurricanes, and
extreme temperature shifts. In addition to planning and preparing for such
severe weather events before they occur, EPA may have to shift its real estate
priorities and resources to respond to damage incurred by facilities in coastal
regions and other affected locations.

Field Worker Safety: Because a portion of EPA employees and contractors are
engaged in field work, they may be vulnerable to extreme temperatures or
other weather events. Emergency management mission support must include
procuring the proper personal protective equipment to be prepared for such
types of working conditions while conducting sampling, remediation, and
other outdoor/field activities.

Physical Security: In many EPA locations, closed-circuit television (CCTV)
security cameras, intrusion detection systems, outdoor lighting, and access
control devices must run continuously. EPA should ensure that these devices
are secure in severe weather conditions and  continue to be powered by an
uninterruptible power supply (UPS) or have access to a backup generator as
needed  if climate-related conditions cause interruptions in the power supply.

Security Operations and Emergency Communications: Severe weather events
and other climate-related conditions causing interruptions in power could
limit electronic communications, cell phone services (including radio
communication "walkie-talkie" service), and  analog phones in EPA locations
where public address systems are not connected to backup power. EPA's
COOP should address emergency communications in such instances.
Vulnerability
Vulnerability
  Medium
Vulnerability
  Medium
Vulnerability
  Medium
Vulnerability
  Medium

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Current  Efforts to Address Climate Change

Even before such measures were required under Executive Order (EO) 13514, EPA undertook a
variety of climate change mitigation strategies, setting aggressive goals to quantify and reduce
the carbon footprint associated with its facilities, employees, and operations. Following are just
a few of OARM's efforts and recent results in this area.

GHG Emissions Inventory and Reductions

In fiscal year (FY) 2013, EPA's Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions were 57.4 percent lower than its
FY 2008 emissions baseline  (far exceeding the Agency's goal to reduce Scope 1 and 2
emissions 25 percent by FY  2020), thanks in large part to energy efficiency projects at its
facilities, improved fleet management practices, and extensive green power purchases. EPA's
Scope 3 GHG emissions decreased 40.4 percent compared to its FY 2008 baseline, due to
reductions in business air travel, increased use of telework, and cuts in travel  budgets.

Energy Efficiency

EPA's FY 2013 energy intensity was 25.6 percent below the FY 2003 baseline, exceeding the EO
13514 requirements. EPA closely tracks and manages its energy use and plans to continue
making significant progress  in reducing its energy intensity by focusing on implementing key
projects identified during facility energy assessments. The Agency  also exceeded the EO 13514
petroleum use reduction requirement by using 38.9 percent less fuel in fleet vehicles compared
to the FY2005 baseline.

High Performance Sustainable Buildings

Approximately 11.5 percent of EPA's Federal Real Property Profile  buildings met the Guiding
Principles for Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings  in FY 2013.

To make the Agency's facilities more climate-resilient, EPA has reviewed resiliency-related
municipal regulations, zoning  ordinances, building codes, subdivision specifications, and other
literature from federal, state,  and local entities and from academia. As part of this effort, EPA
has also discussed climate resiliency planning with GSA's Office of  Mission Assurance and is
examining proposed and existing green building rating systems for relevant climate resiliency
considerations. EPA has developed an initial  list of climate resiliency planning considerations,
which it will use to update the Agency's space planning and leasing guidelines in FY 2015 and
2016.

Water Conservation

In FY 2013, EPA's water intensity reduction of 38.8 percent far  exceeded the EO  13514
requirement of 10 percent.  EPA also far exceeded requirements for reducing landscaping
water use, achieving a 95.3  percent reduction compared to FY  2010.

Pollution Prevention and Waste Reduction

EPA adopted a more aggressive waste reduction goal of 55 percent compared to the 50
percent goal required by EO 13514. The Agency already exceeded  that goal with an FY 2013
waste diversion  rate of 64.7 percent.

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Electronic Stewardship and Data Centers

EPA's purchasing and IT policies require: energy-efficient and environmentally preferable
features on electronic products; achieving a 100 percent power management enabling rate on
computers and monitors; and reusing, donating, recycling, or disposing of electronic equipment
in an environmentally sound manner. EPA plans to reduce its number of data centers as well.

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Possible  New  Action  Items
In addition to addressing its high-level vulnerabilities described previously, OARM will consider
possible new action items to pursue as part of its climate adaptation plans, depending on
funding and available resources (including personnel and other Agency resources).
 Lead
 Office
Action Item
Priority &
Timeframe
 OA
Make Adaptation Part of High Performance Sustainable Buildings

   •   Consider Adaptation and Resiliency as Part of Building
       Management Plan Guidelines (BMPG): As part of its efforts to
       meet the Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High
       Performance and Sustainable Buildings (Guiding Principles),
       EPA developed and is working to implement the BMPG in its
       owned facilities. OARM will review the BMPG for existing
       mitigation strategies and identify opportunities to address
       climate change adaptation and resiliency when assisting
       existing facilities in meeting the Guiding Principles.
   •   Work With GSA: For facilities that EPA does not own, OARM
       will work with its counterparts at GSA to ensure climate
       change adaptation and resiliency are taken  into account in
       procuring, renewing leases, and maintaining existing
       facilities, especially in communities where severe weather
       and  other climate-related events could have the most
       impact.
   •   Update Best Practices (Environmental) Lease Provisions
       (BPLP): EPA includes the BPLP with GSA's standard
       Solicitation for Offer template to facilitate inclusion of
       environmental provisions in new lease actions. EPA will
       identify potential impacts of several key climate stressors on
       leased facilities and will review the BPLP to  determine if
       climate change resiliency requirements should be added in
       the future.
   •   Update Architecture and Engineering Guidelines (A&E
       Guidelines): EPk'sA&E Guidelines provide guidance for
       facilities management, engineering, planning, and
       architecture professionals in the design and construction of
       new EPA facilities and the evaluation of existing facilities.
       EPA will identify potential impacts of several key climate
       stressors and will review \lsA&E Guidelines to determine if
       climate change resiliency requirements should be added in
       the future.
   •   Incorporate Adaptation and Resiliency Into GreenCheck:
       GreenCheck, OARM's process for evaluating new
       construction and renovation  projects for various
       environmental initiatives and high performance sustainable
       building characteristics, will consider measures to ensure
 Medium/
  Ongoing

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                building additions, construction, and other efforts take
                adaptation and resiliency to severe weather and other
                climate change-related effects into account when projects
                are undertaken.
OA       Conduct Pilot Facility Climate Resiliency Assessment
          EPA will select a representative, mission-critical facility that is
          currently experiencing impacts from climate change and conduct a
          pilot assessment analyzing the climate stressors, vulnerabilities,
          adaptive responses, and lessons learned for that facility. Through
          the pilot study, EPA will "beta test" the proposed updates to its
          facility planning documents to improve resiliency for EPA facilities
          and contribute to the climate adaptation knowledge base for the
          federal community.
 Medium/
   2015
OA       Incorporate Adaptation Into Water Conservation Planning
          As part of its ongoing work to reduce water intensity across all of its
          reporting facilities, EPA will revisit its existing Water Conservation
          Strategy to ensure that water is being used as efficiently as possible
          in its facilities, and that laboratories are prepared to respond in the
          event of a drought or other water shortage or quality event.
 Medium/
   2015
OA       Reduce Energy Reliance
          EPA laboratories demand higher-than-average energy use to meet
          the Agency's research requirements. Because severe weather events
          and rising temperatures can impact the consistent delivery of power
          from the nation's electrical grid, EPA will continue to reduce its
          reliance on traditional energy sources through energy conservation
          measures, fleet efficiency, and onsite renewable energy generation.
 Medium/
 Ongoing
OAM      Prepare for Contract Continuity
          Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) Part 18 addresses emergency
          contracting policies at the federal regulatory level, and the Office of
          Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) Emergency Acquisitions Guide
          provides supplemental guidelines, as does OARM's COOP.
Low/2015
OHR      Educate Employees on the Impacts of Climate Change
          Once the final Climate Adaptation Plan is published, OARM will
          integrate with other Agency-wide adaptation efforts to increase
          employee awareness of climate change effects that may affect their
          ability to implement effective programs. OARM will work with the
          EPA Office of Policy to provide the necessary data, information,
          training, and tools to employees to ensure continuity of operations.
Low/2015
OHR      Redirect Personnel as Needed
          Following severe weather and other events, EPA response personnel
          may need to be redirected to assist emergency management
          personnel, assess environmental damage, and test sites for air
          quality, water quality, and other environmental health concerns.
As needed

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Monitoring and  Evaluation
OARM recognizes that evaluating progress on climate change adaptation and resiliency is
important. Much of the work described in this plan is evaluated annually as part of the SSPP,
OMB Scorecard, and federal agency environmental compliance process. In addition, EPA will
gather and review lessons learned over time as the Agency responds to severe weather events,
addresses changing priorities, and mainstreams climate adaptation planning into personnel,
facilities, and operations processes. We will use this information to continually improve our
climate change adaptation and resiliency planning and response actions.

Looking ahead, OARM could track progress on climate change adaptation by incorporating new
action items into future SSPP updates. As an existing, annually updated strategy that
encompasses both climate change mitigation activities and EPA's progress on specific Agency-
wide goals regarding facilities, personnel, and operations, the SSPP is the most appropriate way
to track actions taken to adapt to climate change effects such as severe weather events that
impact its facilities and operations and document EPA's efforts to build resiliency to such
impacts.

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Appendix:  Potential Analysis Tools
Regional Climate Scenarios

In January 2013, the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGRP) made available the first
standardized set of regional climate scenarios and global sea level rise scenarios that all federal
agencies can use in their adaptation planning efforts. The scenarios provide pictures of future
climate and sea level rise that EPA can use as it anticipates and prepares for climate change.

OARM and each Region could, depending on funding availability, evaluate the potential impacts
of climate change on their facilities, personnel, and operations using the Integrated Climate and
Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) (http://www.epa.gov/ncea/global/iclus/) developed by EPA's Office
of Research and Development. These are  nationwide housing-density scenarios consistent with
climate change storylines. Combined with the USGCRP's regional climate scenarios, ICLUS can
help answer the question, "What should we plan for?" They can help evaluate how interactions
between climate and land-use changes may affect air and water quality, human health, and
ecosystems.

EPA's Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool

Version 2.0  of EPA's Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (GREAT) is now available
for download at www.epa.gov/climatereadyutilities. The tool assists drinking water,
wastewater, and stormwater utilities in identifying climate change threats, assessing potential
consequences, and evaluating adaptation options.

Eight Regions Defined by the National Climate Assessment

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   Office of International and Tribal Affairs
           Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan
              Publication Number: EPA-100-K-14-001E
                            June 2014
This document has been prepared by the Office of International and Tribal Affairs, within the
Environmental Protection Agency, as part of an Agency-wide effort to address climate change.

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                                        Disclaimer
To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so for
informational purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or regulations, and
readers should consult the statutes or regulations to learn what they require. Neither this document,
nor any part of it, is itself a rule or a regulation. Thus, it cannot change or impose legally binding
requirements on EPA, States, the public, or the regulated community. Further, any expressed intention,
suggestion or recommendation does not impose any legally binding requirements on EPA, States, tribes,
the public, or the regulated community. Agency decision makers remain free to exercise their discretion
in choosing to implement the actions described in this Plan. Such implementation is contingent upon
availability of resources and is subject to change.

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                                        Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to
the challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate,
outside the range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant
challenges to the EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it
is to continue fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is
therefore anticipating and planning for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill
its mission of protecting human health and the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for
review and comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and expert
judgment to identify vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate  change. The plan
also presents  10 priority actions that EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules,
and operations will remain effective under future climatic conditions. The priority placed on
mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA complements efforts to encourage and mainstream
adaptation planning across the entire federal government.

Following completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan., each EPA National
Environmental Program Office, all  10 Regional Offices, and several National Support Offices
developed a Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how it will carry
out the work  called for in the agency-wide plan. Each Implementation Plan articulates how the
office will integrate climate adaptation into its planning and work in a manner consistent and
compatible with its goals and objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation Plans demonstrate how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-
wide priorities presented  in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of
EPA's plans is to build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build
capacity in states, tribes, and local communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by
increasing their awareness of ways that climate change may affect their ability to implement
effective programs, and by providing them with the necessary data, information, and tools to
integrate climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional  Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial  assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program
vulnerability  assessments" are living documents that will be updated as needed to account for
new knowledge,  data, and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's
mission. The  plan then identifies specific priority actions that the office will take to begin
addressing its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming climate change adaptation into its activities.
Criteria for the selection of priorities are discussed. An emphasis is placed on protecting the most
vulnerable people and places, on supporting the development of adaptive capacity in the tribes,
and on identifying clear steps for ongoing collaboration with tribal governments.

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Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they
mainstream climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate their
efforts in order to understand how well different approaches work and how they can be
improved. Each Implementation Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization
will regularly evaluate the effectiveness of its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where
necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build
the nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal of protecting human health and the
environment. Working with its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and prosperous
nation that is resilient to a changing climate.
                                                Bob Perciasepe

                                                Deputy Administrator

                                                September 2013

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I.      Background

Overview of OITA's Role
The role of the Office of International and Tribal Affairs (OITA) is to advance EPA's international
environmental priorities and lead the Agency's Tribal Environmental Program tribal environmental
program. To achieve this, OITA employs a multi-disciplinary approach.

Internationally, OITA staff works at the national, regional and multilateral levels to identify risks to
human health and the environment and forge policy and programmatic responses. OITA works with
other federal agencies to develop negotiating positions and represent the foreign policy interests of the
United States.

OITA also leads EPA's efforts to protect human health and the environment of federally-recognized
tribes by supporting implementation of federal environmental laws consistent with the federal trust
responsibility, the government-to-government relationship, and EPA's 1984 Indian Policy.

While OITA is a small office, and thus limited in scope, it currently addresses climate change adaptation
in several program areas and will continue to consider the effects of climate change when developing
policies and implementing programs. OITA anticipates that requests for assistance to build climate
adaptive capacity will increase over time.
II.     Vulnerability Assessment for OITA
Vulnerable Populations
Certain parts of the population, such as children, pregnant women, the elderly, minorities, the poor,
persons with underlying medical conditions and disabilities, those with limited access to information,
and tribal and indigenous populations, can be especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.
Also, certain geographic locations and communities are particularly vulnerable, such as those located in
low-lying coastal areas. A key principle guiding EPA's efforts to integrate climate adaptation into its
programs, policies and rules calls for adaptation plans to prioritize helping people, places and
infrastructure most vulnerable to climate impacts, designed to be implemented with meaningful
involvement from all parts of society.

This Implementation Plan identifies key programmatic vulnerabilities and the priority actions that will be
taken to address those vulnerabilities over time. As this Plan is implemented, special consideration will
be given to communities and demographic groups most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.
The Agency will work in partnership with these communities to increase their adaptive capacity and
resilience to climate change impacts. These efforts will be informed by experiences with previous
extreme weather events (e.g. Hurricane Katrina and Superstorm Sandy) and subsequent efforts.

In general, since OITA views its programmatic and  mission related vulnerabilities as largely arising from
the potential climate vulnerabilities of partner organizations.

   A. International - Addresses country, regional, and multilateral environmental engagements,
       typically driven by formal international processes and partnerships.

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    Approach
    The international office engages international and regional organizations and governments in
    order to further international environmental priorities. In the context of international
    environmental policy development, reliable data, thorough analysis, and vetted approaches are
    important foundational elements. These foundational elements can be used by stakeholders at
    the local, national, and international levels to inform policy development. The development of
    virtual networks allows this information and policy guidance to be shared among relevant
    stakeholders, and facilitates recognition and sharing of best practices.

    Examples of Potential Vulnerabilities
       •  Lack of basic data needed to make informed  decisions about climate adaptation,
          especially for urban settings that anticipate dramatic increases in population in the
          coming decades.
       •  While the United States has an array of sophisticated analytical tools for assessing
          climate vulnerability, many partner countries do not possess this capacity.
       •  The United States has identified the Arctic as a region where the effects of climate
          change have been and will continue to be felt most acutely, with a high degree of
          certainty.1
       •  Lack of effective networking and information sharing mechanisms in many partnering
          developing countries to assess vulnerabilities, development effective action plans, and
          implement these plans, especially in urban settings.
       •  Based on specific climactic circumstances in countries and regions, vulnerabilities such as
          heat stress, sea level rise, droughts and floods are expected to have significant negative
          impacts, particularly in partner developing countries in Africa and Asia3.

B.  Tribal -The American Indian Environmental Office (AIEO)

    Approach
    EPA values its  unique government-to-government relationship with tribes in planning and
    decision-making. This trust responsibility has been established over time and is further
    expressed in the 1984 EPA Policy for the Administration of Environmental Programs on Indian
    Reservations and the 2011 EPA Policy on Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribes.
    These policies recognize and support the sovereign decision-making authority of tribal
    governments.

    Supporting the development of adaptive capacity among tribes is a  priority for the EPA. Tribes
    are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, due to the integral nature of the
    environment within their traditional lifeways and culture. Due to shrinking federal budgets,
    there is increased need to develop adaptation strategies that promote sustainability and reduce
    the impact of climate change on tribes.

    EPA engaged tribes through a formal consultation process in the development of the Agency's
    Climate Change Adaptation Plan. Tribes identified some of the most pressing issues including
    erosion, temperature change, drought, and changes in access to and quality of water. Tribes
    recommended a number of tools and strategies to address these issues, including improving
    access to data; supporting baseline research to better track the effects of climate change;

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       developing community-level education and awareness materials; and providing financial and
       technical support. At the same time, tribes challenged EPA to coordinate climate change
       activities with other federal agencies so that resources are better leveraged and administrative
       burdens are reduced.

       This Implementation Plan identifies specific steps that will be taken to partner with tribal
       governments on an ongoing basis to increase their adaptive capacity and address their
       adaptation-related priorities. These collaborative efforts will benefit from the expertise provided
       by our tribal partners and the Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) they possess. TEK is a
       valuable body of knowledge in assessing the current and future impacts of climate change and
       has been used by tribes for millennia as a valuable tool to adapt. Consistent with the principles
       of the 1984 Indian Policy, TEK is viewed as a complementary resource that can inform planning
       and decision-making.

       AIEO will work with both its internal and external parts to advocate for the priorities detailed
       above.

       Examples of Potential Vulnerabilities
           •   Among tribes, a lack of capacity among tribes to adapt to climate change.
           •   Limited access to data, training and resources to build adaptive capacity and monitor
               progress and effectiveness.
           •   A lack of community-level education and awareness materials to improve the
               understanding of climate change among tribal member and leaders.
           •   Limited financial and technical support to adapt to climate change.
           •   A lack of administrative capacity to understand  and manage all  of the information and
               programs coming to tribal governments from a variety of U.S. Government Agencies.
           •   Additionally, tribes have repeatedly noted the lack of Traditional Ecological Knowledge
               (TEK) used in EPA's decision-making and policymaking. One approach AIEO will support
               is to incorporate TEK into its Agency environmental projects and work. TEK is a valuable
               body of knowledge in assessing the current and future impacts  of climate change that
               has been used by tribes as a valuable tool to adapt to changing  surroundings. As EPA
               develops a greater understanding of TEK alongside our tribal partners, AIEO will support
               the incorporation of TEK whenever possible.
III.     Priority Actions Criteria

OITA is already addressing climate change adaptation in several international and tribal program areas
and will continue to pursue opportunities for integrating the effects of climate change into our existing
programs, including responding to climate change adaptation-related requests from our tribal partners -
as resources and skills permit - especially in border regions.

To prioritize climate change adaptation needs, OITA has developed criteria unique to its mission to
identify potential first steps. These criteria are based on a thorough examination of the potential
vulnerabilities that face OITA and its mission, in the wake of climate change impacts. The highest priority
will be given to those actions that meet several of the following criteria:

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           •   Does the action involve existing partners?
           •   Does OITA have the necessary resources to meaningfully and effectively help address its
               partner vulnerabilities in some manner?
           •   Is this action required in order to enable other actions?
           •   Can the benefits of this action be measured or documented?
           •   How extreme is the vulnerability, as informed by relevant EPA, IPCC and USGCRP
               assessment reports?
           •   Do the climate vulnerabilities affect U.S. border regions?
           •   Is OITA the most appropriate lead for the intended action within EPA?

When receiving a request for cooperation in the area of climate adaptation, OITA will consider EPA
experience and USG experience more broadly, and when  appropriate, explore facilitating linkages with
other U.S. agencies and relevant NGOs for implementation support.
IV.    Priority Actions

International Priority Actions
           •    Explore with existing partners, especially along our borders, information needs related
               to climate literacy, climate vulnerability and climate adaptation options.
           •    Work with Durban Adaptation Charter cities and their international partners as a means
               of responding to urban and local government information needs and the need to share
               city and municipal government experiences, knowledge and best practices. Cities are
               first responders to climate/weather disasters and are projected to house about 70% of
               the world's population by 2050s.
           •    The International Office will work with the Arctic Council and the International Maritime
               Organization to address the effects of climate change, including threats due to increased
               economic activity and  shipping in the Arctic.
           •    Work with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
               member countries and the U.S. Agency for International Development on development
               of information, planning and assessment tools and guidelines for assessing
               vulnerabilities to climate change and sharing experiences and best practices.
           •    Work as a planning committee member on the annual Resilient Cities Congress, the
               largest international gathering of urban adaptation experts, policymakers, and local
               officials, for the purpose of exchanging experiences and knowledge.
           •    Play a lead role in the  U.S. Government review of the Intergovernmental Panel on
               Climate Change (IPCC) climate assessments, which provide analyses of critical data that
               are made available to  all countries.
           •    OITA seeks to help institute effective information sharing networks among international
               organizations and governments, especially among urban centers.
Tribal Priority Actions
            • Support the Tribal Science Council's efforts to educate EPA scientists on the use of
              Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in EPA's work. For example, AIEO supported a

                                              8

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              workshop in 2013 to train EPA staff on the value and applicability of TEK. TEK has been
              underutilized at the Agency, and is an important source of local, baseline information
              critical for deploying successful adaptation measures.
              Promote the use of Tribal ecoAmbassador funding to support projects related to climate
              change adaptation. This EPA program promotes collaborative research in partnership
              with tribal colleges and universities (TCUs). Professors from TCUs receive funding and
              technical support from EPA to solve the environmental problems most important to
              their tribal communities, and are then asked to share their findings with a variety of EPA
              and tribal audiences.
              Under new guidance issued for the Indian General Assistance Program (IGAP) in May
              2013, tribes may use funding for climate change adaptation purposes. This has the
              potential to have an immediate impact on the adaptability of tribal governments, as
              every tribe is eligible to receive funding through the IGAP program. AIEO will work
              through the grants staff at EPA Regional Offices to ensure that tribal partners are aware
              of funding opportunities.
              Establish relationships with a variety  of potential tribal partners, including tribal
              programs in other U.S. Government Agencies, climate-focused programs at Tribal
              Colleges and Universities (TCUs), and other Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
              dedicated to the advancement of climate change adaptation for tribes.
              Host periodic stakeholder meetings on environmental issues, including climate change
              adaptation. These meetings will bring together a variety of tribal partners to both learn
              what resources are provided  by EPA related to climate change, and also give tribal
              partners a chance to share their resources and experiences with EPA and other tribal
              partners.
              Update EPA's annual mandatory training, Working Effectively with Tribal Governments,
              to include information on the vulnerability of tribes to climate change adaptation as
              needed.
              AIEO will work with the Tribal Program Managers and IGAP Project Officers in each of
              the NPMs and Regional Offices to support any climate change adaptation efforts that
              benefit tribes.
V.     Metrics and Evaluation

OITA, on a five-year basis, will review emerging scientific understanding on climate impacts and
vulnerabilities, OITA programs and Agency practices, as well as its incorporation of traditional ecological
knowledge, in the interest of maintaining an effective adaptation implementation strategy.

The international side of the Office of International and Tribal Affairs (OITA) established a Performance
Measurement Framework to measure and analyze the results achieved from OITA's engagement with
other countries and organizations to advance protection of human health and the domestic and global
environment. Until now, EPA's international programs have only been able to collect, analyze, and
report information about the results of its activities  in a fragmented fashion. This framework has
enabled OITA to describe its contributions toward characterizing and addressing environmental risks,
improving environmental governance, and promoting environmental cooperation. As part of this
framework OITA identified 26 measures that could be used to track, and evaluate progress and
effectiveness in conducting our mission and achieving our goals.

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OITA will evaluate the performance and effectiveness of its adaptation implementation strategy using
measures such as the following:

          •   Number of partner engagements conducted
          •   EPA-based tools implemented by assisting organization
          •   Progress toward achieving identified policy goals
          •   Partnerships, alliances or networks established or enhanced
Additionally, with climate change adaptation now eligible as a use for Indian General Assistance Program
(IGAP) grant funds, AIEO will:

           •   Monitor how tribes apply for and use funding for climate change adaptation
           •   Build these experiences into the program where appropriate
           •   Use these real world examples to improve our technical and financial support for tribes
              working to adapt to climate change
VI.    Table of Examples of Potential Climate Vulnerabilities That May Affect
       OITA Programmatic Activities
Priority3





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Coastal flooding in
low-lying areas is
very likely to
become a greater
risk than at present
due to sea-level
rise and more
intense coastal
storms, unless
there is significant
adaptation

In new
industrialized areas
in Asia air quality
trends will likely
add to heat
stress and smog
Increase in annual
mean rainfall in
East Africa


Increase in runoff
(and possibly
floods) in East
Africa
Mean sea level rise
will contribute to
upward trends in
extreme coastal
high water levels
as well as coastal

erosion in the
future
Annually averaged
Arctic sea-ice
extent is projected
to show a
reduction of 22% -
33% by the end of
the century

Very likely











Likely





Likely




High
Confidence


Very likely








High
confidence






and environmental
agencies that share
expertise, technology,
lessons learned to
reduce environmental
and sustainability
impacts of marine
goods movement










East Africa -OITA is
working with water
utility companies in 10
East African countries,
to improve planning for
the delivery of water
and water services











Arctic - OITA and the
USG play a leading role
in Arctic Council
deliberations on toxics
and climate pollutants

OITA plays a lead role
as well in the Intl.


















High

















High







operation, as well as
access to goods and
shipping routes.

Additional
pollutant/greenhouse
gas emissions from
ports, ocean-going
vessels, and other
sources will continue
to impact air quality
and human health in
port cities and in
shipping lanes




Climate projections
for East Africa
suggest an annual
increase in rainfall
and runoff, and more
frequent extreme
precipitation events,
which could impact
water management
Sea level rise may
create issues with
salt water intrusion
into existing aquifers,
calling for different
approaches to water
resource planning


With increased
access and economic
activity in the Arctic,
additional pollutants
may exacerbate
climate impacts,
making emissions

11

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Over the next
century there will
be significant
melting of Arctic
glacial ice due to
warming resulting
in a substantial
contribution to sea
level rise

For Arctic human
communities, it is
virtually certain
that there will be
negative and
positive impacts on
infrastructure and
traditional
lifestyles

Very high
confidence








High
confidence







Maritime
Organization's (IMO)
development of
standards and
voluntary measures on
polar shipping and
pollution prevention
and mitigation. OITA
also contributes to USG
engagement in black
carbon assessment and
mitigation work
(AIEO) works with
federally-recognized
tribes on enforcement
of environmental laws
and standards





















reductions more
difficult

Such trends will also
affect IMO
discussions on an
emerging Polar Code,
as sea level rises, sea
ice retreats, and
Arctic Ocean transit
increases
Projected climate
trends in the Arctic
will especially affect
native peoples and
AlEO's ability to
enforce standards
and laws in a rapidly
changing setting
Footnotes for Summary Table of Examples of Potential Climate Change Vulnerabilities

 aThis table summarizes potential vulnerabilities according to the 5 goals or priorities in the EPA Strategic Plan.

 b Climate change impacts/vulnerabilities are based upon the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (see Ref. 3 below).

 c Programmatic Impacts are based upon EPA best professional judgment at this time.

 d Statements on impacts are based upon the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (see Ref. 3 below).

 e Expressions of confidence and likelihood  cited in this table are adopted from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 (see Ref. 3
below) as follows:
Very high confidence-At least 9 out of 10 chance of occurring

High confidence-About 8 out of 10 chance of occurring

Medium confidence-About 5 out of 10 chance of occurring

Low confidence-About 2 out of 10 chance of occurring

Very low confidence- Less than 1 out of 10 chance of occurring
                                                                   Virtually Certain - >99% probability

                                                                   Very likely - >90% probability

                                                                   Likely - >66% probability

                                                                   About as likely as not - 33-66% probability

                                                                   Unlikely-0-33% probability

                                                                   Very unlikely-0-10% probability

                                                                    Exceptionally unlikely-0-1% probability

'Assessment of possible programmatic impact is based upon OITA's best professional judgment.  High assumes that the program is very likely to be
impacted; Medium assumes that the program has a moderate chance of being affected; Low assumes that there is a slight chance that the program
will be impacted. This assessment is based on best professional judgment within OITA.
                                                              12

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1  U.S. Global Change Research Program, Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, 2009.
3IPCC Contribution of Working Group II to the 4th Assessment Report, Summary for Policymakers, Cambridge Univ. Press, UK, 2007.
4 EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan, 2012.
5. World Bank, Cities and Climate Change: An Urgent Agenda, 2010.


VII.    Conclusion


OITA is dedicated to advancing EPA's priorities of climate change adaptation and will work within its
authorities to achieve these goals with our international and tribal partners.
                                                     13

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    Draft Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan
The Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP)
                         June 2014

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                              Disclaimer

 To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory
authority, it does so for informational purposes only. This document does not
 substitute for those statutes or regulations, and readers should consult the
  statutes or regulations to learn what they require. Neither this document,
  nor any part of it, is itself a rule or a  regulation. Thus, it cannot change or
   impose legally binding requirements on EPA, States, the public, or the
   regulated community. Further, any expressed intention, suggestion or
 recommendation does not impose any legally binding requirements on  EPA,
   States, tribes, the public,  or the regulated community. Agency decision
makers remain free to exercise their discretion in choosing to implement the
   actions described in this Plan. Such implementation is contingent upon
            availability of resources and is subject to change.

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                                Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying
and responding to the challenges that a changing climate poses to  human
health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an
increasingly rapid rate, outside the range to which society has adapted in the
past. These changes can pose significant challenges to the EPA's ability to
fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it is to continue
fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and  programmatic requirements. The
Agency  is therefore anticipating and planning for future changes  in climate
to ensure it continues to fulfill its mission of protecting human health and
the environment even as the climate  changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan
to the public for review and comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed
scientific information and expert judgment to identify vulnerabilities to EPA's
mission and goals from climate change. The plan also presents 10 priority
actions that EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules, and
operations will remain effective under future climatic conditions. The priority
placed on mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA complements efforts
to encourage and mainstream adaptation planning across the entire federal
government.

Following  completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan,  each  EPA
National Environmental Program Office, all 10 Regional Offices, and several
National Support Offices developed a Climate Adaptation Implementation
Plan to provide more detail on how it will  carry out the work called  for in the
agency-wide plan. Each Implementation Plan articulates how the office will
integrate climate adaptation into  its planning and work in a manner
consistent and compatible with its goals and objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation Plans demonstrate how the  EPA will
attain the 10 agency-wide priorities presented in the Climate Change
Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of EPA's plans is to  build and
strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its  partners to build capacity
in states,  tribes, and local communities. EPA will empower its staff and
partners by increasing their awareness of ways that climate change may
affect their ability to implement effective programs, and by providing them
with the necessary data, information, and tools to  integrate climate
adaptation into their work.

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Each Program and Regional Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial
assessment of the implications of climate change for the organization's goals
and objectives. These "program vulnerability assessments" are living
documents that will be updated as needed  to account for new  knowledge,
data, and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's
mission. The  plan then identifies specific priority actions that the office will
take to begin addressing its vulnerabilities  and mainstreaming climate
change adaptation into its activities. Criteria for the selection of priorities are
discussed. An emphasis is placed on protecting the  most vulnerable people
and places, on supporting  the development of adaptive capacity in  the
tribes, and  on identifying  clear steps for ongoing collaboration with tribal
governments.

Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning  by
experience as they mainstream climate adaptation planning into their
activities, it will be essential to evaluate their efforts in order to understand
how well different approaches work and how they can be improved. Each
Implementation Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization
will regularly  evaluate the effectiveness of  its adaptation efforts and make
adjustments where necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and
commitment  to help build the nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to
the goal of protecting  human health and  the environment. Working with its
partners, the Agency will  help promote a healthy and  prosperous nation that
is resilient to  a  changing climate.
                                      Bob Perciasepe
                                      Deputy Administrator

                                      September 2013

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       Draft: Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan
   The Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP)
                              June 4, 2013


Background

On October 5, 2009, the President signed Executive Order (EO) 13514 on
Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy and Economic Performance1.
The EO established the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force
and tasked it with delivering a report within a year with recommendations on
policies and practices that Federal agencies can adopt that are compatible
with and  reinforce a  national climate change adaptation strategy. The Task
Force, co-chaired by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Office of
Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) delivered  the report to the President
on October 5, 20102. One of its recommendations calls for all Agencies to
develop a climate change adaptation plan. On March 4, 2011, the CEQ
issued guidance for Federal agencies to implement climate change
adaptation planning  in accordance with EO  13514. That guidance sets a
target for each  agency to develop a policy statement and an adaptation  plan.

On June 2, 2011, the EPA Administrator issued a policy statement on climate
change adaptation3.  The statement commits the Agency to develop an EPA
Climate Change Adaptation Plan to integrate climate adaptation into the
Agency's programs,  policies, rules, and operations. The statement also
directs all EPA program  and  regional offices to develop plans for
implementing the Agency-wide Climate Change Adaptation Plan. The Agency
1 EO 13514, October 5, 2009.
http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/sustainability
2 White House Council  on Environmental Quality, Progress Report on the Interagency
Climate Change Adaptation Task Force: Recommended Actions in Support of a National
Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (Washington, DC, October 5, 2010).
http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ceq/Interagency-Climate-Change-
Adaptation-Progress-Report.pdf
3 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation,
June 2, 2011. http://epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/impacts-adaptation/adaptation-
statement.pdf.

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provided its draft plan it to OMB and CEQ during the summer of 2012. The
draft plan was publicly released on February 7, 20134.

Each program and regional office was asked to develop an implementation
plan, contributing to the Agency's adaptation plan that addresses certain key
elements in its implementation plans. The elements considered include:
programmatic vulnerabilities, priority actions,  role in the Agency's strategic
measures,  legal/enforcement, training/outreach,  partnerships with tribes,
impacts on vulnerable populations/locations, and  evaluation to inform the
organization's efforts to  integrate  climate adaptation into its activities.
Overview of OCSPP's Role in Implementing Agency Strategic Goals

Goal 4 of EPA's Strategic Plan is "Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and
Preventing Pollution". OCSPP has the primary responsibility in its day-to-day
decisions to  ensure the safety of chemicals. OCSPP also is responsible for
managing the Agency's pollution prevention programs that are designed to
prevent pollution at the source, promote the use of greener substances, and
conserve natural resources.

Chemicals used to  make our products, build our homes, protect property and
crops, and support our way of life  can end up in the environment and  some
may accumulate in our bodies. A changing  climate can affect exposures to a
wide range of chemicals.  EPA's efforts to assess chemical safety, and to
implement chemical management decisions and pollution prevention
programs to minimize exposures could be impacted by changing
environmental conditions related to extreme weather events (e.g.,
increasing run off can  increase pollution in  nearby streams) or changing
chemical use patterns (e.g., changing pest pressure can affect the use of
agricultural chemicals).

The regulatory framework that OCSPP uses to ensure chemical safety  differs
for pesticides and other industrial  chemicals in commerce. Pesticides are
regulated under the Federal Fungicide, Insecticide and Rodenticide Act
(FIFRA) and  under the Federal Food,  Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), which
4 EPA's Draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan, February 7, 2013.
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/pdfs/EPA-climate-change-adaptation-plan-final-for-
public-comment-2-7-13.pdfhttp://epa.gov

                                 ~ 6 ~

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are managed by the Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) within OCSPP. Other
industrial chemicals in commerce are regulated under the Toxic Substances
Control Act (TSCA), which is managed  by the Office of Pollution Prevention
and Toxics (OPPT) within OCSPP. OPPT also administers the Pollution
Prevention Act through a series of programs that identify and  leverage
opportunities to prevent pollution.

Vulnerability Assessment

The effects on the environment resulting from climate change pose new
challenges to EPA as it strives to fulfill  its mission of protecting human health
and the environment.  Challenges resulting from a changing environment due
to climate change that may inhibit the  Agency's ability to fulfill its mission
are referred to as vulnerabilities. Vulnerabilities can be a physical change in
the environment causing increased exposure to chemicals or that may relate
to programmatic processes  or tools that may need  to  be adapted as a result
of a changing environment. This section discusses potential vulnerabilities to
the Agency's mission of ensuring chemical safety and  preventing pollution.
Overall, it is not likely the vulnerabilities discussed  below will impede
OCSPP's ability to carry out its core mission of ensuring chemical safety and
preventing pollution because many of its programmatic processes can be
readily adapted to address changing environmental conditions, including
those resulting from climate change.

Changes in chemical exposure can result from the effects on the
environment caused by a changing climate. For example, a changing climate
can alter pest pressure or the location  where crops are grown, which in  turn
may affect the rate, timing and/or frequency of chemical use.  Changing
environmental conditions may result in the introduction of new disease
vectors or invasive species that could increase the demand for evaluating
and making  decisions  regarding the safety of new chemicals or new uses of
existing products to address public health threats.

To make decisions on  the safety of chemicals,  EPA  relies on the best
available science and assessment tools and when quality monitoring data are
unavailable, it relies on models to  estimate exposures to chemicals. The
primary vulnerability OCSPP identified  for its chemicals management
programs is to ensure that the tools  and methodologies it uses remain
robust so that they reasonably reflect environmental changes,  including
those influenced by climate change.

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OCSPP is examining the ways in which its models and tools may need
updating to account for changing environmental conditions and the potential
effects of climate change. OCSPP has begun to review the potential
implications of climate change for its current approaches to evaluating
pesticide/industrial chemicals exposures to  the environment and people
including children, agricultural workers, and other groups who may be
disproportionally exposed or affected.

The role of OPP is to make pesticide licensing and re-licensing decisions and
conduct additional program activities to ensure that pesticides are used in a
manner that is protective of human health and the environment. OPPT
assesses the potential safety of new and  existing industrial chemicals in
commerce on human health and the environment using the same or similar
models and tools as used to evaluate pesticide exposures. The
methodologies and tools used to assess pesticide risks have been peer
reviewed and are the state of the art used throughout the world. To ensure
that the underlying science  is sound in light of climate change, OCSPP is
evaluating its assessment tools to ensure that they address changes in
important environmental factors resulting from climate change.

To assist with the evaluation of potential  programmatic vulnerabilities, OPP
consulted with the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP)5 to seek advice on
areas within pesticide assessment processes that may be vulnerable to
changing climatic conditions. OPP asked the SAP to provide guidance on its
model review and preliminary conclusions, and on sources  of information
that may help fill knowledge gaps. The SAP concluded that climate change
would likely impact pest pressure, how and where pesticides are used, and
the quantity of pesticides used. The SAP agreed with OPP's preliminary
conclusion that since EPA reviews pesticide registrations  at least every 15
years using assessment methodologies that are conservative and protective
of human health and the environment, it is expected that the assessments,
and decisions based on them, will remain protective.

One area of vulnerability identified by the SAP was the use of increasingly
dated weather datasets in some models that estimate pesticide exposure.
The SAP  noted that the historical weather datasets might not fully reflect
5 The SAP is a Federal Advisory Committee established under the law to
provide advice on pesticide-related science issues.

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recent changes in climate and current weather trends. OPPT has similar
concerns, especially in the assessment of chemicals that have the potential
for large releases to air and resulting exposures to the environment and
people,  including children. Some of EPA's exposure models that contain
climate-related variables may need updating as weather patterns,
temperatures, stream flow rates, air currents, precipitation rates, and other
climate variables continue to change. With input from the SAP, OCSPP has
begun to update its assessment approaches with the inclusion of current
weather data to ensure that its assessments reflect current environmental
conditions that could  include factors affected by climate change. In the
course of keeping its  modeling capabilities current, as other information and
resources become available,  OCSPP may need to consider incorporating
different assumptions or default environmental variables for physical-
chemical properties that may vary with a changing climate and
environmental conditions (pH, temperature, or flow rates).

Extreme weather events and impacts to energy production and use are
important considerations in OCSPP's Pollution Prevention Program.  Limited
availability of water and other natural resources are changing the way
manufacturers produce products, driving them to look for new ways to
reduce and reuse water and materials. Increased  demands on energy are
pushing  businesses to streamline production processes and  minimize waste.
The Pollution Prevention program did not identify additional vulnerabilities to
its programmatic capabilities that could result from changing climatic
conditions. The program's focus on water and energy conservation  supports
approaches and practices that businesses, communities, and state and local
governments will need to employ in order to respond to climate change.
Recognizing  the critical  role pollution prevention can play is an important
environmental consideration  within the context of climate change
adaptation. The Pollution  Prevention program did  not identify specific
vulnerabilities to its programmatic capabilities that could result from
changing climatic conditions although they may present new challenges.

There may be other changes in environmental conditions that could impact
chemical safety for which the Agency may need to consider.  Rising sea levels
and more frequent extreme weather events increase the vulnerability to
flooding and destruction of structures in low lying areas. Chemical storage
facilities may be located in low lying areas and could be at risk of increasing
potential for chemical releases into the environment as a result of major
weather events. Many farms are along major rivers, and storage facilities
and businesses supplying pesticides can be in close  proximity to the field

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where pesticides are used. Similarly, industrial chemicals could be stored in
low lying areas near ports along the seaboard, rivers, and other waterways.
The Agency is not certain of the significance of this vulnerability; however,
further study to determine the location of chemical facilities that may be at
risk may be warranted.
                                   10

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              Summary of Program Vulnerabilities to Climate Change Impacts on Chemical Safety
  Climate Change Impact
Likelihood of
   Impact
Focus of Associated EPA
       Program
• Increasing extreme
  temperatures
• Increasing heavy
  precipitation events
 Very likely    • Protecting human health and
               ecosystems from chemical
 Likely    •    risks.
                                      • Reduces pollution at sources
Likelihood EPA
 Program will
be Affected by
   Impact
                          • Low
                                          • Low
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted
              • Assure that chemical exposure models continue to be protective
               in light of changes in the environment
              • Changing in planting timing or location may affect the volume and
               timing of agricultural chemical use which could impact the
               appropriate risk management decisions.
              • Changing pest pressure in agriculture and public health may place
               additional demands on the new registration, special local need
               and emergency exemption processes.
              • Chemical storage facilities may be located in low lying areas that
               may be increasing at risk due to sea level increases or an increase
               in severe weather events.
              • Disruptions in energy or water supplies may increase demand for
               pollution prevention resources.
                                                                 11

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Priority Actions on Climate Change Adaptation

To determine which potential programmatic vulnerabilities may warrant
closer attention, OCSPP considered a number of criteria. Factors considered
included the ability to quickly mainstream climate change adaptation into
core processes, the likelihood for affecting core program goals, the scale of
the potential impact, the timing of the impact, and the severity of the
impact.  Vulnerabilities that can readily be incorporated into core processes
generally are addressed in OCSPP current approaches. These actions involve
little additional cost to the program. Some actions are currently underway,
while others may be addressed without additional resources.

OCSPP is positioned to address the effects of climate change and changing
environmental conditions on chemical safety and pollution prevention. The
principal challenge to the program is to ensure that the tools and models it
uses adequately reflect the changes in the environment that may affect
human health and the environment.

This section discusses climate change adaptation-related activities and
processes that OCSPP can readily mainstream  into its programs so that it
continues  to meet its protection goals.

Public Health Pesticide Registration
   • The  spread or introduction of certain public  health  pests can be
     attributed, in part, to climate change.  OPP has and will continue to
     work aggressively with companies and researchers to identify safe pest
     control products and strategies to minimize adverse effects on public
     health.

Tools and Models
   •  Volatilization - In the past, the FIFRA SAP raised concerns that OPP's
     current risk assessment approach does not consider off-site movement
     due  to volatilization of pesticides. OPP now includes the potential for
     volatilization  in its screening level assessments and will keep climate
     change in mind as  it considers how to incorporate volatilization into its
     more refined assessments.

   • Developing a spatial component to PRZM/EXAMS - The Pesticide Root
     Zone Model (PRZM) simulates chemical movement in unsaturated soil
     systems within and immediately below the plant root zone. PRZM is
                                  1 9
                                  -L L*

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     often linked with the Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS),
     which simulates the processes that occur in a water body situated next
     to an agricultural field. The FIFRA SAP suggested that OPP consider the
     geographic changes in pesticide use that will likely occur as a result of
     climate change. OPP is currently developing a spatial component to
     PRZM/EXAMS that it expects to complete by 2014. This model
     development effort is expected to more fully account for regional
     differences in cropping, pesticide use, and environmental conditions.
     These changes will help ensure that pesticide environmental
     assessment methodology is resilient to changes in real-world
     conditions, including those caused by climate change.

   •  In the normal course of updating models and tools, OCSPP will
     consider new pathways and changes in chemical behavior resulting
     from a changing climate.

   •  OPPT also has developed a geospatial component for its web-based
     IGEMS (Internet Geographical Exposure Modeling System) model to
     advance its higher tier exposure modeling capability to assess
     exposure to chemicals, calculating environmental concentrations in air,
     soil, water, and ground water.  As resources are available, OCSPP
     could consider updating modeling capabilities to address changing
     assumptions or default variables for other physical-chemical properties
     that may vary with changing environmental conditions (pH,
     temperature, or flow rates).


Pollution Prevention
   •  OPPT's Economy, Energy, Environment (E3) framework helps
     manufacturers reduce energy usage and conserve natural resources.
     Helping businesses to employ energy conservation techniques and
     discover new ways to reduce and reuse water and materials better
     positions them to respond to resource challenges that may result from
     climate change.

Specific information and data that would support OCSPP's mainstreaming
efforts  include:

   •  Acquiring current weather data to incorporate into risk assessment
     tools. This effort is underway.

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     Acquiring, as the budget allows, up-to-date chemical use information.

     Acquiring information to improve our understanding of the location of
     existing facilities and the effect extreme weather events might have on
     facilities in  low lying areas. Acquiring such information would be a part
     of an Agency-wide mapping effort lead by the Office of Research and
     Development.
Agency-wide Strategic Measures on Climate Change Adaptation

The Agency's Strategic Plan 2011-2015 includes a strategic goal to
mainstream climate change adaptation into its programs. One specific
mechanism for achieving the mainstreaming goal is through the
development  of scientifically sound decision tools. The primary mechanism
by which the OCSPP will contribute to this goal is by ensuring that the tools
used to assess chemical risks continue to provide robust estimates of
potential risks in light of changing environmental conditions that may result
from climate change.

Legal and Enforcement Issues

OCSPP believes that any changes in the conditions for regulating, approving,
licensing or regulating chemicals can be accomplished in the current
regulatory or enforcement structure.

Training and Outreach

Existing training and outreach programs within OCSPP can be used to
communicate with, and educate the public about, any changes in the
permitted use of chemicals that may result from changing environmental
conditions. Internally, OCSPP will, as appropriate, encourage staff to
participate in  training developed  across the Agency regarding mainstreaming
of climate change adaptation into its programmatic work.
Partnerships with States and Tribes
                                  14

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OCSPP currently has existing mechanisms and strong partnerships with
states and tribes which can be utilized to seek input and communicate
programmatic activities related to climate change adaptation.

Vulnerable Populations and Places

Currently, OCSPP's assessment and decision making approaches take into
consideration the identification of populations that may be disproportionately
affected by chemical exposures. One area that may warrant further cross-
agency discussion and investigation is the impact of the potential exposures
to communities near chemical storage facilities in the event of a  significant
weather event.

Evaluation and Cross-Office Pilot Projects

Currently, OCSPP's key chemical assessment tools and science policies are
peer reviewed by the FIFRA SAP for pesticides and by the Agency's Science
Advisory Board  (SAB) for other industrial chemicals. OCSPP would use
independent peer review of any significant changes to assessment tools or
models.
                                  15

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  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
   Office of Research and Development
Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan
    Prepared by the OKD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan Team

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan                                     June 2014
                                       Disclaimer

To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so
for informational purposes  only. This document does not substitute  for those statutes or
regulations,  and  readers  should consult the statutes  or regulations  to  learn  what  they
require. Neither this document, nor any part of it, is itself a rule or a regulation. Thus, it cannot
change or impose legally  binding requirements on EPA, States,  the  public, or the regulated
community.  Further, any expressed intention,  suggestion or recommendation does not  impose
any legally binding requirements on EPA, States, tribes, the public, or the regulated community.
Agency decision makers remain free to exercise their discretion in choosing to implement the
actions described in this Plan. Such implementation is contingent  upon availability of resources
and is subject to change.

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                                         Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to
the challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate, outside
the range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant challenges
to the EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it is to continue
fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is therefore
anticipating and planning for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill its mission
of protecting human health and the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for
review and comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and expert
judgment to identify vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate change. The plan also
presents 10 priority  actions that  EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules, and
operations will remain effective under future climatic conditions. The priority placed on
mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA complements efforts to encourage and mainstream
adaptation planning across the entire federal government.

Following completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan, each EPA National
Environmental Program Office, all 10 Regional Offices, and several National Support Offices
developed a Climate Adaptation  Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how it will carry
out the work called for in the agency-wide plan.  Each Implementation Plan articulates how the
office will integrate climate adaptation into its planning and  work in a manner consistent and
compatible with its goals and objectives.

Taken together, the  Implementation Plans demonstrate how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-
wide priorities presented in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of EPA's
plans is to build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build capacity
in states, tribes, and local communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by increasing
their awareness of ways that climate change may affect their ability to implement effective
programs, and by providing them with the necessary data, information, and tools to integrate
climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program
vulnerability assessments" are living documents that will be  updated as needed to account for
new knowledge, data,  and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's
mission. The plan then identifies specific priority actions that the office will take to begin
addressing its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming climate change adaptation into its activities.
Criteria for the selection of priorities are discussed. An emphasis is  placed on protecting the most

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 ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan                                     June 2014
vulnerable people and places, on supporting the development of adaptive capacity in the tribes,
and on identifying clear steps for ongoing collaboration with tribal governments.

Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they
mainstream climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate their
efforts in order to understand how well different approaches work and how they can be
improved. Each Implementation Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization will
regularly evaluate the effectiveness of its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where
necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build the
nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal of protecting human health and the
environment. Working with  its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and prosperous
nation that is resilient to a changing climate.
                                              Bob Perciasepe
                                              Deputy Administrator

                                              September 2013

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan                                       June 2014


Contents
ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan Team
Chapter 1. Introduction	1
  The EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan	1
  ORD's Mission and Adapting to Climate Change	3
  Relationship of climate adaptation to ORD's Research Programs	4
  Components of the Implementation Plan	4
Chapter 2. Assessment of ORD Vulnerabilities and Challenges to Climate Change	5
  Operational Vulnerabilities	5
  Scientific Challenges	6
    Understand partner needs and regional differences	6
    Incorporate climate science, strengthen climate adaptation science, and develop cross-Agency
    research priorities	9
    Improve flexibility to address emerging and unexpected problems	9
  Communicate climate, adaptation, and mitigation science	9
Chapter 3. ORD's Priority Actions for Climate Adaptation	10
  Identify vulnerable research resources and develop response plans	10
  Develop an approach to identify Agency-wide research priorities	10
  Work with EPA partners to develop effective venues to communicate advances in climate impact
  and adaptation research	10
  Design extramural research efforts that appropriately incorporate climate change adaptation
  questions and measures	11
Chapter 4. Measuring and Evaluating Performance	12
  Agency science priorities	12
  Incorporating climate adaptation into  extramural research	12

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan                                      June 2014

ORD Climate  Adaptation Implementation Plan Team


C. Andrew Miller (Lead; Air, Climate, and Energy Research Program)
Peter Beedlow (National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory)
Tim Benner (Office of Science Policy)
John Dawson (National Center for Environmental Research)
Andrew Gillespie (National Exposure Research Laboratory)
James Goodrich (National Risk Management Research Laboratory)
Anne Grambsch (National Center for Environmental Assessment)
Alan Lindquist (National Homeland Security Research Center)
Jennifer Scola (Office of Administrative and Research Support)

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan                                        June 2014

Chapter  1. Introduction
As the climate changes, it affects the ability of EPA to achieve its basic mission to protect human health
and the environment.  Many of the outcomes EPA is working to attain (e.g., clean air, safe drinking
water) are sensitive to changes in weather and climate. Until recently, EPA has been able to assume that
climate is relatively stable and future climate will mirror past climate. However, with climate changing
more rapidly than society has experienced in the past, the past is no longer a good predictor of the
future. Climate change is posing new challenges to EPA's ability to fulfill its mission.

To address these challenges, EPA developed its first Agency-wide plan for adapting to the changing
climate in 2012. EPA was one of over 60 federal agencies that were required to develop climate
adaptation plans under Executive Order 13514, signed by President Barack Obama in 2009.That order
required each federal agency to "evaluate agency climate-change risks and vulnerabilities to manage the
effects of climate change on the agency's operations and mission in both the short and long term...."1

On June 2, 2011,  Administrator Lisa Jackson  issued the "EPA Policy Statement on Climate-Change
Adaptation." The Policy Statement recognizes that climate change can pose significant challenges to
EPA's ability to fulfill its mission and calls for the Agency to anticipate and plan for future changes in
climate and incorporate considerations of climate change into its activities. The first action called out in
the Policy Statement is to "Develop and publish the EPA Climate-Change Adaptation Plan," which was
completed and submitted to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) in late June 2012.

The EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan
The EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan is the first step in meeting the requirements of Executive
Order 13514 (Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance) to implement
climate change adaptation planning across the Agency. The Plan was developed  by a cross-Agency
working group led by the Office of Policy and including each national program and regional office, and it
represents a true EPA-wide perspective on climate change adaptation, Agency vulnerabilities to climate
change, and priority actions needed to ensure that EPA and its partners at the tribal, state, and local
levels are able to fulfill EPA's mission to protect human health and the environment even as we face the
impacts of a changing climate.

The EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan calls for each office to develop an office-specific plan for
implementing the priority actions as appropriate for that office. These implementation plans have been
developed in coordination across  EPA to enable adequate flexibility to address the challenges and
situations faced by each office without losing the strength of collaboration to address common
vulnerabilities.

The Adaptation Plan outlines the known vulnerabilities of EPA carrying out its mission due to climate
change, identifies approaches to "mainstreaming" climate change adaptation in  EPA through a series of
ten priority actions (see text box), and describes measures to evaluate performance.
1 Executive Order 13514, "Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance," October 5,
2009.

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan
                                         June 2014
                                     Agency-wide Climate Change Adaptation Priorities
                                        1.  Fulfill Strategic Measures in FY 2011-2015 EPA
                                            Strategic Plan
                                            Protect Agency facilities and operations
                                            Factor legal considerations into adaptation efforts
                                            Strengthen adaptive capacity of EPA staff and
                                            partners through training
                                            Develop decision-support tools that enable EPA staff
                                            and partners to integrate climate adaptation planning
                                            into their work
                                            Identify cross-EPA science needs related to climate
                                            adaptation
                                            Partner with tribes to increase adaptive capacity
                                        8.  Focus on most vulnerable people and places
                                        9.  Measure and evaluate performance
                                        10. Develop program and regional office Implementation
                                            Plans
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
Among the Agency priorities for
implementing measures to adapt to
climate change is partnering with
tribes. EPA works with federally
recognized tribes on a government-
to-government basis to protect the
land, air, and water in Indian
country.

Supporting the development of
adaptive capacity among tribes is a
priority for the EPA. Tribes are
particularly vulnerable to the
impacts of climate change due to
the integral nature of the
environment within their traditional
life ways and culture. There is a
strong need to develop adaptation
strategies  that promote
sustainability and  reduce the impact
of climate change on tribes and tribal lands.

EPA engaged tribes through a formal consultation process in the development of the Agency's Climate
Change Adaptation Plan. Tribes identified some of the most pressing issues as erosion, temperature
change, drought and various changes in access to and quality of water. Tribes recommended a number
of tools and strategies to address these issues, including improving access to data and information;
supporting baseline research to better track the effects of climate change; developing community-level
education and awareness materials; and providing financial and technical support. At the same time,
tribes challenged EPA to coordinate climate change activities among federal agencies so that resources
are better leveraged and administrative burdens are reduced.

This Implementation Plan identifies specific steps that will be taken to partner with tribes on an ongoing
basis to understand, increase, and  address their adaptive capacity and adaptation-related priorities.
These collaborative efforts will benefit from the expertise provided by our tribal partners and Traditional
Ecological  Knowledge (TEK). TEK can be a valuable body of knowledge in assessing the current and
future impacts of climate change and has been used by tribes to adapt to changing surroundings.
Consistent with the principles in the 1984 Indian Policy, TEK is viewed as a complementary resource that
can inform planning and decision-making.

Networks  and partnerships already in place will be used to assist tribes with climate change issues,
including the National Tribal Caucus of  EPA's National Tribal Operations Committee, Regional Tribal
Operations Committees, and EPA-tribal partnership groups. EPA can also use funding through the Indian
General Assistance Program (IGAP) to support climate change capacity-building efforts. Additionally,

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan                                         June 2014

efforts will be made to coordinate with other regional and program offices in EPA, since climate change
has many impacts that transcend media and regional boundaries. Transparency and information sharing
will be a focus, in order to leverage activities already taking place within EPA offices and tribal
governments.

An additional priority for all regional and program offices is the need to focus on vulnerable populations
and locations. Certain parts of the population, such as children, the elderly, minorities, the poor, persons
with underlying medical conditions and disabilities, those with limited access to information, and tribal
and indigenous populations, can be especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Also, certain
geographic locations and communities are particularly vulnerable, such as those located in low-lying
coastal areas. One of the principles guiding EPA's efforts to integrate climate adaptation into its
programs, policies and rules calls for its adaptation  plans to prioritize helping people, places and
infrastructure that are most vulnerable to climate impacts and to be designed and implemented with
meaningful involvement from all parts of society.

This Implementation Plan identifies key programmatic vulnerabilities and the priority actions that will be
taken to address those vulnerabilities over time. As the work called for in this Plan is conducted, the
communities and  demographic groups most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change will be
identified. The Agency will then work in partnership with these communities to increase their adaptive
capacity and resilience to climate change impacts. These efforts will be informed by experiences with
previous extreme  weather events (e.g., Hurricane Katrina and Superstore Sandy) and the subsequent
recovery efforts.

The Adaptation Plan also includes a list of comment areas of focus for the office-specific implementation
plans, which will be addressed in the text below. The EPA Adaptation Plan sets the stage for the
implementation plans for each office, including ORD.

ORD's Mission and Adapting  to Climate  Change
ORD's mission is to provide the solid underpinning of science and technology for the Agency. ORD has
been involved in climate change research for over 20 years, with a strong focus on conducting research
to inform the Agency regarding the impacts of climate change on air quality, water quality, and human
and ecosystem health. These efforts, at their core, have been designed to inform EPA's program and
regional offices as they set and implement policies that will remain effective in a changing climate.

The pace and scale at which climate impacts are occurring create a challenge for ORD by increasing the
rate at which new issues arise and new scientific and technical information is needed by the Agency.
The impacts  of climate change are now illustrating the need to address impacts that the Agency is likely
to face in the future, while maintaining flexibility to respond to issues that may arise as climate change
impacts occur in unexpected ways.

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan                                       June 2014

Relationship of climate adaptation to ORD's  Research  Programs
ORD's research must be conducted in the context of a changing climate. Such changes will occur across
all of ORD's research programs as we learn more about environmental conditions and as we respond to
EPA programs and regions and their needs to address those changing conditions.

The recent restructuring of ORD's research programs places ORD in a good position to effectively adapt
to climate change and maintain our ability to provide the scientific and technical information needed by
our program and regional office partners. The expanded and on-going interactions with our EPA
partners form a good foundation for understanding their concerns regarding climate adaptation and
enable us to communicate new research needs as they develop. The current program structure also
provides a strong means for developing research that cuts across the ORD research programs to bring to
bear the right mix of expertise needed to address issues identified by our partners.

Components of the Implementation Plan
This implementation plan has three main components: (1) an assessment of ORD's vulnerabilities to
climate change impacts; (2) priority actions for ORD to take to adapt to climate change and reduce its
vulnerabilities; and (3) a discussion of performance measures to be developed to evaluate progress
toward meeting key goals.

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan
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Chapter  2. Assessment of ORD Vulnerabilities and Challenges to Climate
              Change
In the context of the EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan, ORD seeks to understand the climate-related
vulnerabilities and challenges to providing needed scientific and technical support to EPA's program and
regional offices, and how to adapt to those vulnerabilities and challenges. EPA's program and regional
offices have developed initial vulnerability assessments of their programs to climate change, which will
inform ORD's vulnerabilities. ORD's vulnerabilities refer to the degree to which ORD's capacity to carry
out its mission is susceptible to the impacts of climate change, including climate variability and
extremes. These could include damage or limited access to facilities, worker safety or security, or lack of
                                     fundamental resources such as water or energy. To effectively
                                     support the EPA programs and regions, climate change
                                     presents ORD with numerous challenges that do not pose
                                     physical,  climate-related constraints on our ability to conduct
                                     and deliver research, but could require changes in our
                                     research  portfolio to address climate change impacts,
                                     compared to what we would have done in the absence of
                                     those impacts. ORD's challenge is to be flexible and
                                     responsive to the changing science needs  of our EPA partners
                                     as they work to maintain and improve environmental
                                     protection in the face of a changing climate.
Vulnerabilities refer to the degree to
which ORD's capacity to carry out its
mission is susceptible to the impacts
of climate change, including  climate
variability and extremes.
Challenges do not pose physical,
climate-related constraints on our
ability to conduct and deliver
research, but could require changes
in our research portfolio to address
climate change impacts.
                                      Operational Vulnerabilities
OARM has primary responsibility for operation and maintenance of the research facilities used by ORD,
including addressing the vulnerability of these facilities to the impacts of climate change. The key
operational vulnerabilities are listed in Table 1  below (with OARM's assessment of the level of
vulnerability). Given ORD's knowledge of these facilities, ORD staff will work collaboratively with OARM
to identify potential problems and develop proactive adaptation measures for facilities and those who
use them. Even though OARM has primary responsibility for facility protection and response, ORD will
carry significant responsibility for unique research equipment, continuity of experiments, archived
samples, and historical data within those facilities which may be vulnerable to climate change impacts.
Coordination between on-site ORD staff and OARM will substantially improve the evaluation of
vulnerabilities, particularly climate-related environmental changes such as temperature and extreme
precipitation events, and the possible approaches to mitigate them.
ORD will also have responsibility for those systems that may be vulnerable to the impacts of climate
change, such as field sampling systems, that do not fall under the heading of "facility." Such systems
may be vulnerable to temperature or precipitation extremes or other climate-associated impacts.

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan
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Table 1. Key operational vulnerabilities posed by climate change
Area of Vulnerability
Energy Security
Water Quality and Supply
Severe Weather or Flooding Damage
Safety of Field Workers
Security Operations, Emergency Communications
Personal Property
Real Property
Shift in Emergency Response Personnel
Continuity of Operations Plan (includes training of
essential personnel)
OARM Estimated Level of Vulnerability
High
High
Medium (Will vary with location. Gulf Breeze,
Edison, and Narragansett are likely to face higher
levels of vulnerability to severe weather and
flooding than other ORD locations.)
Medium
Medium
Low
Low
Low
Low
Scientific  Challenges

Understand partner needs and regional differences
The scientific challenges, to a large degree, have been well communicated to ORD, partly as a
consequence of the increasing interactions with EPA program and regional offices during the
development of ORD's program-focused research portfolios. A primary focus of the consolidation of
ORD's research into six national research programs has been to expand the opportunities for program
and regional offices to identify their needs for scientific and technical information and support, which is
then incorporated into the development of ORD's research agenda. Such interactions are not new in the
area of climate change and adaptation - discussions to identify partner office needs related to climate
adaptation have long been a core component of ORD's Global Change Research Program (now part of
the Air, Climate, and Energy Research Program) and the Water Quality and Drinking Water research
programs (now incorporated into the Safe and Sustainable Water Research Program).

The climate adaptation research needs identified in past and current discussions are consistent with the
vulnerabilities to EPA's mission identified by EPA's program and regional  offices in the development of
their Adaptation Implementation Plans. The on-going interactions between ORD and the program and
regional offices have provided ORD with a head start toward meeting the scientific challenges posed  by
our partners' programmatic vulnerabilities. Examples of research results  that address vulnerabilities to
climate change include the assessment of air quality impacts associated with climate change2 and
development and release of scenarios for land use change under different possible future conditions,
including climate change.3
 Assessment of the Impacts of Global Change on Regional U.S. Air Quality: A Synthesis of Climate Change
Impacts on Ground-Level Ozone, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-07/094F,
2009.
3ICLUS Tools and Datasets. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-09/143F, 2010.

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan
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The key programmatic vulnerabilities identified by the program and regional offices are listed below in
Table 2, with the understanding that this list will very likely change as EPA's adaptation planning efforts
progress and our understanding of the science of climate change and  its impacts expands.

Given the dynamic nature of the scientific needs across the Agency, one of ORD's challenges will be to
develop the flexibility to respond quickly to emerging adaptation issues that may not now be seen as
priorities.
Table 2.  Key programmatic vulnerabilities identified by program and regional offices, with ORD
         capacity to provide relevant information related to those vulnerabilities. The order of
         the list does not necessarily reflect the program or regional office priority.
Programmatic adaptation vulnerabilities that may pose scientific
challenges
Tropospheric ozone (OAR Tier lc)
Particulate matter (OAR Tier II)
Indoor air quality (OAR Tier 1)
Biogeochemical Cycling (Tier III)
Impact of more intense extreme weather events on OAR disaster
response planning (potential)
Environmental justice implications (potential)
Stratospheric Ozone (Tier II)
Effect on energy efficiency programs of climate-driven changes in
energy demand and supply (potential)
Changes in chemical use patterns (fracking, oil spill dispersants,
water purification and desalinization, wastewater treatment or
antimicrobial and disease prevention)
Changing weather trends (including weather extremes) in pesticide
exposure models and tools

Increased demand for climate adaptation information applicable to
developing countries that are at greatest risk for climate-related
disasters; technical support is likely to be needed for both rural
areas and urban centers
Programmatic adaptation vulnerabilities that may pose scientific
challenges
Increased vulnerability to diseases (waste disposal, clean water,
changing disease geographies)
Invasive species and ocean acidification
International risk assessment, including SLR, weather extremes,
cookstoves, glaciers and snow cover, clean water supply
Arctic Council participation
Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK)
Primary
Office3
OAR
OCSPP

OITA
Primary
Office3
OITA
Current ORD
capacity13
High
High
Medium
Medium
(nutrients),
Low (carbon
and water)
Medium
Medium
Low
Low
High
Low

High
Current ORD
capacity13
High
Medium
Medium
Medium
Low

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Impacts to cultural resources, including traditional food resources
(fishing, hunting)
Arctic impacts (loss of sea ice and potential village abandonment,
mobilization of POPs)

Low
Low

Transport of hazardous substances due to flooding from more
intense and frequent storm events
Changes in groundwater processes and impact to hydrogeological
remediation
Change in liner permeability due to saltwater intrusion and
increased groundwater salinity in coastal aquifers
Temperature-driven changes in contaminant volatility
Impacts to phytoremediation and ecological revitalization due to
changes in plant growth
Inundation and vulnerability to storm surge
Potential need for increased emergency preparedness due to
impacts from severe weather events
Drying of the landscape
Contamination risk due to melting of permafrost
OSWER
High
High
High
High
Medium
Medium
Medium
Low
Low

Air and water temperature increases
Storm intensity (impacts to stormwater infrastructure)
Rainfall/snowfall levels and distribution
Sea level rise
Changes in energy generation
Coastal/ocean characteristics
OW
High
High
Medium
Medium
Medium
Low
a.   Regional offices are not listed separately. The issues identified by the program offices are repeated in regional
    office vulnerability assessments as appropriate to regional needs.
b.   ORD Capacity refers to the internal expertise and facilities available to ORD to conduct research in the specific
    area.
c.   OAR described vulnerabilities in terms of tiers according to their estimate of scientific understanding.  Tier I:
    impact is well established in the literature and has clear implications for the Program's success; Tier II: impacts
    are being or have been explored by the research community, but significant uncertainties remain; Tier III: the
    literature is evolving and program implications are uncertain
Although the purpose of this plan is to ensure that EPA is able to carry out its mission as the climate
changes, the broader and longer-term need is to ensure that the nation is able to adapt to the impacts
of climate change. While this broader scope is closely related to the vulnerabilities identified by EPA's
program and regional offices, ORD must also remain cognizant of the adaptation needs of various
external partners in local, state, and tribal governments; other federal agencies; international
institutions; industries; the research community; and, the public at large. Many of the issues identified in
this section are applicable to this broader set of partners and will require their active participation. This
broader scope will also require incorporation of research results developed by other science partners in
the US Global Change Research Program, the academic community, industry, and research carried out at
the tribal, state, and local levels.

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Incorporate climate science, strengthen climate adaptation science, and develop cross-Agency
research priorities
The issues listed above highlight the need to continue to develop the scientific and technical information
to support adaptation. This will require an on-going effort to incorporate the latest understanding of
climate science into the development of ORD's research planning to ensure that the adaptation research
efforts are focused on understanding how to adapt to conditions that are likely to be experienced in the
future. It will also require that ORD conduct research, incorporate the results of others, and work with
others to identify the issues that are likely to pose the most serious threats to human health and the
environment and to the Agency's ability to continue to protect them. This will require that ORD work
with EPA program and regional offices to identify Agency-wide research priorities, as opposed to a set of
office-specific priorities. The existing ORD programmatic structure and the EPA Adaptation Working
Group provide the means through which such  priorities can be developed. Even so, further discussions
will be needed to clearly define the approach needed to identify priorities that cut across partner and
ORD program boundaries.

