United States
   Environmental Protection
Water Quality Surveillance and
Response System Primer
Office of Water (MC 140)
EPA 817-B-15-002
May 2015

                     Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer

This document provides an overview of Water Quality Surveillance and Response Systems (SRS) as
applied to drinking water distribution systems. It provides basic information about the design and
objectives of an SRS, and describes how these systems can provide a framework for detecting and
responding to water quality incidents occurring in a drinking water distribution system. This primer
covers the following five topics:
      Topic 1: What is an SRS?
      Topic 2: What are the components of an SRS?
      Topic 3: What are common design goals for an SRS?
      Topic 4: What are common performance objectives for an SRS?
      Topic 5: What is the process for implementing an SRS?

Topic  1:   What is an SRS?
Drinking water utilities are responsible for managing water quality from source to tap and thus are
implementing systems to improve water quality monitoring throughout their system. An SRS provides a
systematic framework for enhancing distribution system monitoring activities and using the collected
information to better manage the system.

One application of an SRS is monitoring for natural, accidental or intentional contamination incidents,
such as:
      Source water contamination, including chemical spills and algal blooms
      Backflow through service connections, hydrants and other access points
      Contamination at storage tanks and reservoirs
      Cross-connections with non-potable water
      Infiltration of contaminated water into the distribution system during
       low pressure events

Incidents that impact distributed water quality, such as those listed above, are unpredictable and may
occur with greater frequency than might be assumed. An SRS can improve a utility's ability to detect and
respond to these incidents in time to reduce adverse public health and economic impacts.

An SRS also provides substantial benefit to routine operations and water quality management.  The real-
time data generated by an SRS provides a means of identifying emerging water quality incidents, such as
low chlorine residual levels, nitrification, rusty water, and taste and odor episodes.  Early identification of
these incidents can provide sufficient time to respond and implement corrective action.

Topic  2:   What are the components of an SRS?
Figure 1 shows the components of an SRS grouped into two
operational phases, surveillance and response. The surveillance
components are designed to provide timely detection of water
quality incidents in drinking water distribution systems and
include:  Online Water Quality Monitoring, Enhanced Security
-,  .   .                , .       ...        IT.  11- TT  11      implementing an SRS.
Monitoring, Customer Complaint Surveillance, and Public Health
       DID You KNOW?
Most drinking water utilities have
existing capabilities and resources
that provide the foundation for
Surveillance.  The response components include Consequence
Management and Sampling & Analysis, which support timely response actions that minimize the
consequences of a contamination incident.

                      Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer
      Online Water
    Quality Monitoring
Enhanced Security
   Customer Complaint
  Take corrective
 action if necessary,
then resume routine
                                                         Can distribution
                                                       system contamination
                                                          be ruled out?
                   If unusual water
                  quality is detected,
                  an alert is generated
                   and investigated.
Figure 1.  Surveillance and Response System Components

The components of an SRS are based on information, systems and procedures that likely exist in some
form at many drinking water utilities and local partner organizations.  These existing capabilities can be
leveraged to implement a cost-effective SRS. Each of the SRS components is described in more detail in
the following subsections.

Online Water Quality Monitoring
Definition:  Online Water Quality Monitoring involves continuous monitoring
of water quality parameters at strategic locations in the distribution system.
Data from these monitoring stations is automatically transmitted to a central
information management system and analyzed to detect water quality
anomalies. Monitoring stations measure water quality parameters such as:
      Chlorine residual                         Turbidity
      Total organic carbon                      Conductivity
      UV-Visible spectral absorbance            pH

Data from monitoring stations is analyzed using techniques ranging from visual inspection to automated
statistical analysis in order to identify periods where the data generated by these sensors deviates from
typical patterns.

Role in an SRS: Online Water Quality Monitoring has the potential to detect a broad range of water
quality changes resulting from incidents such as cross-connections or backflow, nitrification, treatment
process upsets and the introduction of contaminants into the distribution system. This component can
provide good spatial representation of the distribution system, depending on the number and placement of
monitoring stations. The real-time water quality data obtained from locations throughout the distribution
system provides information that can be used to improve daily system operations and water quality
management.  For more information, see the Online Water Quality Monitoring Primer (USEPA, 2015a).

