EPA Region 10 Climate
  Change Adaptation
 Implementation Plan

      June 2014

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan                                                            June 2014
                                         Disclaimer
To the extent this document mentions or discusses statutory or regulatory authority, it does so for
informational purposes only. This document does not substitute for those statutes or regulations, and
readers should consult the statutes or regulations to learn what they require. Neither this document,
nor any part of it, is itself a rule or a regulation. Thus, it cannot change or impose legally binding
requirements on EPA, States, the public, or the regulated community. Further, any expressed intention,
suggestion or recommendation does not impose any legally binding requirements on EPA, States, tribes,
the public, or the regulated community. Agency decision makers remain free to exercise their discretion
in choosing to implement the actions described in this Plan. Such implementation  is contingent upon
availability of resources and is subject to change.
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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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                                            Preface
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is committed to identifying and responding to the
challenges that a changing climate poses to human health and the environment.

Scientific evidence demonstrates that the climate is changing at an increasingly rapid rate, outside the
range to which society has adapted in the past. These changes can pose significant challenges to the
EPA's ability to fulfill its mission. The EPA must adapt to climate change if it is to continue fulfilling its
statutory, regulatory and programmatic requirements. The Agency is therefore anticipating and planning
for future changes in climate to ensure it continues to fulfill its mission of protecting human health and
the environment even as the climate changes.

In February 2013, the EPA released its draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan to the public for review and
comment. The plan relies on peer-reviewed scientific information and expert judgment to identify
vulnerabilities to EPA's mission and goals from climate change. The plan also presents 10 priority actions
that EPA will take to ensure  that its programs, policies, rules, and operations will remain effective under
future climatic conditions. The priority placed on mainstreaming climate adaptation within EPA
complements efforts to encourage and mainstream adaptation planning across the entire federal
government.

Following completion of the draft Climate Change Adaptation Plan, each EPA National Environmental
Program Office, all 10 Regional Offices, and several National Support Offices developed a Climate
Adaptation Implementation  Plan to provide more detail on how it will carry out the work called for in
the agency-wide plan. Each Implementation Plan articulates how the office will integrate climate
adaptation into its planning  and work in a manner consistent and compatible with its goals and
objectives.

Taken together, the Implementation Plans demonstrate how the EPA will attain the 10 agency-wide
priorities presented in the Climate Change Adaptation Plan. A central element  of all of EPA's plans is to
build and strengthen its adaptive capacity and work with its partners to build capacity in states, tribes,
and local communities. EPA  will empower its  staff and partners by increasing their awareness of ways
that climate change may affect their ability to implement effective programs, and by providing them
with the necessary data, information, and tools to  integrate climate adaptation into their work.

Each Program and Regional Office's Implementation Plan contains  an initial assessment of the
implications of climate change for the organization's goals and objectives. These "program vulnerability
assessments" are living documents that will be updated as needed to account for new knowledge, data,
and scientific evidence about the impacts of climate change on EPA's mission. The plan then identifies
specific priority actions that  the office will take to begin addressing its vulnerabilities and mainstreaming
climate change adaptation into its activities. Criteria for the selection of priorities are discussed. An
emphasis is placed on protecting the most vulnerable people and places, on supporting the
development of adaptive capacity in the tribes, and on identifying  clear steps for ongoing collaboration
with tribal governments.
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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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Because EPA's Programs and Regions and partners will be learning by experience as they mainstream
climate adaptation planning into their activities, it will be essential to evaluate their efforts in order to
understand how well different approaches work and how they can be improved. Each Implementation
Plan therefore includes a discussion of how the organization will regularly evaluate the effectiveness of
its adaptation efforts and make adjustments where necessary.

The set of Implementation Plans are a sign of EPA's leadership and commitment to help build the
nation's adaptive capacity that is so vital to the goal of protecting human health and the environment.
Working with its partners, the Agency will help promote a healthy and prosperous nation that is resilient
to a changing climate.
                                                  Bob Perciasepe
                                                  Deputy Administrator

                                                  June 2014
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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 serves Alaska,
     Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and 271 federally-recognized tribes.
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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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Table of Contents
Acknowledgements	7
Section 1: Introduction	8
I.  Regional Overview	8
II. Overview of Climate Change Impacts in Region 10	9
Section 2: Region 10 Vulnerability Assessment	10
I.  Region 10 General Vulnerabilities	11
1.  Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality	14
2.  Goal 2: Protecting America's Waters	16
3.  Goal 3: Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable Development	20
4.  Goal 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution	22
5.  Goal 5: Enforcing Environmental Laws	23
6.  EPA Facilities and Operations	25
7.  Tribal and other Vulnerable Populations	26
Section 3: Region 10 Priority Existing Actions	28
1.  Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics (OAWT)	29
2.  Office of Water and Watersheds (OWW)	30
3.  Office of Ecosystems,  Tribal, and  Public Affairs (ETPA)	31
4.  Office of Environmental Clean-Up (ECL)	32
5.  Office of Compliance and Enforcement (OCE)	33
6.  Office of Regional Counsel (ORC)	33
7.  Office of Environmental Assessment (OEA)	33
Section 4: Developing Measures, Monitoring and Evaluating Performance	34
Section 5: Legal and Enforcement Issues	34
Section 6: Training and Outreach	34
Section 7: Partnerships with Tribes	35
Section 8: Vulnerable Population and Places	36
Section 9: Cross-Office Pilot Projects	36
Appendix A: Vulnerabilities Identified by Region 10 States and Tribes	38
Appendix B: Detailed Description of EPA Region 10 Program Vulnerabilities	43
Appendix C: Detailed Description of EPA Region 10 Existing Actions	62
Appendix D: Comparison of Vulnerabilities and EPA Region 10 Existing Actions	82
Appendix E: EPA Region 10 Approach for Measuring Success	88
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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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Acknowledgements

Overall Direction
Dennis McLerran, Regional Administrator, Region 10
Michelle Pirzadeh, Deputy Regional Administrator, Region 10
Joyce Kelly, Director, Office of Environmental Assessment, Region 10
Joel Scheraga, Senior Advisor for Climate Adaptation, Office of Administrator

Overall Development
Bruce Duncan, Office of Environmental Assessment
Michael Cox, Office of Environmental Assessment

Key Input
Region 10 Executive Team

Office Points of Contact
Brook Madrone - Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics
Teresa Kubo and Michelle Davis - Office of Ecosystems, Tribes, and Public Affairs
Paula Vanhaagen - Office of Water and Watersheds:
Ken Marcy - Environmental Cleanup
Sandra Brozusky - Office of Compliance and Enforcement
Allyn Stern - Office of Regional Counsel

Tribal Partnership
Jim Woods - Region 10 Regional Tribal Policy Advisor

Additional Input
Keith Rose - Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics
Dave Bray - Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics
Ashley Zanolli - Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics
Viccy Salazar - Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics
Erin Mader - Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics
Margo Young - Office of Ecosystems, Tribes, and Public Affairs
Linda Storm - Office of Ecosystems, Tribes, and Public Affairs
Rob Elleman - Office of Environmental Assessment
Claire Schary - Office of Water and Watersheds
Brooks Stanfield and Andrea Westenberger - Office of Management Programs
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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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Section 1: Introduction

Executive Order EO13514 directed the U.S. Government to
address the impacts of climate change, and form an Interagency
Climate Change Adaptation Task Force. This task force is co-
chaired by the White House Council on Environmental Quality
(CEQ), the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy,
and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.  There
are over 20 federal agencies represented on the task force,
including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The task
force developed recommendations to the President regarding the
integration of climate adaptation into planning, operations,  policies,
was required to develop a climate change adaptation plan.
                     June 2014
 "Adaptation" refers to efforts by
 society or ecosystems to prepare for or
 adjust to future climate change. These
 adjustments can be protective (i.e.,
 guarding against negative impacts of
 climate change), or opportunistic (i.e.,
 taking advantage of any beneficial
 effects of climate change).
and programs, and each agency
In response, EPA issued a climate change adaptation policy statement in June 2011, and completed an
agency-wide Climate Adaptation Plan in June 2012.  These documents directed every Program and
Regional office within EPA to develop an Implementation Plan detailing how they will integrate climate
adaptation into their work, and address the priorities identified in the agency-wide plan.

To promote consistency, these Implementation Plans have common areas of focus, as outlined below.
        Common Areas of Focus for Implementation Plans
 1.  Vulnerability assessments
 2.  Priority actions on climate adaptation
 3.  Agency-wide strategic measures on climate adaptation
 4.  Legal and enforcement issues
 5.  Training and outreach
 6.  Partnerships with tribes
 7.  Evaluation and cross-office pilot projects
The Implementation Plans are complementary and are meant to work in conjunction with the Agency's
Strategic Plan and Sustainability Plan, and the climate change plans developed by the individual EPA
Program Offices.  The Implementation Plan for Region 10 will be a living document to be updated over
time.
I.   Regional Overview

Region 10 serves Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Alaska and 271 Federally Recognized Tribes.  In this
report, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho are often referred to as the Pacific Northwest.  EPA Region 10
represents a diverse geographic region with varying climate, geographic features, social, and ecological
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conditions.  Region 10 is composed of eight landscape conservation cooperative1 areas (five in Alaska
and 3 in the Pacific Northwest) out of twenty-two Nationwide. This attests to the wide diversity of
geographic regions within Region 10.  The Pacific Northwest is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the
west and Canada to the north. The region includes the cities of Seattle, Portland, Spokane, Boise, and
Tacoma with susceptible populations that are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate.

The Cascade Mountain Range runs north-south through Washington and Oregon, splitting the region.
The climate on each side of the mountain range is very different. West of the mountains, temperatures
are mild year-round (days below freezing or above 90°F are relatively rare), winters are wet, and
summers are dry. East of the mountains, it is typically sunnier and drier over the course of the year,
winters are colder, and summers can be significantly hotter. The Pacific Northwest contains many miles
of coast line, contains high sage deserts, is composed of large tracks of forest, and consists of several
mountain ranges that are critical to maintaining the water resources in the Region.

Alaska  presents unique challenges given its geographic location, and that it is the only arctic region in
United States. Issues related to  permafrost thawing and sea ice melting are unique to Alaska  and
climate change impacts are being seen in many areas of Alaska and threatening coastal communities,
habitats, and infrastructure.  Alaska contains more coastline than the other 49 states combined.  Alaska
contains almost 40% (229 tribes) of the federally recognized tribes in the United States that  are
particularly vulnerable to climate change given their  proximity to coastal areas.
II. Overview of Climate Change Impacts in Region 10

The climate of the Northwest is changing.  According to the United States Global Change Research
Program (USGCRP) the following changes have or are anticipated to occur in the region.2 Over the last
century, the average annual temperature rose by 1.5°F, with increases in some areas up to 4°F.
Changes in snowpack, streamflows, and forest cover are already occurring.  Future climate change will
likely continue to influence these changes. Average annual temperature in the region is projected to
increase by 3-10°F by the end of the century.  Winter precipitation is projected to increase while
summer precipitation is projected to decrease, though  precipitation projections are less certain than
those related to temperature. Future climate change impacts would be compounded by pressures
related to the region's rapidly growing population.
1 Landscape Conservation Cooperatives are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal
agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities and others.
2 U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). 2009. Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States .
Karl, T.R., J. M.  Melillo, and T. C. Peterson (eds.). United States Global Change Research Program. Cambridge
University Press, New York, NY, USA.

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Impacts from climate change are being observed in Alaska.  According to the Alaska Climate Change
Strategy3 recent decades of warmer temperature have produced extensive thawing of permafrost,
which has resulted in increased coastal erosion, landslides, and sinking of the ground surface, as well as
consequent disruption and damage to forests, buildings, infrastructure, and coastal communities.  Sea
ice off the Alaskan Coast  is retreating and thinning, with widespread effects on marine ecosystems,
coastal climate, human settlements, and subsistence activities. The Arctic Region, particularly Alaska, is
already experiencing major ecological impacts such as the northward expansion of boreal forest in some
areas, significant increases in fire frequency and intensity, and unprecedented insect outbreaks.


Section 2:  Region 10 Vulnerability Assessment

This section contains an assessment of the vulnerabilities of Region 10 programs to the impacts of
climate change. It builds on the work presented in Part 2 of EPA's Agency-Wide Implementation Plan,
as well as the individual assessments completed by various Program Offices in Region 10.  It also draws
heavily from existing efforts from the four states in Region 10, as well as the work from the Landscape
Conservation Cooperatives in Region 10 and from Tribal
assessments.  A summary of those efforts is provided below
and a more detailed discussion can be found in Appendix A.    a sYstem is susceptible to, or unable
-TL,    i     u-i-             •   4.   4.   _i u 4.u     i  •        to cope with, adverse effects of
The vulnerability assessment is structured by the goals in
                                                         climate change, including climate
EPA's FY 2011-2015 Strategic Plan and includes a              variability and extremes.
vulnerability assessment of EPA Region 10 facilities and
Vulnerability is the degree to which

Tribes. A more detailed discussion of the vulnerabilities and impacts is included in Appendix B.
Appendix D provides a comparison of the vulnerabilities identified below with existing Region  10
actions. This information could be used to help focus future actions.

It is important to note that EPA Region 10 did not conduct a quantitative vulnerability assessment, but
has qualitatively evaluated the nature and magnitude of risks associated with climate change impacts.
The vulnerability assessment is based on the best available information, state and tribal vulnerability
assessments, and our own best professional judgment. The assessment does not specifically distinguish
timeframes (current, near-term, long-term) for impacts, although it mentions where impacts are already
occurring, and it does provide judgments on the likelihood of the impact occurring in the Region.  The
assessment will need to be updated as our understanding of climate science evolves, and the Region will
need to identify the important gaps in our scientific knowledge and technical analyses that are needed
to assist in decision-making.
3 Alaska's Climate Change Strategy: Addressing Impacts in Alaska.
http://www.climatechange.alaska/aag/docs/aag_ES_27Janl0.pdf.
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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan                                                             June 2014

The overall goal of the Region 10 vulnerability assessment and the detailed discussion of specific
vulnerabilities contained in Appendix B and the comparison with vulnerabilities and existing actions in
Appendix D are to:

       1.   Inform staff and managers in Region 10 about the most critical impacts from climate change
           for their programs;

       2.   Motivate staff and managers to continue with existing climate change and sustainability
           work and integrate climate change adaptation into their program work;

       3.   Serve as a starting point to engage in conversations with EPA partners, especially Tribes, on
           future actions that are needed to adapt to climate change; and

       4.   Serve as a qualitative assessment of the baseline set of vulnerabilities, which can be refined
           as new regional information on climate science and adaptation alternatives become
           available.

Vulnerable populations are mentioned throughout the document. Certain parts of the population, such
as children, the elderly, minorities and the poor, persons with underlying medical conditions and
disabilities, those with limited access to information, and tribal and indigenous populations, can be
especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Tribes may be more vulnerable to climate
change impacts because of dependence upon  a specific geographical area for their livelihood; and their
unique cultural, economic, or political characteristics and contexts.4

Also, certain geographic locations and communities are particularly vulnerable, such as those located in
low-lying coastal areas. One of the principles guiding EPA's efforts to integrate climate adaptation into
its programs, policies and rules calls for its adaptation plans to prioritize helping people, places  and
infrastructure that are most vulnerable to climate impacts, and to be designed and implemented with
meaningful involvement from all parts of society.
I.   Region 10 General Vulnerabilities

All four States in Region 10 have identified vulnerabilities specific to their State.  A summary of what is
included in each State assessment is included below with a more detailed discussion in Appendix A.
4 Cutter, S.L. and C. Finch. 2008. Temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105(7): 2301-2306.
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    •  The State of Oregon has developed a framework that condenses specific vulnerabilities and risks
       from climate change into 11 overarching categories. They then  ranked these into three groups:
       very likely, likely, and more likely than not.5

    •  The Washington State Department of Ecology has summarized climate impacts in their response
       strategy.6 Washington examined projected impacts for sector groupings - e.g., built
       infrastructure, wildlife & habitat, etc.

    •  Climate change planning in Idaho is conducted by the Idaho Experimental Program to Stimulate
       Competitive Research (EPSCoR).7 The EPSCoR work addresses concerns about how the
       hydrology in Idaho will change as climate changes in the western U.S.

    •  The State of Alaska Adaptation Advisory Group describes vulnerabilities including effects that
       are already occurring in their document Alaska's Climate Change Strategy: Addressing Impacts
       in Alaska.8

    •  In an effort to understand Tribal cultural resource vulnerabilities, Region 10 reviewed the
       Swinomish Climate Change Initiative Impact Assessment Technical Report.9

    •  The Tribal Climate  Change Adaptation Plan Template provides a summary of the Arctic
       vulnerabilities and those related to Alaskan Tribes.10

The following suite of climate change vulnerabilities and impacts, and their effects on Region 10
Programs is discussed in the sections below. They are discussed individually, or in combinations based
on the focus of the Strategic Plan Goal under consideration. A more detailed discussion of the
vulnerabilities is in Appendix B.

Based on the assessments  described above we developed the following  list of the most significant
regional vulnerabilities.

1.  Increase in average annual air temperature.
2.  Decreased/loss of snowpack.
3.  Sea level rise.
4.  Permafrost thawing.
5 http://www.Oregon.gov/LCD/docs/ClimateChange/Framework_Final.pdf
6 http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/ipa_responsestrategy.htm
7 http://www.idahoclimatechange.org/DrawOnePage.aspx?PagelD=135
8 http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/aag/docs/aag_ES_27Janl0.pdf
9 http://www.swinomish.org/departments/planning/climate_change/climate_main.html
10 http://www.globalchange.gov/publications/reports/scientific-assessments/us-impacts
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5. Sea ice melting.
6. Increase in wildfire frequency and intensity.
7. Increase in ocean temperatures.
8. Increase in ocean acidification.
9. Increase frequency of extreme precipitation events and flooding.
10. Increase in and changing mix of pests.
11. More frequent and severe drought.
12. Increase health impacts.

In addition to the vulnerabilities above, several cultural vulnerabilities were identified in the Swinomish
Impact Assessment that may be relevant to other Tribes including:
       Shrinking land base (sea level rise).
       Inundation of coastal sites/artifacts.
       Exposure of burial sites and human remains from strong storm events.
       Loss of cultural use  plants.
       Impacts within traditional use areas.
       Historic subsistent natural resources used by indigenous tribes such as fishery resources,
       wildlife, traditional foods, native plants, and holistic medicines are vulnerable.
These vulnerabilities are discussed when evaluating potential impacts on Regional Office programmatic
areas of responsibility.  The five goals discussed below are taken from the National Goals to facilitate
comparisons across regions.  The relationships to Region 10 Goals11 are also given.  Two additional areas
of responsibility beyond the five National Goals that are addressed under vulnerabilities are facilities
and operations and Tribes and vulnerable populations.
Cross Walk between National and Region 10 Goals
National Goal
Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change
and Improving Air Quality
Goal 2: Protecting America's Waters
Goal 3: Cleaning Up Communities and
Advancing Sustainable Development
Goal 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals
and Preventing Pollution
Goal 5: Enforcing Environmental Laws
Facilities and Operations
Regional Goal
Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change
and Goal 2: Improving Air Quality
Goal 5: Protecting America's Waters
Goal 4: Cleaning Up Our Communities
Goal 3: Assuring the Safety of Chemicals
Goal 3: Assuring the Safety of Chemicals
No specific goal.
  http://www.epa.gov/regionlO/pdf/regional_priorities_2011-2015.pdf
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 Vulnerable populations
Goals 6: Expanding the Conversation on
Environmentalism and Working for
Environmental Justice
Goal 7: Building Strong State and Tribal
Partnerships.
1.  Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality

Many of the impacts from climate change including increased summer temperatures, increased
wildfires, changes in precipitation, and severe weather events are likely to impact both ambient and
indoor air quality in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska.  These impacts will present new challenges to
EPA Region 10 and its partners to ensure the continued protection of public health and the
environment.

    A. Increase in tropospheric ozone pollution may occur in certain areas due to increased average
       summertime temperature

There is the possibility that higher summertime temperatures would increase ozone productivity as well
as emissions of volatile organic contaminant (VOC) precursors and, there is scientific consensus that
climate change will decrease the background ozone in the lower troposphere where the water vapor
effect is dominant.12  However, from the available academic literature that includes results for the
Pacific Northwest, there is no consistent finding about whether climate change will increase, decrease,
or have no change on ozone in this region.13'14  Potential ozone increases are more likely to occur in the
larger metropolitan areas including Spokane, Tacoma, Portland, and Boise.  Whether or not these
increases will result in violations of the NAAQS health standards however is unknown.

    B.  Increase in air toxics from anthropogenic sources is uncertain due to variability in effects of
       temperature increase on individual air toxics.

Many hazardous air pollutants volatilize at higher temperatures, creating the potential for higher
emission  rates and higher concentrations in ambient air.15 The higher concentrations could increase
"Jacob, DJ., and D.A. Winner.  2009.  Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmos. Environ., 43 (56).
13 Ibid Jacob and Winner 43 (51-63).
14 USGCRP. 2009.  Assessment of the impacts of global change on regional U.S. Air quality: a synthesis of climate
change impacts on ground-level ozone, EPA/600/R-07/094F, Office of Research and Development, Washington,
D.C.
15IPCC, 2012: Summary for Policymakers. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance
Climate Change Adaptation (Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D.OJn, D.J.  Dokken, K.L  Ebi, M.D., Mastrandrea,
K.J.  Mach, G.K. Plattner, SIK. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.). A Special Report of Working Groups I & II
of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York,
NY, USA pp.  1-19.
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public health risks, including risks for the young, the elderly, the chronically ill, and socioeconomically
disadvantaged populations. There is uncertainty however as to actual impacts on hazardous air
pollutants (HAPs) concentrations since the boundary layer height will also likely be higher, adding more
volume of air for the HAPs to mix into.   It is also possible for pollutant removal mechanisms to increase
as a result of climate change.

    C. Particulate matter levels are likely to increase due to increased frequency or intensity of
       wildfires due to increased summertime temperatures, prolonged droughts, and decreased soil
       moisture.

Larger and more frequent wildfires are predicted throughout the region as a result of warmer
summertime temperatures, decreased soil and fuel moisture, and increased pest infestations.16  For
example, in the Columbia Basin, the acres of forest burned are  projected to double by the 2020s, and
triple by the 2040s compared to average burned from 1916 to 2006." This could complicate Agency
efforts to protect public health and the environment from risks posed by particulate matter pollution in
areas affected by more frequent wildfires. All four Region 10 States have a high percent of forested
areas (about 50% for Washington and Oregon) and would all be adversely affected by an increase in
wildfires.

    D. Indoor air quality is very likely to be impacted, especially in Alaska, due to changes in
       precipitation,  extreme temperatures, more frequent wildfires, and severe weather events.

Deterioration in indoor air quality will increase public health  risks including those from respiratory
illnesses such as asthma.18 Public health risks from poor indoor air quality may also increase for
susceptible populations - the young, the elderly, the chronically ill, and socioeconomically disadvantaged
populations across the region.  Alaska's native and rural populations  are very vulnerable to worsening
indoor air quality with more insulated housing reducing air circulation - thereby increasing levels of both
indoor and ambient pollution. 19 Increased flooding and melting permafrost also worsen indoor air
16 Mote, P. K. Snover, S. Capalbo, S.D. Eigenbrode, P. Glick, J. Littell, R. Raymondi, and S. Reader, 2014: Ch. 21:
Northwest. Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, J.M. Melilo,
Terese (T.C.) Richmond and G.W Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 487-513.
doi:10.7930/J04Q7RWX. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/regions/northwestftstatement-1700.
17 Littell, J.S. et. al.  2010. Forest ecosystems, disturbance, and climatic change in Washington State, USA.  Climatic
Change 102(1-2): 129-158.
18 Reid, Colleen and Gamble, Janet. 2009. Aeroallergens, Allergic Disease, and Climate Change: Impacts and
Adaptation, Ecohealth Vol 6(3):458-470, September, 2009.
19 Institute of Medicine, Climate Change, the Indoor Environment, and Health (Washington, DC: The National
Academies Press, 2011).
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quality by supporting mold growth.20 This is an issue across the Region, but particularly important in
environmental justice (EJ) areas and areas with a high density of more susceptible populations such as in
Alaska's native villages21 and on tribal reservations in Washington, Oregon and Idaho.

