Running Loss Testing with

            Implanted Leaks
            Final Report
&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency

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               Running Loss  Testing with
                       Implanted Leaks

                           Final Report
                       Assessment and Standards Division
                      Office of Transportation and Air Quality
                      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                             Prepared for EPA by
                      SGS-ETC, Eastern Research Group, Inc.
                         EPA Contract No. EP-C-12-017
                           Work Assignment No. 1-08
       NOTICE

       This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
       positions. It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
       that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
       facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
       technical developments.
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA-420-R-14-009
March 2014

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Eastern Research Group, Inc.
                     Running Loss Testing with
                     Implanted Leaks
                     Final Report
                     EPA contract #: EP-C-12-017
                     Work Assignment 1-08
                     Prepared for:
                     U.S. Environmental Protection
                     Agency
                     Prepared by:
                     SGS-ETC
                     Eastern Research Group
                     February 18, 2014

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ERG Project No.: 0308.01.008.001


       Running Loss Testing with Implanted Leaks


                          Final Report
                     EPA Contract No. EP-C-12-017
                         Work Assignment 1-08


                             Prepared for:

                Constance Hart, Work Assignment Manager
       Kent Helmer, Alternate Work Assignment Manager, Project Officer
                  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                         2000 Traverwood Dr.
                         Ann Arbor, Ml 48105
                             Prepared by:

                           Michael Sabisch
                           Sandeep Kishan
                      Eastern Research Group, Inc.
                     3508 Far West Blvd., Suite 210
                           Austin, TX 78731
                            Jared Stewart
                            Gerard Glinsky
                 SGS Environmental Testing Corporation
                          2022 Helena Street
                          Aurora, CO 80011
                           February 18,2014

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                                   Table of Contents

1.0    Objectives and Background	1
2.0    Study Equipment and Preparation	1
       2.1    Test Vehicles	1
       2.2    Laboratory and Test Equipment Overview	2
       2.3    Fuel Procurement and Preparation	3
       2.4    Vehicle Preparation	3
       2.5    Induced Leak Preparation	5
3.0    Test Program	5
       3.1    Testing Overview	5
       3.2    Data Collection Process	12
       3.3    Data Validation and Analysis	14
       3.4    Results	15
       3.5    Observations and Conclusions	27
4.0    References	29
5.0    Index of Appendices	30

Appendix A Fuel Analysis Results	A-l
Appendix B  Test-by-Test Results	B-l
Appendix C  Descriptions of Study Data	C-l
Appendix D Issues Encountered and Solutions	D-l
Appendix E  Induced Leak Configurations	E-l

                                    List of Figures

Figure 1. FTP-75 Cycle	8
Figure 2. Hydrocarbon Sampling System	9
Figure 3. Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule	10
Figure 4. New York City Cycle	11
Figure 5. Running Loss Tank Temperature Profiles	15
Figure 6. Running Loss Tank Temperature Profiles as a Percent of Temperature Gain	16
Figure 7. Running Loss Results versus Final Tank Temperature   (No Leak)	16
Figure 8. Running Loss Results versus Final Tank Temperature (0.040" Tank Leak)	17
Figure 9. Running Loss Results versus Final Tank Temperature (0.040" Canister Leak)	17
Figure 10. Running Loss Results versus Final Tank Temperature (0.020" Tank Leak)	18
Figure 11. Running Loss Results versus Final Tank Temperature (0.020" Canister Leak)	18
Figure 12. Running Loss Results (10.0 psi RVP Fuel)	20
Figure 13. Running Loss Results (7.7 psi RVP Fuel)	21
Figure 14. Average Emission Rates for Running Loss Testing	21
Figure 15. Hot Soak Results (10.0 psi RVP Fuel)	23
Figure 16. Hot Soak Results (7.7 psi RVP Fuel)	23
Figure 17. Average Emission Rates for Hot Soak Testing	24
Figure 18. Unpressurized Static  Test Results	25
Figure 19. Pressurized Static Test Results	26

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                                     List of Tables

Table 1. Test Vehicle Summary	2
Table 2. Test Vehicle Details	2
Table 3. Running Loss Testing Sequence	13
Table 4. Test Types by Sequence Test Number	13
Table 5. Total Running Loss Emissions (grams)	19
Table 6. Running Loss Emission Rates (grams/hour)	20
Table 7. Hot Soak Results	22
Table 8. Unpressurized Static Test Results	25
Table 9. Pressurized Static Test Results	26
                                            11

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Glossary of Terms and Acronyms

APTL       Ford's Allen Park Test Laboratory
CDPHE     Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment
CFR        Code of Federal Regulations
CFV-CVS   Critical Flow VenturiConstant Volume Sampler
CRADA     Cooperative Research and Development Agreement
CRC        Coordinating Research Council
ECU        Engine Control Unit
EPA        US Environmental Protection Agency
ERG        Eastern Research Group
FID         Flame lonization Detector
FTP-72      Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule of the Federal Test Procedure
FTP-75      City driving schedule of the Federal Test Procedure
FTTP       Fuel Tank Temperature Profile
HC         Hydrocarbon
LA-4        Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule
LA-92       LA92 "Unified" Dynamometer Driving Schedule
MOVES     Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator
MWV       MeadWestvaco
NREL       National Renewable Energy Laboratory
OBDII       Second-Generation On-Board Diagnostics
OEM       Original Equipment Manufacturer
PZEV       Partial Zero-Emissions Vehicle
QAPP       Quality Assurance Project Plan
RVP        Reid Vapor Pressure
SGS-ETC    SGS- Environmental Testing Corporation
SHED       Sealed Housings for Evaporative Determination
UDDS       Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule
VECI       Vehicle Emissions Control Information
VIN        Vehicle Identification Number
WC         Water Column
                                         in

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Executive Summary
       This study, performed by Eastern Research Group (ERG) and subcontractor SGS-
Environmental Testing Corporation (SGS-ETC), under contract to the US Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), was designed and conducted by EPA to characterize running loss
emission rates on enhanced evaporative emissions control and partial zero-emissions vehicle
(PZEV) technology vehicles. This work builds on prior evaporative emissions test programs
performed to determine the prevalence and emission rates of diurnal and hot soak emissions in
US vehicles1.

       Two leak sizes and locations were individually implanted for each vehicle; one in the fuel
tank and one at the vapor canister.  Each leak location was evaluated individually with two
precision implanted orifice sizes. A no-leak condition was evaluated as a control. Additionally,
two fuels were used to determine the effect of Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) on each leak rate.
Consequently, each vehicle was evaluated individually at five different implanted leak conditions
and two different fuel RVPs.

       The required laboratory testing for this program was supervised by subcontractor SGS-
ETC and took place at Ford's Allen Park Test Laboratory (APTL) utilizing Ford technical staff
and analytical assets. All test procedures followed the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR)
procedures for the testing of light-duty passenger vehicles and light-duty trucks. Five vehicles
participated in this study; all were supplied by EPA.  All vehicles were modified to
accommodate temperature sensors, fuel pressure measurement ports, fuel drains and fixtures for
implanted  leaks. Tests performed on each vehicle in each condition consisted of a combined
procedure  including a complete running loss procedure, hot soak, and  unpressurized and
pressurized static tests. Pressures, temperatures, and continuous on-board diagnostic (OBDII)
purge data were recorded, when available.  A total of 50 combined procedures were performed
in this study.

       Results from the study showed the following:

            Fuel RVP was shown to have an effect on running loss emissions from vehicles
             with induced leaks (higher RVP producing higher evaporative emission rates).

            Increases in the tank temperature profile were observed to exponentially increase
             running loss emissions for  vehicles with induced leaks.
            Vehicles without induced leaks demonstrated comparable running loss emissions
             for all tank temperature profiles and both fuels, high RVP and low RVP.
                                            IV

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Leak size was a factor in the running loss and hot soak evaporative emission rates
on all vehicles.  Larger leak sizes were shown to produce higher levels of
evaporative emissions.

In general, leaks induced in the fuel tank vapor space typically produced higher
running loss emissions than leaks of a similar size induced at the evaporative
canister.

Leak size produced a more significant effect than leak location for running loss
and hot soak tests.

The purge valve controls purge behavior, and it also produces changes in fuel
system vapor vacuum. This relationship results in a strong correlation between
commanded evaporative purge and measured fuel vapor vacuum.

For vehicles with induced leaks,  continuous hydrocarbon measurements during
the running loss test demonstrated an increase in the emission rates when fuel
system vapor vacuum was reduced to near zero (atmospheric) levels. This
behavior was demonstrated when commanded evaporative purge was reduced,
and also when purge was overwhelmed from vapor generation due to high fuel
temperatures and high RVP fuels.

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1.0    Objectives and Background
       Recent studies of vehicles with high evaporative emissions in Denver, Colorado
performed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between
the EPA and the Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment (CDPHE) over
three summers (2008-2010) provided information on the prevalence of evaporative emissions
leaks and the emission rates of those leaks in the real world fleet2. These studies focused on hot
soak and diurnal emissions. In addition, the E-771 test program recently performed by the
Coordinating Research Council (CRC), the EPA and the Department of Energy's National
Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected permeation emission rates of aging enhanced
evaporative emission control and PZEV technology vehicles at various temperatures using
different fuels during several evaporative test procedures, including the static permeation test,
diurnal tests and the dynamic permeation test. Evaporative emission rates were also measured
during these tests with 0.020" diameter leaks implanted at different locations on the test vehicles.
A 0.020" leak diameter was selected because this is the smallest size detectable by vehicle
OBDII systems.

       This current running loss study builds on these prior evaporative emissions studies by
simulating real-world evaporative  emission leak rates during transient operation and static
conditions. Laboratory testing was conducted to gather running loss emissions data as a function
of induced leak size (0.020" and 0.040" diameter), leak location (fuel tank or canister) and fuel
RVP (7 and 10 PSI) on enhanced evaporative emissions control and PZEV vehicles. The tank
and canister locations were selected because these were the same leak locations that had been
found to be most common in the Denver field studies and were also used previously in the E-77
test programs. The hot soak and static tests were conducted to tie the information back to the
previous studies.

2.0    Study Equipment and Preparation
2.1    Test Vehicles
       The EPA provided 5 vehicles to be tested in this study. The vehicles were chosen from
available vehicles that had previously been used in prior EPA test programs. The five vehicles
provided for the test program are listed in Table 1, and details regarding the selected vehicles and
test parameters are listed in Table 2.

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                           Table 1. Test Vehicle Summary
Vehicle Make
and Model
Dodge Caravan
Toyota Corolla
Ford Focus PZEV
Honda Accord
Chevrolet
Silverado
Model
Year
2007
2009
2010
2007
2006
Approx.
Odo
117k
121k
29k
124k
112k
Emissions
Standard
Tier 2 /
Bin 5
Tier 2 /
Bin 5
SULEV II
PZEV
Tier 2 /
Bin 5
Tier 2 /
Bin 8
Canister
Cap1 (g)
177
115
110
140
177
Tank
Vol (gal)
20.00
13.25
13.00
17.00
26.00
Canister/Tank
Ratio2
8.85
8.68
8.46
8.24
6.81
1 Canister Cap = canister working capacity, in grams
2 Canister working capacity (g) / Tank volume (gal)
                            Table 2. Test Vehicle Details
Vehicle
Caravan
Corolla
Focus
Accord
Silverado
"*5 ^
P
s >
2007
2009
2010
2007
2006
.ss
"S Sf
oj '3

4750
3250
3000
3500
5500
>
'0
-1 X
a g.
OS eS
H U
20.00
13.25
13.00
17.00
26.00
<
o -o
cS OS
0 0
OS -J
15.32
11.93
4.01
9.76
1.44
CQ
0 -0
S3 oS
0 0
OS -J
0.0948
0.0068
0.5575
0.2918
1.2678
U
o -o
cS OS
0 0
OS -J
0.02662
0.02276
0.01269
0.01602
0.02258
Engine Family
7CRXT03.8NEO
9TYXV01.8BEA
AFMXV02.0VZX
7HNXV02.4KKC
6GMXT05.3379
Evap Family
7CRXR0177GHA
9TYXR0115P12
AFMXR0110GCX
7HNXR0140BBA
6GMXR0176820
2.2    Laboratory and Test Equipment Overview
       All testing was performed at Ford's APTL, which is equipped with two CFR 40 Part
86.1234-96 compliant point-source running loss test cells and two specially-equipped variable
temperature (VT) sealed housings for evaporative determination (SHEDs) that were employed
for hot soak and static pressurization tests. Ford APTL provides emissions certification testing
for new vehicles manufactured to meet US EPA emissions standards.

       Ford APTL provided all quality assurance and traceability requirements defined in CFR
Title 40 Part 86, Subpart B and other test procedures performed during this study.  The Ford
APTL testing and control software automatically logged all calibrations. An SGS-ETC certified
ISO 9001 lead quality auditor verified Ford's compliance with CFR regulations.

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       Equipment used in the study consisted of laboratory-grade electronic thermometers with
thermocouples for measuring temperatures, pressure measurement devices and analytical
systems containing sample conditioning, process gas analyzers, and a data acquisition and
control system. The maintenance, calibration and verification of the measurement equipment
used in this study conformed to requirements defined in the work plan and quality assurance
project plan (QAPP) developed for this project.

       All measurement devices used in this study met the requirements of 40 CFR 86 and were
calibrated and verified for accuracy, precision and repeatability. Any changes to measurement
equipment were performed in accordance with 40 CFR regulations and the standard operating
procedures followed at Ford's APTL.

2.3    Fuel Procurement and  Preparation
       Two fuels were specified for use in this study, one with a target RVP of 7 PSI (target
range of 6.5 to 7.5 psi) and one with a target RVP of 10 PSI (target range of 9.5 to 10.5 psi).
SGS-ETC acquired these two seasonal blends with 10% ethanol (E10 fuel) from a local source
for use in this study.  EPA testing determined the low RVP fuel had a RVP of 7.67 psi.
Although this was slightly higher than the target range, upon consultation with EPA it was
deemed acceptable.  SGS-ETC performed preliminary  testing of the high RVP fuel  using a
Grabner Minivap VPS, model 210-000-00 RVP tester and determined the RVP of the "high
RVP" fuel was 11.49 psi, significantly higher than the  vapor pressure range specified for this
study.  To correct for this, the fuel was aged using an in-tank bubbler at the supplier's facility.
SGS monitored the fuel's RVP throughout the aging process until  a final RVP of approximately
10.3 psi was achieved (measured using the Grabner RVP tester).  At that time, the aging was
halted and the fuel was barreled and shipped to the Ford APTL. Subsequent testing by EPA
determined the high RVP fuel had a RVP of 10.02 psi, well within the target range of the high
RVP fuel. Both fuel blends contained between 9.0 and 11.0% ethanol.  Once at APTL, the fuel
was stored in sealed drums in the Ford APTL fuel room, which is  climate controlled to minimize
any fuel specification changes during the test program.  Complete results of fuel analysis
performed by EPA are provided in Appendix A.

2.4    Vehicle Preparation
       The following steps were performed for  each test vehicle in preparation for the running
loss test program.

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1)     Log books were developed for recording and noting vehicle  specifications and
       process chronology.

2)     Test vehicles were checked to verify they were capable of safe  operation on a
       dynamometer.

3)     Test  vehicles were examined for signs  of potentially  extraneous  evaporative
       emissions, such as indications of collision, recent painting, tampering, new tires,
       interior vinyl treatments, and windshield replacement.

4)     Vehicle  information such  as  VIN, year,  make, model, engine and  evaporative
       families was documented, and photos were obtained of the vehicle, VIN plate and
       the vehicle emissions control information (VECI) label.

5)     All OBDII diagnostic trouble codes and readiness monitor status were scanned.

6)     Each vehicle's  evaporative emissions control system was subjected to a  static
       pressure test using a leak detection unit supplied by EPA.  This instrument was a
       Snap-on EELD500 Smart Smoke Evap Elite pressure tester capable of detecting
       leaks with as small as a 0.010" diameter orifice.

7)     A fuel drain was  installed at the lowest point in each  vehicle's  fuel tank to
       facilitate draining fuels.

8)     Two type  J fuel tank thermocouples were installed in each fuel tank through the
       fuel sending  unit, one  thermocouple was  extended  into the liquid and one
       thermocouple was kept in the vapor space at a 40% fill. The vehicles were altered
       by removing material that made the top of the fuel sending unit  easily accessible.

9)     Tank pressure monitoring and an induced pressurization port were installed in the
       fuel sending unit.

10)    As described in the following  subsection, ports were fitted on the fuel tank, in the
       fuel sending  unit,  and the vapor collection canister inlet to  accommodate the
       induced  leak orifices. Lines were added to allow connection of the leaks, and the
       canister vent to the hydrocarbon measurement system.

11)    The locations of the  modifications to the vehicle's OEM configuration  were
       photographed.

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       12)   Pressure tests were performed on each vehicles fuel  and evaporative emissions
             control system using the EPA-provided Snap-On leak detection unit.

       13)   Fluids and filters were  checked and adjusted as necessary. To minimize issues
             with crankcase oil impacting emissions, oil was not added unless necessary, since
             new oil may impact evaporative testing results.

