&EPA
  United States
  Environmental Protection
  Agency
     2014 Highlights of Progress:
    Responses to Climate Change
               by the
       ational Water Program
             March 201S

  
     .

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           Prepared by:
          Office of Water
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           March 2015

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                          TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction                                                          1

Part I: National Program Highlights                                     5

      Water Infrastructure
      Watersheds and Wetlands
      Coastal and Ocean Waters
      Water Quality
      Working with Tribes
      Cross-cutting Program Support

Part II: Highlights from EPA Regional Water Programs                    13

      Region 1
      Region 2
      Region 3
      Region 4
      Region 5
      Region 6
      Region 7
      Region 8
      Region 9
      Region 10

Part III: 2014 Assessment of Progress                                   16

Appendix A: Compendium of Additional 2014 Accomplishments          27
for Climate Change Adaptation

   >  National Water Program Climate Change Adaptation Accomplishments
   >  Climate Change Adaptation Accomplishments Related to Water in EPA Regions

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Introduction
The National Water Program at the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) released the National Water Program 2012 Strategy:
Response to Climate Change (2012 Strategy) in December 2012 as an
update to an initial climate change and water strategy released in
2008.

The 2012 Strategy describes long-term goals for the management of
sustainable water resources for future generations in light of climate
change and is intended to be a roadmap to guide future programmatic
planning and inform decision makers during the Agency's annual
planning process. The Strategy is available here.
This 2014 Highlights of Progress report provides a summary of the major accomplishments of
national water programs and EPA regional water programs in 2014. In addition, major research
projects addressing climate change and water that were completed in 2014 by the EPA Office of
Research and Development (ORD) are described.

This is the sixth climate change progress report for the National Water Program and is modeled
after the 2012 and 2013 Highlights of Progress report released in March 2013 and April 2014
respectively.  Like the 2012 and 2013 Highlights of Progress reports, the report is organized
around the six long-term programmatic vision areas described in the 2012 Strategy:
          water infrastructure;
          watersheds and wetlands;
          coastal and ocean waters;
          water quality;
          working with Tribes; and
          cross-cutting program support.
Part I of this report presents key "highlight" projects and products implemented by the National
Water Program and Office of Research and Development in 2014 in each of these six vision
areas. Part II of this report includes descriptions of key 2014 "highlights" of climate change and
water work in each of the 10 EPA Regional offices.

In addition to the major accomplishments highlighted in each of these vision areas and for each
EPA Region, other important projects and activities were accomplished in 2014. A detailed
compendium of 2014 activities and accomplishments related to climate change and water
programs underway in EPA national water program offices and Regional offices is provided in
Appendix A.

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In addition to reporting on highlights of progress for 2014, the National Water Program is
continuing past work to assess progress in the overall implementation of the 2012 Strategy in
the context of the stage or phase of development of climate response programs. This
assessment effort is described in Part III of this report. The assessment effort tracks program
implementation progress through seven developmental phases:

          >  initiation;
          >  assessment;
          >  response development;
          >  initial implementation;
          >  robust implementation;
          >  mainstreaming; and
          >  monitor outcomes and adaptive management.

Each of these phases is described in greater detail in the 2012 Strategy and in this report.

Part III includes an assessment of the status of progress toward each of the 19 goals described
in the 2012 Strategy with respect to the developmental phases.  This assessment builds on the
first, baseline assessment of the developmental status of climate change adaptation programs
and projects across the National Water Program that was provided in the 2012 Highlight of
Progress report. The numerical score representing the 1-7 progress under each of the 19 goals
in the 2012 Strategy for 2014 is 57 of a  possible score of 133. This is an increase of 5 points
above the 2013 score of 52  and 14 points above the 2012 score of 43.

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                    OVERVIEW OF 2014 HIGHLIGHTS


National Water Programs/Research Products

Vision Area 1: Water Infrastructure

   1. Addressed Climate Change in State Revolving Fund Program
   2. Developed Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (GREAT) 3.0 Framework
   3. Addressed Climate Change in Sanitary Survey Program
   4. Launched WaterSense H20tel Challenge
   5. Developed Flood Resilience Guide

Vision Area 2: Watersheds and Wetlands

   6. Published Workbook for Developing Risk-Based Climate Change Adaptation Plans
   7. Built State and Local Capacity to Protect Healthy Watersheds and Enhanced Climate
      Change Resiliency

Vision Area 3: Coastal and Ocean Waters

   8. Launched Climate Change Adaptation Projects with National Estuary Program Partners
   9. Published National Estuary Program Grant Guidance Addressing Climate Resilience
   10. Developed Approach to Assess Vulnerability of Near Coastal Species and Habitats to
      Climate Drivers at Regional Scales [ORD  Product]

Vision Area 4: Water Quality

   11. Developed Green Infrastructure Collaborative Network
   12. Awarded Funding for Green Infrastructure Technical Assistance
   13. Completed Pilot to Understand Approaches Needed to Incorporate Climate Change
      Information into Total  Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) Development [ORD Product]

Vision Area 5: Working with Tribes

   14. Awarded Funding to Tribes to Study Health Effects of Climate Change

Vision Area 6: Cross-cutting Program Support

   15. Published EPA Office of Water Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan
   16. Participated in Workgroups within EPA and Among other Federal Agencies

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                    OVERVIEW OF 2014 HIGHLIGHTS

EPA Regional Water Programs

Region 1: Served on steering committee of Northeast Coastal Acidification Network and
helped coordinate regional efforts to improve scientific understanding of ocean and coastal
acidification. (Supports Vison Area 3: Coastal and Ocean Waters)

Region 2: Awarded $229 million to New Jersey and $340 million to New York for
improvements to wastewater and drinking water treatment facilities impacted by Hurricane
Sandy to increase their resiliency. (Supports Vision Area 1: Infrastructure)

Region 3: Conducted 6 workshops and 10 energy audits at water and wastewater treatment
with States and formed Delaware Water and Wastewater Energy Efficiency Partnership with
public and private agencies in Delaware. (Supports Vision Area 1: Water Infrastructure)

Region 4: Trained State Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) coordinators to
incorporate sustainable and green infrastructure projects into larger wastewater capital
improvement loans.  (Supports Vision Area 1: Water Infrastructure)

Region 5: In partnership with Ohio EPA, launched Ohio Water & Energy Pilot for Public
Wastewater Treatment Works which aims to advance energy management at wastewater
treatment facilities.  (Supports Vision Area 1: Water Infrastructure)

Region 6: Hosted Tribal Climate Change Adaptation Workshop  on climate change science and
adaptation actions, grant funding opportunities, potential climate change impacts & threats to
tribal assets, and steps to address vulnerabilities. (Supports Vision Area 5: Working with Tribes)

Region 7: Hosted Native American Heritage Month panel discussion on Climate Change
Impacts on Native American People, Places, & Culture. (Supports Vision Area 5: Working with
Tribes)

Region 8: Hosted WaterSense Partner Summit  bringing together WaterSense partners from
Colorado, Utah,  Montana, and Wyoming. (Supports Vision Area 1: Water Infrastructure)

Region 9:  Drafted Regional Drought Response  Strategy to address drought crisis while
increasing resiliency of communities. (Supports  Vision Area 2: Watersheds &  Wetlands)

Region 10: Puget Sound National Estuary Program provided funds to projects to support
adaptation and resiliency to climate change impacts. (Supports Vision Area 3: Coastal & Ocean
Waters)

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PART I:
NATIONAL PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS
Vision Area 1:
Water
Infrastructure
                                                                         I
Vision: In the face of a changing climate, resilient and adaptable drinking water, wastewater
and stormwater utilities (water sector) ensure clean and safe water to protect the nation's
public health and environment by making smart investment decisions to improve the
sustainability of their infrastructure and operations and the communities they serve, while
reducing greenhouse gas emissions through greater energy efficiency.

1. Addressed Climate Change in State Revolving Fund Program: An EPA Headquarters and
Regional State Revolving Fund (SRF) climate project team was convened in early 2014 to
explore ways to further promote the incorporation of climate change considerations at the
state level. The team, which consisted of Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) and
Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) staff at Headquarters and EPA Regions 6 and 9,
met several times throughout the year. Key 2014 project team activities included:

   > Adding questions on sustainability, of which climate change adaptation is part, to the
      checklist that Regions use in annual State Revolving Fund program reviews;

   > Finalizing a conversation guide in August 2014 to help EPA Regions engage with States
      on climate change and extreme weather issues (in addition to other sustainability
      topics);

   > Continuing a dialogue on "SRF Program Response to Climate Change Adaptation Needs"
      through the State-EPA Workgroup at the Spring Council of State Infrastructure Financing
      Authorities Policy Conference meeting.

2. Developed Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT) 3.0 Framework:
EPA completed a draft CREAT 3.0 framework providing an overview of
the additions and enhancements to CREAT which describes the new
web-based program architecture featuring the following modules:
Climate Awareness; Scenario Development; Asset Screening;
Adaptation Planning; and, Risk Assessment. The final CREAT version
3.0 is expected  to be released in the middle of 2015.

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3. Addressed Climate Change in Sanitary Survey Program: An EPA Headquarters/Region team
was established in 2014 to identify how best to include consideration of weather-related
conditions and extremes in the Safe Drinking Water Act Sanitary Survey program. The Sanitary
Survey program provides for on-site review of drinking water systems on a three to five year
rotating basis. Efforts are currently focused on including climate resilience information,
including water availability and flooding, in the Sanitary Survey Learner's Guide that is
undergoing general revision efforts.
4. Launched WaterSense H2Otel Challenge: In 2014, the WaterSense program launched the
H20tel Challenge to increase awareness of water
efficiency opportunities in the hospitality sector.  Close
to 800 hotels took the Challenge to assess their water
use, change products and practices, and track their
water use and savings. WaterSense provided a suite of
tools and training to help hotels identify opportunities
for savings  in their facilities.
                                                      WaterSense
 I  ^    -
Challenge
      FLOOD RESILIENCE
     ..- I -' ! ' . .,".'..-  r ,',' i- -,-, ' .; / '
5.  Developed Flood Resilience Guide for Water and Wastewater Utilities: EPA developed this
                           Flood Resilience Guide for small and mid-size utilities. The Guide
                           outlines a simple, 4-step assessment process to help any water
                           utility know their flooding threat and identify practical mitigation
                           options to protect their critical assets. With a user-friendly online
                           layout, the Guide provides worksheets, instructional videos, and
                           flood maps to help utilities through the process.

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Vision Area 2:
Watersheds
and
Wetlands

Vision: Watersheds are protected, maintained and restored to ensure climate resilience and to
preserve the social and economic benefits they provide; and the nation's wetlands are
maintained and improved using integrated approaches that recognize their inherent value as
well as their role in reducing the impacts of climate change.

1. Published Workbook for Developing Risk-Based Climate Change Adaptation Plans: EPA
published "Being Prepared for Climate Change: A Workbook for Developing Risk-Based
Adaptation Plans." This peer reviewed guide describes how to conduct watershed scale climate
change vulnerability assessments and create accompanying action plans.  It is intended to assist
communities, National Estuary Programs,  or other similar organizations in preparing risk-based
plans for climate change resiliency.

2. Built State and Local Capacity to Protect Healthy
Watersheds and Enhance Climate Change Resiliency:   JV^T  ^k  14 O 3 I i h V
The Healthy Watersheds Program (HWP) is working to  if  i^     nCCllLNy
build state and local capacity to identify and protect    \         " lA/Sf pp"C flpnC
healthy watersheds using a systems approach that       \^^
recognizes watersheds as dynamic, interconnected
ecosystems. Natural, intact watersheds are better  equipped to withstand, recover from, and
adapt to natural and man-made disturbances, including climate change. Implementing
strategies to maintain and protect healthy watersheds is key toward enhancing climate change
resiliency.  In 2014, HWP activities included:

    >  HWP released "Strengthening the Resilience of the Taunton River Watershed: A Tool to
       Prioritize Local Action".  In partnership with EPA Region 1, The Nature Conservancy and
       local stakeholders, this project will help inform how Taunton River communities decide
       on priority actions that would increase their overall resiliency and  reduce their
       vulnerability to the converging impacts of climate change and development.

    >  In March 2014, HWP released the "Wisconsin Integrated Assessment  of Watershed
       Health," a statewide report on the status and vulnerability of watershed health. Fifteen
       metrics were selected to describe landscape condition, hydrologic condition, habitat
       condition, geomorphology, water quality, and biological condition. To complement the
       analysis of watershed health, seven metrics describing the vulnerability of Wisconsin
       watersheds to future climate, land use, and water use change were selected and
       quantified for catchments in the Wisconsin  Department of Natural Resource's
       hydrography database throughout the state.

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>  In June 2014, the Healthy Watersheds Program, Mobile Bay National Estuary Program,
   Alabama Department of Environmental Management, and other partners completed the
   "Alabama and Mobile Bay Basin Integrated Assessment of Watershed Health," a
   statewide and basin-wide report on the status and vulnerability of watershed health.
   The assessment, integrates the best available data from state and federal agencies to
   characterize relative landscape condition, watershed health, and watershed
   vulnerability to climate change, land use change, and water use.

>  EPA launched the Healthy Watersheds Consortium Grant program to accelerate and
   expand the strategic protection of healthy freshwater ecosystems and their watersheds
   across the country. EPA expects to issue a cooperative agreement to fund a single
   grantee to manage the Healthy Watersheds Consortium grant program and issue sub-
   awards on a competitive basis. The Request for Proposals (RFP) was posted on October
   10, 2014 and proposals are under review. EPA anticipates announcing the awardee in
   April 2015. The grant is a 6-year, $3.75 million grant.

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Vision Area 3:
Coastal and
Ocean
Waters
Vision: Adverse effects of climate change and unintended adverse consequences of responses
to climate change have been successfully prevented or reduced in the ocean and coastal
environment. Federal, tribal, state, and local agencies, organizations, and institutions are
working cooperatively; and information necessary to integrate climate change considerations
into ocean and coastal management is produced, readily available, and used.