    E.  Stratospheric ozone layer is likely to be impacted in Alaska due to climate change effects.

This issue is important in the Arctic (Alaska) where severe depletion of stratospheric ozone has been
observed during winter and spring months.22 While there currently are no EPA Region 10 programs that
directly deal with monitoring or restoring the stratospheric ozone layer, there is enforcement activity
against violators related to use and disposal of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and their substitutes.

    F.   Increased rate and deposition of sulfates, nitrates, and mercury is uncertain due to changes in
       precipitation patterns.

Increased concentrations of sulfates, nitrates, and mercury could cause adverse effects on ecosystems
throughout the region, particularly mountain ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems, and could
contribute to accumulation of mercury in fish tissue.23  However, overall effects are uncertain because
higher temperatures drive increased chemical reactions and possibly more secondary organic carbon. 24
At the same time, there might be changes to the boundary layer height, airmass ventilation rate, and
precipitation.  We do not know the relative importance of these effects in Region 10 states.

2.  Goal 2: Protecting America's Waters

There are many impacts that climate change may have on our water resources including drinking water
and wastewater infrastructure, freshwater fisheries, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, water quality
and water quantity,  and agricultural and forestry production. These impacts will present challenges as
there will be competing demands in some areas for water resources for agriculture, energy production,
drinking water, and  maintaining streamflows for fish. The section below highlights the main
vulnerabilities and impacts identified in Region 10.
20 Kovesi, Thomas MD et al.  2007. Indoor Air Quality and the Risk of lower respiratory tract infections in young
Canadian Inuit children, Canadian Medical Association, 2007
21 Bulkow, Lisa, et al.  2010. Risk Factors for Severe Respiratory Synctial Virus Infection Among Alaska Native
Children, Pediatrics.  109 (2) 2010.
22 Manney, G.L, et al., Unprecedented Arctic Ozone Loss in 2011.  2011. Nature 478,469-475, October 27, 2011.
23 Dawson, J.P., B.J. Bloomer, D.A. Winner, C.P. Weaver, 2013. Understanding the meteorological drivers of U.S.
particulate matter concentrations in a changing climate, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,
doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00181.1, in press.
24 Ibid. Dawson 2013.

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    A.  Drinking water, wastewater, stormwater, and agricultural  infrastructure is likely to be
       impacted by increased heavy precipitation, more frequent flood events, storm surge, coastal
       erosion, and drought.

Impacts on water infrastructure may result in flooded facilities, an increased number of sewer overflows
and wastewater bypasses, as well as increased pollutant loads in runoff, increased pollution of streams
and threats to public health.25 Climate change impacts drinking water by heightening risk of
contamination of surface water sources due to higher temperatures, lower flows, and increased
erosion/sedimentation.26 Problems of safety as well as access to clean and safe water will be
exacerbated for Tribal communities, and other vulnerable and economically depressed communities
who have limited access to clean water supplies.27 Agricultural productivity may be impacted in areas
with inadequate water storage capacity and limited agricultural irrigation systems. Adequate
summertime water supply for irrigation of crops is essential to agricultural communities east of the
Cascades in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. For tribes, who lack irrigation  infrastructure and rely
primarily on lakes and streams as water sources, availability of water for agriculture may be more
severely impacted by climate change.

    B.  Impacts to freshwater fisheries is occurring now and is likely to increase due to earlier stream
       runoff and scouring of streambeds due to earlier snow melt, decreased summer stream flows
       and  increased steam temperatures, and longer periods of low stream flow.

Impacts include loss of salmon habitat and increased stress on salmon reproduction throughout their
entire lifecycle.28 Salmon and other cold water fish constitute a large part of the marine fishery business
in the Pacific Northwest, and loss of these fish would have a substantial impact on the Pacific Northwest
economy. Coastal Native Americans depend on salmon as an essential part of their diets. There will be
secondary impacts on other species in the ecosystem that benefit from salmon - e.g., forests that rely
on decaying salmon  for nutrients, and bears, eagles, others that feed on salmon. This also applies to
other fresh cold water fish. Water resource decision-makers will need to modify watershed  planning
efforts to include projected impacts of altered stream flows and increased temperatures due to climate
change.29-30
25 USGCRP. 2009. Regional Impacts: Northwest.  EPA/600/R-07/094F, Office of Research and Development,
Washington, D.C.
26 Ibid. USGCRP.
27 http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/aag/docs/aag_ES_27Janl0.pdf
28 USGCRP. 2009. Regional Impacts: Northwest.  EPA/600/R-07/094F, Office of Research and Development,
Washington, D.C.
29 Wenger, S.J., et al. 2011.  Role of climate and invasive species in structuring trout distributions in the Interior
Columbia Basin 2011, USA: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 68, p. 988-1008. Catalog No:
2508.
30 Wenger, S.J., et al. 2011.  Flow regime, temperature and biotic interactions drive differential declines of trout
species under climate change.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, online. Catalog No: 2652.

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    C.  Estuarine watersheds, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands are likely to be impacted by sea-level
       rise, sea surface temperature and increasing heavy precipitation events during the winter
       months, and decreasing precipitation days and increasing drought intensity during the
       summer months.

Changes in precipitation patterns, and increased drought intensity will cause stress on wetlands, and
forest and mountain ecosystems, and pose challenges to migration of species in these ecosystems to
more suitable habitats.  Warmer sea surface temperature contributes to sea level rise, increased storm
intensity, and greater stratification of the water column.31  For the Washington, Oregon, and California
coasts north of Cape Mendocino, sea level is projected to change between -4 cm (sea-level fall) and +23
cm by 2030, -3 cm and +48 cm by 2050, and  10-143 cm by 2100.32

    D.  Forest ecosystems will likely be impacted by warming temperatures and more frequent and
       intense drought conditions.

Forest tree species are expected to shift their ranges northward and upslope in response to climate
change and existing ecosystems will breakup as different species shift at different rates, resulting in the
formation of new  ecosystems, with  unknown consequences.33 Breakup of existing ecosystems and loss
of biodiversity, in  combination with increased drought conditions, can make forests more susceptible to
destruction by wildfires and insect infestation. In the western United States, both the frequency of large
wildfires, and the  length of the fire season have increased substantially in recent decades, due primarily
to earlier spring snowmelt and higher spring and summer temperatures.34 Adverse effects are likely in
forests across the region, but more immediately in  low elevation forests, and forests in drier parts of the
region, such as in  Idaho eastern Washington and Oregon, and the interior of Alaska.35

    E.  Loss of sea ice is occurring now and will very likely increase in Alaska due to warming air and
       water temperatures.
31 Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove and Bruno, John F.  2010. The impact of climate change on the world's ecosystems.
Science 328(1523-1528.
32 National Research Council. 2012. Sea-level rise for the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California: Past,
Present, and Future.  Division on Earth and Life Studies Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and
Ocean Studies Board.  Committee on Sea Level Rise in California, Oregon, and Washington.
33ACIA. 2004. Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, UK, and New York, 139 pp.
34 Westerling A.L, et. al. 2006. Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S. forest wildfire activity.
Science, 313(5789), 940-943.
35 USGCRP.  2009. Regional Impacts: Pacific Northwest and Alaska.  EPA/600/R-07/094F, Office of Research and
Development, Washington, D.C.

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Loss of arctic ice in the Bering Sea is adversely affecting Arctic sea ice ecosystems.  The Bering Sea
fishery is a very important source of seafood and an important factor to Alaska's economy. The earlier
ice melt resulting from warming, however, leads to later phytoplankton blooms that are largely
consumed by microscopic animals near the sea surface, vastly decreasing the amount of food reaching
the living organisms on the ocean floor.36 This will radically change the species composition of the fish
and other creatures, with significant repercussions for both subsistence and commercial fishing.37  Sea
ice is forming later in the fall in Alaska, making the coastal communities more vulnerable to extreme
storms causing coastal erosion in villages.38

    F.  Ocean acidification is occurring now and  is very likely to increase due to increasing
       concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere.

Ocean acidification can lead to substantial decline of marine organisms that form their shells and
skeletons from calcium carbonate in ocean waters.39 Adverse effects of ocean acidification on marine
organisms have already been documented.40 Specifically, adverse effects of ocean acidification have
been documented in pteropods (sea snails),41 a primary food source for salmon in the Pacific Ocean, and
in oyster larvae in estuaries on the coast of OR.42  This  is an important issue in coastal areas of the Pacific
Northwest and Alaska.

    G. Change in vegetation is likely in eastern Washington and Oregon and Idaho due to pest
       outbreaks, invasive species, increased fire, shifts in species ranges  and increased erosion, drier
       soils, and depletion of water.

Climate warming is likely to increase the severity  of West Nile Virus (WNv) outbreaks and to expand the
area susceptible to outbreaks into areas that are now too cold for the WNv vector.43 Observed and
projected decreases in the frequency of freezing temperatures, lengthening of the frost-free season, and
36 USGCRP.  2009. Regional Impacts: Alaska.  EPA/600/R-07/094F, Office of Research and Development,
Washington, D.C.
37 Janetos, A., et. al.  2008. Biodiversity.  In: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water
Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States.  Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3.  U.S.  Department of
Agriculture, Washington, DC, pp. 151-181.
38 http://www.stormsurge.noaa.gov/event_history.html
39 Orr, J.C., et. al. 2005. Anthropogenic  ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on
calcifying organisms.  Nature, 437(7059), 681-686. 2005
40 Feely, R.A., et. al. 2008. Evidence for upwelling of corrosive "acidified" water onto the continental shelf.
Science, 320(5882), 1490-1492.
41 Bednarsek, N., et. al. 2012. Extensive  dissolution of live pteropods in the Southern Ocean, Nature Geoscience, 5
(881-885).
42 Barton, Alan, et. al.  2012.  The Pacific oyster,  Crassostrea gigas, shows negative correlation to naturally
elevated carbon dioxide levels: Implications for near-term ocean acidification effects.  Limnology and
Oceanography. 57(3).
43 Ibid Washington State Department of Fish and  Wildlife.  2011.
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increased minimum temperatures can alter plant species ranges and shift the geographic and
elevational boundaries of many arid lands. These changes are particularly relevant to the intermountain
regions in western North America, the Palouse grassland bioregion, southeastern Washington, and
northeastern Oregon.


3.  Goal 3: Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable
Development

Contaminated site cleanup and waste/petroleum management occur under a variety of EPA programs,
most commonly Superfund (i.e., remedial, time-critical and non-time critical removals, and emergency
response), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (e.g.,
polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs), Clean Air Act (CAA) (e.g., asbestos), and the Oil Pollution Act (OPA).

There are over 100 hazardous waste sites listed on the National Priority List, and many RCRA permitted
and corrective action sites in  Region 10.  Many of these sites are especially vulnerable to impacts from
climate change and  the potential impacts to infrastructure and in place remedies at corrective action,
remedial, removal, and brownfield sites. Also, there may be an increased need for Emergency Response
as part of FEMA response.

Region 10 recognizes the importance of sustainable development, and the overlap and intersection with
climate change issues. The Region is focusing on coordinating its sustainability efforts internally as well
as with our external partners with a  specific consideration of climate change.

    A.  Remedial, removal, brownfield, corrective action or permitted sites may be impacted due to
       flooding, sea level risk, storm  surges, extreme events, and landslides.

There could be an increased risk of contaminant release from hazardous waste sites. Remedial project
managers and corrective action project managers may need to alter selected remedies to ensure
hazardous substances are not released.  In situ remedies (e.g., stabilization, reactive barriers) and on-
site above ground treatment  systems (e.g., pump & treat, air sparging) could be compromised or
overwhelmed if they are not  designed  to withstand the climate-related events. The net result could be
release of contaminants.

Groundwater and subsurface contamination could be impacted by drought and flood conditions. There
may be an increased risk of migration of contaminants from flooded containment facilities. Remedies
such as caps in contaminated industrial waterways in Washington and Oregon could be subject to (and
not designed to withstand) unanticipated scour events.
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Possible issues of nuclear waste disposal related to climate change (e.g., locations of storage facilities,
appropriate containment, and risk management issues) would also be important at the DOE Hanford
facility in Washington State, and the DOE Idaho National Lab facility in Idaho.

    B.  Increase in work for Alaska's Tribal and emergency response programs is occurring now and
       likely to increase due to thawing permafrost and changes in sea ice that leads to damage of
       roads, runways, water and sewer systems, and other infrastructure.

Melting sea ice and late formation in the fall is causing storms to move in close to shore as the natural
buffering system disappears. That is causing rapid coastal erosion, with houses and  infrastructure
falling into the ocean in several communities. That, along with higher storm, tidal surges flood
communities, is requiring more immediate evacuation needs.  Open dumps are also impacted by storm
surges, and flooding, which increases contamination risk.  Permafrost temperatures have increased
throughout Alaska since the late 1970s.44  Land subsidence (sinking) associated with the thawing of
permafrost presents substantial challenges to engineers attempting to preserve infrastructure in
Alaska.45

    C.   EPA Region 10, Tribal and state partners will have increasing workloads in  many aspects of
       site and waste management as well as work related to the formation and implementation of
       sustainable development and materials management programs, partnerships and initiatives.

Existing trends will exacerbate the challenges of climate adaptation. For example, accelerating
development (sustainable or otherwise) and the expected migration of people to Region 10 are issues of
concern.  It is projected that the population of the States in Region 10 will increase from 11.2 million in
2010 to 13.1 million in 2025.46  Communities are struggling with how to manage the  new people while
protecting the environment and providing basic services like energy, water and waste management.  In
support of the increased sustainability of our communities, our investments in partnerships related to
more sustainable materials management play an  increasing role in preventing waste, conserving energy
and reducing emissions of toxics as well as greenhouse gases.  Waste management  can be especially
challenging in remote tribal communities in Alaska.47
44 Lettenmaier, D., et. al. 2008.  The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources,
and Biodiversity in the United States, Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3. U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Washington,DC, pp.  121-150.
45 Instanes, A., et. al. 2005. Infrastructure: buildings, support systems, and industrial facilities. In: Arctic Climate
Impact Assessment.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, pp. 907-944
46 U.S. Census Bureau.  2013. Current Population Report: Population Projections: States 1995-2025.  Economics
Statistical Administration. Department of Commerce. Website:http://www.census.gov/prod/2/pop/p25/p25-
1131.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2013.
47 U.S. EPA. 2011. National Priorities with a Local Focus - Region 10's Approach for Implementing Administrator
Jackson's Seven Priorities-FY 2011-2015 November 2011.  www.epa.gov.

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    D.  Availability of raw materials may decrease and the cost of mining and refining raw materials,
       producing products, transporting products, and disposing products may increase due to
       impacts of climate change.

EPA Region 10 will need to put more effort into advocating for sustainable materials management and
pollution prevention with States, industry, communities and tribes as climate change affects the
availability and cost of raw materials and products. This issue will impact the entire region but may
have a greater impact on remote cities and villages in Alaska where transportation and disposal of
products is more difficult and costly. For example, increasing  pest infestations and forest fires can result
in millions of acres of dead, dying, and burned trees in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska.  This decreases
the availability and drives up the costs of wood products. Thawing permafrost in Alaska results in
infrastructure damage in the form of compromised or impassible haul roads for timber and ore,
reducing the availability of these natural resources and driving up transportation costs.

4.  Goal 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals  and Preventing Pollution

EPA and the states (usually the State Department of Agriculture) register or license pesticides for use in
the United States.  In addition, EPA must be notified of the importation of pesticides for  use in the U.S.
EPA receives its authority to register pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide
Act (FIFRA).  Climate change may lead to an  increase  in pesticide use, due to an increase in pests and
diseases which favor warm and humid climates. Also, a changing  climate can affect exposures to a wide
range of chemicals not just pesticide.  Exposures may change because of changing environmental
conditions or changing use patterns.

    A.   Increased exposure and risk to hazardous chemicals may occur due to increasing extreme
       temperatures and heavy precipitation events, changes in storm intensities, and increasing
       frequency of floods.

The increased exposures and risk may require adjustments to the relevant risk assessment framework to
determine public risk due to modified exposure scenarios and modified toxicity of chemicals due to
climate change.  Altered weather and severe climate events could also affect the interpretations  of risk
at RCRA/TSCA and Superfund sites. This is very relevant for permitting and planning activities, where
facilities may not have previously required an awareness of risk management for water/flooding, or
other climate change impacts.  In particular, Puget Sound is vulnerable to these potential impacts of
chemical pollution; restoration of Puget Sound is a key ecosystem-level activity in EPA Region 10.48 This
48 http://www.psp.wa.gov/downloads/AA2011/083012_final/
Action0/o20Agenda0/o20Book0/o202_Aug°/o20290/o202012.pdf
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is more relevant near sites with large densities of chemical manufacturers, processors and formulators,
and RCRA and Superfund sites.
5.  Goal 5: Enforcing Environmental Laws

EPA Region 10's Office of Compliance and Enforcement (OCE) is charged with ensuring compliance with
environmental requirements and enforcing against violations to those requirements in the Pacific
Northwest and Alaska. In that capacity, OCE's vulnerabilities are uniquely tied to interactions with the
regulated community. Some types of vulnerabilities (e.g., difficulties with maintaining staff functionality
due to power outages and physical damage to facilities due to extreme weather) would be similar to
those experienced by all EPA programs and regions.

Other vulnerabilities are more specific to OCE, such as those  which impact the ability of regulated
entities to comply with environmental requirements and with our ability to determine such compliance
and take appropriate action. The vulnerabilities of greatest importance for OCE  are conditions/events
which would compromise our ability to ensure compliance with environmental requirements by
regulated entities and, where necessary, to take effective enforcement action in case of violations. The
activities impacted would include: compliance assistance; compliance monitoring and civil enforcement.

    A. Non-compliance  at regulated entities may increase  due to extreme weather events and
       changing weather patterns.

Compliance and enforcement programs under the Clean Water Act (CWA)  have the potential to see an
increase in violations from many situations including sanitary sewer and combined sewer overflows,
violations of percent removal at wastewater treatment plants (due to limited water flow as a result of
drought), violations in bypasses due to the inability of wastewater treatment plants to treat a flow in
excess of the design capacity, and increased violations in numerous programs due to failure of existing
infrastructure protecting  against extreme weather events. In addition, CWA section 311  (Spill
Prevention Control Countermeasures) may see an increase in non-compliance along Alaskan coastal
areas that have oil storage containers, as a result of sea ice melting (thereby increasing storm  surges
along those coastal areas) and increased flooding.

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) compliance and enforcement programs
may see violations at Pesticides Producing Establishments as there is a shift toward increasing pesticide
usage, productions and imports.  As weather patterns change in the Region, the habitats of insects and
pests may also change, bringing different pests and diseases  to areas.

The RCRA program may see increased non-compliance at landfills due to changes in precipitation
patterns (including more  precipitation in some cases and more extreme precipitation events in other

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cases). Landfills may generate excessive hazardous leachate, see unexpected mobilization of
contaminants in the waste column, and/or experience failure of the liner or leachate collection systems.

    B.  Shift in regional enforcement priorities due to changes in compliance (both increased
       compliance and non-compliance in different sectors) and increased number of inquiries from
       industry about maintaining compliance due to extreme weather events and changing weather
       patterns.

If an increase in  violations in various programs and industry are identified, OCE may shift the
enforcement focus to address those violations. Conversely, OCE may use discretion to refocus
enforcement priorities when localized extreme weather events (e.g., flooding) greatly impact the
regulated community or when a change in weather patterns decreases the potential for non-compliance
(e.g., less precipitation could decrease surface runoff).  This will be most important in states where EPA
has direct implementation of an enforcement program (e.g., Idaho for NPDES program), on Tribal lands,
and non-delegable programs (e.g., Chlorofluorocarbons, CWA 311 (SPCC), and PCBs). In states with
authorized program implementation, OCE's work share could change as a result of climate change
shifting states' priorities.

OCE may need to make adjustments to normal workload to address an increase in industry's compliance
inquiries. There may need to be reassignment or delay of normal work duties as staff provides
response support to those inquiries in a timely manner.  Requests may also be received from Regional
state counterparts regarding guidance to address unique enforcement issues as a result of extreme
weather events  or changing weather patterns.

    C.  Increased permitting of Class VI Underground Injection Control (UIC) wells for Carbon Dioxide
       sequestration and Class V UIC wells for stormwater management.

EPA has developed criteria for Class VI wells, used specifically for the injection of carbon dioxide into
underground subsurface rock formations for long-term storage. As the need to reduce carbon dioxide
emissions into the atmosphere increases, various technologies including Class VI wells will be deployed.
OCE may need to reassign or delay other  UIC permitting and enforcement work, as permit requests for
Class VI wells increase.  This will be seen  across the Region, until permitting and enforcement of the
Class VI well program is delegated  to the states.

As the amount of stormwater increases with increased precipitation  levels, industries regulated to
manage stormwater and associated discharges may be faced with challenges surrounding the volume of
stormwater to manage.  Class V wells are designed to receive stormwater, as a substitution for or in
addition to discharging stormwater through more traditional means. OCE may see an increase in
permitting Class V wells, as challenges managing high volumes of stormwater increase. Permitting will
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be focused on Class V wells in Alaska and Tribal lands, as the Region implements this program in these
areas.

    D.  An increase in regulated industrial activities in Alaska may result as the melting of sea ice
       opens new areas for activities.

Sea ice off the Alaskan Coast is retreating and thinning. This reduction of sea ice  is very likely to increase
the navigation season and create a seasonal opening of the Northern Sea Route to likely make trans-
arctic shipping and transport feasible during summer months.  As areas and routes become more
accessible, there is a potential for industrial activity (e.g., oil and gas extraction) to become more active
in these areas.  As a result, OCE may see an increase in regulated entities.
6.  EPA Facilities and Operations

The main EPA Region 10 building is in Seattle with field offices in Olympia, Portland, Boise, Anchorage,
and Juneau.  The Region also maintains an environmental laboratory in Manchester, Washington.  The
Region has a Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) that describes efforts to prepare and react to issues
affecting the operation of our facilities and a Regional Incident Command Team (RICT) who is
responsible for responding to any emergency situation. In general, the EPA Region 10 facilities are not
uniquely vulnerable to climate change  impacts.  The Manchester Lab is located on the shoreline and
could be more susceptible. They have an emergency operation plans in the event of extreme weather
events or other possible impacts from climatic change.

    A.   Drinking water may be limited and an increase in demand for air conditioning is possible due
        to increasing drought frequency and intensity.

Facilities could be located in areas with water shortages, requiring water rationing.  There is likely to be
a greater demand for electricity for air conditioning during the summer months. Increased extreme
temperature at any Region 10 office  would put higher demand on drinking water and electricity for
cooling. This could impact the regional office and all the operations office.

    B.   Operations of Region 10 facilities may be impacted by increasing risk of floods and increasing
        intensity of storms.