       14)   The appropriate vehicle road load  coefficients for dynamometer testing were
             derived

       15)   The wiper fluid  reservoir and system  was drained and  flushed to eliminate
             potential release of wiper fluid hydrocarbons into the SHED during static tests.

2.5    Induced Leak Preparation
       Precision orifices were used for metering induced leaks. For each installation, the
precision orifice was integrated into a "swage-type" compression fitting and was designed to be
easily interchangeable and or blocked (sealed) when required. The vehicles were modified, as
described in the following section, to accept the induced leak orifice fittings. Leak sizes were
verified using the Snap-on EELD500 Smart Smoke Evap Elite pressure tester supplied by EPA
before and after each test sequence.

3.0    Test Program
3.1    Testing Overview
       Fuel samples were collected for RVP and ethanol content determinations. RVP samples
were collected using a dip container. Hydrocarbon samples emitted from the vehicle during the
running loss, hot soak SHED or static pressurization test sequence were collected and sampled
per CFR Title 40 Part 86, Subpart B. Midway through the study, the program was expanded to
include continuous measurement of hydrocarbon emissions during the running loss testing. Other
data collected during this study consisted of vehicle and test setup information, weight,
temperature and pressure measurements, and associated date and time for each of the
measurements.

       The test sequence was conducted for a no leak setup and for leaks located at the canister
and at the fuel tank for two different leak sizes. The following 17 steps detail the test sequence
performed.

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       No special procedures were performed to flush the system between switching fuels. The
standard procedure of drain and fill, preparatory cycle, drain and fill, and canister load was
deemed suitable for clearing the system of the previous test fuel.

       There were initially plans to measure purge flow using a mass flow meter. However, due
to concerns that this could interfere with proper purge behavior, purge mass flow was not
measured during the study.

       Step 1) Vehicle Prep,  Modify / Restore & Documentation: SGS ETC prepared the
vehicle for the test  process and documented the condition and evaporative emission system
component locations on individual test vehicles,  photograph systems,  scanned the OBDII system
for diagnostic trouble codes and readiness status, leak checked the system with the Snap-On leak
tester,  created log books and  established  a data  repository.  The vehicle  was  prepared to
accommodate  induced leaks at the  fuel tank and the canister. The vehicle  received further
modifications  to  facilitate  canister  loading, fuel  draining  and refueling,  and HC emission
sampling from the induced leak and  canister vent. At the conclusion of this study, the vehicles
were returned to EPA with modifications remaining in place and the leaks were capped.

       Step 2) Road Load Dynamometer Determination: The vehicle load dynamometer
characteristics were determined using the  SAE J2264 "Chassis Dynamometer Simulation of
Road Load Using Coastdown  Techniques" procedure  for  each vehicle.  This  enabled proper
loading of the vehicle on the chassis dynamometer system. Proper loading of the vehicle ensures
that purge strategies, designed  by the OEM, are used during vehicle operation  on the chassis
dynamometer.

       Step 3) Prepare  Canister  for Test  Process:  Canister purging and loading was
performed  per 40 CFR  86.132-96 "Vehicle  Preconditioning".  Ford APTL  controlled the
humidity to 50 grains per pound of dry air in the canister purging and loading area and recorded
the humidity on a daily basis. The nominal flow rate during canister purge was controlled to 0.8
cubic feet per minute (cfm). At the recommendation of MeadWestvaco (MWV),  a leading
supplier of original equipment  manufacturer (OEM) activated charcoal product for capture of
hydrocarbons in  evaporative emissions canisters, purge was limited to 200 bed  volumes, as
opposed to the CFR-specified  300  bed  volumes, to avoid disturbing the canister heel. The
canister was loaded  with  a  gas composition of 50% butane  and 50% nitrogen to 1.5 times its
working capacity at 15 grams per hour. The stabilization criteria contained in 40 CFR 86.132-96
was not applicable for this testing as these vehicles have an existing history with an unknown
number of canister loads and subsequent purges.

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       Step 4) Insert Leak: Leaks were inserted after the baseline sequence on each fuel was
completed and test data was reviewed for validity.  The leaks were installed into fittings at the
fuel tank and canister. Leaks were relatively easy to  change and cap as required for each stage of
the program.  Specialty precision orifices were acquired for the study, and leak size was verified
using the Snap-on leak detection device.

       Step 5)  Snap-On Leak Test 1: A pressure test was performed with the  Snap-on leak
detection device provided by EPA. This test was used to determine the baseline leak rate of the
vehicle and estimate the cumulative diameter of all "leaks"; no vehicles exhibited leaks initially.
The  device was also used to measure and verify leak rates and diameters for installed leaks
before  testing.

       Step 6) Drain and Refuel 1: To drain existing fuel and refuel the  vehicle, an external
pump was connected  to the fuel tank drain  quick  connect located inside the vehicle, and the
pump was run until vapors were observed in the clear Teflon tube coming  from the tank.  The
pump system was turned off and adsorbent towels  were placed under the quick connect.  The
pump system was disconnected at the quick connect and any liquid spills were contained on the
adsorbent towel ensuring that no fuel spilled on the vehicle. The vehicle was then fueled to 40%
of tank capacity with the fuel specified in the sequence and placed into soak.

       Step 7)  6  to 24 Hour  Soak: The vehicle was then placed in a temperature controlled
room where the temperature was maintained at 74 F +/- 2 F for a time exceeding 6 hours but
less than 24 hours.

       Step 8) Preconditioning LA-4 cycle: The  standard LA-4 drive cycle was used  in this
step  to prepare the vehicle for  subsequent procedures.  Note: The LA-4 cycle is also called the
U.S. FTP-72 (Federal Test Procedure) cycle or the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule
(UDDS) [CFR 40, 86, App.I]

       Step 9) Drain and Refuel 2: This procedure was identical to the "Drain and Refuel 1"
procedure described in Step 6

       Step 10) Canister  Load with Butane:  Within  one  hour of the fueling  event, the
evaporative emissions carbon canister on the vehicle was loaded with butane,  at a rate of 40
grams  per hour, until a 2 gram  breakthrough occurred. This step was done in parallel to Step 11
below.

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       Step 11) 12 to 36 Hour Soak: The vehicle was placed in a temperature-controlled room
where the temperature was maintained at 74 F +/- 2 F for a time exceeding 12 hours but less
than 36 hours.

       Step 12) FTP-75  three phase cycle:  The vehicle was then operated on the  chassis
dynamometer using the FTP-75 cycle, the driving cycle that is part of the certification process
and graphically shown in Figure 1.

       	Figure 1. FTP-75 Cycle	
               Outturn 1 B.74 &MLOOJ*; -
                                EPA Federal Test Procedure
                                  11 
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4)
5)
6)


7)
8)
in 86.129-94(d)(7)(v) "Fuel Temperature Profile", the fuel in the test vehicle
would be stabilized to within 3 F of that temperature for at least one hour before
beginning the running loss test.

Running Loss Test.  The running loss test was conducted using the point-source
method described in 86.134-96(g)(2).  For the running loss test, the vehicle was
not tested in a SHED. Measurements were taken at point sources:  canister vent,
gas cap, and leak source, as shown in Figure 2.

The test vehicle,  with the engine off, was moved onto the dynamometer. The
vehicle  engine compartment  cover and  any  windows,  doors,  and luggage
compartments were closed.

Fans were positioned as described in 86.135-90(b) "Dynamometer Procedure"
and 86.107-96(d) "Sampling and Analytical  Systems; Evaporative Emissions".

The running loss vapor vent collection system was properly positioned  at the fuel
vapor vents and implanted leaks in  the vehicle's fuel and  evaporative emission
systems. The sampling system configuration is shown in Figure 2.

               Figure 2. Hydrocarbon Sampling System
                                Hydrocarbon Collection System
                                          CVS
                                                      Modal
                                                    Analysis
                                                     System
                                                           Bag
                                                         Collection
                                                          System
I                                                         Hydrocarbon I
                                                         ^Analyze^l
                                                            Continuous
                                                              Analysis
                                                              System
I                                                                 Hydrocarbon I
                                                                  Analyzer  |
                                     Tailpipe Emissions Vented Away
The running loss vapor vent collection system was connected to a CFV-CVS bag
collection system and also to a continuous FID analyzer.

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9)     The vehicle air conditioning system (if so equipped) was set to the "normal" air
       conditioning mode and adjusted to the minimum discharge air temperature and
       high fan  speed. Vehicles equipped  with automatic  temperature  controlled air
       conditioning systems were set to operate  in "automatic" temperature and fan
       modes with the system set at 72 F.

10)    The temperature of the liquid fuel was monitored and recorded at least every 1
       second with  the temperature  recording system  specified in 86.107-96(e).  The
       vapor temperature was monitored for reference only  and was  not used as a
       process variable for controlling tank temperature.

11)    When the ambient temperature  was 955 F (353  C)  and  the  fuel tank
       temperature was 953 F, the  running loss test began.

12)    The running loss test was conducted by operating the  test vehicle through one
       Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), a 2-minute idle, two New York
       City Cycles,  another 2-minute idle, another UDDS, and then a final 2-minute idle
       (see 86.115).  These are shown graphically in Figures 3  and 4.  The transmission
       was operated according to the specifications of 86.128 during the driving cycles.

       	Figure 3. Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule
                       EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule
                   Length 1369 seconds - Distance = 7.45 miles - Average Speed = 19.59 mph
                OJ TJ-  in 00 O  CM Tf
                ID O  [D O M)  ^- M)
                     (N (N  Ki Ki
C--J

00 O  CM
4- o  in
c^i ro  m
                                       Test Time, sees
                                     10

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                                  Figure 4.  New York City Cycle
                               New York City Cycle Driving Schedule
                           Length 598 seconds - Distance =1.18 miles - Average Speed = 7.1 mph
                  30 -

                i25"
                 ,20 -
                n
                !s 10 -
                                             Test Time, sees
       13)   The ambient temperature was maintained at 955 F (952 F on average) during
             the running loss test.

       14)   Fuel  temperatures  were controlled  according to  the  specifications  of the
             temperature profile provided by the vehicle manufacturer.

       15)   The emissions  collected in the sample bags were analyzed within 20 minutes of
             their respective sample  collection  phases, as  described in 86.137-94(b)(15)
             "Dynamometer test run,  gaseous and particulate emissions". The  results of the
             analysis were used per 86.143 "Calculations: evaporative emissions" to calculate
             the mass of hydrocarbons emitted.

       Step 14) Hot Soak Test: Following completion of the running loss test, the vehicle was
administered a one-hour hot soak test in a SHED that was maintained and preheated to 95  F in
accordance with 40 CFR 86.138-96, "Hot soak test".

       Step 15) Static Test Sequence: Immediately following the completion of the hot  soak,
the permeation and static pressure test sequence  began and followed the steps listed below:

       1)     The SFIED door was opened and  the vehicle was removed from the SHED.

       2)     The fuel temperature was stabilized to 93 F.

       3)     The vehicle was returned to the SFIED.

       4)     The canister vent was plugged to  allow pressure to build in the system.
                                            11

-------
       5)     The fuel tank pressurization system was connected.

       6)     The SHED door was closed and the temperature was maintained at 95 F.

       7)     The enclosure temperature was stabilized to 95 F; temperature stabilization was
             not allowed to exceed 10 minutes.

       8)     The SHED HC background was measured and the 15-minute permeation test was
             initiated. The SHED HC mass was read at the completion of the 15 minutes.

       9)     The fuel system was pressurized  at 1" water column (WC) for 15 minutes for the
             tank  pressurization leak  rate determination.  This  immediately  followed  the
             permeation test. The final HC mass of the 15 minute permeation test was used as
             the initial mass for the pressurization leak rate determination. At the end of the 15
             minute  pressurization leak rate determination, the final HC  mass was  recorded.
             The 1"  WC pressurization and 15 minute duration values were used  based  on
             preliminary testing and in order to avoid overwhelming the SHED analyzer.

       Step 16) Snap-On Leak Test: A second leak rate pressure test was performed with the
Snap-on pressure tester. If the measured leak rate had deviated  from the initial leak test by +/-
10% then further  examination would be necessary and further  testing delayed.  However, the
leak rate  was never  found  to deviate for tests that didn't have  other problems  (requiring
retesting).

       Step 17) OBDII  Scan: The vehicle's  OBDII system  was  scanned to  assess vehicle
condition. The test procedure continued, without intervention, as long as codes did not indicate a
malfunction that would damage the  vehicle or  affect performance of the evaporative emission
system (no such codes were detected).

3.2    Data Collection  Process
       Findings from the initial inspections of the vehicles and documentation of the
modifications made to the vehicles were made available as soon as possible after a procedure
was completed.  This information was collected in electronic format and was usually available
within one day of testing.  A testing log for each vehicle was maintained and also provided
electronically in Excel format.

       The following file  naming convention was utilized throughout the testing program:
                                            12

-------
       [Sequence   Number]_[Sequence   Test]_[Date]_[Vehicle]_[Test  Type]_[APTL   Test
Number]_[HC/OBD Data Set].[Extension]

       The sequence number listed above designates the fuel and leak setup for a particular
sequence of testing. The following table enumerates the sequence numbers and the setup used.

                     Table 3. Running Loss Testing Sequence
Sequence #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Fuel RVP (psi)
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
7.7
7.7
7.7
7.7
7.7
Leak Setup
No Leak
0.040" Tank Leak
0.040" Canister Leak
0.020" Tank Leak
0.020" Canister Leak
No Leak
0.040" Tank Leak
0.040" Canister Leak
0.020" Tank Leak
0.020" Canister Leak
       The date stamp is compressed into a six-digit number, the first two digits represent the
year, the following two digits represent the month, and the last two digits are the day.

             Date Stamp:YYMMDD     so     130115 becomes 1/15/2013

       The following table documents the sequence test number and the abbreviated test type for
each of the individual tests performed in a test sequence.

                  Table 4. Test Types by Sequence Test Number
Sequence
Test#
1
2
O
4
5
Abbreviated
Test Type
74
75
RL
HS
ST
Associated Test
FTP-72 Preparatory Procedure
FTP-75 Preparatory Procedure
Preheat and stabilization of fuel and running loss test
Hot Soak test
Static test (15 minute permeation test, and 15 minute
pressurization test)
       The following data has been collected from APTL and has been made available to EPA
as a separate deliverable to this study:
                                          13

-------
      FTP 72 preparatory procedures report (pdf format)
      FTP 75 preparatory procedures report (pdf format)
      Running loss report (pdf format)
      Running loss data file (comma separated variable data file)
      Running loss continuous hydrocarbon measurement data file (collected during second
       half of program, comma separated variable data file)
      OBD2 live datastream datafile (comma separated variable data file available for some
       tests)
      Hot soak test data (hot soak results in an Excel spreadsheet)
      Static test data (complete static test results in an Excel spreadsheet)
      Static test data (text file which reports static test results at appropriate sampling intervals)
      Vehicle data (Excel spreadsheet with cumulative test data and results)

       Additional information regarding each of these files, including field descriptions and data
analysis steps used to obtain study results,  are provided in Appendix C.

3.3    Data  Validation and Analysis

       A quality check was performed on each test in order to verify the following:

            Proper progression of preparatory activities

            Trace conformance during running loss test

            Fuel temperature during running loss test

            Start of hot soak test within allotted time after completion of running loss test

       The following calculation was performed to convert the total running loss mass emissions
to an hourly mass emission rate format suitable for input  into EPA's MOVES model.

