Transport Partnership
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Truck Carrier Partner 2.O.I4Tool:
Technical Documentation   8^,
2OI4 Data Year - United States Version
SEPA
Unilc-d Stales
Environment*!

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Transport Partnership
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Truck Carrier Partner 2.O.I4Tool:
Technical Documentation
2OI4 Data Year - United States Version
Transportation and Climate Division
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
         :ŦJ Stales                   Office ofTransportation and Air Quality
             PnotBdion                       EPA-420-B-15-002
                                          ,    „„._
                                          January 2015

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SmartWay  2.0.14
Truck Tool Technical Documentation
United States  Version
1-7-2015
1.0   Overview

This document provides detailed background information on the data sources,
calculation methods, and assumptions used within the SmartWay Truck Tool, version
2.0.14. The SmartWay Truck Tool utilizes the most up-to-date emission factors, in
combination with detailed vehicle activity data, to estimate emissions and associated
performance metrics. The primary purpose of the Tool is to help fleets calculate actual
pollutant emissions for specific truck types and applications and track their emissions
performance over time. Shippers can, in turn, use the data that truck carriers report
using these Tools to develop more advanced emissions inventories associated with
their freight activity and to track their emissions performance over time.

The Tool allows the user to evaluate fleet performance in terms of different mass-based
performance metrics for C02, NOx, and  PM (PM10 and PM25), including:1

      •     Grams per mile
      •     Grams per average payload ton-mile
      •     Grams per thousand cubic foot-miles
      •     Grams per thousand utilized cubic foot-miles

The Tool can also generate estimates of emissions associated with the total miles,
loaded miles, and revenue miles traveled by a fleet. Fleet performance can then be
assessed at the truck-class and/or fuel-type level, or on an aggregated basis across all
classes and fuels.

The Tool also collects extensive information on fleet operations and truck body types,
allowing detailed segmentation of Partner fleets for more appropriate, equitable
comparisons.  For example,  fleets that cube-out with low payloads  (e.g., those hauling
potato chips) will be able to compare themselves to similar fleets on a simple grams per
mile basis, rather than a mix of fleets that includes fleets that routinely weigh-out.
Similarly, fleets that operate in primarily  short-haul, urban environments at relatively low
average speeds will have fundamentally different emission rates and constraints than
1 At this time the Truck Tool does not calculate performance metrics for specialty fleets that track their activity in
terms of hours of use rather than miles traveled or freight hauled (e.g., refuse haulers and utility fleets). Future
modifications may be made to the current Tool to accommodate such fleets.

                                     1

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long-haul fleets operating at highway speeds.  By collecting detailed information on fleet
operations (short vs. long, TL vs. LTL, urban vs. highway, etc), as well as truck class
(2b through 8b) and body type (dry van, reefer, flatbeds, etc.), individual fleets can
compare their performance to other, similar fleets, which can help them to better
manage their emissions performance.

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2.0   Data Inputs and Sources

The SmartWay Truck Tool user provides most vehicle characteristic, operational, and
activity data needed for emissions performance estimation (see Section 3 for more
information). The Tool calculates emissions by multiplying fleet activity data with EPA-
approved emission rate factors that are stored in look-up tables within the Tool.

The Tool contains different types of emission rate factors for different pollutants.  C02
factors are expressed in grams of C02 per gallon of fuel.23 NOx and PM factors are
expressed in grams of pollutant per mile traveled for operating emissions, and in grams
per hour ior idle emissions.  In general, C02 factors are independent of the truck types,
classes, and operational practices in a fleet.  NOx and  PM factors, however, vary
depending upon a number of parameters, including:

      •      Truck class
      •      Engine model year/emission certification  standard
      •      Vehicle speed
      •      Vehicle driving pattern (referred to as "drive  cycle")

In addition, PM emissions will also vary with the application of PM control  retrofits,
including diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), closed crankcase ventilation (CCV), and
diesel particulate filters  ("PM traps" or flow-through filters). In the Tool, PM control
retrofits are assumed to have the same impact on operating and idle emission factors.4

2.1    CO2 Factors
EPA populated the SmartWay Truck Tool with C02 factors that are based  on fuel
consumption.  These factors and their sources and are summarized below in Table 1.
 At this time other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and black carbon are not included
in the current Truck Tool.
3 The Truck Tool also estimates emissions associated with battery-electric trucks. In this case pollutant emissions
(CO2, NOx and PM) are determined based on the kWhrs used for charging.
4 Future versions of the Tool may account for differences in retrofit effectiveness for running versus idle emissions.

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                            Table 1. CO2 Factors by Fuel Type*

Gasoline
Diesel
Biodiesel (B100)
Ethanol (E100)
CNG
LNG
LPG
g/gal
8,887
10,180
9,460
5,764
7,030
4,394
5,790
Source5
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
                      * 100% combustion (oxidation) assumed

Note that the Tool calculates tailpipe emissions from biofuel blends (gasoline/ethanol,
diesel/biodiesel) by applying separate emission factors to the user-specified volume of
each blend component.  The Tool then  adds the emissions from each blend component
together to determine total C02 emissions.  Therefore emission factors for specific blend
ratios are not needed for C02.6

Within the Tool, users may provide their CNG fuel use estimates in terms of gasoline-
equivalent gallons (on a Btu basis),  or in standard cubic feet (scf).  If CNG consumption
is expressed in scf,  the  Tool applies a fuel factor expressed in grams per scf (57.8),
based on 983 Btu/scf and 58,819 g  C02/mmBtu.7
5 i) Final Rule on Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy
Standards (75 FR 25324, May 7, 2010). The gasoline factor used in this rule was sourced from the California Air
Resources Board and is based on measurement of carbon from a gasoline test fuel (indolene).
 ii) Fuel economy calculations in 40 C.F.R 600.113 available at
http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2004/julqtr/pdf/40cfr600.113-93.pdf.
 iii) Tables IV.A.3-2 and 3-3 in A Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions, available at
http://www.epa.gov/oms/models/analvsis/biodsl/p02001.pdf
iv) Final Rule on Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (70 FR 56260, October 30, 2009). Full source
documentation is available on pp. 31-32 in the Technical Support Document, Petroleum Products and Natural Gas
Liquids: Definitions, Emission Factors, Methods and Assumptions, available at
www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads09/documents/SubpartMMProductDefinitions.pdf.
v)  Calculations of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the 2005 Gasoline and Diesel Baselines in the Notice of
Availability of Expert Peer Review Record supporting the proposed revisions to the Renewable Fuel Standard
Program (74 FR 41359) available in Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2005-0161-0925.1 (Spreadsheet "Emission Factors").
vi) Assuming 74,720 Btu/gal lower heating value (http://www.afdc.energv.gov/afdc/fuels/properties.html). and
0.059 g/Btu (from CNG calculation, source v).
 vii) Table C-l in the Final Rule on Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (70 FR 56260, October 30, 2009).
Full source documentation is available in Table A-39 and pg. A-60 of the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas
Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2007 available at
http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/do wnloads/US_GHG_Inv_Annexes_1990-2007.pdf
6 The Tool also estimates the barrels of petroleum required to make the reported gallons of diesel and gasoline based
on national averages: 19 gallons of gasoline and 10 gallons of diesel assumed per barrel of petroleum-see
http://205.254.135.24/tools/faas/faa.cfm?id=24&t=10 and http://205.254.135.24/tools/faas/faa.cfm?id=327&t=9.
7
  See footnote 4. v.

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2.2   NOx and PM Factors
The SmartWay Truck Tool contains NOx, PM10 and PM25 emission factor outputs for on-
road operation from EPA's MOVES2014 model for gasoline, diesel, and E10 for all
heavy truck classes (2b - 8b) under national default temperature and fuel conditions, for
model years 1985 through 2015, for the 2015 calendar year (see Appendix A for a full
list of factors). The emission factors are broken out by general drive cycle type (urban
or highway), and average speed range, as discussed below.

Short-duration (less than 15 minutes) idle emission factors for NOx and PM were
developed separately by model year,  truck class,  and fuel type (diesel and gasoline).
MOVES2014 does not  currently provide short duration idle factors in terms of grams per
hour,  so MOVES2014 was run using the Project Level scale with a single link and with
an average speed of zero.  Runs were performed for typical winter and summer
conditions, taking the average of outputs from those runs to obtain g/hr factors.

MOVES2014 does provide emission factors for long-duration idle for long-haul diesel
trucks. These factors are applied separately to the long-duration idle hour estimates
provided for Class 8b trucks within the Truck Tool.8 Short-duration factors are applied
across the board for the remaining truck class types.

Note that hybrid electric trucks are assumed to have no short-duration idle emissions
(due to assumed engine auto-shut off), although long-duration idle (and regular
exhaust9) emissions are assumed unchanged relative to their conventional vehicle
counterparts. Finally, battery-electric trucks are assumed to have no idle emissions.

The resulting idle factors are presented in Appendix B.

Version 2.0.14 of the Truck Tool also calculates the NOx and PM emissions associated
with use of transportation refrigeration (reefer) units. EPA's NONROAD2008a
emissions model was used to develop emission rates for these units for the 2014
calendar year, following these steps:

   •  Three A/C refrigeration (reefer) unit standard classification codes (SCCs) were
      identified within the NONROAD model - 2265003060 (gasoline); 2268003060
      (CNG); and 2270003060 (diesel);
   •  A national average model run was performed for these three fuel types for 2014;
   •  Tons  per year outputs were converted to grams per year for each horsepower
      (hp) bin grouping, for each fuel type, for NOx, PM10 and PM25;
   •  Grams/gallon factors were calculated for each hp bin by dividing grams/year by
      gallons/year, for each fuel type, for NOx, PM10 and PM25;
8 NOx factors for long-term extended idling are higher than short-duration factors (at least for late model engines),
since engine operation temperatures and loads at idle are generally not high enough to activate late-model emission
controls such as SCR and EGR.
9 While there is evidence that NOx emissions may be decreased through the use of hybrid electric technology, EPA
has not performed emission testing to assess this effect. Therefore hybrid NOx and PM exhaust emission rates are
assumed to equal conventional vehicle equivalents in the current Truck Tool.

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   •  Weighting factors were applied to the gram per gallon factors for each hp bin.
      These weighting factors reflected relative emission impacts across the different
      hp bins, accounting for differences in equipment population, hours of use, and
      engine load factors.  For a given hp bin, the weighting factor is expressed as:

            weighting factor = pop x avg hp x hrs/year x engine load factor

   •  Weighted g/gal factors were summed across hp bins for each fuel type and
      pollutant to obtain the final, national fleet-average fuel factors for reefers.

Table 2 provides the NOx and PM fuel factors used in the latest Truck Tool.

            Table 2. Weighted Average Reefer Fuel  Factors (g/gallon)
Fuel
Diesel
Gasoline
CNG
NOx
62.026
16.369
17.732
PM10
4.044
1.010
0.790
PM2.5
3.922
0.929
0.790
The next section describes the process followed to select the on-road emission factors
from MOVES2014 for use in the Truck Tool. Emission factors in grams per mile were
developed for gasoline, E10, and diesel fuel types for all MOVES source types that
correspond to MOBILES heavy duty vehicle classes, 2b-8b inclusive. The MOVES
source types modeled are shown in the table below. Of these, school buses, refuse
trucks and motor homes represent only a small fraction of total activity.

      Table 3. MOVES Source Types Associated with Class 2b - 8b Vehicles
Source Type ID
31
32
43
51
52
53
54
61
62
Source Type Name
Passenger Truck
Light Commercial Truck
School Bus
Refuse Truck
Single Unit Short-haul Truck
Single Unit Long-haul Truck
Motor Home
Combination Short-haul Truck
Combination Long-haul Truck
Separate factors were developed for "Urban" and "Highway/Rural" roadway types.
These factors were apportioned according to MOVES operating mode groups, which
correspond to speed ranges of 0-25 mph, 25-50 mph, and 50+ mph.

Emission factors calculated by the model, output by MOVES source type, were then
converted to a MOBILES vehicle class basis. In this way, the Truck Tool can select
appropriate emission factors for use by:

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   •  weight class
   •  model year
   •  road type (urban vs. highway/rural)
   •  speed distribution

The following describes the methodology for the emission factor calculation.

Calculation of MOVES emission factors by operating mode

In calculating emission factors, the primary goal is to disaggregate factors by the
percentage of time a given type of vehicle spends operating at certain speeds. The
ranges of speeds analyzed include 0-25 mph, 25-50 mph, and greater than 50 mph.
These speed ranges correspond to MOVES operating modes #11-16, 21-29, and 30-40
inclusive, where each operating mode is defined by both the speed of the vehicle and its
vehicle specific power (VSP). First, for a given source type and model year, the fraction
of emissions attributable to each range of speed was determined. Emissions  for a
vehicle can be expressed  in Equation 1:

Equation 1


Where:

E' =     unconnected10 mass emissions calculated based on operating mode and
        emissions contribution by speed bin
A13 =    the sum of activity fractions  (in seconds) over speed range n. (A, and AB
        represent the activity associated with the individual operating modes for idling
        and braking, respectively.)
E13' =   the weighted average emissions over a given speed range n. (E, and EB
        represent the emissions associated with the individual operating modes for
        idling and braking, respectively.)

The following figure shows a range of emissions and activity fractions for an example
source type and model year. The operating mode (or VSP bin) are shown on the x-axis.
The dashed red line presents the fraction of vehicle activity associated with a given
operating mode, while the black circles present average HC emissions for each
operating mode.
10 Subsequent adjustment factors are presented in Equation 3 below.

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     Figure 1. Example Emissions and Activity Fractions by Operating Mode
0.0028 -
0.0027-
0.0026
0.0025-
0.0024
0.0023-
0.0022
0.0021
0.0020-
0.0019-
0.0018
0.0017-
0.0016
0.0015-
0.0014
0.0013
0.0012-
0.0011 -
0.0010 J
0.0009 :
0.0008
0.0007-
0.0006:
D.0005
0.0004
0.0003-
0.0002 J
aoooi
0.0000
c




1,
1 \
1 \
1 \
1 \

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1
1
i
i
1
j


3 O
<25
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A
t / \
V \
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25 - 50 mph

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000° ^-== ^
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1 \
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/ 1
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/ \ O
/ I
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/ \
/ ° \
/ \
/ 0 \
O ^-^
o
               11  12  13  14 15  16 21  22 23  24 25  27

                                   VSP Bin

                                PLOT2       hc_n

                                PLOT  ooo demean
                                                29 30  33 35  37 38  39 40
                                                                      v
                                                                      CL
                                                                      O
                                                                      y
                                                                      JZ
                                                                      
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the range weighted by the activity in that range, the weighted average emissions can be
calculated from the 0-25 mph speed bin, E/, as follows in Equation 2:

Equation 2
             p '  RUTU +RUTU + R13T13 + R\4T\4 + R15T15 + R\6T\6
             Ei=	r6	
Where:

Rn =  The activity fraction for operating mode n, obtained from the "opmodedist2" table
Tn =  The emissions for operating mode n.

Other speed bins will use different operating modes in their calculations; the equation
above is merely an example illustrating the calculation method for the first speed bin.
Having calculated an appropriate En' for each speed range for a given source type and
model year, Equation 1  can be used, along with the appropriate activity fraction, to
arrive at a total uncorrected emissions value. In and of itself, this emission factor has
little value in estimating emissions. However, it can be used along with the modeled
emission factor for a particular source type and model year to arrive at an overall
adjustment factor, as shown in Equation  3:

Equation 3

                                      "E7

Where:

E =   The modeled emission, obtained from MOVES outputs, for an individual source
      type and model year
E'=   The uncorrected  emissions for an individual source type and model year,
      calculated using  operating mode distributions and emission factors from the
      "emissionratebyage" table

This overall adjustment factor, in turn, can be applied to each individual emissions
component, En', as shown in Equation 4:

Equation 4
                                   En = ZE;

The adjusted emissions, En, are subsequently used to calculate a total, corrected
emission factor for a given  source type and model year combination, as described by
Equation 5:

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Equation 5
                       E = A^ + A2E2 + A3E3 + A,E, + ABEB

In this way, a representative emission factor is calculated by operating mode/speed
group. This will allow the Truck Tool to adjust the default operating mode percentages
(An) to more accurately represent a user-provided speed profile for the vehicles they are
evaluating.  Default operating mode percentages may also be used, as calculated
above.

Conversion of Emission Factors from Source Type to Weight Class Basis

Ultimately, emission factor  lookup tables are required for use in the Truck Tool by
weight class, fuel type, and model year. However, modeled output from MOVES is
aggregated by source type. Therefore a post-processing Tool was developed to convert
vehicle emission factors from source types to weight class based on internal MOVES
tables. The conversion methodology used in this Tool is described below.

First, the adjusted emissions and activity output from MOVES are combined, by
pollutantID, by joining the "movesoutput" and "movesactivityoutput" tables by calendar
year, source type, fuel type and model year. The sourcetype and model year for each
record are combined in a new  field, sourcetypemodelyearlD.

Next, the emissions  and activity output from the first step are combined with the
MOVES "sizeweightfraction" table by joining on the sourcetypemodelyearlD. The
"sizeweightfraction" table contains, for a given combination of source type and model
year, the fraction of vehicles apportioned across weightclasslD. Given the
weightclassID, the portion of emissions and activity attributable to a given range of
vehicle weights  is determined,  and subsequently, those weights (along with fuel type)
are mapped back to MOBILES vehicle classes, which are based on GVWR. (This  is
achieved with a separate lookup table, "MSVehType", which is derived from Appendix B,
Table 3 of the EPA's MOBILE6.2 User's Guide.) For each calendar year,
sourcetypemodelyearlD and pollutantID, the sizeweightfraction is multiplied by the
emissions (in grams) and activity (in miles) to obtain EmissionFrac and ActivityFrac,
respectively.

Finally, the EmissionFrac and  ActivityFrac calculated above are summed by yearlD,
pollutantID, fueltypelD, and MOBILES vehicle type (e.g., HDDVSb). This provides  total
emissions and activity independent of the MOVES source type or vehicle model year.
Finally, the aggregated emissions are divided by the activity to arrive at g/mi emission
factors, presented in Appendix A.

Modeling E10 Emission Rates

In a MOVES run that uses  nationwide defaults for fuel supply, the model  includes
dozens of fuel formulations on a by-fuel region basis in its calculations. In addition to
                                       10

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diesel fuels, many counties in the model defaults are characterized by varying market
shares of and E10 and E15 (usually about 97.5% and 2.5%, respectively

In order to isolate Gasoline emission factors, the new Fuels Wizard included in
MOVES2014 was used to alter the ethanol percentage of fuels nationwide to zero.
Thus, separate E10 and gasoline MOVES runs were then performed using the newly
updated information.

Sensitivity Analysis Results

The relative emissions impact of different speed regimes were evaluated for four road
types - urban arterial, urban freeway, rural arterial, and rural freeway. To simplify the
sensitivity analysis, MOVES outputs were generated for diesel long-haul combination
trucks, model year 2012, run for the 2015 calendar year,  using national average
defaults (e.g., fuel specifications, temperatures,  etc). The results of the  analysis are
shown for NOx and PM25 below.

           Figure 2. Default NOx Emission Contribution by Speed  Bin

1 R -
1 fi -
•\ A _


^ 1 -
D)
n R
n R -
n A
n o
0 -
Default NOx Contribution by Speed Bin















1

Urban Art



	



















• IDLE
DBRAK
D5070
•2550
D0025

Urban Frwy Rural Art Rural Frwy
Road type
                                      11

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            Figure 3. Default PM25 Emission Contribution by Speed Bin
0.02 -
0.016 -
n fTM
n 019
1 0.01 -
D)
0.006 -
n r\r\A

0 -
Default PM2.5 Contribution by Speed Bin











•



I











1







	















• IDLE
DBRAK
D5070
• 2550
• 0025

Urban Art Urban Frwy Rural Art Rural Frwy
Road type
As shown in the above charts, the emissions for urban freeways, rural arterials, and
rural freeways are all heavily dominated by high speed (50 - 70 mph) operation.11 In
addition, actual emission levels are relatively insensitive to road type across these three
types.  However, speed distribution appears to have a significant bearing on emissions
for urban arterial operation.  Accordingly, the recommendation for Truck Tool application
was to develop fully disaggregated emission factor look up tables (retaining all four road
types), and then weight urban freeway, rural arterial, and rural freeway road type
operations in order to aggregate emission lookup tables within the SmartWay Tool to
reflect "urban" (i.e., urban arterial) and "other" road types.  In addition, under this
approach users can choose default speed distributions for these selections, or specify
the percent of operation by major speed range (0 - 25, 25 - 50, 50 - 70).  Given the
relative insensitivity to speed for the "other" category,  specifying speed distributions
would only be permitted for urban arterial operation.

Under this approach, the user is given the follow input options:

   •  Specify % Highway/Rural ("other") operation fraction
   •  Specify % urban operation distribution by speed bin, or select "default speed
      distribution"
11 This finding is consistent with the 2008 SmartWay Partner data submissions, wherein 87% of Partners selected
the 50+ mph category as the most representative of their non-urban operations.

                                        12

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Data entry is handled through the addition of a popup screen for non-default data entry
(see the Truck Tool User Guides for details).

2.3    Alternative Fuels
NOx and PM emission factors are not available from MOVES2014 for certain alternative
fuels, including biodiesel, E85, natural gas, and LPG. Accordingly, EPA used
adjustment factors from a number of sources described below to estimate NOx and PM
factors for these other fuels.

NOx and PM emission factors for biodiesel were based on the findings from an EPA
study, A Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions (EPA420-
P-02-001, October 2002). This study developed regression equations to predict the
percentage change in NOx and PM emission rates relative to conventional diesel fuel,
as a function of biodiesel blend percentage, expressed in the following form:

Equation 6

         % change in emissions = {exp[a x (vol% biodiesel)] -1} x 100%

Where:

a = 0.0009794 for NOx, and
a = -0.006384  for PM

Using Equation 6, adjustment factors were developed for biodiesel blends based on the
percentage of the biofuel component,12 and then these adjustment factors were applied
to the appropriate conventional diesel emission factors in Appendix A (see Section 2.2
for the sources of conventional diesel emission factors).  Note that the fleet-average
blend value is assumed to be the same for all truck classes, since the biofuel
consumption data is not collected at the truck class level. (This assumption holds for
ethanol consumption data inputs as well.)

For gasoline-ethanol blends, the SmartWay Truck Tool only accepts fuel consumption
estimates for E10 and E85 since, unlike biodiesel where the biofuel fraction can vary
significantly, ethanol is generally blended with gasoline at two discrete levels: 10%
(E10) and 85% (E85). As discussed in Section 2.2 above, NOx and PM factors for E10
were output directly from MOVES2014. Given the lack of heavy-duty E85 test data,
adjustment factors for E85 were based on emissions estimates for light-duty vehicles
cited by the US DOE Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center.13  These
estimates come from a technical paper published in the Journal of Air & Waste
Management.14 Relative to conventional gas vehicles, the authors of this paper estimate
that vehicles running  on E85 provide an average NOx reduction of 54% (based on 73
12 Biodiesel blend percentage is calculated by dividing B 100-equivalent gallons by total fuel gallons at the fleet level
- see the Track Tool User Guides for details regarding biodiesel use inputs.
13 See http://www.afdc.energv.gov/afdc/vehicles/emissions e85.html. last validated December 22, 2011.
14 http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/pdfs/tec hnical_paper_feb09.pdf

                                       13

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vehicle tests), and an average PM reduction of 34% (based on 3 vehicle tests). These
adjustment factors are applied to the appropriate gasoline engine emission factors in
Appendix A to develop emission factors for E85.

If the consumption level of E10 is unknown, the Truck Tool user may also specify
national average default blend levels for ethanol. National totals for gasoline use for
2012 were obtained from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy
Outlook Reference Case for 2013, Table 37 (Transportation  Sector Energy Use by Fuel
Type within  a Mode).  Summing the energy use values for light-duty gasoline vehicles,
commercial  light trucks, and freight trucks from the table yields an estimate of 16,040
TBtu (15,315 + 336 + 389) for 2012. National fuel ethanol consumption estimates for
2012 were also obtained from the EIA, totaling 1,064 TBtu (see Table 10.3,
consumption minus denaturant in
http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/pdf/sec10_7.pdf). Assuming 114,100
Btu/gallon of gasoline, and 76,100 Btu/gallon of E100,15 ethanol is estimated to
constitute 9.05% of gasoline fuel consumption in the U.S., on a  volumetric basis.16

Emission  adjustment factors were used for gaseous fuels (LPG, CNG and LNG) that
were cited by the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, Table 2:
NREL/UVW Field Tests of Natural Gas Vehicle Emissions.17.  These factors were
developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab and University of West Virginia
based on  field studies on natural gas vehicles.  For this assessment,  it was assumed
that CNG and LNG emissions were identical.  In addition, it was also assumed LPG
vehicle emissions would be equal to natural gas vehicle emissions.18  To be
conservative, the smallest emission reduction estimates were selected from Table 2
(86% for PM and 17% for NOx) relative to comparable diesel vehicles.  These
adjustment factors are then applied to the diesel emission factors in Appendix A for to
develop emission factors for these fuels.

The same adjustment factors are applied for all model years in the Truck Tool because
model year-specific emissions data do not appear to be available at this time. Note,
however,  that the emissions from the combustion of alternative  fuels may be different
for older trucks (with minimal emission controls) and newer trucks (with extensive
control systems in place) due to vehicle emission standards.

Emission  estimates for battery-electric trucks are based on national average electric
generation mix profiles from USDOE's GREET model, as described in Appendix C.
15 https://www.afdc.energv.gov/afdc/prep/popups/gges.htrnl last verified 12-22-11.
1616,040 TBtu gasoline x 1012 Btu/TBtu /114,100 Btu/gal= 1.41 x 1011 gallons of gasoline;
1,064 TBtu E100 x 1012 Btu/TBtu / 76,100 Btu/gal = 0.140 x 1011 gallons of E100;
0.1407(1.41+0.140) = 9.05%.
Note this methodology disregards the relatively small volumes of ethanol consumed as E85.
17 http://www.afdc.energv.gov/afdc/vehicles/emissions  natural  gas.html. last validated 12-22-11.
18 The PM and NOx estimates cited by this source for LPG vehicles were actually slightly lower than for natural gas
vehicles - http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/veMcles/emissionsjropane.html. However, based on engineering
judgment it was assumed that LPG PM and NOx emissions would be similar to comparable CNG vehicles.

                                        14

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2.4    PM Control Effectiveness
The Truck Tool applies adjustment factors to the PM emission factors in Appendix A
and B for any pre-2007 diesel truck for which Partners have installed a specific retrofit
control device. The following adjustment factors were obtained from EPA OTAQ
(presented as a % reduction in emissions; see Section 3.2 below for details):

      •     Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) - 25%
      •     Closed crankcase ventilation (CCV) - 5%
      •     Diesel particulate filter (DPF) - 90%

The Tool applies these adjustment factors to pre-2007 PM operating and idle emission
estimates. The Tool also allows for situations where CCVs are applied in combination
with either DOCs or DPFs.  In such a case, the reduction effectiveness is calculated
additively. For example, if pre-control operating emissions were 1.0 g/mile for a diesel
truck, and a CCV and DOC were applied, the resulting emission rate would be:

Equation 7

1.0 x [1 - (0.25 + 0.05)] = 0.07 g/mile, post-control

However, the Truck Tool assumes that DOC and DPF application are mutually
exclusive.
                                       15

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3.0   Emission and Activity Estimation

The emission rates and adjustment factors discussed above are combined with
appropriate activity data (provided  by the Partners) to calculate mass emissions at the
fleet and/or partner level for C02, NOx and PM, as described below.

3.1    CO2
C02 is calculated within the Truck Tool utilizing emission factors expressed in grams per
gallon of fuel, (with the exception of battery-electric trucks), as discussed in Section 2.1
above. The general equation for calculating C02 emissions using reported fuel
consumption values is

Equation  8

      Ec02 = ((F-B)xEFF) + (BxEFB)

      Where:
            E002 = grams  CO2 per year
            F = Fossil Fuel (Gallons per year)
            B = Biofuel (Gallons per year)
            EFF = Fossil Fuel Emissions Factor (g/gal based on fuel type)
            EFB = Biofuel Emissions Factor (g/gal based on biofuel type)

Emissions for all pollutants for battery electric trucks are calculated by multiplying the
reported kWhrs used for charging by the associated g/kWhr factor (see Appendix C).

In most instances reefer fuel is aggregated with vehicle  fuel inputs in the Truck Tool,
with the reefer fuel type assumed to be the same as the vehicle fuel type.  However,
reefer units associated with LPG and electric trucks are assumed to use diesel fuel (by
far the most common type of reefer engine). Accordingly, any reefer fuel use reported
for LPG and electric trucks is included in the total C02 calculation using the diesel fuel
factors in Equation 8.

Fuel Allocator
The Truck Carrier Tool asks users  to enter Gallons of Diesel  Used by truck class in
order to estimate C02 emissions. This information may be entered directly if available.
However,  if the user does not have this information but does  know total fuel use and
MPG  by truck class, the Truck Tool's Fuel Allocator can be used to apportion fuel use
across truck classes.

In the Fuel Allocator, the user enters total fuel consumption  and truck class MPG
estimates. The allocator then calculates the fuel used for each class based on the total
fuel and class MPG. If the total fuel calculated matches  the total fuel entered to within
2%, the allocator indicates a "Match". However, instead of writing the  exact calculated
value seen in the Fuel Allocator to  the Activity screen, the Tool adjusts the class fuel

                                       16

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amounts (and therefore MPG) so the sum matches the Total Fuel entered exactly, and
then writes these values on the Activity screen. That means, the MPG entered into the
Fuel Allocator, and the calculated fuel used seen on the  Fuel Allocator, are not
necessarily equal to the MPG and the fuel used that is written to the Activity Screen.