Facilities in flood-prone areas may have to temporarily close. Personnel engaged in field work may be
more vulnerable to extreme temperatures or storm events.  Personnel and real property supporting
emergency response and management may be at risk during flooding or extreme weather events.
Ongoing work at the Manchester Environmental Laboratory may be disrupted with effects on many
different programs. Closure of regional offices due to climate change related damage could prevent

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staff from carrying out important functions. The Regional Office in Seattle is located in an area with low
probability for flooding or sea level rise. Region 10 has flexiplace options available to staff and a COOP
in place in case any Region 10 office is damaged by flooding or storms or transportation to/from offices
are affected (e.g., flooded roadways; landslides on commuter train tracks).
7.  Tribal and other Vulnerable Populations

As part of the EPA's direct federal implementation and oversight responsibilities, EPA Region 10 has a
trust responsibility to each of the 271 federally recognized Indian tribes within the Region.  Many Tribes
are especially vulnerable to climate change impacts due to their reliance on traditional hunting and
fishing and their connections to the land and sea.  Climate change is threatening access to traditional
foods such as salmon, marine mammals, shellfish, and terrestrial and aquatic plants which are used for
cultural, medicinal, and economic purposes as well as a primary food source. Tribes have already
experienced many climate-related  changes including changes in salmon habitat, drought, declining
water tables, increased wildfires that impact crops, wildlife, traditional foods and  medicines, earlier
spring snow melt, a decrease in sea ice, and permafrost thawing.  EPA Region 10 is committed to work
with the Tribes to adapt to these changing conditions.

The impacts of climate change can have unique effects on the health  of children.  Children are different
from adults in how they interact with their environment and how their health may be affected.
Because of their unique physical, biological, and social characteristics they are likely to suffer
disproportionally from both the direct and indirect adverse health effects of climate change.49
The impacts of climate change raise environmental justice issues. Climate change is likely to exacerbate
existing and introduce new environmental burdens and associated health impacts in communities
dealing with environmental justice challenges across the nation.50

    A.  Food security for native Alaskans and Tribal people in the Pacific Northwest who live a
       subsistence lifestyle may be at risk due to warming associated with climate change.

Warming due to climate change  reduces the availability and accessibility of many traditional food
sources for Native Americans. People face losing their healthiest foods, their communities, and  in some
cases, their culture, since each of these depends on traditional ways of collecting and sharing food.51
49 Pediatrics, Global Climate Change and Children's Health, Committee on Environmental Health. 2007. Available
at http://pediatrics.aappublications.Org/content/120/5/1149.full.pdf
50USGCRP. 2009. Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States .  Karl, T.R., J. M. Melillo, and T. C.
Peterson (eds.). United States Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA.
89-106.
51ACIA.  2004. Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, UK, and New York, 139 pp.

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Climate change will continue to impact and put stress on salmon in the Pacific Northwest along with
other traditional foods such as wildlife, berries, and roots.  In Alaska, climate change will reduce the
availability and access to ice seals, walrus and caribou and access to shellfish and plants used for
medicinal and cultural ceremonies.52

    B.  Increased erosion of shorelines is likely to increase risk to coastal native communities due to
        increased intensity of coastal storms and rising sea levels.

Coastlines and shorelines throughout the Pacific Northwest and Alaska are increasingly threatened by a
combination of increasing storm activity, loss of its protective sea ice buffer, declining  habitat, and
thawing coastal permafrost.53 In Alaska, over 100 villages on the coast and in low-lying areas along
rivers are subject to increased flooding and erosion due to warming.  Federal, state, and tribal officials
have identified 31 villages that face imminent threats.54 At least 12 of the 31 threatened villages have
decided to relocate-in part or entirely-or to explore relocation options.  Federal programs to assist
threatened villages prepare for and recover from disasters and to protect and relocate them are limited
and unavailable to the majority of villages.  At least one Pacific Northwest Tribe, the Hoh Tribe is
planning to relocate due to erosion and storm security.

    C.  Decreased access to clean drinking water is very likely due to loss of permafrost and reduced
        snowpack.

In many rural Alaskan tribal communities, the loss of permafrost can cause many problems including the
loss of drinking water sources because tundra lakes, from which drinking water is drawn, are
disappearing with the permafrost.55 Also,  melting permafrost destabilizes foundations, endangering the
sewer and water infrastructure in these communities and without permafrost, the untreated leachate
from open dumps may be a contamination risk for their water supply.  Pacific Northwest Tribes may
also experience water scarcity, due to failing aquifers and less rainfall.  With the reduced snow pack and
increased seasonal drought, many traditional drinking water sources are  not being replenished.

    D.  Reduced availability of fish and shellfish resources is occurring now and is likely to increase
        due to changing water conditions.
52IbidACIA.  2004.
53 USGCRP.  2009. Regional Impacts: Pacific Northwest and Alaska.  EPA/600/R-07/094F, Office of Research and
Development, Washington, D.C.
54 Alaska's Climate Change Strategy: Addressing Impacts in Alaska.
http://www.climatechange.alaska/aag/docs/aag_ES_27Janl0.pdf.
55 Alaska's Climate Change Strategy: Addressing Impacts in Alaska.
http://www.climatechange.alaska/aag/docs/aag_ES_27Janl0.pdf.

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Climate change is bringing rapid and adverse habitat challenges, from changing stream flows to warming
waters that are having an impact on the viability of juvenile salmon to the impacts of ocean acidification
on salmon, crustacean, and shellfish food sources.  Seafood is central to diet, physical, and cultural well-
being of Tribal lifeways.  Increasing ocean acidification threatens shellfish beds that Tribes have
harvested for millennia.  Ocean acidification may reduce rates of shellfish larval survival and weaken the
shells of the adults, thus making them more vulnerable as well.56

    E.  Vulnerable population such as children, the elderly, poor, and the infirm may be at increased
       health risk due to increased temperatures, failing infrastructure, and extreme weather events.

Children playing in areas with higher ozone levels resulting from increased temperature will be at higher
risk for experiencing asthma symptoms, although in Region 10 the impacts from higher ozone  levels are
not anticipated to be significant. The elderly are more vulnerable to heat stress because they  are often
in poorer health and are less able to regulate their body temperature during periods of extreme heat.
Economic constraints can also place low-income households at disproportionate risk to extreme heat
events due to lack of air condition or failure to use air-conditioning to cut down on associated  energy
costs.
Section 3: Region 10 Priority Existing Actions

The sections below present the existing actions EPA Region 10 is taking to address the identified
vulnerabilities and their associated impacts. These existing actions are from commitments in the EPA
Region 10 Strategic Alignment Plan and existing actions identified by the program offices in EPA Region
10. The actions are summarized below for each EPA Region 10 office. A more complete description of
the actions can be found in Appendix C.  Also, Appendix D compares the vulnerabilities identified in
Section 2 with the existing Regional actions by National or Regional goals.

Appendix D indicates that there are Regional vulnerabilities where there are no existing actions. Since
this documents focus is existing actions,  EPA Region 10 will evaluate how to address critical
vulnerabilities in the future. In addition, Region 10 will evaluate how to better integrate climate change
into its existing core programs along with engaging states, Tribes and other partners to adapt to
changing environmental conditions.

EPA Region 10 has developed the following criteria that can be used for evaluating priority actions in the
future.
   •   Actions that address an identified vulnerability in Region 10.
56 Orr, J.C., et. al. 2005.  Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on
calcifying organisms. Nature, 437(7059), 681-686.
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    •  Actions that align with EPA national or regional priorities for climate change.
    •  Actions that will assist tribes in adapting to climate change.
    •  Actions that are linked to sustainability and environmental justice.
    •  Actions that increase awareness of climate change for EPA Region 10 staff.
    •  Actions that promote integration of climate change into EPA Region 10 program operations.
    •  Actions that increase awareness and collaboration with outside partners including tribes.
    •  Actions where EPA has a unique role or capacity to address the issue.


1.  Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics (OAWT)

EPA Region 10's Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics (OAWT) carries out air, waste and chemicals
management programs under statutory authorities such as the Clean Air Act (CAA),  Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Pollution
Prevention (P2) Act, and the Diesel Emission Reduction Act (DERA), and carries out TSCA enforcement
actions dealing with lead-based paint and asbestos. Many of OAWT activities  reduce greenhouse gas
emissions. OAWT is currently also involved in the following Region-specific actions that address the
climate change vulnerabilities identified in the previous section for Goals  1, 3 and 4.

Indoor Air (Goal 1)
•   Develop and host training for professionals (housing, medical, schools) on making indoor
    environments healthier for the most vulnerable.

Materials Management and Pollution Prevention (Goals 3 and 4)
•   Work with our partners through the West Coast Climate and Materials Management Forum and our
    pollution prevention technical assistance providers and grants to assist in the transition to
    sustainable materials management processes and source reduction.
•   Recruiting and retaining participants for the Federal Green Challenge and for the Food Recovery
    Challenge in support of the EPA's Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Program.

Tribal Waste Management (Goal 3)
•   Work with federally recognized tribes in Region 10 to address landfills and unconfined open dumps
    which  are impacted by climate change and help develop appropriate responses  to these threats.

RCRA Corrective Action and Permitting (Goal 4)
•   Ensuring that Climate Change guidance and policy capture RCRA issues.
•   Incorporating green remediation in corrective action decision-making.
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2.  Office of Water and Watersheds (OWW)

EPA Region 10's Office of Water and Watersheds (OWW) implements programs under the CWA, Safe
Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and parts of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Also, OWW
provides funds for Puget Sound via the National Estuary Program to support climate change adaptation
projects.  OWW's current focus is on  increasing awareness for Regional staff and partners on the science
of climate change and strategies for adaptation to meet this goal. Many of these actions will benefit
from the development and implementation of appropriate national guidance to promote consistency
across the states. The Region will implement these actions in coordination with any related national
guidance. The actions mainly focus on addressing the vulnerabilities for Goal 2.

Drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater infrastructure (Goal 2)
•   Work with the State of Alaska to  identify alternative technologies for providing first time service to
    unserved homes in a more sustainable way compared to a traditional piped system.
•   Work with the Water Sense program to encourage water efficiency in homes, landscaping and
    commercial buildings with a focus on new homes.
•   Continue implementing the Sustainable Energy Management Program with a Western Washington
    cohort of drinking water and wastewater utilities.

Freshwater fisheries (Goal 2)
•   Continue with pilot program examining how to integrate climate change in an ongoing total
    maximum daily load (TMDL) by examining how temperature can be improved in the Nooksack
    watershed in order to support salmon restoration.

PugetSound(Goal 2)
•   Continue to support projects in Puget Sound related to climate change. There are several on-going
    projects that are highlighted in Appendix C.
•   Work with the University of Washington to develop a system for visualizing and analyzing a variety
    of climate change-related features that are shifting with time and probability across the Region.

Training and Outreach (Goal 2)
•   Inform and educate water program managers in the public and private sectors on climate change
    and water issues and EPA related activities such as the National and Regional climate change
    adaptation strategies.
•   Work with States, Tribal governments, municipalities, non-profit organizations and businesses to
    promote the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) and Climate Ready Estuaries (CRE) Programs and
    new Climate Ready Resilience and Awareness (GREAT) Version 2.0.
•   Support Development of a Climate Change Section in the "Green" Paper for the State Revolving
    Loan Funds and Annual Review Checklists.

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3.  Office of Ecosystems, Tribal, and Public Affairs (ETPA)

EPA Region 10's Office of Ecosystems, Tribal, and Public Affairs (ETPA) implements cross-program efforts
to protect the environment and engage communities and leads Regional efforts related to Freedom of
Information Act requests, environmental justice, and sustainable agriculture. ETPA's focus is to ensure
consideration of climate change on projects via NEPA review process, incorporating climate change
science in wetlands management, providing assistance to Region 10 Tribes for climate change activities,
and supporting activities that address children's health and other vulnerable populations.

NEPA Review (Goal 2)
•   Through the NEPA review process ensure consideration of climate change in review of all federal
    projects and incorporate climate change adaptation into land management planning and other
    projects as appropriate.
•   Include ocean acidification language in NEPA review comment  letters as appropriate and develop
    template language in letters and example NEPA analyses that include ocean acidification
    information.

Wetlands (Goal 2)
•   Coordinate a Wetlands and Climate Change Research Meeting  focused on new approaches and tools
    to better understand, manage, and conserve wetlands in a changing climate.
•   Incorporate climate change considerations into the CWA 404 regulatory program as they relate to
    permit reviews and compensatory mitigation.
•   As resources allow, improve baseline information on wetland extent, condition and performance to
    inform effective adaptation to climate change.
•   Integrate climate adaptation in the FFY14/15 Region 10 Wetland Program Development Grants RFP
    by considering how the design and installation of demonstration projects would take relevant
    potential impacts  from climate change into account when considering long-term viability.57

Ocean Programs (Goal 2)
•   Participate in interagency development and implementation of federal strategies through the
    National Ocean Council (NOC) and the National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan

Tribes (Multiple Goals)
•   Support Tribes to  develop adaptation actions (plans),  to document impacts from climate change and
    to engage in the collaboration with local, state and federal agencies working on broad based
    adaptation plans.
57http://www.epa.gov/regionlO/pdf/wetlands/FY13_Wetland_Program_Development_Grants_Request_for_Proposals.pdf
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•   Provide Indian General Assistance Program (IGAP) funding as appropriate to Tribes with climate
    change in their IGAP workplans to do baseline environmental assessments and support adaptation
    planning.
•   Raise awareness by providing educational outreach, training, and webinars to Tribes and work with
    the Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals on tribal climate change adaptation models and
    resources.
•   Support Tribal projects on climate change in Puget Sound through the National Estuary Program.  A
    listing of those projects is included in Appendix C.
•   Assist Tribes to build capacity and knowledge and assess and address air quality concerns including
    those related to climate change through the Regional Clean Air Act Grants.
•   Support the Rural Alaska Children's Health Initiative which works to protect children from harmful
    environmental exposures in rural Alaska, including factors related to climate change.

Community Health (Regional Goal 7)
•   Through work on children's health, develop and host training for professionals in the housing, health
    and educational fields on making indoor environments healthier for the most vulnerable
    populations.
•   Provide technical assistance and training to affected communities on risks associated with poor
    outdoor air quality (e.g., work with Tribal Air Program and convene Rural Alaska Children's
    Environmental Initiative).
•   Outreach/risk communication to vulnerable and economically deprived communities.
•   Work with Department of Housing and Urban Development, Department of Transportation, and
    Urban Sustainability Directors Network on promoting sustainable communities via housing,
    transportation, and transit.


4.  Office of Environmental Clean-Up (ECL)

EPA Region 10's Office of Environmental Clean-Up (ECL) is responsible for investigating contaminated
properties; cleaning up contaminated land, sediment, and water for appropriate uses; emergency
response; emergency planning and spill prevention; and Homeland Security and counter terrorism
preparedness.  ECL works closely with communities and interested stakeholders, providing funding in
some cases to facilitate meaningful engagement in the Superfund process.  ECL has focused on green
remediation strategies for specific sites, and the reduction of carbon and toxic emissions and reducing
overall environmental footprint of clean-up activities. There are no specific adaptation activities
currently underway in ECL.
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5.  Office of Compliance and Enforcement (OCE)

EPA Region 10's Office of Compliance and Enforcement (OCE) provides enforcement, compliance
monitoring, and compliance assistance for ground water, pesticides and toxics, wastewater (NPDES), air,
and solid and hazardous waste (RCRA) programs. Regional and national enforcement priorities change.
OCE is positioned to be flexible and use discretion when deciding those enforcement priorities, even as
those priorities are influenced by climate change. OCE has several ongoing activities all of which fall
under Goal 5.

    •   Continue to use an Environmental Justice Screening tool to identify regulated facilities located in
       overburdened communities.
    •   The UIC program will continue to permit several Class I  wells for underground injection of
       wastes to reduce the need to establish waste retention ponds on the increasingly vulnerable
       permafrost.
    •   Continuing to support the Regional Support Corps by deploying staff for varying emergency
       response efforts.
    •   Continue to look for opportunities to encompass green infrastructure as part of settlement
       agreements.
6.  Office of Regional Counsel (ORC)

The Region has broad legal mandates to protect human health and the environment and therefore,
broad legal authority to support adaptation work.  In the course of adaptation planning, specific
questions will likely arise that will need legal review.  As there is variation among the statutes EPA
administers, as well as the regulatory programs EPA designs, implements, and enforces under those
laws, the best way for ORC to support adaptation efforts is to provide legal analysis on a case by case
basis. ORC will also support each of the regional program offices by coordinating with the Office of
General  Counsel, offices of Regional Counsel in other regions, and the Office of Enforcement and
Compliance Assurance, as necessary to provide legal  advice to the regional program offices.


7.  Office of Environmental Assessment (OEA)

EPA Region 10's Office of Environmental Assessment (OEA) provides scientific and technical expertise in
assessing the condition of the environment to support program decision-making and scientific
initiatives. OEA collects and analyze data to characterize the environment, investigate environmental
problems, and evaluate proposed solutions. A major emphasis of the OEA's activities are related to
raising awareness on the science of climate change to staff in the Regional office, to integrate climate


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change into the core program work, and to work with external partners to better coordinate the work
and increase collaboration. OEA has several ongoing activities that address of the goals.

    •   Provide outreach/trainings to increase awareness of climate science to regional staff and
       partners.
    •   Work with individual programs and cross-office projects to integrate climate science into core
       program work.
    •   Communicate with the public about hazards posed by climate change and actions being taken
       by the EPA to address climate change.
    •   Coordinate with other federal agencies by participating on the Climate Change Cooperative and
       supporting the Regional Landscape Conservation Cooperatives.
    •   Participate on the National Tribal Science Council, and support actions related to climate change
       and tribes.
Section 4: Developing Measures, Monitoring and Evaluating Performance

Evaluating progress is important because there will be "learning by doing" over time as we mainstream
climate adaptation planning into our programs. We will monitor the outputs and outcomes of our
actions so we can learn what works - and why, and what doesn't work - and why not. This will allow us
to continually improve the effectiveness of our mainstreaming efforts and share our lessons learned
with other regions and our national programs. An evaluation process will be developed during the first
year of implementation to learn how to best capture desired outcomes, some of which will come as staff
integrates climate science into programmatic work.  Appendix C provides more details on the Region 10
approach to develop and measure specific metrics.


Section 5: Legal and  Enforcement Issues

The legal and enforcement issues were discussed in  Sections 2 under Goal 5: Enforcing Environmental
Laws and in Section 3 under the Office of Compliance and Enforcement and Office of Regional Counsel.


Section 6: Training and Outreach

The specific actions related to training and outreach is discussed in Section 3.  Training and outreach is a
critical part of Region 10's Implementation Plan.  One of the primary tasks of the Regional Climate
Change Advisor is to provide training and outreach for both Regional staff and partners. The goal of the
training and outreach is to provide the foundation for programs to integrate climate science into their
core program work.

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Section 7: Partnerships with Tribes

As part of the EPA's direct federal implementation and oversight responsibilities, EPA Region 10 has a
trust responsibility to each of the 271 federally recognized Indian tribes within the Region.  EPA values
its unique government-to-government relationship with Indian tribes in planning and decision making.
This trust responsibility has developed over time and is further expressed in the 1984 EPA Policy for the
Administration of Environmental Programs on Indian Reservations and the 2011 Policy on Consultation
and Coordination with Indian Tribes. These policies recognize and support the sovereign decision-
making authority of tribal governments.

Supporting the development of adaptive capacity among tribes is a priority for the EPA.  Indigenous
peoples are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to the integral nature of the
environment within their traditional lifeways and culture. There is a strong need to develop adaptation
strategies that promote sustainability and reduce the impact of climate change on Tribes and tribal
members.

EPA engaged tribes through a formal consultation process in the development of the Agency's Climate
Change Adaptation Plan. Tribes identified some of the most pressing issues as erosion, temperature
change,  drought and various changes in access to and quality of water.  Tribes recommended a number
of tools and strategies to address these issues, including improving access to data and information;
supporting baseline research to better track the effects of climate change; developing community-level
education and awareness materials; and providing financial and technical support. At the same time,
tribes challenged EPA to coordinate  climate change activities among federal agencies so that resources
are better leveraged and administrative burdens are reduced.

EPA Region 10 plans to partner with tribal governments, in collaboration with other Federal agencies, on
an ongoing basis to increase their adaptive capacity  and address their adaptation-related priorities.
These collaborative efforts will benefit from  the expertise provide by our tribal partners and the
Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) they  possess. TEK is a valuable body of knowledge in assessing
the current and future impacts of climate change and has been used by tribes for  millennia as a valuable
tool to adapt to changing surroundings. Consistent with the principles in the 1984 Indian Policy, TEK is
viewed as a complementary resource that can inform planning and decision-making.

Networks and partnerships already in place will be used to assist tribes with climate change issues,
including Regional Tribal  Operations Committees, the Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals
and IGAP. Additionally, efforts will be made to coordinate with other Regional and Program Offices in
EPA and other partners such as other federal agencies, since climate change has many impacts that
transcend media and  regional boundaries. Transparency and information sharing will be a focus,  in
order to leverage activities already taking place within EPA Offices and tribal governments.

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Section 8: Vulnerable Population and Places

As mentioned in Sections 1, 2 and 3, certain parts of the population, such as children, the elderly,
minorities, the poor, persons with underlying medical conditions and disabilities, those with limited
access to information, and tribal communities, can be especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate
change. Also, certain geographic locations and communities are particularly vulnerable, such as those
located in low-lying coastal areas. One of the principles guiding EPA's efforts to integrate climate
adaptation into its programs, policies and rules calls for its adaptation plans to prioritize helping people,
places and infrastructure that are most vulnerable to climate impacts, and to be designed and
implemented with meaningful involvement from all parts of society.

This Implementation Plan identifies key programmatic vulnerabilities and the priority actions that will be
taken to address those vulnerabilities over time.  As the work called for in this Plan is conducted, the
communities and demographic groups  most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change will be
identified. The Agency will then work in partnership with these communities to increase their adaptive
capacity and resilience to climate change impacts. These efforts will be informed by experiences with
previous extreme weather events (e.g., Hurricane Katrina and Superstorm Sandy) and the subsequent
recovery efforts.