                      Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer
Enhanced Security Monitoring
Definition: Enhanced Security Monitoring involves the use of equipment and
procedures to detect and respond to security breaches at distribution system
facilities that are vulnerable to contamination. It is operated in collaboration
with local law enforcement to ensure timely response to alerts from security
systems such as:
      Intrusion detection systems, such as door or hatch alarms and motion
      Video monitoring systems such as Internet Protocol cameras, infrared
       cameras, event-based network video recorders, and video analytics to
       detect unusual activity in captured images

Alert and video data from security equipment is typically sent to a central location, such as a utility
control center, for viewing and monitoring. Video displayed on a graphical user interface can provide
useful information to quickly determine whether or not activity at a site is authorized.

Role in an SRS: Unlike traditional physical security improvements such as installation of fencing or
locks, Enhanced Security Monitoring provides real-time notification of intrusion incidents using
equipment such as contact switches and video cameras. Rapid detection and assessment of an intrusion
can drastically reduce the time it takes to respond to a security breach. While the Enhanced Security
Monitoring component has limited spatial coverage, protecting only individual sites in the distribution
system, it has the potential to provide an alert in sufficient time to prevent the intentional contamination
of a distribution system facility.  Enhanced Security Monitoring can also detect acts of vandalism or theft.
For more information, see the Enhanced Security Monitoring Primer (USEPA, 2015b).

Customer Complaint Surveillance
Definition: Customer Complaint Surveillance monitors water quality
complaint data in call or work management systems and identifies abnormally
high volumes and spatial clustering of complaints that may be indicative of
deteriorating water quality. Datastreams commonly monitored include:
      Interactive Voice Response systems that include an option  for
       reporting water quality concerns
      Email and social media that may provide a mechanism for  customer
      Work management systems that track the investigation of and response
       to customer complaints

Role in an SRS: Customer Complaint Surveillance can only detect contaminants that impart a
discernible taste, odor or appearance to drinking water, thereby limiting the contaminant coverage
provided by this component. However, Customer Complaint Surveillance provides nearly complete
spatial coverage of a distribution system, and spatial clustering of complaints can focus the investigation
on a specific area of the distribution system. Customer complaints are timely and serve as an early
indicator of a potential degradation in drinking water aesthetics.  For more information, see the Customer
Complaint Surveillance Primer (USEPA, 2015c).

                      Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer
Public Health Surveillance
Definition: Public Health Surveillance analyzes public health data to identify
disease clusters that may be caused by contaminated drinking water.  It is
operated in collaboration with local public health partners to ensure timely
detection of possible drinking water contamination incidents. Datastreams
commonly monitored include:
      Emergency department data               911 calls
      Poison control center calls                 School absenteeism
      Emergency medical services runs          Medication sales

Role in an SRS: Public Health Surveillance differs from the other surveillance components in that it is
generally monitored by local public health partners, whereas other surveillance components are monitored
by water utility personnel.  The utility's role in this component is to establish effective communication
protocols with public health agencies to ensure that the utility is notified when a public health agency
receives an alert or suspects that an outbreak may be related to drinking water exposures. In many cases,
public health agencies already monitor some of the datastreams listed above, and these existing systems
may be readily incorporated into an SRS with minimal effort.  Depending on the surveillance tools in use,
the Public Health Surveillance component has the potential to detect a wide range of chemical and
biological contaminants. For more information, see the Public Health Surveillance Primer (USEPA,

Consequence Management
Definition:  Consequence Management consists of planning and procedures for
responding to possible drinking water contamination incidents. It is operated in
collaboration with a variety of local and state response partners, including law
enforcement, public health and emergency response agencies. The primary
functions of this component are to:
       Establish the credibility of a possible contamination incident
       Minimize public health and economic consequences
       Guide the remediation and recovery effort

Planning for Consequence Management requires integration of common elements of existing utility plans,
such as emergency response and communication plans, while also  coordinating with local, state and
federal partners using the Incident Command System.  Planning and coordination are necessary to reduce
the time for implementation of response actions (for example, isolation, flushing, public notification),
which in turn directly affects the degree to which public health and economic consequences can be

Role in an SRS: While Consequence Management does not play a role in day-to-day utility operations,
this component does provide the framework that guides the systematic investigation of, and response to,
possible contamination incidents detected through the  SRS surveillance components.  Integrated
information  from these components, along with results from Sampling and Analysis, provides
information to make informed decisions during consequence management.  This component also
promotes stronger interagency relationships and prepares  a utility to respond to a wide range of
emergencies. For more information, see the Consequence Management Primer (USEPA, 2015e).

