EPA Region 9
   Climate Change
Implementation Plan
 Publication Number: EPA-100-K-14-001P
        May 2014


To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so for
informational purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or regulations, and
readers should consult the statutes or regulations to learn what they require. Neither this document,
nor any part of it, is itself a rule or a regulation. Thus, it cannot change or impose legally binding
requirements on EPA, States, the public, or the regulated community. Further, any expressed intention,
suggestion or recommendation does not impose any legally binding requirements on EPA, States, tribes,
the public, or the regulated community. Agency decision makers remain free to exercise their discretion
in choosing to implement the actions described in this Plan. Such implementation is contingent upon
availability of resources and is subject to change.
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to the
challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate, outside the
range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant challenges to the
EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The  EPA must adapt to climate change if it is to continue fulfilling its
statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is therefore anticipating and planning
for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill its mission of protecting human health and
the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for review and
comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and expert judgment to identify
vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate change. The plan also presents 10 priority actions
that EPA will take to ensure that its programs, policies, rules, and operations will remain effective under
future climatic conditions. The priority placed on mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA
complements efforts to encourage and mainstream adaptation planning across the entire federal

Following completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan, each EPA National Environmental
Program Office, all 10 Regional Offices, and several National Support Offices developed a Climate
Adaptation Implementation Plan to provide more detail on how it will carry out the work called for in
the agency-wide plan. Each  Implementation Plan articulates how the office will integrate climate
adaptation into its planning and  work in a manner consistent and compatible with its goals and

Taken together, the Implementation  Plans demonstrate how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-wide
priorities presented in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central element of all of EPA's plans is to
build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with  its partners to build capacity in states, tribes,
and local communities. EPA will empower its staff and partners by increasing their awareness of ways
that climate change may affect their  ability to implement effective programs, and by providing them
with the necessary data, information, and tools to integrate climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional  Office's Implementation Plan contains an initial assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program vulnerability
assessments" are living documents that will be updated as needed to account for new knowledge, data,
and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's mission. The plan then identifies
specific priority actions that the office will take to begin addressing its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming
climate change adaptation into its activities. Criteria for the selection of priorities are discussed. An
emphasis is placed on protecting the most vulnerable people and places, on supporting the
development of adaptive capacity in  the tribes, and on identifying clear steps for ongoing collaboration
with tribal governments.

Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they mainstream
climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate their efforts in order to
understand how well different approaches work and how they can  be improved. Each Implementation

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Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization will regularly evaluate the effectiveness of
its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build the
nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal of protecting human health and the environment.
Working with its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and prosperous nation that is resilient
to a changing climate.
                                                   Bob Perciasepe
                                                   Deputy Administrator

                                                   September 2013
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                                EPA Region 9

Climate  Change Adaptation Implementation Plan

I.     Purpose

This Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan (Plan) outlines actions the United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 9 will take to become more resilient to our changing

EPA issued a Policy Statement on Climate-Change Adaptation in June, 20111.  The Policy Statement
recognizes that climate change can pose significant challenges to EPA's ability to fulfill its mission and
calls for the Agency to anticipate changes in climate and incorporate considerations of climate change
into its activities. In accordance with the Policy Statement, EPA issued an Agency-wide Draft Climate
Change Adaptation Implementation Plan2 on February 8, 2013, describing how the agency intends to
adapt to climate change and assist its partners in doing the same. Subsequently, each of the EPA's
national program offices, and its ten regional offices, developed Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plans, specific to their programs and regions.  Many programs throughout EPA have
already begun to address the implications of climate change.

Region 9 intends to fulfill its mission by building a more resilient and climate-responsive program. We
will assist our partners in meeting the challenges of climate change through financial  and technical
assistance, effective coordination and decision-support to increase their resilience.
      Vision of the Future EPA (from U.S. EPA Climate Change Adaptation Plan, 2013)

      We live in a world in which the climate is changing. Changes in climate have occurred since the
      formation of the planet. But humans are now influencing Earth's climate and causing it to change in
      unprecedented ways.

      It is in this rapidly changing world that EPA is working to fulfill its mission to protect human health and
      the environment. Many of the outcomes EPA is working to attain (e.g., clean air, safe drinking water)
      are sensitive to changes in weather and climate. Until now, EPA has been able to assume that climate
      is relatively stable and future climate will mirror past climate. However, with climate changing more
      rapidly than society has experienced in the past, the past is no longer a good predictor of the future.
      Climate change is posing new challenges to EPA's ability to fulfill its mission.

      It is essential that EPA adapt to anticipate and plan for future changes in climate. It must integrate, or
      mainstream, considerations of climate change into its programs, policies, rules and operations to
      ensure they are effective under future climatic conditions. Through climate adaptation planning, EPA
      will continue to protect human health and the environment, but in a way that accounts for the effects
      of climate change.
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II.    Impacts from Climate Change in EPA Region 9

Around the world, a cascade of effects is expected to result from climate change.  Most of these changes
will be felt somewhere in Region 9. Those changes will vary from the arid southwest deserts to the
Pacific Islands to the Northern California coastal forests.  Some changes are more certain than others.
Changes may be local, or cover the whole region.  Below are some examples of climate change impacts
that are likely to occur in Region 9.

       Air temperatures will increase;
       Precipitation may decrease in some areas;
       Storm events may be more severe;
       Oceans will become more acidic and warm; and
       Sea level will rise.

Figure 1 illustrates the impacts that are likely to result from each of these climatic changes.
Figure 1:
 Adverse Impacts of Climate Change
                                          Change could
                                             lead to...
                 and Warming
Sea Level Rise
    Heat event
    Snowfall and
    pack decrease
    Runoff season
Water supply
flow decrease
Soil moisture
Damage to
(inland and
on coast)
Damage to
(inland and
on coast)
(inland and
on coast)
                                          Coral reef
     Salt water
     intrusion to
     Damage to
     Damage to
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III.   Vulnerabilities for EPA Region 9 Communities.

Populations. Habitats, and Programs

The term "vulnerability" refers to the degree to which a community or habitat is susceptible to, or
unable to cope with, the adverse effects of climate change.  This section discusses the communities,
populations, and habitats in Region 9 that are most vulnerable to climate change, and where EPA's
mission intersects with the challenges that these vulnerable communities and habitats face. This section
also identifies where EPA's ability to meet its own mission and goals is at risk from climate change.

Certain parts of the population, such as children, the elderly, minorities, the poor, persons with
underlying medical conditions or disabilities, those with limited access to information, and tribal and
indigenous populations, can be especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Also, certain
geographic locations and communities are particularly vulnerable, such as those located in low-lying
coastal areas. One of the principles guiding EPA's efforts to integrate climate adaptation into its
programs, policies, and rules calls for its adaptation plans to prioritize helping people, places and
infrastructure that are most vulnerable to climate impacts, and to be designed and implemented with
meaningful involvement from  all parts of society.

This Plan identifies key programmatic vulnerabilities and the priority actions that will be taken to
address those vulnerabilities over time. As the work called for in this Plan is conducted, the communities
and demographic groups most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change will be identified. The
Agency will then work in partnership with these communities to increase their adaptive capacity and
resilience to climate change impacts. These efforts will be informed by experiences with previous
extreme weather events (e.g., Hurricane Katrina and Superstorm Sandy) and the subsequent recovery

The EPA has not conducted a quantitative assessment of vulnerabilities within Region 9. Rather, we
have drawn on the best available science, the detailed assessments of others, and our own best
professional judgment. Summaries of selected writings are provided in Appendix B.

A. Definitions

Vulnerable communities include those which are in the path of potentially large climate-related impacts
and have limited ability or interest  in re-locating.  For example, traditional communities may have
important customs tied to specific  locations. This includes some Native American Tribal communities on
the main land and Pacific Island communities on islands or atolls. A community's traditions may also
include specific vulnerable plant or animal species only found in certain areas. Major climate change
impacts  (i.e., sea level rise, coastal  erosion, fire, or flood) could physically destroy an entire community
or the most vulnerable segments.  Some communities (indigenous or not) that are in the path of climate
change impacts may not have  financial resources to adequately prepare or to relocate.

Vulnerable populations include individuals who are at risk because of existing health issues. The
populations most vulnerable to climate change often include, but are not limited to, the communities
that are the focus of EPA's environmental justice program. Children, the elderly, the poor, the infirm,
and tribal and indigenous populations are among the most vulnerable. For example, the elderly tend to

be more susceptible to heat stroke due to their bodies' decreased ability to cool down and
complications with existing chronic ailments (e.g., diabetes).3. In addition, people on fixed incomes have
limited financial resources to protect their health (e.g., incurring electric bill charges for running an air
conditioner during an extreme heat event).  Individuals with asthma are more susceptible to the impacts
of increased ozone and particulate matter in the air4.

Vulnerable habitats are at risk when the resources and conditions they depend on change or are
eliminated. For example, a wet montane meadow dependent on snowmelt runoff all summer may not
survive if mountain snows dry up before summer's end.  A coral reef may not survive if storms wash
sediment from the land and the coral is smothered.  A protective mangrove forest may be flooded and
destroyed by storm wave over wash and sea level rise5, allowing storms to erode a newly exposed
coastline and formerly protected communities.

The effectiveness of EPA programs will be at risk if they cannot meet the EPA mission and goals in the
face of climate change. EPA must consider climate change impacts and vulnerabilities in the regular
course of work (e.g., reviewing grant applications, permit applications and NEPA documents; planning
for emergency response; considering air pollution impacts to communities). Public health could be put
at risk if drinking water supply pipes are washed away in a storm.  The biological integrity of a restored
coastal wetland system could be lost due to sea level rise. Wildfires and dust storms could put more
particulate matter into the atmosphere which could reduce air quality and negatively impact human
health. EPA's emergency response capabilities may be called  on more frequently as extreme weather
events increase. EPA owned or rented facilities may be directly impacted (e.g., due to sea level rise) or
indirectly impacted (e.g., power line failures) by climate change.  During and following extreme weather
events, the ability of EPA personnel to access communication systems, or respond in  person, may be
impeded by storm damage and flooding.