Improve flexibility to address emerging and unexpected problems
There are likely to be issues related to climate impacts and adaptation that arise more rapidly than the
normal planning cycle, and which may require relatively rapid  response from ORD. Where the
magnitude of such issues is significant enough, it may be necessary to divert resources (whether staff or
funds) to address the emerging or unexpected problem. More generally, however, ORD will need to
continue its close interactions with program and regional partners to ensure close communication is
maintained so that such issues are quickly identified in the context of the Agency's needs. In addition,
ORD will need to continue to provide expert perspectives on emerging issues. This requires that ORD
continue development of the staff's scientific and technical capabilities across a broad spectrum of
climate-related topics.

Communicate climate, adaptation, and mitigation science
One need that has been identified by program and regional office partners is to develop the ability to
communicate current, relevant scientific information about climate change across EPA. For example,
given the rapidly growing volume of research on climate change, its impacts, and responses, one of
ORD's challenges related to climate adaptation will be to effectively identify and communicate key
scientific results that impact EPA's ability to effectively adapt to climate change and support climate
change adaptation across the country. The critical need for such information has been identified as a
priority by the U.S. Global  Change Research Program. This interagency group is in the process of
developing a Global Change Information System  (GCIS), which is intended to provide a single source of
up-to-date information on science and technology related to climate change, climate impacts and
adaptation, and mitigation.

Even with the development and deployment of the GCIS, communications across all EPA offices on
climate science issues needs to be enhanced to ensure quick and effective sharing of key information,
identification of science needs, and understanding of stakeholder perspectives and needs. To the extent
that new databases or information systems are needed, ORD will need to remain closely involved in how
such approaches are developed and implemented.

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan                                       June 2014


Chapter  3.  ORD's Priority Actions for Climate  Adaptation
ORD's priority actions are derived from the vulnerabilities and challenges discussed in the previous
section and, to a significant extent, from the Agency-level adaptation priorities presented above. ORD
has already made considerable progress toward meeting many of the key adaptation priorities identified
in EPA's 2012 Climate Change Adaptation Plan. Although many of these priorities have been an integral
part of our research planning, conduct, and communication for the  past several years, there are still
opportunities for developing a more explicit and robust response to the impacts of climate change, as
outlined in the priority actions below.

Identify vulnerable research  resources and  develop response plans
ORD makes use of various research resources to accomplish its mission, e.g. laboratories, pilot-scale
equipment, measurement instruments, and animal care facilities. The first priority action is to assess the
potential  vulnerabilities of ORD research systems to the impacts of climate change and to develop
approaches,  in collaboration with OARM, to minimize those  and other facilities vulnerabilities. For
example, it will be critical to ORD's delivery of high quality research and data-in the face of extreme
temperatures and precipitation events as a result of climate change-to maintain continuity of
measurements and experiments, and protect archived samples, data repositories, and monitoring
networks that may be located at sites remote from ORD facilities. A "self-assessment" of the
vulnerabilities of ORD research resources can result in adaptation approaches that are designed to
protect not only the facilities themselves, but also the research capabilities associated with the facility
and its integrated research systems.

Develop an approach to identify Agency-wide  research priorities
Because of the broad implications of climate change, there is  a need to "identify cross-EPA science
needs related to climate adaptation." Therefore, an ORD priority action is to coordinate discussions
between ORD's Deputy Associate  Administrator for Science and National Research Program Directors
and cross-agency program and regional management to identify and incorporate input on climate
adaptation research priorities.

Work with EPA partners to develop effective venues to communicate advances
in climate impact  and  adaptation research
It will be important to effectively identify and communicate advances in the science of climate change
and adaptation. One of ORD's priority actions is to play a key  role in developing approaches to
consolidating and communicating climate change and adaptation research, particularly by engaging at
the interagency level, such as with the development of the Global Change  Information System by the
U.S. Global Change Research Program.
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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan                                       June 2014

Design  extramural research  efforts that appropriately incorporate climate
change  adaptation questions  and measures
In October 2011, the Office of Policy and the Office of Grants and Debarment sent a memo4 to Senior
Resource Officials across the agency directing them to incorporate criteria for climate change
adaptation into the grant development process. ORD's National Center for Environmental Research
(NCER) has already made this directive a standard component of their process for developing requests
for application (RFAs).

ORD will consider how to incorporate criteria for climate adaptation into other major financial
mechanisms.
4 "Incorporating Climate Change Adaptation Considerations into Applicable Assistance Agreement Competitive
Funding Opportunity Announcements," Memo from J.D. Scheraga and B.S. Binder to Grants Customer Relations
Council and Agency Senior Resource Officials, October 18, 2011.

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ORD Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan                                       June 2014


Chapter  4.  Measuring and Evaluating Performance
ORD's performance in effectively adapting to climate change should consider two primary areas: (1)
identifying Agency-wide research priorities for climate adaptation and (2) incorporating climate change
into extramural research efforts.

Agency science priorities
Priority 3.3.6 of the EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan is to "identify cross-EPA science needs related
to climate adaptation/' which is one of ORD's Priority Actions for climate adaptation discussed above.
Performance will be evaluated and measured by degree of participation from each affected EPA office,
identification of cross-agency priorities in a timely manner, and dissemination of consensus priorities.
ORD will also continue its efforts to develop decision support tools useful to decision makers at federal,
state, and local levels.

Incorporating climate  adaptation into extramural research
ORD is already incorporating  climate adaptation as a required factor for consideration by extramural
research grant applicants if appropriate. One possible metric of evaluation could be to quantify the
number of requests for applications (RFAs) that include climate adaptation as a review criterion, or to
demonstrate consistent use of climate adaptation review criteria for appropriate solicitations.
                                             12

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Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response
         Climate Change Adaptation
            Implementation Plan
                June 2014

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                                       Disclaimer
To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so for
informational purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or regulations,
and readers should consult the statutes or regulations to learn what they require. Neither this
document, nor any part of it, is itself a rule or a regulation. Thus, it  cannot change or impose
legally binding requirements on EPA, States, the public, or the regulated community. Further,
any expressed intention, suggestion or recommendation does not impose any legally binding
requirements on EPA, States, tribes, the public, or the regulated community. Agency decision
makers remain free to exercise their discretion in choosing to implement the actions described in
this Plan. Such implementation is contingent upon availability of resources and is subject to
change.

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                                        Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to
the challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate,
outside the range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant
challenges to the EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it
is to continue fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is
therefore anticipating and planning for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill
its mission of protecting human health and the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for
review and comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and expert
judgment to identify vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate  change. The plan
also presents  10 priority actions that EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules,
and operations will remain effective under future climatic conditions. The priority placed on
mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA complements efforts to encourage and mainstream
adaptation planning across the entire federal government.

Following completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan, each EPA National
Environmental Program Office, all 10 Regional Offices, and several National Support Offices
developed a Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how it will carry
out the work called for in the agency-wide plan. Each Implementation Plan articulates how the
office will integrate climate adaptation into its planning and work in a manner consistent and
compatible with its goals and objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation Plans demonstrate  how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-
wide priorities presented in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of
EPA's plans is to build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build
capacity in states, tribes, and local communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by
increasing their awareness of ways that climate change  may affect their ability to implement
effective programs, and by providing them with the necessary data, information,  and tools to
integrate climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional  Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial  assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program
vulnerability assessments" are living documents that will be updated as needed to account for
new knowledge, data,  and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's
mission. The plan then identifies specific priority actions that the office will take to begin
addressing its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming climate change adaptation into its activities.
Criteria for the selection of priorities are discussed. An  emphasis is placed on protecting the most
vulnerable people and places, on supporting the development of adaptive capacity in the tribes,
and on identifying clear steps for ongoing collaboration with tribal governments.

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Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they
mainstream climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate their
efforts in order to understand how well different approaches work and how they can be
improved. Each Implementation Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization
will regularly evaluate the effectiveness of its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where
necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build
the nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal of protecting human health and the
environment. Working with its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and prosperous
nation that is resilient to a changing climate.
                                               Bob Perciasepe
                                               Deputy Administrator

                                               September 2013

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OSWER Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan Workgroup Members:

Andrea Barbery, Office of Underground Storage Tanks
Jennifer Brady, Center for Program Analysis
Richard Canino, Office of Emergency Management
Ann Carroll, Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization
Steven Chang, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation
Thornell Cheeks, Region 4
Anne Dailey, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation
Michelle Davis, Region 10
Shannon Davis, Region 9
Ben Franco, Region 4
Elisabeth Freed, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
JeffGaines, Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery
Linda Gerber, Office of Underground Storage Tanks
Sara Goehl, Office of Emergency Management
Katie Matta, Region 3
Ellen Treimel, Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office
Elsbeth Hearn, Region 1
Camille Hueni, Region 6
Carol Keating, Region 1
Jeffrey Kohn,  Innovations, Partnerships, and Communications Office
Tiffany Kollar, Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery
Rachel Lentz,  Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization
NatMiullo, Region 8
Nicole Nakata, ASPH Environmental Health Fellow
Rebecca Ofrane, Region 2
Carlos Pachon, Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation
Scott Palmer,  Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery
John, Podgurski, Region  1
Kristin Ryan, Region 10
Daniel Schramm, Office of the General Counsel
Mickey Young, Region 3

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Table of Contents
   I. Climate Change Impacts to OSWER Programs                                 1
       •   What We Do	1
       •   Impact of Climate Change                                              1
       •   Purpose of this Document.                                              2
       •   Process for Developing this Document	2
   II. Vulnerability Assessment	4
       •   Climate Change Impacts	4
       •   Identification of Vulnerabilities                                         5
   III. Addressing Impacts of Climate Change	9
       •   Focusing  on Specific Vulnerabilities	9
       •   Developing Priority Actions                                            10
       •   Priority Actions                                                       11
   IV. Disproportionately Affected Populations	17
       •   Disproportionate Impact.                                                17
       •   Partnerships                                                           18
       •   Priority Actions                                                       20
   V. Measures and Evaluation                                                   23
   VI. Legal and Enforcement Issues                                              .23

   Appendices
   Appendix A - Effect of Climate Change Impacts on Programs Vulnerabilities	24
   Appendix B - Vulnerability Scorecard	27
   Appendix C - OSWER Actions	31
   Appendix D - Bibliography                                                   35

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I.     Climate Change Impacts to OSWER Programs
What We Do
Climate change is posing new challenges to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ability to
fulfill its mission. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER's) mission is to
protect human health and the environment, and preserve and restore land resources. OSWER strives to
protect the land from contamination through sustainable materials management and the proper
management of waste and petroleum products. When contamination does occur, OSWER and its partners
clean up communities to create a safer environment for all Americans. In addition, OSWER prepares for
and responds to environmental emergencies and promotes redevelopment of contaminated areas and
emergency preparedness and recovery planning.
Without proper protections and effective restoration, the presence of uncontrolled hazardous substances in
surface water, ground water, air, soil and sediment can cause human health concerns, threaten healthy
ecosystems, and inhibit economic opportunities on and adjacent to contaminated properties. Waste on the
land can also migrate to ground water and surface water, contaminating drinking water supplies. There
are multiple benefits associated with cleaning up contaminated sites: reducing mortality and morbidity
risk; preventing and reducing human exposure to contaminants; reducing impacts to ecosystems; making
land available for commercial, residential, industrial, or recreational reuse; and promoting community
economic development. In addition, materials management and sustainable land management practices
can significantly  reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Impact of Climate Change
Changes in climate and its impacts may test OSWER's ability to serve
these important functions. OSWER recognizes that anticipating and
planning for future changes in the climate and incorporating climate
considerations into its programs and operations is critical for OSWER to
continue to achieve its mission and fulfill its statutory, regulatory, and
programmatic requirements. There is some uncertainty, however, as to how
and when these changes to the climate will occur. OSWER will act
prudently to ensure its actions address pressing needs and will review its
vulnerabilities, actions and the state of climate science to make adjustments
           Vision
   OSWER will continue
   to achieve its mission
   to protect human
   health and the
   environment, and
   preserve and restore
   land resources, even as
   the climate changes.
in the future.
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Purpose of this Document
In June 2011, EPA issued a Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation which recognized that
climate change can pose significant challenges to EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. It calls for the
agency to anticipate and plan for future changes in climate and incorporate considerations of climate
change into its activities. The Policy Statement also requires the development of an agencywide
adaptation strategy that would integrate climate adaptation into the agency's programs, policies, rules and
operations. OSWER participated in the cross-agency workgroup that developed EPA's Climate Change
Adaptation Plan, which was released for public review February 2013.  In addition to the Agency Plan,
the Policy Statement also directed every EPA program and regional office to develop an Implementation
Plan that provides more detail on how it will meet the priorities and carry out the work called for in the
agencywide plan.
The purpose of this document is to describe OSWER's process for identifying climate change impacts to
its programs and the plan for integrating consideration of climate change impacts into the office's work.
OSWER will monitor the  status of climate science, particularly as it relates to known or anticipated
impacts on OSWER's program areas, as well as the effectiveness of its program activities under changing
conditions, and update or adjust its direction as necessary. As its knowledge evolves, OSWER will
continue to refine its approach to climate change adaptation and build on the current plan.

Process for Developing this Document
OSWER's Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan was created by a workgroup of EPA
employees located throughout the United States representing each of OSWER's headquarters and regional
offices. Descriptions of OSWER offices and programs are listed in Table 2.
There were three primary  stages in the development of OSWER's Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan. First, a comprehensive set of vulnerabilities was developed, as described in Section
II. Next,  evaluation criteria were applied to each vulnerability to guide the development of actions. These
scores are shown in Appendix C. Finally, specific actions were developed to address the vulnerabilities
that were identified as most critical, as described in Section III.
This plan also includes sections on vulnerable populations, working with tribes, legal and enforcement
issues, and measurement of progress.
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                                   Definition of Key Terms

Adapt, Adaptation: Adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment that
exploits beneficial opportunities or moderates negative effects.
Adaptive capacity: The ability of a human or natural system to adjust to climate change (including
climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or
to cope with the consequences.
Mitigation: An intervention to reduce the causes of changes in climate, such as through reducing
emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.
Resilience: A capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover, from significant multi-
hazard threats with minimum damage to social well-being, the economy, and the environment.
Risk: A combination of the magnitude of the potential consequence(s) of climate change impact(s)
and the likelihood that the consequence(s) will occur.
Vulnerability: The degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects
of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the
character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its
adaptive capacity.
Source: NRC. (2010). America's Climate Choices: Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change. National
Research Council.
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II.    Vulnerability Assessment
Climate Change Impacts
The global climate is changing and the impacts of this change are being felt across the United States and
the world. Many of these impacts will directly affect OSWER programs and activities. Listed below are
several climate change trends described by the U.S. Global Change Research Program: and their potential
impacts on OSWER programs.2
.   "One of the clearest precipitation trends in the United States is the increasing frequency and intensity
    of heavy downpours. The amount of rain falling in the heaviest downpours has increased
    approximately 20 percent in the last century. " Flooding and inundation from more intense and
    frequent storms may lead to contaminant releases through surface soils, ground water, surface waters,
    sediments, and/or coastal waters at OSWER sites.
.   "During the past 50 years, sea level has risen up to 8 inches or more along some coastal areas of the
    United States, and has fallen in other locations. " Rising sea level may inundate OSWER sites in
    coastal areas and increase flooding from storm surge, both of which could damage cleanups and
    increase human and ecological exposures to contaminants.
.   "The power and frequency of Atlantic hurricanes have increased substantially in recent decades. "
    More powerful hurricanes may increase the area affected by these storms, putting sites and
    communities that had not been previously impacted by flooding and storm surge in the past at risk.
    More powerful storms may also increase storm debris that will need to be appropriately managed.
.   "United States average temperature has risen more than 2ฐF during the last 50 years. " Increased
    average temperature and increased extreme temperatures may result in more frequent and longer
    lasting heat waves, increasing the risk of wildfires capable of spreading to OSWER sites and affecting
    the performance of remedies.
.   "Over the past 50 years, Alaska has warmed at twice the rate  of the United States' average. The
    higher temperatures are already contributing to . . . permafrost warming. "  The melting of
    permafrost may allow contaminants at OSWER sites in Alaska to migrate and may cause land shifting
    and subsidence.
1 USGCRP. (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and
Thomas C. Peterson (Eds.). Cambridge University Press.
2 This list is not intended to be exhaustive. A more complete list is included in subsequent parts of this section and
Appendix A.
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.   "In much of the Southeast and large parts of the West, the frequency of drought has increased
    coincident with rising temperatures. " Decreased precipitation and increased frequency of drought
    may impact water-intensive remedies and site stability, as well as increase the risk of wildfires.
.   "Wildfires in the United States are already increasing due to warming. In the West, there has been a
    nearly fourfold increase in large wildfires in recent decades,  with greater fire frequency, longer fire
    durations, and longer wildfire seasons. " Wildfires at contaminated sites could promote the spread of
    contamination  or impact remedies. Wildfire in the upland areas above contaminated sites could
    reduce vegetative cover, thereby increasing surface water runoff and resulting in catastrophic flooding
    that spreads contamination or impacts remedies.
In order for OSWER to fulfill its mission to protect human health and the environment, it is critical that
OSWER anticipate and plan for future climatic conditions. OSWER must appropriately integrate
consideration of climate into its program activities, policies, and regulations. Through adaptation
planning, OSWER can continue to protect human health and the environment but in a way that accounts
for effects of climate change.

Identification of Vulnerabilities
The first step in the development of OSWER's Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan was the
identification of OSWER's vulnerabilities to climate change. A vulnerability in this context reflects the
degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change,
including climate variability and extremes.  Using expert professional judgement and information from
peer-reviewed scientific literature, the OSWER workgroup used the aforementioned climate change
impacts as an initial screening tool to determine vulnerabilities to OSWER's processes, activities, and
functions. OSWER did not conduct a detailed quantitative  assessment of vulnerabilities. In total, 27
unique vulnerabilities were identified (Table 1).
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Table 1. OSWER Climate Change Vulnerabilities
rvina Land
o
(0
ฃ
a
Proper Management of
Hazardous and Non-
Hazardous Wastes
Reducing Chemical
Risks and Releases
Restoring Land

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Each vulnerability is linked to at least one climate change impact, however most vulnerabilities are linked
to multiple impacts (Appendix A). For example, increased contaminant spread could occur because of the
greater incidence of flooding at contaminated sites from heavy precipitation, hurricanes, and sea level
rise, as well as, melting permafrost or wildfires. Several vulnerabilities, such as data collection for
mapping and training are linked to all the impacts of climate change.
As the vulnerabilities were identified, they were organized by four critical OSWER programmatic focus
areas and a cross-cutting category:
•   Preserving Land -Proper Management of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes;
•   Preserving Land -Reducing Chemical Risks and Releases;
•   Restoring Land;
•   Emergency Response;
•   Tools, Data, Training and Outreach.
Under each focus  area a vulnerability may apply to more than one OSWER program office. For example,
five different OSWER offices identified contaminant migration from sites as a vulnerability for their
program. In addition, there were several vulnerabilities related to training and data needs that cut across
all program offices in OSWER, as well as across EPA.
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                                  Table 2. OSWER Programs
                      Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation and

                              Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office
 The Superfund Remedial and Federal Facilities Program addresses long-term risks to human health and the
 environment resulting from releases of hazardous substances at the nation's highest priority sites. Superfund sites
 are found throughout the country. The Federal Facilities Program works with federal entities to ensure fast and
 effective cleanup at federally-owned sites, and facilitates partnerships between the other federal agencies and the
 surrounding communities. The Superfund Remedial Program works on non-federally owned sites.
	Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization	
 The Brownfields Program addresses environmental site assessment and cleanup of abandoned and potentially
 contaminated sites through grants, cooperative agreements, and technical assistance to communities, states, and
 tribes. Brownfields' sites have potential contamination that needs to be assessed and in some instances cleaned up
 before redevelopment and reuse can occur. These sites generally are much less contaminated than Superfund and
 RCRA Corrective Action sites. Funding to states and tribes helps develop and enhance their voluntary cleanup
 programs for these sites.	
	Office of Emergency Management	
 The Superfund Emergency Response and Removal Program functions as the backbone federal response to
 many emergency events;  provides response support to state, local, tribal and potentially responsible parties when
 their response capabilities are exceeded; and manages risks to human health and the environment. Removal actions
 are typically responses intended to protect people from threats posed by hazardous waste sites.	
 The Oil Spill Program protects U.S. waters by preventing, preparing for and responding to oil spills. Section 311 of
 the Clean Water Act and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provide EPA with the authority to establish a regulatory
 program for preventing, preparing for and responding to oil spills that occur in navigable waters of the United States.
 The EPA Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Program is the national regulatory framework to
 prevent, prepare for and respond to catastrophic accidental chemical releases at industrial facilities throughout the
 United States.	
	Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery	
 The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Solid Waste Program encourages states to develop
 comprehensive plans to manage nonhazardous industrial solid waste and municipal solid waste, sets criteria for
 municipal solid waste landfills and other solid waste disposal facilities, and prohibits the  open dumping of solid waste.
 A core function of this program is to look for and incentivize more sustainable ways to manage our materials,
 prolonging the life of materials as usable commodities for as long as possible.
 The RCRA Hazardous Waste Program issues comprehensive, national regulations, defines solid and hazardous
 wastes, and imposes standards on anyone who generates, recycles, transports, treats, stores or disposes of
 hazardous waste. This program also monitors the movement of hazardous waste in and out of U.S. borders and
 works to help ensure the waste that is exported is properly recycled or disposed of.

 The RCRA Corrective Action Program directly implements the corrective action (CA) program in 13 states and
 territories, and performs as lead regulator at an increasingly significant number of facilities undergoing CAs in 42
 states across the country that are authorized for the RCRA CA Program. An essential element of EPA's hazardous
 waste management program is the statutory requirement that facilities managing hazardous wastes must clean up
 releases of hazardous constituents that could adversely impact human health and the environment. The CA program
 is critical to preventing future Superfund sites and the associated resources and expenditures.

	Office of Underground Storage Tanks	
 The Underground Storage Tanks (LIST) Prevention Program works with state, tribal and inter-agency partners to
 set and implement standards which prevent and detect releases from underground storage tanks. EPA provides
 resources to support the infrastructure of state and tribal  UST programs and provides regulations, guidance and
 policies to support program implementation. An essential element of the UST program is full implementation of the
 Energy Policy Act of 2005.
 The Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Cleanup  Program works with state  and tribal partners to clean
 up releases from LUST sites, many of which impact ground water resources. Cleaning up LUSTs is a key part of
 protecting our environment. EPA provides resources to support the infrastructure of state LUST programs so that
 private and state resources can directly finance the field work necessary to address contamination at federally-
 regulated tank releases. EPA also provides regulations, guidance and policy to support cleanup of tank releases.


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III.   Addressing Impacts of Climate Change
Focusing on Specific Vulnerabilities
In a resource-constrained environment, in order to prioritize and focus OSWER's efforts to address the
impacts of climate change, each vulnerability was evaluated based on a set of criteria. Together, these
criteria allowed each OSWER office to use its best professional judgment to evaluate the areas that
needed the most or immediate attention and where its contribution would be most effective.
The first two criteria, referred to as the "Characterization Criteria", were designed to enhance the
understanding of the overall impact of a particular vulnerability. Because climate change is a long-term
problem, both the scale and timing of adaptation actions are important.
Characterization Criteria:
    •    Scale of impact to human health, the environment or vulnerable communities because of the
        vulnerability - The scores for this criterion reflect the potential for harm to human health, the
        environment, or a vulnerable community, if the vulnerability is not addressed.
    •    Likelihood of occurrence  because of the vulnerability - This criterion is a reflection of what
        impacts have already occurred at OSWER sites and programs.
The second set of criteria reflect EPA roles in addressing the impacts of these vulnerabilities and are
collectively referred to as "Opportunities for OSWER to make a difference". These criteria are intended
to identify those vulnerabilities for which action by OSWER would significantly advance adaptation
efforts and ones in which OSWER is more directly responsible for addressing.
Opportunities for OSWER to make a difference:
    •    Does EPA have a unique or lead role or technical expertise in this area?
    •    To what extent are climate impacts currently not considered in this area?
    •    To what extent could additional EPA involvement build momentum or leverage current
        activities?
    •    Is there an opportunity to  incorporate climate change into an ongoing effort (e.g., rulemaking,
        changes to grant criteria, updates to guidance and training)?
Each OSWER office determined which vulnerabilities were applicable to its work and developed a score
for the vulnerability. When  applying the criteria, offices did not rank vulnerabilities in relation to each
                                                                                        Page 9

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other, but instead considered each vulnerability independently. These scores were used to aid OSWER
offices in determining which vulnerabilities were most critical to focus actions.
The score sheet with the criteria is shown in Appendix B. To maintain transparency OSWER has included
all identified vulnerabilities regardless of the final score.

Developing Priority Actions
Using the vulnerability criteria as a guide, the following OSWER offices developed priority actions:
    +  CPA - Center for Program Analysis
    +  FFRRO -Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office
    +  OBLR - Office of Brownfields and Land Revitalization
    +  OEM - Office of Emergency Management
    +  ORCR - Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery
    +  OSRTI - Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation
    +  OUST - Office of Underground Storage Tanks
In addition, EPA regional offices play a central role in implementing OSWER programs. Regions work
closely with states, tribes, and other stakeholders to protect the environment and human health at a more
localized, geographically focused level than the OSWER national program. OSWER reviewed actions
proposed by Regional offices in their climate change adaptation plans and supports them as a crucial
element to advancing climate change. OSWER regional actions were primarily in support of EPA's
Strategic Goal 3: Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable Development.
                     Continued Actions to Lessen Climate Change Impacts
      While preparing for the potential impacts of climate change, leveraging materials and land
      management programs to achieve measurable greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions remains a
      focus of OSWER programs. It is estimated that approximately 42% of GHG emissions are
      attributable to materials management activities  and approximately 16% are related to land
      management choices.  To promote continued GHG reductions, OSWER is increasing efforts
      for the advancement of life-cycle-analyses, the  promotion of sustainable production and
      material management, as well as promoting the use of green remediation principles that
      reduce emissions during cleanups.
      Source: USEPA. (2009). Opportunities to Reduce or Avoid Greenhouse Gas Emissions through
      Materials and Land Management Practices.
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Priority Actions
OSWER has identified 26 priority actions to begin over the next 3 years. These actions are in one or more
of the four programmatic focus areas and one cross-cutting category. The actions are found in a summary
chart in Appendix C and are listed below by programmatic focus area and office.
Preserving Land - Proper Management of Hazardous & Non-Hazardous Wastes
Proper treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste protect the environment from harmful
contamination. To ensure these materials are properly managed, OSWER supports prevention by
activities such as permitting and inspections. Non-hazardous waste must also be properly managed, both
routinely and in times of emergency.
In the "Proper Management of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes" focus area, the vulnerability that
ranked the highest was the management of surges in waste, particularly from the impacts of extreme
events. ORCR is already involved in several efforts in this area and has identified several actions to
respond to this vulnerability. These actions are also applicable in the "Emergency Response" focus area.
As a crucial part of the RCRA program, ORCR has also identified a long-term action that will begin to
look at issues related to climate change and permitting programs. Even though, vulnerabilities related to
permitting did not receive high criteria scores, particularly in terms of likelihood of occurrence and
potential impacts.
Actions:
ORCR
    •   Based on outreach to states and tribes, develop recommendations for these stakeholders to
        incorporate climate change into RCRA Permitting Programs as appropriate (e.g., through robust
        implementation of technical standards for facility location and design).
ORCR (also in the Emergency Response  section)
    •   Prepare Fact Sheets on proper management of wastes/debris associated with large natural
        disasters (e.g., electronic, household hazardous wastes, white goods, etc.).
    •   Continue collaborative development with the Office of Homeland Security,  on an interactive
        electronic waste management planning  tool to aid federal, state and local emergency planners and
        managers in development of waste/debris management plans.
    •   Finalize a document describing the "4 Step Process for Waste Management  Planning."
    •   Update ORCR Homeland Security Website with updated waste management planning
        information.
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Preserving Land - Reducing Chemical Risks and Releases
EPA has several programs in place to prevent contamination from chemical releases. Prevention is
accomplished through effective operation and maintenance activities, containment strategies, as well as
inspection and monitoring of facilities that deal with hazardous materials.
The actions in this programmatic focus area address activities that prevent contamination from occurring.
Other vulnerabilities with high scores in this focus area will benefit from the actions to address
remediation and containment approaches as described in "Restoring Land".
Actions:
OEM
    •   Incorporate sensitivity for climate change vulnerabilities into oil Spill Prevention, Control, and
        Countermeasure (SPCC) and Facility Response  Plan (FRP)3 inspector training.
    •   Incorporate into SPCC and FRP guidance the statement of potential vulnerabilities to oil facilities
        from catastrophic weather events due to climate change.
    •   Incorporate sensitivity for climate change vulnerabilities in risk management plan (RMP) 4
        inspector training and guidelines.
Restoring Land
Accidents, spills, leaks and past improper disposal and handling of hazardous materials and wastes have
resulted in tens of thousands of contaminated sites in the United States. Contaminated land can threaten
human health and the environment, impact our water and air quality, and potentially hamper economic
growth  and the vitality of local communities. Numerous activities address the contamination, reduce risk
to human health and the environment, and move the contaminated site along the cleanup process to return
the site  to use or reuse.
Two primary types of vulnerabilities were identified as the most critical in the "Restoring Land" focus
area. First, several offices identified increased contaminant migration as having a high potential impact,
3 The Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) rule includes requirements for oil spill prevention,
preparedness, and response to prevent oil discharges to navigable waters and adjoining shorelines. The rule requires
specific facilities to prepare, amend, and implement SPCC Plans. The SPCC rule is part of the Oil Pollution
Prevention regulation, which also includes the Facility Response Plan (FRP) rule. A Facility Response Plan (FRP)
demonstrates a facility's preparedness to respond to a worst case oil discharge. Under the Clean Water Act, as
amended by the Oil Pollution Act, certain facilities that store and use oil are required to prepare and submit these
plans.
4 Under the authority of section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act, the Chemical Accident Prevention Provisions require
facilities that produce, handle, process, distribute, or store certain chemicals to develop a Risk Management
Program, prepare a Risk Management Plan (RMP), and submit the RMP to EPA.
                                                                                           Page 12

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high probability of occurrence, and often under the control of EPA programs. Second, remedy
effectiveness, which includes three separate vulnerabilities representing various stages of the cleanup
process (remedy selection, remedy effectiveness during cleanup, and remedy effectiveness after a cleanup
is complete), was also identified by several offices as having a high vulnerability score and a role for EPA
involvement.
Numerous OSWER offices involved in cleanup activities identified either a short- or long-term action
related to the vulnerabilities mentioned above. Due to the differences in how OSWER cleanup programs
are implemented, whether at the headquarters office, in partnerships with states, or through grants, the
actions differ across offices. There may, however, be areas where offices can share resources and
knowledge, for example, as we learn more about the effectiveness of particular remedies under extreme
climate conditions.
Actions:
ORCR
    •  Develop recommendations for states and tribes to encourage climate change considerations be
       incorporated into all of their RCRA Corrective Action Programs (e.g., regarding remedy
       selection, etc.).
OUST
    •  Work with the Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials
       (ASTSWMO) to gather information on if and how states currently:
           •   alter remediation plans in response to changing climate impacts;
           •   alter site assessments in response to  flooding or drought conditions;
           •   alter risk factors and rankings in response to flooding or drought conditions.
    •  Share information among states, tribes, and EPA regions regarding:
           •   new or modified investigation strategies and remediation techniques;
           •   new or modified assessment techniques;
           •   how climate conditions may impact  risk-based cleanup factors and rankings.
OBLR
    •  Work with regional  staff to update the Analysis of Brownfields Cleanup Alternatives (ABCA)
       language in the brownfield grant Terms and  Conditions to include language that requires
       recipients take potential changing climate conditions into consideration when  evaluating cleanup
       alternatives.
                                                                                        Page 13

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    •  Develop an outreach strategy to promote the importance of climate change adaptation and
       mitigation, explaining how it will affect all communities at varying degrees and why it is
       important to consider when developing revitalization plans in their community.
OSRTI and FFRRO
    •  Share vulnerability screening protocol for regional application.
           •   Develop criteria to identify remedies where performance may be impacted by climate
               change.
           •   Develop a methodology to evaluate and ensure remedy protectiveness.
    •  Prepare remedy-specific climate change adaptation fact sheets for remedies most likely to be
       impacted and identify potential vulnerabilities and adaptation recommendations.
    •  Identify existing Superfund program processes (Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Record
       of Decision, Remedial Design/Remedial Action, Five Year reviews, etc.) for implementation of
       climate change adaptation protocols to ensure continuing protectiveness of current and future
       remedies.
    •  Prepare training materials, coordinate with the National Association of Regional Project
       Managers (NARPM) co-chairs and Superfund forums to integrate the training into future
       NARPM events, and provide web-based content and training.
    •  Participate with OSWER and other EPA programs to initiate conversations as appropriate
       regarding approaches for handling remedy impacts from climate change.
Emergency Response
OSWER responds to a variety of emergencies, varying greatly in size, nature, and location, including
natural disasters. OSWER staff act as response coordinators and on-site responders. In all  cases,  prompt
action is crucial and the first priority is to  eliminate dangers to the public; dangers include contamination
from chemical releases in the air, water or soil and large amounts of waste. In addition to the
responsibilities of OSWER's Office of Emergency Management, many other OSWER and EPA program
offices play a role in addressing the impacts of emergency events.
The management of debris was a highly ranked vulnerability in this category, as well as in the "Proper
Management of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous  Waste" focus area. Several actions are identified to
address this vulnerability.
The Emergency Operations Center (EOC) is a vital part of OSWER's response program. Actions are
identified to ensure EOC staff are provided with the most accurate and comprehensive information that
takes into consideration changes in climate.
                                                                                       Page 14

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Actions:
OUST
    •  Work with ASTSWMO to gather information on if and how states currently respond to climate-
       related emergencies (e.g., use of GIS mapping in flood-prone areas).
    •  Analyze lessons learned from Hurricanes Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) to identify how EPA
       can help states respond to UST-related hurricane impacts.
    •  Share information among states, tribes, and EPA regions regarding emergency response and
       preparedness (e.g., OUST's Flood Guide).
ORCR (also in the Proper Management of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes section)
    •  Prepare Fact Sheets on proper management of wastes/debris associated with large natural
       disasters (e.g., electronic, household hazardous wastes, white goods, etc.).
    •   Continue  collaborative development with the Office of Homeland Security, on an interactive
       electronic  waste management planning tool to aid federal, state and local emergency planners and
       managers in development of waste/debris management plans.
    •   Finalize a document describing the "4 Step Process for Waste Management Planning."
    •   Update ORCR Homeland Security Website to incorporate facts sheets, 4 Step Process, and
       updated waste management planning information.
OEM
    •  Utilize the National Response Team multi-agency membership (e.g., National Oceanic and
       Atmospheric Administration, Federal Emergency Management Agency, U.S. Coast Guard) to
       monitor the state of preparedness.  Based on these meetings, evaluate if additional resources and
       planning exercises will be needed  to address the impacts from changes in the frequency and/or
       severity of extreme weather events.
    •  Incorporate the use of FlexViewer technology as a preparedness tool for climate change impacts.
       •   The EOC will build on-going development and use of FlexViewer technology to graphically
           display information on notifications and incidents in headquarters and all 10 regional EOCs.
           This technology will allow for improved and up-to-date Geographic Information System
           (GIS)  mapping of watersheds and coastal areas impacted by climate change.
    •  Incorporate materials on the impacts of climate change as EOC training materials are updated and
       exercises are planned.
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Tools, Data, Training and Outreach
In order to make informed decisions about program direction, design, and implementation, OSWER must
use the best available data. As a result of climate change, assumptions about ecosystem conditions are
shifting more rapidly, affecting the ability to predict potential weather patterns and map the geographic
conditions at and around its sites.
Several vulnerabilities, including data collection and training, were identified as applicable and important
to all OSWER offices. One of the primary challenges to incorporating climate change into its activities
will be obtaining reliable projections of sea level rise, flooding zones, and other impacts of climate
change. These projections will help guide decisions such as remedy selection. Access to this data is
needed by all programs. In addition, training is a vital component of information dissemination and use;
therefore, OSWER must appropriately consider relevant training. To best address these vulnerabilities it
will be necessary for OSWER to work with regions and other EPA offices, including the Office of
Research and Development, to ensure consistency across the  agency.
Actions:
CPA
    •  Provide recommended data sources and parameters to OSWER offices and regions to ensure
       consistent mapping  data and protocols. Develop these recommendations by working with the
       agency's climate change workgroup and EPA's Office of Research and Development.
    •  Participate in agency climate change adaptation training development, as well as develop specific
       training as needed for OSWER staff.
    •  Work with EPA partners and external experts to monitor evolving assumptions related to climate
       science.  Develop a method for disseminating this information to OSWER offices that ensures
       consistent assumptions are used across all activities.
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IV.   Disproportionately Affected Populations
Disproportionate Impact
While climate change will affect all parts of society, it will have disproportionate effects on particular
communities, demographic groups and geographic locations.5 Certain parts of the population, such as
children, the elderly, minorities, the poor, persons with underlying medical conditions and disabilities,
those with limited access to information, and tribal and indigenous populations can be especially
vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These disproportionately affected groups may have less
ability to cope with or adapt to climate change due to economic, social, physical, or health constraints.
Also, certain geographic locations and communities are particularly vulnerable, such as those located in
low-lying coastal areas.
Populations that are already overburdened by environmental contamination, poverty, and environmental
health issues, may face greater adaptation challenges.6 Though Hurricane Sandy was not necessarily due
to climate change, the impacts resulting from associated flooding are similar to what could occur in a
climate related flooding or storm surge event.  Many of the elderly and poor in New York and New Jersey
suffered significantly from flooding-associated power and heat loss, scarcity of food and supplies, and
difficulty in accessing medical care.7 These populations may have lacked the resources to evacuate
outside the  affected areas and as a result could not as readily avoid the adverse conditions resulting from
the storm. During the recovery and reconstruction phases, vulnerable populations may also have a more
difficult time due to underlying factors such as economic and social resource base and health status that
can limit their access to resources as well as their ability to take action.
In addition, a community's location near a vulnerable ecosystem or a contaminated site may also result in
differential impacts depending on how that ecosystem or site is impacted by climate change. Degraded
ecosystems or those changed from human activities may place communities near them at higher risk for
the effects of climate change. The ecosystems that may have served as a natural buffer against storm
surge or may have provided valuable cultural, recreational, or other resources can no longer serve this
purpose due to their altered  state.8 For example, an environmental justice community's resilience and
ability to adapt to climate change may be complicated by their location both near a hazardous waste site
5 USEPA. (2012). Climate Change Adaptation Plan: Public Review Draft.
6 ibid.
7 USEPA. (2012). Region 2 Adaptation Plan.
8 USGCRP. (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and
Thomas C. Peterson (Eds.). Cambridge University Press.
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and in an area prone to increased climate-related storm surge. It is important to recognize the factors that
may compound a community's vulnerability to climate change in order to implement effective strategies
to increase adaptive capacity.
Climate change may also pose unique challenges to tribes and other indigenous populations. Tribes are
particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, due to the integral nature of the environment
within their traditional lifestyles and culture. Partly due to their dependence upon a specific area for their
livelihood, the degree to which those geographic areas embody climate-sensitive environments, and their
unique cultural, economic, or political characteristics and contexts, tribes and indigenous groups may be
especially sensitive to climate change related shifts in their environment.9 Their ability to cope with
climate-related hazards is further restricted by limited access to preparedness, response, and recovery
resources.10 While tribes and indigenous populations will likely be disproportionately vulnerable to
climate change, they are uniquely positioned to provide valuable community level, culturally relevant
data, information on climate change impacts, and relevant solutions.
For instance, Alaskan Natives are one population that is experiencing disproportionate impacts from
climate change.  Temperature increases associated with climate change have led to the melting of
permafrost. In some cases, permafrost acts as a barrier to the transport of contaminants. With increased
temperatures, thawing could allow contaminants to migrate more freely to adjoining areas_and those
effects would only accelerate with continued changes in the climate.11 In several Alaskan coastal
communities, melting ice and erosion have caused landfills to fall into the ocean, affecting environmental
and human health.12

Partnerships
States, tribes, and local communities share responsibility for protecting human health and the
environment, and partnerships with EPA are at the heart of the country's environmental protection
system. These partnerships will be critical for efficient, effective, and equitable implementation of climate
adaptation strategies. Strong partnerships make the most effective use of partners' respective bodies of
knowledge, resources, and talents. Below is a summary of how OSWER currently works with
underserved populations and tribes.
9 USEPA. (2012). Climate Change Adaptation Plan: Public Review Draft.
10 Cutter, S.L. and C. Finch. (2008). "Temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards."
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105(7): 2301-2306.
11 USGCRP. (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and
Thomas C. Peterson (Eds.). Cambridge University Press.
12 The National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee Report (Draft for public comment)
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Ongoing Partnerships to Address Vulnerable Populations and Places
OSWER has identified three focus areas to address environmental justice (EJ) in its programs. These
focus areas are designed to integrate ongoing EJ activities and produce tangible outcomes in
overburdened and underserved communities impacted by OSWER programs. These focus area activities
listed below are designed to meaningfully advance EJ in OSWER programs, have EJ as the central focus,
and can produce meaningful, measurable outcomes in low income and minority communities.
    •   Focus Area #1: Incorporate EJ considerations into OSWER programs, policies, and activities by
        addressing disproportionately high, adverse human health and environmental impacts on
        overburdened and underserved populations to the greatest extent practicable and permitted by law
    •   Focus Area #2: Institute a continual learning process through training and the use of agency
        environmental justice tools to help OSWER staff better serve overburdened and underserved
        communities
    •   Focus Area #3: Expand community engagement approaches and increase partnership building
        which allows overburdened and underserved communities to meaningfully participate in decision
        making activities and address local environmental concerns.
Ongoing Partnerships with Tribes
EPA values its unique government-to-government relationship with Indian tribes in planning and decision
making. This trust responsibility has been established over time and is further expressed in the 1984 EPA
Policy for the Administration of Environmental Programs on Indian Reservations and the 2077 Policy on
Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribes. These policies recognize and support the sovereign
decision-making authority of tribal governments. OSWER works as a partner with many Tribal Nations to
implement OSWER programs.  OSWER's partnership with tribes is based on its tribal strategy.13 The
long-term goal of the tribal strategy is to support and provide direction for OSWER's Indian program,
enhance outreach efforts with tribes on environmental protection in Indian country, and maintain
consistency with EPA's Indian Policy. OSWER short-term strategies include:
    •   Ensure appropriate government-to-government consultation and communication with tribal
        leaders in accordance with EPA's 2077 Policy.
    •   Build tribal capacity. OSWER provides support through training, financial support, and technical
        assistance to tribes to build capacity in assuming regulatory and program management
        responsibilities. Additionally, OSWER develops guidance and provides for research in
13 USEPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. (2008). Tribal Strategy: EPA & Tribal Partnership to
Preserve and Restore Land in Indian Country.
                                                                                       Page 19

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        cooperation with tribes to clarify key issues and/or obtain relevant information for addressing
        issues potentially affecting tribal health and the environment.
    •   Facilitate meaningful communication, coordination, and cooperation within OSWER on tribal
        issues and cultural awareness.
EPA engaged tribes through a formal consultation process in the development of the agency's Climate
Adaptation Plan. Tribes identified erosion, temperature change, drought, and various changes in access to
and quality of water as some of the most pressing issues. Tribes recommended a number of tools and
strategies to address these issues, including improving access to data and information; supporting baseline
research to better track the effects of climate change; developing community-level education and
awareness materials; and providing financial and technical support. At the same time, tribes challenged
EPA to coordinate climate change activities among federal agencies so that resources are better leveraged
and administrative burdens are reduced.

Priority Actions
Community Engagement
One of the principles guiding OSWER's efforts to integrate climate adaptation into its programs, policies,
and rules calls for its adaptation plans to prioritize helping people, places, and infrastructure that are most
vulnerable to climate impacts, and to be designed and implemented with meaningful involvement from all
parts of society. Within OSWER, community engagement is a critical component to how the office does
its job of protecting human health and the environment. Effective community engagement is about a
process of interactions that builds relationships over time and recognizes and emphasizes the
community's role in identifying concerns and participating in formulating solutions. It establishes a
framework for collaboration and deliberation. In the broadest sense, community engagement in
environmental decision-making is the inclusion of the community in the process of defining the problem
and developing solutions and alternatives.
For climate change decision-making processes to be effective they must be transparent and accessible and
communities must be well informed and engaged. Communities should therefore have access to clear and
understandable information. The local knowledge  and input gained from meaningful engagement with the
full diversity of the community will help to strengthen OSWER's decisions about climate change
adaptation and the actions developed to address vulnerabilities, ensuring that these activities are well
suited to the community's particular needs and circumstances.  OSWER will work in partnership with
communities to increase their adaptive  capacity and resilience to climate change impacts. These efforts
                                                                                        Page 20

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will be informed by experiences with the impacts of previous extreme weather events (e.g., Hurricane
Katrina and Superstorm Sandy) and the subsequent recovery efforts.
Adaptation actions must recognize and be tailored to the specific issues at the regional, state, local, and
community levels.14 OSWER can provide federal leadership, guidance, information, and support which
are vital to planning for and implementing adaptive actions, however, adaptation planning must include
collaboration between multiple stakeholders including state and local governments, tribes, communities,
non-governmental organizations and others.
Vulnerable Population Actions
OSWER will give special attention to populations and places that are most vulnerable to climate related
impacts to its sites. OSWER will also continue to work to better understand the populations that surround
these sites in order to expand its knowledge on potential impacts and better protect vulnerable
communities and places.
Actions:
    •   Work with the agency's climate change workgroup and EPA's  Office of Research and
       Development to ensure consistent mapping data and protocols to better understand the
       intersections of climate impacts and population vulnerability and help to inform future policy and
       office activities and ensure they take evolving climate science into account.
    •    Review and update as necessary, existing community engagement tools and training to
       incorporate climate change concerns in how we partner with communities, based on new
       knowledge relating to climate change.
In addition, the Community Engagement Network being created by OSWER may provide a valuable
internal forum for sharing and gathering information about best practices for engaging communities in
climate change conversations.
Tribal Actions
Supporting the development of adaptive capacity among tribes is a priority for the EPA. Networks and
partnerships already in place will be used to assist tribes with climate change issues, including Regional
Tribal Operations Committees, the Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals and the Indian
General Assistance Program. Transparency and information sharing will be a focus, in order to leverage
activities already taking place within EPA offices and tribal governments.
14 USGCRP. (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and
Thomas C. Peterson (Eds.). Cambridge University Press.
                                                                                        Page 21

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Actions:
    •  Work with the agency's climate change workgroup and EPA's Office of Research and
       Development to share mapping data and protocols with its partners, including tribes to help
       inform their adaptation activities.
    •   Assist the Institute for Environmental Tribal Professionals (ITEP) in developing adaptation into
       their normal climate change training.
Collaborative efforts on climate change will benefit from the expertise provided by tribal partners and the
Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) they possess. TEK is a valuable body of knowledge in
assessing the current and future impacts of climate change and has been used by tribes for millennia as a
valuable tool to adapt to changing surroundings. Consistent with the principles in EPA's Indian Policy,
TEK should be viewed as a complementary resource that can inform planning and decision making.
Supporting Regions
While OSWER headquarters program offices are taking actions to address climate change adaptation,
much of the work with tribes and vulnerable populations will occur within the EPA regions, since climate
change has many impacts that transcend media and regional boundaries. OSWER plans to coordinate with
and support regional and program office actions by working to ensure that they have access to evolving
climate science  and standardized data to inform policy and other activities. For instance, data could be
used for mapping  impacts relating to vulnerable populations and tribes. Data driven mapping will help
ensure that adaptation  actions can be prioritized and tailored to those populations who are most at risk for
disproportionate impact from climate change. Data can also be shared with tribes to help them create
adaptation strategies to address their climate change impacts.
                                                                                        Page 2 2

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V.    Measures and Evaluation
The actions proposed in this plan expand OSWER's efforts to mainstream and integrate climate change
adaptation into its programs. OSWER will monitor the status of climate science, particularly as it relates
to known or anticipated impacts on OSWER's program areas, as well as the effectiveness of its program
activities under changing conditions, and update or adjust its direction as necessary. OSWER commits to
periodically publicly reporting on progress implementing these actions and what it has accomplished in
website updates or factsheets.
To measure and evaluate progress toward completing actions, the workgroup that developed this
document will continue to meet to discuss progress implementing actions and share information that may
assist other offices in their efforts. Collaborative tools may also be utilized to facilitate the discussion.

VI.    Legal and Enforcement Issues


OSWER works closely with the Office of General Counsel (OGC) to ensure that its actions are legally
supported and in compliance with all applicable laws. OSWER will continue to work with OGC as it
plans for and develops programming related to adaptation and the impacts of climate change.
OSWER will partner with the Office of Site Remediation Enforcement (OSRE) to address enforcement
concerns related to climate change issues. OSWER and OSRE will work together to develop tools that
address climate change policy questions as well as site-specific issues.
                                                                                      Page 2 3

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Appendix A - Effect of Climate Change Impacts on OSWER Program Vulnerabilities
The If- symbol indicates climate change impacts that are expected to significantly contribute to the identified program vulnerabilities. Note: The likelihood of occurrence for
each climate change impact is taken from EPA's Climate Change Adaptation Plan. Additional sources are found at the end of the table.

Program Vulnerability
Climate Change Impact
(Increased
extreme
temps1
Sustained
changes in
average temp1
5"
-------

Program Vulnerability
	
1! o.
to E <2
w SJ c"
Sustained
changes in
average temp1
	
"o
~~ to
m -c
tu
W
Very Likely
Climate Change Impact
Decreased
permafrost3
Decreased
precipitation
increasing
drought4
Increased
heavy
precipitation
events1
Increased
flood risk4 | |
Increased
frequency &
intensity of
wildfires5 |
Increased
intensity of
hurricanes1
Likely
Restoring Land
Site characterization and design of cleanups may not reflect changing
climate conditions.
Risk factors and rankings for risk-based cleanup strategies may need to
be reassessed based on changing climate conditions.
Changing climate conditions may impact continued remedy
effectiveness.
Remedies that are "complete" or are long-term actions may no longer
be protective and resilient as climate conditions change at site.
Increased contaminant migration may lead to boundary changes at
current sites or creation of new sites.
Changes in climate conditions may alter assumptions about
contaminant form/volatility.
Current scientific monitoring and sampling protocols on sites may no
longer be effective.
Safety procedures on sites may not reflect likelihood or intensity of
surrounding conditions.
Availability of utilities and transportation infrastructure may be limited
as a result of increased impacts to those systems.
Current assumptions regarding protectiveness of remediation and
containment methods may not reflect changing climate impacts.
Periodic evaluations of implemented remedies may not incorporate all
climate change impacts, including changes in frequency and intensity
that may impact remedy effectiveness.
Use of natural resources impacted by sites may change as a result of
increased need, resource scarcity, or compromised resources.
*

*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*

*

*
*

*
*
*

*
*

*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
*


*
*
*
*


*
*
*

*

*
*

*
*


*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Page 2 5

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Program Vulnerability
Emergency Response
Current levels of administrative, enforcement, and emergency
response staff may be insufficient to cover needs if number of
extreme events increase.
Sufficient capability and capacity for conducting necessary lab analysis
following significant weather events may not be available.
Current waste management capacity, including interim capacity, may
be insufficient to handle surges in necessary treatment and disposal of
hazardous and municipal wastes, as well as mixed wastes generated
from climate events.
Training needs (both current and future) are likely to increase in order
to meet the increase demand for response actions.
Existing emergency planning currently required or employed by
OSWER may not sufficiently consider elevated risks from multiple
climate impacts.
Climate Change Impact
!8 E"ซ>
Co ff\ *i
1




*
Sustained
changes in
average temp1

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Appendix B - Vulnerability Scorecard1
Program Vulnerability
Office
Characterization Criteria
Total
Score
o tS
01 15
8 1
V) —
Likelihood of
occurrence
Scale 1-10
10(High) -l(Low)
Opportunities for OSWER to Make a Difference
Total
Score
Role for EPA
technical
expertise?
Scale 1-5
5(Yes)-l(No)
0) 0"
a j2 = ~a
J|i|
o Q. L. .s
ฃ .1 i 1
< ฐ 8
Scale 1-5
5(Not) -
l(Fully)
2 ฃ 0, . 01 M
HIM cSS*
1 E 1 i 1 a & 1 1
I i s ฐ s 1 1 •
Scale 1-5
5(Very Likely)-l(Not Likely)
Preserving Land - Proper Management of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes
Design and placement of RCRA Treatment, Storage and
Disposal facilities, non-hazardous Subtitle D landfills,
Superfund remedies and municipal recycling facilities may
need to change to accommodate climate change impacts.
Hazardous waste permitting requirements may need to be
updated to reflect climate change impacts.
Current waste management capacity may be insufficient to
handle surges in necessary treatment and disposal of
hazardous and municipal wastes, as well as mixed wastes
generated from climate events.
Levels of necessary financial assurance at RCRA and CERCLA
Facilities may need to adjust for increased risks/liabilities at
specific facilities that may be directly affected by climate
change impacts.
FFRRO
ORCR
OSRTI
FFRRO
ORCR
FFRRO
ORCR
OSRTI
FFRRO
ORCR
OSRTI
6
6
6
15
6
20
15
15
10
10
10
5
5
5
10
5
10
5
5
5
5
5
1
1
1
5
1
10
10
10
5
5
5
12
10
18
14
13
8
15
18
12
8
15
^| 4
2
5
5
5
1
4
5
4
3
5
2
3
3
2
3
3
•
3
2
3
3
3
4
5
4 	
	 4 	
3
4
5
3
1
4
^H 3
1
5
3
1
1
ซ
5
3
1
3
Preserving Land - Reducing Chemical Risks and Releases
Remediation and containment strategies and materials used
in construction may need to be strengthened to reflect
changing climate conditions.
Current equipment, scientific monitoring and sampling
protocols on sites may no longer be effective and therefore
may require adjustments due to climate change impacts.
Current assumptions regarding protectiveness of remediation
and containment methods may not reflect changing climate
impacts.
Spill Prevention Plans may need to be updated due to the
significant increases in the incidence of flooding and storm
events.
FFRRO
ORCR
OSRTI
FFRRO
ORCR
OSRTI
FFRRO
ORCR
OSRTI
OEM
15
10
10
12
2
2
10
15
16
4
8
5
5
5
1
1
5
5
8
2
7
5
5
7
1
1
5
10
8
2
8
14
18
10
9
18
8
6
8
6
1
5
5
1
4
5
1
3
2
2
2
	 3 	
3
3
3
3
2

3
1
3
4
5
3
1
5
4
2
1
2
2
2
5
3
1
5
1
1
2
1
                                                                                             Page 2 7

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Program Vulnerability
Office
Characterization Criteria
Total
Score
e
IS
Q.
i
01
5
V)
Scale
10(High)
it * \
ฃ o Likelihood of
-ฃ- occurrence
Opportunities for OSWER to Make a Difference
Total
Score
I. IS 01
O 0 <"
01 C '€
III
*^ 01
Scale 1-5
5(Yes)-l(No)
Currently
considered?
Scale 1-5
5(Not) -
k.
10 1 ฃ 3 €
o — 
-------


Office
Characterization Criteria
Total
Score
Scale of impact
Likelihood of
occurrence
Scale 1-10
10(High) -l(Low)
Opportunities for OSWER to Make a Difference
Total
Score
	 oป
I. IS 01
O 0 <"
o. 'E t
111
*^ 01
Scale 1-5
5(Yes)-l(No)
!)
Scale 1-5
5(Not) -
l(Fully)
Build
momentum or
leverage
current
Ongoing effort?
5(Very Likely)-l(Not Likely)
Restoring Land (continued)
Current scientific monitoring and sampling protocols on
sites may no longer be effective.
Safety procedures on sites may not reflect likelihood or
intensity of surrounding conditions.
Availability of utilities and transportation infrastructure
may be limited as a result of increased impacts to those
systems.
Current assumptions regarding protectiveness of
remediation and containment methods may not reflect
changing climate impacts.
Periodic evaluations of implemented remedies may not
incorporate all climate change impacts, including changes
in frequency and intensity that may impact remedy
effectiveness.
Use of natural resources impacted by sites may change as a
result of increased need, resource scarcity, or
compromised resources.
FFRRO
ORCR
OSRTI
OBLR
FFRRO
OSRTI
OBLR
FFRRO
OSRTI
OBLR
FFRRO
ORCR
OSRTI
OBLR
OUST
FFRRO
ORCR
OSRTI
OBLR
FFRRO
OBLR
15
2
2
2
6
6
6
10
15
15
17
15
15
15
15
10
10
10
10
10
6
7
1
1
1
5
5
5
5
10
10
7
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
5
5
10
10
10
10
10
5
5
5
5
5
1
14
16
16
9
15
17
8
12
13
11
10
15
16
12
7
14
16
18
8
12
9
4
5
3
1
3
4
1
3
2
2
4
4
5
2
1
3
4
5
1
3
2
4
5
3
4
5
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
4
3
3
4
3
^^^^^B
3
4
3
3
5
2
3
5
2
3
5
3
4
4
3
3
1
4
4
5
2
3
2
3
3
5
2
4
5
2
3
3
3
4
5
3
2
4
4
5
1
3
1
Page 29

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                Program Vulnerability
Office
                                                                     Characterization Criteria
Total
Score
                                                                                 Scale 1-10
                                                                             10(High) -l(Low)
Total
Score
                                                    Opportunities for OSWER to Make a Difference
                                                                                                                2 t
                                                                                                                o|
                                                                                                                _Q) 01
                                                                                                                &
                                                    Scale 1-5
                                                   5(Yes)-l(No)
                                                                                                                                > TJ
                                                                          OJ
                                                                         73
                                                                       =
Scale 1-5
5(Not) -
 l(Fully)
                                                                          E     ซ
                                                                          i    .2
                                                                          4-*  Q) 4-*
                                                                          C  U> •=
                                                                          oi  a .2
                                                                          E  S C
                                                                          O  >  ป
                                                                          E .ฃ ฃ
                                                                          2  S  ฃ
                                                            t
                                                            I
                                                            M
                                                            C
                                                            '5
        Scale 1-5
5(Very Likely)-l(Not Likely)
Emergency Response
Current levels of administrative, enforcement, and
emergency response staff may be insufficient to cover
needs if number of extreme events increase.
 OEM
 ORCR
            20
                       10
                                 10
Sufficient capability and capacity for conducting necessary
lab analysis following significant weather events may not
be available.
FFRRO
            10
 ORCR
            10
Current waste management capacity, including interim
capacity, may be insufficient to handle surges in necessary
treatment and disposal of hazardous and municipal wastes,
as well as mixed wastes generated from climate events.
FFRRO

ORCR
            15
            15
                                 10
                                           18
Training needs (both current and future) are likely to
increase in order to meet the increase demand for
response actions.
 ORCR
            15
                                 10
                                           12
Existing emergency planning currently required or
employed by OSWER may not sufficiently consider elevated
risks from multiple climate impacts.	
 OUST
            10
1. OSWER did not conduct a detailed quantitative assessment of vulnerabilities to determine scores. Using best professional judgement and information from peer-reviewed
scientific literature, the OSWER workgroup members determined values for each criteria. When applying the criteria, offices did not evaluate vulnerabilities in relation to each
other, but instead considered each vulnerability independently. These tables are not intended to be a ranking, but rather as a useful and informative guide for OSWER offices as
they determine which vulnerabilities to focus activities.
Characterization Criteria:
Scale of impact to human health, the environment or vulnerable communities because of the vulnerability.
Likelihood of occurrence because of the vulnerability.
Opportunities for OSWER to Make a Difference:
Does EPA have a  unique or lead role or technical expertise in this area?
To what extent are climate impacts currently not considered in this area?
To what extent could additional EPA involvement build momentum or leverage current activities?
Is there an opportunity to incorporate climate change into an ongoing effort (e.g., rulemaking, changes to grant criteria, updates to guidance and training)?
                                                                                                                                                    Page 30

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Appendix C - OSWER Actions
Theme
reservina Land
Q.
Proper Management of
Hazardous and
Non-Hazardous Waste
Reducing Chemical
Risks and Releases
Vulnerability
Design and placement of RCRA Treatment,
Storage and Disposal facilities may need to
change to accommodate climate change
impacts.
Current waste management capacity may be
insufficient to handle surges in necessary
treatment and disposal of hazardous and
municipal wastes, as well as mixed waste
events.
(Actions also in Emergency Response)
Spill Prevention Plans may need to be updated
due to the significant increases in the
incidence of flooding and storm events.
Office
ORCR
OEM
Action

Prepare Fact Sheets on the proper management of wastes/debris associated with large
natural disasters (e.g., electronic, household hazardous wastes, white goods, etc.)
Continue collaborative development with the Office of Homeland Security on an
interactive electronic waste management planning tool to aid federal, state and local
emergency planners and managers in development of waste/debris management plans.
Finalize a document describing the "4 Step Process for Waste Managment Planning."
Update the ORCR Homeland Security Website with updated waste management
planning information.
Incorporate sensitivity for climate change vulnerabilities in oil Spill Prevention, Control,
and Countermeasure (SPCC) and Facility Response Plan (FRP) inspector training (e.g.,
reminding inspectors to consider vulnerabilities at the subject facility during
catastrophic weather events).
Incorporate in SPCC and FRP guidance the statement of potential vulnerabilities to oil
facilities from catastrophic weather events due to climate change.
Incorporate sensitivity for climate change vulnerabilities in risk management plan
(RMP) inspector training and guidelines, (e.g., example, reminding inspectors to
consider vulnerabilities at the subject facility during catastrophic weather events).
Timing
L
s
ซ
M
M
M
M

M
                                                                                     Page 31

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Theme
Restoring Land
Vulnerability
Increased contaminant migration may lead to
boundary changes at current sites or creation
of new sites.
Current assumptions regarding protectiveness
of remediation and containment methods may
not reflect changing climate impacts.
Changing climate conditions may impact
continued remedy effectiveness.
Remedies that are "complete" or are long-
term actions may no longer be protective and
resilient as climate conditions change at site.




Risk factors and rankings for risk-based
cleanup strategies may need to be reassessed
based on changing climate conditions.
Site characterization and design of cleanups
may not reflect changing climate conditions.
Office
ORCR
OSRTI/
FFRRO

OBLR
Action
Develop recommendations for states and tribes to encourage that climate change
considerations be incorporated into all of their RCRA Corrective Action Programs (e.g.,
regarding remedy selection, etc.)
Share vulnerability screening protocol for regional application.
- Develop criteria to identify remedies where performance may be impacted by climate
change.
- Develop a methodology to evaluate and ensure remedy protectiveness.
Prepare remedy-specific climate change adaptation fact sheets for remedies most likely
to be impacted and identify potential vulnerabilities and adaptation recommendations.
Identify existing Superfund program processes (RI/FS, ROD, RD/RA, Five Year reviews,
etc.) for implementation of climate change adaptation protocols to ensure continuing
protectiveness of current and future remedies.
Prepare training materials, coordinate with NARPM co-chairs and Superfund forums to
integrate the training into future NARPM events, and provide web-based content and
training.
Participate with OSWER and other EPA programs to initiate conversations as
appropriate regarding approaches for handling remedy impacts from climate change.
Work with ASTSWMO to gather information on if and how states currently alter
remediation plans in response to changing climate impacts.
Share information among states, tribes and EPA regions regarding new or modified
investigation strategies and remediation techniques.
Work with ASTSWMO to gather information on if and how states currently alter site
assessments in response to flooding or drought conditions.
Share information among states, tribes and EPA Regions regarding new or modified
assessment techniques.
Work with ASTSWMO to gather information on if and how states currently alter risk
factors and rankings in response to flooding or drought conditions.
Share information among states, tribes and EPA regions regarding how climate
conditions may impact risk-based cleanup factors and rankings.
Work with regional staff to update the Analysis of Brownfields Cleanup Alternatives
(ABCA) language in the brownfield grant T&Cs to include language that requires
recipients take potential changing climate conditions into consideration when
evaluating cleanup alternatives.
Develop an outreach strategy to promote the importance of climate change adaptation
and mitigation, explaining how it will affect all communities at varying degrees and why
it's important to consider when developing revitalization plans in their community.
Timing
L
M
M
S
M
M
L
L
L
L
L
L
S
S
Page 3 2

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Theme
01

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Theme

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Appendix D - Bibliography
Council on Environmental Quality. (2010). Progress Report on the Interagency Climate Change
Adaptation Task Force: Recommended Actions in Support of a National Climate Change Adaptation
Strategy. Washington, DC.

IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working
Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.  M.L.
Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E.Hanson (Eds.), Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.

IPCC. (2008). Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change. B.C. Bates, Z.W. Kundzewicz,  S. Wu and J.P. Palutikof (Eds.). Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change. IPCC Secretariat, Geneva.

IPCC. (2012). "Summary for Policymakers." In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to
Advance Climate Change Adaptation. C.B. Field, V. Barros, T.F. Stacker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi,
M.D. Mastrandrea,K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (Eds.). A Special
Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA.

NRC. (2010). America's Climate Choices: Adapting to the Impacts of Climate Change. National
Research Council, (http://americasclimatechoices.org/)

USEPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. (2008). Tribal Strategy: EPA & Tribal
Partnership to Preserve and Restore Land in Indian Country.
(http://www.epa.gov/oswer/tribal/pdfs/oswer_tribal_strategy.pdf)

USEPA. (2012). Climate Change Adaptation Plan: Public Review Draft.

USEPA. National Water Program Strategy: Response to Climate Change. EPA 800-R-08-001,
September 2008. (http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/strategy.cfm.)

USEPA. (2012). National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change. EPA-850-K-12-
004.
(http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/upload/epa_2012_climate_water_strategy_full_report_fmal.p
df)

USEPA. (2011). Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation.
(http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/impacts-adaptation/adaptation-statement.pdf)

USEPA. (2010). Community Engagement Initiative Action Plan.
(http://www.epa.gov/oswer/docs/cei_action_plan_12-09.pdf)

USGCRP. (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M.
Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson (Eds.). Cambridge University Press.
(http://library.globalchange.gov/products/assessments/2009-national-climate-assessment/2009-global-
climate-change-impacts-in-the-united-states)
                                                                                     Page 3 5

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&EPA
  United States
  Environmental Protection
  Agency
            Office of Water


     Climate Change Adaptation
         Implementation Plan
     Report Number: EPA-100-K-14-001A
                May 2014
   POLICE
                           Wllli


                             •\ BIUM


-------


           Prepared by:
          Office of Water
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
            May 2014

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                                        Disclaimer
To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so for
informational purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or regulations, and
readers should consult the statutes or regulations to learn what they require. Neither this document,
nor any part of it, is itself a rule or a regulation. Thus, it cannot change or impose legally binding
requirements on EPA, States, the public, or the regulated community. Further, any expressed intention,
suggestion or recommendation does not impose any legally binding requirements on EPA, States, tribes,
the public, or the regulated community. Agency decision makers remain free to exercise their discretion
in choosing to implement the actions described in this Plan. Such implementation is contingent upon
availability of resources and is subject to change.

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                                        Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to
the challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate,
outside the range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant
challenges to the EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate  change if it
is to continue fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is
therefore anticipating and planning for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill
its mission of protecting human health and the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for
review and comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and expert
judgment to identify vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate  change. The plan
also presents  10 priority actions that EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules,
and operations will remain effective under future climatic conditions. The priority placed on
mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA complements efforts to encourage and mainstream
adaptation planning across the entire federal government.

Following completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan., each EPA National
Environmental Program Office, all  10 Regional Offices, and several National Support Offices
developed a Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how it will carry
out the work  called for in the agency-wide plan. Each Implementation Plan articulates how the
office will integrate climate adaptation into its planning and work in a manner consistent and
compatible with its goals and objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation Plans demonstrate how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-
wide priorities presented  in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of
EPA's plans is to build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build
capacity in states, tribes, and local communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by
increasing their awareness of ways that climate change may affect their ability to implement
effective programs, and by providing them with the necessary data, information,  and tools to
integrate climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional  Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial  assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program
vulnerability  assessments" are living documents that will be updated as needed to account for
new knowledge,  data, and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's
mission. The  plan then identifies specific priority actions that the office will take to begin
addressing its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming climate change adaptation into its activities.
Criteria for the selection of priorities are discussed. An emphasis is placed on protecting the most
vulnerable people and places, on supporting the development of adaptive capacity in the tribes,
and on identifying clear steps for ongoing collaboration with tribal governments.

-------
Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they
mainstream climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate their
efforts in order to understand how well different approaches work and how they can be
improved. Each Implementation Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization
will regularly evaluate the effectiveness of its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where
necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build
the nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal of protecting human health and the
environment. Working with its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and prosperous
nation that is resilient to a changing climate.
                                                Bob Perciasepe

                                                Deputy Administrator

                                                September 2013

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                                Table of Contents



  I)     Introduction                                                1

  II)    Vulnerability of Water Resources to Climate Change           3

  III)   Priority Actions to Respond to Climate Change                10

  IV)   Office of Water Contribution to Meeting EPA                  15
       Strategic Measures on Climate Change


  V)    Legal and Enforcement Issues                                15

  VI)   Training and Outreach                                       16

  VII)  Partnerships with Tribes                                     19


  VIM)  Vulnerable Populations and Places                           21

  IX)   Evaluation and Cross-Office Pilot Projects                     23



Appendices

1. Table of Vision Areas, Goals and Strategic Actions from EPA National Water Program
   2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change
2. Graphic Illustrating the Organizational Framework for Climate Change work by the EPA
   National Water Program
3. EPA National Water Program Climate Change Workgroup: Principal Members
4. Table Illustrating the Climate Change Impacts on Clean Water and Drinking Water
   Program Components

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                                                    UA National Water Program 2012 Strategy:
                                                    \-^ Response to Climate Change
INTRODUCTION
This Implementation Plan provides an overview of the opportunities available to the Office of
Water within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to respond to the challenges that
a changing climate poses for the successful operation of national programs to protect the
quality of the national water resources and drinking water.