                                   a \    m(g^)   3600s
                                m'
() =
                                   hr>   4308 s   1 hr

       Additional analysis was performed to determine the mass rate of emissions when
continuous hydrocarbon measurement was included in testing. Issues that were discovered
during the test program or during the data validation and analysis stage were documented and
addressed as described in Appendix D.
                                            14

-------
3.4    Results
       Running Loss Results
       The final tank temperature of the running loss test was a significant factor in the quantity
of emissions coming from leaky evaporative systems. Increases in tank temperature were
observed to result in elevated emissions for both high and low RVP fuels. The following Figure
5 demonstrates the differences in tank temperature for the 5 vehicles participating in this study.
Each vehicle has a different tank temperature profile. This complicates the process of analyzing
the data for the effects of tank temperature on emissions. The subsequent graph, Figure 6,
normalizes the tank temperature profiles by calculating the percent of temperature gain over the
running loss cycle. While the five vehicles do not perfectly agree, the temperature profiles follow
a similar trend. Figures 7-11 plot the running loss emissions versus the final tank temperature
for each vehicle. These graphs demonstrate that vehicles with induced leaks exhibit an
exponential increase in running loss emissions as final tank temperature increases.
                        Figure 5. Running Loss Tank Temperature Profiles
         125
         120
         115
        S 110
                       748   1122   1496  1826   2156   2486   2816   3189    3562    3935   4308
         105
         100
            0     374
                                            15

-------
        Figure 6. Running Loss Tank Temperature Profiles as a Percent of
                                   Temperature Gain
  100% 
   90%
 ra  80%
                                                 2816
                                                       3189
                                                             3552
                                                                   3935
                                                                         4308
  0.01
          Figure 7. Running Loss Results versus Final Tank Temperature
                                       (No Leak)
         High RVP Fuel
         Low RVP Fuel
       V - 2.020-OSe IDM'
 0.005 -
00
 0.002
 0.001
                                 AffORD
                                 U.008K
CARAVAN      R2=0.4455
 0.007 B
                                                                   008g
                                                                  . rocus
                                                            U.UU/H
                SILVERADO
                 0.002(1
     112
                114
       y = 6.242E-05e" D
            = 0.1055
                                                               COROLLA
                                                                0 0114 p
                            116         118         120
                               Peak Tank Temperature (F)
                                                               122
                                                                          124
                                      16

-------
Figure 8. Running Loss Results versus Final Tank Temperature
                     (0.040" Tank Leak)
20
10 -
"on
V> 7
Q
'r 1 
E
LU
|o.5 -
QD
JL
[Z
0.2
t

0.02 -
1
20-
10-
3
c 2
0
"wi
IB
1 1 '

M
1/1
00
_t
'c
 0.2 -
0=
0.05-
0,02-
F
High RVP Fuel "^ ^-'
 Low RVP Fuel . ro'-us ^


y-1 112E-19e(""TH" 8l054a ^^^"
R2 = 0.7964
^^_.
^ff**' L'UHULIA _
i .fin; g
^-'r" 	 J-<*""
_^-^ LAIIAVAN J-'-*'
^--'ACCORD, nT7  ^-
 -^ O.610 g ^2
U.430|> Arrnnn --- ' ^ louis 
L.^jig ^j__^- y .-. '.- ^ / c
^.^-" R! = 0.5042

-'"'


^ 	 SILVLKADO
0.020 g

12 114 116 118 120 122 124
Peak Tank Temperature (F)
Figure 9. Running Loss Results versus Final Tank Temperature
(0.040" Canister Leak)
High RVP Fuel ,cuu5 .
COROLLA
Low RVP Fuel tnis-ic

V = 7.730E-33e-Gmx
R; = 0.8933
*-**
^ rwjis .
~*f__
~%i_
jS
S" --~^~~~
S* CARAVAN ^ 	 ----~~~
_.---'" U.JUttft ^__---'~'"
0.173g /" _,_,--''"' UlhiK, '
--"" ~  ^~^ TARAV&M
-^ -  ~" LHnnHl TQ-7C n="J'"f
_.-,-5^TSrmRn n.iQ4g  - =,Z97t 12e
siLVtRASi" UU81S R= = 0,3869
0.084C.,-
..- X ALtOKD
O.Oi2R

112 114 116 118 120 122 124
                 Peak Tank Temperature (F)
                        17

-------
          Figure 10. Running Loss Results versus Final Tank Temperature
                                     (0.020" Tank Leak)
  20 f
        *

  104   .


   5 +
 High RVP Fuel
 Low RVP Fuel
  2 -
o
                                                                        FOCUS
                                      y = 1.411E-26e-;;oo7
                                         R! = 0.9352
                                                                  tOUOUA
  0,5
                                                                        lotus 
  0.2 f
  0.1 -
 0.05 -
 0.02
           yLVtKALIO
            0.1I7U
                     01931'

                     AfTORD f
                     O.llBjl
                                                   COROLLA
                                                   U.114R
                                      V = 8,769E-17e"'"i11
                                         R2 = 0.7368
 0.01
    HZ
                114
                            116         118          120
                               Peak Tank Temperature (F)
                                                                 122
                                                                             124
   20

   10

    5
          Figure 11. Running Loss Results versus Final Tank Temperature
                                  (0.020" Canister Leak)
High RVP Fuel
Low RVP Fuel
  05
3
no
p;
'c 0.2 -
  0.1
  0.05 -
  0.01
     112
 ".-tun   ^

SI I VFRADO  ,
 0./U4K
                                                            FOCUS
                                                            U.SOOg
                                                             COBOLLA
                                                              S.DJlg
                                       y = S.
                                            = 0.4417
                                         V = 6.764E-04e-MJ5K
                                            R2= 0,0271
                                           CAWVVAN
                                            n,ns?ig
                                                     - COROLLA
                              Arronn
                                           LAKAVAN
                 114
                             116
                                         US
                                                     120
                                                                             124
                                Peak Tank Temperature (F)
                                        18

-------
       The following tables and figures characterize the total emissions measured through each
vehicle's series of running loss tests, which were composed of three phases; one Urban
Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) followed by a 2-minute idle, two New York City
Cycles followed by another 2-minute idle, and finally a final UDDS followed by a 2-minute idle
(see 86. 115). The total running loss emissions (in grams) for each test sequence of each of the
five vehicles are listed in Table  5.   These results are then provided as hourly emission rates in
Table 6. The Table 6 hourly emission rates for each vehicle were calculated using the equation
shown in Section 3.3. The "Average" emission rates listed at the bottom of Table 6 were
calculated as the overall average emission rates for all  5 vehicles, i.e.,
                        / g x
Aver aqe Emission Rate I  I =
                        v/ir/
                                                    i ^mission Rates
       Figures 12 and 13 show total gram emissions for each phase and test sequence, with the
peak temperature of the tank temperature profile listed for each vehicle, and Figure 14 shows the
overall average emission rates for all vehicles combined. Plots of continuous results from
running loss testing are available in Appendix C.

                  Table 5. Total Running Loss Emissions (grams)

ACCORD
(8)
CARAVAN
(g)
COROLLA
(g)
FOCUS
(g)
SILVERADO
(g)
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
No Leak
0.009
0.008
0.007
0.008
0.007
0.004
0.008
0.007
0.002
0.003
0.040"
Tank Leak
0.619
0.431
8.054
0.726
14.250
1.602
7.916
0.329
0.430
0.020
0.040"
Canister Leak
0.081
0.052
0.308
0.104
10.155
0.163
13.458
1.635
0.084
0.179
0.020"
Tank Leak
0.193
0.118
2.389
0.188
4.592
0.124
12.469
0.570
0.127
0.015
0.020"
Canister Leak
0.162
0.035
0.025
0.063
3.941
0.052
12.500
0.352
0.314
0.204
                                            19

-------
    Table 6. Running Loss Emission Rates (grams/hour)

ACCORD
(g/hr)
CARAVAN
(g/hr)
COROLLA
(g/hr)
FOCUS
(g/hr)
SILVERADO
(g/hr)
AVERAGE
(g/hr)
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
No Leak
0.008
0.007
0.006
0.007
0.006
0.003
0.007
0.006
0.002
0.003
0.006
0.005
0.040"
Tank Leak
0.517
0.360
6.730
0.607
11.908
1.339
6.615
0.275
0.359
0.017
5.226
0.519
0.040"
Canister Leak
0.068
0.043
0.257
0.087
8.486
0.136
11.246
1.366
0.070
0.150
4.026
0.356
0.020"
Tank Leak
0.161
0.099
1.996
0.157
3.837
0.104
10.420
0.476
0.106
0.013
3.304
0.170
0.020"
Canister Leak
0.135
0.029
0.021
0.053
3.293
0.043
10.446
0.294
0.262
0.170
2.832
0.118
           Figure 12. Running Loss Results (10.0 psi RVP Fuel)
 12345   12345   12345   12345   12345
T3ACCORD  T3CARAVAN  T3COROLLA  T3FOCUS  T3SILVERADO
 (117.0 F)   (119.3 F)   (122.4 F)   (123.8 F)   (114.3 F)
                                                  Running Loss Phase 1
                                                  Running Loss Phase 2
                                                  Running Loss Phase 3

                                                  1: No Leak
                                                  2: 0.040" Tank Leak
                                                  3:0.040" Canister Leak
                                                  4: 0.020" Tank Leak
                                                  5:0.020" Canister Leak
                              20

-------
                     Figure 13. Running Loss Results (7.7 psi RVP Fuel)
 10
 O
 i/i
 E
LLJ
U
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
  1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
          12345   12345   12345   12345    12345
         T3ACCORD  T3CARAVAN T3COROLLA   T3FOCUS  T3SILVERADO
          (117.0 F)   (119.3 F)   (122.4 F)   (123.8 F)    (114.3 F)
                                                               Running Loss Phase 1
                                                               Running Loss Phase 2
                                                               I Running Loss Phase 3

                                                               1: No Leak
                                                               2: 0.040" Tank Leak
                                                               3:0.040" Canister Leak
                                                               4: 0.020" Tank Leak
                                                               5: 0.020" Canister Leak
  5 -

c
o
' 3
c
O 2
_Q
i_
(D
U
2
-?-1
                Figure 14. Average Emission Rates for Running Loss Testing
          High RVP Fuel
             5.226
             g/hour
                    4.026
                    g/hour
      Phase 3
      Phase 2
      Phase 1
                         3.304
                        g/hour  2.832
                                g/hour
      0.006
      g/hour

      No Leak  0.040"    0.040"   0.020"   0.020"
            Tank Leak  Canister  Tank Leak  Canister
                     Leak            Leak
                                                          Low RVP Fuel
                                                                          0.170
                                                                         g/hour  Ollg
                                                                                g/hour
                                                0.0
                                                     No Leak   0.040"   0.040"   0.020"   0.020"
                                                           Tank Leak  Canister  Tank Leak  Canister
                                                                    Leak            Leak
                                          21

-------
       Hot Soak Results
       The following table and charts characterize the total emissions measured during the hot
soak tests of each vehicle. The charts segregate the emissions for each phase and test sequence,
and provide the peak temperature of the tank temperature profile for each vehicle. The average
hot soak emission rates were calculated as the average for all vehicles.

       The overall average emissions for the 0.020" canister leak were greater than the overall
average emissions for the 0.020" tank leak for the hot soak tests. This could suggest that hot soak
emissions are greater for leaks at the canister than for leaks at the tank. However, replicate
testing was not performed during this study, so it is unknown if this effect is statistically
significant.

       High RVP emissions  are greater than low RVP emissions for the Focus and the Corolla
for the no leak condition. The hotter tank temperature profiles of these vehicles, relative to other
vehicles in the study, coupled with the small canister capacities could have caused the vapor
canister to become saturated, or near saturated  at the end of the running loss test. The other
vehicles in the study demonstrated comparable emissions levels for the hot soak test on both
fuels.

       During testing, SGS-ETC was very careful in order to observe the 7-minute window to
move the vehicle from the running loss test dynamometer into the SHED for hot soak testing as
per 86.138-96(b)(2)(viii). However, the amount of time spent moving the vehicle may not be
uniform for all tests. This incorporates a variation that is not accounted for in the analysis.

                              Table 7. Hot Soak Results

ACCORD
(g)
CARAVAN
(g)
COROLLA
(g)
FOCUS
(g)
SILVERADO
(g)
AVERAGE
(g/hr)
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
No Leak
0.059
0.067
0.127
0.093
0.164
0.089
1.154
0.216
0.063
0.061
0.313
0.105
0.040"
Tank Leak
0.303
0.144
7.519
0.955
3.168
0.238
0.589
0.481
0.749
0.841
2.466
0.532
0.040"
Canister Leak
2.036
0.837
0.984
0.103
0.657
0.104
0.952
0.164
1.435
1.165
1.213
0.475
0.020"
Tank Leak
0.233
0.150
1.492
0.093
0.593
0.111
0.945
0.250
0.206
0.225
0.694
0.166
0.020"
Canister Leak
0.410
0.269
1.739
0.101
0.734
0.109
0.558
0.210
0.254
0.364
0.739
0.211
                                            22

-------
1.4
1.2
0.8
I/)
E
LLJ
U
0.6
0.4
0.2
                     Figure 15. Hot Soak Results (10.0 psi RVP Fuel)
                                                                 I Hot Soak

                                                                  1: No Leak
                                                                  2: 0.040" Tank Leak
                                                                  3: 0.040" Canister Leak
                                                                  4: 0.020" Tank Leak
                                                                  5:0.020" Canister Leak
     12345
12345
                              12345
12345
12345
    T3ACCORD  T3CARAVAN T3COROLLA   T3FOCUS  T3SILVERADO
     (117.0 F)    (119.3 F)    (122.4 F)    (123.8 F)    (114.3 F)
                      Figure 16. Hot Soak Results (7.7 psi RVP Fuel)
                                                 I Hot Soak

                                                  1: No Leak
                                                  2: 0.040" Tank Leak
                                                  3:0.040" Canister Leak
                                                  4: 0.020" Tank Leak
                                                  5:0.020" Canister Leak
      12345
 12345
                               12345
 12345
12345
     T3ACCORD  T3CARAVAN T3COROLLA  T3FOCUS  T3SILVERADO
      (117.0 F)    (119.3 F)   (122.4 F)   (123.8 F)   (114.3 F)
                                        23

-------
   3.0
   0.0
                     Figure 17. Average Emission Rates for Hot Soak Testing
             High RVP Fuel
                                      Low RVP Fuel
                                                             0.532
                                                             g/hour   -475
                                                                    g/hour
                                                                                    0.211
                                                                            0.166  g/hour
                                                                            g/hour
        No Leak
                0.040"
               Tank Leak
0.040"
Canister
 Leak
 0.020"    0.020"
Tank Leak  Canister
         Leak
 0.020"   0.020"
Tank Leak  Canister
         Leak
       Static Test Results

       The following table and charts characterize the total emissions measured during the static
tests on each vehicle. The results are segregated for each phase of the test. The fuel tank was
unpressurized during first 15-minute phase of the test, while the fuel tank was pressurized to 1"
WC over the second 15-minute phase of the test. The results for the five vehicles were used to
calculate an average emissions rate at each leak size and fuel RVP. The charts segregate the
emissions for each phase and test sequence, and provide the peak temperature of the tank
temperature profile for each vehicle.
                                             24

-------
                 Table 8. Unpressurized Static Test Results

ACCORD
(g)
CARAVAN
(g)
COROLLA
(g)
FOCUS
(g)
SILVERADO
(g)
AVERAGE
(g/hr)
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
No Leak
0.012
0.013
0.104
0.018
0.024
0.017
0.040
0.056
0.010
0.013
0.152
0.093
0.040"
Tank Leak
0.497
0.261
1.265
0.133
1.464
0.770
0.156
0.240
0.371
0.230
3.003
1.307
0.040"
Canister Leak
0.039
0.042
0.031
0.018
0.032
0.561
0.060
0.053
0.010
0.010
0.138
0.548
0.020"
Tank Leak
0.061
0.124
0.037
0.012
1.357
0.642
0.107
0.393
0.015
0.303
1.262
1.179
0.020"
Canister Leak
0.034
0.036
0.012
0.016
0.630
0.059
0.202
0.063
0.008
0.071
0.709
0.197
                       Figure 18. Unpressurized Static Test Results
   2.0


   1.8


   1.6


   1.4


3 1.2
   0.2
   0.0
 Static Test Phase 1 (High RVP Fuel)
I Static Test Phase 1 (Low RVP Fuel)

 1: No Leak
 2: 0.040" Tank Leak
 3: 0.040" Canister Leak
 4: 0.020" Tank Leak
 5: 0.020" Canister Leak
         12345

          T3ACCORD
          (117.0 F)
              12345

              T3CARAVAN
               (119.3 F)
12345

T3COROLLA
 (122.4 F)
12345

 T3FOCUS
 (123.8 F)
 12345

T3SILVERADO
  (114.3 F)
                                        25

-------
                  Table 9. Pressurized Static Test Results

ACCORD
(g)
CARAVAN
(g)
COROLLA
(g)
FOCUS
(g)
SILVERADO
(g)
AVERAGE
(g/hr)
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
High RVP
Low RVP
No Leak
0.011
0.009
0.014
0.012
0.036
0.013
0.040
0.043
0.007
0.008
0.086
0.068
0.040"
Tank Leak
7.829
6.172
7.915
5.680
7.460
6.116
9.130
5.849
8.796
4.862
32.904
22.943
0.040"
Canister Leak
6.194
6.370
8.367
5.604
6.157
6.945
8.563
6.895
8.483
6.156
30.211
25.576
0.020"
Tank Leak
2.876
2.522
3.067
2.276
2.795
2.050
2.407
2.574
3.441
2.330
11.668
9.401
0.020"
Canister Leak
2.392
2.125
2.001
1.920
2.526
2.485
2.525
1.773
2.691
2.830
9.708
8.907
                        Figure 19. Pressurized Static Test Results
   14
   12  --
   10  --
to
c
o
u
 Static Test Phase 2 (High RVP Fuel)
I Static Test Phase 2 (Low RVP Fuel)

 1: No Leak
 2: 0.040" Tank Leak
 3: 0.040" Canister Leak
 4: 0.020" Tank Leak
 5: 0.020" Canister Leak
        12345

         T3ACCORD
          (117.0 F)
             12345

             T3CARAVAN
              (119.3 F)
12345

T3COROLLA
 (122.4 F)
12345

 T3FOCUS
 (123.8 F)
 12345

T3SILVERADO
  (114.3 F)
                                        26

-------
3.5    Observations and Conclusions
       Figures 8 through 11 indicate the running loss tank temperature profile has a strong
influence on running loss emission rates in vehicles with induced leaks (vehicles with higher
tank temperatures exhibit higher emission rates). However, Figure 7 suggests the tank
temperature does not have an influence on running loss emissions for vehicles with no
evaporative emissions control system leaks.