Section 9: Cross-Office Pilot Projects

Developing cross-office pilot projects is a vital role for the Region 10 Climate Change Advisor.  Region 10
has a TMDL pilot project described in Appendix C on the Southfork of the Nooksack River.  We
anticipate building on that success using the same approach of outreach at the unit or office/program
level to increase awareness of vulnerabilities and available science. At the same time,  we will collect
input on climate science needs and  ideas on how the science might be incorporated into day-to-day
decisions. To keep the process sustainable, OEA provides some initial assistance and looks for partners
to provide some further assistance.
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                    APPENDICES
Appendix A: Vulnerabilities Identified by Region 10 States and Tribes

Appendix B: Detailed Description of EPA Region 10 Program Vulnerabilities

Appendix C: Detailed Description of EPA Region 10 Existing Actions

Appendix D: Comparison of Vulnerabilities and EPA Region 10 Existing Actions

Appendix E: EPA Region 10 Approach for Measuring Success
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Appendix A: Vulnerabilities Identified by Region 10 States and Tribes

Oregon
The State of Oregon has developed a framework58 that condenses specific vulnerabilities and risks from climate
change into 11 overarching categories.  They then ranked these into three groups: very likely, likely, and more
likely than not. While the framework does not indicate a formal peer review was conducted, the Oregon Climate
Change Research  Institute (OCCRI) assisted in the development of the framework and the risks are fully
documented with extensive citations. The categories and ranked risks are:

Very Likely Risks:
    •    Increase in average annual air temperatures and likelihood of extreme heat events that also increase
        water temperatures
    •    Changes in hydrology and water supply; reduced snowpack and water availability in some basins; changes
        in water quality and timing of water availability
Likely Risks:
    •    Increase in wildfire frequency and intensity
    •    Increase ocean temperatures, with potential for changes in ocean chemistry and increased ocean
        acidification
    •    Increased incidence of drought
    •    Increased coastal erosion and risk of inundation from increasing sea levels and increasing wave heights
        and storm surges
    •    Changes in abundance and geographical distributions of plant species and habitats for aquatic and
        terrestrial wildlife
    •    Increase in diseases, invasive species, and insect, animal, and plant pests
    •    Loss of wetland ecosystems and services
More likely than not Risks:
    •    Increased frequency of extreme precipitation events and incidence and magnitude of damaging floods
    •    Increased incidence of landslides

Washington
Similarly, Washington State Department of Ecology has summarized climate impacts in Preparing for a Changing
Climate: Washington States' Integrated Climate Response Strategy.59  The information below is a summary of the
Ecology document and the references are included in their document and they are not repeated here. Washington
examined projected impacts for sector groupings - e.g., Built Infrastructure, Wildlife & Habitat, etc. They also
worked with University of Washington's Climate  Impacts Group to understand how the impacts might affect the
different sector groups, with the goal of prioritizing actions within those groups and developing coordinated
strategies. The impacts include the scientific evidence and are summarized into the following groups:

Warmer temperatures and more severe heat waves: In the Pacific Northwest, average annual temperature rose
        1.5 °F between 1920 and 2003. Climate scientists' project average annual temperatures in the Pacific
        Northwest will rise 2°F by the 2020s and 3.2°F by the 2040s, compared with 1970-1999 averages. Heat
        waves are projected to occur more often and last longer.
Larger and more intense wildfires: Researchers project that the area burned by fire each year in the Columbia
        Basin will double or triple by the 2080s, compared to the 1916-2006 average.  Costs of fighting wildfires
        are expected to rise and risks to communities, the environment, and wildlife are expected to increase.
58 http://www.Oregon.gov/LCD/docs/ClimateChange/Framework_Final.pdf
59 http://www.ecy.wa.gov/climatechange/ipa_responsestrategy.htm
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Drier summers and wetter autumns and winters: Downscaled climate models project that summer precipitation
        will decrease and autumn and winter precipitation will increase. Washington could experience more
        intense rainfall events more often.
Decreased snowpack and loss of natural water storage: In Washington's Cascades, average snowpack declined
        about 25 percent between 1950 and 2006. Spring snowpack across Washington State is projected to
        decrease 28 percent by the 2020s and 40 percent by the 2040s relative to the 1916-2006 average, and
        snowmelt is expected to occur earlier in the spring.
More frequent and severe drought: Increasing temperature, declining snowpack and earlier snowmelt will increase
        the risk of summer water shortages and increase the demand for water.  The amount of water available
        for communities, irrigation, fish, hydropower generation, recreation, and other uses will be affected and
        competition for water will increase.
More severe winter flooding: Although the risks  vary by location, Washington is expected to experience more
        severe winter flooding during the winter due to more precipitation falling as rain instead of snow in the
        mountains. More severe winter flooding poses challenges for  managing reservoirs for flood control, fish,
        and hydropower production. Damages and repair costs for vulnerable homes, roads, and other
        infrastructure could increase. Extreme  rainfall may place more stress on our stormwater infrastructure.
Sea level rise:  Global sea level has risen about 7  inches during the 20th  century and is projected to rise at a higher
        rate in the future.  For the Washington, Oregon, and California coasts north of Cape Mendocino,  sea level
        is projected to rise 24 inches over the next century. In addition, an earthquake magnitude of 8 or greater
        along the Cascadia Subduction Zone would suddenly raise sea  level along the coast of Washington and
        Oregon by an additional 3-7 feet, exacerbating the effects of sea level rise due to climate change.

Idaho
Climate change planning in Idaho is mainly led by the Idaho Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive
Research (EPSCoR). Two major river basins of national significance are  in Idaho, the Snake River Plain (Snake) and
the Salmon River Basin (Salmon). The EPSCoR work addresses concerns about how the hydrology in Idaho will
change as climate changes in the western U.S. Of particular interest to EPSCoR is how the connection between
surface water and groundwater in the Snake River Plain may change.60

According to EPSCoR, the National Ground Water Association has stressed that groundwater supplies might be
used in the future to balance large swings in  water supplies caused by drought and climate change.  Despite this,
the connections between climate change and groundwater is largely unexplored and poorly understood. The
projected changes in the timing and magnitude of stream flows will affect ecosystems in sensitive areas. In
addition, because Idaho's economy is strongly coupled to water and snowmelt, the proposed research has direct
application to Idaho's citizens and implications for decision makers.

Concerns in Idaho center on:
Hydroclimatology and the connections between  surface water and groundwater;  understand how projected
climate change might affect the timing and magnitude of mountain snow packs and snowmelt.
Hydro-economics/policy and changes in the timing and variability of water supply on land use, economic
production, urban growth, and water management, and water rights.
Hydroecology and effects of climate change on natural ecosystems such as species shifts, and integrated
relationships between climate, hydrology, fire, insects, ecology, and changing landscapes.

Alaska
The State of Alaska Adaptation Advisory Group describes vulnerabilities including impacts that are already
occurring in their document, Alaska's Climate Change Strategy: Addressing Impacts in Alaska.61  The information
60 http://www.idahoclimatechange.org/DrawOnePage.aspx?PagelD=135
61 http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/aag/docs/aag_ES_27Janl0.pdf
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below is from the executive summary of the document.  The references are included in the document and are not
repeated in this document.

Permafrost Thawing and Sea Ice Melting
Permafrost underlies most of Alaska.  Air temperature, snow cover, and vegetation affect the temperature of the
frozen ground and the depth of seasonal thawing. Recent decades of warmer temperatures have produced
extensive thawing, which has resulted in increased coastal erosion, landslides, and sinking of the ground surface,
as well as consequent disruption and damage to forests, buildings, infrastructure, and coastal communities. In
addition, many industrial activities depend on frozen ground surfaces, and many northern communities rely on ice
roads for transport of groceries and other materials. Continued warming will further impair transport by
shortening the seasonal use of ice roads. Thawing is projected to accelerate under future warming, with as much
as the top 10 to 30 feet of discontinuous permafrost thawing by 2100.

Sea ice off the Alaskan Coast is retreating and thinning, with widespread effects on marine ecosystems, coastal
climate, human settlements, and subsistence activities.  Recent studies estimate arctic-wide reductions in annual
average sea-ice extent of about 5-10% and a reduction in average thickness of about 10-15% over the past few
decades. Retreat of sea ice allows larger storm surges to develop, increasing the risk of inundation and increasing
erosion on coasts already made vulnerable by permafrost thawing. Loss of sea ice also causes large scale changes
in marine ecosystems, and threatens populations of marine  mammals and polar bears that depend on ice.  At  the
same time, the continued  reduction of sea ice is very likely to increase the navigation season, and within several
decades a seasonal opening of the Northern Sea Route is likely to make trans-arctic shipping feasible during
summer months, although increasing ice movement will initially make shipping more difficult in some channels of
the Northwest Passage.

Threats to Coastal Communities, Habitats, and Infrastructure
Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined. Increases in the frequency and intensity of storm
surges have triggered increased coastal  erosion that is threatening a number of coastal villages. A recent report
from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) indicated that 31 villages face imminent threats.  Storm  surges
have also reduced the protection that barrier islands and spits provide to coastal habitats. Both coastal and inland
infrastructure face threats due to the climate change. Thawing permafrost threatens water and sanitation
infrastructure, and roads, buildings, pipelines, power lines and other infrastructure are threatened by coastal
erosion and degrading permafrost.

Forest and Vegetation Changes
The Arctic region, particularly Alaska, is  already experiencing major ecological impacts as a consequence of
warming.  Rising temperatures have caused northward expansion of boreal forest in some areas, significant
increases in fire frequency and intensity, and unprecedented insect outbreaks. Current projections suggest that,
due to increases in burn area per decade, the tundra-dominated landscape on Seward Peninsula will eventually be
replaced by deciduous forest. In other areas, forested areas are likely to convert to bogs as permafrost thaws.
Growing-degree days have increased by 20%, with benefits for agriculture and forest productivity on some sites,
and reduced growth on others.

Sensitivity of Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries
The Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea support marine  ecosystems of great diversity and productivity as well as the
nation's largest commercial fishery. Perhaps one of the most daunting threats lies in increasing acidification of the
cold Alaskan waters. This would affect all  organisms that possess calcifying shells, and these organisms play an
integral role  in the food  web.  Recent climate-related impacts observed in the Bering Sea include significant
reductions in seabird and marine mammal populations, unusual algal blooms, abnormally high water
temperatures, and low harvests of salmon on their return to spawning areas. Future projections for the Bering Sea
suggest productivity increases at the base of the food chain, poleward shifts of some cold-water species, and
negative effects on ice-dwelling species. Warmer  temperatures will also affect commercial fisheries by inducing

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large northward shifts of fish and shellfish species. This would result in decreased harvesting of cold-water species
such as salmon and pollock, and increased harvesting of other species.

Changes in the Diversity, Ranges, and Distributions of Species
The Arctic sub-region that includes Alaska, Chukotka, and the Western Canadian Arctic is home to over 70 percent
of the rare plant species that occur only in the Arctic and a number of plant and animal species already classified as
"threatened." Species concentrated  in small areas, such as Wrangell Island, are particularly vulnerable to the direct
effects of climate change combined with competition from migrating non-native species.

Increased  Stress on Subsistence Livelihoods and Lifestyles
Subsistence makes an important contribution to livelihood in many isolated rural communities, especially but not
exclusively for native peoples. Livelihoods that sustain indigenous communities include hunting, trapping,
gathering, and fishing. These activities not only make significant contributions to the diet and health of many
indigenous populations, but also play large and important social and cultural roles.  Reduced or displaced
populations of marine mammals, seabirds, and other wildlife, together with continuing thinning of sea-ice, have
affected the safety and the dietary and economic  well-being of subsistence communities.

Tribes
Among other effects of climate change, Tribes are concerned about declining stocks, changes in migration
patterns, and  other impacts on natural resources  including endangered species.62 In an  effort to begin an
understanding of Tribal cultural resource vulnerabilities, Region 10 reviewed the Swinomish Climate Change
Initiative Impact Assessment Technical Report as a very useful resource.63  Although peer review was not
described, this report represents the work of a multidisciplinary team led by staff of the Swinomish Office of
Planning & Community Development, in partnership with the University of Washington Climate Impacts Group
(CIG), and  with further scientific assistance from Skagit River System Cooperative (SRSC). CIG staff played a crucial
role in reviewing scientific data, reports, and project documents, advising on the use of scientific data and
information in the project, and in identifying probable local impacts and climate change scenarios.  Scientific
expertise was also provided by Skagit River System Cooperative, which partnered with Western Washington
University and Battelle Northwest to model hydrologic impacts at the local level.

The cultural vulnerabilities identified in the Swinomish Impact Assessment included:
        Shrinking land base (sea level rise);
        Inundation of coastal sites/artifacts;
        Exposure of burial sites and human remains from strong storm events;
        Loss of cultural use plants; and
        Ecological Impacts on resources within the Swinomish traditional use areas.

In addition, Region 10 has funded two Indian General Assistant Program (IGAP) grants for the Jamestown and Port
Gamble S'Klallam Tribes to develop a climate change vulnerability assessment template that other tribes could
use. The work began in January 2012. The Jamestown Tribe Tribal Advisory committee was formed and identified
four areas of concern for which they developed subcommittees: facilities/roads; economics; natural resources; and
human health. The Tribe's process will be reported in a short stand-alone document that may be used by other
Tribal Governments.
62 James Woods, Region 10 Senior Tribal Policy Advisor
63 http://www.swinomish.org/departments/planning/climate_change/climate_main.html
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Another useful description of vulnerabilities related to Alaskan Tribes, in particular, is the Tribal Climate Change
Adaptation Plan Template64 which references three sources.65-66'67 A summary of the findings from the Template
are included below.  The specific references are included in the Template and are not repeated here.

Alaska has already experienced many climate-related changes including earlier spring snow melt, a decrease in sea
ice, thawing permafrost, glacier retreat, changes in precipitation levels, and an increase in drought and wild fires.
The annual average temperature has increased by 3.4°F, while winter temperatures have increased by 6.3°F during
the last half century. The snow-free season lengthened by an average of 10 days throughout the state between
1970 and 2000; this continues to impact Alaska's soil moisture and consequently vegetation that is not
accustomed to drought-like conditions.

Rising temperatures are creating a more hospitable habitat for spruce beetles resulting in a severe infestation in
spruce forests in the south-central portion of Alaska; there has also been an increase in catastrophic wildfires
throughout the state due to the warmer and drier conditions. Additionally Alaska is beginning to witness a thaw in
permafrost which is affecting not only human-made infrastructure, but also forest health and lake area in wetland
ecosystems.

Continued future warming in this region is inevitable, even if all greenhouse gas emissions were halted today.
Temperatures are projected to increase anywhere between 5°F and 13°F by the end of the 21st century, depending
on different emission scenarios.  These increasing temperatures are expected to have major consequences on the
different ecosystems in Alaska. This includes the warming of sea surface temperatures, further reductions in sea
ice (impacting not only marine mammals but also eliminating a natural buffer to coastal storms), increased coastal
erosion and flooding, an increase in catastrophic wildfires (models suggest that the yearly average area that burns
may double by the middle of the century), and the warming and thawing of permafrost (Karl eta/., 2009).

The changes that are already occurring in Alaska, and that will continue to occur, have the potential to alter the
landscape considerably and may have  immeasurable implications for Alaska's plants, animals and people.

Alaska has already experienced many climate-related changes including: earlier spring snow melt; decrease in sea
ice (important to marine mammals and a natural buffer to coastal storms); thawing permafrost, which makes tribal
infrastructure (water, sewer, and foundations) designed for permafrost conditions extremely vulnerable to failure;
glacier retreat; changes in precipitation levels; increase in drought, vegetation stress, and wild fires; severe
infestation of spruce beetles in the south-central portion of Alaska; and increased coastal erosion and flooding.
64 http://www.globalchange.gov/publications/reports/scientific-assessments/us-impacts
65USGCRP. 2009. Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States . Karl, T.R., J. M. Melillo, and T. C.
Peterson (eds.). United States Global Change Research Program.  Cambridge University Press, New York, NY,
USA.Karl, T. R., Melillo, J.  M., & Peterson, T.  (2009). Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States.  New
York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
66 U.S.  Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs website accessed on January 20, 2011 at:
www.bia.gov/WhoWeAre/RegionalOffices/Alaska/index.htm
67 U.S.  Fish and Wildlife Service website accessed on January 20, 2011 at:
http://alaska.fws.gov/climate/index.htm.
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Appendix B: Detailed Description of EPA Region 10 Program
Vulnerabilities

In general, where possible, the sources cited by Region 10 use the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) likelihood of outcome terminology where 'very likely' means 90-100% probability, and the term 'likely'
means 66-100% probability. Some likelihoods are noted as "Occurring now" where appropriate.

In addition, the use of terms are as follows: "High" assumes the program will be affected by the impact; "Medium"
assumes the program could be affected under some conditions by the impact; "Low" assumes that there is a
potential for the program to be impacted or uncertainty currently exists as to the potential nature and extent of
the impact.

Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality

l.A. Increased tropospheric ozone pollution in certain areas due to increased average summertime
temperatures
Likelihood of Impact: Likely.  Projections of future tropospheric ozone levels in the literature for the Pacific
Northwest and Alaska are inconclusive at this time but the level of impact could change as new information
becomes available. See further discussion below.
Focus of Associated EPA Program:  Protecting public health and the environment by attaining the National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) by implementing programs in States and Indian Country to help meet the
standards
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High in large urban areas in the Pacific Northwest - Washington,  Oregon,
and  Idaho, and Low in remaining rural areas and in Alaska.
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted:  Could become more difficult to attain  NAAQS for ozone in
metropolitan areas where ozone design values are close to the NAAQS.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Washington,  Idaho, and Oregon each  have at least 1 metropolitan area
that has ozone design values close to the ozone NAAQS.  There is the possibility that higher summertime
temperatures would increase ozone productivity as well as emissions of VOC precursors and, there is scientific
consensus that climate change will  decrease the background ozone in the lower troposphere where the water
vapor effect is dominant.68 Ozone in NOx-limited areas is projected to decrease as well as a result of climate
change. From the available academic literature that included results for the Pacific Northwest, there is no
consistent finding about whether climate change will increase,  decrease, or have no change on ozone in this
region.69-70 Of potential greater concern for the Pacific Northwest and Alaska over the next several decades is the
increase in transported ozone precursors from Asia.  Asian transport of ozone will decrease with an increase in
water vapor over the Pacific, but hydroxyl radicals will increase, potentially increasing ozone formation in PNW
urban areas.71
Variation in importance across the Region: Ozone is  more likely to increase with climate change in inland Idaho
rather than Washington and Oregon due to coastal airflow.  It  is not  an issue for Alaska since ozone formation is
68 Jacob, DJ., and D.A.  Winner.  2009. Effect of climate change on air quality, Atmos. Environ., 43, 56.
69 Ibid Jacob and Winter 51-63.  Jacob, D.J., and D. A.  Winner. 2009. Effect of climate change on air quality,
Atmos. Environ., 43, 51-63.
70 U.S. Global Change Research  Program. 2009., Assessment of the impacts of global change on regional U.S. air
quality: a synthesis of climate change impacts on ground-level ozone, EPA/600/R-07/094F, Office of Research and
Development, Washington, D.C.
71 Task Force on the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution. 2010.  Hemispheric transport of air pollution 2010,
Part A: ozone and particulate matter, Air Pollution Studies No. 17, United Nations, New York, USA and Geneva,
Switzerland.

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limited by relatively low summertime temperatures. Potential ozone increases are more likely to occur in the
larger metropolitan areas including Spokane, Tacoma, Portland, and Boise.  Whether or not these increases will
result in violations of the NAAQS health standards however is unknown.

l.B.  Increase in summertime temperatures and extreme temperature events can potentially affect
concentrations of air toxics from anthropogenic sources.
Likelihood of Impact:  Impact uncertain due to variability in effects of temperature increase on individual air toxics
in Region 10.
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Reducing risk from emissions of air toxics through Maximum Achievable
Control Technology (MACT), National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) and residual risk
programs
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: There is insufficient literature available on air toxics and climate change to
project this likelihood  for Region 10.
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted:  Could increase public health risks, including risks for the young, the
elderly, the chronically ill, and socioeconomically disadvantaged populations
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Many HAP chemicals volatilize at higher temperatures, creating the
potential for higher emission rates and higher concentrations in ambient  air.72 There is uncertainty however as to
actual impacts on HAP concentrations since the boundary layer height will also likely be higher, adding more
volume of air for the HAPs to mix into.  It is also possible for pollutant removal mechanisms to increase as a result
of climate change. There is still considerable uncertainty about the effect of climate change on air toxics in Region
10.  Variation in importance across the Region: Although we would expect air toxics to be most important  in
urban areas near  large sources or a high density of sources, we cannot say that this will be the norm in Region 10.
Potential variations by individual air toxic, location, and season were indicated in a continuous monitoring of
atmospheric mercury  study comparing high arctic, sub-Arctic, and temperate sites. While background mercury
levels were shown to be decreasing at sub-Arctic and temperate sites, the levels at Alert (Nunavut, Canada  -
locationally and climatically comparable to arctic Alaska) indicated increases in both RGM (reactive gaseous
mercury) and TPM (total particulate mercury) from 2002 - 2009 in the  spring when concentrations are the  highest.
Background mercury had decreased at all other locations.73

l.C.  Increased frequency or intensity of wildfires due to increased summertime temperatures, prolonged
droughts, and decreased soil moisture may impact Particulate Matter levels.74
Likelihood of Impact:  Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Protecting public health and the environment by assuring that the  National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are attained and assisting States and Tribes  in the implementation of
programs to help meet these standards.
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High.
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted:  Could complicate Agency efforts to protect public health and the
environment from risks posed by particulate matter (PM) pollution in areas affected  by more frequent wildfires.
72IPCC.  2012.  Summary for Policymakers. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance
Climate  Change Adaptation (Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F.  Stocker, D.Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L Ebi, M.D., Mastrandrea,
K.J. Mach, G.K. Plattner, SIK.  Allen, M.  Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.). A Special Report of Working Groups I & II
of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York,
NY, USA pp.  1-19.
73 Cole, A.S., et. al. 2013. Ten year trends of atmospheric mercury in the high Arctic compared to Canadian sub-
Arctic and mid-latitude sites, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 3,1535-45.
74 Mote, P. K. Snover, S. Capalbo, S.D.  Eigenbrode, P. Glick, J. Littell,  R. Raymondi, and S. Reeder, 2014: Ch. 21:
Northwest. Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, J.M. Melilo,
Terese (T.C.) Richmond and G.W Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 487-513.
doi:10.7930/J04Q7RWX. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/regions/northwestftstatement-1700.