This Plan is organized using the framework adopted by the EPA for each of its major national
offices and regional offices. Key elements of the Plan address:

    >  Vulnerability of water resources, including clean water and drinking water programs,
       to climate change;
    >  Priority actions for water program response to climate change;
    >  Office of Water contribution to meeting EPA strategic measures on climate change;
    >  Legal and enforcement issues;
    >  Training and outreach for climate change adaptation;
    >  Partnerships with Tribes;
    >  Populations and places vulnerable to a changing climate; and
    >  Program evaluation and cross-Agency pilot projects.
This Plan draws on, and is intended to help implement,
the EPA National Water Program 2012 Strategy:
Response to Climate Change published in December
2012. The 2012 Strategy describes long-term goals for
the management of sustainable water resources in
light of climate change and is intended to be a
roadmap to guide future programmatic planning and
inform decision makers during the Agency's annual
planning process. The 2012 Strategy is available at
http://www.epa.gov/water/climatechange. Some
initial steps by EPA  national water programs and
regional offices are described in the 2012 Highlights of
Progress Report (available at the website above).
"Many of the programs and
activities already underway
throughout the National Water
Program...are even more important
to do in light of climate change.
However, climate change poses
such significant challenges to the
nation's water  resources, that
more transformative approaches
will be necessary."

National Water Program 2012
Strategy: Response to Climate Change;
EPA; 2012; p. 1
                                                                                Pagel

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The 2012 Strategy identifies five long-term               Climate Change Vision:
programmatic vision areas:
                                           The National Water Program's overarching
       1.  water infrastructure;               . .   r         ,.   .   ..   .   ,
                                           vision for responding to climate change is:
       2.  watersheds and wetlands;
       3.  coastal and ocean waters;          „.   ..  .,       .    ,, .   ,  ..    .   ,
                                           Despite the ongoing effects of climate change,
       4.  water quality; and                 .,  ..  ..   ,,., ฑ   n        • .,   .  ...
                                           the National Water Program intends to
       5.  working with Tribes.                  ..    .    ,.        .  .         .  .    ,
                                           continue to achieve its mission to protect and
                                           restore our waters so that drinking water is
Each of these programmatic vision areas is       ,     ,     ..       .        .  .  ,. ,
                                           safe; and aquatic ecosystems sustain fish,
supported by more specific goals and           .   .     ,  ..,..,        „
                                           plants, and wildlife, as well as economic,
strategic actions. Additional goals and              ..    .    ,  , .  .       .. ...
                                           recreational, and subsistence activities.
actions address cross-cutting program
support" topics. A table providing a brief
summary of the 5 vision areas, 19 goals, and 53 strategic actions described in the 2012 Strategy
is provided in Appendix 1. Climate change issues and actions in climate regions across the
country are also described in the 2012 Strategy.

The National Water Program, including both EPA Headquarters offices and EPA Regional offices,
has taken several steps to implement the new 2012 Strategy including:

    >  Developing this Implementation Plan as part of the Agency-wide work to prepare EPA
       climate change adaptation implementation plans;

    >  Preparing internal workplans for 2013 and 2014 describing specific implementation
       actions that EPA Headquarters and Regional offices plan to implement;

    >  Committing to the continued operation of the EPA  National Water Program State and
       Tribal Climate Change Council made up of representatives of States and Tribes to
       provide advice and guidance to the National Water Program in addressing issues related
       to climate change and water;

    >  Identifying future directions for the work on climate change issues  in the EPA FY2015
       Addendum to the EPA FY 2014 National Water Program Guidance for FY 2014;  and

    >  Committing to leadership of cooperative efforts with other organizations to address
       climate change and water issues including serving as co-chair of the Interagency Climate
       Change and Water Workgroup (made up of Federal agencies) and the Climate Change
       Workgroup of the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI) made up of 40
       stakeholder organizations and Federal agencies.

A graphic illustrating the organizational framework for the climate change work by the National
Water Program is provided in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 provides a list of the principal members
of the National Water Program  Climate Change Workgroup that developed this Plan.

                                                                                 Page 2

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II.    Vulnerability of Water Resources to Climate Change

The many impacts that a changing climate is likely to have on water resources, both
freshwater and coastal resources, include:

   1. Increases in water pollution problems as air and water warm;
   2. More extreme weather events;
   3. Changes to water availability (rain and snow level and distribution);
   4. Sea level rise/storm surge and waterbody boundary movement and
      displacement;
   5. Collective  impacts on coastal areas; and
   6. Indirect impacts resulting from changes in energy and fuel production.

The nature and extent of these impacts is described in greater detail below, together
with the relationship of these impacts to clean water and drinking water program
components. The association of climate change impacts on water with clean  water and
drinking water programs is illustrated using a chart of the full range of programs (see
sample chart below).  For each of the six climate change impacts identified above, the
specific programs identified in the chart affected by the impacts are highlighted.  This
chart format illustrates both the programs expected to be affected by the specific type
of climate change impacts and the programs expected to be less affected.

                Clean Water and Drinking Water Program Template
Drinking Water Standards
Drinking Water Planning
Underground Injection
Control Permits
Source Water Protection
Drinking Water SRF
(State Revolving Funds)
Surface Water Standards
Clean Water Planning
Discharge Permits
Nonpoint Pollution
Control
Clean Water SRF
(State Revolving Funds)
Technology Based
Standards
Water Monitoring
Storm Water Permits
Coastal Zone
Ocean Protection
Emergency Planning
Water Restoration/ Total
Maximum Daily Loads
(TMDLs)
Wetlands Permits
National Estuaries
Program
Combined Sewer
Overflow Plans
A table illustrating the collective climate change impacts on clean water and drinking water
program components is provided in Appendix 4.
                                                                              Page3

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1) Increases in Water Pollution Problems as Air and Water Warm:
Warmer air temperatures will result in warmer
water. Warmer water holds less dissolved oxygen
making instances of low oxygen levels or "hypoxia"
more likely (which is detrimental to the aquatic
ecosystem); foster harmful algal blooms; and alter
the toxicity of some pollutants. For further details
on these impacts see pages 41-51, 56, 81, 87, 96,
122, 150, 151 in Karl et al., 2009.
As air and water warm, water resource managers
will likely face significant challenges:

    •   increased pollutant concentrations and
       lower dissolved oxygen levels will result in
                         Vulnerability Citations:
                         Descriptions of vulnerabilities
                         provided in this section are drawn
                         from: Global Climate Change
                         Impacts in the United States,
                         Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo,
                         and Thomas C. Peterson, (eds.)
                         Cambridge University Press, 2009
                         (Karl etal 2009).  Connections of
                         climate impacts to water programs
                         are the assessment of water
                         program managers.
       higher incidences of impaired  water quality; (Karl et al.; p. 46)
    ป   increased growth of algae and microbes will affect drinking water quality; (Ibid; p. 46,
       96)
    ป   some aquatic taxa will be replaced by other taxa better adapted to warmer water (i.e.,
       cold water fish will be replaced by cool water fish), and this process will likely occur at
       an uneven pace disrupting aquatic system health and allowing non-native and/or
       invasive species to become established; (Ibid; p. 81, 87, 122)
    ป   warmer air temperatures will increase demand for cooling and for power production,
       resulting in increased discharges of warm water from power plants; (Ibid; p. 49, 56)
    ป   increased water use will put stress on water infrastructure and demands on the clean
       water and drinking water State Revolving Funds; (Ibid; p. 48, 49) and
    ป   increased evapotranspiration rates resulting from temperature increases may result in
       water losses for which drinking water and wetlands managers will need to account (Ibid;
       p. 49).

      Pollution Problems Related to Warmer Air and Water:  Effects on Water Programs
    (Shaded areas reflect programs most affected by air and water temperature increases)
Drinking Water Standard
Drinking Water Plan
Underground Injection
Control Permits
Source Water Protec
Drinkins Water
    :e Water Standards
Technology Based
Standards
lean Water Pla
)ischarge Pern
   >oint Pollution
   i Water SR
  astal Zone
Ocean Protection
National Estuaries
Program
Combined Sewer
Overflow Plans
2) More Extreme Weather Events:
                                                                                 Page 4

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Heavier precipitation from tropical and inland storms will increase flood risk, expand
flood hazard areas, increase the variability of stream flows (i.e., higher high flows and
lower low flows) and increase the velocity of water during high flow periods, thereby
increasing erosion. These changes will have adverse effects on water quality, drinking
water sources, and aquatic ecosystem health.  For example, increases in intense rainfall
may result in more nutrients, sediments, pathogens, and toxins being washed into
waterbodies. For further details on these impacts, see pages 18, 25, 34-36, 41, 44, 88,
94, 95, 102 in Karl et al., 2009.
Water resource managers will face significant challenges as storm intensity increases:
   •   although there is uncertainty with respect to climate models addressing storm intensity
       and frequency, emergency plans for drinking water and wastewater infrastructure need
       to recognize the possibility of increased risk of high flow and high velocity events due to
       intense storms and potential low flow periods; (Ibid; p. 25, 34-36, 44)
   •   damage from intense storms may increase the demand for public infrastructure funding
       and may require re-prioritizing of infrastructure projects; (Ibid; p. 47)
   •   floodplains may expand along major rivers requiring protection or relocation of drinking
       water and wastewater infrastructure facilities and coordination with local planning
       efforts; (Ibid; p. 44)
   •   in urban areas, stormwater collection and management systems may need to be
       redesigned to increase capacity; (Ibid; p. 47,  48)
   •   combined storm and sanitary sewer systems may need to be redesigned because an
       increase in storm event frequency and intensity can result in more  combined sewer
       overflows causing increased pollutant and pathogen loading to receiving waterbodies;
       (Ibid; p. 48, 94, 95)
   •   changes in precipitation patterns and intensity may increase the demand for watershed
       management that mitigates the impacts of intense storms and build resilience into
       water management through increased water retention (e.g., green infrastructure, smart
       growth,  and  source water protection practices); (Ibid; p. 41, 44, 45) and
   •   the management of wetlands for stormwater control purposes and to buffer the
       impacts  of intense storms will be increasingly important. (Ibid; p. 88,102)

                      Extreme Weather:  Effects on Water Programs
              (Shaded areas reflect programs most affected by storm intensity)
Drinking Water Standards
Underground Injection
Control Permits
Surface Water Standards
Technology Based
Standards
Emersencv Plannini
                         Clean Water Planning
 ischaree Permits
                          Jonpoint Polluti
                         Control
                              Water SRF
                     Water Momtorim
storm Water Permi
 /etlands Permit
                                             tional Estuai
                                           rogram
                                          Combined Sewer
                                          Overflow Plans
                                                                                  PageS

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3) Changes to Water Availability (Rain and Snow Level and Distribution):
In some parts of the country, droughts, changing patterns of precipitation and
snowmelt, and increased water loss due to evaporation as a result of warmer
temperatures, will result in changes to the availability of water for drinking and for use
for agriculture, industry, and energy production, as well as fire protection.  In other
areas, sea level rise and salt water intrusion will have the same effect. Warmer air
temperatures may also result in increased demands on water supplies, and the water
needs for agriculture, industry, and energy production are likely to increase.  For further
details on these impacts see pages 44-46, 48, 82, 94, 95, 113, 124, 129 in Karl et al.,
2009.
Changing precipitation patterns pose several challenges for water program managers:
   •   increased rainfall, especially more intense rainfall,  will result in increased stormwater
       runoff and may make overflows of sanitary sewers and combined sewers more
       frequent, putting new demands on discharge permit and nonpoint pollution programs;
       (Ibid; p. 44,45, 48, 94, 95)
   •   increased storm water runoff will wash sediment and other contaminants into drinking
       water sources, requiring additional treatment; (Ibid; p. 44-46)
   •   additional investments in water infrastructure may be needed to manage  both
       decreases and increases in rainfall and these demands could  increase demand for water
       financing generally, including from the State Revolving Funds; (Ibid; p. 44-46)
   •   limited water availability and  drought in some regions will  require drinking water
       providers to reassess supply facility plans and consider alternative pricing, allocation,
       water conservation, and water reuse options; (Ibid; p. 44, 48, 113, 129)
   •   in areas with less precipitation or reduced snowpack, demand for water may shift to
       underground aquifers and prompt water recycling  and reuse, development of new
       reservoirs, or underground injection of treated water for storage; (Ibid; p. 44, 45, 124)
   •   in areas with less precipitation, reduced stream flow may  make meeting water quality
       goals more challenging; (Ibid; p. 44, 45, 46) and
   •   increased incidence of wildfire as a result of higher temperatures and drought may
       increase soil erosion and sedimentation, increase water pollution, increase risk  of
       flooding, and pose a threat to aquatic habitats and water infrastructure. (Ibid; p. 82)

      Changes in Rainfall and Snowfall Levels/Distribution:  Effects on Water Programs
         (Shaded areas reflect programs most affected by rainfall and snowfall levels)
Drinking Water Standards
Technology Based
Standards
                                                                   National Estuaries
                                                                   Program
                                                                                 Page6

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4) Sea Level Rise/Storm Surge and Waterbody Boundary Movement and Displacement:

Rising sea levels will move ocean and estuarine shorelines by inundating lowlands,
displacing wetlands, and altering the tidal range in rivers and bays.  Storm surges
resulting from more extreme weather events will  increase the areas subject to periodic
inundation.  Changing water flow to lakes and streams, increased evaporation, and
changed  precipitation in some areas will affect the extent of wetlands and lakes. Water
levels in the Great Lakes are expected to fall. For  further details on these impacts, see
pages 12, 25, 34, 47, 48, 84, 109,114,138, 152 in  Karl et al., 2009.

Sea level rise, storm surges, and waterbody movement will affect a range of water programs
and pose significant challenges for water program managers:

   •   emergency plans for drinking water and wastewater infrastructure need to account for
       long-term projections for rising sea levels;  (Ibid; p. 12, 25, 34, 47, 114)
   •   drinking water systems will need to consider relocating intakes as sea levels rise and salt
       water intrudes into freshwater aquifers used for drinking water supply and protecting or
       relocating some treatment facilities; (Ibid;  p. 47,138)
   •   wastewater utilities will need to consider hardening facilities against storm surge,
       protecting facilities with natural or man-made barriers, and  relocation of some
       treatment facilities and  discharge outfalls as a result of sea level rise; (Ibid; p. 12, 109,
       152)and
   •   watershed-level planning will need to incorporate an integrated approach to coastal
       management  in light of sea level rise including land use planning, building codes, land
       acquisition and easements, shoreline protection structures (e.g., seawalls and channels),
       beach nourishment, wetlands management, and underground injection to control salt
       water intrusion to fresh water supplies. (Ibid; p. 12, 49, 84, 114)

                  Sea Level Rise/Storm Surge: Effects on Water Programs
               (Shaded areas reflect programs most affected by sea level rise)
Drinking Water Standards
Surface Water Standards
Source Water Protection
Nonpoint Pollution
Control
                             i Water SR
Technology Based
Standards
                                               Water Monitoring
                                               Storm Water Permits
Emergency Planning
                                          Water Restoration/
                                          TMDLs
                                          Combined Sewer
                                          Overflow Plans
                                                                                  Page?

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5) Collective Impacts on Coastal Areas:

Coastal areas are likely to see multiple impacts associated with climate change
including: sea level rise, increased damage from floods and storm surges, coastal
erosion, changes in drinking water supplies, and increasing temperature and
acidification of the oceans (e.g., decreases in pH, decreases in carbonate ion availability
for calcifying organisms).  These overlapping impacts make protecting water resources
in coastal areas especially challenging. For further details on  these impacts, see pages
17, 43, 47, 84, 85,148,151 in Karl et al., 2009.
Changes  in ocean characteristics pose several challenges for water program managers
including:

   •   watershed-level protection programs may need to be  revised to account for changes in
       natural systems as salinity and pH  levels change; (Ibid; p. 17, 43, 47, 151)
   •   climate change and ocean acidification may exacerbate existing stresses on coral reefs
       such that programs to protect coral reefs, including temperate and cold water corals,
       from land-based pollution and impacts may need to be reassessed to provide enhanced
       protection; (Ibid; p. 84, 85, 148) and
   •   wetlands programs may need to be adjusted to account for changing salinity levels and
       impacts on wetlands health. (Ibid;  p. 47, 84)

                Changing Ocean Characteristics: Effects on Water Programs
       (Shaded  areas reflect programs most affected by changing ocean characteristics)
Drinking Water Standards
Drinking Water Planning
Underground Injection
Control Permits
Source Water Protection
Drinking Water SRF
Surface Water Standards
Clean Water Planning
Discharge Permits
Nonpoint Pollution
Control
Clean Water SRF
Combined Sewer
Overflow Plans
                                                                                   PageS

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6) Indirect Impacts Resulting from Changes in Energy and Fuel Production:

Possible responses to climate change include development of alternative methods of
energy and fuel production that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, as well as
development of carbon sequestration technology.  Alternative methods of both energy
production and sequestration can have impacts on water resources including: increased
water use and withdrawals from surface waters and groundwater, potential nonpoint
pollution impacts of expanded agricultural production, increased water temperatures
due to discharge of process cooling waters and reduced assimilative capacity of warmer
waters, increased pollution concentration due to low flows, and effects of carbon
sequestration on groundwater or ocean environments. For further details on these
impacts, see pages 48, 49, 56, 59, 60, 74 in Karl et al., 2009.

Changing energy generation  methods poses several challenges for water program managers
including:

   •   increased water use and withdrawals will require expanded efforts to ensure water
       supply availability; (Ibid; p. 48, 49, 56)
   •   increased water supply demands and more variable water supplies will have effects on
       water resource management and reservoir operation; (Ibid; p. 48, 49, 59, 60) and
   •   need for increased attention to discharge permit conditions to address increased
       temperature and concentration of pollutants due to low flows. (Ibid; p. 49, 56)
                   Energy Generation Shifts:  Effects on Water Programs
          (Shaded areas reflect programs most affected by energy generation shifts)
Drinking Water Standards
Drinking Water Plannim
Underground lnj~~4
Control Permits
Source Water Protec
Drinking Water SRF
Surface Water Standards  Technology Based
                        ndards
Clean Water Planning
 >:scharge Permits
Nonpoint Poll
Control
"lean Water SP
Water Monitoring
                     Emergency Planning
Water Restoration/
TMDLs
Storm Water Permits
Coastal Zone
 :ean Protection
Wetlands Permits
National Estuaries
Program
Combined Sewer
Overflow Plans
                                                                                  Page 9

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III.    Priority Actions

Recognizing the impacts that a changing climate is likely to have on water resources generally,
and clean water and drinking water programs more specifically, the Office of Water identified
criteria to consider in defining "priority actions" to respond to these impacts and make the
water programs more "climate ready." These criteria, and the "priority actions" defined based
on the criteria, are described below.  The Office of Water commitment to "mainstreaming"
climate considerations into the full range of core clean water and drinking water programs is
also described. Some specific core programs that, although designed for other purposes, have
clear benefits in responding to a changing climate, are identified.

In addition, EPA Regional offices play a central role in implementing clean water and drinking
water programs and are especially important because they are in a position to tailor
implementation actions to the varied climate change and water adaptation challenges that exist
across the country. Additionally, EPA Regional offices are able to work closely with States,
Tribes, and other stakeholders to advance these activities.  The Office of Water and Regional
office water programs have identified a set of nine "common" activities that water programs in
each Regional office will attempt to implement to build their capability to respond to climate
change challenges related to water resources. These common climate change and water
actions are described at the end of this section.

Criteria to Identify Priority Actions

Since resources to implement climate change response actions are limited, it is
important to consider the significance of the impacts and to allocate scarce resources to
response actions that address the most pressing and critical threats.

Some key criteria to consider when linking climate change  impacts to potential response
actions include:

   >  Urgency:  What  is the timing of the impact? How urgent is it that it be addressed?
   >  Risk: How significant is the risk to public health, infrastructure, or aquatic
       ecosystems?
   >  Geographic Scale: What is the geographic/demographic scale of the impact?
   >  Programmatic Scale: What is the scale of the programmatic impact?
   >  Probability of Occurrence: What is the likelihood the impact will actually occur?
                                                                                Page 10

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Office of Water Priority Actions

Based on consideration of the criteria identified above, the Office of Water has identified ten
"priority actions".  These actions were identified from a larger group of national program office
and regional water program actions developed as part internal work planning processes.

   1.  Encourage water utilities to use the Climate Resiliency Evaluation and Awareness Tool
       (GREAT) and develop Version 3.0 of this tool.

   2.  Promote use of an Extreme Events Workshop Planner designed to provide everything a
       water sector utility needs to plan, customize, and conduct a workshop focused on
       planning for extreme events including flooding, drought, sea level rise and storm surges,
       wildfire, and reduced snowpack.

   3.  In cooperation with EPA Regional offices, expand the number of WaterSense partners
       nationally and in each Region, with a goal of a 150 additional partners annually.

   4.  Encourage the Clean Water and Drinking Water State Revolving Funds to incorporate
       climate change considerations into their processes.

   5.  Encourage the National Estuary Programs and other watershed managers at the state
       and local level to use the Watershed Climate Change Adaptation Planning Workbook
       developed by the  EPA National Estuary Program.

   6.  Complete development of initial screening criteria to identify water and wastewater
       facilities on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts that may be at risk of inundation in the event
       of a storm surge comparable to Hurricane Sandy and work with utilities to address risks.

   7.  Complete technical development of the Climate Change Extension within the
       Stormwater Calculator and identify and  implement enhancements to improve its utility.

   8.  Work with EPA Regional office counterparts to identify ways to better integrate climate
       change considerations into water quality management planning projects and
       processes and develop an initial report.

   9.  Draft a white paper providing information States and Tribes can use to protect aquatic
       life from negative effects associated with alteration of hydrologic conditions, including
       potential effects from climate change.

   10. Engage key stakeholders in climate change adaptation work by continuing to support
       the EPA State and Tribal Climate Change Council that advises the National Water
       Program and engaging additional stakeholders using a range of forums and mechanisms.
                                                                               Page 11

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It is important to note that a key objective of the 2012 Strategy is to integrate climate change
considerations and awareness into day-to-day management decisions for clean water and
drinking water programs at national, regional, state, tribal, and local levels. The National
Water program is facilitating this "mainstreaming" of climate change into core water programs
by providing information and training to water program managers on climate change issues and
prompting discussions of opportunities to recognize climate change in program management
wherever possible. The Office of Water is also working with water programs in the ten EPA
Regions to address climate change and water issues generally, as well as specific challenges that
occur in each Region (see common EPA regional climate change actions below).

In addition to the specific "priority actions" identified above, the National Water Program
conducts a range of programs that, although not designed to directly or uniquely address the
impacts of a changing climate, make important contributions to making water resources more
resilient to the impacts of a changing climate. Some examples of climate change-supporting
programs include:

     •  Wetlands programs that help protect and restore wetlands that serve as sponges to
        retain water from more intense storm events, increased precipitation, and more rapid
        snowmelt;

     •  Stormwater permit programs that reduce pollution levels and the rate of runoff of
        rainfall  in developed areas with large percentages of impervious surfaces and
        programs that promote improved stormwater management through implementation
        of "green infrastructure" practices;

     •  Healthy watershed programs that help maintain the quality of healthy watersheds and
        supportive habitat corridor networks across the country that provide resilience to
        climate change impacts;

     •  The National Estuary Program supports development and implementation of
        Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans (CCMPs) in  28 estuaries around
        the country and had supported the development of a range of projects to address
        climate change challenges faced in these estuaries;

     •  Infrastructure management programs to expand the use of management practices that
        make water and wastewater treatment facilities more sustainable, including  practices
        that improve resilience to climate change; and

     •  Monitoring programs, such as the National Coastal Condition Report, that can  provide
        benchmarks of progress in addressing key climate change impacts.
                                                                              Page 12

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Common Climate Change Actions for Regional Water Programs

Each regional water program will attempt to carry out the following common climate change
related activities in 2013:

   1.  Participate in the National Water Program Climate Change Workgroup:  Maintain
       current participation in the National Water Program Climate Change Workgroup,
       including identifying a single point of contact for the regional water program.

   2.  Support the EPA Office of Water Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan:
       Help to develop and implement the EPA-wide Climate Change Adaptation
       Implementation Plan (and coordinate between the National Water Program 2012
       Strategy and the EPA regional climate change adaptation implementation plans.

   3.  Build Internal Climate Change Communications: After the completion of the EPA
       Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan, draw on materials developed by the
       Office of Water to provide training for regional water program staff on the challenges
       that climate change poses for water programs and familiarize them with the National
       Water  Program 2012 Strategy and regional climate adaptation plans through a variety of
       means such as "all hands" meetings, webinars, seminars, and dissemination of the
       plans.

   4.  Build External Climate Change Communications: Support national program efforts to
       inform and educate water program managers in the public and private sectors on
       climate change and water issues through a variety of means such as identifying key
       stakeholders and expanding  professional networks, improving educational outreach
       efforts on national and regional EPA climate change websites and in other media, and
       disseminating clear and credible messaging on climate change science and impacts.

   5.  Address Climate Change in Meetings  with States and Tribes:  In program meetings  with
       States and Tribes in 2014, include discussion of ongoing Agency and regional climate
       change adaptation planning, the National Water Program 2012 Strategy, and climate
       change activities related to State  water programs as appropriate.

   6.  Support Coordination among Federal Agency Regional Offices: Coordinate with the
       Regional offices of other Federal agencies on climate change adaptation matters and
       participate, where appropriate, with related interagency cooperative and collaborative
       efforts to address climate change challenges on a regional scale.

   7.  Promote Use of Tools from the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) and Climate
       Ready  Estuaries (CRE) Programs: Work with municipal and private water and
       wastewater utilities to promote use of the Climate Resilience, Evaluation and Awareness
       Tool (GREAT) to recognize and respond to climate change risks and promote with
                                                                             Page 13

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   National Estuary Program partners the use of the new Climate Ready Estuaries
   workbook to develop local climate vulnerability assessments and resilience plans.

8. Develop Regional WaterSense Partners:  Work with States, Tribes, municipalities, non-
   profit organizations and businesses to promote the WaterSense Program in the region.

9. Work with State Revolving Loan Fund Programs to recognize climate change impacts.
                                                                            Page 14

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IV.    Office of Water Contribution to Meeting EPA
       Strategic Measures on Climate  Change

The EPA Strategic Plan identifies several objectives for strengthening the Agency response to a
changing climate by 2015. The Office of Water is committed to contributing to the Agency
work to meet these objectives. The Agency objective and the Office of Water contribution to
meeting the objective are identified below. Implementation plans from other offices within
EPA address additional steps to be taken to meet these objectives.

   •   Save energy and conserve resources: The Office of Water will support this objective
       through measures to reduce energy use at wastewater treatment plants and through
       the WaterSense program.

   •   Integrate climate change science into five major models and/or decision support tools:
       The Office of Water supported this objective through publication of Version 2.0 of the
       Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (GREAT) for water utilities.

   •   Integrate climate change science or trend information into five major rulemaking
       processes: The Office of Water will support this objective through the development  of a
       water program regulation prior to 2015. The specific regulation is not yet determined.

   •   Integrate climate change considerations into five major grant, loan, or technical
       assistance programs: The Office of Water is meeting this objective through integrating
       climate change in the National Estuary Program grant program.

The Office of Water will monitor progress in supporting these Agency objectives annually and
will adjust programs and activities as needed to assure that the water program contributions to
meeting the goals are achieved by the 2015 due date.
V.    Legal and  Enforcement Issues

The Office of Water works closely with the EPA Office of General Counsel and matters related
to climate change and water resources and will continue this working relationship in the future.
To date, water program actions to respond to a changing climate have not faced significant
legal issues.

As noted in Section IX of this Plan, the Office of Water is interested in initiating a pilot project
for collaboration with the EPA Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance addressing
inclusion of climate change considerations in compliance and enforcement activities.
                                                                             Page 15

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VI.   Training and Outreach

The Office of Water will continue and expand current work to provide training to water
program managers on climate change issues and to ensure strong communication and
coordination among EPA water program offices, regional offices, other Federal agencies, and
stakeholders. These training and outreach materials are addressed in Goal 17 of the 2012
Strategy.

Training

The Office of Water will continue to work to provide training on climate change impacts on
water resources, and especially on the impacts on clean water and drinking water programs.
Some key actions the Office of Water will take include:

   > Update the Climate Change and Water training module included as part of the EPA
      Watershed Academy online training program and promote this climate change and
      water training with EPA water program staff in national and regional offices;

   > Continue the monthly Climate Change and Water Seminar Series which invites experts
      in climate change and water issues to speak to EPA Headquarters and Regional staff;

   > Continue to support the Climate Change Module at the EPA Water Quality Standards
      Academy that presents an overview of climate change impacts on water resources and
      climate change vulnerability considerations for managers;

   > Participate in the Agency workgroup tasked with developing a general training tool for
      EPA staff addressing climate change adaptation challenges;

   > Work with Regions to develop a model presentation that EPA regional water programs
      can use to describe the climate change and  water issues generally, with a focus on the
      implementation of the National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate
      Change; and

   > Sponsor an all-hands meeting of the Office  of Water after the completion of the EPA
      Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan to generally familiarize all staff with
      the challenges that climate change poses and to describe the new Agency
      Implementation Plan with special emphasis on the 2012 Strategy for the National Water
      Program and this Office of Water Implementation Plan.
                                                                             Page 16

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Outreach

The Office of Water will support several activities to cooperate with other EPA offices, Federal
agencies, and other organizations interested in addressing the impacts of a changing climate on
water resources including:

   >  Continue to support the National Water Program Climate Change Workgroup and
       provide oversight and management of National Water Program climate change
       actions, including implementation of the National Water Program 2012 Strategy:
       Response to Climate Change (this Workgroup includes staff from national program
       offices,  other EPA offices, EPA regional offices, and Great Waterbody offices);

   >  Continue to support the EPA National Water Program State and Tribal Climate Change
       Council that advises the National Water Program on a full range of climate change
       adaptation issues, including implementation of the National Water Program 2012
       Strategy: Response to Climate Change, and engaging additional stakeholders using a
       range of forums and mechanisms.

   >  Continue to serve as co-chair of the Interagency Water Resources Workgroup that
       supports the Interagency Council on Climate Resilience and Preparedness and provide
       staff support to this Workgroup that oversees the implementation of the National
       Action Plan: Priorities for Managing Freshwater Resources in a Changing Climate;

   >  Serve as the Federal Agency co-chair of the Climate Change Workgroup of the Advisory
       Committee on Water Information (ACWI) in cooperation with the non-Federal co-chair
       from the Water Environment Federation;

   >  Continue to manage the EPA climate change and  water website providing information
       and materials on a range of climate change and water topics;

   >  Continue to publish the EPA Climate Change and Water News electronic newsletter
       and consider options to expand the number of subscribers (currently approximately
       2,700 email addresses) with a goal of doubling that number;

   >  Work with EPA Regions to support efforts to link and coordinate Office of Water
       climate change website content with climate change content provided on regional
       water program websites;

   >  Work with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the effective operation and management
       of the Water Resources Toolbox website which provides a one stop website of
       information on a range of water resources management issues,  including climate
       change;
                                                                             Page 17

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Work with EPA Region 10, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the
State of Washington, and other interested agencies and Tribes on issues related to
assessing water quality criteria relevant to ocean and coastal acidification (e.g.,
aragonite saturation state (calcium carbonate availability for calcareous organisms' shell
building); and

Work with the U.S. Department of Energy to accelerate progress in understanding and
developing innovative technologies and processes that lead to improved management
of both water resources and energy production including topics such as:

   o  Integrated water resource management;
   o  Water and energy efficiency and conservation;
   o  Water quality;
   o  Use and  reuse of wastewater for power generation;
   o  Emergency response and recovery; and
   o  Thermoelectric generation.
                                                                         Page 18

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VII.   Partnerships with Tribes

EPA values its unique government-to-government relationship with Indian Tribes in planning
and decision making. Supporting the development of capacity to adapt to climate change
among Tribes is a priority for the EPA. Tribes are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of
climate change due to the integral nature of the environment within their traditional lifeways
and culture. There is a strong need to develop adaptation strategies that promote sustainability
and reduce the impact of climate change on Tribes.

EPA engaged Tribes through a formal consultation process in the development of the Agency's
Climate Change Adaptation Plan. Tribes identified some of the most pressing issues as erosion,
temperature change, drought, and various changes in access to and quality of water. Tribes
recommended a number of tools and strategies to address these issues, including improving
access to data and information; supporting baseline research to better track the effects of
climate change; developing community-level education and awareness materials; and providing
financial and technical support. These collaborative efforts will benefit from the expertise
provide by our tribal partners and the Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) they possess. TEK
is a valuable body of knowledge in assessing the current and future impacts of climate change
and has been used by Tribes for millennia as a valuable tool to adapt to changing surroundings.

The Office of Water has a strong partnership with Tribes and works closely with Tribes in the
implementation of clean water and drinking water programs.  This partnership extends to work
on issues relating to climate change and water.

The 2012 Strategy addresses cooperation with Tribes on climate change and water matters in
Goals 15 and 16.  Some key objectives of these  goals include:

   ปซป  Strategic Action 47: Through formal consultation and other mechanisms, incorporate
       climate change as a key consideration in the revised National Water Program Tribal
       Strategy and subsequent implementation of Clean Water Act (CWA), Safe Drinking
       Water Act (SDWA), and other core programs;

   ปซป  Strategic Action 48: Incorporate adaptation into tribal funding mechanisms, and
       collaborate with other EPA and federal funding programs to support sustainability and
       adaptation in tribal communities;

   ปซป  Strategic Action 49: Collaborate to explore and develop climate change science,
       information, and tools for Tribes, and incorporate local knowledge; and

   ปซป  Strategic Action 50: Collaborate to develop communication materials relevant for tribal
       uses and tribal audiences.
                                                                               Page 19

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Some key actions that the Office of Water will implement to advance the goal of supporting
Tribes in  responding to the water-related impacts of climate change include:

    >  Continue to support the EPA National Water Program State and Tribal Climate Change
       Council as a vehicle for sharing information and hearing the views of Tribes on climate
       change issues;

    >  Include a presentation addressing tribal climate change recommendations at the next
       Office of Water tribal water quality conference, planned for 2015;

    >  Continue to support sustainability and adaptation in tribal communities in coordination
       with the EPA-Tribal Science Council (TSC), as the TSC implements its tribal science
       priorities for climate change and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) (e.g. the Office
       of Water will develop and incorporate water-resource specific information into
       materials, presentations, and training related to TEK);

    >  Collaborate with the EPA American Indian  Environmental Office (AIEO) to incorporate
       climate change adaptation into the tribal  General Assistance Program (GAP) grant
       guidance;

    >  Work with Tribes to identify the most pressing and significant impacts that a changing
       climate poses for tribal management of water resources and support actions to
       respond to climate change related vulnerabilities; and

    ^ Partner with tribal stakeholders to develop and pilot the Tribal-Focused Environmental
       Risk Screening Tool (Tribal-FERST), a web-based geospatial and information access tool
       to support tribal environmental decision making that  provides access to relevant
       science and information that can  be used to help identify, prioritize, and manage
       environmental and public health issues.
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VIM.  Vulnerable Populations and Places

Certain parts of the population, such as children, the elderly, minorities, the poor, persons with
underlying medical conditions and disabilities, those with limited access to information, and
tribal and indigenous populations, can be especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate
change. Also, certain geographic locations and communities are particularly vulnerable, such as
those located in low-lying coastal areas.  One of the principles guiding EPA's efforts to integrate
climate adaptation into its programs, policies, and rules calls for its adaptation plans to
prioritize helping people, places, and infrastructure that are most vulnerable to climate impacts
and to be designed and implemented with meaningful involvement from all parts of society.

The Office of Water is giving special attention to populations and places that are most
vulnerable to the water related impacts of a changing climate.  As noted above, the Office of
Water is working closely with Tribes to respond to climate change impacts on  water resources.

In the case of vulnerable places, the Office of Water is supporting national program initiatives
that address places that are especially vulnerable to a changing climate. For example, the
Climate Ready Estuaries program advances climate adaptation work in many of the 28 estuaries
that participate in the National  Estuary Program.

In addition, the Office of Water will work with EPA Regional offices to support climate change
adaptation work by Great Waterbody offices (e.g., the Chesapeake Bay Program Office and the
Great Lakes National  Program Office) as well as other large ecosystem programs.  Some
examples of actions planned in this area  are provided below.

    >  The Chesapeake Bay Program Office  will develop a research coordination  and support
       program to address climate change issues in the Chesapeake Bay.

    >  The Great Lakes National Program Office will initiate the Climate Change Impacts
       Annex Subcommittee to the newly formed Great Lakes Executive Committee under the
       Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement with Canada and develop and implement a  bi-
       national workplan to undertake activities over the next three years to fulfill the
       commitments in the annex.

    >  EPA Region 10 will address climate change in grants to support protection and
       restoration of Puget Sound consistent with the Puget Sound Action Agenda including:

          o  conduct an erosion survey to evaluate sea  level rise threat in San Juan County;
          o  map habitat and infrastructure vulnerability in Puget Sound and restoration
             potential for reducing vulnerability;
          o  Tribes  and counties will incorporate climate change in their plans and/or
             analyses.
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   Puget Sound Grant partners include:  Puget Sound Partnership, Friends of the San Juans,
   The Nature Conservancy, Snohomish County, Washington Department of Ecology,
   Samish Indian Nation, Swinomish Tribe, Nooksack Tribe, Suquamish Tribe, and Port
   Gamble Indian Commission.

>  EPA Regions 1 and 2 will revise the Lake Champlain TMDL, including an analysis of
   potential effects of climate change on phosphorous loads to the Lake.

>  EPA Regions 2 and 3 will support the Partnership for the Delaware Estuary efforts
   toward climate change adaption planning by expanding upon the work of the climate
   change adaptation plan of 2010 including:

      o   creating a living shorelines process document that combines their knowledge of
          the Delaware Estuary Living Shorelines Initiative planning, installation, and
          outreach processes and best practices; and

      o   continue recruiting communities to the Weathering Change program in which
          agencies work with the community to help them understand the weather-
          related changes that are beginning to happen in their community.

>  EPA Regions 1 and 2 are supporting the Long Island Sound program in implementing the
   "Sentinels of Climate Change: Coastal Indicators of Wildlife and Ecosystem Change"
   project in Long Island Sound.  The project will address several of the key climate change
   sentinels identified by the Sentinel Monitoring program, including the responses of
   critical and sensitive habitats, such as salt marsh and tidal flats, and how changes in
   these ecosystems impact the  population and behavior patterns of key bird species
   inhabiting them.

>  EPA Regions 1, 2, 3, and 4 are working with other Federal agencies (e.g., the U.S.
   Department of the Interior, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and
   Army Corps of Engineers) and States to manage development of off-shore renewable
   energy facilities, including identify areas best suited for wind energy production. EPA
   will have significant National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)  responsibilities once
   projects are  proposed and, to a lesser degree, Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act
   permitting responsibilities.
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IX.    Evaluation and Cross-Office Pilot Projects

Work is underway within the Office of Water to develop strong program evaluation practices
for assessing progress in responding to climate change impacts and to develop effective
collaborations with other EPA national program offices are described below.

Evaluation of Progress

The National Water Program initiated a new process in 2012 to track progress in implementing
climate change response programs based on assessing the stage or phase of development of
efforts to implement each of the 19 major Goals identified in the 2012 Strategy. Progress
toward each of the 19 Goals was assessed by program staff in the context of one of seven
phases of development. The seven developmental phases are:

       1.  Initiation; conduct a screening assessment of potential implications of climate
          change to mission, programs, and operations;

       2.  Assessment; conduct a broader review to understand how climate change affects
          the resources in question;

       3.  Response Development; identify changes necessary to continue to reach program
          mission and goals and develop initial action plan;

       4.  Initial Implementation; initiate actions in selected priority programs or projects

       5.  Robust Implementation; programs are underway and  lessons learned are being
          applied to additional programs and projects;

       6.  Mainstreaming;  climate is an embedded, component of the program; and

       7.  Monitor Outcomes and Adaptive Management; continue to monitor and integrate
          performance, new information, and lessons learned into  programs and plans.

In the 2012 Highlights of Progress (see http://www.epa.gov/water/climatechange), the Office
of Water identified the status of work on each of the Goals in the 2012 Strategy (see Appendix
1) as of December 2012.  This 2012 baseline assessment has a total  numeric value of 43 out of
a total  possible score of 133 (i.e., 19 Goals times a score of 7 for each action = 133).  This
combined score indicates that many actions are in the early stages of implementation.
Future annual progress reports will identify the cumulative progress toward full
implementation of the 2012 Strategy in both narrative and numeric  terms.
                                                                              Page 23

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In the future, the Office of Water will work to develop metrics that assess the readiness of clean
water programs in the face of a changing climate and the contribution that water programs
make toward reducing releases of greenhouse gases (e.g., reducing water use which reduces
energy use, or generating energy from wastewater treatment to lower carbon footprints of
these facilities).

Cross-Organization Projects

The EPA Office of Water is engaged in two major cross-organization projects related to climate
change adaptation:

   >  Collaboration on National Estuaries Program: The Office of Water,  in collaboration
       with the EPA Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) has funded 37 projects with 23 National
       Estuary Programs (NEPs) in six EPA Regions through the Climate Ready Estuaries
       Program. In 2012, the program completed the first Climate Ready Water Utilities pilot
       project, held a lessons learned workshop with NEPs in EPA Region 1, held a joint
       stakeholder meeting with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and
       promoted Fall 2011 king tide sea level rise education campaigns with 10 NEPs. In
       addition, two NEPs collaborated with the EPA Office of Research and Development to
       pilot test an expert elicitation approach to address climate change vulnerability
       assessments.  In 2013, the Office of Water will continue to work with OAR to help
       National Estuary Programs respond to a changing climate.

   >  Collaboration on Evaluation:  The Office of Water has undertaken a  measurement and
       evaluation project through the EPA Office of Policy's Evaluation Support Division to
       guide implementation of National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate
       Change (2012 Strategy). The purpose of this project is to:

       •   develop a robust performance measurement approach for the 2012 Strategy; and
       •   identify lessons learned from previous climate change planning efforts that can
          inform implementation of the new strategy.

       The Office of Water views measurement in general, and this project  specifically, as
       critical for the long-term success of the 2012 Strategy.

   >  Collaboration on Climate and Water Research: The Office of Water  has a longstanding
       collaboration with the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) to ensure that
       climate change issues are addressed to the extent possible in water research supported
       by the Agency.  In 2013, the Office of Water and ORD will begin quarterly meetings to
       review progress and set directions for research related to climate change and water and
       will organize research projects from different parts of ORD according to the specific
       goals identified in the 2012 Strategy.
                                                                               Page 24

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Potential future collaborations with other EPA Offices include:

   >  Collaboration on Enforcement Issues: The Office of Water is interested in working with
       the EPA Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance to identify opportunities to
       recognize the impacts of a changing climate on water resources in the context of
       compliance and enforcement activities and actions through the use of green
       infrastructure, climate resilient approaches, and other measures.

   >  Collaboration on Storm Surge Screening Criteria:  The Office of Water is working with
       Regions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 to begin development of initial screening criteria that could be
       used to identify water and wastewater facilities that may be at risk from inundation as a
       result of a storm surge event comparable to that generated by Hurricane Sandy.
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APPENDICES
                 Page 27

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                                                                                    Page 28

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                         Appendix 1:
            Visions, Goals and Strategic Actions of the
National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change
            Including 2012 Baseline Assessment Scores
Visions and
Goals
Strategic Actions (SA)
2012
Development
Phase /Score
Infrastructure: In the face of a changing climate, resilient and adaptable drinking water, wastewater
and stormwater utilities (water sector) ensure clean and safe water to protect the nation's public
health and environment by making smart investment decisions to improve the sustainability of their
infrastructure and operations and the communities they serve, while reducing greenhouse gas
emissions through greater energy efficiency.
Goall:
Build the body
of information
and tools
needed to
incorporate
climate change
into planning
and decision
making.
Goal 2:
Support
Integrated
Water
Resources
Management
(IWRM)to
sustainably
manage water
resources.
SA1: Improve access to vetted climate and hydrological science,
modeling, and assessment tools through the Climate Ready Water
Utilities Initiative.
SA2: Assist wastewater and water utilities to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions and increase long-term sustainability with a
combination of energy efficiency, co-generation, and increased use
of renewable energy resources.
SA3: Work with the States and public water systems, particularly
small water systems, to identify and plan for climate change
challenges to drinking water safety and to assist in meeting health
based drinking water standards.
SA4: Promote sustainable design approaches to provide for the
long-term sustainability of infrastructure and operations.
SA5: Understand and promote through technical assistance the
use of water supply management strategies.
SA6: Evaluate and provide technical assistance on the use of water
demand management strategies.
SA7: Increase cross-sector knowledge of water supply climate
challenges and develop watershed specific information to inform
decision making.
Phase:
Response
Development
Score:
3
Phase:
Assessment
Score:
2
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   Visions and
     Goals
                      Strategic Actions
    2012
Development
Phase/Score
Watersheds & Wetlands: Watersheds are protected, maintained and restored to ensure climate
resilience and to preserve the social and economic benefits they provide; and the nation's wetlands
are maintained and improved using integrated approaches that recognize their inherent value as well
as their role in reducing the impacts of climate change.
     Goal 3:
 Identify, protect,
 and maintain a
   network of
     healthy
 watersheds and
   supportive
 habitat corridor
   networks.
                  SA8: Develop a national framework and support efforts to
                  protect remaining healthy watersheds and aquatic ecosystems.
SA9: Collaborate with partners on terrestrial ecosystems and
hydrology so that effects on water quality and aquatic
ecosystems are considered.
SA10: Integrate protection of healthy watersheds throughout the
National Water Program core programs.
SA11: Increase public awareness of the role and importance of
healthy watersheds in reducing the impacts of climate change.
   Phase:

  Response
Development
                                                                 Score:

                                                                   3
     Goal 4:
   Incorporate
climate resilience
 into watershed
 restoration and
   floodplain
  management.
SA12: Consider a means of accounting for climate change in EPA
funded and other watershed restoration projects.
SA13: Work with federal, state, interstate, tribal, and local
partners to protect and restore the natural resources and
functions of riverine and coastal floodplains as a means of
building resiliency and protecting water quality.
   Phase:

  Response
Development
   Score:

      3
     GoalS:
   Watershed
   protection
    practices
   incorporate
  Source Water
  Protection to
 protect drinking
 water supplies.
SA14: Encourage States to update their source water
delineations, assessments or protection plans to address
anticipated climate change impacts.
SA15: Continue to support collaborative efforts to increase state
and local awareness of source water protection needs and
opportunities, and encourage inclusion of source water
protection areas in local climate change adaptation initiatives.
   Phase:

 Assessment


   Score:

      2
                                                                                      Page 30

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   Visions and
      Goals
                      Strategic Actions
2012 Baseline
 Assessment
Watersheds & Wetlands (continued)
     Goal 6:
   Incorporate
 climate change
 considerations
  into the Clean
Water Act (CWA)
 404 regulatory
 program as they
 relate to permit
   reviews and
 compensatory
   mitigation.
SA16: Consider the effects of climate change, as appropriate,
when making significant degradation determinations in the CWA
Section 404 wetlands permitting and enforcement program
SA17: Evaluate, in conjunction with the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, how wetland and stream compensation projects could
be selected, designed, and sited to aid in reducing the effects of
climate change.
                                                                 Phase:
                                                                Initiation
    Score:

      1
     Goal?:
Improve baseline
 information on
 wetland extent,
  condition and
 performance to
 inform effective
  adaptation to
 climate change.
SA18: Expand wetland mapping by supporting wetland mapping
coalitions and training on use of the new federal Wetland
Mapping Standard.
SA19: Produce a statistically valid, ecological condition
assessment of the nation's wetlands.
SA20: Work with partners and stakeholders to develop
information and tools to support long term planning and priority
setting for wetland restoration projects.
                                                                 Phase:
                                                                Initiation
    Score:

      1
                                                                                      Page 31

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   Visions and
     Goals
                      Strategic Actions
2012 Baseline
 Assessment
Coastal and Ocean Waters: Adverse effects of climate change and unintended adverse consequences
of responses to climate change have been successfully prevented or reduced in the ocean and coastal
environment. Federal, tribal, state, and local agencies, organizations, and institutions are working
cooperatively; and information necessary to integrate climate change considerations into ocean and
coastal management is  produced, readily available, and used.
     Goal 8:
  Collaborate to
     ensure
 information and
  methodologies
  for ocean and
 coastal areas are
    collected,
    produced,
  analyzed, and
 easily available.
SA21: Collaborate to ensure that synergy occurs, lessons learned
are transferred, federal efforts effectively help local communities,
and efforts are not duplicative or at cross-purposes.
SA22: Work within EPA and with the U.S. Global Change Research
Program and other federal, tribal, and state agencies to collect,
produce, analyze, and format knowledge and information needed
to protect ocean and coastal areas and make it easily available.
    Phase:
  Response
Development
    Score:

      3
     Goal 9:
      EPA
 geographically
    targeted
    programs
support and build
networks of local,
  tribal, state,
  regional and
     federal
 collaborators to
  take effective
   adaptation
  measures for
   coastal and
     ocean
 environments.
SA23: Work with the National Water Program's larger geographic
programs to incorporate climate change considerations, focusing
on both the natural and built environments.
SA24: Address climate change adaptation and build stakeholder
capacity when implementing National Estuary Program
Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans and
through the Climate Ready Estuaries Program.
SA25: Conduct outreach and education, and provide technical
assistance to state and local watershed organizations and
communities to build adaptive capacity in coastal areas outside
the National Estuary Program and Large Aquatic Ecosystem
programs.
    Phase:
 Assessment
    Score:

      2
                                                                                      Page 32

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   Visions and
     Goals
                     Strategic Actions
2012 Baseline
 Assessment
Coastal and Ocean Waters (continued)
    Goal 10:
 Address climate
     driven
 environmental
   changes in
coastal areas and
   ensure that
 mitigation and
 adaptation are
 conducted in an
 environmentally
   responsible
    manner.
SA26: Support coastal wastewater, stormwater, and drinking
water infrastructure owners and operators in reducing climate
risks and encourage adaptation in coastal areas.
SA27: Support climate readiness of coastal communities,
including hazard mitigation, pre-disaster planning, preparedness,
and recovery efforts.
SA28: Support preparation and response planning for diverse
impacts to coastal aquatic environments.
    Phase:
 Assessment
    Score:

      2
 Goal 11: Ocean
environments are
protected by EPA
  programs that
   incorporate
     shifting
 environmental
 conditions, and
 other emerging
     threats.
SA29: Consider climate change impacts on marine water quality
in National Water Program ocean management authorities,
policies, and programs.
SA30: Use available authorities and work with the regional ocean
organizations and other federal and state agencies through
regional ocean groups and other networks so that offshore
renewable energy production does not adversely affect the
marine environment.
SA31: Support the evaluation of sub-seabed sequestration of
carbon dioxide (CO2) and any proposals for ocean fertilization.
                  SA32: Participate in interagency development and
                  implementation of federal strategies through the National Ocean
                  Council and the National Ocean Council Strategic Action Plans.
    Phase:
 Assessment
    Score:

      2
                                                                                      Page 33

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   Visions and
     Goals
                      Strategic Actions
2012 Baseline
 Assessment
Water Quality: Our Nation's surface water, drinking water, and ground water quality are protected,
and the risks of climate change to human health and the environment are diminished, through a
variety of adaptation and mitigation strategies.
    Goal 12:
Protect waters of
the United States
  and promote
 management of
   sustainable
  surface water
   resources.
                  SA33: Encourage States and communities to incorporate climate
                  change considerations into their water quality planning.
                  SA34: Encourage green infrastructure and low-impact
                  development to protect water quality and make watersheds
                  more resilient.
SA35: Promote consideration of climate change impacts by
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
permitting authorities.
SA36: Encourage water quality authorities to consider climate
change impacts when developing wasteload and load allocations
in Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) where appropriate.
                  SA37: Identify and protect designated uses that are at risk from
                  climate change impacts.
                  SA38: Clarify how to re-evaluate aquatic life water quality criteria
                  on more regular intervals; and develop information to assist
                  States and Tribes who are developing criteria that incorporate
                  climate change considerations for hydrologic condition.
    Phase:
 Assessment
    Score:

      2
    Goal 13:
  As the Nation
 makes decisions
  to reduce its
 greenhouse gas
  emissions and
    develop
   alternative
sources of energy
  and fuel, the
 National Water
  Program will
 work to protect
 water resources
from unintended
    adverse
 consequences.
SA39: Continue to provide perspective on the water resource
implications of new energy technologies.
SA40: Provide assistance to states and permittees to assure that
geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide is responsibly managed.
SA41: Continue to work with States to help them identify
polluted waters, including those affected by biofuels production,
and help them develop and implement Total Maximum Daily
Loads (TMDLs) for those waters.
SA42: Provide informational materials for stakeholders to
encourage the consideration of alternative sources of energy and
fuels that are water efficient and maintain water quality.
SA43: As climate change affects the operation or placement of
reservoirs, EPA will work with other Federal agencies and EPA
programs to understand the combined effects of climate change
and hydropower on flows, water temperature, and water quality.
    Phase:
  Initiation
    Score:

      1
                                                                                      Page 34

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   Visions and
     Goals
                     Strategic Actions
2012 Baseline
 Assessment
Water Quality (continued)
    Goal 14:
  Collaborate to
      make
 hydrological and
 climate data and
   projections
    available.
SA44: Monitor climate change impacts to surface waters and
ground water.
SA45: Collaborate with other Federal agencies to develop new
methods for use of updated precipitation, storm frequency, and
observational streamflow data, as well as methods for evaluating
projected changes in low flow conditions.
                  SA46: Enhance flow estimation using National Hydrography
                  DatasetPlus(NHDPIus).
    Phase:
  Response
Development
                                                                 Score:

                                                                   3
Working With Tribes: Tribes are able to preserve, adapt, and maintain the viability of their culture,
traditions, natural resources, and economies in the face of a changing climate.
    Goal 15:
   Incorporate
 climate change
considerations in
      the
 implementation
of core programs,
 and collaborate
 with other EPA
   offices and
Federal agencies
   to work with
Tribes on climate
change issues on
  a multi-media
      basis.
SA47: Through formal consultation and other mechanisms,
incorporate climate change as a key consideration in the revised
National Water Program Tribal Strategy and subsequent
implementation of the Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act,
and other core programs.
SA48: Incorporate adaptation into tribal funding mechanisms,
and collaborate with other EPA and Federal funding programs to
support sustainability and adaptation in tribal communities.
                                                                 Phase:
                                                              Assessment
                                                                 Score:

                                                                   2
    Goal 16:
   Tribes have
    access to
 information on
 climate change
   for decision
    making.
SA49: Collaborate to explore and develop climate change
science, information, and tools for Tribes, and incorporate local
knowledge.
SA50: Collaborate to develop communication materials relevant
for tribal uses and tribal audiences.
    Phase:
 Assessment
    Score:

      2
                                                                                      Page 35

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Visions and Goals
                     Strategic Actions
2012 Baseline
 Assessment
Cross-Cutting Program Support
    Goal 17:
 Communication,
  Collaboration,
  and Training
SA51: Continue building the communication, collaboration, and
training mechanisms needed to effectively increase adaptive
capacity at the federal, tribal, state, and local levels.
   Phase:
  Response
Development

   Score:

      3
Goal 18: Tracking
  Progress And
   Measuring
   Outcomes
SA52: Adopt a phased approach to track programmatic progress
towards Strategic Actions; achieve commitments reflected in the
Agency Strategic Plan; work with the National Water Program
Climate Change Workgroup to develop outcome measures.
   Phase:
  Response
Development

   Score:

      3
 Goal 19: Climate
   Change and
 Water Research
     Needs
SA53: Work with the EPA Office of Research and Development,
other water science agencies, and the water research community
to further define needs and develop research opportunities to
deliver the information needed to support implementation of this
2012 Strategy, including providing the decision support tools
needed by water resource managers.
   Phase:
 Assessment

   Score:

      2
                                                                               Total Score:
                                                                              42 of a possible
                                                                                   133
                                                                                     Page 36

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                                      APPENDIX 2:
      National Water Program Climate Change Organizational Framework
                               Assistant Administrator for
                                        Water
    EPA Planning and Budget
       FY2011-2015 EPA
         Strategic Plan
        (Climate Change
      Adaptation Strategic
          Measures)
   National Water
 Program Planning and
       Budget
 EPA National Water
  Program Guidance
   (Climate Section)
                        \
                                   (Deputy Assistant
                                  Administrator chairs
                                National Water Program
                               Climate Change Workgroup1
  National Water Program
 Climate Change Workgroup
  (EPA Headquarters Water
    Program Offices and
         Regions)
    2012 National Water
  Program Climate Change
         Strategy

  National Water Program
 Climate Change Adaptation
    Workplan (Internal}

  National Water Program
 Climate Change Adaptation
implementation Plan (partat
    Agency Climate Plan)
                                    Council on Climate,
                                Preparedness, and Reslience

                                Water Resources Workgroup
                                EPA Office of Water, Co-chair
                                   National Action Plan:
                                  Priorities for Managing
                                 Freshwater Resources in a
                                    Changing Climate
 Interagency Advisory
 Committee on Water
  Information (ACWI)

 Water Resources and
   Climate Change
Workgroup (WRCCWG)
 EPA Office of Water,
   Federal Co-chair
  EPA Cross-Agency
Adaptation Workgroup
 EPA Climate Change
   Adaptation Plan
     (June 2012)

    EPA Program
Office/Region-Specific
 Climate Adaptation
Implementation Plans
   EPA 10 Regional Offices
 Climate Change Adaptation
    Implementation Plans
   (part of Agency Climate
Change Implementation Plans)
  EPA National Water
       Program
    State and Tribal
    Climate Change
       Council
                                                                                   Page 37

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                                 Appendix 3:
             National Water Program Climate Change Workgroup
                              Principal Members
Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water
Mike Muse
Curt Baranowski
Office of Science and Technology
Rachael Novak
Office of Wastewater Management
Veronica Blette
Karen Metchis
Lynn Stabenfeld
Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds
Michael Craghan
Kathleen Kutschenreuter
Julie Reichert
Office of the Assistant Administrator for Water
Mike Shapiro
Jeff Peterson
Elana Goldstein
David Bylsma
Region 1 - Mel Cote
Region 2 - Alexandre Remnek
Region 3 - Joe Piotrowski
Region 4 - Bob Howard
Region 5 - Kate Balasa
Region 6 - Jim Brown
Region 7 - Mary Mindrup
Region 8 - Mitra Jha
Region 9 - Suzanne Marr
Region 10 - Paula VanHaagen
                                                                         Page 38

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Appendix 4: Table Illustrating Climate Change Impacts on
 Clean Water and Drinking Water Program Components
Clean Water/
Drinking Water
Program
Component
Drinking Water
Standards
Drinking Water
Planning
Underground Injection
Control Permits
Source Water
Protection
Drinking Water SRF
(State Revolving
Funds)
Surface Water
Standards
Clean Water Planning
Discharge Permits
Nonpoint Pollution
Control
Clean Water SRF
(State Revolving
Funds)
Technology Based
Standards
Water Monitoring
Storm Water Permits
Coastal Zone
Ocean Protection
Emergency Planning
Water Restoration/
Total Maximum Daily
Loads (TMDLs)
Wetlands Permits
National Estuaries
Program
Combined Sewer
Overflow Plans
Climate Change Impacts
Increased
Water
Pollution




















More
Extreme
Weather
Events




















Changes in
Water
Availability




















Sea
Level
Rise




















Coastal
Area
Impacts




















Water
Impacts of
Energy
Production




















                                                     Page 39

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           tsszz*
          Prepared by:
         Office of Water
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           May 2014

-------
     EPA NEW ENGLAND
         REGIONAL
CLIMATE ADAPTATION PLAN
 EPA Publication Number 100K14001H
          JUNE 10, 2014

-------
                                          Disclaimer

To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so for
informational purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or regulations, and
readers should consult the statutes or regulations to learn what they require. Neither this document, nor
any part of it, is itself a rule or a regulation. Thus, it cannot change or impose legally binding
requirements on EPA, States, the public, or the regulated community. Further, any expressed intention,
suggestion or recommendation does not impose any legally binding requirements on EPA, States, tribes,
the public, or the regulated community. Agency decision makers remain free to exercise their discretion
in choosing to implement the actions described in this Plan. Such implementation is contingent upon
availability of resources and is subject to change.

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                                            Preface

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to the
challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate, outside the
range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant challenges to the
EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it is to continue fulfilling its
statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is therefore anticipating and planning
for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill its mission of protecting human health and
the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for review
and comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and expert judgment to identify
vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate change. The plan also presents 10 priority
actions that EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules, and operations will remain effective
under future climatic conditions. The priority placed on mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA
complements efforts to encourage  and mainstream adaptation planning across the entire federal
government.

Following completion of the draft  Climate Change Adaptation Plan, each EPA National Environmental
Program Office, all 10 Regional Offices, and several National Support Offices developed a Climate
Adaptation Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how it will carry out the work called for in the
agency-wide plan. Each Implementation Plan articulates how the office will integrate climate adaptation
into its planning and work in a manner consistent and compatible with its goals and objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation Plans demonstrate how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-wide
priorities presented in the Climate  Change Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of EPA's plans is to
build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build capacity in states,  tribes, and
local communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by increasing their awareness of ways that
climate change may affect their ability to implement effective programs, and by providing them with the
necessary data, information, and tools to integrate climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program vulnerability
assessments" are living documents that will be updated as needed to account for new knowledge, data,
and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's mission. The plan then identifies
specific priority actions that the office will take to begin addressing its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming
climate change adaptation into its activities. Criteria for the selection of priorities are discussed. An
emphasis is placed on protecting the most vulnerable people and places, on supporting the development
of adaptive capacity in the tribes, and on identifying clear steps for ongoing collaboration with tribal
governments.

Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience  as they mainstream
climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate their efforts in order to
understand how well different approaches work and how they can be improved. Each Implementation
Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization will regularly evaluate the effectiveness of
its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where necessary.

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The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build the
nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal of protecting human health and the environment.
Working with its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and prosperous nation that is resilient
to a changing climate.
                                               Bob Perciasepe
                                               Deputy Administrator

                                               September 2013

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                      Map  of  New  England

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Prepared by the EPA New England Regional Adaptation Plan Workgroup

Workgroup Members:

Office of Ecosystem Protection:
       Dave Conroy, Chief, Air Programs Branch
       Mel Cote, Manager, Ocean and Coastal Protection Unit
       Cynthia Greene, Manager Energy and Climate Unit
       Lisa Grogan-McCulloch, Energy and Climate Unit
       Ken Moraff, Deputy Office Director
       Alison Rogers, Oceans and Coastal Protection Unit, ORISE Fellow1
       Jessica Hing, Air Permits, Toxic, Indoor Programs Unit, Schools
       Marybeth Smuts, Air Permits, Toxic, Indoor Programs Unit Public Health/Indoor Air
       Michael Stover, Indian Program Manager
       Norman Willard, Energy and Climate Unit1
       Steve Winnett, Water Quality Branch
       Shutsu Wong, Energy and Climate Unit

Office of Environmental Stewardship
       Roy Crystal, Assistance and  Pollution Prevention
       Joanna Jerison, Chief Superfund Legal Unit
       Rob Koethe, Toxics and Pesticides Unit
       Thomas D'Avanzo, Director Assistance and Pollution Prevention

Office of Site Remediation and Restoration
       Sherry Banks, Emergency Response and Removal II
       Elsbeth Hearn, Emergency Response and Removal I
       Ginny Lombardo, Federal Facilities
       John Podgurski, Response & Removal II Branch

Office of Regional Counsel
       Tim Williamson, Office of Regional Counsel, air
       Mark Stein, Office of Regional Counsel, water

Office of Administration and Resource Management
       Alice Kaufman, Manager Facilities Unit

Office of Environmental Measurement and Evaluation
       Greg Hellyer, Ecosystem Assessment Unit
       Alan Van Arsdale, Ecosystem Assessment Unit

Office of the Regional Administrator
       Emily Zimmerman, Communications
       Amy Braz, Environmental Justice1
       Kathleen Nagle, Children's  Health
       Kristen Conroy, Children's  Health
       Rosemary Monahan, Smartgrowth
    longer employed or working at the US EPA as of June 2014.
                                                 6

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Table of Contents
List of Figures	9

List of Tables	9


I.   REGIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION (RCAP) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY	12


II.    EXISTING AND FORECASTED CONDITIONS	15


III.   VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT	23

GOAL 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality	24
  A.   Overview of Potential Climate Change Impacts	24
  B.   Program-Specific Vulnerabilities	24
    Ozone (Os) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)	24
    Particulate Matter (PM)	24
    Indoor Air	25
    Mercury	25
  C.   Enforcement and Compliance	25

GOAL 2: Protecting America's Waters	25
    Cross-Program Water Management	25
  A.   Overview of Potential Climate Change Impacts	26
  B.   Program-Specific Vulnerabilities	27
    Water Quality Standards	27
    Monitoring, Assessing, and Reporting	27
    Total Maximum Daily Loads	28
    National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System	29
    Nonpoint Source Management	29
    Wetlands	30
    Ocean Dumping and Dredging	31
    National Estuary Program	31
    Drinking Water, Wastewater, and Stormwater Infrastructure	31
    Drinking Water Quality	32
  C.   Enforcement and Compliance	32

GOAL 3: Cleaning up Communities and Advancing Sustainable Development	33
  A.   Overview of Potential Climate Change Impacts	33
  B.   Program-Specific Vulnerabilities	35
    Longer-term Cleanups (e.g., Superfund Remedial, Superfund Removal, RCRA Corrective Action, TSCA)	35
    Emergency Response Program	36
    RCRA Hazardous Waste Management Facilities	37
    Oil Program and Underground Storage Tanks	38
  C.   Enforcement and Compliance	39

GOAL 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution	39
  A.   Pesticides	39
  B.   Enforcement, Compliance and Pollution  Prevention	40
    Enforcement	40
    Pollution Prevention	40

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Facilities and Operations	40
  A.   Overview of Potential Climate Change Impacts	41
  B.   Facility-Specific Vulnerabilities	41

Tribal and Vulnerable Populations	42
  A.   Air	45
  B.   Water	46
  C.   Waste and Pesticides	47

Cross-Cutting Vulnerabilities	47
  A.   Energy	47
  B.   Communications	48


IV.   PRIORITY ACTIONS	49

GOALl	49

GOAL 2	50

GOALS	54

GOAL4	55

FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS	55

TRIBAL AND VULNERABLE POPULATIONS	56

CROSS CUTTING ACTIONS	56

COMMUNICATIONS	56


V.  MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION	57


REFERENCES	1

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List of Figures
Figure 1: Route 107 Stockbridge, VT, August 29, 2011	12
Figure 2: Daily Peak PM2.s Air Quality Index	12
Figure 3: Projected New Hampshire Summers	15
Figure 4: Extreme Heat in Boston	16
Figure 5: Percentage Change in Very Heavy Precipitation	17
Figure 6: Projected 100-Year Flood Zone in Boston	19
Figure 7: New England Tribes	44
List of Tables
Table 1: Summary of State Adaptation Planning Efforts	23

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List of Acronyms
ANR         Vermont Agency of Natural Resources
AST          Above Ground Storage Tanks
BAT          Best Available Control Technology Economically Achievable.
BCT          Best Conventional Pollutant Control Technology
BIP           Balanced indigenous populations
BMP         Best Management Practices
BPT          Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available
CAA         Clean Air Act
CCMP        Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans (in the National Estuary Program)
CFR          Code of Federal Regulations
CT           Connecticut
CWA         Clean Water Act
DEP          Department of Environmental Protection
DOT         Department of Transportation
EGU         Electric Generating Units
EPA          Environmental Protection Agency
F             Temperature in Fahrenheit degrees
FEMA        Federal Emergency Management Agency
FIFRA        Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
FRP          Facility Response Plans
GCCN         EPA Region I's Global Climate Change Network
GIS            Geographic Information System (a mapping tool)
HUD         Housing and Urban Development
IPCC         International Panel on Climate Change
LiDAR        Light Detection and Radar (a tool to determine topography using light beams shot from
              an airplane)
NAAQS       National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NARS        National Aquatic Resource Surveys
NECIA        Northeast Climate Impacts Assessment
NH           New Hampshire
NY           New York
NEON        National Ecological Observatory Network
              www.neoninc.org/about/overview
NEP          National Estuary Program
NEWMOA    Northeast Waste Management Officials Association
NOAA        National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
NOx          Nitrogen Oxides
NPDES        National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
MA           Massachusetts
ME           Maine
OA           Ocean Acidification
OPA         Oil Pollution Act
PCBs         Polychlorinated biphenyl
pH           pH scale measures how acidic or basic a substance is. It ranges from 0 to 14.
              A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH less than 7 is acidic, and a pH greater than 7 is basic.
PM2.5         Particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter
PPA          Performance Partnership Agreement
                                            10

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PPG
RCRA
RI
SDWA
SO2
SPCC
SUPERFUND

TITAN
TMDL
TSCA
UNH EPSCoR

USAGE
USDA
USG
USGS
USGCRP
UST
VOC
VT
WARNs
Performance Partnership Grants
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Rhode Island
Safe Drinking Water Act
Sulfur dioxide
Spill Prevention and Control Countermeasures
Superfund is the federal government's program to clean up the nation's uncontrolled
hazardous waste sites
Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis
Total Maximum Daily Load
Toxic Substance Control Act
University of New Hampshire Experiment Program to Stimulate Competitive Research
(EPSCoR) www.epscor.unh.edu/whats-epscor
United States Army Corps of Engineers
United States Department of Agriculture
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups
United States Geological Service
United States Global Climate Research Program is a Federal program that coordinates
and integrates global change research across 13 government agencies to ensure that it
most effectively and efficiently serves the Nation and the world. USGCRP was
mandated by Congress in 1990. http://www.globalchange.gov/home
Underground Storage Tanks
Volatile Organic Compounds
Vermont
Water and Wastewater Agency Response Networks
                                            11

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I.     Regional Climate Change Adaptation (RCAP) Executive

Summary

Climate change and its associated impacts to air, water and waste systems are challenging EPA's mission
of protecting the environment and public health. One impact, increasing extreme precipitation1, has
already taken a large toll on New England's environment.  In August 2011, tropical storm Irene dumped
three to five inches of rain throughout Vermont over two days, with many areas receiving more than
seven inches. Extensive flooding caused millions of dollars of damage to infrastructure. Wells and
public water systems were submerged and contaminated with chemicals and pathogens, degrading safe
drinking water supplies.2

Figure 1: Route 107 Stockbridge, VT, August 29, 20113
                                                 Two months later in 2011, an unseasonably early
                                                 October snowstorm dumped one to two and a half
                                                 feet of snow, felled trees and resulted in
                                                 significant power outages across the New
                                                 England region.  As shown in Figure 2, increased
                                                 usage of local generators and wood stoves in
                                                 response to the loss of power led to unhealthy
                                                 ambient air conditions particularly for sensitive
                                                 groups.4

                                                 For over 40 years, EPA New England has been
                                                 protecting the region's environment and public
                                                 health through the implementation of air, water
                                                 and waste programs. EPA New England has
                                                 been working on climate mitigation, greenhouse
gas reduction strategies since 2000 and has had a multi-media Global Climate Change Network that has
educated EPA staff and worked on climate mitigation and  adaptation since 2009.

