&EPA
      United States
      Environmental Protection
      Agency
              Emerging Contaminants-
  Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)
and  Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)
                                                                        March 2014
                            EMERGING CONTAMINANTS FACT SHEET - PFOS and PFOA
  At a Glance
                                  Introduction
      Fully fluorinated compounds
      that are human-made
      substances and are not
      naturally found in the
      environment.
      Used as a surface-active
      agent and in a variety of
      products, such as firefighting
      foams, coating additives and
      cleaning products.
      Do not hydrolyze, photolyze or
      biodegrade under typical
      environmental conditions and
      are extremely persistent in the
      environment.
      Studies have shown they have
      the potential to bioaccumulate
      and biomagnifyin wildlife.
      Readily absorbed after oral
      exposure and  accumulate
      primarily in the serum, kidney
      and liver.
      Toxicological studies on
      animals indicate potential
      developmental, reproductive
      and systemic effects.
      Health-based advisories or
      screening levels for PFOS and
      PFOA have been developed
      by the EPA and state
      agencies.
      Standard detection methods
      include high-performance
      liquid chromatographyand
      tandem mass spectrometry.
      Common ex situ water
      treatment technologies include
      activated carbon filters and
      reverse osmosis units.
     An "emerging contaminant" is a chemical or material that is characterized by
     a perceived, potential, or real threat to human health or the environment or
     by a lack of published health standards. A contaminant may also be
     "emerging" because a new source or a new pathway to humans has been
     discovered or a new detection method or treatment technology has been
     developed (DoD 2011). This fact sheet,  developed by the U.S. Environmental
     Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office
     (FFRRO), provides a summary of the emerging contaminants
     perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoicacid (PFOA),
     including physical and chemical properties; environmental and health
     impacts; existing federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment
     methods; and additional sources of information. This fact sheet is intended
     for use by site managers who may address PFOS and PFOA at cleanup
     sites or in drinking water supplies and for those in a position to consider
     whether these chemicals should be added to the analytical suite for site
     investigations.

     PFOS and PFOA are extremely persistent in the environment and resistant to
     typical environmental degradation processes. As a result, they are widely
     distributed across the higher trophic levels and are found in soil, air and
     groundwater at sites across the United States. The toxicity, mobility and
     bioaccumulation potential of PFOS and  PFOA pose potential adverse effects
     for the environment and human health.

     What are PFOS and PFOA?	
     * PFOS and PFOA are fully fluorinated, organic compounds and are  the
        two perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) that have been produced in the
        largest amounts within the United States (ATSDR 2009; EFSA 2008).
     > PFOS is a perfluoralkyl sulfonate that is commonly used as a simple salt
        (such as potassium, sodium or ammonium) or is incorporated into larger
        polymers (EFSA 2008; EPA 2009c).
     > PFOA is a perfluoralkyl carboxylate  that is produced synthetically as a
        salt. Ammonium salt is the most widely produced form (EFSA 2008; EPA
        2009c).
       Disclaimer: The U.S. EPA prepared this fact sheet from publicly available sources that
       were available at the time the fact sheet was published; additional information can be
       obtained from the source documents. This fact sheet is not intended to be used as a
       primary source of information and is not intended, nor can it be relied on, to create any
       rights enforceable by any party in litigation with the United States. Mention of trade
       names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for
       use.
 United States
 Environmental Protection Agency
               Solid Waste and
               Emergency Response (5106P)
EPA 505-F-14-001
     March 2014
                                                  1

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  Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet - PFOS and PFOA
What are PFOS and PFOA? (continued)
    PFOS synonyms include 1-octanesulfonicacid,
    heptadecafluoro-, 1-perfluorooctanesulfonicacid,
    heptadecafluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid, perfluoro-
    n-octanesulfonicacid, perfluoroctanesulfonicacid
    and perfluoroctylsulfonicacid (ATSDR2009;
    UNEP2005).
    PFOA synonyms include pentadecafluorol-
    octanoicacid, pentadecafluoro-n-octanoic acid,
    pentadecaflurooctanoicacid, perfluorocaprylic
    acid, perfluoroctanoicacid,
    perfluoroheptanecarboxylicacid and octanoicacid
    (ATSDR2009).
    They are stable chemicals that include long
    carbon chains. Because of their unique lipid- and
    water-repellent characteristics, PFOS and PFOA
    are used as surface-active agents in various high-
    temperature applications and as a coating on
    surfaces that contact with strong  acids or bases
    (Schultz and others 2003; UNEP 2005).
    PFCs are used  in a wide variety of industrial and
    commercial products such as textiles and  leather
    products, metal plating, the photographic industry,
photolithography, semi-conductors, paper and
packaging, coating additives, cleaning products
and pesticides (ATSDR 2009; EPA 2009c; OECD
2002).
Through 2001, PFCs were used to manufacture
Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF). PFOS-
based AFFF is used to extinguish flammable liquid
fires (for example, hydrocarbon fueled), such as
fires involving gas tankers and oil refineries (EPA
2013a;DoDSERDP2012).
They are human-made compounds and do not
occur naturally in the environment (ATSDR 2009;
EPA2009C).
PFOS and PFOA can also be formed by
environmental microbial degradation or by
metabolism in larger organisms from a large group
of related substances or precursor compounds
(ATSDR 2009; UNEP 2006).