                      Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer
Sampling and Analysis
Definition: Sampling and Analysis involves the collection and analysis of
water samples from a distribution system. Sampling activities are activated
through Consequence Management to further investigate possible
contamination incidents. Analyses are conducted for chemicals, radionuclides,
pathogens and biotoxins at utility labs and through pre-arranged laboratory
partnerships or contracts. The primary functions of this component are to:
       Perform field testing and sample collection
       Analyze samples for contaminants of concern
       Characterize the extent of contamination
Role in an SRS: Sampling and Analysis provides critical information used to make decisions during
Consequence Management such as the results from laboratory analyses for a wide variety of
contaminants. This information is used to confirm or rule out possible water contamination. For more
information, see the Sampling and Analysis Primer (USEPA, 2015f).

System Engineering
Successful implementation of the surveillance and response
components described above requires coordination of managerial,
technical and training activities  across the entire utility and with
partner organizations. These system engineering efforts are
necessary given the potential complexity of a multi-component
SRS and the multi-disciplinary approach to system design.
Application of system engineering principles to the design of an
SRS can reduce costs through more effective utilization of existing
and planned resources. Table 1 describes four main areas in
which system engineering supports SRS implementation.

Table 1. Role of System Engineering in SRS Implementation
Comprehensive project
Integrated information
Integrated operational
Training and exercise
Establish an overarching project management structure to guide implementation,
establish priorities and ensure that project objectives are met
Develop requirements for access to and display of information during alert
investigations and consequence management
Identify information management solutions that facilitate integration of information
across multiple components
Assign roles and responsibilities for routine operation and maintenance of the SRS
Develop procedures and checklists for investigating alerts generated by the
surveillance components
Develop a multi-year SRS training and exercise program for utility and response
partner personnel that includes classroom training as well as field-level drills and
tabletop exercises

                     Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer
Topic 3:  What are common design goals of an SRS?
Design goals define the specific benefits that a utility would like to realize through implementation and
operation of an SRS, and thus inform the design of the system. A number of benefits can be realized from
an SRS, all of which derive from increased knowledge about variable water quality in a distribution
system and implementation of procedures to respond to water quality
problems in a timely and effective manner.  General benefits derived from an
SRS include the ability to detect and respond to contamination incidents as
well as improve day-to-day management of distribution system water quality.

Several example design goals are described in Table 2. While all of these
design goals can be achieved through implementation of a multi-component
SRS, it is a good idea to prioritize those that are most important to a utility's broader objectives.
Establishing utility-specific design goals helps to ensure that the resulting SRS will be focused on those
benefits deemed most important.

Table 2.  Examples of SRS Design Goals
Example Design Goal
Detect and respond to
contamination incidents
Improve water quality in the
distribution system
Increase level of customer
confidence and service
Enhance physical security
Demonstrate the safety of the
drinking water supply
Improve ability to detect water
quality anomalies
Prevent infrastructure damage
Strengthen interagency
Strengthen Incident Command
Provide timely detection of possible contamination incidents and a
framework to guide response actions, which can minimize public health
and economic consequences
Provide timely information about water quality changes in the distribution
system to allow for faster treatment or operational changes in order to
maintain water quality targets
Provide timely and effective response to customer complaints and
thorough responses to customer water quality concerns
Ensure the integrity of water distribution facilities and deter acts of
tampering, theft and vandalism
Integrate public health information to quickly identify waterborne illnesses,
or to demonstrate that the majority of community outbreaks are not
Provide real-time surveillance of water quality, and related datastreams,
which can be used to detect unusual water quality conditions and verify
the underlying cause
Identify water quality conditions that could potentially damage
infrastructure and implement corrective action
Work collaboratively with laboratories, public health partners and
emergency response partners in areas of common interest and to improve
public health protection
Develop a robust utility Incident Command Structure that is compatible
with response partner command structures to provide a foundation for a
coordinated response to any emergency or hazard

                     Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer
Topic 4:  What are common performance objectives for an SRS?
Performance objectives for an SRS gauge how well the surveillance and response components, either
individually or as a whole, achieve the design goals established for the system. USEPA identified the
following performance objectives for an SRS:
      Incident coverage: The number and type of incidents that can be detected by the SRS, including
       those resulting from natural, accidental or intentional contamination.
      Spatial coverage: The percent of a utility's distribution system monitored by the SRS.
      Timeliness of detection and response:  The amount of time between the start of a water quality
       incident and detection by an SRS component, and the amount of time between detection and
       implementation of response actions to minimize the consequences of the incident.
      Operational reliability: The percentage of time that the SRS is functioning at a level that
       achieves the other performance objectives.
      Alert occurrence:  The frequency of detection of true water quality incidents, the frequency of
       incidents that go undetected, and the frequency of invalid alerts.
      Sustainability: The degree to which the benefits  derived from the SRS justify the cost to
       implement and maintain the system.