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Implications:  increased concentrations of PM resulting in public health impacts and increasing responsibility of
public agencies to protect public health.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Larger and more frequent wildfires are predicted throughout the region as
a result of warmer summertime temperatures, decreased soil and fuel moisture, and increased pest infestations.
For example, in the Columbia Basin, the acres of forest burned are projected to double by the 2020s, and triple by
the 2040s compared to average burned from 1916 to 2006.75 These large increases in annual acres burned will
increase the number of airsheds and communities impacted by high summertime concentrations of Pm 10 and
PM2.5 from wildfires, impacting the health of more individuals who have preexisting respiratory conditions such as
asthma, and preexisting heart conditions.  State, local, and Tribal air agencies will also be impacted by these events
and Region 10 will be obligated to assist them. More frequent and larger wildfires could result in agricultural and
forestry slash  burning permits not being issued at all, or issued later into the winter, where permitted burning
would more likely overlap with home heating season and add to emissions from woodburning stoves. Although
increased wildfire will have little impact on the attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
or the SIP State Implementation Plan  (SIP) program, the Region 10 impact would be in workload to process
Exceptional Event documentation and potentially in assisting States, local communities, and land managers in
minimizing the impact  of increased wildfire smoke on human health.
Variation in importance across the Region: All four RIO States have a high percent of forested areas (about 50%
for States of WA and OR) and would all be adversely affected by an increase in wildfires

l.D. Changes in precipitation, extreme temperatures, more frequent wildfires, and severe weather events will
impact indoor air quality.
Likelihood of Impact: Very Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Protection of public health from exposure to indoor air pollutants which are
concentrated  in indoor environments many times above ambient air levels. Potential for increased mold growth,
particularly among buildings without access to air conditioning. Indoor Air Quality, Children's Health and outreach
programs will  be impacted due to increased need for public education and guidance on reducing exposures to both
indoor and ambient air pollutants.
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected:  High.
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Will increase public health risks including those from respiratory
illnesses including asthma76, and risks for susceptible populations - the young, the elderly, the chronically ill, and
socioeconomically disadvantaged populations across the region. Alaska's native and rural populations are very
vulnerable to worsening indoor  air quality with more insulated housing reducing air circulation- thereby increasing
levels of both  indoor and ambient pollution - and increasing flood risk and melting permafrost that will support
more mold growth77.  Also, though not directly related to climate change, increasing use of wood combustion as
an indoor heat source (due to rising cost of home heating oil) further impairs indoor air quality.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Important across the Region.  Susceptible individuals will be impacted by
elevated temperatures, increasing pollutant levels, and therefore increasing exposures to both indoor and ambient
air pollution.
Variation in importance across the Region: Particularly important in environmental justice (EJ) areas and areas
with a high density of more susceptible populations such as in Alaska's native villages78 and on tribal reservations
in Washington, Oregon and Idaho.
75J.S. Littell, et. al. 2010. Forest ecosystems, disturbance, and climatic change in Washington State, USA.
Climatic Change 102(1-2): 129-158.
76 Reid, Colleen and Gamble, Janet. 2009. Aeroallergens, Allergic Disease, and Climate Change: Impacts and
Adaptation, Ecohealth Vol 6(3):458-470.
77 Kovesi, Thomas MD et al. 2007. Indoor Air Quality and the Risk of lower respiratory tract infections in young
Canadian Inuit children, Canadian Medical Association.
78 Lisa Bulkow et al., 2010. Risk Factors for Severe Respiratory Synctial Virus Infection Among Alaska Native
Children, Pediatrics. 109 (2).
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I.E. Depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer due to climate change effects on the atmosphere
Likelihood of Impact: Likely - changes continue over the Arctic.
Focus of Associated EPA Program:  Restoring the stratospheric ozone layer, preventing UV-related disease, and
providing a smooth transition to safer alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: Low - there is no stratospheric ozone monitoring or restoration program in
RIO.
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: May be unable to restore ozone concentrations to benchmark levels
as quickly at  some latitudes.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Not uniformly important across the region.  Important in the Arctic
(Alaska) where severe depletion of stratospheric ozone has been observed during winter and spring months.79
While there currently are no EPA Region 10 programs that directly deal with monitoring or restoring the
stratospheric ozone layer, there is enforcement activity against violators related to use and disposal of CFCs and
HCFCs and their substitutes.
Variation in importance across the Region: Most important in Alaska,  particularly in Arctic regions.

l.F. Changes in the rate and distribution of deposition of sulfates. nitrates, and mercury as a result of changes in
precipitation patterns.80
Likelihood of Impact: Impact potentially ranges from Unlikely to Likely.  Much  uncertainty exists re: the overall
impacts of changes in precipitation on sulfates, nitrates and  mercury deposition in Region 10. We assume that
there would  be increased deposition of available sulfates, nitrates, and mercury with increased precipitation, but
the availability of these pollutants in the atmosphere may be decreasing due to control measures.
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Agency programs to protect ecosystems from atmospheric deposition of
pollutants such as sulfates, nitrates, and mercury.  Deposition of pollutants may also impact compliance with water
quality standards and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs).
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: There  is insufficient research on  sulfate, nitrate, and mercury deposition and
climate change to project this likelihood for Region 10, particularly in light of increasing wildfires and transport
from Asia.
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Could cause adverse effects on  ecosystems throughout the region,
particularly mountain ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems, and could contribute to accumulation of mercury in
fish tissue. This would disproportionally effect populations of people whose diet consists of a high percent of fish.
Water quality impacted during summer due to lower stream flows. TMDLs may be more difficult to attain. An
accurate assessment of impacts is difficult to determine at this time.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Accumulation of sulfates and nitrates may kill sensitive plant species and
alter richness of species in sensitive ecosystems through the region. Mercury deposition in freshwater habitats
could  contribute to bioaccumulation of mercury in fish tissue, posing risks to humans who consume these
freshwater fish.  Lower stream flows during  the summer months could make attainment of TMDLs associated with
release of pollutants from point sources more difficult to attain, negatively impacting ecosystem health.
Atmospheric deposition of sulfates, nitrates and mercury from Region  10 sources are expected to decrease over
time due to compliance with the new air toxics rules (i.e. the Mercury Air Toxics Standard - MATS), the attainment
of additional reductions through the residual risk and technology review program, and mobile source controls.
Additional compliance activities resulting in decreases over time  include sources meeting permit requirements or
closing down.  There is some uncertainty in this expected downward trend however due to potential increased
mercury releases due to wildfires and transport from Asia.  Global emissions of mercury continue to change at the
same time as the Arctic is experiencing ongoing climatic changes. Multi-year trends analysis in reactive gaseous
79G.L  Manneyet. al., 2011. Unprecedented Arctic Ozone Loss in 2011, Nature 478,469-475. October 27, 2011.
80 Dawson, J.P., B.J. Bloomer, D.A. Winner, C.P. Weaver, 2013. Understanding the meteorological drivers of U.S.
particulate matter concentrations in a changing climate, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society,
doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00181.1, in press.
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mercury (RGM) and total particulate mercury (TPM) at a Canadian Arctic site indicated increases from 2002 to
2009 in both RGM and TPM in the spring when concentrations are highest.81
Variation in importance across the Region: Sulfate and nitrate deposition is important across the region. Mercury
deposition is highest close to mercury sources, such as mining operations. The issue is more important for parts of
the Region containing mountain ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems and for parts of the Region where
people's diets consist  of a high percent of fish.  While studies have shown that on the East Coast, sulfate
concentrations increase with temperature due to faster SO2 oxidation (higher rate constants and higher oxidant
concentrations)82-83 no studies are available to indicate that the same is true for the Pacific Northwest and Alaska.
In contrast, nitrate and organic semi-volatile components shift from the particle phase to the gas phase with
increasing temperature.84 Overall effects are uncertain however because higher temperatures drive increased
chemical reactions and possibly more secondary organic carbon.  At the same time there might be changes to the
boundary layer height, airmass ventilation rate, and precipitation. We do not know the relative importance of
these effects in RIO states.
81 Cole, A.S., et. al. 2013. Ten-year trends of atmospheric mercury in the high Arctic compared to Canadian sub-
Arctic and mid-latitude sites, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol 13, Issue 3, pp. 1535-45.
82 Aw, J., and Kleeman, M.J.  2003. Evaluating the first-order effect of intra-annual temperature variability on
urban air pollution. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4365.
83 Dawson, J.P., et. al. 2007. Sensitivity of PM2.5 to climate in the Eastern US: a modeling case study. Atmos.
Chem. Phys. 74,295-4,309
84 Tsigaridis, K., and Kanakidou, M. 2007. Secondary organic aerosol importance in the future atmosphere.
Atmos. Environ. 41,4682-4692.
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Goal 2: Protecting America's Waters

2.A.  Regional focus: Increasing heavy precipitation events and more frequent flood events may impact water
systems and infrastructure.
Likelihood of Impact: Very Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program:  Protecting Water infrastructure: drinking water, wastewater, stormwater, and
agricultural irrigation systems and infrastructure.
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Water infrastructure could be overwhelmed or damaged. Impacts
on water infrastructure may result in an increased number of sewer overflows and wastewater bypasses, as well as
increased pollutant loads in runoff,  increased pollution of streams and threats to public health.85 Drinking water
and wastewater utilities will need an integrated approach to planning for emergencies and extreme weather
events.86 Problems of safety as well as access to clean and safe water will be exacerbated for Tribal communities,
and other vulnerable and economically depressed communities who have limited access to clean water supplies.87
Agricultural productivity may be impacted in areas with inadequate water storage capacity and limited agricultural
irrigation systems.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: The Region will work with the Tribes and States to assist in water planning
by sharing information on available downscaled models and tools and provide technical assistance, outreach, and
education to further assist in the implement of state and tribal voluntary programs.  Climate change impacts
drinking water by heightening risk of contamination of surface water sources due to higher temperatures, lower
flows, and increased erosion/sedimentation. For example, in Alaska, melting permafrost  is causing sources of
drinking water for rural communities to disappear altogether, plus increased erosion is causing more sediment.88
Also  road and bridge failures from more storms, erosion, etc. will result in more accidents and spills that threaten
drinking water supplies. Groundwater sources could be impacted  by changes in hydrology, also impacting changes
in transport of potential contaminants.
Variation in importance across the Region: Important across the region, but especially in areas with ageing or
inadequate water infrastructure. Adequate summertime water supply for irrigation of crops is essential to
agricultural communities east of the Cascades in OR, WA, and ID. For tribes, who lack irrigation infrastructure and
rely primarily on lakes and streams  as water sources, availability of water for agriculture may be more severely
impacted by climate change.

2.B.  Regional focus: Earlier stream runoff and scouring of streambeds due to earlier snow melt, and decrease
summer stream flows and increased steam temperatures will adversely impact fresh water fisheries
Likelihood of Impact: Occurring Now and very likely to increase
Focus of Associated EPA Program:  Protection of Fresh water Fisheries: Loss and extinction of salmon species and
other cold water fisheries due to seasonal changes in  stream flows and increasing surface water temperatures.
Important to the TMDL program, and salmon recovery programs
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Loss of salmon habitat and increased stress on salmon  reproduction
throughout their  entire lifecycle.  This also applies to other fresh cold water fish. Watershed planning efforts will
85 USGCRP.  2009.  Regional Impacts: Northwest.  EPA/600/R-07/094F, Office of Research and Development,
Washington, D.C.
86 Ibid. UGCRP.  2009.
87 http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/aag/docs/aag_ES_27Janl0.pdf.
88 Lettenmaier, D. et. al. 2008. Water resources. In: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land
Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States, Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3. U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, pp. 121-150.

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need to be modified to include projected impacts of altered stream flows and increased temperatures due to
climate change.89-90
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Salmon and other cold water fish are a large part of the marine fishery
business in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), and loss of these fish would have a substantial impact on the economy of
the (PNW).  Coastal Native Americans depend on salmon as an essential part of their diets.  There will be
secondary impacts on other species in the ecosystem that benefit from salmon - e.g., forests that rely on decaying
salmon for nutrients, and bears, eagles, others that feed on salmon.
Variation in importance across the Region: Important across the region.

2.C. Regional focus: Sea-level rise, sea surface temperature and increasing heavy precipitation events during the
winter months, and decreasing precipitation days and increasing drought intensity during the summer months,
may have adverse impacts on estuarine watersheds, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands.
Likelihood of Impact: Very Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Restoring and protecting watersheds, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Changes in precipitation patterns, and increased drought intensity
will cause stress on wetlands, and forest and mountain ecosystems, and pose challenges to migration of species in
these ecosystems to more suitable habitats. Sedimentation rates and organic matter (vegetative) accumulation
rates also need to be taken into account for inland marine influenced ecosystems such  as estuaries.  Nyman et al91
found that the vegetative component is the most significant of the two factors for the coasts of Oregon and
Washington—i.e., accretion varied with organic accumulation rather than mineral sedimentation.  Warmer sea
surface temperature contributes to sea level rise, increased storm intensity, and greater stratification of the water
column.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: EPA may need to examine the use of more sophisticated models, and
training to use the models, so that impacts to ecosystems due to Climate Change are addressed. Impact to
states/tribes. Climate change impacts would make  it more difficult for EPA to protect these ecosystems.
Variation in importance across the Region: Especially important in coastal areas of WA, OR, and Alaska due to
increased extreme storm events and rising ocean levels and their impacts on coastal ecosystems. For the
Washington, Oregon, and California coasts north of Cape Mendocino, sea level is projected to change between -4
cm (sea-level fall) and +23 cm by 2030, -3 cm and +48 cm by 2050, and 10-143 cm by 2100.92 The effects will also
be important to all non-coastal watersheds, aquatic ecosystems, and wetlands across the region.

2.D. Regional focus: Warming temperatures and more frequent and intense drought  conditions will have
adverse impacts on Forest Ecosystems
Likelihood of Impact: Very Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Protecting Forest Ecosystems
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted:  Forest tree species are expected to shift their ranges northward and
upslope in response to climate  change and existing  ecosystems will break up as different species shift at different
89 Wenger, S.J.  et al. 2011. Role of climate and invasive species in structuring trout distributions in the Interior
Columbia Basin 2011, USA: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 68, p. 988-1008.  Catalog No:
2508.
90 Wenger, S.J., et. al..  2011.  Flow regime, temperature and biotic interactions drive differential declines of trout
species under climate change.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, online.  Catalog No: 2652.
91 Nyman, J.A et. al.  2006. Marsh vertical accretion via vegetative growth.  Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science
69:370-380.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2006.05.041.
92 National Research Council.  2012. Sea-level  rise for the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California: Past,
Present, and Future. Division on Earth and Life Studies Board on Earth Sciences and Resources and
Ocean Studies Board. Committee on Sea Level Rise in California, Oregon, and Washington.  .

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rates, resulting in the formation of new ecosystems, with unknown consequences.93 Interactions among impacts
of climate change and other stressors can increase the risk of species extinction.94 Breakup of existing ecosystems
and loss of biodiversity, in combination to increased drought conditions, can make forests more susceptible to
destruction by wildfires and insect infestation.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: In the western United States, both the frequency of large wildfires and the
length of the fire season have increased substantially in recent decades, due primarily to earlier spring snowmelt
and higher spring and summer temperatures.95  Simulations of the impact of Climate Change on forest production
in North America indicate that North American producers of lumber may suffer losses averaging $1 billion to $2
billion/yr over the 21st century96.
Variation in importance across the Region: Adverse effects are likely in forests across the region, but more
immediately in low elevation forests, and forests in drier parts of the region, such as in ID, eastern WAand OR, and
the interior of AK

2.E.  Regional focus: Loss of sea ice in Alaska due to warming air and water temperatures associated with
Climate Change
Likelihood of Impact:  Occurring Now and very likely to increase
Focus of Associated EPA Program:  Protecting Marine Ecosystems and shorelines
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Loss of arctic ice in the Bering Sea is adversely affecting Arctic sea ice
ecosystems. Algae that bloom on the underside of the sea ice form the base of a food web linking microscopic
animals and fish to seals,  whales, polar bears, and people. The earlier ice melt resulting from warming, however,
leads to later phytoplankton blooms that are largely consumed by microscopic animals near the sea surface, vastly
decreasing the amount of food reaching the living organisms on the ocean floor.97 This will radically change the
species composition of the fish and other creatures, with significant repercussions for both subsistence and
commercial fishing.98  Sea ice is forming later in  the fall in Alaska, making the coastal communities more vulnerable
to extreme storms (e.g., the storm in 2011 that was a record low atmospheric pressure and caused winds up to 90
mph )."
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Adverse impacts to the Bering Sea marine ecosystem would have
profound effects on mammals and birds that migrate to feed in this area during the summer months. The Bering
Sea fishery is a very important source of seafood and an important factor to Alaska's economy. Species
composition in the Bering Sea ecosystem could be radically changed.
Variation in importance across the Region: This impact is specific to Alaskan ecosystems and shorelines, but could
also have adverse effects on associated terrestrial ecosystems in Alaska.

2.F.  Regional focus: Acidification of ocean water due to increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere
93 ACIA. 2004. Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment.  Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, UK, and New York, 139 pp.
94 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005: Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World
Resources Institute, Washington, DC, 86 pp.
95 Westerling A.L, et. al.  2006. Warming and earlier spring increase western U.S.  forest wildfire activity.
Science, 313(5789), 940-943.
96IPCC, 2007, chapter 14
97 USGCRB. 2009. Regional Impacts: Alaska.  EPA/600/R-07/094F, Office of Research and Development,
Washington, D.C.

98 Janetos, A., et.  al. 2008. Biodiversity. In: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water
Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3. U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, DC, pp. 151-181)
99 http://www.stormsurge.noaa.gov/event_history.html

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Likelihood of Impact: Occurring Now and very likely to increase
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Protecting Marine Ecosystems
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Substantial decline of marine organisms that form their shells and
skeletons from calcium carbonate in ocean waters.100 Adverse effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms
have already been documented.101
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Specifically, adverse effects of ocean acidification have been documented
in pteropods (sea snails)102, a primary food source for salmon in the Pacific Ocean, and in oyster larvae in estuaries
in Washington State and on the coast of OR.103
Variation in importance across the Region: Important in coastal areas of WA, OR and AK.

2.G. Regional focus: Pest outbreaks, invasive species, increased fire, shifts in species ranges and increased
erosion, depletion of water and changes in riparian vegetation in Columbia basin Shrubsteppe/grassland eastern
WA, OR, and ID.
Likelihood of Impact: Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Protecting watershed ecosystems.
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Under projected future temperature conditions, the cover of
sagebrush within the distribution of sage-grouse is anticipated to be reduced due to non-native grass invasions
making the areas prone to destructive fires. Observed and projected decreases in the frequency of freezing
temperatures, lengthening of the frost-free season, and increased minimum temperatures can alter plant species
ranges and shift the geographic and elevational boundaries of many arid lands. The extent of these changes will
also depend on changes in precipitation and fire. Increased drought frequency could also cause major changes in
vegetation cover. Losses of vegetative cover coupled with  increases in precipitation intensity and climate-induced
reductions in soil aggregate stability will dramatically increase potential erosion rates.  Transport of eroded
sediment to streams coupled with changes in the timing and  magnitude of minimum and maximum flows can
affect water quality, riparian vegetation, and aquatic fauna. In particular, the climate-driven dynamic of the fire
cycle is likely to remain the single most important feature controlling future plant distribution in U.S. arid lands.
Riparian vegetation in arid lands can occur at scales from isolated springs to ephemeral and intermittent
watercourses and perennial rivers.104 This habitat is tightly  associated with stream dynamics and hydrology.105 The
net result of climate warming is greater depletion of water along the riverine corridor.106
100 Orr, J. C. et. al., 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on
calcifying organisms.  Nature, 437(7059), 681-686.
101 Feely, R.A., et. al.  2008.  Evidence for upwelling of corrosive "acidified" water onto the continental shelf.
Science, 320(5882), 1490-1492.
102 Bednarsek, N. et. al. 2012. Extensive dissolution of live pteropods in the Southern Ocean, Nature Geoscience,
Volume:5, Pages:881-885.
103 Barton, A. et al. 2012.  The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, shows negative correlation to naturally elevated
carbon dioxide levels: Implications for near-term ocean acidification effects.  Limnology and Oceanography, 2012;
57 (3).
104 Ryan, M. etal. 2008. Land Resources.  In: The effects of climate change on agriculture, land resources, water
resources, and biodiversity.  A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on
Global Change  Research. Washington, DC., USA, 362 pp.
105 Chappell et al.  2001. Wildlife Habitats: Description, Status, Trends, and System Dynamics. Chapter 2 in:
Wildlife-Habitat Relationships in Oregon and Washington.
106 Ryan, M.  et al. 2008. Land Resources.  In: The  effects of climate change on agriculture, land resources, water
resources, and biodiversity.  A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on
Global Change  Research. Washington, DC., USA, 362 pp.


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Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Note that the direct climate change effects of CO2 fertilization and
increasing average temperatures may have contrasting influences on dominant functional types. Trees and C3
grasses may benefit from rising CO2 but not from warming, whereas C4 grasses may benefit from warming but not
from CO2 fertilization. This may mean that uncertain, non-linear, and rapid changes in ecosystem structure and
carbon stocks could occur.107 The changes in  the cycling of Nitrogen and to some extent Carbon due to climate
change could alter the microbial and plant community structure and function of this ecosystem and cause it to
move in the direction of desertification.108 Large-scale conversion of grasslands to shrublands, coupled with
anticipated  changes in climate in the coming decades, and increases in wind speed, temperature, drought
frequency, and precipitation intensity, contribute to greater wind erosion and dust emission from arid lands.  In
arid regions, erosion has been shown to increase sediment delivery to large rivers (e.g., the Rio Grande), and can
change the  flow conditions of those rivers. Transport of eroded sediment to streams can change conditions in
waterways, impacting water quality, riparian vegetation, and water fauna.109
Variation in importance across the Region: specific to the shrubsteppe and grassland ecosystems which include
(1) intermountain regions in western North America (well-vegetated semi desert scrub in lower elevations in
basins, valleys, and lower plateaus foothills and lower mountain slopes and (2) the Palouse grassland bioregion
covers approximately 6,200 mi2 in west central Idaho, southeastern Washington, and northeastern  Oregon
between the western edge of the Rocky Mountains and the Columbia River basin.  It encompasses the hills of the
Palouse Prairie, the southerly Camas Prairie,  and the forested hills and canyonlands of the area's rivers.110
107 Parry et al. 2007, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change.  IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, section 4.4.3.
108Smith et al. 2002. Soil properties and microbial activity across a 500m elevation gradient in a semi-arid
environment. Soil, Biology, and Biochemistry. 34(1749-1757).
109 Ryan, M.  etal.  2008.  Land Resources. In: The effects of climate change on agriculture, land resources, water
resources, and biodiversity. A Report by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on
Global Change Research.  Washington, DC., USA, 362 pp.
110 McWethy et al.  2010. Climate and Terrestrial Ecosystem Change in the U.S. Rocky Mountains and Upper
Columbia Basin: Historical and Future Perspectives for Natural Resource Management. (NPS report).

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Goal 3: Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable Development

3.A.  Regional focus:  Flooding, sea-level rise, storm surges, extreme events and landslides could mean site
characterizations, risk assessments and selection of remedies are not protective or that existing remedies may
be vulnerable
Likelihood of Impact:  Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Removal program, corrective action or permitted sites, cleanup of hazardous
waste sites (Superfund), and management of waste containment facilities (RCRA).
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: Medium
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Increased risk of contaminate release from hazardous waste Sites.
RPMs and corrective action  RPMs may need to alter selected remedies to ensure containment of hazardous
substances.  In situ remedies (e.g., stabilization, reactive barriers) and on-site above ground treatment systems
(e.g., pump & treat, air sparging) could be compromised or overwhelmed if they are not designed to withstand the
climate-related events. The net result could be release of contaminants.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Groundwater and subsurface contamination could be impacted by
drought and  flood conditions. There may be an increased risk of migration of contaminants from flooded
containment facilities.  Remedies such as caps in contaminated industrial waterways in WA and OR could be
subject to (and not designed to withstand) unanticipated scour events.  Any infrastructure whether for treatment
or, say, green stormwater management such as pump and treat systems protecting drinking water wells have a
potential to be at risk. Areas where permafrost has been assumed to work as a containment barrier would also be
at risk.
Variation in importance across the Region: A high potential for impact could occur in the industrial waterways of
WA and OR where industrial wastes have been capped in place, however could be a potential concern anywhere
contaminants have been left in place.  Possible issues of nuclear waste disposal related to climate change (e.g.,
locations of storage facilities, appropriate containment, and risk management issues) would also be important at
the DOE Hanford facility in WA, and the DOE Idaho National Lab facility in ID.

3.B.  Regional focus: Thawing permafrost and changes in sea ice leads to damage of roads, runways, water and
sewer systems, and other infrastructure in Alaska affecting Tribal and Emergency Response
Likelihood of Impact:  Occurring Now
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Emergency Response and Tribal Programs, Village Safe  Water Program
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Melting sea ice and late formation in the fall  is causing storms to
move in close to shore as the natural buffering system disappears.  That  is causing rapid coastal erosion, with
houses and infrastructure falling into the ocean in several communities.  That, along with higher storm, tidal surges
flood communities, is  requiring more immediate evacuation needs. Open dumps are also impacted by storm
surges, flooding, which increases contamination  risk. Permafrost temperatures have increased throughout Alaska
since the late 1970s.111 Land subsidence (sinking) associated with the thawing of permafrost presents substantial
challenges to engineers attempting to preserve infrastructure in Alaska.112
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Substantial infrastructure damage in areas of Alaska built on permafrost.
Release of methane contained in permafrost into the atmosphere would accelerate global warming since methane
isaGHG.
Variation in importance across the Region: Important only in Alaska.
111 Lettenmaier, D., et.  al.  2008.  Water resources. In: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land
Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States, Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3.  U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington,DC, pp. 121-150.
112 Instanes, A., et. al.  2005.  Infrastructure: buildings, support systems, and industrial facilities.  In: Arctic Climate
Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, pp. 907-944
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3C. Regional focus: Region 10, Tribal and state partners will have increasing workloads in many aspects of site
and waste management as well as work related to the formation and implementation of sustainable
development and materials management programs, partnerships and initiatives.
Likelihood of Impact:  Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Sustainability and Materials Management
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: Medium
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Accelerating development (sustainable or otherwise) and the
expected migration of people to Region 10 are issues of concern. It is projected that the population of the States
in Region 10 will increase from 11.2 million in 2010 to 13.1 million in 2025.113 Communities are struggling with how
to manage the new people while protecting the environment and providing basic services like energy, water and
waste management.
Variation in importance across the Region: In support of the increased sustainability of our communities, our
investments in partnerships related to more sustainable materials management play an increasing role in
preventing waste, conserving energy and reducing emissions of toxics as well as greenhouse gases.  Waste
management can be especially challenging in remote tribal communities in Alaska.114

3D. Regional focus: Climate change impacts on the availability of raw materials and the cost of mining and
refining raw materials, producing products, transporting products, and disposing products.
Likelihood of Impact:  Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Sustainability and Materials Management
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: Medium
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: EPA Region 10 will need to put more effort into advocating for
sustainable materials management and pollution prevention with States, industry, communities and tribes as
climate change affects the availability and cost of raw materials and products.  Climate Change increasing
temperature-related pest infestations and forest fires result in millions of acres of dead, dying, and burned trees in
the Pacific NW and Alaska which decreases the availability and drives up the costs of wood products. Thawing
permafrost in Alaska results in infrastructure damage in the form of compromised or impassible haul roads for
timber and  ore, reducing the availability of these natural resources and driving up transportation costs.
Transportation of raw materials and products also  becomes more costly and risky as thawing permafrost damages
remote Alaskan airfields, and coastal erosion from  storm surges and increased springtime flooding of river valleys
damages coastal and inland river valley rail transport lines. Finally, damage to landfill infrastructure from thawing
permafrost in Alaska makes disposal more costly due to the need for clean-up and fortification.
Variation in importance across the Region: This issue will impact the entire region but may have a greater impact
on remote cities and villages in Alaska where transportation and disposal of products is more difficult and costly.
113 U.S. Census Bureau.  2013.  Current Population Report: Population Projections: States 1995-2025.  Economics
Statistical Administration.  Department of Commerce. Website:http://www.census.gov/prod/2/pop/p25/p25-
1131.pdf.  Accessed May 23, 2013.
114 U.S. EPA.  2011.  National Priorities with a Local Focus - Region 10's Approach for Implementing Administrator
Jackson's Seven Priorities-FY 2011-2015 November 2011. www.epa.gov.