If the user re-opens the Fuel Allocator at this point, the Allocator brings in the MPGs
listed on the Activity Screen, NOT the MPGs the user input into the calculator the first
time (although it doesn't overwrite the saved MPGs entered on the worksheet, if the
user presses Cancel). For remaining calculations in the Tool, the values  shown on the
Activity Screen are used. The Allocator values the user entered are saved for the XML
file, but aren't used for further calculations. Separately in the XML, the MPG and fuel
totals that were put onto the Activity Screen are also written.
3.2   NOx and PM
Unlike C02 emissions which only vary with fuel type, NOx and PM emission rates also
vary substantially depending upon engine model year and/or emission certification level,
vehicle class, drive cycle, speed, and operation mode (running or idle). For this reason,
EPA developed lookup tables in the Truck Tool with emission factors that correspond to
user-supplied inputs regarding their fleet activity. The NOx and PM emission rates
expressed in grams per mile were combined with the appropriate mileage metric (i.e.,
total miles) in order to estimate mass emissions. The general equation for calculating
NOx emissions is as follows:
Equation 9

ENOx = (Mcx ((QPMH x HDC)+ (GPM^ x UDCJ + (GPMU2 x UDC2) + (GPMU3 x UDC3) + (GPMU4 x
UDC4)))xTw/TCT)
      Where:
             ENOx = grams NOx per year for a given truck class
             M0 = Miles driven for Truck Class C per year
             GPMH = Grams/mi (by truck class & engine yr) for Highway/Rural Driving
             HOC = Highway drive cycle % (% of miles under highway/rural driving)
             GPMu1/2/3/4 = Grams/mi (by truck class & engine yr) for Urban Driving by mode (1 =
             0-25 mph; 2 = 25-50 mph; 3 = 50+ mph; 4 = deceleration)
             UDC1/2/3/4 = Urban drive cycle % (%  of miles under urban driving conditions, by
             mode (1,2,3,4))
             TOY = Number of trucks for a given Class/Year combination
             TOT = Number of trucks total for a given Class
             GPH, = Grams per hour  (by truck class & engine year) for Idling19
             H = Hours of Idling per year (average per truck per year by class)
19 As discussed in Section 2 above, separate emission factors are applied for Class 8b diesel trucks to differentiate
short- and long-duration idling. In addition, hybrid electric trucks are assumed to have no short-duration idling
emissions, while battery-electric trucks have no idling emissions of any kind.

                                        17

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PM emissions for non-diesel vehicles are calculated using an equation identical to that
for NOx, utilizing PM emission factors. PM emission for diesel vehicles may be
adjusted for PM control effectiveness, as shown below.

Equation 10

EpM = (((Mcx ((QPMH x HDC)+ (GPM^ x UDC,) + (GPMU2 x UDC2) + (GPMU3 x UDC3) + (GPMU4
x UDC4))) x TCY/ TCT) + (GPH, xH, x TCY)) x (1 - ((0.25 x TDOC / TCT) + (0.05 x Tccv / TCT) + (0.9 x
TDPF / TCT)))

      Where:
             EPM = grams PM per year for a given truck class
             TDOO = Number of trucks using Diesel Oxidation Catalysts by class
             Toov = Number of trucks using Closed Crankcase Ventilation by class
             TDPF = Number of trucks using Diesel Particulate Filters by class
             0.25 = Effectiveness of DOCs (25%) at reducing particulate matter
             0.05 = Effectiveness of CCVs (5%) at reducing particulate matter
             0.9 = Effectiveness of DPFs (90%) at reducing particulate matter

Note the above calculation methodology assumes that the same highway/urban drive
cycle fractions apply across all model years of a given truck class. Similarly, the
method assumes that estimated idle hours apply equally to all model years of a given
truck class.

The above methodology also utilizes estimates for the fraction of miles traveled
associated with different road types and speed categories, as shown in the equations
above. The Truck Tool user must provide an estimate of the percent of total miles
associated with highway/rural driving for each truck class.  The user may also provide
percentages for the miles spent driving in urban conditions (e.g., unrestricted access,
surface roads in well-traveled urban areas), for different  speed categories (0-25/25-
50 / 50+ mph).  This information may be obtained from analysis of truck ECM or
possibly GPS data.  If urban speed distribution data is not available, the user may select
to use default distributions, obtained from the MOVES model. The default speed
distributions for urban operation (as defined in Section 2.2 above) varies with vehicle
class and model year. However, the variation over model  years is very slight (typically
with a range of 1 to 2 percent for the largest speed category), the percentages were
averaged  over all model years for a given speed category/vehicle type combination for
use within the Truck Tool.

Table 4 presents the resulting default urban speed distributions by speed category for
each truck class, for both diesel and gasoline vehicles. Note that the Truck Tool utilizes
the diesel default speed distributions for LPG, LNG, and CNG.
                                        18

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     Table 4. Default Speed Category Distributions by Vehicle Class for Urban
                           Operation (MOVES2010a basis)20
Vehicle Class
Speed Group
Percent
by Class
Diesels
HDDVZb
HDDV3
HDDV4
HDDV5
HDDV6
HDDV7
HDDVSa
HDDVSb
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
35%
38%
13%
15%
41%
36%
12%
11%
42%
35%
12%
11%
42%
35%
12%
1 1%
42%
35%
12%
10%
42%
35%
12%
10%
44%
35%
12%
9%
45%
34%
12%
8%
Gasoline
Vehicle Class
HDGV2b
HDGV3
HDGV4
HDGV5
HDGV6
HDGV7
HDGVSa
HDGVSb
Speed Group
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25 - 50
50-
Decelaration
0-25
25 -50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
0-25
25-50
50-
Deceleration
Percent
bvaass
43%
31%
10%
15%
45%
34%
11%
11%
45%
34%
11%
10%
46%
33%
10%
11%
46%
33%
10%
11%
45%
32%
10%
14%
45%
34%
11%
10%
43%
31%
10%
15%
As seen in the above table, the MOVES model assumes that some fraction of vehicle
operation is associated with "deceleration" events, evaluated independently from other
operation due to their unique emission rate patterns.21  However, it is assumed that
  These values represent the urban component of driving only. If the user specifies a non-zero percentage for
Highway/Rural driving, the values in the above table are automatically renormalized, so as to make the sum across
urban and highway operation modes equal to 100%.
21 MOVES also assigns some fraction of emissions to idle operation. However, operating fractions and emission
factors associated with idle in MOVES outputs are expressed in grams per mile rather than grams per hour. Thus, in
                                           19

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most Truck Tool users will not know their fleet's deceleration fraction.  As such, the
Truck Tool will adjust any values input by the user to include a deceleration fraction
based on MOVES model percentages.  If the user selects the default urban speed
distributions, the Truck Tool will adjust the urban  values from Table 4 to account for the
percentage of miles specified for Highway/Rural operation as well.  The following
provides an illustrative example for calculating PM emissions for diesels given a specific
set of road type/speed category distributions.  NOx emission calculations follow the
same procedure.
  User specifies 1 Class 8b diesel, model year 2011, traveling 100,000 mi/yr.
  User specifies the following Road type/speed category distributions:
     •   40% highway/rural
     •   30% 0-25 mph
     •   20% 25-50 mph
     •   10% 50+ mph

  For highway/rural operation, the lookup value from MOVES is 0.0195 g/mi for PM2.5
  For urban operation, the lookup values are as follows:
     •   0-25:         0.031 g/mi
     •   25-50:        0.052 g/mi
     •   50+:          0.012 g/mi
     •   deceleration:   0.002 g/mi

  Now the urban speed distribution percentage inputs must to account for deceleration, as
  follows:
     •   0-25:   30% x sum of default percentages for the three speed bins (but excluding
         default deceleration fraction) = 30% x (45% + 34% + 12%) = 27.5%
     •   25-50:  20% x sum of default percentages (45% + 34% + 12%) =  18.3%
     •   50+:    10% x sum of default percentages (45% + 34% + 12%) = 9.2%

  deceleration: the remaining percentage, which equals 100% - 40% (highway) - 27.5% -
  18.3%-9.2% = 5.1%

  Now apply these percentage weights to the total mileage, and then multiply by the
  corresponding emission factors to obtain mass, as follows:
     •   Highway/rural component: 0.40 x 100,000 x 0.0195 = 780 grams
     •   0-25 urban component: 0.275 x 100,000 x 0.031  = 826 grams
     •   25-50 urban component: 0.183 x 100,000 x 0.052 = 952 grams
     •   50+ urban component: 0.092 x 100,000 x 0.012 = 110 grams
     •   Deceleration urban component: 0.51 x 100,000 x 0.002 = 10 grams

  Therefore total = 2,678 grams of PM2.5 (This value will then be summed with any other
  model year/vehicle class combinations and converted to short tons.)
order to utilize the grams per hour emission factors developed especially for use in the Truck Tool, MOVES outputs
associated with idle operation were removed and the operating mode fractions for the four remaining categories
were renormalized to equal 100%.

                                           20

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As discussed in Section 2.3, the Truck Tool assumes that B100-equivalent biodiesel
volumes are distributed proportionately across all diesel vehicle classes. For example,
if a fleet uses 100 B-100 equivalent gallons of biodiesel, and 1,000 gallons of fuel total,
the Tool assumes that B10 (100 /1,000 = 10%)  is the blend used by each truck class.
Accordingly, emission rate adjustment factors are calculated for B10 using Equation 6,
and applied to the diesel emission factors for each vehicle class.

Emission calculations for ethanol blends follow a different methodology, however,
applying discrete emission factors for gasoline and E10 from MOVES (and adjusted
gasoline emission factors for E85) with the specific fuel volume estimates provided by
the user.  The following provides an example illustrating how the miles of travel are
apportioned across different blend volumes, in order to estimate mass emissions.
  User specifies 1,000 gallons of fuel total, and 10,000 miles of travel total

  User inputs:
   100 gallons of E10
   100 gallons of E85

  Therefore there are 800 gallons of pure gasoline (1,000 - 100 -100)

  Apportion the 10,000 miles of travel across the different blend levels using gasoline-gallon
  equivalent (gge) factors (from https://www.afdc.enerQy.Qov/afdc/prep/popups/QQes.htmn as
  follows:

   100 gallons of E10 is equivalent to 100/1.05 = 95 gallons of gasoline*
   100 gallons of E85 is equivalent to 100/1.39 = 72 gallons of gasoline

  Therefore there are 800 + 95 + 72 = 967 gasoline equivalent gallons of fuel, total.

  Applying the energy-equivalent fuel volume ratios to the 10,000 miles of total travel:

   gasoline (EO) miles = 10,000 x 800/967 = 8,273 miles
   E10 miles = 10,000 x 95/967 = 982 miles
   E85 miles = 10,000 x 72/967 = 745 miles

  Finally, multiplying these mileage values by the appropriate EO and E10 gram/mile emission
  factors from MOVES results  in the desired mass emission estimates. Similarly, multiplying the
  E85 miles by the E85 emission factors (adjusted from EO factors as discussed in Section 2.3,
  provides mass emissions associated with E85).

  * E10 gge factor developed from linear interpolation of E100 and gasoline Btu/gallon values
In addition, if national default ethanol blend levels are specified for gasoline fuel use, the
Truck Tool assumes that all ethanol consumed is in an  E10 blend. For example,
assuming  1,000 gallons of gasoline are specified by the user, there would be 905
gallons of  E10 (1,000 x .905 - see Section 2.3), and 95 (1,000 - 905) gallons of
gasoline.  Mass emissions would then be calculated for the gasoline and E10
                                          21

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components of the fuel as in the above example, apportioning total miles across
gasoline and E10 in order to apply the appropriate g/mi factors.

Finally, note that the PM factors output by the MOVES model for use in the Truck Tool
are expressed in terms of PM25. The MOVES model assumes a fixed ratio of PM10 /
PM25 for a given fuel type, as summarized below:

   •  Gasoline-1.086
   •  Diesel-1.031
   •  CNG-1.000

These factors were applied directly to the PM25 emission factors to obtain mass
emission and performance metrics for PM10 within the Truck Tool. In addition, it was
assumed that LNG and LPG had PM ratios equivalent to the CNG value (1.00). Ethanol
was assumed to have a ratio equal to that for gasoline, while the ratio for biodiesel was
assumed to equal that for diesel.

3.3   Activity Calculations
The Truck Tool requires users to provide specific activity information on fuel
consumption, miles traveled,  payload, capacity volume, capacity volume utilization, road
type/speed, and idle hours at the vehicle class level for the emissions performance
assessment (see Section 4.0 below). While the user may provide direct data inputs for
any or all of these activity parameters, the Truck Tool also allows the user to select
default values for payload and volume determination,  in the absence of fleet-specific
information. (Direct inputs for payload are highly preferred over the use of calculator
defaults.)  The data sources and assumptions used to develop these default values are
discussed below.

Default Payload Distributions
Average payloads can vary widely among fleets, even within a given vehicle class,
depending upon commodity type and body/trailer type. (While the Truck Tool does
collect commodity information, this information is not used in determining payloads.)
With the exception of LTL and Package carriers (see below), exact data entries were
used from the 2011 Truck Tool submissions to obtain payload distributions for the 2014
Tool.  This data was categorized by fuel type, truck class, body-type, and SmartWay
ranking  category. Body-type refers to the categories presented in the Truck Tool
payload calculator (e.g., Step Van, Beverage, Combination Flatbed, etc.).  Ranking
category is based on the Fleet Characterization  inputs (e.g., Truckload Dry Van, Dray,
Mixed, etc.). 1,850 unique records were identified using  this categorization of the 2011
Partner  data.

This data was then reviewed  and four outliers were identified and removed from the
data set.22  Next, the data was grouped by truck class and body type and examined for
  Three Class 2b entries were removed due to suspiciously high payloads (16, 13, and 5 tons). One Class 8b truck
was also removed (1 ton) due to an incongruous text explanation ("none used").

                                       22

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notable differences in payload values across ranking categories.  However, with the
exception of certain Class 8 trucks, no truck class/body-type/ranking category
combination had greater than 20 observations. Therefore it was concluded that there
was not an adequately large data set available for establishing ranking-category specific
payload distributions for Truck Classes 2b-7.  In these cases payload data were
aggregated across all ranking categories for each truck class/body-type combination.

The larger population of Class 8 trucks in the 2011 data set allowed for a differentiation
of payload distributions across ranking categories. Considering both available sample
size and  average payloads, the following unique truck class/body-type/SmartWay
ranking category groupings were established.

   •  Class 8a Dry Van Single body-types: differentiate LTL (9.9 tons average) and
      non-LTL (12.4 tons average) categories.  No differentiation across categories for
      other body-types.
   •  Class 8b Dry Van Single body-types: differentiate Heavy-bulk (24.1 tons),
      LTL/Moving/Package (15.0 tons), Tanker (24 tons), and all other categories (18.5
      tons).
   •  Class 8b Specialty body-types: differentiate Auto Carriers (16.2 tons),
      Heavy/Mixed (30.3 tons), Flatbed (21.6 tons), and all other categories (25.6
      tons).
   •  Class 8b Dry Van Double body-types:  differentiate TL/Reefer/Mixed (27.7 tons)
      and all other categories (19.4 tons)
   •  Class 8b Other body-types: differentiate Heavy/Flatbed/Mixed (27.4 tons) and all
      other categories (21.5 tons).

Based on this data, Table 5 presents the payload averages, standard deviations,
minimum and maximum values  by truck class/body-type/and-or ranking  category.23
Note that the average values and standard deviations presented below are not weighted
by fleet size.
23 Given the lack of data on non-diesel heavy-duty vehicles, payload ranges are assumed to apply to all fuel types.

                                        23

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Table 5. Average Payload and Standard Deviation (short tons) by Vehicle
Class/Body-Type/Ranking Category (2011 SmartWay Partner Data - Exact
                         Payload Entries)
Body-Type (Bin Category)
Avg Payload (tons)
Std Dev
Class 2b
Flatbed
Step Van
Walk-In Van
Conventional Van
Other
1.19
1.14
1.05
0.77
0.58
0.69
0.48
0.48
0.41
0.49
Class 3
Step Van
Walk-In Van
Conventional Van
Other
1.65
1.64
1.50
1.08
0.53
0.57
0.83
0.90
Class 4
Flatbed
Step Van
Walk-In Van
Conventional Van
Other
2.68
2.24
1.70
2.27
1.16
1.53
1.19
0.80
0.90
0.76
Class 5
Walk-In Van
Conventional Van
Other
1.99
3.39
2.91
1.08
0.99
1.19
Class 6
Flatbed
Reefer
Walk-In Van
Single-Axle Van
Other
4.67
4.84
4.01
3.78
4.17
1.71
1.80
1.68
1.19
1.48
Class 7
Beverage
Flatbed
Reefer
Tanker
Single-Axle Van
Other- straight truck
Combination Flatbed
6.10
7.05
6.03
7.45
5.53
8.30
5.22
2.22
0.85
1.27
0.92
1.83
4.63
0.41
                                24

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Body-Type (Bin Category)
Combination Reefer
Dry Van - Single
Other - combo
Avg Payload (tons)
3.58
5.44
5.90
Std Dev
1.01
2.57
1.15
Class 8a
Flatbed
Tanker
Single-Axle Van
Other- straight truck
Beverage
Combination Flatbed

Dry Van - Single (other than LTL)
Other - combo
10.04
12.12
8.09
9.76
12.30
12.51

12.42
12.68
5.88
5.43
3.80
4.08
4.40
1.41

4.66
4.56
Class 8b

Dry Van - Single (Heavy-Bulk)
Dry Van - Single (other bins)
Dry Van - Double (Tanker)
Dry Van - Double (Mixed-TL-Reefer)
Dry Van - Double (Other bins)
Dry Van - Triple
Combination Reefer
Combination Flatbed
Combination Tanker
Chassis
Specialty (Other bins)
Other (Other bins)
Specialty (Auto bin)
Specialty (Heavy-Mixed bins)
Specialty (Flatbed bin)
Other (Heavy-Flatbed-Mixed bins)

24.1
18.46
24.06
27.74
19.39
27.10
20.10
22.50
24.90
21.80
25.62
21.50
16.18
30.25
21.56
27.41

2.98
3.97
2.96
13.33
3.82
3.20
2.82
4.23
2.89
5.28
2.72
8.41
5.22
13.78
2.58
6.36
The values above serve as the basis for the default payload ranges provided in the
Truck Tool payload calculator. For most vehicle class/body-type/ranking category
combinations,24 seven default ranges are offered for Partner selection:
  In a few instances, the calculated lower bound value for Range 2 was less than zero.  In these cases the lower
bound value for Range 2 was set to zero and the Payload Calculator indicates Range 1 as "N/A".
                                           25

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      •     Range 1: from 0 tons to (Average payload - 2 x standard deviation);
      •     Range 2: from (Average payload - 2 x standard deviation) to (Average
            payload - 1 x standard deviation);
      •     Ranges 3-5: evenly split in three sections, from (Average payload - 1 x
            standard deviation) to (Average payload + 1 x standard deviation);
      •     Range 6: from (Average payload + 1 x standard deviation) to (Average
            payload + 2 x standard deviation); and,
      •     Range 7: from (Average payload + 2 x standard deviation) to (Average
            payload + 3 x standard deviation).

Once a particular range is selected, the payload calculator estimates the midpoint of the
range in order to estimate class level average payloads. The estimated midpoint
payload values for each body type are weighted by one of the four allocation methods
specified by the user in the payload calculator: # miles, # trips, % operation, and  #
vehicles by body type. The weighted sum is then used as the class  level average
payload, which in turn is used directly in determining grams per ton-mile performance
metrics for the fleet.

Payload data based on bills of lading and entered directly into the payload calculator are
validated using the same data described above (see Section 3.4).

LTL and Package Fleet Payloads

For most payload validations in the Tool, ranges are calculated by class and by body
type as described above. LTL and  package delivery payload validation ranges were
recently updated, and are calculated simply on a truck class basis, as there is not
enough LTL and Package Delivery Partner information to break payload out by body
type. Therefore each body type  in a class is validated using the same range, as  shown
in Table 6 below.
                                       26

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Table 6. Payload Validation Ranges for LTL and Package Delivery Fleets
Truck Class
2B
3
4
5
6
7
8A
8B
All
Avg Payload
0.96
1.57
1.92
2.79
3.72
5.44
9.78
15.79
8.50
#Obs
12
19
11
10
70
64
63
110
359
Standard
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
Dev
.195
.303
.679
.790
.678
.981
.170
.532
RIMin
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
>0
RZMin
0.565
0.967
0.562
1.212
2.362
3.481
5.437
8.729
RSMin
0.761
1.270
1.241
2.002
3.040
4.462
7.607
12.261
R4Min
0.891
1.472
1.693
2.529
3.492
5.116
9.054
14.615
RSMin
1.021
1.674
2.146
3.055
3.945
5.770
10.501
16.970
RGMin
1.151
1.876
2.598
3.582
4.397
6.424
11.948
19.324
R7Min
1.249
2.027
2.937
3.977
4.736
6.914
13.033
21.090
5.862
                                27

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The lower payload ranges (for "R1" and "R2") were set so as to identify less than 20% of the observed
LTL/package fleets during validation. The middle R3-R5 ranges extend from one standard deviation less
than the average payload to one standard deviation greater than the average.  The upper payload values
for "R6" range from the payload average plus one standard deviation to the average plus 1.5 standard
deviations. The range for "R7" extends above the "R6" maximum value. The maximum R7 range values
are taken directly from the original R7 maximum values described above by class and by body type.25

Default Capacity Volumes22
The Truck Tool also provides a volume calculator to estimate the  cubic feet associated
with the common straight truck body types (classes 2b through 7) identified using the
2011 Partner dataset, as well as typical trailer, container, carrier, and tanker sizes, for
combination trucks (classes 8a and b).27 Capacity volumes in cubic feet are relatively
easy to estimate for many combination trucks.   Per unit interior volume defaults are
assumed for standard dry vans - no high cubes, reefers, etc.), and containers.  Trailer
calculations assume an 8' x 9' cross-section, and the exterior length less  1/2 foot.  20
and  40 foot container dimensions are referenced in many places,  such as
http://www.mussonfreight.com/containers/containers.html.-  Table 7 summarizes the
default volumes assumed for a number of standard trailers, containers, tankers, and
bulk carriers.

             Table 7. Default Average Cubic Feet (Class 8a - 8b trucks)
Type
Trailers
Containers
Size
28ft
40ft
42ft
45ft
48ft
53ft
57ft
28x28
48x28
40x40
48x48
28x28x28
20ft
Cubic Feet
1,980
2,844
2,988
3,204
3,420
3,780
4,068
3,960
4,824
5,688
6,840
5,940
1,159
25 For two body types under Class 7 trucks (Combination Flatbed and Combination Reefer), the original
Range 7 max value is less than the new Range 6 max value. (R7 max is 6.45 and 6.61 respectively, while
the new R6 max value for all class 7 body types is 6.914). Therefore, for just these two body types within
Class 7, instead of using the original Range 5 max, we use the Range 5 max that would be calculated
from the new table values. This is calculated as Avg + 2.5 x standard deviation, based on the table
above (7.896 in this case). [Note it is Avg + 2.5 x standard deviation instead of Avg + 3 x standard
deviation because of the 1.5 sigma rule for Range 6. Therefore the Range 5 max value is simply 1
standard deviation larger than the Range 6 max.]
26 The Truck Tool allows users to enter capacity volume in either cubic feet or TEUs, with one TEU assumed equal
to 1,360 cubic feet- see http://www.dimensionsinfo.com/20ft-container-size/.
27 Default capacity volumes for Class 7 combination vehicles were not available, and were set equal to the average
volume for Class 8 combination trucks in the 2010 SmartWay database.
28 53 foot containers are assumed to have interior dimensions of 52' 5" x 7' 8" x 7' 10"
                                           28

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Type

Tankers
Bulk
Carriers
Size
40ft
45 fT
48ft
53ft
Small (3,000 gal)
Medium (5,250 gal)
Large (7,500 gal)
Small (22'x8'1 0.25')
Medium (32'x8'x1 1 ')
Large (42'x8.5'x1 1 .5')
Cubic Feet
2,347
3,031
3,454
3,148
401
702
1,003
1,804
2,816
4,106
Cargo volume capacity data is often not readily available for straight trucks, however.
Such trucks are highly variable in their configuration and when volume estimates are
found, the data often do not permit cross-referencing with vehicle class.  Most highway
infrastructure and operating agencies, including enforcement, are concerned about
weight (e.g., pavement and structure damage), but not cubic capacity. The operating
agencies are also concerned about maximum dimensions, of length, height and width
(for,  respectively, turning radii, vertical clearance, and lane width) but the shape of the
box and its relation to the truck superstructure, not these maximums, dictates cubic
capacity. Little public research on the cubic capacity of the box has been done, and
thus little information is published.

A relatively small number of volume estimates were compiled from the 2011 Partner
data (218 unique observations for truck class/body-type combinations).  Of these
observations 13 were identified as outliers and removed from the data set (11
observations of less than 100 cu ft; one Class 3 truck at 1,360 cu ft; and one Class 2b
truck at 3,600 cu ft).  Given the overall "thinness" of the dataset,  those truck class/body-
type combinations with three or more observations were used to estimate average
capacity volumes.  The following truck class/body-type combinations had fewer than
three observations in the Partner dataset.

   •  Class 2b Flatbed
   •  Class 3 Other
   •  Class 4 Flatbed, Step Van, Other
   •  Class 6 Flatbed, Walk-In Van
   •  Class 7 Flatbed, Tanker
   •  Class 8a Beverage

For these remaining truck class/body-type combinations available information was
compiled as it relates to cargo volume capacity for the common straight truck body
types.
29 45 and 48 foot container references from http://www.shippingcontainers24.com/dimensions/45-foot/. and
http://www.containertech.com/container-sales/48ft-high-cube-container-domestic/
                                        29

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Without a comprehensive data source, such as the Partner data, other strategies
needed to be employed to develop examples, or ranges, of volume capacity for the
remaining body type/truck class combinations of interest. A literature review and vendor
interviews were performed to determine appropriate values for cargo volume capacity.
The first step in the literature review involved preparing a list of vendors responsible for
designing, manufacturing, or operating all the different truck types identified.

Cubic capacity is also dependent upon a variety of factors and is not uniform for even
the same make and model, as many truck manufactures will design  to specifications
based on a client's unique needs for their cargo.  For example, a client may request a
manufacturer to design a truck interior to best accommodate the delivery of a certain
size of parcel, and install shelving or otherwise compartmentalize to that end.
Consideration was given to these factors during the review.

The literature review encompassed  Internet searches of vendors of the truck types
described above.  Sources explored included truck manufacturers, dealers, and fleet
lessors of vehicles such as Budget/U-haul/Enterprise/Ryder/E-Dart). Additionally,
validation searches were performed on websites outlining current truck sales to help
identify the appropriate size/class of the vehicles and applicable specifications. The
following information was collected from these searches for over 40  different vehicles
currently available on the market:

      •      Length, width,  height of the cargo hold
      •      Reported cargo space (cubic feet)
      •      Gross Vehicle  Weight
      •      Payload
      •      Manufacturer
      •      Make/Model
      •      Reference website

Outreach to key stakeholders in the commercial vehicle industry was also performed to
further validate the information collected from the literature and resource review.
Contact was made with representatives from Volvo Trucks North America; the American
Transportation Research Institute (ATRI); the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance
(CVSA); the Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA);  Federal Highway Administration
(FHWA) Truck Size and Weight;  and a wide variety of trucking manufactures and other
vendors.

The results of this review are combined with the averages from the Partner data and are
provided in Table  8 below for straight trucks, classes 2b through 7.   In those instances
where multiple vehicle models were identified for a given body type/vehicle class
combination, simple averages were  calculated across models.
                                       30

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Table 8. Estimated Capacity Volumes (cubic feet) for Straight Truck Body Types,
                              by Vehicle Class
Body- type
Average Capacity Volume (Cubic Feet)
Class 2b
Flatbed*
Step Van
Walk-In Van
Conventional Van
Other
336
479
580
357
303
Class 3
Step Van
Walk-In Van
Conventional Van
Other*
468
706
538
599
Class 4
Flatbed*
Step Van*
Walk-In Van
Conventional Van
Other*
448
700
667
699
830
Class 5
Walk-In Van
Conventional Van
Other
655
1,010
691
Class 6
Flatbed*
Reefer
Walk-In Van*
Single-Axle Van
Other
672
1,146
1,496
1,583
1,257
Class 7
Beverage
Flatbed*
Reefer
Tanker*
Single-Axle Van
Other
1,576
728
1,413
267
1,476
1,486
            *From literature/web review
                                     31

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Once a default capacity volume is selected, the volume calculator weights the volume
estimates for each body type by one of the four allocation methods: # miles, # trips, %
operation, and # vehicles by body type.  The weighted sum is then used as the class
level average capacity volume, which in turn is used directly in determining grams per
volume-mile performance metrics for the fleet.

A list of websites utilized in the literature review is provided below.