B. Vulnerabilities in Region 9

Climate change exacerbates our existing environmental problems, and makes  it more challenging for
EPA to fulfill its mission to protect public health and the environment Anticipated climate change
impacts, their likelihood of occurrence, and their effects  on EPA programs are described in Appendix A,
"Challenges that Climate Change Poses to EPA Region 9 Program Effectiveness".

 In order to understand the challenges that EPA programs will face, it is important to  understand the
vulnerabilities that the Region 9 communities, populations and habitats will face. Climate change
vulnerability varies from one geographic area to another within Region 9, due to the  variation in
interactions of the ocean, the landscape and the atmosphere. The climate change challenges that
Federally-recognized Tribes within Region 9 face are of particular concern to EPA. This section provides
background on vulnerabilities within Region  9 geographic zones, and in Indian Country.

B. 1. Vulnerabilities in Geographic Regions of Region 9

Region 9 lies within 3 of the 8 geographic regions defined by the National Water Program 2012 Strategy:
Response to Climate Change6-the Southwest, the Montane, and the U.S. Pacific Islands and Territories.
Unless otherwise referenced, the following descriptions of vulnerabilities  in these three geographical
regions (sections B.I.a., B.l.b., and B.l.c.) are from this same 2012 EPA document. These regional
designations are based largely on those defined by the US Global Change  Research Program.3

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B.I.a. The Southwest Region:  Much of the southwest is arid with relatively high air temperatures.
Several mountain ranges, as well as the Pacific Ocean, influence climate and water resources in certain
parts of the Region.  Water is stored as snowpack during the winter and released to streams in the
spring and early summer, helping to meet increasing water demands. There are three major river
systems:  the Sacramento-San Joaquin, the Colorado, and the Rio Grande.  Several huge water storage
and conveyance projects divert water from rivers for more widespread use by agriculture and growing
cities. The lack of rainfall and the prospect of future droughts becoming more severe is a significant
concern, especially because the Southwest continues to lead the nation in  population growth.
   •  Warmer temperatures will  reduce mountain snow packs,  and peak spring runoff from snow melt
     will shift to earlier in the season, leading to and increasing the shortage of fresh water during the
     summer. A longer and hotter warm season will likely result in longer periods of extremely low
     flow and lower minimum flows in late summer. Water supply systems that have no storage or
     limited storage (e.g., small municipal reservoirs) may suffer seasonal  shortages in summer;
   •  The magnitude of projected temperature increases for the Southwest, particularly when combined
     with urban heat island effects for major cities such as Phoenix, Albuquerque, Las Vegas, and many
     California cities, represents significant stresses to health, energy, and water supply in a region that
     already experiences very high summer temperatures;
   •  Reduced ground water supply due to a lack of recharge will be of concern;
   •  Warmer ocean temperatures may decrease productivity by stopping  entrainment of deep  supplies
     of nutrients. The resulting reductions in commercial species will need to be addressed to support
     continued production of fisheries and aquatic life;
   •  Increased frequency and  altered timing of flooding will increase risks to people, ecosystems, and
     infrastructure.  Increased flood risk is likely to result from  a combination of decreased snow cover
     on the lower slopes of high mountains, and an increased percentage  of winter precipitation falling
     as rain and therefore running off more rapidly;
   •  Sea levels are rising and contributing to the loss of wetlands and infrastructure located along
     coastal corridors; and
   •  The magnitude and frequency of wildfires have increased  over the last 30 years which severely
     impacts water  quality in streams, creeks, rivers, lakes,  and estuaries.

B.l.b. The Montane Region: The Montane region within EPA Region 9 includes the glaciated mountain
tops and down-slope watersheds of the Sierra Nevada and Cascades. These areas are unique in that
they rely on winter snow accumulation for their water supply. Sensitive ecological communities include
bogs and fens. Montane glaciers and snowfields are reservoirs  of water for the human populations and
ecological communities at lower elevations.

Most ecosystems in the North American Montane Region are predicted to  slowly migrate and shift their
distribution towards the north  in response to warming temperatures. However, the alpine areas are
often distributed as small, isolated regions surrounded  by other habitats. These areas can be
disconnected from each other by wide stretches of land used for timber production, ranching, or other
uses.  Instead of shifts in latitude, alpine vegetation and animals will be limited to shifts in altitude,
unless connections between suitable habitats can be made.7
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   • A warmer climate will cause lower-elevation habitats to move into higher zones, encroaching on
     alpine and sub-alpine habitats;
   • High-elevation plants and animals will lose habitat area as they move higher with some
     "disappearing off the tops of mountains;"
   • Rising temperatures will increase the importance of connections between mountain areas;
   • Rising temperatures may cause mountain snow to melt earlier and faster in spring, shifting the
     timing and distribution of runoff. This in turn affects the availability of freshwater for natural
     systems and for human uses.  Earlier melting leads to drier conditions for the balance of the water
     year, with increased fire frequency and intensity;
   • Water supplies will become increasingly scarce, calling for trade-offs among competing uses, and
     leading to conflict;
   • Increased frequency and altered timing of flooding will increase risks to people, ecosystems, and
   • Projected increases in temperature, evaporation, and drought frequency add to concerns about
     the region's declining water resources; and
   • Climate change is likely to affect native plant and animal species by altering key habitats such as
     the wetland ecosystems known as montane fens or playa lakes.

B.l.c. The Pacific Islands Region: The Pacific Islands region in EPA Region 9 encompasses the Hawaiian
Islands, as well as the United States affiliated Pacific  islands, including the territories of American Samoa,
the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. The Pacific Islands are more
vulnerable to climate change than nearly any other region in the United States. Key vulnerabilities
include availability of freshwater, adverse impacts to coastal and marine ecosystems, and exposure to
hazards including sea level rise and inundation.

   • Rising sea levels, higher sea temperatures, and ocean acidification associated with climate change
     are further degrading coral reefs already stressed by overfishing and pollution. Their loss
     diminishes ecological heritage, shoreline protection, food supply from the sea, and results in a
     decline in income from ecotourism in the Pacific Island communities where tourism is one of the
     largest industries;
   • Potential for extended drought, due to a change in rain-delivering weather systems.  Due to the
     geographic isolation of the Pacific Islands and the challenges of delivering freshwater from other
     regions, a drought could have  major impacts on freshwater supply.  A severe drought would
     impact water supplies for drinking water, agriculture irrigation, and  industry.  Key freshwater and
     brackish habitats would likely be impacted 8. The western Pacific already experiences the highest
     rate of Category 4 and 5 storms. Climate change may bring more frequent and higher energy
     storms resulting in potentially catastrophic damage to island infrastructure. This degree of
     damage could cripple the economies of Pacific  Island communities for significant periods of time,
     not only impairing economic development but  also the ability of local governments to ensure
     delivery of basic water and sewer and other public health services; and
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   • Sea level rise has multiple implications for Pacific Island communities:
       o   For the low-lying atolls, entire islands may be submerged within a generation and may result
           in environmental refugees seeking new homes;
       o   For some low-lying islands, sea level rise can result in "wash over/' in which islands, or
           portions of islands, are submerged by waves during large storm events. This results in salt
           water contamination of agricultural lands, significantly decreasing the productivity of those
           lands. This loss of agricultural productivity has an acute impact on the largely subsistence-
           based economies of these communities;
       o   For many of the islands, sea level rise has an immediate, and accelerated impact on coastal
           erosion, which affects water quality, coral reef health, coastal infrastructure, available land,
           and culturally significant sites; and
       o   Sea level rise increases the potential for salt water intrusion into the sole source aquifers
           upon which many Pacific Islands rely for drinking water. There are few or no readily
           accessible alternative drinking water options when a community is confronted with the loss
           of productivity of a sole source aquifer.

Appendix B provides summaries of selected studies conducted on climate change vulnerabilities in the
geographic areas of Region 9.

B.2. Vulnerabilities on Tribal lands in  Region 9

The US EPA Draft Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan2, issued on February 8, 2013, includes
a discussion of the importance of EPA working with the Tribes to assist them in successfully adapting to
climate change:

"Indigenous people are among the most vulnerable communities in North America.9 Tribes are more
vulnerable to climate change impacts  because of their dependence upon a specific geographic area for
their livelihoods, the degree to which those geographic areas embody climate-sensitive environments,
and their unique cultural, economic, or political characteristics and contexts. Also, tribes generally have
fewer resources to prepare for, respond to, and recover from natural hazards, including those related to
climate change.10  The disproportionate vulnerability of tribes to climate change affects EPA's mission to
protect human health and the environment in Indian country."

"Drought is perhaps the most pervasive climate-induced weather impact on tribes. Water is at the heart
of many tribal cultures and the foundation of their livelihoods, economies, subsistence, and treaty
rights. Water is essential to the sustainability of the fish, wildlife, and plants on which tribes rely. The
recent trend toward more severe and frequent droughts, especially in the American Southwest,
threatens the very underpinnings of tribal communities. The Southwest is already in the midst of a 10-15
year drought, and climate projections suggest the Southwest may transition to a more arid climate on a
permanent basis over the next century and beyond.11 In fact, climate observations indicate that this
transition may have already begun.12"
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IV. Priority Actions

EPA Region 9 is already addressing climate change adaptation in several program areas. We will
continue to pursue the best opportunities for integrating climate change into our existing programs, and
identify new climate change adaptation needs where EPA's involvement is critical.