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Goal 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
There are concerns for which we do not have sufficient scientific or programmatic information at this time to
evaluate in our vulnerability analysis, some examples are:
(1) increased use of pesticides in response to increase in  pests and vector borne diseases (see 2.G. which mentions
invasive species, West Nile virus) and requests for emergency waivers.
(2) movement of volatile contaminants (pesticides, PCBs, mercury, etc.) into Alaska via global distillation.

4.A.  Regional focus: Increasing extreme temperatures,  increasing heavy precipitation events, changes in storm
intensities, and increasing frequency of floods may increase the exposure to and risk associated with hazardous
chemicals regulated by certain EPA programs
Likelihood of Impact: Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Protecting human health and ecosystems from chemical releases regulated by
the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and the Federal
Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) programs
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: Medium
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Adjustments to the relevant risk assessment framework to
determine public risk due to modified exposure scenarios and modified toxicity of chemicals due to climate
change.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Altered weather and severe climate events could also affect the
interpretations of risk at RCRA/TSCA and Superfund sites. Very relevant for permitting and planning activities,
where facilities may not have previously required an awareness of risk management for water/flooding, or other
climate change impacts. In particular, Puget Sound is vulnerable to these potential impacts of chemical pollution;
restoration of Puget Sound is a key ecosystem-level activity in RIO.115
Variation in importance across the Region: More relevant near sites with large densities of chemical
Manufacturers, Processors and Formulators (MPFs), and RCRA and Superfund sites
115 (see the 2012/2013 Action Agenda for Puget Sound)
http://www.psp. wa.gov/downloads/AA2011/083012_final/Action%20Agenda%20Book%202_Aug%2029%202012.
pdf

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Goal 5: Enforcing Environmental Laws
EPA Region 10's Office of Compliance and Enforcement (OCE) is charged with ensuring compliance with
environmental requirements and enforcing against violations to those requirements. In that capacity, OCE's
vulnerabilities are uniquely tied to interactions with the regulated community.  Some types of vulnerabilities (e.g.,
difficulties with maintaining staff functionality due to power outages, physical damage to facilities due to extreme
weather) would be similar to those experienced by all EPA programs and regions.  Other vulnerabilities are more
specific to OCE such as those which impact the ability of sources to comply with environmental requirements and
with our ability to determine such  compliance and take appropriate action.

The vulnerabilities of greatest importance for OCE are conditions/events which would compromise our ability to
ensure compliance with environmental requirements by regulated entities and, where necessary, to take effective
enforcement action in case of violations. The programs impacted would include: compliance assistance;
compliance monitoring and civil enforcement.

5.A.  Regional focus: Increased non-compliance at regulated entities as a result of extreme weather events and
changing weather patterns
Likelihood of Impact: Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: All regulatory programs
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Compliance and enforcement programs under the Clean Water Act
(CWA) have the potential to see an increase in violations from many situations  including sanitary sewer and
combined sewer overflows, violations of percent removal at wastewater treatment plants (due to limited water
flow as a  result of drought), violations in bypasses due to the inability of wastewater treatment plants to treat a
flow in excess of the design capacity, and increased violations in numerous programs due to failure of existing
infrastructure protecting against extreme weather events. In addition, CWA section 311 (Spill Prevention Control
Countermeasures) may see an increase in non-compliance along Alaskan coastal areas that have oil storage
containers, as a result of sea ice melting (thereby increasing storm surges along those coastal areas) and increased
flooding.

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) compliance and enforcement programs may see
violations at Pesticides Producing Establishments if there is a shift toward increasing pesticide usage, productions
and imports.  As weather patterns change in the Region, the habitats of insects and pests may also change,
bringing different pests and diseases to areas.

The Resource Conservation and  Recovery Act (RCRA) programs may see increased non-compliance at landfills due
to changes in precipitation patterns (including more precipitation in some cases and more extreme precipitation
events in other cases). Where more precipitation is seen in traditionally arid climates and little rainfall is assumed
during landfill design, landfills may generate excessive hazardous leachate, see  unexpected mobilization of
contaminants in the waste column and/or experience failure of the liner or leachate collection systems.
Regional  Importance of Vulnerabilities: May be most important in states where EPA has direct implementation of
an enforcement program, on Tribal lands, and non-delegable programs.
Variation in importance across the Region: Relevant across the Region.

5.B.  Regional focus: Shift in regional enforcement priorities due to changes in compliance (both increased
compliance and non-compliance in different sectors) and increased number of inquiries from industry about
maintaining compliance
Likelihood of Impact: Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: All regulatory programs.
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: If an increase in violations in various programs and industry are
identified, OCE may shift the enforcement focus to address those violations. Conversely, OCE may use discretion

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to refocus enforcement priorities when localized extreme weather events (e.g., flooding) greatly impact the
regulated community or when a change in weather patterns decrease the potential for non-compliance (e.g., less
precipitation could decrease surface runoff). This will be most important in states where EPA has direct
implementation of an enforcement program (e.g., Idaho for NPDES program), on Tribal lands, and non-delegable
programs (e.g., Chlorofluorocarbons, CWA 311 (SPCC), PCBs).  OCE may need to make adjustments to normal
workload to address an increase in industry's compliance inquiries.  There may need to be reassignment or delay
of normal work duties as staff provides response support to those inquiries in a timely manner.  Requests may also
be received from  Regional state counterparts regarding guidance to unique enforcement issues as a result of
extreme weather events or changing weather patterns.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: May be most important in states where EPA has direct implementation of
an enforcement program, on Tribal lands and non-delegable programs.
Variation in importance across the Region: Relevant across the Region

5.C.  Regional focus: Increased permitting of Class VI Underground Injection Control (UIC) wells for Carbon
Dioxide sequestration and Class V UIC wells for stormwater management.
Likelihood of Impact: Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program:  UIC permitting and enforcement programs
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: EPA has developed criteria for Class VI wells, used specifically for the
injection of carbon dioxide into underground subsurface rock formations for long-term storage.  As the need to
reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere increases, various technologies including Class VI wells will
be deployed.  OCE may need to reassign or delay other UIC permitting and enforcement work, as permit requests
for Class VI wells increase.  This will be seen across the Region, until permitting and enforcement of the Class VI
well program is delegated to the states. As the amount of stormwater increases with increased precipitation
levels, industries regulated to manage stormwater and associated discharges may be faced with challenges
surrounding the volume of stormwater to manage. Class V wells are designed to receive stormwater,  as a
substitution for or in addition to discharging stormwater. OCE may see an increase in permitting Class V wells,  as
challenges managing high volumes of stormwater increase. Permitting will be focused on Class V wells in Alaska
and Tribal lands, as the Region implements this program in these areas.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Across the Region, until permitting and enforcement of the Class VI well
program is delegated to the states.
Variation in importance across the Region: Relevant across the Region.

5.D.  Regional focus: Increase in regulated industrial activities in Alaska may result as the melting of sea ice
opens new areas for activities.
Likelihood of Impact: Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Oil and gas extraction.
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Sea ice off the Alaskan Coast is retreating and thinning. This
reduction of sea ice is very likely to  increase the navigation season and create a seasonal opening of the Northern
Sea Route to likely make trans-arctic shipping and transport feasible during summer months. As areas and routes
become more accessible, there is a  potential for industrial activity (e.g., oil and gas extraction) to become more
active in these areas. As a result, OCE may see an increase in regulated entities.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Relevant in Alaska.
Variation in importance across the Region: Relevant in Alaska.
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EPA Facilities and Operations

6.A.  Regional focus: Increasing drought frequency and intensity may limit drinking water at EPA facilities.
Increased demand for air conditioning.
Likelihood of Impact: Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program:  Personnel Safety and security. Operations of Agency facilities, and ability to
carry out emergency response actions
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: Low
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted:  Facilities could be located in areas with water shortages, requiring
water rationing. There is likely to be a greater demand for electricity for air conditioning during the summer
months.  Increased  extreme temperature at any RIO office would put higher demand on drinking water and
electricity for cooling.
Regional  Importance of Vulnerabilities: Could affect the regional office and all the operations offices
Variation in importance across the Region: Operation offices may not be as vulnerable as the regional office due
to a smaller staff and less demand for cooling water, drinking water, and water for other personal uses.

6.B.  Regional focus: Increasing risk of floods and increasing intensity of storms may adversely affect operations
of agency facilities
Likelihood of Impact: Unlikely
Focus of Associated EPA Program:  Operations of Agency facilities, personnel safety, physical security, and ability
to carry out emergency response actions. In particular, Region 10 operates the Manchester Environmental
Laboratory  in Port Orchard. The lab is adjacent to Puget Sound.
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: Low
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Facilities in flood-prone areas may have to temporarily close.
Personnel engaged  in field work may be more vulnerable to extreme temperatures or storm events. Personnel
and real property supporting emergency response and management may be at risk during flooding or extreme
weather events. Ongoing work at the Manchester Environmental Laboratory may be disrupted with effects on
many different programs.
Regional  Importance of Vulnerabilities: Closure of regional offices due to climate change related damage could
prevent staff from carrying out important functions.  The Regional Office in Seattle is located in an area with low
probability for flooding or sea level  rise.
Variation in importance across the Region: RIO has flexiplace options available to staff and a Continuity of
Operations Plan in place in case any RIO office is damaged by flooding or storms or transportation to/from offices
are affected (e.g., flooded roadways; landslides on commuter train tracks).
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Tribal and other vulnerable populations

7.A.  Regional focus: Food security for Tribal communities that live a subsistence lifestyle may beat risk due to
warming associated with climate change
Likelihood of Impact: Likely
Focus of Associated EPA Program: All RIO Programs working on issues that affect Tribal populations, potential link
to permitting programs and actions
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: Medium
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Warming due to climate change reduces the availability and
accessibility of many traditional food sources such as ice seals, walrus and caribou.116 For example, climate change
decreases the amount and quality of food  that grows in the summer months, preventing caribou from storing
enough fat to survive the winter. People face losing their healthiest foods, their communities, and in some cases,
their culture, since each of these depends  on traditional ways of collecting and sharing food.117
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: The most vulnerable population would be the native Alaskan people.
They face losing their current livelihoods, their communities, and in some cases, their culture.
Variation in importance across the Region: To some degree, this is also relevant to all the tribes in the rest of
Region 10 (WA, OR, and ID).

7.B.  Regional focus: An increase in intensity of coastal storms and rising sea levels would increase erosion of
shorelines and pose risks to coastal  native villages.
Likelihood of Impact: Occurring Now
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Tribal  Programs, emergency response
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Alaska's coastline, much of which is close to sea level, is increasingly
threatened by a combination of the loss of its protective sea ice buffer, increasing storm activity, and thawing
coastal permafrost.118  In Alaska,  over 100  villages on the coast and in low-lying areas along rivers are subject to
increased flooding and erosion due to warming.  Federal, state, and tribal officials have identified 31 villages that
face imminent threats.119 At least 12 of the 31 threatened villages have decided to relocate-in part or entirely-or
to explore relocation options. Federal programs to assist threatened villages  prepare for and recover from
disasters and to protect and relocate them are limited and unavailable to the majority of villages. The Federal
Emergency Management Agency has several disaster preparedness and recovery programs, but villages often fail
to qualify for them, generally because they may lack approved disaster mitigation plans or have not been declared
federal disaster areas.120
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Erosion of shorelines may require relocation of native villages.  Loss of
water infrastructure would  require emergency water supplies.  Flooding and  storm events will require emergency
management plans
Variation in importance across the Region: Greatest risks are to the shorelines in Alaska, but shorelines in WA and
OR are also at a moderate risk

7.C.  Regional focus: Loss of permafrost and reduced snowpack threatens access to clean water
116 ACIA.  2004.  Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, UK,  and New York, 139 pp.
117 Ibid ACIA. 2004.
118USGCRB.  2009. Regional Impacts: Alaska.  EPA/600/R-07/094F, Office of Research and Development,
Washington, D.C.
119 Alaska's Climate Change Strategy: Addressing Impacts in Alaska.
http://www.climatechange.alaska/aag/docs/aag_ES_27Jan!0.pdf.
120 U.S. General Accounting Office. 2003. Alaska Native Villages: Most Are Affected by Flooding and Erosion, but
Few Qualify for  Federal Assistance. GAO-04-142.  U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC, 82 pp.
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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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Likelihood of Impact: High
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Tribal Programs, Clean Water Indian set-aside program
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: In many Alaskan rural tribal communities, their water is drawn from
tundra lakes and these are disappearing with the permafrost.121  Another impact of melting permafrost is the loss
of a stable foundation, endangering the sewer and water infrastructure that EPA, and the American taxpayer, has
invested billions of dollars in.122 Tribes in other parts of Region 10 may experience water scarcity, due to failing
aquifers. With reduced snow pack and increased seasonal drought, traditional drinking water sources are not
being replenished.  This can affect individuals: a small well fails, or communities: a large aquifer does not recharge.
In general, without access to clean water, tribal communities across Region 10 have greatly increased respiratory
and gastrointestinal infections and skin diseases including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
These risks are increased by the open dumps that exist in close proximity to most rural communities.  There is
often human waste and solid waste comingled and when there are floods or storm surges from the loss of
protective ice, viable bacteria and contaminants are carried through the community and into people's homes.
Often times running water is not available for sanitation  so these contaminants are making significant and
dangerous impacts to both the environment and human  health of rural Alaska communities.   Most dumps are
unlined, but permafrost has partially contained their toxic materials. Without permafrost, the untreated leachate
may be a contamination risk for their water supply.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: High.  Costs to repair or replace water/sewer infrastructure damaged by
thawing permafrost has been estimated at well over 6 billion dollars.123
Variation in importance across the Region: Permafrost thawing affects Alaskan tribes, some of whom already do
not have access to clean water.

7.D. Regional focus: Changing water conditions reduce  availability of fish & shellfish resources.
Likelihood of Impact: Occurring Now
Focus of Associated EPA Program: Tribal Programs, Ecosystems and public affairs.
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Salmon of  the PNW are central to the lives of all native peoples, they
bring spiritual,  physical and cultural well-being. Climate change is bringing rapid habitat challenges, from rapidly
changing stream flows to warming waters that can no  longer protect salmon fry. Agricultural runoff and clear-cut
forests further degrade water quality.  It is a mystery what is happening to the salmon in the ocean and scientists
are concerned  about the threat of ocean acidification to  salmon food sources. Addressing these issues will require
large scale cooperative restoration and enhancement projects between many partners.

The RIO Tribes' traditional shellfish use areas are on reserves, in ceded customary and traditional use areas.
Increasing ocean acidification threatens shellfish beds  that Tribes have harvested for millennia. Ocean acidification
may reduce rates of shellfish larval survival and weaken the shells of the adults, thus making them more vulnerable
as well.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: High  (Ocean  acidification was a high priority in discussion groups at the
2012 Tribal Leaders Summit and was presented by both Makah and Tulalip tribes)
Variation in importance across the Region: high priority to all coastal tribes.

7.E.  Regional focus: Vulnerable population such as children, the elderly, poor, and the infirm may be at
increased health risk due to increased temperatures,  failing infrastructure, and extreme weather events.
121 Alaska's Climate Change Strategy: Addressing Impacts in Alaska.
http://www.climatechange.alaska/aag/docs/aag_ES_27Janl0.pdf.
122 Alaska's Climate Change Strategy: Addressing Impacts in Alaska.
http://www.climatechange.alaska/aag/docs/aag_ES_27Janl0.pdf.
123 Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska. 2008.
http://www.iser.uaa.alaska.edu/Publications/webnote/Web_Note4a.pdf
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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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Likelihood of Impact: Occurring Now
Focus of Associated EPA Program:  Tribal Programs, Ecosystems and public affairs.
Likelihood of EPA Program Affected: High
Example of Risks if Program were Impacted: Children playing in areas with higher ozone levels resulting from
increased temperature will be at higher risk for experiencing asthma symptoms and exacerbations.  The elderly
are more vulnerable to heat stress because they are often in poorer health and are less able to regulate their body
temperature during periods or extreme health.  Economic constraints can also place low-income households at
disproportionate risk to extreme heat events due to lack of air condition or failure to use air-conditioning to cut
down on associated energy costs.
Regional Importance of Vulnerabilities: Across the region.
Variation in importance across the Region: Across the region.
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Appendix C: Detailed Description of EPA Region 10 Existing Actions

The tables below include detailed information on existing actions in Region 10.  It is organized by Office and includes the following columns
    •   Vulnerability: This identifies the vulnerability associated with each action.  Many actions have multiple vulnerabilities.
    •   Relevant Agency Direction: This includes the EPA strategy from which the action is derived. For example, many of the actions come from the Region 10
       Strategic Alignment Plan while other actions come from the Puget Sound Action Agenda or EPA National Water Program Strategy.
    •   Relevant EPA Goal: This identifies the EPA National or Regional Goal associated with the action. These goals were included in the vulnerability assessment.
    •   RIO Lead/Partners: This column includes the EPA person responsible for the action and the partners EPA is working with to accomplish the actions.
    •   Linked to Tribes, Sustainability, and EJ: This column indicates whether the  action can be linked to EPA Region 10 tribes, related to sustainability, or
       environmental justice. These areas are very important to EPA Region 10 and we wanted to evaluate which actions could be identified with these three areas.


Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics




Vulnerability


Relevant
Agency
Direction
Relevant
EPA Goal

RIO Lead/
Partners

Linked to
Tribes


Sustain-
ability

EJ



Indoor Air Training
Develop and host training for professionals (housing, medical, schools) on
making indoor environments healthier for the most vulnerable. This is a
particularly important Climate Change Adaptation activity because of
increasing mold problems following floods as well as increasing indoor
levels of ambient pollutants due to wildfires, inversions with peak
pollutant levels, and increased use of back-up power generators due to
extreme weather events.





Changes in
precipitation,
extreme
temperatures,
more frequent
wildfires, and
severe weather
events impact
indoor air
quality as
ambient air is
entrained
indoors
RIO
Strategic
Alignment
Plan









Support At-
Risk
Communiti
es (for Air
Quality)








RIO Lead:
Davis Zhen:
Indoor
Air/Radon

Partners:
State, local
air & Tribal
agencies;

At-Risk
Communities:
EPAHQ
•












•












•












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Tribal Waste Management Programs
Work with federally recognized tribes in Washington, Alaska, Oregon and
Idaho to address landfills and unconfined open dumps which are impacted
by climate change and help develop appropriate responses to these
threats.

RCRA Tribal Team - 2013 ongoing work and beyond
Continue to update 2011 Indian Health Service Indian Lands Open Dumps
Inventory. In 2011 the EPA RCRA Tribal Team, RCRA Program Unit, Office
of Air Waste and Toxics, completed an inventory of all open dumps in
Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Alaska and posted this information on the
national Indian Health Service Operations and Maintenance Database
(OMDS). This database includes information on all open dumps on Tribal
lands, including Alaska.

Partner with Tribal communities, Tribal Consortia such as the Tribal Solid
Waste Advisory Network, the EPA Tribal Trust and Assistance Unit and the
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (ADEC) to develop
appropriate responses to address the needs of tribal communities which
are threatened by climate change impacts to their landfills and unconfined
open dumps. Actions include:
- Convening teleconferences with partners to ascertain the state of
knowledge about climate impacts to tribal landfills and unconfined open
dumps in Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Alaska and strategies to address
these impacts.
- Providing on-site technical assistance to interested tribal communities to
help them to address climate change impacts to landfills and open dumps
on their lands.



Vulnerability
Increased
precipitation
and floods
Increasing
extreme
temperatures,
increasing
heavy
precipitation
events, changes
in storm
intensities, and
increasing
frequency of
floods may
increase the
exposure to
and risk
associated with
hazardous
chemicals (i.e.
contained at
RCRA sites.

Thawing
permafrost and
sea ice changes
lead to
damaged roads,
runways, water
and sewer
Relevant
Agency
Direction
RIO
Strategic
Alignment
Plan



























Relevant
EPA Goal
RIO
Strategic
Alignment
Plan Goal
4.4 -See
Existing
Actions
column to
left






















RIO Lead/
Partners
RIO Leads:
Lisa
McArthurUM

Fran Stefan-
Tribal SW
Program Mgr

Partners:
Alaska Native
Villages; rural
communities



















Linked to
Tribes
•






























Sustain-
ability
•






























EJ































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Materials Management and Pollution Prevention Program
Climate change is expected to continue to adversely impact the cost of
raw materials. Materials management enables the use of the highest and
best substitutes for materials that may become scarce or too costly.
Facilitate Climate Change Adaptation by:
-Helping the public and regulated community adapt to the production and
use of new materials, processes, and products that support the transition
to sustainable materials management processes and away from: a) the
use of more costly and limited natural resource based materials, and b)
disposal- based systems with high uncontrolled emission and waste
product management impacts. Materials Management Adaptation work
includes:
- Promoting More Sustainable Practices in Materials Management (SMM)
and in Our Own Cleanup Work through: a) the recruitment and retaining
participants for the Federal Green Challenge (helping our federal partners
to reduce their GHG emissions through work on energy, transportation,
waste and water), and b) recruiting for the Food Recovery Challenge in
support of the EPA's Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Program
which seeks to reduce the environmental impact of a material throughout
its entire life cycle - including how it is extracted, manufactured,
distributed, used, recycled, and disposed (See Appendix E - Supporting
Documentation).
Vulnerability


systems, and
other
infrastructure
including solid
waste landfills
and RCRA
containment
sites.
Increased
impacts from
GHG emissions
released from
non-sustainable
materials
mgmt.
practices.














Relevant
Agency
Direction








RIO
Strategic
Alignment
Plan

WCMMF
















Relevant
EPA Goal









Goal 4.6-
Sustainable
Materials
Mgmt


















RIO Lead/
Partners









RIO Leads:
Kris Colt DM

Federal
Green
Challenge:
Melissa
Winters

Food
Recovery
Challenge &
WCMMF:
Ashley Zanolli

Partners:
R9; state and
local
governments



Linked to
Tribes
































Sustain-
ability









•





















EJ
































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- Continuing to work with state and local governments through the West
Coast Climate and Materials Management Forum (WCMMF) in their
transition to materials management.
Vulnerability

Relevant
Agency
Direction

Relevant
EPA Goal

RIO Lead/
Partners

Linked to
Tribes

Sustain-
ability

EJ


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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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Office of Water and Watersheds




Vulnerability


Relevant
Agency
Direction
Relevant
EPA Goal

RIO Lead/
Partners

Linked to
Tribes


Sustain-
ability

EJ



Water infrastructure
Work with the State of Alaska in the R&D of alternative technologies with
providing first time service to unserved homes in a more sustainable way
compared to a traditional piped system. The State has provided $1M for this
effort.. The most promising proposals for pilot system development will be
identified in 2013. Systems approved for field installation and testing will be
identified in 2014. Field testing is expected to begin in 2015 and be concluded by
2016.