The 3M Company, the primary manufacturer of
PFOS, completed a voluntary phase-out of PFOS
production in  2002 (ATSDR 2009; 3M 2008).
                     Exhibit 1:  Physical and Chemical Properties of PFOS and PFOA
   (ATSDR 2009; Brooke and others 2004; EFSA 2008; Environment Canada 2012; EPA 2002b; OECD 2002;
                                           UNEP 2006)
Property
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number
Physical Description (physical state at room
temperature and atmospheric pressure)
Molecular weight (g/mol)
Water solubility at 25C (mg/L)
Melting Point (C)
Boiling point (C)
Vapor pressure at 20 C (mm Hg)
Octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow)
Organic-carbon partition coefficient (log KOC)
Henry's law constant (atm-m3/mol)
Half-Life
PFOS (Potassium Salt)
2795-39-3
White powder
538
550 to 570 (purified), 370 (fresh
water), 25 (filtered sea water)
>400
Not measurable
2.48X10"b
Not measurable
2.57 (Value estimated based on
anion and not the salt)
3.05 x 10'9
Atmospheric: 114 days
Water: > 41 years (at 25 C)
PFOA (Free Acid)
335-67-1
White powder/
waxy white solid
414
9.5X103(purified)
45 to 54
188 to 192
0.0171
Not measurable
2.06
Not measurable
Atmospheric: 90 days2
Water: > 92 years (at 25 C)
Abbreviations: g/mol - grams per mole; mg/L - milligrams per liter;  C - degree Celsius; mm Hg - millimeters of mercury;
atm-m3/mol - atmosphere-cubic meters per mole.
1 Extrapolation from measurement.
2 The atmospheric half-life value identified for PFOA is estimated based on available data determined from short study periods.

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  Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet - PFOS and PFOA
What are PFOS and PFOA? (continued)
    PFOS chemicals are no longer manufactured in the
    United States; however, EPA significant new use
    rules (SNURs) allow for the continuation of a few,
    limited, highly technical applications of PFOS-
    related substances where no known alternatives
    are available. In addition, existing stocks of PFC-
    based chemicals that were manufactured or
    imported into the United States before the
    effective date of the SNURs (for example, PFOS-
    based AFFF produced before the rules took effect
    in 2002) can still be used (EPA2009c, 2013a).
    PFOA as its ammonium salt is manufactured
    primarily for use as an aqueous dispersion agent
    and in the manufacture of fluoropolymers (which
    are used in  a wide variety of mechanical and
industrial components) such as electrical wire
casings, fire- and chemical-resistant tubing and
plumbing seal tape. They are also produced
unintentionally by the degradation of some
fluorotelomers (ATSDR 2009; EPA 2009c).
As part of the EPA's PFOA stewardship program,
eight companies committed to achieve the
following by 2010: (1) reduce global facility
emissions of PFOA to all media; (2) reduce
precursor chemicals that break down to PFOA and
related higher homologue chemicals; and (3)
PFOA product content (95 percent). The
companies also agreed to work toward eliminating
these chemicals from emissions and products by
2015 (EPA 2013a).
What are the environmental impacts of PFOS and PFOA?
    During past manufacturing processes, large
    amounts of PFOS and PFOA were released to the
    air, water and soil in and around fluorochemical
    facilities (ATSDR 2009).
    PFOS and PFOA have been detected in a number
    of U.S. cities in surface water and sediments
    downstream of former fluorochemical production
    facilities and in wastewater treatment plant
    effluent, sewage sludge and landfill leachate (EPA
    2002b;OECD2002).
    The environmental release of PFOS-based AFFF
    may also occur from tank and supply line leaks,
    use of aircraft hangar fire suppression systems
    and firefighting training (DoD SERDP 2012).
    Both PFOS and PFOA are the stable end products
    resulting from the degradation of precursor
    substances through a variety of abiotic and biotic
    transformation pathways (Conder and others
    2010).
    Because of their chemical structure, PFCs,
    including PFOS and PFOA, are chemically and
    biologically stable in the environment and resist
    typical environmental degradation processes,
    including atmospheric photooxidation, direct
    photolysis and hydrolysis. As a result, these
    chemicals are extremely persistent in the
    environment (OECD 2002; Schultz and others
    2003).
    PFOS and PFOA have very low volatility because
    of their ionic nature. Therefore, they will  be
persistent in water and soil (3M 2000; ATSDR
2009).
When released directly to the atmosphere, PFCs
are expected to adsorb to particles and settle to
the ground through wet or dry deposition (Barton
and others 2007; Hurley and others 2004).
In their anionic forms, PFOA and PFOS are water-
soluble and can migrate readily from  soil to
groundwater, where they can be transported long
distances (Davis and others 2007; Post and others
2012).
Monitoring data from the Arctic region and at sites
remote from known point sources have shown
levels of PFOS and PFOA in environmental media
and biota, indicating that long-range transport has
occurred. For example, PFOA and PFOS have
been detected in concentrations from the low- to
mid- picograms per liter (pg/L) range in remote
regions of the Arctic caps. In addition, PFOS
concentrations detected in the liver of the
Canadian Arctic polar bear range from 1,700 to
more than 4,000 nanograms per gram (ng/g) (Lau
and others 2007; Martin and others 2004; Young
and others 2007).