As EPA Region  9 cannot immediately address all climate change adaptation needs, we have adopted
criteria to screen potential actions.  EPA Region 9 will target its climate change adaptation work, based
on the following criteria:

   •    Does the action target one of the most severe and immediate vulnerabilities?
   •    Does the action focus on one of the most vulnerable populations and/or geographic areas?
   •    Does EPA Region 9 have the capacity (personnel and funding resources) and ability (knowledge,
        skills, and authority) to take the action and contribute to a solution?
   •    Is this a priority action for our partners (federal/state/territory/tribal/local government and non-
        government) and are they able to work with us towards a solution?
   •    Does the action support and align with other EPA Region 9 priorities and actions?

In Sections A and B below, we describe a substantial number of priority actions that EPA Region 9 plans
to implement as climate change adaptation measures.  We include both region-wide adaptation actions
and program-specific actions.  In addition, below are five specific adaptation actions that reflect EPA
Region 9's strong commitment to climate change adaptation. The region intends to provide particular
emphasis and focus on these adaptation actions over the next year.

* Implement the  Region 9 Coral Reef Strategy and provide leadership to reduce local pollution and
increase coral reef climate change resiliency.

* Hold at least  one roundtable discussion session with federal and state agencies, and other key climate
change adaptation stakeholders, to discuss climate change vulnerabilities and coordinate efforts to build
climate  change resiliency.

* Provide a key venue at R9 RTOC Meetings to identify key tribal climate change adaptation issues and
success stories, as well as technical and financial resources to build resiliency, and provide a forum for
information sharing, training, and capacity building. Support elevation of appropriate issues to the
Tribal Science Council,  promoting Region 9 tribes' participation with ORD on climate change issues and in
climate  change discussions.

* Support EPA's state counterparts in Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada in climate adaptation
efforts, potentially including developing an annual summary of their climate change adaptation
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successes, summarizing regional highlights for building climate change resiliency, or promoting success
stories on climate change adaptation.

* Provide training to the EPA Region 9 workforce on climate change impacts and adaptation
opportunities.  Provide training on incorporating climate change into the Region's programmatic

A.  Region-Wide Themes for Climate Change Adaptation

1. Mainstream Climate Change into EPA's Work.

Critical to carrying out the EPA mission is our ability to integrate climate change considerations into our
everyday work. EPA Region 9 has been active in this area since developing our Energy and Climate
Change Strategy in 2007. This Strategy led to the formation of our Clean Energy & Climate Change
Office, which serves the entire Region, and the establishment of a cross-divisional Clean Energy and
Climate Change Team (ETeam). Drawing upon the foundation laid in the EPA Office of Water Climate
Change Strategy  and the CCA Plans which other EPA regions and Headquarters offices are preparing,
EPA Region 9 will continue to integrate climate adaptation into existing programs and activities to
maximize their effectiveness. This will include the following steps and activities:

a.  Strengthen adaptive capacity for EPA Region 9 and our partners. EPA Region 9's ETeam and
Regional Science Council have worked together to offer a series of climate change training sessions to all
Region 9  staff. In order to continue to integrate climate change into EPA Region 9's existing programs
effectively, EPA Region 9 will continue to train our staff, and build our capacity for adaptation actions.
We anticipate that future training sessions will focus within the EPA Region 9 office, but will also likely
extend to our federal, state, tribal and local partners.

To assist our partners in taking actions most relevant to their particular climate change vulnerabilities,
EPA is invested in supporting the partners' own decision-making. The term "decision-support tools" is
used to describe  documents or programs that help organizations understand what questions to ask, or
what data to gather, so they can decide what actions to take to increase their climate change resilience.

    •   Provide training opportunities to our staff to increase their  understanding of climate change
       vulnerabilities in our Region, and how to best incorporate climate change adaptation into our
       work. As needs and expertise vary between EPA Region 9 programs and between individuals,
       ask staff  what their specific priority climate  change adaptation training needs and preferences
       are. Provide training that is the most urgent or will fill the biggest information gaps.
    •   Work with EPA Region 9 Science Council, EPA national Program Offices, the EPA-wide training
       program in the Office of Human Resources,  and outside partners, to provide access to on-line
       and in-person training opportunities. This includes access to a library of webinars and
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       recordings of classes that make the best use of current technology. [Work with EPA
    •   Encourage our partners to integrate climate change adaptation effectively into their work.
       Share existing decision-support tools and training opportunities on climate change adaptation,
       especially where training is local or available on-line.
    •   Where resources allow, and our expertise exists, provide decision-support tool information
       directly to partners (e.g., targeted training sessions). Look for opportunities to coordinate with
       partners (federal, state, territory, and tribal agencies, and non-government organizations) on
       climate change adaptation training sessions.
    •   On a regular basis, update climate  change content on EPA Region 9 websites -for both climate-
       related and programmatic web pages. Encourage other organizations to link to our climate
       change web pages. Include  links to EPA climate change web pages in communications to
       partners about related issues.

b.  Integrate Climate Change Adaptation into Funding Mechanisms.  Incorporating climate change
consideration into funding actions will help build the climate change adaptation capacity of our
partners, and make it less likely that funds  will be spent on projects that will be damaged or destroyed
by sea level rise or extreme storm events, or other climate change impacts.

    •   Continue to incorporate the consideration of climate change impacts and adaptation measures
       into financial mechanisms, such as grants and contracts.  The number of EPA Region 9 funding
       mechanisms that are now considering climate change adaptation continues  to grow.  Existing
       funds include General Assistance Program grants to tribes, San Francisco Bay Water Quality
       Improvement Fund (SFBWOJF) grants and Wetland Program Development Grants.  Other grant
       funds that could  include climate change adaptation consideration are the Clean Water Act
       Section 319 (nonpoint source control) and Section 106  (water quality monitoring),  Brownfields,
       and the Strong Cities-Strong Communities (SC2).
    •   Encourage States to require climate change adaptation consideration in their State Revolving
       Fund loan programs.  [Work with other Regions and EPA  Headquarters]
    •   Implement EPA Region 9's Greening Grants  Policy, encouraging grantees to not only reduce
       their carbon footprint, but also implement sustainable  measures which are important to
       successful climate change adaptation (e.g., water and energy conservation).

2. Focus on severe vulnerabilities.

Three severe potential impacts in EPA Region 9, relative to EPA's mission, are:
       1) decreased water availability due to drought and loss of snow pack;
       2) flooding due to more extreme weather events and sea level rise; and
       3) degradation of coral reefs due to ocean acidification and bleaching.

In focusing on these particular vulnerabilities, EPA will consider where it can best contribute to the work
of federal, state, tribal, and local agencies,  and non-governmental organizations. While many of the
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specific actions targeting these vulnerabilities are described in the EPA Region 9 program-specific
section, below, some of the general areas of adaptation we will pursue are described here.

a.  Decreased water availability due to drought and loss of snow pack. EPA Region 9 water resources
are already limited on the mainland and on the Pacific islands.

   •   Promote water use efficiency, conservation, and recycling.
   •   Promote the protection and restoration of wetlands and riparian areas in order to protect the
       quality and quantity of surface and groundwater supplies.
   •   Promote the use of Green Infrastructure for more sustainable stormwater management (e.g.,
       reducing polluted runoff to surface waters, providing flood mitigation, enhancing drinking water
   •   Work with our states, tribes, and local partners to prepare for potential water shortages.
       Provide water resource managers and utilities with access and training for existing decision-
       support tools; collaborate on new tool development and training;  and use EPA funds and
       resources to leverage other water resource and infrastructure funds for climate change

b.  Flooding as a result of more extreme weather events and sea level  rise. The areas of EPA Region 9
most susceptible to sea level rise  are Hawaii, the Pacific Island territories, and coastal California -
including the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Estuary (Bay Delta Estuary).
With particular focus on these coastal areas, EPA Region 9 will use its Geographic Information System
(GIS) mapping capabilities, and available tools from government and non-government partners, to
better target adaptation actions.  Region 9 will consider improved mapping of hazardous waste sites to
illustrate climate change vulnerabilities of these locations (e.g., sea level rise, storm event flooding),
especially around vulnerable communities and ecosystems. This information can be used to help
prioritize EPA Region 9's adaptation actions and help our partners prioritize their own work.

c.  Degradation of coral reefs due to ocean acidification and bleaching. Climate change and related
increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are triggering ocean  warming, acidification, sea level rise,
and increased  storm intensity, all of which pose major threats to the future of coral reefs.

   •   EPA Region  9 will  implement our coral reef strategy to protect and help increase the resilience
       of these fragile ecosystems in the face of climate change.
   •   EPA Region  9 will  use the Clean Water Act and other authorities to improve protection of coral
       reefs in Hawaii, the U.S. territories, and other U.S.-affiliated Pacific islands, especially by
       controlling land-based sources of pollution which impact coral reefs.
                                                                                   Page 15 of 46

3. Focus on the most vulnerable populations and geographic areas.

a. Tribes. Tribes in EPA Region 9 are increasingly concerned about the effects of a changing climate on
their communities, resources and traditional cultural practices. Tribes in EPA Region 9 already
experience temperature extremes and droughts, which have negatively affected their lands. Some
Tribes are drawing on their oral histories and their Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to document
past and current conditions, assess changes, and plan for adaptation.

EPA values  its unique government-to-government  relationship with Indian tribes in planning and
decision making. This trust responsibility has been  established over time and is further expressed in the
1984 EPA Policy for the Administration of Environmental  Programs on Indian Reservations and the 2011
Policy on Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribes. These policies recognize and support the
sovereign decision-making authority of tribal governments.

Supporting the development of adaptive capacity among tribes is a priority for the EPA. Tribes are
particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to the integral nature of the environment
within their traditional lifeways and culture. There is a strong  need to develop adaptation strategies that
promote sustainability and reduce the impact of climate change on Indian tribes.

EPA engaged tribes through a formal consultation  process in the development of the Agency's Climate
Change Adaptation Plan. Tribes identified some of the most pressing issues as erosion, temperature
change, drought and various changes in access to and quality  of water. Tribes recommended a number
of tools and strategies to address these issues,  including improving access to data and information;
supporting  baseline research to better track the effects of climate change; developing community-level
education and awareness materials; and providing financial and technical support. At the same time,
tribes challenged EPA to coordinate climate change activities among federal agencies so that resources
are better leveraged and administrative burdens are reduced.