Work with the WaterSense program to reach out to potential partners to
encourage water efficiency in homes, landscaping and commercial buildings. A
focus is new homes.


Continue implementing the Sustainable Energy Management Program with a
Western Washington cohort of drinking water and wastewater utilities. This
project is led by Washington State University-Energy Extension, with support
from several partners.

Freshwater fisheries
Continue with pilot program for including Climate Change in an ongoing TMDL
EPA Region 10 and ORD Corvallis are working with the Washington Department
of Ecology, the Lummi Nation and the Nooksack Tribe to identify the best way to
integrate available climate change data into Ecology's TMDL for temperature
stress on salmon in the South Fork Nooksack River, Washington. This will provide
a case study of both process and climate change science as a basis to support

Melting
permafrost







2A: Drought,
floods,



2A: drought,
floods,
erosion, heavy
precipitation


Increased
temperatures.





RIO strategic
alignment plan;
sustainability






RIO strategic
alignment plan;
National Water
Program
Strategy
National Water
Program
Strategy; RIO
strategic
alignment plan;

RIO strategic
alignment plan;





Building
Strong
State &
Tribal
Partnershi
ps, EJ,
Protecting
America's
Waters
Goals 1, 2,
and 3



Goals 1, 2,
and 3




Goals 1
and 2 and
Regional
Goal?



RIO Lead:
OWW-
Dennis
Wagner

Partner:
State of
Alaska

RIO Lead:
Bevin Horn



RIO Lead:
Cyndi Grafe




RIO Leads:
OEA-Bruce
Duncan;
OWW-
Laurie Mann


•



















•






•








•




•





•






•

























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future Tribal Consultation, Co-Management, Policy and Regulation Development
as needed. Examining the way temperature can be improved in the Nooksack
watershed in order to support salmon restoration is a high priority for the
Nooksack and Lummi Tribes. The climate change pilot will identify available
science for the watershed, and document technical issues in a parallel effort to
the ongoing TMDL




Training and Outreach
Maintain current participation in the National Water Program Climate Change
Workgroup, including identifying a single point of contact for the Regional water
program.
Help to develop and implement the Office of Water Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan (due to the Council on Environmental Quality in Fall 2013)
and to coordinate between the National Water Program 2012 Strategy and the
EPA Regional Adaptation Implementation Plans
After the Fall completion of the Office of Water Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan, provide training for water program staff on the challenges
that climate change poses for water programs, and familiarize them with the
National Water Program Climate Strategy and Regional Climate Adaptation Plans
through a variety of means such as "all hands" meetings, webinars, seminars,
and dissemination of the plans
Support national program efforts to inform and educate water program
managers in the public and private sectors on climate change and water issues
through a variety of means such as identifying key stakeholders and expanding
professional networks, improving educational outreach efforts on National and
Vulnerability






























Relevant
Agency
Direction











OW Climate
Strategy

OW Climate
Strategy; RIO
strategic
alignment plan;
OW Climate
Strategy; RIO
strategic
alignment plan;


OW Climate
Strategy; RIO
strategic
alignment plan;
Relevant
EPA Goal












Goals 1
and 2.

Goals 1
and 2.


Goals 1
and 2.




Goals 1
and 2.


RIO Lead/
Partners

ORD-WED-
Steve Klein

Partners:
WA Dept
Ecology
Nooksack
Tribe
Lummi
Nation

RIO Lead:
Paula
VanHaagen
RIO Lead:
Paula
VanHaagen

RIO Lead:
Mike Cox




RIO Lead:
Mike Cox


Linked to
Tribes






























Sustain-
ability

























•



EJ






























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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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Regional climate change websites and in other media, and disseminating clear
and credible messaging on climate change science and impacts
In program meetings with States and Tribes in 2013, include discussion of
ongoing Agency and Region climate change adaptation planning, the new
National Water Program climate change strategy, and climate change activities
related to State water programs as appropriate
Coordinate with the regional offices of other Federal agencies on climate change
adaptation matters and participate, where appropriate, with related interagency
cooperative and collaborative efforts to address climate change challenges on a
regional scale
Work with municipal and private water utilities to promote their use of the new
Climate Ready Resilience and Awareness (GREAT) Version 2.0 to recognize and
respond to climate change risks, and with National Estuary Program partners to
promote the use of the new Climate Ready Estuaries Vulnerability Assessment
Handbook to develop local climate resilience plans
Work with States, Tribes, municipalities, non-profit organizations and businesses
to promote the Water Sense Program in the region



Support the national Water Program in revising the State Revolving Loan Funds
"Green" paper and the Annual Review Guidance for on-site reviews to
incorporate climate change, including a new "Climate Change" checklist. The
Green paper will provide information on best practices and tools to help state
SRF programs support climate change activities. The guidance and checklist
would identify opportunities for States to develop priorities and make
investments that respond to the climate change risks in that State
Vulnerability





























Relevant
Agency
Direction


OW Climate
Strategy


OW Climate
Strategy


OW Climate
Strategy;
National Water
Program
Strategy
OW Climate
Strategy;
National Water
Program
Strategy
OW Climate
Strategy





Relevant
EPA Goal



Goals 1
and 2 and
Regional
Goal?
Goals 1
and 2.


Goals 1
and 2 and
sustainabi
lity.

Goals 1
and 2 and
sustainabi
lity.

Goals 1
and 2 and
sustainabi
lity.



RIO Lead/
Partners



RIO Lead:
Mike Cox


RIO Lead:
Mike Cox


RIO Lead:
Paula
vanHaagen


RIO Lead:
Bevin Horn



RIO Lead:
Paula
vanHaagen




Linked to
Tribes




•












•











Sustain-
ability











•




•




•






EJ






















•






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Office of Ecosystems, Tribal, and Public Affairs


Vulnerability
Relevant
Agency
Direction
Relevant
EPA Goal
RIO Lead/
Partners
Linked to
Tribes
Sustain-
ability
EJ

NEPA
Through NEPA review comments, seek to protect waters of the
United States and promote management of sustainable surface
water resources.
Encourage green infrastructure and low-impact development to
protect water quality and make watersheds more resilient
Through NEPA review, ensure consideration of climate change on
federal projects that may be at risk due to inundation, flooding, or
salt water intrusion
• Retention ponds at mine sites
• Transportation/road infrastructure (road/rail/culvert
failure)
• Dam sites
• Flood risk management (levies)
Work with federal partners through the NEPA process to identify,
protect, and maintain a network of healthy watersheds and
supportive habitat corridor networks
• Collaborate with partners on terrestrial ecosystems and
hydrology so that effects on water quality and aquatic
ecosystems are considered.

Decreasing
precipitation days
and increasing
drought intensity
Increasing risk of
floods
Changes in
abundance and
geographical
distributions of plant
species and habitats
for aquatic and
terrestrial wildlife

National
Water
Program
Strategy124

National
Water
Program
Strategy125

Goal 2.
Goal 2.
Goal 2.

RIO Lead:
NEPA Review staff
Partners: Lead
federal agency
(HUD, DOT, STB)
RIO Lead:
NEPA Review staff
Partners: Lead
federal agency
(BLM,USFS
FERC,USBR, DOT,
STB)
RIO Lead: NEPA
Review Staff
Partners:
Lead federal
agency (USFS,
BLM, NPS, USFWS)












124 Goal 12 SA 33. See http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/upload/NWP_Draft_Strategy_03-27-2012.pdf
125 Goal 3 SA 9.  See http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/upload/NWP_Draft_Strategy_03-27-2012.pdf
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Work with federal partners through the NEPA process to
incorporate climate resilience into watershed restoration and
floodplain management
• Work with partners to protect and enhance buffers to
rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands, and coastal resources as
a means of building resiliency

Work with federal partners through the NEPA process to
incorporate climate change adaptation into forest restoration
plans
• Encourage appropriate use of prescribed
burning/thinning to reduce risk of uncharacteristic
wildfire. Where appropriate, encourage managing for
species best adapted to future climate

ETPA will include ocean acidification language in NEPA review
comment letters as appropriate.
• Refine template language in letters and example NEPA
analyses that include ocean acidification information


Wetlands
Wetlands and Climate Change Research Meeting focused on new
approaches and tools to better understand, manage, and conserve
wetlands in a changing climate.

Vulnerability


Changes in
abundance and
geographical
distributions of plant
species and habitats
for aquatic and
terrestrial wildlife
Increased frequency
or intensity of
wildfires





Increase in ocean
temperatures, with
potential for changes
in ocean chemistry
and increased ocean
acidification

Loss of wetland
ecosystems and
services

Relevant
Agency
Direction
National
Water
Program
Strategy126



RIO Strategic
Alignment.






RIO Strategic
Alignment.





U.S.EPA
Climate
Adaptation
Plan127
Relevant
EPA Goal

Goal 2.






Goal 1.







Goal 2.






Goal 2.



RIO Lead/
Partners

RIO Lead: NEPA
Review Staff
Partners:
Lead federal
agency (Forest
Service, BLM, Park
Service, USFWS)
RIO Lead: NEPA
Review Staff

Partners:
Lead federal
agency (Forest
Service, BLM, Park
Service, USFWS)
RIO Lead: NEPA
Review Staff

Partners:



R10ARU Lead:
Linda Storm

Partners:
Linked to
Tribes




























Sustain-
ability



























EJ




























126 Goal 4 SA 13.  See http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/upload/NWP_Draft_Strategy_03-27-2012.pdf
127 3.3.4 Priority: Strengthen Adaptive Capacity of EPA Staff and Partners Through Training.  http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/pdfs/EPA-climate-change-adaptation-
plan-final-for-public-comment-2-7-13.pdf
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Incorporate climate change considerations into the CWA 404
regulatory program as they relate to permit reviews and
compensatory mitigation
• Consider the effects of climate change, as appropriate,
when making significant degradation determinations in
the CWA Section 404 wetlands permitting and
enforcement program
• Evaluate, in conjunction with the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, how wetland and stream compensation
projects could be selected, designed, and sited to aid in
reducing the effects of climate change
As resources allow, improve baseline information on wetland
extent, condition and performance to inform effective adaptation
to climate change
• Expand wetland mapping by supporting wetland mapping
coalitions and training on use of the new federal Wetland
Mapping Standard.
• Produce a statistically valid ecological condition
assessment of the nation's wetlands
FY13 and FY14 Region 10 Wetland Program Development Grants
RFP integrates climate adaptation by considering how the design
Vulnerability





Loss of wetland
ecosystems and
services








Loss of wetland
ecosystems and
services







Relevant
Agency
Direction



National
Water
Program
Strategy128







National
Water
Program
Strategy129






Relevant
EPA Goal




Goal 2.










Goal 2.









RIO Lead/
Partners

OEA and the RIO
Science Advisory
Council
RIO Lead:
Linda Storm

Partners:
USAGE






RIO Lead:
Maryann Thiesing

Partners:
ORD, USFWS, UW
Wetlands
Adaptation Group



Linked to
Tribes


























Sustain-
ability

























EJ


























128National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change. Available at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/upload/NWP_Draft_Strategy_03-27-
2012.pdf
129National Water Program 2012 Strategy: Response to Climate Change. Available at http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/upload/NWP_Draft_Strategy_03-27-
2012.pdf
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and installation of demonstration projects would take relevant
potential impacts from climate change into account when
considering long-term viability 13°
Ocean Programs
Participate in interagency development and implementation of
federal strategies through the National Ocean Council (NOC) and
the National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan
Tribes
Build the capacity of Tribes to develop adaptation actions (plans)
and to engage in the collaboration with local, state and federal
agencies.
EPA RIO Tribal Trust and Assistance Program will provide GAP
funding as appropriate to support Tribes who have climate change
in their GAP workplans to learn how to research climate change
impacts upon their environment, natural resources, infrastructure
to be used for development of a planning mechanism for
adaptation and mitigation.
Through the GAP program, Tribes may be able to do baseline
environmental assessments that will add to documentation of the
impact on climate change on Tribal communities and their
ecosystems and support their adaptation planning.
Vulnerability


Increase in ocean
temperatures, with
potential for changes
in ocean chemistry
and increased ocean
acidification

All (mitigation)
All
All
Relevant
Agency
Direction


National
Water
Program
Strategy131

Regional
Tribal
Operations
Committee
RTOC
National
Tribal Science
Council
Relevant
EPA Goal


Goal 2.

Goal 1.
Goal 1.
Goal 1.
RIO Lead/
Partners


RIO Lead:
Sediment
Management Staff
Partners:
NOC

RIO Lead: Michelle
Davis-TTAU;
RIO Lead :TTAU;
AIEO/OITA
Partners: RIO
Tribal
Governments

Linked to
Tribes




•

•
Sustain-
ability




•


EJ







130 http://www.epa.gov/regionlO/pdf/wetlands/FY13_Wetland_Program_Development_Grants_Request_for_Proposals.pdf
131 Goal 11SA 28 and SA 31. See http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/upload/NWP_Draft_Strategy_03-27-2012.pdf
                                                                                                                            72 Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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Share information to support climate change educational outreach
and adaptation activities within Tribal communities

Tribal Program staff will regularly submit articles on climate
change to Tribal newsletters.

Coordinate with other programs and their Tribal specialists on
climate change info and resources to include in the EPA Tribal
newsletter.
Continue to offer quarterly calls to Alaskan Tribes with Institute for
Tribal Environmental Professionals on tribal climate change
adaptation models and resources.

Puget Sound Program
Address Climate change in Puget Sound Grants, consistent with
the Puget Sound Action Agenda. Grant activities include: Conduct
an erosion survey to evaluate sea level rise threat in San Juan
County; b) Map habitat and infrastructure vulnerability in Puget
Sound and restoration potential for reducing vulnerability; c)
Several Tribes and counties will incorporate climate change in their
plans and/or analyses. Puget Sound Grant partners include:
Puget Sound Partnership, Friends of the San Juan's, The Nature
Conservancy, Snohomish County, Washington Dept. of Ecology,
Samish Indian Nation, Swinomish Tribe, Nooksack Tribe,
Suquamish Tribe, Port Gamble Indian Commission.
Puget Sound Partnership is working to control source pollution.
• No Discharge Zone Evaluation and Petition. Draft petition
to EPA by September 2013
Vulnerability


All


All





All




Sea Level
Rise/erosion









Increasing heavy
precipitation events.
Increased pollutant
Relevant
Agency
Direction
National
Tribal Science
Council
2010 Tribal
Leader's
Summit
Action Plan


2010 Tribal
Leader's
Summit
Action Plan

Puget Sound
Action
Agenda








Puget Sound
Action
Agenda132
Relevant
EPA Goal

Goal 1.


Goal 1.





Goal 1.




Goal 2.










Goal 2.


RIO Lead/
Partners










RIO Lead: Michelle
Davis

Partners: ITEP

RIO Lead:
ETPA/Puget Sound:
Angela Bonifaci;
See partner list
under description






RIO Lead: EPA
Team

Linked to
Tribes


•


•





•




•













Sustain-
ability















•













EJ






























  1 http://www.psp.wa.gov/downloads/AA2011/083012Jinal/Action%20Agenda%20Book%201JUjg%2029%202012.pdf
                                                                                                                  73  Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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• Pollution Control Action Team to respond quickly when
areas are identified where water quality problems
threaten shellfish areas. The first effort will be in Drayton
Harbor and Portage Bay.
• Pollution Identification and Correction Programs to
identify and correct nonpoint source pollution sources.
The Puget Sound Partnership has developed climate change
indicators which will allow them to track climate-driven changes
and identify vulnerabilities or ecological thresholds





Puget Sound Grants process integrates climate adaptation
concepts by considering how the design and installation of
projects would take relevant potential impacts from climate
change into account



A four part effort, comprising climate statistics, GIS visualization
and analysis, data delivery platform development, and
engagement with policy and management entities, will underlie
the proposed development and delivery of information about the
Vulnerability


loads in runoff and
the velocity of runoff
will scour and erode
creek beds.


Increase in ocean
temperatures, with
potential for changes
in ocean chemistry
and increased ocean
acidification


All






All



Relevant
Agency
Direction






Climate
Ready
Estuaries133

National
Water
Program
Strategy134
U.S. EPA
Climate
Adaptation
Plan/ FY
2011-2015
EPA Strategic
Plan135
Puget Sound
NEP.


Relevant
EPA Goal







Goal 2.







Goal 2.






Goal 2.



RIO Lead/
Partners

Partner: Puget
Sound Partnership,
Washington
Department of
Ecology,
DOH,WSDA, Tribes
RIO Lead: Michael
Rylko

Partners:
OCPD, National
Estuary Programs,
EPA Climate
Change Division
RIO Lead:
Puget Sound
Grants Team




RIO Lead: Jon
Schweiss.

Partners: UW
Linked to
Tribes



























Sustain-
ability


























EJ



























133Climate Ready Estuaries 2012 Progress Report. Available at http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/cre/upload/CRE_2012Report_122612a.pdf
134 Goal 9, SA 23. See http://water.epa.gov/scitech/climatechange/upload/NWP_Draft_Strategy_03-27-2012.pdf
135 3.3.1 Priority: Fulfill Strategic Measures in FY2011-2015 EPA Strategic Plan. Strategic Measure 2: Integrate climate adaptation into financial mechanisms.
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/pdfs/EPA-climate-change-adaptation-plan-final-for-public-comment-2-7-13.pdf
                                                                                                                                     74 Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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projected time of emergence of various elements of a changing
climate in the Puget Sound Basin.
Children's health and vulnerable populations
Through work on children's health, develop and host training for
professionals in the housing, health and educational fields on
making indoor environments healthier for the most vulnerable
populations







Provide technical assistance and training to affected communities
on risks associated with poor outdoor air quality
• Work with Tribal Air Program
• Convene Rural Alaska Children's Environmental Initiative



Outreach/risk communication to vulnerable and economically
deprived communities.


Vulnerability





Changes in
precipitation,
extreme
temperatures, more
frequent wildfires,
and severe weather
events will impact
outdoor air quality
and indoor air quality
since ambient air is
entrained indoors





Decreasing
precipitation days
and increasing
drought intensity
Relevant
Agency
Direction



















U.S.EPA
Climate
Adaptation
Plan
Relevant
EPA Goal




Goal land
Regional
Goal 7








Goal land
Regional
Goals 6 and
7.



Regional
Goals 6 and
7.

RIO Lead/
Partners




RIO Lead:
Margo Young









RIO Lead:
Margo Young, Erin
Mader

Partners:
EPA Tribal Air
Program, ANCH
RIO Lead:
Sheryl Stohs

Partners:
Linked to
Tribes
















*








Sustain-
ability
























EJ





•










*




•



                                                                                                      75 Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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Regional Clean Air Act Grants are provided to Tribes to build
capacity and knowledge and assess and address air quality
concerns. Many grant-funded programs aim to prevent the
presence of and exposure to indoor air pollution, for example,
through supporting clean burning practices for wood stoves and
adequate and effective ventilation in homes and public buildings.
Ambient pollutants are also targeted, for example, from idling
vehicles, diesel generators, outdoor burning, agricultural burning,
wood stoves, and wildfires. Many of these factors will worsen
with climate change, making tribal capacity building in these areas
critical.
Region 10's Children's Environmental Health and Tribal Air
Program co-lead the Rural Alaska Children's Environmental Health
Initiative and its two active workgroups, the Alaska Healthy Homes
and the Alaska Healthy Schools Workgroups. These groups were
established in December 2010 and work together regularly to
protect children from harmful environmental exposures in rural
Alaska, including factors related to climate change.
The Tribal Air Program has an IPA position in the Anchorage office
serving as the Alaska Tribal Air Liaison. She provides direct
assistance to Alaska Tribes and GAP grantees to do air quality
work, including climate change related topics.
Other actions
As appropriate, communicate with the public about hazards posed
by climate change and EPA response/ remedies to events
exacerbated by climate change (storm events, flood, drought)
Vulnerability


Increasing risk of
floods


Indoor air quality










All.






Air quality




All


Relevant
Agency
Direction




RIO Strategic
Alignment
Plan.








RIO Strategic
Alignment
Plan.




RIO Strategic
Alignment
Plan.


U.S.EPA
Climate

Relevant
EPA Goal





Regional
Goals 6 and
7.








Goals 6 and
7.





Goals 6 and
7.



GoalS.


RIO Lead/
Partners

Beyond Toxics,
Eugene; Verde of
Portland; DRCC of
Seattle
RIO Lead: Erin
Mader

Partners: Tribes







RIO Lead: Erin
Mader

Partners: Tribes



RIO Lead: Michelle
Davis
Partners: Tribes


RIO Lead: Public
Affairs Unit

Linked to
Tribes






•










•






•







Sustain-
ability































EJ

















•






•







                                                                                                      76 Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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As appropriate, raise public awareness about climate change and
actions being taken by the EPA to address climate change


Puget Sound Projects
Vulnerability and Resilience of Puget Sound Estuaries to Climate
Change. Vulnerability assessments will allow decision makers to
understand known risks, key uncertainties and the level of
vulnerability their habitats and communities face from future
storms and elevated sea levels (Cooper et al. 2008).











The Puget Sound Partnership plans to launch a tree
planting/canopy cover campaign in FY13


In FY13, Snohomish County's Department of Public Works will
address the threats of climate change and increased population
growth with a focus on addressing altered basin hydrology.
Vulnerability




All




In the Puget Sound
basin these include
increased winter
precipitation, higher
river flooding, lower
summer low flows
(Hamlet and
Lettenmaier 2007),
sea level rise (Mote
etal. 2008), and
uncertain effects on
wind storms,
sediment
recruitment, and
larger scale wind and
ocean currents.
Increased stream
temperatures


Change in basin
hydrology

Relevant
Agency
Direction
Adaptation
Plan
U.S.EPA
Climate
Adaptation
Plan

Puget Sound
Action Plan.
Objective 3.
Vulnerability
analysis











Puget Sound
Partnership
Stewardship
grant
Puget Sound
NEP.

Relevant
EPA Goal



GoalS.




Goal 2.















Goal 2.



Goal 2


RIO Lead/
Partners



RIO Lead: Public
Affairs Unit



RIO Lead: Michael
Rylko

Partners: The
Nature
Conservancy in
collaboration with
USGS and UWCIG








RIO Lead:

Partner: Puget
Sound Partnership
RIO Lead:


Linked to
Tribes
































Sustain-
ability































EJ
































                                                                                                      77 Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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June 2014



The Washington State Department of Ecology will continue to
work on a Puget Sound Circulation and Dissolved Oxygen Model
(v2.0) in order to determine climate change effects on Puget
Sound water quality.
King County will produce modeled flow and water quality
conditions in the rivers and streams of WRIA 9 for idealized fully
forested conditions, and anticipated 2040 conditions considering
population growth and climate change
Tribal Related projects in Puget Sound
The Samish Indian Nation will continue its climate change
monitoring of Fidalgo Bay waters in FY13 providing continuous
temperature data for trend analysis
The Swinomish Tribe will hold its annual workshop on climate
change issues in the Skagit, with a written report to follow
The Nooksack Tribe will attend climate change conferences,
meeting, and presentations, and review technical reports to
evaluate the magnitude of expected local changes. This
Vulnerability

Increase in ocean
temperature.
Sea level rise.