       Similarly, Tables 5, 6 and? and Figures 12 through 17 indicate fuel RVP has a strong
effect on running loss and hot soak emission rates in vehicles with induced leaks (vehicles with
higher RVP fuels exhibit higher emission rates), but the influence of RVP on vehicles with no
evaporative emissions control system leaks was much less pronounced.  These same tables and
figures also demonstrate a correlation between leak size (0.020" vs. 0.040" diameter leaks) for
running loss, hot soak, and pressurized static test evaporative emission rates. In general, the
larger leak sizes resulted in higher evaporative emission rates for each respective location (tank
or canister).

       Tables 5 and 6 and Figures 12 through 14 suggest leak location (fuel tank vapor space or
evaporative canister) may have an influence on running loss evaporative emission rates. On
average, induced leaks in the tank vapor space resulted in higher running loss emission rates than
induced leaks in the canister for leaks of the same size.  Comparatively, the leak size proved to
be more important than the leak location. The 0.040" leak at the canister resulted in greater
running loss emissions rates on average than did the 0.020" in the tank vapor space leak. In
aggregate, the 0.040" leak in the tank vapor space produced the most running loss emissions.

       For hot soak emissions, leak location (tank or canister) did not seem to have a strong
influence on emission rates (as can be seen in Table 7 and Figures 15 through 17).   Figures 15
and 16 show a high amount of variation  in hot soak emission rates for different tests on the same
vehicle and also among vehicles.  The Focus, in particular, demonstrates that the "no leak" setup
produced the most hot soak emissions of any leak setup for high RVP fuel on that vehicle. The
extraordinary amount of variability in these tests may be attributed to real phenomenon which is
occurring during testing, such as canisters reaching saturation. This is likely due to  vehicle
configuration (such as tank and canister  capacities and purge volume capabilities) but can also be
influenced by experimental parameters such as test and tank temperatures and time between
running loss and hot soak tests. It is possible that variation in these parameters may contribute to
some emission result differences among tests.
                                            27

-------
       For the static test emission rates (Tables 8 and 9 and Figures 18 and 19), test variation
seemed to dominate over any discernible leak location (tank or canister) or leak size trends.

       Evaporative purge behavior, as controlled by the ECU, greatly impacts emissions rates on
vehicles with induced leaks. This evaporative purge behavior is correlated with the measured
vacuum in the fuel vapor, which occurs when the purge valve is open and the engine introduces
air intake vacuum to the fuel system vapor space. Evaluation of the fuel vapor vacuum and
commanded evaporative purge for the Ford Focus and Toyota Corolla, the only two vehicles in
the study that broadcasted commanded evaporative purge through OBDII, did seem to confirm
this correlation between commanded purge and measured fuel vapor vacuum. However, for both
these vehicles, deviations from the correlation appear at the end of some high RVP fuel tests. It
appears that during these deviations, vapor generation overwhelms the purge capability and
results in decreases in vacuum despite an open  purge valve. When the fuel system vapor vacuum
is reduced, either due to a reduction in commanded evaporative purge, or because vapor
generation exceeded the capacity of purge, hydrocarbon emission rates were elevated for
vehicles with induced leaks. The positive vapor pressure, relative to atmospheric pressure,
expelled gaseous hydrocarbons from the evaporative system's induced leaks, bypassing the
vapor canister. In systems with no leaks, the hydrocarbon vapors were being effectively captured
in the canister and few emissions were measured for the running  loss portion of the test.
                                            28

-------
4.0    References
1.      CRC E-77 reports: Haskew, H., Liberty, T. (2008). Vehicle Evaporative Emission
       Mechanisms: A Pilot study, CRC Project E-77; Haskew, H., Liberty, T. (2010),
       Enhanced Evaporative Emission Vehicles (CRC E-77-2); Haskew, H., Liberty, T. (2010),
       Evaporative Emissions from In-Use Vehicles: Test Fleet Expansion (CRC E-77-2b);
       Haskew, H., Liberty, T. (2010), Study to Determine Evaporative Emission Breakdown,
       Including Permeation Effects and Diurnal Emissions Using E20 Fuels on Aging
       Enhanced Evaporative Emissions Certified Vehicles, CRC E-77-2c; DeFries, T., Lindner,
       J., Kishan, S., Palacios, C. (2011), Investigation of Techniques for High Evaporative
       Emissions Vehicle Detection: Denver Summer 2008 Pilot Study at Lipan Street Station;
       DeFries, T., Palacios, C., Weatherby, M., Stanard, A., Kishan, S.(2013) Estimated
       Summer Hot-Soak Distributions for Denver's Ken Caryl I/M  Station Fleet.

2.      DeFries, T., Lindner, J., Kishan, S., Palacios, C. (2011), Investigation of Techniques for
       High Evaporative Emissions Vehicle Detection: Denver Summer 2008 Pilot Study at
       Lipan Street Station; DeFries, T., Palacios, C., Weatherby, M., Stanard, A., Kishan,
       S.(2013) Estimated Summer Hot-Soak Distributions for Denver's Ken Caryl I/M Station
       Fleet.
                                           29

-------
5.0    Index of Appendices
       The following is a list of the appendices to be provided with this report. As noted below,
some appendices will be provided as separate electronic files.

       Appendix A - Fuel Analysis Results
       Appendix B - Test-by-Test Results
       Appendix C - Descriptions of Study Data (the following files will be provided
       electronically, by vehicle)
             FTP 72 Reports (*_74.pdf)
             FTP 75 Report (*.pdf)
             Running Loss Report (*.pdf)
             Running Loss Data File (*.csv)
             Running Loss Continuous Hydrocarbon File (*.csv)
             OBD2 Data (*.csv)
             Hot Soak Data (*.xls)
             Static Test Data (*.xls)
             Static Test Data (*.txt)
             Vehicle  Data (*.xls)
       Appendix D - Issues Encountered and Solutions
       Appendix E - Induced Leak Configurations
                                           30

-------
    Appendix A
Fuel Analysis Results

-------
Al      Low RVP Test Results
WAI-OB
  FacflUy Name; EPA (NVFEL)  f ael% Type. In Howe
  Owner EPA {NVFEL)  Phone: (734) 214-4340
  256S Plymwth Rtf,
  Ann AitOr         Ml    4BtBS
  Inspector Connie Hart   Inspection Date  M21/201<*
  Samples Type: Tsi Puel
  Inspection information togged MI oy RG on 1/2112014
 WAI.M.21H10117LORVO     FTMfc 2SWI    CommertU:
                                         NVFEL Fuel Analysis Report
                                                               BetsW
                                                                             2W86
                                                                                                            i n i
   tote
   MM
    ssa
    &n
    421
     U
     S8
     BE
     4i
     
     44
    532
     Sf
    533
     SB
     56
     46
     8S
    36
     46
     8f
    SS2
    69'
    101
    HP
    1S6
    190
    Jof
    201
    SW
    203
    543
Tssl Melftoa

Wolgrrt fsreew Dcyawiiw by OSSiW
Mne UIDSSSS
ETBE    bji DBfili
tlwwt  by 09999
TAME      by M&sa
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VpnrPiwiuiBi))(P6191 iWoafltti)
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l*ercen! E^auotatetf al 300 Dejees F Das
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                                                Oaouea API
                                                gfiTivCia @ 60 g F
                                           *D7.J
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                                             1 * ml
                                             30 Valwfie Parcel*
                                                                                      USA
                                                                                      Wul_ 51
                                                                                      Cow
                                                                                                  VOC  C
                                                                                                        Winter
 TS
 TS
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N8T
NST
 HG
 RG
 nw
RCG
 IW
 TS
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 TW
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ROS
 N'T
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                                                                                                       1,'2S.l20t4
                                                        A-l

-------
'***""                         NVFEL Fuel Analysis Report      239S6            woagfi
   584  tueprepunel  6j D5SM                           0,06 Volume Pereenl                     TS    1J29/Z014
   Si5  l-Bnttnel   by                                  CO Wums Ptnart                    TS    1/2*2014
   SW  n-f%jpano*   b^ 06969                          9 80 Volumt Ptrarti                     TS    1/29A)Ot4
   S87  *ecBLilanal  ty 05599                          0.00 Valwne Percani                     IS    1090014
   538  D4PE       byO5599                          0 00 Volume tarcant                     18    M2M014
   M9  (SEbutawl   By DMSB                          0,00 Volume Percent                     TS
  5801  l-Amy( Almhal   by                            O.OD Volume Perewt                     TS
        n-Sutmel       bj DSSifl                       0,00 Vobnw Pwoant                     TS
                                               A-2

-------
A2      High RVP Test Results
                                         NVFEL Fuel Analysis Report
       WA!-0
         Facility Name EPA (NVFEL)  Facility Type' In House
         Qwnw. EPA (NVFEL)  Phorw (734)214-4340
         2565 Plymouth Fto
         Ann Arbor         Ml    4B10S
         Inspector Connie Hart   Inspection Date : 1/21/2014
         Sar**fJtei Type: Test Fuel
         Inspacllon intematei logjpd in by RG on 1/2t/20i4.
        WAI dfl M13011THWVP       FTiG: 23987    CommtMtt*:
                                                                            USA'
          Gsdr
                Twt Mwhod
          MOB. Weight trcw( Oxjt awtus by DS
           52 MTBE by D559B
           S6? PTt>6    Bj
           34 ahum! (jyD559e
                Sulhir in Gasoline D26I:
 85  PeMt EVMJDratoci at SOQ Degrtsss F D8S
 fle  Pei*fcnt Efwoialad al 300 Deg F D86
 4i  Ansrnrtira tn Sesffwi MSO DSTSS
 4S  'CMenns in  F1A O1319
 6*  Bfiwtwe In Qaeolir'a
     RKanc* Dy D5699
                            by D59
           531
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           S8I
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            S3  Baniwe in Gasollrta By QCIMBO DS?68
           SSO  f ota era a ggewii by W50 DS FW
            4fi  AJOifialiCT byFW, D13T9
            69  Soaaflo QfSKily ft SO dtg F O*UB3
681
101
110
     fnibnl iofcis Pflinrt.
     10Peres
ISO  BO Percent
200  End Paint
201  felte
202  Toiai Reeowry
H  LM*
MS  MMKand by Q5SB
                                06&
                                 OK
                                 D86
                                 BSE
                                PB6
                                 DBS
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                                                15 89 Wwght Prc*m
                                                 a oo

                                                 3.78
                                                 56.3 Partit Per Million
                                                O.M P*I

                                                 49.4 VDlwaw P*rcant
                                                ;7-79 Valtme Percent
                                                  9,5'
                                                 1 74
                                                10.07
                                                 OflO
                                                10 7 Volume P9icai*1

                                                 8iO Volume PtfneM
                                                 0 00 Valunns F'Srcsri

                                                 8 42 ValLsnr Pntsem
                                                           6t 01
                                                                   roeB API
 S3.0 Degraw F
1J1 S D.egrts F
166.3 Dmmf F
     Degnsts F
                                                  1 1 rut
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                                                  1.3 inL
                                                 ft CM Vaiumt Pmrcert
                                                                                                        PJS 1
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Ful_ S 1 Analyit
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TS
TS
TS
TS
TS
NST
NST
se
RG
TW
RCC3
TW
TS
TS
TS
TS
T3
TS
TW
RCG
N1
NT
NT
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RS
HG
Bfl
RG
HO
RG
RG
TS

ItfWSOU
1/28OH
2WJfl14
1/2WJQW
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1/77Q014
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Msoaxn*
100WM14
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1&2014
1I3WM14
1/3W3014
1)290014
                                                       A-3

-------
NVFEL Fuel Analysis Report      23987
SW ttoptopanot by D5589
585 j-Bytanol   ty D558B
618 n-Pwpin*    b^ DS599
587 see-fiytatwl  by DSSSi
6H BPS        By
SSi Iseiwlartri   % D559B
1 rtroyt AlcohsM    B^
                  by
0.00 Velurw Ptrcwt
o.OO Volynie PBMMI
0,00 Vbtam Prswt
0.00 Volume Peraenf
0.00 Vohjrn Pwwnl
0,00 Vptame Percent
D.OB Vehime Penmt
0,05 Votam* P*iowt
TS
TS
tS
tS
TS
TS
TS
TS
                                                              1/2BS014
                                                              i,i2W04
                                                              13*2014
                                                              WiQOi
                                                              t/29/2014
             A-4

-------
    Appendix B
Test-by-Test Results

-------
B.1    Overview of results

The following tables and plots present summary cumulative and continuous data measurements
results from testing performed throughout the study. All fuel vapor pressures are reported with
sign reversal and are in units of pounds per square inch gauge (psig) vacuum, and the
"cumulative pressure accumulation" plots represents "cumulative vacuum" throughout test.
Mean pressure plots represent the average of pressures measured across various test
configurations (no leak, 0.020" and 0.040" at tank and canister) for each type of fuel.  Since
continuous HC measurements were added mid-study, continuous HC results are not available for
the high RVP testing performed during the first half of the study.

Explanations for anomalous or erroneous results, including any corrections performed on the
data, are provided in Section 4.4, Data Validation and Analysis.
                                          B-l

-------
B.2  2007 Honda Accord
                  VIN:
       ENGINE FAMILY:
 EVAPORATIVE FAMILY:
 EMISSIONS STANDARD:

ENGINE DISPLACEMENT:
      INERTIA WEIGHT:
       TANK CAPACITY:

         ROAD LOAD A:
         ROAD LOAD B:
         ROAD LOAD C:
      PEAK FUEL TEMP:
1HGCM56727A241399
7HNXV02.4KKC
7HNXR0140BBA
Tier 2 Bin 5

2.40   Liters
3500   Pounds
17.00  Gallons

9.76
0.2918
0.01602
117.0F
Sequence:
Fuel:
Leak Location:
Leak Size:
Results in Grams:
Running Loss PI
P2
P3
TOTAL
Hot Soak
Static Test PI
P2
TOTAL
RL + HS + ST
12345 6789 10
High RVP Fuel (10.0 RVP)
No Leak
No Leak
0.005
0.002
0.002
0.009
0.059
0.012
0.011
0.023
0.091
Tank
0.040"
0.057
0.216
0.346
0.619
0.303
0.497
7.829
8.326
9.248
Canister
0.040"
0.023
0.044
0.014
0.081
2.036
0.039
6.194
6.232
8.350
Tank
0.020"
0.112
0.044
0.037
0.193
0.233
0.061
2.876
2.937
3.363
Canister
0.020"
0.027
0.084
0.051
0.162
0.410
0.034
2.392
2.426
2.998
Low RVP Fuel (7.7 RVP)
No Leak
No Leak
0.004
0.003
0.001
0.008
0.067
0.013
0.009
0.022
0.097
Tank
0.040"
0.331
0.068
0.032
0.431
0.144
0.261
6.172
6.433
7.008
Canister
0.040"
0.024
0.017
0.011
0.052
0.837
0.042
6.370
6.412
7.301
Tank
0.020"
0.082
0.009
0.027
0.118
0.150
0.124
2.522
2.646
2.914
Canister
0.020"
0.015
0.012
0.008
0.035
0.269
0.036
2.125
2.162
2.466
                                  B-2

-------
B.2.1  Running Loss Fuel Vapor Pressure Comparisons
                                                             Accord HighRVP
                                                              JiLCi- Fud Viiiwr FIVMJI.' (NOLEA<)
                                                           Cer*ctec fud tfauor Pressure (0.040'' Tank Leak)
                                                          	U  -VAX
                                                             Accord Low RVP
                                                                B-3

-------
0.25



OJO
0.1S
0,20
                                                                                       Accord Mean Preasure

                                                                                            	Mean FVft.wure [High [W|
                                                                                          t imc (seconds)


                                                                               Accord Mean Pressure Accumulation
_ M

1
E


1.
                                                    - ('ur-n-isTivfi f/*ar 'Tfi^jr? (High KVt')

                                                    -1:miAitivn Monn ^ny.su (i ow HWP)

                                                    - Theoretical Te mperalure
                                                                                                                                                         3562            3935
                                                                                              B-4

-------
B.2.2  No Leak
          o-
          
                                                           Accord Sequence 1: High RVP No Leak
                                                                                                   No Leak Running Loss Results
Phase 1  Phase 2   Phase 3    Total
                       HH        MH       tw)        14'jd      in1;!,      mil      ;iw,      ^aid       ^IK1)       :-iMiV       VK;       jam
                                                       flUU
                                                                              
                                                           Accord Sequence 6: Low RVP Wo Leak
                                                                    B-5

-------
0.15
                                                                           Accord No Leak
No Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.005
0.004
Phase 2
0.002
0.003
Phase 3
0.002
0.001
Total
0.009
0.008
                                                                           Accord No Leak
 30
                                                                           Time (Seconds)
                                                                               B-6