Causes of long-range PFC transport  include (1)
atmospheric transport of precursor compounds
(such as perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides), followed by
degradation to form PFCs and (2) direct, long-
range transport of PFCs via ocean currents or in
the form of marine aerosols (Armitage and others
2006; Post and others 2012).

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  Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet - PFOS and PFOA
What are the environmental impacts of PFOS and PFOA? (continued)
   The wide distribution of PFCs increases the
   potential for bioaccumulation and bioconcentration
   as they are transferred from low to higher trophic
   level organisms. Because of their persistence and
   long-term accumulation, higher trophic level
   wildlife such as fish, piscivorous birds and other
   biota can continue to be exposed to PFOS and
   PFOA (EPA 2006a; UNEP 2006).
   The bioaccumulation potential of PFCs increases
   with increasing carbon chain length (ATSDR2009;
   Furdui and others 2007).
   PFOS is the only PFC that has been shown to
   accumulate to levels of concern in fish tissue. The
   estimated bioconcentration factor in fish ranges
from 1,000 to 4,000 (EFSA 2008; MDH 2011;
OECD2002).
As of 2013, the Superfund Information Systems
Database indicates PFCs have been reported in
the 5-year reviews of 14 hazardous waste sites on
the EPA National Priorities List (EPA 2013b).
Data gathered in 2008 from the DoD Knowledge
Based Corporate Reporting System show that 594
DoD facilities have been categorized as
Fire/Crash/Training Sites and, therefore, have the
potential for PFC contamination based on
historical use of AFFF (DoD 2008; DoD  SERDP
2012).
What are the routes of exposure and the health effects of PFOS and PFOA?
   Studies have found PFOS and PFOA in the blood
   samples of the general human population and
   wildlife nationwide, indicating that exposure to the
   chemicals is widespread (ATSDR 2009; EPA
   2006a).
   Reported data indicate that serum concentrations
   of PFOS and PFOA are higher in workers and
   individuals living nearfluorochemical production
   facilities than for the general population (Calafat
   and others 2007; EPA 2009c).
   Potential pathways, which may lead to widespread
   exposure, include ingestion of food and water, use
   of commercial products or inhalation from long-
   range air transport of PFC-containing particulate
   matter (ATSDR 2009; EPA 2009c).
   Based on the limited information available, fish
   and fishery products seem to be one of the
   primary sources of human exposure to  PFOS
   (EFSA 2008).
   While a federal screening level or toxicity value for
   the consumption offish has not yet been
   established, the Dutch National Institute for Public
   Health and the Environment has calculated a
   maximum permissible concentration for PFOS of
   0.65 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for fresh water
   (based on consumption offish by humans as the
   most critical route) (Moermond and others 2010).
   Studies also indicate that continued exposure to
   low levels of PFOA in drinking water may result in
   adverse health effects (Post and others 2012).
   Toxicology studies show that PFOS and PFOA are
   readily absorbed after oral exposure and
   accumulate primarily in the serum, kidney and
   liver. No further metabolism is expected (EPA
   2006a, 2009c).
   PFOS and PFOA have half-lives in humans
   ranging from 2 to 9 years, depending on the study.
   This half-life results in continued exposure that
could increase body burdens to levels that would
result in adverse outcomes (ATSDR 2009; EPA
2009c; Karrman and others 2006; Olsen and
others 2007).
Acute- and intermediate-duration oral studies on
rodents have raised concerns about potential
developmental, reproductive and other systemic
effects of PFOS and PFOA (Austin and others
2003; EPA 2006a).
The ingestion of PFOA-contaminated water was
found to cause adverse effects on mammary gland
development in mice (Post and others 2012).
One study indicated that exposure to PFOS can
affect the neuroendocrine system in rats; however,
the mechanism by which PFOS affects brain
neurotransmitters is still unclear  (Austin and others
2003).
Both PFOS and PFOA have a high affinity for
binding to B-lipoproteins and liver fatty acid-
binding protein. Several studies on animals have
shown that these compounds can interfere with
fatty acid metabolism and may deregulate
metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins (EFSA 2008;
EPA2009C).

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  Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet - PFOS and PFOA
What are the routes of exposure and the health effects of PFOS and PFOA?
(continued)
    In May 2006, the EPA Science Advisory Board
    suggested that PFOA cancer data are consistent
    with the EPA guidelines for the Carcinogen Risk
    Assessment descriptor "likely to be carcinogenic to
    humans." EPA is still evaluating this information
    and additional research pertaining to the
    carcinogenicity of PFOA (EPA 2006b, 2013a).
    The American Conference of Governmental
    Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has classified PFOA
    as a Group A3 carcinogen  confirmed animal
    carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans
    (ACGIH 2002).
    The chronic exposure to PFOS and PFOA can
    lead to the development of tumors in the liver of
    rats; however, more research is needed to
    determine if there are similar cancer risks for
    humans (ATSDR 2009; OECD  2002).
    In a retrospective cohort mortality study of more
    than 6,000 PFOA-exposed employees at one
    plant,  results identified elevated standardized
    mortality ratios for kidney cancer and a statistically
significant increase in diabetes mortality for male
workers. The study noted that additional
investigations are needed to confirm these
findings (DuPont 2006; Lau and others 2007).