This Plan identifies specific steps that will be taken to partner with tribal governments, on an ongoing
basis, to increase their adaptive capacity and address their adaptation-related priorities. These
collaborative efforts will benefit from the expertise provided by our tribal partners and the TEK they
possess. TEK is a valuable  body of knowledge in assessing the  current and future impacts of climate
change and has  been used by tribes for millennia as a valuable tool to adapt to changing surroundings.
Consistent with  the principles in the 1984 Indian Policy, TEK is viewed as a complementary resource that
can inform  planning and decision-making.

Networks and partnerships already in place will be used to assist tribes with climate change issues,
including Regional Tribal Operations Committees, the Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals
and the Indian General Assistance Program (IGAP). Additionally, Region 9 will pursue effective
coordination among EPA Regional and Program Offices, since  climate change has many impacts that
transcend program and regional boundaries. Transparency and information sharing will continue, in
order to leverage activities already taking place within EPA Offices and tribal governments.

    •   Support and encourage the use of General Assistance Program (GAP) grants, and other available
       funds for climate change adaptation, as particular funds allow (e.g., education of staff and
                                                                                  Page 16 of 46

       members, assessing their community and environment, developing climate change adaptation
       Continue to provide funding for sustainable water infrastructure on tribal lands, in coordination
       with the Indian Health Service.
       Use the Regional Tribal Operations Committee as a forum for climate change adaptation
       information sharing, training, and capacity building.
       Exchange information with the National Tribal Science Council on national tribal climate change
       adaptation needs and directions, as appropriate. [Work with EPA Headquarters]
       Coordinate with other federal agencies who work directly with tribes to determine the best way
       to collaborate on climate change adaptation support.
       Consult with tribes on major proposed EPA climate change actions, in accordance with our
       established tribal consultation policies.
b. Islands.  Hawaii and the United States Pacific Island territories of American Samoa, Commonwealth
of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam are among the most vulnerable areas on the planet
for climate change impacts. Within decades, it may not be viable to live on some currently-populated
Pacific islands. Sea level rise, coastal erosion, extreme drought, an increase of severe storms, and a
reduction of food supply, all threaten sustainable human habitat on some islands. The EPA Region 9
Pacific Islands Office and the EPA Region 9 program offices will work with island governments, and other
partners, to address critical climate change adaptation vulnerabilities  (e.g., shortage of freshwater
supplies, impacts to coastal and marine ecosystems including coral reefs, and hazards associated with
rising sea levels and storm events including damage to wastewater and stormwater infrastructure, crop
damage, saltwater intrusion into aquifers, and inundation of low-lying islands).

   •   Support and encourage the use of grants to local environmental agencies and other entities for
        climate change adaptation.
   •   Continue the use of water and wastewater construction funds to support sustainable water
        infrastructure in the Pacific islands in light of anticipated climate change impacts.
   •   Use the tools at EPA's disposal, including funding, technical assistance, and enforcement to
        protect coral reefs  from land-based sources of pollution.
   •   Factor climate change impacts and climate change adaptation into emergency preparedness and
        emergency response in the Pacific islands.
   •   Coordinate with, and participate in, local Pacific island climate change and renewable energy
        working groups and task forces.
   •   Coordinate with other federal agencies who work with the Pacific islands on climate change

 c. California Coast (including the Bay Delta Estuary). The California coast and the Bay Delta Estuary
are at risk from climate change. Storm events and sea level rise are expected to impact coastal
watersheds, tidal wetlands, and low-elevation infrastructure. California state and local agencies, federal
agencies, and non-government  organizations are already working together to begin to address climate
change impacts. EPA Region 9 will continue work with these partners to determine where our abilities
and resources can be best applied to facilitate climate change adaptation.
                                                                                  Page 17 of 46

B.  Program-Specific Climate Change Adaptation Actions

Each EPA Region 9 program office will continue to work with its counterpart office at EPA Headquarters,
and with other partners, to determine how to best integrate key climate change actions into current
work.  EPA Region 9 will continue to identify new priority actions that are critical to building climate
change resilience. Existing and potential EPA Region 9 priority actions for climate change adaptation are
identified below. EPA Region 9 intends to continue to pursue current actions and take on new priorities,
as resources allow.

1. Air Program

EPA Region 9's Air Division is pursuing work that has benefits for climate change adaptation. It is
anticipated that increased temperatures due to climate change have the potential to increase the
formation of photochemical smog. Thus, Air Division will need to adapt to this reality and will focus on
reducing air quality impacts of climate change through efforts to reduce NOx and other smog and
PM2.5-forming pollutants. The EPA Region 9 Air Division anticipates the following actions in 2014.
    •    Focus on reduction of tropospheric photo-chemical smog, or ozone, as climate change
       is anticipated to increase the potential for ozone formation.
           o  Work with other Regions and HQ air program managers,  as appropriate, to develop
              a strategy, in context to other programmatic priorities, on how to incorporate
              climate adaptation into air quality programs (e.g., SIP, permits).
           o  Work with California's Air Resources Board (ARB) as they further "Vision 2050" to
              address increases in ozone formation as temperatures increase.
           o   Provide leadership and administer Clean Air Technology  Initiative grants in South Coast
              and San Joaquin Valley Air Districts.
           o  Leverage additional public and private resources for zero and low-emission technology
           o  Work with local air pollution control agencies that are preparing multi-pollutant clean
              air plans that anticipate increased temperatures due to climate change (e.g., Bay Area
              Air  Quality Management District).
           o  In anticipation of additional air quality challenges, evaluate  additional staff needs to
              handle the larger workload.
    •    Use ORIA-generated  messages and local resources to educate the public regarding mold and
       other indoor air quality issues. Work with local air pollution control agencies to assure
       consistent messaging.
           o   Public inquiries may increase due to extreme weather events.  Additional regional staff
              time may be needed to answer calls from the public.
                                                                                 Page 18 of 46

2. Water Program

Much of the work of the EPA Region 9 Water Program - to protect and improve water quality and
enhance aquatic resources - also contributes to the resilience of watersheds.  In fact, many of the tools
and approaches used today (e.g., wetlands and floodplain restoration, watershed management, green
infrastructure implementation, and water conservation) will be even more critical under changing
climatic conditions. Hence, the Water Program's priority for climate change adaptation is to accelerate
these existing efforts. We will focus not only on restoring impaired watersheds, but also protecting
higher quality watersheds to increase their resilience to climate change impacts.

The near-term EPA Region 9 Water Program priority actions are described below, arranged under the 4
main water programmatic elements identified in the "National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response
to Climate Change" - Infrastructure, Watersheds and Wetlands, Coastal and Ocean Waters, and Water
a. Infrastructure
    •   Reach out to utilities and provide webinars to inform them about and encourage use of Climate
       Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) tools, including the Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness
       Tool (GREAT), vulnerability assessments, training workshops, and other tools.
    •   Work with the states to support use of Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) monies to
       train water utilities on American Water Works Association (AWWA's) Water Audit Software (if
       appropriate permission is obtained) to identify customized and cost-effective water savings
       opportunities, and continue to promote use of SRF for leak detection or repair. EPA will consider
       conducting a webinar(s) on the AWWA software as well.
    •   Encourage water utilities (and others, including schools) to become EPA WaterSense partners.
    •   Work through the interagency partnerships coordinated by our Sustainable Infrastructure
       program to leverage funding to support sustainable water infrastructure and water use
       efficiency projects.
    •   Encourage the reuse of water through collaboration with state and tribal governments, utilities
       and non-government partners.
    •   Communicate the advantages and successes  of green infrastructure through the  EPA Region 9
       website and outreach opportunities; assemble case studies of utilities that have successfully
       implemented adaptation planning. Encourage implementation of green infrastructure through
       numerous EPA funding programs, including SRF, SFBWOJF, National Estuary Program, Clean
       Water Act Section 319 Nonpoint Source, and US-Mexico Border Infrastructure.
    •   Develop model language for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits to
       require asset management planning that accounts for existing facility replacement and
       maintenance, as well as potential upgrades needed to deal with sea level rise, increased flood
       risk, and drought conditions where appropriate. [Work with EPA Headquarters]

                                                                                  Page 19 of 46

    •   Promote climate change adaptation planning through enforcement orders and consent decrees,
       as appropriate.

b. Watersheds and Wetlands
    •   Enhance EPA Region 9's efforts to restore impaired waters and improve aquatic ecosystems, in
       order to increase watershed resilience to climate change. Actions include targeted project
       implementation in priority watersheds, based on Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
       determinations and watershed plans, and collaboration in these watersheds with federal, state,
       territory, tribal and local agency partners to leverage additional resources and expertise to
       achieve meaningful results.
    •   Work with the State of California and the California Water Quality Monitoring Council to identify
       healthy watersheds through an integrated assessment, and to support the implementation of
       California's Healthy Streams Partnership (report expected in December, 2013).
    •   Continue to deliver outreach on the Climate Change Handbook (EPA's effort with CDWR and
       COE for Integrated Regional Water Management Planning) to assist water planners in
       integrating climate change considerations into their water resource plans, particularly outside
    •   Develop model language for commenting on Clean Water Act Section 404 permits (impacts to
       wetlands) to request that  project alternatives consider sea level rise and flood risk, as well as
       decreasing stressors on wetlands (and other waters of the US) sensitive to climate change (e.g.,
       coral reefs, alpine fens). Develop model climate change adaptation language for Section 404
       permit-related wetland mitigation banks. Incorporate green infrastructure provisions, for
       management and use of runoff, into appropriate wetland permits and CWA Section 401
       certifications for water quality. [Work with EPA Headquarters]
    •   Incorporate the consideration  of climate change adaptation into watershed-related EPA grant
       requests for proposal (RFPs) and other funding mechanisms.  Encourage,  or require, applicants
       to protect and restore aquatic  landscapes to make existing communities more climate-ready
       (e.g., more robust riparian habitat and wetlands, more groundwater recharge areas, less runoff
       of pollution directly into water ways).
    •   Encourage states and tribes to conduct water quality monitoring under Clean Water Act section
       106, to gather water quality information that can also be used to track potential changes to
       water quality from climate change.
    •   For the San Francisco Bay, seek opportunities to support and work with climate change
       adaptation efforts underway, through our participation on the  Bay Conservation and
       Development Commission, the Habitat Goals Project, and other San Francisco Bay Forums.
    •   Collaborate with nongovernment partners and key agencies [i.e., California  Department of
       Water Resources (CDWR), US Bureau of Reclamation  (USBR), the US Army Corps of Engineers
       (ACOE), and the US Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS)] to implement the Central
       Valley Flood Protection Plan, by:
       - setting back levees to reconnect creeks and rivers with floodplains (thereby increasing capacity
       for flood retention and groundwater recharge);