1. Launched Climate Change Adaptation Projects with National Estuary Program (NEP)
Partners: The Climate Ready Estuaries Program worked with four NEPs - Peconic Estuary
Program (New York); Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program (Texas); Morro Bay National
Estuary Program (California); and San Francisco Estuary Partnership (California) - who will be
looking broadly at their vulnerability to climate change.  Other NEP projects related to climate
change include sea level rise planning, work on flooding with an environmental justice
community, and action planning for protecting coastal habitat.

2. Published National Estuary Program (NEP) Grant Guidance Addressing Climate Resilience:
In December 2014, EPA published grant guidance to all the NEPs encouraging them to
undertake efforts to make their Comprehensive Conservation Management Plans (CCMPs)
climate resilient (i.e., to help ensure that CCMPs will be able to provide their intended
protection and restoration benefits through time regardless of whether data from the National
Climate Assessment reasonably projects the climate change impacts on each study area. EPA's
goal is to ensure that no later than FY 2020, the CCMP of each NEP will be informed by a broad,
risk-based vulnerability assessment and will include appropriate  responses to assessment
findings.  NEPs are encouraged to use the new tool, Being Prepared for Climate Change: A
Workbook for Developing Risk-Based Adaptation Plans in this effort.

3. Developed Approach to Assess Vulnerability of Near Coastal Species and Habitats to
Climate Drivers at Regional Scales: The EPA Office of Research and Development is developing
an approach to assess the vulnerability of near coastal species and  habitats to climate drivers at
regional scales.  In 2014, the Sea-Level Affecting Marshes
Model (SLAMM) was enhanced to address distribution of
seagrass habitat resulting from sea  level rise. A report was
completed that describes the procedure used to develop the
submerged aquatic vegetation model for the Yaquina Bay
Estuary, Oregon. Ultimately, the project aims to apply the
framework nationally, with a focus on the Pacific Northwest to assess how vulnerabilities vary
geographically and across habitats.
Office of Research and
  Development: 2014
       Product

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Vision Area 4:
Water
Quality
Vision: The Nation's surface water, drinking water, and ground water quality are protected,
and the risks of climate change to human health and the environment are diminished, through a
variety of adaptation and mitigation strategies.

1. Developed Green Infrastructure Collaborative Network: In October 2014, EPA joined with
federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and private-sector entities to form the
Green Infrastructure Collaborative, a network to help communities more easily implement
green infrastructure. As of December 2014, the Collaborative included more than 25 member
organizations. The Green Infrastructure Collaborative members released a Statement of
Support outlining commitments to advance coordination around green infrastructure initiatives
and noting that "Green infrastructure continues to emerge as an approach to complement and
enhance gray infrastructure and provide multi-benefit solutions that create resilient and sustainable
communities".

2. Awarded Funding for Green Infrastructure Technical Assistance: EPA awarded $1.1 million
worth of green infrastructure technical assistance to 19 communities in 2014. Selected
communities received assistance for projects including green infrastructure conceptual designs,
feasibility studies, and  integration of green infrastructure into local flood management, coastal
resiliency, and water security planning efforts.

3. Completed Pilot to Understand Approaches Needed to  Incorporate Climate Change
Information into TMDL Development: The EPA Office of Research and Development
completed a pilot effort to understand the information and approaches needed to incorporate
climate change information into Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) development in the Pacific
Northwest. This project synthesizes, interprets and presents
information in a way that informs and promotes capacity
building in EPA Regions to incorporate climate change
mitigation and adaption into their operating programs.
Office of Research and
  Development: 2014
       Product
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Vision Area 5:
Working with
Tribes
Vision: Tribes are able to preserve, adapt, and maintain the viability of their culture, traditions,
natural resources, and economies in the face of a changing climate.

1. Award Funding to Tribes to Study Health Effects of Climate Change: Through the EPA Office
of Research and Development (ORD) STAR (Science to Achieve Results) grant program, EPA
awarded $5 million to Tribes to study the health effects of climate change. Several of the
projects involve water quality, aquatic resources as foods, and sea level rise.

In addition, water programs in EPA's regional offices are working with Tribes to assist them in
responding to climate change related issues. These activities, described in greater detail in the
next Part of this report, include:

    > Region 1's Peconic Estuary Program allocated  $30,000 in funds from the Climate Ready
      Estuaries Program to conduct a climate vulnerability assessment for the Peconic
      Estuary in cooperation with the Shinnecock Nation of Indians.

    > Region 6 hosted a Climate Change Adaptation Workshop for Region 6 Tribes at the
      Regional Tribal Summit held on March 26, 2014.

    > Region 7 hosted a Native American Heritage Month Event in November 2014 with a
      panel discussion on "Climate Change and the Impacts on Native American People,
      Places and Culture".

    > Region 9 promoted drought resilience in Indian Country by giving water efficiency
      presentations at Regional tribal conferences and developing a water efficiency case
      study.

    > Region 10 and ORD have been working with partners including the Nooksack Indian
      Tribe, Lummi Nation, and Washington Department of Ecology on a project that is using
      a temperature load allocation for the South Fork Nooksack River as a pilot for
      integrating climate change into a watershed-specific plan for improving water quality.

    > Region 10 provided funds to the Alaskan Native Tribal Health Consortium to
      administer the Local Environmental Observers Network. The project provides an
      opportunity for local environmental observers to tell the stories of the changing climate.

    > Region 10 offered quarterly webinars on climate change with Alaskan Tribes.

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                                                                        Climate Change Adaptation
                                                                         Implementation Plan
Vision Area 6:
Cross-cutting Program Support
1. Published EPA Office of Water Climate Change Adaptation
Implementation Plan: The EPA Office of Water Climate Change Adaptation
Plan was released for public comment in September 2013, and the final
Plan was published in November 2014. The Plan describes priority climate
change adaptation actions for EPA's water programs.
2. Participated in Workgroups within EPA and Among other Federal Agencies.  The National
Water Program participated in a range of federal agency workgroups addressing climate change
adaptation challenges including the:

   >  EPA Cross-Agency Climate Change Adaptation Workgroup;
   >  Climate Change Workgroup of the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI);
   >  Water Resources Workgroup of the Interagency Council on Climate Change Resilience
       and Preparedness;
   >  Interagency Joint Working Group implementing the final "Fish Wildlife and Plants
       Climate Adaptation Strategy";
   >  "National Ocean Policy" Implementation Plan workgroup on climate change;
   >  Interagency Ocean Acidification Working Group; and
   >  Coral Reef Task Force.
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PART II:
HIGHLIGHTS FROM
EPA REGIONAL WATER
PROGRAMS

A major highlight of work in each of
the ten EPA Regional water program
offices (see map of EPA Regions) to
implement the 2012 Strategy is
described below. Additional
accomplishments by EPA Regional
water programs are described in the
Compendium in Appendix A.
Region 1

Region 1 served on the steering committee for the Northeast Coastal Acidification Network
(NECAN), which was established by the Northeast Association of Coastal and Ocean Observing
Systems (NERACOOS) to coordinate regional efforts to improve scientific understanding of
ocean and coastal acidification and help affected stakeholders. NECAN sponsored a series of 16
webinars by experts on ocean and coastal acidification that culminated with a "state of the
science" workshop in April 2014, the results of which will be published in two scientific journal
articles. With funding support from EPA Headquarters, NECAN also began a series of
stakeholder engagement workshops in December 2014 to exchange information with
aquaculture and other impacted industries and communities.

Region 2

Region 2 reviewed all applications for assistance under the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act
of 2013 and on September 24, 2014, awarded $229 million to New Jersey and $340 million to
New York for improvements to wastewater and drinking water treatment facilities impacted
by Hurricane Sandy. The funds will be used on projects that reduce the risks of flood damage
and that increase the resiliency of wastewater and drinking water facilities to withstand the
effects of severe storms. Projects must be for resiliency purposes and "reduce flood damage
risks and vulnerability or enhance resiliency to rapid  hydrologic change or a natural disaster at
water or wastewater facilities."

Region 3

Region 3 held 6 workshops on water utility energy efficiency and conducted 10 energy audits
at water and wastewater treatment in Region 3 States. In the process, Region 3 forged a close
                                                                                 13

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partnership with public and private agencies in Delaware, forming the Delaware Water and
Wastewater Energy Efficiency Partnership (DWEEP). Workshops provided technical
information on energy projects to water and wastewater treatment plant operators and
municipal managers.  Funding opportunities for energy efficiency and renewable energy
projects at water and  wastewater facilities were also presented.

Region 4

Region 4's Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) Program has been training State CWSRF
coordinators to incorporate sustainable and green infrastructure projects into larger
wastewater capital improvement loans.  For example, in Port Orange, Florida, a photovoltaic
solar array was included in a wastewater treatment plant upgrade project funded by Florida's
CWSRF. The solar power system provides  the plant a minimum of 25  kilowatt continuous
power supply for 6 hour solar day. The energy cost savings for the system is approximately
$20,000 per year and  reduces the plant's overall carbon footprint.

Region 5

Region 5's Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan emphasizes promoting resilient
practices at municipal wastewater treatment plants, one of which is improving energy
efficiency. In partnership with Ohio EPA, Region 5 launched the Ohio Water & Energy Pilot for
Public Wastewater Treatment Works which aims to advance energy management at
wastewater treatment facilities. Four wastewater treatment works ranging in design average
flow from 3.5MGD - 15 MGD (million gallons per day) are participating in the pilot.

Region 6

Region 6 hosted a Climate Change Adaptation Workshop for Region 6 Tribes at the Regional
Tribal Summit held on March 26, 2014. The workshop included an overview of climate change
science and adaptation actions, a survey of grant funding opportunities available in EPA's
various media programs, and a tribal led brainstorming session aimed at identifying and
evaluating civic, cultural and ecological assets, assessing potential climate change impacts and
the threats they may pose to tribal assets, and the steps Tribes will need to take to address
these vulnerabilities.

Region 7

Region 7 hosted a Native American Heritage Month Event on November 12, 2014 with a panel
discussion on Climate Change and the Impacts on Native American People, Places and
Culture. The nine tribal nations located within Region 7 participated along with 100 EPA staff.
                                                                                   14

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Region 8

Region 8 hosted a WaterSense Partner Summit, bringing together more than 40 individuals,
both in person and via webinar, representing WaterSense partners from Colorado, Utah,
Montana, and Wyoming. This was the first event of its kind in an EPA Regional Office and
WaterSense Regional Liaisons from the nine other EPA Regions were invited to observe via
webinar in hopes they may be able to do something similar in their Regions.

Region 9

Following the January 17, 2014 declaration of a state of emergency due to drought in California,
and severe - exceptional drought conditions throughout much of Region 9, the Region drafted
a Drought Response Strategy to identify specific actions that can be taken to address the
immediate crisis while increasing the resiliency of communities in the Region to drought and
climate change. Implementation of the Strategy has included:

    >  promoting water conservation, including interagency efforts under the Federal Green
       Challenge  and Federal Regional Council;
    >  promoting water recycling;
    >  promoting stormwater capture and Green Infrastructure; assisting Tribes, and
    >  coordinating with water utilities to promote tools such as water loss control auditing.

Region 10

The Puget Sound National Estuary Program in Region 10 provided funds to numerous projects
to support adaptation and resiliency to climate change impacts.  Some of these projects
included:

   >  evaluating sea-level rise  to plan for protection of critical ecosystems in the San Juan
       Islands;
   >  an assessment of climate change impacts and their influence on Puget Sound; and
   >  working with counties, cities, and state agencies to provide technical assistance for
       preparing for climate change impacts while  implementing their Shoreline Master
       Programs.
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Part III:
2014 Assessment of Progress

The 2012 Highlights of Progress Report provided an initial assessment of progress in
implementing each of the nineteen goals described in the National Water Program 2012
Strategy: Response to Climate Change.  That assessment identified the stage or phase of
development efforts to implement the goals. Based on its development phase, each goal is then
given a score from 1-7 (shown in the third column in Table II).

Recognizing the long-term nature of work to address climate change, the status of work on
each of the goals carried out by National Water Program in 2012 and 2013 is shown in Table II.

The seven developmental phases for climate change related work are:

   1. Initiation; conduct a screening assessment of potential implications of climate change to
      mission, programs, and operations;

   2. Assessment;  conduct a broader review to understand how climate change affects the
      resources in question;

   3. Response Development; identify changes necessary to continue to reach program
      mission and goals and develop initial action plan;

   4. Initial Implementation; initiate actions in selected priority programs or projects

   5. Robust Implementation; programs are underway and lessons learned are being applied
      to additional programs and projects;

   6. Mainstreaming; climate is an embedded, component of the program; and

   7. Monitor Outcomes and Adaptive Management; continue to monitor and integrate
      performance, new information,  and lessons learned into programs and plans.

More detailed descriptions of each of these phases of assessment are included in Table I (on
the following page).