Truck manufacturers:
www.gmc.com
www. Chevrolet, com
www.ford.com
www.freightlinersprinterusa.com
www.silvercrowncoach.com

Fleet operators:
www.uhaul.com
www.pensketruckrental.com
www. budgettruck. com
www. hendersonrentals. co. nz
www.hackneybeverage.com
www.hackneyusa.com
www.fedex.com
www.grummanolson.com

Other sources:
www. usedtruckdepot. com
www. usedtrucks. ryder. com
www.truckingauctions.com
www.truckpaper.com
www.motortrend.com
files.harc.edu/Projects/Transportation/FedExReportTask3.pdf

The detailed findings of the literature/web review are presented in Appendix D.

3.4    Data Validation
The SmartWay Truck Tool has a number of standard logical, range and value checks
that must be passed before Partners can submit their data to EPA. Many of these
checks simply confirm the presence of required data (e.g., total miles for each truck
class selected), or the accuracy of logical relationships (e.g., revenue miles <= total
miles).  The list of these basic checks is provided below.  Partners will not be able to
finalize their fleet files until all associated errors have been resolved. Also note that
there is an implicit validation check on all numeric fields because the system will not
accept any non-numeric characters (including minus signs) within these fields.
                                      32

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Table 9. Basic Range and Logical Checks - Conditions Resulting in Error or
                         Warning Messages
Contact
Information
Fleet
Characterization
Fleet
Characterization
Fleet
Characterization
Fleet
Characterization
Fleet
Characterization
Fleet
Characterization
Fleet
Characterization
Fleet
Characterization
Fleet
Characterization
Fleet
Characterization
General
Information
General
Information
General
Information
General
Information
General
Information
General
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
User must enter at least two distinct contacts
User must include a Partner Name.
If entered, SCACs must be between 2 and 4 characters in length, and at least one
character must be a letter. Multiple SCACs must be separated by commas.
If entered, MCNs must be between 6 and 7 digits.
If entered, DOT numbers must be 7 digits or less.
User must select a Fleet Type.
User must indicate operational control over at least 95% of the fleet. (If Partner does
not have at least 95% operational control, Truck Tool may not be used for the fleet.)
User must include a Fleet Contact name for each fleet.
The Operation Category totals must add up to 100%.
The Body Type totals must add up to 100%.
Warnings are issued for any of the following Operation Type/Body Type
combinations. NOTE: This validation will only be invoked if there is a single selection
made for either Operation or Body Type - otherwise combinations can't be
determined with certainty. LTL/Chassis; LTL/Moving; LTL/Heavy; LTL/Specialized;
Dray/Flatbed; Dray/Moving; Dray/Utility; Package/Flatbed; Package/Chassis;
Package/Heavy; Package/Auto; Package/Moving; Package/Utility;
Package/Specialized.
User must designate the Short-haul vs. Long-haul split.
User must select at least one fuel type.
User must designate the percentage of truckloads that utilize 100% of available cargo
capacity.
User must indicate the commodities that are carried by each fleet.
If participating in the Port Dray Program, user must indicate the number of trucks
equipped with APUs and SmartWay tires. (If none of the trucks in the fleet are
equipped with these, a zero must be entered into the field.)
If participating in the Port Dray Program, the number of trucks equipped with APUs
or SmartWay tires cannot exceed the number of trucks in the fleet.
All fields are required, so no field can be left blank. (If appropriate, a zero can be
placed in certain fields.)
For all numeric fields except Empty Miles, Biofuel gallons, and Idle Hours, the value
must be greater than zero. (An explanation must be provided for zero Empty Miles).
                                33

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Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Activity
Information
Model Year & Class
Model Year & Class
PM Reduction
PM Reduction
For mileage and gallons fields, enter exact rather than rounded values, (warning)
For Revenue Miles, the amount cannot exceed the number of Total Miles Driven.
For Revenue Miles, if the Data Source Detail "Equal to total miles" is selected, the
amount must equal the Total Miles Driven.
For Revenue Miles, if the Data Source Detail "Total miles less empty miles" is
selected, the amount must equal the Total Miles Driven minus Empty Miles Driven.
For Empty Miles, the amount must be less than the number of Total Miles.
For Empty Miles, if the Data Source Detail "Total miles less revenue miles " is
selected, the amount must equal the Total Miles Driven minus Revenue Miles Driven.
On the Biofuel Blend Worksheet, the total gallons of biofuel cannot exceed the
amount entered for Total Fuel on the Activity Information screen.
For each row of data, user must specify a Data Source.
For Capacity Utilization, the value cannot exceed 100%.
For Capacity Utilization, the value must be less than 100% if user indicated that the
fleet is 100% Less-Than-Truckload (LTL). (By definition, LTL fleets cannot have 100%
capacity utilization.)
The implicit commodity density derived from the payload, volume, and capacity
utilization inputs must be between 0.001 and 0.65 tons/cubic foot.30
For Idle Hours, the value cannot exceed 8,760.
For Idle Hours, values significantly outside the expected range must be explained.
If company no idle policy is specified under Idle Data Source, then a warning is
displayed if idle hours/yr are > 100.
MPG must be greater than zero.
MPG that is significantly outside the expected range for the given truck class (based
on a lookup table) must be explained.
Reefer fuel inputs for each fuel type must be less than the total vehicle fuel volume
input.
Total truck count for each fleet cannot be zero.
Total truck counts for each selected truck class (those with a check mark) cannot be
zero.
The number of trucks using any particular PM reduction strategy cannot be greater
than the number of trucks for the given class and model year.
The sum of the trucks using either DOC or Particulate Matter Traps cannot be greater
than the number of trucks for the given class and model year.
30 The upper bound density range was based on gold (~0.6 tons/cubic foot) and the lower bound range on potato
chips (-0.003 tons/cubic foot) - see http://www.aqua-calc.com/paqe/density-table/substance/Snacks-coma-
and-blank-potato-blank-chips-coma-and-blank-white-coma-and-blank-restructured-coma-and-blank-
baked.
                                               34

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PM Reduction
PM Reduction
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
Payload & Volume
Calculators
If participating in the Port Dray Program, the sum of the trucks using either DOC/CCV,
Flow Through Filters, or Particulate Matter Traps cannot be greater than the number
of trucks for the given class and model year.
If user indicates that the company uses PM reduction equipment, there must be at
least one truck included on the PM Reduction sub-tab.
User must provide a Data Source and preferred allocation method for the
information entered on the calculators.
The sum of the total miles or total trucks entered in the calculator must equal the
number entered on the Activity Information screen.
The calculated average cannot be equal to zero.
For percentages, the total must equal 100%.
For each body type for which some information has been entered, all of the visible
field must be completed (including the explanation field if shown).
Zero is not a valid value for any payload or volume.
Values that are significantly outside the expected range for the given body type and
class must be explained.
The body types indicated in the Volume Calculator must agree with those used in the
Payload Calculator.
Ensure consistency between body-type selections in the Fleet Characterization
section with those from the Payload and Volume Calculators. For example, if 100% is
specified for Dry Van under Fleet Characterization, only Dry Vans (single, double,
triple) may be selected within the calculators. See Table 9.
If "# of Vehicles in this class" is selected for both the Payload and Volume calculators
for a given truck class, the number of trucks entered into each calculator must agree.
If "# of Vehicles in this class" is selected for either the Payload or Volume calculator,
the number of body-types selected cannot exceed the number of vehicles specified.
If "# of miles in this class" is selected for both the Payload and Volume calculators for
a given truck class, the number of miles entered into each calculator must agree.
If "# of Trips done by this class" is selected for both the Payload and Volume
calculators for a given truck class, the number of trips entered into each calculator
must agree.
Ensure consistency between the body-type selections in the Class 8a/b payload
calculator and the corresponding Volume calculator - i.e., issue warnings for any
type of dry van, reefer or beverage selected in payload calc but no Trailers specified
in volume calculator; If flatbed, auto or specialty is selected in payload, "Other
Trailers" should be selected in volume calculator
Validations have been added to the Truck Tool to ensure the selections in the 8a/8b
volume calculator are consistent with the selections in the payload calculator for those
classes:
                                       35

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RED errors (must address):
   -  If the user has values for 8a body type "Beverage" or "Dry Van - Single" in the
      Payload calculator, they must have a value in the "Trailer" section of the volume
      calculator.
   -  If the user has values for 8b body type "Dry Van - Single" or "Dry Van - Double"
      or "Dry Van - Triple" in the Payload calculator, they must have a value in the
      "Trailer" section of the volume calculator.

YELLOW warnings (comments/changes not mandatory):
   -  If the user has values for 8a body type "Flatbed" or "Combination Flatbed" in the
      Payload calculator, they must have a "Flatbed" checkbox checked in the "Trailer"
      section of the volume calculator.
   -  If the user has values for 8a body type "Single-Axle Van" or "Dry Van - Single" in
      the Payload  calculator, they must have a "Box" checkbox checked in the "Trailer"
      section of the volume calculator.
   -  If the user has values for 8a body type "Beverage" in the Payload calculator, they
      must have a "Box" or "Reefer" checkbox checked in the "Trailer" section of the
      volume calculator.
   -  If the user has values for 8a body type "Tanker"  in the Payload calculator, they
      must have a value in the "Tanker" section of the volume calculator.
   -  If the user has values for 8a body type "Other (straight truck)" or "Other (combo)"
      in the Payload calculator, they must have a value in the "Bulk", "Auto Carrier", or
      "Other" section of the volume calculator.

   -  If the user has values for 8b body type "Dry Van - Single" or "Dry Van - Double"
      or "Dry Van - Triple" in the Payload calculator, they must have a "Box" checkbox
      checked in the "Trailer" section of the volume calculator.
   -  If the user has values for 8b body type "Combination Reefer" in the Payload
      calculator, they must have a "Reefer" checkbox checked in the "Trailer" section of
      the volume calculator.
   -  If the user has values for 8b body type "Combination Flatbed" in the Payload
      calculator, they must have a "Flatbed" checkbox checked in the "Trailer" section
      of the volume calculator.
   -  If the user has values for 8b body type "Combination Tanker" in the Payload
      calculator, they must have a value in the "Tanker" section of the volume
      calculator.
   -  If the user has values for 8b body type "Chassis" in the Payload calculator, they
      must have a value in the "Chassis" section of the volume calculator.
   -  If the user has values for 8b body type "Specialty" or "Other" in the Payload
      calculator, they must have a value in the "Bulk",  "Auto Carrier", or "Other" section
      of the volume calculator.

As noted in Table 9 above, a warning  is issued if an inconsistency is identified between
body-types specified within the Fleet Characterization Section and those within the
                                       36

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Payload/Volume Calculators. Warning conditions (associated with 100% body-type
entries under Fleet Characterization) are presented in Table 10 below.
                                       37

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Table 10. Consistent Body-Types Resulting in No Warning Messages
Acceptable selections -
Body Type
(100%)
Dry Van
Refrigerated
Flatbed
Tanker
Chassis
Hvy-Bulk
Auto Carrier
Moving
Spec Hauler
Utility
2b
all except
flatbed
other
flatbed
other
N/A
N/A
N/A
all except
flatbed
other
all

3
all
other
other
other
N/A
N/A
N/A
all
other
all

4
all except
flatbed
other
flatbed
other
N/A
N/A
N/A
all except
flatbed
other
all

5
all
other
other
other
N/A
N/A
N/A
all
other
all

6
walk-in, single
axle van
reefer, other
flatbed
other
N/A
N/A
N/A
all except
reefer, flatbed
other
all except
reefer

7
single axle van,
dry van single
reefer,
beverage,
combination
reefer, other
flatbed,
combination
flatbed
tanker
other
other
other
single axle van,
dry van-single,
other
other
flatbed,
combination
flatbed, other

8a
single axle van,
dry van single
beverage,
other
flatbed,
combination
flatbed
tanker
other
other
other
single axle van,
dry van-single,
other
other
flatbed,
combination
flatbed, other

8b
dry van (single,
double, triple)
combination
reefer, other
combination
flatbed
combination
tanker
chassis
other
other
dry van single,
specialty, other
specialty
combination
flatbed,
specialty, other
                             38

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Additional, rigorous validation checks of key data inputs are also needed to ensure the
overall quality of the performance metrics calculated by the Truck Tool. Validation
checks serve three purposes to this end. First, unusually high or low values can be
identified and flagged for the user's attention before finalizing inputs.  For example, a
user may misplace a decimal, inadvertently add an extra zero, or utilize the wrong units
(e.g. reporting pounds instead of tons for payload) upon data entry.  By comparing
these data entries to reliable industry averages and distributions, these values can be
flagged allowing users to quickly correct such errors.

Second, under certain circumstances Partners may operate their fleets under atypical
conditions, resulting in extreme (outlier) data values. For example, permitted heavy-
haul operations may routinely exceed industry-average payload values by 10 or more
tons.  By flagging such data entries Partners have the opportunity to provide additional
information regarding their unique operating conditions through use of the Truck Tool
comment fields.

Finally, independent criteria can be established to ensure that data inputs are never
allowed to exceed certain physically-constrained absolute limits.  For example,  a truck
cannot exceed roughly 500,000 miles per year, even with dual drivers and minimal
maintenance time, simply due to the available hours per year and highway speed limits.
Data values above these absolute maximum levels are not allowed by the Truck Tool,
and users are required to modify the associated inputs before proceeding.

The following presents the updates to the Truck Tool validation ranges for all
parameters but payload and volume, which were discussed above. Validation ranges
are of three types:

   1. "Yellow" values indicating that the input or derived performance value is  notably
      lower/higher than the expected value. Partners may enter an explanation
      backing up such entries, but this is not mandatory.
   2. "Red" values indicating that the input or derived performance value differs greatly
      from the expected value.  In this case the partner must enter text explaining why
      this value is accurate. Once entered, the value will change from "Red" to
      "Orange" on the data entry screen.
   3. "Absolute errors" exceed values deemed physically possible and must be
      changed in order to be accepted by the tool.

Reefer Fuel Validation

507 diesel fleets designated as "Reefer" for the 2013 calendar year were evaluated to
determine the distribution of the fraction of reefer fuel consumption to total fuel
consumption. Ten of these observations were dropped from the analysis data set,
having either 0 gallons of reefer fuel entered, or reefer fuel consumption was greater
than total consumption. As shown in Figure 4 below, the distribution for the remaining
reefer fleets was highly skewed toward low fractions (reefer consumption / total
consumption).  For ths reason EPA simply used 5% increments for the Range 1 and 2
                                       39

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validation values, but used the average plus 1 to 2 standard deviations for Range 4, and
> 2 standard deviations for Range 5. The resulting values are shown in Table 11 below.

                                    Figure 4


                   # Obervations vs Fraction of Fuel

                              used by Reefers

          200


          150     ;'   '•;,


          100


           50
            0
              0         0.2         0.4         0.6        0.8


              Table 11. Reefer Fuel Consumption Validation Ranges

                                %of
                  Min    Max   Obs  Comments
       Range 1A      >0   0.18%   4.8%  Set to include ~5% of obs
        Range 2   0.18%   1.45%   5.2%  Set to include ~5% of obs
        Range 3   1.45%  24.25%  81.1%  Max value set at average + 1 sigma
        Range 4  24.25%  36.90%   4.8%  between 1 and 2 sigma from average
       RangeS*  36.90%   <100%   4.0%  2+sigma from avg


      A Note - reefer fuel consumption cannot = 0 - absolute error
      * Note - reefer fuel consumption cannot = 100% - absolute error
      Basis - all diesel reefer fleets, 2013 reporting year
Data Processing
The validation range recommendations are based upon a distributional analysis
performed on the 2011 Truck Partner input and performance data. Fleet level data was
input into SAS and grouped by truck class, bin category, and fuel type combinations.  If
a particular combination had less than 20 fleets, it was aggregated to the next "higher"
level until at least 20 fleets were included.  This process resulted in 26 groupings, as
shown in Table  12. Note these groupings are mutually exclusive - e.g. "Class 6_Mixed"
(Group 6) includes all Class 6 vehicles with the exception of TL/Dry Van, LTL/Dry Van,
Moving, Package, (Groups 5, 7,  8, and 9).
                                       40

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        Table 12. Truck Fleet Groupings Used for Distributional Analysis
Group #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6 LTL/DryVan Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 LTL/DryVan Diesel
7 Mixed
7_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A Mixed
8A_Refrigerated_Diesel
8A TL/DryVan Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diesel
8B_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8B Mixed
8B_Refrigerated_Diesel
8B Specialized Diesel
8B TL/DryVan Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Sum
# Fleets
90
67
59
49
52
98
24
29
29
56
129
31
57
164
24
70
22
84
150
29
95
463
408
61
719
74
3,133
ERG then performed a distributional assessment for each of the above groupings for
the following parameters.
      Miles per vehicle
      Miles per gallon
      Revenue Miles (as a percent of
      total miles)
      Empty Miles (as a percent of total
      miles)
Percent Biofuel
Percent Capacity Utilization
Percent Miles Traveled, Urban
Percent Miles Traveled, Highway
Average Idle Hours per year
                                      41

-------
ERG then identified suspected outliers and erroneous data entry values for each
parameter/group combination, based on the criteria presented in Table 13.
                           Table 13. Outlier Definition
Metric
Miles per Vehicle
MPG
Percent Revenue Miles
Percent Empty Miles
Percent Biofuel
Percent Capacity Utilization
Percent Urban Operation
Percent Highway Operation
Average Idle Hours
Unreasonably Low
Mean - 3*Std.dev
0
<40
0
0
0
0
0
0
Unreasonably High
Mean + 3*std.dev
Mean + 3*std.dev
100
>60
>20
100
100
100
Mean + 3*std.dev
Using these criteria ERG identified 49 values, which were subsequently dropped from
the data set in order to develop "yellow" and "red" validation ranges for generalized
distributions.  The dropped values are shown below in Table 14.

                      Table 14. Values Flagged as Outliers
Group
1
1
3
7
9
10
12
14
14
15
16
18
20
20
32
32
32
3
4
19
Value
121,133
121,108
86,827
111,401
124,685
115,287
118,006
166,342
143,660
184,305
113,448
157,713
185,244
186,529
228,151
209,269
205,840
18.9
30
8
Mean
30,058
30,058
25,894
31,584
33,782
38,540
37,498
38,957
38,957
45,563
38,336
54,525
54,430
54,430
94,557
94,557
94,557
10.0
11.5
6.3
Parameter
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
Mi/Veh
MPG
MPG
MPG
                                      42

-------
Group
20
20
32
32
32
1
1
3
7
8
8
10
10
12
14
14
14
15
16
16
18
19
19
20
20
20
32
32
33
Value
8.7
9
7.8
7.9
7.9
1,560
1,785
1,267
1,462
1,825
1,680
1,500
1,505
1,615
1,835
1,825
2,077
1,440
1,400
1,505
2,574
2,071
2,050
2,100
2,000
1,986
3,024
3,410
2,816
Mean
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.0
6.0
345
345
328
441
414
414
473
473
350
494
494
494
346
430
430
694
443
443
525
525
525
918
918
853
Parameter
MPG
MPG
MPG
MPG
MPG
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
Avg Idle hrs/yr
43

-------
Once values were defined as outliers and excluded from the data set, the mean and
standard deviation of the distribution for each truck fleet grouping were then re-
calculated for each metric.  Each fleet was treated equally in the distributional
assessment, independent of the number of vehicles in the fleet.  Histograms presenting
the distributions for each truck fleet grouping/metric combination are available
electronically from SmartWay.

For groupings with large numbers of fleets (e.g., Class 8b  diesel TL/Dry Van,
Refrigerated, and Mixed), the data for miles per vehicle and MPG appear normally
distributed. Examples for Class 8b TL/Dry Van Diesel fleets are shown in Figures 5 and
6.
                                       44

-------
Figure 5. Annual  Miles Per Vehicle Distribution, Class 8b TL/Dry Van Diesel  Fleets
                                               Miles Per Vehicle
                                             Any Outlyere Hove Been Removed
              Group ID Number=25  TruckClass_BinCategory_FuelType=8B_TL/DryVan_DSL   Number in Group=719
60-
50
43-
C '-
in
.E :
Number
8
20-
10-
o-








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Ml in
           0       20000
                                     60000      80000     100000     120000     140000     160000     180000     200000


                                                   Bin Value

                                       /proj1/EPA_TnjckToolVai;validate.sas 04OCT12 1 1 :58
                                                  45

-------
     Figure 6. Miles per Gallon Distribution, Class 8b TL/Dry Van Diesel Fleets
                                      Miles Per Gallon
                                    Any Outlyers Have Been Removed
            Group ID Number=25  TruckClass_BinCategory_FuelType=8B_TL/DryVan_DSL  Number in Group=719
      CD
      CD
130-
120-
110-
100-
90"
63"
73-
60
50-
40-
30"
20-
10-
o-













I 1 Illlll













,11













1


























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in
                                          Bin Value
                                /proj1/EPA_TmckToolVal/validate.sas 04OCT12 11:58
Other fleet group/metric combinations displayed sharp drop offs at certain discrete
levels.  For example, % Revenue Miles were seldom less than 50% of total miles, and
conversely, % Empty Miles were seldom greater than 50% of total miles. % Biofuel also
displayed a discrete maximum value with no fleets using blends higher than 20%
biodiesel.31  Finally, % Urban and % Highway Operation data showed no clear
distributions, with values ranging from 0 % to 100  %.

Based on this preliminary assessment,  red and yellow flag areas were defined for each
fleet group/metric combination as shown in Table  15.
31 As such, a yellow warning is issued for any biodiesel blend > 20%, with no red warning.
                                          46

-------
                    Table 15. "Red" and "Yellow" Flag Criteria
Metric
Miles per Vehicle
MPG
% Revenue Miles
% Empty Miles
% Biofuel
% Capacity Utilization
% Urban Operation
% Highway Operation
Average Idle Hours
Low Red Flag
Mean - 2StDA
Mean - 2StD
variableAA
1
None
Mean - 2StD
None
None
Mean - 2StDA
Low Yellow Flag
Mean-1.5StDA
Mean-1.5StD
variableAA
5
None
Mean-1 .5StD
None
None
Mean-1 .5StDA
High Yellow Flag
Mean+1 .5StD
Mean+1 .5StD
None
variableAA
None
variable*
None
None
Mean+1 .5StD
High Red Flag
Mean+2StD
Mean+2StD
None
variableAA
None
variable*
None
None
Mean+2StD
A If the calculated values are < 0 for a particular fleet category/metric combination, an
alternate cutoff is applied based on expert judgment.
* Cutoffs developed based on expert judgment.
AA Values selected in consultation with SmartWay support staff.

For six of the metrics,32 yellow flag criteria were set at ą 1.5 times the standard deviation
(StD), and the red flag criteria at ą 2.0 times the standard deviation of the distribution for
each truck fleet grouping.  In most cases these criteria result in roughly 10-15% of the
values for these metrics being flagged as either red or yellow for partner attention
(although the flag rates associated with % Revenue and % Empty Miles is substantially
higher).  Selecting cutoffs at this level of stringency is intended to identify likely input
errors without unduly burdening the large majority of Truck Tool users with unnecessary
data checks and  text explanations. Tables  16-21 present the actual yellow and red flag
values for each fleet group/metric combination, given the decision criteria presented in
Table 15. Tables 22-27 present the number of observations that would be flagged with
yellow and red warnings for these combinations.
32 Standard deviations are only used on the low end to determine red/yellow cutoffs for the % Capacity Utilization
metric, due to a number of carriers utilizing 100% of available space. Upper end cutoffs are based on expert
judgment for LTL categories.
                                         47

-------
Table 16. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
                  Annual Miles per Vehicle
Group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6 LTL/DryVan Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 LTL/DryVan Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A LTL/DryVan Diesel
8A Mixed
8A Refrigerated Diesel
8A TL/DryVan Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diesel
8B LTL/DryVan Diesel
8B Mixed
8B Refrigerated Diesel
8B Specialized Diesel
8B TL/DryVan Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Low Red
2,000
6,000
2,000
2,000
3,000
5,000
3,000
7,376
5,000
5,000
4,000
2,000
4,000
4,000
10,000
4,000
39,712
4,000
34,715
7,717
16,801
12,171
38,363
1,705
27,591
32,467
Low Yellow
4,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
9,000
10,000
8,000
14,188
10,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
10,000
8,000
20,000
7,433
49,944
12,344
47,250
23,515
30,898
29,882
55,515
23,589
44,207
44,793
Mean
28,884
30,479
27,133
29,922
32,000
35,838
33,908
34,622
33,738
43,040
36,778
31,764
49,990
52,847
66,376
74,532
80,640
56,782
84,858
70,909
73,188
83,016
106,968
89,242
94,054
81,769
High Yellow
62,834
62,193
55,662
60,351
61,481
68,836
68,107
55,057
69,723
85,533
69,979
65,241
94,443
102,878
120,026
141,631
111,335
101,219
122,465
118,303
115,477
136,150
158,422
154,895
143,902
118,745
High Red
74,151
72,764
65,171
70,494
71,308
79,835
79,506
61,869
81,718
99,697
81,046
76,399
109,260
119,555
137,909
163,997
121,567
116,032
135,001
134,101
129,574
153,861
175,573
176,780
160,518
131,071
                            48

-------
          Table 17. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
                                    Miles per Gallon33
Group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6 LTL/DryVan Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 LTL/DryVan Diesel
7 Mixed
7_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A Mixed
8A_Refrigerated_Diesel
8A_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diesel
8B LTL/DryVan Diesel
8B Mixed
8B_Refrigerated_Diesel
8B_Specialized_Diesel
8B_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Low Red
4.6
5.0
5.4
4.5
5.7
5.2
5.8
6.1
4.9
5.6
4.5
5.3
5.3
4.4
4.8
5.0
4.2
4.9
4.4
3.4
5.1
4.8
4.8
3.8
5.0
4.8
Low Yellow
6.7
6.3
6.4
5.5
6.3
5.8
6.2
6.7
5.6
6.1
5.2
5.9
5.5
4.8
5.0
5.3
4.5
5.1
4.7
3.8
5.4
5.0
5.1
4.3
5.2
5.0
Mean
12.9
10.2
9.3
8.4
8.0
7.8
7.3
8.7
7.7
7.6
7.3
7.7
6.3
6.2
5.9
6.3
5.2
5.8
5.7
5.0
6.0
5.8
5.7
5.5
5.9
5.8
High Yellow
19.1
14.1
12.2
11.4
9.7
9.7
8.5
10.6
9.8
9.1
9.4
9.4
7.0
7.6
6.7
7.3
5.8
6.5
6.6
6.3
6.7
6.6
6.4
6.8
6.7
6.6
High Red
21.1
15.4
13.1
12.4
10.3
10.3
8.9
11.3
10.5
9.6
10.1
10.0
7.2
8.1
7.0
7.6
6.1
6.7
6.9
6.7
6.9
6.9
6.6
7.2
6.9
6.9
33 Equivalent MPG cutoffs can be found by dividing these values by 1.26 for gasoline and CNG vehicles; dividing
by 1.35 for LPG vehicles; and dividing by 1.52 for LNG vehicles-see "Non-Diesel MPG" section below for
details.
                                            49

-------
Table 18. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
                     % Revenue Miles
Group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6 TL/DryVan Diesel
7_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A LTL/DryVan Diesel
8A Mixed
8A Refrigerated Diesel
8A TL/DryVan Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diesel
8B LTL/DryVan Diesel
8B Mixed
8B Refrigerated Diesel
8B Specialized Diesel
8B TL/DryVan Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Low Red
55
50
50
50
50
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
50
55
60
50
60
50
60
55
55
45
Low Yellow
60
60
60
60
60
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
60
60
60
60
55
60
65
55
70
60
70
60
65
50
Mean
84.9
84.4
87.8
85.7
89.7
82.8
84.5
95.5
86.1
90.4
83.6
84.4
90.5
82.6
81.8
87.1
70.6
84.9
81.6
65.1
90.3
85.6
87.7
64.5
87.4
66.8
High Yellow
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
High Red
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
                            50

-------
Table 19. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
                      % Empty Miles
Group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6 LTL/DryVan Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 LTL/DryVan Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A Mixed
8A_Refrigerated_Diesel
8A TL/DryVan Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diesel
8B_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8B Mixed
8B_Refrigerated_Diesel
8B Specialized Diesel
8B TL/DryVan Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Low Red
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
30
Low Yellow
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
40
Mean
14.3
18.9
13.4
24.0
9.6
19.0
15.0
18.5
12.1
17.0
15.4
4.5
17.1
18.5
12.0
15.5
18.2
21.2
11.3
16.8
20.7
14.2
11.3
32.0
22.4
18.6
High Yellow
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
45
40
40
50
35
45
40
45
45
65
High Red
45
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
50
45
45
60
45
50
45
50
50
75
                            51

-------
        Table 20. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
                            % Capacity Utilization
Group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6 LTL/DryVan Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 LTL/DryVan Diesel
7 Mixed
7_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A Mixed
8A_Refrigerated_Diesel
8A TL/DryVan Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diesel
8B_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8B Mixed
8B Refrigerated Diesel
8B Specialized Diesel
8B TL/DryVan Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Low Red
30
37
37
39
48
46
36
53
40
52
43
49
55
48
40
50
69
55
62
60
58
55
58
61
59
63
Low Yellow
40
47
47
48
54
54
42
60
49
58
51
56
61
56
50
58
75
63
69
67
64
62
65
69
65
69
Mean
69.7
74.8
75.7
77.1
74.0
77.3
59.8
83.1
76.3
77.1
75.0
80.1
79.5
80.5
77.5
81.0
91.4
85.7
87.2
88.4
81.3
82.6
85.0
90.1
85.2
89.1
High YellowA
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
90
N/A
80
N/A
N/A
90
N/A
N/A
90
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
90
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
High RedA
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
95
N/A
90
N/A
N/A
95
N/A
N/A
95
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
95
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
A "N/A" indicates calculated flag value > 100. Any value < 100 is acceptable for these
group/metric combinations. Other values based on expert judgment.
                                      52