                                                                                 Page 20 of 46

       - restoring riparian forest to the floodplains to recover fish and wildlife populations and improve
       water quality; and
       - providing landowners with incentives for levee setbacks and revenue for resulting ecosystem
       services, in collaboration with the agricultural community.

c. Coastal and Ocean Waters
    •   Work with the three EPA Region 9 National Estuary Programs (San Francisco Estuary
       Partnership, Morro Bay Estuary Program and Santa Monica Bay Partnership) to facilitate sharing
       of climate change information and tools, including those developed under the Climate Ready
       Estuaries Program (e.g., technical guidance, toolkits, reports, and studies).
    •   Continue appropriate involvement in the West Coast Governor's Alliance on Ocean Health.
    •   Continue participation in updating the San Francisco Bay Wetlands Goals Report, which will
       incorporate an improved understanding of the impact of climate change on bay habitats.
       Engage in other climate change adaptation efforts with partners in the Bay Delta Estuary, as
    •   Implement key elements of the EPA Region 9 Coral Reef Strategy to reduce local stress on coral
       reefs systems (i.e., land-based pollution from point and non-point sources) which compounds
       the vulnerability of coral reefs to ocean acidification and rising sea-surface temperatures. Use
       available EPA resources to identify effective adaptation methods and reduce local stress on coral
       reefs, and facilitate information exchange with our partners.
    •   Pacific Islands Office and Water Division will  coordinate with  the Pacific islands, state, territory
       and local agencies, other federal agency offices, and other partners to identify the most critical
       vulnerabilities.  EPA Region 9 will continue to take into consideration the differences among
       individual islands.  Encourage the use of EPA funds to leverage capital funds for infrastructure
       improvements, and conduct outreach and training for Pacific Island staff and other stakeholders
       about taking  climate change into consideration and building resilience.  Current priorities
       include long-term protection of drinking water supplies and improving wastewater

d. Water Quality
    •   Ensure that NPDES stormwater permits consider climate change impacts and require the use of
       stormwater retention and  infiltration approaches (and other appropriate green infrastructure
       provisions) for new development and redevelopment.
    •   Share information with other  states, tribes, and EPA regions about California's laws and policies
       which encourage and set goals for water recycling. This could include indirect potable water
       reuse, gray water reuse, and rainwater harvesting.
    •   Consistent with the Bay Delta Action Plan:
       - Collaborate with the California State Water Resources Control Board to set water quality
       standards that factor in expected changes in precipitation and snowpack.
                                                                                   Page 21 of 46

3. National Environmental Policy Act Review Program.

In its review of NEPA documents prepared by other federal agencies, EPA Region 9 will seek to have
climate change-related environmental effects, and climate change adaptation measures appropriately
disclosed and considered in accordance with emerging guidance from the Council on Environmental

4. Pesticides Program.
The EPA Region 9 Pesticides Office will evaluate how to incorporate climate change adaptation into its
existing activities, and examine where it may be most important to consider climate change adaptation.
The program will provide information specific to EPA Region 9 to the national program office for
pesticide registration reviews, and will help to ensure that climate change impacts in EPA Region 9 are
taken into account. The regional program will also determine how to best work with partners and
stakeholders (e.g., state, tribe and Pacific island regulatory partners, pesticide applicators, growers,
farmworkers, etc.) to help them better prepare to adapt to climate change and to incorporate
sustainable pest control practices as conditions and species shift. The Program will also assist state, tribe
and Pacific island partners with responding to potential increased need for compliance monitoring to
ensure that climate change impacts do not result in pesticide misuse.
5. Waste Program:

The EPA Region 9 Waste Program will evaluate how to incorporate climate change adaptation into its
existing activities, and examine where it may be most important to consider climate change
adaptation. The program will consider improved mapping of hazardous waste sites that accounts for
climate change vulnerabilities (e.g., sea level rise, storm event flooding, increased wildfire risk, high heat
events, and droughts), especially around vulnerable communities and ecosystems. Any effective
decision-support tools identified will be shared with states, territories, tribes, and other EPA regions and
Headquarters Program Offices.

6. Superfund Program:

The Region 9 Superfund Program will continue to identify opportunities to consider climate change
adaptation in our remedial decision-making, and in the design, operation and effectiveness evaluation of
our remedies.  An important part of this effort will be continuing staff education on the effects of a
changing climate on the environment and on effective means of accounting for this change in our
decision-making and long term planning (removal and remedial cleanups, RE-Powering America,
Brownfields grants, Regional Support Corps emergency response).

                                                                                  Page 22 of 46

The Region 9 Superfund Program will include climate change vulnerabilities (e.g. sea level rise, storm
event flooding, increased wildfire risk, high heat events and droughts), especially around vulnerable
communities and ecosystems, in Five Year Reviews of Superfund sites with remedies in place. The
program will also consider opportunities to share effective decision-support tools with other EPA
regions and Headquarters Program Offices.  Climate change may lead to climate-related events that
result in an increased need for emergency response support. Consequently, the EPA Region 9
Superfund Program will continue to focus on providing sufficient staffing for emergency response,
including support from the EPA R9 Response Support Corps.
                                                                                  Page 23 of 46

V.  Measuring and Evaluating Performance

A critical element of our climate change adaptation strategy is the measurement and evaluation of our
regional efforts. We will evaluate our climate change adaptation actions on an ongoing basis to assess
our progress toward mainstreaming climate change adaptation into the Region's programs, policies,
rules, and operations. Evaluating progress of our adaptation actions is particularly important because so
much of what we are doing with climate change adaptation is new and there will be a lot of "learning by
doing." Based on the lessons we learn, and lessons drawn from the efforts of our national programs,
regional counterparts, and other key partners and stakeholders, we can make adjustments to the way
adaptation is integrated into our activities.

The Region will conduct an annual evaluation of our progress and performance under this
implementation plan, with a particular focus on the priority actions in Section IV. The initial focus of our
evaluation will be a narrative assessment of our successes and accomplishments, what efforts and
strategies are working well - and why - as well  as an identification of those activities that are not
proving successful, the reasons, and any recommendations for new or different approaches that would
yield better results and outcomes.  This type of evaluation will best allow the Region to highlight our
progress, and learn from our efforts in order to continually improve the effectiveness of our climate
change adaptation mainstreaming efforts.

Although the Region is not identifying any specific "performance measures" for our climate change
adaptation work at this time, we anticipate that such measures could be developed in future years as
we more fully integrate climate change efforts into our regional programs.  In addition, the Region will
continue to coordinate with our Headquarters counterparts to provide input for the existing Agency-
wide strategic performance measures from the FY 2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan, as well as any annual
performance measures being established by the national program managers.  These national measures,
which focus on integrating climate change adaptation into the Agency's rulemaking processes,
distribution of financial and technical resources, and development of information tools, represent  a
framework within which we anticipate developing future performance measures for our regional climate
change adaptation mainstreaming efforts.

1 United States Environmental Protection Agency, Policy Statement. (June 2, 2011). Policy Statement on
Climate Change Adaptation.  http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/Downloads/impacts-

2 United States Environmental Protection Agency. (February 8, 2013). Draft Climate Change Adaptation
Plan. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/pdfs/EPA-climate-change-adaptation-plan-final-for-public-
                                                                               Page 24 of 46

3 United States Global Change Research Program (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United
States . Karl, T.R., J.M. Melillo, and T.C. Peterson (eds.). United States Global Change Research Program.
Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA. http://globalchange.gov/what-we-

4 United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate
Matter: Final Report. http://www.epa.gOV/ttn/naaqs/standards/pm/s pm  2007 isa.html

5 Keener, V. W., Marra, J.J., Finucane, M. L, Spooner, D., & Smith, M. H. (Eds.). (2012). Climate
Change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and Impacts. Report for the 2012 Pacific Islands Regional Climate
Assessment (PIRCA). Washington, DC: Island Press, http://www.pacificrisa.org/projects/pirca/

6 United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). National Water Program 2012 Strategy:
Response to Climate Change, http://www.epa.gov/water/climatechange

7 Jackson, S.  (2006). Vegetation, environment, and time:  the origination and termination of ecosystems.
Journal of Vegetation Science 17:549-557. Available at http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1658/1100-

8 Fletcher, C. (2010). Hawai'i's Changing Climate. Briefing Sheet.
g  web.pdf

9 Parry, M.L, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof,  P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (eds.). (2007). Contribution
of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change, 2007. "Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability."
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007.

10 Cutter, S.L and C. Finch. (2008). "Temporal and spatial changes in  social vulnerability to natural
hazards." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  105(7): 2301-2306.

11 Solomon, S., G-K Plattner, R. Knutti, and P. Friedlingstein. (2009). Irreversible climate change due to
carbon dioxide emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(6): 1,704-1,709. DOI:
10.1073/pnas.0812721106; Johanson, CM., and Q. Fu, 2009: Hadley Cell Widening: Model Simulations
versus Observations. Journal of Climate, 22:2,713-2,725.

