Federal Funding

Opportunities for Source

    Water Protection
United States
Environmental Protection

  §ource Water Protection

Why Protect Sources of Drinking Water?
Source water is untreated water from streams,
rivers, lakes or underground aquifers that is
used to provide public drinking water, as well as
to supply private wells used for human
Public utilities treat most drinking water before it
enters the home. Protecting source water from
contamination can reduce the cost of this
treatment, as well as the risks to public health.
Protection can  also increase the public's
confidence in their drinking water.
Protecting sources of drinking water can also
help meet other environmental goals: green
space conservation, stormwater planning,
management of nonpoint source pollution,
brownfields redevelopment and protecting
ecological systems and wildlife habitat.
Funding Sources  There is a variety of funding
opportunities for implementing source water
protection activities. Funding is available through
programs that support education; land
acquisition; agricultural best management
practice implementation; urban, wetland and
riparian forest buffer establishment, and many
In This Document This document identifies
federal programs that can be leveraged for
source water protection. These include
programs managed by the Environmental
Protection Agency, and the Departments of
Agriculture, Interior, and Housing and Urban
Development.  Levels and availability of funding
may vary year to year.  The Catalog of Federal
Funding Sources for Watershed Protection lists
many of these, and other programs,  and is
located at: cfpub.epa.gov/fedfund.  Individual
program websites are also provided  in  this
document.  Additional funding may be available
through states.
     United States Environmental
            Protection Aaency

 The U.S. EPA offers funding for actions that can help
 protect sources of drinking water through the Safe
 Drinking Water and Clean Water Acts, Comprehensive
 Environmental Response Compensation and Liability
 Act, Underground Storage Tank program and the
 Indian Environmental General Assistance Program.
Brownfields Cooperative Agreements
  o  Cleanups of contaminated land and water sources
     including landfills
  o  Environmental workforce development and job
     training program
  o  Community engagement and public outreach
www.cfda.gov/ (program 66.818)
Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF)
  o  Best management practices
  o  Nonpoint and point source management
  o  Forest management
  o  Restoration of wetland and floodplain hydrology and
     vegetative cover
  o  Treatment of wastewater
  o  Land acquisition
  o  Public outreach
www.cfda.gov/ (program 66.458)
Community Action for a Renewed
  Environment (CARE)
  o  Prevention of human exposure to harmful pollution
  o  Improve water quality
  o  Information, tools and technical assistance
www.cfda.gov/ (program 66.035)
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF)
  o  Technical assistance
  o  Wellhead Protection Program implementation,
     including land acquisition
  o  Loans for purchases of property easements and
     land from willing sellers
water.epa.gov/grants_funding/dwsrf/index, cfm
www.cfda.gov/ (program  66.468)

Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust
  o  Leak prevention-inspections, operator training,
     and enforcement
  o  Cleanup-oversee responsible party cleanups +
     some direct site assessments and cleanup on
     high priority abandoned sites
https://www.cfda.gov/ program 66.805

 Nonpoint Source Implementation Grants
 Clean Water Act Section 319
   o   Best management practices for nonpoint source
   o   Restoration of wetland and floodplain hydrology
      and vegetation
   o   Treatment of urban and agricultural runoff
   o   Reforestation
   o   Public education about water issues
   o   Administered by states, territories and tribes


 US map with links to state 319 programs:
 Indian Environmental General Assistance
 Program (GAP)
   o   Tribal capacity building for environmental
   o   Assistance with developing tribal environmental
   o   Public education about landfill management and
      water issues


 Pollution Control Program Grants
 Clean Water Act Section106
   o   Development of water quality standards
   o   Ambient water quality monitoring
   o   Advice and assistance to local agencies
   o   Development of state ground water plans
   o   Source water (including ground water)
   o   National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
      System (NPDES) permitting and enforcement
   o   Total Management Daily Load (TMDL)
   o   Training and public information
 www.cfda.gov/ (program  66.419)
               Case Studies

             New York: Pine Barrens
    Land acquisition protects recharge zone of
   County's sole source aquifer (CWSRF Funds)
      The ground water aquifer beneath the Pine
Barrens of New York is the sole source aquifer for 2.6
million people in the region.  Road construction,
housing and commercial development have vastly
reduced the rate at which water recharges the
underlying aquifer. At the same time, water continues
to be withdrawn at an increasing rate as population and
commercial/industrial activity increase.
      Salt water intrusion can occur in coastal areas
when recharge cannot keep up with withdrawal. An
additional impact of increased development is that
septic tank effluent can move through the porous soils
of the Pine Barrens and reach the aquifer relatively
      The New York CWSRF program made a loan of
$75 million to Suffolk County for land acquisition in the
Pine Barrens Wilderness and Water Protection
Preserve  on Long Island. Land acquisition sets  land
aside from development. It is part of a larger plan by
state, local and private organizations to protect the
main recharge zone for Suffolk County's drinking

Link to factsheet: Protecting Drinking Water with
Clean Water State Revolving Funds:


  North Carolina: Southern Appalachian Mountains
    Education and land use management protect
         impaired watershed (319 Funds)
      The Mills River Watershed has four separate
intakes on the River or its tributaries and supplies
drinking water for more than 50,000 people. The "poor"
biological rating for part of the Mills River placed the
River on the state's 303(d) list of impaired waters.
Pesticides and sedimentation appeared to be the
cause. As a result of a variety of protection actions
resulting in dramatic water quality improvements, the
river has been delisted.
      Protection activities included the installation of
agricultural best management practices, prevention of
land conversion in the watershed, posting of four Water
Supply Area Warning signs, erosion and sedimentation
spill control, stormwater control and landowner
      The North Carolina Division of Water Quality
supported the work with funding from a section 319
grant, the state's Clean Water Management Trust Fund,
and additional EPA support to create land conversion
inventories and hold meetings and workshops.