Studies have shown that PFCs may induce
modest effects on reactive oxygen species and
deoxyribonucleicacid (DMA) damage in the cells
of the human liver (Eriksen and others 2010;
Reistad and others  2013).
Analysis of U.S. National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey representative study samples
indicate that higher concentrations of serum PFOA
and PFOS are associated with thyroid disease in
the U.S. general adult population. Further analysis
is needed to identify the mechanisms underlying
this association (Melzerand others 2010).
Epidemiologic studies have shown an association
between PFOS exposure and bladder cancer;
however, further research and analysis are
needed to understand this association (Alexander
and others 2004; Lau and others 2007).
Are there any federal and state guidelines and health standards for PFOS
and  PFOA?
    In January 2009, the EPA's Office of Water
    established a provisional health advisory (PHA) of
    0.2 micrograms per liter (ug/L) for PFOS and 0.4
    ug/L for PFOA to assess the potential risk from
    short-term exposure of these chemicals through
    drinking water. PHAs reflect reasonable, health-
    based hazard concentrations above which action
    should be taken to reduce exposure to
    unregulated contaminants in drinking water (EPA
    2009d,2013a).
    EPA Region 4 calculated a residential soil
    screening level of 6 milligrams per kilogram
    (mg/kg) for PFOS and 16 mg/kg for PFOA (EPA
    Region 4 2009).
    Various states have established drinking water
    and groundwater guidelines, including the
    following:
       Minnesota has established a chronic health
       risk limit of 0.3 ug/L for PFOS and  PFOA  in
       drinking water (MDH 2011).
       New Jersey has established a preliminary
       health-based guidance value of 0.04 ug/L for
       PFOA in drinking water (NJDEP 2013).
       North Carolina has established an interim
       maximum allowable concentration (IMAC)  of 2
    ug/L for PFOA in groundwater (NCDENR
    2006).
    In 2010, the North Carolina Secretary's
    Science Advisory Board (NCSAB) on Toxic Air
    Pollutants recommended that the IMAC be
    reduced to 1  ug/L based on a review of the
    toxicological  literature and discussions with
    scientists conducting research on the health
    effects associated with exposure to PFOA. As
    of February 2014, the NCSAB's
    recommendation was still pending review by
    the North Carolina Division of Water Quality
    (NCSAB 2010).
Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA),
the  EPA finalized two SNURs in 2002 for 88
PFOS-related substances, which require
companies to notify the EPA 90 days before
starting to manufacture or importing these
substances for a  significant new use; this pre-
notification allows time to evaluate the new use
(EPA2002a,2013a).
In 2007, the SNURs were amended to include 183
additional PFOS-related substances (EPA 2006a,
2013a).

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  Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet - PFOS and PFOA
Are there any federal and state guidelines and health standards for PFOS
and  PFOA? (continued)
   On September 30, 2013, the EPA issued a final
   SNUR requiring companies to report 90 days in
   advance of all new uses of long-chain
   perfluoroalkyl carboxylic (LCPFAC) chemicals
   (defined as having perfluorinated carbon chain
   lengths equal to or greater than seven carbons
   and less than or equal to 20 carbons) for use as
   part of carpets or to treat carpets, including the
   import of new carpet containing LCPFACs. In
   addition, the  EPA is amending the existing SNUR
   to add PFOS-related substances that have
   completed the TSCA new chemical review
   process but have  not yet commenced production
   or importation, and to designate processing as a
   significant new use (EPA 2012, 2013a).
   The SNURs allow for continued use for a few
   highly technical applications of PFOS-related
   substances where no alternatives are available;
   these specialized  uses are characterized by very
   low volume, low exposure and low releases (EPA
   2009c, 2013a).
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry has not established a minimal risk level
(MRL) for PFOS or PFOA; when the draft
toxicological profile was published, human studies
were insufficient to determine with a sufficient
degree of certainty that the effects are either
exposure-related or adverse (ATSDR 2009).
The EPA has not derived a chronic oral reference
dose (RfD) or chronic inhalation reference
concentration (RfC) for PFOS or PFOA and has
not classified PFOS or PFOA carcinogenicity.
The EPA removed PFOS and PFOA from the
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) agenda
in a Federal Register notice released on October
18, 2010. At this time, EPA is not conducting an
IRIS assessment for these chemicals (EPA 2010).
PFOS and PFOA were included on the third
drinking water contaminant candidate list, which is
a list of unregulated contaminants that are known
to, or anticipated to, occur in public water systems
and may require regulation under the Safe
Drinking Water Act (EPA 2009a).
What detection and site characterization methods are available for PFOS
and PFOA?
    PFOS and PFOA are commonly deposited in the
    environment as discrete particles with strongly
    heterogeneous spatial distributions. Unless
    precautions are taken, this distribution causes
    highly variable soil data that can lead to confusing
    or contradictory conclusions about the location
    and degree of contamination. Proper sample
    collection (using an incremental field sampling
    approach), sample processing (which includes
    grinding) and incremental subsampling are
    required to obtain reliable soil data (EPA 2003,
    2013c).