In 2009, President Obama established an Interagency   Figure 2: Daily Peak PM2.5 Air Quality index5
Climate Change Task Force.  He called on that task
force to develop recommendations for adapting to
climate change with the goal of promoting  a healthy
and prosperous nation resilient to climate change.
The Task Force's 2010 report recommended that
every Federal Agency develop a Climate Change
Adaptation Plan. EPA's national Climate Adaptation
Plan was developed and released for public comment
on February 8,2013. In 2011, EPA's Administrator
Lisa Jackson asked that all EPA regional and
program offices develop climate adaptation plans to
detail how we will carry out the work in the agency-
wide plan, taking into  account the impacts on EPA's
regional mission and operations. In September
2012, EPA New England convened 30 employees knowledgeable in their media programs and asked them
to assess the risks and impacts of climate change that are and will be pertinent to the region's mission and
                                •ated: 2011-11-0117:16:412
12

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responsibilities, and to develop a plan of action to address these risks and impacts within the region.

This draft regional climate adaptation plan outlines existing conditions in New England and how we will
incorporate the challenges of climate change into our programs and operations. Based on global, regional
and state specific scientific research and modeling projections, EPA New England staff determined the
vulnerabilities for our programs and facilities and identified priority actions for both the chronic and
episodic impacts of climate change.

The major chronic impacts reviewed include:
   •   Heat - Since 1970 the average annual temperature rose 2ฐF and the average winter temperature
       4ฐF6
   •   Extreme Precipitation - Over the past 50 plus years the Northeast has seen a 71% increase in the
       amount of precipitation falling in very heavy events (defined as the heaviest 1% of all daily
       events).7
   •   Sea Level Rise - Global sea levels are projected to rise 12 to 48  inches by 2100, depending in
       large part on the extent to which the Greenland and West Antarctic Ice Sheets experience
       significant melting.8

The episodic impacts include:
   •   Flooding - In August 2011, tropical storm Irene hit New England. In Vermont alone, recovering
       from the widespread damage and destruction is expected to cost between $700 million and $1
       billion dollars.9
   •   Ocean Storm Surge - In October 2012, Super Storm Sandy caused a storm surge of 9.2 ft. in NY
       City10. The coastal areas of CT and RI were also significantly affected. According to The
       Boston Harbor Association report, if the storm had hit Boston 5.5 hours earlier on the high tide it
       would have caused a 5 foot storm surge that would have flooded 6.6% of Boston.11

For this plan, regional programs were reviewed and the vulnerabilities of these programs to one or more
of the above impacts were determined. For example, an increase in heat could increase the number of
unhealthy ozone days.12 Priority actions to address the vulnerabilities were then drafted. Over 100
actions were identified. Each priority action was evaluated based on  its ability to reduce risk, whether the
action would protect a critical asset, whether it would be easy to implement (i.e., whether it would be
"low-hanging fruit"), whether it would leverage other larger efforts, EPA's unique role and capacity, the
time frame to accomplish and the funding needed.

The final section of the plan lays out how these actions will be incorporated into the region's existing
programs and how we will measure our progress. For instance, the Agency works with the states and
tribes on an annual basis to determine activities that EPA will fund. We will work with the states and
tribes to incorporate climate adaptation into those activities. Additionally, the Region has a Global
Climate Change Network (GCCN) made up of staff and managers from every office in the Region and
each year the GCCN develops a strategy for activities it expects to accomplish for both climate change
mitigation and adaptation. The priority actions identified in this plan will be incorporated into the
GCCN strategy on an annual basis.

In order to gather stakeholder input, we have held ten webinars with the air, water and waste interstate
organizations whose members come from the six New England states air, water and waste environmental
agencies, New England nongovernmental organizations, the New England Environmental Business
                                               13

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Council, tribal leaders, tribal environmental managers and tribal historic preservation officers. All of
their input has been incorporated into this plan.

EPA New England will continue to evaluate the science and impacts of climate change and will update
the vulnerabilities and priority actions for our programs in order to reduce risk to New England's health
and environment.
                                               14

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II.    Existing and Forecasted Conditions

Forecasted Climate Change Impacts in New England of Concern for EPA's Regional Mission and
Operation
New England is well known for its varying seasons, rocky coastline,
extensive beaches, and mix of both urban and rural settings. Over
the last several decades, New England has experienced noticeable
changes in its climate.  New England is and will be uniquely
impacted by climate change due to its population distribution,
geography, seasons and weather patterns. Below is a summary of
existing conditions and forecasts for New England climate change
impacts.  As indicated by the references, a key source of existing
and forecasted information is taken from the 2009 publication by
the United State Global Climate Research Program (USGCRP),
Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States13 as well as
from the 2014 publication Northeast Chapter of Climate Change
Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate
Assessment14.
.  Where appropriate, we have also included information used by
New England States when considering climate change impacts
within their respective  states.

Population Distribution in New England
      Figure 3: Projected New Hampshire
      Summers21
                   Higher Emissions Scenario
                   Lower Emissions Scenario"
                                                                    Havhoe ef a/.SM: Fio. from Frumhoff e(a/.2M
New England has a population of over 14 million, with a large portion of the population located along a
coast that spans approximately 6,100 miles. From 1960 to 2008, Maine and New Hampshire had the
highest increase in the share of population in coastline
counties.15 From 2010 to 2030, New England's population is
projected to increase by eight percent.16
Figure taken from Global Climate Change Impacts
in the United States.19
Demographics

According to the Census, the population in the nation is aging and New England has a larger proportion
of the elderly and baby boomers (14.4%) than the rest of the nation (13%).17 Four of New England's six
states are more densely populated than the nation's average.18 Rhode Island and Massachusetts are the
second and third most densely populated states with 91% of its population in urban areas; and
Connecticut is fourth with as much as 88% of its population in urban areas.19
                                              15

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                                 Lower Emission Scenario"
                                 Higher Emission Scenario9'
                       Days over 100'F

                       1    6

                    -J I96t-l9ป  MJO-20W
                     96-990 20 0-2039 2040-2069 2070-2099
                                      Hayhoe st al,359
                 The graph shows model projections of the
                 number of summer days with temperatures
                 over 90ฐF in Boston, Massachusetts,
                 under lower and higher (referred to as
                 "even higher" on page 23) emissions
                 scenarios.91 The inset shows projected
                 days over 100ฐF.3S9
Increases in Air Temperature

Since 1970, the average annual temperature in the Northeast has risen by 2ฐF and the average winter
temperature has increased by 4ฐF.20 This trend is projected to continue.  As shown in Figure 3, by 2100
New Hampshire's summers could be as warm as North Carolina's summers are today.21

    .      .  _.             ,           .  .  _      ...     Figure 4: Extreme Heat in Boston22
As shown in Figure 4, over the same period, Boston is projected
to experience an increase in the number of days reaching 100ฐF -
from an average of one day per year between 1961 and 1990 to as
many as 24 days per year by 2100.22 Under a higher emissions
scenario identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (TPCC), Hartford, CT could see as many as 30 days per
year with temperatures reaching  100ฐF.23 These rising
temperatures have potential  impacts on public health, ranging
from heat-related stress to infectious diseases. This is further
explained in Public Health Impacts below.

General warming is expected, in New England.  However, the
Houlton Band of Maliseets,  a federally-recognized tribe on the
Meduxnekeag River in Maine, cite a reference that suggests that a
narrow strip along the eastern Maine coast may not experience  a
general warming trend.  The reference states that in the past
"twice daily tidal mixing of the Gulf of Maine brought deep, cold
water to the surface, and southwesterly current along the coast
brought cool temperatures, often accompanied by fog." The
reference states that this effect may continue into the future for
this small geographic area.24 This supposition was not included in the recently published Northeast
Chapter of Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment25

Seasonal Shift

Increased air temperatures have already resulted in shifts in the seasonal patterns in New England and
that trend is projected to continue. When there is an extended warm period in either late winter or early
spring, premature leaf-out or bloom can occur. If this is followed by a frost event, damage to plants can
occur. This occurred in 2007 and in 2012 in the northeast, when apple and other fruit crops were hard
hit.26

In the winter, more precipitation is falling as rain rather than snow, and  as a result, there is a reduced
snowpack.27 A 2011 Vermont Agency of Natural Resources group of publications noted that the timing
and form of precipitation affects the quantities of water stored in surface waters and aquifers, potentially
affecting the availability of water for human use.28 The publications also state that in the spring, the ice
on lakes and rivers melts earlier, resulting in earlier peak river flows.  The publications forecast that,
combined with reduced snowpack, earlier snow melt is anticipated to lead to an increase in frequency of
summer droughts.29 In addition, both the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and Vermont note that the
duration, timing, and frequency of seasonal precipitation and flooding are changing, resulting in impacts
on the hydrologic cycle and aquatic habitats and the organisms  that depend on them, including migratory
fish and aquatic insects.30'31 In Vermont, they are concerned that summer low flows from increased
drought frequency may also reduce aquatic habitats and make them more isolated, and that lower flows
may lead to higher water temperatures, reducing the amounts of dissolved oxygen. Lastly, Vermont
                 Figure taken from Global Climate Change
                 Impacts in the United States.20
16

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notes that all of these changes have the potential to shift prevalent fish species and reduce cold-water fish
populations, potentially allowing new species to gain competitive advantages.32

In a Climate Change Adaptation White Paper Series, Vermont stated that a changing climate may cause
species to shift their distribution on the landscape to follow the presence of preferred or essential
habitats.33 In this paper, Vermont identified the invasion of Asian long-horned beetle as well as woolly
adelgid while Maine has seen Asian shore crab and Eurasian water milfoil.34  Wooly adelgid is an insect
that is native to Japan that threatens Eastern Hemlock trees.35
                                                Figure 5: Percentage Change in Very Heavy Precipitation3
                                                           <0
                                                               0-9
                                                                     Change (%)
                                                                     10-19  20-29   30-39   40+
Changes in Precipitation Patterns

 Warmer temperatures increase the rate of
evaporation of water into the atmosphere, in
effect increasing the atmosphere's capacity to
"hold" water.36 Increased evaporation may dry
out some areas and increase precipitation in
other areas. In fact, drought and increasing
heavy precipitation are not mutually exclusive
and may even happen in the same locations.
While winter precipitation is projected to
increase along with temperature, little change is
projected for summer rainfall.37 Combined with
greater evaporation from higher temperatures
and earlier winter and spring snowmelt, the
summer and fall drought risk for the Northeast
is projected to increase.38 At the  same time, in
the Northeast, heavy precipitation events have
increased more dramatically over the past 60
years than in the rest of the country.  As shown
in Figure 5, in the northeast, the amount of
precipitation falling in very heavy precipitation
events from 1958 to 2011 has increased by
71%.39 This increasing trend is projected to
continue into the future. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts projects that rainfall during the wettest
five days of each year will increase 10% by mid-century and by 20% by 2100.40

Sea Level Rise

Since 1900, sea level in the Northeast has risen by approximately 12 inches.41 Global sea levels are
projected to rise 12 to 48 inches by 2100, depending in large part on the extent to which the Greenland
and West Antarctic Ice Sheets experience significant melting.42 Sea level rise along most of the coastal
Northeast is expected to exceed the global average rise due to local land subsidence, with the possibility
of even greater regional sea level rise if the Gulf Stream weakens as some models suggest.43 Two New
England States — New Hampshire and Massachusetts - cite a 2008 study by Pfeffer, J. T. et al44 that
includes the contribution to sea level rise from the melting of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice
sheets that suggests that sea levels could rise as much as 79 inches by 2100.45 The City of Boston
projects that the Boston's sea level rise will range from 24 to 72 inches by the end of the century,
depending on how quickly the ice in Greenland and Antarctica melt.46
                                                 The map shows percent increase in the amount of precipitation falling in very
                                                 heavy events (defined as the heaviest 1% of all daily events) from 1958 to 2011
                                                 for each region.37	
                                                 Figure taken from Climate Change Impacts in the United States:
                                                 The Third National Climate Assessment.37
                                                 17

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In June of 2012, a USGS study stated that between 1950-1979 and 1980-2009, sea levels between Cape
Hatteras and Boston rose approximately three to four times faster than the global average.47  Taking
subsidence at a rate of six inches per century into account, the state of Rhode Island Coastal Resources
Management Council has begun to plan for a 36 to 60 inch sea level rise by 2100 and they have codified
their projection in state regulations.48 Other states, such as Massachusetts, also cite subsidence as a
potential factor influencing the magnitude of local sea level rise.49

Increased Flooding and Storm Surges

In the past 50 years, there has been an increase in flooding in New England, both in coastal and inland
areas threatening manmade and natural infrastructure. New England's industrial development in the 19th
century was along its rivers where the water could be used as a source of energy. Many of these facilities
still exist today and are vulnerable to river flooding. Between 1955 and 1999, floods accounted for
$16.97 million in damage annually in Vermont alone.50 In 2011, tropical storm Irene dumped three to
five inches of rain throughout the state over two days, with many areas receiving more than seven
inches.51 The extensive flooding caused millions of dollars of damage to Vermont's infrastructure
including damage to 500 miles of road and 200 bridges. The cost of rebuilding this infrastructure is
estimated to be up to 250 million.52 Wells and public water systems were submerged and contaminated
with chemicals and pathogens,  thereby affecting safe drinking water supplies.53 A state-wide drinking
water advisory was issued to warn citizens of the possibility of harmful chemicals or bacteria in their
flooded wells. Approximately 30 public water systems issued "boil water" notices, affecting
approximately 16,590 people.  Seventeen municipal wastewater treatment facilities also reported
compromised operations54and private water supply wells were also affected. The Vermont Department
of Health distributed over 3,000 free bacterial sample kits for homeowners to test their wells. Of the test
kits returned to the Department for testing, 37% were positive for total coliform (of the 37, 8% were
positive for E.coli). Lastly, hazardous waste spills increased by a factor of fourteen during the first week
after tropical storm Irene.55  Projecting forward, Vermont anticipates the increasing probability of high-
flow events could be as high as 80%.56

Coastal flooding is also an issue for New England. It is expected that the combination of a projected
increase in heavy precipitation  and sea level rise will lead to more  frequent, damaging floods in the
Northeast.57 Less winter precipitation falling as snow and more as  rain will also increase the number and
impact of flooding events as the frozen ground is unable to absorb  the winter rain.  Sea level rise, storm
surges, hurricanes, erosion, and the destruction of important coastal ecosystems will likely contribute to
an increase in coastal flooding events, including the frequency of current "100-year flood" levels (severe
flood levels with a one-in-100 likelihood of occurring in any given year). Figure 6 shows the current
Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood zone (hatched darker blue) as well as the extent
of the projected 100-year flood zone in 2100 (lighter blue) for the waterfront/Government Center area of
Boston under a "higher-greenhouse gas emissions scenario" used by the Northeast Climate Impacts
Assessment (NECIA) in a report titled Climate Change in the U.S.  Northeast5* What is now considered
a once in a 100-year coastal flood in Boston is expected to occur, on average, as frequently as every two
to three years by mid-century and once every other year by late-century - under either emissions scenario
identified by NECIA. Cumulative damage to buildings and building contents, as well as the associated
emergency costs, could potentially be as high as $94 billion between 2000 and 2100 in Boston,
depending on the sea level rise  scenario and which adaptive actions are taken.59
                                               18

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              Figure 6: Projected 100-Year Flood Zone in Boston58
              Gปrent 10Vf*jr flood zone
              Protected 100-y** Hooded ma (higher-emissions icenariol
                                                                                             Sourt*
          Figure taken from Confronting Climate Change in the U.S. Northeast: Science, Impacts, and Solutions.59
Increase in Fresh and Ocean Water Temperature and Acidification

In addition to changes in the level of the sea, the physical and chemical properties of the ocean are
changing. As the air temperature warms, it warms the ocean. Globally, sea surface temperatures have
been higher during the past three decades than at any other time since reliable observations began in
1880.60 Warmer fresh and salt waters hold less dissolved oxygen making "hypoxia"2 more likely,
fostering harmful algal blooms, and changing the toxicity of some pollutants.61

The pH level of seawater has decreased significantly since 1750, and is projected to drop much more
dramatically by the end of the century if carbon dioxide (CCh) concentrations continue to increase as the
oceans absorb this CCh.62 According to the 2011 Massachusetts'  Climate Change Adaptation Report, pH
levels are projected to decrease by 0.1- 0.3 by 2100, making the ocean more acidic.63 As EPA stated in
the draft National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change^ scientific research over
the last 10 years indicates serious implications of ocean acidification for ocean and coastal marine
ecosystems. In  its 2010  report, Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a
Changing Ocean, the National Research Council65 concludes that ocean chemistry is changing at an
unprecedented  rate due to human-made CCh emissions. The report also states that "while the ultimate
2 Hypoxia occurs when dissolved oxygen declines to the point where aquatic species can no longer survive

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consequences are still unknown, there is a risk of ecosystem changes that threaten coral reefs, fisheries,
protected species, and other natural resources of value to society."  Of particular concern in New England
is the threat that acidification has for shellfish populations, especially soft shelled clams, and research on
this issue is underway in Maine and elsewhere.

Public Health Impacts

Extreme heat events can and have impacted human health. A three-day heat wave (temperatures reaching
triple digits on two days) in Chicago in 1995 led to nearly 700 heat-related deaths.66  The possibility of
similar heat waves  are increasingly likely in New England as projections for the number of days per year
over 100ฐF grow (see Figure 4). In September 2010, Maine experienced a heat wave in which many
schools closed due  to excessive heat and the fact that schools do not have air conditioning. During this
heat wave, the National Weather Service issued an advisory warning that "the high heat and humidity
combined with the  long duration of the current heat wave would make conditions uncomfortable and
potentially dangerous especially in hot buildings without air conditioning or proper ventilation."67 Since
the hottest days in the Northeast are often associated with high concentrations of ground-level ozone and
other pollutants, the combination of heat stress and poor air quality can pose a health risk to vulnerable
groups:  young children, the elderly, and those with pre-existing health conditions including asthma.68

The combination of warmer temperatures and extreme weather events encourages the spread of infectious diseases
in new areas and affects many aspects of human health.69  Changes in vector-borne diseases are already
being seen in the Northeast with Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, a tick borne infection, reported in 4 of the 6
states.  Babesiosis,  or animal malaria also carried by ticks may threaten the blood supply. This newly
reportable disease has been growing in the northeast and is now reported in every New England state.70
Suitable habitat for the Asian Tiger Mosquito, which can transmit West Nile and other vector-borne
diseases, is expected to increase in the Northeast from the current 5% to  16% in the next two decades and
from 43% to 49% by the end of the century, exposing more than 30 million people to the threat of dense
infestations by this  species.71

Over the last 10 summers from 2004 through 2013, New England has averaged 30 days per year with
unhealthy air for the current ozone standard of 75 parts per billion. In New England, high ozone levels
usually occur between 1:00 and 7:00 pm on hot days from May through September.72 Hot days are
particularly conducive to ground-level ozone formation, and air conditioning loads on such days are often
a major contributor to electricity demand spikes. At the same time, some EGUs called "peaking units"
only operate during periods of peak demand when the electric grid requires maximum generating
capacity, and could be high-emitting sources of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which are a key
contributor to ground-level ozone formation. Peaking units might lack NOx controls  because they  have
low emissions on a seasonal basis, even if hourly NOx emissions are high during periods when they are
in use.73 Thus, it is expected that with an increase in the number of days with high temperatures, New
England will see increases  in ozone on those days.

Built Environment-Housing and Indoor Air

In the United States, citizens spend over 90% of their time inside with an estimated 70% of that time
spent in their homes. The US  Census's American Housing Survey in 2009 reported that nearly 6 million
housing units have  moderate to severe physical infrastructure problems.74  The National Center for
Healthy Homes citing this Census study states that the most common problems in American housing are
water leaks from the outside (11%) and inside (8%), roofing problems (6%) and damaged walls (5%).
According to the Census's  American Community Survey Summary from 2007-2011, only 14% of the

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homes in the nation were built before 1939.  In New England 28% of the homes were built before 1939.75
These older homes were built prior to many of the new construction codes and may be more susceptible
to structural problems. In addition, the northeast has a higher percentage of multi-family structures; 63%
of family homes in the northeast are single family homes, as opposed to 83% in the United States as a
whole.76 New England housing units also rely more on the use of fuel oil or kerosene.  In New
Hampshire, Vermont and Maine over 50% rely on these fuels for heating vs. only 7% in the  entire
nation.77 These fuels are delivered by fuel trucks and those deliveries could be disrupted by  severe
weather events. All of these factors combined indicate that New Englanders are potentially exposed to
more indoor pollutants than those in other parts of the US.

Adaptation Planning Underway in New England

Because of the susceptibility of New England to climate change impacts, New England  federal, regional,
state agencies, and non-government organizations have already begun addressing this issue.  New
England states in particular have been out in front of the nation in planning for both climate  mitigation
and adaptation. Table 1 summarizes the adaptation efforts of the New England states, and the adaptation
activities are expanded upon below:

   •   In 2005, the Governor's Steering Committee on Climate Change for Connecticut produced a
       Climate Change Action Plan focusing on greenhouse gas emissions. In 2010, the Adaptation
       Subcommittee of the Governor's Steering Committee produced a report "The Impacts of Climate
       Change on Connecticut Agriculture, Infrastructure, Natural Resources and Public Health,"
       detailing the potential impacts of climate change. In 2011, this subcommittee produced a draft
       report addressing adaptation strategies in light of identified impacts, "Connecticut Climate
       Change Preparedness Plan."  This report was finalized in July 2013. In January,  2014, the
       Institute for Community Resiliency and Climate Adaptation was created in Connecticut.  The
       Institute is a collaboration between the University of Connecticut, the state Department of Energy
       and Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

   •   In Maine, Governor LePage recently created a workgroup entitled "Environment and Energy
       Resources Work Group" which consists of state agencies focused on transportation, energy,
       fisheries and wildlife, forestry, agriculture and marine resources. The  cross-agency effort is
       aimed at discussing mechanisms for cross agency partnerships, information sharing,  efficiencies
       and streamlining. These efforts will provide specific and identifiable tools to assist decision-
       makers in preparing for climate change78.

   •   In 2008, Massachusetts' Global Warming Solutions Act led to the establishment of a Climate
       Change Adaptation Advisory Committee that produced a report on adaptation strategies in light of
       predicted climate changes for the state. The report, published in 2012, provided conclusions and
       recommendations by the committee regarding anticipated climate change and future  adaptation
       strategies.  In addition, the report provides sector-specific impacts and adaptation strategies.

   •   In December 2007, Governor Lynch of New Hampshire established a Climate Change Policy
       Task Force, charging the group with the development of a Climate Action Plan for New
       Hampshire. The report was published in March 2009.  The final report focused on greenhouse
       gas emissions reductions to address climate change but also identified  anticipated future impacts
       of climate change on various  sectors: agriculture, forestry and waste, electric generation,
       transportation and land use.
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•  In 2010, Rhode Island's Climate Change Commission was established through the state's Climate
   Risk Reduction Act.  In November 2012, a progress report was produced; summarizing key
   climate risks and vulnerabilities to those risks, identifies existing climate change adaptation
   initiatives, and highlights the areas that have yet to be addressed. In addition, in Section 145
   "Climate Change and Sea Level Rise" of Rhode Island's Coastal Resources Management
   Program, Rhode Island has codified in regulation that future policies, plans, and regulations
   proactively plan for and adapt to climate change and sea level rise.79 In addition, the University of
   Rhode Island and other collaborators recently launched a website designed to inform the public
   about climate change and to  help prepare for the changes.80

•  From 2010 to 2012, Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources (Vermont ANR) developed a series
   of sector-based white papers as part of an initial education effort. Sectors included: agriculture,
   water resources, recreation, forestry, public health, public safety, fish and wildlife, and
   transportation.  Vermont ANR expects to have a vulnerability assessment and adaptation strategy
   for Vermont lakes, rivers, forests, and wetlands, including those natural communities and the
   organisms that inhabit them in 2013.
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Table 1: Summary of State Adaptation Planning Efforts
State
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New
Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont
Summary of Adaptation Effort
Final Adaptation Plan Complete (Climate Change Preparedness Plan, 2011:
http://www.ct.sov/deep/lib/deep/climatechanse/connecticut climate_preparedness
_plan 201 l.pdf. The Impacts of Climate Change on Connecticut Agriculture,
Infrastructure, Natural Resources and Public Health, 2010:
httD://www.ct.sov/deeD/lib/deeD/climatechanse/iniDactsofclimatechanse.Ddf.
Summary of climate change adaptation work is available at
http://www.maine.sov/dep/sustainabilitv.
Initial Adaptation Plan Complete (Climate Change Adaptation Report, 2011:
http://www.mass.gov/eea/air-water-climate-change/climate-change
Initial Adaptation Planning Process Underway (Climate Action Plan, 2009:
http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/air/tsb/tps/climate/action_plan/documents
/nhcap _final.pdf)
Initial Adaptation Planning Process Complete (Adapting to Climate Change in the
Ocean State, 2012:
http://www.riHn. state, ri. us/Reports/Climate %2 OChange %2 OCommission %2 OProg
%20Revort%20Final%2011%2015%2012%20final%202.vdf)
Initial Adaptation Planning Process Underway (Vermont Climate Change White
Papers, 2010-2012:
http://www. anr. state, vt. us/anr/climatechange/Adaptation. html)
In addition to state activity related to adaptation, there are adaptation planning activities occurring at the
municipal level as well. For example, Boston, MA; Cambridge, MA; Portland, ME; Scarborough-Old
Orchard Beach, ME; and several communities in New Hampshire and the Metropolitan Area Planning
Council, a regional planning agency that serves over one hundred cities and town in Metropolitan Boston,
are all engaged in adaptation planning.81 In 2011, EPA New England, in coordination with the Institute
for Sustainable Communities, launched the New England Municipal Sustainability Network (NEMSN),
which fosters peer to peer communication between municipal Sustainability practitioners across the
region on key priorities including climate change adaptation. In December of 2011 the NEMSN
sponsored climate adaptation training for themselves. At the federal level, in 2010, the New England
Federal Partners Climate Workgroup was formed and it includes 17 federal agencies and their staff
including National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EPA, Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA), United States Geological Service (USGS), United States Army Corps of
Engineers (USAGE) and Department of Interior (DOI) who are working and coordinating on climate
change adaptation and mitigation activities.


III.  Vulnerability Assessment

This section contains a preliminary assessment of the vulnerabilities of key EPA New England programs
to the impacts of climate change.  It builds on the work presented in Part 2 of EPA's agency-wide Plan,82
and is structured by the goals in EPA's FY 2011-2015 Strategic Plan.83 These vulnerabilities were
identified by the EPA New England Adaptation Planning Workgroup. Note that EPA New England  has
not conducted a quantitative vulnerability assessment, but has qualitatively evaluated the nature and
magnitude of risks associated  with climate change impacts.  This assessment is based on best
professional judgment within EPA at this time and may change in the future as our understanding of
climate science evolves.
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GOAL 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality

A. Overview of Potential Climate Change Impacts

Communities within New England face public health and environmental challenges from ambient and
indoor air pollution. Climate change will increase these challenges.  EPA New England partners with
federal, state, tribal and local agencies to protect public health and the environment by directly
implementing programs that address air quality (indoor and outdoor), toxic pollutants, climate change,
energy efficiency, pollution prevention, industrial and mobile source pollution, radon, acid rain,
stratospheric ozone depletion, and radiation protection.  Several program areas are vulnerable to future
climate conditions that may be characterized by elevated baseline temperatures, increased frequency and
duration of heat waves, more extreme swings in weather conditions (drought and precipitation events),
and more severe hurricanes and coastal storms. These future conditions will present challenges to EPA
to achieve its core mission.

B. Program-Specific Vulnerabilities

Ozone (Os) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
New England has made progress in attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for
the current ozone standard of 75 parts per billion, but problem areas remain in southern
New England. 84> 85Although there are continuing NOx and volatile organic compound (VOC) emission
reductions from ongoing control strategies for on-road and non-road mobile sources and fossil-fueled
fired power plants, future climate conditions may make it more difficult to attain the NAAQS for ozone.

Impacts on Os and NOx programs:
   •  Volatile organic compound emissions from biogenic sources such as trees should increase due to
      increased temperatures.86
   •   NOx emissions from fossil-fuel burning power plants, operating during peak electricity demand
      periods, may increase with increased temperatures.87
   •  The rate of ozone production in the atmosphere should increase with increased temperatures.88
   •  Additional Os production and inter-regional transport due to prolonged heat waves, stagnation and
      increases in upwind emissions.89
   •  The length of the ozone monitoring season may be extended into early spring and late fall.90

Paniculate Matter (PM)
Similarly, New England has made progress in attaining and maintaining the NAAQS for PIVh.s.

Impacts on PM program:
   •  There is the potential to see increases in certain air pollutants from power plants (e.g., sulfur
      dioxide [SO2], particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter [PIVb.s], etc.) during peak
      electricity demand due to increased regional temperatures.  These increases may contribute to
      local air quality problems. 91
   •  As seen during prolonged power outages from the October 2011 snow storm, PIVh.s violations
      from local increases in PM2.5 due to the use of backup electricity (e.g., generators) and heat (e.g.,
      wood stoves, fireplaces) sources because of increased extreme weather events and resulting power
      outages.
   •  PM2.5 violations from local increases  in PIVh.s may occur due to the uncontrolled burning of storm
      debris after intense weather events.
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Indoor Air
Impacts on indoor air program:
   •   Extreme weather conditions associated with climate change may lead to breakdowns in building
       envelopes, causing the flooding of indoor spaces. Dampness and water intrusion create
       conditions favorable to fungi and bacteria (including mold).  This can also cause building
       materials to decay or corrode, which can lead to off-gassing of chemicals.92

Mercury
Impacts on mercury program:
   •   Mercury in soils and vegetation, such as boreal peat, may be emitted with increased wildfires
       adding to the global atmospheric reservoir. 93Mercury deposition in New England waters and
       subsequent mercury contamination offish and wildlife may continue and possibly increase with
       the increase in extreme precipitation events.94> 95
   •   Precipitation events will incorporate a fraction of this global pool in rain and snow, thus
       contributing to mercury pollution in the region.  Therefore, local and regional efforts to achieve
       water quality loading thresholds (Total Maximum Daily Loads, TMDLs) may be more difficult to
       achieve.

C. Enforcement and Compliance

Region 1 conducts both Clean Air Act (CAA) enforcement and compliance assistance to the regulated
community on meeting EPA air quality regulations. Increasing resource demands as a result of climate
change impacts could put additional strain on the use of declining resources for these
Enforcement/Compliance activities.

Impacts on enforcement and compliance programs:
   •   Increased power plant peaking demand could increase the likelihood of emergency generators
       being used to meet the peak demand due to increased temperatures and higher mean summer
       temperatures.
   •   There may be an increased burden on compliance and enforcement staff to respond to an
       increased number of industry inquiries for regulatory interpretations and CAA applicability
       determinations to ensure consistent application of regulatory requirements across the country.
   •   Major storm or heat events could result in an increased number of requests for temporary waivers
       from regulatory requirements, including requirements for gasoline and diesel  fuels.


GOAL 2:  Protecting America's Waters

Cross-Program Water Man agent en t
While  considerable progress has been made since the enactment of the Clean Water Act and the  Safe
Drinking Water Act, America's waters continue to be threatened by pollutants including excess nutrient
loadings, stormwater runoff, invasive species and drinking-water contaminants.  EPA works with states
and tribes to develop nutrient limits and to restore and protect the quality of the nation's streams, rivers,
lakes, bays, oceans and aquifers. EPA also uses its authority to address urban rivers; to ensure safe
drinking water; and to reduce pollution from nonpoint and industrial dischargers. 96

At EPA New England, protection of regional waters occurs through eleven programs:
   1.  Water Quality Standards;
   2.  Monitoring,

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   3.  Assessing and Reporting;
   4.  Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs);
   5.  National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES);
   6.  Nonpoint Source Management;
   7.  Wetlands;
   8.  Dredging/Ocean Dumping;
   9.  National Estuary Program;
   10. Drinking Water, Wastewater, and Stormwater Infrastructure; and
   11. Drinking Water Quality.


A. Overview of Potential Climate Change Impacts

In March 2012, EPA published the draft 2072 National Water Program Climate Change Strategy97 which
describes the following impacts to water resources.

   •   Increases in water pollution due to warmer air and water temperatures and changes in
       precipitation patterns,  causing an increase in the number of waters categorized as "impaired,"
       with associated impacts on human health and aquatic ecosystems.
   •   Impacts on water infrastructure and aquatic systems due to more extreme weather events,
       including heavier precipitation and  tropical and inland storms.
   •   Changes to the availability of drinking water supplies due to increased frequency, severity and
       duration of drought, changing patterns of precipitation and snowmelt, increased evaporation, and
       aquifer saltwater intrusion, affecting public water supply, agriculture, industry, and energy
       production uses.
   •   Waterbody boundary movement  and displacement as rising sea levels alter ocean and
       estuarine shorelines and  as changes in water flow, precipitation, and evaporation affect the size of
       wetlands and lakes.
   •   Changing aquatic biology due to warmer water and changing flows, resulting in deterioration of
       aquatic ecosystem health in some areas.
   •   Collective impacts on coastal areas  resulting from a combination of sea level rise, increased
       damage from floods and storms, coastal erosion, salt water intrusion to drinking water supplies,
       and increasing temperature and acidification of the oceans.
   •   Indirect impacts due to unintended consequences of human response to climate change, such as
       those resulting from carbon sequestration and other greenhouse gas reduction strategies.

In New England, EPA has identified additional impacts that include:
   •   Flooding from increasingly frequent and intense rain events as well as intense tropical storms will
       tax aging infrastructure,  including combined sewer systems, wastewater and drinking water
       facilities and adversely impact water quality.
   •   Dense coastal development and shoreline armoring with sea walls and other hardening structures
       will prevent wetland migration and lead to loss of wetlands as the sea level rises.
   •   Increases in the extent of storm surge and coastal flooding will cause erosion and property
       damage to the densely populated coasts.
   •   Sea level rise may increase saltwater intrusion to coastal freshwater aquifers, resulting in water
       resources that are unusable without desalination. Increased evaporation or reduced recharge into
       coastal aquifers exacerbates saltwater intrusion.
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    •   Sea level rise will lead to direct and indirect losses for the region's energy infrastructure (e.g.,
       power plants and located along the coast, marine facilities that receive oil and gas deliveries),
       including equipment damage from flooding or erosion. Damaged energy facilities also may be a
       source of pollution.
    •   Aquatic ecosystem species composition and distribution will change due to sea level rise,
       increased water temperatures, salinity distribution and ocean circulation, changes in precipitation
       and fresh water runoff, and acidification. This will also result in potential for new or increased
       prevalence of invasive species.

B.  Program-Specific Vulnerabilities

Water Quality Standards
Water Quality Standards are the foundation of the Clean Water Act - they designate the goals and uses
for water bodies, setting criteria to protect those uses, and  establishing provisions to protect water bodies
from pollutants. States, territories, and authorized tribes establish water quality standards, and EPA
reviews and approves those standards.

Impacts on Water Quality Standards Program:
    •   Salinity changes may create a need to reclassify some water bodies from fresh to salt water.
    •   Recreation and shell fishing season onset and duration may change.
    •   Some water quality  standards may become unattainable due to changing conditions (e.g., warmer
       water, drier conditions, less snowpack).
    •   The relative contribution of snowmelt vs. groundwater flow to stream flow could change,
       affecting stream temperature regimes and biological conditions.
    •   Some designated uses and their associated criteria may need to be removed or changed
       based on monitored changes (e.g., intermittent streams may be dry for longer periods of
       time in summer and no longer support certain aquatic life forms).
    •   Some standards (i.e., pollutant-specific goals) may need to change to reflect more
       sensitive environmental conditions.

Monitoring, Assessing,  and Reporting
Our nation's waters are monitored by state, federal, and local agencies, universities, dischargers, and
volunteers. Water quality data are used to characterize waters, identify trends over time, identify
emerging problems, determine whether pollution control programs are working, help to direct pollution
control efforts to where they are most needed, and respond to emergencies such as floods and spills.

Impacts on Monitoring Program:
    •   Current location of monitors may no longer be appropriate in order to effectively monitor and
       assess changes and to provide access to the monitors (e.g. sea level rise, precipitation,
       temperatures, stratification).
    •   Current detection protocols, criteria, monitoring and analysis may not be sufficient to
       detect ocean acidification and/or salinity.
    •   Current timing of monitoring may not be sufficient in order to pick up seasonal shifts and the full
       range of climate vulnerability, especially for recreational and aquatic life uses.
    •   The current number of monitors used may not be sufficient to assess an increased number of
       303(d) impairment listings due to the increased stresses.
    •   Stream ecosystems will be affected directly, indirectly, and through interactions with other
       stressors. Biological responses to these changes include altered community composition,


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       interactions, and functions. Effects will vary regionally and present biomonitoring
       challenges for water-quality agencies that assess the status and health of ecosystems.
    •   With more rapidly changing conditions, more monitoring may be required to adequately
       assess the condition of waterbodies.

Total Maximum Daily Loads
Under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, states, territories, and authorized tribes are required to
develop lists of impaired waters. These are waters that are too polluted or otherwise degraded to meet the
water quality standards set by states, territories, or authorized tribes. The law requires that these
jurisdictions establish priority rankings for waters on the lists and develop a Total Maximum Daily Load,
or TMDL.  A TMDL is a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a waterbody can receive
and still safely meet water quality standards.

Impacts on TMDL Program:
Over the past decade, EPA Region 1's cross-program effort to address storm water-related water quality
impairments has provided valuable experience in how to develop and implement TMDLs that address
multiple environmental stressors resulting from various flow regimes.  For example, impervious surfaces
in urban environments deliver a mix of pollutants and increased flow to rivers and streams resulting in
soil erosion, stream bank  scouring, deposition of sediment and nutrients increases in receiving
waters.  The increasing amount of impervious surfaces in urban areas causes less precipitation to infiltrate
into the ground, which may cause streams to experience much lower base flows during dry conditions,
along with low dissolved  oxygen, increased eutrophication, and higher stream temperatures.  Flashy
streamflow conditions (i.e., rapid increases in streamflow and velocity in response to rainfall, followed
by rapid recovery to pre-storm conditions) related to excessive stormwater runoff and corresponding
droughts are anticipated to become even more frequent and/or intense in response to further climate
change.

Stormwater TMDLs now being implemented effectively on a sub-watershed basis involve the use of
surrogates for the mix of pollutants in stormwater (i.e., impervious cover, or flow). Innovative and
flexible approaches to TMDL development like this show promise for addressing the complex challenges
of climate change.  For instance, under the surrogate approach, TMDL end-points are tied to aquatic life
use protections in State water quality standards, which provide environmental protection based on
whatever the current conditions happen to be (rather than future projections based on past
conditions). The technical basis for aquatic life use-based TMDLs is derived from significant
investments over the past 35 years developing state ambient biological monitoring programs in our
Region.  Bioassessments (using ambient assemblages of macroinvertebrates, fish, or algae that integrate
the effects of multiple stressors over time), in concert with physical and chemical monitoring data, now
support the water quality assessment of aquatic life use attainment for these  surrogate TMDLs,  and
provide clear environmental indicators of stream health under whatever the existing conditions  are.

Summary of anticipated water quality programmatic climate change vulnerabilities includes:
    •   Challenges  in quantitatively demonstrating how implementation of current stormwater BMPs
       (occurring primarily through permitting programs), and NFS BMPs,  will address future changes
       in climate;
    •   TMDLs may need to be revised in the future as monitoring shows that TMDL target attainment
       isn't leading to designated uses being met;
    •   Increased need for efforts to support local and state partners in additional local land use planning,
       stormwater and  wastewater TMDL implementation actions needed to achieve the TMDL
       endpoints (water quality standards);

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    •   Increased need for resources at federal, state, and local levels to address these challenges.


National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
Water pollution degrades surface waters making them unsafe for existing uses, including drinking water,
fishing, swimming, and other water recreation. As authorized by  the Clean Water Act, the  National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating
point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. NPDES permits have a  five year
permitting cycle.

Impacts on the NPDES program:
    •   Increased need to respond to requests for assistance from municipalities regarding stormwater
       management implementation and financing methods.
    •   Current thermal discharge limits may not sufficiently account for increasing temperatures  of the
       influent and receiving waters.
    •   The assemblage of aquatic organisms residing or transiting a particular receiving water may
       change due to water temperature increases.
    •   Entrainment of different fish species and greater numbers of organisms could occur at power
       plant and industrial water intakes due to changes in local communities of organisms as a result of
       habitat changes from increased water temperatures and increased cooling water demand.
    •   Increased extreme precipitation and stormwater runoff will cause an increase in erosion and
       sedimentation in receiving waters.
    •   Reduced flows in streams, especially during summer months,  will likely not dilute wastewater
       treatment plant and other facility effluents as they do now.
    •   Water quality standards and BAT/BPT/BCT (Best Available Control Technology Economically
       Achievable / Best Practicable Control Technology Currently Available / Best Conventional
       Pollutant Control Technology) technology-based limitations may not account for site-specific
       effects of:
           o  changing ambient loading of metals and chemicals from acid deposition, leaching of
              contaminated groundwater into discharge infrastructure or movement of pollutants
              resulting from flooding, extreme precipitation and atmospheric exchange,
           o  increasing difficulty of meeting permit requirements due to growing frequency of
              extreme precipitation events, storm surge and sea level rise,
           o  changes in discharge toxicity of specific pollutants (such as ammonia), cumulative effects
              of pollutants and persistence of certain pollutants due to changing ambient surface water
              and air temperatures.
    •   A facility's climate change mitigation or adaptation measures  may not conform to
       BAT/BPT/BCT technology-based limitations.
    •   More compliance issues in impaired watersheds for NPDES and SOW programs.

Nonpoint Source Management
Nonpoint source pollution comes from many diffuse sources and is caused by rainfall and snowmelt
runoff that picks up natural and human made pollutants and deposits them in lakes, rivers, wetlands,
coastal waters and ground water.  State nonpoint source programs,  developed under the Clean Water Act
(CWA) Section 319 Program,  are working to meet this challenge.

Impacts on the Nonpoint Source Management Program:
    •   Accounting for greater quantities of runoff and pollutant effluents, with more variability, from
       both urban and suburban stormwater and agricultural sources.

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    •   Increasing heavy precipitation days and more concentration of runoff in intense storms is likely to
       be more damaging to aquatic habitats, and carry more erosion-related pollutants into water bodies.
    •   Extended drought conditions that may cause inadequate stream flows and further stress aquatic
       systems,  including the vegetation that is used in riparian areas and in management practices to
       filter, treat, and infiltrate effluent flows (e.g. best management practice [BMP] utility may need to
       be reevaluated under future conditions).
    •   More restoration and protection challenges for watershed protection and NFS programs.

Wetlands
Section 404 of the Clean Water Act requires EPA to concur with permits issued by the U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers to allow dredging or filling of wetlands.  Wetlands function to protect ecosystems, streams
and other aquatic resources. Wetlands provide four crucial functions for helping to make the Nation
more resilient in response to climate change:
    •   Coastal protection in the face of sea level rise and increased hurricane intensity, including the
       ability to reduce wave energy;
    •   Protecting Water Supplies in the face of increased drought conditions by providing groundwater
       recharge  and maintaining minimum stream flows;
    •   Flood mitigation in the face of increased precipitation and storm frequency in the northeastern
       United States. The capacity of wetlands  and headwater streams to reduce flood peaks, detain
       stormwater, and filter pollutants is critical to the protection of life, property, and water quality;
    •   Wetlands can serve to sequester carbon.

Impacts on wetlands program (coastal and inland wetlands):
    •   Wetland  migration due to sea level rise that inundate or submerge the wetlands.
    •   Variability in salinity levels, caused by drought, sea level rise,  and increased  precipitation and
       changes in the plant and animal  species that inhabit the wetlands as well as potential impacts on
       endangered species and/or critical habitats.
    •   Increased sedimentation and nutrient loading, with increased precipitation potentially changing
       wetland characteristics and structures.
    •   Drying out of seasonal wetlands with increased drought, which may also potentially change
       wetland characteristics.
    •   Changes  in soil dynamics may also affect wetland characteristics, such as hydrology, size, and
       sediment types.
    •   Physical  damage or elimination  of wetlands and dune structures that protect them due to
       hurricanes and other seasonal changes.
    •   Changes  in temperature and rainfall patterns can affect the nature and distribution of inland
       wetlands. Decreased precipitation and increased temperatures (greater evaporation and less
       frequent flooding), can result in loss of vernal pools and shallow emergent wetland.  These
       changes can affect the plant and animal species that inhabit the wetlands and may cause potential
       impacts on endangered species and/or critical habitats. Sea level rise may submerge/inundate
       wetlands, potentially changing wetland characteristics (e.g. designation from fresh to saltwater
       wetland).
    •   Sea level rise and increased storm activity will increase erosion of salt marshes. For coastal
       marshes,  if sea levels rise at a rate that exceeds the accumulation of substrate (marsh sediments)
       the coastal wetlands will break down due to inundation, erosion and intrusion by salt water.
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Ocean Dumping and Dredging
The Ocean Dumping and Dredged Materials Management programs established by Congress in 1972,
prohibits ocean dumping of materials that would unreasonably degrade or endanger human health or the
marine environment.

Impacts on the Ocean Dumping and Dredging program:
   •   Increase need and frequency for dredging due to increased precipitation intensity, and severe
       storms that may cause erosion and sedimentation of streams, rivers, and harbors.
   •   Earlier sedimentation due to shorter winters and earlier snowmelts.
   •   Shifting sediments and forming of shoals in harbors that impede safe navigation and may require
       emergency dredging.
   •   Need for dredged materials to protect shorelines, beaches, dunes and marshes from sea level rise.

National Estuary Program
The National Estuary Program (NEP) was established in 1987 to restore and protect the physical,
chemical, and biological integrity of "estuaries of national significance" by focusing our Clean Water Act
authorities in these highly productive ecosystems. There are 28 NEPs across the country, six of which
are entirely or partially within EPA New England.  The NEPs promote technical transfer of information,
expertise, and best management practices to accelerate and embellish implementation of "core" Clean
Water Act programs. Lessons learned by the NEPs are shared across the network of 28 programs
nationally, as well as with other coastal watersheds facing similar water pollution and water quality
impairments. This approach has proven to be a success over the past 25 years and the NEP is seen as a
model for other comprehensive watershed and community-based programs.

Impacts on the NEP Program:
   •   Biological communities are vulnerable to sea level rise, warming ocean temperatures,
       acidification, and increased sedimentation and erosion caused by extreme precipitation events as
       well as other impacts described in other water programs above.

Drinking Water, Wastewater, and StormwaterInfrastructure
The Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act are the two primary federal laws that protect
water quality and specifically drinking water quality. Both laws include provisions that authorize EPA to
award annual  grants to states to help capitalize their State Revolving Fund (SRF) programs, which
support construction and maintenance of wastewater, stormwater, and drinking water treatment and
conveyance infrastructure. The following are some of the most significant threats to water infrastructure
posed by climate change.

Impacts on Drinking Water, Wastewater and Stormwater Infrastructure Programs:
   •   Damage to infrastructure due to increases in flooding from  extreme precipitation,  storm surges,
       loss of wetlands, and sea level rise.
   •   Source water intake changes may be needed due to droughts and summertime extreme heat.
   •   Coastal infrastructure may be impacted by sea level rise.
   •   Pathogen growth may be fostered due to warmer waters and may test the reliability of drinking
       water disinfection.
   •   Additional pollutant loadings of nutrients, pesticides, and other chemicals may challenge drinking
       water treatment.
   •   Fresh water supplies for all uses, particularly drinking water, may be at risk in coastal areas with
       sea level rise.
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    •   Coastal aquifers may experience salt water intrusion where withdrawals are outstripping recharge
       and increased pressure head from higher sea levels may worsen this problem.
    •   Community drinking water intakes may end up in brackish waters as the salt front migrates up
       coastal rivers and streams.
    •   There may be an impairment of ability to treat wastewater or provide drinking water in the
       aftermath of extreme weather events due to compromised energy infrastructure.
    •   Decentralized septic systems may be vulnerable to damage from sea level rise,  storm surge, and
       flooding.

Drinking Water Quality
The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the main federal law that ensures the quality of Americans'
drinking water.  EPA sets standards for drinking water quality and oversees the states,  localities, and
water suppliers who implement those standards.

Impacts on Drinking Water Quality Program:
    •   Changes in aquifer recharge due to earlier ice breakup causing earlier peak river flows may
       require changes in source and demand management.
    •   Increased runoff and turbidity due to more precipitation falling as rain than as snow.
    •   Source and demand management changes due to short-term droughts lasting 1-3 months and more
       frequent days of extreme heat.
    •   Threats to source water quality due to flooding, storm surges, coastal flooding,  loss of wetlands,
       and sea level rise.
    •   Diminished reliability of future water supply may require water supply management and water
       demand management practice changes.
    •   Changes in the salt front of estuaries and tidal  rivers due to sea level rise and fresh water flow
       changes may result in increased pressure to manage freshwater reservoirs to increase flows and
       attempt to maintain salinity regimes, in order to protect estuarine productivity and drinking water
       supplies. Water quality standards in watersheds experiencing reservoir depletion may need to
       reflect these  conditions.
    •   Biological expectations may need to be adjusted due to saltwater intrusion.
    •   May become harder to meet drinking water standards due to higher flows with  associated erosion
       and sedimentation and lower flows and increased pollutant contamination and reduced dissolved
       oxygen.
    •   Increased contaminants in public drinking water sources and  supplies due to runoff from
       increased rain events.

C.  Enforcement and Compliance

    •   Extreme weather events can do significant and potentially long-term damage to drinking water
       facilities and sewage treatment plants,  resulting in contaminated drinking water and the  discharge
       of untreated sewage in violation of applicable requirements.  Such damage will increase the
       burden on Enforcement/Compliance programs to respond to these violations and water quality
       impairments resulting from such damage.

    •   It may be physically more difficult to conduct compliance evaluations and inspections in the field
       due to harsher weather conditions and  extreme weather events.  The weather conditions could
       have an adverse effect both on the physical well-being of inspectors, as well as on equipment used
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       to monitor and test compliance. Weather conditions and the aftermath of extreme weather events
       may affect our ability to actually collect samples and determine compliance.

   •   Impacts on Enforcement/Compliance resources for enforcement of wetlands regulations could be
       particularly impacted by the response to storm surges in vulnerable areas (see wetlands section,
       above).


GOAL 3: Cleaning up Communities and Advancing Sustainable
Development

Contaminated site cleanup and waste/petroleum management occur under a variety of EPA programs,
most commonly Superfund (i.e., remedial, time-critical and non-time critical removals, and emergency
response), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA),  Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA)
(e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs), Clean Air Act (CAA) (e.g., asbestos), and the Oil Pollution Act
(OPA). A high percentage of cleanups, including most Brownfields sites, are regulated through State
programs.


A. Overview of Potential  Climate Change Impacts

The potential climate change impacts described below broadly  apply to each of the cleanup and
management programs; however, the implications of these climate change impacts may differ by
program.

For New England, the impacts that could most likely pose risks to contaminated sites (including
controlled, uncontrolled, and undiscovered contamination), waste management facilities, and petroleum
storage facilities are sea level rise, extreme storm events (precipitation and wind),  temperature extremes,
and decreasing precipitation days and increasing drought intensity.  Ocean acidification and increased
water temperatures may also pose additional risks to coastal petroleum storage facilities and affect the
natural bio-degradation of oils released to the environment. Potential environmental conditions arising
from these impacts and specific examples illustrating how they could influence contaminated sites are
described below.  The likelihood  and severity of climate change impacts can also be  expected to vary
considerably from site to site depending on the location, cleanup technologies/approaches used, and
many other factors.

Sea Level Rise: Sea level rise will  affect coastal areas in every New England state except for Vermont.
The impact on contaminated sites, waste management facilities, and petroleum storage facilities may be
partially mitigated because sea level rise is expected to occur gradually over the course of decades.  This
may allow additional time to appropriately plan for and respond to these changing conditions (e.g.,
construction of berms, removal of wastes, and completion of shorter-term treatment activities).

As a result of sea level rise, contaminated sites, waste management facilities, and petroleum storage
facilities located in vulnerable areas could be  subject to inundation and salt water intrusion.  Inundation
may lead to the release and dispersal of contaminants, physical damage to remediation-related structures,
degradation of coastal aquifers (thereby impacting cleanup performance goals), and other adverse
impacts.  Saltwater intrusion may also impair habitat restoration efforts; cause corrosion of underground
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tanks, piping, and other equipment; and may lead to changes in soil/water chemical and biological
properties, altering the toxicity, transport, and natural degradation of contaminants.

Extreme Storm Events:  Existing climate studies suggest that New England has been experiencing more
intense storm events. Unlike sea level rise, which predominantly affects coastal areas, extreme storm
events can impact a much wider range of contaminated sites. These impacts could include:
   •   Flooding of surface water bodies and surrounding land areas due to heavy precipitation events
       (i.e., regional drainage).
   •   Flooding of coastal areas and rivers from storm surge due to higher intensity hurricanes.
   •   Increased local surface runoff.
   •   Increased infiltration of storm water into soils and elevation of water tables.
   •   Increased wind damage and dispersion of contaminants.

Because much of the historical development of industry and commerce in New England occurred along
rivers, canals, coasts, and other water bodies, these areas often have a higher density of contaminated
sites, waste management facilities, and petroleum storage facilities. This increases the number of these
sites and facilities potentially vulnerable to flooding. Potential consequences of this flooding include the
spread of contaminants through erosion, dissolving of contaminants, physical entrainment and deposition
of soils or sediments, and flotation and rupture of tanks or drums. Flooding and high winds may also
result in the delay or impairment of remedial operations, and damage to remediation and waste/petroleum
management structures, contaminated buildings, utilities and other related infrastructure. In addition, the
increased amounts of infiltration and runoff, and higher water table levels, could impact the performance
of remediation systems and require management of greater volumes of clean and contaminated ground-
and surface-water. In this way, increased precipitation events and hurricanes may potentially impact sites
even if they are remote from coastal areas and rivers.

In addition, prior to the enactment of environmental laws, industrial wastes were routinely discharged to
rivers/streams, industrial canals, ponds and other water bodies.  As a result, many contaminants may exist
within the layers of sediment that accumulated over the years. Increased water flows due to extreme
storm events could potentially re-suspend these sediments, or damage sediment caps, which are
engineered covers intended to prevent contaminated sediments from migrating.  Furthermore, river and
canal flooding could also potentially cause the breaching or failure of dams — such as old mill dams
which are numerous in New England — resulting in the spread of contaminated sediment previously
contained by the dams. Such events could also cause flooding impacts to sites or chemical facilities
downstream.

Temperature Change: The direct consequence of elevated temperatures on contaminated site cleanups
is expected to be relatively limited.  However, elevated temperatures could lead to increased
pressurization of storage containers, volatilization of hazardous materials, and other factors which may
affect design and operation of remediation systems and emergency response  actions. Worker health and
safety concerns during site operations may also be impacted by higher temperatures (e.g., handling of
pressurized drums, heat stress to responders).

Decreasing Precipitation Days/Increasing Drought Intensity:  Decreasing precipitation compounded
by higher ambient temperatures may increase drought conditions that could adversely impact the function
of remediation systems (e.g., vegetative layers on landfills, phytoremediation). Droughts also may
increase the potential for wildfires that could further damage remediation systems, and cause contaminant
releases from facilities used to manage hazardous materials and wastes, and from buildings containing
asbestos and other hazardous construction materials.

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Ocean Acidification: The acidification of sea water may adversely impact the corrosion and degradation
of pipelines and construction materials (e.g. concrete pads/berms) used to convey, store, or contain
petroleum products at coastal facilities.

Increased Water Temperatures: Increased water temperatures may lead to a change in native or
endemic organisms available for biotic degradation of petroleum released to the environment.


B.  Program-Specific Vulnerabilities

Longer-term Cleanups (e.g., Superfund Remedial, Superfund Removal, RCRA Corrective Action,
TSCA)
Longer-term response cleanups such as those occurring under the Superfund remedial and removal
programs and the RCRA corrective action program are intended to significantly reduce the dangers
associated with the threats of and actual releases of hazardous substances, pollutants and contaminants
that pose an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment.  Many of these cleanups are also
viewed as "permanent" solutions, and thus must be "protective" of human health and the environment.

Impacts on Longer-term Cleanups:
Cleanups where waste is left in place (e.g., landfills, cap-in-place remedies) or involve treatment that
occurs over a long period of time (e.g., ground water pump & treat systems) could be especially
vulnerable to changes in climate.  For remedies that are typically of much shorter duration (e.g., soil
vapor extraction, enhanced thermal treatment), the impacts of climate change are more predictable and
easier to factor into the selection and design of a particular remedy.  Some specific programmatic
vulnerabilities are:
    •   Climate change introduces uncertainties into the underlying assumptions that could affect the
       selection  and design of future remedies (e.g., precipitation records and floodplain maps used for
       remedy selection and design may not account for future climate change impacts) potentially
       leading to:
       o  more  extensive and costly remedies, such as excavation and removal of wastes, for sites that
          are potentially vulnerable to sea level rise and flooding
       o  designs that are based on conservative engineering assumptions to reflect uncertainty over
          future environmental conditions (e.g., planning for increased surface water runoff or
          infiltration from extreme storm events)
    •   There could be physical damage to structures and other components of the site remedy due to
       extreme flooding,  hurricanes, winter rain/ice storms, and increased drought conditions.
    •   In some cases, cleanups that were once believed to be protective may no longer meet that  standard
       as changes in  climate occur. This could result in extensive and potentially costly redesign, and
       potentially create an extra demand on EPA and State legal and technical resources.
    •   Sites that were previously not considered or were excluded from cleanup programs may now
       require reconsideration under site assessment programs (e.g., changes in the direction and extent
       of contaminated ground water; collapse of abandoned, structurally unstable buildings containing
       asbestos,  lead paint, and other hazardous construction materials).
    •   The validity of past and ongoing modeling/monitoring could be affected by changing
       environmental conditions (e.g., changing groundwater flow, groundwater and surface water
       salinity and other chemical properties).
    •   Assumptions made for the use and value of natural resources may be affected by changes  to those
       natural resources (e.g., degradation of an aquifer due to salt water intrusion).
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    •   Time-critical removal actions, which often bridge the gap between emergency response actions
       and longer-term remedial actions, may involve unique challenges resulting from climate change
       impacts, such as:
          o   The preliminary assessment/site investigation (PA/SI) phase of time-critical removal
              actions does not currently include potential climate change impacts, and the associated
              risk may not be factored into cleanup prioritization.
          o   The remedy selection process that provides the foundation for more permanent remedies
              may not adequately consider climate impacts.
          o   Time-critical removals often involve labor intensive operations, leading to additional
              vulnerabilities from acute impacts of climate change (e.g. flooding and ground water level,
              temporary or long-term power outages, extreme heat).  These impacts may lead to
              increased costs, decreased productivity, and increased migration of contaminants.
          o   The available capacities for off-site disposal, waste transport, construction equipment, and
              laboratory services may be overwhelmed by extreme storm events that may generate large
              volumes of hazardous materials and debris (including household hazardous waste). The
              intermixing of hazardous materials and debris complicates the separation, collection, and
              transport of these materials and also increases disposal costs. Temporary, on-site staging
              of hazardous materials and debris may also be adversely affected by flooding and other
              conditions that limit usable land space.
          o   Extreme storm events may  create chaotic conditions that increase  health and safety risks to
              personnel during time-critical removal and emergency response actions (e.g., unstable
              buildings/structures; release and intermingling of hazardous materials; physical hazards;
              contamination by biological wastes from the flooding of waste water treatment facilities,
              sewers).
          o   Flooding may lead to increased need for dewatering, water treatment and other
              remediation processes that can add greatly to the cost of cleaning up the site.

Emergency Response Program
EPA coordinates and implements a wide range of activities to ensure that adequate and timely response
measures are taken in communities affected by hazardous substances and oil releases where state and
local first responder capabilities have been exceeded or where additional support is needed. EPA's
emergency response program responds to chemical, oil, biological and radiological releases and large-
scale national emergencies, including homeland security incidents.

Impacts on Emergency Response Program:
    •   Releases of hazardous materials or chemicals through high winds, flooding, and storm surge and a
       need for increased frequency and intensity of emergency response for both hazardous materials
       and oil. Current response resources, including laboratory services, may not be adequate for
       responses to extreme events.  Specific impacts include:
       o  The industrial mill infrastructure along New England Rivers poses a unique threat to the
          region.  Many of these structures contain hazardous chemicals, oil, and contaminated soil
          directly adjacent to streams and rivers that may release with extreme storms and flooding
          events.  Old, structurally unstable mill buildings containing containerized hazardous
          substances or hazardous material as part of the structure (e.g., asbestos, lead paint,  PCBs) may
          collapse due to storm forces and cause releases that could warrant response actions. Potential
          for failure of aging mill dams will increase as frequency and intensity of storms stress the
          structures, leading to potential impact to chemical and oil facilities downstream.
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       o  Increased number of brown/black outs could adversely impact the operation of chemical
          facility processes and equipment, leading to potential releases of hazardous materials (e.g.,
          runaway reactions).
       o  Coastal hazardous material and oil facilities may be impacted by extreme storm events (e.g.,
          storm surge). The United States Coast Guard (USCG) has jurisdiction over hazardous
          material and oil spills along the coast, but the U. S. EPA has interagency agreements in place
          to support the USCG during responses.
       o  Collection of household hazardous waste (HHW) and biological waste collection or mitigation
          may be included in EPA's mission during extreme weather events.  In preparation for more
          frequent events, additional planning may be necessary to plan for response to these wastes
    •   Pest type and range may change with climate changes and there may be an increase or change in
       type of pesticides stored and transported across the region resulting in potential increase in
       releases.98
    •   Additional planning for  emergency response may be needed:
       o  The impacts of increased blackouts/brownouts, severe storm damage, and other adverse
          conditions may need to be incorporated into current national and area contingency plans.
       o  Facility Response Plans (FRP) and Spill Prevention and Control Countermeasures (SPCC)
          plans may not adequately consider climate change impacts.
       o  Current regional debris management plans rely on historical climate assumptions and do not
          address the increasing uncertainty in climatic extreme events.
       o  Additional planning may be needed as Stafford Act declarations (federal emergency
          declarations) may be more frequent with a changing climate.
       o  Current energy infrastructure (oil, natural gas, nuclear) in New England may not include
          climate change assumptions for emergency planning.


RCRA Hazardous Waste Management Facilities
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates, among other things, the treatment,
storage, and disposal of hazardous wastes.  Owners/operators of these treatment, storage, and disposal
(TSD) facilities must generally  obtain a permit for those activities. Facilities that generate hazardous
waste and store it for 90 days or less are also regulated under RCRA. In New England, the individual
states are authorized to implement this program in lieu of EPA.

In order to operate as a TSD facility, the owner/operator must comply with numerous technical
requirements  which ensure that covered activities can be conducted in a manner that is protective of
human health and the environment.  These requirements apply to on-going hazardous waste management
units (e.g., drum  and tank storage, surface impoundments, waste piles), as well as to the closure (i.e.,
cleaning and decommissioning) of those units that are no longer in use.  TSD facilities must also conduct
cleanup of past and present releases of hazardous constituents.

Impacts on RCRA Hazardous Waste Management Facilities:
The same climate change impacts that could affect contaminated  site cleanups may also affect the
management and operation of hazardous waste facilities. Some examples are:
    •   Tanks containing hazardous waste could be damaged by high winds or flying debris during
        hurricanes.
    •   Integrity of drums and  drum storage areas could be compromised by flooding, allowing drums to
        be floated out of containment barriers, or cause intermingling of incompatible wastes, etc.
    •   The potential for failure of process equipment (e.g.,  pressure relief valves, emergency vent fans
        and pumps) could increase with increases in winter rain and ice storms.

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     •   Over-pressurization of tanks containing volatile wastes and the emergency venting of these
        wastes could occur with extreme ambient temperatures.
     •   Buildings or other structures used for indoor storage of waste piles could be damaged or flooded
        in a hurricane causing the release of this material.
     •   Emergency evacuation routes for facility personnel and the surrounding community, as well as
        facility access by fire and other emergency response vehicles, could be flooded or otherwise
        restricted due to an extreme storm event.

   While the New England states are authorized to implement the RCRA hazardous waste management
   program, EPA retains oversight authority to ensure compliance with the statute and regulations and
   there may be a need for increased coordination to respond to climate change impacts.

   Some specific programmatic vulnerabilities for EPA in its oversight role are:
   •  Uncertainties in the underlying assumptions that could affect the design, operation and
       management of hazardous waste facilities,  including contingency planning (e.g., RCRA TSD
       facilities must meet specific requirements if waste management units are located within a 100-
       year floodplain).
   •  Financial assurance estimates for closure/post-closure may not reflect changing climate change
       impacts on those activities.

Oil Program and Underground Storage Tanks
The  Oil Pollution Act (OP A) was signed into law in August 1990. The OP A improved the nation's ability
to prevent and respond to oil  spills by establishing provisions that expand the federal government's
ability, and provide the money and resources necessary, to respond to oil spills. To reduce the likelihood
of a  spill, regulations issued under CWA  Section 31 l(j) (published in the Code of Federal Regulations,
40 CFR Part 112) require facilities that store oil in specified threshold amounts to prepare spill
prevention, control, and countermeasure (SPCC) plans and to adopt certain measures to keep releases
from reaching navigable waters. Certain types of facilities that pose a greater risk of release must also
develop plans to respond promptly to clean up any spills that do occur". It is estimated that there are
between 1,000 and 12,000 SPCC facilities per state and 200 FRP facilities in New England.

EPA created the Office of Underground Storage Tanks to carry out a  Congressional mandate to develop
and implement a regulatory program under RCRA for underground storage tank (UST) systems. EPA
works with its state, territorial, and tribal  partners to prevent and clean up releases from UST systems.
The  greatest potential threat from a leaking UST is contamination of groundwater, the source of drinking
water for nearly half of all Americans. EPA, states, and tribes work together to protect the environment
and human health from potential UST releases. 10ฐ

Impacts on the Oil and Underground Storage Tank Programs:
   •  Secondary containment and flooding of coastal facilities may  be compromised by sea level rise.
   •  Increase in precipitation and floods may have many impacts, as follows:
          o   Decrease the effectiveness of secondary containment.
          o   Increase flow and pressure to underground infrastructure/structures i.e.  pipelines,
              wastewater treatment facilities, power plants, and paper mills. Increased flow and pressure
              to containment systems may result in back feed and flow of product resulting in increased
              discharges of oil.
          o   Decrease tank headspace thereby displacing buffer space available to prevent overflow/
              overfill, potentially leading to increased oil spills.
          o   Increase weathering of underground and aboveground storage tanks (ASTs and USTs).

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          o  Increase flow and changes of navigable water depth, thereby increasing difficulty in
             preparing and implementing planning distance, booming strategies, and cleanup strategies.
   •   Failure of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, and secondary containment) and damage or displacement
       of tanks due to increased intensity of hurricanes and resulting winds and storm surges. Damage to
       storage tanks would increase the likelihood of spills to navigable waters, coastlines and oceans.
   •   Increased degradation and weathering of pipelines and infrastructure due to ocean acidification
       could result in oil spills.
   •   Higher ambient temperatures that decrease the viscosity of heavy oil and the lowering of water
       tables due to drought conditions may potentially increase the mobilization of oil spills.
   •   Change in native or endemic organism availability for biotic degradation of oil  due to increase in
       water temperatures.

C. Enforcement and Compliance

   •   There may be an increased demand for compliance monitoring support during emergency/disaster
       situations (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, drought, wildfires), and it may be difficult to deploy
       compliance experts in a timely manner to the areas where assistance is needed.  Infrastructure
       failures may also result in regulatory violations which could require a state or federal enforcement
       response.


GOAL 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing  Pollution

A.  Pesticides

EPA receives its authority to regulate pesticide products under the Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide, and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) registers or licenses pesticide products for sale, distribution,  and use in the
United States. As part of pesticide product registration EPA approves,  or more properly "accepts"
pesticide label language.  In addition, states, usually through a program housed in the State Department
of Agriculture, registers pesticide products available for use in individual states. Anyone planning to
import pesticides into the U.S. must notify EPA.