-------
Table 21. Yellow/Red Criteria by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
            Annual Average Idle Hours per Truck
Group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6 LTL/DryVan Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 LTL/DryVan Diesel
7 Mixed
7_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A Mixed
8A_Refrigerated_Diesel
8A TL/DryVan Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diesel
8B_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8B Mixed
8B Refrigerated Diesel
8B Specialized Diesel
8B TL/DryVan Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Low Red
50
40
50
50
50
50
20
10
20
70
60
20
50
40
100
40
300
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
Low Yellow
100
100
100
100
80
80
40
20
50
100
100
70
100
100
200
80
400
200
200
200
200
200
200
220
200
150
Mean
323
371
364
420
311
425
275
305
514
326
413
288
384
574
713
629
1,154
672
911
601
518
782
843
760
912
826
High Yellow
693
778
695
808
574
875
519
741
1,217
578
825
523
762
1,268
1,538
1,391
2,278
1,377
1,735
1,102
1,048
1,636
1,705
1,613
1,786
1,745
High Red
817
914
806
937
662
1,025
601
887
1,451
662
963
601
888
1,499
1,813
1,645
2,653
1,612
2,010
1,270
1,225
1,921
1,993
1,897
2,077
2,051
                            53

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Table 22. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
                    Annual Miles per Vehicle
Group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26


Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6 TL/DryVan Diesel
7_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8A Mixed
8A Refrigerated Dies
el
8A_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diese
I
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diese
I
8B_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Mixed
8B Refrigerated Dies
el
8B Specialized Diese
I
8B_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Sum

#Low
Red
4
6
1
3
0
6
1
0
2
1
4
2
0
4
0
1
1
0
4
0
2
4
14
0
19
2
81
2.6%
#Low
Yellow
3
2
5
0
0
5
1
0
2
2
1
0
1
3
1
1
1
2
7
2
2
27
19
3
31
2
123
3.9%
#High
Yellow
7
1
2
1
3
4
0
0
1
0
3
1
1
11
1
6
0
4
6
3
5
20
10
2
20
3
115
3.7%
#High
Red
2
4
3
2
3
3
1
2
1
4
5
0
4
3
0
1
0
4
3
0
3
13
11
4
22
2
100
3.2%
                              54

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Table 23. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
                        Miles per Gallon
Group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26


Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6 TL/DryVan Diesel
7_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8A Mixed
8A_Refrigerated_Die
sel
8A_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Dies
el
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Dies
el
8B_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Mixed
8B_Refrigerated_Die
sel
8B Specialized Dies
el
8B_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Sum

#Low
Red
1
0
3
0
0
4
0
1
1
2
3
0
1
3
0
2
0
3
2
1
3
15
13
3
22
3
86
2.7%
#Low
Yellow
2
3
0
2
4
0
0
1
0
4
2
2
5
5
2
1
0
4
4
3
2
15
10
1
14
2
88
2.8%
#High
Yellow
4
1
0
1
3
5
3
1
1
0
3
1
0
4
0
2
0
5
3
2
0
7
29
1
20
2
99
3.2%
#High
Red
3
2
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
8
2
2
1
0
1
0
2
7
5
0
21
1
63
2.0%
                              55

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Table 24. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
                         Revenue Miles
Group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26


Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6 TL/DryVan Diesel
7_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8A Mixed
8A_Refrigerated_Die
sel
8A_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Dies
el
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Dies
el
8B_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Mixed
8B_Refrigerated_Die
sel
8B Specialized Dies
el
8B_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Sum

#Low
Red
6
1
0
0
0
7
1
0
2
2
11
2
1
16
2
4
1
7
4
1
2
1
13
25
10
1
120
3.8%
#Low
Yellow
3
5
2
1
1
9
2
1
2
3
9
2
0
4
1
1
2
6
8
7
5
19
14
5
21
5
138
4.4%
#High
Yellow
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0
0.0%
#High
Red
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0
0.0%
                              56

-------
Table 25. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
                          Empty Miles
Grou
P
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26


Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
6 Mixed
6 Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8A Mixed
8A Refrigerated Dies
el
8A_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diese
I
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diese
I
8B_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Mixed
8B Refrigerated Dies
el
8B Specialized Diese
I
8B_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Sum

#Low
Red
21
19
18
13
14
23
6
18
7
15
26
8
16
27
3
13
1
12
6
1
10
60
27
2
43
4
413
13.2%
#Low
Yellow
14
4
8
1
12
10
0
4
5
12
15
2
11
17
1
6
1
13
5
1
24
59
51
2
103
0
381
12.2%
#High
Yellow
3
5
2
1
1
9
0
0
2
1
1
1
0
2
1
2
2
7
1
0
3
15
7
5
9
0
80
2.6%
#High
Red
6
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
11
3
1
18
3
4
0
16
3
0
1
1
11
0
3
0
84
2.7%
                              57

-------
Table 26. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
                      % Capacity Utilization
Grou
P
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26


Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
6 Mixed
6 Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8A Mixed
8A Refrigerated Dies
el
8A_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diese
I
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diese
I
8B_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Mixed
8B Refrigerated Dies
el
8B Specialized Diese
I
8B_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Sum

#Low
Red
2
2
2
0
1
5
0
1
0
3
3
0
3
6
1
1
2
7
7
3
5
28
22
4
35
6
149
4.8%
#Low
Yellow
4
4
1
5
4
3
0
3
1
2
14
2
4
9
2
7
0
5
9
0
4
12
10
2
30
1
138
4.4%
#High
Yellow
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
3
N/A
3
N/A
N/A
4
N/A
N/A
10
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
5
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
25
0.8%
#High
Red
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
3
N/A
0
N/A
N/A
6
N/A
N/A
5
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
11
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
25
0.8%
                               58

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Table 27. Number of Values Flagged by Fleet Group/Metric Combination
               Average Annual Idle Hours per Truck
Group
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26


Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6 TL/DryVan Diesel
7_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8A Mixed
8A Refrigerated Dies
el
8A_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Dies
el
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Dies
el
8B_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Mixed
8B Refrigerated Dies
el
8B Specialized Dies
el
8B_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Sum

#Low
Red
3
2
0
1
0
6
0
1
1
0
2
1
0
3
0
1
1
1
0
0
3
15
8
0
8
2
59
1.9%
#Low
Yellow
4
7
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
4
2
1
5
3
2
4
0
5
1
1
6
10
15
2
6
1
90
2.9%
#High
Yellow
2
7
3
2
3
3
1
2
0
2
1
3
1
3
1
4
1
9
15
1
3
21
29
0
72
7
196
6.3%
#High
Red
5
2
4
1
3
6
0
1
2
2
8
0
3
13
2
5
1
2
6
2
7
31
21
6
23
3
159
5.1%
                              59

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Absolute errors were also developed for each fleet category/metric combination.
Cutoffs for absolute errors are intended to prevent users from inadvertently entering
data with incorrect units and typos.  For this reason we have defined absolute errors to
ensure an adequate "safety" interval between the highest values observed in the
cleaned (no outlier) dataset. The recommended values for absolute errors and their
associated justifications are discussed below for each metric.

Annual Miles per Vehicle
The maximum number of miles a vehicle can accumulate in a year are constrained by
truck highway speed limits (typically 65 mph  or less) and the number of hours in a
year.34 Excluding engine down-time associated with maintenance and repairs, the
absolute maximum annual mileage possible for a truck is estimated to be ~500,000
miles per year.  This estimate is more than twice the highest observed value of 228,151
miles per year (for Class 8b TL/Dry Van  diesels). Therefore 500,000 miles per year
value is set as the absolute maximum for all vehicle classes. Values greater than 0 and
less than 500,000 are permissible.

Miles per Gallon
The maximum and minimum miles per gallon from the dataset (prior to cleaning) are
presented in Table 28.

                Table 28.  Maximum and Minimum Miles per Gallon
Group #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6 LTL/DryVan Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 LTL/DryVan Diesel
7 Mixed
7_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A Mixed
8A_Refrigerated_Diesel
8A TL/Dry Van Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
Min
2.0
5.4
5.0
4.8
5.7
4.2
6.4
5.7
4.4
5.6
1.2
5.8
4.9
2.8
4.9
4.4
4.5
Mean
12.9
10.2
9.3
8.4
8.0
7.8
7.3
8.7
7.7
7.6
7.3
7.7
6.3
6.2
5.9
6.3
5.2
Max
21.6
30. 035
14.9
13.7
10.3
10.4
8.9
10.8
11.6
9.8
11.9
10.8
8.0
9.0
7.1
8.3
6.3
34 While DOT regulations limit drivers' daily hours, some companies utilize driver teams to maximize on-road time.
35 Value for a hybrid electric truck. Hybrids are subject to separate validation ranges for the 2014 version of the
Truck Tool as discussed below. The maximum value for non-hybrid Class 3 diesel trucks was 14.4 mpg.
                                        60

-------
Group #
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Name
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diesel
8B_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8B Mixed
8B_Refrigerated_Diesel
8B Specialized Diesel
8B TL/DryVan Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Min
4.7
0.6
3.4
4.4
3.0
4.3
2.8
3.1
3.8
Mean
5.8
5.7
5.0
6.0
5.8
5.7
5.5
5.9
5.8
Max
6.6
7.0
6.4
7.1
7.3
7.1
6.8
7.9
7.0
[Note: Unlike the other parameters discussed above, miles per gallon values are
derived from other inputs (total miles and gallons).  Therefore any changes to address
absolute limits on MPG (as well as red and yellow warnings) must be handled through
updates to one or both of these primary inputs.]

As seen from the above table, fuel efficiency estimates can be very low (<1.0) and for
this reason no absolute lower bound is used for miles per gallon. To establish absolute
upper bounds for miles per gallon estimates the results from the PERE modeling
analysis previously developed for the 2010 Truck Model were used.  Background on the
PERE modeling exercise is provided in Appendix E.

Absolute maximum miles per gallon estimates were developed for conventional diesel
trucks using the PERE model, and are shown in Table 29 by truck class.

    Table 29. Maximum Diesel Miles per Gallon Estimates (PERE Model Basis)
Class
2b
3
4
5
6
7
8a
8b
Maximum MPG
25.0
23.3
20.2
18.7
18.0
14.5
11.2
11.2
Note that the maximum MPG estimates obtained from the PERE model are all
substantially higher than the maximum value observed for non-hybrid diesel trucks in
the 2011 Truck Tool data.
                                     61

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Non-Diesel MPG
The 2011 data submissions from SmartWay Truck partners did not include enough
information on non-diesel trucks in order to develop a robust distribution of mpg values
specific to non-diesels for validation purposes. Accordingly, engineering judgment was
used to adjust the diesel mpg values for other fuel types, accounting for general, relative
vehicle and/or fuel efficiency differences.  First, a ratio was developed for adjusting
diesel mpg values to comparable gasoline mpg values, based upon simulated modeling
performed by Argonne National Laboratory.36 The Argonne data for gas and diesel
trucks was based on PSAT simulations of a typical pickup in the Class 2b or Class 3
range. The fuel consumption was  reported for the same truck equipped with
both gasoline and diesel engines over the various EPA emissions and fuel economy
driving cycles. Using this data, a combined fuel economy was calculated using the
method from EPA's pre-2008 combined 2-cycle fuel economy using the  FTP and
Highway cycles as given in 40 CFR Part 600. This method uses a weighted harmonic
average of the two values, with the FTP weighted at 55% and the Highway weighted at
45%.

The difference in the calculated combined fuel economies for the gas- and diesel-
powered model results showed that the diesel had a 25.9% greater fuel  economy
than gasoline. These results are a direct volumetric comparison rather than in terms of
gasoline-equivalent gallons. As such,  the diesel  mpg values shown in Table 27 above
can be divided by 1.259 to obtain  comparable mpg ranges for gasoline vehicles.  Since
CNG vehicle fuel consumption is reported in terms of gasoline-equivalent gallons,  the
mpg validation ranges for CNG vehicles can be set equal to those for comparable
gasoline vehicles.

Validation ranges for LPG and LNG vehicles can be developed from the gasoline
ranges, dividing the gasoline values by the appropriate gasoline gallon-equivalent factor
for these fuels (1.35 for LPG and 1.52  for LNG),37 thereby adjusting mpg values for
volumetric energy density. Table 3028 presents the corresponding upper bound MPG
values for non-diesel vehicles by truck class.
      Table 30. Maximum Miles per Gallon Estimates - Non-Diesel Vehicles
Class
2b
3
4
5
6
Gasoline/CNG
19.9
18.5
16.0
14.9
14.3
LPG
18.5
17.3
15.0
13.9
13.3
LNG
16.4
15.3
13.3
12.3
11.8
36
  Delorme, A. et. al., Impact of Advanced Technologies on Medium-Duty Trucks Fuel Efficiency, Argonne National
Laboratory, 2010-01-1929.
37 https://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/prep/popups/gges.html
                                      62

-------
Class
7
8a
8b
Gasoline/CNG
11.5
8.9
8.9
LPG
10.7
8.3
8.3
LNG
9.5
7.4
7.4
Hybrid MPG
EPA's Physical Emission Rate Estimator (PERE) model was used in order to establish
estimates of the fuel economy benefit of hybridization of medium- and heavy-duty
trucks. The details of the modeling are presented in Appendix E.

However, the in-use fuel economy of hybrid vehicles is highly dependent upon drive
cycle. Specifically the expected hybrid truck fuel economy will vary depending upon the
relative fraction of highway versus urban driving. Therefore the MPG ranges used for
validation of hybrid fuel economy  are calculated using the following steps.

      Step 1 - Weight the following GALLON PER MILE (Not MPG) values based on
      the Highway/Urban split.

Gal/Mi - Urban
Group
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6 TL/DryVan Diesel
7_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8A Mixed
8A_Refrigerated_Die
sel
8A_TL/Dry
Low
Red
0.2641
0.2340
0.2090
0.2599
0.1951
0.2200
0.1906
0.1788
0.2350
0.1968
0.2506
0.2131
0.2184
0.2747
0.2502
0.2477
Low
Yellow
0.1813
0.1857
0.1763
0.2127
0.1765
0.1972
0.1783
0.1628
0.2056
0.1806
0.2169
0.1915
0.2104
0.2519
0.2402
0.2337
Mean
0.0942
0.1147
0.1213
0.1392
0.1390
0.1467
0.1514
0.1254
0.1495
0.1450
0.1545
0.1467
0.1837
0.1950
0.2036
0.1966
High
Yellow
0.0636
0.0830
0.0925
0.1026
0.1147
0.1179
0.1301
0.1029
0.1175
0.1211
0.1200
0.1202
0.1653
0.1591
0.1793
0.1697
High
Red
0.0576
0.0760
0.0861
0.0943
0.1080
0.1111
0.1242
0.0965
0.1097
0.1148
0.1117
0.1130
0.1607
0.1492
0.1716
0.1630
                                     63

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Gal/Mi - Urban
Group
#

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Name
Van_Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Dies
el
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Dies
el
8B_LTL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Mixed
8B_Refrigerated_Die
sel
8B Specialized Dies
el
8B_TL/Dry
Van Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Low
Red

0.2980
0.2434
0.2912
0.3768
0.2383
0.2597
0.2656
0.3389
0.2534
0.2596
Low
Yellow

0.2781
0.2338
0.2727
0.3371
0.2250
0.2493
0.2500
0.2995
0.2436
0.2492
Mean

0.2407
0.2056
0.2248
0.2562
0.2025
0.2149
0.2236
0.2342
0.2147
0.2149
High
Yellow

0.2158
0.1835
0.1942
0.2033
0.1814
0.1889
0.1992
0.1894
0.1891
0.1888
High
Red

0.2052
0.1780
0.1857
0.1912
0.1761
0.1807
0.1931
0.1789
0.1836
0.1806
Gal/Mi - Highway
Group #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6 TL/DryVan Diesel
7_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A LTL/DryVan Diesel
8A Mixed
8A Refrigerated Diesel
8A TL/DryVan Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
Low Red
0.1759
0.1594
0.1482
0.1805
0.1470
0.1657
0.1436
0.1347
0.1770
0.1513
0.1928
0.1640
0.1558
0.1960
0.1785
0.1767
0.2126
Low Yellow
0.1208
0.1265
0.1250
0.1477
0.1330
0.1486
0.1343
0.1226
0.1549
0.1389
0.1668
0.1473
0.1501
0.1796
0.1714
0.1667
0.1984
Mean
0.0627
0.0781
0.0860
0.0967
0.1047
0.1105
0.1141
0.0944
0.1127
0.1115
0.1188
0.1128
0.1310
0.1391
0.1452
0.1402
0.1717
High Yellow
0.0424
0.0565
0.0656
0.0713
0.0864
0.0889
0.0980
0.0775
0.0885
0.0931
0.0923
0.0924
0.1179
0.1135
0.1279
0.1210
0.1539
High Red
0.0383
0.0518
0.0611
0.0655
0.0813
0.0837
0.0936
0.0727
0.0826
0.0883
0.0859
0.0869
0.1147
0.1065
0.1224
0.1163
0.1464
                                    64

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Gal/Mi - Highway
Group #
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Name
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diesel
8B LTL/DryVan Diesel
8B Mixed
8B Refrigerated Diesel
8B Specialized Diesel
8B TL/DryVan Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Low Red
0.1736
0.2078
0.2688
0.1700
0.1853
0.1894
0.2418
0.1807
0.1852
Low Yellow
0.1668
0.1945
0.2405
0.1605
0.1779
0.1783
0.2137
0.1738
0.1778
Mean
0.1467
0.1604
0.1828
0.1445
0.1533
0.1595
0.1670
0.1532
0.1533
High Yellow
0.1309
0.1385
0.1450
0.1294
0.1347
0.1421
0.1351
0.1349
0.1347
High Red
0.1270
0.1325
0.1364
0.1256
0.1289
0.1378
0.1276
0.1310
0.1288
      Example - Truck Class 2b has 40% urban, 60% highway.   The Low Red
      Gallon/Mile value is therefore 0.2641 x 0.40 + 0.1759 x 0.60 = 0.2112

      Step 2: Convert the weighted gallon per mile values back to MPG
      Example: 0.2112 gal/mi = 4.74 MPG

      Step 3:  Use these final, weighted, converted MPG values for validation.
Electric Truck Efficiency
Mi/kWhr estimates for battery electric trucks were developed based on available data
sources and engineering judgment. The average value for Class 2b trucks was
assumed to equal the mi/kWhr value estimates for large SUVs in EPA's MARKAL model
(3.01). The values for Class 4 and 6 electric trucks (1.43 and 1.00 respectively) were
taken from Calstart's E-Truck Task Force Business Case Calculator. Values for Class 3
and 5 trucks were based on simple averages of the Class 2b, 4, and 6 values.  Given
the lack of available data for the heavier truck classes, values for Class 7 (0.75), Class
8a (0.5) and Class 8b (0.4) were based on engineering judgment.

Once average mi/kWhr estimates were derived, "red"  and "yellow" ranges were
established based on simple multiplicative factors applied to the averages - Low red
from 0 to 0.5 x average; low yellow from 0.5 x average to 0.75 x average; high yellow
from 1.25 x average to 1.5 x average; and high red from 1.5 x average to 10 x average
(absolute max).

Percent Revenue Miles
Revenue miles were frequently equal to total miles in the dataset. Accordingly, no
absolute upper (or lower) bound was set for this field,  beyond requiring all values to be >
Oand <100.
                                      65

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Percent Empty Miles
Empty miles were occasionally equal to 0 in the dataset. Accordingly, no absolute lower
(or upper) bound was set for this field, beyond requiring all values to be >0 and <100.

Percent Biodiesel
While the maximum observed blend level for biodiesel was 20 percent, B100 use is
possible. Therefore no absolute upper (or lower) bound was set for this field, beyond
requiring all values to be >0 and <100.

Average Payload
The maximum and minimum payloads from the dataset (prior to cleaning) are presented
in Table 31.

        Table 31. Maximum and Minimum Observed Payloads (Short Tons)
Group #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 Mixed
7_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A Mixed
8A Refrigerated Diesel
8A TL/DryVan Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diesel
8B_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8B Mixed
8B Refrigerated Diesel
8B Specialized Diesel
8B TL/DryVan Diesel
Min
0.1
0.1
0.5
1.3
0.9
0.9
2.5
2.0
0.9
1.8
1.1
4.5
6.0
1.9
6.3
3.8
9.3
15.0
14.8
20.0
7.8
7.5
13.2
7.3
6.5
Mean
1.0
1.7
2.4
3.1
4.6
4.5
3.6
4.2
4.1
6.0
6.0
6.4
10.6
11.3
13.3
11.4
19.6
20.5
23.2
27.6
18.2
20.3
20.9
24.4
18.9
Max
1.938
3.0
4.0
5.3
6.3
6.5
4.9
6.0
6.9
8.7
20.0
12.7
15.0
24.0
21.0
20.0
24.5
24.5
33.3
40.0
27.9
33.1
27.5
37.0
50.0
  Three extreme outliers for Class 2b trucks were dropped for the purposes of establishing maximum upper bounds:
16.0, 13.0 and 5.0 tons.
                                       66

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Group #
26
Name
8B Tanker Diesel
Min
17.5
Mean
24.6
Max
34.6
Based on a review of previous out of range values, unit conversion problems are the
most common source of data entry errors for payload.  One type of error results from
data being entered in pounds instead of short tons, resulting in overestimates by a
factor of 2,000. Such errors should be easy to prevent using a reasonable upper bound
ton level. Another possible source of error could be reporting metric or long tons
instead of short tons, although detecting these errors will be extremely difficult, due to
the small difference in units (roughly 10 percent difference).  Finally, note that standard
payload limitations can be waived by obtaining permits for heavy loads, or by avoiding
over-the-road operation.39 Accordingly, the absolute upper bound payload levels were
set equal to 3 times the maximum observed values shown in Table 31.

However, no absolute lower-bound payload value was set, to allow for light package
and specialty deliveries.  Therefore the only low end constraint is the requirement that
payloads be > 0.

Average Volume
The maximum and minimum observed volumes from the dataset (prior to cleaning) are
presented in Table 32.
  One SmartWay Truck Partner indicated unusually high payloads for their Class 2b truck fleet, but noted they only
use their trucks in terminal operations.
                                        67

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        Table 32. Maximum and Minimum Observed Volumes (cubic feet)
Group #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6 LTL/DryVan Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6 Package Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 Mixed
7 TL/DryVan Diesel
8A LTL/DryVan Diesel
8A Mixed
8A Refrigerated Diesel
8A_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B_Heavy/Bulk_Diesel
8B LTL/DryVan Diesel
8B Mixed
8B Refrigerated Diesel
8B_Specialized_Diesel
8B_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Min
1
1
54
141
693
336
141
300
693
693
267
728
1,000
1
1
1,454
2,844
1,516
2,341
1,000
2,205
1,991
3,171
450
1,159
702
Mean
343
498
659
1,215
1,375
1,324
1,382
1,398
1,255
1,687
1,601
1,581
3,272
2,862
2,759
3,410
4,424
2,387
3,485
3,114
3,615
3,565
3,721
2,604
3,740
1,210
Max
1,000
940
1,185
1,894
1,115
878
1,894
1,800
1,52140
3,765
3,521
3,521
3,852
6,302
3,780
3,848
8,350
3,892
5,000
4,824
4,925
4,896
4,068
5,843
6,316
4,004
Maximum volumes are extremely difficult to define given the presence of non-uniform
body styles, oversized loads, etc.  Accordingly a simple upper bound was set at 3 times
the maximum observed values shown above.

However, no absolute lower-bound volume value was set, to allow for small package
and specialty deliveries.  Therefore the only low end constraint is the requirement that
volumes be > 0.
 One Class 6 LTL fleet with an extreme outlier volume of 12,000 cubic feet was dropped for the purposes of this
analysis.
                                      68

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Percent Capacity Utilization
Capacity utilization was frequently equal to 100 in the dataset.  Accordingly, no upper
bound was set for this field. In addition, no absolute lower-bound was set for utilization
either, to allow for small package and LTL/specialty deliveries.  The only requirement is
that all values be >0 and <100.

The new Truck Tool adds a new Data Source option for Dray carriers allows them to
select an industry average capacity utilization factor, since these carriers may not know
how their containers are loaded.  To calculate the industry average value the following
calculation steps were performed:

1) All  truck carriers with a Dray Operation tag were identified from the 2012 Truck Tool
submittals -109 dray carriers with 20,774 trucks.  75.9% of these trucks had a Chassis
Body  Type tag, 23.2% had a Dry Van tag, and 0.9% had a Mixed tag. No other body
type tags were reported for dray carriers.  Essentially all of these trucks  were Class 8b
diesels.

2) All  non-dray carriers with Chassis, Dry Van, and Mixed Body Type tags were
selected, and the average capacity utilization was calculated for Body Type tag,
weighted by the number of trucks. (This approach assumes that none of the capacity
utilization values reported for Dray carriers were reliable, regardless  of their Data
Source selection.)  There were 229,349 trucks in this data set.  The weighted average
capacity  utilization values for non-dray carriers were as follows.

Chassis        90.5%
Dry Van        84.8%
Mixed         85.4%

3) The weighted average capacity utilization values from Step 2 were combined with the
body type percentage distribution from Step 1 to obtain a  single, industry average
capacity  utilization value for use by Dray carriers of 89.13%. This estimate applies for
all truck classes and fuel types, as the data set is very thin for anything other than class
8b diesels. Note that this value will only be used if a Dray Carrier selects the "I don't
know  my cap utilization" Data Source selection. Also note that the default option is only
available to carriers that specified a non-zero Dray operations percentage in the Fleet
Characterization section - otherwise the new Data Source selection will  not appear.
Percent Urban/Highway Miles
There is no clear distributional pattern associated with these data fields, with values
frequently ranging from 0 to 100. Therefore no lower or upper bound values are set.

Average Annual Idle Hours per Truck
The maximum and minimum observed idle hours from the dataset (prior to cleaning) are
presented in Table 33.
                                       69

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        Table 33. Maximum and Minimum Observed Idle Hours per Truck
Group #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Name
2B Mixed
3 Mixed
4 Mixed
5 Mixed
6 LTL/DryVan Diesel
6 Mixed
6_Moving
6_Package_Diesel
6_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
7 LTL/DryVan Diesel
7 Mixed
7_TL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8A Mixed
8A_Refrigerated_Diesel
8A TL/DryVan Diesel
8B AutoCarrier Diesel
8B Dray Diesel
8B Flatbed Diesel
8B Heavy/Bulk Diesel
8B_LTL/Dry Van_Diesel
8B Mixed
8B_Refrigerated_Diesel
8B Specialized Diesel
8B TL/DryVan Diesel
8B Tanker Diesel
Min
0
20
50
30
0
2
22
8
0
75
55
3
61
0
130
25
240
78
100
161
61
0
41
140
17
54
Mean
323
371
364
420
311
425
275
305
514
326
413
288
384
574
713
629
1,154
672
911
601
518
782
843
760
912
826
Max
1,785
1,267
1,524
1,462
720
1,825
576
1,196
1,820
1,440
2,077
598
2,071
2,574
2,000
2,016
3,380
2,080
2,100
1,401
1,675
2,475
2,349
2,200
3,410
2,816
Absolute bounds on idle hours are based on simple operational constraints: a truck can
idle no more than 24 hours per day, 7 days a week, or 8,760 hours per year. Zero
hours are also acceptable values with explanations.
                                     70

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71

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4.0   Performance Metrics
The Truck Tool allows the user to calculate their emissions performance using a
number of different metrics, at different levels of aggregation.  Available performance
metrics include:

      •     Grams per mile
      •     Grams per Payload Ton-Mile
      •     Grams per Thousand Cubic Foot-Miles
      •     Grams per Thousand Utilized Cubic Foot-Miles

The Internal Metrics report within the Truck Tool presents the  results of 36 calculations
(4x4x3 = 48), which represent the following four calculations for each of the three
pollutants (C02, NOx, PM10 and PM25) and for each of three different mileage types
(total, payload, and loaded). Note that all capitalized fields represent fields in the user
interface:

      1.     g/mile: ĢE / M
            where E = Emissions, M = Miles Driven
      2.     g/avg payload ton-mile: ĢE / (M x AP)
            where E = Emissions, M = Miles Driven, AP = Average Payload
      3.     g/avg cubic foot volume: ĢE / (M x ACV)
            where E = Emissions, M = Miles Driven, ACV = Average Capacity Volume
      4.     g/avg utilized cubic foot: ĢE / (M x ACV) / CU
            where E = Emissions, M = Miles Driven, ACV = Average Capacity Volume,
            CU = % Cube Utilization

For all four calculations:
      Emissions = grams of pollutant (as specified above)
      Miles Driven = Total Miles, Payload Miles, or Loaded Miles (Total Miles minus
      Empty Miles)

As shown in the equations above, summations are performed for the different metrics.
Each of the metrics is automatically aggregated across model years (for NOx and PM)
for all reporting purposes.  Additional aggregation may be reported across truck
classes, fuel types, divisions, and at the company  level, as specified by the user.
                                      72

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5.0   Port Dray Program Inputs and Calculations

Those fleets with 75% or more of their operation in the Dray Operation Type category
are eligible to participate in SmartWay's Port Drayage Program. This voluntary program
recognizes Partners for reducing diesel emissions from port drayage trucks.
Participating Partners must provide information on their drayage fleet's model year
distribution, use of PM control equipment, auxiliary power units (APUs), SmartWay tires,
and LNG trucks in order to obtain an Environmental Performance Rating for the
program.