    PFOS and PFOA in anionicform can be extracted
    from environmental media by conventional
    methods using either acidification or ion pairing to
    obtain a neutral form  of the analyte. Sample
    preparation methods  used for PFCs have included
    solvent extraction, ion-pair extraction, solid-phase
    extraction and column-switching extraction
    (Flaherty and others 2005).
    Precursors and intermediate degradation  products
    can be extracted using solvents (Dasu and others
    2012; Ellington and others 2009).
    Air samples maybe collected using high-volume
    air samplers that employ sampling modules
    containing glass-fiber filters and glass columns
    with a polyurethane foam (Jahnke and others
    2007a).
Detection methods for PFCs are primarily based
on high-performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry
(MS/MS). HPLC-MS/MS has allowed for more
sensitive determinations of individual PFOS and
PFOA in air, water and soil (EFSA 2008; Jahnke
and others 2007b; Washington and others 2008).
Both liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS and gas
chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can
be used to identify the precursors of PFOS and
PFOA (EFSA 2008).
EPA Method 537, Version 1.1, is an LC-MS/MS
method used to analyze selected perfluorinated
alkyl acids in drinking water. While most sampling
protocols for organic compounds require sample
collection in  glass, this method requires plastic
sample bottles because PFCs are known to
adhere to glass (EPA 2009b).
The development of LC -  electrospray ionization
(ESI) MS and LC-MS/MS has improved the
analysis of PFOS and PFOA (EFSA 2008).
Reported sensitivities for the available detection
methods include  low picograms per cubic meter
(pg/m3) levels in air,  high  picograms per liter (pg/L)
to low ng/L levels in water and high picogram per
gram to low  ng/g  levels in soil (ATSDR 2009).

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  Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet - PFOS and PFOA
What technologies are being used to treat PFOS and PFOA?
    Because of their unique physicochemical
    properties (strong fluorine-carbon bond and low
    vapor pressure), PFOS and PFOA resist most
    conventional in situ treatment technologies, such
    as direct oxidation (Hartten 2009; Vectis and
    others 2009).
    Factors to consider when selecting a treatment
    method in all media include: (1) initial
    concentration of PFCs; (2) the background organic
    and metal concentration; (3) available degradation
    time; and (4) other site-specific conditions (Vectis
    and others 2009).
    Ex situ treatments including activated carbon
    filters, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis units
    have been shown to remove PFCs from water;
    however, incineration of the concentrated waste
    would be needed for the complete destruction of
    PFCs (Hartten 2009; MDH 2008; Vectis and
    others 2009).
    Research  into a cost-effective treatment approach
    for PFOS and PFOA is ongoing (DoD SERDP
    2012).
    Alternative technologies studied for PFOS and
    PFOA degradation in water, soil and solid waste
    include photochemical oxidation and thermally
induced reduction, which have achieved some
bench-scale success (Hartten 2009; Vectis and
others 2009).
Laboratory-scale studies have also evaluated
sonochemical degradation (that is, ultrasonic
irradiation) to treat PFOS and PFOA in
groundwaterand have reported a sonochemical
degradation half-life less than 30 minutes for both
PFOS and PFOA (Cheng and others 2008, 2010).
Results from a laboratory-scale study suggested
the promising potential of using a double-layer
permeable reactive barrier (DL-PRB) system for
the in situ containment of PFC-contaminated soil
and groundwater. The DL-PRB system is
composed of an oxidant-releasing material layer
followed by a layer of quartz sands immobilized
with humification enzymes. The system drives
enzyme-catalyzed oxidative humification reactions
to degrade PFCs in the PRB (DoD SERDP 2013).
In situ chemical oxidation is being explored as a
possible means to treat PFCs in water.
Laboratory-scale study results indicate that heat-
activated persulfate and permanganate can
effectively degrade PFOS and PFOA in water (Liu
and others 2012a, b).
Where can  I find more information about PFOS and PFOA?
    3M. 2000. "Sulfonated Perfluorochemicals in the
    Environment: Sources; Dispersion, Fate and
    Effects." 3M Company submittal to the U.S.
    Environmental Protection Agency's Administrative
    Record. OPPT2002-0043-0005.
    3M. 2008. "3M's Phase Out and New
    Technologies." 3M Company.
    http://solutions.3m.com/wps/portal/3M/en  US/PFO
    S/PFOA/lnformation/phase-out-technoloqies/
    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
    Registry (ATSDR). 2009. "Draft Toxicological
    Profile for Perfluoroalkyls."
    www.atsdr.cdc.qov/toxprofiles/tp200.pdf
    Alexander, B. H. 2004. "Bladder Cancer in
    Perfluorooctanesulfonyl Fluoride:  Manufacturing
    Workers." University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,
    MN. U.S. EPA Administrative Record. AR-226-
    1908.
    American Conference of Governmental Industrial
    Hygienists (ACGIH). 2002. "Documentation of the
    Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure
    Indices." Cincinnati, Ohio.
    Armitage, J., Cousins, I., Buck, R.C., Prevedouros,
    K., Russell, M.H., MacLeod, M., and S.H.
Korzeniowski. 2006. "Modeling Global-Scale Fate
and Transport of Perfluorooctanoate Emitted from
Direct Sources." Environmental Science and
Technology. Volume 40 (22). Pages 6969 to 6975.