EPA's Pesticides program covers:
   •   Providing oversight to state and tribal pesticide programs responsible for certifying and training
       pesticide applicators and enforcing pesticide use.
   •   Implementing the federal certification plan for Pesticide Applicators using Restricted Use
       Pesticides in Indian Country.
   •   Evaluating Potential New Pesticides and Uses.
   •   Providing for Special Local Needs and Emergency Situations.
   •   Reviewing Safety of Older Pesticides.
   •   Registering and inspecting Pesticide Producing Establishments.
   •   Enforcing Pesticide Requirements.
   •   Risk assessment.
   •   Pesticide Field Programs.
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Impacts on Pesticides Program:
    •   New pest problems will occur in New England, many of which will be from exotic invasive
       species.
    •   Potential changes in program focus to include more emphasis on structural and public health pests
       due to weather related impacts on housing and vector pest habitats (i.e., more standing water)
    •   Changes in pests and pest pressures due to increases in temperatures and variations in rainfall
       patterns.
    •   Increase in fungal and microbial organisms in agricultural and non-agricultural settings due to
       extreme rainfall.
    •   Changes in chemical and non-chemical agricultural practices due to extreme storms and farmers'
       inability to work in their fields (e.g. increases in the likelihood of run-off and off-target movement
       of chemical products; limits on the potential use of certain non-chemical methods such as
       cultivation because it may not be possible to bring heavy farm equipment onto wet fields and
       saturated soils).
    •   Increased use of aerial applications resulting in increased risk of pesticide drift due to extreme
       storm events.
    •   Increase in dry condition pests due to drought (e.g. mites that feed on a variety of field, vegetable
       and fruit crops).
Changes in pesticide choices and quantities may require changes to the pesticide applicator certification
and training  programs. Changes in chemical selection could result in new and increased chemical
exposures, especially for indoor applications. Types of new pest problems could include:
     •  Indoor and outdoor molds and microorganisms which are controlled by disinfectant pesticide
        products;
     •  Public health pests such as mosquitoes and ticks;
     •  Forest pests,
     •  Aquatic pests including weeds; and
     •  Various agricultural pests including weeds, insects and plant diseases.


B.  Enforcement, Compliance and Pollution Prevention

Enforcement
As with other regulatory programs, climate impacts noted above could cause an increased strain on
Enforcement/Compliance resources because  of an increased need to respond to changes in pesticide
choices and application methods.

Pollution Prevention
The long term response to climate change may create demands on EPA and state pollution prevention
programs due to the need to provide additional assistance to the regulated  community. As an example,
there may be increased demand for assistance regarding mitigation methods for reducing GHG
emissions. Green Chemistry resources will be in greater demand as businesses and the public seek more
sustainable substitutes for materials used for manufacturing and other industrial and commercial
activities.
Facilities and Operations

Climate change poses a range of risks to EPA New England's facilities and operations.  The following
sections detail the general risks and then delve into the risks specific to each facility. Note that each
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facility does not operate in isolation; the climate impacts experienced by each facility will be greatly
influenced by the larger systems (utilities, transportation, communities) of which it is a part.

A. Overview of Potential Climate Change Impacts101
From the facilities and operations perspective, the vulnerabilities associated with climate change
encompass issues of energy security, water quality and supply, severe weather and flooding damage,
personnel safety, physical security, and communications interruptions. Facilities and operations support
the broader agency mission of protecting air, water, and human health through the provision of
functional, appropriate, and safe working spaces for personnel. Beyond the infrastructure and utilities
that serve EPA rented or owned facilities and the operations that support the function of those facilities,
broader impacts of climate change on transportation and communication systems are also vulnerabilities
that can hamper EPA New England's efforts to meet agency goals. While telework policies are in place
to address these vulnerabilities, the magnitude of these impacts may extend to those alternate work
locations, causing significant disruption to employee work and ultimately hampering fulfillment of the
EPA New England mission.

However, while operations may be vulnerable in the areas described above, EPA New England has
developed a Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) to maintain emergency functions should any
particular facility or location be compromised.  This plan provides guidance for continued uninterrupted
operations and the performance of essential functions during emergency situations.  The COOP  includes
provisions for physical relocation from current facilities and resource planning  for up to 30  days.


B. Facility-Specific Vulnerabilities
The Boston McCormack office building located in Boston, MA is approximately 0.5 miles from the
Boston waterfront and sits at an elevation of approximately 12.3 feet (2.76 meters) above mean  sea
level.102  The building is a massive granite structure, serviced by underground utilities for water, natural
gas and steam heating. All building mechanical systems are on the 17th floor roof.  Most notable about
this facility is its position as a part of a larger urban community. While impacts can be explored with the
view that the building sits in isolation from the rest of the city, more likely, the  experience of impacts will
be moderated and influenced by its proximity to other buildings and infrastructure of significance.

The impacts and risks associated with higher water levels from sea level rise, storm surge or flooding
include: building damage, inaccessibility of the building to employees, and damage to the larger utility
systems that support the operation of the McCormack building. In addition, mobile equipment (e.g.
vehicles,  emergency response resources, etc.) stored in the building's basement may be vulnerable to
flooding. However, the structural soundness of the building will limit the impacts of extreme weather on
the building itself, and the location of mechanical systems on the 17th floor will limit the damage to
critical building equipment. In addition, the McCormack building is equipped with a natural gas fueled
backup generator.

The Boston office utilizes a parking garage for Government Owned Vehicles. The vehicles are  on the
ninth floor of the parking structure and are not susceptible to flooding concerns because of the high
elevation. However, access to this facility may be hampered by local flooding, affecting the usability of
those vehicles.
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The Chelmsford Lab is built high on a hill approximately 40 miles from Boston Harbor, at an elevation of
156.2 feet (47.61 meters) above mean sea level103 obviating any risks of sea level rise or direct flooding.
However, surrounding roads may be flooded during extreme storms.

The power grid near the Chelmsford Lab is particularly susceptible to several hour power interruptions
due to rain and wind. Due to the existing weaknesses of the power grid, the Lab is equipped to manage
short interruptions. At this facility, oil fueled backup generators have been sufficient for up to  44 hours
of backup power and can be extended by additional fuel deliveries.

EPA's Emergency Response Warehouse is located approximately 30 miles from Boston Harbor at the
intersection of Routes  128 and 1-93 in an industrial park. At an elevation of 73.3 feet (22.36 meters)
above mean sea level,104 the likelihood of sea level rise impacts is very low. Impacts to the larger
transportation systems may affect accessibility, but similar to the McCormack building, those impacts are
a part of the larger context and beyond EPA's control and jurisdiction. The susceptibility of this facility
and its access roads to flooding due to nearby rivers and water bodies is currently unknown. Impacts to
this warehouse may affect the access to and availability of emergency response resources that are stored
at this location.
Tribal and Vulnerable Populations

The impacts of climate change may disproportionately impact tribal communities and vulnerable
populations, including children.

Tribal Communities
EPA values its unique government-to-government relationship with Indian tribes in planning and
decision making. This trust responsibility has been established over time and is further expressed in the
1984 EPA Policy for the Administration of Environmental Programs on Indian Reservations and the
2011 Policy on Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribes. These policies recognize and support
the sovereign decision-making authority of tribal governments.

Supporting the development of adaptive capacity among tribes is a priority for the EPA. Tribes are
particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to the integral nature of the environment
within their traditional lifeways and culture. There is a strong need to develop adaptation strategies that
promote sustainability and reduce the impact of climate change on Indian tribes.

EPA engaged tribes through a formal consultation process in the development of the Agency's Climate
Change Adaptation Plan.  Tribes identified some of the most pressing issues as erosion, temperature
change, drought and various changes in access to and quality of water.  Tribes recommended a number of
tools and strategies to address these issues, including improving access to data and  information;
supporting baseline research to better track the effects of climate change; developing community-level
education and awareness materials; and providing  financial and technical support. At the same time,
tribes challenged EPA to coordinate climate change activities among federal agencies so that resources
are better leveraged and administrative burdens are reduced.

This Implementation Plan identifies specific steps  that will be taken to partner with tribal governments on
an ongoing basis to increase their adaptive capacity and address their adaptation-related priorities. These
collaborative efforts will benefit from the expertise provide by our tribal partners and the Traditional
Ecological Knowledge (TEK) they possess. TEK is a valuable body of knowledge in assessing the

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current and future impacts of climate change and has been used by tribes for millennia as a valuable tool
to adapt to changing surroundings. Consistent with the principles in the 1984 Indian Policy, TEK is
viewed as a complementary resource that can inform planning and decision-making.

Networks and partnerships already in place will be used to assist tribes with climate change issues,
including the National Tribal Operations Committee, Regional Tribal Operations Committees, the EPA-
Tribal Science Council, the Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals and the Indian General
Assistance Program (IGAP). Additionally, efforts will be made to coordinate with other Regional and
Program Offices in EPA, since climate change has many impacts that transcend media and regional
boundaries. Transparency and information sharing will be a focus, in order to leverage activities already
taking place within EPA Offices and tribal governments.

There are 10 federally recognized tribes (see Figure 7 105) in New  England and climate change may have
the potential to disproportionately impact tribal communities compared to non-tribal communities.
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                             Figure 7: New England Federally Recognized Tribes
                                                  Aroostook Band of Micmacs
                                         Houlton Sand of Haliseet Indians
                                    Passamaquoddy Tribe of Indians
                                    Indian Township Reservation
                                 Passamaquoddy Tribe of Indians
                                 Pleasant Point Reservation

                                    Penobscot Indian Nation
                                 Mohegan Tribe
                                                             Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe
                        Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head

                 Narragansett Indian Tribe

Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation
Environmental Justice
The impacts of climate change raise environmental justice issues. Environmental justice focuses on the
health of and environmental conditions affecting minority, low-income, and indigenous populations.
EPA places emphasis on these populations because they have historically been exposed to a combination
of physical, chemical, biological, social, and cultural factors that have imposed greater environmental
burdens on them than those imposed on the general population. Climate change is likely to exacerbate
existing and introduce new environmental burdens and associated health impacts in communities dealing
with environmental justice challenges across the nation.106
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Children
The impacts of climate change can have unique effects on the health of children.  Children are different
from adults in how they interact with their environment and how their health may be affected.
Below is a list of potential impacts on tribal populations, environmental justice communities, and
children, broadly organized by EPA programs.

A. Air
Impacts on tribal programs (raised by tribal leaders and tribal environmental departments at various
meetings with the Agency):
   •   Potentially higher health risk of methyl mercury contamination due to higher fish and shellfish
       consumption by tribal members compared to the average consumer.107
   •   Potentially higher risk of exposure to increase in mercury and cadmium as well as other pollutants
       as it concentrates in moose liver, turtle, and fiddlehead ferns consumed by the Maine tribal
       populations. 108>109
   •   Potentially higher mercury exposure from tribal members' reliance on wood stoves for home
       heating, and increased air transport and deposition of mercury or other contaminants that
       bioaccumulate on wood bark. no
   •   Higher incidence of asthma as indoor air exposure to mold and second-hand smoke exposure
       increases with more time spent indoors due to more extreme weather events.
   •   Impacts to sustenance practices due to warmer ambient temperatures and extended warmer
       seasons as predator tick populations impact moose and deer hunting111, invasive plant species
       impact agronomic practices such as fiddlehead harvesting and blueberry farming, and invasive
       insects such as the emerald ash borer impact native practices involving black ash species (e.g.
       basket-making for harvesting).112
   •   Moose populations may decline due to warmer mean temperatures in winter.113
   •   Forestry operations and changes of species from hardwoods such as oak and maple to more
       spruce and fir populations with temperature increase.

Impacts on vulnerable populations:
   •   Combination of heat stress and high concentrations of tropospheric ozone could pose a health risk
       to young children, the elderly, and those with pre-existing health conditions, including
       asthma. 114Increase in health risks from worsening indoor environmental conditions due to
       increases in mold and other indoor air pollutants as a result of increased flooding or leaks from
       storm events.115
   •   Increase risk to low-income households from extreme heat events due to lack of air conditioning
       or failure to use air-conditioning to cut down on associated energy costs.116

Impacts on children:
   •   Increased frequencies of elevated levels of ozone may lead to a number of adverse health effects
       in children, such as shortness of breath, chest pain when inhaling deeply, wheezing and coughing,
       temporary decreases in lung function, and lower respiratory tract infections.117'  118
   •   Increased levels of particle pollution during extreme weather events could cause increased
       exposure to children. Childhood exposure to paniculate matter has been associated with
       respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, development of chronic bronchitis, and worsening

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       of asthma. Children's exposure to particle pollution can result in increased hospital admissions,
       emergency room visits, absences from school and restricted activity days.
    •   If radon is present in schools, higher incidence of exposure to radon with more time spent indoors
       due to more extreme weather events.
B. Water
Impacts on tribal programs:
   •   Coastal infrastructure may be impacted by sea level rise including the Passamaquoddy Pleasant
       Point wastewater treatment facility that is located near sea level with an ocean outfall discharge.
   •   Ocean acidification may have a particularly acute impact on the coastal tribal members, including
       Passamaquoddy, Mashpee Wampanoag and the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) who
       depend on shellfish harvesting for sustenance practices,  employment and economic development.
   •   Lobster shell wasting disease that may be linked to climate change has also been raised as a
       concern.119
   •   Damage to wildlife and fish habitat, potentially altering  spawning habitat by increasing siltation
       due to sea level rise.
   •   Cold water fish species such as trout and salmon may be more susceptible to poisons, parasites
       and disease, and stunted fish growth, as well  as increased juvenile mortality resulting from lower
       oxygen levels due to warmer waters.
   •   Fishery habitat including nesting sites and increased fish mortality due to flooding of tribal rivers
       as a result of increased snowfall and rapid snowmelt.  Tribal communities depend on sustenance
       fishing.

Impacts on vulnerable populations:
   •   Increase in severity and frequency of extreme storms can result in catastrophic effects for coastal
       environmental justice communities with limited resources to prepare and respond to natural
       disasters.
   •   Increase risk of exposure to  hazardous substances as flooding from more intense and frequent
       storms and sea-level rise may lead to contaminant releases from Corrective Action sites,
       Superfund sites, Brownfield sites and landfills which often are located in close proximity to
       environmental justice communities.
   •   Impacts to water infrastructure may put vulnerable and economically deprived communities at
       risk, both for access to clean and safe water as well as for their ability to respond to emergencies
       during extreme events.

Impacts on children:
   •   Extreme weather also can result in the breakdown of sanitation and sewer systems, increasing the
       likelihood of water-borne illness.  Children are especially susceptible to such illness due to their
       developing immune systems.
   •   School drinking water supplies may be compromised. New England schools are responsible for
       providing safe drinking water to their students, staff and visitors. Many school systems do not
       have access to a nearby public water supplier and provide drinking water by operating their own
       onsite well water system.
   •   Increases in the extent of storm surge and coastal flooding will cause erosion and property
       damage to schools along the densely populated coasts.
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C. Waste and Pesticides
No tribal impacts were identified that would be different from the impacts of the surrounding community
for these programs.

Impacts on vulnerable populations:
   •   Potential changes in pesticide exposures may exacerbate existing burdens placed on children,
       agricultural workers and other groups who may be disproportionally affected.

Impacts on Children:
   •   Schools may experience a higher incidence of exposure to chemicals and pesticides increases with
       more time spent indoors due to more extreme weather events.


Cross-Cutting Vulnerabilities

A. Energy
Managing electricity and natural gas facilities to meet environmental goals and reliability standards will
be challenged by long term temperature increases and increased extreme weather events.

Temperature increases will increase energy demand, particularly on peak summer days. As demand
increases, additions and adjustments to the electric generating system need to be made. Many of the
typical responses to these increases may increase air pollution emissions.

Additionally, since thermal power plants operate at lower capacities in the summer versus the winter, the
higher ambient temperatures get, the less efficient the power plants are over a greater portion of the year,
resulting in the consumption of more fuel, thus more emissions, to produce an equivalent amount of
usable energy.  In addition, higher cooling water temperatures during summer months also mean that the
power plant will operate at less than its peak capacity.  As a result, as long-term temperatures increase,
the overall efficiency of most power plants will decrease, resulting in higher emissions per megawatt-
hour produced over a larger portion of the year.  This situation will not be unique to New England, and
New England will also be adversely impacted by additional pollution moving into the region as a result
of similar situations in upwind states and control areas.

The increased frequency of extreme weather events will impact the integrity of the energy system and can
lead to the disruption of electrical service.  During the cold weather season, residents without power are
forced to utilize alternative methods of heating such as wood stoves or fireplaces. The resulting increase
in wood burning can contribute to elevated ambient fine particle (PM2.s) pollution concentrations.  This
phenomenon was observed in the several days of "unhealthy for sensitive groups" (USG) PM2.5
concentration measured in the Springfield, MA area following the October 29, 2011  snowstorm.120
Power losses usually result in the increased usage of local generators which produce much more pollution
per unit of usable energy than a typical power plant.  In addition, since both drinking and waste water
require substantial amounts of energy, long term disruptions in energy infrastructure can result in
negative public health outcomes  related to an inability to provide clean water or treat wastewater.
Restoration of such capabilities within acceptable environmental parameters should be a priority for
emergency response restoration efforts as well.
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Sea level rise will also lead to direct and indirect losses for the region's energy infrastructure (e.g., power
plants located along the coast, marine facilities that receive oil and gas deliveries), including equipment
damage from flooding or erosion.

Air Issues/Impacts:
   •   Increased atmospheric concentrations of criteria pollutants due to increased electric demand
       resulting from heat waves and generally higher temperatures.  New England will be impacted
       from inter-regional transport of pollutants caused by similar situations in upwind states.121
   •   Increased levels of criteria pollutants may result from decreased capacities of electric generating
       units to operate due increased temperatures of cooling water. Long term temperature increases
       may require a proportionally higher number of electric generating units (EGUs) to provide
       equivalent amounts of power.

Water Issues/Impacts
   •   Decreased power output from power plants resulting from increases in the waterbody
       temperatures that supply cooling water to the plant.
   •   The Region may be requested to allow enforcement forbearance to allow the discharge of heated
       water into water bodies that exceed the temperature limits in violation of the power plant's
       NPDES  permit, in order to permit electrical generation.
   •   Impairment or inability to treat wastewater or provide drinking water in the aftermath of extreme
       weather  events.
B.  Communications
Effective communication to stakeholders is critical to meeting EPA's mission. The following are impacts
on communications at EPA New England.
    •   As communities are impacted by severe storms, impaired waters, contaminated flood waters, and
       other impacts of climate change, current communication mechanisms regarding the environment
       and public health during these periods may not be sufficient to ensure that communities receive
       the appropriate guidance on how to react to these events and protect public health.
    •   Current mechanisms of communications with states, cities and towns, and guidance regarding
       how to best handle climate change impacts and vulnerabilities may not be sufficient.
    •   Current mechanisms regarding how EPA communicates information may not be sufficiently easy
       to access and understandable to the audience in need, both during emergency events and when
       conducting communication on climate change impacts.
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IV.   Priority Actions

The EPA New England climate change programmatic vulnerability assessment points to the specific
program and operations that may be impacted by the projected climate changes. Based on these
vulnerabilities, EPA New England identified priority actions it could take to ensure that we can continue
to accomplish our mission and operate at our multiple locations. These priorities represent EPA New
England's commitment to address the known programmatic vulnerabilities, and to continue to identify
other vulnerabilities that may occur over time due to climate change.

The workgroup developed a set of criteria to take into consideration when evaluating the priority actions.
The following qualitative criteria were considered. .

   •   Timeframe when risk would occur?
   •   Magnitude of impact of risk on environment or health?
   •   Magnitude of impact on EPA program?
   •   Does the action reduce the risk?
   •   Does the action protect a critical resource/investment?
   •   Does the action address "low-hanging fruit" that would be easy to accomplish?
   •   Would the action leverage a larger effort outside of EPA?
   •   Does EPA have a unique role or capacity to address this issue?
   •   What is the timeframe of the problem that this action would be addressing?
       Could the action be accomplished within current budgets or would additional funds be necessary?
       Taking these criteria into account, priority actions were determined for each strategic goal. The
       following section summarizes the priority actions for each goal.

GOAL1
Ozone and NOx
   1.  Work with other EPA Regions and HQ air program managers to develop a strategy, in context to
       other programmatic priorities, on how to incorporate  climate adaptation into air quality programs
       (e.g., SIPs, permits).
   2.  Develop new VOC and NOx control strategies with the States to offset the effects from higher
       peak (and prolonged) temperatures as necessary.

PM
   3.  Devote more Regional staff time to providing the public with "Burn Wise" information, and work
       with the states and tribes to inform the public about unhealthy air quality.
   4.  Work with the  States to analyze further control strategies for wood combustion to avoid PM2.5
       violations.

Indoor Air
   5.  Prepare information and recommendations regarding mold and other indoor air quality issues for
       distribution to the public due to increase in extreme events and flooding, and residents spending
       more time  indoors.
   6.  Enhance messaging on the dangers from  backup electricity sources (e.g. generators) and heat
       sources (e.g., wood stoves, fireplaces) that might be used more frequently due to power outages.
   7.  Devote more Regional staff time as needed to answer indoor air calls from the public.


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Enforcement
   8.  Enhance Regional compliance assistance efforts to insure emergency generators are properly
       used, and are in compliance with applicable state and federal requirements.
   9.  Enhance Regional compliance monitoring efforts to insure that air pollution sources are properly
       controlled and in compliance with applicable state and federal requirements.

Tribal Programs
   10. Work with New England tribes to monitor and assess local mercury deposition trends and advise
       them on potential additional health precautions to take, if and when trends indicate increases in
       atmospheric deposition and corresponding increasing mercury levels in fish and turtle.

GOAL 2
Water Quality Standards
   1.  As circumstances arise, revise water quality criteria to reflect climate change impacts.
   2.  As conditions change, modify water body classifications (salt v. fresh water) or Integrated Report
       designations (e.g., causes of impairment) to reflect climate change impacts.

Monitoring, Assessment, and Listing

   3.  Increase monitoring to adequately assess the effects of rapidly changing conditions.
   4.  Continue to support EPA's National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS), which provide ongoing
       assessment of the ecological condition of statistically representative samples of wadeable streams,
       large rivers, wetlands and coastal resources.
   5.  Implement collaborative year-round monitoring  of high-quality (reference) wadeable streams,
       with other water  resources  to follow as feasible, for temperature, flow, physical habitat, biological
       resources, and other water  quality parameters  such as nutrients, as proposed in the state, tribal and
       federal Northeast (New England and NY) stream climate change monitoring network.
   6.  Work with HQs to develop and implement a national monitoring program for ocean acidification
       (OA), which is caused by the dissolution and reaction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into ocean water.
   7.  Modify freshwater, estuarine, and marine sampling protocols and locations based on effects of
       climate change, including sea level rise, considering  the need for a long term monitoring record.

Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
Over the past decade, EPA Region 1's cross-program effort  to address storm water-related water quality
impairments has provided valuable experience in how to develop and implement TMDLs that address
multiple environmental stressors resulting from various  flow regimes.  For example, impervious surfaces
in urban environments deliver a mix of pollutants and increased flow to rivers and streams resulting in
soil erosion, stream bank scouring, deposition of sediment and nutrients increases in receiving
waters. The increasing amount of impervious surfaces in urban areas causes less precipitation to infiltrate
into the ground, which may cause streams to experience much lower base flows during dry conditions,
along with low dissolved oxygen, increased eutrophication,  and higher stream temperatures. Flashy
streamflow conditions (i.e., rapid increases in streamflow and velocity in response to rainfall, followed
by rapid recovery to pre-storm conditions) related to excessive stormwater runoff and corresponding
droughts are anticipated  to become even more frequent and/or intense in response to further climate
change.
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Stormwater TMDLs now being implemented effectively on a sub-watershed basis involve the use of
surrogates for the mix of pollutants in stormwater (i.e., impervious cover, or flow). Innovative and
flexible approaches to TMDL development like this show promise for addressing the complex challenges
of climate change. For instance, under the surrogate approach, TMDL end-points are tied to aquatic life
use protections in State water quality standards, which provide environmental protection based on
whatever the current conditions happen to be (rather than future projections based on past
conditions).  The technical basis for aquatic life use-based TMDLs is derived from significant
investments over the past 35 years developing state ambient biological monitoring programs in our
Region. Bioassessments (using ambient assemblages  of macroinvertebrates, fish,  or algae that integrate
the  effects of multiple stressors over time), in concert with physical and chemical monitoring data, now
support the water quality assessment of aquatic life use attainment for these surrogate TMDLs, and
provide clear environmental indicators of stream health under whatever the existing conditions are.

    8.  Promote use of hydrological information to the extent available and adequate that takes climate
       change effects into consideration during development of TMDLs, their implementation plans,
       NFS plans, and NPDES permits.
    9.  Support increased monitoring to assess the effectiveness of attained TMDL targets in the face of
       changing conditions.
    10. Promote close collaboration among TMDL, NPDES, and NPS program staff during stormwater
       TMDL development and public outreach, in order to help MS4s and other  stakeholders
       understand the need for more detailed local watershed planning for stream  restoration actions and
       the use of structural and non-structural BMPs as part of post-TMDL implementation.
       To address new information and evolving circumstances, focus climate change adaptation  on the
       selection and design of more effective TMDL implementation. For example:
         •   Promote selection of BMP types that perform well under varying climate conditions, such as
            certain low impact development practices.
         •   Promote consideration of projected precipitation changes during the design of stormwater
            BMPs and other practices built to accommodate or treat specific storm sizes or runoff
            volumes, especially when these investments are anticipated to have life expectancies of 30
            years of more.
         •   Support BMP studies to evaluate how resilient BMPs are to climate change, and whether
            additional capacity is warranted to address future concerns, such as flooding or groundwater
            recharge.

Cross-Program Water  Management
In line with EPA's agency-wide climate change priorities and strategic measures, Region 1 priority
actions will continue to  focus on cross-program stormwater management, and will continue interagency
collaboration and development of decision-making tools capable of promoting environmentally  sound
and cost-effective management actions. For example:

    11. 2010 RARE-funded project, Assessing Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Stormwater BMPs at
       the Small Watershed Scale (WQ Branch & ORD/Narragansett).
    12. 2011  ORD Green Infrastructure-funded project, Development of an Integrated Watershed
       Management Optimization Decision Support Tool, which accounts for water supply, wastewater,
       stormwater, in-stream conditions, groundwater, and  land use to achieve optimal actions to  achieve
       water quantity-related management goals at least cost (collaboration among WQ and SOW
       programs).
    13. Major regional meetings in  2012 and 2013 were co-sponsored with USFWS and USGS on
       temperature data and monitoring which has prompted NE CSC research projects on climate

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       change impact on headwater systems (areas of aquatic refugia), and development of a multi-
       agency regional stream temperature framework and database for New England (ME, NH, CT, RI,
       and MA) and the Great Lakes States (MN, WI, IL, MI, IN, OH, PA, NY).
    14. , Develop Optimizing Stormwater/NutrientManagement  Region 1 Opti-Tool, a user-friendly
       (spreadsheet) tool allowing optimization of structural and non-structural BMPs, and account for
       BMP pollutant removal, stormwater flow control performance, and estimated cost (collaboration
       among TMDL and NPDES programs).
    15. Estimate how stormwater controls would work cumulatively to address future changes to
       precipitation patterns in order to determine whether or not modification of the levels of control is
       warranted.

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System  (NPDES) Permits
    16. Review water treatment requirements as reduced water flows in streams, especially during
       summer months, will not dilute treatment plant effluents as they do now, so more treatment may
       be needed to maintain current water quality standards.
    17. Stormwater permits will need to account for increased extreme precipitation and erosion and
       sedimentation.
    18. Promote the "Soak up the Rain" program.
    19. Permits with temperature limits (e.g., electric generating units) will need to account for increased
       water temperatures in receiving waters and potential changes to local assemblages of aquatic
       organisms.

Non-Point Source (NFS)
    20. Promote appropriately sized best management practices (BMPs).
    21. Promote demand management ways to preserve base stream flow levels.
    22. Find additional sources of funding for NFS abatement.
    23. Promote appropriately sized transportation infrastructure.
    24. Identify and use drought resistant species to aid in infiltration in BMPs.

Wetlands (coastal and inland)
    25. Increase use of invasive species control plans and their implementation in coastal wetlands.
    26. Increase protection for vernal pools.
    27. Promote beneficial uses of dredged material such as for beach nourishment, and marsh restoration
       as well as the potential use of thin layer dredged material disposal in eroding coastal wetlands.
    28. Review and comment on Corps permit applications for coastal engineering structures to evaluate
       potential adverse impact on coastal wetlands, considering sea level rise and marsh migration
       potential.
    29. Recommend consideration of "living shorelines" where appropriate to restore  eroding wetlands
       and protect  shorelines as an alternative to hard engineering structures.
    30. Prioritize restoration work for tidal wetlands that have room to migrate.
    31. Work with  HQs and other regions to determine how to take into account seasonal variabilities in
       precipitation for "Waters of US" determinations.

Dredging/Ocean  Dumping
    32. Promote beneficial uses of dredged material such as for beach nourishment, and marsh restoration
       as well as the potential use of thin layer dredged material disposal in eroding coastal wetlands.
    33. Establish emergency dredging protocols to prepare for increased erosion and sedimentation
       associated with more extreme precipitation.
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   34. Promote Regional Sediment Management approaches to better understand sediment dynamics and
       potentially reduce the need for, or frequency of, dredging.
   35. Modify dredging windows to better align with changes in seasonality (earlier fish migration and
       spawning).

National Estuary Program (NEP)
   36. Through the Climate Ready Estuaries program, assist state and local partners conduct
       vulnerability assessments, prepare adaptation plans, and develop tools to facilitate these activities,
       like the Connecticut Adaptation Resources Toolkit.
   37. Promote the New England Environmental Finance Center's use of the Coastal Adaptation to Sea
       Level Rise Tool (COAST) to raise awareness among coastal cities and towns about the economic
       impact of sea level rise and storm surge on coastal property and infrastructure.
   38. Develop guidance for different coastal habitat types (dunes, dams, etc.) restoration activities to
       account for sea level rise.
   39. Revise and update Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans (CCMPs) to address
       vulnerabilities to climate change and include adaptation measures.
   40. Prioritize wetlands that have room to migrate for restoration.
   41. Promote implementation of more effective erosion and sediment controls to adapt to increasing
       heavy precipitation events and storm intensity.
   42. Support efforts to better characterize impacts of ocean and coastal acidification in cooperation
       with the Northeast Coastal Acidification Network (NEC AN).

Drinking Water, Wastewater, Stormwater Infrastructure
   43. Educate and encourage use of Water and Wastewater Agency Response Networks (WARNs) to
       promote specialized water sector mutual aid and recovery in events of infrastructure damage or
       other emergencies.
   44. Through the Climate Ready Water Utilities program, educate facility operators on using localized
       climate projections to help identify specific vulnerabilities, including Geographic Information
       Systems (GIS)  and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) mapping of flood zones. Facilities
       should then update and train staff on revised Emergency Response Plans as needed.
   45. Promote the WaterSense program to help utilities implement water efficiency/conservation
       measures to reduce or delay the need for system expansion and reduce energy use.
   46. Encourage utilities to compile an inventory of utility assets to help determine the location,
       importance and condition of each asset, which will lead to an improved response in emergency
       situations.  Provide assistance to municipalities and others on use of asset management methods.
   47. Promote green  infrastructure projects, such as low impact development (LID), to help manage wet
       weather and improve water quality, reduce hydraulic loads on combined sewers, and reduce the
       risk of flooding.  Increase  public understanding of the need to implement and  finance Stormwater
       management systems.
   48. Develop outreach and tools for flood proofing infrastructure.
   49. Promote opportunities such as periodic larger-scale system evaluations, planned upgrades, or new
       construction to incorporate climate-change considerations into facility design. Educate utilities on
       tools to seek federal funding (FedFUNDS tool) and other opportunities to address needed
       improvements.
   50. To help ensure that climate change impacts on septic systems are addressed in a proactive
       manner, assess  which areas in New England may be vulnerable to damage to decentralized septic
       systems due to  sea level rise, storm surge, and flooding, starting with Cape Cod. Based on the
       results of the mapping assessment, determine appropriate actions, including promoting improved
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       decentralized sewage system management in accordance with EPA's Voluntary Guidelines.

Quality and Availability of Safe Drinking Water
   51. Promote source water protection and watershed management activities to protect water supplies
       from increased threats to water quality and to increase recharge to aquifers. Use natural flood
       control vegetation for protection.
   52. Encourage source redundancy and flexibility for seasonal adjustments to meet demand, water
       quantity and availability.
   53. Provide new information, as available, on  specific threats to water quality and sources, such as:
       cyanobacteria, drinking water bacterial requirements and water sector general vulnerabilities.
   54. Promote erosion and sediment controls.
   55. Promote monitoring of weather conditions and trends, use modeling and mapping to better
       prepare and adapt for expected changes, including in emergency response plans.

GOALS
Longer-term Cleanups (e.g., Superfund Remedial, Superfund Time-Critical Removal, RCRA
Corrective Action,  TSCA) and RCRA Hazardous Waste Management Facilities
   1.  Include consideration of potential climate  change impacts in EPA New England management
       reviews of Superfund National Priority List (NPL) sites.
   2.  In conjunction with the New England Waste Management Officials' Association (NEWMOA)
       and member state agencies, initiate an interagency dialog to plan and coordinate efforts to
       consider climate change impacts at contaminated site cleanups and RCRA hazardous waste
       management facilities.
   3.  Identify and assess the potential vulnerability of NPL sites within delineated GIS-mapped zones
       (i.e., sea level rise, flooding due to storm surge, and flooding due to higher precipitation events)
       based on a consideration of site-specific factors (e.g., local topography, proximity to rivers/canals,
       design and duration of cleanup remedies, potential risk to the cleanup).
   4.  Based on the findings from the evaluation  of potentially vulnerable NPL sites, develop an action
       plan to evaluate the vulnerability of other contaminated sites (e.g., Brownfields, Superfund Time-
       Critical Removal, RCRA corrective action) and RCRA Hazardous Waste Management Facilities.
   5.  Develop and conduct training on considering climate change impacts in site cleanups for EPA and
       state project managers.
   6.  Work with HQs to revise technical guidance (e.g., relating to 5-year reviews, management
       reviews, remedial investigation/feasibility studies, remedial design, sediment management) to
       address consideration of climate change impacts.
   7.  Coordinate with HQs and FEMA and other federal agencies to update, as necessary, reference
       maps and data (e.g., 100- year flood plain, precipitation from 100-year storm events) to aid in the
       evaluation, design and implementation of cleanup response actions.

Emergency Response
   8.  Continue coordination among program offices to plan for potential coordination during
       emergency response actions.
   9.  Utilize the GIS-based EPA Flex Viewer platform to prepare for and respond to climate change
       impacts in New England.
   10. Provide training to responders in preparation and response of climate change  impacts with option
       for state agencies to participate in the training (e.g. potential for increased pesticide responses,
       extreme storm events, Stafford Act declarations, incident command structure, etc.).
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    11. Conduct an assessment of current regional resources and response framework to determine if
       resource levels and existing plans would be sufficient to adequately respond to an extreme event,
       such as a hurricane or large storm.
    12. Incorporate climate change impact planning into regional contingency plans (e.g. debris
       management plans, area contingency plans, etc.).
    13. Assess interagency agreements with the Coast Guard to determine how coastal impacts from
       climate change will be addressed.
    14. Coordinate with OEME to assess whether current regional laboratory capabilities will be
       sufficient during responses to extreme events and whether the infrastructure can sustain
       potentially increasing demands over time.

Oil Program (e.g., Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC)/ Facility
Response Plans (FRP) Facilities)
    15. Develop, conduct, and/or maintain training on climate change impacts for EPA, USCG and state
       counterparts.
    16. Enhance GIS-based mapping tools to incorporate climate change impacts and identify vulnerable
       zones to aid in planning.
    17. Conduct management reviews of SPCC/FRP New England Facilities within potential impact
       zones to aid in setting inspection targets.
    18. Develop technical guidance to aid in climate change impact planning.
    19. Continue monitoring efforts to determine if SPCC and FRP regulated facilities are impacted by
       climate change.
    20. Coordinate with OEME to identify specific  research needs.


GOAL 4
Ensuring Safety of Chemicals:
    1.  Increase EPA  support for pesticide enforcement and applicator education - direct and through
       states and tribes.
    2.  Strengthen and develop new relationships with federal (or other) agencies for new  pesticide
       related problems (e.g., USD A, CDC, HUD, DOD, etc.).
    3.  Change regional oversight to meet new priority areas. Provide pollution prevention assistance to
       states, businesses, and others that promote sustainable practices. Implement regional Green
       Chemistry strategy to promote development of more sustainable manufacturing methods and
       materials.
FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS
    1.   Develop/codify storm event pre-deployment strategies for government owned vehicles (currently
       informally included in the COOP). Develop/codify storm event pre-deployment strategies for
       vehicles and equipment stored in the garage and ground floor of the McCormack building.
    2.   Develop extended contingency/telework plans for employees (management/human resources).
    3.   Ensure Continuity of Operations Plan can also address situations that extend beyond 30 days.
    4.   Conduct further research to assess the risks of flooding associated with nearby water bodies,
       rivers, lakes and ocean.
    5.   Work toward developing a deeper understanding of how flooding occurs through storm surge in
       urban areas, given that the impacts of sea level rise and storm surge are not well understood,
       particularly for the McCormack building.
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TRIBAL AND VULNERABLE POPULATIONS
   1.   Work with EPA programs to target climate adaptation efforts in the most vulnerable communities,
       including tribes.
   2.   Educate vulnerable populations about climate adaptation. Provide assistance to tribes (if
       requested) in developing their individual tribal adaptation plans or a comprehensive regional
       tribal adaptation plan if pursued by the tribes.
   3.   Expand use of existing communication tools and develop a comprehensive contact list of
       organizations representing vulnerable populations as a resource for preparedness and response to
       extreme events.
   4.   Utilize GIS-based mapping tools to identify coastal vulnerable populations that could be
       potentially subject to an increased sea level rise, flooding due to storm surge, and flooding due to
       higher precipitation events.


CROSS CUTTING ACTIONS
   1.   Utilize GIS-based mapping tools to delineate New England zones that could be potentially subject
       to an increased sea level rise, flooding due to storm surge, and flooding due to higher
       precipitation  events.
   2.   Leverage21st century 'big data' science initiatives relevant to New England climate change such
       as NEON, UNH EPSCoR and other novel environmental monitoring technologies.
   3.   Incorporate climate change adaptation into performance partnership agreements
       (PPA)/performance partnership grants (PPG) state program requirements.
   4.   Develop and  implement adaptation plans with state and local partners to address risks to habitats,
       infrastructure, and human populations; estuarine and coastal area plans will be initiated first.
   5.   Deliver technical assistance programs to communities on smart growth topics such as how to
       achieve compact, walkable,  transit-oriented development.
   6.   Work with the Partnership for Sustainable Communities (HUD, DOT, EPA,  FEMA, and USDA
       Rural Development) to help communities become more disaster resilient, and ensure that our
       programs don't support non-resilient development in vulnerable locations. Beginning in June
       2014, disseminate final report from post-Irene Smart Growth Implementation Assistance project,
       which includes a checklist for communities interested in improving their flood resilience.
   7.   Develop and  implement adaptation training for all  staff.


COMMUNICATIONS
   1.   EPA Rl Drinking Water program will work with states and tribes to improve effectiveness when
       providing requested assistance to states and tribes in emergency events by doing training to our
       Regional Water Team volunteers on doing phone call damage  assessments on an event-specific
       basis.
   2.   EPA Rl Drinking Water program will work with State programs to improve data collection and
       sharing by revising our damage assessment forms as needed per each  State's preference.
   3.   Increase education to states, tribes, cities, and municipalities on common climate change impacts
       and guidance for the impacted.
   4.   Evaluate how EPA can ensure that we are easily accessible and responsive to tribes and states
       during and after large storms or other emergency events.
   5.   Streamline how EPA communicates information so that it is easy to access and understandable to
       the audience  in need. These efforts should be coordinated with federal, tribal, and state partners.
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V.    Measurement and Evaluation

This section describes how EPA New England will incorporate priority actions into its programs and how
these actions will be measured.

A. Measure: Integrate climate adaptation priority actions into the GCCN strategy annually and into other
planning documents as needed.

Evaluation: Include consideration of climate impacts into at least 3 processes (e.g., permitting, grant
solicitation, enforcement integrated strategies, Invasive Species Control Plans)  in the GCCN FY 14 plan.
Annually thereafter, review the vulnerabilities and priority actions to update according to the current
science and actions taken by others to determine what to address in the annual GCCN Strategy.

B. Measure: Work with states  and tribes to integrate climate adaptation into State-EPA and Tribal-EPA
planning mechanisms (e.g. PPA/PPGs, begin preliminary discussion in FY 14). Work with grantees and
local communities to integrate climate adaptation  into planning mechanisms.

Evaluation: All NE states and at least some of the tribes will incorporate adaptation into at least one
program action and planning mechanism. Grantees and local communities incorporate adaptation into
their planning.

C. Measure: EPA New England will work with EPA national Program offices on national program
climate adaptation guidance (e.g., oil program, streamlining of FIFRA registration process, dredging)

Evaluation: Participation in workgroups as invited.

D. Measure: Improve preparedness for extreme events,  including incorporating climate change impacts
(e.g., flooding, storm surge) into planning documents (e.g. Emergency Planning documents) and outreach
(e.g., guidance use of back-up power and alternative heating sources).

Evaluation: EPA will develop response protocols and tools for public outreach; Dialogue with Region 2
to learn from Super Storm Sandy experience.

E. Measure: Collaborate with other federal agencies, academics and NGOs in New England regarding
climate change impacts (e.g. coordinating with NEFP, NROC, etc.)

Evaluation: Identify and act on collaboration opportunities to increase scientific understanding and to
increase resiliency.

F. Measure: Train EPA employees and states and tribes where appropriate on how to consider impacts of
climate change in their EPA duties and obligations.

Evaluation: 90% participation in climate adaptation training.

G. Measure: Conduct outreach on climate change  impacts to affected stakeholders (E.g., Soak Up The
Rain, outreach to vulnerable population, Burn Wise)

Evaluation: Development of outreach tools and outreach campaigns or events.

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63.
90 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Assessment of the Impacts of Global Change on Regional U.S. Air Quality: A
synthesis of climate change impacts on ground level ozone." April 2009, EPA/600/R-07/094F
91 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Clean Energy Options for Addressing High Electric Demand Days." September
2008, EPA 430-R-08-014
92 Institute of Medicine, Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health (Washington, DC: The National Academies
Press, 2011).
93 Jacob, Daniel J., and Darrell A. Winner, 2009: Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmospheric Environment 43(1): 51-
63.
94 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Mercury Study Report to Congress. Volume  III: Fate and Transport of Mercury in
the Environment". December 1997, EPA-452/R-97-005.
95 Ecotoxicology, 14, 37-52. Keeler, G., et al. 2005. Long-term atmospheric mercury deposition at Underhill, Vermont.
Ecotoxicology, 14, 71-83.
96 Adapted from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, September 2010: "FY2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan: Achieving Our
Vision".
97 US EPA, December 2012: "National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change".
98 Commonwealth of Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs and the Adaptation Advisory
Committee, September 2011, "Massachusetts Climate Change Adaptation Report".
http://www.mass.gov/eea/docs/eea/energy/cca/eea-climate-adaptation-report.pdf
Jacobson, G.L, I.J. Fernandez, P.A.  Mayewski, and C.V. Schmitt (editors), 2009: "Maine's Climate Future: An Initial
Assessment." Orono, ME: University of Maine. Available at http://www.climatechange.umaine.edu/mainesclimatefuture/.
Karlsson, Lee, May 2011: "Vermont Climate Change Health Effects Adaptation." Vermont Agency of Natural Resrouces
Climate Change Adaptation White  Paper Series.
http://www.anr.state.vt.us/anr/climatechange/Pubs/VTCCAdaptHealthEffects%20.pdf.
99 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, March 2012: "Oil  Storage Facility Spill Prevention and Planning." Waste Site
Cleanup and Resuse in New England.. http://www.epa.gov/regionl/superfund/er/oilstor.html.
100 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, November 2011: "Semiannual Report of UST Performance Measures: End of Fiscal
Year 2011 (October 2010-Septevember 30, 2011)". http://www.epa.gov/oust/cat/ca  11 34.pdf
101 This information  is mostly derived from US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Administration and Resources
Management's Draft "High-Level Assessment of EPA's Vulnerabilities to Climate Change".
102 Vertical accuracy of 0.49 feet (0.15 meters). Elevation based on MassGIS- LiDAR Terrain Data, accessible at:
http://www.mass.gov/anf/research-and-tech/it-serv-and-support/application-serv/office-of-geographic-information-
massgis/datalayers/lidar.html.
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103 Vertical accuracy of 0.49 feet (0.15 meters). Elevation based on MassGIS- LiDAR Terrain Data, accessible at:
http://www.mass.gov/anf/research-and-tech/it-serv-and-support/application-serv/office-of-geographic-information-
massgis/datalayers/lidar.html.
104 Vertical accuracy of 0.49 feet (0.15 meters). Elevation based on MassGIS- LiDAR Terrain Data, accessible at:
http://www.mass.gov/anf/research-and-tech/it-serv-and-support/application-serv/office-of-geographic-information-
massgis/datalayers/lidar.html.
105 Map developed by EPA New England's GIS Center. Tribal seals from individual tribes' websites.
106 Karl, Thomas R., Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson, eds., 2009: "Global Climate Change Impacts in the United
States" New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, http://downloads.globalchange.gov/usirnpacts/pdfs/climate-impacts-
report.pdf.
107 http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HAC/pha/PenobscotRiver/PenobscotRiverPHAPC01072014_508.pdf p.6.
108 http://maliseetnationconservation.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Fiddleheads-Contaminants-Study-revised.pdf.
109 http://maliseetnationconservation.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Moose-Contaminants-Study.pdf.
110 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231096002312.
111 http://www.nwf.Org/~/media/PDFs/Global-Warming/Reports/NowheretoRun-BigGa meWildlife-
LowResFinal_110613.ashx.
112http://www.pressherald.com/news/Wabanaki_basket_makers_livelihood	invasive_beetle_interwoven_.html?searchte
rm=emerald+ash+borer
113 Melillo, Jerry M., Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and Gary W. Yohe, Eds., 2014: Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The
Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, 841 pp. doi:10.7930/JOZ31WJ2.
114 Melillo, Jerry M., Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and Gary W. Yohe, Eds., 2014: Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The
Third National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, 841 pp. doi:10.7930/JOZ31WJ2.
115 Institute of Medicine, The National Academies Press; June 2011: Climate Change, the Indoor Environment and Health.
Washington, DC.pp.134,146-147.
116 The National Academies Press, June 2011: Climate Change, the Indoor Environment and Health. Washington, DC: Institute
of Medicine, p. 192.
117 Denman, K.L, et al., 2007: Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry. In: Climate Change
2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change  [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L Miller
(eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
118 US Environmental Protection Agency, February 2009:  Ozone and Your Health.
 EPA-456/F-09-001.
119 Wall, Dennis, 2008: "Tribal Climate Change Profile: Passamaquoddy Tribe at Pleasant Point." Institute for Tribal
Environmental Professional, Northern Arizona University.
120 National Weather Service Forecast Office, October 29, 2011. http://www.nws.noaa.gov/climate/index.php?wfo=box.
AIRNow.  October 29, 2011. www.airnow.gov
121 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Clean Energy Options for Addressing High Electric Demand Days." September
2008, EPA 430-R-08-014.
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PA Region 2
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                                              Disclaimer

To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so for informational
 purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or regulations, and readers should consult
the statutes or regulations to learn what they require. Neither this document, nor any part of it, is itself a rule or
  a regulation. Thus, it cannot change or impose legally binding requirements on EPA, States, the public, or the
  regulated community. Further, any expressed intention, suggestion or recommendation does not impose any
  legally binding requirements on EPA, States, tribes, the public, or the regulated community. Agency decision
makers remain free to exercise their discretion in choosing to implement the actions described in this Plan. Such
            implementation is contingent upon availability of resources and is subject to change.

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                                               Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to the challenges
that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate, outside the range to
which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant challenges to the EPA's ability to fulfill
its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it is to continue fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and
programmatic requirements. The Agency is therefore anticipating and planning for future changes in climate to
ensure it continues to fulfill its mission of protecting human health and the environment even as the climate
changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for review and
comment. The plan relies on  peer-reviewed scientific information and expert judgment to  identify vulnerabilities
to EPA's mission and goals from climate change. The plan also presents 10 priority actions that EPA will take to
ensure that its programs, policies, rules, and operations will remain effective under future climatic conditions.
The priority placed on mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA complements efforts to encourage and
mainstream adaptation planning across the entire federal government.

Following completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan, each EPA National Environmental Program
Office, all 10 Regional Offices, and  several National Support Offices developed a Climate Adaptation
Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how  it will  carry out the work called for in the agency-wide plan.
Each Implementation Plan articulates how the office will integrate climate adaptation into its planning and work
in a manner consistent and compatible with its goals and objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation  Plans demonstrate how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-wide priorities
presented in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of EPA's plans is to build and
strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build capacity in states, tribes, and local
communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by increasing their awareness of ways that climate change
may affect their ability to implement effective programs, and by providing them with the necessary data,
information, and tools to integrate climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional Office's Implementation  Plan contains an initial assessment of the implications of
climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program vulnerability assessments" are living
documents that will be updated as needed to account for new knowledge, data, and scientific evidence about
the impacts of climate change on EPA's mission. The plan then identifies specific priority actions that the office
will take to begin addressing  its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming climate change adaptation into its activities.
Criteria for the selection of priorities  are discussed. An emphasis is placed on protecting the most vulnerable
people and places, on supporting the development of adaptive capacity in the tribes, and on identifying clear
steps for ongoing  collaboration with tribal governments.

Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they mainstream climate
adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate their efforts in order to understand how
well different approaches work and how they can be improved.  Each Implementation Plan therefore includes a
discussion of how the organization will regularly evaluate the effectiveness of its adaptation efforts and  make
adjustments where necessary.

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The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build the nation's
adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal of protecting human health and the environment. Working with its
partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and prosperous nation that is resilient to a changing climate.
                                                  Bob Perciasepe

                                                  Deputy Administrator

                                                  September 2013

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              EPA REGION 2 CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
Prepared by the following EPA Region 2 Climate Change Workgroup contributors:
       Irene Nielsen
       Joseph Siegel
Clean Air and Sustainability Division, Workgroup Co-chair
Office of Regional Council, Workgroup Co-chair
       Alyssa Arcaya
       Heather Barnhart
       Dale Carpenter
       David Cuevas
       Melissa Dimas
       Anhthu Hoang
       Grant Jonathan
       Nica Klaber
       Gavin Lau
       Kathleen Malone-Bogusky
       Ameesha Mehta-Sampath
       Esther  Nelson
       Douglas Pabst
       Rebecca Ofrane
       Alexandre Remnek
       Alex Rivera
       Derval  Thomas
       Janice Whitney

       With initial leadership from:
       Paul Simon
Clean Water Division
Office of Policy and Management
Clean Air and Sustainability Division
Caribbean Environmental Protection Division
Public Affairs Division
Office of the Regional Administrator
Office of the Regional Administrator
Emergency and Remedial Response Division
Clean Air and Sustainability Division
Division of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance
Clean Air and Sustainability Division
Division of Environmental Science and Assessment
Clean Water Division
Emergency and Remedial Response Division
Clean Water Division
Caribbean Environmental Protection Division
Division of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance
Clean Water Division
Deputy Regional Counsel

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction	8




Background: Region 2's Known Vulnerabilities to Climate Change Impacts	8




    Our States & Territories & INDIAN NATIONS: New York, New Jersey, Puerto Rico &the U.S. Virgin Islands	8




    Vulnerable Communities	11




EPA Region 2's Programmatic Vulnerabilities to Climate Change	16




    1. Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality	16




    2. Protecting America's Waters	19




    3. Cleaning Up Communities	25




    4. Assuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution	26




    5. EPA Region 2's Facilities and Operations	27




EPA Region 2 Priority Actions	31




  Short  Term  Priorities	32




    Air	32




    Water	32




    Waste: Superfund & RCRA	33




    Emergency Response	33




    Communities & Vulnerable  Populations	34




    Indian Nations	34




    Facilities	35




  Long Term Priorities	35




    Air	35




    Water-Caribbean	35




    Waste: Superfund & RCRA	36




    Emergency Response	36




    Communities & Vulnerable  Populations	36




Moving Toward A Climate Resilient Region	37

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Tracking Progress Over Time: Measurement & Evaluation	39




References	41

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INTRODUCTION
The first section of the Regional Implementation Plan provides an initial assessment of the implications of
climate change for EPA Region 2's programs and objectives. This regional vulnerability assessment builds on the
preliminary agency-wide vulnerability assessment contained in EPA's Climate Change Adaptation Plan (draft
released Feb 20131) and was developed in concert with vulnerability assessments developed by EPA's national
program offices.

This Assessment is divided into three main sections: Background on projected climate change effects; EPA
Region 2's Vulnerability Assessment based on programmatic expertise; and an attached Summary Table
analyzing the range of vulnerabilities. The information on climate change impacts in the Background section
comes from peer-reviewed scientific literature, including the major climate assessments produced by the U.S.
Global Change Research Program. The Vulnerability Assessment section sets forth the Region's preliminary
judgment regarding the risks that those climate change impacts pose to the programs that Region 2 implements
and to our facilities, assets and day-to-day operations. Finally, the Summary Table follows a common format put
forth for all the Regions and Program Offices, and  presents a broad picture of how climate change impacts may
affect programs in Region 2.

This assessment of our programmatic risks and vulnerabilities should be viewed as a living document that will be
updated as needed and when possible, to account for new knowledge, data and scientific evidence. As in the
agency-wide Climate Change Adaptation Plan, our assessment of regional programmatic vulnerabilities is
organized around EPA's strategic goals.
BACKGROUND: REGION 2'S KNOWN VULNERABILITIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS
In order to determine our region-specific vulnerabilities, EPA Region 2 began with a research effort to
understand the current science and modeling on climate change effects. This section summarizes the state of
the science for known or expected vulnerabilities for the region.
OUR STATES & TERRITORIES & INDIAN NATIONS: NEW YORK, NEW JERSEY, PUERTO RICO & THE
U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS
Climate change, interacting with changes in land use and demographics, will affect important human facets in
the United States, especially those related to human health, communities, and welfare. The challenges
presented by population growth, an aging population, migration patterns, and urban and coastal development
will be affected by changes in temperature, precipitation, and extreme climate-related events. According to the
International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global average temperature over the 21st century is expected to
increase by between 3.5 and 7ฐF. The large range is due to uncertainties both in future GHG concentrations and
the sensitivity of the climate system to GHG emissions. The greatest warming is expected over land and in the
1 http://epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/fed-programs.html

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high altitudes of the
northern hemisphere
where local warming
may exceed 15ฐ F. In
these regions, winter
warming is expected to
be greatest (NPCC 2010).
Hurricane wind speeds,
rainfall intensity, and
storm surge levels are
likely to increase. Other
changes include
measurable sea level rise




EPA Region 2
and increases in the occurrence of coastal and riverine flooding (NYSERDA 2011). Given the diverse geography
covered by Region 2 and the varied environmental programs that EPA implements in this region, climate change
presents a broad array of risks to the achievement of our mission. The risks vary somewhat between the
continental states (NY/NJ) and the tropical region where Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands are located, but the
theme of coastal concerns is common for the Region as a whole.

        PRECIPITATION AND INLAND EFFECTS

        Nearly all climate models are predicting changes in precipitation patterns. In New York and New Jersey,
        precipitation will fall in heavier events with hotter and drier periods in between. Similarly, the Caribbean
        may see less frequent but heavier storm events, with more severe drought periods. Severe storms are
        also predicted to increase, with 100-year storms likely to occur every 80 years by the end of the century
        (USGCRP 2009, NYSERDA 2011). In the New York area, average precipitation is  projected to increase up
       to 5% by 2020, up to 10% by 2050, and as much as 15% by 2080.  Much of this increase is projected to
       fall in the winter months (NYSERDA 2011), and more likely to fall  as rain instead of snow. In upstate New
       York, the changing balance between rain and snow has already reduced snowpack and, in addition,
        many areas have already seen flooding from extreme rainfall events like Hurricane Irene. Warming
       temperatures have led to decreases in ice cover on lakes and rivers. By the end of this century, the
        length of the winter snow season in northern New York is predicted to be reduced by half (USGCRP
        2009).

        In the Great Lakes region, which includes portions of upstate NY,  reduction in ice cover will lead to cold
        air moving over open water that would have otherwise been frozen. This will increase evaporation,
        leading to heavier and more frequent lake effect snow. Rising atmospheric temperatures will cause
        annual spring runoff due to snowmelt to occur up to two weeks earlier in the year. This change will
        decrease water from runoff later in the year, stressing ecosystems that depend on the  availability of
       water in the summer (USGCRP 2009). Studies also predict a decrease in the Great Lakes water levels due
       to increased evaporation and decreased runoff from snowmelt. This has implications for energy
       generation and downstream ecosystems (NYSERDA 2011). Rising air temperatures also increase water
       temperatures. In lakes and reservoirs, warmer surface waters reduce the frequency of  turnover with

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cooler bottom waters, resulting in increased periods of stratification (USGCRP 2009). Increased
stratification isolates layers of warm water, which is less capable of holding dissolved oxygen (DO),
which is critical to supporting aquatic ecosystems (NYSERDA 2011).

SEA LEVEL AND OCEANS

Climate change also has impacts on marine resources and coastal regions. Currently, sea levels are rising
an average of 0.86 to 1.5 inches per decade, as measured by tide gauges, with an average of 1.2 inches
per decade since 1900. Before the Industrial Revolution, the rate of increase had been approximately
0.34 to 0.43 inches per decade, mostly as a result of land subsidence (NPCC 2010). For the Long Island
and New York City shorelines, models predict a rise of 7-12 inches by 2050 and 19-29 inches by 2080.
Under a rapid ice melt scenario in the arctic, sea levels could rise by as much as 55 inches by 2080
(NYSERDA 2011). Freshwaters and marine waters alike are expected to see increases in temperature
with higher air temperatures. Models predict an ocean temperature increase of 1.8 - 2.5ฐF for near-
shore waters by 2050, depending on the model used (NYSERDA 2011).

When atmospheric CO2 increases, more CO2 is dissolved in the ocean, decreasing the pH of the water
and creating an acidic environment that dissolves the hard shells of corals, shellfish and smaller
organisms. This process, called ocean acidification, also decreases the availability of  calcium carbonate
(CaCO3), a building block for the shells and exoskeletons of many marine organisms.  Although
dissolution of CO2 in oceans is a natural process, the current rate of ocean CO2 dissolution is
unprecedented, with serious implications for the marine food chain and ocean ecosystems.

Puerto Rico (PR) and the United States Virgin Islands (USVI) are especially vulnerable to the impacts of
climate change due to their smaller land size (and therefore diminished resources, population mobility,
infrastructure and resilience), limited water resources, vulnerable ecosystems, susceptibility to natural
hazards and the location of large urban centers near the coastline (e.g. San Juan, Charlotte-Amalie).
Threats of climate change to this portion of the Caribbean include the potential increase in sea level of
at least 15.7 inches based on a linear trend of observed sea  level rise (PRCCC 2012),  increase in average
annual temperature between 3.5 - 5 ฐF, (USGCRP 2009) and decrease in precipitation between 5 to 20%
by the end of the century  (USGCRP 2009). Other impacts include the formation of more intense
hurricanes and increase in ocean temperature and acidity (USGCRP 2008). These threats will cause
myriad adverse effects to  PR and the USVI including: increases in coastal inundation, storm surge,
erosion and increased water pollution as a result of coastal flooding, threatening vital infrastructure,
settlements and facilities that support the livelihood of near shore and low lying communities;
compromised water resources in PR and USVI islands; heavy impacts on coral reefs in PR and the USVI;
and changes in fisheries and other marine-based resources.

HUMAN HEALTH

Climate change is very likely to accentuate the disparities already evident in the American health care
system. Many of the expected health effects are likely to fall disproportionately on the poor, the elderly,
the disabled, and the uninsured. The most important adaptation to ameliorate health effects from
climate change is to support and maintain the United States' public health infrastructure (USGCRP

                                           10

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       2008). Urban areas are especially prone to increased morbidity and mortality due to heat waves and
       poor air quality that results from higher temperatures and dry conditions. In addition to air pollution and
       heat-related impacts on health, extreme weather events due to climate change will likely increase risk
       for injuries such as those from debris during storm events where high winds and fast moving flood
       waters are involved. In Region 2, recent severe storm events have also caused unexpectedly high
       incidences of drowning. Moreover, flood waters can expose people to harmful environmental
       contaminants,  especially if the flooding affects people who live nearby industrial sites or facilities that
       store or contain hazardous materials. For coastal and waterfront communities, heavy storms can cause
       storm surges that overwhelm or damage wastewater and drinking water treatment systems with high
       water volumes or salt water. The result is that communities are inundated with sewage- and industrial
       waste-contaminated waters, the health impacts of which could be severe gastrointestinal and
       respiratory illnesses. In PR and the USVI, potential adverse human health impacts are expected due to
       these previously discussed concerns, as well as increased incidence of vector-borne diseases and more
       frequent dust storms.

       The National Research Council 2011 report, Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health
       addresses the impacts that climate change may have on the indoor environment and the resulting
       health effects.  The report points to extensive research on how climate change affects the outdoor
       environment, how the outdoor environment affects indoor environments under different climate
       conditions, and how indoor environments affect occupant health, among other related topics. The
       impacts on the indoor environment include poor indoor air quality,  for example, due to changing indoor
       concentrations of pollutants from increased outdoor concentrations of those pollutants caused by
       alterations in atmospheric chemistry or atmospheric circulation. Other indoor impacts include: moisture
       and mold, flooding, infectious agents and pests,  and thermal stress  (NRC 2011).

VULNERABLE COMMUNITIES

       OVERBURDENED COMMUNITIES

       Certain parts of the population, such as children, the elderly, minority persons, persons of low income,
       persons with underlying medical conditions and disabilities, persons with limited access to information
       (such as those with low  English proficiency), and tribal and indigenous populations, can  be especially
       vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Also, certain geographic locations and communities are
       particularly vulnerable, such as those located in low-lying coastal areas. One of the principles guiding
       EPA's efforts to integrate climate adaptation into its programs, policies and rules calls for its adaptation
       plans to prioritize helping people, places and infrastructure that are most vulnerable to  climate impacts,
       and to be  designed and  implemented with meaningful involvement from  all parts of society.

       This Implementation Plan identifies key programmatic vulnerabilities and the priority actions that will be
       taken to address those vulnerabilities over time. As the work called for in this Plan is conducted, the
       communities and demographic groups most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change will be
       identified. The Agency will then work in partnership with these communities to increase their adaptive
                                                 11

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capacity and resilience to climate change impacts.
These efforts will be informed by experiences with
previous extreme weather events (e.g., Superstorm
Sandy) and the subsequent recovery efforts.

As noted in the agency-wide Climate Adaptation Plan,
the populations most vulnerable to climate change
often include children, elderly, poor, persons with
underlying medical conditions and disabilities, and
tribal and indigenous populations, and this applies in
Region 2. The primary concerns are extreme storm
events, sea level rise, and extreme high temperatures.
Without strong adaptation measures, climate related
health  impacts may become more prevalent as the
frequency and severity of extreme climate events such
as heat waves, flooding, and severe storms increase .

According to the U.S. Census, the U.S. population is
aging; the percent of the population  over age 65 is
projected to be 13 percent by 2010 and 20 percent by
2030, at which time NY and NJ alone will be home to
over 7.8 million seniors over age 65.  Older adults, very
young children, persons with underlying medical
conditions such as some disabilities or compromised
immune functions are vulnerable to temperature
extremes. Heat-related mortality affects low-income
and minority populations disproportionately, because
they are generally concentrated in highly developed
urban environments that suffer from heat island
effects (USGCRP 2008). For the past decade, Region 2
communities from the Caribbean to the northeast
have faced summers with  increasing numbers of days
over 90ฐ F. For example, between 2010 and 2011, San
Juan, Puerto Rico experienced 100 days of
temperatures over 90 degrees; the same number of
days with  such extreme temperatures was
experienced between 1900 to 1949 - a span of nearly
50 years (PRCCC 2012). Low-income  seniors are at
highest risk for heat-related  health impacts. According
to estimates from the New York City Department of
Aging, 55% of people hospitalized for heat-related
illness were over 65 years of age; most of these were
 CASE STUDY: SUPERSTORM SANDY

Superstorm Sandy, which struck the east
coast  in late   October  2012,  starkly
illustrated the special vulnerability that
low-income,   elderly  and  people  with
serious   medical  conditions  face  from
extreme storms and flooding. While Sandy
was  not necessarily a  result of,  or
exacerbated by, climate change, it was an
example of the extreme weather events that
are expected to  become  increasingly
frequent in the NY/NJ region over time, due
to  climate   change.  The  extended
deprivations wrought by Superstorm Sandy
and the  associated flooding (e.g. loss of
power and heat for days or weeks; difficulty
in obtaining  food and supplies,  medical
care, transportation) were felt particularly
by vulnerable populations, who in  many
cases lacked  some of the resources or
options available to others - such as the
ability to stay with friends or family or at
hotels located outside of the affected area.

Of the more than 100  people in NY and NJ
who  lost their  lives  due to Superstorm
Sandy, the majority were seniors. Many of
the buildings  that had to be  evacuated in
New York City as the storm approached
(because of  their location  in low-lying
areas) were public housing for low-income
residents. It was reported  that one  week
after the  storm, 174 of the 402 public
housing buildings that were  impacted by
the storm still lacked  heat and hot water;
114 of them lacked power. The lack of heat
meant      enduring      near-freezing
temperatures  with no heat and no hot water
for bathing. Lacking power meant they had
no lights or water for ordinary household
uses because water needs to be pumped up
to their homes. Because of the significant
damage  incurred  by  many  of  these
buildings during the storm,  many of the
residents needed to remain in shelters or
temporary housing for an extended period.
                                            12

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low-income seniors. Fortunately, air conditioning is an effective intervention in preserving heat health
and reducing risk of heat-related death. However, as the EPA Climate Adaptation Action Plan
acknowledges, economic constraints prevent some low-income households from using air conditioning
for relief against extreme heat. For example, a family may not have access to an air conditioning unit, or
choose not to use one so as to cut down on energy costs. Air conditioning may also not be a good
solution in some heavily industrialized urban communities because high usage encourages power
producers to run  highly polluting "peaker plants" (e.g., older, high-emission power plants that are put
into service to meet periods of peak energy demands) or puts the community at risk for power outages,
which creates other hardships. Warming temperatures will also likely increase ozone concentrations.
Increased ozone concentrations could in turn contribute to increased morbidity and mortality due to
cardiovascular and  pulmonary illnesses, including exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive
pulmonary disorder (COPD) if current regulatory standards are not attained. If the  projections for
increased drought risk and  lower precipitation in summer months prove correct, ozone health impacts
will become a major issue for the respiratory health of residents in our region.

With sea level rise and the projected increase in the frequency and intensity of storms, low lying
communities in our region will also likely see more health issues related to exposure to mold and
mildew, which have been known to trigger asthma and allergic reaction as well as more severe
respiratory symptoms. In areas where flooding can damage electrical systems necessitating the use of
residential generators, we also expect to see more health problems related to carbon monoxide
poisoning, especially when  residents do not know to ensure proper ventilation when such equipment
are in use. Flooding of industrial and environmental infrastructure also presents unique challenges to
vulnerable communities. For example, during and after Superstorm Sandy, Indian nation communities
like the Shinnecock people  who live in the lowlands  along the coast of Long Island Sound were faced
with  potential loss of drinking water because floodwaters infiltrated the private wells on which they rely
for drinking water.  Similarly, the low-income community of the Ironbound section  in  Newark, New
Jersey, was inundated with flood waters that carried raw sewage and treatment chemicals from the
nearby sewage treatment plant and industrial  operations.

INDIAN  NATIONS

EPA values its unique government-to-government relationship with Indian nations  in planning and
decision making. This trust  responsibility has been established over time and is further expressed in the
1984 EPA Policy for the Administration of Environmental Programs on Indian Reservations and the 2011
Policy on Consultation and  Coordination with Indian nations. These policies recognize and support the
sovereign decision-making authority of tribal governments.

Supporting the development of adaptive capacity among nations is a priority for the EPA. Nations are
particularly vulnerable to the  impacts of climate change due to the integral  nature  of the environment
within their traditional lifeways and culture. There is a strong need to develop adaptation strategies that
promote sustainability and  reduce the impact of climate change on Indian nations.
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EPA engaged nations through a formal consultation process in the development of the Agency's Climate
Change Adaptation Plan. Nations identified some of the most pressing issues as erosion, temperature
change, drought and various changes in access to and quality of water. Nations recommended a number
of tools and strategies to address these issues, including improving access to data and information;
supporting baseline research to better track the effects of climate change; developing community-level
education and awareness materials; and providing financial and technical support. At the same time,
nations challenged EPA to coordinate climate change activities among federal agencies so that resources
are better leveraged and administrative burdens are reduced.

This Implementation Plan identifies specific steps that will be taken to partner with tribal governments
on an ongoing basis to increase their adaptive capacity and address their adaptation-related priorities.
These collaborative efforts will benefit from the expertise provide by our tribal partners and the
Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) they possess. TEK is a valuable body of knowledge in assessing
the current and future impacts of climate change and has been used by nations for millennia as a
valuable tool to adapt to changing surroundings. Consistent with the principles in the 1984 Indian Policy,
TEK is viewed as a complementary resource that can inform planning and decision-making.

Networks and partnerships already in place will  be used to assist nations with climate change issues,
including Regional Tribal Operations Committees, the Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals
and the Indian General Assistance Program (IGAP). Additionally, efforts will be made to coordinate with
other Regional and Program Offices in EPA, since climate change has many impacts that transcend
media and regional boundaries. Transparency and information sharing will be a focus, in order to
leverage activities already taking place within EPA Offices and tribal governments.

Region 2 is also home to eight Federally-recognized Indian nation communities, all located in NY State.
The nations in Region 2 are likely to be impacted by similar vulnerabilities discussed in other portions of
this vulnerability assessment. In addition to those vulnerabilities mentioned throughout, nations in
Region 2 have indicated that there are ecological as well as cultural activities that are vulnerable to the
effects of climate change,
                                                                           ,/  M
                                                                      Saml Regis Mohawfc Tribe
directly affecting many of
the cycles of the natural
world.