12 Seager, R., et al. (2007). Model Projections of an Imminent Transition to a More Arid Climate in
Southwestern North America. Science, 316: 1,181-1,184.
                                                                                  Page 25 of 46

Appendix A: Challenges that Climate Change Poses to
EPA Region 9 Program Effectiveness
                              EPA REGION 9 PROGRAMMATIC IMPACTS '
                          Focus of
                       Region 9 Program
Example of Risks to Public Health
    and Environment if
Region 9 Program were Impacted
• Increased • Likely1 • Protecting public • High | • Could become more difficult to
tropospheric health and the
pollution in

environment by
to meet
• implemen
in Indian

attain NAAQS for ozone in many
areas with existing ozone

                                                         Page 26 of 46

• Increased • Likely2 • Protecting public
and intensity
of wildfires

• Increasing

health and the
environment by
to meet
• implemen
in Indian
• Very • Protect public
Likely3 health by

• Increasing • Likely3-6

healthy indoor
programs and
• High

• Med.

• Could complicate Agency efforts
to protect public health and the
environment from risks posed by
particulate matter (PM) pollution
in areas affected by more
frequent wildfires.

• Could increase public health risks
in indoor environments; including
risks for the young, the elderly,
the chronically ill, and
socioeconomically disadvantaged

Page 27 of 46

• Effects on
ozone layer

• Effects on
response of
deposition of
nitrogen, and
• Likely4 • Restoring the

• Likely5
ozone layer,
• Preventing UV-
related disease,
• Providing a
transition to
safer energy
• Agency

provide some

* Low

• Unable to restore ozone
concentrations to benchmark
levels as quickly, at some

• Low • Could have consequences for the

effectiveness of ecosystem
protections under certain

Page 28 of 46

                                    EPA REGION 9 PROGRAMMATIC IMPACTS '
                             Focus of
                         Region 9 Program
Example of Risks to Public Health
      and Environment if
Region 9 Program were Impacted
Increasing • Likely3-6 * Restoring and

events aquatic
intensity of
and typhoons
days and
• Likely3 ecosystems and

• Likely6

Sea-level rise • Very


Ocean likely7
acidification • Certain8 |


• High

• Increased heavy precipitation
and storm events increase
number of sewer overflows and
wastewater bypasses, increased
coastal and inland erosion, as
well as increased pollutant loads
in runoff, and may combine to
damage waterway channels,
coastlines and infrastructure,
decrease water quality, and
threaten public health.
• Sea level rise would flood coastal
wetlands and eliminate them if
they cannot migrate up slope and
• Ocean acidification will increase
stress on shellfisheries and
continued stress on coral reefs.

(continued below)
                                                                         Page 29 of 46

                                       EPA REGION 9 PROGRAMMATIC IMPACTS '
                                Focus of
                            Region 9 Program
                                          Example of Risks to Public Health
                                                and Environment  if
                                          Region 9 Program were Impacted
 Earlier timing
 of spring
 Reduction in
 and intensity
 of wildfires
• Very

• Very
• Very
• Likely2
Restoring and
ecosystems and
• High
• Increased stresses to water
  bodies and water quality would
  make it more challenging to
  protect and restore the chemical,
  biological, and physical integrity
  of Waters of the U.S, and water
  quality standards.
• Snowmelt runoff shift to earlier
  in the  spring, could result in
  increased floods in spring and
  reduced stream flow later in
  summer, altering aquatic
  environments and increasing
• Geographic shifts in aquatic
  habitat and species may threaten
  water  quality and the economic
  and cultural practices of tribal,
  and other indigenous,
* Increased temperatures, drought,
  wildfires, and invasive species
  may accelerate landscape change
  and make certain aquatic
  ecosystems (e.g., mountain wet
  meadows, vernal pools, desert
  springs, and playa lakes) more
  vulnerable to loss.
                                                                                Page 30 of 46

• Increasing • Likely3-6 | • Drinking water,
• Increasing

• Likely3
intensity of

typhoons • Very
• Sea-level rise likely7

• Increasing
• Likely6
wastewater and

flood risk • Likely2
• Increased
and intensity

of wildfires • Very

• Earlier timing Likely10
of spring

• Likely6
• Decreasing
days and

• High

* Increase in inland precipitation ,
storm intensity and snowmelt
flooding could overwhelm or
damage water infrastructure (i.e.,
intakes, outfalls, treatment
plants, and associated pipes and
pumps) resulting in an increase in
pathogens and an increased
incidence of waterborne diseases
* Sea level rise in combination with
Intensifying coastal storms and
flooding would impact coastal
and tide-water infrastructure;
which could result in an increase
in pathogens, an increased
incidence of waterborne
diseases, and reduced access to
• In addition to earthquake
response plans and other hazard
response plans, drinking water
and wastewater utilities will need
to consider extreme weather,
wildfire, and sea level events in
their emergency response plans,
as appropriate (an "all hazards"
• Problems of safety as well as
access to clean and safe drinking
water will be exacerbated for
vulnerable and economically
deprived communities.
Page 31 of 46

• Increased
• Very • The quality and
water likely8 availability of
temperature safe drinking
s • Likely3 water
• Increasing

• Decreasing
days and
• Likely6

• Very
* Reduction in likely10
snowpack • Likely2
• Increased
and intensity
of wildfires
* Earlier timing

• Very

of spring
events • Very
* Sea Level Likely7

• High

• High water temperatures and
increased storm-water runoff
may increase the need for
drinking water treatment, raising
drinking water system costs and
costs for customers.
• Decrease in precipitation or
changes in precipitation seasons
could impact water availability,
forcing communities to seek
alternative sources.
* Changes in precipitation or an
increased need for water
supplies may increase pressure to
use other water supplies (e.g.,
surface reservoirs, or naturally
occurring or injected
groundwater requiring EPA to
ensure safety.
» Problems of access to clean and
safe drinking water will be
exacerbated for vulnerable and
economically deprived
» Sea Level Rise could lead to salt
water inundation or intrusion
into coastal freshwater
groundwater sources.
Page 32 of 46

• Likely3-6   • Cleaning up
              Sites and Waste
• Likely6
  risk of floods
• Sea level rise
• Increasingly frequent or intense
  inland and coastal flooding, as
  well as increasingly frequent or
  intense wildfires, could increase
  the risk of contaminant releases
  from EPA hazardous waste sites
• EPA may need to alter selected
  remedies to ensure protection.
• Very
• Very
• Likely2
  Changes in
  and intensity
  of wildfires
• Likely3-6   • Emergency
  intensity of
  risk of floods
  and intensity
  of wildfires
• Likely6

• Likely2
• Increase in frequency and/or
  intensity of coastal and inland
  flood events, storm events and
  wildfires could increase the risk
  of contaminant releases from
  regulated sites and non-
  regulated sites, which would
  increase the need for emergency
• A rapid increase in level and
  frequency of emergency events
  could overwhelm EPA's
  emergency response resources
  and limit our ability to respond
  quickly and effectively, which
  could result in more risk to
  communities and the
                                                                  Page 33 of 46

• Decreasing
  days and
• Increasing
• Increasing
• Earlier timing
  of spring
• Increase in,
  and a
  changing mix
  of, pests*
(* includes
weeds, insects,
molds, fungi,
and diseases)
• Very

• Very
• Protecting
  human health
  and ecosystems
  from chemical
• Med.
• Changes in planting timing or
  location may affect the volume
  and timing of agricultural
  chemical use, which could impact
  water quality and pesticide
  exposures to people and the
• Many weeds, diseases, and insect
  pests would benefit from
  warming, and many weeds would
  also benefit from a higher carbon
  dioxide concentration, increasing
  stress on crop plants and
  requiring more attention to pest
  and weed control.
• Emergency exemptions for
  unregistered pesticides,
  state/local special need
  registrations, as well as requests
  to approve additional  or new end
  uses of registered products, may
                                                                                  Page 34 of 46

• Earlier timing • Very • Conducting
of spring

sampling of
1 • Increasing • Likely6 water, air and
risk of floods soils and of
1 • Increased
and intensity
of wildfires
• Likely2

1 • Increasing • Likely3-6
1 • Increased

• Very
1 • Decreasing
days and
1 • Increasing

• Likely6

• Very

materials to
exposure and

• Water and
energy usage at
EPA facilities

• Med.

• Low

• Increase in frequency and/or
intensity of coastal and inland
flood events, storm events and
wildfires, as well as sea level rise,
may require a change in
sampling methods and strategies
for EPA and its partners.
• Increase in frequency or
intensity of flood events, storm
events and wildfires, as well as
sea level rise may impact EPA's
and partners' long-term
sampling locations, which may
require EPA and partners to set
up new sampling sites and
analyze data from different sites
over the long term.
• Region 9 facilities are in areas
that could experience water
shortages, requiring even more
water conservation.
• Region 9 facilities are in locations
that could experience extreme
heat events, requiring even more
energy conservation; and in cases
of resulting region-wide power
failure, could require additional
Page 35 of 46

• Increasing
risk of floods
• Likely6 • Operations of
Agency facilities,
• Increasing • Likely3 personnel
intensity of
• Sea level rise

• Very
• Very
safety, physical
security, and
• Emergency
• Increasing likely3 mission support
extreme (protective gear
temperature • Likely2 and acquisition)
• Increased
and intensity
of wildfire

• Med.