-------
B.2.3  0.040" Tank Leak
                                                                                                    0.040" Tank Leak Running Loss Results
           Q-


           E
                                                             Accord Sequence 2:Hi?h RVPG.040" Tank Leak
                         HH         MH        ir,w        id'Hi      iHJd      vr.ii       Mr,       ^aid        ^isf1)       :-iM,v        :vsv,        jam
                                                                    A H  ilim>  rt
                                                             Accord Sequence 7: Low RVP D.040"' Tank Leak
          1
          I


          I
           S" "'"
                                                                          B-7

-------
    Accord 0.040" Tank Leak
0.040" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.057
0.331
Phase 2
0.216
0.068
Phase 3
0.346
0.032
Total
0.619
0.431
         I imo (seconds)

    Accord O.Q40" Tank Leak
1S2L        21'jt,
        Time {Seconds)
            B-8

-------
B.2.4  0.040" Canister Leak
                                                                                                   0.040" Canister Leak Running Loss Results
                                                            Accord Sequence 3: High RVP0.040" Canister Leak
                                                                       Time \ Seconds)






                                                            Accord Sequence S: Low RVP 0.040" Canister Leak
                                                                          B-9

-------
Accord O.WO" Canister Leak
0.040" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.023
0.024
Phase 2
0.044
0.017
Phases
0.014
0.011
Total
0.081
0.052
Accord 0.040" Canister Leak
        B-10

-------
B.2.5  0.020" Tank Leak
           Q.
           E
                                                                                                         0.020" Tank Leak Running Loss Results
                                                               Accord Sequence 4: High RVP 0.020" Tank Leak
                          HH         MH         \Yf)        Mil,       IHJd       Jl'.li      >iXI,       'JSMi        .
-------
                          0.020" Tank Leak Running Loss Results
Accord Q.D20" Tank Leak
   Time (Seconds)
     B-12

-------
B.2.6  0.020" Canister Leak
                                                              Accord Sequence 5 high PVP 0 020"' Canister L


                                                                                     - i  f,)f I
0.020" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.027
0.015
Phase 2
0.084
0.012
Phase 3
0.051
0.008
Total
0.162
0.035
                                                                                                                                            ID. ^
                                                                                                                                              I .
                                                                                                                                        	1- ij
                                                                                                                                         4-iv
                                                             \cco-c Seawence 10: Lo< WP O.o;o' Canister .e
                                                         i-W       1826       21F6
                                                                           B-13

-------
                                                         Accord O.OZO" Canister Leak
- CjMrnetnl Purl VJIINM PtfKHUf (High RVP)
- Corrected Fuel Vapor PrciwfC (Low HVI'J
- r heoretlcal Temperature
 Speed
0.020" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.027
0.015
Phase 2
0.084
0.012
Phases
0.051
0.008
Total
0.162
0.035
                                                                lime (Seconds]

                                                         Accord 0.020" Canister LeaK
                                                                   B-14

-------
B.3  2007 Dodge Caravan
                  VIN:
       ENGINE FAMILY:
 EVAPORATIVE FAMILY:
 EMISSIONS STANDARD:

ENGINE DISPLACEMENT:
      INERTIA WEIGHT:
        Tank CAPACITY:
1D4GP24RX7B138127
7CRXT03.8NEO
7CRXR0177GHA
Tier 2 Bin 5

3.80   Liters
4750   Pounds
20.00  Gallons
         ROAD LOAD A:
         ROAD LOAD B:
         ROAD LOAD C:
      PEAK FUEL TEMP:
15.32
0.0948
0.02662
119.3 F
Sequence:
Fuel:
Leak location:
Leak Size:
Purge Flow LA-4 Precon.
Purge Flow LA-92 Precon.
Results in Grams:
Running Loss PI
P2
P3
TOTAL
Hot Soak
Static Test PI
P2
TOTAL
RL + HS + ST
12345 6789 10
High RVP Fuel (10.0 RVP)
No Leak
No Leak



0.006
0.001
0.000
0.007
0.127
0.104
0.014
0.117
0.251
Tank
0.040



0.528
0.398
7.128
8.054
7.519
1.265
7.915
9.181
24.754
Canister
0.040



0.063
0.010
0.235
0.308
0.984
0.031
8.367
8.398
9.690
Tank
0.020



0.077
0.018
2.294
2.389
1.492
0.037
3.067
3.103
6.984
Canister
0.020



0.004
0.003
0.018
0.025
1.739
0.012
2.001
2.013
3.777
Low RVP Fuel (7.7 RVP)
No Leak
No Leak



0.003
0.003
0.002
0.008
0.093
0.018
0.012
0.030
0.131
Tank
0.040



0.049
0.010
0.667
0.726
0.955
0.133
5.680
5.812
7.493
Canister
0.040



0.030
0.011
0.063
0.104
0.103
0.018
5.604
5.622
5.829
Tank
0.020



0.042
0.016
0.130
0.188
0.093
0.012
2.276
2.287
2.568
Canister
0.020



0.026
0.005
0.032
0.063
0.101
0.016
1.920
1.937
2.101
                                  B-15

-------
B.3.1   Running  Loss Fuel Vapor Pressure Comparisons
                                                                                    Caravan High RVP
                                                                                                                                                                      -=-
                                                                                                      |jyi ->'citiil c (tMWU1
                                                                                         	< IprmlRrfMel Y^fHK ''t^iVlle (UO/lf (>wlkli*)
                                                                                       	Corrected Cml Vapor -"ttiun (O.CHO1 Canittsr Lsak)
                                                                                       	Corseted Fj*t Vapor s-6Lir^ (0.0201 Canister Leat)
                                                                                    Caravan Low RVP
                                                                       it onwTort HiH v.ipnrvr'.urft(N(J H-AKJ
                                                                     	(iwrw.Tfld Hint V.ipnr Frpsr-iirn (diidO* I .wtlr.it)
                                                                     	toirettwl inel VAporI'miiire(txiWO* lanlcl^ak)
                                                                   	CcxreiitKJ Fuel V^ptu Prssi-uiw (0.0^0* C^niitei Leak!
                                                                   	Coficcltd FutH Viiput Prcisurc (0.020' Catii-jlti Leiikl
                                                                                       B-16

-------
0.25
Care'/an Mean Pressure




     	Mean rVswure I High RVF>y








        Tlwupesiial T^tripti dLum



         Spsefl
                                                                                       lime (second!)





                                                                            Caravan Mean Pressure Accumulation
                                                            MBanneaoni (High KYI



                                                            Mf-ar. vrffjaae. (I nw KVV



                                                   Theoretical Temperature



                                                   .Svrt
                                                                                          B-17

-------
B.3.2  No Leak
                                                                       Caravan Sequence 1: high RVP No Leak



                                                                                    Ci>freeled Rtl Vupui ric^wic1


                                                                                  	M?3surod "ompcrotur?
No Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.006
0.003
Phase 2
0.001
0.003
Phase 3
0.000
0.002
Total
0.007
0.008
                        A
                                        A'
                                                                           A
iA
                                                                                                                                                           S
                                                                                                                                                          I :? ,,
                                                                                                                                                           II

                                                                                                                                                           *t
                                        /IS ~	11J        11'JO       !*>       Jlbfc       i<8b       2Slb        i!8U         itbj        iLIJb         liUS   jf-P
                                                                       Caravan Sequence 6: Low RVP No Leak
                                                                                 B-18

-------
No Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.006
0.003
Phase 2
0.001
0.003
Phases
0.000
0.002
H
ii * i L W/
Total
0.007
0.008
Caravan No Leak

rn-w.-lfrt ru*3 Vrw r
-------
B.3.3  0.040"  Tank  Leak
               0,25

               0.20

               n.is
               0.10
                                                                          Caravan Sequence 2; High RVP 0.040" Tank Leak
	utneKted Fuel Vauui Pie;.yjie
  	Measure liTemyyiiPluie
	Thfinrfirical Temperature
	I IIP! Vaprrt- I pm paratiire
0.040" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.528
0.049
Phase 2
0.398
0.010
Phases
7.128
0.667
Total
8.054
0.726
                                                                                       TTnue (Seconds)

                                                                          Caravan Sequence 7: Law RVP 0.040" Tank Leak
                                                                                                                                                                          5 r-
                                                                                                                                                                           i_
                                                                                         B-20

-------
I
                           Grrix.ludRjjlYi.uu ^(.
                           UJTeited i u?i Vepcr ^e
Caravan O.D40" Tank Leak

0.040" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.528
0.049
Phase 2
0.398
0.010
Phase 3
7.128
0.667
Total
8.054
0.726
                                                              1456         132G         2156         2430         281C          3133          5552
                           f>  > ;l alfK
                          pn

.
                                                                               Caravan 0.040"Tank Leak
                                                                                      B-21

-------
B.3.4   0.040" Canister
                0.20
Vscmidiei i_t?em
Caravan Sequence 3: High RVP 0.040 Canister Leak
	 LoircUcd Hid YJWJI Hmttnc
0.040" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.063
0.030
Phase 2
0.010
0.011
Phases
0.235
0.063
Total
0.308
0.104
                         	turftxlud hjct Vupoi t*t>
                         - - MeasuredTemperature
                       -^^^ "Pis LH elkdt TefiipeiaLur*
                         ~ Hiot VSpor irjnpor.iliirf
                          Succd
                       	Hf. (npm) (Right Axis)
                0.1 ri -
                                                                                           Time [Seconds)


                                                                            Caravan Sequence 8: Low RVP 0,040" Canister Leak
                                374          748                       1496         1826        2156        2466        2816         3189          3562          3935/         430B
                                                                                             B-22

-------
Caravan 0.040"Canister Leak
                                               0.040" Canister Leak Running Loss Results
     nnrkc (Seconds}






Caravan 0.040" Canister Leak
       B-23

-------
B.3.5  0.020" Tank Leak
0.020" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.077
0.042
Phase 2
0.018
0.016
Phases
2.294
0.130
Total
2.389
0.188
U.AJ
II A (1 nil
Caravan Sequence 4: High RVP 0.020" Tank Leak

                                                                                                                                        40
          1

            0.2S
                                                                        lirne [seconds.)





                                                             Caravan Sequence 9; Low RVP 0,020" Tank Leak
                                                                       Time (Seconds]
                                                                         B-24

-------
Lsravan O.lUir lank Leak

	 Unrl*JH:IVflvJ f r^wrte (Uv. W^]
 1 nf nr
-------
B.3.6  0.020" Canister Leak
0.020" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.004
0.026
Phase 2
0.003
0.005
Phases
0.018
0.032
Total
0.025
0.063
Caravan Sequence 5: High RVP 0.020" Can ister Leak

                                                       Caravan Sequence 10: Low RVP 0,020" Canister Leak
                                                                  rime (Seconds)
                                                                    B-26

-------
Caravan 0.020" Canister Leak

	 Lmrji14.iJ t-jd Visrj '''(.'jiuu (Lw wr)
	 ThaOTB-i.-jst TanTnoratura
0.020" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.004
0.026
Phase 2
0.003
0.005
Phases
0.018
0.032
Total
0.025
0.063
Caravan 0.020" Canister Leak
       B-27

-------
B.4   2009 Toyota Corolla
                  VIN:
       ENGINE FAMILY:
 EVAPORATIVE FAMILY:
 EMISSIONS STANDARD:

ENGINE DISPLACEMENT:
       INERTIA WEIGHT:
        Tank CAPACITY:
2T1BU40E89C145385
9TYXV01.8BEA
9TYXR0115P12
Tier 2 Bin 5

1.80   Liters
3250  Pounds
13.25  Gallons
         ROAD LOAD A:
         ROAD LOAD B:
         ROAD LOAD C:
      PEAK FUEL TEMP:
11.93
0.0068
0.02276
122.4 F
            Sequence:
                                                                    10
Fuel:
Leak location:
Leak Size:
Purge Flow LA-4 Precon.
Purge Flow LA-92 Precon.
Results in Grams:
Running Loss PI
P2
P3
TOTAL
Hot Soak
Static Test PI
P2
TOTAL
RL + HS + ST
High RVP Fuel (10.0 RVP)
No
Leak
No
Leak



0.003
0.002
0.002
0.007
0.164
0.024
0.036
0.060
0.231
Tank
0.040



0.749
0.951
12.550
14.250
3.168
1.464
7.460
8.924
26.342
Canister
0.040



0.034
0.685
9.436
10.155
0.657
0.032
6.157
6.190
17.002
Tank
0.020



0.166
1.648
2.778
4.592
0.593
1.357
2.795
4.152
9.337
Canister
0.020



0.096
0.348
3.497
3.941
0.734
0.630
2.526
3.157
7.832
Low RVP Fuel (7.7 RVP)
No
Leak
No
Leak



0.001
0.001
0.002
0.004
0.089
0.017
0.013
0.029
0.122
Tank
0.040



0.328
0.358
0.916
1.602
0.238
0.770
6.116
6.886
8.726
Canister
0.040



0.058
0.065
0.040
0.163
0.104
0.561
6.945
7.505
7.772
Tank
0.020



0.050
0.019
0.055
0.124
0.111
0.642
2.050
2.692
2.927
Canister
0.020



0.016
0.020
0.016
0.052
0.109
0.059
2.485
2.544
2.705
                                  B-28

-------
B.4.1  Running Loss Fuel Vapor Pressure Comparisons
                                                                 Corolla High  P-rv
                                                               -tji-l V^fjDJ lf:i:v
           (I.AJ
                                                                 nmc (Seconds)
                                                                   B-29

-------
0.7^


n?n


o.n
 Corolla Mean Pressure Comparison for High and Low FVP *-j



                       	TheoretlcaJ Te mperatu^e
	  	Speed                	
1ST.


10)
                                748           1111           iWC         1320         2i:c         IdSO         2310


U.2U 
                                                                             __
                                              -Ctmulativ* MeonPrejsore (Low 1VP)
                                              - HIFI rcli.il IvrnwnlllMK
                                                                         1B20         21bS         218t!
                                                                                  Tiine(^t-coml^)
                                                                                                               2Blb           J1B5)
                                                                                     B-30

-------
B.4.2   No Leak
No Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.003
0.001
Phase 2
0.002
0.001
Phases
0.003
0.002
Total
0.008
0.004
Corolla Sequence 1: High RVP No Leak
C.mru..td li,d VUiwr 1'lcttH.I::
	 MeaSllllMl TpmpWHIUIH
              0.15
                                                                                                                      Sprcd
                                                                                                                      Commandcc evaporative Pi rgc {%) '
                                                                                                                                                           120

                                                                                                                                                           inn 4V
                                                                         Corolla Sequence 6: Low RVP No Leak
              0.20
            s
              0.10
                                                                                 T ne (seconds)
                                                                                   B-31

-------
        Tu^l Vftfxtf Pnucuf? 11 igh RVr|
        fuel Vaaor Pressure |l_3w RVP|
                                                                          LtfdX
No Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.003
0.001
Phase 2
0.002
0.001
Phases
0.003
0.002
Total
0.008
0.004
                                                               Corolla NQ Leak
 Cumulotive Fresiure Accurnuiatiort (I tifih RVP)
                  uir A(tijnmlr
-------
B.4.3  0.040" Tank Leak
0.040" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.749
0.328
Phase 2
0.951
0.358
Phases
0.749
0.916
Total
2.449
1.602
Corolla Sequence 2: High RVP 0.040" Tsnk Leak
	 Cnrrnr-ftl n,H Vajror Pri.r?
 - MeasullMJ 1 f>lll!1li4lum
 Tti'JUicUt j) TcinpcTiHutc
                                                       149C      182C      2150      2480      2310
                                                                      Trie (Seconds)
                                                            Corolla Sequence 7: Low RVP 0.040" Tank Leak
                                                                        B-33

-------
U.Z,
320
-to-icctcd Kiel vapor Pressure itiiKh KVP)
          ^si Vapor ^rg;
-------
B.4.4  0.040" Canister Leak
0.040" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.034
0.058
Phase 2
0.685
0.065
Phase 3
0.034
0.040
Total
0.753
0.163
Corolla Sequence J: High RVP 0.040" Canister Leak
tuffitdcc ] ud V<*p~ji Picture
- Measured 1>TiirK*ir:lur
T
-------
                                                                                      Corolla 0.040" Canister Leak
-0.20  -
0.040" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.034
0.058
Phase 2
0.685
0.065
Phases
0.034
0.040
Total
0.753
0.163
                            Cor[ruled KJL-! Vapor Prevaire (Hinb RVP)
                            airmail Fuel Vti.iiiiiuU!Hiii{l
-------
B.4.5   0.020" Tank Leak
0.020" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.166
0.050
Phase 2
1.648
0.019
Phase 3
2.778
0.055
Total
4.592
0.124
Corolla Seouence 4: High RVP 0.020" Tank Leak

	 lUIICLlCt! luul ViJJJDI I'llXWUli:
	 MHaviiTPiJ Tt'nifirH tfl uH1

1 nirTml rnin-r.inrrr
              0.25

              0.20

              0.15
              -O.lb
                                                                       Corolla Sequence 9: Low RVP 0.020" Tank Leak
- corrected r-ucl vapor Pressure
 Mefl^ureri Temperature
- Theoretical Temperature
J60
                                                                                   Time (Setondi)
                                                                                     B-37