The 2012 baseline assessment has a total numeric value of 42 out of a total possible score of
133 (i.e., 19 goals times a score of 7 for each goal equates to a score of 133). This 2014
Highlights of Progress Report includes an update of the initial 2012 assessment.  The 2014
scores are provided in Table II after the 2012 and 2013 scores are listed.  Collectively, the total
score increases from 42 to 51 in 2013 and increases to 57 in 2014. This combined score
indicates that many actions are in the early stages of implementation.
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Table I - Description of Implementation Phases
Program
Implementation
Phases
1. Initiation
Explanation
Conduct a screening
assessment of potential
implications of climate
change to mission,
programs, and operations
Examples of Evidence of Achievement
    Preliminary information is developed to
    evaluate relevance of climate change to the
    mission or program; a decision is made as to
    whether to prepare a response to climate
    change; further exploration of climate change
    implications has been authorized.
    Responsibilities are assigned at appropriate
    levels within the organization and resources are
    available to develop more in-depth assessments.
2. Assessment
Conduct a broader review
to understand how climate
change affects the
resources in question

Work with stakeholders to
develop an understanding
of the implications of
climate change to the
mission, programs, and
operations
    Review science literature and assessments to
    understand how climate change affects the
    resources being protected (threat to mission).
    Engage internal staff and external stakeholders
    in evaluation.
    Identify climate change issues and concerns and
    communicate with internal and external
    stakeholders and partners.
    Identify which specific programs are threatened
    and what specific information or tools need to
    be developed.
    Communicate findings to partners and
    stakeholders and engage them in  dialogue on
    building adaptive capacity.
3. Response
development
Identify changes necessary
to continue to reach
program mission and goals

Develop initial action plan

Identify and seek the
research, information and
tools needed to support
actions

Begin to build the body of
tools, information and
partnerships needed to
build capacity internally
and externally
    Develop initial program vision and goals for
    responding to climate change.
    Identify needed response actions or changes
    that will allow the organization to begin to
    address climate impacts on its mission.
    Initiate strategies and actions in a few key areas
    to begin to build organizational ability to use
    climate information in decision processes.
    Identify program partners' needs for building
    adaptive capacity.
    Begin working with an external 'community of
    practice' to engage in tool and program
    development.
    Rudimentary methods are put in place to track
    progress and options for more formal  measures
    are identified and evaluated.
    Develop a strategy and partnerships to obtain
    additional needed research.
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4. Initial
Implementation
Initiate actions in selected
priority programs or
projects
o   Make it clear within the organization that
    incorporating climate change into programs is
    critical
o   Initiate actions and plans identified in Step 3
o   Initiate projects with partners
o   Develop needed information and tools
o   Initial implementation of measures capable of
    documenting the extent of implementation of
    needed actions by partners/stakeholders
o   Some program partners have begun to
    implement response actions
5.  Robust
Implementation
Programs are underway
and lessons learned are
being applied to additional
programs and projects
    Lessons learned are evaluated and strategies are
    refined
    Efforts are initiated to consider climate change
    in additional program elements
    Continue to institute institutional changes to
    include climate change in core programs,
    including refinement of measures
    External communities of practice are in place to
    support ongoing capacity development
6. Mainstreaming
Climate is an embedded,
component of the program
   The organization's culture and policies are
   aligned with responding to climate change
   All staff have a basic understanding of climate
   change causes and impacts
   All relevant programs, activities, and decisions
   processes intrinsically incorporate climate
   change
   Measures for documenting progress among
   partners/stakeholders are well established and
   support program evaluation
7. Monitor
Outcomes and
Adaptive
Management
Continue to monitor and
integrate performance,
new information, and
lessons learned into
programs and plans
    Progress is evaluated and needed changes are
    implemented
    As impacts of climate change unfold, climate
    change impacts and organizational responses
    are reassessed
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TABLE II - Climate Goals with 2012 Baseline and 2013 & 2014 Assessment Scores
  Visions and
     Goals
        Strategic Actions (SA)
2012 Baseline and 2013
  & 2014 Assessment
        Scores
Infrastructure: In the face of a changing climate, resilient and adaptable drinking water,
wastewater and stormwater utilities (water sector) ensure clean and safe water to protect
the nation's public health and environment by making smart investment decisions to improve
the sustainability of their infrastructure and operations and the communities they serve,
while reducing greenhouse gas emissions through greater energy efficiency.
      Goal 1:
  Build the body of
  information and
  tools needed to
 incorporate climate
change into planning
and decision making.
                    SA1: Improve access to vetted climate and
                    hydrological science, modeling, and
                    assessment tools through the Climate Ready
                    Water Utilities program.
SA2: Assist wastewater and water utilities to
reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase
long-term sustainability with a combination of
energy efficiency, co-generation, and increased
use of renewable energy resources.
SA3: Work with the states and public water
systems, particularly small water systems, to
identify and plan for climate change challenges
to drinking water safety and to assist in
meeting health based drinking water
standards.
                    SA4: Promote sustainable design approaches
                    to provide for the long-term sustainability of
                    infrastructure and operations.
    Phase Response
      Assessment:

    2012 Baseline: 3

   2013 Assessment: 3

   2014 Assessment^
      Goal 2:
 Support Integrated
  Water Resources
   Management
     (IWRM)to
 sustainably manage
  water resources.
SA5: Understand and promote through
technical assistance the use of water supply
management strategies.
SA6: Evaluate and provide technical assistance
on the use of water demand management
strategies.
SA7: Increase cross-sector knowledge of water
supply climate challenges and develop
watershed specific information to inform
decision making.
    Phase Response
      Assessment:

    2012 Baseline: 2

   2013 Assessment: 2

   2014 Assessment: 3
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 Visions and Goals
              Strategic Actions
2012 Baseline and
   2013 & 2014
Assessment Scores
Watersheds & Wetlands: Watersheds are protected, maintained and restored to ensure
climate resilience and to preserve the social and economic benefits they provide; and the
nation's wetlands are maintained and improved using integrated approaches that recognize
their inherent value as well as their role in reducing the impacts of climate change.
      GoalS:
  Identify, protect,
   and maintain a
 network of healthy
  watersheds and
 supportive habitat
 corridor networks.
                    SA8: Develop a national framework and
                    support efforts to protect remaining healthy
                    watersheds and aquatic ecosystems.
SA9: Collaborate with partners on terrestrial
ecosystems and hydrology so that effects on
water quality and aquatic ecosystems are
considered.
SA10: Integrate protection of healthy
watersheds throughout the National Water
Program (NWP) core programs.
                    SA11: Increase public awareness of the role
                    and importance of healthy watersheds in
                    reducing the impacts of climate change.
  Phase Response
   Assessment:

  2012 Baseline: 3

2013 Assessment: 3

2014 Assessment: 4
      Goal 4:
 Incorporate climate
   resilience into
     watershed
  restoration and
     floodplain
   management.
SA12: Consider a means of accounting for
climate change in EPA funded and other
watershed restoration projects.
SA13: Work with federal, state, interstate,
tribal, and local partners to protect and restore
the natural resources and functions of riverine
and coastal floodplains as a means of building
resiliency and protecting water quality.
  Phase Response
   Assessment:

  2012 Baseline: 3

2013 Assessment: 3

2014 Assessment: 3
      GoalS:
    Watershed
protection practices
 incorporate Source
Water Protection to
  protect drinking
  water supplies.
SA14: Encourage States to update their source
water delineations, assessments or protection
plans to address anticipated climate change
impacts.
SA15: Continue to support collaborative efforts
to increase state and local awareness of source
water protection needs and opportunities, and
encourage inclusion of source water protection
areas in local climate change adaptation
initiatives.
  Phase Response
   Assessment:

  2012 Baseline: 2

2013 Assessment: 2

2014 Assessment: 2
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Visions and Goals
Goal 6:
Incorporate climate
change
considerations into
the Clean Water Act
(CWA) 404
regulatory program
as they relate to
permit reviews and
compensatory
mitigation.
Goal?:
Improve baseline
information on
wetland extent,
condition and
performance to
inform effective
adaptation to
climate change.
Strategic Actions
SA16: Consider the effects of climate change,
as appropriate, when making significant
degradation determinations in the CWA Section
404 wetlands permitting and enforcement
program.
SA17: Evaluate, in conjunction with the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers, how wetland and
stream compensation projects could be
selected, designed, and sited to aid in reducing
the effects of climate change.
SA18: Expand wetland mapping by supporting
wetland mapping coalitions and training on use
of the new federal Wetland Mapping Standard.
SA19: Produce a statistically valid, ecological
condition assessment of the nation's wetlands.
SA20: Work with partners and stakeholders to
develop information and tools to support long
term planning and priority setting for wetland
restoration projects.
Assessment
Phase Response
Assessment:
2012 Baseline: 1
2013 Assessment: 1
2014 Assessment: 1
Phase Response
Assessment:
2012 Baseline:!
2013 Assessment: 2
2014 Assessment: 2
Coastal and Ocean Waters: Adverse effects of climate change and unintended adverse
consequences of responses to climate change have been successfully prevented or reduced in
the ocean and coastal environment. Federal, tribal, state, and local agencies, organizations,
and institutions are working cooperatively; and information necessary to integrate climate
change considerations into ocean and coastal management is produced, readily available, and
used.
Goal 8:
Collaborate to
ensure information
and methodologies
for ocean and
coastal areas are
collected, produced,
analyzed, and easily
available.
SA21: Collaborate to ensure that synergy
occurs, lessons learned are transferred, federal
efforts effectively help local communities, and
efforts are not duplicative or at cross-purposes.
SA22: Work within EPA and with the U.S.
Global Change Research Program and other
federal, tribal, and state agencies to collect,
produce, analyze, and format knowledge and
information needed to protect ocean and
coastal areas and make it easily available.
Phase Response
Assessment:
2012 Baseline: 3
2013 Assessment: 3
2014 Assessment: 3
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 Visions and Goals
              Strategic Actions
   Assessment
      Goal 9:
 EPA geographically
 targeted programs
 support and build
 networks of local,
    tribal, state,
regional and federal
  collaborators to
   take effective
    adaptation
   measures for
 coastal and ocean
   environments.
SA23: Work with the NWP's larger geographic
programs to incorporate climate change
considerations, focusing on both the natural
and built environments.
SA24: Address climate change adaptation and
build stakeholder capacity when implementing
NEP Comprehensive Conservation and
Management Plans and through the Climate
Ready Estuaries Program.
SA25: Conduct outreach and education, and
provide technical assistance to state and local
watershed organizations and communities to
build adaptive capacity in coastal areas outside
the NEP and Large Aquatic Ecosystem
programs.
  Phase Response
   Assessment:
  2012 Baseline: 2
                                              2013 Assessment: 2
2014 Assessment: 3
     Goal 10:
  Address climate
      driven
  environmental
 changes in coastal
 areas and  ensure
that mitigation and
  adaptation are
  conducted in an
  environmentally
responsible manner.
                    SA26: Support coastal wastewater,
                    stormwater, and drinking water infrastructure
                    owners and operators in reducing climate risks
                    and encourage adaptation in coastal areas.
SA27: Support climate readiness of coastal
communities, including hazard mitigation, pre-
disaster planning, preparedness, and recovery
efforts.
                                               Phase Response
                                                 Assessment:
  2012 Baseline: 2
2013 Assessment: 3
                                              2014 Assessment: 3
                    SA28: Support preparation and response
                    planning for diverse impacts to coastal aquatic
                    environments.
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Visions and Goals
Goal 11:
Ocean
environments are
protected by EPA
programs that
incorporate shifting
environmental
conditions, and
other emerging
threats.
Strategic Actions
SA29: Consider climate change impacts on
marine water quality in NWP ocean
management authorities, policies, and
programs.
SA30: Use available authorities and work with
the Regional Ocean Organizations and other
federal and state agencies through regional
ocean groups and other networks so that
offshore renewable energy production does not
adversely affect the marine environment.
SA31: Support the evaluation of sub-seabed
sequestration of C02 and any proposals for
ocean fertilization.
SA32: Participate in interagency development
and implementation of federal strategies
through the National Ocean Council (NOC) and
the NOC Strategic Action Plans.
Assessment
Phase Response
Assessment:
2012 Baseline: 2
2013 Assessment: 3
2014 Assessment: 3
Water Quality: Our Nation's surface water, drinking water, and ground water quality are
protected, and the risks of climate change to human health and the environment are
diminished, through a variety of adaptation and mitigation strategies.
Goal 12:
Protect waters of
the United States
and promote
management of
sustainable surface
water resources.
SA33: Encourage States and communities to
incorporate climate change considerations into
their water quality planning.
SA34: Encourage green infrastructure and low-
impact development to protect water quality
and make watersheds more resilient.
SA35: Promote consideration of climate change
impacts by National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System permitting authorities.
SA36: Encourage water quality authorities to
consider climate change impacts when
developing wasteload and load allocations in
TMDLs where appropriate.
SA37: Identify and protect designated uses that
are at risk from climate change impacts.
Phase Response
Assessment:
2012 Baseline: 2
2013 Assessment: 3
2014 Assessment: 3
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 Visions and Goals
              Strategic Actions
   Assessment
     Goal 13:
As the nation makes
decisions to reduce
 its greenhouse gas
   emissions and
develop alternative
 sources of energy
 and fuel, the NWP
will work to protect
  water resources
 from unintended
     adverse
   consequences.
                    SA38: Clarify how to re-evaluate aquatic life
                    water quality criteria on more regular intervals;
                    and develop information to assist States and
                    Tribes who are developing criteria that
                    incorporate climate change considerations for
                    hydrologic condition.
SA39: Continue to provide perspective on the
water resource implications of new energy
technologies.
SA40: Provide assistance to States and
permittees to assure that geologic
sequestration of CCh is responsibly managed.
SA41: Continue to work with States to help
them identify polluted waters, including those
affected by biofuels production, and help them
develop and implement TMDLs for those
waters.
SA42: Provide informational materials for
stakeholders to encourage the consideration of
alternative sources of energy and fuels that are
water efficient and maintain water quality.
                    SA43: As climate change affects the operation
                    or placement of reservoirs, EPA will work with
                    other federal agencies and EPA programs to
                    understand the combined effects of climate
                    change and hydropoweron flows, water
                    temperature, and water quality.
  Phase Response
   Assessment:

  2012 Baseline:!

2013 Assessment: 2

2014 Assessment: 3
     Goal 14:
Collaborate to make
  hydrological and
  climate data and
    projections
     available.
                    SA44: Monitor climate change impacts to
                    surface waters and ground water.
SA45: Collaborate with other federal agencies
to develop new methods for use of updated
precipitation, storm frequency, and
observational streamflow data, as well as
methods for evaluating projected changes in
low flow conditions.
  Phase Response
   Assessment:

  2012 Baseline: 3

2013 Assessment: 3

2014 Assessment: 3
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 Visions and Goals
              Strategic Actions
   Assessment
Working With Tribes: Tribes are able to preserve, adapt, and maintain the viability of their
culture, traditions, natural resources, and economies in the face of a changing climate.
      Goal 15:
 Incorporate climate
      change
  considerations in
 the implementation
  of core programs,
and collaborate with
  other EPA Offices
and federal agencies
 to work with Tribes
 on climate change
  issues on a multi-
    media basis.
SA47: Through formal consultation and other
mechanisms, incorporate climate change as a
key consideration in the revised NWP Tribal
Strategy and subsequent implementation of
CWA, Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and
other core programs.
SA48: Incorporate adaptation into tribal
funding mechanisms, and collaborate with
other EPA and federal funding programs to
support sustainability and adaptation in tribal
communities.
  Phase Response
   Assessment:

  2012 Baseline: 3

2013 Assessment: 3

2014 Assessment: 3
      Goal 16:
 Tribes have access
 to information on
 climate change for
  decision making.
SA49: Collaborate to explore and develop
climate change science, information, and tools
for Tribes, and incorporate local knowledge.
  Phase Response
   Assessment:

  2012 Baseline: 2

2013 Assessment: 3

2014 Assessment: 3
                    SA50: Collaborate to develop communication
                    materials relevant for tribal uses and tribal
                    audiences.
Cross-Cutting Program Support
      Goal 17:
  Communication,
 Collaboration, and
      Training
SA51: Continue building the communication,
collaboration, and training mechanisms needed
to effectively increase adaptive capacity at the
federal, tribal, state, and local levels.
  Phase Response
   Assessment:

  2012 Baseline: 3
2013 Assessment^
2014 Assessment^
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 Visions and Goals
             Strategic Actions
   Assessment
     Goal 18:
 Tracking Progress
  And Measuring
    Outcomes
SA52: Adopt a phased approach to track
programmatic progress towards Strategic
Actions; achieve commitments reflected in the
Agency Strategic Plan; work with the EPA Work
Group to develop outcome measures.
 Phase Response
   Assessment:

 2012 Baseline: 3
2013 Assessment^
2014 Assessment^
     Goal 19:
Climate Change and
  Water Research
      Needs
SA53: Work with ORD, other water science
agencies, and the water research community to
further define needs and develop research
opportunities to deliver the information needed
to support implementation of this 2012
Strategy, including to provide the decision
support tools needed by water resource
managers.
 Phase Response
   Assessment:

 2012 Baseline: 2
2013 Assessment: 3
2014 Assessment: 3
TOTAL Implementation Phase Assessment Score: 2012 = 43
TOTAL Implementation Phase Assessment Score: 2013 = 52
TOTAL Implementation Phase Assessment Score: 2014 = 57

Total Possible = 133
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Appendix A:

          Compendium of Additional 2014 Accomplishments for
                         Climate Change Adaptation

In addition to the accomplishments highlighted in this report, other important projects related
to climate change adaptation were completed in 2014 by EPA national water program offices
and water programs in EPA regions.

I)  National Water Program Climate Change Adaptation Accomplishments

Office of Wetlands. Oceans and Watersheds

  The National Estuary Program (NEP) is developing a network of coastal acidification
   monitoring stations located within the estuaries participating in the NEP. In 2014, under a
   collaborative effort between the Casco Bay Estuary Partnership (Maine), Friends of Casco
   Bay, University of New Hampshire, Southern Maine Community College, and Northeast
   Coastal Acidification Network, a monitoring station was set up in Casco Bay, Maine. The
   station, while equipped with state-of-the-art pH and  pC02 sensors, will increase
   understanding of how near shore properties modify ocean acidification patterns.

  Climate Ready Estuaries published a lessons-learned publication from its projects with
   National Estuary Programs in the Southeast United States. This is the third lessons learned
   compilation from Climate Ready Estuary projects with National Estuary Program partners.

  EPA announced the 2013 Campus RainWorks Challenge winners in April 2014 and opened
   registration for the 2014/2015 Challenge in June 2014.

  EPA produced an interactive webinar in 2014 for EPA Regional Wetland Program
   Managers in order to increase understanding of EPA climate change initiatives, increase
   regional capacity to respond effectively to climate change, and promote peer-to-peer
   exchange and national wetland program accountability.

  EPA continues to work with other agencies and the international community to provide
   technical guidance related to marine geo-engineering, including ocean fertilization.  At the
   36th Meeting of Contracting to the London  Convention and 9th Meeting of Contracting
   Parties to the London Protocol (November 2014), parties adopted two guidance documents
   related to marine geoengineering/ocean fertilization and progress was made on a web-
   based ocean fertilization scientific repository.

  EPA is involved in a Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group on Blue
   Carbon and has invested in the Tampa Bay National Estuary Program's efforts related to

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Blue Carbon. EPA is working with federal agencies and Council on Environmental Quality to
account for Blue Carbon in the greenhouse gas inventory (2013 Wetlands Supplement to
2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines) and addressing issues related
to science, education and outreach.

EPA developed an internal action plan to address coastal acidification through the Clean
Water Act and  existing voluntary EPA programs. Key actions initiated in 2014 include:

    >  Collaborating with National  Center for Environmental Economics to develop
       ecosystem services valuation methodologies to quantify the economic impacts of
       acidification on fisheries in the Pacific Northwest (Puget Sound) and Northeast (Gulf
       of Maine);
    >  Partnering with Casco Bay Estuary Partnership, Friends of Casco Bay, University of
       New Hampshire, Southern Maine Community College, and Northeast  Coastal
       Acidification Network to install state-of-the-art pH and pCCh sensors in Casco Bay;
    >  Partnering with Washington State  Department of Ecology to develop models to
       determine relative contributions of land-based pollution sources to acidification
       conditions in Puget Sound;
    >  Working with the New England Coastal Acidification Network to conduct and
       facilitate regional stakeholder engagement and education workshops;
    >  Developing a white paper that will outline Clean Water Act regulatory and non-
       regulatory tools to address acidification-related pollution in U.S. coastal waters; and,
    >  Participating in efforts by the Interagency Ocean Acidification Working Group to
       develop a "Strategic Plan for Federal Research and Monitoring on Ocean
       Acidification."

EPA provided grant funding to the  Washington State Department of Ecology for the
development of a computer model of acidification in the Salish Sea. The model will
distinguish the impacts of local sources of nitrogen and carbon in atmospheric and water
pathways from Pacific Ocean signatures. The purpose is to quantify where, when, and how
much local sources impact acidification to guide effective implementation of local nutrient
management actions where  they are  significantly impacting acidification. The results will be
used to determine whether nutrient management programs in place now are sufficient or if
they need more stringent controls.

The U.S. Geological  Survey's (USGS) national Monthly Water Balance Model (MWBM),
upon which the initial core modeling is done, has been converted from a gridded format to
one based on over 110,000 NHD-derived Hydrologic Response Units (areas on the
landscape that would be expected to have a similar hydrologic response to changes in
factors such as precipitation and temperature), the model has been calibrated for the entire
continental U.S. domain based on USGS stream gage data, outputs from over 230 climate
model-greenhouse gas emission scenario combinations have been run to provide a broad
array of plausible future climate projections, and a web portal designed to facilitate
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   dissemination of findings to the public.  Phase I of the project is scheduled for completion in
   2015 with the launch of the USGS web portal.

  The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service maintains the National Wetlands Inventory. In 2009, EPA
   co-led a stakeholder working group (Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Wetlands
   subcommittee) to develop a new standard to support digital mapping of wetlands for
   incorporation into the National Wetlands Inventory and the National Hydrography Dataset
   (NHD). Accurate mapping of wetlands is essential to understanding how climate change
   may result in changes in wetlands overtime.  EPA has supported the long-term objective of
   the FGDC Wetlands subcommittee to complete digital mapping for the country which was
   completed this year. EPA is currently supporting a number of 2014 Regional Wetland
   Program Development Grants to support updating the National Wetlands Inventory to
   ensure that mapping efforts are current.

  In 2014, EPA continued work to develop the  first National Assessment of Wetland
   Condition (NWCA).  Preliminary results are under review that will provide an assessment of
   the overall ecological integrity of the resource and the relative status of wetland processes,
   such as the ability of a wetland to absorb nutrients and floodwaters. In addition, EPA
   developed the proper metrics for identifying the stressors most associated with degraded
   wetlands,  providing insights into the causes of declining wetland quality. Baseline
   information on the location, extent, and quality of wetlands and aquatic resources will  help
   to assess changes associated with climate change and other stressors. The NWCA will be
   repeated at the national scale every five years and will incorporate those indicators, among
   others, that EPA identifies as most meaningful for detecting and predicting the impacts of
   climate change on the condition of the nation's wetlands in the 2016 scheduled cycle. EPA
   expects that recurring monitoring will inform the development of predictive models and
   management strategies, including climate change adaptation approaches. A report
   detailing the results of the survey will be released for public comment in 2015.

  In 2014, EPA awarded $1 million in Wetland  Program Development Grants to  strengthen
   the capacity of States and Tribes in developing their programs to make them more climate
   ready/resilient. The  Nation's wetlands provide a variety of ecosystem services including
   climate change adaptation by protecting shorelines from extreme weather events and sea
   level rise. The National Wetland Program Development Grants provide interstate  agencies,
   intertribal consortia, and non-profit organizations with funding to develop and  refine
   comprehensive state, tribal, and local wetland programs. The proposed projects link to
   environmental results and include wetland restoration and training such as the "Living
   Shoreline Academy."

Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water

  Climate Ready Water Utilities held four Emergency Response and Climate Change
   Workshops in Mattapoisett, Massachusetts; New Orleans, Louisiana; Ft. Pierre, South
   Dakota; and Fresno,  California focused on emergency response and regional climate change

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   impacts; planning and adaptation; tool demonstrations on the Flood Resilience Guide; and,
   GREAT, utility case studies, and energy management.
  Climate Ready Water Utilities developed an interactive Climate Scenario-Based Projected
   Changes Map that provides easy-to-access scenarios of projected climate changes derived
   from GREAT. The tool illustrates projected changes in annual total precipitation; annual
   average temperature; precipitation intensity for the 100-year storm; and, sea-level rise.

  EPA began to transition the Climate Ready Water Utilities Toolbox to Georgetown
   University Climate Center.

  Climate Ready Water Utilities completed an update of the Adaptation Strategies Guide
   and plans  to post the Guide online.

  EPA presented five webinars with the Water Utility Climate Alliance on: Scenario Planning;
   Robust Decision Making; Threshold Analysis; Communicating Climate Risk; and Financing
   Adaptation.

  EPA published the final primary enforcement responsibility (primacy) manual in April 2014
   to support Class VI geologic sequestration regulatory implementation.

  EPA advanced Class VI geologic sequestration permitting by working closely with current
   permit applicants, permittees and potential future permit applicants to:

       >  Provide clarity regarding the Class VI requirements and develop permit conditions
          for six Class VI permits.
       >  Issue six final Class VI permits in 2014. (Note: four are under Environmental Appeals
          Board appeal. One has started construction. One was finalized in late December
          and may yet be appealed).
       >  Work through project-specific issues to ensure regulatory compliance and protection
          of  underground sources of drinking water (USDWs).
       >  Develop a tool to receive Class VI permit application, reporting and other required
          information electronically.

  EPA worked with North Dakota to advance their application for Class VI Primary
   Enforcement Responsibility (Primacy).

Office of Science and Technology

  EPA began collaborating with USGS to develop a plan to improve statistical software
   commonly used to estimate critical low flows.

   An EPA Headquarters/Regional/State water quality team developed a workshop session on
   climate change and water quality standards for the 2014 Water Quality Standards

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   Managers' meeting in late February-early March 2014. The meeting participants reviewed
   climate change issues in Clean Water Act water quality criteria and standards and
   identified possible options for addressing climate change in the context of water quality
   standards.

   An EPA Headquarters/Regional team documented Regional priorities considering impacts
   of climate change on water quality criteria and standards in the fall of 2014 to better
   understand the diverse issues across Regions and develop potential products to address
   such issues.

  EPA Headquarters continued to provide a climate change module at the spring and winter
   Water Quality Standards Academy. The module  is now a mandatory component of the
   Academy.

Office of Wastewater Management

  In 2014, the number of WaterSense partners across the country continued to grow,
   increasing by close to 138 to a total of 1,612 partners, which includes water utilities, state
   and local governments, manufacturers, retailers, and builders.

  WaterSense released a draft specification  for flushometer-type commercial toilets.  The
   program also released a notice of intent to develop a specification for landscape irrigation
   sprinklers and continued research to support development of a specification for soil
   moisture based irrigation controllers.

  WaterSense released revisions to its program for labeling professional certifying
   organizations that certify professionals working in water efficiency fields.  WaterSense
   currently labels only three types of irrigation  professional certification programs. The
   changes will position the program to consider other types of programs in the future.

  In July 2014, EPA's Green Infrastructure Team launched a webpage documenting the many
   benefits of green infrastructure in adapting to climate change, including improving
   resilience to flooding, drought and rising sea levels.

  Building on the success of a  partnership between EPA Headquarters and Regions to help
   water and wastewater utilities become more energy efficient and reduce greenhouse
   gases,  EPA worked with the  Department of Energy's Office of Weatherization and Outreach
   Office to develop a Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA) that will make up to $1 million
   available to state energy offices to train and assist these utilities develop sustainable
   energy management programs. Participating States will use a variety of energy
   management tools developed by EPA and others as they assist utilities around the country.
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  Five committee meetings were held on the National Research Council's Beneficial Use of
   Graywater and Stormwater: An Assessment of Risks, Costs, and Benefits study, which
   were undertaken as a follow-up to their 2012 water reuse study. The meetings were in
   Washington, D.C. in November 2013, Marina del Ray, California in January 2014,
   Washington, D.C. in April 2014, Irvine, California in July 2014, and Denver, Colorado in
   November 2014.