The following summarizes the calculations used in the Truck Tool to calculate Port Dray
Program Environmental Performance Rating.

Baseline COi Emissions from Average Dray Truck Fleet

To calculate baseline C02 emissions from the average dray truck fleet, the total number
of trucks within a single model year group, as supplied by the user,  is multiplied by an
average model year distribution factor, as seen in Table 34.

     Table 34. Average Model Year Distribution Factors by Model Year Group
Model Year Group
Pre-1988
1988-1993
1994-2002
2003 - 2006
2007 - 2009
Post 2009
Average Model Year Distribution Factor
0.061
0.190
0.632
0.083
0.033
0.000
Then, the fuel consumption is calculated by dividing the average miles per truck, also
supplied by the user, by an assumed 5.47 miles per gallon.41 This calculated fuel
consumption is then multiplied by the C02 emission factor of 0.01015.  C02 emissions
across all model year groups are summed to obtain the total baseline C02 emissions.

Untreated and Controlled COi Emissions

To calculate C02 emissions from untreated trucks (e.g., without PM retrofits), as well as
trucks with  diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), closed crankcase ventilation (CCVs), flow
through filters, and diesel particulate filters in the fleet, the fuel consumption is
41 This and other calculation elements used to derive the Dray Program Environmental Performance Score are
completely independent of the performance metric calculations in other portions of the Truck Tool. For example,
the truck fleet gram per mile and gram per ton-mile performance metrics are calculated using the fleet's actual fuel
efficiency, not the 5.47 value used for the Dray Program calculations.
                                        73

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calculated by dividing the average miles per truck, supplied by the user, by the assumed
value of 5.47 miles per gallon. This calculated fuel consumption is then multiplied by
the C02 emission factor of 0.01015. C02 emissions across all model year bins are
summed to obtain the total untreated plus controlled vehicle C02 emissions.

Baseline PM Emissions from Average Dray Truck Fleet

To calculate baseline PM emissions from the average dray truck fleet, the total number
of trucks within a single model year group, as supplied by the user, is multiplied by an
average model year distribution factor, as shown in Table 34. The resulting value is
then multiplied by the average miles per truck, as supplied by the user, as well as the
specified PM emission factor, as shown  in Table 35.  PM emissions across all model
year bins are summed to obtain the total baseline PM emissions.

              Table 35. PM Emission Factors by Model Year Group
Model Year Group
Pre '88
88-93
94-'02
03-06
07-09
post 2009
PM Emission Factor
3.428E-06
2.535E-06
1.157E-06
6.834E-07
9.921E-08
7.716E-08
PM Emissions from Untreated Trucks

To calculate PM emissions from untreated trucks, the total number of untreated trucks
within a single model year bin, as supplied by the user, is multiplied by the average
miles per truck, also supplied by the user, as well as an appropriate PM emission factor,
as shown in Table 35.  PM emissions across all model year groups are summed to
obtain the total PM emissions from untreated trucks within the fleet.

PM Emissions from Controlled Trucks

To calculate PM emissions from controlled trucks, the total number of controlled trucks
within a single model year group,  as supplied by the user, is multiplied by the average
miles per truck, also supplied by the user, as well as an appropriate PM emission factor,
as shown in Table 35.  This value is then multiplied by a control factor, as shown in
Table 36. PM emissions across all model year groups are summed to obtain the total
PM emissions from untreated trucks within the fleet.
                                       74

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                 Table 36. PM Control Factors by Control Type
Control Type
DOC & CCVs
Flow Through Filter
Diesel Participate
PM Control Factor
70%
50%
10%
Baseline NOx Emissions from Average Dray Truck Fleet

To calculate baseline NOX emissions from the average dray truck fleet, the total number
of trucks within a single model year group, as supplied by the user, is multiplied by an
average model year distribution factor, as seen in Table 34. The resulting value is then
multiplied by the average miles per truck, as supplied by the user, as well as an
appropriate NOX emission factor, as shown in Table 37. NOX emissions across all
model year groups are summed to obtain the total baseline NOX emissions.

             Table 37.  NOX Emission Factors by Model Year Group
Model Year Group
Pre '88
88-'93
94-02
03-'06
07-'09
post 2009
PM Emission Factor
2.65E-05
2.51 E-05
2.38E-05
1 .68E-05
1.01 E-05
3E-06
NOx Emissions from Untreated and Controlled Trucks

To calculate NOX emissions from untreated trucks, the total number of untreated trucks
within a single model year group, as supplied by the user, is multiplied by the average
miles per truck, also supplied by the user, as well as an appropriate NOX emission
factor, as seen in Table 35.  NOX emissions across all model year groups are summed
to obtain the total NOX emissions from untreated trucks within the fleet.

Reductions in COi Emissions from Auxiliary Power Units (APUs), SmartWay Approved
Tires, and LNG Vehicles

The user-supplied number of vehicles with each control is divided by the total number of
trucks in the fleet and multiplied by a control factor, as shown in Table 38.
                                      75

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                   Table 38.  Control Strategy Control Factors
Control Type
APUs
SmartWay Tires
LNG
PM Control Factor
11%
2%
21%
The reductions are then summed across all control types and multiplied by the sum of
C02 emissions for untreated trucks, and trucks with DOCs & CCVs, flow through filters,
and diesel particulate traps installed. This value is then multiplied by -1 to indicate a
reduction in emissions.

Reductions in PM Emissions from Auxiliary Power Units (APUs)

The user-supplied number of trucks with APUs installed is divided by the total number of
trucks in the fleet and multiplied by a control factor of 8%.  The reductions are then
multiplied by the sum of PM emissions for untreated trucks, and trucks with DOCs &
CCVs, flow through filters, and diesel particulate traps installed. This value is then
multiplied by -1 to indicate a reduction in emissions.

Reductions in NOx Emissions from Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) and SmartWay Tires

The user-supplied number of trucks with APUs and SmartWay Tires installed is divided
by the total number of trucks in the fleet and multiplied  by a control factor of 11 % and
2% for APUs and SmartWay tires, respectively.  The reductions are then multiplied by
the sum of NOX emissions for untreated trucks, and trucks with DOCs & CCVs, flow
through filters, and diesel particulate traps installed.  This value is then multiplied by -1
to indicate a reduction in emissions.

Total Fleet Emissions

The total fleet emissions are calculated by subtracting the reductions that were
calculated for each pollutant from the sum of the emissions, by pollutant, for untreated
trucks and trucks equipped with DOCs & CCVs,  flow through filters, and diesel
particulate traps.

Change in Emissions from Baseline

Total fleet emissions are subtracted from the baseline emissions for each pollutant to
determine the change in emissions from baseline.
                                       76

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Percent Change in Emissions

The change in emissions from baseline is divided by the baseline emissions, by
pollutant.

Fleet Composite Score and Environmental Performance Rating

The fleet composite score determines the dray fleet's Environmental Performance
Rating, which is used by shippers to assess their status in the Port Dray Program. The
fleet composite score is determined by the formula:

      [CO2 % C ange in Emissions  NOX % C ange in Emissions  PM % C ange in Emissions-.     . _ _
                          H	—	1	—	]* -100
               40
                                     80
                                                           80
The Environmental Performance Rating is assigned based on the value of the fleet
composite score, as shown in Table 39.

           Table 39.  Environmental Performance Rating Assignments
Fleet Composite Score
<0.05
>0.05 and <0.499
>0.499and Ģ1.00
>1.00and <1.8
>1.8
Environmental
Performance Rating
No Rating
Average
Good
Very Good
Outstanding
Appendix F shows a detailed breakdown of all equations in EPA's Drayage Calculator,
which is used as the basis of the drayage calculations within the SmartWay Truck Tool.
                                      77

-------
Appendix A:  MOVES2014-based NOx/PM25 Emission Factors (g/mi)

-------
Year&
Class
1987-2b
1987-3
1987-4
1987-5
1987-6
1987-7
1987-8a
1987-8b
1988-2b
1988-3
1988-4
1988-5
1988-6
1988-7
1988-8a
1988-8b
1989-2b
1989-3
1989-4
1989-5
1989-6
1989-7
1989-8a
1989-8b
1990-2b
1990-3
1990-4
1990-5
1990-6
1990-7
1990-8a
1990-8b
1991-2b
1991-3
1991-4
1991-5
1991-6
1991-7
1991-8a
1991-8b
1992-2b
1992-3
1992-4
1992-5
1992-6
Diesel
NOx
Decel
0.891
0.890
0.824
0.873
0.862
0.777
0.684
0.577
0.725
0.879
0.842
0.850
0.857
0.812
0.711
0.578
0.806
0.888
0.845
0.863
0.840
0.847
0.732
0.565
0.544
0.687
0.682
0.671
0.647
0.641
0.529
0.414
0.558
0.634
0.575
0.613
0.604
0.560
0.450
0.370
0.500
0.604
0.634
0.608
0.595
Diesel
NOx
Oto25
12.460
12.461
11.533
12.265
12.571
12.935
13.340
13.738
10.809
12.551
11.771
12.492
12.655
12.795
13.241
13.682
12.428
12.423
11.799
12.491
12.710
12.665
13.165
13.732
8.052
9.527
9.531
9.505
9.819
9.814
10.301
10.660
7.129
8.869
9.155
7.962
9.012
9.136
9.573
9.851
6.269
8.572
8.854
8.540
9.036
Diesel
NOx
25 to 50
19.229
19.250
17.901
19.067
20.417
23.587
26.498
29.115
16.306
19.898
18.216
20.481
20.871
22.406
25.783
28.865
20.990
19.139
18.248
20.153
21.496
21.202
25.245
29.187
12.157
14.783
14.700
14.914
16.628
16.760
20.466
22.934
10.693
13.947
16.433
12.375
15.286
16.716
20.010
21.741
9.288
13.387
13.863
13.514
15.562
Diesel
NOx
50 +
39.919
39.993
41.763
40.767
43.283
52.695
62.590
72.357
35.229
41.515
41.174
43.982
44.234
49.014
60.094
71.675
45.154
39.602
41.071
42.851
46.209
45.491
58.402
72.979
26.762
30.945
30.944
31.850
35.719
36.277
48.388
58.095
23.721
28.566
35.371
27.818
32.198
36.791
48.383
54.871
21.445
27.781
28.379
29.425
33.040
Diesel
NOx
Highway
17.119
17.182
18.582
17.795
19.881
26.288
31.386
35.458
15.652
18.531
18.103
20.495
20.675
24.034
30.191
35.113
21.812
17.042
18.031
19.624
22.134
21.659
29.362
35.609
12.027
13.515
13.289
14.063
17.069
17.463
24.261
28.106
10.718
12.373
17.450
12.594
15.298
18.387
24.075
26.540
9.932
12.072
12.167
13.000
15.850
Diesel
PM2.5
Decel
0.0068
0.0068
0.0073
0.0069
0.0066
0.0058
0.0049
0.0039
0.0067
0.0081
0.0083
0.0079
0.0078
0.0073
0.0061
0.0046
0.0073
0.0082
0.0083
0.0080
0.0077
0.0077
0.0064
0.0045
0.0065
0.0083
0.0083
0.0082
0.0077
0.0076
0.0059
0.0042
0.0100
0.0086
0.0075
0.0102
0.0081
0.0073
0.0052
0.0037
0.0091
0.0082
0.0085
0.0086
0.0078
Diesel
PM2.5
Oto25
0.367
0.368
0.299
0.357
0.406
0.513
0.626
0.734
0.261
0.307
0.296
0.315
0.318
0.334
0.372
0.404
0.318
0.299
0.296
0.312
0.326
0.323
0.370
0.409
0.258
0.308
0.305
0.309
0.331
0.333
0.387
0.422
0.223
0.293
0.313
0.260
0.304
0.316
0.349
0.361
0.187
0.281
0.291
0.284
0.307
Diesel
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.748
0.751
0.559
0.723
0.888
1.261
1.625
1.971
0.421
0.537
0.476
0.579
0.595
0.688
0.886
1.061
0.619
0.495
0.475
0.557
0.632
0.617
0.855
1.080
0.408
0.511
0.494
0.515
0.635
0.647
0.927
1.109
0.288
0.376
0.597
0.331
0.496
0.624
0.917
1.078
0.245
0.358
0.371
0.353
0.518
Diesel
PM2.5
50 +
2.706
2.710
2.315
2.643
2.868
3.350
3.937
4.567
1.366
1.576
1.668
1.619
1.602
1.653
1.748
1.845
1.587
1.560
1.667
1.611
1.633
1.630
1.751
1.864
1.346
1.590
1.603
1.623
1.648
1.659
1.800
1.912
0.963
1.151
1.361
1.108
1.263
1.399
1.762
1.975
0.849
1.114
1.148
1.153
1.288
Diesel
PM2.5
Highway
1.176
1.178
0.999
1.157
1.293
1.581
1.847
2.098
0.579
0.651
0.672
0.674
0.671
0.704
0.759
0.804
0.676
0.639
0.671
0.667
0.689
0.685
0.756
0.811
0.574
0.650
0.651
0.662
0.693
0.698
0.779
0.825
0.390
0.448
0.602
0.434
0.536
0.624
0.798
0.886
0.353
0.438
0.445
0.445
0.551
A-l

-------
Year&
Class
1992-7
1992-8a
1992-8b
1993-2b
1993-3
1993-4
1993-5
1993-6
1993-7
1993-8a
1993-8b
1994-2b
1994-3
1994-4
1994-5
1994-6
1994-7
1994-8a
1994-8b
1995-2b
1995-3
1995-4
1995-5
1995-6
1995-7
1995-8a
1995-8b
1996-2b
1996-3
1996-4
1996-5
1996-6
1996-7
1996-8a
1996-8b
1997-2b
1997-3
1997-4
1997-5
1997-6
1997-7
1997-8a
1997-8b
1998-2b
1998-3
Diesel
NOx
Decel
0.562
0.445
0.365
0.597
0.623
0.626
0.628
0.599
0.590
0.450
0.368
0.471
0.583
0.634
0.614
0.599
0.567
0.433
0.373
0.542
0.625
0.621
0.605
0.598
0.575
0.442
0.379
0.538
0.632
0.620
0.589
0.591
0.554
0.435
0.375
0.474
0.606
0.637
0.610
0.617
0.600
0.471
0.393
0.366
0.646
Diesel
NOx
Oto25
9.055
9.625
9.862
7.711
8.610
8.934
8.769
8.952
9.051
9.615
9.872
7.022
8.062
8.852
8.647
8.867
9.117
9.645
9.863
6.366
8.716
8.734
8.785
8.979
9.087
9.641
9.865
6.599
8.843
9.005
8.758
9.098
9.231
9.751
9.965
5.166
8.537
8.907
8.661
8.960
9.037
9.653
9.928
3.206
6.724
Diesel
NOx
25 to 50
16.407
20.234
21.815
11.654
13.378
14.424
13.778
15.193
15.775
20.150
21.840
10.701
12.443
13.864
13.707
14.900
16.521
20.466
21.766
9.361
13.672
13.906
14.432
15.291
16.241
20.363
21.731
9.656
13.789
14.670
14.660
15.767
17.019
20.599
21.873
7.315
13.475
13.852
13.763
14.603
15.317
19.822
21.588
4.499
10.327
Diesel
NOx
50 +
36.171
48.820
55.175
25.045
27.579
29.640
28.668
32.259
33.738
48.517
55.159
23.708
26.514
28.401
29.360
31.960
36.201
49.996
54.806
21.676
28.326
28.898
30.829
32.522
35.333
49.424
54.514
22.066
28.651
30.690
32.306
34.090
38.144
50.616
55.418
17.663
28.552
28.619
30.031
30.830
32.907
47.340
54.062
12.996
26.279
Diesel
NOx
Highway
18.035
24.324
26.643
11.121
11.965
13.311
12.453
15.353
16.421
24.200
26.660
10.840
11.762
12.177
12.956
15.079
18.019
24.756
26.550
10.013
12.311
12.835
14.192
15.466
17.430
24.572
26.481
10.098
12.426
14.012
15.410
16.619
19.131
25.035
26.791
8.350
12.896
12.265
13.443
14.107
15.710
23.767
26.358
6.413
11.398
Diesel
PM2.5
Decel
0.0074
0.0051
0.0036
0.0098
0.0088
0.0084
0.0086
0.0080
0.0078
0.0051
0.0036
0.0122
0.0153
0.0163
0.0161
0.0153
0.0140
0.0089
0.0066
0.0157
0.0164
0.0163
0.0158
0.0153
0.0144
0.0092
0.0068
0.0161
0.0162
0.0156
0.0151
0.0146
0.0133
0.0087
0.0066
0.0146
0.0161
0.0166
0.0161
0.0159
0.0153
0.0101
0.0072
0.0088
0.0128
Diesel
PM2.5
Oto25
0.313
0.350
0.363
0.243
0.280
0.295
0.288
0.301
0.307
0.348
0.363
0.388
0.454
0.484
0.478
0.479
0.476
0.462
0.451
0.422
0.490
0.489
0.486
0.487
0.483
0.461
0.448
0.432
0.481
0.480
0.472
0.474
0.471
0.457
0.449
0.384
0.484
0.499
0.486
0.492
0.487
0.456
0.441
0.078
0.149
Diesel
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.595
0.935
1.073
0.312
0.357
0.418
0.366
0.491
0.543
0.935
1.081
0.435
0.528
0.566
0.568
0.697
0.881
1.342
1.487
0.452
0.570
0.600
0.645
0.735
0.847
1.333
1.488
0.475
0.576
0.661
0.692
0.799
0.944
1.366
1.505
0.396
0.598
0.568
0.581
0.659
0.747
1.280
1.480
0.115
0.249
Diesel
PM2.5
50 +
1.375
1.778
1.976
1.024
1.117
1.188
1.149
1.262
1.312
1.774
1.981
1.258
1.473
1.586
1.654
1.666
1.705
1.879
1.926
1.284
1.597
1.604
1.676
1.670
1.707
1.870
1.914
1.324
1.580
1.612
1.688
1.667
1.723
1.871
1.927
1.127
1.583
1.624
1.701
1.654
1.678
1.823
1.890
0.481
0.830
Diesel
PM2.5
Highway
0.609
0.809
0.881
0.409
0.438
0.480
0.446
0.536
0.572
0.810
0.886
0.477
0.537
0.564
0.587
0.627
0.686
0.824
0.861
0.472
0.567
0.578
0.612
0.634
0.675
0.820
0.859
0.487
0.567
0.600
0.635
0.655
0.706
0.827
0.865
0.417
0.575
0.569
0.600
0.606
0.638
0.800
0.852
0.201
0.320
A-2

-------
Year&
Class
1998-4
1998-5
1998-6
1998-7
1998-8a
1998-8b
1999-2b
1999-3
1999-4
1999-5
1999-6
1999-7
1999-8a
1999-8b
2000-2b
2000-3
2000-4
2000-5
2000-6
2000-7
2000-8a
2000-8b
2001 -2b
2001-3
2001-4
2001-5
2001-6
2001-7
2001 -8a
2001-8b
2002-2b
2002-3
2002-4
2002-5
2002-6
2002-7
2002-8a
2002-8b
2003-2b
2003-3
2003-4
2003-5
2003-6
2003-7
2003-8a
Diesel
NOx
Decel
0.666
0.653
0.661
0.642
0.499
0.411
0.364
0.355
0.352
0.352
0.346
0.345
0.295
0.264
0.333
0.351
0.352
0.352
0.348
0.343
0.302
0.266
0.367
0.357
0.353
0.353
0.344
0.345
0.288
0.264
0.362
0.343
0.340
0.340
0.335
0.332
0.296
0.262
0.148
0.491
0.548
0.548
0.542
0.534
0.463
Diesel
NOx
Oto25
6.892
6.754
6.864
6.913
7.709
8.051
2.723
4.185
4.289
4.304
4.266
4.438
6.297
6.981
2.925
4.228
4.310
4.328
4.275
4.607
6.047
6.958
2.417
4.193
4.302
4.314
4.399
4.434
6.430
6.936
2.394
3.918
4.089
4.089
4.047
4.355
5.992
6.871
1.484
3.436
3.641
3.641
3.635
3.792
4.577
Diesel
NOx
25 to 50
10.645
10.450
10.652
11.204
15.705
17.416
3.530
5.530
5.692
5.741
5.759
6.239
11.339
13.070
3.786
5.602
5.754
5.813
5.752
6.686
10.685
13.009
3.123
5.551
5.713
5.752
6.136
6.208
11.681
12.975
3.097
5.158
5.419
5.419
5.420
6.257
10.663
12.866
2.279
4.253
4.489
4.489
4.517
4.948
7.061
Diesel
NOx
50 +
26.903
27.229
27.188
28.990
44.060
50.912
10.496
15.923
16.303
16.443
16.622
17.794
32.741
38.801
11.396
16.096
16.472
16.643
16.584
18.739
30.301
38.514
9.148
15.980
16.350
16.461
17.470
17.654
33.734
38.507
9.111
15.074
15.704
15.704
15.893
17.719
30.319
38.136
6.850
12.563
13.143
13.143
13.277
13.896
17.984
Diesel
NOx
Highway
11.588
11.857
11.833
13.382
22.230
24.872
4.834
7.007
7.129
7.243
7.463
8.356
16.381
18.542
5.314
7.069
7.253
7.392
7.404
9.072
15.415
18.465
4.118
7.063
7.147
7.238
8.163
8.241
16.786
18.414
4.129
6.726
6.915
6.915
7.124
8.578
15.477
18.273
3.201
5.254
5.407
5.407
5.510
6.006
8.182
Diesel
PM2.5
Decel
0.0130
0.0130
0.0130
0.0126
0.0085
0.0061
0.0107
0.0130
0.0133
0.0132
0.0131
0.0128
0.0083
0.0060
0.0102
0.0130
0.0132
0.0132
0.0131
0.0126
0.0091
0.0061
0.0108
0.0130
0.0132
0.0132
0.0129
0.0128
0.0079
0.0060
0.0107
0.0130
0.0134
0.0134
0.0133
0.0129
0.0091
0.0062
0.0090
0.0116
0.0121
0.0121
0.0120
0.0115
0.0080
Diesel
PM2.5
Oto25
0.153
0.145
0.152
0.163
0.273
0.312
0.083
0.138
0.142
0.143
0.142
0.154
0.277
0.318
0.091
0.140
0.144
0.145
0.142
0.164
0.259
0.316
0.074
0.139
0.143
0.144
0.151
0.153
0.284
0.315
0.073
0.126
0.132
0.132
0.131
0.150
0.257
0.311
0.063
0.116
0.122
0.122
0.121
0.140
0.239
Diesel
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.256
0.242
0.259
0.312
0.743
0.899
0.119
0.223
0.232
0.237
0.240
0.285
0.763
0.921
0.134
0.227
0.237
0.243
0.239
0.325
0.697
0.916
0.103
0.226
0.233
0.237
0.276
0.282
0.791
0.910
0.100
0.197
0.209
0.209
0.212
0.287
0.695
0.895
0.088
0.184
0.195
0.195
0.198
0.274
0.651
Diesel
PM2.5
50 +
0.846
0.841
0.850
0.882
1.205
1.346
0.540
0.813
0.831
0.835
0.839
0.867
1.224
1.365
0.572
0.820
0.836
0.840
0.838
0.889
1.163
1.358
0.496
0.814
0.833
0.835
0.859
0.863
1.245
1.356
0.497
0.786
0.818
0.818
0.822
0.865
1.163
1.344
0.430
0.713
0.742
0.742
0.746
0.789
1.070
Diesel
PM2.5
Highway
0.324
0.323
0.327
0.352
0.510
0.560
0.218
0.313
0.319
0.321
0.325
0.344
0.517
0.568
0.234
0.315
0.321
0.324
0.324
0.360
0.496
0.566
0.195
0.315
0.319
0.321
0.341
0.342
0.527
0.563
0.195
0.304
0.313
0.313
0.317
0.349
0.497
0.559
0.171
0.276
0.284
0.284
0.288
0.320
0.457
A-3

-------
Year&
Class
2003-8b
2004-2b
2004-3
2004-4
2004-5
2004-6
2004-7
2004-8a
2004-8b
2005-2b
2005-3
2005-4
2005-5
2005-6
2005-7
2005-8a
2005-8b
2006-2b
2006-3
2006-4
2006-5
2006-6
2006-7
2006-8a
2006-8b
2007-2b
2007-3
2007-4
2007-5
2007-6
2007-7
2007-8a
2007-8b
2008-2b
2008-3
2008-4
2008-5
2008-6
2008-7
2008-8a
2008-8b
2009-2b
2009-3
2009-4
2009-5
Diesel
NOx
Decel
0.405
0.151
0.493
0.545
0.545
0.540
0.532
0.465
0.404
0.135
0.471
0.550
0.550
0.545
0.535
0.460
0.403
0.141
0.471
0.549
0.549
0.545
0.535
0.462
0.404
0.258
0.229
0.225
0.225
0.224
0.211
0.133
0.089
0.272
0.251
0.247
0.247
0.246
0.239
0.176
0.102
0.207
0.216
0.219
0.219
Diesel
NOx
Oto25
4.968
1.490
3.443
3.631
3.631
3.627
3.767
4.530
4.952
1.359
3.358
3.649
3.649
3.652
3.818
4.600
4.967
1.414
3.360
3.645
3.645
3.650
3.806
4.580
4.965
0.998
1.933
2.035
2.035
2.052
2.315
3.436
3.891
0.935
1.746
1.882
1.882
1.889
2.019
2.987
3.766
0.818
1.921
2.075
2.075
Diesel
NOx
25 to 50
8.035
2.219
4.254
4.477
4.477
4.506
4.891
6.952
8.002
2.148
4.159
4.498
4.498
4.541
5.004
7.119
8.035
2.251
4.168
4.494
4.494
4.536
4.973
7.068
8.028
1.331
2.388
2.519
2.519
2.574
3.135
5.388
6.237
1.278
2.156
2.327
2.327
2.352
2.625
4.576
6.025
1.093
2.366
2.570
2.570
Diesel
NOx
50 +
20.287
6.626
12.603
13.160
13.160
13.283
13.833
17.765
20.233
6.256
12.278
13.128
13.128
13.259
13.945
18.118
20.305
6.510
12.311
13.136
13.136
13.255
13.901
17.996
20.277
3.668
7.096
7.461
7.461
7.541
8.319
12.378
14.211
3.413
6.461
6.959
6.959
7.008
7.379
10.667
13.727
3.066
7.053
7.593
7.593
Diesel
NOx
Highway
9.003
3.074
5.267
5.419
5.419
5.514
5.957
8.098
8.990
2.860
5.161
5.396
5.396
5.499
6.042
8.234
9.009
2.949
5.172
5.402
5.402
5.495
6.008
8.186
8.999
1.623
2.970
3.072
3.072
3.146
3.696
5.593
6.184
1.467
2.726
2.875
2.875
2.916
3.192
4.963
6.038
1.373
2.970
3.124
3.124
Diesel
PM2.5
Decel
0.0055
0.0091
0.0117
0.0121
0.0121
0.0120
0.0116
0.0083
0.0056
0.0097
0.0116
0.0120
0.0120
0.0119
0.0114
0.0079
0.0055
0.0105
0.0117
0.0121
0.0121
0.0120
0.0115
0.0080
0.0055
0.0019
0.0009
0.0008
0.0008
0.0008
0.0008
0.0007
0.0006
0.0020
0.0010
0.0008
0.0008
0.0008
0.0007
0.0007
0.0006
0.0015
0.0009
0.0008
0.0008
Diesel
PM2.5
Oto25
0.284
0.064
0.115
0.119
0.119
0.119
0.136
0.230
0.279
0.064
0.116
0.124
0.124
0.124
0.144
0.240
0.282
0.068
0.116
0.123
0.123
0.123
0.142
0.238
0.283
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.008
0.012
0.014
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.010
0.014
0.004
0.006
0.007
0.007
Diesel
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.820
0.089
0.180
0.189
0.189
0.193
0.260
0.621
0.802
0.089
0.184
0.199
0.199
0.205
0.286
0.657
0.814
0.094
0.183
0.197
0.197
0.203
0.280
0.650
0.816
0.007
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.013
0.027
0.032
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.009
0.022
0.031
0.006
0.009
0.009
0.009
Diesel
PM2.5
50 +
1.224
0.437
0.712
0.738
0.738
0.742
0.780
1.045
1.209
0.440
0.707
0.744
0.744
0.750
0.796
1.076
1.220
0.468
0.709
0.743
0.743
0.748
0.792
1.069
1.221
0.025
0.026
0.026
0.026
0.027
0.029
0.041
0.046
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.026
0.036
0.045
0.022
0.026
0.027
0.027
Diesel
PM2.5
Highway
0.509
0.174
0.276
0.283
0.283
0.286
0.314
0.446
0.502
0.171
0.275
0.285
0.285
0.289
0.323
0.458
0.506
0.181
0.275
0.285
0.285
0.289
0.321
0.456
0.507
0.010
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.012
0.018
0.020
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.011
0.016
0.019
0.009
0.011
0.011
0.011
A-4