-------
Cuiolla 0.020" Tank Leak
r H r I v p r h nun
	 Ojnstlid tad VJuoi Ci^anc |L IIWi
SKCCl
0.020" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.166
0.050
Phase 2
1.648
0.019
Phase 3
2.778
0.055
Total
4.592
0.124
    /18         W         14'(-.       J1t
                            iifflA. rt f.l  MK rt
                                      Corollc 0,020"Tank Leak
-cumulative rrrs^urf1 flmjmulamn (Hlfih RVP)
-Cumulative Presiuie AcLurnukJliuri (Low R'/P)
-iheoretcal lerioerature
                                            B-38

-------
B.4.6   0.020" Canister  Leak
0.020" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.096
0.016
Phase 2
0.348
0.020
Phases
3.497
0.016
Total
3.941
0.052
Corolla Sequence 5: High RVP 0.020" Canister Leak

	 Cnrrpf-ftt TLC) Vaiw (V*i.Fft
 "rti'-'iHtlk jl Tciiiptrulurc
              0.10
                                                                                                                       hj^lvaccr iciTpcrature


                                                                                                                         --.,/V	U
                                                                                   T ne (Seconds)




                                                                     Corolla Sequence 10: Low IWP 0.020" Canister Leak
                                    - r:r(::lwi InH v-ifior IT


                                    - MtaaLt td leinutnaluie


                                    - Tieoretical Temperature
                                                                                                                                                              tao
                                                                                     B-39

-------
                                                                                   Cuiulld 0.020' Canister Leah
                           rirrTd Fuel Vtnnr fnmurr (I lieh (1VT1
                                   t-ucl Viltwi HiusaufC (lt>w HVHi
-0.15
                                                                                    Corolla 0.020" Canister Leak
                                                                                                                                                                                         - 120
                              -Cumulative Pressure Accumulation (High RVP)
                              -Cumulative -Pressure Accumulation (Low RVP)
                               Theurplfcjl Tctri^Hr.iliir*3
                               Speed
0.020" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.096
0.016
Phase 2
0.348
0.020
Phase 3
3.497
0.016
Total
3.941
0.052
                                                                                                            2186          2816            3189
                                                                                                                                                                         393b           -1308
                                                                                             B-40

-------
B.5  2010 Ford Focus
                  VIN:
       ENGINE FAMILY:
 EVAPORATIVE FAMILY:
 EMISSIONS STANDARD:

ENGINE DISPLACEMENT:
      INERTIA WEIGHT:
        Tank CAPACITY:
1FAHP3FN8AW272304
AFMXV02.0VZX
AFMXR0110GCX
SULEV II PZEV

2.00   Liters
3000   Pounds
13.0   Gallons
         ROAD LOAD A:
         ROAD LOAD B:
         ROAD LOAD C:
      PEAK FUEL TEMP:
4.01
0.5575
0.01269
123.8 F
Sequence:
Fuel:
Leak location:
Leak Size:
Purge Flow LA-4 Precon.
Purge Flow LA-92 Precon.
Results in Grams:
Running Loss PI
P2
P3
TOTAL
Hot Soak
Static Test PI
P2
TOTAL
RL + HS + ST
12345 6789 10
High RVP Fuel (10.0 RVP)
No Leak
No Leak



0.002
0.001
0.005
0.008
1.154
0.040
0.040
0.080
1.242
Tank
0.040



0.317
1.349
6.250
7.916
0.589
0.156
9.130
9.286
17.791
Canister
0.040



0.165
0.822
12.471
13.458
0.952
0.060
8.563
8.624
23.034
Tank
0.020



0.012
0.530
11.927
12.469
0.945
0.107
2.407
2.514
15.928
Canister
0.020



0.213
0.510
11.777
12.500
0.558
0.202
2.525
2.727
15.785
Low RVP Fuel (7.7 RVP)
No Leak
No Leak



0.003
0.002
0.002
0.007
0.216
0.056
0.043
0.099
0.322
Tank
0.040



0.132
0.179
0.018
0.329
0.481
0.240
5.849
6.089
6.899
Canister
0.040



0.637
0.517
0.481
1.635
0.164
0.053
6.895
6.948
8.747
Tank
0.020



0.325
0.235
0.010
0.570
0.250
0.393
2.574
2.967
3.787
Canister
0.020



0.121
0.126
0.105
0.352
0.210
0.063
1.773
1.836
2.398
                                  B-41

-------
B.5.1  Running Loss Fuel Vapor Pressure Comparisons
                                                                            FceusHishRV?
             0.20
    corrected fuc] vapsr Prrsojrc (so LEAK)
 	CDncttviJ Fuel VupiM Pri'ivjae (0-O4ST Tu'ifr. UMK)
^.., Corr^ctec! Fuel VapxPTsss-jrelO^OlCTTaih L&an)
 	Corrvucd fud Vop^r fr:-a-ju(c- (0.040" Cunblci J.-okJ
	Corrected fuel Vapir Pressure (0.020'' Canister _tsk)
                                                                             Thw (Seconds)
             025
                                                                            Focus Low RVP
                                                                              B-42

-------
      Focus Mean Pressure
         i imc (Seconds)





Focus Mean Pressure Accumulation
           B-43

-------
B.5.2  No Leak
No Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.002
0.003
Phase 2
0.001
0.002
Phases
0.005
0.002
Total
0.008
0.007
Focus Sequence 1: High RVP No Leak
	 Cerrtrtcd =ud Vspor tn'.MK
" 	 " j - ' -
	 ^tooredc* TairprMur
                                                                                                                                           180







                                                                                                                                           i*-.







                                                                                                                                           140
                                                                                                                                           120
                                                                 Focus Sequence 6: Lov/ RVP Nc Leak
                                                                         Time {Sccoids)
                                                                          B-44

-------
0.25
                                        Focus No Leak
                                                                 VBpGH'WTOTP iHfch ItVt'J

                                                             I'fmftart t-.iot Vapor Crc>soo)i iiw KVPf
180.0

isn.n
                                                                                    HI1.II
0.10
                                        Timel&econds)

                                        Focus No Leak
              Curnulativw Prpssiim Af.nimulffrirm (H^h RVP)

              ('untularnm!-n---,--,.-,- Arciimu!nTinn(Inw uw)
                               liWMi
                                                                                    100
                                    lH?[j    /IMi    J-1H<
                                        Time (Seconds)
                                         B-45

-------
B.5.3  0.040" Tank Leak
                                                         Focus Sequence 2: High RVP O.OWTank Leak
                                                      	        ,|
                                                          11^        I
Focus Sequence 7: Low RVP O.040" Tank Leak


0.040" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP (Repeat)
Low RVP
High RVP
Mid RVP
Phase 1
0.424
0.132
0.317
0.516
Phase 2
0.014
0.179
1.349
0.564
Phase 3
7.578
0.018
6.250
2.509
Total
8.016
0.329
7.916
3.589
                                                                  lime (Seconds)
                                                                    B-46

-------
0.040" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP (Repeat)
Low RVP
High RVP
Mid RVP
Phase 1
0.424
0.132
0.317
0.516
Phase 2
0.014
0.179
1.349
0.564
Phases
7.578
0.018
6.250
2.509
Total
8.016
0.329
7.916
3.589
           Focus Sequence 2: Hiti RVP 0.040" Tank Leak
                        I ime (seconds)





VOID Wrong Fuel - Focus Sequence Repeat Z: High RVP 0.040" Tank Leak
                          B-47

-------
0.25
0.040" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP (Repeat)
Low RVP
High RVP
Mid RVP
Phase 1
0.424
0.132
0.317
0.516
Phase 2
0.014
0.179
1.349
0.564
Phases
7.578
0.018
6.250
2.509
Total
8.016
0.329
7.916
3.589
                                                                              Focus O.Q4D" Tank Leak
                                                                                 Time (Seconds)

                                                                              Focus 0.040" Tank Leak
                                                                                                                                                                           S80.0

                                                                                                                                                                           in.n
                                                                                                                                                                           140.0
                                                                         1>d         J'l'tb         J*W>
                                                                                 Time {Seconds)
                                                                                    B-48

-------
B.5.4 0.040" Canister Leak
0.040" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.165
0.637
Phase 2
0.822
0.517
Phase 3
12.471
0.481
Total
13.458
1.635
Focus Sequence 3: High RVP 0.040" Canister Leak
	 1 Ml**taA 1 imJ vapor pnKxurf
	 Man^Terf IwinNKtum
	 IteCTBIfrjl lpnT|M*ariirci
         I
         I,
                                                     Focus Sequence S: Low RVP 0.040" Canister Leak
                                                                B-49

-------
                                                                                    Focus 0.040" Canister Leak
0,20
                                                                                          IIme (Seconds)

                                                                                    Focus 0.040" Canister Leak
                               - (umulattre |'FR
-------
B.5.5  0.020" Tank  Leak
0.020" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.012
0.325
Phase 2
0.530
0.235
Phase 3
11.927
0.010
Total
12.469
0.570
Focus Sequence 4: High RVP 0. 020" Tank leak

                                                                                                                     	Corrtetsd Fuel Vapor Prei




                                                                                                                     	Wcasursd Temperas re




                                                                                                                     	ThcfrictiJ Temperature




                                                                                                                       S...-J




                                                                                                                   	Hirl Vapor Ir
                                                                     Focus Sequence 10: Low RVP 0.020" Canister Leak
              0.20
                                                                                   B-51

-------
              0.020" Tank Leak Running Loss Results
       High RVP
       Low RVP
                   Phase 1
0.012
                     0.325
          Phase 2
           0.530
                                0.235
Phases
                      11.927
                                           0.010
Total
                                  12.469
                                                       0.570
                                                                 Focus 0.020" Tank Leak
                                                                                                            cl Vapor Pra=t^c
-------
B.5.6  0.020" Canister Leak
0.020" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.213
0.121
Phase 2
0.510
0.126
Phase 3
11.777
0.105
Total
12.500
0.352
Focus Sequence 5: High RVP 0.020" Canister Leak
	 Cw rAJ ru el Voacv P. Bi*jt s
	 MwswwITemu^ei^i:
Theoretical Tcmpcfatufc
            -0.20 '   -i m
                                                          Focus Sequence 10: Low RVP 0.020" Canister Leak
                                                                                                                                    180
                                                                                                                                    100
                                                                     Time (Vronds)
                                                                      B-53

-------
0.020" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.213
0.121
Phase 2
0.510
0.126
Phase 3
11.777
0.105
Total
12.500
0.352
                                                                                  Focus 0.020" Canister Leak
0,20
                                                                                        I Imp (seconds)

                                                                                  Focus 0.020" Canister Leak
                                                                                                                                                                                         180.0

                                                                                                                                                                                         160-0

                                                                                                                                                                                         nn.D
                                                                                                                                                                                         i?o.n
                                               Ac nimulatir. n (High ft VI1}
                               t umu!.itiv pmwun* Arnimiil.ition (I ow KW)
                                Iliuurdiuf Ic
                               Succd
                                                                                        Time (Seconds)
                                                                                           B-54

-------
B.6  2006 Chevrolet Silverado
                  VIN:
       ENGINE FAMILY:
 EVAPORATIVE FAMILY:
 EMISSIONS STANDARD:

ENGINE DISPLACEMENT:
      INERTIA WEIGHT:
        Tank CAPACITY:
1GCEK19B66Z154114
6GMXT05.3379
6GMXRO176820
Tier 2 Bin 8

5.30   Liters
5500  Pounds
26.0   Gallons
         ROAD LOAD A:
         ROAD LOAD B:
         ROAD LOAD C:
      PEAK FUEL TEMP:
1.44
1.2678
0.002258
114.3 F
Sequence:
Fuel:
Leak location:
Leak Size:
Purge Flow LA-4 Precon.
Purge Flow LA-92 Precon.
Results in Grams:
Running Loss PI
P2
P3
TOTAL
Hot Soak
Static Test PI
P2
TOTAL
RL + HS + ST
12345 6789 10
High RVP Fuel (10.0 RVP)
No Leak
No Leak



0.002
0.000
0.000
0.002
0.063
0.010
0.007
0.017
0.082
Tank
0.040



0.057
0.012
0.361
0.430
0.749
0.371
8.796
9.168
10.347
Canister
0.040



0.023
0.021
0.040
0.084
1.435
0.010
8.483
8.493
10.012
Tank
0.020



0.042
0.003
0.082
0.127
0.206
0.015
3.441
3.456
3.789
Canister
0.020



0.108
0.097
0.109
0.314
0.254
0.008
2.691
2.699
3.267
Low RVP Fuel (7.7 RVP)
No Leak
No Leak



0.001
0.001
0.001
0.003
0.061
0.013
0.008
0.021
0.085
Tank
0.040



0.018
0.000
0.002
0.020
0.841
0.230
4.862
5.092
5.953
Canister
0.040



0.062
0.065
0.052
0.179
1.165
0.010
6.156
6.167
7.511
Tank
0.020



0.012
0.002
0.001
0.015
0.225
0.303
2.330
2.633
2.873
Canister
0.020



0.064
0.078
0.062
0.204
0.364
0.071
2.830
2.901
3.469
                                  B-55

-------
B.6.1   Running Loss Fuel Vapor Pressure Comparisons
                                                                                Silverado I \xh IWP
                                                                       corrected ue

                                                                   	Corrected ruc
vannr Pressure .|M() 11 AKj
Vjuui Pre^uie ;o.040"TjriV _tjk)
vapor Pressure Jo.OJO11 tank .eak)
VHtiEJa fnrisuir {(LO-nrtait-.v.!-! Irak)
Vaoor frcj&ure (Ci.020" Conisxr L?ak)
                                                                                    no (Seconds)
                                                                                 Silverado Low RVP
                                                                       Corrected ruc I Vaoor Pressure [NO LEAK)
                                                                       - Corrected :ue I Vasor Pressure ;0.04C"TaiV _eak)
                                                                        Corrected ~uelVapor Pressure ;
-------
                                                                                       Silverado Mean Pressure
                                                                    -Wean Pressure (11 ph WF)
                                                                    -Mi-nnl'n V.MM jlowKV'l
                                                                    - Mean Pressure - After Valve Keplaccnwrit [Low HVi1)  -
                                                                    - Moan Pressure Before Vafve FcplaceTicnt (LowRVI*;
                                                                                         Wlean Pressurp Arriimulotion
b
5  18
I

^
^l_
- Ijiniiibilivp MKOTtt-'iwKire (1 lijgh HVV)
- Cum -ilstfve Me an Pressure (Low RV^>)
- Cum .ifcj live MeiinPrewu:e  Allei V;ifve RejjlJLe
 LXim jlstrve Mean pressure - before valve Iteplac-ment (LOW MVFJ
- Thcorolical Tompcraturs
 Speed
                                                                                  IK/h          :'1:-i*>          J>1i
                                                                                            Time (Seconds)
                                                                                               B-57

-------
B.6.2   No Leak
cm
Silverado Sequence 1: High RVP No Leak
	 Ccfrectwi Mjel va>y leisure
- Msurd lemp-slufe

No Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.002
0.001
Phase 2
0.000
0.001
Phases
0.000
0.001
Total
0.002
0.003
             0.10
                                                                        Time [Seconds!






                                                                Silverado Sequence 6: Low RVP No Leak
                                                                          B-58

-------
                                           Silverado No Leak
                                                                       No Leak Running Loss Results
Phase 1   Phase 2   Phase 3     Total
374
                                      1826      21S6      2486
                                            lim* (ieconcit)
                                                                          3189       3562
                                              B-59

-------
No Leak Running loss Results

High RVP
High RVP Wrong Temperature Profile
Phase I
0,002
0.003
Phase 2
0,000
Q.QQ3
Phases
0,000
0,002
Totcll
0,002
0,005
                      Trie [Seconds]





Silvcradc Sequcnc* 1: VOID WRONG PROFILE ON RL: Hi^h RVP No Leak
                         B-60

-------
No Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
High RVP Wrong Temperature Profile
Phase 1
0.002
0.003
Phase 2
0.000
0.003
Phases
0.000
0.002
Total
0.002
0.008
                                                             Silverado No Leak
                                                               Time (Seconds)

                                               Silverado No Leak Effect of Temoerature Profile
-Cumulatvc >es5troAccinriUl
-OunutiKf >s.M.rHAt:c.iJir nl.ilkHt (Iligli RVP)
-Th^orctica T
                                                                 B-61

-------
B.6.3  0.040"  Tank Leak
Silverado Sequence 2: High RVP 0.040" Tank Leak
	 Corrected t-ucl vapor ITCMUTC
	 MtrmmnlT^nifirTHluir
 _ Fi*-tVnpflTVmfi(-*viHHT!
0.040" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.057
0.018
Phase 2
0.012
0.000
Phases
0.361
0.002
Total
0.430
0.020
            0.25
            OJO
                                                                       Time [Seconds |





                                                            Silverado Sequence 7: Low RVP 0.040" Tank Leak
                                                                       Time (SeconcH)
                                                                         B-62

-------
                                                                           Silverado 0.040" Tank Leak
020
               - Corrected Fuel Vaoor fVwsuro {Hi*h
               - corrected mel vapor f'essj-e {LOW t
                Trvscf ctical Tc-jiipcraturc
               -Ipeed
                                                                                                                0.040" Tank  Leak Running Loss Results
0.20
.24
                                                                                l-(Si:n iritis)

                                                      FOCJS: Pressure and Hydrocarbon emission Accumulation 0.040" Tank Leak
                        "(jinn.ttlitfi' I'fcvi irr Ainjruilalicm {I' w IIVI'J

                        -CumUatire Pressjre Atcunulation (High RVPJ

                        -Theoretltol Temperature
                                                                                                                                                      3935          4303
                                                                                  B-63

-------
B.6.4  0.040" Canister Leak
vscii 1101^1 i_trar\
Silverado Sequence 3: High RVPO.D4O" Canister Leak
	 fnprti3.-ilFw4V.iix> ntinsuic
	 Measured IcfnjKrolure

0.040" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.023
0.019
Phase 2
0.021
0.011
Phases
0.040
0.006
Total
0.084
0.036
            0.10
                                                    "M'lEj      IHiHi      ?ri(j      n'-IKEi      781 d
                                                                                                .-JIB1?        .-t'jh?
                _.
                                    .
nil    M!JU
                                                                              JL
                                                                   Time [Seconds!