  Under the Promoting Sustainable Rural Water and Wastewater Memorandum of
   Agreement (MOA), EPA worked with the U.S. Department of Agriculture to leverage
   resources towards helping small and rural water and wastewater systems reliably and
   sustainably deliver clean and safe water to their customers and provide wastewater
   services primarily in four major areas: sustainability of rural communities, system
   partnerships, water sector workforce, and the compliance of small rural public water and
   wastewater systems. The two agencies collaborated to develop the Rural and Small
   Systems Guidebook to Sustainable Utility Management, and the Workshop in a Box. These
   materials were posted on agency websites in the Fall of 2013. In 2014, both agencies
   worked with technical assistance providers to identify locations to hold workshops to help
   communities assess their operations based on  key management areas that align closely
   with the sustainability attributes.

   The following activities in support of the MOA were completed in 2014:
       > Provided 6 workshops for rural and small systems using the  Rural and Small Systems
         Guidebook to Sustainable Utility.
       > Worked with assistance providers like the National Rural Water Association (NRWA)
         to train small systems using the Guidebook.


  EPA held a webinar for technical assistance providers and U.S. Department of Agriculture
   (USDA) staff in September 2014 regarding energy assessments for small water and
   wastewater systems.
  EPA developed a water loss control manual in 2013 and in 2014 promoted the manual and
   worked to raise awareness of the importance of dealing with water loss at workshops and
   conference events.
  EPA organized and jointly presented a webinar with the American Water Works
   Association on "Using Water Audits to Understand Water Loss" to assist public water
   systems and state primacy agencies in addressing water loss in water distribution systems.

  EPA presented at the Association of State Drinking Water Associations/EPA Annual Small
   Systems Workshop on "Public Water System Water Supply  Issues-Drinking Water Program
   Perspective."

  EPA developed three information documents for small public water systems and posted
   them to the EPA Small System Technical Assistance page:

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       >  Water Audits and Water Loss Control for Public Water Systems;
       >  Water Efficiency for Public Water Systems; and,
       >  Water Availability and Variability Strategies for Public Water Systems.

Office of Research and Development

  EPA has been partnering with the U.S. Army in a "NetZero" partnership to demonstrate
   approaches to minimizing water use by taking a systems-oriented approach to design and
   operation. ORD completed the first project on water use and conservation at Ft. Riley,
   Kansas which explored the effectiveness of education and awareness campaigns on
   behaviors, and reducing water consumption through social marketing, competition,
   outreach, and outcome assessments.

  EPA published two journal articles reporting results of modeling of soil column and kinetic
   studies, in an effort to develop a computer program for a decision support tool for Aquifer
   Storage and Recovery (ASR) practices. The model will integrate treatment
   (preconditioning), vadose zone characteristics and groundwater characteristics and flow to
   provide technical guidance for evaluating treatment requirements and permitting and
   monitoring criteria  for ASR practices.
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II)    Climate Change Adaptation Accomplishments
      Related to Water in EPA Regions

In October 2014, EPA Regional Offices, in addition to EPA Headquarters, released the final
versions of their Climate Change Adaptation Plans. These final versions were revised from
earlier drafts following public comment periods. They respond to directives in     i
         :    '':  l   i-:: -.).;   ;   f  :      ..''.     ;         . The final Plans are living
documents that will be periodically revised in subsequent years to account for new knowledge,
data, scientific evidence, and lessons learned from the Agency's ongoing efforts to integrate
climate adaptation planning into its programs, policies, rules and operations.

Region 1

  Region 1 led a Northeast Regional Ocean Council (NROC) workgroup that planned and
   conducted a workshop on salt marsh migration modeling and data needs in December 2014
   to coordinate New England state efforts to understand the impacts of sea level rise on these
   wetlands systems.

  Region 1 provided leadership as co-chair of the joint NROC/NERACOOS (the Northeast
   Association of Coastal and Ocean Observing Systems) steering committee overseeing the
   development of an Integrated Sentinel Monitoring Strategy for Climate Change  in
   Northeastern Ocean and Coastal Ecosystems, which is preparing a science and
   implementation plan to coordinate sub-regional efforts and help attract additional funding.

  The Long Island Sound Study released its draft, updated Comprehensive Conservation
   Management Plan (CCMP), which includes actions to address the impacts of climate
   change, in September 2014. (Regions 1 and  2)

  The Buzzards Bay National Estuary Program used Climate Ready Estuaries funding to work
   with other federal, state, and local partners to complete a vulnerability assessment of
   water infrastructure and environmental justice communities in the New Bedford Harbor
   area to sea  level rise and storm surge.

  EPA actively participated on the New England Federal Partners Climate Change and Ocean
   Planning committees, which each met four times during 2014 to coordinate and share
   information on climate change efforts.

  Region 1 conducted community-based emergency response workshops, including extreme
   weather, climate change, and incident command system training for more than 200 drinking
   water system operators.
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  Region 1 developed and distributed tools for the water sector and state programs,
   including: Lessons Learned Report from Hurricane Irene and Sandy; generic extreme
   weather power point presentation; and CIS maps of utilities-at-risk. Also supported EPA
   Headquarters' completion of the national Flood Guide using results of the Water System
   Flood Resilience Pilot Project at the Berwick, Maine water utility.

  Region 1 facilitated coordination between the Federal Emergency Management Agency
   (FEMA), U.S. Army Corps of  Engineers (USACE), and state agencies to complete the Power
   for Water Initiative, utilizing the USACE 249th Battalion to assess power and generator
   needs at 246 wastewater and drinking water facilities.

  Working with Department of Homeland Security, Region 1 initiated a Regional Resiliency
   Assessment Program pilot project in Portland, Maine to assess the vulnerability of critical
   infrastructure and to ensure  the inclusion of water,  wastewater, and energy infrastructure
   in the assessment.

  Region 1 released the draft Massachusetts Small Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System
   (MS4) permit in September 2014, which includes low impact development (LID)
   requirements and encourages infiltration when appropriate, to control more extreme
   precipitation events. The final New Hampshire small MS4 permit, with similar
   requirements, should be released in Fiscal Year 2015.

  The Regional SRF program continued to promote the use of SRF funds for climate change
   resiliency projects during the annual SRF reviews, and encouraged States to consider
   modifications to their SRF Priority Ranking Criteria to include additional points for Climate
   Change/Resiliency projects.

  Region 1 participated on the USGS Northeast Climate Science Center Steering Committee
   to help identify key research needs, including effects of climate induced changes on aquatic
   resources.

  With the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), USGS, North Atlantic Landscape
   Conservation Cooperative, and Northeast Climate Science Center, Region  1 co-sponsored
   a major regional stream temperature modeling workshop in May 2014 and continued to
   work with the EPA Office of Research and Development Atlantic Ecology Division to predict
   thermal regimes in streams across New England.

  With USFWS,  USACE, and National Marine Fisheries Service (NFMS) Region  1 initiated a
   working group to identify opportunities for integrating climate change considerations into
   the CWA 404  permit program.

  Through the Region's Wetland Program Development Grants, New England States have
   completed the following:
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       >  New Hampshire has modified grant criteria, stream crossing protocols, and
          mitigation rules to include climate change concerns. They are also enhancing the
          wetland review process for projects in areas of high ecological integrity, and
          identifying opportunities for climate related restoration projects.
       >  Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection has undertaken coastal
          erosion mapping, tide gate mapping (with Massachusetts Coastal Zone Management
          (MCZM) and is doing a study with the USGS on culvert sizing and assessing which
          precipitation data to use.
       >  Massachusetts completed a marsh migration model to identify areas to be protected
          and is establishing a monitoring program to track changes over time.
       >  Maine Natural Areas Program (MNAP) created a statewide invasive species
          database  and map (IMAP) to document invasive species and help with early
          detection. In Fiscal Year 2012 MNAP worked with Maine Geological Survey to map
          sea level rise and verify locations of tidal marshes and also developed an ecological
          integrity assessment method for Maine wetlands,  to set a baseline and measure
          change over time and identify species of greatest conservation need and those at
          risk due to climate change.

  Region 1 worked  with directors of educational programming at Save the Bay (Rhode Island)
   and the Buzzards Bay Coalition to identify opportunities to combine climate change
   educational goals with existing environmental programs to educate urban youth from
   environmental justice communities on the importance of wetlands and their value in
   climate change resiliency. The three sessions included an eelgrass expedition, field
   investigation techniques, and working with a teachers development program to guide them
   in the use  of outdoor classrooms.

  The Region 1 Geographic Information System (CIS) Office coordinated a cross-program
   climate adaptation mapping workgroup that met monthly to help further define common
   mapping needs, datasets, models, and tools for Region 1 programs. As a first step the group
   attempted to better understand which questions needed to be answered with mapping,
   and began tracking relevant CIS datasets to help inform a  regional mapping strategy to
   support climate adaptation.

  Region 1 helped develop a climate change CIS mapping platform that will provide On-
   Scene Coordinators, Remedial Project Managers, and other project managers and
   regulatory personnel a means to  determine how climate change  may impact a
   contaminated site or other regulated facility.

  Working with EPA Brownfields Program Office, Region 1 developed climate adaptation
   guidance and checklists that will enable brownfields grantees to appropriately consider
   climate change impacts in site cleanups and reuse.
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Region 2

  Region 2's Caribbean Environmental Protection Division (CEPD) is participating in the
   Puerto Rico Climate Change Council and the Caribbean Regional Ocean Partnership
   (CROP), both led by the Puerto Rico Coastal Zone Management Program and the VI Coastal
   Zone Management Program. In addition, CEPD is also a member of the Caribbean Regional
   Planning Body (CRPB). The CROP and the CRPB are focused, among other things, on coastal
   and marine spatial planning and coastal vulnerabilities to climate change are an integral
   part of the groups' discussions.

  Region 2, in conjunction with Puerto Rico Sea Grant, University of Puerto Rico - Mayaguez
   Campus, the U.S. Caribbean Coastal Ocean Observing Program, the San Juan Bay Estuary
   Program and the ENLACE Cano Martin Pena Project, kicked off the development of the first
   community based Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Assessment Plan in
   Puerto Rico for the Buena Vista Community of the Cano Martin Pena in 2014.

  The Caribbean Coral Reef Partnership held public listening sessions and partners discussed
   the structure of the Partnership and future rules of engagement, climate change, coral reef
   protection capacity needs in Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands, and coral reef focal projects
   in the St. Thomas East End Reserve and  Northeast Reserve in PR. The partners agreed to
   sign a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to memorialize the commitment of the
   participating federal agencies.

  Region 2 has been actively recruiting promotional partners for the WaterSense Program.
   New partnerships in New York have been established with the New York State American
   Water Works Association (AWWA), the New York State Department of Environmental
   Conservation (DEC) and the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, Inc.. New partnerships in New
   Jersey include the Town of Montclair, which has been designated as a Climate Showcase
   Community, as well as the Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority in New Jersey.
   Sustainable Jersey, a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization has also become a promotional
   partner. Sustainable Jersey is a statewide certification program that presents communities
   with a roadmap, technical assistance, and incentives to go green, save  money, and take
   steps to sustain  their quality of life over the long term. Sustainable Jersey has signed up 419
   communities for its statewide sustainability certification program, covering 86% of New
   Jersey's population.

  There are currently two WaterSense initiatives underway in Puerto Rico to promote EPA's
   WaterSense H2Otel Challenge. One initiative is with the Puerto Rico Tourism Company, a
   new WaterSense promotional partner as of 2014, which is the government  agency in charge
   of educating hotels on how to save water. A second WaterSense initiative focuses on the 6
   vocational centers/hotels that are handled by the Puerto Rico Department of Parks and
   Recreation, and also involves the participation of students from 3 Schools of Architecture in
   Puerto Rico. The EPA Headquarters and Region 2 WaterSense team also organized a

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   question and answer session to clarify key points and better motivate hotels in Puerto Rico
   to take the next important steps towards water efficiency.

  Funded by EPA's Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) Program, New York State
   offers Green Infrastructure project funding as a possible alternative to, or for use in
   conjunction with, existing grey infrastructure (e.g. conventional pipes, pumps) as a way to
   manage stormwater. During FY2014, New York's CWSRF Green Infrastructure Program
   provided 90% grants to support projects across New York State that utilize green
   technologies including rain gardens, stream "daylighting" projects, wetland restoration,
   rainwater harvesting and reuse, infrastructure retrofits, pervious pavement, green roofs
   and green walls, street tree plantings, pervious pavement and bio-retention projects, all of
   which help to sequester carbon and other greenhouse gases, and  reduce the urban heat
   "island" effect. During FFY2014 the total SRF funding in New York State for Green
   Infrastructure exceeded $10 million.

  Region 2 staff has conducted outreach efforts promoting Green Infrastructure, including:
      >  A presentation on green infrastructure municipal tools at the Western New York
          Stormwater Conference & Tradeshow in Buffalo, New York;
      >  Meeting with the New York League of Conservation Voters which is developing a
          white paper on the state of New York City's green infrastructure program with an
          eye towards  recommendations for New York Mayor de Blasio's administration. EPA
          provided input on what is working well in green infrastructure and where there may
          be additional opportunities for improvement and expansion; and
      >  Participation in the Roundtable on Integrating Resiliency and Smart Growth on a
          Post-Sandy Long Island convened through the Long  Island Smart Growth Resiliency
          Partnership.