-------
Year&
Class
2009-6
2009-7
2009-8a
2009-8b
2010-2b
2010-3
2010-4
2010-5
2010-6
2010-7
2010-8a
2010-8b
2011-2b
2011-3
2011-4
2011-5
2011-6
2011-7
2011-8a
2011-8b
2012-2b
2012-3
2012-4
2012-5
2012-6
2012-7
2012-8a
2012-8b
2013-2b
2013-3
2013-4
2013-5
2013-6
2013-7
2013-8a
2013-8b
2014-2b
2014-3
2014-4
2014-5
2014-6
2014-7
2014-8a
2014-8b
Diesel
NOx
Decel
0.219
0.205
0.126
0.085
0.079
0.090
0.094
0.094
0.093
0.091
0.079
0.071
0.108
0.095
0.092
0.092
0.091
0.090
0.080
0.071
0.069
0.059
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.053
0.047
0.069
0.059
0.057
0.057
0.056
0.056
0.052
0.046
0.069
0.059
0.057
0.057
0.056
0.056
0.051
0.044
Diesel
NOx
Oto25
2.083
2.370
3.513
3.938
0.279
0.571
0.621
0.621
0.620
0.656
0.810
0.875
0.357
0.574
0.611
0.611
0.612
0.641
0.791
0.869
0.234
0.363
0.381
0.381
0.383
0.397
0.501
0.573
0.233
0.359
0.376
0.376
0.378
0.390
0.484
0.551
0.233
0.358
0.375
0.375
0.376
0.387
0.474
0.533
Diesel
NOx
25 to 50
2.616
3.223
5.516
6.312
0.397
0.703
0.765
0.765
0.773
0.866
1.262
1.415
0.503
0.712
0.754
0.754
0.761
0.836
1.220
1.405
0.327
0.450
0.470
0.470
0.476
0.511
0.762
0.922
0.327
0.445
0.464
0.464
0.469
0.500
0.732
0.886
0.327
0.444
0.462
0.462
0.468
0.497
0.717
0.857
Diesel
NOx
50 +
7.657
8.497
12.634
14.345
1.138
2.058
2.213
2.213
2.241
2.383
3.192
3.571
1.362
2.082
2.202
2.202
2.225
2.337
3.097
3.548
0.888
1.314
1.371
1.371
1.386
1.439
1.939
2.326
0.886
1.300
1.356
1.356
1.369
1.416
1.871
2.237
0.887
1.298
1.352
1.352
1.364
1.408
1.835
2.164
Diesel
NOx
Highway
3.199
3.786
5.686
6.233
0.499
0.864
0.908
0.908
0.930
1.041
1.452
1.584
0.577
0.870
0.905
0.905
0.923
1.012
1.416
1.577
0.375
0.546
0.563
0.563
0.575
0.617
0.895
1.039
0.375
0.541
0.557
0.557
0.568
0.605
0.862
1.000
0.375
0.539
0.554
0.554
0.565
0.597
0.831
0.947
Diesel
PM2.5
Decel
0.0008
0.0008
0.0007
0.0006
0.0012
0.0008
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0006
0.0006
0.0016
0.0009
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0006
0.0006
0.0010
0.0005
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0010
0.0005
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0010
0.0005
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
Diesel
PM2.5
Oto25
0.007
0.008
0.013
0.014
0.004
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.012
0.014
0.004
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.011
0.013
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.006
0.008
Diesel
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.010
0.013
0.028
0.033
0.005
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.012
0.026
0.031
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.010
0.024
0.030
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.014
0.019
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.013
0.018
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.013
0.017
Diesel
PM2.5
50 +
0.027
0.029
0.042
0.047
0.018
0.023
0.024
0.024
0.024
0.026
0.038
0.044
0.021
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.025
0.036
0.043
0.013
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.015
0.022
0.027
0.013
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.021
0.026
0.013
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.020
0.025
Diesel
PM2.5
Highway
0.011
0.013
0.018
0.020
0.008
0.009
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.011
0.017
0.019
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.011
0.016
0.019
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.010
0.012
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.009
0.011
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.009
0.011
A-5

-------
Year&
Class
2015-2b
2015-3
2015-4
2015-5
2015-6
2015-7
2015-8a
2015-8b
Diesel
NOx
Decel
0.069
0.059
0.057
0.057
0.056
0.056
0.051
0.044
Diesel
NOx
Oto25
0.234
0.358
0.375
0.375
0.376
0.388
0.474
0.533
Diesel
NOx
25 to 50
0.327
0.444
0.462
0.462
0.468
0.497
0.718
0.857
Diesel
NOx
50 +
0.888
1.298
1.352
1.352
1.364
1.408
1.838
2.166
Diesel
NOx
Highway
0.375
0.539
0.554
0.554
0.565
0.598
0.832
0.947
Diesel
PM2.5
Decel
0.0010
0.0005
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
Diesel
PM2.5
Oto25
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.006
0.008
Diesel
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.013
0.017
Diesel
PM2.5
50 +
0.013
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.021
0.025
Diesel
PM2.5
Highway
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.006
0.009
0.011
Year&
Class
1987-2b
1987-3
1987-4
1987-5
1987-6
1987-7
1987-8a
1987-8b
1988-2b
1988-3
1988-4
1988-5
1988-6
1988-7
1988-8a
1988-8b
1989-2b
1989-3
1989-4
1989-5
1989-6
1989-7
1989-8a
1989-8b
1990-2b
1990-3
1990-4
1990-5
1990-6
1990-7
1990-8a
1990-8b
Gasoline
NOx
Decel
0.199
0.245
0.245
0.244
0.244
0.244
0.240
0.184
0.203
0.245
0.245
0.244
0.244
0.244
0.239
0.184
0.205
0.245
0.245
0.245
0.245
0.245
0.220
0.220
0.133
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.118
0.118
Gasoline
NOx
Oto25
3.490
8.090
8.101
8.209
8.209
8.209
8.766
13.449
3.827
8.115
8.080
8.275
8.268
8.220
8.911
13.449
4.199
8.036
8.037
8.072
8.072
8.072
13.375
13.375
4.999
6.155
6.229
6.169
6.169
6.169
10.200
10.200
Gasoline
NOx
25 to 50
7.052
11.848
11.903
11.718
11.718
11.718
12.456
18.320
7.290
11.868
11.974
11.794
11.786
11.729
12.767
18.320
7.566
11.743
11.904
11.514
11.514
11.514
19.928
19.928
7.765
8.615
8.900
8.468
8.468
8.468
15.352
15.352
Gasoline
NOx
50 +
7.260
12.213
12.276
11.937
11.937
11.937
12.691
18.836
7.516
12.226
12.394
12.027
12.018
11.959
12.987
18.836
7.851
12.158
12.340
11.882
11.882
11.882
19.777
19.777
6.458
6.897
7.183
6.698
6.698
6.698
12.350
12.350
Gasoline
NOx
Highway
4.642
8.370
8.439
8.070
8.070
8.070
8.816
13.165
4.905
8.381
8.592
8.164
8.155
8.092
9.054
13.165
5.216
8.297
8.529
7.996
7.996
7.996
13.079
13.079
4.733
5.339
5.672
5.119
5.119
5.119
8.825
8.825
Gasoline
PM2.5
Decel
0.0028
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0032
0.0027
0.0041
0.0046
0.0046
0.0045
0.0045
0.0046
0.0045
0.0038
0.0041
0.0046
0.0047
0.0046
0.0046
0.0046
0.0045
0.0045
0.0014
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016
0.0013
0.0013
Gasoline
PM2.5
Oto25
0.031
0.055
0.056
0.058
0.058
0.058
0.070
0.170
0.053
0.118
0.116
0.122
0.122
0.121
0.138
0.249
0.058
0.116
0.115
0.117
0.117
0.117
0.250
0.250
0.017
0.020
0.021
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.046
0.046
Gasoline
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.085
0.112
0.114
0.111
0.111
0.111
0.161
0.575
0.064
0.092
0.094
0.095
0.094
0.091
0.142
0.436
0.065
0.088
0.091
0.087
0.087
0.087
0.462
0.462
0.047
0.040
0.057
0.035
0.035
0.035
0.535
0.535
Gasoline
PM2.5
50 +
0.076
0.094
0.096
0.087
0.087
0.087
0.124
0.434
0.084
0.136
0.143
0.127
0.127
0.123
0.176
0.498
0.086
0.132
0.140
0.118
0.118
0.118
0.494
0.494
0.084
0.079
0.093
0.072
0.072
0.072
0.400
0.400
Gasoline
PM2.5
Highway
0.078
0.183
0.186
0.173
0.173
0.173
0.204
0.382
0.066
0.149
0.159
0.138
0.138
0.135
0.178
0.358
0.072
0.145
0.156
0.131
0.131
0.131
0.364
0.364
0.128
0.175
0.193
0.165
0.165
0.165
0.398
0.398
A-6

-------
Year&
Class
1991-2b
1991-3
1991-4
1991-5
1991-6
1991-7
1991-8a
1991-8b
1992-2b
1992-3
1992-4
1992-5
1992-6
1992-7
1992-8a
1992-8b
1993-2b
1993-3
1993-4
1993-5
1993-6
1993-7
1993-8a
1993-8b
1994-2b
1994-3
1994-4
1994-5
1994-6
1994-7
1994-8a
1994-8b
1995-2b
1995-3
1995-4
1995-5
1995-6
1995-7
1995-8a
1995-8b
1996-2b
1996-3
1996-4
1996-5
1996-6
Gasoline
NOx
Decel
0.133
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.128
0.128
0.130
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.127
0.127
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.129
0.104
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.116
0.116
0.108
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.116
0.116
0.087
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.127
Gasoline
NOx
Oto25
4.348
6.152
6.277
6.140
6.174
6.174
6.572
6.572
4.675
6.162
6.298
6.127
6.176
6.176
6.696
6.696
4.784
6.063
6.085
6.055
6.067
6.067
6.148
6.148
4.232
6.057
6.171
5.968
6.059
6.059
10.020
10.020
4.194
6.021
6.028
5.993
6.049
6.049
10.020
10.020
2.905
6.018
6.022
5.973
6.066
Gasoline
NOx
25 to 50
7.478
8.632
8.925
8.508
8.477
8.477
9.309
9.309
7.653
8.703
9.035
8.521
8.479
8.479
9.560
9.560
7.661
8.450
8.566
8.439
8.286
8.286
8.459
8.459
7.127
8.471
8.813
8.410
8.315
8.315
15.081
15.081
7.072
8.349
8.477
8.369
8.297
8.297
15.081
15.081
4.453
8.404
8.507
8.411
8.328
Gasoline
NOx
50 +
6.366
6.919
7.169
6.773
6.700
6.700
7.376
7.376
6.446
6.998
7.288
6.802
6.701
6.701
7.579
7.579
6.466
6.819
6.929
6.812
6.648
6.648
6.786
6.786
6.330
6.775
7.097
6.783
6.579
6.579
12.132
12.132
6.282
6.663
6.814
6.713
6.574
6.574
12.132
12.132
4.350
6.726
6.852
6.777
6.582
Gasoline
NOx
Highway
4.510
5.366
5.628
5.204
5.122
5.122
5.731
5.731
4.641
5.462
5.775
5.237
5.123
5.123
5.903
5.903
4.671
5.254
5.388
5.249
5.061
5.061
5.191
5.191
4.403
5.242
5.597
5.279
5.028
5.028
8.670
8.670
4.370
5.120
5.295
5.183
5.022
5.022
8.670
8.670
3.046
5.195
5.349
5.270
5.032
Gasoline
PM2.5
Decel
0.0039
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0039
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0039
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0021
0.0026
0.0026
0.0026
0.0026
0.0026
0.0023
0.0023
0.0023
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0025
0.0025
0.0023
0.0024
0.0024
0.0024
0.0024
Gasoline
PM2.5
Oto25
0.074
0.113
0.116
0.113
0.114
0.114
0.123
0.123
0.080
0.113
0.116
0.113
0.114
0.114
0.126
0.126
0.083
0.111
0.112
0.111
0.112
0.112
0.114
0.114
0.015
0.023
0.023
0.022
0.023
0.023
0.051
0.051
0.021
0.031
0.031
0.031
0.031
0.031
0.056
0.056
0.013
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
Gasoline
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.032
0.039
0.049
0.035
0.036
0.036
0.067
0.067
0.032
0.041
0.053
0.035
0.036
0.036
0.077
0.077
0.031
0.035
0.037
0.034
0.034
0.034
0.041
0.041
0.048
0.085
0.092
0.083
0.082
0.082
0.232
0.232
0.031
0.029
0.032
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.333
0.333
0.035
0.032
0.035
0.031
0.031
Gasoline
PM2.5
50 +
0.030
0.031
0.036
0.029
0.028
0.028
0.042
0.042
0.029
0.032
0.038
0.029
0.028
0.028
0.046
0.046
0.028
0.029
0.031
0.029
0.027
0.027
0.030
0.030
0.122
0.187
0.203
0.188
0.176
0.176
0.450
0.450
0.037
0.036
0.039
0.036
0.035
0.035
0.176
0.176
0.015
0.014
0.015
0.014
0.014
Gasoline
PM2.5
Highway
0.056
0.101
0.107
0.098
0.096
0.096
0.111
0.111
0.063
0.103
0.110
0.098
0.096
0.096
0.115
0.115
0.067
0.099
0.101
0.099
0.096
0.096
0.099
0.099
0.069
0.115
0.130
0.117
0.106
0.106
0.257
0.257
0.066
0.111
0.115
0.112
0.109
0.109
0.212
0.212
0.043
0.084
0.086
0.085
0.081
A-7

-------
Year&
Class
1996-7
1996-8a
1996-8b
1997-2b
1997-3
1997-4
1997-5
1997-6
1997-7
1997-8a
1997-8b
1998-2b
1998-3
1998-4
1998-5
1998-6
1998-7
1998-8a
1998-8b
1999-2b
1999-3
1999-4
1999-5
1999-6
1999-7
1999-8a
1999-8b
2000-2b
2000-3
2000-4
2000-5
2000-6
2000-7
2000-8a
2000-8b
2001 -2b
2001-3
2001-4
2001-5
2001-6
2001-7
2001 -8a
2001-8b
2002-2b
2002-3
Gasoline
NOx
Decel
0.127
0.116
0.116
0.093
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.127
0.116
0.116
0.098
0.241
0.236
0.247
0.247
0.247
0.212
0.212
0.115
0.247
0.246
0.247
0.247
0.247
0.244
0.244
0.119
0.247
0.247
0.247
0.247
0.247
0.247
0.247
0.083
0.234
0.235
0.235
0.235
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.076
0.234
Gasoline
NOx
Oto25
6.066
10.020
10.020
2.524
6.046
6.001
5.998
6.068
6.068
10.020
10.020
1.458
3.815
4.026
3.550
3.585
3.585
5.297
5.297
1.637
3.581
3.620
3.537
3.536
3.560
3.683
3.683
1.630
3.541
3.533
3.528
3.527
3.543
3.544
3.544
1.047
3.398
3.381
3.370
3.369
3.404
3.408
3.408
1.059
3.408
Gasoline
NOx
25 to 50
8.328
15.081
15.081
4.102
8.378
8.469
8.391
8.331
8.331
15.081
15.081
3.148
5.889
6.528
5.165
5.165
5.165
9.134
9.134
3.302
5.208
5.356
5.141
5.141
5.133
5.483
5.483
3.308
5.114
5.122
5.124
5.124
5.112
5.115
5.115
2.206
4.907
4.912
4.906
4.906
4.904
4.916
4.916
2.155
4.917
Gasoline
NOx
50 +
6.582
12.132
12.132
3.859
6.664
6.824
6.728
6.583
6.583
12.132
12.132
3.407
6.145
6.473
5.807
5.780
5.780
7.684
7.684
3.593
5.819
5.898
5.803
5.804
5.780
5.945
5.945
3.598
5.784
5.795
5.799
5.800
5.780
5.781
5.781
2.430
5.500
5.518
5.521
5.522
5.494
5.499
5.499
2.382
5.498
Gasoline
NOx
Highway
5.032
8.670
8.670
2.785
5.121
5.320
5.203
5.033
5.033
8.670
8.670
2.076
3.957
4.283
3.599
3.576
3.576
5.013
5.013
2.219
3.609
3.695
3.589
3.589
3.567
3.741
3.741
2.215
3.565
3.576
3.580
3.581
3.561
3.563
3.563
1.561
3.403
3.419
3.421
3.422
3.397
3.404
3.404
1.551
3.405
Gasoline
PM2.5
Decel
0.0024
0.0022
0.0022
0.0010
0.0012
0.0012
0.0012
0.0012
0.0012
0.0010
0.0010
0.0013
0.0016
0.0015
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016
0.0013
0.0013
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0001
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0006
0.0007
Gasoline
PM2.5
Oto25
0.019
0.032
0.032
0.009
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.027
0.027
0.010
0.020
0.023
0.017
0.018
0.018
0.036
0.036
0.005
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.010
0.004
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.006
0.010
Gasoline
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.031
0.319
0.319
0.029
0.027
0.027
0.025
0.026
0.026
0.233
0.233
0.026
0.049
0.073
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.177
0.177
0.024
0.013
0.020
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.028
0.028
0.022
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.016
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.013
0.011
Gasoline
PM2.5
50 +
0.014
0.063
0.063
0.038
0.044
0.046
0.045
0.042
0.042
0.148
0.148
0.026
0.062
0.070
0.052
0.052
0.052
0.104
0.104
0.014
0.018
0.020
0.018
0.018
0.017
0.021
0.021
0.019
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.012
0.043
0.043
0.043
0.043
0.043
0.043
0.043
0.011
0.016
Gasoline
PM2.5
Highway
0.081
0.132
0.132
0.034
0.063
0.067
0.065
0.062
0.062
0.138
0.138
0.028
0.080
0.091
0.069
0.068
0.068
0.112
0.112
0.037
0.091
0.094
0.092
0.092
0.090
0.095
0.095
0.033
0.074
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.074
0.074
0.074
0.018
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.065
0.064
0.065
0.065
0.012
0.030
A-8

-------
Year&
Class
2002-4
2002-5
2002-6
2002-7
2002-8a
2002-8b
2003-2b
2003-3
2003-4
2003-5
2003-6
2003-7
2003-8a
2003-8b
2004-2b
2004-3
2004-4
2004-5
2004-6
2004-7
2004-8a
2004-8b
2005-2b
2005-3
2005-4
2005-5
2005-6
2005-7
2005-8a
2005-8b
2006-2b
2006-3
2006-4
2006-5
2006-6
2006-7
2006-8a
2006-8b
2007-2b
2007-3
2007-4
2007-5
2007-6
2007-7
2007-8a
Gasoline
NOx
Decel
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.080
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.063
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.046
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.045
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.034
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
0.234
Gasoline
NOx
Oto25
3.393
3.384
3.383
3.413
3.415
3.415
1.109
3.408
3.394
3.385
3.384
3.413
3.416
3.416
0.861
3.409
3.397
3.389
3.388
3.413
3.416
3.416
0.521
3.409
3.395
3.386
3.386
3.413
3.416
3.416
0.525
3.410
3.401
3.393
3.393
3.413
3.416
3.416
0.420
3.409
3.397
3.389
3.389
3.413
3.415
Gasoline
NOx
25 to 50
4.919
4.914
4.914
4.916
4.922
4.922
2.274
4.917
4.919
4.914
4.914
4.916
4.923
4.923
1.512
4.917
4.919
4.915
4.914
4.916
4.923
4.923
1.040
4.917
4.919
4.914
4.914
4.916
4.923
4.923
0.941
4.917
4.920
4.915
4.915
4.916
4.923
4.923
0.761
4.917
4.919
4.915
4.914
4.916
4.922
Gasoline
NOx
50 +
5.512
5.516
5.516
5.494
5.497
5.497
2.499
5.498
5.511
5.515
5.515
5.494
5.497
5.497
1.690
5.498
5.509
5.512
5.512
5.494
5.497
5.497
1.164
5.498
5.511
5.514
5.514
5.494
5.497
5.497
1.079
5.497
5.506
5.508
5.509
5.494
5.497
5.497
0.890
5.497
5.508
5.511
5.512
5.494
5.497
Gasoline
NOx
Highway
3.416
3.419
3.419
3.401
3.404
3.404
1.618
3.404
3.415
3.418
3.418
3.401
3.404
3.404
1.156
3.404
3.413
3.415
3.416
3.401
3.404
3.404
0.771
3.404
3.415
3.417
3.417
3.401
3.405
3.405
0.738
3.403
3.411
3.413
3.413
3.401
3.404
3.404
0.617
3.404
3.413
3.415
3.415
3.401
3.404
Gasoline
PM2.5
Decel
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0003
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0006
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0006
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0005
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0005
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
Gasoline
PM2.5
Oto25
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.004
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.004
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.004
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.003
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.003
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
Gasoline
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.014
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.010
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.010
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.007
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.007
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.007
Gasoline
PM2.5
50 +
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.010
0.019
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.010
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.009
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.008
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.007
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
Gasoline
PM2.5
Highway
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.030
0.015
0.043
0.043
0.043
0.043
0.043
0.043
0.043
0.009
0.022
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.007
0.022
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.006
0.018
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.006
0.018
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.018
0.018
A-9

-------
Year&
Class
2007-8b
2008-2b
2008-3
2008-4
2008-5
2008-6
2008-7
2008-8a
2008-8b
2009-2b
2009-3
2009-4
2009-5
2009-6
2009-7
2009-8a
2009-8b
2010-2b
2010-3
2010-4
2010-5
2010-6
2010-7
2010-8a
2010-8b
2011-2b
2011-3
2011-4
2011-5
2011-6
2011-7
2011-8a
2011-8b
2012-2b
2012-3
2012-4
2012-5
2012-6
2012-7
2012-8a
2012-8b
2013-2b
2013-3
2013-4
2013-5
Gasoline
NOx
Decel
0.234
0.018
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.007
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.005
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.006
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.006
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.006
0.057
0.057
0.057
Gasoline
NOx
Oto25
3.415
0.196
1.023
1.021
1.019
1.019
1.024
1.025
1.025
0.144
1.023
1.020
1.018
1.017
1.024
1.024
1.024
0.103
0.823
0.820
0.819
0.819
0.824
0.824
0.824
0.132
0.823
0.821
0.820
0.820
0.824
0.824
0.824
0.134
0.823
0.822
0.821
0.821
0.824
0.824
0.824
0.127
0.823
0.822
0.821
Gasoline
NOx
25 to 50
4.922
0.440
1.475
1.476
1.474
1.474
1.475
1.477
1.477
0.307
1.475
1.475
1.474
1.474
1.475
1.476
1.476
0.224
1.186
1.187
1.186
1.186
1.186
1.187
1.187
0.259
1.187
1.187
1.186
1.186
1.186
1.188
1.188
0.211
1.187
1.187
1.186
1.186
1.186
1.188
1.188
0.204
1.187
1.187
1.186
Gasoline
NOx
50 +
5.497
0.522
1.649
1.651
1.652
1.652
1.648
1.649
1.649
0.388
1.649
1.652
1.653
1.653
1.648
1.649
1.649
0.288
1.327
1.329
1.330
1.330
1.326
1.326
1.326
0.329
1.326
1.328
1.329
1.329
1.326
1.326
1.326
0.265
1.326
1.328
1.328
1.328
1.326
1.326
1.326
0.256
1.326
1.328
1.328
Gasoline
NOx
Highway
3.404
0.334
1.021
1.023
1.023
1.023
1.020
1.021
1.021
0.268
1.021
1.023
1.024
1.024
1.020
1.021
1.021
0.199
0.813
0.815
0.816
0.816
0.812
0.812
0.812
0.229
0.812
0.814
0.815
0.815
0.812
0.812
0.812
0.196
0.812
0.814
0.814
0.814
0.812
0.812
0.812
0.189
0.812
0.814
0.814
Gasoline
PM2.5
Decel
0.0006
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0002
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0002
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
Gasoline
PM2.5
Oto25
0.007
0.003
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.003
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.003
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.003
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.002
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.002
0.004
0.004
0.004
Gasoline
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.007
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.004
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.003
0.003
0.003
Gasoline
PM2.5
50 +
0.017
0.007
0.015
0.015
0.016
0.016
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.007
0.015
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.006
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.006
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.004
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.004
0.009
0.009
0.009
Gasoline
PM2.5
Highway
0.018
0.006
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.006
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.016
0.017
0.017
0.005
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.005
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.004
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.003
0.009
0.009
0.009
A-10

-------
Year&
Class
2013-6
2013-7
2013-8a
2013-8b
2014-2b
2014-3
2014-4
2014-5
2014-6
2014-7
2014-8a
2014-8b
2015-2b
2015-3
2015-4
2015-5
2015-6
2015-7
2015-8a
2015-8b
Gasoline
NOx
Decel
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.057
0.006
0.056
0.056
0.056
0.056
0.056
0.056
0.056
0.006
0.056
0.056
0.056
0.056
0.056
0.056
0.056
Gasoline
NOx
Oto25
0.821
0.824
0.824
0.824
0.128
0.822
0.820
0.819
0.819
0.822
0.823
0.823
0.128
0.822
0.820
0.819
0.819
0.822
0.823
0.823
Gasoline
NOx
25 to 50
1.186
1.186
1.188
1.188
0.206
1.184
1.185
1.183
1.183
1.184
1.185
1.185
0.206
1.184
1.185
1.183
1.183
1.184
1.185
1.185
Gasoline
NOx
50 +
1.328
1.326
1.326
1.326
0.259
1.324
1.325
1.325
1.325
1.323
1.324
1.324
0.259
1.324
1.325
1.325
1.325
1.323
1.324
1.324
Gasoline
NOx
Highway
0.814
0.812
0.812
0.812
0.191
0.810
0.812
0.812
0.812
0.810
0.811
0.811
0.191
0.810
0.812
0.812
0.812
0.810
0.811
0.811
Gasoline
PM2.5
Decel
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0002
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0002
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
Gasoline
PM2.5
Oto25
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.002
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.002
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
Gasoline
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.004
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
Gasoline
PM2.5
50 +
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.004
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.004
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
Gasoline
PM2.5
Highway
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.004
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.004
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
Note - highlighted cells are set equal to the row above (MOVES does not provide
consistent outputs for Class 8b gasoline vehicles; therefore 8bs are set equal to 8as).
Year&
Class
1987-2b
1987-3
1987-4
1987-5
1987-6
1987-7
1987-8a
1987-8b
1988-2b
1988-3
1988-4
1988-5
1988-6
1988-7
1988-8a
1988-8b
1989-2b
E10
NOx
Decel
0.216
0.266
0.266
0.265
0.265
0.265
0.260
0.199
0.220
0.266
0.266
0.265
0.265
0.265
0.260
0.199
0.223
E10
NOx
Oto25
3.790
8.786
8.798
8.915
8.915
8.915
9.520
14.605
4.156
8.812
8.774
8.986
8.979
8.927
9.678
14.605
4.560
E10
NOx
25 to 50
7.659
12.866
12.927
12.725
12.725
12.725
13.527
19.895
7.917
12.888
13.003
12.809
12.799
12.737
13.865
19.895
8.217
E10
NOx
50 +
7.884
13.263
13.332
12.963
12.963
12.963
13.782
20.456
8.162
13.278
13.460
13.061
13.052
12.987
14.104
20.455
8.526
E10 NOx
Highway
5.042
9.089
9.165
8.764
8.764
8.764
9.573
14.297
5.326
9.102
9.330
8.866
8.856
8.788
9.832
14.297
5.664
E10
PM2.5
Decel
0.0028
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0033
0.0032
0.0027
0.0041
0.0046
0.0046
0.0045
0.0045
0.0046
0.0045
0.0038
0.0041
E10
PM2.5
Oto25
0.031
0.055
0.056
0.058
0.058
0.058
0.070
0.170
0.053
0.118
0.116
0.122
0.122
0.121
0.138
0.249
0.058
E10
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.085
0.112
0.114
0.111
0.111
0.111
0.161
0.575
0.064
0.092
0.094
0.095
0.094
0.091
0.142
0.436
0.065
E10
PM2.5
50 +
0.076
0.094
0.096
0.087
0.087
0.087
0.124
0.434
0.084
0.136
0.143
0.127
0.127
0.123
0.176
0.498
0.086
E10
PM2.5
Highway
0.078
0.183
0.186
0.173
0.173
0.173
0.204
0.382
0.066
0.149
0.159
0.138
0.138
0.135
0.178
0.358
0.072
                                     A-ll