Calafat A.M., Wong, L.Y., Kuklenyik, Z., Reidy,
J.A., and L.L. Needham. 2007. "Polyfluoroalkyl
Chemicals in the U.S. Population:  Data from the
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
(NHANES) 2003-2004 and Comparisons with
NHANES 1999-2000." Environmental Health
Perspectives. Volume 115(11). Pages 1596
to1602.
Cheng, J., Vecitis, C.D., Park, H., Mader, B.T.,
and M.R.  Hoffmann. 2008. "Sonochemical
Degradation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)
and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Landfill
Groundwater: Environmental Matrix Effects."
Environmental Science and Technology. Volume
42(21). Pages 8057 to 8063.
Austin, M.E., Kasturi, B.S., Barber, M., Kannan,
K., MohanKumar, P.S., and S.M. MohanKumar.
2003.  "Neuroendocrine Effects of Perfluorooctane
Sulfonate in Rats."  Environmental Health
Perspectives. Volume 111(12). Pages 1485
to1489.

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  Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet - PFOS and PFOA
Where can I find more information about PFOS and PFOA? (continued)
:  Barton, C.A., Kaiser, M.A., and M.H. Russell.
    2007. "Partitioning and Removal of
    Perfluorooctanoate during Rain Events: The
    Importance of Physical-Chemical Properties."
    Journal of Environmental Monitoring. Volume (9).
    Pages 839 to 846.
:  Brooke, D., Footitt, A., and T.A. Nwaogu. 2004.
    "Environmental Risk Evaluation Report:
    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)."
:  Cheng, J., Vecitis, C.D.,  Park, H., Mader, B.T.,
    and M.R. Hoffmann. 2010. "Sonochemical
    Degradation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)
    and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Groundwater:
    Kinetic Effects of Matrix Inorganics."
    Environmental Science and Technology. Volume
    44(1). Pages 445 to 450.
>  Conder, J.M., Wenning, R.J., Travers, M., and M.
    Blom. 2010. "Overview of the Environmental Fate
    of Perfluorinated Compounds." Network for
    Industrially Contaminated Land in Europe
    (NICOLE) Technical Meeting. 4 November 2010.
:  Dasu, K., Liu, J., and L. Lee. 2012. "Aerobic Soil
    Biodegradation of 8:2 FluorotelomerStearate
    Monoester." Environmental Science and
    Technology. Volume 46 (7). Pages 3831 to 3836.
>  Davis, K.L., Aucoin, M.D., Larsen, B.S., Kaiser,
    M.A., and A.S. Hartten. 2007. "Transport of
    Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate in Environmental
    Media near a Fluoropolymer Manufacturing
    Facility." Chemosphere. Volume 67. Pages 2011
    to 2019.
>  DuPont. 2006. "Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate:
    Phase II. Retrospective Cohort Mortality Analyses
    Related to a Serum Biomarkerof Exposure in a
    Polymer Production Plant." Laboratory Project ID:
    DuPont-14809.
>  Ellington, J.J., Washington, J. W., Evans, J.J.,
    Jenkins, T.M., Hafner, S.C., and M.P. Neill. 2009.
    "Analysis of Fluorotelomer Alcohols in Soils:
    Optimization of Extraction & Chromatography."
    Journal of Chromatography. Volume 1216 (28).
    Pages 5347 to 5354.
>  Environment Canada. 2012. "Screening
    Assessment Report. PerfluorooctanoicAcid, its
    Salts, and its Precursors."
>  Eriksen, K.T., Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Sorensen,
    M., Roursgaard, M., Loft, S., and P. Moller. 2010.
    "Genotoxic Potential of the Perfluorinated
    Chemicals PFOA, PFOS, PFBS, PFNA and
    PFHxA in Human HepG2 Cells." Mutation
    Research. Volume 700 (1 to 2). Pages 39 to 43.
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). 2008.
"Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS),
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and their Salts."
The EFSA Journal. Volume 653. Pages 1 to 131.
Flaherty J.M., Connolly, P.O., Decker, E.R.,
Kennedy, S.M., Ellefson, M.E., Reagen, W.K., and
B. Szostek. 2005. "Quantitative Determination of
PerfluorooctanoicAcid in Serum and Plasma by
Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass
Spectrometry." Journal of Chromatography B:
Biomedical Sciences and Applications. Volume
819. Pages 329 to 338.
Furdui F., Stock, N., Ellis, D.A., Butt, C.M., Whittle,
D.M, Crozier, P.W., Reiner, E.J., Muir, D.C., and
S.A. Mabury. 2007. "Spatial Distribution of
Perfluoroalkyl Contaminants in Lake Trout from
the Great Lakes." Environmental Science and
Technology. Volume 41. Pages 1554 to 1559.
Hartten, A.S. 2009. "Water Treatment of PFOA
and PFOS." DuPont Corporate Remediation
Group.
www.epa.gov/oppt/pfoa/pubsAA/ater%20Treatment
%20Methods%20Hartten%20Oct16-09.pdf
Hurley, M.D, Andersen, M.P.S, and T.J.
Wallington. 2004. "Atmospheric Chemistry of
Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids: Reaction with
OH radicals and Atmospheric Lifetimes." Journal
of Physical Chemistry. Volume 108. Pages 615 to
620.