     United States Department
             cf Agriculture

The USDA offers a variety of conservation programs
that can protect source water. For details on listed
programs, visit any program's website or contact your
local USDA Service Center at:
The Source Water Collaborative offers useful tips for
partnering with USDA at:
Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)
  o  Establishes long-term, resource conserving
     cover on eligible farmland
  o  Covers land within wellhead protection areas
  o  Annual rental payments for 10-15 year
  o  May enroll environmentally desirable land with
     certain conservation practices at any time,
     including land within an  EPA-designated public
     wellhead area
     Note: CRP general sign-up only during
     designated periods

Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP)
  o  Restoration and maintenance of wetlands on
     agricultural land
  o  Enrollment in 30 year to permanent easements
Conservation Stewardship Program
  o  Encourages agricultural producers to address
     resource concerns in a  comprehensive manner
       •   Undertaking additional conservation
       •   Improving, maintaining and managing
           existing conservation activities
  o  Supplemental payment for the adoption of
     resource-conserving crop rotations
  o  5 year contract with 5 year renewal option

Environmental Quality Incentives Program
  o  Implementation of conservation  practices on
     agricultural lands and non-industrial private
     forest lands
  o  Financial and technical assistance to agricultural
     producers through contracts up to ten years
  o  Addresses natural resource concerns to improve
     soil, water, plant, animal, and air resources
Link to EQIP's National Water Quality Initiative:
 Agricultural Water Enhancement Program
 (AWEP) - an EQIP program
   o   Agricultural water enhancement activities
   o   Ground and surface water conservation
   o   Water quality improvement

 Conservation Loan Program
   o   Provides access to credit for farmers to
      implement conservation measures but do not
      have the "up front" funds available.
   o   Funds can be used to implement a
      conservation practice approved by the NRCS,
      such as:
       •   Reducing soil erosion
       •   Improving water quality
   o   Promotes sustainable and organic agricultural
   o   Provides loan limits up to $1,214,000 and 30
      year repayment

               Case Studies

       California: Southern Alameda  Creek
  Agricultural producers protect water quality with
                  AWEP funds
      The Southern Alameda Creek Ranch Water
Quality Project is focused on water quality protection
and habitat restoration through the partnership between
Alameda County Resource Conservation District and
Natural Resource Conservation Service to provide
education, outreach and technical assistance in the
watershed.  Southern Alameda Creek drains to a
drinking water reservoir serving 2.4 million people.
Cattle ranch operations and construction  were identified
as some of the main sources of sediments, nutrients
and pathogens impacting water.

      AWEP has proved a useful tool in targeting
funds to 25 agricultural producers in the watershed,
thereby better tailoring the funds to resource needs to
protect and enhance water quality. AWEP funds
helped offset the cost of a new well and solar pump to
create an alternative water supply at a farm where the
cattle had used Alameda Creek for water. The project
will reduce sediment, nutrient, and pathogen loads into
the creek. Potential AWEP projects include: ranch road
improvements, gully repair, streambank stabilization,
stockpond spillway repair, cross-fencing and water
development to reduce livestock impacts to streams
and wetlands,  erosion-resistant creek crossings, and
prescribed grazing and associated practices in
overgrazed areas.
Links to USDA Financial Assistance, including AWEP:

       New York: Wyoming County
       Ten farms apply conservation practices to
 protect aquifer and surface water sources using
 EQIP funds
       New York State is the third largest dairy state
 in the U.S. Within the State, Wyoming County has the
 largest number of dairy farms- approximately 60 large
 and medium dairy farms. Archway Cookies was once
 a major employer and Wyoming was affectionately
 known as the "milk and cookie" county.

       The County currently has about 10 farms
 working on projects funded by EQIP grants.  The
 projects implement best conservation practices. For
 example, producers learn to use the right balance  of
 fertilizers—a mix of farm-generated manure and
 commercial products.  They practice erosion control
 using conservation tillage.  They use crop rotation
 and cover crops, which maintain healthy soils and
 reduce erosion.  The projects within aquifer recharge
 areas and near streams that feed surface water
 bodies are important contributors to source water
 United States Department cf the
Colorado River Basin Salinity Control
  o   Protects the Colorado River as a source of water
     for drinking water and other uses for the western
     U.S through:
     •  Best management practices
     •  Restoration of floodplains and wetlands
     •  Reforestation
     •  Construction of water facilities
     •  Leak prevention  of salt wells
www.cfda.gov/ (programs 15.509)
North American Wetlands Conservation
Fund (NAWCF) Grant Program
These activities could be used to protect source water
while benefiting waterfowl and migratory bird habitat:
  o   Land acquisition
  o   Restoration of natural hydrology
  o   Establishment of wetlands habitat beneficial to
     waterfowl and migratory birds
www.cfda.gov  (program 15.623)
     United States Department cf
  I < usiiiu and Urban Develcpment

 Sustainable Communities Regional
 Planning Grants
    o  Protect source water
    o  Preserve open space and natural resources
    o  Address stormwater management issues
          Additional Resources
          EPA Source Water Protection

    Catalog of Federal Funding Sources for
            Watershed Protection

     Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
                      A   4

Office of Water (4606M)                    EPA 816-K-13- 001                             April 2013