                                                       Silverado Sequence 8: Low RVP 0.040" Canister Leak
                                                                                                                             I:-JPM   =. (!
                                                                    B-64

-------
0.25
                   -Girw l-d ruplVHPm Pit^m
                   - On-in MNl f L.H V.-PIK ^,-J.

                   - T>icorctiaii I empcrature
Silverado 0.040" Canister Leak

0.040" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.023
0.019
Phase 2
0.021
0.011
Phases
0.040
0.006
Total
0.084
0.036
                                                                                                 Time (Seconds)

                                                                                                i-Jn n.D40" C^ni.iter I
                                 Cuniiiblivi* ^iHS>.uit> AtiruriiLitilKiri {lh(>li UVM)
                                 Cumulative Pressure Aocumulstion (Lov^ R7P)
                                 Ihcorctcsl
                                                                                                 Time [Seconds]
                                                                                                    B-65

-------
0.25
                                                  VOID - SHED testing not completed - Silverado Sequence 8: Low RVP 0,040" Canister Leak
                     - Corrected Fucf Vapof PreswMC


                      Speed
                     - fuel Vapor TemperatuN:



0.040" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

Low RVP
Low RVP Purge Valve Failure
Phase 1
0.019
0.038
Phase 2
0.011
0.063
Phases
0.006
0.002
Total
0.036
0.103
                                                                                    Time {Second*!

                                                      VOID -Puree Valve Failure-Silverado Sequence 8: Low RVP 0.040" Canister Leak
                      COfTCCteo FutH Vapor Pressure
                                                                                                                                                                                150
                                                                                       B-66

-------
0.040" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

Low RVP
Low RVP Purge Valve Failure
Phase 1
0.019
0.038
Phase 2
0.011
0.063
Phase 3
0.006
0.002
Total
0.036
0.103
0,25
                                                                           Silverado 0.040" Canister Leak Low RVP
0,10
                  Corrected t uel Vapor Pressure (LOW l(Vf) tMrg* vah^e i atlure
                         cue! Vapor pressure (tow KVVJ
                            VpiH PivHrlIiiwRVPi Afti-t Purgt-VHfwIV
                                :  :.',   I   S
                                                                                                                                                                                     180.0
                                                                                                                        ^^___
                                                                                                                                                                                     11U.O
                                                                                                                                                                        	lain s= ~
                                                                                                                                                                        ML        i!
                                                                 Silverado 0.040" Canister Leak Effect of Purge Valve Failure
               - Cumulative Pressure Accumulation - Oetore Vatve railure (Low RVP)
               - i unniw' (/[ i:rcvnijr ! Acnirnidrtfinn - V^lvc hniluri- (I itw KVi M
               - Cumubtive Pressure Accumulation  After Vatve Replacement {low RVP)
               - HC Mass - Before valve ^ilure (Low KVf)
               - HC Mass - vaive hailurc (Low KVI'J
               - HC M.I-A AllPi V,i!w Rppt,^iiW!il (I i>w RVP)
                                                                                         B-67

-------
B.6.5  0.020" Tank Leak
                                                                         Silverado Sequence 4: High RVP 0.020" Tank Leak
0.020" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.042
0.012
Phase 2
0.003
0.002
Phases
0.082
0.001
Total
0.127
0.015
               0.15
                                                                   lino        laid        2i:jij        iiso        2sio
                                                                                  /I 
-------
                                                                              Silverado 0.020' Tank Leak
                - Theoretical Temoeratwe
 0.15
. 24
w


"E
518
                          -< ij-nulihvH Pffs.mjf v An
	   ~
mulotio.n (W.T1 RVI>.
miiljliii-i (1 !iw KVk) Uui(,. v " -' '
0.020" Tank Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.042
0.012
Phase 2
0.003
0.002
Phases
0.082
0.001
Total
0.127
0.015
                                                                                                                                                                             -  0
                                                                                       B-69

-------
B.6.6  0.020"  Canister  Leak
                                                                         Silverado Sequence 5: High RVP 0.020" Canister Leak
0.020" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.108
0.064
Phase 2
0.097
0.078
Phases
0.109
0.062
Total
0.314
0.204
                     	f.rrf*[ kwl Fufil V.IJWM PiK
                       - - McHMjmnVyM[H*Hlmr
                     	Ihrnrrtiral irmfxraTiirr
                        Speed
                      - - Tuel Vapor Temperature
                     	IfC 
-------
0.020" Canister Leak Running Loss Results

High RVP
Low RVP
Phase 1
0.108
0.064
Phase 2
0.097
0.078
Phases
0.109
0.062
Total
0.314
0.204
ULtt
0.20
                                                                                     Silverado 0.020" Canister Leak
       d Fuel Vapor IVcxairc (Hih RVP
 Corrected t-uel Vapor leisure (Low twl
- Tfworctical Tcmocraturc
-ipeed
0.20
                                                                                              iimc(i>ccondsf

                                                                                     SilvejdJu 0.020" CanibiLtfT I
                                                                                                B-71

-------
       Appendix C
Descriptions of Study Data

-------
       Each  of the  tests performed  for this study produced data in different formats,  the
following section discusses the  data  acquired in each report.  This data will be provided in
folders organized by vehicle.

FTP 72 Report (*_74.pdf)1
       Test Start: When the drive cycle began

       Test Finish: When the drive cycle ended

       Time Elapsed: Duration of the drive cycle in seconds

       Distance: Distance driven over the cycle in miles

       Driver: The technician responsible for driving the vehicle for the cycle

       Road Load Parameters: A, B, and C Road Load Coefficients and Vehicle Inertia

       Fuel Parameters:  Fuel name, specific  gravity, weight fraction of Carbon, Hydrogen and
Oxygen, and net heating value

       Environmental Conditions:  Barometric  pressure in inHg, site  temperature in  F, site
humidity in grains/pound dry air

FTP 75 Report (*.pdf)
       Test Start: When the drive cycle began

       Test Finish: When the drive cycle ended

       Time Elapsed: Duration of the drive cycle in seconds

       Distance: Distance driven over the cycle in miles

       Driver: The technician responsible for driving the vehicle for the cycle
 "*_74.pdf' was the naming convention used by APTL for the FTP-72 tests performed for this study.

                                           C-l

-------
       Road Load Parameters: A, B, and C Road Load Coefficients and Vehicle Inertia

       Fuel Parameters:  Fuel name, specific gravity, weight fraction of Carbon, Hydrogen and
          Oxygen, and net heating value

       Environmental  Conditions: Barometric pressure  in  inHg, site  temperature in F, site
          humidity in grains/pound dry air

Running Loss Report (*.pdf)
       Test Start: When the drive cycle began

       Test Finish: When the drive cycle ended

       Time Elapsed: Duration of the drive cycle in seconds

       Distance: Distance driven over the cycle in miles

       Driver: The technician responsible for driving the vehicle for the cycle

       Road Load Parameters: A, B, and C Road Load Coefficients and Vehicle Inertia

       Fuel Parameters:  Fuel name, specific gravity, weight fraction of Carbon, Hydrogen and
          Oxygen, and net heating value

       Environmental  Conditions: Barometric pressure  in  inHg, site  temperature in F, site
          humidity in grains/pound dry air

       Emissions Sampling System: For each phase of the running loss test the hydrocarbon FID
          analyzer (calibrated using propane) reports the range, the ambient bag concentration,
          the sample  bag concentration, the net concentration, the  hydrocarbon mass, and the
          CVS volume

Running Loss Data File (*.csv)
       Data was recorded at  0.1 Hz (once every  10 seconds) during the preheat and the driven
portions of the running loss test.

       Time:  Seconds  from the beginning of recording
                                         C-2

-------
       Fuel Temperature: Measured in F

       Fuel Temperature Set Point: From manufacturer fuel tank temperature profile, in F

       Fuel Vapor Temperature: Measured in F

       Fuel Vapor Pressure: Measured in psi, all but the very last tests demonstrate a zero bias
          which was corrected out in subsequent analysis (this is discussed further in the Issues
          Encountered and Solutions section above)

       Discharge Air Temperature: Measured in F

       Discharge Air Temperature Set Point: As controlled by APTL software so that the fuel
          temperature measured matches the fuel temperature set point, in F

Running Loss Continuous Hydrocarbon File (*.csv)
       Ford APTL continuously recorded data during the second half of testing for all tests run
with the 7 psi RVP fuel.  The data is recorded at 1 Hz during the drive portion of the running loss
test.

       Time:  Seconds from the beginning of recording

       Hydrocarbon Concentration: Measured in ppm (analyzer calibrated using propane)

OBD2 Data (*.csv)
       OBDII data was collected using a HEM Data mini logger provided by the EPA during the
three driving portions (the FTP 72, the FTP 75, and the running  loss test) of the test sequence.
The  OBDII data collection system was problematic and didn't consistently record data for all
tests (as discussed above in the  Issues Encountered and Solutions section). Data is stored in a
binary file that is processed using the HEM Data's DawnEdit software. The data available varies
for each vehicle as some vehicles use different communication standards and don't broadcast the
same types of data. The data description in below describes only the data that was used during
analysis. Also, per the discussion above in the Issues Encountered  and Solutions section - OBDII
data  is not available for all driving tests.

       Time: When the drive cycle began

                                          C-3

-------
      VIN: The vehicle identification number for the unit under test

      Vehicle Speed: The vehicle speed measured in miles per hour

      Commanded  Evaporative Purge: Measured  in percent, this  is how much purge was
          commanded by the vehicle while the vehicle was in operation

Hot Soak Data (*.xls)
      The hot soak data is contained on Sheet 1 in the workbook. Sheet4 contains analyzer zero
span results. The other sheets contained in the workbook are extraneous sheets used by Ford for
performing SHED leak calculations and error estimates. The data presented in Sheetl is broken
into several boxes of data.

      Technician: Technician that initiated the test sequence

      SHED Number: Identifies which SHED was used for the particular test.

      Start Date/Time: The time the test began

      End Date/Time: The time the test ended

      Initial/Final  Barometer:  Atmospheric pressure at the  beginning and end of the test,
          measured in inHg, located in the SHED Post Volume Information Box

      Initial/Final Temperature: SHED temperature at beginning and end of the test, measured
          in F, located in the SHED Post Volume Information Box

      Initial/Final  SHED  Volume:  SHED  volume at the beginning and end  of the test,
          measured in F, located in the SHED Post Volume Information Box

      Fuel Temperature: The  fuel  temperature at the beginning  and the end of the test,
          measured in F using J-Type thermocouples, located in  the Fuel Temperature J Box
          (NB the measurements in the Fuel Temperature K Box are not the correct temperature
          measurements)

      Emissions  Sampling  System:  Reports, in  the Hotsoak  Emission Results Box,  the
          concentration and mass of hydrocarbons in the SHED at the beginning of the test, and
                                         C-4

-------
          at the end of the test; in the HC Summary Box, the change in the hydrocarbon mass
          and concentration from the beginning of the test to the end

Static Test Data (*.xls)
       The static test data is contained on Sheetl in the workbook. Sheet4 contains analyzer zero
span results. The other sheets contained in the workbook are extraneous sheets used by Ford for
performing SHED leak calculations and error estimates. The data presented in Sheetl is broken
into several boxes of data.

       Technician: Technician that initiated the test sequence

       SHED Number: Identifies which SHED was used for the particular test.

       Start Date/Time: The time the test began

       End Date/Time: The time the test ended

       Initial/Final Barometer: Atmospheric pressure at the beginning and end of the test,
          measured in inHg, located in the SHED Post Volume Information Box

       Initial/Final Temperature: SHED temperature at beginning and end of the test, measured
          in F, located in the SHED Post Volume Information Box

       Initial/Final SHED Volume: SHED volume at the beginning and end of the test,
          measured in F, located in the SHED Post Volume Information Box

       Fuel Temperature: The fuel temperature at the beginning and the end of the test,
          measured in F using J-Type thermocouples, located in the Fuel Temperature J Box
          (NB the measurements in the Fuel Temperature K Box are not the correct temperature
          measurements)

       Emissions Sampling System: Because of the modal nature of the results of these tests the
          data presented in this file doesn't correctly state the desired results, a  separate data
          file was exported which contains the concentrations and the masses of hydrocarbons
          in the SHED at beginning of the test and at the end of each mode
                                         C-5

-------
Static Test Data (*.txt)
       The static test data reported in the text file reports analyzer reads at set intervals during
the static test sequence. The readings that should be used when considering these reports occur at
0 minutes, 15 minutes, and 30 minutes into the test. Occasionally, the analyzer reports that an
analyzer read fails and reports a "SampISD Failure". This error doesn't affect the analyzer
reading and precise timing of analyzer readings is very important during this test so it is not
recommended to consider the repeat readings that are performed after the error. The following
different types of data are provided in the text file

       Sample Time: The exact timing of the analyzer read

       Mass: The mass of the hydrocarbons in the SHED

       Concentration: The concentration of hydrocarbons in the SHED

       Zero/Span: Analyzers zero - span operations results

Vehicle Data (*.xls)
       Data was combined into a single Microsoft Excel workbook for each vehicle to allow for
improvements in data processing and analysis. There are several worksheets in each workbook
which are used to present the information described here

       Test Record Worksheet
       This worksheet provides the time and date each particular test in every sequence started
and ended. Also provided are the APTL test numbers.

       Test Sequence and Results Worksheet
       This worksheet gives the final mass emissions for each test in a particular sequence. The
running loss is broken down into three phases. Overall emissions for a single sequence are
reported.

       FTTP Worksheet
       This worksheet contains the tank temperature profile and the trace to be driven during the
running loss test.
                                          C-6

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       Data Worksheet
       This worksheet contains the data recorded at 0.1 Hz (once every 10 seconds) during the
running loss preheat and cycle. The data is time aligned so that 0 seconds occurs when the drive
portion begins for each test. Several graphs are also produced on this worksheet. These graphs
compare fuel vapor vacuum, liquid and vapor fuel temperatures, vehicle speed, commanded
evaporative purge (if available), and continuous hydrocarbon emissions (if available) for each
running loss test. Additional graphs are also developed which compare the vapor vacuum for all
leak configurations on a particular fuel, and also comparing the vapor vacuum for both fuels
given a particular leak configuration.

       Average Pressures Worksheet
       This spreadsheet calculates the average vapor vacuum for each fuel, and also performs
numeric integration on the measured vapor vacuum. Several graphs are then produced which
demonstrate differences in behavior for the different fuels.

       Continuous Hydrocarbon Measurement Worksheet
       This spreadsheet contains the continuous hydrocarbon measurements recorded at 1 Hz
(once per second). This data is presented in the graphs produced on the Data worksheet.

       OBD Data Worksheet
       This spreadsheet contains the OBDII data which is available for certain tests. A moving
average has been applied to the commanded evaporative purge to reduce noise. This data is
recorded a 1 Hz and is presented in the graphs produced on the Data worksheet.
                                          C-7

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          Appendix D
Issues Encountered and Solutions

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       This appendix provides a summary of issues that were encountered during this test
program and a description of how each of those issues were addressed.

       HEM Data OBD Mini Loggers were provided by EPA in order to collect vehicle OBDII
data during the test program. However, several problems occurred during the study which
prevented the successful collection of OBDII data for some of the tests.  The original data
loggers used in the study had a spring load mechanism which accepted a micro SD card to record
data. When the recorder was installed in the vehicle, occasionally the technician would push on
the micro SD card, accidentally ejecting the card and thus preventing data acquisition. An
alternative data logger which used a friction mechanism to  retain the micro SD card was
provided by EPA at the midpoint of the study. However, this new data logger had a different pin
arrangement and would only work on the newer vehicles in the study (the Corolla and Focus).
An additional difficulty observed was that only the newer vehicles broadcast the commanded
evaporative purge. Because of these reasons, OBDII purge  data is only available for a limited
number of tests.  However, fuel system vapor vacuum, which is correlated to fuel system purge,
is available for all tests conducted during the study.