Jahnke, A., Ahrens,  L., Ebinghaus, R., Berger, U.,
Barber, J.L., and C. Temme. 2007a. "An Improved
Method for the Analysis of Volatile Polyfluorinated
Alkyl Substances in Environmental Air Samples."
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Volume
387. Pages 965 to 975.
Jahnke, A., Huber, S., Temme, C., Kylin, H., and
U. Berger. 2007b. "Development and Application
of a Simplified Sampling Method for Volatile
Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Indoor and
Environmental Air." Journal of Chromatography.
Volume 1164. Pages 1 to 9.
Karrman, A., Bavel, B., Jarnberg, U., Hardell, L.,
and G. Lindstrb'm. 2006. Perfluorinated Chemicals
in Relation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants
in Human Blood." Chemosphere. Volume 64(9).
Pages 1582 to 1591.
Lau, C., Anitole, K., Hodes, C., Lai, D., Pfahles-
Hutchens, A., and J. Seed. 2007. "Perfluoroalkyl
Acids: A Review of Monitoring and Toxicological
Findings." Toxicological Sciences. Volume 99 (2).
Pages 366 to 394.

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  Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet - PFOS and PFOA
Where can I find more information about PFOS and PFOA? (continued)
    Liu, C.S., Higgins, C.P., Wang, F., and K. Shih.
    2012a. "Effect of Temperature on Oxidative
    Transformation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)
    by Persulfate Activation in Water." Separation and
    Purification Technology. Volume 91. Pages 46 to
    51
    Liu, C.S., Shih, K., and F. Wang. 2012b.
    "Oxidative Decomposition of
    Perfluorooctanesulfonate  in Water by
    Permanganate." Separation and Purification
    Technology. Volume 87. Pages 95 to 100.
    Martin, J.W., Smithwick, M.M., Braune, B.M.,
    Hoekstra, P.F., Muir, D.C.G. and S.A. Mabury.
    2004. "Identification of Long Chain Perfluorinated
    Acids in Biota from the Canadian Arctic."
    Environmental Science and Technology. Volume
    38. Pages 373 to 380.
    Melzer, D., Rice, N., Depledge, M.H., Henley,
    W.F., and T.S. Galloway.  2010. "Association
    between Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)
    and Thyroid Disease in the U.S. National Health
    and Nutrition Examination Survey." Environmental
    Health Perspectives. Volume 118 (5). Pages 686
    to 692.
    Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). 2008.
    "MDH Evaluation of Point-of-Use Water Treatment
    Devices for Perfluorochemical Removal. Final
    Report Summary." www.health.state.mn.us/divs/
    eh/wells/waterqualitv/poudevicefinalsummary.pdf
    MDH. 2011. Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in
    Minnesota, www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/
    hazardous/topics/pfcs/index.html
    Moermond, C., Verbruggem, E., and C. Smit.
    2010. "Environmental Risk Limits for PFOS: A
    Proposal for Water Quality Standards in
    Accordance with the Water Framework Directive."
    National Institute for Public Health and the
    Environment.
    www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/601714013.pdf
    New Jersey Department of Environmental
    Protection (NJDEP). 2013. "Perfluorooctanoic Acid
    (PFOA) in Drinking Water." www.nj.gov/dep/
    watersupplv/dwc quality  pfoa.html
    North Carolina Department of Environment and
    Natural Resources (NCDENR). 2006.
    "Recommended Interim Maximum Allowable
    Concentration for Perfluorooctanoic Acid."
    North Carolina Secretary's Science Advisory
    Board on Toxic Air Pollutants (NCSAB). 2010.
    "Recommendation to the Division of Water Quality
    for an Interim Maximum Allowable Concentration
    of Perfluorooctanoic Acid  (PFOA) in
Groundwater." http://daq.state.nc.us/toxics/
risk/sab/ra/PFOA Pending.pdf
Olsen, G.W., Burris, J.M., Ehresman, D.J.,
Froehlich, J.W., Seacat, A.M., Butenhoff, J.L., and
L.R. Zobel. 2007. "Half-life of Serum Elimination of
Perfluorooctanesulfonate,
Perfluorohexanesulfonate, and Perfluorooctanoate
in Retired Fluorochemical Production Workers."
Environmental Health Perspectives. Volume 115
(9). Pages 1298 to 1305.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development (OECD). Environment Directorate.
2002. "Hazard Assessment of Perfluorooctane
Sulfonate (PFOS) and its Salts."
www.oecd.org/chemicalsafety/risk-assessment/
2382880.pdf
Post, G.B., Cohn, P.O., and K.R. Cooper. 2012.
"Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an Emerging
Drinking Water Contaminant: A Critical Review of
Recent Literature." Environmental Research.
Volume 116. Pages 93 to 117.
Reistad, T.,  Fonnum, F., and E. Mariussen. 2013.
"Perfluoroalkylated Compounds Induce Cell Death
and Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species in
Cultured Cerebellar Granule Cells." Toxicology
Letters. Volume 218 (1). Pages 56 to 60.
Schultz, M.M., Barofsky, D.F., and J.A. Field.
2003. "Fluorinated Alkyl Surfactants."
Environmental Engineering Science. Volume
20(5). Pages 487 to 501.