Additional information about each performance objective  and how each relates to the design of SRS
components is presented below. Note that the degree to which some of the performance objectives are
achieved may depend on the number of surveillance components deployed. For example, greater incident
coverage, spatial coverage and timeliness of detection can be expected when multiple surveillance
components are implemented.

Incident Coverage
An SRS can be designed to rapidly detect a variety of water quality incidents, as illustrated in Table 3.

Table 3. Water  Quality Incidents That Can Be Detected By An SRS
Water Quality Incident
Distribution system
Turbidity spikes due to main
breaks or hydrant flushing
Rusty or dirty water
Excessive chlorine feed
Excessive fluoride feed
Loss of chlorine residual
Excessive, localized
Online Water Quality
Public Health
Customer Complaint
Detection of distribution system contamination incidents is based on grouping contaminants into
detection classes based on similarities in the ability of the SRS surveillance components to detect them.
Table 4 lists 11 detection classes, along with example contaminants, and indicates the potential for
Online Water Quality Monitoring, Public Health Surveillance, and Customer Complaint Surveillance to
detect contaminants in a given detection class at the smallest concentrations that could cause serious harm

                       Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer
to public health or distribution system infrastructure. The table shows that a combination of these three
SRS components would provide complete coverage of all 11 detection classes.

Table 4. Example Contaminant Detection Classes Used in SRS Design1
Detection Class
Toxic Industrial
Toxic Inorganics
Chemical Warfare
Bacterial Toxins3
Plant Toxins
Alpha, Beta and
Gamma emitters
Botulinum toxins
Vibrio cholerae,
Salmonella typhi
Bacillus anthracis
Online Water
Quality Monitoring
Public Health
Customer Complaint
    Enhanced Security Monitoring is not included in this table because the component detects intrusions at facilities
    vulnerable to contamination independent of contaminant class.
  2 These contaminant classes represent the most serious threats of intentional distribution system contamination. Other
    contaminant classes could be defined to align with utility-specific design goals.
  3 Many of the contaminants in these detection classes are detectable by Online Water Quality Monitoring due to the
    presence of co-contaminants that alter common water quality parameters.

Spatial Coverage

Two of the surveillance components, Online Water Quality Monitoring and Enhanced Security
Monitoring, have intrinsic spatial coverage limitations because they are installed at a finite number of
fixed locations.  On the other hand,  Customer Complaint Surveillance and Public Health Surveillance rely
on human observations and behavior, and thus may provide robust spatial coverage throughout a
distribution system.  Table 5 shows how integration of the four surveillance components can provide
comprehensive and overlapping spatial coverage throughout a distribution system.

Table 5. Spatial Coverage Provided by Each of the SRS Surveillance Components
Online Water Quality
Enhanced Security Monitoring
Customer Complaint
Public Health Surveillance
Spatial Coverage
Limited number of monitoring stations placed at strategically chosen
locations to provide optimal coverage of distribution system water quality
Monitoring infrastructure such as tanks, reservoirs and pump stations
that supply finished water to large areas of the distribution system
Coverage of the entire utility service area in which customer complaints
are captured
Coverage of portions of the service area within public health jurisdictions
that conduct surveillance activities in coordination with the utility
Additionally, well-planned Sampling and Analysis response procedures can provide information from
field testing and laboratory analysis of samples collected from anywhere in a distribution system.

                      Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer
Timeliness of Detection and Response
SRS components can be designed to provide timely information about changing water quality in a
distribution system.  Early discovery of emerging water quality issues in a distribution system allows for
prompt corrective actions that prevent isolated incidents from escalating into widespread problems.
Timely information provided by the SRS helps operators and water quality managers to ensure that water
quality is maintained from the treatment plant to the customer's tap.