  EPA Region 2 and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) has
   discussed how Green Infrastructure and New Jersey Municipal Separate Storm Sewer
   Systems (MS4) permits could be integrated with the development of Combined Sewer
   Overflow (CSO) Long Term Control Plans (LTCPs). Furthermore, The NJDEP also requested
   assistance from EPA to provide training for NJDEP staff in the review of CSO Long Term
   Control Plans.

  EPA Region 2 established a Sandy Recovery Green Team to coordinate EPA efforts and
   interface with the federal Sandy Regional Infrastructure and Resilience Coordination
   (SRIRC) Group to implement the National Disaster Recovery Framework, various executive
   orders, and the President's Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy. EPA is working on the
   SRIRC 10 targeted teams and is the lead for the Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment
   teams.

  HDD's Rebuild by Design Competition is a unique initiative by HUD asking the world's most
   talented design professionals to envision solutions that increase resiliency across the Sandy
   affected region. Staff from Region 2 shared EPA's SRF Sandy resiliency program for water

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   and wastewater projects for consideration by the design professionals and also discussed
   the importance of considering Green Infrastructure as part of their proposed solutions. The
   Rebuild by Design Winners and Finalists include projects for Hunts Point, Bronx, Nassau
   County South Shore, Lower Manhattan, and Staten Island, New York and Hoboken and
   Meadowlands, New Jersey. More information available here.

  Region 2 has been involved with the development of the USAGE North Atlantic Coast
   Comprehensive Study, which included a considerable amount of outreach to federal, state
   and local partners. The assessments and products of Phase 1 included storm suite modeling,
   state-specific coastal risk frameworks, a storm economic impact estimation tool, sea level
   rise and vulnerability assessments and maps, and identification of risk and preliminary
   approaches for system resilience. Phase 2 includes the validation of developments from the
   first phase, integration and alignment of these developments with other regional plans, and
   continued and continued collaboration with interagency and international partners.

  EPA Region 2 had an article published in the spring edition of New York Water Environment
   Association's (NYWEA) quarterly journal, ClearWaters. The article was entitled, "CREATing
   Climate Resilience." This article was also published in Effluents Magazine, the New Jersey
   Water Environment Association's (NJWEA) quarterly journal. The article provides WEA
   members with valuable information regarding climate change resiliency for water and
   wastewater infrastructures and the GREAT tool.

  Region 2 has been involved with utility emergency preparedness exercises, including:
       >  The New Jersey Office of Homeland Security and Preparedness Wastewater System
          Communication Exercise in Sayreville, New Jersey on February 25.
       >  Participation in the New Jersey Water Association Emergency Management for
          Water Systems Training.
       >  Participation in the New Jersey Water Sector Security Working Group Sub-
          Committee. The working group is a water security advisory committee that ensures
          the protection, preparedness and resiliency of New Jersey's critical water and
          wastewater system infrastructure and the working group meets every two months
          and continues to advise the water sector on water security matters.

  The EPA Water Security Division is providing support for an EPA Region 2 & EPA Region 3
   Interstate Mutual Aid Workshop that was held on September 25-26, 2014 at the EPA
   Region 3 Office in Philadelphia, PA. This joint effort developed actionable items to help
   improve "Interstate" mutual aid and assistance among utilities and Water and Wastewater
   Agency Response Networks (WARNs). Approximately 45 representatives of the  industries
   and agencies participated in this workshop.  (Regions 2 and 3).

  During the review of EPA actions requiring National  Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
   documentation, Region 2 Environmental Review Section requires the grantees to evaluate
   greenhouse gas emissions from the project  and to consider impacts of climate change to
   the project and adapt the project as possible. In conducting its reviews of Federal agency

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   projects, Region 2 has included comments regarding climate change and that project
   proponents should consider the potential impacts of climate change (e.g., extreme storm
   events, sea level rise) on the proposed project and incorporate adaptation measures to
   minimize impacts.

  Region 2 has been conducting ongoing coordination with the New York State Department
   of Environmental Conservation Flood Task Force pilot communities as they demonstrate
   the use of climate vulnerability assessments for sea level rise as a public planning process to
   inform the future plans of highly flood prone Hudson  River waterfront communities.

  The Peconic Estuary Program was allocated $30,000 in funds from EPA Headquarters under
   the Climate Ready Estuaries Program. The program proposed to conduct a climate
   vulnerability assessment for the Peconic Estuary in cooperation with the Shinnecock
   Nation of Indians. The Shinnecock Nation faces many of the same climate vulnerabilities as
   the Peconic Estuary due to its close proximity,  so cooperation will benefit both groups. The
   vulnerability assessment will build upon climate prediction data collected for the Peconic
   Estuary Project and evaluate the impact of climate predictions on the environment and
   ecological and cultural resources.

  The Peconic Estuary Program and partners co-hosted a three-day training course with
   NOAA on Climate Adaptation for Coastal Communities in December 2014. The course
   provided individuals with a climate adaptation toolkit to proactively address adaptation
   planning priorities.

  The Peconic Estuary Program contracted with  The Nature Conservancy (TNC) to examine
   the strategies and goals within the Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan
   (CCMP) with regard to climate change and its effects on the estuary. TNC provided general
   information about climate change and new prioritized CCMP actions based on this
   information. Through this work, a new Climate Change workgroup was formed.

  The New York-New Jersey Harbor & Estuary Program successfully hosted a conference
   entitled Restoring the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary: Ensuring Ecosystem
   Resilience andSustainability in a Changing Future. The topics covered during the
   conference included progress and next steps for comprehensive restoration planning and
   actions in the Estuary, real opportunities and limitations for incorporating ecosystem
   restoration into resiliency planning, and moving forward by securing commitments and
   resources for action.

  In support of EPA's Climate Ready Estuary (CRE) program and its ongoing work better
   understand the impacts of climate change on the local level, the Barnegat Bay Partnership
   (BBP) has been engaged in a number of activities to monitor, assess, develop and promote
   eco-system and economic based climate  adaptation strategies and tools. BBP's CRE related
   activities include conducting critical long-term  monitoring of our coastal wetlands through
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   the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Wetlands Assessment (MACWA) which was establish by 2
   National Estuary Programs. Core MACWA monitoring parameters are going to be used as
   the basis for assessing natural based living shoreline and marsh sediment enhancement
   projects in New Jersey. In addition. BBP continues to provide technical expertise to the
   Ocean County Office of Emergency Management in their multi-jurisdictional all hazards
   mitigation plan and Ocean County Department of Planning in the Long Term Community
   Recovery Plan. The BBP is also a partner in The Nature Conservancy's New Jersey Resilient
   Coastlines Initiative, which  is developing an online decision support tool called "Restoration
   Explorer" for New Jersey. The tool will provide communities interested in coastal
   restoration with a simpler way to identify potential restoration projects based on both
   community input and the best available ecological and engineering data.

  The Partnership for the Delaware Estuary's (PDE) Climate Change and Wetlands
   Assessment program participated in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Wetlands Assessment
   (MACWA) to address climate  adaptation needs in the estuary. MACWA studies wetland
   health and aims to supply coastal managers with data to help plan wetland recovery and
   protection.  It is a joint effort of two National Estuary Programs (The Partnership for the
   Delaware Estuary and Barnegat Bay Partnership) with other federal, state and academic
   institutions. Their climate change work involved helping communities identify needs and
   options  for dealing with climate change, sea level rise and increased storm
   intensity. Wetlands assessment efforts help PDE track the current conditions of the
   estuary's wetlands and track changes over time comparing to the baseline assessment.

  The Partnership for the Delaware Estuary (PDE)  will receive $323,000 in Clean Water Act
   Section  319 (Nonpoint Source management) funds from New Jersey Department of
   Environmental Protection (NJDEP) for work in Camden, New Jersey. In coordination with
   NJDEP, PDE will develop the conceptual plan for a living shoreline at the Harrison Avenue
   landfill site in North Camden. The living shoreline design will aim for a hybrid-mosaic
   configuration consisting of high marsh, low marsh, submerged aquatic vegetation and
   freshwater mussel beds. A  new and  unique element of this Camden living shoreline  design
   will be the potential incorporation and enhancement of freshwater mussel beds in tandem
   with landward shoreline stabilization. PDE will also train local volunteers to survey and
   monitor freshwater mussels in the Cooper River watershed using a protocol they developed
   and piloted. Finally, PDE and partners will perform quantitative analyses and calculations for
   the contribution of native freshwater mussel populations to water quality improvement,
   including the potential uplift of these ecosystem  services if mussel bed enhancement were
   to occur. PDE is currently engaged in field and laboratory analyses of filtration rates for
   suspended particulates and nitrogen by marine mussels of the Delaware Estuary through a
   Region 2 Regional Applied Research Effort grant. (Regions 2 and 3)

  The Long Island Sound Study Habitat Workgroup is conducting an assessment of both the
   historic and current quantity of tidal wetland habitats and their current quality. Work
   group members and partners are collaborating with local and regional experts to quantify
   historic  extent of priority habitat types and to set up a rubric for assessing the quality of

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   habitats like forest and tidal wetlands. A rapid, mainly desktop-based open water
   assessment for tidal wetlands is underway now. Experts feel due to sea level rise, marsh
   subsidence, and other causes the marshes around Long Island Sound may have more
   standing water on them at low tide than is ideal. This study will give a general idea of the
   health of tidal wetlands and outline some generally agreed-upon indicators as helpful
   guides for habitat health assessments. In addition a Tidal Wetlands Workshop was held in
   October 2014 in Port Jefferson, New York which brought together expert marsh managers,
   researchers, practitioners, and regulators regarding tidal wetland loss and change in Long
   Island Sound and beyond. (Regions 1 and 2)

  The Long Island Sound Study Sentinel Monitoring for Climate Change Work Group has
   been continuing to work on four sentinel monitoring projects:
      >  Synthesis of land information system Data in the Context of Climate Change -
          Coastal Ocean Analytics
      >  Marsh Migration Modeling - Warren Pinnacle Consulting
      >  Pilot Salt Marsh Sentinel Monitoring - Wally Fulweiler, Boston University
      >  Sentinels of Climate Change: Coastal  Indicators of Wildlife and Ecosystem Change in
          Long Island Sound - University of Connecticut (Regions 1 and 2)

Region 3

  In 2014, EPA Region 3 funded projects under the Drinking Water and Clean Water SRF
   programs which support climate change adaptation and mitigation. $22 million from the
   Clean Water SRF funded water- and energy-efficiency projects which reduce greenhouse
   gas emissions through lower energy use. The CWSRF funds also supported  green
   infrastructure projects which help communities adapt to and mitigate the effects of a
   changing climate. A $150,000 project for radio-read water meters,  funded through the
   Drinking Water SRF, is a water conservation  measure key to climate change adaptation.

  The Clean Water SRF funded a project in Virginia which will reuse 1.2 million gallons of
   water per day (to meet a current need) and  has the potential to reuse up to 3.2 MGD in the
   future. Planning for water reuse is critical, as future water availability conditions are
   anticipated to change as precipitation patterns change.

  Region 3 promoted the WaterSense program at 12 events during  2014.

  All Hazards Water Resiliency, a training module on climate change, was offered in January
   2014 as part of the regional training effort for water utilities in the National Capital
   Region. Attendees were given a  basic understanding of climate change and its implications
   for the water sector. They also received invaluable information about tools available to
   them to adapt to and mitigate anticipated climate change impacts. An unique aspect of this
   multi-module training is that it requires homework to be completed by the attendees and
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    presented at a future session, allowing participants time to work on utility projects related
    to climate change.

 Region 4

   Region 4 worked with Monroe County, Florida to finalize a Climate Action Plan for the
    Florida Keys that provides a five-year framework to implement seventy two
    recommendations through existing local organizations tasked with integrating climate
    adaption science and mitigation strategies into current systems.  Recommendations include
    reducing greenhouse emissions 20% below 2005 levels by 2020 and incorporating future
    sea level rise projections into infrastructure planning.  Annual reports will be developed to
    determine progress towards the goals.

    EPA Region 4 is promoting the beneficial use of suitable dredged material to support
    environmentally sound projects to protect from sea level rise and storm surge. A Regional
    current meter study in Charleston Harbor has now been completed. The study will assist the
    Corps of Engineers Charleston District in evaluating options for beneficial use of dredge
    material. The Region has participated in efforts for beneficial use in Mobile  Bay and
    Pascagoula Harbor as well.

    The Region is developing protocols to address the likely increase in emergency dredging
    from hurricanes of increased intensity and other extreme precipitation events that may
    cause unexpected sedimentation and shoaling.

    Region 4's Energy Management Initiative (EMI) began  Round 2 in Tennessee with a new
    group of wastewater utilities. In addition, Alabama and United South and Eastern Tribes,
    Inc. are beginning their energy management efforts with the assistance of Region 4's EMI.
    The Region 4 EMI Team is  providing assistance to the utilities in developing vulnerability
    assessments to the anticipated effects of climate changes while teaching the utilities how
    to reduce energy consumption. Anticipated energy savings in 2014 are estimated to be
    from 4 to 8 million kilowatt-hour/year and projected 3800 to 7600 MMTC02e (million
    metric ton of carbon dioxide equivalent) reduction.

    Region 4, EPA Headquarters, and the  State  of Mississippi planned  and conducted a 1-day
    emergency response and  recovery exercise examining the impact of a catastrophic
    incident affecting the water, wastewater, and interdependent sectors in Mississippi.  The
    exercise scenario simulated a high-magnitude earthquake event along the New Madrid
    Seismic Zone with resulting major infrastructure impacts throughout northwest Mississippi
    and neighboring States. Participants included representatives of water and wastewater
    systems and key support organizations and agencies during a disaster situation. Discussions
    among participants during the exercise revealed a general need for more robust disaster
    planning within and between key response organizations.
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   The Water Protection Division's Flow Workgroup is working with States to address impacts
    from all types of hydrologic alteration including the hydrologic alterations caused by
    climate change.  During 2014, the Workgroup Chair served as the co-lead for the National
    Water Quality Standards (WQS) and Climate Change workgroup to better understand and
    make recommendations on the development of the technical resources needed to assess
    how water quality will be affected by climate change. The FWG championed at the 2014
    National WQS Coordinator's Meeting the consideration of how water quality standards
    should be viewed in the context of climate change. This led to consensus among the
    coordinators that designated uses for waters should not be revised to account for climate
    change. Waters that are impaired due to climate change should be listed on the 303d list to
    maintain an inventory of waters impacted by climate change.