-------
Year&
Class
1989-3
1989-4
1989-5
1989-6
1989-7
1989-8a
1989-8b
1990-2b
1990-3
1990-4
1990-5
1990-6
1990-7
1990-8a
1990-8b
1991-2b
1991-3
1991-4
1991-5
1991-6
1991-7
1991-8a
1991-8b
1992-2b
1992-3
1992-4
1992-5
1992-6
1992-7
1992-8a
1992-8b
1993-2b
1993-3
1993-4
1993-5
1993-6
1993-7
1993-8a
1993-8b
1994-2b
1994-3
1994-4
1994-5
1994-6
1994-7
E10
NOx
Decel
0.267
0.267
0.266
0.266
0.266
0.239
0.239
0.145
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.128
0.128
0.144
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.139
0.139
0.141
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.138
0.138
0.140
0.141
0.141
0.141
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.140
0.113
0.138
0.137
0.138
0.137
0.137
E10
NOx
Oto25
8.727
8.728
8.766
8.766
8.766
14.525
14.525
5.429
6.684
6.765
6.700
6.700
6.700
11.077
11.077
4.721
6.681
6.816
6.668
6.705
6.705
7.137
7.137
5.077
6.692
6.840
6.654
6.707
6.707
7.272
7.272
5.196
6.585
6.608
6.575
6.589
6.589
6.677
6.677
4.595
6.578
6.701
6.481
6.580
6.580
E10
NOx
25 to 50
12.753
12.927
12.504
12.504
12.504
21 .642
21 .642
8.433
9.356
9.665
9.196
9.196
9.196
16.672
16.672
8.120
9.375
9.692
9.239
9.206
9.206
10.110
10.110
8.311
9.451
9.812
9.254
9.208
9.208
10.382
10.382
8.319
9.176
9.303
9.164
8.998
8.998
9.186
9.186
7.740
9.199
9.571
9.133
9.030
9.030
E10
NOx
50 +
13.204
13.401
12.904
12.904
12.904
21.478
21.478
7.013
7.490
7.801
7.274
7.274
7.274
13.412
13.412
6.913
7.513
7.785
7.356
7.276
7.276
8.010
8.010
7.000
7.600
7.914
7.387
7.277
7.277
8.230
8.230
7.022
7.405
7.524
7.398
7.220
7.220
7.369
7.369
6.875
7.358
7.707
7.367
7.144
7.144
E10 NOx
Highway
9.011
9.262
8.684
8.684
8.684
14.204
14.204
5.140
5.798
6.160
5.559
5.559
5.559
9.584
9.584
4.898
5.828
6.112
5.651
5.563
5.563
6.224
6.224
5.040
5.931
6.271
5.688
5.563
5.563
6.410
6.410
5.073
5.706
5.851
5.700
5.496
5.496
5.638
5.638
4.781
5.692
6.078
5.733
5.460
5.460
E10
PM2.5
Decel
0.0046
0.0047
0.0046
0.0046
0.0046
0.0045
0.0045
0.0014
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016
0.0013
0.0013
0.0039
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0039
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0039
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0043
0.0021
0.0026
0.0026
0.0026
0.0026
0.0026
E10
PM2.5
Oto25
0.116
0.115
0.117
0.117
0.117
0.250
0.250
0.017
0.020
0.021
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.046
0.046
0.074
0.113
0.116
0.113
0.114
0.114
0.123
0.123
0.080
0.113
0.116
0.113
0.114
0.114
0.126
0.126
0.083
0.111
0.112
0.111
0.112
0.112
0.114
0.114
0.015
0.023
0.023
0.022
0.023
0.023
E10
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.088
0.091
0.087
0.087
0.087
0.462
0.462
0.047
0.040
0.057
0.035
0.035
0.035
0.535
0.535
0.032
0.039
0.049
0.035
0.036
0.036
0.067
0.067
0.032
0.041
0.053
0.035
0.036
0.036
0.077
0.077
0.031
0.035
0.037
0.034
0.034
0.034
0.041
0.041
0.048
0.085
0.092
0.083
0.082
0.082
E10
PM2.5
50 +
0.132
0.140
0.118
0.118
0.118
0.494
0.494
0.084
0.079
0.093
0.072
0.072
0.072
0.400
0.400
0.030
0.031
0.036
0.029
0.028
0.028
0.042
0.042
0.029
0.032
0.038
0.029
0.028
0.028
0.046
0.046
0.028
0.029
0.031
0.029
0.027
0.027
0.030
0.030
0.122
0.187
0.203
0.188
0.176
0.176
E10
PM2.5
Highway
0.145
0.156
0.131
0.131
0.131
0.364
0.364
0.128
0.175
0.193
0.165
0.165
0.165
0.398
0.398
0.056
0.101
0.107
0.098
0.096
0.096
0.111
0.111
0.063
0.103
0.110
0.098
0.096
0.096
0.115
0.115
0.067
0.099
0.101
0.099
0.096
0.096
0.099
0.099
0.069
0.115
0.130
0.117
0.106
0.106
A-12

-------
Year&
Class
1994-8a
1994-8b
1995-2b
1995-3
1995-4
1995-5
1995-6
1995-7
1995-8a
1995-8b
1996-2b
1996-3
1996-4
1996-5
1996-6
1996-7
1996-8a
1996-8b
1997-2b
1997-3
1997-4
1997-5
1997-6
1997-7
1997-8a
1997-8b
1998-2b
1998-3
1998-4
1998-5
1998-6
1998-7
1998-8a
1998-8b
1999-2b
1999-3
1999-4
1999-5
1999-6
1999-7
1999-8a
1999-8b
2000-2b
2000-3
2000-4
E10
NOx
Decel
0.126
0.126
0.117
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.126
0.126
0.094
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.137
0.137
0.126
0.126
0.101
0.138
0.138
0.138
0.137
0.137
0.126
0.126
0.106
0.262
0.257
0.268
0.268
0.268
0.231
0.231
0.125
0.268
0.267
0.268
0.268
0.268
0.265
0.265
0.129
0.269
0.269
E10
NOx
Oto25
10.881
10.881
4.555
6.539
6.546
6.509
6.569
6.569
10.881
10.881
3.155
6.535
6.540
6.487
6.587
6.587
10.881
10.881
2.741
6.566
6.517
6.513
6.589
6.589
10.881
10.881
1.583
4.143
4.372
3.855
3.894
3.894
5.752
5.752
1.778
3.889
3.931
3.841
3.841
3.866
4.000
4.000
1.770
3.845
3.836
E10
NOx
25 to 50
16.378
16.378
7.680
9.067
9.206
9.089
9.011
9.011
16.378
16.378
4.836
9.127
9.239
9.134
9.044
9.044
16.378
16.378
4.454
9.098
9.197
9.112
9.047
9.047
16.378
16.378
3.419
6.396
7.089
5.609
5.609
5.609
9.920
9.920
3.586
5.655
5.816
5.583
5.584
5.574
5.955
5.955
3.593
5.554
5.563
E10
NOx
50 +
13.176
13.176
6.822
7.236
7.400
7.290
7.139
7.139
13.175
13.175
4.724
7.304
7.442
7.360
7.148
7.148
13.175
13.175
4.190
7.237
7.411
7.307
7.149
7.149
13.175
13.175
3.700
6.673
7.029
6.306
6.276
6.276
8.345
8.345
3.902
6.319
6.405
6.302
6.303
6.277
6.456
6.456
3.907
6.281
6.293
E10 NOx
Highway
9.415
9.415
4.746
5.560
5.751
5.629
5.454
5.454
9.415
9.415
3.308
5.642
5.809
5.723
5.465
5.465
9.415
9.415
3.025
5.561
5.778
5.651
5.466
5.466
9.415
9.415
2.255
4.297
4.652
3.909
3.883
3.883
5.444
5.444
2.410
3.919
4.013
3.897
3.898
3.874
4.063
4.063
2.405
3.871
3.883
E10
PM2.5
Decel
0.0023
0.0023
0.0023
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0027
0.0025
0.0025
0.0023
0.0024
0.0024
0.0024
0.0024
0.0024
0.0022
0.0022
0.0010
0.0012
0.0012
0.0012
0.0012
0.0012
0.0010
0.0010
0.0013
0.0016
0.0015
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016
0.0013
0.0013
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
E10
PM2.5
Oto25
0.051
0.051
0.021
0.031
0.031
0.031
0.031
0.031
0.056
0.056
0.013
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.032
0.032
0.009
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.013
0.027
0.027
0.010
0.020
0.023
0.017
0.018
0.018
0.036
0.036
0.005
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.010
0.010
0.004
0.006
0.006
E10
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.232
0.232
0.031
0.029
0.032
0.028
0.028
0.028
0.333
0.333
0.035
0.032
0.035
0.031
0.031
0.031
0.319
0.319
0.029
0.027
0.027
0.025
0.026
0.026
0.233
0.233
0.026
0.049
0.073
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.177
0.177
0.024
0.013
0.020
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.028
0.028
0.022
0.009
0.009
E10
PM2.5
50 +
0.450
0.450
0.037
0.036
0.039
0.036
0.035
0.035
0.176
0.176
0.015
0.014
0.015
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.063
0.063
0.038
0.044
0.046
0.045
0.042
0.042
0.148
0.148
0.026
0.062
0.070
0.052
0.052
0.052
0.104
0.104
0.014
0.018
0.020
0.018
0.018
0.017
0.021
0.021
0.019
0.021
0.021
E10
PM2.5
Highway
0.257
0.257
0.066
0.111
0.115
0.112
0.109
0.109
0.212
0.212
0.043
0.084
0.086
0.085
0.081
0.081
0.132
0.132
0.034
0.063
0.067
0.065
0.062
0.062
0.138
0.138
0.028
0.080
0.091
0.069
0.068
0.068
0.112
0.112
0.037
0.091
0.094
0.092
0.092
0.090
0.095
0.095
0.033
0.074
0.075
A-13

-------
Year&
Class
2000-5
2000-6
2000-7
2000-8a
2000-8b
2001 -2b
2001-3
2001-4
2001-5
2001-6
2001-7
2001 -8a
2001-8b
2002-2b
2002-3
2002-4
2002-5
2002-6
2002-7
2002-8a
2002-8b
2003-2b
2003-3
2003-4
2003-5
2003-6
2003-7
2003-8a
2003-8b
2004-2b
2004-3
2004-4
2004-5
2004-6
2004-7
2004-8a
2004-8b
2005-2b
2005-3
2005-4
2005-5
2005-6
2005-7
2005-8a
2005-8b
E10
NOx
Decel
0.269
0.269
0.269
0.269
0.269
0.088
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.081
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.086
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.067
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.049
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
E10
NOx
Oto25
3.831
3.831
3.848
3.849
3.849
1.121
3.637
3.618
3.607
3.606
3.643
3.648
3.648
1.133
3.648
3.631
3.621
3.621
3.653
3.655
3.655
1.187
3.648
3.633
3.623
3.622
3.653
3.656
3.656
0.922
3.649
3.636
3.627
3.627
3.653
3.656
3.656
0.558
3.648
3.634
3.624
3.624
3.653
3.656
3.656
E10
NOx
25 to 50
5.564
5.564
5.551
5.554
5.554
2.362
5.252
5.258
5.251
5.251
5.249
5.262
5.262
2.307
5.262
5.264
5.260
5.260
5.261
5.268
5.268
2.434
5.262
5.265
5.260
5.260
5.261
5.269
5.269
1.618
5.263
5.265
5.260
5.260
5.261
5.269
5.269
1.113
5.263
5.265
5.260
5.260
5.261
5.270
5.270
E10
NOx
50 +
6.298
6.299
6.277
6.279
6.279
2.601
5.887
5.906
5.910
5.910
5.880
5.886
5.886
2.549
5.885
5.899
5.904
5.904
5.880
5.883
5.883
2.675
5.885
5.898
5.902
5.903
5.880
5.883
5.883
1.809
5.884
5.896
5.899
5.900
5.880
5.883
5.883
1.246
5.885
5.898
5.901
5.902
5.880
5.884
5.884
E10 NOx
Highway
3.888
3.889
3.868
3.869
3.869
1.670
3.643
3.659
3.662
3.663
3.636
3.643
3.643
1.660
3.644
3.656
3.659
3.660
3.640
3.643
3.643
1.732
3.644
3.655
3.658
3.659
3.640
3.644
3.644
1.238
3.643
3.653
3.655
3.656
3.640
3.644
3.644
0.825
3.644
3.655
3.657
3.658
3.640
3.644
3.644
E10
PM2.5
Decel
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0001
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0007
0.0008
0.0008
0.0008
0.0008
0.0008
0.0007
0.0007
0.0003
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0004
0.0006
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0006
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
E10
PM2.5
Oto25
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.007
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.004
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.005
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.004
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
E10
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.017
0.008
0.008
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.014
0.012
0.012
0.011
0.011
0.012
0.012
0.012
0.016
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.011
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.011
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
E10
PM2.5
50 +
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.013
0.047
0.047
0.047
0.047
0.047
0.047
0.047
0.012
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.017
0.018
0.018
0.011
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.021
0.011
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.010
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.023
0.023
E10
PM2.5
Highway
0.075
0.075
0.074
0.074
0.074
0.020
0.070
0.071
0.071
0.071
0.070
0.070
0.070
0.013
0.033
0.033
0.033
0.033
0.033
0.033
0.033
0.016
0.046
0.047
0.047
0.047
0.046
0.046
0.046
0.010
0.024
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.024
0.024
0.024
0.008
0.024
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.024
0.024
0.024
A-14

-------
Year&
Class
2006-2b
2006-3
2006-4
2006-5
2006-6
2006-7
2006-8a
2006-8b
2007-2b
2007-3
2007-4
2007-5
2007-6
2007-7
2007-8a
2007-8b
2008-2b
2008-3
2008-4
2008-5
2008-6
2008-7
2008-8a
2008-8b
2009-2b
2009-3
2009-4
2009-5
2009-6
2009-7
2009-8a
2009-8b
2010-2b
2010-3
2010-4
2010-5
2010-6
2010-7
2010-8a
2010-8b
2011-2b
2011-3
2011-4
2011-5
2011-6
E10
NOx
Decel
0.048
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.037
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.251
0.019
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.008
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.075
0.005
0.061
0.061
0.061
0.061
0.061
0.060
0.060
0.007
0.061
0.061
0.061
0.061
E10
NOx
Oto25
0.561
3.650
3.640
3.632
3.632
3.653
3.656
3.656
0.450
3.649
3.636
3.628
3.627
3.653
3.655
3.655
0.210
1.095
1.093
1.091
1.091
1.096
1.097
1.097
0.154
1.095
1.091
1.089
1.089
1.096
1.096
1.096
0.110
0.881
0.878
0.876
0.876
0.882
0.882
0.882
0.141
0.881
0.879
0.878
0.878
E10
NOx
25 to 50
1.007
5.263
5.265
5.260
5.260
5.261
5.269
5.269
0.815
5.262
5.264
5.260
5.260
5.261
5.268
5.268
0.470
1.579
1.580
1.578
1.578
1.578
1.580
1.580
0.329
1.579
1.579
1.578
1.578
1.578
1.580
1.580
0.240
1.270
1.270
1.270
1.270
1.270
1.271
1.271
0.277
1.270
1.271
1.270
1.270
E10
NOx
50 +
1.155
5.883
5.893
5.896
5.896
5.880
5.883
5.883
0.953
5.884
5.895
5.899
5.899
5.880
5.883
5.883
0.559
1.765
1.767
1.768
1.768
1.764
1.765
1.765
0.416
1.765
1.768
1.769
1.769
1.764
1.765
1.765
0.309
1.420
1.423
1.423
1.424
1.419
1.420
1.420
0.352
1.420
1.422
1.422
1.422
E10 NOx
Highway
0.790
3.643
3.651
3.652
3.653
3.640
3.643
3.643
0.660
3.643
3.653
3.655
3.655
3.640
3.643
3.643
0.358
1.093
1.095
1.095
1.095
1.092
1.093
1.093
0.286
1.093
1.095
1.096
1.096
1.092
1.093
1.093
0.212
0.870
0.872
0.873
0.873
0.869
0.869
0.869
0.245
0.869
0.872
0.872
0.872
E10
PM2.5
Decel
0.0005
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0005
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0006
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0006
0.0006
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0004
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
E10
PM2.5
Oto25
0.004
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.004
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.003
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.003
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.003
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.003
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
E10
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.009
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.009
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.007
0.008
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.008
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.007
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.006
E10
PM2.5
50 +
0.008
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.008
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.019
0.007
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.007
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.017
0.006
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.007
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.015
E10
PM2.5
Highway
0.007
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.007
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.020
0.006
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.006
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.018
0.005
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.006
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.016
A-15

-------
Year&
Class
2011-7
2011-8a
2011-8b
2012-2b
2012-3
2012-4
2012-5
2012-6
2012-7
2012-8a
2012-8b
2013-2b
2013-3
2013-4
2013-5
2013-6
2013-7
2013-8a
2013-8b
2014-2b
2014-3
2014-4
2014-5
2014-6
2014-7
2014-8a
2014-8b
2015-2b
2015-3
2015-4
2015-5
2015-6
2015-7
2015-8a
2015-8b
E10
NOx
Decel
0.061
0.060
0.060
0.006
0.061
0.061
0.061
0.061
0.061
0.060
0.060
0.006
0.061
0.061
0.061
0.061
0.061
0.060
0.060
0.006
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.006
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
0.060
E10
NOx
Oto25
0.882
0.882
0.882
0.143
0.881
0.880
0.879
0.879
0.882
0.882
0.882
0.136
0.881
0.880
0.879
0.879
0.882
0.882
0.882
0.137
0.879
0.878
0.877
0.876
0.880
0.880
0.880
0.137
0.879
0.878
0.877
0.876
0.880
0.880
0.880
E10
NOx
25 to 50
1.270
1.271
1.271
0.226
1.270
1.271
1.270
1.270
1.270
1.271
1.271
0.218
1.270
1.271
1.270
1.270
1.270
1.271
1.271
0.220
1.267
1.268
1.267
1.267
1.267
1.269
1.269
0.220
1.267
1.268
1.267
1.267
1.267
1.269
1.269
E10
NOx
50 +
1.419
1.420
1.420
0.283
1.419
1.421
1.421
1.422
1.419
1.420
1.420
0.274
1.419
1.421
1.421
1.422
1.419
1.420
1.420
0.277
1.417
1.418
1.418
1.418
1.416
1.417
1.417
0.277
1.417
1.418
1.418
1.418
1.416
1.417
1.417
E10 NOx
Highway
0.869
0.870
0.870
0.210
0.869
0.871
0.871
0.871
0.869
0.870
0.870
0.203
0.869
0.871
0.871
0.871
0.869
0.870
0.870
0.205
0.867
0.869
0.869
0.869
0.867
0.868
0.868
0.205
0.867
0.869
0.869
0.869
0.867
0.868
0.868
E10
PM2.5
Decel
0.0005
0.0005
0.0005
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
0.0003
E10
PM2.5
Oto25
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.002
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.002
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.002
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.002
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
E10
PM2.5
25 to 50
0.006
0.006
0.006
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
0.004
E10
PM2.5
50 +
0.015
0.015
0.015
0.004
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.004
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.004
0.009
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.004
0.009
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.009
0.009
E10
PM2.5
Highway
0.016
0.016
0.016
0.004
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.004
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.004
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.004
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
Note - highlighted cells are set equal to the row above (MOVES does not provide
consistent outputs for Class 8b gasoline vehicles; therefore 8bs are set equal to 8as).
                                     A-16

-------
Appendix B - NOx and PM Idle Factors - g/hr
  (MOVES2014, 2014 Calendar Year, ULSD)

-------
Short Duration Idle Emission Factors (< 15 minutes per idle event)
Pollutant
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
Fuel
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Model Yr
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
Class 2b
22.456
23.168
24.249
12.355
12.402
12.674
12.851
12.695
12.922
13.080
13.237
27.856
27.856
27.856
28.887
28.887
29.181
29.181
29.181
29.181
29.181
14.812
0.296
0.232
0.232
0.135
0.135
0.135
0.135
194.247
200.878
210.952
242.153
219.588
224.736
228.082
229.497
233.873
Class 3
14.407
14.407
14.407
7.158
7.158
7.158
7.158
7.030
7.030
7.030
7.030
14.568
14.568
14.568
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
4.426
4.426
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
191.985
191.985
191.985
148.269
139.403
139.403
139.403
139.403
139.404
Class 4-5
14.407
14.407
14.407
7.158
7.158
7.158
7.158
7.030
7.030
7.030
7.030
14.568
14.568
14.568
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
4.426
4.426
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
191.985
191.985
191.985
148.269
139.403
139.403
139.403
139.403
139.403
Class 6-7
14.407
14.407
14.407
7.158
7.158
7.158
7.158
7.030
7.030
7.030
7.030
14.568
14.568
14.568
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
4.426
4.426
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
191.986
191.985
191.985
148.269
139.403
139.404
139.403
139.404
139.403
Class 8a/b
14.407
14.407
14.407
7.158
7.158
7.158
7.158
7.030
7.030
7.030
7.030
14.568
14.568
14.568
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
14.752
4.426
4.426
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
2.393
191.986
191.986
191.985
148.268
139.404
139.403
139.403
139.403
139.404
                             B-l

-------
Pollutant
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
NOX
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
Fuel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Model Yr
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Class 2b
236.910
239.947
195.129
195.128
195.128
195.129
195.128
44.823
44.823
44.823
44.823
41.620
41.837
41.837
17.765
17.765
11.566
11.566
11.566
11.566
0.361
1.118
1.118
0.353
0.392
0.392
0.392
0.128
0.153
0.269
0.283
0.169
0.082
0.036
0.022
0.091
0.054
0.052
0.052
0.043
Class 3
139.403
139.403
117.055
96.293
96.293
96.293
96.293
45.696
45.696
45.696
45.696
22.780
22.780
22.780
7.212
7.212
4.564
4.564
4.564
4.564
0.361
1.118
1.118
0.353
0.392
0.392
0.392
0.128
0.153
0.269
0.283
0.169
0.082
0.036
0.022
0.091
0.054
0.052
0.052
0.043
Class 4-5
139.403
139.403
117.055
96.293
96.293
96.293
96.293
45.696
45.696
45.696
45.696
22.780
22.780
22.780
8.088
8.088
4.558
4.564
4.564
4.564
0.361
1.118
1.118
0.353
0.392
0.392
0.392
0.128
0.153
0.269
0.283
0.169
0.082
0.036
0.022
0.091
0.054
0.052
0.052
0.043
Class 6-7
139.403
139.403
117.055
96.293
96.293
96.293
96.293
45.696
45.696
45.696
45.696
22.780
22.780
22.780
7.498
7.498
4.850
4.777
4.777
4.777
0.361
1.118
1.118
0.353
0.392
0.392
0.392
0.128
0.153
0.269
0.283
0.169
0.082
0.036
0.022
0.091
0.054
0.052
0.052
0.043
Class 8a/b
139.403
139.403
117.056
154.417
154.416
154.416
154.416
56.802
56.802
56.802
56.802
53.190
53.190
53.190
10.054
10.054
6.761
6.489
6.489
6.489
0.361
1.118
1.118
0.353
0.392
0.392
0.392
0.128
0.153
0.269
0.283
0.169
0.082
0.036
0.022
0.091
0.054
0.052
0.052
0.043
B-2

-------
Pollutant
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
PM10
Fuel
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Gasoline
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Diesel
Model Yr
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Class 2b
0.043
0.038
0.038
0.034
0.034
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
3.877
3.877
3.877
8.139
8.139
8.139
8.139
7.655
7.655
7.655
7.655
7.655
6.511
6.511
6.511
6.511
0.523
0.523
0.523
0.437
0.437
0.262
0.262
0.262
0.262
Class 3
0.043
0.038
0.038
0.034
0.034
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
7.607
7.607
7.607
7.607
7.222
7.222
7.222
7.222
7.222
6.511
6.511
6.511
6.511
0.217
0.217
0.217
0.181
0.181
0.109
0.109
0.109
0.109
Class 4-5
0.043
0.038
0.038
0.034
0.034
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
7.607
7.607
7.607
7.607
7.222
7.222
7.222
7.222
7.222
6.511
6.511
6.511
6.511
0.217
0.217
0.217
0.205
0.205
0.108
0.109
0.109
0.109
Class 6-7
0.043
0.038
0.038
0.034
0.034
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
4.400
7.607
7.607
7.607
7.607
7.222
7.222
7.222
7.222
7.222
6.511
6.511
6.511
6.511
0.217
0.217
0.217
0.189
0.189
0.116
0.114
0.114
0.114
Class 8a/b
0.043
0.038
0.038
0.034
0.034
0.022
0.022
0.022
0.022
4.375
4.375
4.375
4.375
4.375
4.375
4.375
6.689
6.689
6.689
6.689
6.397
6.397
6.397
6.397
6.397
5.781
5.781
5.781
5.781
0.217
0.217
0.217
0.205
0.205
0.133
0.127
0.127
0.127
B-3

-------
Extended Idle Emission Factors - Class 8b Diesels Only
Engine Model Yr
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
NOxg/hr
118.561
119.010
117.353
113.081
239.060
239.452
232.619
238.362
237.926
235.990
238.327
236.240
240.174
240.797
238.115
236.552
238.162
235.909
237.155
237.869
209.087
207.631
210.662
210.226
209.098
209.098
209.098
209.098
209.098
PMlOg/hr
5.013
5.014
5.011
5.002
5.012
5.013
5.006
7.697
7.700
7.712
7.697
7.371
7.349
7.345
7.360
7.369
6.651
6.662
6.656
6.652
0.418
0.418
0.419
0.417
0.416
0.416
0.413
0.413
0.413
PM2.5 g/hr
4.612
4.613
4.610
4.602
4.611
4.612
4.605
7.081
7.084
7.095
7.081
6.781
6.761
6.757
6.771
6.780
6.119
6.129
6.123
6.120
0.385
0.384
0.385
0.383
0.383
0.383
0.380
0.380
0.380
                        B-4

-------
     Appendix C - Derivation of National Average g/kW-hr Emission Factors
From Argonne GREET Model Version 1 2011.
http://greet.es.anl.gov/

1.  Electric Generation Mix (From Annual Energy Outlook 2010)

Residual oil
Natural gas
Coal
Nuclear power
Biomass
Others
U.S. Mix
1.0%
22.9%
46.4%
20.3%
0.2%
9.2%
Biomass Type assumed = 100% forest residue
Others = Hydro, Wind, Geothermal, Solar PV etc.