Figure 2 shows the time for various SRS components to detect contamination relative to the time of
initial onset of symptoms for different contaminant types. The figure illustrates how the multi-component
design of an SRS has the potential to detect contamination incidents within the timeframe that public
health consequences would occur, specifically:
      Online Water Quality Monitoring can detect a wide range of contamination incidents within a few
       hours to a few days depending upon where the monitoring stations are located relative to the
       location of contaminant introduction.
      Customer Complaint Surveillance and some forms of Public Health Surveillance, such as
       monitoring calls to poison control centers or 911, have the potential to detect chemical
       contamination within a few hours.
      Field and laboratory results from Sampling and Analysis may be available within a few hours to a
       few days depending on the analytical methods employed.
      Enhanced Security Monitoring may detect an intentional contamination incident in progress,  and
       therefore could help to prevent contamination of, or limit contaminant spread within, the
       distribution system at the earliest stage of an incident.
r+ nnn t+ Contaminant
Water Quality SRS Component T
1 ' '
1 1

1 1

[ Time to Detect Contamination
Customer Complaint

Online Water Quality Monitoring
i i
Sampling and Analys

Public Health Surveillance:
Poison Control Center
&911 Call Center

is |
Public Health Surveillance:
Emergency Department Data
1 1
Minutes Hours Days Weeks
Figure 2.  Relative Timing of Public Health Consequences and Detection by SRS Components

                       Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer

Operational Reliability
In order for an SRS to maintain the ability to detect water quality incidents in sufficient time to implement
an effective response, the components should be available and producing accurate data 24/7. This degree
of operational reliability can be accomplished by building redundancy into the SRS at several levels.  At
the system level, the SRS surveillance components have significant overlap with respect to both
contaminant coverage and spatial coverage. Thus, if one component is temporarily unavailable, other
components can provide at least partial contaminant and spatial coverage. At the component level,
multiple datastreams provide redundancy such that if one datastream is temporarily unavailable, the
component is still capable of detecting contamination incidents using the remaining datastreams. For
example, chlorine residual and oxidation-reduction potential provide similar water quality information; if
both parameters are measured at a water quality monitoring station, there would be a backup should one
of the instruments malfunction. A third level of redundancy can be achieved through use of ancillary
systems that support each component such as uninterruptable power supplies and failover IT systems.

Alert Occurrence
The SRS should be  designed to minimize the occurrence of invalid alerts without compromising the
ability of the system to detect water quality incidents. An excessive rate of invalid alerts  can reduce a
utility's confidence  in the system and needlessly expend staff resources on the investigation of nuisance
alerts.  Table 6 describes common causes of invalid alerts and indicates how they can be  minimized.

Table 6.  Strategies for Reducing the Occurrence of Invalid Alerts
  Cause of Invalid Alerts
Mitigation Strategy
  Equipment problems
These invalid alerts are due to equipment
faults and failures. Examples include
malfunctioning water quality sensors and
security monitoring equipment.
Perform regular equipment checks
and implement a robust
maintenance program. Implement
remote diagnostics.
  Procedural errors
These invalid alerts are attributed to
personnel deviating from standard operating
Ensure proper training for utility
personnel and response partners.
Conduct exercises on a regular
basis to reinforce these procedures.
  Background variability
These invalid alerts are due to normal
variations in the monitored datastream, such
as daily utility operations and changes in the
health of the community, which can
occasionally cause alerts.
Configure data analysis systems to
identify and ignore typical patterns in
background variability.
These invalid alerts are due to a cause other
than those listed above.  For example, a rise
in customer complaints after long holiday
weekends during which a call center is
closed may cause an alert.
Adapt surveillance component alert
thresholds as needed, and train
utility staff to recognize rare, yet
benign causes of invalid alerts.
In a multi-component SRS, valid alerts indicative of possible contamination can be identified through
spatial and temporal clustering of alerts from different components. Examples of alert patterns
representative of contamination incidents are shown in the following two figures.

Figure 3 shows a typical detection pattern for toxic chemicals with a taste or odor. As shown, this type of
contaminant would first be detected through Customer Complaint Surveillance. Because many toxic
chemicals start producing acute symptoms within minutes of exposure, a Public Health Surveillance alert
could follow shortly thereafter.  Finally, Online Water Quality Monitoring might detect the contaminant
within several hours of the start of the contamination incident.