United National Environment Programme (UNEP).
2005. "Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Proposal."
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic
Pollutants Review Committee. Geneva, 7-11
November 2005.
UNEP. 2006. "Risk Profile on Perfluorooctane
Sulfonate." Stockholm Convention on Persistent
Organic Pollutants Review Committee. Geneva, 6 -
10 November 2006.
U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). 2008.
Knowledge Based Corporate Reporting System
(KBCRS).
DoD. 2011. Chemical & Material Risk Management
Program. www.denix.osd.mil/cmrmd/ECMR/
ECProqramBasics.cfm
DoD. Strategic Environmental Research and
Development Program (SERDP). 2012. "In Situ
Remediation of Perfluoroalkyl Contaminated
Groundwater." Environmental Restoration (ER)
Program Area. FY2013 Statement of Need.

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  Emerging Contaminants Fact Sheet - PFOS and PFOA
Where can I  find more information about PFOS  and PFOA?  (continued)
    DoD. SERDP. 2013. "Remediation of Perfluoroalkyl
    Contaminated Aquifers using an In Situ Two-Layer
    Barrier: Laboratory Batch and Column Study." Er-
    2127. www.serdp.org/Program-Areas/Environmental-
    Restoration/Contaminated-Groundwater/Emerging-
    lssues/ER-2127/ER-2127
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2002a.
    "Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates; Significant New Use
    Rule." 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 721.
    Federal Register: Volume 67 (No 236).
    EPA 2002b. "Revised Draft Hazard Assessment of
    Perfluorooctanoic Acid  and its Salts."
    EPA. 2003. "Guidance for Obtaining Representative
    Laboratory Analytical Subsamples from Particulate
    Laboratory Samples." EPA 600/R-03/027.
    EPA. 2006a. "PFAS-Proposed Significant New Use
    Rule." 40 CFR 721. Federal  Register: Volume 71
    (No 47). www.gpo.gov/fdsvs/pkg/FR-2006-03-
    10/pdf/E6-3444.pdf
    EPA. 2006b."SAB Review of EPA's Draft Risk
    Assessment of Potential Human Health Effects
    Associated with PFOA and Its Salts." EPA SAB-06-
    006.
    EPA. 2009a. "Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate
    List 3 - Final." Federal Register Notice, www.federal
    register.gov/articles/2009/10/08/E9-24287/drinking-
    water-contaminant-candidate-list-3-final
    EPA. 2009b. Method 537. "Determination of Selected
    Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in Drinking Water by Solid
    Phase Extraction and Liquid
    Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry
    (LC/MS/MS)."Version 1.1. EPA600/R-08/092.
    www.epa.gov/nerlcwww/documents/Method%20537
    FINAL rev1.1.pdf
    EPA. 2009c. "Long-Chain Perfluorinated Chemicals
    (PFCs) Action Plan."
    www.epa.gov/opptintr/existingchemicals/pubs/pfcs a
    ction  plan1230  09.pdf
    EPA. 2009d. "Provisional Health Advisories for
    Perfluorooctanoic Acid  (PFOA) and Perfluorooctyl
    Sulfonate (PFOS)."
water.epa.gov/action/advisories/drinking/upload/2009
 01 15  criteria drinking pha-PFOA PFOS.pdf
EPA. 2010. "Integrated Risk Information System
(IRIS); Request for Chemical Substance Nominations
for the 2011 Program." Federal Register Notice.
Volume 75 (200). Pages 63827 to 63830.
www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-10-18/html/2010-
26159.htm
EPA. 2012. "Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-
Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical
Substances; Proposed Significant New Use Rule."
Code of Federal Regulations. 40 CFR 721.
EPA. 2013a. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and
Fluorinated Telomers. www.epa.gov/oppt/pfoa/
EPA 2013b. Superfund Information Systems
Database, www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/siteinfo.htm
EPA. 2013c. "The Roles of Project Managers and
Laboratories in Maintaining the Representativeness
of Incremental and Composite Soil Samples."
OSWER 9200.1-117FS. www.cluin.org/download/
char/RolesofPMsandLabsinSubsampling.pdf
EPA Region 4. 2009. "Soil Screening Levels for
Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctyl
Sulfonate (PFOS)." Memorandum.
Vectis, C.D., Park, H., Cheng, J., and B.T. Mader.
2009. "Treatment Technologies for Aqueous
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and
Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA)." Frontiers of
Environmental Science & Engineering in China.
Volume 3(2). Pages 129 to151.
Washington, J.W., Henderson, W.M., Ellington J.J,
Jenkins, T.M, and J.J. Evans. 2008. "Analysis of
Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in Soils II:
Optimization of Chromatographyand Extraction."
Journal of Chromatography. Volume 1181.  Pages 21
to 32.
Young, C.J., Furdui, V.I., Franklin, J., Koerner, R.M.,
Muir, D.C.G., and S.A. Mabury. 2007. "Perfluorinated
Acids in Arctic Snow: New Evidence for Atmospheric
Formation." Environmental Science and Technology.
Doi: 10.1021/es0626234
Contact  Information
If you have any questions or comments on this fact sheet, please contact: Mary Cooke, FFRRO, by phone at (703)
603-8712 or by email at cooke.maryt@epa.gov.
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