Region 5

    To continue promotion of climate-readiness at water utilities, Region 5 integrated
    sustainable water infrastructure approaches in the following areas:
       > Supported Michigan Department of Environmental Quality efforts to incorporate
          asset management as a condition in major National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
          System (NPDES) permits.
       > Incorporated sustainable water infrastructure practices (e.g., green infrastructure,
          asset management and energy efficiency) into seven EPA-issued tribal NPDES
          permits and  five enforcement actions.
       > Developed outreach materials on sustainable water infrastructure for distribution to
          facilities with inspection reports.
       > Conducted, with Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, energy management
          training for 50 water utility professionals.
       > Drafted "Review of Green Infrastructure in CSO Long Term Control Plans: A Training
          Tool."
       > Used the Avoided Emissions and Generation Tool to increase energy efficiency at
          Ohio utilities.
       > Facilitated energy audits through the Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial
          Assessment Center for Indiana utilities.
       > Awarded about $6.8 million to Great Lakes Shoreline Cities for green infrastructure
          implementation.

    Region 5 continued  promotion of WaterSense through the following efforts:
       > Added 10 new WaterSense partners in 2014.
       > Provided assistance to Michigan Habitat for Humanity to incorporate WaterSense in
          affordable housing;
       > Modified "Hotel Challenge" tools for use by churches/schools in Chicago.
       > Briefed State Water Directors about WaterSense partnership opportunities.
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  Region 5 encouraged Source Water Protection for tribal public water systems
   vulnerable to impacts of climate change through targeted outreach and compliance
   assistance to those systems. Tribal source water assessment guidance/methodologies were
   updated to include climate change considerations. Additionally, State work plans were
   revised to include climate change in source water assessment and protection.

  The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) supported several efforts, including:
      >  Integrated climate change into Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI)-funded
          state and tribal capacity projects for Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan, GLNPO's
          2014 Request For Applications (RFA), and GLRI Interagency Agreements.
      >  Initiated development of climate resiliency criteria for GLRI funding.
      >  Added 25 field-deployed dissolved oxygen data sensors to track hypoxia in Lake Erie.

Region 6

  On May 14, 2014, EPA staff participated in a second workshop to assist the Dallas Fort-
   Worth International Airport (DFW) in the development of their Sustainability
   Management Plan (SMP). The Sustainable Advisory Council members reviewed and
   commented on the results of the baseline assessment conducted as a result of the January
   workshop, and identified future sustainability initiatives, including points of collaboration.
   The purpose of the SMP is to further integrate sustainability into the airport's business
   processes, and then integrate these sustainable best  practices throughout North Texas.

  On May 15 - 16, 2014, stakeholders participated in the Water Sector Emergency Response,
   Extreme Event, and Climate Change Planning: Greater New Orleans Metropolitan Area in
   New Orleans. The workshop, presented by EPA, was designed to allow participants to
   discuss how both past emergency responses, as well as potential changes in extreme
   weather patterns, may impact their utilities and communities moving into the future.
   Discussions also focused on adaptation options and implementation planning.  Workshop
   conversations focused on impacts from floods, hurricanes, storm surges, drought, salt water
   intrusion, and freezes. Potential steps that utilities and communities could take to ensure
   that water and wastewater systems are able to respond more effectively and increase
   resiliency were discussed.

  Led by the U.S. DOT's Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, EPA Region 6 and a
   group of federal agencies and the Mid-Region Council of Governments (MRCOG), located in
   Albuquerque, New Mexico, initiated a project to help the region address climate change
   challenges using scenario planning. Scenario planning allows participants to consider the
   impacts of growth and evaluate the costs and benefits of various future scenarios. The
   project will influence  transportation and land use decision-making in the Albuquerque
   region by using scenario planning to analyze strategies to reduce carbon pollution and
   prepare for the impacts of climate change.
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   On October 6, 2014, the City of Houston, 28 federal agencies, state and local government
   agencies, non-governmental organizations, and representatives from academia participated
   in a Climate Change Preparedness and Resilience Workshop in Houston, Texas. The
   workshop series was sponsored by the White House National Security Council, Council on
   Environmental Quality and the Office of Science and Technology Policy with the goal of
   advancing climate adaptation and identifying collaborative and sustainable approaches to
   community-based climate preparedness and resilience capabilities.

  Commitments in Region 6's Climate Change Adaptation Implementation Plan include:
       >  Incorporating climate adaptation criteria in the Brownfields grants process to ensure
          cleanup actions taken by communities are effective as the climate changes;
       >  Providing communities with the tools they need to increase their resilience.  For
          example, a Stormwater Calculator and Climate Adaptation Tool empowers
          community planners to estimate the amount of stormwater runoff that they'll  have
          to manage today and in the future;
       >  Integrating considerations of climate change into the CWSRF process
          and continue working with States to ensure investments in water infrastructure are
          resilient to changes in climate; and,
       >  Training staff on climate change science and ways to integrate climate change
          adaptation measures into our daily regulatory, policy, and operational activities.

  In partnership with the Regional South Central Climate Science Center in Norman,
   Oklahoma,  Region 6 representatives attended the annual face-to-face meeting of the  U.S.
   Department of Interior's South Central Climate  Science Center Stakeholder Advisory
   Committee on November 19, 2014. Representatives from USGS, NOAA, National Park
   Service (NPS), USFWS, State  agencies, universities, and Landscape Conservation
   Cooperatives worked on refining and ranking 2015 research priorities, as well as discussing
   the Gulf Coast Vulnerability Assessment and other topics that  integrate climate change
   work across agencies and  disciplines. The priorities for EPA Region 6 were: hydrologic
   responses to climate change; coastal response to sea level rise and changing
   geomorphology; land use  and land cover change.

  Region 6 continues to bring Green Infrastructure into the mainstream of stormwater
   management, as well as integration in other EPA efforts.  Because the Region 6 regulated
   community remains apprehensive with the concept of green infrastructure as an
   environmentally preferable, often more cost-effective approach to stormwater, Region 6
   continues to focus on Outreach and Education.  During 2014, at almost a dozen events,
   approximately 1,500 water practitioners were informed of the multitude of water quality
   and quantity benefits,  as well as socio-economic benefits, projects of all scales (site,
   neighborhood, and region/watershed) may achieve with incorporation of green
   infrastructure.

  The Barataria-Terrebonne National Estuary Program, the Coastal Bend  Bays and Estuaries
   Program, and the Galveston Bay Estuary Program worked with  numerous partners in 2014

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   to initiate new projects or complete implementation of projects that will contribute to the
   protection, enhancement, or restoration of vulnerable Gulf of Mexico coastal habitats.
   These projects will reduce the vulnerability to the effects of sea level rise and increase
   coastal sustainability.

  Staff served on the Steering and Planning Committees for the 2014 biennial Louisiana State
   of the Coast Conference, playing key roles in designing special panel sessions on coastal
   climate change and sea level rise, blue carbon, protecting resilient coastal natural areas, and
   building resilient coastal communities.

Region 7

  During 2014, the Wichita State University-Environmental Finance Center in partnership
   with Kansas Municipal Utilities (KMU) conducted 6 Asset Management Kan-Work training
   sessions, one in each Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) district. A total
   of 85 participants attended. The KDHE awards 5 hours of renewal credit for water and
   wastewater operators that complete the one-day workshop. KMU also provided 16 on-site
   technical assistance visits for asset management implementation.

  Region 7's Water Enforcement Program continued to pursue settlements incorporating
   items such as energy conservation, green infrastructure, and wetland preservation into
   Supplemental Environmental Projects. Fiscal Year 2014 settlements included Sioux City,
   Iowa in which the city installed a bioswale to reduce runoff from a parking lot (project was
   completed in 2014); Raymore, Missouri in which the city agreed to construct two rain
   gardens (project completion is May 2015), and; Branstad in which the concentrated animal
   feeding operation (CAFO) owner agreed to put approximately 5 acres  into the USDA's
   Wetland  Reserve program (to be completed in the fall of 2015).  In addition, Region 7's
   Water Enforcement Program continued to monitor compliance with existing Decrees
   requiring sewer system improvements that have green infrastructure  components replacing
   traditional grey construction projects.

  The Region 7 Water Division set out to organize, identify and classify climate change, green
   infrastructure, and sustainable projects and priorities within the Division. The Region is
   focused on strategically prioritizing its response to Climate Change and Green
   Infrastructure activities including where there is overlap.

  Region 7  hosted a Native American Heritage Month Event on November 12, 2014 with a
   panel discussion on Climate Change and the Impacts on Native American People, Places
   and Culture. The Nine Tribal nations located within Region 7 participated along with 100
   EPA staff.
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Region 8

  Region 8 and Headquarters' Water Security Division conducted a climate change and
   extreme events resiliency workshop in Fort Pierre, South Dakota on July 9-10, 2014. It
   focused on building water preparedness, resiliency, and adaptation. At the workshop, the
   Region 8 Drinking Water Program hosted an interactive workshop to help drinking water
   and wastewater utilities plan for extreme weather events and long-term climate
   adaptation. About 50 state and local water professionals, emergency management
   officials, and public works personnel participated.

  Region 8 selected two communities to participate  in a pilot project using EPA's Climate
   Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (GREAT): 1) the City of Bozeman, Montana, and
   2) the City of Helena, Montana. The communities will receive training and technical
   assistance in using the GREAT software that helps users identify assets, threats, and
   adaptation options to build climate  resilience. Region 8 is working with OW on this multi-
   year program. Challenges to be addressed include drought, more intense and frequent
   storms, flooding, and water quality changes.

  Region 8 incorporated climate resiliency into Colorado flood recovery efforts, including
   the following: Region 8 provided water/wastewater infrastructure and river/watershed
   planning support based on resiliency, sustainability, green infrastructure, climate
   adaptation, and smart growth principles; during the flood, Region 8's National Disaster
   Recovery Specialist staffed the Joint Field Office to  coordinate recovery efforts with FEMA
   and the other participating organizations; and the Region 8 Water Emergency Response
   Team provided assistance to the Town of Jamestown, Colorado, to rebuild its water and
   wastewater facilities that were damaged during the floods. This assistance included
   analysis and recommendations for including resiliency and sustainability into the design of
   the facilities (a final report was released on the project in March 2014).

  Region 8 conducted training/outreach to Region 8  Tribes, municipalities, and other
   stakeholders on climate resiliency and the tools/programs/resources EPA has available
   to assist in various areas. For example, Region 8's Regional Administrator sent a letter to
   all Region 8 municipal leagues and county associations discussing EPA and other federal
   tools and resources to build resiliency. Also, the Region 8 Climate Change Coordinator
   participated in the Region 8 annual Regional Tribal  Operations Council meeting to discuss
   the Agency and Region 8 Climate Adaptation Plans, specifically the areas that address
   tribal issues.

  Region 8 worked with other federal agencies to enhance understanding of climate
   change, leverage collective knowledge about climate adaptation planning, and initiate
   on-the-ground projects. One such project that was initiated in Fiscal Year 2014 through
   the National Drought Resilience Partnership relates to drought resilience in the Missouri
   Basin above the Fort Peck Reservoir. It will demonstrate how drought resilience can be
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   improved when the federal government goes "all-in" by coordinating and focusing its
   resources on specific watershed basins.

  Region 8 hosted a WaterSense Partner Summit, bringing together more than 40
   individuals, both in person and via webinar, representing WaterSense partners from
   Colorado, Utah, Montana, and Wyoming. This was the first event of its kind in an EPA
   Regional Office, and WaterSense Regional Liaisons from the nine other EPA Regions were
   invited to observe via webinar in hopes they may be able to do something similar in their
   Regions.

  EPA selected Colorado Springs as the national Water Sense Promotional Partner of the
   Year.  Colorado Springs has promoted WaterSense, has offered rebates for water-saving
   products, and has a new home in its jurisdiction built to WaterSense specifications.

  EPA worked with Boulder, Colorado to use the WaterSense Commercial. Institutional and
   Industrial (CM) BMPs to create a CM Water Assessment Tool. The tool can  be used by
   water utility staff, professional engineers,  and end-users alike to assess their water use
   while still allowing more advanced auditors to change assumptions and customize fields.
   WaterSense helped Boulder promote and  pilot this tool by hosting webinars for interested
   partners.

  Region 8 continued education and outreach for the WaterSense program, including
   working with various partners in the Colorado to host a series of water efficiency
   workshops for local plumbers to educate them on local water issues, the benefits of
   WaterSense labeled products, efficient hot water distribution systems, plumbing
   requirements for green home labels and certifications (e.g. WaterSense, ENERGY STAR,
   LEED), as well as Colorado's new WaterSense legislation. Workshops were held in Denver,
   Colorado and  Colorado Springs, Colorado.  Region 8 was also involved in numerous
   speaking engagements to promote the WaterSense label for new homes, and to educate
   consumers about the Program. These included, among others, the Colorado WaterWise
   Water Conservation Forum in Denver, Colorado, the American Water Works Association
   Sustainable Water Management Conference in Denver, Colorado (March 2014), and the
   Utah Water Conservation Forum in Salt Lake City, Utah (April 2014).

  Colorado's landmark legislation phases out the sale of ALL non-WaterSense labeled
   products by September 2016. The legislation was championed by WaterSense partner
   Denver Water and supported  by a coalition of more than 40 WaterSense partners and
   stakeholders from throughout the state of Colorado. Supporters estimate the replacement
   of existing lavatory faucets, showerheads, and toilets with WaterSense labeled fixtures will
   save Colorado 13 billion gallons water by 2050.