• Facilities in coastal or inland
flood-prone areas may be
flooded or their access cut off.
• Personnel engaged in field work
may be vulnerable to extreme
temperatures or weather events.
• During an emergency extreme
weather, flooding, or wildfire
event; power may be cut off,
which could impact security,
lighting, temperature control,
and communication systems.
• Personnel and real property that
support emergency response and
management may be impacted
directly or indirectly by flood
events, storm events and
wildfires; and EPA's ability to
respond in an emergency could
be compromised.
Page 36 of 46

Footnotes for Summary Table of Potential Challenges that Climate Change Poses to the Functioning of
EPA Region 9 Programs

Appendix A Table - Heading Footnotes:

a This table summarizes vulnerabilities by the five goals in EPA's Strategic Plan http://www.epa.gov/planandbudget/strategicplan.html.
Please note that the table also summarizes vulnerabilities to EPA facilities and operations; this is not part of the EPA Strategic Plan goal
structure but is an important element of EPA's vulnerability assessment. Please see Section 2 of this document for a fuller discussion of

b Climate Change Impacts are based upon peer-reviewed scientific literature.

c Programmatic Impacts are based upon EPA best professional judgment at this time.

d Impacts can vary by season and location.

e In general, the sources cited in this section use Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) likelihood of outcome terminology
where the term Very likely' means 90-100% probability and the term 'likely' means 66-100% probability.  For some impacts in the table,
additional discussion on the likelihood term is provided in the associated footnote.

f High assumes the program will be affected by the impact;  Medium assumes the program could be affected under some conditions by
the impact; Low assumes that there is a potential for the program to be impacted or uncertainty currently exists as to the potential nature
and extent of the impact. This assessment is based on best professional judgment within EPA at this time.  Please note, this column
does not reflect several important considerations.  For example it does not distinguish timeframes (current, near-term,  long-term). It does
not account for regional and local variations.  And it does not reflect the priority of actions the agency may undertake now or in the future.

 Appendix A Table Text Footnotes:

1 Denman, K.L.,  et al. (2007). Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry. In: Climate Change 2007: The
Physical Science Basis.  Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignorand H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

2 C.B. Field et al., "North America," Chapter 14 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working
Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. M.L. Parry,  O.F. Canziani, J.P.
Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA:  Cambridge University Press,

3 IPCC, 2012: Summary for Policymakers. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change
Adaptation [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen,
M. Tignor,  and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and  New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-19.

4 World Meteorological Organization, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project—
Report No. 52 (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011). Note: the word "expected" is used in the report to characterize projected climate change
impacts on the stratospheric ozone layer.  For purposes of this table the word "likely" has been used as a proxy for "expected."

5 Burns, D.A., Lynch, J.A., Cosby, B.J., Fenn, M.E., Baron, J.S., US EPA Clean Air Markets Div., 2011 .National Acid Precipitation
Assessment Program Report to  Congress 2011: An Integrated Assessment, National Science and Technology Council, Washington,  DC,
p.  114.

6 USGCRP, 2009: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C.
Peterson (eds.). United States Global  Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA.

7 IPCC, 2012: "it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels in the future."

8 NRC, 2010:  National Research Council of the National Academies, America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of
Climate Change, 2010.  p 41. "One of the most certain outcomes from increasing  CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere is the
acidification of the world's oceans." For purposes of this table, the term "certain" is used.

9 USGCRP, 2009:  p. 46. [In the case of freshwater] "Increased air temperatures lead to higher water temperatures, which have already
been detected in many streams, especially during low-flow periods."  For the purposes of this table "very likely" is  used.
                                                                                                     Page 37 of 46

10 USGCRP, 2009:  p. 45.  [In the case of timing of snow melt] "In areas where snowpack dominates, the timing of runoff will continue to
shift to earlier in the spring and flows will be lower in late summer." Based upon EPA best professional judgment at the time, the
likelihood of this impact was determined to be "very likely."

         Lettenmaier, D.,  D. Major, L.  Poff, and S. Running, 2008: Water Resources. In: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture,
Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3. U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, DC, p.130. Based upon EPA best professional judgment at the time, the likelihood of this impact was
determined to be "very likely."

         USGCRP, 2009: p. 80.  [In the case of onset of spring and length of the growing season] "In the United States,
spring now arrives an average of 10 days to two weeks earlier than it did 20 years ago. The growing season is lengthening over much of
the  continental United States." Based upon EPA best professional judgment at the time, the likelihood of this impact was determined to
be "very likely."

11 Bates, B.C., Z.W. Kundzewicz, S. Wu and J.P. Palutikof, Eds., 2008: Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, p. 130

12 USGCRP, 2009. Agriculture:  p. 75.  [In the case of weeds, diseases, and pests] "Weeds, diseases, and insect pests benefit
from warming, and weeds also benefit from a higher carbon dioxide concentration, increasing stress on crop plants and requiring more
attention to pest and weed control." Based upon EPA best professional judgment at the time, the likelihood of this impact was determined
to be "very likely."

         Hatfield, J., K. Boote, P. Fay, L. Hahn, C. Izaurralde, B.A. Kimball, T. Mader, J. Morgan, D. Ort, W. Polley, A. Thomson,
and D. Wolfe, 2008: Agriculture. In: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and
Biodiversity in the United States. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, pp. 59-
60.  Based upon EPA best professional judgment at the time, the likelihood of this impact was determined to be "very likely."
                                                                                                     Page 38 of 46

Appendix B. Summaries of Selected Documents on

Climate Change Vulnerabilities  in EPA Region 9

Climate Change Vulnerabilities - Generally in EPA Region 9

A report by the U.S. Global Change Research program entitled, "Global Climate Change Impacts in the
United States"1 pointed to upcoming likely vulnerabilities in the Southwest.

o  Water supplies will be subject to more competition (between communities, ecosystems, agriculture
   and power generation) as precipitation decreases and temperatures increase.
o  The southwest ecosystem will be more vulnerable to large-scale change given reduced precipitation,
   increased temperatures and the resulting increase in wildfires.

In a National Park Service 2010  report entitled, "Understanding the Science for Climate Change: Talking
Points - Impacts to Arid Lands"2, vulnerabilities are identified:

o  Under current conditions and if no changes in Colorado River allocations are made, there is a 50%
   chance that live storage reservoir levels will be zero by 2021 and a 50% chance that minimum power
   pool levels will be reached in 2017.
o  River and riparian habitats will suffer from decreased flows and increased water removal.
o  Decreased late dry season runoff will likely reduce water quality through concentration of pollutants
   in shrinking water bodies and decrease in dissolved oxygen.
o  Increases in wildfires, due to increased temperatures and changes in precipitation, will set up a self-
   reinforcing increase in fire frequencies, due to proliferation of exotic fire-prone grasses.  The Great
   Basin fire season could increase by 2 or more weeks.
o  Increased water demands and a decreased water supply will result in over-allocation of water
   resources that are already oversubscribed in many areas.

Climate Change Vulnerabilities in the Southwest

Climate change issues for the Southwest are described in the 2013 document entitled, "Assessment of
Climate Change in the Southwest United States. A Report Prepared  for the National Climate
Assessment"3. The report covers Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, as well
as Southwest Native Nations lands and the United States-Mexico border region.

The report includes a discussion of vulnerabilities for communities and habitats, for example:

o  Stationarity (assumption that future climate variations will be the same as past climate variations)
   no longer holds in the Southwest. It is likely that temperatures  will increase substantially in some
   parts of the Southwest, leading to even more arid conditions.
o  Tribal communities are likely to be affected more than non-tribal communities, due to limited water
   supplies and  water rights, and impacts on livelihood and traditional lifeways.
o  Disadvantaged populations are likely to be most at risk for health issues from heat and particulate
   matter increases and  other climate change effects.

                                                                            Page 39 of 46

o   An increase in temperatures will increase health effects due to heat-related illness; and are likely to
    cause an increase in  air-borne particulates (from wildfires and dust storms), and associated
o   Changes in species life cycles and distribution may impact public health (e.g., timing of vegetation
    blooms and associated allergic reactions, presence of mosquitoes and rodents carrying pathogens).
o   Changes in land cover will be significant, and is related to an increase in wildfires and pest
o   Coastal erosion, flooding and storm surges are likely to increase. The intensity of coastal storms may
    increase.  Sea-level rise is occurring.  These combine to put coastal communities and habitats at
    more risk.
o   Streamflow reduction is expected across the region, which would limit water availability for
    communities and habitats.
o   Surface water quality is expected to be reduced in some parts of the Southwest due to reduced
    streamflows, increased evaporation, and increased nonpoint source pollution from more intense
    storm events and wildfire events.
o   Energy supplies may become less reliable as demand for cooling and water pumping increases and
    transmission lines are impacted by high temperatures or wildfires.

Climate  Change Vulnerabilities in California

The State of California issued, "Our Changing Climate 2012: Vulnerability & Adaptation to the
Increasing Risks from Climate Change in California. A Summary Report on the Third Assessment form
the California Climate Change Center"4.  The report discussed California climate change vulnerabilities.

o   Rising temperatures will be more noticeable in spring than in other seasons.
o   Heat events will increase in intensity, length and frequency; which will lead to increased impacts to
    public health (especially for low income populations) and ecosystems.
o   Precipitation may decrease  and temperatures are likely to grow warmer which will make conditions
    dryer, especially in Southern California. This would also make the spring snowpack melt sooner in
    the year.
o   Increased temperatures will lead  to an increased demand for water supplies.
o   Soil moisture levels are likely to decline during longer dryer summer conditions.
o   Dryer and hotter conditions will lead to a higher risk of wildfire.
o   Increased wildfires will increase particulate matter and ozone levels, leading to decreased public
o   Sea level rise, combined with high waves and  strong winds will impact coastal communities (and
    their infrastructure), habitats and coastlines.
o   Sea level rise and more intense storm events will put added pressure on aging Bay Delta levees
The July 2012 report, "Climate Change and Water Supply Security: Reconfiguring Groundwater
Management to Reduce Drought Vulnerability"5 was prepared by the University of California at Santa
Cruz for the California Energy Commission. This report identified key community vulnerabilities:

o   Communities in California that already experience water shortages during droughts are likely to
    have more water supply vulnerability.
                                                                                  Page 40 of 46

o   Coastal communities that do not have an inter-tie to larger water projects and that rely on local
    groundwater supplies and storage systems are at significant risk for water supply shortages.
o   Communities that subject their groundwater basins to overdraft can permanently lose groundwater
    storage capacity and put their community at greater risk for water shortages.
o   Increasing recharge of groundwater basins with treated water requires more care to not introduce
    pollutants into the basin and maintain groundwater quality.
o   Increase in large storm events will put communities and their infrastructure at greater risk.
o   Communities in the southwest at the urban-forest border will be more vulnerable to damage by
    wildfire as temperatures increase and precipitation  decreases.