The nations have noted a
change in the composition
of tree species in forests
due to climate change. The
change in forest tree
species may not be moving
at a rate as fast as that of
climate change and
therefore could lead to
diminishing forest size. This
                              Approximate Locations of Current Federally
                                   Recognized Indian Nation Lands
                                                                  <
                                  Tuscarora Nation
                             Seneca Nation of
                             Indians (Niagara Falls)
Tonawanda Seneca
                                                          CayugaNation   +QneidaIndian Nation
                                                 Seneca Nation     *   if
                                 Seneca Nation of 4  of lndisms (Buffalo)    Ononcteoa Nation
                               Indians (Caltaraugus)
                                                   JL. Seneca Nation
                                     Seneca Nation *  "of Indians (Oil Spring)
                                 of Indians (Afiegany)
                                                                            NEW YORK
                                         Total Population; Approximately 25.000
                                             0      SO     100
                                                            d Miles
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has resulted in an increased reliance on the planting by Indian nation communities of tree species that
are more typically found in southern climates like the Carolina region of the U.S. Moreover, there is a
growing concern that climate conditions are affecting many species of culturally significant trees such as
the maple tree, causing an infestation of pests, insects, and fungi attacks.

The harvesting of culturally important crops such as maple syrup and wild strawberries as well as the
undertaking of ceremonies to celebrate their harvest and medicinal purposes have also been affected by
the changing climate. The traditional timing for harvesting crops depends  largely upon the weather. If
there is a cold winter with a lot of snow, the nations will have a good harvest of maple syrup in the
spring. If there is a mild winter with limited precipitation, the maple  syrup is not as plentiful and even in
some cases, not available. In addition, the wild strawberry plant has  unique nutritional and medicinal
qualities that contribute to blood purifying and blood building. The berries, leaves and roots of the wild
strawberry plant also contribute to a variety of women's health concerns and pregnancies. During the
mid to late spring is traditionally the time that the wild strawberries  come into being. But with changing
climate, they now grow in the summer months, or are not as bountiful as previous years.

The undertaking of cultural activities such as ceremonies held in nations' longhouses have significantly
been impacted with the unpredictable climate. For example, the Thunder  Dance (or "Welcoming of our
Grandfathers") is typically held two times per year with the first being held during the spring when one
to three thunderstorms are heard and the second ceremony held during a dry period when rain is
needed for crops. The nations thank the Thunderers or Grandfathers in the ceremony for returning
again that year and for continuing to perform their responsibility of providing rain and fresh water,
renewing the lakes, rivers, streams and wells. With the changing climate however, thunder is now
common during rain and snow storms in the winter months (December thru February). Likewise, the
ceremonies for the Strawberry, String Bean, and Green Corn are determined based upon the time for
harvest, which more often depends upon the unpredictable climate conditions. Other cultural and
economic activities such as fishing and hunting of wild game have also been impacted by changes in
streams, other fishing waters, and natural habitats.

Climate change impacts for indigenous cultures are  not expected to be clearly all positive or all negative.
For example, increased air temperatures have the potential to lengthen the growing seasons of
medicinal plants, higher CO2 concentrations in the air can enhance plant growth, and in some areas, the
availability of water resources may increase as rainfall patterns shift  as a result of climate change.
However, increased air temperatures may impair growth of certain species of traditional plants and
cause them to migrate to zones outside Indian nation communities in our  Region while allowing for a
rise in invasive plant species, and water resources may be negatively impacted by extreme rainfall
events that compromise drinking water supplies. While the extent and nature of climate related impacts
are not clear, it is apparent to indigenous cultures that there will  be climate related  impacts that will
impact their cultural heritage.
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 EPA REGION 2'S PROGRAMMATIC VULNERABILITIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE
 This section focuses on those vulnerabilities that we believe, at this time, are most significant to EPA Region 2,
 and are presented in alignment with EPA's priorities where possible. A summary of program vulnerabilities to
 climate change is contained in the attached table.

| 1. TAKING ACTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND IMPROVING AIR QUALITY

        TROPOSPHERIC OZONE POLLUTION

        Various studies project that daily maximum ozone levels could increase between 2 and 5 parts per
        billion (current 8 hour ozone standard is 75 ppb) across the eastern U.S. between 2020 and 2080 due to
        climate change if no additional emissions controls for ozone precursors are implemented (Hogrefe
        2004). The potential lengthening of the ozone season has also been projected, as reported in the 2007
        IPCC Report and ClimAID. Region 2 States are located in the Ozone Transport Region2, which indicates
        the sensitivity of the area to tropospheric ozone. The Jamestown, NY, NYC metro area and Philadelphia
        metro area currently violate the 2008 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS).

        The projected ozone impacts of climate change may make it more difficult for New York and New Jersey
        to maintain compliance with existing ozone standards. Sources in or upwind  of the Region may be
        required to implement additional control measures or emissions  controls. EPA's air programs would
        oversee states' efforts to develop State Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions to address the issue.

        PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)

        WILDFIRES

        Though wildfires are not common in Region 2, they have been known to occur in the Pinelands region of
        central/southern NJ, NJ Meadowlands and in Staten Island,  NY. The risks of wildfire occurrences could
        be enhanced by climate change-induced effects such as higher temperatures, decreased soil moisture,
        and longer and more numerous periods of drought (IPCC 2007). All of these factors could increase the
        number, length, and size of wildfires.

        The projected particulate impacts from wildfires could, but are not likely to,  hinder areas in Region 2
        from meeting or maintaining compliance with the PM NAAQS. Region 2's air program would oversee
        states'  efforts to develop SIP revisions to address the issue if wildfire events  lead to issues in complying
        with the PM NAAQS.

        OTHER SOURCES OF PM AIR EMISSIONS
        An increase in extreme weather events, which in the case of storms could include strong winds and/or
        heavy precipitation, increase the risk of disrupting energy delivery to many areas in Region 2. For
 2 See Clean Air Act ง184(a) for list of states in the Ozone Transport Region.

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example, electrical and natural gas distribution could be disrupted by downed trees and flooding.
Extended periods with energy delivery disruption in cold seasons could lead to increased use of
alternative heating fuels such as wood or backup generators. Residences which rarely use fireplaces
could begin using them in a manner that does not reflect best practices. Using wood for heating that has
not been seasoned properly or using fireplaces improperly increases the amount of wood smoke
exhausted from wood burning devices, which can have negative impacts on human health and air
quality. Occupants of indoor environments where wood is burned could be exposed to wood smoke. A
major health threat from smoke comes from fine particles, also known as particle pollution (EPA).
Particle pollution has been linked to premature death in people with heart or lung disease, nonfatal
heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function, and increased
respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the  airways, coughing or difficulty breathing (EPA). The
increased PM could affect also an area's ability to comply with the PM NAAQS, which could have
regional health impacts. In addition, weather events with high winds and storm surges such as those
many areas in Region 2 have experienced, can generate a tremendous amount of debris from, among
other things, destroyed buildings, displaced sand and felled trees. Efforts to remove construction debris
(e.g., from buildings) could require months and involve a large number of vehicles which could generate
combustion related emissions. Biomass removal could involve incineration which could also operate for
months and adversely impact air quality. Region's 2 air program would be required to monitor clean-up
efforts to assure compliance with the PM NAAQS.

INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS
IN DOOR AIR QUALITY

One of the best sources of information on impacts on the indoor environment is Climate Change, the
Indoor Environment, and Health. The following subsections provide findings from this report from the
National Research Council. Indoor environments can be contaminated by chemical, organic, and
particulate pollutants that migrate from outdoors. Indoor migration is likely to be of particular concern
on high temperature days in residences without air conditioning. Indoor air can also be contaminated by
gas stoves and other indoor emission sources, such as building materials, radon, wood stoves,  and
environmental tobacco smoke. Climate change can affect these factors in various ways. For example,
changes in the outdoor concentrations of a pollutant due to alterations  in atmospheric chemistry or
atmospheric circulation will affect indoor concentrations. The expected  increased use of air
conditioning, if accompanied by reduced ventilation, could increase the concentrations of pollutants
emitted from indoor sources. Additionally, power outages—caused by heat waves or other extreme
weather events—could lead to the use of portable electricity generators that burn fossil fuels and emit
poisonous carbon monoxide (NRC 2011).

DAMPNESS, MOISTURE, AND FLOODING

Extreme weather conditions associated with climate change may lead to more frequent breakdowns in
building envelopes—the physical barrier between outdoor and indoor spaces—followed by infiltration
of water into indoor spaces. Dampness and water intrusion create conditions that encourage the growth
of fungi and bacteria and may cause building materials and furnishings to decay or corrode, leading in

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turn to chemical emissions. Poorly designed or maintained heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
systems may introduce moisture and create condensation on indoor surfaces. Humid conditions can,
however, be improved by well-designed and properly operating systems. Mold growth prevention and
remediation activities also may introduce fungicides and other agents into the indoor environment (NRC
2011).

PESTS AND INFECTIOUS AGENTS

Weather fluctuations and seasonal to annual climate variability influences the incidence of many
infectious diseases which may affect the  evolution of existing and emergence of new infectious diseases,
for example, by affecting the geographic  range of disease vectors. The ecological niches for pests will
change in response to climate change, leading to changed patterns or routes of human exposure and
potentially, increased use of pesticides in these locations. Climate change may also lead to shifting
patterns of indoor exposure to pesticides as occupants and building owners respond to infestations of
pests (e.g. termites) whose geographic ranges may have changed. Although decreases in pest
populations in some locations may lower the incidence of allergic reactions to particular pests, the
overall incidence of allergic disease may not go down, because those individuals with a predisposition to
allergies may  become sensitized to other regional airborne allergies (NRC, 2011).

THERMAL STRESS

Extreme heat  and cold have several well-documented adverse health effects. High relative humidity
exacerbates these effects in hot conditions. As increased frequency of extreme weather events may
result in power outages, corresponding increased use of portable generators may expose occupants to
potentially dangerous conditions indoors. Seniors, persons with medical conditions, persons of low-
income, and residents of urban environments are more likely to be exposed to extreme temperature
events. These vulnerable populations experience excessive temperatures almost exclusively in indoor
environments. Increased temperatures will result in increased use of air conditioning. Air conditioning
provides protection from heat  but is associated with higher reported prevalence of some ailments,
perhaps because of contaminants in HVAC systems (NRC, 2011).

BUILDING VENTILATION AND WEATHERIZATION

Leaky buildings are common and cause energy loss, moisture problems, and migration of contaminants
from the outdoors (e.g. pests, chemical, volatile organic compounds,  and particulates). Research
indicates that poor ventilation  is associated with occupant health problems and lower productivity in all
populations, and is exacerbated in vulnerable populations such as children, seniors and persons with
medical conditions (NRC 2011).

Residents may weatherize buildings to increase comfort and indoor environmental quality in addition to
saving energy. Although in general these  actions should be encouraged, this may lead to a reduction in
ventilation and an increase in indoor environmental pollutants unless measures are taken to preserve or
improve indoor air quality.  EPA has developed practical guidance for improving or maintaining indoor
environmental quality during home energy upgrades or remodeling in single-family  homes and schools.
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       EPA's guidance and protocols may need to be revised to include state and local considerations for
       projected climatic changes. In addition, these programs may need to increase partnerships with other
       agencies to address training needs and workforce development for building owners, managers, and
       others, as well as develop new tracking mechanisms to assess the effectiveness of weatherization and
       remodeling techniques as they relate to indoor environmental quality.

       INCREASED ENERGY DEMAND

       Increased temperatures due to climate change could have a potential two-fold effect on energy
       consumption for heating and cooling. Energy used for heating is likely to decrease while energy used for
       cooling is likely to increase. Summer peak demand in the New York metro area could increase 7 to 17%.
       Increases in peak demand without changes to energy infrastructure could lead to increased brownouts
       (IPCC 2007, NYSERDA 2011) or operation  of "peaker" electric generating units in order to meet the
       increased demand. During high energy demand days, peaker units operate and generally produce more
       emissions than the typical electric generating unit. Furthermore, increased energy use for cooling would
       occur in the summer, which would lead to increased emissions during the ozone season (unless there is
       an increase in the supply of renewable energy to match the increased energy demand). The emissions
       impacts from increased energy demand could hinder areas in Region 2 from meeting or maintaining
       compliance with the NAAQS (PM, O3, NOX). Sources in or upwind of the Region may be required to
       implement additional control measures or emissions controls. Region 2's air program would oversee
       states' efforts to develop SIP revisions to  address the issue.

       MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS

       Warming due to climate change could lead to damages to transportation infrastructure. Increased
       frequency, intensity, and/or duration of heat events could lead to railway deformities, road softening,
       and traffic-related rutting due to the road softening (IPCC 2007). If damages to transportation
       infrastructure lead to increased congestion, traffic-related emissions could increase. If the costs of
       maintaining roads and rail lines in good repair divert limited funds from planned mass transit capital
       projects this could hinder work performed by the Region  2 states and EPA Region 2 in promoting and
       supporting mass transit projects to reduce transportation related emissions (NYMTC, FTA). Heavy
       precipitation events resulting from climate change can threaten travel routes on coastal and low lying
       roadways, lead to the closure of airports, and damage to  shipping channels and ports (IPCC 2007). If
       these damages and closures lead to traffic congestion in other locations, this could cause increases in
       mobile source emissions. Extreme events experienced in  Region 2, such as hurricanes, that hinder
       refinery operations or fuel transportation could require EPA to grant fuel waivers to allow more
       polluting fuels to be used for a short time period. Extended periods of congestion could arise in areas
       that are flooded, which could lead to increased transportation related emissions (USDOT, USDOE).

2.  PROTECTING AMERICA'S WATERS

       WATERSHEDS, AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS AND WETLANDS
       SEWERS AND WASTEWATER SYSTEMS
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       Variability in precipitation patterns and an increase in the intensity and severity of storms will lead to an
       increase in the number of sewer overflows and wastewater bypasses. Predicted increases in storm
       events and rainfall intensity, as well as sea level rise and storm surges, will contribute to the frequency
       and volumes of combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges in heavily urbanized regions in New York and
       New Jersey. New York State has 76 CSO permit holders with 966 outfalls, and New Jersey has 25 CSO
       permit holders with 217 outfalls. These include the Region's largest cities, such as New York City, Albany,
       Binghamton, Rochester, Syracuse, Buffalo, Jersey City and Newark. Furthermore, increased heavy
       precipitation events could trigger increased sewer overflows and wastewater bypasses, especially in
       low-lying communities like those surrounding the Martfn Pena Canal in San Juan, PR. These overflows
       contain not only stormwater but also pollutants such as untreated human and industrial waste, toxic
       materials, debris, and oil and grease. Consequences include an increased risks of waterborne diseases,
       greater loads of pollutants entering our waterways, aquatic habitat impairments, loss of recreational
       access to water bodies due to high bacteria levels, fish kills, fishing  and shellfishing restrictions, and
       increased flows in streams and other conveyance channels that could be eroded. This reduces  EPA's
       ability to ensure human  health and safety and our goal to make waterbodies fishable and swimmable.
       Utilities will be challenged by the need to address uncertainties associated with severe storm events and
       frequency when they evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative approaches for capital infrastructure
       planning and outlays. Communities seeking to reduce sewer and wastewater overflows should
       coordinate with the state agency administering EPA's State Revolving Fund (SRF) for funding
       consideration. Climate change will lead to a need for greater investment provided  by the SRF.

       Increased precipitation may also result in additional pollutant loadings of nutrients, pesticides, and
       other chemicals, further challenging permittees' ability to meet water quality standards and permit
       requirements. For industrial dischargers and wastewater treatment plants, lower baseflows due to
       increased evapotranspiration and increased likelihood of drought conditions will make meeting permit
       requirements more challenging. This will have an impact on our watershed programs as well as our
       regulatory programs, including the NPDES3 and TMDL4 programs.

       WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AND PERMITTING

       Under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, states, territories and authorized tribes are required to
       develop lists of impaired waters (i.e., "the 303(d) list"). These are waters that are too polluted or
       otherwise degraded to meet the water quality standards set by states, territories, or authorized tribes
       after the implementation of effluent limitations or other pollution control requirements. For future
       TMDLs, models to evaluate impacts under a range of projected future climatic shifts, using the best
       information and tools available, will need to be used on a site-specific basis. For the NPDES program,
       there will be a need to incorporate greater uncertainty into permit calculations to reflect the uncertainty
3 As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program
controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States.
4 A Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) is a calculation of the maximum amount of a pollutant that a waterbody can receive and still meet
water quality standards, and an allocation of that load among the various sources of that pollutant.

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in climate projections related to NPDES permitting (e.g., precipitation projections), revise low-flow
stream estimates, and consider warmer surface waters when evaluating applications for variances from
thermal effluent limitations.

WETLANDS AND WATER BODY ECOSYSTEMS

As sea level rises, barrier island configurations will change and coastal shorelines will retreat. Wetlands
will be inundated and eroded, and low-lying areas will  be inundated more frequently - some
permanently - by the advancing sea. Freshwater wetlands will be subject to changes in hydrology,
precipitation and temperatures impacting the ecological services that they provide. Since coastal areas
are already well developed, there would be limited opportunity for wetlands to migrate upland. There
will need to be a focus on wetland protection, restoration and capacity for resiliency in all wetland
ecosystems. As sea level rises, temperature increases and rainfall patterns change the salinity of
estuaries, coastal wetlands, and tidal rivers, which are  likely to become more variable, further altering
the composition and ecosystem function of existing wetlands. Furthermore, Mid-Atlantic tidal marshes,
mangrove forests and other coastal ecosystems in the  Caribbean which provide important services for
shoreline protection, species habitat, and nutrient cycling in the environment will be vulnerable with sea
level rise. Inland wetlands - which provide important services in flood protection, water quality, nutrient
cycling and species habitat - will be vulnerable with changes in precipitation and groundwater
recharge. EPA Region 2's wetland and mangrove protection and restoration efforts will face challenges
due to uncertainty with regards to sea level rise and the wetland's ability to migrate and respond to
changes in hydrology and precipitation.
                                                   New York State
                                                 Great Lakes Basin
Changing water flow to lakes and streams, increased evaporation, and changed precipitation in some
areas will affect the size of wetlands and
lakes. For example, water levels in the Great
Lakes are expected to fall. Headwater streams
will be increasingly dry during summer
months as drought conditions occur more
often and evapotranspiration increases. This
will have an effect on aquatic ecosystems
because species that are susceptible to higher
temperatures or lower dissolved oxygen
levels, such as freshwater trout fisheries in
New York and New Jersey, will lose viable
habitat.

Increasing sea surface temperatures and ocean acidification have the potential to reduce the stability of
corals in Puerto Rico and the Virgin  Islands, especially in the presence of stresses from the existing land-
based sources of pollution and overuse of the reefs for fishing and recreation. In the Caribbean, already
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       stressed coral reef ecosystems will be highly compromised by the increasing sea surface temperature
       which will result in more chronic bleaching events and subsequent vulnerability to diseases associated
       with bleaching. Ocean acidification will reduce the capacity of reef corals to calcify and protect
       themselves against more frequent hurricanes (EPA 2012). The collapse of coral reef ecosystems will
       have a significant impact on greater ocean ecosystems, food supplies and recreation and tourism
       industries. This will make implementation of local stormwater runoff reduction and improved coral reef
       management efforts by EPA and its partner agencies much more critical for preserving current coral reef
       habitat.

       DRINKING WATER, WASTEWATER AND STORMWATER INFRASTRUCTURE
       WATER INFRASTRUCTURE CAPACITY

       An increased number of flood events of greater intensity is impacting water infrastructure. Many water
       and wastewater treatment systems and pumping stations in New York and New Jersey were damaged
       due to Hurricane Irene and Superstorm Sandy in 2011 and 2012. For example, many of the wastewater
       facilities were flooded and/or shut down or lost power during these events, after which they only
       performed primary treatment for a period until the digester systems stabilized and discharged
       untreated or partially treated sewage to  local waterbodies. Furthermore, providing emergency support
       to these facilities was complicated by flooding of low-lying access roads, damaged electrical supply
       systems or shortages of fuel for backup generators, and overstretched personnel. In New Jersey, the
       Passaic Valley Sewerage Authority facilities alone suffered $300 million dollars of damage due to
       Superstorm Sandy. This has required major financial resources to pay for the repair or replacement of
       damaged infrastructure or proactively retrofit existing infrastructure, including treatment plants,
       pumping stations and conveyance systems.

       In June 2013, New York City presented a  comprehensive coastal protection plan which articulates a
       diverse selection of coastal protection measures tailored to the specific geomorphology of and risks
       facing neighborhoods most in peril'11; other local governments will likely develop similar plans as well.
       Dredged material management plans will need to be adjusted because a number of the coastal
       resiliency projects will use dredged sediments and also due to potentially greater sediment loadings
       entering our waterways and harbors from more intense storm events. While the Army Corps of
       Engineers is the primary permitting authority on dredged  material management in the coastal zone, EPA
       and the states have oversight roles of dredged materials management activities and are involved  in
       developing dredged materials management plans. Coastal protection measures may also have an impact
       on water quality in Region 2 coastal waters and in the New York and New Jersey Harbor and Estuary in
       particular.

       General population growth combined with a loss of snowpack in the Northeast and declining surface
       and groundwater quality and quantity, particularly in the Caribbean, will increase competition for water
       among energy, agriculture sectors, public drinking water supply, and maintenance of ecological service.
in see "PlaNYC: A Stronger, More Resilient New York" - http://www.nyc.gov/html/sirr/html/report/report.shtml

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This will have an impact on water supply and water use, along with the water body's ability to provide
ecosystem services. An example is the stress placed on the cold-water trout fishery due to inadequate
reservoir releases in the Pequannock River in New Jersey due to drinking water diversions which causes
water temperatures to be elevated in the stream during the summer months.

Sea level rise in coastal areas puts fresh water supplies for all uses, particularly drinking water, at
increased risk. Salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers is a problem in some areas where withdrawals
are outstripping recharge; increased pressure  head from a higher sea-level worsens this problem. As sea
level rises, community drinking water intakes may end up in brackish waters as the salt front migrates
up coastal rivers and streams. For example, sodium concentrations could increase at the drinking water
intakes on the Delaware River that serve Camden, NJ, degrading the community's supply of drinking
water.5 The integrity of coastal water infrastructure systems could be put at increased  risk because
systems designed for current sea levels are likely to have to operate under conditions where the sea
level is 2 to 5 feet greater than current levels. Wastewater outfalls will have reduced capacity and will
have to be redesigned given increased water heights in receiving waters. Communities may need
infrastructure improvements to become more resilient to sea level rise and more frequent storm events.

In Region 2, many low-income  and/or minority communities are located within or near floodplains or in
areas with older water infrastructure which may not  be designed to handle increased water flows.
Residents of these areas are vulnerable to flooding impacts from a variety of sources; a major concern in
this regard is the incidence of wastewater and stormwater sewer systems back-ups that could cause
localized flooding and water inflows into basements in urban areas. These flooding events are likely to
increase in frequency and magnitude with more frequent heavy rainfall events under climate change
(NYSERDA 2011). Unfortunately, communities most impacted by this flooding risk are also those least
able to relocate from flood-prone areas, and therefore are more likely to be impacted by weather
events that could disrupt the drinking water and electrical supply as well as damage plumbing and
electrical systems at homes and businesses.

GROUNDWATER RECHARGE

Increased temperatures will lead to increased  evapotranspiration, thereby reducing the amount of
water available to recharge groundwater aquifers. In the Northeast more precipitation is forecast to
occur as heavy downpours and in addition, the snowpack is expected to be reduced. Overall, this will
result in increased surface runoff and reduced infiltration and groundwater recharge, particularly in
upland areas. This will place strains on the use of groundwater for municipal, industrial, and agricultural
water supply. For example, the Long Island Aquifer is a source of drinking water for 2.7 million people in
New York State, and over 900 million gallons per day (mgd) of water is used (8% of total water use).
Aquifers supply drinking water to New Jersey at the rate of 570 mgd (31% of total water use) and Puerto
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       Rico at the rate of 137 mgd6. In order to ensure adequate water supplies, the importance of
       groundwater protection from contamination will become more crucial in maintaining water supplies for
       the Region.

       SEPTIC SYSTEMS

       When there is flooding, or when soils are saturated for extended periods of time, septic systems cannot
       function properly. Proper septic system performance depends on having aerated conditions in the soil
       so that bacteria can properly treat wastewater by removing pathogens and other contaminants.
       Flooding events and rising groundwater tables due to sea level rise and increased precipitation saturate
       the soils and causes sewage backing up in buildings. Flooding also allows contaminants to enter ground
       and surface water, reducing water quality and recreational access. In Region 2, the major contaminants
       that could increase due to climate change are bacterial contamination, greater algal blooms due to
       increased nutrient loadings, and higher nitrate concentrations in groundwater. Additionally, certain
       areas such as Suffolk County, NY or some coastal areas of Puerto Rico rely primarily on cesspools and
       septic systems for sanitation; these areas are particularly threatened by impacts from climate change.
       EPA works with local officials and partner organizations to support onsite wastewater management and
       develops voluntary policies and guidance for onsite wastewater management programs.

       QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY OF SAFE DRINKING WATER

       Protecting public health from contaminants in drinking water will require adapting to the impacts of
       climate change. Warmer waters foster pathogen growth, which affects the reliability and the cost of
       drinking water disinfection. Increased precipitation, and in particular, more extreme rainfall events may
       result in additional pollutant loadings of nutrients, pesticides, and other chemicals, further challenging
       drinking water treatment. New York City's ability to continue to meet the criteria for the drinking water
       filtration avoidance, thereby reducing the need for water supply treatment, may be  affected due to
       increased runoff and turbidity. Small water systems, such as non-PRASA (Puerto Rico Aqueduct and
       Sewer Authority) systems in Puerto Rico, are particularly vulnerable due to reduced water yields and/or
       poor water quality. Longer periods of drought are expected to occur and may produce an increase in the
       energy and costs associated with the production of drinking water.
       New drinking water sources and/or enhanced treatment will be needed in some localities, including
       relocating water intakes and building desalinization plants. Rising sea levels cause intrusion of saltwater
       into the underground freshwater aquifer, contaminating the supply of usable groundwater and reducing
       the freshwater supply for the Caribbean islands, on Long Island, and in coastal sections of New Jersey.
       Desalination to treat marine or brackish water is becoming increasingly important in certain locations in
       the Virgin Islands and circumstances where demand is driven by population growth or drought.
       Wastewater or stormwater utilities could distribute reclaimed water from a centralized treatment
' http://www.ngwa.org, http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2004/circl268/htdocs/table04.html

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       system for park irrigation or other uses, which may require additional treatment. EPA's drinking water
       and groundwater protection programs will be involved in permitting and monitoring the systems and
       providing technical support.

       Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) is a process of storing water underground to provide future domestic,
       industrial and agricultural water supplies. ASR is increasingly used where fresh water demand is
       beginning to or projected to exceed supply, and ASR is likely to increase in drought prone areas. When
       applied to stormwater, this practice can also  reduce nonpoint source pollution of our lakes, streams and
       rivers. However, the infiltration or injection of polluted stormwater increases the risk of contamination
       of fresh water aquifers. In Region 2, the majority of ASR facilities are located in New Jersey. In light of
       increasing demand, EPA will need to ensure that groundwater quality and supply are maintained given
       greater use of this resource (EPA 2012).

3. CLEANING  UP COMMUNITIES

       RISK OF CONTAMINANT RELEASES

       The prospect of more intense and more frequent storms and sea-level rise carries with it the risk of
       contaminant releases from RCRA Corrective Action sites, Superfund sites, Brownfield sites and landfills.
       As noted in EPA's Climate Change Adaptation Plan, inundation and flooding may lead to transport of
       contaminants through surface soils, groundwater,  surface waters and/or coastal waters. Uncontrolled
       migration of contaminants may pose an increased  risk of adverse health and environmental impacts. An
       example in  Region 2 is American Cyanamid, a Superfund site on the banks of the Raritan River in
       Bridgewater Township,  NJ. The site has two impoundments of harmful chemicals that release
       contamination during major flood events such as Hurricanes Floyd and Irene (1999 and 2011
       respectively). There is currently no remedy selected for the impoundments area of the site, so future
       flood events will continue to release contamination on the site and into the river until a remedy is
       selected and implemented.

       While this issue is, of course, most relevant to sites that have not yet been remediated, some sites
       where a containment remedy has been performed may also be vulnerable. For example, saltwater
       intrusion and increased groundwater salinity in coastal aquifers may increase the permeability of clay
       liners installed at waste sites, such as landfills, allowing contaminants to spread to nearby properties.
       Several landfills in Puerto Rico and the USVI are located at or near sea level. Many of these landfills are
       still operating and/or have  been improperly closed. Rising sea level poses a significant risk of erosion to
       these landfills and the potential migration of  contaminants towards nearby communities and
       ecosystems (i.e. coastal wetlands and coral reefs).  Examples of these are the Culebra Island Landfill and
       the Rincon Municipal Landfill.

       Severe storms, storm surge and sea level rise may  also cause flooding of coastal or other riparian located
       facilities in Region 2 where chemicals, oil or other hazardous substances are present. Of notable concern
       are pesticide and chemical  production or storage facilities, which are governed by the Federal
       Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Toxics Substances Control Act (TSCA),
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       respectively. These facilities are also vulnerable to extreme weather events, possibly leading to the
       dispersal of such materials to nearby properties or surface waters and, in turn, creating risks to public
       health and the environment. This is an issue about which local Environmental Justice groups have raised
       concerns to EPA, as a number of such facilities in our Region are located near low-income minority
       communities. Releases of hazardous substances or other materials from such facilities could potentially
       lead to cleanup actions by EPA's Superfund program, the oil spill response program, or state or local
       government response programs to conduct cleanup actions.

       ADVERSE EFFECTS ON CLEANUPS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE

       As noted in the Agency-wide Climate Change Adaptation Plan, changes in precipitation patterns and
       temperature as a result of climate change may adversely affect the performance of some site cleanup
       remedies and may require some remedies to be changed. In February 2012, EPA's Office of Solid Waste
       and Emergency Response (OSWER) released a report, Adaptation of Superfund Remediation to Climate
       Change, which identified vulnerabilities to site remedies nationwide. The assessment identified sites
       with on-site pump and treat or containment remedies within 100- and 500-year floodplains, as well as
       those within the modeled 5 ft. sea level rise zone. While the report concluded that there are multiple
       programmatic systems in place to address effects of climate change on Superfund sites, more evaluation
       is ongoing to look at more specifics regarding vulnerabilities during a site's lifecycle, as well as at
       sediment and other types of sites. The report also found that climate change effects could be accounted
       for within the remedy assessment criteria or the Five Year Review process, but site managers may need
       to be more aware of these opportunities for addressing adaptation issues. Other vulnerabilities include
       changes in site conditions and contaminant characterization of groundwater plumes as groundwater
       recharge may be affected by climate change. Flooding and storm surges are also likely to affect ongoing
       ecological redevelopment of sites, as well as oil tank storage.

4. ASSURING THE SAFETY OF CHEMICALS AND PREVENTING  POLLUTION

       USE OF TOXIC CHEMICALS
       A changing climate will likely result in changes in the kind of agricultural crops planted in New York, New
       Jersey, and the Caribbean. For example, current cash crops in the Northeast such as apples, maple
       syrup, and cranberries will likely move further north into Canada while crops now  grown in the
       Southeast will move into the region (USGCRP 2009). This in turn will affect the quantity, type, and timing
       of agricultural chemical use as well as the appropriate application method. These changes in chemical
       use and application could impact the appropriate risk management decisions made by EPA Region 2's
       Pesticides Program in determining what pesticides and geographic areas to focus our efforts to ensure
       compliance with the Federal  Fungicide, Insecticide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), particularly with regard
       to the protection of migrant farm workers and rural communities. For instance, soil fumigation as a
       method to apply pesticides is now rarely  used in Region 2 but would be expected to become more
       common as crops move into the area that requires pest techniques that are associated with longer
       growing seasons and warmer winters (NYSERDA 2011). Soil fumigants are among the  most hazardous of
       all pesticides and rapidly volatilize once in the soil. Once in gaseous form, the fumigant can disperse
       throughout the soil and contact target pests making them extremely effective. However, because of the

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       volatility of fumigants, people who live, visit, and/or work near fumigated fields may be exposed to
       these toxic emissions if the gases travel offsite either via wind aboveground or through wells, sewers,
       vaults and other underground pathways to the surface. Consequently, EPA Region 2's Pesticides
       Program would likely need to reevaluate its priorities if spray drift from fumigants becomes more
       common in Region 2.

       Similarly, changes in temperature and precipitation levels are expected to result in increased cases of
       the West Nile Virus and other diseases carried by mosquitoes, some not usually found this far north. In
       fact, the migration of Aedes albopicus (Asian tiger mosquito) has resulted in increasing populations in
       more northern regions, especially Region 2 (Shope 1991). These mosquitoes have begun to take over
       areas previously inhabited by the Culex species of mosquito during the winter  (i.e., NYC). The movement
       of this invasive species may increase the northward spread of Dengue. As the  incidence and type of
       diseases carried by mosquitoes increases, EPA Region 2's Pesticides Program will  likely need to broaden
       their knowledge of new types of pesticides and/or application methods to ensure compliance with
       FIFRA. EPA will also need to engage diverse stakeholders with disparate views on the merits of spraying
       pesticides. These activities will have resource implications for  EPA Region 2 as will most of the
       programmatic impacts referenced in this Assessment.

       EXPOSURE TO TOXIC CHEMICALS FROM  INFRASTRUCTURE DAMAGE

       The extreme weather events that are likely to occur as a result of climate change (e.g., high winds, heavy
       precipitation events) may damage community infrastructure (e.g., schools and child care facilities) and
       residential homes. As a result, there may be an increased risk of exposure to lead, asbestos and PCBs,
       when these buildings are initially damaged and when they are renovated/demolished as part of the
       recovery efforts. Children are particularly vulnerable to this risk, particularly those living in
       disadvantaged communities where buildings tend to be older and poorly maintained. Therefore, to
       mitigate/prevent such exposure and ensure compliance with the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA),
       EPA Region 2's Toxics Substances program will need to educate the affected communities about
       safeguarding themselves and provide technical assistance to debris removal companies and the
       construction/renovation industry. Depending on the extent of the communities impacted and the
       amount of damage resulting from these extreme weather events, the capacity of EPA Region 2 Toxic
       Substance program to provide such information/assistance in  a timely manner, especially in a face-to-
       face format, could be sorely tested.
5. EPA REGION 2'S FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS

EPA Region 2's main office is in Lower Manhattan, with other facilities in Edison, NJ, and Guaynabo, PR, as well
as small field offices in Hudson Falls and Buffalo, NY, Stamford, CT and in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Our Edison, NJ
facility houses, among other things, our regional laboratory and EPA's Emergency Response Team. Overall,
Region 2 currently has about 840 employees. The climate change impacts discussed in the above sections
present a number of risks to Region 2's staff, facilities, assets, and day-to-day operations, as summarized below.
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FACILITY OPERATIONS, SAFETY AND EMERGENCY
COMMUNICATIONS

Extreme heat, bad air quality or other weather
conditions exacerbated by climate change may
increase the health risks of EPA Region 2 employees
and contractors engaged in field work -- such as
sampling, remediation and inspections -- or force them
to delay such work. In addition, increased demands
placed on electrical grids during heat waves could
jeopardize the grids' integrity or force utility providers
to institute rolling brownouts or blackouts. The
occurrence of such outages would force EPA to use
auxiliary power sources (generators, uninterrupted
power supplies). Building lighting, HVAC systems
and/or elevator service may have to be reduced or
adjusted to compensate for the loss of power. EPA
offices in the Caribbean could potentially close for
short periods of time due to impacts of hurricane,
tropical storms or other weather events and potential
impacts on the facilities themselves and the
employees' ability to safely travel to and from work. In
addition, potential water shortages due to reduced
water availability as a result of  prolonged drought
could disrupt day to day operations. Severe storms (for
example, as seen during Superstorm Sandy) could also
cripple public transportation  systems, highways and
roads, and/or result in significant gasoline shortages,
thus preventing Region 2 employees from being able to
come into work. We have prepared for such scenarios
through our telework program, portable computing
equipment for employees, and  remote networking
capabilities, but at a minimum,  some impact on
productivity can be expected. In addition, many
regional staff conducts field-based work, such as site
remediation and inspections. Instability of weather
patterns (with more heavy snow and ice events in
winter months) also impacts the safety of staff
traveling to and from remote (and sometimes off-road)
locations and increases the chance for automobile
accidents with government vehicles.
          EPA Operations &
          Superstorm Sandy

When Superstorm Sandy struck the east
coast in October 2012, EPA Region 2's main
office - located in lower Manhattan - lost its
main power supply for five days and its heat
supply longer, which forced the closure of
the building for  almost two  weeks  (9
business days). Closing the main office had
a major impact on our operations, and due
to the extent of impact - power outages,
wireless and  landline telephone service
limitations - employees had limited ability
to access their work virtually. The  storm
also knocked out the normal power supply
for our Edison, NJ facility, forcing the facility
(and the Region's command center for
emergency  response)  to   operate  on
emergency backup power. For nonessential
Edison, NJ staff- including laboratory staff
- the  Edison facility  was  closed for five
business days, creating a backlog in regular
work while additional storm-related needs
were   developing.   Edison's   Regional
Emergency Operations Center (REOC) ran
on generator power from Monday through
Saturday. Bottled water and dispensers had
to be brought in to supply potable water for
staff working at the REOC.

 In addition to building operations, road and
tunnel    closures,    hobbled    public
transportation (NYC  subway,  PATH, NJ
Transit trains and light rail) and gasoline
shortages created hardships mobilizing the
workforce  at both  locations,  whether
bringing employees into the office or more
importantly deploying employees  to the
field to assist other  state and federal
agencies.

Regardless of whether Superstorm Sandy
can be directly attributed to climate change,
the storm is  illustrative of the sort  of
extreme weather events that are expected
to occur in the Northeast with greater
frequency in the future, as a result of climate
change.

                                   J
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EPA Region 2 has Continuity of Operations Plans that are formulated to address an "all hazards"
approach. Damages to EPA facilities and/or impacts to critical infrastructure due to extreme weather
events could force Region 2 to implement those plans, or even Devolution of Operations Plans, in order
for EPA to continue to execute Mission Essential Functions. The Region maintains a Continuity of
Operations site in Edison, NJ that is capable of providing fully supported workspace for up to 200
emergency support personnel. The site has backup power and was constructed to withstand hurricane
force winds and earthquake level forces.

Over time, climate change may result in EPA Region 2 personnel - including those working in our
emergency response program or who collect or analyze environmental samples, as well as our contract
support staff, public affairs staff, and others - being increasingly drawn away from their normal day-to-
day activities to respond to extreme weather events or emergencies. This, in turn, could lead to a
reduced capacity to perform regular duties (e.g., monitoring compliance with and enforcing hazardous
waste laws).

IMPACTS ON WATER SUPPLIES USED BY EPA REGION 2

As described previously, water availability, quality, and safety could be compromised by climate-
influenced events. At all regional offices and the laboratory, the staff relies upon potable drinking water
from municipalities. The availability of safe drinking water (as described in the Superstorm Sandy
example) needs to be considered for all offices. Water supply issues could impact the Regional Lab at
Edison, NJ and  its ability to operate. In Edison, the ORD National Risk Management Research Laboratory
conducts research on stormwater management practices and technologies. In-situ research requires
copious amounts of water to mimic various storm intensities (and related overflows). Droughts can
impact the Laboratory staff's ability to test technologies and conduct research  because access to water
could be limited through rationing/availability.

EPA developed a Water Conservation Strategy that identifies water conservation projects and
approaches that reduce potable water use by 2% annually. This strategy applies to EPA-owned spaces,
such as the Edison, NJ facility and laboratory that are owned and  operated by the  Regional office.
Projects to ameliorate local water supply issues include gray water (rain water  runoff and water
condensation) capture for cooling.  Increased drought intensity - and overall changes with the frequency
and intensity of storm events - may reduce the availability of gray water over time.

In addition, water shortages could impact office operations of leased space in Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin
Islands, New York and New Jersey. Spaces leased from the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA)
may be dependent upon water for consumption,  cooling, landscaping, etc. However, GSA (directly  or
indirectly) is the responsible party for addressing water conservation and stormwater reduction. During
extreme drought conditions, employees may be asked to conserve water such as limit watering plants,
showering at the facility gym, etc. Long-term droughts and increased scarcity of water may cause local
water rates to increase thereby increasing operational costs related to potable water use in office
buildings and negotiated during lease renewal.
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EPA REGION 2 PRIORITY ACTIONS
Adaptation planning efforts in Region 2 began with a vulnerability assessment of Regional programs to identify
how climate impacts may affect our mission, program and operations. Region 2 focused on actions that would
address the areas of highest likely risk and subsequently developed a preliminary list of action items to address
the impacts identified in the vulnerability assessment. Next the group identified criteria to select the best
actions from the preliminary list and developed a draft set of priority actions selected by applying the criteria.
See the  criteria listed below.

CRITERIA
        •   Action meets other regional/national objectives [Consider whether action is part of EPA's core or
           optional programs]
        •   Action must be implemented in order to enable other actions (sequencing)
        •   Region 2 is the best fit as implementer  or co-implementer
        •   Action is achievable
        •   Action fills a gap
        •   Action reduces risk significantly
        •   We can measure benefits of the action
        •   There are resources available to do the action
        •   Action has short-term and long-term benefits
        •   Actions that address current impacts are more important than actions that address projected
           impacts
        •   The action avoids maladaptation
        •   Action addresses EJ communities and vulnerable areas/populations
        •   The law can  provide an opportunity for the action; There is legal authority for the action
        •   The action is scalable and transferable
        •   Action advances sustainability
        •   Action has durability/stability/longevity

The following section lists priorities that represent  regional actions to reduce the impacts of climate change to
EPA Region 2 programs.  Region 2 priority actions are categorized to demonstrate the region's short-term
priorities, and long term priorities. The short-term priority action designation reflects the regional offices'
assessment of appropriate resources and ability to  implement the actions in the near-term while long-term
priority  actions are slated for the future and pending resource allocation. Additionally, the region identifies goals
that are best suited for a headquarters or nationally-led initiative, due to factors such as scope, rulemaking
authority, and resource requirements. Region 2 is committed to supporting the development of potential legal
strategies underlying existing and new priority actions on  adaptation and will more broadly consider  options to
improve the effective use of legal tools in the response  and recovery phases following impacts from climate
change. Such legal tools  are relevant to consideration of a range of issues including but not limited to access
issues, waivers, no-action assurances, and efforts to secure staging areas. Region 2 will also seek opportunities
and develop options to increase resilience at entities regulated by environmental statutes and regulations by
incorporating information and knowledge on vulnerabilities into permits, environmental reviews, injunctive
relief portions of enforcement documents, and other EPA decisions and approvals, where appropriate.
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Region 2 recognizes the iterative nature of adaptation planning and will use an adaptive management
framework, or develop adaptation strategies based on assessments that are monitored, revisited, redesigned
and adjusted over time, to implement these priority actions. An adaptive management framework will be
particularly helpful given uncertainties about Regional climate change impacts and the effectiveness of our
priority actions as well as changing resources and needs. Through an adaptation management framework,
Region 2 will be able to more nimbly and effectively reprioritize and revise our actions.
SHORT TERM PRIORITIES
THE SHORT-TERM PRIORITY ACTION DESIGNATION REFLECTS THE REGIONAL OFFICES'ASSESSMENT
OF APPROPRIATE RESOURCES AND ABILITY TO IMPLEMENT THE ACTIONS IN THE NEAR-TERM.
AIR
    •   Focus enforcement resources on emitters of tropospheric ozone precursors, volatile organic compounds
       (VOCs) and NOx, to reduce the impacts on air quality associated with projected temperature rise due to
       climate change.
    •   Increase outreach regarding the effects of emissions from emergency generators and wood smoke.
       Educate emergency generator purchasers about newer, cleaner, and more efficient generators. Promote
       best practices for using emergency generators and wood burning to reduce emissions associated with
       generating electricity and heat during extreme weather events which disrupt energy delivery. Enhance
       messaging on dangers from increased use of back-up electricity sources (e.g. generators) and heat
       sources (e.g. woodstoves, fireplaces) during power outages.

WATER

Region 2 contributed to the development and implementation of the National Water Program 2012 Strategy:
Response to Climate Change7 which identifies 19 Goals and 53  Strategic Actions that are being implemented
nationally. The priority actions listed here include short-term priorities for which sufficient levels of funding and
resources are available for implementation.

    •   Promote the Climate Ready Water Utilities  program  and the Climate Resilience Evaluation and
       Awareness Tool (GREAT) tool to water utilities and municipalities. Support utilities in modifying
       treatment plants to withstand future storm surges.
    •   Work with states to establish SRF criteria for building resistance to climate change impacts through
       infrastructure investment.
    •   Promote Green Infrastructure practices to state and  municipal governments to help them better
       manage increased precipitation and flooding. Develop  and finalize the regional Green Infrastructure
       Action Plan.
7 http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/2012-National-Water-Program-Strategy.cfm

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    •   Identify and assess public water supply systems that are close to streams or rivers that may be subject to
       climate impacts, including flooding and severe storm events.
    •   Implement the Coral Reef Protection Plan, which addresses climate impacts to corals such as ocean
       acidification and coral bleaching, as well as waste discharges, water quality criteria, and areas to be
       protected through a watershed management approach.
    •   Continue to support and incorporate climate change considerations into funding and support for coastal
       habitat restoration and  monitoring activities.
    •   Engage with Regional National Estuary Programs (NEPs) to implement climate change priorities
       identified in NEP Action Plans and other key documents. Work with regional NEP programs to
       incorporate climate change considerations into funding and coastal habitat restoration activities, as
       appropriate.
    •   Improve coordination of Clean Water Act funding that supports wetland protection and monitoring to
       incorporate resilience of wetlands to climate change and sea level rise. Funding sources include CWA
       104, 106, 319, and 320 grant programs.
    •   Collaborate with NOAA, US Fish & Wildlife, and FEMA to identify opportunities for coordination of
       wetland restoration funding. Identify duplicative actions and possibilities for collaboration to ensure
       more efficient use of federal funds. Streamlining restoration spending may free up funds that can be
       used for further restoration work, which can protect coastal communities from sea level rise,  erosion
       and storm surge.
    •   Promote wetland conservation and restoration through Supplemental Environmental Projects (SEPs) in
       the Caribbean.

WASTE:  SUPERFUND  & RCRA
    •   Assess vulnerabilities of existing Superfund/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sites,
       including proximity to flood zones, coastal or riverfront sites, etc. (National Priorities List or NPL, non-
       NPL, RCRA corrective action facilities, Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program or FUSRAP sites)
       working with  state and other federal agencies  as appropriate. To  be completed internally by site
       managers with a vulnerability checklist. Additional resources would be needed for a more complex
       vulnerability assessment, which may be more appropriate as a nationally-led report.
    •   Include consideration of potential climate change impacts in Five Year Reviews of NPL sites (e.g. flooding
       impacts to capped sites, changes to aquifers and plume migration, etc.).

EMERGENCY  RESPONSE

       Since Superstorm Sandy made landfall on  the coast  of New York and New Jersey the evening of Oct. 29,
       2012, EPA Region 2 has  been providing ongoing emergency response in our two northeastern states. In
       addition to emergency response actions provided by our on-scene coordinators, Region 2 staff persons
       were stationed at the FEMA Joint Field Operations as part of the federal response to Superstorm Sandy
       in New York and New Jersey to develop Recovery Support Strategies. Region 2 continues to coordinate
       with other federal agencies on addressing climate risk in the rebuilding process. The region's immediate
       response work is not fully captured within the  scope of this plan.  Response work addresses a number of
       environmental and human health concerns including monitoring water quality, managing household
       hazardous waste and disaster debris in accordance with the National Response Framework. EPA Region
       2 has been implementing recovery actions in accordance with the Superstorm Sandy Supplemental
       Appropriations bill. The bill provides funds for  EPA in the following program areas: the drinking water
       and waste water State Revolving Loan Funds, Superfund sites, and monitoring environmental conditions.
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       The Region is working with state and federal partners to build climate resiliency into the recovery
       activities implemented by many federal and local organizations through the Superstorm Sandy
       Supplemental Appropriations bill. In the long-term, the Region will take into consideration lessons
       learned from recent climate events, including Superstorm Sandy response operations work, to address
       climate change in emergency response preparedness.

COMMUNITIES & VULNERABLE POPULATIONS
    •   Inspect regulated facilities in flood prone areas that store hazardous waste, chemicals, and oil to
       promote climate resilient practices. Design materials to distribute containing environmental assistance
       resources for regulated facilities in flood prone areas and distribute through inspections, meetings, and
       outreach events and in partnership with other technical assistance providers such as small business
       assistance programs. Make use of existing mapping applications with new climate data projections to
       identify regulated facilities in flood  prone areas, especially in EJ areas.
    •   Identify areas of opportunity in hazard mitigation planning to integrate sustainability principles
       (including land use principles) into community planning documents to reduce further impacts and
       connect sustainability to long term  recovery from extreme weather events. Expand partnership with
       research institutes, and FEMA to develop tools that planners can access.
    •   Develop and distribute resource materials for communities to conduct assessments of climate
       vulnerabilities and devise potential strategies for climate resilience.
    •   Use the EPA Environmental Justice Screening tool, EJSCREEN, to do an assessment of Superstorm Sandy-
       impacted communities. Support FEMA and the Federal Disaster Recovery Support Strategy to identify
       communities with potential areas of EJ concern for purposes of targeting and prioritizing technical
       support/assistance for local recovery efforts. Develop a plan for incorporating EJ in community
       development scenario planning protocols that will help communities rebuild sustainably.
    •   Incorporate climate adaptation concerns for communities and vulnerable populations into regional
       science priorities which prioritize future science and research funding.
    •   Use GIS-mapping and existing climate model information to assess vulnerabilities of public infrastructure
       (electric utilities, wastewater treatment plants, chemical storage facilities, public transport facilities,
       gasoline and oil storage locations).
    •   Create a regionally specific website to provide resources and information to stakeholders on preparing
       for the impacts of climate related events such  as heat waves. Highlight priority actions as they are
       accomplished via press events, social media, and/or press releases.
    •   Address vulnerabilities regarding the water infrastructure and other industrial facilities with emphasis
       on low-income communities located near coastal water bodies in the Caribbean (e.g. Martfn Pena and
       G-8 communities).
    •   Address climate change-related impacts in NEPA reviews, including consideration of options to reduce
       environmental consequences of climate change-related impacts on proposed federal actions.
INDIAN NATIONS
    •   Support Region 2 Nations in assessing impacts to tribal lands and cultural activities.
    •   Support tribal climate change information sharing amongst tribes in Region 2 and beyond. Region 2 will
       promote increased capacity for Indian nations to create and maintain adaptation plans for their
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       communities, and promote improved communications between EPA and Indian nation communities,
       and also tribal organizations, on climate change activities.

FACILITIES
     •   Update communication methods to staff during incidences of long and short term disruptions to
         wireless and phone capabilities. Address methods for communicating staff availability to other
         Regions, HQ, etc. during long and short term office and facility closures.
     •   Update disaster/emergency planning for operations, including protocols for asset management and
         tracking as well as the transition from normal operations to emergency status and vice versa.
     •   At our Guaynabo facility, promote use of WaterSense products.
LONG TERM PRIORITIES
LONG-TERM ACTIONS ARE SLATED FOR THE FUTURE AND PENDING RESOURCE ALLOCATION.
AIR
   •   Establish post-storm planning with multiple components to address air quality aspects of waste removal,
       including maximizing potential for re-use or composting of vegetative debris; removal of non-reusable
       debris *(e.g. asbestos); cleanest transportation options, e.g. marine, rail instead of trucks.
   •   Work with Headquarters to implement any necessary changes to air quality guidance and procedures to
       account for a changing climate (e.g., adjustments to waiver and waiver extension request procedures in
       response to more frequent or severe extreme weather impacts on facilities).
   •   Bring air pollution consequences of climate change impacts on transportation systems to the attention
       of state and local partners.

WATER-CARIBBEAN8
   •   Foster renewal of discussions about the implementation of source water protection programs in the
       Caribbean islands.
   •   Train Caribbean enforcement officers to increase awareness of the impact of climate change to
       regulated facilities and their activities. Give out information to public works personnel during Municipal
       Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4) inspections.
   •   Improve communications with Puerto Rico Department of Natural & Environmental Resources and U.S.
       Virgin Islands Department of Planning & Natural Resources and other state agencies for collaborations in
       the respective coastal zone management programs in the Caribbean to work together in addressing
       coastal vulnerabilities.
   •   Implement water conservation programs to address anticipated levels of reduced precipitation in the
       Caribbean. Promote more sustainable small water systems infrastructure, operation and maintenance
       for the Caribbean islands.
8 New York and New Jersey long-term priority actions are identified in the "Moving Toward a Climate Resilient Region"
Section.

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    •   Outreach and implementation of water reuse/reclamation programs to address future water scarcity for
       the Caribbean islands.

WASTE: SUPERFUND & RCRA
    •   In the Caribbean, promote Climate Change Adaptation SEPs, in future enforcement orders, permits to
       CWA sites as well as RCRA Hazardous Waste sites.
    •   Promote more P2/Sustainable Practices in the Caribbean to prevent/minimize releases of hazardous
       material as a result of hurricanes, flooding, etc.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE
    •   Develop database/ for reuse and recycling of disaster debris. Simultaneously develop in-house
       expertise for debris management and conduct training for EPA staff through ICS exercises.
    •   Conduct outreach with states & municipalities to encourage development and implementation of
       disaster debris management plans.
    •   Conduct outreach with states and municipalities to improve management of household hazardous
       waste to prevent releases during extreme weather events. Increase awareness among federal, state and
       local agencies/first responders about the impacts of climate change in emergency situations in the
       Caribbean.
    •   Review CEPD's emergency response plan to ensure that the vulnerabilities of the new San Juan office
       location are considered.
    •   Improve communications with DNER/DPNR and other Caribbean state agencies for collaborations in the
       respective coastal zone management programs to mitigate impacts during emergencies.

COMMUNITIES & VULNERABLE POPULATIONS
    •   Increase number of communities that receive information about availability of technical assistance, such
       as Complete Streets, planning for older populations in communities.
    •   Promote more Pollution Prevention/Sustainable Practices in the Caribbean to prevent/minimize releases
       of hazardous material as a result of hurricanes, flooding, etc.
    •   Compile case studies that showcase implementation of climate adaptation and mitigation efforts to
       describe their effectiveness.
    •   Coordinate with states and local governments that are piloting and demonstrating use of climate
       information in research, planning and rebuilding efforts.
    •   Support economic development strategies for building communities with climate resiliency through job
       training, education and coordination.
    •   Develop outreach such as workshops, webinars, etc. on resilient buildings. Feature EPA Indoor airPLUS
       for building reconstruction and EPA's Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades
       for building upgrades. Prepare information and recommendations regarding mold and indoor air quality
       issues for distribution to the public. Disseminate factsheets on re-entry to homes, schools, daycare
       centers, buildings, etc. Address energy efficiency impacts on indoor air quality for homes and schools to
       avoid maladaptation.
                                                 36

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MOVING TOWARD A CLIMATE RESILIENT REGION
Like other regions and program offices in EPA, Region 2 faces significant constraints on funding and employee
resources. Region 2's decision to segregate our priority actions into short-term and long-term actions in the
preceding sections of this document recognizes those constraints. There are additional actions that EPA has not
included in either the short-term or long-term actions, above, because the timing of those additional actions
might not be clear or because this document is not seen as the vehicle to drive those actions. In addition to
funding and employee resource constraints, these additional actions may  require difficult policy or legal
decisions before we can implement them. They might also require action by another  party. For example, many
of these actions must be addressed in partnership with states, territories,  tribes and municipalities, all of which
face serious budget restrictions and difficult policy choices of their own. In some cases, EPA is already
implementing portions of additional actions through work driven by factors external to this Adaptation Plan.
Below are some of the actions that fit into this additional category. EPA Region 2 will  consider the appropriate
timing of these additional actions in the context of the adaptive management framework.

Region 2 sees future opportunity to work with state regulators during the  planning and permitting process, for
the air and oil sector and sewage treatment plants, in accounting for climate change related issues. This could
require considering the elevation of a facility, location of facility intakes, and location of emissions control
equipment to account for project climate change impacts. In the Caribbean, we could explore the possibility of
implementing green infrastructure and green energy in consent-decrees and orders (for both Safe Drinking
Water Act and Clean Water Act).

In the area of watershed management, the regional water program supports continuing to work with state,
territory, tribal,  and  local partners to further integrate climate change adaptation considerations into nonpoint
source management plans and programs. For example, the New York City  Drinking Water Program has a robust
watershed protection program that integrates climate change concerns which was developed with the help of
EPA Region 2 and other state partners. This collaboration with our partners could also entail enhancing the
protection and creation of buffers to  rivers, lakes, wetlands and other coastal resources to build resiliency  and
protect water quality. Region 2 could also work with partners to prepare for increased runoff by encouraging
development of infiltration basins,  providing soil structure to soils compacted by development, adoption of
erosion and sediment controls, increases in culvert sizes and the adoption of other BMPs that mitigate runoff.
These activities could be supported in part by leveraging state and federal resources, including Clean Water Act
Section 319 grant funds.  Finally, Region 2 could encourage states to incorporate climate change issues when
updating their nonpoint source management plans and guidance documents.

In the ocean and coastal  arena, the water program will continue to promote a sustainable balance between the
use of soft shorelines, living shorelines and innovative shoreline development, and hardened shorelines. The
region's ability to support on-the-ground projects as it has in the past is currently limited. The dredging program
seeks to work with partners to better anticipate and plan for increased demand for dredged sediments to
counter the effects of sea level rise and increased erosion.

As Superstorm Sandy demonstrated,  drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in Region 2 are extremely
vulnerable to sea level rise, storm surge and erosion. The water program supports further collaboration with

                                                 37

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partners to support a watershed management approach to protecting source water. Activities could include
introducing vegetation for flood control, increasing recharge to aquifers, including source water protection areas
in local climate adaptation initiatives and identifying climate change threats to drinking water. The region plans
to work more closely with facility operators and municipalities, which have a range of different capabilities and
impacts of concern, to provide them with more support and better climate change information. Potential
activities include training facility operators in the use of local climate projections, GIS (Geographic Information
Systems) and LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) mapping of flood plains. The water program may be able to
provide technical support to facilities and municipalities as they consider future audits, upgrades or new
construction. Many communities in Region 2 rely on on-site systems like cesspools and septic systems instead of
wastewater treatment plants. To support these communities, the water program intends to support state and
local partners in conducting an analysis of the susceptibility of  septic systems and cesspools to climate change as
resources permit. To  reduce the strain on facilities and on-site  systems, the region seeks to expand its existing
green infrastructure program to better support residential and community green infrastructure programs by
promoting rain gardens, green roofs, downspouts and other tools. Finally, the water program seeks to improve
climate readiness of coastal communities by supporting vulnerability assessments, hazard mitigation, pre-
disaster planning and (if applicable), recovery efforts.

These additional actions will help us move toward a climate resilient Region. While Region 2 is not prepared to
set a schedule for these additional  actions, they will be implemented at the appropriate time and in the
appropriate manner in light of multiple factors such as resources, policy, law, actions of other parties, and
relationship to other  non-adaptation driven work. Some of these actions might be ripe for implementation very
soon and others  might not be appropriate for the foreseeable future. Region 2 will use the adaptive
management framework to assist us in determining if and when to implement these additional actions.
                                                  38

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TRACKING PROGRESS OVER TIME: MEASUREMENT & EVALUATION
Adapting to climate change impacts requires an approach that can adjust over time. There is uncertainty related
to the global inputs of greenhouse gas emissions that we will experience in the future and related to the
resulting local impacts from the range of emissions that could potentially be anticipated. As the region develops
strategies to address climate impacts, these actions may need to shift to address changing environmental
conditions or we may learn from initiatives and adjust them to seek greater results. EPA will continue to
strengthen coordination among programs and with  partners in this shifting context. A framework for
understanding this approach is adaptive management, which calls for developing adaptation strategies based
on assessments that are monitored, revisited, redesigned and adjusted over time. This adaptive management
approach, employed by the Dept. of Interior, continually calibrates strategies to respond to shifting conditions
meanwhile refining and improving the efficacy of strategies over time.

Adaptive Management Process
                                             Assess
                                           problem
                                          Monitor
                                                                    Source: Department of Interior, 2010
EPA's mission is to protect human health and the environment. In assessing climate hazards, and developing
strategies to address them, the broad vision is to ensure that EPA persists in protecting human health and the
environment as we experience and adapt to global climate change. In order to track our progress toward
meeting the vision of a climate resilient mission for EPA, the following key summary goals have been identified
for EPA Region 2 to measure and continue to evaluate over time.

Summary Goals

   •   Strengthen our emergency preparedness for anticipated climate events.
                                               39

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       Integrate climate impacts into public health information.
       Collaborate with other federal agencies on climate adaptation initiatives.
       Incorporate climate change considerations into appropriate funding activities.
       Conduct outreach on climate impacts and best practices to promote tools and support decision-makers.
       Work with states and Indian nations to integrate climate adaptation into EPA, state and tribal
       environmental programs.
       Develop assessments of vulnerable infrastructure and sites to increase knowledge of potential climate
       risks and inform responses.
       Integrate climate adaptation as appropriate into regional programs such as permitting, enforcement and
       environmental review.
       Partner with communities and other stakeholders to develop and implement climate adaptation
       strategies that address the climate vulnerabilities of our region.
    As the region implements the adaptation plan, we will measure and evaluate progress toward achieving the
    above goals as part of the adaptive management framework. The region will assess the progress of our
    priority actions under each of these goals. The lessons learned in this process will inform the adjustment and
    development of our future strategies as we apply adaptive management to address the risks of climate
    change to our region.
  CONCLUSION
Getting to resilience will require a coordinated effort by an intergovernmental partnership to leverage all the
tools we have with our limited program resources. This adaptation plan begins to assess our vulnerabilities and
define the starting point for addressing these vulnerabilities. Much of the work will be accomplished in a
sustained effort over time.
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EPA's "Northeast Impacts & Adaptation" web page, http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-
   adaptation/northeast.html

EPA's "U.S. Tropical Islands Impacts & Adaptation" web page, http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-
   adaptation/islands.html

EPA Region 2, 2011. Keeping Raw Sewage & Contaminated Stormwater Out of the Public's Water.
   http://www.epa.gov/region2/water/sewer-report-3-2011.pdf

EPA,  December 2012. "National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change".
   http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/upload/epa 2012 climate water strategy  full report final.p
   df

EPA,  November 2013. "Consumer Health Effects; How Particle Pollution Can Affect Your Health" webpage,
   http://www.epa.gov/burnwise/healtheffects.html

EPA,  May 2014. "Particulate Matter Health Effects" web page,
   http://www.epa.gov/airquality/particlepollution/health.html

Hogrefe, C, B. Lynn, K. Civerolo, J.Y. Ku, J. Rosenthal, C. Rosenzweig, et al. 2004b. "Simulating changes in
   regional air pollution over the eastern United States due to changes in global and regional climate and
   emissions." Journal of Geophysical Research 109:022301.

Industrial Economics, 2012. Review of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Options on Tribal Lands in
   Northern and Western New York,  DRAFT.

IPCC, 2007. Working Group II Report on Small Islands,
   http://www.ipcc.ch/publications  and  data/ar4/wg2/en/chl6.html

IPCC, 2012. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance  Climate Change Adaptation.

National Research Council, 2011. Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health. Washington, DC: The
   National Academies Press.

New  York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), 2011. "Response to  Climate Change in
   New York State (ClimAID),"http://www.nyserda.ny.gov/Publications/Research-and-
   Development/Environmental/EMEP-Publications/Response-to-Climate-Change-in-New-York.aspx

New  York City Panel on Climate Change, 2010. "Climate Observations and Projections" chapter,
   http://onlinelibrarv.wilev.eom/doi/10.llll/i.1749-6632.2009.05314.x/pdf

New  York City Panel on Climate Change, 2009. "Climate Risk Information" report,
   http://www.nvc.gov/html/om/pdf/2009/NPCC  CRI.pdf.

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New York Metropolitan Transportation Council, "Plan 2040 Regional Transportation Plan: A Shared Vision for a
    Sustainable Region." Sept 2014.

Oswald, Michelle, University of Delaware University Transportation Center, literature review: "Transportation
    Adaptation in Response to Climate Change," 2009.
    http://www.ce.udel.edu/UTC/Presentation%2009/Literature%20Review%20Climate%20Change%20Adaptati
    on%20_Oswald_090728.pdf

Puerto Rico Climate Change Council, May 2012. "Climate Change in Puerto Rico: Observed Trends and Future
    Projections." Working Group 1 Report. In press.

Shope, R. 1991; Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases; Env Health Perspectives Dec. 96:171-4. Erickson
    et al., 2012; Potential impacts of Climate Change on the Ecology of Dengue & its Mosquito Vector, the Asian
    Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus); Environmental Research Letters, 7 -034003.

United Nations Environment Program, 2010. "Vital Climate Change Graphics for Latin America and the
    Caribbean", http://www.grida.no/publications/vg/lac2/

U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, "Hardening and Resiliency U.S.
    Energy Industry Response to  Recent Hurricane Seasons- Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration."
    August 2010. http://www.oe.netl.doe.gov/docs/HR-Report-final-081710.pdf

U.S. Department of Transportation, "Climate Adaptation Plan: Ensuring Transportation Infrastructure and
    System  Resilience." May 2013.

U.S. Department of Transportation. "Flooded Bus Barns and Buckled Rails:  Public Transportation and Climate
    Change Adaptation." Tina Hodges. FTA Report No. 0001. 2011.U.S. Global Change Research Program
    (USGCRP), 2008. Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human
    Systems (SAP 4.6). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 2009, National Climate Assessment.
    http://www.globalchange.gov/publications/reports/scientific-assessments/us-impacts/regional-climate-
    change-impacts/northeast

U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 2013 DRAFT, National Climate Assessment.
    http://www.globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment
                                                 42

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
        Mid-Atlantic Region III
      Climate Change Adaptation
         Implementation Plan
Prepared by the Region III Climate Network Climate Adaptation Working Group
                 5/30/2014
                   ^ t
                 s r^^BCo 5

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                                     Disclaimer




 To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so



   for informational purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or



 regulations, and readers should consult the statutes or regulations to learn what they require.



 Neither this document, nor any part of it, is itself a rule or a regulation. Thus, it cannot change



 or impose legally binding requirements on EPA, States, the public, or the regulated community.



 Further, any expressed intention, suggestion or recommendation does not impose any legally



  binding requirements on EPA, States, tribes, the public, or the regulated community. Agency



 decision makers remain free to exercise their discretion in choosing to  implement the actions



 described in this Plan. Such implementation is contingent upon availability of resources and is



                                   subject to change.
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                                        Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to
the challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate,
outside the range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant
challenges to the EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it is
to continue fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is
therefore anticipating and planning for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill
its mission of protecting human health and the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for
review and comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and expert
judgment to identify vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate change. The plan
also presents 10 priority actions that EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules,
and operations will remain effective under future climatic conditions. The priority placed on
mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA complements efforts to encourage and
mainstream  adaptation planning across the entire federal government.

Following completion of the draft Climate  Change Adaptation Plan, each EPA National
Environmental Program Office, all 10 Regional Offices, and several National Support Offices
developed a Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how it will
carry out the work called for in the agency-wide plan. Each Implementation Plan articulates
how the office will integrate climate adaptation into its planning and work in a manner
consistent and compatible with its goals and objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation Plans demonstrate how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-
wide priorities presented in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of
EPA's plans is to build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build
capacity in states, tribes, and local communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by
increasing their awareness of ways that climate change may affect their ability to implement
effective programs, and by providing them with the necessary data, information, and tools to
integrate climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program
vulnerability assessments" are living documents that will  be  updated as needed to account for
new knowledge, data,  and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on  EPA's
mission. The plan then identifies specific priority actions that the office will take to begin
addressing its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming climate change adaptation  into its activities.
Criteria for the selection of priorities are discussed. An emphasis is placed on protecting the
Page

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most vulnerable people and places, on supporting the development of adapti
tribes, and on identifying clear steps for ongoing collaboration with tribal gov
        :ive capacity in the
tribal governments.
Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they
mainstream climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate
their efforts in order to understand how well different approaches work and how they can be
improved. Each Implementation Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization
will regularly evaluate the effectiveness of its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where
necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build
the nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal  of protecting human health and the
environment. Working with  its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and
prosperous nation that is resilient to a changing climate.
                                              Bob Perciasepe
                                              Deputy Administrator

                                              September 2013
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US  EPA Region III - Climate Adaptation

Implementation Plan


Table of Contents
Acknowledgements	6
Introduction	6
Chapter 1: Regional Programmatic Vulnerability Assessment	7
  Background /Approach	7
Selected Programmatic Climate Change Vulnerabilities	9
  Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality	9
  Goal 2. Protecting America's Waters	14
  Goal 3. Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable Development	16
  Goal 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution	18
  Evaluation of Potential Vulnerabilities for Region III Managed Facilities and Operations	18
Vulnerable Populations	20
Chapter 2: DRAFT Regional Priority Actions for Climate Adaptation	21
  Introduction	21
  Criteria for EPA Mid-Atlantic Region Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan Priority
  Actions	22
  Priority Actions, Cross-Cutting:	22
  Priority Actions, Goal 1:  Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality:	23
  Priority Actions, Goal 2 Protecting America's Waters:	23
  Priority Actions, Goal 3 Cleaning Up America's Communities & Advancing Sustainable
  Development:	24
  Priority Actions, Goal 4 Ensuring Safety of Chemicals & Preventing Pollution:	25
  Priority Actions; Region III Managed Facilities and Operations:	25
Chapter3: Measurement and Evaluation	27
References	29
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Acknowledgements
This document was prepared by the Region III Climate Change Network Adaptation Workgroup
under the leadership of the Region III Climate Change Senior Steering Committee with
additional assistance, guidance, and input from numerous staff and management across the
Region III organization.