  Region 8 assisted the Wyoming Association of Rural Water Systems in conducting an 8-
   hour workshop at their Spring Conference in April 2014. The goal of the workshop was to
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   help small and rural water and wastewater systems improve management practices in
   ten key areas that are important for system sustainability. These key areas range from
   product quality and financial viability, to operational resiliency and community
   sustainability.

  Region 8's National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Section 404 programs have been
   working with other federal agencies to have climate change analyses included in water
   supply project Environmental Impact Statements (EISs).  Region 8 advocated for a more
   quantitative consideration of climate change's influence on water resources in the
   documents for new water supply projects. These efforts mainly resulted in qualitative
   analyses of climate change effects. The Region did review a quantitative climate change
   analysis for one water supply project (the lead agency was the Bureau of Reclamation),
   although the focus was on future water availability rather than potential environmental
   impact. Although Region 8 has not yet developed generalized watershed  information in
   the region for use in climate change analyses, comments and requests for such analysis
   from other federal agencies may be  influential. Key partners include the U.S. Bureau of
   Reclamation, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, States, and  local water providers.

  Region 8's NEPA  program priorities  and activities shifted in 2014 to include more
   emphasis on climate change mitigation and adaptation work with federal land
   management agencies (e.g. Bureau  of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service), and
   with project proponents. The NEPA Program's renewed focus on climate change
   mitigation and adaptation comments have  resulted in a number of actions in some
   categories. In fact, Region 8's NEPA Program completed over 50 specific actions, some
   including robust emphasis on the need for  identifying, quantifying, and analyzing impacts
   for climate change and/or greenhouse gas  and greenhouse gas precursor emissions.  In a
   few cases, the Region was successful in  obtaining climate change and greenhouse gas
   emission estimate information that was not previously included in  project descriptions.
   Federal partners  and project proponents continue to reply that there is a  lack of resources
   to complete analysis at the project level for completing life cycle analyses related to
   greenhouse gas emissions reductions.

  Region 8 emphasized the importance of preservation, restoration, and management of
   wetlands and riparian areas as potential tools in response to climate change
   impacts. This helped increase understanding of the value of the resource  and its
   vulnerability to climate change impacts.

  Region 8 worked  with regulated federal facilities on construction of facilities with a
   footprint greater than one acre to ensure the facilities are designed, planned and
   constructed to manage storm water through low-impact procedures and vegetation to
   reduce pollutant  loading and flow-related pollution.

  Region 8 continued external education  and outreach on the  use of green infrastructure
   and actual implementation of green infrastructure in the planning, design, and
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   construction various projects throughout the region. For example, Region 8 worked with
   FEMA and flood impacted communities in the State of Colorado, met with multiple
   developers to discuss the barriers to the inclusion of green infrastructure in various
   projects, and coordinated with Region 8 MS4 coordinators and state water directors to
   create a green infrastructure contact list.

  Region 8 worked to integrate green infrastructure into the work of the EPA regional
   office, including: forming a Region 8 green infrastructure team, working with the
   Brownfields and Revitalization programs to discuss project fact sheets, providing NEPA
   comments for a project in Utah on using green infrastructure, submitting summaries of
   green infrastructure projects on brownfields sites, and holding discussions with Region 8's
   State Revolving Fund Program on how to use green infrastructure in their work

Region 9

  With the backdrop of California's state of emergency due to drought conditions, on June 13,
   2014, Region 9 co-sponsored a June 13, 2014 Southern California Stormwater Capture
   Meeting with the Southern California Association of Governments and other state and
   local stakeholders. The meeting explored means for increasing the  volume of stormwater
   captured to benefit water supply and protect water quality. It included panels discussing
   how Green Infrastructure provisions in MS4 permits could be  improved to facilitate
   stormwater capture, successes and challenges in stormwater capture in Southern California,
   and improving the availability of financing for stormwater capture projects.

  In 2014 Region 9, working with the US Coral Reef Task Force's (CRTF) Climate Change
   Working Group, hosted a workshop on Maui about Ocean Acidification (OA) Impacts to
   Coral Reefs and participated on an expert panel with coral scientists. Workshop
   participants developed recommendations for CRTF action including reducing nutrient inputs
   to slow coastal acidification, improving CRTF outreach on the  imminent threat of
   acidification to coral reefs,  and linking severe OA impacts to marine life with outreach
   efforts about the control of greenhouse gas emissions.

  Working with the Office of Research and Development, Region 9 participated in a July EPA
   workshop in Honolulu on Climate Change Adaptation Planning for  Coral Reefs.
   Participants from the Caribbean and Pacific learned about climate smart planning and
   worked up a straw-man climate adaptation plan for the CRTF  priority West Maui
   Watershed.

  Under the National Coastal Assessment, American Samoa and Commonwealth of the
   Northern Marianas Islands conducted reef flat assessments and developed status reports
   on water quality and coral condition. These assessments serve as a baseline for assessing
   future changes.
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  On February 5, 2014, Region 9 organized a press event touring the Ballona Wetlands in Los
   Angeles to discuss how climate change scenarios are being incorporated into plans for
   wetlands restoration with support from EPA's Climate Ready Estuaries program. EPA's
   Santa Monica Bay National Estuary Program grantee provided an overview of how potential
   impacts of rising sea level rise and extreme storm events were being considered in
   restoration plans. EPA Assistant Administrator Nancy Stoner discussed the wetlands
   restoration project in the context of the federal government's support for climate
   resilience.

  The goals of the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund include restoring
   wetlands and restoring water quality within the Bay and its watersheds. Region 9's March
   14, 2014 Request for Initial Proposals for this grant funding specified that projects should
   "account for climate change to help ensure that the project achieves its expected outcomes
   even as the climate changes," and notes  that the "scope and  approach described in the
   initial proposal should include a brief discussion of climate change considerations."
   Proposals were evaluated on a range of criteria, including whether or not they provide,
   "appropriate considerations for anticipated climate change effects."

  Region 9 and the EPA Climate Ready Water Utilities Program conducted a workshop in
   Fresno, California entitled "Water Sector Emergency Response, Extreme Event, and
   Climate Variability Planning" on Sept 10-11, 2014. During the workshop, participants
   discussed potential water utility and community impacts associated with more frequent and
   extreme events, such as drought, and identified short-term and long-term planning actions
   to build water and energy resilience to the impacts of climate change. The workshop was
   co-sponsored by the California-Nevada Chapter of American Water Works Association and
   the California Utility Executive Management Association.

  Region 9 arranged for 10 energy audits at wastewater treatment plants. To date, Region 9
   has funded or coordinated 46 energy audits and 5 water audits at water and wastewater
   utilities that have identified estimated annual savings of over 94,000 megawatt hours, $17
   million, 10 billion gallons of water, and 94 million pounds  of greenhouse gas emission
   reductions. In 2014, the  Victor Valley Wastewater Reclamation Agency (VVWRA) in
   Victorville, California completed implementing recommendations from a 2012 audit,
   including energy efficiency improvements and energy production via co-digestion of food
   waste and enhanced biogas capture. As  a result, VVWRA  will soon become one of the
   world's few energy-neutral wastewater treatment plants, and expects to save
   approximately $9 million and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 180,000 pounds over 20
   years.

  Region 9 promoted drought resilience in Indian Country by giving water efficiency
   presentations at two Regional tribal conferences and developing a water efficiency case
   study.  The presentations provided outreach information on the benefits of the WaterSense
   Program (including how to become a WaterSense Partner), water audits, graywater

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   systems, water efficiency ordinances, and federal funding options for water efficiency
   projects. The case study focused on the Big Pine Paiute Tribe's successful water efficiency
   efforts that have resulted in a 67% reduction in water use since 2007.

Region 10

  The Idaho's Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) program has effectively
   incorporated the Green Project Reserve (GPR) into their CWSRF program, predominantly
   for energy efficient and environmentally innovative waste water treatment projects. During
   the period of Fiscal Years 2010 - 2014, the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality
   (DEQ) received $37.5 million in grants funds from EPA with over $36 million in GPR eligible
   components.  Not only is DEQ doing a thorough job of capturing all possible GPR elements,
   but they are also influencing their assistance recipient (or their consultants/contractors) to
   rethink their projects to include more  energy efficient components that results in a savings
   to the community and use of less resources.

  Region 10 partnered with EPA Office of Water, Oregon Department of Environmental
   Quality, small community assistance organizations and others to bring Effective Utility
   Management training to small utilities in Oregon. The workshop was funded by a grant
   from EPA for training and technical assistance for small/rural community wastewater and
   drinking water systems.

  The Farmers Irrigation District used Clean Water State Revolving Funds loans granted by
   Region 10 to Oregon Department of Environmental Quality's load program to convert
   almost 100% of the open irrigation canals to pressurized pipes, install micro-hydroelectric
   turbines in the newly pressurized pipes, and upgrade and rehabilitate its old, inefficient
   hydroelectric re-powering plant. The District obtained such extensive water conservation
   savings that they were able to fully irrigate all existing croplands using only a portion of
   their water rights. They are now selling these excess water rights for permanent in-stream
   habitat and to repay a portion of the CWSRF loan.  The installed micro-hydro units and
   upgrade to the re-powering plant are expected to conserve additional water that will be
   sold as well as generate clean, renewable power to be sold to the local wastewater
   treatment plant. The benefits of the CWSRF loans include water conservation, permanent
   in-stream habitat, and generation of clean, renewable energy.

  Region 10 worked with multiple partners in the areas of healthcare, affordable housing,
   lodging, sports facilities and real estate transactions to promote water and energy
   efficiency through the use of WaterSense certified products and homes. For example,
   worked with Seattle Public Utilities and Cascade Water Alliance to develop a comprehensive
   plan for both indoor and outdoor water use at all the Virginia Mason Medical Centers (plan
   has saved at least 6 million gallons of water). Also, worked with HUD to collaborate with
   King County Housing Authority to do change outs of toilets and other plumbing fixtures.
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  The Puget Sound National Estuary Program provided funds to numerous projects to
   support adaptation and resiliency to climate change impacts. Some of these projects
   include:
      >  evaluate sea-level  rise in the San Juan Island to plan for protection of critical
          ecosystems;
      >  an assessment of climate change impacts and their influence on Puget Sound; and
      >  working with counties, cities, and state agencies to provide technical assistance
          on Shoreline Master Program implementation and how to prepare for climate
          change impacts.

  Region 10 was engaged on several activities related to ocean acidification including:
      >  providing funding to Washington State to evaluate the local contributions to
          ocean acidification;
      >  participating on numerous working groups in Washington State and the Pacific
          Coast on ocean acidification;
      >  forming an internal working group to better coordinate activities within EPA; and
      >  coordinating with various partners including the University of Washington Ocean
          Acidification Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and
          Washington State on needed research.

  Region 10 meant with its three National Estuary Program partners several times to
   discuss incorporation of climate change considerations into their programs.  The Lower
   Columbia Estuary Program and Tillamook Estuary Program completed preliminary
   assessments of the potential impacts from  climate change.

  EPA Region 10 lead an effort to organize a two-day workshop on the impacts of climate
   change on stream temperature on cold-water fisheries in the Pacific Northwest. The
   purpose of the workshop is to bring together scientists and managers from tribal, federal,
   and state partners together to provide a forum to discuss the latest science and the
   implications for both regulatory and resource management decisions.

  Region 10 continues to provide opportunities to increase internal and external awareness
   of climate change including: hosting a monthly climate change speaker series; publishing a
   monthly  newsletter on current climate change activities within and outside Region 10;
   forming an internal climate team; and developing a SharePoint site for staff and managers
   on climate change.

  Region 10 co-lead a workgroup examining incorporating climate change considerations in
   Water Quality Management Plans.  Region  10 developed a survey for EPA Regions to
   identify how their States currently incorporate climate change into their water programs.
   Also, helped develop questions that could be used  by state associations to better
   understand how States are currently or plan to consider climate  change in their water
   programs.
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  EPA Region 10 and ORD have been working with numerous partners including the Nooksack
   Indian Tribe, Lummi Nation, and Washington Department of Ecology on a project that is
   using a temperature load allocation for the South Fork Nooksack River as a pilot for
   integrating climate change into a watershed-specific plan for improving water quality.
   Three documents were developed in Fiscal Year 2014: 1) "Quantitative Assessment of
   Temperature Sensitivity of the South Fork Nooksack River under Future Climates using
   QUAL2Kw"; 2) "Draft  Qualitative Assessment; Evaluating Climate Change on Endangered
   Species Act Recovery Actions for the South Fork Nooksack River, Washington" ; and 3)
   "Climate Change Considerations for TMDL Development in the South Fork Nooksack River,
   Washington".

  Region 10 provided funds to the Alaskan Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) to
   administer the Local Environmental Observers Network (LEO). The LEO project provides an
   opportunity for local environmental observers to tell the stories of the changing climate in
   Alaska including impacts of thawing permafrost on water quantity and quality and reduced
   sea ice and impacts on water infrastructure. EPA also funded a  project by ANTHC that will
   help build tribal capacity for assessment, monitoring, and adaptation to food and water
   security threats from the changing Arctic climate in Alaska Native villages.

  Region 10 partners with Northern Arizona University, Institute of Tribal Environmental
   Professionals (ITEP) to offer on-going quarterly webinars on climate change with Alaskan
   Tribes.  Region 10 also works with the Pacific Northwest Tribal  Change Climate Network to
   provide  a guide for Tribes on the latest funding opportunities.
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v>EPA
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency

     1200 Pennsylvania Avenue N.W.
     Office of Water (4101M)
     Washington, D.C. 20460

     EPA-850-R-15-001
     March 2015
     http://www.epa.gov/water/climatechange

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