The report, "The Future is Now: An Update on Climate Change Science Impacts and Response Options
for California"6, prepared for the California Energy Commission in May 2009, found that:

o   The American West is heating faster than the United States as a whole.
o   Warming and precipitation changes are not occurring uniformly throughout the state. Two examples
    relating to temperature are the effect of intensive crop irrigation in the Central Valley, which has
    historically decreased the amount of warming in this region, and the increased warming effect
    observed in urban areas. Changes in snowpack and the timing of spring runoff have already been
    observed in the Sierra Nevada  Mountains over the past century.
o   Agricultural productivity, forest composition, timing of ecological events (for example, migration),
    and wildfire frequency have all experienced measurable changes resulting from  a changing climate.
o   Factors that can aggravate problems caused by climate change  include population growth, the
    presence of poor or vulnerable social groups, and seismic risks in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.
    In addition, some climate change impacts will overlap and combine in challenging ways.
"Preparing for Climate Change: A Perspective from Local Public Health Officers in California"7, by
Louise Bedsworth of the Public Policy Institute of California (Published in Environmental Health
Perspectives, April 2009) summarized climate change impacts on air pollution:

o   Climate change is likely to lead to an increase in the severity and duration of air pollution
o   Air pollution levels can be affected by a number of direct and indirect effects of climate change. These
    include increased temperature, changes in  biogenic emissions  (e.g., emissions from vegetation),
    changes in chemical reaction rates, changes  in atmospheric conditions that affect pollutant mixing,
    and changes in the atmospheric flows that affect pollutant transport.10
o   Behavioral responses to climate change could result in an increase in emissions, such as through the
    increased energy demand with higher temperatures.11'12
o   There is feedback between local air pollution and climate change, because some local air pollutants
    also have an effect on the climate.
                                                                                  Page 41 of 46

Climate Change Vulnerabilities in Nevada

The Nevada Climate Change Advisory Committee, under then-Governor Jim Gibbons, issued the
"Nevada Climate Change Advisory Committee Final Report" in 200817. Note that this is not a peer-
reviewed document. The report highlighted the following potential climate change impacts:

o   Increases in ozone pollution, air-borne particulate matter and air temperatures could impact public
o   If more of the Sierra Nevada precipitation falls as rain, rather than as snow, then
       •   Flooding may increase in the Truckee, Walker and Carson River watersheds in the winter
           and spring, and
       •   Less water may be available in the summer for water supplies, habitat and recreation.
o   If Colorado River Basin precipitation decreases, then the Las Vegas Valley may see more pressure on
    its water supplies.
o   Decreased precipitation could reduce summer water supplies, increase wild land  fires (and
    developed land fire risk), reduce native plant species cover and increase in invasive plant species

Climate Change Vulnerabilities in Hawaii and other Pacific Island

Climate change issues for the Hawaii and the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands are described in the document
entitled, "Climate Change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and Impacts. Report for the 2012 Pacific
Islands Regional Climate Assessment"14.  The report covers the State of Hawai'i, the territories of
American Samoa  and Guam,  the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, as well as other US-
Affiliated Pacific Islands. The report includes discussions on island community and  habitat

o   Freshwater supplies, particularly on low-elevation islands, may decrease if temperatures increase
    and precipitation decreases. Air temperatures on Hawaiian islands have increased over 100 years
    with a  more marked increase over the most recent 30 years. Future trends in precipitation are
    difficult to predict for the Pacific islands. Low-elevation freshwater aquifers are vulnerable to
    inundation from  sea level rise combined with storms or other big wave events. A reduction in
    freshwater supplies could raise concerns for island food security.
o   Sea level rise will make islands' coastal infrastructure more vulnerable to the flooding and erosion
    from storm events. Low-elevation islands are especially vulnerable as their entire infrastructure,
    communities and habitats are close to the present-day sea level, and are more subject to wave over
o   Coral reefs are vulnerable to sea-surface temperature rise (which can cause coral bleaching) and
    ocean  water acidification (which can impact the coral-forming process). An increase in storm events
    could cause more sediment deposition on coral reefs which harms the coral.
o   Coastal wetlands (e.g., mangrove forests, sea grass beds) are vulnerable to direct impact from
    increased wave events and tropical cyclone strength, as well as increased sediment pollution from
    eroding watersheds.
                                                                                Page 42 of 46

Appendix B Footnotes:

1 USGCRP (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States . Karl, T.R., J.M. Melillo, and T.C.
Peterson (eds.). United States Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press, New York,
NY, USA. http://globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/previous-assessments/global-climate-

2 Loehman, R. 2010. Understanding the science of climate change: talking points - impacts to Arid Lands.
Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/NRR—2010/209. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.
http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs  other/rmrs  2010 loehman r002.pdf

3 Garfin, G., A. Jardine, R. Merideth,  M. Black, and S. LeRoy, eds. 2013. Assessment of Climate Change in
the Southwest United States: A Report Prepared for the National Climate Assessment. A report by the
Southwest Climate Alliance. Washington, DC: Island Press. http://swccar.org/sites/all/themes/files/SW-

4 Moser, S., Ekstrom, J., and Franco, G. "Our Changing Climate 2012: Vulnerability & Adaptation to the
Increasing Risks from  Climate Change in California.  A Summary Report on the Third Assessment form the
California Climate Change Center". (2012). California Energy Commission (CEC-500-2012-007).

5 Langridge, Ruth, Andrew Fisher, Andrew Racz, Bruce Daniels, Kirsten Rudestam, and Blake Hihara.
2012. Climate Change and Water Supply Security: Reconfiguring Groundwater Management to Reduce
Drought Vulnerability. California Energy Commission. Publication  Number: CEC-500-2012-017.

6 Moser, Susie, Guido Franco, Sarah  Pittiglio, Wendy Chou, Dan Cayan. 2009. The Future Is Now: An
Update on Climate Change Science Impacts and Response Options for California. California Energy
Commission, PIER Energy-Related Environmental Research Program. CEC-500-2008-071.

7 Bedsworth L. Preparing for climate change: a perspective form local public health officers in California.
Environ Health Perspectives. 2009 Apr; 117(4):617-23. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0800114. Epub 2008 Dec 8.

8 Mickley U. A future short of breath? Possible effects of climate change on smog. Environment.  2007;

9 Mickley U, Jacob DJ, Field BD,  Rind D. Effects of future climate change on regional air pollution episodes
in the United States. Geophys Res Lett. 2004; 31(24):L24103. doi:  10.1029/2004GL02126.

10 Hogrefe C, Lynn B, Civerolo K, Ku JY, Rosenthal J,  Rosenzweig C, et al. J Geophys Res Atmos. Vol. 109.
2004. Simulating changes in regional air pollution over the eastern United States due to changes in
global and regional climate and emissions; p. D22301.

11  Franco G, Sanstad AH. Climate change and electricity demand in California. Clim Change. 2008;
                                                                                 Page 43 of 46

12 Miller ML, Hayhoe K, Jin J, Auffhammer M. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California.
J Appl Meteorol Climatol. 2008; 47(June):1834-1844.
13 Gibbons, J. "Governor Jim Gibbons' Nevada Climate Change Advisory Committee Final Report". (2008).
www.epa.statelocalclimate/documents/pdf/nevada final report.pdf

14 Keener, V. W., Marra, J.J., Finucane, M. L, Spooner, D., & Smith, M. H. (Eds.). (2012). Climate
Change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and Impacts. Report for the 2012 Pacific Islands Regional Climate
Assessment (PIRCA). Washington, DC: Island Press,  http://www.pacificrisa.org/projects/pirca/
                                                                                  Page 44 of 46

                         Appendix C: Acknowledgements

This Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan was prepared by the EPA Pacific Southwest
Climate Change Workgroup. We wish to gratefully acknowledge the following individuals for their
assistance in developing and reviewing the Plan.

Air Division
       Ben Machol, Clean Energy & Climate Change Office
       Ray Saracino, Clean Energy & Climate Change Office
       Amy Zimpfer, Office of the Director

Communities and Ecosystems Division
       Willard Chin, Tribal Program Office
       Megan Fleming, Pacific Islands Office
       Kathleen Goforth, Environmental Review Office
       Nate Lau, Immediate Office
       John McCarroll, Pacific Islands Office
       Patti TenBrook, Pesticides Office

Enforcement Division
       Kathleen Johnson, Office of the Director

Management and Technical Services Division
       Carolyn Truong, Office of the Director

Office of the Regional Administrator
       Zoe Heller, Immediate Office

Office of Regional Counsel
       Brooke-Sydney Jackson, Air, Toxics, Water, and General Law Branch

Superfund Division
       Harold Ball, CA/NV Private Sites Section

Waste Management Division
       Tom Huetteman, Office of the Director

Water Division
       David Albright, Immediate Office            Dave Guiliano, Standards and TMDL Office
       Dave Basinger, Ground Water Office         Robert Hall, Standards and TMDL Office
       Eric Byous, Infrastructure Office            Bruce Macler, Drinking Water Office
       Christopher Chen, Tribal Office             Suzanne Marr, Watersheds Office
                                                                             Page 45 of 46

Cheryl McGovern, Infrastructure Office       Hudson Slay, Watersheds Office
Pascal Mues, NPDES Permits Office          Tim Vendlinski, Immediate Office
Allan Ota, Wetlands Office                  Wendy Wiltse, Wetlands Office
Karen Schwinn, Immediate Office            Sam Ziegler, Watersheds Office
                                                                       Page 46 of 46