Introduction
We live in a world in which the climate is changing. Because many of the environmental
outcomes that EPA is working to attain (e.g., clean air, safe drinking water) are sensitive to
changes in weather and climate, these changes are posing new challenges to EPA's ability to
fulfill its mission of protecting human health and the environment.

To address these challenges, EPA has developed a Climate Change Adaptation Plan. The
Adaptation Plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and expert judgment to begin to
identify vulnerabilities to EPA's  mission and goals from climate change. The Adaptation Plan
also presents priority actions the Agency will  take to integrate climate adaptation planning into
its programs, policies, rules, and operations, to ensure they are effective in a changing climate.
EPA's focus on climate adaptation is part of a larger federal effort to promote a healthy and
prosperous nation that is resilient to a changing climate.

EPA's vision is for the Agency to continue to fulfill its mission of protecting human health and
the environment even as the climate changes. In the coming years, EPA will build and
strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build  capacity in states, tribes,
and local communities. EPA will empower its  staff and partners by increasing their awareness of
ways that climate change may affect their ability to  implement effective programs, and by
providing them with the necessary data, information, and tools to integrate climate adaptation
into their work.

EPA's Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation1, issued in 2011, called for EPA to plan
for future changes in climate and to mainstream considerations of climate change into its
activities. As part of that effort, the Policy Statement called for the Agency to develop and
implement a Climate Change Adaptation Plan. It also called for each EPA National
Environmental Program Office and Regional Office to develop Implementation Plans to explain
how they will carry out the work called for in  the Agency-wide Plan. To answer this call, EPA
Region III has prepared the following Climate-Change Adaptation Implementation Plan. The
plan will address how our Regional Office hopes to integrate climate adaptation into our
planning and work, as well as, address the cross-EPA priorities identified in the Agency-wide
Adaptation Plan. The information and actions listed  in this plan has  been based on the best
available science and will reflect unique regional circumstances. The plan will updated as the
Region learns by through the experience of integrating climate change adaptation planning into
our activities.
1 http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/impacts-adaptation/adaptation-statement.pdf

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Chapter 1: Regional Programmatic Vulnerability Assessment
Background / Approach
This section contains an assessment of the vulnerabilities of
selected EPA Region III programs to the impacts of climate
change. It builds on the work presented in Part 2 of EPA's
Agency-wide Plan, as well as the individual assessments
completed by various EPA National Program Offices, eg.
Office of Air and Radiation.  It summarizes vulnerabilities
related to the goals in EPA's FY 2011-2015 Strategic Plan.

This assessment was developed by a working group within
the Region III Climate Network. The assessment is based on
peer-reviewed literature (climate impacts) and the
professional judgment of regional staff (programmatic
impacts). Vulnerability assessment is an ongoing process. This
plan should be viewed as a living document that will be
updated as needed to account for new knowledge, data, and
scientific  evidence about the impacts of climate change on
EPA's mission.
EPA's Five Strategic Goals:

1.  Taking Action on Climate
   Change and Improving Air
   Quality.
2.  Protecting America's Waters.
3.  Cleaning Up Communities and
   Advancing Sustainable
   Development
4.  Ensuring the Safety of
   Chemicals and Preventing
   Pollution
5.  Enforcing Environmental Laws
Important climate change impacts in the region that will be covered within this assessment
include:

   •   Increased tropospheric ozone pollution
   •   Increasing extreme temperatures
   •   Effects on the stratospheric ozone layer
   •   Increasing heavy precipitation events
   •   Increasing intensity of hurricanes
   •   Sea level rise
   •   Ocean acidification
   •   Increasing water temperatures
   •   Increasing risk of floods
   •   Increased frequency and intensity of wildfires


Regional Description
Region 3, EPA's Mid-Atlantic office, serves Delaware (DE), the District of Columbia (DC),
Maryland (MD), Pennsylvania (PA), Virginia (VA), and West Virginia (WV). The Region is unique
in that it straddles two different climate regions, as defined by the U.S. Global Change Research
Program (USGCRP 2009) - the Northeast (DE, DC, MD, PA, WV, and northern VA) and the
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Southeast (southern VA). As a result, the Region represents a diverse climate, which includes
snowy winters, vibrant autumns, and extreme events (such as nor'easters and heat waves)
characteristic of the Northeast, and mild temperatures and high humidity characteristic of the
Southeast. The western portions of Region III (sections of western PA and WV) sometimes
mimic USGCRP's Midwest region.

There are diverse agricultural, industrial, and residential sectors within the region that use and
impact resources that may be affected by climate change. In addition, the region contains
various types of geographic features and sub-regions, including barrier Islands, the Appalachian
Mountains, the Piedmont Plateau, the Chesapeake Bay, as well as, the Delaware Bay and
Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal areas, estuaries and river systems, including the Chesapeake and
Delaware Bays, comprise a significant portion of the Region's population centers. The Region
contains a significant amount of coastline and a number of large urban areas (Philadelphia,
Baltimore, Washington, DC), with sensitive populations that are particularly vulnerable to the
impacts of a  changing climate. Outside of the urban areas there are wetlands, uplands, and
forested areas with both pristine and degraded ecosystems.
Figure 1. Map of Region III

Expected Changes in Climate
The following is a summary of the range of key impacts and trends that are foreseen in the
Region-from the USGCRP June 2009 report.

                                                                The Region has
                                                                significant geographic
                                                                and climatic diversity
                                                                within its relatively
                                                                small area. The
                                                                character and economy
                                                                of the Northeast have
                                                                been shaped by many
                                                                aspects of its climate
                                                                including its snowy
                                                                winters, colorful
                                                                autumns, and variety of
                                                                extreme events such as
                                                                nor'easters, ice storms,
                                                                and heat waves. This
                                                                familiar climate has
                                                                already begun changing
                                                                in noticeable ways.
                                                                Since 1970, the annual
                                                                average temperature in
                                                                the Northeast has
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increased by 2ฐF, with winter temperatures rising twice as much. Over the next several
decades, temperatures in the Northeast are projected to rise an additional 2.5 to 4ฐF in winter
and 1.5 to 3.5ฐF in summer. By mid-century and beyond, however, today's emissions choices
would generate starkly different climate futures; the lower the emissions, the smaller the
climatic  changes and resulting impacts. Warming  has resulted in many other climate-related
changes, including:

   •  More frequent days with temperatures above 90ฐF
   •  A longer growing season
   •  Increased heavy precipitation
   •  Less winter precipitation  falling as snow and more as rain
   •  Reduced snowpack
   •  Earlier breakup of winter ice on lakes and  rivers
   •  Earlier spring snowmelt resulting in earlier peak river flows
   •  Rising sea surface temperatures and sea level


Under a  higher emissions scenario:

   •  Winters in the Northeast are projected to  be much shorter with fewer cold days and
      more precipitation.
   •  The  length of the winter snow season would be reduced by a week or two.
   •  Cities that today experience few days above 100ฐF each summer would average 20 such
      days per summer, while certain cities, such as Philadelphia, would average nearly 30
      days over 100ฐF.
   •  Sea levels in the Region are projected to rise more than the global average.
Selected Programmatic Climate Change Vulnerabilities
The following section discusses how EPA Region III environmental and human health programs
may be vulnerable when faced with the impacts of a changing climate. This initial selection of
programmatic vulnerabilities will be described in context of the major goals in EPA's Strategic
Plan. The issues described here should not be seen as a complete listing of vulnerabilities to
EPA programs.  Region III, working with other EPA offices and other regional stakeholders, will
periodically update the information and scope of the programmatic vulnerability assessment.


Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
EPA's Air Protection Programs are a part of protecting the Region's citizens from air pollution
through implementation of the Clean Air Act (CAA). The Air Protection programs are
responsible for ensuring implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards which
includes reviewing and enforcing State Implementation Plans and CAA permits. To complement
the regulatory work, the Air Protection Programs include energy efficiency, renewable energy,
clean  diesel, indoor air quality and radon outreach programs to reduce emissions of criteria

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pollutants, greenhouse gases and air toxics.  Extreme temperatures and increased average
temperatures, as well as, extreme flooding events in urban areas are the climate change
impacts of most concern for the Air Protection programs. As the air quality in the Region
worsens due to climate change impacts; the workload of the Air Protection Programs will
increase.

A. Tropospheric ozone is likely to increase in the Mid-Atlantic due to the effects of climate
   change.

The Mid-At I antic Region currently has eight nonattainment areas for the 2008 ozone standard,
as well as 4 nonattainment areas  and twenty-five maintenance areas for the 1997 8-hour ozone
standard.  With climate change, higher temperatures and weaker air circulation in the United
States will lead to more ozone formation even with the same level  of emissions of ozone
forming chemicals.2 Various studies project daily ozone levels to increase between two and five
parts per billion across the eastern U.S. between 2020 and 2080 due to climate change if no
additional emissions controls for ozone precursors are implemented.3

In addition to the direct impact of temperature change on ozone formation, an increase in
energy demand due to increased  temperatures may also lead to a worsening of air quality.
Sources in or upwind of the Region may be  required to implement  additional control measures.

In terms of Regional resources, greater collaboration with our states will be necessary on
planning and rule development to address any additional challenges in achieving or maintaining
attainment. A majority of the current nonattainment areas in the Mid-Atlantic Region are urban
areas with sensitive populations,  including Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Washington D.C., and
Baltimore. Exacerbating the health impacts from ozone pollution on urban populations will
likely be higher nighttime temperatures expected in urban areas, both as a consequence of
climate change but also because of enhanced effects from urban heat islands.4

Climate change also has the potential to increase the length of the  ozone season.5 Currently,
the ozone season runs from April  through October.  During this period, daily ozone levels are
recorded and reviewed. An increase in the  length of the  ozone season would require a longer
reporting period, translating to more time spent for data reviews in the Region.

B. Particulate matter levels may be affected through changes in the frequency or intensity of
   wildfires.

In the Mid-Atlantic Region, there  are currently 8 nonattainment areas for the 2006 24-hour
PM2.5 standard and 16 nonattainment areas for the 1997 annual PM2.5 standard. While the
2 Denman, K.L, et al. (2007). Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry. In: Climate
Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt,
M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
3IPCC Fourth Assessment, GCAQ-EPA
4 IPCC Fourth Assessment
5 Ibid
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impact of climate change on ambient PM2.5 levels remains somewhat uncertain, there is
evidence indicating that climate change will impact PM levels through changes in the frequency
or intensity of wildfires.6

In 2008, monitors in the Norfolk area of Virginia experienced 24-hour PM2.5 levels four times
(83 ug/m3) the standard due to wildfires in North Carolina. While these fires were not caused
by climate change, this example portrays the impact of fires on PM levels in the region, and is
indicative of the potential health and environmental concerns.

The adaptive capacity of Region 3 for this issue is limited, as this data can be treated as an
"exceptional event" under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. If determined to be due
to an exceptional event, monitoring data during fire events may be ignored when determining
attainment.

C.  Climate change may worsen and increase the exposure to indoor air problems in the Mid-
    Atlantic.

Existing indoor environmental problems may worsen and new ones may be introduced as
climate change alters the frequency and severity of adverse outdoor conditions.7

Extreme temperatures will very likely increase and heavy precipitation events will likely
increase as a  result of climate change8, which, along with increased dampness, moisture, and
flooding affecting homes and occupied buildings, may contribute to indoor environmental
problems in the Mid-Atlantic.9

Frequent breakdowns in a building's protective envelope, as a result of extreme  weather
conditions, may lead to water infiltration into indoor space, increased dampness, and, in turn,
increased exposure to mold and other biological contaminants.10

Changes in the emergence, evolution, and geographic ranges of pests, infectious agents, and
disease vectors may lead to shifting patterns of indoor exposure to pesticides as occupants and
building owners respond to new infestations.11
6 Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, "Scientific Assessment of the Effects of Global Change on the
United States" (Committee on Environment and Natural Resources of the National Science and Technology
Council, U.S. Climate Change Science Program, 2008), http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/scientific-
assessment/Scientific-AssessmentFINALpdf.
7 Institute of Medicine, Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health (Washington, DC: The National
Academies Press, 2011).
8IPCC, 2012: Summary for Policymakers. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance
Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J.
Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of
the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY,
USA, pp. 1-19.
9 Institute of Medicine, Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health (Washington, DC: The National
Academies Press, 2011).
10 Ibid.
11 Ibid.

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Residents may weatherize buildings to increase comfort and save energy. Although in general
these actions should be encouraged, this may lead to a reduction in ventilation and an increase
in indoor environmental pollutants unless measures are taken to preserve or improve indoor air
quality.12 EPA has developed practical guidance for improving or maintaining indoor
environmental quality during home energy upgrades or remodeling in single-family homes and
schools.  EPA's guidance and protocols may need to be revised to include state and local
considerations for projected climatic changes.  In addition, these programs may need  to
increase partnerships with other agencies to address training needs and workforce
development for building owners, managers, and others, as well as develop new tracking
mechanisms to assess the effectiveness of weatherization and remodeling techniques as they
relate to  indoor environmental quality.

The Mid-At I antic Region is comprised of several large urban areas, which are very likely to see
increases in the risk of illness and death  related to extreme heat and heat waves. For example,
Philadelphia is projected to jump from an average of just a few days above 100ฐF each summer
to nearly 30 days above 100ฐF each summer by late this century, under a higher emissions
scenario. The elderly and those with existing health problems are particularly vulnerable.13
Increased frequency of extreme weather events may result in  power outages, leading to
increased exposure to potentially dangerous indoor conditions.14

Region III may need to build its adaptive capacity to these increasing and changing health  risks
through its indoor air quality programs, resources, and public outreach and assistance.
Partnerships between Region III and stakeholders, such as state/local governments, non-profits,
etc., will need to be strengthened in order to inform affected populations on how to adapt to
higher temperatures.  Strengthening ties between the Region's energy efficiency and  indoor air
quality programs will be necessary in order to address the relationship between building
ventilation during efficiency retrofits and potential, resulting indoor air problems.

D. Climate change may alter the effects of and strategic priorities within EPA Region III
   regulatory and voluntary programs to help restore the stratospheric ozone layer.

Climate change will likely have effects on the stratospheric ozone layer; however, the
interactions between the changing climate and ozone layer are complex. Climate change
affects the ozone layer through changes in chemical transport, atmospheric composition and
temperature. In turn, changes in stratospheric ozone can have implications for the weather
12 Ibid.

13 USGCRP, 2009: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and
Thomas C. Peterson (eds.). United States Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press, New
York, NY,  USA.
14 Institute of Medicine, Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health (Washington, DC: The National
Academies Press, 2011).

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and climate of the troposphere. Climate change may exacerbate the health effects of ozone
layer damage at some latitudes and mitigate them at others.15

In order to build adaptive capacity with respect to this vulnerability, Region III may need to
heighten public awareness of the health risks of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, through
existing EPA partnership programs such as SunWise. Climate change may also lead to an
increase in the use of cooling devices, such as air conditioners, which contain ozone depleting
substances (ODSs) or ODS substitutes. Region 3 may need to make changes to its current
efforts to promote programs such as GreenChill and Responsible Appliance Disposal in the Mid-
Atlantic, as a result.

E. Climate change may impact energy production and efficiency in the Mid-Atlantic.

Rising temperatures, as a result of climate change, are expected to increase energy
requirements for cooling and decrease energy requirements for heating. The former will result
in significant increases in electricity use and higher peak demand. The electricity grid is also
vulnerable to the effects of climate change, such as extreme weather events and peak  demand
increases resulting from rising temperatures, which could cause interruptions in the electric
power supply.16 The Mid-Atlantic's urban areas and sensitive populations, such  as the  elderly,
are particularly vulnerable to power interruptions during extreme weather events like  heat
waves.

F. Extreme weather events may impact the regional monitoring systems.

Extreme weather events, including severe winds,  flooding and  lightning, could cause damage to
the PM2.5 and RADNET monitoring systems in Region III. The standard operating procedure for
deploying monitors currently includes consideration of extreme weather. The Region will need
to continue following the monitoring SOP to ensure that monitors can be safely  accessed and
operated.

G. Scientific understanding related to ways that climate change may affect the interactions
   of sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury deposition with ecosystems is evolving.

While there is limited scientific evidence on this topic, additional research  is underway to better
understand how patterns in the atmospheric deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, and  mercury with
projected changes in the climate and carbon cycle will affect ecosystem growth, species
15 World Meteorological Organization, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and
Monitoring Project—Report No. 52 (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011). Note: the word "expected" is used in the report
to characterize projected climate change impacts on the stratospheric ozone layer. For purposes of this
assessment, the word "likely" has been used as a proxy for "expected."
16 USGCRP, 2009: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and
Thomas C. Peterson (eds.). United States Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press, New
York, NY, USA.

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changes, surface water chemistry, and mercury methylation and bioaccumulation.17 The
potential impacts could have consequences for the effectiveness of ecosystem protection from
Agency emissions reduction programs.

Goal 2. Protecting America's Waters
A. Flooding from increasingly frequent and intense storm events

In the Northeast, the annual number of days with very heavy precipitation has increased in the
past 50 years. Flooding often occurs when heavy precipitation persists for days to weeks in
small and large watershed. Precipitation and runoff are likely to increase in the Northeast in
winter and spring. Increases in the impacts from precipitation and flooding may damage
regional drinking and wastewater facilities and may exacerbate non-point source pollution
water quality issues in reservoirs, wetlands, streams and  rivers within the Region.

B. Coastal wetland loss

Coastal wetlands often migrate landward, disappear, or change in type in response to sea level
rise through  accretion. Dense coastal development is often protected by shoreline armoring,
which prevents wetland migration and leads to loss of submerged wetlands.  Coastal wetlands
are essential for providing storm surge buffers, preserving estuarine water quality  as well as
supporting economically important fish and wildlife habitat.

C. Threats to coastal water-related infrastructure

The densely  populated coasts of the Northeast face substantial increases in the extent and
frequency of storm surge, coastal flooding, erosion, and property damage. Much of this
coastline is exceptionally vulnerable to sea-level rise and  related impacts.

D. Water Quality impacts from climate changes

Shallow groundwater aquifers that exchange water with streams are likely to be the most
sensitive part of the groundwater system to climate change. Small reductions in groundwater
levels can lead to large reductions in stream flow and increases in groundwater levels can
increase stream flow. Further, the interface between streams and groundwater is an important
site for pollution removal by microorganisms. Their activity may change in  response to
increased temperature and increased or decreased streamflow as climate changes, this may
affect water quality and affect Clean Water Act goals related to water bodies in non-attainment
and affect TMDL development.

A specific mid-Atlantic water quality concerns is the Delaware River Basin, which includes
portions of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware that drain to the 330-mile long
Delaware River and Bay. The  basin's total area is over 13,500 square miles, and over 15 million
people rely on its water resources for potable, industrial, and agricultural use. The  main focal
17 Burns, DA, Lynch, J.A., Cosby, B.J., Fenn, M.E., Baron, J.S., US EPA Clean Air Markets Div., 2011: National Acid
Precipitation Assessment Program Report to Congress 2011: An Integrated Assessment, National Science and
Technology Council, Washington, DC, 114 p.

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points of climate change in the basin include increased temperature, changes in precipitation
patterns, and sea level rise. The Delaware River Basin Commission monitors the salt line
location as it fluctuates along the tidal Delaware River as stream flows increase or decrease in
response to changing inflows,  which either dilute or concentrate chlorides in the river. The salt
line location plays an important role in the Delaware River Basin water quality and drought
management programs because upstream migration of brackish water from the Delaware Bay
during low-flow and drought conditions could increase sodium chloride concentrations in public
water supplies, presenting a public health concern. (Courtesy Delaware River Basin Commission
State of the Basin Report 2008) As salt-laced water moves upriver, it increases corrosion control
costs for surface water users, particularly industry, and can raise the treatment costs for public
water suppliers. Salinity levels also affect aquatic living resources. Normal location of the salt
line is the mouth of the Delaware Bay, or river mile 67, but at times will move further north.
During the summer months of 1999, the salt line  moved to river mile 88 and during the 1960's
'drought of record' the salt line reached its farthest recorded upstream location at river mile
102, just 8 miles below important drinking water intakes in PA and NJ.


E. Severe flooding from sea-level rise and extreme precipitation is likely to increase

Sea-level rise is expected to increase saltwater intrusion into coastal freshwater aquifers,
making some unusable without desalination. Increased evaporation or reduced recharge
(drought)  into coastal aquifers exacerbates saltwater intrusion.  Like water quality, research on
the impacts of climate change on groundwater, ecosystems, and infrastructure has been
minimal and remedies may be difficult.

F. Water & Energy Infrastructure

Many water systems in the Northeast are already taxed due to aging infrastructure, population
increases, and competition among water needs for agriculture,  municipal use, recreation, and
ecosystems. Extreme precipitation events may exacerbate existing problems in many cities in
the Northeast, especially combined sewer systems. Drinking water and sewer infrastructure is
expensive to build and maintain. Climate change  may present a new set of challenges for
designing upgrades to the nation's drinking water and wastewater infrastructure.

Also, a significant fraction of the region's energy infrastructure is located near the coasts and
tide  influenced Bays, from power plants, to  oil refineries, to facilities that receive oil and gas
deliveries. Rising sea levels are likely to lead to direct losses, such as equipment damage from
flooding or erosion, and indirect effects, such as the costs of raising vulnerable assets to higher
levels or building new facilities farther inland.

G.  Changes in aquatic ecosystems/species composition and distribution

Various forces of climate change at the coasts pose a complex array of management challenges
and adaptation requirements. For example, relative sea level is  expected to  rise at least two
feet  in Chesapeake Bay (located  between Maryland and Virginia) where the  land is subsiding,

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Impacts in Northeast (DE,DC,MD,PA,WV)



and i n Southeast (VA)
ฃ
M
Q
& =
ro ro
> 3
Ci
V)
LL.
Ecosystem
Changes
Service
Demand &
	 \_Northeast
DW WW
Reduced Groundwater recharge V
Lower Lake and Reservoir Levels V
Changes i n seasonal runoff & loss of snowpack V V
Low flow conditions & altered water quality
Saltwater intrusion into aquifers
Altered surface water quality
High flow events and flooding N
Flooding from coastal storm surges N
VV

-------
making these properties available for reuse. Changes in climate should be taken into
consideration in order for the Region to continue to serve these important functions. It may be
necessary to design site-specific clean-up or remedy that can withstand the projected climate
change impacts and which may impact the Region's ability to exercise statutory authority and
may add cost.  Sea-level rise, storm and flood events, and increased ambient temperatures are
climate change impacts of particular concern for the programmatic focus areas - Restoring and
Preserving Land and Emergency Response.

A.  Restoring and Preserving Land
Increased flooding and sea-level rise may increase the risk of contaminant releases from
vulnerable RCRA Corrective Action sites, Superfund sites, Brownfield sites, LUST sites, other
contaminated sites, and landfills.  Flooding from more  intense and frequent storms and
extreme storm events could affect the migration and management of contaminants. Sea-level
rise can lead to inundation and salt water intrusion which may impact the performance of the
remedies and cause the transport of contaminants at sites in coastal areas. Contaminant
migration could also occur after prolonged power loss at cleanup sites with pump and treat
systems dependent on grid electricity.

Impacts may be most severe for cleanup sites that are not yet completed; however sites with
waste in place following a cleanup and permitted facilities that  manage hazardous materials
may also be vulnerable. Sites with on-site containment or treatment remedies within the 100
or 500 year flood plain of a surface water body and/or within the sea-level rise zone 1.5 meters
above high tide are of particular concern in Region III. Sediment sites with in situ capping
remedies are vulnerable to flood regime changes and re-suspension and deposition of
contaminated sediment. Flooding from storms and inundation due to sea level rise could
jeopardize land revitalization efforts including renewable energy generation, greener cleanups,
and ecological revitalization projects, as well as other site reuse or redevelopment plans at
Brownfield sites and completed Superfund Sites.

Increased ambient temperatures and extreme heat may impact the design and operation of
remediation  systems. Cleanup sites with waste in place phytoremediation, or a vegetative cap
may be vulnerable in areas that experience drought or changing plant hardiness zones. Slowed
growth rates during heat waves could impact the success of the remedy or revitalization effort,
and excessive vegetation loss could lead to erosion. Coastal, stream, and mountain ridge top
habitats are examples of ecosystems  in Region 3 that are vulnerable to increases in ambient
temperature.

B.  Emergency Response

As storm and flood events increase in frequency and severity, emergency responses to
hazardous materials release and oil spills may also increase. Financial constraints and response
capacity for Emergency Response  staff and Response Support Corps are  potential vulnerabilities
in Region III.  Existing emergency planning and chemical containment strategies at oil and
chemical facilities may not be sufficient. Current landfill capacity may also be  insufficient to
handle surges in disposal of hazardous and municipal wastes generated from extreme storm

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events. Availability of utilities and transportation infrastructure may be limited as a result of
increased impacts to those systems. Power loss and blocked roads can hamper emergency
responses.
Goal 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution

A. Use of Toxic chemicals:

A changing climate will likely result in changes in the timing and location of planting crops,
which in turn affects the volume and timing of agricultural chemical use. This change in
agricultural chemical use could impact the appropriate risk management decisions made by EPA
Pesticides and Toxic Substances Program, particularly with regard to the protection of migrant
farm workers.

Changes in temperature and precipitation levels are expected to lead to the increase in
mosquitoes and other pests controlled by regulated pesticides.  An increase in cases of the
West Nile Virus and other diseases carried by mosquitoes may lead to an increase in calls by the
public for the use of pesticides to control these disease vectors. This may in turn affect the
workload of the EPA Pesticides program.

B. Storage of Toxic Chemicals:

Flooding from more intense and frequent storms and extreme events could compromise
chemical containment strategies at oil facilities and toxic chemical and pesticide storage
facilities.  Facilities located in coastal areas and/or within the 100-500 year flood plain  of a
surface water body are of concern to Region III. If these facilities do not properly manage the
storage of these chemicals and/or store them at higher elevations, the extreme weather events
that are expected  as a result of climate change may result in the release of toxic chemicals into
the environment, including to surface waters via storm water discharges.

C. Exposure to Toxic Chemicals from Demolition/Renovation Activities:

The extreme weather events that are likely to occur as a result of climate change (e.g., high
winds,  heavy precipitation events) may damage community  infrastructure (e.g., schools and
child care facilities) and  residential homes. As a result, there may be an increased risk of
exposure to lead, asbestos, and  PCBs if buildings are renovated  or demolished as part of the
recovery efforts.

Assessment of Potential Vulnerabilities for Region III Managed Facilities and
Operations

Results from climate change include an increase in extreme temperatures, droughts, intensity
of precipitation and ground level ozone pollution which will affect Region III facilities and
employees to varying degrees depending on their location. Employee impacts such as an

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increase in heat-related illness, absenteeism, exposure to vector-borne diseases and mold
could result. In addition, localized flooding of roads and infrastructure could affect the
commute and business travel of our employees resulting in tardiness and reduced efficiency.
Facility impacts such as an increase in electricity use and decrease in indoor air quality are also
possible.

As discussed in the Expected Changes in Climate section of this plan, Philadelphia could average
more than thirty days over 100ฐ F in the future. This could lead to an increase in heat-related
illnesses for our employees especially, older employees and workers doing field work who do
not or can't reduce their exposure by limiting exertion and time outdoors due to mission
requirements.  More frequent hot summer days can also worsen air pollution, especially in
urban areas and threaten the health  of vulnerable employees. This could increase absenteeism
and/or reduce the productivity of our staff.  Higher temperatures will likely cause an increase in
electricity use and cost in our building to power air conditioning. This increased use could
stress the power supply grid resulting in brown outs, black outs and the need to use backup
power generators.

As discussed in more detail in the Goal  1 section of this plan, climate change may worsen and
increase exposure to indoor air quality  problems in our buildings from  dampness and mold, and
expose occupants to different pests,  infectious agents and disease vectors, as well as any
pesticides applied to address these infestations. As discussed in more detail in the Goal 2
section of this plan, an increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation events,
that have already been experienced, is  projected to be worse in the future, leading to more
frequent flooding and impact our road  and mass transit systems. Climate change impacts,
including increased severe weather, may affect the Region's Continuity of Operations Plan
(COOP) that describes efforts to prepare and react to  issues affecting the operation  of our
facilities. Unique or site specific vulnerabilities are described below.

Philadelphia Office located at 1650 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Over 90% of our approximately nine  hundred Philadelphia based employees use mass transit to
commute to work.  Any impact to this system is a large vulnerability that on any given day will
affect hundreds of our employee's ability to get to work and for the Region's ability  to function
and carry out its mission. A recent example of this vulnerability occurred when our  office was
closed on October 29 -30, 2012 as a result of a shutdown of mass transit in Philadelphia due to
impacts from Hurricane Sandy.

Past periods of drought in the Delaware watershed have resulted in salt water intrusion causing
concern for the Philadelphia drinking water supply intake on the tidal Delaware River north of
the city. Expected sea  level rise from climate change may exacerbate this vulnerability in the
future.

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Environmental Science Center (ESC) located at 701 Mapes Road, Fort Meade, Maryland

Vulnerability to flooding of the Environmental Science Building should not be an issue since
building site has a very robust stormwater runoff system that directs rain water falling on
approximately 70% of the site to a large capacity infiltration basin that can capture all the
volume produced by a two year storm and almost all the volume of a ten year storm before
there would be any discharge. However, localized  flooding of area roads could still be an issue
for the approximately one hundred sixty employees who must  commute to the laboratory to do
their work and have little if any ability to work from alternate locations.

Wheeling Office located at 1060 Chapline Street, Wheeling, West Virginia

Despite its location which is less than a one quarter mile from the Ohio River with an upstream
drainage area of approximately 25,030 square miles, flooding of the Wheeling office is not
expected to be a problem. The office is over fifty feet above the river level and has never been
impacted by historic flood events associated  with hurricanes in the drainage area or other
severe weather.  As discussed above, localized flooding of area roads could still be an issue for
the approximately 25 Wheeling office employees on their commute to work and for business
travel.

Chesapeake Bay Office located at 410 Severn Avenue, Annapolis, Maryland

Our Chesapeake Bay office is located in a marina office complex directly on the water in a
watershed that contains over one hundred fifty major rivers and streams and drains
approximately 64,000 square miles. An increase flood risk is likely at this facility but mostly
impacting storage and parking areas that are at a lower elevation. The offices in the building
are approximately eleven feet above the Bay water level. A predicted increase in the intensity
of hurricanes could impact the office directly due to its proximity to the coast and through
storm surge impacting the Chesapeake Bay. As discussed in more detail in the Goal 2 section of
this plan, sea level rise is also a threat to this facility as it will compound the effect of heavy
precipitation, increase in flooding and  storm  surge.
Vulnerable Populations
Certain parts of the population, such as children, the elderly, minorities, the poor, persons with
underlying medical conditions and disabilities, those with limited access to information, and
tribal and indigenous populations, can be especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate
change. Also, certain geographic locations and communities are particularly vulnerable, such as
those located in low-lying coastal areas. One of the principles guiding EPA's efforts to integrate
climate adaptation into its programs, policies and rules calls for its adaptation plans to prioritize
helping people, places and infrastructure that are most vulnerable to climate impacts, and to be
designed and implemented with meaningful involvement from all parts of society.

This Implementation Plan identifies  key programmatic vulnerabilities and the priority actions
that will be taken to address those vulnerabilities over time. As the work called for in this Plan is

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conducted, the communities and demographic groups most vulnerable to the impacts of
climate change will be identified. The Agency will then work in partnership with these
communities to increase their adaptive capacity and resilience to climate change impacts.
These efforts will be informed by experiences with previous extreme weather events (e.g.,
Hurricane Katrina and Superstorm Sandy) and the subsequent recovery efforts.

An important facet of climate adaptation are potential impacts to the health of the Region's
vulnerable populations. In areas where populations carries a heavy burden of disease or
poverty, the populations have less resiliency and the effects of climate change may be more
severe. The connections between our climate and human health have been known for years,
although now the changing climate has compelled scientist to re-examine these relationships
(Jonathan A. Patz 2000).

Populations such as children may be more vulnerable to both direct and indirect health effects
of climate change (Shea and Health 2007).  Other vulnerable populations include the elderly,
the poor, individuals with co-morbidities, and the  disabled.

These key impacts to the environment involve most of the programs in the Region (EPA. 2010).
Warmer temperatures will increase morbidity and mortality associated with both extreme heat
and cold weather patterns. This changing climate is also expected to affect air quality,
threatening the health of vulnerable populations,  including the very young, the elderly, outdoor
workers, and those without access to air conditioning or adequate health care (USGCRP  2009).
An increase in the strength and  frequency of extreme events (droughts, storms, and floods) will
likely increase the threat to overall human health  and safety (EPA. 2010). These patterns of
temperature and precipitation can affect the seasons for pollen and the range of specific
diseases in the Region including Lyme disease and West Nile virus.  The inner cities within
Region 3 will also pose many challenges to EPA as well as our partners in local government due
to urban heat island effect. The vulnerability of urban areas to climate change involves
consideration of the sensitivity of urban systems and people living within them to climate
change and other interacting stressors, their exposure to those stressors, and the ability of
systems and people to adapt to present and future changes.
Chapter 2: DRAFT Regional Priority Actions for Climate Adaptation

Introduction
Based on the vulnerabilities described in the previous chapter, existing Regional priorities, and
the current understanding of potential adaptation opportunities, the Region's Climate
Adaptation workgroup identified "Priority Actions" that may assist EPA in accomplishing its
mission and operate at multiple locations  in the face of a changing climate. Priority Actions are
listed below and categorized according to their relevance to programmatic goals in EPA's
current strategic plan. An additional list of cross-cutting actions are also proposed and will
support multiple strategic plan goals or build general capacity for future work on climate
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adaptation. Proposed actions or activities will be reviewed by the Office of Regional Counsel to
assure compliance with existing statutes, regulations, and guidance.

The Region will continue to identify other vulnerabilities that may occur and may need to
change the scope or focus of ongoing priority actions over time. The workgroup used a simple
set of criteria to identify and prioritize potential actions either developed from the vulnerability
assessment or suggested by a diverse set of stakeholders. The workgroup developed criteria to
qualitatively rank possible actions. The following is a summary of the criteria used to determine
the priority actions included in this plan:


Criteria for EPA Mid-Atlantic Region Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan
Priority Actions

   ปซป  Likelihood, timeframe, and anticipated severity of specific projected impacts to regional
       programs or objectives.
   ปซป  Ability to successfully implement a proposed action.
   ปซป  Alignment with any existing environmental priorities (i.e. national, regional, divisional,
       programmatic).
   ปซป  Alignment with priorities of key external partners and/or stakeholders (i.e. State and
       municipal governments).
   ปซป  Ability for the action to build institutional capacity within EPA to better identify
       vulnerabilities and actions that will successfully address those vulnerabilities over time.
   ปซป  Actions that may directly support one or more of the Agency-wide Strategic Measures
       for Climate Adaptation.

Priority Actions, Cross-Cutting:
•  Develop an interactive Climate Knowledge Base, including CIS maps and data based on
   information from the Programmatic Vulnerability Assessment, training materials, project
   descriptions, and staff contacts for use by the region.
•  Engage with local government stakeholders in the region to  better understand the
   adaptation planning needs of cities and urban areas. Develop, maintain, and promote a
   simple "adaptation toolkit"  with consolidated information and resources for urban areas
   within  the region.
•  Work with EPA HQ to develop general Climate Impacts and Adaptation training materials
   and make them widely available.
•  Continue to develop the existing Region III Climate Change Strategy and Workplan and align
   it with  this Climate Adaptation Implementation  Plan.
•  Work with the Office of Federal Activities to determine how to address climate adaptation
   issues under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).
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•  Develop a continuous improvement process for climate adaption implementation planning
   using the "Plan Do Check Act" framework currently used in the Region's multi-site
   Environmental Management System (EMS).
•  Build capacity internally through general education as well as targeted training to ensure
   that all employees are aware of climate change impacts on EPA programs and begin to
   integrate adaptation measures into their work.
•  Participate in EPA regional and national workgroups as appropriate to assist the national
   program in revising EPA guidance and regulations and implement as appropriate.

Priority Actions, Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air
Quality:
•  Strengthen and form partnerships to increase outreach on indoor air quality, ultraviolent
   radiation exposure, and energy efficiency to respond to increased risks due to climate
   change impacts.
•  Train additional staff to  respond to indoor air quality calls/questions from the public due to
   the increased number of calls after extreme events and flooding.
•  Build internal capacity to be able to incorporate climate change data into modeling and
   emissions analyses. Examples include 1) determining emission trends for sources associated
   with climate change impacts (frequent and more intense storms, more high temperature
   days), such as portable electric generators and peaking power plants, and 2)  updating
   current datasets used for dispersion modeling to take into account human activities like
   sprawl and meteorological datasets (rainfall patterns, temperatures, etc).
•  Strengthen partnerships to  encourage ozone-tolerant urban tree planting, as well as, white
   and green roofs, to reduce pollution and the urban heat island.
•  Work with other Regions and  HQ air program managers to develop a strategy, in context to
   other programmatic priorities, on how to incorporate climate adaptation into air quality
   programs  (e.g., SIP, permits).
•  After discussions with HQ and Regions, incorporate climate change impacts into comments
   on permit applications, where appropriate.
•  Consider integrated modeling approaches to incorporate new research on changes in  air
   deposition to water bodies  and land due to climate changes.
•  Leverage existing climate and energy partnership programs, such as ENERGY STAR, Green
   Power Partnership, and  Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Partnership to build adaptive
   capacity to address energy related vulnerabilities to climate impacts and extreme weather.

Priority Actions, Goal 2 Protecting America's Waters:
•  Include climate change parameters in next Chesapeake Bay TMDL and associated
   implementation plans.

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•  Work with states and source water protection partners to raise awareness of climate
   change impacts and assist states and water protection partners in incorporating climate
   adaptation actions into source water assessments and protection plans.
•  Promote awareness and encourage use of the Climate Ready Water Utilities Tools with an
   aim toward incorporating climate change impacts into resiliency  planning by drinking water
   and wastewater utilities.
•  Messaging to decision makers to encourage utilities to make sustainable investments,
   including improvements to prepare utilities for extreme weather events.
•  Continue work in the  Anacostia area of DC, Patapsco area of Baltimore and greater
   Philadelphia Area/lower Delaware River watershed through the Urban Waters Federal
   Partnership (UWFP) to assist with and leverage our partners' ongoing climate adaptation
   planning activities.
•  Support Maryland Inland Bays and Delaware Coastal Bays as they incorporate climate
   change and adaptation into their amended Comprehensive Management Plans.
•  Incorporate adaptation and resiliency principles into ongoing "greening" discussions with
   the U.S. Department of Transportation.
•  Host climate change workshops for Region III  water utilities to broaden the need for
   resiliency and awareness of available planning tools.
•  Begin discussions with state water quality standards managers on possible climate change
   impacts on current and future water quality standards.
•  Work with the EPA's Office of Water (OW) as  a pilot region to develop a framework and
   inventory of relative wetland vulnerabilities, at multiple scales, based on integration of
   information on vulnerability assessment methods and wetlands classification systems. This
   framework will use relevant information from OW's CWA Section 404, HWI, and NWCA
   program efforts, and the results will be framed to inform on best approaches for
   development of further guidance for integrating climate change considerations into each of
   these program's practices.
•  Work with the EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD), along with regional  state
   bioassessment scientists, to lay the foundation for a regional reference/climate change
   monitoring network in the Mid Atlantic, including a vulnerability analysis for streams.
•  Work with the EPA's Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds to include adaptation
   actions in the future work plans for our Wetlands permitting and enforcement programs.
•  Continue efforts with the Partnership for the  Delaware Estuary on climate change adaption
   planning by expanding upon the work of the climate change adaptation plan of 2010
   developed through Climate Ready Estuaries Funding.

Priority Actions, Goal 3 Cleaning Up America's Communities & Advancing
Sustainable Development:
•  Educate staff to incorporate changing climate into decision making and long term planning
   (Removal & Remedial cleanups, RE-Powering  America, Brownfields grants, Response
   Support Corps, Emergency Response, RCRA, Oil and Risk Management Program).
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•  Work with EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to develop a national
   strategy to ensure Oil and Risk Management Program facilities prepare for climate change
   and ensure that spill prevention and response strategies at facilities are sufficient for
   extreme events.
•  Prepare to dedicate additional resources including funding and staffing for Emergency
   Response and Response Support Corps.
•  Work with states to assess landfill capacity for surges in disposal of hazardous and
   municipal waste generated by extreme storm events.
•  Identify RCRA Corrective Action, Superfund, Brownfields, LUST, Oil and Risk Management
   Program facilities, and other OSWER sites within 100 and 500 year FEMA flood plains;
   within the sea level rise zone 1.5 meters above high tide; and within NOAA "SLOSH" (Sea,
   Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes)  model storm surge zones to assist in
   preparedness for extreme storm events.
•  Identify sites within the region that have vulnerable ecosystems—coastal, stream, mountain
   ridge top habitats.
•  Perform vulnerability analyses during site  investigation, cleanup  design, operations and
   maintenance, five year reviews, etc. Encourage states to consider doing the same for state-
   led states.
•  Incorporate  other OSWER adaptation implementation priorities, as applicable to Region III.
•  Begin work to integrate climate adaptation into pertinent financial assurance mechanisms.

Priority Actions, Goal 4 Ensuring Safety of Chemicals & Preventing Pollution:
•  Consider climate change in the administration of Pollution Prevention (P2) and associated
   sustainability initiatives. Assist the Region in identifying the  most sustainable approaches for
   mitigating and adapting to climate change through emphasizing  the lifecycle and risk
   reduction aspects of P2.
•  Participate in EPA regional and national workgroups on such issues as appropriate to assist
   the national program in revising EPA guidance and regulations.
•  Develop and deliver targeted training on Climate Adaptation to staff and managers working
   on EPA pesticide programs.
•  Train staff and managers working on demolition, renovation, and disaster debris programs
   on climate adaptation and chemical risk issues.
•  Incorporate  other OSCPP adaptation implementation priorities, as applicable to Region III.
•  Integrate climate adaptation  into pertinent financial assistance mechanisms.

Priority Actions; Region III Managed Facilities and Operations:
•  Determine if policy, guidance or email notification is warranted to those employees and
   contractors conducting field work during excessive heat warning or ozone action days.
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   Determine the number of employees that are currently using flexiplace and can work from
   alternate locations.
   Determine the number of employees who lack the ability to use flexiplace due to resources
   or their job function.
   Determine if a COOP is needed for the Chesapeake Bay Program Office and Wheeling Office.
   Determine if special criteria should  be developed for the Chesapeake Bay Program Office
   employees to warn them of the potential for office or localized flooding.
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Chapter 3: Measurement and Evaluation
This section will describe how Region III will update the information and analysis in this
implementation plan, evaluate the success of any activities undertaken, and continually
improve the process of programmatic climate adaptation over time. Since one of the goals of
the plan is to build adaptive capacity within EPA Region III programs the initial measurement
and evaluation plan will focus on the capacity building elements of the plan, as well as,
developing and refining the Region's approach to evaluation. This approach utilize along three
pathways and use existing systems and workgroups whenever possible.

Adaptive Management through Continuous Improvement
The central task will be to create a Continuous Improvement Process, similar to the Plan, Do,
Check, Act process used in our regional Environmental Management System, to adaptively
manage the execution and management of the Implementation Plan. This process will seek to
include a schedule for updates to the climate vulnerabilities, adaptation objectives, and
activities in the plan, a set of measurable goals, a management review, and a method for
sharing the results of the plan with our stakeholders.

Integration with Existing Regional Climate Strategy
The second pathway will be the integration of this implementation plan within the existing
(internal) Region III Climate Change Strategy. In practical terms, this means the objectives and
activities will be the same for both and all  activity tracking and measurement will occur using
the existing the workplan process developed for the Strategy. Oversight will  be the
responsibility of the Climate Change Senior Steering Committee and the cross-divisional
Regional Climate Network Workgroup will work to implement the plan. The current workplan
includes individual project management tracking and  metrics for each activity. Currently, these
metrics focus on the outputs of work. For example, we will track the number of training
programs offered to regional staff and the number of participants. The workgroup responsible
for this actions contained in this implementation plan will revise the plan annually.

One objective of future work for the planning process will be to  identify metrics that measure
outcomes. For example, a questionnaire was provided to regional employees to determine
their level  of understanding regarding climate change to determine appropriate training. We
have used  the information from the questionnaire to create a qualitative baseline to eventually
measure the outcomes of our ongoing capacity building efforts.

Develop Tools for Evaluation and Engagement
The third pathway will be the creation or use of specific tools to help with the important task of
evaluating progress, measuring the results of activities, and making changes and improvements
as necessary. This toolbox will need to include improvements to vulnerability analyses in
addition to tools focused on helping individual programs implement priority actions. Tools
under consideration include: Developing Logic Models similar to those used by EPA's Office of
Water, an  Interactive Knowledge Base for  mapping expected impacts and vulnerabilities, and
the use of  decision support tools developed by EPA national program offices.

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Another key aspect of the plan will be a robust engagement process with key external
stakeholders to both understand their approaches to measurement and evaluation and
collaborate on the development of evaluation methodology and tools for our shared priorities.
In addition, this engagement process will include targeted efforts to engage with
representatives from vulnerable populations with the Region.
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References:

IPCC, (2012). Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change
   Adaptation.

Jonathan A. Patz, D. E., John Last (2000). "The Effects of Changing Weather on Public Health."
   Annual Review of Public Health Vol. 21: 271-307 (Volume publication date May 2000).

NRC (2010). Advancing the Science of Climate Change . National Research Council. The
   National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.

National Research Council, (2011). Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health.
   Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Shea, K. M. and a. t. C. o. E. Health (2007). "Global Climate Change and Children's Health."
   Pediatrics 120(5): el359-e!367.

USEPA Northeast Impacts & Adaptation web page,
   http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/northeast.html

USEPA Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation (2011),
   http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/impacts-adaptation/adaptation-
   statement.pdf

USEPA Southeast Impacts & Adaptation web page,
   http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/southeast.html

USEPA., U. S. (2010). Climate change indicators in the  United States.

U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), 2009, National Climate Assessment.
   http://www.globalchange.gov/publications/reports/scientific-assessments/us-
   impacts/regional-climate-change-impacts/northeast
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Adaptation Implementation Plan

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                                       Disclaimer

To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so for
informational purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or regulations,
and readers should consult the statutes or regulations to learn what they  require. Neither this
document, nor any part of it, is itself a rule or a regulation. Thus, it cannot change or impose legally
binding requirements on EPA, States, the public,  or the regulated community.  Further, any
expressed  intention,  suggestion  or  recommendation does  not impose any  legally  binding
requirements on EPA, States, tribes, the public,  or the regulated community. Agency decision
makers remain free to exercise their discretion in  choosing to implement the actions described in
this Plan. Such implementation is contingent upon availability of resources and is subject to
change.
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                                         Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to
the challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate,
outside the range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant
challenges to the EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it
is to continue fulfilling its statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is
therefore anticipating and planning for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill
its mission of protecting human health and the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for
review and comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and expert
judgment to identify vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate  change. The plan
also presents  10 priority actions that EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules,
and operations will remain effective under future climatic conditions. The priority placed on
mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA complements efforts to encourage and mainstream
adaptation planning across the entire federal government.

Following completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan, each EPA National
Environmental Program Office, all 10 Regional Offices, and several National Support Offices
developed a Climate Adaptation Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how it will carry
out the work called for in the agency-wide plan. Each Implementation Plan articulates how the
office will integrate climate adaptation into its planning and work in a manner consistent and
compatible with its goals and objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation Plans demonstrate  how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-
wide priorities presented in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of
EPA's plans is to build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build
capacity in states, tribes, and local communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by
increasing their awareness of ways that climate change  may affect their ability to implement
effective programs, and by providing them with the necessary data, information,  and tools to
integrate climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional  Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial  assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program
vulnerability assessments" are living documents that will be updated as needed to account for
new knowledge, data,  and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's
mission. The plan then identifies specific priority actions that the office will take to begin
addressing its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming climate change adaptation into its activities.
Criteria for the selection of priorities are discussed. An  emphasis is placed on protecting the most
vulnerable people and places, on supporting the development of adaptive capacity in the tribes,
and on identifying clear steps for ongoing collaboration with tribal governments.
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Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they
mainstream climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate their
efforts in order to understand how well different approaches work and how they can be
improved. Each Implementation Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization
will regularly evaluate the effectiveness of its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where
necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build
the nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal of protecting human health and the
environment. Working with its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and prosperous
nation that is resilient to a changing climate.
                                               Bob Perciasepe
                                               Deputy Administrator

                                               September 2013
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                                       CONTRIBUTORS


Energy & Climate Change Coordinator          Bryan Myers

Lead Writer                                 Beth Walls

Office of Regional Administrator               Kedesch Altidor (Environmental Justice), Lisa Berrios
                                            (Tribal)

Air, Pesticides & Toxics Management Division    Christine Fortuin (Pesticides), Wayne Garfinkel
                                            (Children's Health), Rick Gillam (Air Modeler),
                                            Joel Huey (SIPs), Ana Oquendo (Air/Tribal), Henry Slack
                                            (Indoor Air)

Gulf of Mexico Program                       John Bowie

Office of Environmental Accountability          Vera Kornylak, Leah Ettema

Office of Policy and Management Division       Ravi Rao (Elderly), Bill Waldrop, Sharon Weeks

Resource Conservation & Recovery Act Division  Jay Bassett, Thornell Cheeks, Margaret Olson

Science & Ecosystem Support Division          Laura Ackerman, Pete Kalla

Superfund Division                            Benjamin Franco, Pam Scully, Sharon Thorns

Water Protection Division                     Bob Howard


                               ADDITIONAL WRITING AND EDITING

                  ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE STEERING COMMITTEE MEMBERS

Cory Berish                        Jon Johnston                      Don Rigger

Scott Davis                        Gail Mitchell                      Linda Rimer

David Lloyd                        Jeff Pallas
Special Recognition is given to Dr. Ken Mitchell whose foresight and drive initiated adaptation planning
for the Region.
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           PARTI
INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND
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                                     Table of Contents

I.    BACKGROUND AND DIRECTION	9
II.    DESCRIPTION OF EPA REGION 4	9
  A.   CLIMATE PATTERNS	10
     1.   Climate Factors	10
  B.   EPA REGION 4's ECOSYSTEMS	11
     1.   Overview of Ecosystems	12
     2.   Determining Climate Change Impacts to Aquatic Ecosystems	13
  C.   EPA REGION 4's COMMUNITIES	16
     1.   Social Vulnerability	17
III.   OBSERVED AND PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE IN REGION 4	17
  A.   TEMPERATURE	18
     1.   Observed	18
     2.   Projected	19
     3.   Extreme Heat Events	17
  B.   PRECIPITATION	20
     1.   Observed	20
     2.   Projected	21
     3.   Extreme Events	21
  C.   SEA-LEVEL RISE IN REGION 4	22
  D.   DROUGHT TRENDS IN REGION 4	24
     1.   Watersheds	24
     2.   Population Effects	24
     3.   Dams and Basins	24
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I.      Background and Direction
   Pursuant to Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental and Energy
Performance, all federal agencies are tasked with evaluating agency climate-change risks and
vulnerabilities to manage short- and long-term climate-change effects on each agency's mission,
programs, and operations.1 Federal agencies are required to evaluate climate risks, identify
program vulnerabilities, and prioritize activities to reduce their climate risk.2
   Consistent with EO 13513,  EPA issued its first Policy Statement on Climate-Change
Adaptation in June 20113 calling for EPA to develop and implement an agency-wide Climate
Change Adaptation Plan to integrate climate adaptation into its programs, policies, rules and
operations. Every EPA Program and Regional Office was directed to develop their own,
independent, stand-alone Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan to identify how
priorities will be met and the agency-wide plan implemented.  These Program and Regional
Office-identified priorities are to be reflected in annual budget submissions.
   The Agency's draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan includes a national-level qualitative
assessment of EPA-program vulnerabilities. The Regions are tasked with using this plan to
guide their adaptation planning.4 Each Region is to capture its regional uniqueness, identify
vulnerabilities of greatest importance including its vulnerable people and places. EPA expects
the severity and importance of identified program vulnerabilities to vary reflecting projected
regional climate-change impact projections. The Regions'  plans are expected to describe how
climate change adaptation is to  be integrated into their planning and work in a manner consistent
and compatible with their own  circumstances and objectives.  The following provides Region 4's
texture called for in the Agency's Climate Change Adaptation Plan.


II.    Description of EPA Region 4
       The eight states comprising Region 4 make it EPA's most southeasterly region.
Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Kentucky, North and South Carolinas, and Tennessee plus six
federally-recognized tribes comprise Region 4, see Figure 1 below.  EPA Region 4's borders are
primarily large water-bodies: the Mississippi River to the west, the Ohio River to the north, the
South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south.  The Region is dissected
by several major river basins. Nine of these basins drain into the South Atlantic while eight
drain into the Gulf of Mexico.  Consequently, the Region is rich with aquatic ecosystems, barrier
islands, beaches, estuaries, and  wetlands supporting important industries of fishing, recreation,
transportation, and tourism. The Region has numerous coastal and inland ports with associated
transportation hubs.  Every state has a port.  The Region has more river ports than sea ports, for
example the State of Mississippi has four Gulf ports and 12 river ports.5 Florida has 15 seaports,
the most of any Region 4 state.6
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       A.     Climate Patterns
   Region 4's climate is predominately mild, humid, and subtropical, with southern Florida
being primarily humid subtropical to tropical savanna. The Region is characteristically hot and
humid in the summer with mild winters. The Central Appalachian, Western Allegheny, and
portions of the Blue Ridge and the Ridge and Valley ecoregions (see the next section, EPA
Region 4 's Ecoregions) can experience cold winters and have the least number of frost-free days,
ranging from 125 - 200.
   For most of Region 4, the number of frost-free days ranges from 170 to 360, with the coastal
areas experiencing the most. The southern part of Florida is nearly frost free and is the only
ecoregion in the continental U.S. to have the climate, hydrology, vegetation, and terrain
characteristics of tropical wet forests.7 The annual mean temperature for Region 4 ranges from
55 to 77ฐF with the more mountainous ecoregions having the coolest, ranging  from 55 to 63ฐF.
Precipitation ranges from 35 to 59 inches in the Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, and Western
Allegheny ecoregions, to between 43 and 65 inches for the rest of the Region.

              1.     Climate Factors

                    a)     Weather Phenomena

                           (1)     The Bermuda High
   The Bermuda High is a semi-permanent high-pressure area usually centered in the vicinity of
Bermuda during the spring and summer. Prolonged heat waves in the East are attributed to the
Bermuda High. Weather fluctuates in response to its east - west migrations. The Bermuda High
can move high-moisture tropical air masses west over land causing showers and thunderstorms.
When it is east over the Atlantic Ocean, hurricanes tend to curve out to sea avoiding land.  When
it is west toward land, hurricanes tend to impact the nation's East and Gulf Coasts.

                           [2)     El Nino-Southern Oscillation
   The El Nino-Southern Oscillation is a cyclic Pacific Ocean weather pattern  in which the sea-
surface temperature cycles between abnormal warming (El Nino) and cooling  (La Nina)
conditions, influenced by changes (oscillations)  in atmospheric pressure between the tropical east
and west Pacific (the  Southern Oscillation (SO)).

                           [3)     North Atlantic Oscillation
   The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) describes fluctuations in atmospheric pressure
differences between permanent low- and high-pressure systems.  While the NAO  directly
influences Western Europe's climate, it may impact much of eastern North America's weather.

                    b)     Large water bodies

                           [I]     Mississippi and Ohio Rivers
   The Mississippi and Ohio Rivers delineate EPA Region 4's western and most of its northern
geographic borders, respectively.  Two major coastal water bodies, the Atlantic Ocean and the

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Gulf of Mexico, delineate its eastern and southern borders, respectively.  These water bodies
strongly influence the Region's climate. Large water bodies take longer to heat up and cool
down than land, such that land areas in the vicinity of large water bodies remain cooler in
summer and warmer in winter.

                           [2)     Gulf Stream
   The Region's climate is strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream, which flows seven hundred
miles north from Key West, FL, to Cape Hatteras, NC. It is a strong, fast moving, warm ocean
current. The Gulf Stream's surface temperature ranges 80ฐF and above due to the solar heating
of tropical Atlantic and Caribbean waters.  The Gulf Stream system's warm surface-temperature
causes Florida and much of the Southeast to be mild all year round.  The warm sea-surface
temperature also aids the formation and strengthening of hurricanes moving through the Gulf of
Mexico.

                    c)     Topography
   Lastly, the Region's topography is highly diverse, ranging from the Mississippi River Valley
Plain to the west, the  southeastern and southern coastal plains of the Atlantic  and  Gulf Coasts,
the interior Piedmont's rolling low plateaus, the Southern Appalachian Mountains, and the
inland, elevated, and severely eroded Cumberland Plateau extending from Alabama through
Tennessee to Kentucky. Various  weather patterns intersect with this diverse topography to
create numerous microclimates, facilitating the variety of ecosystems and species diversity
characteristic of EPA Region 4.

       B.      EPA Region 4's  Ecosystems
   Because of its climate,  proximity to large water-bodies, and topography, EPA Region 4 has
tremendous aquatic ecosystems and associated biodiversity. It is overlain by  fourteen
ecoregions.8 Half are in the Southern Appalachians where the mountains interact with local
weather patterns in complex ways, creating numerous local microclimates. Precipitation
responses are especially sensitive to the shape of mountain ranges and wind flow  direction.9
Two of the Region's ecoregions are riverine in character: one is the Piedmont, and the other
coastal, including the Everglades' subtropical wetlands.
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                         Region 4 Ecoregions
                               Figure - 2. Map of Region 4's fourteen-ecoregions
              1.      Overview of Ecosystems
    Most of EPA Region 4's land area lies within the Piedmont, Southeast Plains, and the
Southern Coastal Plain ecoregions, see Figure 2.10 Three ecoregions, the Piedmont, Mississippi
Alluvial Plain, and the Southern Florida Coastal Plain (the Everglades) have undergone
extensive land-use changes.  The Piedmont has experienced several major land-cover
transformations over the past 200 years: forest to farm, back to forest, and spreading urban- and
suburbanization. The Mississippi Alluvial Plain is one of the nation's most altered ecoregions,
extensively cleared for cultivation where bottomland hardwood forests once dominated. The
Everglades, or the Southern Florida Coastal Plain, has undergone extensive hydrological and
biological alterations.11
    Mountain top, surface, and underground bituminous coal mining occurs within four of the
southern Appalachians ecoregions. Mining is extensive in the Interior River Valleys and Hills
and the Western Allegheny Plateau ecoregions, common in the Central Appalachians, and occurs
in several parts the Southwestern Appalachians ecoregion.  Significant habitat loss and water-
quality degradation, particularly sedimentation and acidification of many the ecoregions' water
bodies are coal mining's legacy.12  Within Region 4, the Interior River Valleys and Hills and the
Western Allegheny Plateau ecoregions only  occur within the Commonwealth of Kentucky.13
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    Agriculture occurs in 11 of the Region's ecoregions in the form of pulpwood and lumber
pine plantations, beef pasture, cropland (planted with wheat, blueberries, corn, cotton, soybeans,
peanuts, onions, sweet potatoes, melons, tobacco, or rice), citrus groves in the south, poultry and
hog livestock, and dairy farming.  In the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, extensive agricultural land-
use occurs with most of the ecoregion planted in soybeans, cotton, corn, rice, wheat, and pasture,
and some sugarcane in the south.  Pine plantations are common in the Southeast Plains and the
Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain ecoregions, and occasional in the Ridge and Valley.  The Middle
Atlantic Coastal Plain has a high density of chicken, turkey, and hog production in some areas,
with North Carolina the second-largest hog producing state in the nation. The Southeast Plains
ecoregion also supports poultry and hogs.14
    The 2007 Census of Agriculture counted 6,409 farmers and ranchers reporting aquaculture
sales in the United States; the three states with the largest number of operations with sales were
Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi. Catfish and crawfish are commercially produced in ponds in
the Mississippi Alluvial Plain.15 More than 50 percent of the total value of sales from
aquaculture come from the top five states, including Mississippi ($237.9 million).16

    The Region's forests are mostly located within 5 ecoregions.  The Blue Ridge ecoregion
contains one of the richest temperate broadleaf forests in the world, with a high diversity of
plants within the large areas of National Forest, National Parks and state-owned lands. The
Western Allegheny Plateau ecoregion is mostly forested, with public national forest lands, and
logging a predominant activity. Forest uses prevail within the Central Appalachians and
Southwestern Appalachians ecoregions.  The Mississippi Alluvial Plain's floodplain forest
ecosystems include river and hardwood swamp forests.  The ecoregion is still a major bird
migration corridor despite the widespread loss of forest and wetland habitat. The Interior River
Valleys and Hills ecoregion is partially forested.17
    Between 1973 and 2000, the Southeast Climate Region had the highest rate of change due to
active forest timber harvesting and replanting.18  In this region, forests, not cropland, are
expected to be lost.19  Projected land-use and land-cover changes likely will depend upon
population rates and economic growth.20 The  exurban and suburban areas generally are projected
to expand by 15 to 20 percent between 2000 and 2050.21 Climate change will cumulatively
impact the existing and projected land-use changes to the Region's ecoregions.  Aquatic
ecosystems in those ecoregions where mining already provides significant stress and where
forests are converted to other uses may likely be less resilient to climate-change impacts.

              2.      Determining Climate Change Impacts to Aquatic Ecosystems
    EPA and its state partners use aquatic bio-assessments to evaluate biological  criteria to
determine whether CWA-regulated surface waters are maintaining their biological integrity
consistent with their designated use, e.g., cold-water fishery.22
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   To monitor stream health, states are delineated into bioregions to organize similar
sampling sites together; i.e., those having similar stream physical, chemical, and
biological attributes.  These bioregions often mirror ecoregion boundaries.  Since all of the
streams within a bioregion generally have similar attributes, the differences in aquatic
organism assemblages between reference sites (which receive high biological index
scores) and stressed sites (which receive low index scores) are typically expected to reflect
human impacts, e.g., land-use changes.

                    Table 1. The Number of Ecoregions and Bioregions by State
State
AL
FL
GA
KY
MS
NC
SC
TN
Level III
Ecoregions1
6
O
6
7
4
4
5
8
Level IV
Ecoregions2
29
16
28
25
21
28
12
31
Macroinvertebrate
bioregions
2 (high and low
gradient streams)
3
24
4
4
3
3
15
Fish
Bioregions
NA3
NA
4
6
NA
5
NA
NA
Algae
Bioregions
NA
NA
NA
4
NA
NA
NA
3
1 : Ecoregions along the coast (Southern Florida Coastal Plain (76), Southern Coastal Plain (75), Mississippi
Alluvial Plain (73), and Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain (63)) do not have aquatic communities that currently
support index development and are not included in any bioregions.
2: Level IV Ecoregions are subunits of Level III, see:
http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/level_iii_iv.htm#LevelIV
3 : All "Not Applicable" cells represent a state that does not use that index for making regulatory decisions (though
most states are in the process of developing new indices or may use that assemblage for other monitoring
purposes, like evaluating best management practices.) Information was gathered from Standard Operating
Procedures for biomonitoring and index development papers that states operated under in 201 1.
   If climate change were to cause streams in the same bioregion to become dissimilar, it could
hinder EPA and the states' ability to determine low index-score causes, i.e., human versus
climate-change induced impacts.  Biological monitoring and assessment program success will
require an understanding of what and how climate-associated changes are occurring and how
monitoring programs can account for them.23  Likely climate-change impacts to Region 4's
freshwater aquatic ecosystems are described below but further research is necessary to determine
actual impacts.

                    a)     Climate-Change Induced Temperature Impacts
   In EPA Region 4, climate change-associated warmer water temperatures are expected to
drive aquatic species to cooler waters, either north or to higher elevations. Local extinctions are
expected where migration barriers exist, e.g.,  dams, reservoirs, logging, mountain-top mining,
                                                                                 Page 14

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etc., and a lack of higher elevations.  In Region 4, cold-water habitat is generally associated with
its mountain and high-elevation plateau ecoregions of the Southern Appalachians, i.e., the
Piedmont, Ridge and Valley, Blue Ridge, Central Appalachian, Western Allegheny and Interior
Plateau, Interior River Valley and Hills ecoregions.24 For example in North Carolina, the
mountain ecoregion and higher elevation sites generally have the highest cold-water taxa
richness, which are expected to shift either north or to higher elevation as temperatures
increase.25 While the cold-water tax either migrate to cooler water conditions or are subject to
local extinctions, those species thriving in warm temperatures or which are tolerant to warmer
temperatures, will likely increase their populations at their current location and extend their
range into formerly colder-water habitat.26
    At this time, it is uncertain where the greatest climate change-induced impacts to aquatic
organisms and their ecosystems within the Region may occur: in the transitional areas aquatic
species may already be close to their temperature tolerance limits, while species may be more
sensitive in those coldwater habitats expected to experience warming.  Within Region 4, the
Piedmont (the transitional area) and Mountain (coldwater habitat) ecoregions are expected to see
the greatest climate-change impacts to its aquatic ecosystems.27 Predictions are further
confounded by the probability that temperature change likely will not occur evenly across the
Region. The Region finds it difficult to predict how warm- and cold-water taxa will respond to
changing water temperatures since other environmental factors, e.g., land-use changes, also
strongly influence species' population densities and geographic distributions

                    b)     Climate-Change Induced Water Flow Impacts
    Biological integrity is strongly correlated with stream flow.28  Expected climate change-
related impacts to the Region 4's  aquatic ecosystems include longer durations of low summer
stream flows, average stream flow decreases, higher flooding incidences, and increased periods
of extremely high and low flows (greater flashiness), with resultant scouring. Scouring and
sedimentation already negatively  impact habitat and biota in Piedmont streams, and more
frequent severe precipitation events may exacerbate those impacts.
    Insect-rich habitat-diversity tends to decrease with decreasing flow.29 Under lower flow
conditions, non-flowing (lakes and ponds) fish and insect community  populations tend to
increase while those requiring flowing water to survive decrease. Additionally, drought or flood-
related stream-flow changes can change nutrient and sediment loadings and habitat availability.30
Moreover, lower flow results in less dilution facilitating higher in stream concentrations of
potentially harmful chemicals and aquatic toxicity. Overall, climate change-induced flow
changes are expected to cause significant changes to the Region's aquatic communities.31
    At a reduced flow of 20-90%, the Region could lose 3 to 38% of its fish species.32  The North
Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NCDENR) researched invertebrate
responses to the 1999 to 2002 drought experienced by both North and South Carolina.  The study
found a decline in invertebrate communities.  NCDENR found stream flow, drainage area,
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underlying geology, and the tributary stream type and size appeared to influence invertebrate
species' degree of impact and resiliency, i.e., speed of recovery to drought.33
   NCDENR also studied tropical and hurricane storm-related flooding impacts to invertebrate
species and stream health.  In 2004, North Carolina experienced five tropical Storms (Bonnie,
Frances, Gaston, Ivan, and Jeanne) and two hurricanes (Alex and Charley) during a two-month
period (August 3 - September 27). During its study, NCDENR documented a decline in
biological index scores associated with the invertebrate species' responses to the storm-related
flooding.34

       C.     EPA Region 4's Communities
   Region 4's mild climate,  extensive coasts, and large river basins attract people, both for
residential and recreational purposes. Within its geographic borders, the Region is home to a
population of 61,762,344.35 The State of Florida's population, 19,057,542, is greater than the
individual populations of four EPA regions (see figure 3 below).  The Region's population of
children and elderly comprise approximately 6.1 and 14 percent, respectively, of the Region's
total population. The Region is home to six federally-recognized tribes, with a population of
33,500 enrolled members.
   All eight states had positive growth from 2000 through 2010, with the overall regional
population growing by 8.9 million people, about 13%.36 The population grew fastest in North
Carolina (18.5%), Georgia (18.3%), Florida (17.6%), and South Carolina (15.3%). Most of this
growth has been in urban and peri-urban areas.  Population growth is expected to compound
climate-related impacts.  For example, increasing urban and suburban competition for finite
water resources likely will affect agriculture, aquatic ecosystems, energy production, fisheries,
and natural ecosystems.37
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R 1


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RQ
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R4 "
















• Populatic









n





         0      20,000,000  40,000,000  60,000,000
         Figure-3. EPA Region population comparisons.
80,000,000
   By 2030, Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina are projected to have some of the largest
elderly American populations.38  All three states are in the top ten projected to have the largest
numbers of Americans aged 60 and older. Florida, with 9,737,256 elderly, is projected to be
second only to the State of California, with a projected elderly population of 10,595,771 by
2030.
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     Most of Region 4's population lies within the Piedmont, Southern Coastal Plain,
  Southeastern Plains, Interior Plateau, and Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregions. Within
  the Southern Florida Coastal Plain (the Everglades), urban areas are extensive along the Atlantic
  Coast and include Miami, Fort Lauderdale, West Palm Beach, and other adjacent coastal cities.39

     The Southeast Climate Region (see the following section, Observed and Projected Climate
  Change in Region 4} includes 28 of the top 100 metropolitan statistical areas by population, and
  is the second most urbanized region after the Northeast, having 131 persons-per-square mile.
  Miami (#8), Atlanta (#9), Tampa (#18), and Orlando (#26) all rank in the top 30 of U.S. urban
  centers.40 The Region has three of the ten fastest-growing areas:  the Florida areas of Palm Coast
  and Cape Coral-Fort Meyers,  and Myrtle Beach, SC.41 All three areas  are along the coast and
  vulnerable to sea-level rise and storm surge.42  Since 1980, the Southeast has had more billion-
  dollar weather disasters (hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes) than any other region.43
          Billion Dollar WeatheiYCIimate Disasters
     Figure 4.44
Billion Dollar Weather/Climate Disasters (1980-2011). This map
summarizes the number of weather and climate disasters over the past 30
years that have resulted in more than a billion dollars in damages.