Increasing ocean
temperature.
All.
All.
Relevant
Agency
Direction

Puget Sound
NEP.
Puget Sound
NEP.

Puget Sound
NEP.
Puget Sound
NEP.
Puget Sound
NEP.
Relevant
EPA Goal

Goal 2.
Goal 2.

Goal 2 and
Regional
Goal 7.
Goal 2 and
Regional
Goal 7.
Goal 2 and
Regional
Goal 7.
RIO Lead/
Partners
Partner:
Snohomish
County's
Department of
Public Works
RIO Lead: Ben
Cope
Partner: WA
Ecology
RIO Lead: Michael
Rylko
Partner: King
County.

RIO Lead: Lisa
Chang
Partner: Samish
Indian Nation
RIO lead: Lisa
Chang
Partner:
Swinomish Tribe
RIO lead: Lisa
Chang
Linked to
Tribes




•
•
•
Sustain-
ability







EJ







                                                                                                      78 Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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information will be considered in the salmon recovery plan
implementation for WRIA 1
The Suquamish Tribe will continue to monitor the work of the
Climate Change Study Group, review climate change related
studies and documents, and attend related meetings in order to
build tribal capacity with respect to climate change
The Port Gamble Indian Commission of the Port Gamble Reserve
plans to participate in climate change and ocean acidification
programs in order to inform the development of a climate change
program in FY13
Vulnerability

All.
Ocean acidification.
Relevant
Agency
Direction

Puget Sound
NEP.
Puget Sound
NEP.
Relevant
EPA Goal

Goal 2 and
Regional
Goal 7.
Goal 2 and
Regional
Goal 7.
RIO Lead/
Partners
Partner: Nooksack
Tribe
RIO lead: Lisa
Chang
Partner:
Suquamish Tribe
RIO lead: Lisa
Change
Partner: Port
Gamble Indian
Commission
Linked to
Tribes

•
•
Sustain-
ability



EJ



                                                                                                      79 Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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June 2014
Office of Environmental Assessment




Vulnerability


Relevant
Agency
Direction
Relevant
EPA Goal

RIO Lead/
Partners

Linked to
Tribes


Su stain-
ability

EJ



Inreach Project - Meet with each unit within OEA (including our
Manchester Environmental Laboratory Director) and determine where
climate science can be used in our work for programs:
e.g., EJ related apps and heat stress/vegetation; riparian setbacks and
hyporheic flow models; TMDL models; Any modeling involving
temperature or flow terms.
Regional Outreach/Training - Continue to brief offices on vulnerabilities
and tee up discussions where climate science can be used in decisions.



Coordination with other federal agencies by participating on Climate
Change Cooperative



Support Pacific NW Landscape Conservation Cooperative - Steering
Committee - OEA Director, Sci TEK subcommittee - CC Science Advisor



Participate on the National Tribal Science Council, and support actions
related to climate change and tribes


All





All




All




All coastal &
marine-related



All



RIO Strategic
Alignment
plan



RIO Strategic
Alignment
plan


RIO Strategic
Alignment
plan


RIO Strategic
Alignment
plan


National
Tribal Science
Council






















Goal 1.



RIO Lead: Mike
Cox

Partners: POCs in
Offices

RIO Lead: Mike
Cox

Partners: POC in
offices
RIO Lead: Mike
Cox;

Partners: Other
federal agencies
RIO Leads: Joyce
Kelly an; Mike
Cox;
Partners: NPLCC
participants.
RIO Lead: Lon
Kissinger

Partners: RTOC
•





•




•




•




•



•





•


















•





•


















                                                                                                  80 Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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June 2014
Office of Compliance and Enforcement



Vulnerability

Relevant Agency
Direction
Relevant
EPA Goal
RIO Lead/
Partners
Linked to
Tribes

Su stain-
ability
EJ


Climate change may have more impact on overburdened communities as
these communities, due to various concerns, adapt less well than other
communities. OCE is using an Environmental Justice Screening tool to
identify regulated facilities located in these overburdened communities.
This tool was nationally developed to screen for communities with
environmental justice concerns for implementation in various EPA
programs.
Permitting Class 1 Underground Injection Control (UIC) Wells in the North
Slope of Alaska. The permafrost in the North Slope of Alaska has been
identified as a vulnerable resource. In substitution for retention ponds
used to store oil and gas industry's drilling wastes, the UIC program
continues to permit several Class 1 wells for underground injection of
those wastes. This reduces the need to establish waste retention ponds
on the increasingly vulnerable permafrost.
Continuing to support the Regional Support Corps by deploying staff for
varying emergency response efforts (e.g. Hurricane Katrina).




Continuing to look for opportunities to encompass green infrastructure
as part of settlement agreements. An example of this is the City of
Seattle, Washington and King County, Washington CSO settlement
agreements. These settlements allow for the City of Seattle and King
County to substitute green infrastructure projects for gray infrastructure
projects (e.g. green roofs, permeable pavements, urban gardens).
All






Permafrost
thawing.





All





All





RIO Strategic
Alignment plan





RIO Strategic
Alignment plan





RIO Strategic
Alignment plan




RIO Strategic
Alignment plan




GoalS






GoalS






GoalS
and
Operation
s and
Facilities.

GoalS





RIO Lead:
Anne
Dalrymple

Partners:
Running
Grass
RIO Lead: UIC
Compliance
Team

Partners:


RIO Lead:
Wendy
Adams

Partners: Ann
Williamson
RIO Lead:
Depends on
the case.

Partners:








•






































•





•

























                                                                                                 81 Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan
                                June 2014
Appendix D: Comparison of Vulnerabilities and EPA Region 10
Existing Actions

Appendix D compares the vulnerabilities identified in Section 2 and Appendix B with the existing actions
identified in Section 3 and Appendix C.  This comparison provides valuable information as EPA Region 10
evaluates how to best proceed to integrate climate change into the programs.

                Goal 1: Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
Vulnerability
Increase in tropospheric ozone pollution may
occur in certain areas due to increased average
summertime temperature
Increase in air toxics from anthropogenic sources
is uncertain due to variability in effects of
temperature increase on individual air toxics.
Increase in particulate matter levels is occurring
now and is very likely to increase due to increased
frequency or intensity of wildfires due to
increased summertime temperatures, prolonged
droughts, and decreased soil moisture.
Indoor air quality is very likely to be impacted,
especially in Alaska, due to changes in
precipitation, extreme temperatures, more
frequent wildfires, and severe weather events.
Stratospheric ozone layer is likely to be impacted
in Alaska due to climate change effects
Increased rate and deposition of sulfates, nitrates,
and mercury is uncertain due to changes in
precipitation patterns.
Action(s)
No specific existing actions.
No specific existing actions.
No specific existing actions.
Develop and host training for professionals
(housing, medical, schools) on making indoor
environments healthier for the most vulnerable.
Assist Tribes to build capacity and knowledge and
assess and address air quality concerns including
those related to climate change through the
Regional Clean Air Act Grants.
No specific existing actions.
No specific existing actions.

                             Goal 2: Protecting America's Water
                Vulnerability
                 Action(s)
 Drinking water, wastewater, stormwater, and
 agricultural infrastructure is likely to be impacted
 by increased heavy precipitation, more frequent
 flood events, storm surge, coastal erosion, and
 drought.
Work with the State of Alaska to identify
alternative technologies for providing first time
service to unserved homes in a more sustainable
way compared to a traditional piped system.

Work with the Water Sense program to
encourage water efficiency in homes, landscaping
and commercial buildings with a focus on new
homes.


                               82 |

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan
                                  June 2014
                 Vulnerability
                  Action(s)
                                               Continue implementing the Sustainable Energy
                                               Management Program with a Western
                                               Washington cohort of drinking water and
                                               wastewater utilities.
 Impacts to freshwater fisheries is occurring now
 and likely to increase due to earlier stream runoff
 and scouring of streambeds due to earlier snow
 melt, decreased summer stream flows and
 increased steam temperatures, and longer
 periods of low stream flow.
Continue with pilot program examining how to
integrate climate change in an ongoing TMDL by
examining how temperature can be improved in
the Nooksack watershed in order to support
salmon restoration.
 Estuarine watersheds, aquatic ecosystems, and
 wetlands are very likely to be impacted by sea-
 level rise, sea surface temperature and increasing
 heavy precipitation events during the winter
 months, and decreasing precipitation days and
 increasing drought intensity during the summer
 months.
Coordinate a Wetlands and Climate Change
Research Meeting focused on new approaches
and tools to better understand, manage, and
conserve wetlands in a changing climate.

Incorporate climate change considerations into
the CWA 404 regulatory program as they relate to
permit reviews and compensatory mitigation.

As resources allow, improve baseline information
on wetland extent, condition and performance to
inform effective adaptation to climate change.

Integrate climate adaptation  in the FFY13/14
Region 10 Wetland  Program Development Grants
RFP.
 Forest ecosystems will likely be impacted by
 warming temperatures and more frequent and
 intense drought conditions.
Through the NEPA review process ensure
consideration of climate change in review of all
federal projects and incorporate climate change
adaptation into land management planning and
other projects as appropriate.	
 Loss of sea ice is occurring now and will very likely
 increase in Alaska due to warming air and water
 temperatures.
No specific existing actions.
 Ocean acidification is occurring now and is very
 likely to increase due to increasing concentrations
 of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Include ocean acidification language in NEPA
review comment letters as appropriate and
develop template language in letters and example
NEPA analyses that include ocean acidification
information.

Participate in interagency development and
implementation of federal strategies through the
National Ocean Council (NOC) and the National
Ocean Policy Implementation Plan
 Change in vegetation is likely in eastern
 Washington and Oregon and Idaho due to pest
 outbreaks, invasive species, increased fire, shifts
 in species ranges and increased erosion, drier
 soils, and depletion of water.
Through the NEPA review process ensure
consideration of climate change in review of all
federal projects and incorporate climate change
adaptation into land management planning and
other projects as appropriate.
                                                                                 83 (Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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                                  June 2014
                 Vulnerability
                  Action(s)
 Puget Sound: Many of these projects address
 multiple vulnerabilities.
Support Tribal projects on climate change in Puget
Sound through the National Estuary Program.  A
listing of those projects is included in Appendix C.

Continue to support projects in Puget Sound
related to climate change.  There are several on-
going projects that are highlighted in Appendix C.

Work with the University of Washington to
develop a system for visualizing and analyzing a
variety of climate change-related features that are
shifting with time and probability across the
Region.
 Training and Outreach
Inform and educate water program managers in
the public and private sectors on climate change
and water issues and EPA related activities such as
the National and Regional climate change
adaptation strategies.

Work with States, Tribes, municipalities, non-
profit organizations and businesses to promote
the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) and
Climate Ready Estuaries (CRE) Programs and new
Climate Ready Resilience and Awareness (GREAT)
Version 2.0.

Support Development of a Climate Change
Section in the "Green" Paper for the State
Revolving Loan Funds and Annual Review
Checklists.
             Goal 3: Cleaning Up Communities and Advancing Sustainable Development
Vulnerability
Remedial, removal, brownfield, corrective action
or permitted sites may be impacted due to
flooding, sea level risk, storm surges, extreme
events, and landslides.
Increase in work for Alaska's Tribal and
emergency response programs is occurring now
and likely to increase due to thawing permafrost
and changes in sea ice that leads to damage of
roads, runways, water and sewer systems, and
other infrastructure.
EPA Region 10, Tribal and state partners will have
increasing workloads in many aspects of site and
waste management as well as work related to the
formation and implementation of sustainable
Action(s)
No specific existing actions.
Work with federally recognized tribes in Region
10 to address landfills and unconfined open
dumps which are impacted by climate change and
help develop appropriate responses to these
threats.
Work with our partners through the West Coast
Climate and Materials Management Forum and
our pollution prevention technical assistance
providers and grants to assist in the transition to
                                                                                 84 | P a g e

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan
                                   June 2014
 development and materials management
 programs, partnerships and initiatives.
sustainable materials management processes and
source reduction.
 Availability of raw materials and the cost of
 mining and refining raw materials, producing
 products, transporting products, and disposing
 products may increase due to impacts of climate
 change.
Recruiting and retaining participants for the
Federal Green Challenge and for the Food
Recovery Challenge in support of the EPA's
Sustainable Materials Management (SMM)
Program.
                 Goal 4: Ensuring the Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
                  Vulnerability
                  Action(s)
 Increased exposure and risk to hazardous
 chemicals is likely due to increasing extreme
 temperatures and heavy precipitation events,
 changes in storm intensities, and increasing
 frequency of floods.
Incorporating green remediation in corrective
action decision-making and raising issues
nationally regarding the potential impacts of
climate change on alternative landfill covers.
                              Goal 5: Enforcing Environmental Laws

                  Vulnerability
                  Action(s)
 Non-compliance at regulated entities may
 increase due to extreme weather events and
 changing weather patterns.
Continue to use an Environmental Justice
Screening tool to identify regulated facilities
located in overburdened communities.

Continue to look for opportunities to encompass
green infrastructure as part of settlement
agreements.
 Shift in regional enforcement priorities due to
 changes in compliance (both increased
 compliance and non-compliance in different
 sectors) and increased number of  inquiries from
 industry about maintaining compliance due to
 extreme weather events and changing weather
 patterns.
No specific existing actions.
 Increased permitting of Class VI Underground
 Injection Control (UIC) wells for Carbon Dioxide
 sequestration and Class V UIC wells for
 stormwater management.	
No specific existing actions.
 An increase in regulated industrial activities in
 Alaska may result as the melting of sea ice opens
 new areas for activities.
No specific existing actions.
                                    Facilities and Operations
                  Vulnerability
                  Action(s)
 Drinking water may be limited and an increase in
 demand for air conditioning is possible due to
 increasing drought frequency and intensity.
No specific existing actions.
                                                                                  85 (Page

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
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                                   June 2014
 Operations of Region 10 facilities may be
 impacted by increasing risk of floods and
 increasing intensity of storms.
Continuing to support the Regional Support Corps
by deploying staff for varying emergency
response efforts
                                Tribal and Vulnerable Populations
                  Vulnerability
                   Action(s)
 Vulnerable population such as children, the
 elderly, poor, and the infirm may be at increased
 health risk due to increased temperatures, failing
 infrastructure, and extreme weather events.
Support the Rural Alaska Children's Health
Initiative which works to protect children from
harmful environmental exposures in rural Alaska,
including factors related to climate change.

Through work on children's health, develop and
host training for professionals in the housing,
health and educational fields on making indoor
environments healthier for the most vulnerable
populations.

Provide technical assistance and training to
affected communities on risks associated with
poor outdoor air quality (e.g., work with Tribal Air
Program and convene  Rural Alaska Children's
Environmental Initiative).

Outreach/risk communication to vulnerable and
economically deprived communities.
 Food security for native Alaskans and Tribal
 people in the Pacific Northwest who live a
 subsistence lifestyle may be at risk due to
 warming associated with climate change.
Support Tribes to develop adaptation actions
(plans), to document that impact from climate
change and to engage in the collaboration with
local, state and federal agencies working on broad
based adaptation plans.

Provide GAP funding as appropriate to Tribes with
climate change in their GAP workplans to do
baseline environmental assessments and support
adaptation planning.	
 Increased erosion of shorelines is likely to
 increase risk to coastal native villages due to
 increased intensity of coastal storms and rising
 sea levels.
No specific existing actions.
 Decreased access to clean drinking water is very
 likely due to loss of permafrost.	
No specific existing actions.
 Reduced availability offish and shellfish resources
 is occurring now and is likely to increase due to
 changing water conditions.	
No specific existing actions.
 Training and Outreach which will address all
 vulnerabilities.
Raise awareness by providing educational
outreach, training, and webinars to Tribes and
work with the Institute for Tribal Environmental
Professionals on tribal climate change adaptation
models and resources.
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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan
                                 June 2014
                         Training and Outreach (supports all the goals)
                 Vulnerability
                  Action(s)
 General training and outreach that supports all
 the goals and programs
Provide outreach/trainings to increase awareness
of climate science to regional staff, and work with
staff to incorporate climate science into their
work programs.

Communicate with the public about hazards
posed by climate change and actions being taken
by the EPA to address climate change.

Coordinate with other federal agencies by
participating on Climate Change Cooperative and
supporting the Regional Landscape Conservation
Cooperatives.



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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan                                                          June 2014

Appendix E: EPA Region 10 Approach for Measuring Success

Several key steps to developing the Region 10 approach to meeting our Strategic Alignment Plan,
measuring our progress, and adapting as we go are discussed below. In Region 10 we have identified a
point of contact (POCs) for each of our offices to assist with developing the Implementation Plan and they
will have a critical role in collecting measures from their offices.

Collate the measures and reporting requirements for the existing actions.
Section 3 identifies existing actions that Region 10 has underway.  Many actions are part of the Region 10
Strategic Alignment Plan and SMART (Specific,  Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Time-sensitive) and
some may have measures associated with them.  These available measures will be collated.  For all other
actions, we will seek clarification through our POC network on the status of development of SMART
measures and how to prioritize completion of the SMART process.

Consider developing Logic Model as  the underlying framework for Measures.
Under a Logic Model, the ultimate goal is to measure changes,  commonly called outcomes, which often
are changes in behavior. In the figure below shared nationally  by the Office of Water, goals of awareness
are followed by the desired behavior that climate science is incorporated into federal policies and
programs.  Measures of outcomes also benefit from determining a baseline condition as well as
benchmarks for success. Both of these will be  considered in implementing the Region 10 approach.

The Logic Model example below is based on the following considerations:
        Diagram/Text illustrating the relationships among program elements
    •    Identifies key activities, "players", and expected results
        Identifies program span of control and external influences
       Span of control: Region 10 only has direct influence over key activities &  outputs

The model is developed keeping in mind that:
    •   To meet ultimate goals, Region 10 will seek to change the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of
       others (outcomes).
    •   The challenge of the measurement approach is to balance output vs  outcome measurement.
        In order to obtain Buy-In we will clearly define the purpose of the measurement effort to staff
       (how will the information be used) and minimize staff time needed to report the measures.
    •   We will need to address Measurement "apprehension": Programs recognize progress toward
       outcomes is important, but hesitate to be held "accountable" for things outside their direct
       control.

Consider existing climate vulnerabilities in refining/selecting Measures.
For climate change adaptation, successful adaptation would be measured against conditions we do not
expect to face for several decades.  However, some conditions are occurring now and actions in response
to these conditions are ones where meaningful measures of outcomes could be generated.  In Region 10,
particularly Alaska, we are seeing accelerated changes that are documented in our vulnerability analysis.
And, in Puget Sound, ocean acidification is already affecting larval cultures of oyster growers.

Include other considerations in refining/selecting Metrics:
How many measures are too many?
How "measureable" are the metrics (precision  of language, access & availability of data)?
Output (short term) vs. Outcome (longer term) Focus
Challenges to Analysis:
        How will reporting and analysis take place (process)

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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan                                                          June 2014

        How information can/will be presented to meet the needs of key stakeholders (utility)
        Retaining the flexibility to modify the measurement framework as the program "learns" vs. need
        to retain core metrics for comparability.

Learn from other regions and the national program.
The key areas Region 10 will look for concerning measures are specific benchmarks/ commitments, ease
of reporting, matching with national and regional reporting requirements, ability to adapt/adjust
measures in the future, how closely measures relate to outcomes, and how other efforts have developed
measures based on immediacy of vulnerabilities (for example, how hurricane Sandy and other recent
extreme events have shaped measures developed for the east coast).

How to track and report progress
    •   Consider an annual Highlights of Progress document that is excerpted from the existing Region
        10 reporting requirements and provided in a useful format common to other regions and
        national programs
    •   Consider how our strategic action contacts would report internally on adaptive management
        phase, with guidance provided from the Climate Change Science Advisor
    •   Region 10 Strategic Alignment could include an adaptive management phase at the Goal level in
        Highlights of Progress.
    •   The Climate Change Science Advisor will use the Evaluation and state of management phase to:
            o    Inform any needed changes to the Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation Strategy.
            o    Identify appropriate  performance measures for measuring the effectiveness of the
                Strategy.

Document regional program awareness and use of climate science even as we develop measures.
Even without a logic model structure in place for climate change adaptation actions, in Region 10 we are
seeing awareness of the availability and use of climate science increasing, and can begin to document this
trend. An example is awareness and use of climate science and tools in our Office of Water and
Watersheds TMDL program. For approximately the past two years, we have been conducting an ongoing
pilot project where we have been incorporating climate science into an ongoing temperature TMDL. As
follow-on to this process, the TMDL unit  in March 2013, held an internal demonstration of where to find
downscaled 7Q10 flow data projections under climate change scenario models on an interactive website.
Similarly, our regional wetlands program led (co-sponsored with our Region 10 Science Steering Council) a
workshop on new tools to assess the impact of climate change on wetlands.

Office of Water, Logic model example:
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EPA Region 10 Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan
                         June 2014
                                                    Primary
                                                   Audiences
 Audience
Awareness
Audience
Behavior
                                                                                                     Conditions
Area 3
Coastal and
Ocean: Ocean
and coastal
environment
protected
against climate
change and
against
unintended
adverse
consequences
of responses to
climate
change.



Support
collaborations
creating and
sharing of
information and
best practices
Develop
partnerships that
assist effective
adaptation action
for coastal and
ocean
environments
Ensure that
mitigation and
adaptation
measures are
environmentally
sound

Adjust EPA
programs to
incorporate
shifting
environmental
conditions and
other emerging
threats
EPA Sphere of
Direct Influence
[_
Foster
partnerships,
collaborations,
and
information
sharing

Provide
technical
assistance
Promote best
practices for
climate-
readiness
planning

Develop
climate-
readiness
guidance for
federal
programs,
agencies, and
authorities

Develop
environmental
safety criteria
for offshore
renewables
and CCS


r

EPA's NWP and
NEP programs


U.S. National
Ocean Council

Regional ocean
organizations

State and local
watershed
organizations
Coastal
communities
and planners

Coastal
infrastructure
owners and
operators
F
Examples of a
primary auc
• Shoreline de
trends
Weather, tic
Techno togicc
CCS, renewa
Offshore na\
Renewab te p
Competing p
Emerging cli





1d
ie
ve
at
la
bit
iS
or
lar
na
Understand
strategies for
incorporating
adaptation into
federal policies ft
programs

Aware of
adaptation
options
Aware of
relevant partners
a opportunities
to collaborate/
share
information

Mindful of the
potential hazards
that offshore
renewables and
CCS may pose to
coastal and
ocean resources
tional Influences on
nces:
opment and real estate
and climate conditions
dvances (particularly
s, and IT)
itional dred$in$
folio standards
nin§ considerations
te threats
Integrate
adaptation
considerations
into policies ft
programs at
the federal
level

Incorporate
climate change
a adaptation
considerations
into regional,
state a local
programs a

Engage in
collaborative
partnerships
that ensure
information-
sharing and
prevent
duplication of
efforts
Adjust offshore
renewables
and CCS
permitting
criteria to
consider
adverse effects
to ocean a
coastal
resources
                                                                                                    Climate-change-
                                                                                                    induced risks to
                                                                                                     coastal and
                                                                                                       ocean
                                                                                                    ecosystems and
                                                                                                    infrastructure
                                                                                                    are minimized
                                                                                                     Coastal and
                                                                                                       ocean
                                                                                                    environments
                                                                                                     continue to
                                                                                                    provide current
                                                                                                       levels of
                                                                                                      ecosystem
                                                                                                     services and
                                                                                                    socioeconomic
                                                                                                       benefits
                                                                                                     Coastal and
                                                                                                       ocean
                                                                                                    infrastructure
                                                                                                    and ecosystems
                                                                                                    are protected
                                                                                                    against adverse
                                                                                                   effects of climate
                                                                                                       change
                                                                                                    adaptation and
                                                                                                   mitigation efforts


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