                      Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer
  Customer Complaint

Public Health
Online Water Quality
Figure 3.  Typical Alert Pattern for Toxic Chemicals with Taste and Odor

Figure 4 shows a typical detection pattern for biological agents, such as pathogens and biotoxins. Many
biological agents are tasteless and odorless, and thus would not be detected by Customer Complaint
Surveillance. Furthermore, many biological agents don't produce symptoms until several hours to several
days after exposure. Under this scenario, Online Water Quality Monitoring would likely be the first
component to detect contamination, followed by Public Health Surveillance hours to days later.
Figure 4.  Typical Alert Pattern for Biological Agents with Delayed Symptoms Onset
The Sustainability of an SRS is driven by factors that influence the ability of a drinking water utility to
operate and maintain the system over an extended period of time and in the face of competing priorities
that could siphon resources away from the program.

Keys to Sustainability of an SRS include minimizing new resources required to implement and operate the
system by leveraging existing capabilities, and by integrating SRS procedures into routine business
practices.  Examples of strategies to develop a sustainable SRS include:
       Leveraging existing human resources
       Leveraging existing systems and procedures
       Conducting a realistic assessment of potential staffing
       requirements for operation and maintenance of an SRS
       Providing training on the use and applications of an SRS to utility
       personnel at all levels of the organization
                                 DID You KNOW?
                             Designing an SRS to
                             provide value during day-
                             to-day utility operations is
                             the key to Sustainability.

                       Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer
Topic 5:  What is the process for implementing an SRS?
Implementation of an SRS should follow typical project management principles, including assembly of a
project management team, development of a schedule and budget, and establishing project goals and
constraints.  An SRS can be implemented incrementally as staffing and budget constraints dictate.  Table
7 describes six steps for implementation of an SRS.

Table 7. Process for Implementing an SRS
  Implementation Stage
  1.) Preparation
                                        Establish a project management team
                                        Establish design goals and performance objectives
                                        Identify project constraints (for example, total capital budget,
                                        personnel available to support the project, etc.)
2.) Assessment
                                          Conduct an inventory of existing resources that could be
                                          leveraged for the SRS
                                          Assess existing capabilities with respect to the design goals and
                                          performance objectives established for the SRS
  3.) Develop a master plan for the SRS
                                        Review and reconcile preliminary component designs
                                        Evaluate alternative SRS designs and determine the SRS
                                        components that will be implemented or enhanced
                                        Develop preliminary information management requirements
                                        Develop an overarching schedule and budget
  4.) Design and installation
                                        Develop detailed workplan and specifications for each
                                        Implement the design and install equipment
                                        Develop the procedures that govern operation of the SRS
                                        Track progress according to the overall schedule and budget
  5.) Preliminary testing
                                        Train utility and partner personnel on SRS operations and
                                        Operate the SRS for the purpose of collecting data necessary to
                                        understand system performance
                                        Troubleshoot and optimize the SRS and its components to meet
                                        the established performance objectives
                                        Revise procedures to align with the manner in which the SRS is
                                        intended to operate
  6.) Routine operation and maintenance
                                        Operate the SRS to achieve the design goals established for the
                                        Respond to alerts in real-time
                                        Maintain the SRS to meet the established performance
                                        Implement routine training and exercise activities
                                        Periodically evaluate SRS performance and identify aspects of
                                        the system that may benefit from further enhancement
                                          DID You KNOW?
               The purpose of preliminary testing is to learn how the SRS functions and to
               optimize performance.  Thus, during this stage alerts are typically not investigated
               in real-time, and onlv minimal resoonse actions would be considered.

                     Water Quality Surveillance and Response System Primer

Next Steps
Visit the Water Quality Surveillance and Response Website at http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure
/watersecurity/lawsregs/initiative.cfm for more information about SRS practices.  The Website contains
guidance and tools that will help a utility to enhance surveillance and response capabilities, as well as
case studies that share utility experiences with SRS implementation and operation. A utility can use this
guidance to implement an SRS that cost-effectively meets their design goals and performance objectives.

USEPA. (2015a). Online  Water Quality Monitoring Primer, 817-B-15-002A.

USEPA. (2015b). Enhanced Security Monitoring Primer, 817-B-15-002B.

USEPA. (2015c). Customer Complaint Surveillance Primer, 817-B-15-002C.

USEPA. (2015d). Public Health Surveillance Primer, 817-B-15-002D.

USEPA. (2015e). Consequence Management Primer, 817-B-15-002E.

USEPA. (2015f). Sampling and Analysis Primer, 817-B-15-002F.