  III.    Observed and Projected Climate Change in Region 4

     This section summarizes climate change impacts anticipated for EPA Region 4.  The climate
  change literature defines the  Southeast Climate Region differently than EPA defines its
  southeastern region. The Southeast Climate Region is defined to include all of the EPA Region
  4 states plus Arkansas, Louisiana, two of EPA Region 6 states, and Virginia, one of EPA
  Regions's states.
                                                                                    Page 17

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                                                                            DE
                                                   _/„  ^
                                                                    FI
    Figure 11. - Map of EPA Region 4
Figure 12. - Map of the Southeast Climate Region
   The Southeast Climate Region is exceptionally vulnerable to sea-level rise, extreme heat
events, and decreased water availability. Within this Region the spatial distribution of these
impacts and vulnerabilities is uneven, since it encompasses a wide range of ecoregions, from the
Appalachian Mountains to the coast.45 The high variability of the Region's climate makes it
difficult to assess the impacts of variability from climate change.

   The Southeast Climate Region is home to more than 80 million people, drawing hundreds of
million visitors every year.46 Located in low-lying coastal areas particularly vulnerable to
flooding, extreme storms, and sea-level rise, this Region has a disproportionate number of the
country's fastest growing metropolitan areas and important economic sectors.47 Palm Coast, FL,
Cape Coral-Fort Meyers, FL, and Myrtle Beach, SC, are all vulnerable to sea-level rise and
storm surge.48

   Sea-level rise and temperature and precipitation changes are expected to be the most severe
and widespread anticipated impacts to the Region, which ultimately may affect water
availability.49 The vulnerable Gulf and Atlantic coasts are major producers of seafood and home
to several ports.50 The Southeast Climate Region is a major energy producer of coal, crude oil,
and natural gas, and the highest energy user of any of the National Climate Assessment regions.51
Changes in land use and land cover, more rapid in the Southeast than most other areas of the
country, often interact with and serve to amplify the effects of climate change on southeastern
ecosystems.52

       A.      Temperature

              1.      Observed
   Average annual temperature during the last century cycled between warm and cool periods
across the Southeast Climate Region.53 A warm peak occurred during the 1930s and 40s,
followed by a cool period in the 60s and 70s, and warmed again from 1970 to the present by an
average of 2ฐF, with more warming occurring during summer months.54 Since 1970, the number
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of days above 95ฐF and nights above 75ฐF have increased, while the number of extremely cold
days has decreased.55
                      Projected
                Historical Climate (1971-2000)
Projection (2041-2070)
        •*--   
-------
   Historical Climate (1971-2000)
Projection (2041-2070)
                       20  40  60  80  100
Figure 15. Projected annual number of days with temperatures less that
 32ฐF for 2041-3 2070 compared to 1971-2000, assuming emissions
continue to grow (A2 scenario).60

    Summer heat stress is projected to reduce crop productivity, especially when coupled with
increased drought. The 2007 drought cost the Georgia agriculture industry $339 million in crop
losses, and the 2002 drought cost North Carolina $398 million.61 A 2.2ฐF increase in temperature
could reduce overall productivity for corn, soybeans, rice, cotton, and peanuts across the South -
although rising CCh levels might partially offset these decreases, based on a crop yield simulation
model.62 In Georgia, climate projections indicate corn yields could decline by 15% and wheat yields
by 20% through 2020.63

              3.      Extreme Heat Events
    Rising temperatures and the associated increases in frequency, intensity, and duration of
extreme heat events are expected to affect public health, natural and built environments, energy,
agriculture, and forestry.64 The negative effects of heat on human cardiovascular, cerebral,  and
respiratory systems have been established.65 Within EPA Region 4, Atlanta, Miami, and Tampa
have already seen increases in the number of days with temperatures exceeding 95ฐF,  during
which the number of deaths was above average.66  The expected increase in elderly population of
the Region enhances the health risks of extreme heat events. By 2100, the Southeast Climate
Region is expected to have the highest increase in heat index, the measure of comfort combining
temperature and relative humidity, of any region of the country.67 Additionally, higher
temperatures can  contribute to the formation of harmful air pollutants and allergens, with
associated health  impacts.68 Ground-level ozone is projected to increase in the Southeast Climate
Region's largest urban areas, potentially leading to increased deaths.69 Hospital admissions for
respiratory illnesses, emergency  room visits for asthma, and lost school days may increase.70

       A.     Precipitation

              1.      Observed
    The Gulf Coast regions of Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle receive over 60
inches of precipitation, while much of northern Kentucky, the central sections of the North  and
South Carolinas, and Georgia receive between 40 and 50 inches of precipitation annually.71
Higher amounts of precipitation are found along the Atlantic coast and across the Florida
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Peninsula due in part to the lifting of the air associated with sea breeze circulation.72  Tropical
cyclones also contribute significantly to annual precipitation totals in the Region, especially over
the Southeast Atlantic coast.73 The Southeast Climate Region's wettest locations occur in
southwestern North Carolina.74 The Region's daily and five-day rainfall intensities have
increased while summers have been either extremely wet or increasingly dry.75 Only along the
northern Gulf Coast has precipitation increased during the last 100 years.76
    Across the Southeast Climate Region's northern tier, the average annual snowfall ranges
from 5 to 25 inches, except at the higher elevations of the southern Appalachians in North
Carolina and Tennessee.77 These locations can receive up to 100 inches of snowfall annually,
comparable to annual snowfall amounts experienced in New England.78 The Region's southern
extent experiences very little snowfall (i.e., less than 1 inch per year) and several years may
elapse before any measurable snowfall occurs.79

              2.     Projected
    Future precipitation-pattern projections are more uncertain than temperature projections.80
Under a high greenhouse-gas-emission scenario, average changes in annual precipitation range
from nearly 10% reduction in the far southern and western portions of the Region - with most of
that reduction in the summer - to about 5% increases in the northeastern part of the Region by
later this century.81 Average annual precipitation is projected to decrease by 2% to 4% over
South Florida, while increases in precipitation of up to 6% are projected across North Carolina.82
Precipitation is expected to increase across most of the Southeast Climate Region in all  seasons
except summer, where a decrease of 15% is noted for South Florida.83

              3.     Extreme Events

                     a)     Precipitation
    The extreme-precipitation-event frequency has been increasing across the Region,
particularly pronounced over the last two  decades.84  This increase is pronounced across the
lower Mississippi River Valley and along the northern Gulf Coast.85 Despite a long-term
increase in extreme precipitation events, no discernible trend exists in flood magnitude for the
Region.86 An increased risk of flooding of the Region's urban areas is expected from increases
in extreme-precipitation events and the associated increased runoff, compounded by the
magnitude of impervious surface that has  resulted from increased  urbanization.87
    The annual  number of days with extreme precipitation is expected to increase across most of
the Region by the mid-21st century, particularly along the southern Appalachians as well as parts
of Tennessee and Kentucky.88

                     b)     Severe Thunderstorms & Tornadoes
    Thunderstorms are frequent across the Southeast Climate Region, especially during the
warmer months. Severe thunderstorms, i.e., characterized by winds in excess of 58 mph, hail a
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minimum one inch in diameter, or a tornado, occur most frequently in the late winter and spring
months.
    Within EPA Region 4, damaging winds and large hail occur most frequently across Alabama,
Mississippi, and western Tennessee.89  These states also experience the highest number of strong
tornadoes (F2 and greater) and experience more killer tornadoes than the notorious "Tornado
Alley" of the Great Plains.90

   Cloud-to-ground lightning is a significant hazard. The greatest lightning-strike frequency
within the nation occurs across the Gulf Coast and the Florida Peninsula.91 Additionally, eight of
the eleven states comprising the Southeast Climate Region rank in  the top 20 for lightning-
related fatalities from 1959 to 2006.92 Cloud-to-ground lightning has started house fires and
wildfires.

                     c)     Tropical Storms an d Hurrican es
    In the Southeastern Climate Region, tropical storms and hurricanes frequently make landfall
along North Carolina's Outer Banks and south Florida and rarely appear to land along the
concave  portions of the  coastline, the western bend of Florida and the Georgia coast.93 Major
hurricane (categories 3 to 5) landfalls have been most frequent in South  Florida (once every 15
years) and along the  northern Gulf Coast (once every 20 years).94  While these storms primarily
impact the coast, significant effects  are experienced several hundred miles inland.95  Storms with
wind gusts exceeding 75 mph have occurred every five to 10 years across portions of the
Region's coastal plain and every 50 to 75 years across portions of the Carolina Piedmont, central
Alabama, and Mississippi.96

    Tropical storm and hurricane-associated precipitation contribute significantly to the
Southeast Climate Region's precipitation, surface  and ground water levels, water supply, and soil
moisture.97 Heavy rainfall also periodically causes deadly inland flooding, especially when a
storm is large or is stalled by a weather front.98 Hurricane landfalls appear to have declined
slightly over the past century from a decadal frequency perspective.99

       B.     Sea-level rise in Region 4
    The National Water  Level Observation Network's 150-years database consistently depicts a
rise in sea level. From this data, a 0 to 3 millimeter-per-year sea-level rise rate has been
estimated off the west Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi coasts.100 Two data sources, the
historical tide-gauge records over the past century and geologic evidence over the past several
centuries, indicate steadily rising sea level off North Carolina's coast. The NC Coastal
Resources Commission's Science Panel on  coastal hazards recommended a projected sea-level
rise of one meter by 2100 be adopted for policy development and planning purposes.101
    Large portions of the Region are highly vulnerable to sea-level rise,  although how much sea-
level rise is experienced in any particular place depends upon whether and how much the local
land is sinking (i.e., subsidence) or rising, and offshore-current changes.102 Global sea-level rise

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over the 20th century has averaged approximately eight inches. The rise rate is expected to
accelerate through the end of this century.103
   Figure 16 below depicts the relative risk, as determined by the Coastal Vulnerability Index,
that physical changes will occur as sea-level rises.  The Coastal Vulnerability Index is based on
tidal range, wave height, coastal slope, shoreline change, landform and processes, and historical
rate of relative sea-level rise. The index estimates a coastal system's susceptibility to change and
its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions to formulate an estimation of a
system's natural sea-level rise vulnerability or risk.104
         Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise
     New Orleans
 Low   Moderate   High   Very High  *r  'Miami
Figure 16.105 The Southeast Climate Region's Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise

    In the Southeast Climate Region, numerous cities, roads, railways, ports, airports, oil and gas
facilities, and water supplies are in low-elevation areas, making them vulnerable to sea-level rise.
The North Carolina Department of Transportation is raising U.S. Highway 64's roadbed by four
feet; 18 inches of which is to address sea-level rise projections.106 The major cities of Miami and
Tampa, FL, are among those most at risk.107
    Sea-level rise impacts upon agriculture may decrease freshwater availability and increase
land loss and saltwater intrusion.  Salt-water intrusion is projected to reduce the availability of
groundwater for irrigation, thereby limiting crop production in some  areas.108  Agricultural areas
around Miami-Bade County with shallow groundwater tables are at risk of enhanced inundation
and associated cropland loss; an estimated 37,500 acres in Florida are projected to be lost to
production with a 27-inch sea-level rise.109
  Additionally, higher sea levels are expected to accelerate saltwater intrusion into rivers,
streams, and groundwater sources of freshwater in coastal areas. In areas with porous aquifers,
groundwater is particularly vulnerable to saltwater intrusion.  Salt water intrusion impacts water
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quality for agriculture, drinking water, and industrial purposes.  In the City of Hallandale Beach,
FL, officials have already abandoned six of the city's eight drinking water wells due to salt-water
intrusion.110

       C.     Drought trends in Region 4

             1.     Watersheds
    Several watersheds within EPA Region 4 cross multiple state boundaries with growing
populations needing water for agriculture, energy production, navigation, drinking, and other
needs.  Alabama shares most of its major streams with neighboring states.111  Five rivers originate
in Alabama and flow through Florida before draining into the Gulf of Mexico. Both the Coosa
and Tallapoosa Rivers originate in Georgia and flow into Alabama where they join the Alabama
River.  The Tombigbee River originates in Mississippi and flows into Alabama, becoming a
tributary to the Mobile River. The Escatawpa River originates in southwest Alabama and
becomes a tributary to the Pascagoula River, straddling the AL-MS state line before draining into
the Mississippi Sound. The Tennessee River, the largest tributary to the Ohio River, is formed at
the confluence of the Holston and French Broad Rivers in northeast Tennessee.  It flows through
Alabama forming a small section of the AL - MS border before flowing back into Tennessee via
Kentucky, then discharging into the Ohio River. Additionally, the Catawba River originates in
North Carolina eventually forming approximately 10 miles of the NC-SC border before
becoming a tributary to the Wateree River of SC.  The Savannah River flows along the GA - SC
border before draining into the Atlantic Ocean.

             2.     Population Effects
   The Region's rapid population growth and development has greatly increased water demand
and drought vulnerability. Yet, drought is a normal component of the Region's climate system.
   EPA Region 4, its state, local and tribal government partners and stakeholders face
challenges in managing drought conditions in light of the Region's growing population and the
anticipated climate change impacts.

             3.     Dams and  Basins
   Within EPA Region 4 the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers (US ACOE) operate a number of dams on significant waterways.  According to US
ACOE's National Inventory of Dams,112 the federal government operates 404 dams within
Region 4.  The TVA operates 47  dams for hydropower within a region primarily encompassing
Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee (see figure 23 below).
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                                       .    le   khattanoooa
                                                                  1_\     •
Figure 23. MapofTVA's reservoirs and dams.113 The red boxes identify 45 of the 47 hydro dams. The yellow
boxes identify coal-power plants. The purple boxes identify nuclear-power plants.
                     a)    Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin
    The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River (ACF) Basin is an important part of the
socioeconomic structure of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida's urban population, agriculture,
power generation, recreation economy, and North Florida's commercial fishery.  This Basin
overlies 19,800 square miles of southwestern Georgia and southeastern Alabama. The
Centerpiece of the Basin is the Chattahoochee River.  Its headwaters are in northeast Georgia in
the Blue Ridge Mountains. It flows southwest to Columbus, GA, then south along much of the
AL-GA border, before crossing into Florida where it confluences with another Georgia river, the
Flint River, creating the Apalachicola River which discharges into the Gulf of Mexico at the
Apalachicola Bay.
    Despite human alterations to most of the ACF Basin, it still supports a rich and abundant
diversity of plants and animals. The Chattahoochee's headwaters (the Blue Ridge ecoregion) are
the only cold-water fishery habitat.  The Apalachicola Bay lies within the Southern Coastal
Plain ecoregion while the rest of the Basin is within the Southeastern Plains ecoregion.  These
ecoregions represent areas where unique and localized natural processes have facilitated the
Basin's noteworthy aquatic biodiversity:  amphibians, fish, reptiles, and invertebrate fauna
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(crayfish, insects, mussels, worms).114  Ninety-nine species of breeding birds, including
migratory water fowl and 52 species of mammals depend upon its water resources.115
    The Basin has the largest fish-species diversity of all the river basins draining into the Gulf of
Mexico east of the Mississippi River.116 Seven fish species live only in the Basin (endemic).
Sixteen fish species have been listed for protection by Federal or State agencies. And the
Apalachicola River Basin has the largest freshwater-fish assemblages in Florida.117
    Living in the Basin are 16 species of freshwater aquatic turtles, 21  species of salamanders, 26
species of frogs, and the American alligator.  All require freshwater to complete or sustain their
lifecycles.118 Numerous snake and lizard species inhabit streams and wetlands. Fifteen species
of amphibians and reptiles are noteworthy because of their rarity or protected status:  two are
designated as threatened and five are designated Endangered Species Act candidate species.119
The Apalachicola River Basin's upper reaches have the highest amphibian and reptile species
density on the continent north of Mexico, and 116 plant species are found; 17 are listed as
endangered, 28 threatened, and 30 are rare; with 9 plant endemic species.120
    The source of the Apalachicola River's flow is primarily the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers
(80 percent), the Chipola River (11 percent) and the remaining from groundwater and overland
flows.  Because of rainfall-distribution patterns, the Chattahoochee River's average annual
runoff exceeds the Flint and makes a greater contribution to the Apalachicola River's peak flows
than the Flint. During droughts because the Flint River's base flow is  sustained by groundwater,
it contributes the greater flow into the Apalachicola River.121 However, agriculture is the primary
land use within the Flint, which depends heavily upon groundwater. Agricultural irrigation can
and has depleted the lower Flint River's base flow.  Drought combined with high irrigation
demand, e.g., high crop prices, can cause the Flint River's component  of the Apalachicola
River's flow to be nonexistent.
    Apalachicola Bay produces 90 percent of Florida's and 13 percent of the Nation's oyster
harvest.  It is a nursery for shrimp, blue crab, and  a variety offish species. The largest National
Estuarine Research Reserve is located in the Bay. The State of Florida has declared both the
Apalachicola River and Bay to be an Outstanding Florida Water. The United Nations has
designated Apalachicola Bay as an International Biosphere Reserve.122
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                   A Southeast River Basin Under Stress
                 Figure II.123 - The ACF Basin in Georgia.
                    b)    Alabama, Coosa, and Tallapoosa Basin
       The Alabama, Coosa, and Tallapoosa (ACT) Basin has 16 reservoirs of significance.  Its
series of dams are operated by the Corps of Engineers and the Alabama Power Company
primarily to meet for navigation and hydropower production.  Lake Martin, managed by the
Alabama Power company, is the largest reservoir with 60.6 percent of the conservation storage.
Lake Allatoona, managed by the Corps, is the second largest reservoir in the ACT basin with
11.4 percent of the conservation storage.124
       The ACT has been called a hotspot of aquatic biodiversity but it has lost some of its
diversity. The Coosa River in Georgia historically included 36 native mussel species; today the
US Forest Service knows of only four. The Etowah River once included 43 mussel species, now
none are known.  The Oostanaula River once included 43 mussel species, now only 12 are
known.  The Conasauga River once included 43 mussel species, now only six are known. The
Coosawattee River once included 20 mussel species, today only 11 are known.125 Changes in the
Coosa Basin are just as dramatic.  The extinction rate in freshwater snails in the Coosa Basin is
second only to some of the rainforest in South America.126 Since the early 1900's, more than 40
species of freshwater snails and several mussel species are now presumed extinct.  Other species
being affected by the 2007 - ongoing  drought include striped bass fishery, a world-class spotted
bass fishery, and in Mobile Bay, recreational fisheries and commercial shrimp and oyster
fisheries.127  Since the ACT's 16 reservoirs and associated dams are operated primarily to meet
navigation and hydropower production needs, the ACT Basin's aquatic ecosystems may not
prove resilient to climate change.
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1 http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/initiatives/adaptation
2 Chapter 28 - Adaptation (V. 11 Jan. 2013, p. 987) in the U.S. Global Change Research Program draft 2013
National Climate Assessment.
3 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation (Washington, DC, June
2, 2011). Available at http://www.fedcenter.gov/programs/climate/
4 Final draft U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Climate Change Adaptation Plan (June 29, 2012).
5 http://www.mississippi.org/assets/docs/library/ms_port.pdf
6http://www.worldportsource.com/ports/index/USA_FL.php
7 North American Terrestrial Ecoregions - Level III (April, 2011) Commission for Environmental Cooperation,
available at  ftp://ftp.epa.gov/wed/ecoregions/pubs/NA TerrestrialEcoregionsLevel3Final-2junellCEC.pdf
8 These are defined in: Ecoregions of North America as Level III ecoregions, see:
http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/na eco.htm#Downloads.  The focus here is on the Level 3 sub-
ecoregions.  Level 3 ecoregions are a subset of Level 2 ecoregions which are in turn a subset of a broader Level 1
Ecoregion.
9 Christensen, J.H., B. Hewitson, A. Busuioc, A. Chen, X. Gao, I. Held, R. Jones, R.K. Kolli, W.-T. Kwon, R.
Laprise, V. Magana Rueda, L. Mearns, C.G. Menendez, J. Raisanen, A. Rinke, A. Sarr and P. Whetton, 2007:
Regional Climate Projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working
Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin,
M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA., available at http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-
report/ar4/wgl/ar4-wgl-chapterll.pdf
10 These are defined in: Ecoregions of North America as Level III ecoregions, see:
http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/na eco.htm#Downloads.  The focus here is on the Level 3 sub-
ecoregions.  Level 3 ecoregions are a subset of Level 2 ecoregions which are in turn a subset of a broader Level 1
Ecoregion.
11 North American Terrestrial Ecoregions - Level III (April, 2011) Commission for Environmental Cooperation,
available at  ftp://ftp.epa.gov/wed/ecoregions/pubs/NA TerrestrialEcoregionsLevel3Final-2junellCEC.pdf
12 Id.
13 Id.
14 Id.
15 Id.
16http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2007/Online_Highlights/Fact_Sheets/Practices/aquaculture.pdf
17 Id.
18 Chapter 13 - Land Use and Land Cover Change (V. 11 Jan. 2013, p. 423) in the U.S. Global Change Research
Program draft 2013 National Climate Assessment.
19 Id.
20 Id.
21
  Id.
22 CWA section 101(a) states: "The objective of this Act is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and
biological integrity of the nation's waters."
23 Id., pp. 1-2.
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24 Ecoregions of North America as Level III ecoregions, see:
http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/na eco.htm#Downloads.
25 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). (2012) Implications of climate change for bioassessment
programs and approaches to account for effects. Global Change Research Program, National Center for
Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC; EPA/600/R-11/036A. Available from the National Technical
Information Service, Springfield, VA, and online at http://www.epa.gov/ncea. pp. 7-21.
26 Id., pp. 7-21.
27 Id., pp. 5-69.
28 Id., pp. 1-11.
29 Id.
30 Id.
31 Id.
32 Id.
33 Id.
34 Id., pp. 5-23.
35 April 2011 US Census estimates (http://quickfacts.census.gov).
36 P. 3.
37 Id.
38 Aging, Administration on. "projected future growth of the older Population ."
http://www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/Aging  Statistics/future growth/future  growth.aspx#age
39 Ecoregions of North America as Level III ecoregions, see:
http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/ecoregions/na eco.htm#Downloads.
40 Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment, Part 2. Climate of the
Southeast U.S.,  NOAA Technical Report NESDIS 142-2.  Available  at
http://www.nesdis.noaa.gov/teclinical reports/NOAANESDIS Tech Report  142-2-
Climate of the Southeast U.S.pdf
41 U.S. Census Bureau 2010.
42 Id.
43 Chapter 17, Southeast and the Caribbean, of the Federal Advisory Committee Draft Climate Assessment Report
Released for Public Review (volume 11 Jan 2013) see: http://ncadac.globalchange.gov/
44 Id.
45 The Southeast and the Caribbean  (Chapter 17) of the Federal Advisory Committee Draft Climate Assessment
Report released for public review  (volume 11, January 2013), see: http://ncadac.globalchange.gov
46 Id.
47 Id.
48 Id.
49 Id.
50 Id.
51 Id.
52 Id.
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53 Id.
54 Id.
55 Id.
56 Id.
57 Id.
58 Id.
59 Id.
60 Id.
61 Id.
62 Id.
63 Id.
64 Id.
65 Id.
66 Id.
67 Id.
68 Id.
69 Id.
70 Id.
71 Southeast Region Technical Report to the National Climate Assessment (Revised July 23, 2012) available at
http://downloads.usgcrp.gov/NCA/ Activities/NCA_SE_Technical_Report_FIN AL_7-23-12.pdf
72 Id.
73 Id.
74 Id.
75 The Southeast and the Caribbean (Chapter 17) of the Federal Advisory Committee Draft Climate Assessment
Report released for public review (volume 1 1, January 2013), see:  http ://ncadac. globalchange . gov
76 Southeast Region Technical Report to the National Climate Assessment (Revised July 23, 2012) available at
http://downloads.usgcrp.gov/NCA/Activities/NCA_SE_Technical_Report_FINAL_7-23-12.pdf
77 Id.
78 Id.
79 Id.
80 Id.
81 Southeast Region Technical Report to the National Climate Assessment (Revised July 23, 2012) available at
http://downloads.usgcrp.gov/NCA/Activities/NCA_SE_Technical_Report_FINAL_7-23-12.pdf
82 Id.
83 Id.
84 Id.
85 Id.
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87 Id.
88 Southeast Region Technical Report to the National Climate Assessment (Revised July 23, 2012) available at
http://downloads.usgcrp.gov/NCA/Activities/NCA_SE_Technical_Report_FINAL_7-23-12.pdf
89 Id.
90 Id.
91 Id.
92 Id.
93 Id.
94 Id.
95 Id.
96 Id.
97 Southeast Region Technical Report to the National Climate Assessment (Revised July 23, 2012) available at
http://downloads.usgcrp.gov/NCA/Activities/NCA_SE_Technical_Report_FINAL_7-23-12.pdf
98 Id.
"Id.
100 Id.
101 North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources report, North Carolina Sea-level rise
Assessment Report (2010) P. 12 and available at http://dcm2.enr.state.nc.us/slr/NC%20Sea-
Level%20Rise%20Assessment%20Report%202010%20-%20CRC%20Science%20Panel.pdf
102 Id.
103 Id.
104 The Southeast and the Caribbean (Chapter 17) of the Federal Advisory Committee Draft Climate Assessment
Report released for public review (volume 11, January 2013), see: http://ncadac.globalchange.gov
105 Id.
106 Id.
107 Id.
108 Id.
109 Id.
110 Id.
111 Water Management Issues In Alabama, by the AL Water Agencies Working Group (August 1, 2012) available at
http://www.adem.state.al.us/programs/water/waterforms/WaterIssueReport.pdf
112Available at http://geo.usace.army.mil/pgis/f?p=397:12:
113 http://www.tva.com/sites/sites_ie.htm
114 Couch, C.A., Hopkins, E.H., and Hardy, P.S., Influences of Environmental Settings on Aquatic Ecosystems in the
Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin. (1995) USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 95-4278.
Available at www.pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1995/4278/report.pdf
115 Id.
116 Id.
117 Id.
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118 Id.

119 Id.

120 Id.

121 Id.

122 Id.
123 The Southeast and the Caribbean (Chapter 17) of the Federal Advisory Committee Draft Climate Assessment
Report released for public review (volume 11, January 2013), see: http://ncadac.globalchange.gov
124 Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa Basin, US FWS, available at
http://www.fws.gov/southeast/drought/archive/pdf/ACT-BasinQ-A.pdf
125 Id.
126 Id.
127 Id.
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          PART 2
VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT
                         Page 3 3

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                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.    INTRODUCTION	36
II.   GOAL 1: TAKING ACTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND IMPROVING AIR QUALITY	36
  A.   OVERVIEW OF POTENTIAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS	36
     1.   Ozone	37
     2.   Paniculate Matter (PM)	38
     3.   Indoor Air	39
III.   GOAL 2: PROTECTING AMERICA'S WATERS	39
  A.   OVERVIEW OF POTENTIAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS	39
  B.   PROGRAM-SPECIFIC VULNERABILITIES AND POTENTIAL ACTIONS	41
     1.   Watershed Management	41
     2.   Water Quality Standards	41
     3.   Monitoring, Assessing, and Reporting	42
     4.   Total Maximum Daily Loads	42
     5.   National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System	43
     6.   Nonpoint Source Management	43
     7.   Wetlands	43
     8.   Dredging/Ocean Dumping	44
     9.   National Estuary Program and South Florida	44
     10.    Drinking Water, Wastewater, and Stormwater Infrastructure	45
     11.    Drinking Water Quality	46
IV.   CLEANING UP COMMUNITIES AND ADVANCING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT	47
  A.   OVERVIEW OF POTENTIAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS	47
     1.   Sea Level Rise	47
     2.   Extreme Storm Events	48
     3.   Temperature Change	48
     4.   Wildfires	49
     5.   Ocean Acidification	49
     6.   Increased Water Temperatures	49
  B.   PROGRAM-SPECIFIC VULNERABILITIES AND POTENTIAL ACTIONS	49
     1.   Longer-term  Cleanups (e.g., Superfund Remedial, Superfund Time-Critical Removal, SuperfundRCRA
     Corrective Action, TSCA, Brownfields Cleanup Sites, an d Poly chlorinate d Cleanup)	49
     2.   Impacts on Longer-term Cleanups:	49
     3.   Emergency Response Programs	52
     4.   RCRA Hazardous Waste Management Facilities	55
     5.   Oil Program and Underground Storage Tanks	56
     6.   Brownfield Program	58
V.   GOAL 4: ENSURING THE SAFETY OF CHEMICALS AND PREVENTING POLLUTION	58
  A.   PESTICIDES	58
  B.   IMPACTS ON PESTICIDES PROGRAM	59
VI.   GOAL 5 - ENFORCING ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS WITHIN REGION 4	60

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VII.  FACILITIES AND OPERATIONS	61
  A.   SEVERE WEATHER PREPAREDNESS	61
  B.   OVERVIEW OF POTENTIAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS	62
  C.   REGION 4 PROPERTY DETAILS	63
     1.   The SNAFC Building/Complex	63
     2.   SESD Laboratory	63
     3.   SESDFEC	63
     4.   ERRB Warehouse	63
     5.   WPD S. FL Office	63
     6.   Gulf of Mexico Program	64
     7.   EPA's Gulf Ecology Division Laboratory campus	64
VIM. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON THE MOST VULNERABLE PEOPLE	64
  A.   CHILDREN	66
     1.   Air Quality	66
     2.   Indoor Air	66
     3.   Infectious Diseases	67
     4.   Flooding	67
     5.   Clean Water	67
     6.   Safe Drinking Water	67
     7.   Impacts on Region 4 Children's Environmental Health (CEH) Program	67
  B.   ELDERLY POPULATION	68
  C.   ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE	69
  D.   TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS	71
     1.   Resources	72
     2.   Education and Outreach	72
     3.   Communication and Collaboration	73
IX.   VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT TABLE (APPENDIX A)	73
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I.      Introduction
       The Agency's draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan has defined "vulnerability" as the
degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate
change, including climate variability and extremes.128  EPA's systems are the various programs
implementing its strategic plan goals and statutory mandates. Region 4 is an extension of these
systems into the nation's southeastern eight states and the fourteen ecoregions described earlier.
This chapter contains an assessment of the vulnerabilities of key EPA Region 4 Programs to the
impacts of climate change. It builds on the work presented in Part 2 of EPA's agency-wide Plan,
and is structured by the goals in EPA's FY 2011-2015 Strategic Plan. The following begins the
discussion of Region 4's program vulnerabilities to climate change in context of the Agency's
five strategic plan goals:129

Goal 1 - Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality within Region 4

Goal 2 - Protecting EPA Region 4's  Waters

Goal 3 - Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing  Sustainable Development within Region 4

Goal 4 - Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution within Region 4

Goal 5 - Enforcing Environmental Laws within Region 4

       Note that EPA Region 4 has not conducted a quantitative vulnerability assessment, but
has qualitatively evaluated the nature and magnitude of risks associated with climate change
impacts.


II.     Goal 1: Taking Action  on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality

       A.    Overview of Potential Climate Change Impacts
   Communities within the  Southeast face public health and environmental challenges from
ambient and indoor air pollution. Climate change will increase these challenges. EPA Region 4
partners with federal, state, tribal and local agencies to protect public health and the environment
by directly implementing programs that address air quality (indoor and outdoor), toxic pollutants,
climate change, energy efficiency, pollution prevention, industrial and mobile source pollution,
radon,  acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and radiation protection.  Several program areas
are vulnerable to future climate conditions that may be characterized by elevated baseline
temperatures, increased frequency and duration of heat waves, more extreme swings in weather
conditions (drought and precipitation events), and more severe hurricanes and coastal storms.
These future conditions will present  challenges to EPA to achieve its core mission.

   The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires EPA to establish National Ambient Air Quality  Standards
(NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants.  EPA is required to review and consider revisions to these
criteria pollutant standards every five years. Once a NAAQS has been established or revised,  the
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CAA requires states to develop specific plans, State Implementation Plans (SIPs), to attain the
standards for each area designated as "nonattainment" for that NAAQS.  In other words, the
states must demonstrate how its areas will achieve and maintain compliance with standards.

    Two criteria pollutants, ozone and particulate matter (PM), appear to be at risk for future
ambient level increases caused by a warming climate. Tropospheric (ground-level) ozone
pollution is likely to increase due to meteorological conditions that would become more
favorable to ozone formation, particularly in the southeastern U.S.130 Ambient particulate matter
levels would likely be affected in some areas by an increase in frequency or intensity of
wildfires. m  Another area of vulnerability to climate change is indoor air quality.

              1.      Ozone
       The current health-based ozone NAAQS is 0.075 parts per million (ppm) on an 8-hour
       average. While most areas of Region 4 currently meet that standard, the EPA is set to
       begin considering an even more protective ozone standard sometime this year (2013),
       which would be followed by a new round of area attainment/ nonattainment designations.
Impacts on ozone programs
    •   A warming climate could induce ambient ozone level increases, which would in turn may
       require more stringent pollution controls to attain and maintain the ozone NAAQS than
       would be necessary under the present-day climate.
    •   Ground-level ozone is projected to increase in the largest urban areas of the Southeast
       (Chang etal.2010).132
    •   Emissions of ozone precursors, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), are expected to increase
       from fossil-fuel burning  power plants due to increased demand that accompanies
       increased ambient temperatures.
    •   Complying with the ozone NAAQS may become more difficult for some Region 4 states,
       especially those with areas already facing existing ozone problems. Figure 8 presents the
       results of a modeling study which predicts increases of ground-level ozone concentra-
       tions across the southeast up to approximately 3 parts per billion in some urban areas.
         Ground-level Ozone
                                        Figure 8. Map showing projected
                                        increases in ground level ozone pollution
                                        in 2050 as compared to 2001, using a mid-
                                        range emissions scenario (A1B, assuming
                                        some decrease from current emissions
                                        growth trends).
                                    (Adapted from Tagaris et al. 2009)
                                                               ,133
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              2.     Particulate Matter (PM)
       The current PM NAAQS comprise standards for fine participate matter (PIVfo.s) and
coarse participate matter (PMio).  The existing health-based PM2.5 NAAQS are a short-term (24-
hour average) standard  of 35 micrograms per cubic meter (|ig/m3) and a long-term (annual
average) standard of 15 jig/m3. In December 2012 the EPA strengthened the annual PIVfo.s
NAAQS by finalizing a new standard of 12 ug/m3.134  The health-based PMio NAAQS is a short-
term (24-hour average) standard of 150 |ig/m3. All areas of Region 4 currently meet the existing
PM2.5 and PMio NAAQS. EPA will designate areas as being in attainment or nonattainment with
the 2012 PM2.s NAAQS in December 2014.

       While the impact of climate change on ambient PM levels remains somewhat uncertain,
existing evidence suggests that climate change may cause increasing frequency or intensity of
wildfires.135  This potential is particularly important in Region 4, where the Southeast leads the
nation in the rate of wildfire occurrences, averaging approximately 45,000 fires per year from
1997 through 2003.136 Wildland fires contribute an estimated 15 percent of total PM and 8
percent of carbon dioxide (CCh) emissions over the southeastern USA.137 An increase in wildfire
activity would cause more frequent elevated PM events, which would be hazardous to human
health. For example, a study conducted in the Carolinas showed that peat bog wildfires pose a
health hazard, with even brief exposure to smoke associated with these types of wildfires has
being associated with negative respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes.138

Impacts on PM program

   •   The potential for greater PM concentrations due to wildfire activity may need to be
       considered when preparing SIPs to demonstrate attainment with the PM NAAQS. For
       example, increasing background PM2.5 levels when  modeling future PM2.5 concentrations
       may need to be assumed.
   •   More information is needed with regard to the potential  for increases in both short-term
       exposure and long-term exposure to PM due to an increase in wildfires.
          o   For a short-term exposure assessment, more data is needed on the human
              population in areas that are most likely to be in close proximity to wildfire
              activity.
          o   To assess the vulnerability to long-term exposure,  additional data is needed on
              how many wildfires per year can be expected, the expected total PM2.5 emissions
              from those wildfires, and modeling to estimate the impact of those emissions on
              ambient PM2.5 levels.  This data gap has been identified as a research need by the
              federal land management agencies.139
          o   Funding has  been made available by the federal Joint Fire Science Program
              (JFSP) for research on the potential increases in wildfires and resulting air
              pollution and human health impacts at a regional level.  The results of this
              research are expected to be available in 2015.140
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              3.     Indoor Air
     The Agency's Indoor Air Program is a non-regulatory program. While Program staff share
information, there are no metrics of control and few methods of monitoring results. In Region 4,
Program staff largely focus on mold, radon, and asthma, and work with state and local agencies
with indoor air quality interest or legislation. Regional  staff also tries to be aware  of emerging
issues in indoor air quality.

     Due to the nature of Region 4's hot and humid climate and the nature of the work place, the
Region estimates most its population spends 92 percent of its time indoors, consistent with the
national population.141 The anticipated climate change attributes of heavy rains, increased
temperatures and high humidity  cycles will likely facilitate this trend to continue whereupon the
population  will be exposed to poorer indoor air quality (from lower ventilation levels, carbon
monoxide from emergency power generators);   dampness, moisture, and flooding; infectious
agents and  pests (which may also increase pesticide use); thermal stress; and building ventilation,
weatherization, and energy use.142

Impacts on Indoor Air program
    •   The Region expects its population to have increased exposure with identified indoor air
       agents of concern: heat and biological materials - pollen,  molds and infectious agents
       associated with climate change and associated health concerns.143 See also  the section on
       impacts to vulnerable populations.

III.   Goal 2: Protecting America's Waters

       Region 4's waters include the Gulf Coast; Florida Keys; South Atlantic Coast; and the
Coastal Plain, Southern Appalachian Mountains, Tennessee River, lower Ohio  River, and the
southeastern Mississippi River watersheds. The region  includes a wealth of ecological and
economic resources, such as rivers and streams, barrier  islands, extensive estuaries, coral reefs,
coastal and freshwater wetlands, busy shipping ports, major metropolitan cities, extensive
agricultural production and important commercial and recreational fishing  resources.  The
Southeast has over 434,000 farms on more than 80 million acres, over 138 million acres of
timberland, and is home to over  one third (1,935  miles)  of the lower 48-states'  continental
coastline, 33 percent of U.S. coterminous estuaries, and nearly 30 percent of all U.S.
wetlands.144'145'146'147'148 Pressures from the continuing population and business growth in the
southeastern states on the coastal, piedmont and mountain zones of this region  are  compounded
by increased incidence of drought as well as increased flooding, sea level rise, intense tropical
storms and  heat-related stress on aquatic ecosystems and human health.

       A.     Overview of Potential Climate Change Impacts
    In March 2012, EPA published the draft 2072 National Water Program Climate Change
    Strategy,149 which described impacts that were documented in reports of the

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). These impacts are relevant to the
Southeast and can be summarized as follows. 15ฐ
•  Increases in Water Pollution Problems: Warmer air temperatures will result in warmer
   water that will hold less dissolved oxygen making instances of low oxygen levels and
   hypoxia more likely, foster harmful algal blooms and change the toxicity of some
   pollutants, and could cause an increased number of waters to be recognized as
   "impaired".
•  More Extreme Water-Related Events: Heavier precipitation in tropical and inland storms
   will increase the risks of flooding, expand floodplains, increase the variability of stream
   flows (i.e., higher high flows and lower low flows), increase the velocity of water during
   high flow periods and increase erosion.  These changes will have adverse effects on water
   and wastewater management facilities as well as water quality and aquatic system health.
   For example, increased intense rainfall will result in more nutrients, pathogens, and
   toxins being washed into water bodies.
•  Changes to the Availability of Drinking Water Supplies: In some parts of the Southeast,
   droughts, changing patterns of precipitation, and increased water loss due to evaporation
   as a result of warmer air temperatures will result in changes to the availability of water
   for drinking and for use for agriculture and industry. In other areas, sea level rise and salt
   water intrusion will have a similar effect.  Warmer air temperatures may also result in
   increased demands on community water supplies and the water needs for agriculture,
   industry, and energy production are also likely to increase.
•  Water body Boundary Movement and Displacement: Rising sea levels will move ocean
   and estuarine shorelines by inundating lowlands, displacing wetlands, and altering the
   tidal range in rivers and bays. Changing water flow to lakes and streams, increased
   evaporation, and changed precipitation in some areas, will affect the size of wetlands and
   lakes.
•  Changing Aquatic Biology: As waters become warmer, the aquatic life they now support
   will be replaced by other species better adapted to the warmer water (i.e., cold water fish
   will be replaced by warm water fish). This process, however, will occur at an uneven
   pace disrupting aquatic system health and allowing non-indigenous and/or invasive
   species to become established. In the long-term (i.e., 50 years), warmer water and
   changing flows may result in significant deterioration of aquatic ecosystem health in
   some areas.
•  Collective Impacts on Coastal Areas: Most areas of the Southeast will see several of the
   water-related effects of climate change,  but coastal areas are likely to see multiple
   impacts of climate change. These impacts include  sea level rise, increased damage from
   floods and storms, changes in drinking water supplies, and increasing temperature and
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       acidification of the oceans. These overlapping impacts of climate change make
       protecting water resources in coastal areas especially challenging.

    •  Indirect Impacts:  The Southeast is susceptible to impacts due to unintended
       consequences of human response to climate change, such as those resulting from carbon
       sequestration and other greenhouse gas reduction strategies.


       B.     Program-Specific Vulnerabilities and Potential Actions
              1.     Watershed Management
    EPA Region 4, working with its state, local and tribal partners, is responsible for managing
regulatory and non-regulatory programs to protect and improve water quality in the Southeast's
watersheds and estuarine, coastal  and ocean waters.  As better information is developed for local
decision making, changes may be needed in how EPA Region 4 and our partners implement
water quality programs, including Water Quality Standards, monitoring and assessment, Total
Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL),  Effluent Guidelines, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (NPDES), nonpoint pollution control programs, stormwater management and other
watershed management programs. Potential vulnerabilities to Region 4 Watershed Management
efforts include:
    •   Higher air and water temperatures combined with nutrient pollution may result in
       increased growth of algae  and microbes that threaten aquatic ecosystems.
    •   Higher air and water temperatures may increase pollutant concentrations and lower
       dissolved oxygen levels, potentially resulting in additional water bodies not meeting
       water quality standards and being listed as impaired.
    •   Areas experiencing periods of less precipitation, drought, lower stream flow and limited
       ground water recharge may result in less water flow for  dilution of permitted discharges,
       alterations of aquatic environments, and increased impairments.
    •   Areas with increased intensity of drought or that may experience increases in events such
       as wildfires may see alterations in the structure and function of watersheds potentially
       affecting regional  and state wetlands delineation and protection programs.
    •   Increased intensity of rainfall events and storms may cause an increase in the number of
       sewer overflows and wastewater bypasses, fouling streams  and requiring increased water
       quality enforcement.

              2.     Water Quality Standards
    Water Quality Standards are the foundation of the Clean Water Act - they designate the
goals and uses for water bodies, setting criteria to protect those  uses, and establishing provisions
to protect water bodies from pollutants.  States, territories, and authorized tribes establish water
quality standards, and EPA reviews and approves those standards.  Potential vulnerabilities to
Region 4 Water Quality Standards efforts include:
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       Warmer waters and other ecological shifts will threaten aquatic habitats and aquatic
       species, such as cold water fisheries and potentially requiring changes in State stream
       classifications.   Rising stream temperatures could significantly reduce viable habitat for
       several species  of cold-water fish in North Carolina, including brook trout.
       Salinity changes due to seal level rise may create a need to reclassify some water bodies
       from fresh to salt water. Sea-level rise may also result in a shifting from fresh water
       communities to salt water communities,  such as is happening in the Chassohowitzka
       River System in Florida. Increased anthropogenic use of freshwater upstream may be a
       significant contributor in converting fresh to salt water.
              3.      Monitoring, Assessing, and Reporting
    Our nation's waters are monitored by state, federal, and local agencies, universities,
dischargers, and volunteers. Water quality data are used to characterize waters, identify trends
over time, identify emerging problems, determine whether pollution control programs are
working, help to direct pollution control efforts to where they are most needed, and respond to
emergencies such as floods and spills. Potential vulnerabilities to Region 4 Monitoring efforts
include:

    •   Stream ecosystems will be affected directly, indirectly, and through interactions
       with other stressors. Biological responses to these changes will vary regionally
       and could include altered community composition, interactions, and functions. .
    •   Monitoring locations may need to be re-located in order to effectively monitor and assess
       changes in stream ecology or water quality.
    •   Timing of monitoring may need to change in order to pick up seasonal shifts and the full
       range of climate vulnerability, especially for recreational and aquatic life uses.


              4.      Total Maximum Daily Loads
       Under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, states, territories, and authorized tribes are
required to develop lists of impaired waters. These are waters that are too polluted or otherwise
degraded to meet the water quality standards set by states, territories, or authorized tribes. The
law requires that these jurisdictions establish priority  rankings for waters on the lists and  develop
Total Maximum Daily Load ("TMDLs") for these waters. A TMDL is a calculation of the
maximum amount of a pollutant a waterbody can receive and still safely meet water quality
standards. Potential vulnerabilities to Region 4 TMDL efforts include:

    •   Some areas may experience periods of less precipitation, drought,  lower stream flow and
       limited ground water recharge resulting in less water flow for dilution of permitted
       discharges, alterations of aquatic environments, and  increased impairments; these
       considerations will need to be taken into account in the development of new TMDLs, and
       potentially result in the need for revision of existing  TMDLs.
    •   Some areas may experience episodes of increased intense precipitation resulting in
       increased runoff of pollutants; these considerations will need to be taken into account in
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       the development of new TMDLs, and potentially result in the need for revision of
       existing TMDLs.
              5.     National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
   Water pollution degrades surface waters making them unsafe for existing uses, including
drinking water, fishing, swimming, and other water recreation. As authorized by the Clean Water
Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls
water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United
States. NPDES permits have a five-year permitting cycle. Potential vulnerabilities to  Region 4
NPDES efforts include:

   •   Areas experiencing periods of less precipitation, drought, lower stream flow and limited
       ground water recharge will result in less water flow for dilution of permitted discharges,
       alterations of aquatic environments, and increased impairments. National Pollutant
       Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits will need to take these factors into
       consideration during permit renewal or new permit issuance. These precipitation changes
       are compounded in certain areas by increased human uses of the water resources.
   •   Increased intensity of rainfall events and storms may cause an increase in the number of
       sewer overflows and wastewater bypasses, fouling streams and requiring increased water
       quality enforcement.
   •   Increased aquatic temperatures  may result in the need to modify existing discharge limits.
              6.     Nonpoint Source Management
   Nonpoint source pollution comes from many diffuse sources and is caused by rainfall runoff
that picks up natural and human made pollutants and deposits them in lakes, rivers, wetlands,
coastal waters and ground water. State nonpoint source programs, developed under the Clean
Water Act (CWA) Section 319 Program, are working to meet this challenge. Potential
vulnerabilities to Region 4 Nonpoint Source Management efforts include:

   •   Increased intensity  of rainfall events and storms will cause increased pollutant loads in
       runoff, and the velocity of runoff will scour and erode creek beds.
   •   Accounting for greater quantities of runoff and pollutants, with more variability, from
       both urban and suburban stormwater and agricultural sources will stress existing nonpoint
       source best management programs.

   •   Decreasing frequency of precipitation days and more concentration of runoff in intense
       storms, which is likely to be more damaging to aquatic habitats, and carry more erosion-
       related pollutants into water bodies will stress existing nonpoint source best management
       programs.
              7.     Wetlands
    Section 404 of the Clean Water Act requires EPA concurrence before the U.S. Army Corps
of Engineers may issue permits to allow dredging or filling of wetlands. Wetlands function to

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protect ecosystems, streams and other aquatic resources. Wetlands provide crucial climate
change functions including: 1) coastal protection in the face of sea level rise and increased
hurricane intensity, including the ability to reduce wave energy; 2) protection of water supplies
in the face of increased drought conditions by providing groundwater recharge and maintaining
minimum stream flows; 3) flood mitigation in the face of increased precipitation and storm
frequency; and 4) carbon sequestration. The capacity of wetlands and headwater streams to
reduce flood peaks, detain stormwater, and filter pollutants is critical to the protection of life,
property, and water quality. Potential vulnerabilities to Region 4 Wetlands Program efforts
include:

   •   Areas with increased intensity of drought or that may experience increases in events such
       as wildfires may see alterations in the structure and function of wetlands and watersheds
       potentially affecting regional and state wetlands delineation and protection programs.
   •   Sea-level rise combined with coastal development will challenge the ability of coastal
       wetlands to migrate, potentially affecting coastal wetland protection programs. This
       migration will likely result in loss of coastal wetlands where development has encroached
       on natural migration pathways.
   •   Drying out of seasonal wetlands with increased  drought could affect wetland delineations
       and programs.
   •   Physical damage or elimination of wetlands and dune structures that protect them due to
       hurricanes and other seasonal changes could affect wetland delineation and restoration
       efforts.
              8.      Dredging/Ocean Dumping
   The Ocean Dumping and Dredged Materials Management programs established by Congress
in 1972 prohibit ocean dumping of materials that would unreasonably degrade or endanger
human health or the marine environment.  Potential vulnerabilities to Region 4 Dredging/Ocean
Dumping efforts include:

   •   Increased need and frequency of ocean dumping due to increased precipitation and
       rainfall intensity that cause erosion and sedimentation of rivers, channels and harbors.
   •   Shifting sediments and forming of shoals due to higher intensity storms that impede safe
       navigation in harbors and channels may require increased use of emergency dredging.
   •   Need for dredged materials to protect shorelines, beaches, dunes and marshes from sea
       level rise may  stress existing regulatory programs.
              9.      National Estuary Program and South Florida
       The National Estuary Program (NEP) was established in 1987 to restore and protect the
physical, chemical, and biological integrity of "estuaries of national significance" by focusing
our Clean Water Act authorities in these highly productive ecosystems.  There are 28 NEPs
across the country, six of which are entirely or partially within EPA Region 4. Region 4 NEPs
promote collaborative actions and best management practices to accelerate and embellish
implementation of "core" Clean Water Act programs. Lessons learned by the NEPs are shared

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across the network of 28 programs nationally, as well as with other coastal watersheds facing
similar water pollution and water quality impairments. This approach has proven to be a success
over the past 25 years and the NEP is seen as a model for other comprehensive watershed and
community-based programs.

       The Florida Keys Water Quality Protection Program (FKWQPP), established in 1994, is
administered by EPA and FL DEP, and includes a working group consortium of local, state,
federal agencies and non-government representatives. The FKWQPP works to recommend and
implement management activities designed to maintain and restore the water quality needed for
healthy native plant and animal populations in the FL Keys National Marine Sanctuary waters.
Through the Water Quality Protection Program, water quality, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs
have been monitored in the sanctuary since the mid-1990s.

   Potential vulnerabilities to Region 4 NEP and South Florida Program efforts include:
   •   Successful implementation of NEP Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans
       may be adversely affected. Efforts to restore or enhance water quality, habitat, living
       resources, hydrologic alterations, and human uses may be affected.
   •   Increased ocean temperatures and acidification resulting from the absorption of CCh will
       continue to stress coral reefs potentially affecting coral reef protection programs.

              10.    Drinking Water, Wastewater, and Stormwater Infrastructure
       Much of the Southeast has enjoyed the benefits of clean and safe water resulting from an
   extensive network of drinking water, wastewater and storm water infrastructure. EPA
   recognizes that this infrastructure is aging and is being further taxed by the impacts of
   climate change. As state, local and tribal governments face more demands for increasingly
   limited resources, the ability to respond to these growing infrastructure pressures becomes
   more complicated. Potential vulnerabilities to Region 4 Drinking Water, Wastewater, and
   Stormwater Infrastructure Program efforts include:

   •   Higher air and water temperatures combined with nutrient pollution will result in
       increased growth of algae  and microbes that affect drinking water treatment needs.
   •   Increased intensity of rainfall events and storms could contribute to additional
       infiltration/inflow in wastewater conveyance systems, which could cause an increase in
       the number of sewer overflows and wastewater treatment plant overloads, requiring
       expensive modifications and improvements to both wastewater conveyance and treatment
       systems.
   •   Increased drought will place demands on both surface and ground water resources
       resulting in water supply problems.
   •   Reduction in assimilative  capacity of existing surface waters due to reduced stream flows
       and/or increased temperatures could lead to more stringent discharge limits on existing
       wastewater facilities, resulting in the need for expensive improvements or upgrades to
       maintain permit compliance.
   •   Sea level  rise could result  in:  1) saltwater intrusion into the collection system of
       wastewater treatment systems; 2) wet wells in pumping systems leading to increased

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       corrosion damage to pumping equipment, and treatment plant tankage and equipment;
       and 3) malfunction of gravity conveyance systems and discharges.
   •   Increases in flooding from extreme precipitation, storm surges, and loss of wetlands
       could cause damage to infrastructure resulting in increased needs for SRF funding.
   •   Source water intake changes may be needed due to droughts and summertime extreme
       heat. Coastal aquifers may experience salt water intrusion where withdrawals are
       outstripping recharge and increased pressure head from higher sea levels  may worsen this
       problem resulting in the need for relocation of water and wastewater facilities.
   •   Drinking water and wastewater utilities emergency planning for extreme  weather events
       may need to be reviewed and modified to account for climate change. Vulnerable and
       economically deprived communities may be particularly at risk, both for  access to clean
       and safe water as well as for their ability to respond to emergencies during extreme
       events. Coastal and mountain communities will be particularly vulnerable.
   •   Changes in rainfall patterns  may lead to additional water supply infrastructure, with
       associated impacts on ecosystem fragmentation, aquatic life, physical stability, water
       quality, disruption of sediment and nutrient dynamics, downstream users, and system
       losses due to increased evaporation from impoundments.  CWA Section 404 permit
       applications for reservoir creation in response to drought have increased in some states.

              11.    Drinking Water Quality
   The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the main federal law that ensures the quality of
Americans' drinking water. EPA sets standards for drinking water quality and oversees the state,
local, and water suppliers who implement those standards.  EPA Region 4 ensures that the public
water supply systems comply with national drinking water quality standards and  underground
sources of drinking water are protected from contamination.

   Potential vulnerabilities to Region 4 Drinking Water Quality efforts include:

   •   Higher air and water temperatures will promote increased growth of algae and microbes,
       which will increase the need for drinking water treatment and potentially  affect the
       aesthetic quality of drinking water supplies.
   •   Increased storm water runoff will wash sediment and other contaminants  into drinking
       water sources, requiring additional treatment.
   •   Sea-level rise could increase the salinity of both surface water and ground water through
       saltwater intrusion, encroaching upon coastal drinking water supplies. Additionally,
       extreme weather events such as hurricanes and extreme droughts could impact and
       potentially permanently affect both the availability  and quality of drinking water sources.
       In southeastern areas with saltwater intrusion, Region 4 states may receive more permit
       applications and issue more permits for Class V aquifer recharge injection wells under
       the Underground Injection Control (UIC) program in an attempt to combat the effects of
       saltwater intrusion caused by sea-level rise.
   •   Reduced annual precipitation or increased intensity and duration of drought in some
       regions will affect water supplies, causing drinking water providers to reassess supply
       plans and consider alternative pricing, allocation and water conservation  options.
   •   In areas with less precipitation, public water supply systems water demand may rely more
       heavily on underground aquifers or development of underground  storage  of treated water

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       to supplement existing sources.  Changes in the salt front of estuaries and tidal rivers due
       to sea level rise and over use of fresh surface and ground water resulting in flow changes
       may result in increased pressure to manage freshwater reservoirs to increase flows and
       attempt to maintain salinity regimes, in order to protect estuarine productivity and
       drinking water supplies.
IV.    Goal 3: Cleaning up Communities and Advancing Sustainable
Development


   Contaminated site cleanup occurs under a variety of EPA programs, most commonly
Superfund (i.e., remedial, time-critical removal, emergency response programs), the Resources
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (e.g.,
PCBs), Brownfields, Underground Storage Tanks (UST)/Leaking Underground Storage Tanks
(LUST) and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA). A high percentage of cleanups, including most
brownfields sites, are regulated through State programs.

   The potential climate change impacts described in Section IV. A below broadly apply to each
of these programs; however, the implications of these climate change impacts may differ by
program. Potential program-specific focus areas and vulnerabilities are discussed in Section
III.B.

       A.     Overview of Potential Climate Change Impacts
   For the Southeast, the impacts that could most likely pose risks to contaminated site cleanups
and waste management facilities are sea level rise, extreme storm events (precipitation and
wind), temperature extremes, wildfires, decreasing precipitation days and increasing drought
intensity. Ocean acidification and increased water temperatures may also pose additional risks to
coastal facilities and affect the natural bio-degradation of chemicals released to the environment.
Potential environmental conditions arising from these impacts and specific examples illustrating
how they could potentially influence contaminated sites are described below. The likelihood and
severity of climate change impacts can also be expected to vary considerably from site-to-site
depending on the location, cleanup technologies and approaches, and many other factors.

              1.     Sea Level Rise
   As discussed previously, sea level rise is expected to impact coastal areas affecting every
state in the Region 4 except for Tennessee and Kentucky. This impact on contaminated sites and
petroleum storage facilities may be partially mitigated because it is expected to occur gradually
over the course of several decades. This allows additional time to appropriately plan for and
respond to sea level rise (e.g., construction of berms, removal of wastes, and completion of
shorter-term treatment activities). Contaminated sites and petroleum storage facilities located in
vulnerable areas could experience impacts due to inundation and salt water intrusion.  Examples

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include flooding of petroleum storage facilities, long-term waste management areas, and
uncontrolled (or undiscovered) contamination leading to the release and dispersal of
contaminants; corrosion of underground tanks, piping, and other equipment; and degradation of
coastal aquifers that impacts cleanup performance goals. Saltwater intrusion may impair habitat
restoration efforts of impacted surface areas (like wetlands); and may change soil and water
chemical and biological properties, thereby impacting toxicity, transport, natural degradation of
contaminants, and treatment efficacy. For example, intrusion may impact the ability of native
microorganisms to play a role in bioremediation of petroleum-impacted soils.

             2.     Extreme Storm Events
   Existing climate studies suggest that Region 4 has been experiencing more intense storm
events. Unlike  sea level rise which predominantly affects coastal  areas, extreme storm events
can impact a much wider range of contaminated sites. These impacts could include:

   •   flooding of surface water bodies and surrounding land areas due to heavy precipitation
       events (i.e., regional drainage)
   •   flooding of coastal areas and rivers from storm surge due to higher intensity hurricanes,
   •   increased local  surface runoff,
   •   increased infiltration of storm water into soils and elevation of water tables, and
   •   increased wind  damage and dispersion of contaminants.

   Prior to the  enactment of environmental laws, industrial wastes were routinely discharged to
rivers, streams and other water bodies.  As a result, many contaminants may exist within the
layers of sediment that accumulated over the years. One potential impact of extreme storm
events is the spread of contaminants through erosion, exposure of formerly buried contaminants,
dissolution or suspension of contaminants, and deposition of contaminated soils or sediments.
River flooding that breaches dams may result in the spread of contaminated sediment previously
contained by the dams.  Flooding of chemical facilities may mobilize contaminants through
stormwater runoff. Increased precipitation events and hurricanes can potentially impact sites
even if they are remote  from coastal areas and rivers.

       Extreme weather can delay or impair active removal and remedial operations, and
complicate a remedy due to such impacts as flotation of tanks or drums,, damage of engineered
sediment caps,  damage to treatment systems, impacts to contaminated structures, and damage to
containment systems by the forces of wind and water - all of which can create risks to human
health and the environment.

             3.     Temperature Change
   The direct consequence of elevated temperatures on contaminated site cleanups is not
expected to be significant. However, elevated temperatures could lead to increased
pressurization of storage containers, volatilization of hazardous materials, and other factors
which may affect design and operation of remediation systems and emergency response actions.

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Worker health and safety concerns during site operations may also be impacted by higher
temperatures (e.g., handling of pressurized drums, heat stress to responders).

             4.     Wildfires
   The increase in wildfires may impact treatment facilities and above ground storage units. The
disruption of treatment will impact costs and restoration  time frames.

             5.     Ocean Acidification
   The acidification of sea water may adversely impact  the corrosion and degradation of
pipelines and construction materials (e.g. concrete pads/berms) used to convey, store, or contain
petroleum products at coastal facilities.

             6.     Increased Water Temperatures
   Increased water temperatures may lead to a change in native or endemic organisms available
for biotic degradation of petroleum released to the environment.

       B.    Program-Specific Vulnerabilities and Potential Actions
             1.     Longer-term Cleanups (e.g., Superfund Remedial, Superfund Time-
             Critical Removal, RCRA Corrective Action, TSCA, Brownfields Cleanup Sites,
             and Polychlorinated Cleanup)
   Longer-term response cleanups such as the Superfund remedial program and the RCRA
corrective action program are intended to protect human health and the environment, maintain
protection over time, minimize the amount of untreated waste, and reduce ecological risks to
levels that will result in the recovery and maintenance of healthy local populations and
communities of biota. These cleanups are generally viewed as "permanent" solutions. Other
cleanup programs such as the Superfund time-critical removal program address more immediate
threats; however, in many cases these may also result in  long-term cleanup remedies.

             2.     Impacts on Longer-term Cleanups:
   Cleanups where waste is left in place (e.g., landfills,  cap-in-place remedies) or cleanups that
involve treatment that occurs  over a long period of time (e.g., ground water pump & treat
systems) could be especially vulnerable to changes in climate.  For cleanup operations that are
typically of much shorter duration (e.g., soil vapor extraction, enhanced thermal treatment), the
impacts of climate change are more predictable and easier to factor into the selection and design
of a particular remedy.

                    a)     Programmatic Vulnerabilities
   •   Physical impacts to Superfund actions of all durations are likely to include the following:
       o   Both removals and remedial actions may involve labor-intensive operations,
          sometimes for an extended length of time, and are therefore vulnerable to the acute
          impacts of climate change: e.g. flooding, ground water hydrology, temporary or
          long-term power outages, extreme heat, wind impacts.
       o   Such impacts may complicate assessment phases.
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o   There may be heightened risk of physical damage to buildings and other components
   of the existing site and the remedy, such as storm movement of drums or other
   containers, or damage to booms and other containment structures.
o  Off-site disposal, waste transport, equipment capabilities and laboratory capabilities
   may be overwhelmed by extreme storm events. Temporary on-site staging of
   hazardous materials may be compromised.
o  Extreme storm events may provide increased hazards for EPA staff and contractors
   on site.
o  Climate impacts to infrastructure may hamper response time and capability, including
   but not limited to the ability to move equipment and to transport hazardous materials
   for disposal.
Programmatic  impacts to the Superfund program include an ability to adequately plan for
and execute in a changed environment:
o  The preliminary assessment/site investigation (PA/SI) phase of time-critical removal
   actions or an Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) are based on existing
   information — typically historical information, not future predictions. Without
   incorporating potential climate change impacts, an accurate risk may not be factored
   into planning or prioritization. Assumptions and modeling previously relied upon in
   an area may no longer be valid
o  The remedy selection process must also adequately consider climate impacts.
   Precipitation records and floodplain maps used for remedy selection and  design may
   not account for future climate change impacts, for example.
o  More robust remedies such as excavation and removal of wastes may be required for
   sites potentially vulnerable to sea level rise and flooding, increasing short-term costs.
o  Climate change may increase the mobility of contaminants and reduce the
   effectiveness of containment as a remedy.
o  Designs may have to be  based on conservative assumptions to reflect uncertainty over
   future environmental conditions, including extreme storm events that increase surface
   water runoff or infiltration.
o  Future population growth will most likely result in people living in areas near
   Superfund  sites previously less occupied, contributing to a need for reassessment of
   scoring, risks and protectiveness of existing sites and remedies. Reevaluation of sites
   previously  considered for the NPL may be necessary.
o  Changes in exposure pathways for both human and ecological receptors will result
   from sea level rise, coastline alteration and other factors. These may include such
   aspects as changes to drinking water system intakes, floodplain reach to residential
   areas, and rates of erosion. Remedy design and standards may need to reflect
   projections.
o  Climate impacts may also alter the biological communities impacted by a Site, such
   as increasing risk to seafood sources.
o  Health and Safety Plans should adequately anticipate extreme storm events.
o  Not only will potential impacts on ecological receptors differ from past experience,
   but also the ecological receptors themselves may differ due to migration of species
   and habitat alteration. Remedies should anticipate additional future impacts.
o  Increased sophistication of modeling and planning may raise engineering costs as
   well as execution costs.
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              b)     State by State Assessment
Alabama: Coastal areas will be susceptible to flooding and saltwater intrusion.  Out of
the 10 largest population centers in Alabama, only Mobile is located on the coast. Most
other large cities are located on or near waterways may be more susceptible to flooding;
infrastructure in cities may be overwhelmed, leading to releases. Currently 15 Superfund
or Superfund Alternative Sites are located in the State; 10 of these sites have ongoing
five-year reviews required by residual waste.
Florida: Most of the state will be susceptible to flooding and coastal areas will be
susceptible to saltwater intrusion.  Seven out of 10 of the largest population centers in
Florida are located on the coast (Jacksonville, Miami, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Ft.
Lauderdale, Port St. Lucie, and Coral Gables).  Because of population and groundwater
impacts, there are more Superfund Remedial sites in Florida than other Region 4 states.
Currently 66 Superfund or Superfund Alternative Sites are located in the State; 39 of
these sites have ongoing five-year reviews required by residual  waste.
Georgia: Coastal areas will be susceptible to flooding and saltwater intrusion. Out of the
10 largest population centers in Georgia, only Savannah is located on the coast.  Most
other large cities are located on or near waterways and may be more susceptible to
flooding; infrastructure in cities may be overwhelmed, leading to releases.   Currently 15
Superfund or Superfund Alternative Sites are located in the State; 9 of these sites have
ongoing five-year reviews required by residual waste.
Kentucky:  There are no coastal areas,  and saltwater intrusion will not be a concern.
Large cities located on or near waterways, such as the Ohio River, may be more
susceptible to flooding; infrastructure in cities may be overwhelmed, leading to releases.
Currently 14 Superfund or Superfund Alternative Sites are located in the State; 12 of
these sites have ongoing five-year reviews required by residual  waste.
Mississippi:  Coastal areas will be susceptible to flooding and saltwater intrusion.  Out of
the 10 largest population centers in Mississippi, only two (Gulfport and Biloxi) are
located on the coast. Most other large cities are located on or near waterways and may be
more susceptible to flooding; infrastructure in cities may be overwhelmed, leading to
releases. Currently 8 Superfund or Superfund Alternative Sites are located in the State; 1
of these sites has ongoing five-year reviews required by residual waste.
North Carolina: Coastal areas will be susceptible to flooding and saltwater intrusion.
Out of the 10 largest population centers in North Carolina, only Fayetteville, Wilmington
and Greenville are located in the coastal plain.  Most other large cities are located on or
near waterways and may be more  susceptible to flooding; infrastructure in cities may be
overwhelmed, leading to releases. Currently 41 Superfund or Superfund Alternative
Sites are located in the State; 25 of these sites have ongoing five-year reviews required by
residual waste.
South Carolina: Coastal areas will be susceptible to flooding and saltwater intrusion.
Out of the 10 largest population centers in South Carolina, only Charleston and Mount
Pleasant are located on the  coast.  Other large cities are located  on or near waterways and
may be more susceptible to flooding; infrastructure in cities may be overwhelmed,
leading to releases.  Currently 30 Superfund or Superfund Alternative Sites are located in
the State; 22 of these sites have ongoing five-year reviews required by residual waste.
Tennessee:  There are no coastal areas, so saltwater intrusion is not a concern. Large
cities located on or near waterways, e.g., the Cumberland and Mississippi Rivers may be

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       more susceptible to flooding; infrastructure in cities may be overwhelmed, leading to
       releases.  Currently 25 Superfund or Superfund Alternative Sites are located in the State;
       10 of these sites have ongoing five-year reviews required by residual waste.

Table 4.  State Comparisons of Coastline and Superfund Sites

General Coastline1
(statute miles)
Tidal Coastline2
(statute miles)
Superfund and SAS
Sites
Five -Year Review
Sites
Population
Climate-Change
Impact Rank
AL
53
607
15
10
4,822,023
5
GA
100
2344
15
9
9,919,945
4
FL
1350
8426
66
39
19,317,568
1
KY
0
0
14
12
4,380,415
8
MS
44
359
8
1
2,984,926
6
NC
301
3375
41
25
9,752,073
2
sc
187
2876
30
22
4,723,723
o
J
TN
0
0
25
10
6,456,243
7
Notes:
1 Figures are lengths of general outline of seacoast. This does not include freshwater coastlines. Measurements
are made with unit measure of 30 minutes of latitude on charts as near scale of 1 : 1,200,000 as possible.
Coastline of bays and sounds is included to point where they narrow to width of unit measure, and distance
across at such point is included.
2 Figures were obtained in 1939-1940 with recording instrument on the largest-scale maps and charts then
available. Shoreline of outer coast, offshore islands, sounds, bays, rivers, and creeks is included to head of
tidewater, or to point where tidal waters narrow to width of 100 feet.
**Source: Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean
Service.
             3.     Emergency Response Programs
   EPA coordinates and implements a wide range of activities to ensure that adequate and
timely response measures are taken in communities affected by hazardous substances and oil
releases where state and local first responder capabilities have been exceeded or where additional
support is needed. EPA's emergency response program responds to chemical, oil, biological and
radiological releases and large-scale national emergencies, including homeland security
incidents. EPA conducts time-critical and non-time-critical removal actions when necessary to
protect human health and the environment by either funding response actions directly or
overseeing  and enforcing actions conducted by potentially responsible parties.

   EPA Region 4 has an approximate total coast line of 2,035 miles that may be impacted by
large weather events, such as hurricanes.  An increase in storm severity and sea level rise may
cause large storm surge damage in communities and industrial facilities along Region 4's coast
line. In addition, inland flooding due to intense and frequent storms may cause extensive flood
damage in communities and industrial facilities that were not predicted to be affected under
current flood maps.  These large events will require the need of ample resources of On Scene
Coordinators, Remedial Project Managers and Response Support Corps (RSC) members to be
deployed to respond in the following areas:
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              a)     Impacts on Emergency Response Programs
Smaller entities with hazardous materials may lack resources for emergency planning,
which may increase the risk of abandoned hazardous materials during a flooding or storm
event.
Local capacity to treat and dispose of hazardous and municipal waste may be
overwhelmed by surges in mixed waste from climatic events.
Releases of hazardous materials or chemicals through high winds, flooding, and storm
surge may create a need for increased frequency and intensity of emergency response for
both hazardous materials and oil. Current response resources, including laboratory
requirements, may not be adeq