       During preliminary testing on the Caravan, it was observed that there would be little or
no emissions during the first phase of the static test if the vehicle was introduced into the SHED
while fuel temperatures were greater than 95 F. The fuel and vapor were undergoing cooling
during this phase of testing, resulting in a reduction of pressure and causing SHED air to be
drawn into the fuel tank rather than to have  hydrocarbons expelled. This behavior was prevented
by adjusting procedures for all test vehicles so that the fuel  temperature was cooled to 93 F after
completing the hot soak and before beginning the static test.

       Several issues arose during testing of the Corolla in November and December, 2012.
During a no leak test, the orifice cap split, producing a leak condition. This test was voided and
another test was repeated after the cap was replaced. Then, a canister load line was left plugged
during a subsequent test, causing fuel vapors to off-gas through the fuel tank. This test was
voided and repeated.  On the subsequent repeat, the canister was in a saturated state and did not
perform in an expected manner. This test was also voided and repeated. Then, in December
2012, a retainer on a fuel line came loose and fuel was discharged into the interior of the vehicle.
That test was voided, and the vehicle was transported to an SGS facility in Jackson, MI. The
interior was first washed to remove as much of the fuel as possible. Then, over a four-day
                                          D-l

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process, the vehicle was heated to 130 F until a hydrocarbon detector was unable to detect any
residual hydrocarbons being emitted from the material of the vehicle. Afterwards, the vehicle
was returned to Ford APTL and the test was repeated.

       The high RVP fuel at the no leak setting caused the Focus to produce canister
breakthrough emissions as purge was not commensurate with vapor generation. The high RVP
fuel (10.0 psi) was greater than specification fuel for standard running loss testing (9.5 psi RVP)
and is thought to have contributed to this unexpected result.

       In December 2012, the wrong temperature profile was initially used when performing the
Chevrolet Silverado's no leak test using the high RVP (10.0 psi) fuel. This test was voided and
repeated.

       During the first test performed on the Caravan, an SGS  onsite technician observed that
the fuel vapor temperature was trending in the wrong direction, a sign that the thermocouple had
been incorrectly connected. The technician initially incorrectly swapped the liquid fuel
temperature thermocouple, resulting in a short spike in temperature exacerbated by Ford APTL
integration algorithms. However, the correct swap was made shortly thereafter.  Testing
continued and the results of the test were discussed with the EPA and accepted.

       In January 2013, a replicate test of the Focus was performed using the 0.040" leak
installed and the high RVP fuel to verify the continuous hydrocarbon measurement system that
would be used for the second half of testing. Focus replicate testing results measured
approximately half of the hydrocarbons measured during the original test performed in
December 2012. The fuel  was tested for RVP and demonstrated an 8.5 psi RVP, significantly
lower than the 10.0 RVP of the fuel used during the initial round of testing. It was discovered
that the incorrect fuel had been used for this replicate test. This test was voided and repeated
using the original  10.0 RVP fuel that was used in the original test. This successful, repeated test
showed good agreement with the original numbers and also good operation of the continuous
measurement system.

       In February 2013,  there was concern that the Focus was behaving anomalously as the fuel
vapor pressure seemed to change erratically. This behavior was a departure from what was
measured during the original round of testing during which the system would show periodic
vacuum during the first half of the test, and then begin building pressure in the system during the
                                          D-2

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second half of the test. This appeared to be proper system behavior in the Focus, resulting from a
purge valve that is open/shut and lacking a linear operation which could provide partially opened
states. This effect became more pronounced during the second half of testing when the fuel with
lower RVP was used. The lower RVP fuel produced lower vapor pressures which more clearly
revealed the opening and closing of the purge valve.

       During the second half of the test program (low RVP fuel testing), the Silverado
demonstrated a significant reduction in the amount of suction in the fuel vapor. This culminated
with a purge valve failure during testing on February 14, 2013. Initially, the purge valve
appeared to demonstrate a reduced operational range.  Then at the end of the first phase of
testing, the valve failed in a shut state, allowing vapor pressure to build and forcing
hydrocarbons through the induced leak. The valve then moved to a partially opened state towards
the end of the test. At this time, the cause for anomalous hydrocarbon emissions was still under
investigation, and the valve had not yet been diagnosed.  Another test was performed using the
failed purge valve. During this test, the valve began in a partially open state and remained there
until about halfway through testing. After this, the valve closed, allowing fuel vapors to be
emitted. The faulty valve was then diagnosed and replaced, and the two test sequences for which
the valve had failed (0.040" canister leak and 0.020" tank leak) were repeated.

       In March 2013, near the end of testing, Ford APTL Data Quality personnel determined
that their fuel vapor pressure transducer was connected in reverse, so that a negative pressure
(vacuum relative to atmospheric) resulted in a positive measurement. The vapor pressure
measurement system was also found to have a small zero bias of about 0.2 psi.  Ford reconnected
the transducer and recalibrated it eliminating the zero bias. Only one test (Sequence 8  on the
Chevrolet Silverado, 0.040" canister leak with low RVP) was performed after Ford APTL
personnel adjusted the pressure transducer. However, the adjustment did not seem to affect the
peak vacuum  measurement. The reported vacuum signal polarity was reversed on this final test
so all data are consistent in Appendix B. All Appendix B vacuum signals have been corrected
for any zero offset bias, and all vacuum signals are reported as positive pressure (reversed
polarity) to facilitate visual comparison with purge rates.

       Some  anomalies can be seen in the fuel vapor pressure plots for the Honda Accord  (high
and low RVP, 0.020" leak at tank, Appendix B.2.5) and the Dodge Caravan (high RVP, 0.040"
                                          D-3

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leak at canister, Appendix B.3.4). These pressure peaks appear to be data anomalies resulting
from instantaneous instrument dropout (possibly from a faulty connection) and not valid data.

       Continuous hydrocarbon measurements for vehicles with induced leaks demonstrate
sudden increases in the measured concentration of hydrocarbons on some tests. These include
data from the Honda Accord test with low RVP, 0.040" leak at canister (in Appendix B.2.4) and
also for the Dodge Caravan with low RVP, 0.040" leak at tank (in Appendix B.3.3).  This
appears to be valid data (not a data anomaly), as the relative vacuum drawn on the evaporative
system drops below zero (therefore building a positive pressure on the system) at these times and
expels hydrocarbons at the end of the test. Intermittent spikes can also be seen in the test data for
the Honda Accord.  Several vehicles also exhibited intermittent spikes in hydrocarbon emissions
due to purge behavior. In general, however, the cumulative hydrocarbon plots show that the total
hydrocarbon emissions appear to be more related to an elevation in the continuous emissions
rather than the transient hydrocarbon emission spikes due to purge behavior and the closing of
the purge valve on these tests (i.e., the spikes produce a small overall contribution to the
hydrocarbon emission totals).
                                          D-4

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       Appendix E
Induced Leak Configurations

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        This section provides images of the vehicles tested in this  program and documents how
the induced leaks were installed on each vehicle.  Images demonstrating the configuration of the
respective evaporative emission control systems are also provided.
E.1.1  Honda Accord
                            Figure E-1. Honda Accord VECI Sticker
             INFORMATION
               EMISSION
                                                                     TROLINFORMA
           THt FACTOR* INSTALLED LONG-LIFE
           COOLAIfl HUST BE REPLACED ACCORDING TC
           XA1KTEMIK HINDER SUB CODE 5, OR AT
           Ifl TEAK HHICHEVER COKES FIRST.
           THEREAFTER EVERT 5 EARS.
           * WOIG OR REPLACING THE COOLANT,
           AL*fS IKE fcwh KCOWEIIOED GENUINE
           LOK-LIFKNTl-FREEZE/COOLAliT WE 2
           nOSCOOLAKTISPRE-MXEDKIIHSK  '
           OIST1LLEL WT. IT WES HOT REQOIRE
THIS VEHICLE CONFORMS TO U.S. EPA TIEi
APPLICABLE TO 2007 MODEL YEAR NEW PASSENGER -
CALIFORNIA REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO 2007 MODI
LEV n LEV PASSENGER CARS.
          CATALYST
TWC. A/F SENSOR, H02S.  E6R  SF1
            KtS DILUTE THE COOLANT, OR THE LIFE
            W THE EK6IW *M BE SERIOUSLY
 U-VE LASH  IN:0.23O.OZ 	
 (COLD)    EX:0.300.02 rmr
NO OTHER ADJUSTMENTS NEEDED
             aunt MO WE COOLANT AT THE
                Hi. HOT THE RADIATOR
           >f FURTHW IHFWWTION on THE COOLIW
                     'HER'SHANUALOR
                   ~< Howia DtAI ER.
                                       HONDA MOTOR CO..LTD.
                                                  E-1

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Figure E-2. Honda Accord Side of Vehicle
Figure E-3. Honda Accord Side of Vehicle
                 E-2

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               Figure E-4. Honda Accord Canister Connections
           Figure E-5. Honda Accord Evaporative System Overview
                                                             FUEL TANK VAPOR CONTROL
                                                             VALVE
                                                     EVAPORATIVE EMISSION (EVAP) CANISTER
                                                    EVAPORATIVE EMISSION (EVAP)
                                                    CANISTER VENT SHUT VALVE
                                               EVAPORATIVE EMISSION (EVAP) BYPASS
                                               SOLENOID VALVE
EVAPORATIVE EMISSION (EVAP) TWO-WAY VALVE
                                    FUEL TANK PRESSURE SENSOR
                                       E-3

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Figure E-6. Honda Accord Under Vehicle Details of Evaporative System
             Figure E-7. Honda Accord Canister Details
                              E-4

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Figure E-8. Honda Accord Fuel Sending Unit
                  E-5

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Figure E-9. Honda Accord Fuel Sending Unit as Installed
                        E-6

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E.1.2  Dodge Caravan

                              Figure E-10. Dodge Caravan VECI Sticker
                         04877598AA&  CATALYST
                 VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION
                THIS VEHICLE CONFORMS TO U.S. EPA TIER 2 BIN 5 REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO
                GASOUNE FUELED 2007 MODEL YEAR NEW LIGHT DUTY TRUCKS AND MEETS U.S.
                EPA CLEAN FUEL FLEET VEHICLE REGULATIONS. CERTIFICATION GASOLINE FUEL
                PER 86.ll3-94(al.
                BASK IQNmON TIMING AMD IDLE FUEL /AIR MIXTURE HAVE
                8BM PRESET AT THE FACTORY, SEE THE SERVICE MANUAL
                PROPER PROCEDURES AND OTHER ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
                ADJUSTMENTS MADE BY OTHER THAN APPROVED SERVICE MANUAL
                PROCSRHKS MAY VIOIA1E FEDCRAL AND STATE LAWS-
         DaimlerChrysler ALTTHOBIZED MODIFICATIONS
                  TH FOLLOWING MODIFICATIONS HAVE BEEN MADE:
                                                         E-7

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Figure E-11. Dodge Caravan Side of Vehicle
Figure E-12. Dodge Caravan Side of Vehicle
                  E-8

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              Figure E-13. Dodge Caravan Canister Connections
         Figure E-14. Dodge Caravan Evaporative System Overview
                               Fig. 9 ORVR System Schematic
t - FUEL TANK (PLASTIC)
2 - FUEL FILLER TUBE
3 - FUEL CAP (PRESSURE'RELIEF)
  FiLL TUBE TO FUEL TANK CONNECTOR (ELASTOMERICl
  TANK VENT/ROLLOVER VALVE(S)
  VAPOR RECIRCULATION LINE
  TANK VAPOR LINE
  VAPOR LINE TO CANISTER
  CHECK VALVE (NIC)
10 - CONTROL VALVE
11  NATURAL VACUUM LEAD DETECTION (NVLD)
12 - LIQUID SEPARATOR (IF EQUIPPED*
n - ENG8NE WIRING HARNESS TO NVLD
14 - VAPOR CANISTER
15 - PURGE LINE
IS - PURGE DEVICE
17 - WITHOUT NVLD
18 - BREATHER ELEMENT
19 - FLOW CONTROL ORIFICE
20 - SERVICE PORT
2t - WITH NVLD
                                          E-9

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Figure E-15. Dodge Caravan Detail Shows (1) the Canister, and (2) the Vent

 Figure E-16. Dodge Caravan Under Vehicle Details of Evaporative System
                               E-10

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Figure E-17. Dodge Caravan Canister Details
                                 T3 CARAVANl
                  E-ll

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Figure E-18. Dodge Caravan Fuel Sending Unit
                   E-12

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Figure E-19. Dodge Caravan Fuel Sending Unit as Installed
                        E-13

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E.1.3 Toyota Corolla
              cwmjMRMF
      APPLICABLE
      nLLVra^r
      CATALYST
      USA&CANADA
               E-14

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Figure E-21. Toyota Corolla Side of Vehicle
Figure E-22. Toyota Corolla Side of Vehicle
                  E-15

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Figure E-23. Toyota Corolla Canister Connections
                     E-16

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       Figure E-24. Toyota Corolla Evaporative System Overview
                                                FUEL PUMP
                                                           CANISTER
Figure E-25. Toyota Corolla Under Vehicle Details of Evaporative System
                               E-17

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Figure E-26. Toyota Corolla Canister Details

                   E-18

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Figure E-27. Toyota Corolla Fuel Sending Unit
                   E-19

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Figure E-28. Toyota Corolla Fuel Sending Unit as Installed
                         E-20

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E.1.4 Ford Focus
             Figure E-29. Ford Focus VECI Label
                 Ford Motor Company
               VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION
  Conforms to regulations: 2010 MY
  U.S. EPA-.T2B3LDV
  OBD: CA II        Fuel: Gasoline
   California: SULEV II PZEV PC, CA HSC 39037.05 Low
   Emission Motor Vehicle  OBD: CA fl Fuel: Gasoline
    TWC/HQ2S/EGR/SFI  I No adjustments needed.
   2.0L-Group: AFMXV02.0VZX
   Evap: AFMXR0110GCX
    ~7AW7E-9C485-T F Y
                      E-21

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Figure E-30. Ford Focus Side of Vehicle
Figure E-31. Ford Focus Side of Vehicle
                E-22

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    Figure E-32. Ford Focus Canister Connections
Figure E-33. Ford Focus Evaporative System Overview
                      E-23

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Figure E-34. Ford Focus Evaporative System Detail; (Orange) Filler Neck, (Red)
         Canister Load, (Green) Canister Purge, (Blue) Canister Vent
    Figure E-35. Ford Focus Under Vehicle Details of Evaporative System
                                  E-24

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Figure E-36. Ford Focus Fuel Sending Unit
                 E-25

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Figure E-37. Ford Focus Fuel Sending Unit as Installed
                       E-26

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E.1.5  Chevrolet Silverado


                       Figure E-38. Chevrolet Silverado VECI Label
                        2006 MODEL YEAR

                VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL
                        INFORMATION
                  GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION
CATALYST
             NO ADJUSTMENTS NEEDED. SEE SERVICE MANUAL OR

             OWNERS MANUAL FOR MORE INFORMATION.
           FHIS I/EHICU CONFORMS TO U.S. EPA REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO NEW LIGHT -DUTY
           fRUCKS THIS VEHICLE CONFORMS TO FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND IS CERTIFIED FOR
           iflLE IN CALIFORNIA. AND QUALIFIES AS A SULEVt THIS VEHICLE IS CERTIFIED TO THE
           :LEAN FUEL FLEET LEV STANDARDS WHEN OPERATED ON GASOLINE AND MEETS ALL THE
           tPPUCABLE REQUIREMENTS OF 40 CFR PART 98. OBO II CERTIFIED.
                                               E-27

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Figure E-39. Chevrolet Silverado Side of Vehicle
Figure E-40. Chevrolet Silverado Side of Vehicle
                     E-28

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Figure E-41. Chevrolet Silverado Canister Connections (Vent and Leaks)
                            TANK  'APOF
                	        ii
                T3 SILVERADO
                            ^
                         E-29

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  Figure E-42. Chevrolet Silverado Canister Connections (Load)
   REMOVE
HEADeO LOAD LINE ON DASH BOARD
 Figure E-43. Chevrolet Silverado Evaporative System Overview
                            E-30

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Figure E-44. Chevrolet Silverado Under Vehicle Details of Evaporative System
                                          T. .,	ULSJLVERADO
                                          TANK CAPACITY  o GALL0.
              Figure E-45. Chevrolet Silverado Canister Details
                                    E-31

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Figure E-46. Chevrolet Silverado Fuel Sending Unit
                     E-32

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Figure E-47. Chevrolet Silverado Fuel Sending Unit as Installed
                           E-33

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Figure E-48. Chevrolet Silverado Purge Solenoid (Red)
Figure E-49. Chevrolet Silverado Purge Solenoid Detail
                       E-34

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