2.  Electric Transmission and Distribution Loss = 8.0%

3.  Power Plant Emissions: in Grams per kWh of Electricity Available at Power Plant Gate

NOx
PM10
PM2.5
CO2
GREET-Calculated Emission Factors
By Fuel-Type Plants (Stationary and Transportation)
Biomass- Biomass-
Coal- Fired: Fired:
Oil-Fired NG-Fired Fired Woody Herbaceous
0.833 0.578 1.058
0.157 0.023 0.100
0.118 0.023 0.050
834 505 1,083 1,086 1,016
CO2 in burnt biomass from atmosphere -1,086 -1,016
Biomass-
Fired:
Forest
Residue
1.169
0.135
0.067
1,379
-1,379


TOTAL based
on US Mix
0.634
0.054
0.030
627

Assumes no emissions from nuclear power plants or "Others"

4.  Power Plant Emissions: Grams per kWh of Electricity Available at User Sites (wall
   outlets)
Total power plant gate emissions/(l-electric transmission  and distribution loss)

NOx
PM10
PM2.5
CO2
Total delivered based on US
electric generation mix
0.690
0.058
0.033
682
                                      C-l

-------
             Appendix D
Cargo Volume Literature Review Summary

-------
Clas
s
2b
2b
2b
2b
2b
2b
2b
2b

3
3
3
3

4
4
4
Application
Full Size
Pick-up
Full Size
Pick-up
Step Van
Step Van
Utility Van
Utility Van
Utility Van
Stake Truck

Pickup
Step Van
Conventiona
IVan
City
Delivery

Conventiona
IVan
Conventiona
IVan
Conventiona
Body Type
Pick-up
Pick-up
Budget
Cargo Van
Step Van
Utility/
cargo van
Uhaul 10'
Truck
Budget 10'
Moving
Truck
Stake/
platform

Pick-up
Step Van
Penske 12'
Cargo Van
Budget 16'
Moving
Truck

Uhaul 14'
Truck
Uhaul 17
Truck
Penske 16'
VIUS
Category


step/walk-
in
step/walk-
in
van (basic
enclosed)
van (basic
enclosed)
van (basic
enclosed)
flatbed/sta
ke/
platform


step/walk-
in
van (basic
enclosed)





Manuf
Chevy
Ford
Ford
Freightline
r- Sprinter
Ford
GMC

Supreme

GMC
Freightline
r- Sprinter



Ford
Ford

Model
Silverado
2500HD
F250

2500
Standard
Roof
E350




Sierra 3500
3500
Standard
Roof






Cargo
Space
(cubic
feet)


309
318
237
402
380
336


547
450
800

733
865
826
Unit
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft

Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft

Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Max
Payload
3,644
2,900
3,116
3,469
4,239
2,810
3,100


4,566
4,845
2,600
3,400

6,190
5,930
4,300
GVW
9,200
9,400
8,600
8,550
9,500
8,600
8,600


10,700
11,030

11,500

14,050
14,050
15,000
Notes or
Comments

















URL
http://www.chevrolet.com/vehicles/201
0/silverado2500hd/features.do
http : //www. fordfl 5 0 .net/specs/0 5 sd_sp
ecs.pdf
http://www.budgettruck.com/Moving-
Trucks.aspx
http : //www. freightlinersprinterusa. com/
vehicles/cargo-
van/models/specifications.php
http://www.motortrend.com/cars/2008/
ford/e 350/specifications/index.html
http://www.uhaul.com/Reservations/Eq
uipmentDetail . aspx?model=EL
http://www.budgettruck.com/Moving-
Trucks.aspx


http://www.gmc.com/sierra/3500/specs
Standard.] sp
http : //www. freightlinersprinterusa. com/
vehicles/cargo- van/models/3500-high-
roof-170-wb-6-specs.php
http://www.pensketruckrental.com/com
mercial-truck-rentals/moving-vans/12-
ft.html
http://www.budgettruck.com/Moving-
Trucks.aspx

http://www.uhaul.com/Reservations/Eq
uipmentDetail . aspx?model=EL
http://www.uhaul.com/Reservations/Eq
uipmentDetail . aspx?model=EL
http://www.pensketruckrental.com/com

-------
o
to
Clas
s

4
4
4
4
4

5
5
5
5

6
6
6

6
Application
IVan
City
Delivery
Large Walk-
In
Large Walk-
In
UPS
Stake Truck

Bucket
Truck
City
Delivery
City
Delivery
Large Walk-
In

Beverage
Single Axle
Van
Stake Truck

Refrigerated
/Reefer
Body Type
Economy
Van
Penske 16'
Cargo Van
Walk-in
Walk-in
Walk-in
Stake/platfo
rm

Bucket
truck
Uhaul 24'
Truck
Uhaul 26'
Truck
Large
Walk-in

Beverage
Budget 24'
Truck
24' Stake
Truck

24' Kold
King
Refrigerate
VIUS
Category





flatbed/sta
ke/platfor
m


van (basic
enclosed)
van (basic
enclosed)
step/walk-
in


van (basic
enclosed)
flatbed/sta
ke/platfor
m

reefer
Manuf



Eaton
Hybrid
Grumman
GMC






Hackney

Intemation
al/
Supreme

Supreme
Model


W700 Step
Van
W700 Step
Van

W4500






6-Bay 52"
Performer

24'

24'
Cargo
Space
(cubic
feet)

1,536
700
700

448


1,418
1,611
670

588/case
capacity =
531 @
120z cans
1,380
672

1,521
Unit

Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft

Cu. Ft

Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft

Cu.
Ft/case
s cans
Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft

Cu. Ft
Max
Payload

5,100
5,720
5,390




6,500
7,400


11,601
12,000



GVW


16,000
16,000

14,500


18,000
18,000
16,000

21,150
25,500
25,900


Notes or
Comments

















URL
mercial-truck-rentals/moving-cargo-
vans/16-ft.html
http://www.pensketruckrental.com/com
mercial-truck-rentals/moving-cargo-
vans/16-ft.html
http://files.harc.edu/Proiects/Transporta
tion/FedExReportTask3 .pdf
http : //files, hare . edu/Proj ects/Transporta
tion/FedExReportTask3 .pdf
http://www.grummanolson.com/index2
.htm
http : //www.usedtrucksdepot. com/brow
se_listdetails.php?manf=GMC&scate=
Stake+Truck&catname=Medium+Duty
+Trucks&main id=208


http://www.uhaul.com/Reservations/Eq
uipmentDetail . aspx?model=EL
http://www.uhaul.com/Reservations/Eq
uipmentDetail . aspx?model=EL
http://news.van.fedex.com/node/7379

http : //www.hackneybe verage .com/bo d
ycad5.htm
http://www.budgettruck.com/Moving-
Trucks.aspx
http://www.usedtrucks.ryder.com/Vehi
cle/VehicleSearch.aspx?VehicleTypeId
=!&VehicleGroupId=5

http://www.silvercrowncoach.com/supr
eme.php?page=product&bodv=refriger
ated&product=2 1 §ion=specs

-------
Clas
s

6

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
Application

Landscape
Van

Refuse
Furniture
Beverage
Stake Truck
Refrigerated
/Reefer
Tanker
Truck
Single Axle
Van
Body Type
d
Vanscaper
Landscape
Van

Refuse
Truck
Furniture
Truck
Beverage
(delivery
body)
flatbed/stak
e/platform
28' Kold
King
Refrigerate
d
tank (fluid)
Freightliner
Truck
VIUS
Category

step/walk-
in




flatbed/sta
ke/platfor
m
reefer
tank
(fluid)
van (basic
enclosed)
Manuf

Supreme



Hackney
Supreme
Supreme
Ford
Freightline
r Business
Class (24')
Model

22'



Hackney 10-
Bay-48"
Aluminum
SH20096
28'
F750 XL
Business
Class M2
112
Cargo
Space
(cubic
feet)

1,496


2,013
12517 case
capacity =
1,10012
oz cans
728
1,774
267
1,552
Unit

Cu. Ft

Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft
Cu.
Ft/case
cans

Cu. Ft
Cu. Ft

Max
Payload





23,700


2,000-
4000
GAL

GVW





37,733
33,000

26,000
33,000
Notes or
Comments

Note:
typical
step/walk-
ins do not
reach this
size. This is
a speciality
vehicle







Note: front
axle Ibs
12,000/rear
axle 2 1,000
Ibs (each
add'l axle
approx
12,000 Ibs)
URL

http://www.silvercrowncoach.com/supr
eme.php?page=product&body=landsca
ping&product= 3 0


http://www.hendersonrentals.co.nz/?t=
38
http : //hackneyusa. com/
http://www.usedtrucks.ryder.com/Vehi
cle/VehicleSearch.aspx?VehicleTypeId
= 1 & VehicleGroupId=5
http://www.silvercrowncoach.com/supr
eme.php?page=product&body=refriger
ated&product=2 1 §ion=specs
http : //www. truckingauctions .com/brow
se listdetails.php?scate=Water%20Tan
k%20Truck&manf=GMC&catname=H
eavy%20Duty%20Trucks
http://www.truckpaper.com/listingsdeta
il/detail.aspx?OHID=2379362

-------
            Appendix E
PERE Efficiency Modeling Methodology

-------
The PERE model is not specifically designed for modeling heavy duty hybrid trucks, but
as it is a physical model that is primarily dependent upon input values,  its use was
considered appropriate for the estimation of the fuel economy effects of truck
hybridization. The model calculates second-by-second fuel consumption for user-
defined drive cycles based on a physical model. The model takes a number of user-
specified parameters, along with some of its own defaults, to perform these calculations
for a variety of vehicle and powertrain types. The assumptions and data sources for the
model inputs that were used are presented below. The defaults for some parameters,
such as hybrid regeneration efficiency and hybrid battery efficiency, were assumed to
remain unchanged when scaling from light-duty to heavy-duty vehicles.

Many vehicle parameters, such as road load and transmission data,  were used from
work already done with the PERE model for the SmartWay program. Many of the
parameters for that previous work were taken from findings of internet searches for
specifications of various trucks in new "as-delivered" condition, prior to the addition of
various vocational or cargo equipment installations that would increase drag and vehicle
weight. To establish the test weights for each truck class in this modeling effort, the
original estimate of minimum weight was averaged with the maximum possible weight
for each truck class. This was done with the intent of modeling an average or medium
payload for each truck class. An important source of information was an EPA draft
document discussing the use of the PERE model by Nam and Gianelli42. This document
contained equations that could be used for estimates of some of the input parameters,
along with information describing the use of the model.

The two foremost inputs to the model include the vehicle weight and engine size.
Vehicle empty weights and engine sizes were taken from manufacturer supplied truck
specifications where possible. For example,  Ford published a .pdf file titled F-250/F-
350/F-450/F-550 Specifications43 that contains base curb weights and engine sizes for
some of their offerings in the light and medium duty  market. Another useful source of
manufacturer data was in the Kenworth T170/T270/T370 Body Builders Manual44. The
T170-T370 range consists of medium duty trucks that can be delivered with a cab-only
chassis. The manual describes all of the dimensions relevant to the builder of a body or
cargo area on the rear of the chassis. As such, it includes curb weights, length and
width dimensions, and gross vehicle weight ratings that were instrumental in creating
many of the inputs for the Class 5, 6, and 7 fuel economy models. Where specifications
of multiple trucks in a class were found, values were taken that would result in
maximum fuel economy unless they seemed noticeably atypical of in-use vehicles.
Variations in weight and engine size over the ranges found in literature did not have as
large an effect on fuel economy as some of the other inputs to the PERE model. For
hybrid modeling, the engine size reduction due to hybridization ranged from 1 liter for
42 Nam, Edward and Gianelli, Robert, Fuel Consumption Modeling of Conventional and Advanced Technology
Vehicles in the Physical Emission Rate Estimator (PERE). US EPA Publication EPA420-P-05-001, February 2005.
43 FordF150.net. F-250/F-350/F-450/F-550 Specifications. Retrieved from
http://www.fordfl50.net/specs/05sd_specs.pdf
44 Kenworth. Kenworth T170/T270/T370 Body Builders Manual. Retrieved from
http://www.kenworth.com/brochures/2009_Hybrid_Body_Builders_Manual.pdf


                                      E-l

-------
the Class 2b and 3 trucks, up to 4 liters for the Class 8 trucks. This range was chosen
based on the nature of hybrid trucks currently available on the market. Class 2 hybrid
trucks on the market typically have very little engine downsizing from hybridization,
however larger trucks were found to have more engine downsizing.

The number of transmission gears in each truck class was also based on specifications
found on manufacturers' web sites,  but there is a wide range of the number of gears in
the different available transmissions. While it is very likely that the most efficient setup
for Class 2b through 4 would be a 6 speed manual transmission, there are a variety of
options for Classes 5 through 8. It is also typical for a modern Class 8 truck to have 10
gears, so the model input for Class  6 was taken to be 8 as a representation of typical
trucks in that  class, and all trucks were modeled with manual transmissions. The PERE
model also requires shift speeds as an input to the model, and examples of these were
not found in literature or internet searches. ERG has previously logged on-road data
from Class 8 trucks with 10-speed manual transmissions, and this data was analyzed
briefly to create an estimate of typical upshift speeds for this type of truck. Using this
speed/gear curve, two other curves were created by scaling for the 6 and 8 speed
trucks modeled in the study.  Unfortunately, the shift speed chart has a very strong effect
on the model's predicted fuel economy,  but using carefully scaled shift point curves
hopefully mitigated this source of error. The hybrid trucks were modeled with exactly the
same transmissions as the conventional trucks. The model did not readily include a
provision for changing the transmission  characteristics when changing from
conventional to hybrid powertrains.  All transmission parameters were kept the same
when making this change with the intent of ensuring the resulting fuel economy effects
were only due to hybridization, not due to transmission  effects.

There were three other values regarding the driveline that were input for this study. The
engine efficiency was taken to be 40% over the cycle. The maximum engine speeds
and highway cruise speeds were  adjusted together as well,  to account for the larger
displacement heavy duty engines turning more slowly than typical Class 2b truck
engines. The effects of the engine speed parameters on fuel economy were fairly small.

The road load estimation required assumptions and calculations as road load curves
are not generally a part of manufacturers' literature. The method of road load calculation
used for this PERE modeling was based on the coefficient of rolling resistance (CR), the
aerodynamic drag coefficient (Cd), and the vehicle frontal area (AF) in a physical
equation of the truck's road load,  given in Equation 1 from Nam and Gianelli (2005).
Coefficients of drag were based on  values in literature,  such as manufacturers'
specifications for Class 2b and in a  report publication by Argonne National Laboratory45.
Values for Cd ranged from .45 for the Class 2b and the smaller medium duty trucks, to .5
for the class 8 long-haul trucks. The heavier medium duty trucks were assumed to have
a Cd of .55 as they were assumed to be  vocational trucks with less streamlined
aerodynamics. Frontal area was taken from manufacturer specifications where
available. As  given in Nam and Gianelli, the product of truck height and width was
45 Delorme, A., Karbowski, D., and Sharer, P. Evaluation of Fuel Consumption Potential of Medium and Heavy
Duty Vehicles through Modeling and Simulation. Argonne National Laboratory, DEPS-BEES-001, October 2009.


                                       E-2

-------
multiplied by a factor of 0.93 to get an estimate of effective AF. Engineering judgment
was applied to the dimensions found in literature to ensure a representative increase in
frontal area from the smaller to larger trucks. The rolling resistance values were
estimated using the trends observed by both Nam and Gianelli (2005) along with
Delorme Karbowski, and Sharer (2009), ranging from 0.01 for the light and medium duty
trucks, down to 0.008 for the class 8 trucks.

The final input to the PERE model was the driving cycle. In order to get a representative
range of fuel economy benefit, two drive cycles were modeled. The first was the Heavy-
Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (HDUDDS), and the second was the EPA
Highway Fuel Economy Test (HwFET). The HDUDDS can be thought of as a  city-type
cycle with frequent stops and starts. The HwFET simulates rural driving with varying
speeds but no stops. Even though the HwFET is designed only for light duty vehicles, it
was still used as it was the best representation available for in-use highway driving.

The key values used as the inputs for the PERE model fuel economy calculations are
given by truck class in Table E-1.

           Table E-1. PERE Model Inputs for Fuel Economy Estimation
Class
2b
3
4
5
6
7
8
Modeled Test
Weight, Ibs
7,875
10,000
12,250
14,500
19,500
24,000
52,500
Conventional
Engine Disp.,
L
6.0
6.0
6.4
6.7
6.7
8.3
13
Hybrid
Engine Disp.,
L
5
5
5.4
5.7
5.7
6.3
9
Number of
Gears
6
6
6
6
8
10
10
Effective Gear
Ratio, RPM/mph
35
35
33
33
33
31
30
For modeling hybrid vehicles in the PERE model, the user must adjust the hybrid
threshold for each different vehicle and drive cycle combination. This variable
represents the amount of power demand during acceleration that is required to cause
the engine to start up to assist the electric motor. The user must adjust this value such
that the amount of energy taken from the battery is approximately equal to the amount
of energy charged back into the battery during regenerative braking. If this is not done,
the fuel economy will be misrepresented due to the battery ending up with a different
state of charge at the end of the cycle compared to the beginning of the cycle.

For the HwFET cycle in the lower truck classes,  there were not enough deceleration
events charge the battery back to  its initial charge level, even with the hybrid threshold
variable at its minimum value. This meant that the battery was ending at a lower level of
charge at the end of the cycle than the beginning, which has the effect of overestimating
                                     E-3

-------
the trucks actual fuel economy. For this reason, ERG added an extra calculation to the
model in order to account for the net change in battery power. This calculation used the
various efficiencies of the hybrid system to estimate the fuel required to make up the
change in battery charge over the cycle, and add that number to the modeled fuel
consumption. This calculation was needed for the trucks in Classes 2b through 5.
                                      E-4

-------
          Appendix F
EPA Drayage Calculator Equations

-------
Drayage Fleet Score and Emission Reductions for Generic Port
Company Name
Year
2008
Baseline Emissions
From Average Dray
Truck Fleet
Untreated
DOC & CCVS
Flow Through Filter
Diesel Particulate
Filter/LNG
Total Trucks Equipped
with:
California Cartage Express
Pre-
1988

1



APUs
1988-
1993

0



0
1994-
2002

0


0
2003-
2006

0


0
SW Tires
2007-
2009




0
0
Post
2009




0
LNG
Total
Trucks
1
1
0
0
0
0

CO2
Grams






2008 Total Fleet
Emissions
Change in Emissions from
Baseline
% Change in Emissions
Avg. Miles Per Truck
60000
Fuel Consumed (gal)
10000
SmartWay FLEET Score and Environmental Performance for:
2008



CO2
Short
tons
111
111
0
0
0
0
111
0.0
0%
PM
Short
tons
0.1
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.1
131%
NOx
Short
tons
1.4
1.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.6
0.2
14%


SmartWay
SIF Score

No Rating
Environmental
Performance

No Rating
I.  CO2 Short Tons
A. CO2 (Short tons) - Baseline Emissions From Average Dray Truck Fleet
      Aco2 = (((BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetprei988 +
      BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleeti988toi993 + BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleeti994to2002) *
      AvgMilesPerTruck/5.47) + ((BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetioostoiooe +
      BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleet2oo7to2009 + BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetpost2009)  *
      AvgMilesPerTruck 75.47)) * 0.01015
      NOTE: AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

-------
B. CO? (Short tons) - Untreated
      Bco2 = (((Untreatedprei988 + Untreatedi988toi993 + Untreatedi994t02oo2) * AvgMilesPerTruck 75.47) +
      ((Untreatedioostoiooe + Untreated2oo7to2009 + Untreatedpost2009 ) *  AvgMilesPerTruck 75.47)) * 0.01015
      NOTE: AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

C. CO7 (Short tons) - DOCs & CCVs
      CC02 = (((DOCs&CCVsPrei988 + DOCs&CCVsi988toi993 + DOCs&CCVsi994to2002) *  AvgMilesPerTruck 75.47) + ((
      DOCs&CCVs20o3to2006 + DOCs&CCVs20o7to2009 + DOCs&CCVsPost2oo9) * AvgMilesPerTruck 75.47)) * 0.01015
      NOTE: AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

D. CO? (Short tons) - Flow Through Filter
      Dco2 = (((FlowThroughFilterPrei988 + FlowThroughFilteri988toi993 + FlowThroughFilteri994t02oo2) * AvgMilesPerTruck
      75.47) + (( FlowThroughFilter2oo3to2006 + FlowThroughFilter2o
-------
      C co2 = CO2 (Short tons) - DOCs & CCVs
      D co2 = CO2 (Short tons) - Flow Through Filter
      E co2 = CO2 (Short tons) - Diesel Particulate

G. CO2 (Short tons) - Total Fleet Emissions
      G CO2 = B CO2  + C CO2 + D CO2  + E CO2 + F CO2
Where
      B co2 = CO2 (Short tons) - Untreated
      C co2 = CO2 (Short tons) - DOCs & CCVs
      D co2 = CO2 (Short tons) - Flow Through Filter
      E co2 = CO2 (Short tons) - Diesel Particulate
      F co2 = CO2 (Short tons) - CO2 (Short tons) - Total Trucks Equipped with APU/SWTires/LNG

H. CO? (Short tons) - Change in Emissions from Baseline
      HcO2 = GcO2 - AcO2
Where
      GC02 = CO2 (Short tons) - Total Fleet Emissions
      A co2 = CO2 (Short tons) - Baseline Emissions From Average Dray Truck Fleet

I. CO? (Short tons) - Percent Change in Emissions from Baseline
      I CO2 = (G CO2  - A CO2 ) / A CO2
Where
      GC02 = CO2 (Short tons) - Total Fleet Emissions
      A co2 = CO2 (Short tons) - Baseline Emissions From Average Dray Truck Fleet

J. CO? (Short tons) - SmartWay Fleet Score and Environmental Performance
     " Jco2 = (Ico2/40)*-100
Where
      I co2 = CO2 (Short tons) - Percent Change in Emissions from Baseline

-------
II. PM Short Tons
A. PM (Short tons) - Baseline Emissions From Average Dray Truck Fleet
       APM  = ((( BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetprei988 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06) +
       (BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleeti988toi993 * PMGramsPerMilei988toi993 * 1.10E-06) +
       (BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleeti994to2oo2 * PMGramsPerMilei994to2oo2 * 1.10E-06) +
       (BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleet2oo3to2006 * PMGramsPerMile2oo3to2006 * 1.10E-06) +
       (BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleet2oo7to2009 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06) +
       (BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetpost2009 * PMGramsPerMileprei988 * 1.10E-06)) * AvgMilesPerTruck)
       NOTE:  AvgMilesPerTruck =60000
Where

PMGramsPerMilepreiggg = 3.11

B. PM (Short tons) - Untreated
       BPM  = (((Untreatedprei988* PMGramsPerMileprei988 * 1.10E-06) + (Untreatedi988toi993 * PMGramsPerMilei988toi993 *
       1.10E-06) + (Untreatedi994to2oo2 * PMGramsPerMilei994to2oo2 * 1.10E-06) +  (Untreated2oo3to2006 *
       PMGramsPerMile2oo3to2006 * 1.10E-06) + (Untreated2oo7to2009 * PMGramsPerMileprei988 * 1.10E-06) +  (Untreatedpost2009 *
       PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06)) * AvgMilesPerTruck)
       NOTE:  AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

C. PM (Short tons) - DOCs & CCVs
       CPM  = (((DOCs&CCVsprei988 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg *  1.10E-06* 0.7) + (DOCs&CCVs1988toi993 *
       PMGramsPerMilei9ggtoi993 * 1.10E-06 * 0.7) + (DOCs&CCVsi994to2002 * PMGramsPerMilei994to2002 * 1.10E-06 * 0.7) +
       (DOCs&CCVs20o3to2006  * PMGramsPerMile20o3to2006 * 1.10E-06 * 0.7) + (DOCs&CCVs20o7to2009 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg
       * 1.10E-06 * 0.7) +  (DOCs&CCVsPost2009 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06 * 0.7)) * AvgMilesPerTruck)
       NOTE:  AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

D. PM (Short tons) - Flow Through Filter
       DPM  = (((FlowThroughFilterPrei988 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06* 0.5) + (FlowThroughFilteri988toi993 *
       PMGramsPerMileigggtoiggs * 1.10E-06 * 0.5) + (FlowThroughFilter1994to2oo2 * PMGramsPerMileigg4to2002 * 1.10E-06 * 0.5)
       +  (FlowThroughFilter20o3to2006 * PMGramsPerMile2oo3to2006 * 1.10E-06 * 0.5) + (FlowThroughFilter20o7to2009  *

-------
       PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06 * 0.5) +  (FlowThroughFilterPost2oo9 * PMGramsPerMileprei988 * 1.10E-06 * 0.5)) *
       AvgMilesPerTruck)
       NOTE:  AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

E. PM (Short tons) - Diesel Particulate
       EPM = (((DieselParticulateprei988 * PMGramsPerMileprei988 * 1.10E-06* 0.1) + (DieselParticulatei988toi993 *
       PMGramsPerMilei988toi993 * 1.10E-06 * 0.1)  + (DieselParticulatei994to2002 * PMGramsPerMilei994to2002 * 1.10E-06 * 0.1)  +
       (DieselParticulate2oo3to2oo6 * PMGramsPerMile2oo3to2oo6 * 1.10E-06 * 0.1) + (DieselParticulate2oo7to2oo9  *
       PMGramsPerMileprei988 * 1.10E-06)  +  (DieselParticulatePost2oo9 * PMGramsPerMileprei988 * 1.10E-06)) *
       AvgMilesPerTruck)
       NOTE:  AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

F. PM (Short tons) - Total Trucks Equipped with APU/SWTires/LNG
       FPM = ((TotalTruckEquippedApu/BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetTotaiTracks * 0.08) * (BPM + CPM + DPM
       EPM) * -1)
Where
       BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetTotaiTracks = BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetprei988 +
       BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleeti988toi993  + BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleeti994t02oo2
       BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleet2oo3to2006 + BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleet2oo7to2009 +
       BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetpost2009
       BPM = PM (Short tons) - Untreated
       CPM = PM (Short tons) - DOCs & CCVs
       DPM = PM (Short tons) - Flow Through Filter
       EPM = PM (Short tons) - Diesel Particulate

G. PM (Short tons) - Total Fleet Emissions
       GPM  = BPM +  CPM + DPM +  EPM + FPM
Where
       BPM = PM (Short tons) - Untreated
       CPM = PM (Short tons) - DOCs & CCVs
       DPM = PM (Short tons) - Flow Through Filter
       EPM = PM (Short tons) - Diesel Particulate

-------
                  PM (Short tons) - Total Trucks Equipped with APU/SWTires/LNG

      H. PM (Short tons) - Change in Emissions from Baseline
            HPM = GPM - APM
      Where
            GpM = PM (Short tons) - Total Fleet Emissions
            APM = PM (Short tons) - Baseline Emissions From Average Dray Truck Fleet

      I. PM (Short tons) - Percent Change in Emissions from Baseline
            IPM = (GPM - APM ) / APM
      Where
            GPM = PM (Short tons) - Total Fleet Emissions
            APM = PM (Short tons) - Baseline Emissions From Average Dray Truck Fleet

      J. PM (Short tons) - SmartWay Fleet Score and Environmental Performance
^           JPM  = a PM/80)*-100
a,     Where
            IPM  =  PM (Short tons) - Percent Change in Emissions from Baseline

      777. NOx Short Tons

      A. NOx (Short tons) - Baseline Emissions From Average Dray Truck Fleet
            ANOX = ((( BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetprei988 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06) +
            (BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleeti988toi993 * PMGramsPerMilei988toi993 * 1.10E-06) +
            (BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleeti994to2oo2 * PMGramsPerMilei994to2oo2 * 1.10E-06) +
            (BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleet2oo3to2006 * PMGramsPerMile2oo3to2006 * 1.10E-06) +
            (BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleet2oo7to2009 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06) +
            (BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetpost2009 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06)) *  AvgMilesPerTruck)
            NOTE: AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

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B. NOy (Short tons) - Untreated
       BNOX =  (((Untreatedprei988 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06)  + (Untreatedi988toi993 * PMGramsPerMilei988toi993 *
       1.10E-06) + (Untreatedi994to2002 * PMGramsPerMilei994to2002 * 1.10E-06)  + (Untreatedioostoiooe  *
       PMGramsPerMile2oo3to2006 * 1.10E-06) +  (Untreated20o7to2009 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06) +  (UntreatedPost2oo9 *
       PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06)) * AvgMilesPerTruck)
       NOTE:  AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

C. NQy (Short tons) - DOCs & CCVs
       CNOX =  (((DOCs&CCVsPrei988 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06) + (DOCs&CCVsi988toi993  *
       PMGramsPerMilei988toi993 * 1.10E-06) +  (DOCs&CCVsi994to2oo2 * PMGramsPerMilei994to2oo2 * 1.10E-06)  +
       (DOCs&CCVs2003to2006 * PMGramsPerMile2oo3to2006 * 1.10E-06) + (DOCs&CCVs2oo7to2009 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg *
       1.10E-06) + (DOCs&CCVsPost2oo9 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06)) * AvgMilesPerTruck)
       NOTE:  AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

D. NOx (Short tons) - Flow Through Filter
       DNOX =  (((FlowThroughFilterPl.ei988 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06) +  (FlowThroughFilter1988toi993 *
       PMGramsPerMilei9ggtoi993 * 1.10E-06) +  (FlowThroughFilteri994to2002 * PMGramsPerMilei994to2002 * 1.10E-06) +
       (FlowThroughFilter20o3to2006 * PMGramsPerMile2oo3to2006 * 1.10E-06) + (FlowThroughFilter20o7to2009  *
       PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06) + (FlowThroughFilterPost2oo9 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06)) *
       AvgMilesPerTruck)
       NOTE:  AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

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      E. NOx (Short tons) - Diesel Particulate
            ENOX = (((DieselParticulateprei988 * PMGramsPerMilepreiggg * 1.10E-06) + (DieselParticulatei988toi993 *
            PMGramsPerMilei988toi993 * 1.10E-06) + (DieselParticulatei994t02002  * PMGramsPerMilei994t02002 * 1.10E-06)  +
            (DieselParticulate2oo3to2oo6 * PMGramsPerMile2oo3to2oo6 * 1.10E-06) + (DieselParticulate2oo7to2oo9  *
            * 1.10E-06) + (DieselParticulatePost2oo9 * PMGramsPerMileprei988 * 1.10E-06)) * AvgMilesPerTruck)
            NOTE: AvgMilesPerTruck =60000

      F. NOy (Short tons) - Total Trucks Equipped with APU/SWTires/LNG
            FNOX = ((TotalTruckEquippedApu/BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetTotaiTracks* 0.11) + (
            TotalTruckEquippedswiires / BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetTotaiTracks * 0.02) *(BNOX + CNOX +  DNOX +
            ENOX) * -1
      Where
            BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetTotaiTracks = BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetprei988  +
            BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleeti988toi993  + BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleeti994t02oo2 +
            BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleet2oo3to2006  + BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleet2oo7to2009 +
^           BaselineEmissionsFromAverageDrayTruckFleetpost2009
oo           BNOX = NOx (Short tons) - Untreated
            CNOX = NOX (Short tons) - DOCs & CCVs
            DNOX = NOX (Short tons) - Flow Through Filter
            ENOX = NOx (Short tons) - Diesel Particulate

      G. NOx (Short tons) - Total Fleet Emissions
            GNOX = BNOX + CNOX + DNOX  + ENOX + FNOX
      Where
            BNOX = NOx (Short tons) - Untreated
            CNOX = NOX (Short tons) - DOCs & CCVs
            DNOX = NOX (Short tons) - Flow Through Filter
            ENOX = NOx (Short tons) - Diesel Particulate
            FNOX = NOX (Short tons) - Total Trucks Equipped with APU/SWTires/LNG

      H. NOx (Short tons) - Change in Emissions from Baseline
            HNOX = GNOX - ANOX

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Where
      GNOX = NOx (Short tons) - Total Fleet Emissions
      ANOX = NOx (Short tons) - Baseline Emissions From Average Dray Truck Fleet

I. NOx (Short tons) - Percent Change in Emissions from Baseline
      INOX = (GNOX  - ANOX ) / ANOX
Where
      GNOX = NOX (Short tons) - Total Fleet Emissions
      ANOX = NOx (Short tons) - Baseline Emissions From Average Dray Truck Fleet

J. NOx (Short tons) - SmartWay Fleet Score and Environmental Performance
      JNOX = (INOX/80)*-100
Where
      INOX = NOx (Short tons) - Percent Change in Emissions from Baseline

IV. SmartWay SIF Score and Environmental Performance

A. Score Calculation
ASCORE = Ico2 + IPM +  INOX
Where
      I co2 = COi (Short tons) - Percent Change in Emissions from Baseline
      IPM  = PM (Short tons) - Percent Change in Emissions from Baseline
      INOX = NOx (Short tons) - Percent Change in Emissions from Baseline

B. SmartWay SIF Ranking
      Brank = If ASCORE < 0.498, then "No Rating"
      Brank = If ASCORE > 0.499 and ASCORE < 1, then "0.75"
      Brank = If ASCORE > 1 and ASCORE  < 1.8, then "1.00"
      Brank = If ASCORE >1.8, then "1.25"
Where
      ASCORE = Score Calculation

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C. Environmental Performance
      CEnvPerf = If ASCoRE<0.05, then "No Rating"
      CEnvPerf = If ASCORE > 0.05 and ASCORE < 0.499, then "Average'
      CEnvPerf = If ASCORE > 0.499 and ASCORE < 1, then "Good"
      CEnvPerf = If ASCORE > 1 and ASCORE < 1.8, then "Very Good"
      CEnvPerf = If ASCORE >1.8, then "Outstanding"
Where
      ASCORE = Score Calculation

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