United States
      Environmental Protection
    Technical  Fact sheet  -
                                                                       January 2014
                                              TECHNICAL FACT SHEET - NANOMATERIALS
 At  a  Glance
     Diverse class of small-scale
     substances that have structural
     components smaller than 100
     nanometers (nm) in at least one
     dimension (EPA 2011 b).
     Nanomaterials (NMs) include
     nanoparticles (NPs), which are
     particles with at least two
     dimensions between approximately
     1 and 100 nm.
     Can be categorized into three types:
     natural, incidental and engineered.
     Engineered NMs are used in  a wide
     variety of applications, including
     environmental remediation, pollution
     sensors, photovoltaics, medical
     imaging and drug delivery.
     May be released through point and
     nonpoint sources, or introduced
     directly to the environment when
     used for remediation purposes.
     May be readily transported through
     media, usually over much greater
     distances than larger particles of the
     same composition. The mobility of
     NMs depends on factors such as
     surface chemistry and particle size,
     and on biological and abiotic
     processes in the media.
     May stay in suspension as
     individual particles, aggregate,
     dissolve or react with other
     Characterization and detection
     technologies include differential
     mobility analyzers, mass
     spectrometry and scanning electron
     Can be removed from air using air
     filters and respirators, and from
     water by flocculation, sedimentation
     and filtration.
This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office
(FFRRO), provides a summary of nanomaterials (NMs), including their
physical and chemical properties; potential environmental and health
impacts; existing federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment
methods; and additional sources of information. This fact sheet  is
intended for use by site managers and other field personnel who may
need to address or use NMs at cleanup sites or in drinking water

Because of their unique properties, NMs are increasingly being  used in
a wide range of scientific, environmental, industrial and medicinal
applications. However, there is a growing concern about the lack of
environmental health and safety data.

What are nanomaterials?	
> NMs are a diverse class of small-scale substances that have
  structural components smaller than 100 nanometers (nm) in at least
  one dimension. NMs include nanoparticles (NPs), which are particles
  with at least two dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nm
  (EPA 2011 b; Klaine and others 2008).
> NMs can be categorized into three types according to their source:
  natural,  incidental and engineered. See Exhibit 1 for examples.
> Engineered NMs, designed with specific properties or composition,
  are intentionally produced through certain chemical processes,
  physical processes or both, such as self-assembly (from atoms and
  molecules) or milling (from their macro-scale counterparts). These
  NMs may be released into the environment primarily through
  industrial and environmental applications or improper handling
  (DHHS 2009; EPA 2007).
> Because of their novel nanoscale size, NMs may possess unique
  chemical, biological and physical properties compared with larger
  particles of the same material (Keiner2008; Klaine and others 2008).
> The unique properties of NMs allow them to be used for various
  applications, as shown in Exhibit 1.
> As of 2013,  more than 1,600 consumer products containing NMs are
  on the market (WWIC 2013).
  Disclaimer: The U.S. EPA prepared this fact sheet from publically-available
  sources; additional information can be obtained from the source documents.  This
  fact sheet is not intended to be used as a primary source of information and is not
  intended, nor can it be relied upon, to create any rights enforceable by any party
  in litigation with the United States. Mention of trade names or commercial
  products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
United States
Environmental Protection Agency
      Solid Waste and
      Emergency Response (5106P)
EPA 505-F-14-002
    January 2014

Technical Fact Sheet - Nanomaterials
                    Exhibit 1: Properties and Common Uses of Nanomaterials (NMs)
Types of NMs Physical
(Occurrence) Example Properties Chemical Properties Uses
(Natural or
(EPA 2007, Klaine
and others 2008)

Metal Oxides
(Natural or
(Klaine and others

(EPA 2008a;
Klaine and others

Quantum Dots
(Klaine and others

(EPA 2007;
Watlington 2005)

(Carbon 60, Carbon
20, Carbon 70),
carbon nanotubes,
nanodiamonds and

Titanium dioxide, zinc
oxide and cerium

Nanoscale zero-
valent iron, emulsified
zero-valent nanoscale
iron and bimetallic
nanoscale particles.
Bimetallic nanoscale
particles include
elemental iron and a
metal catalyst (such
as gold, nickel,
palladium or
Quantum dots made
from cadmium
selenide, cadmium
telluride and zinc

polymers, dendrigraft
polymers and

Exist as hollow
spheres (buckyballs),
ellipsoids, tubes
(nanotubes), 1-
nanometer wires
(nanowires) or
hexagonal structures
Excellent thermal and
electrical conductivity.
Some have
properties, and some
have ultraviolet
blocking ability. When
used in sunscreen,
nano-titanium dioxide
and nano-zinc oxide
appear transparent
when applied on skin.
Between 1 and 100
nanometers or greater,
depending on the NM-
type containing the
zero-valent metal.
Properties can be
controlled by varying
the reductant used and
the reduction

Size: 10 to 50
nanometers. Reactive
core controls the
material's optical
properties. The larger
the dot, the redder
(lower energy) its

Size: 2 to 20
nanometers. Highly
branched polymers.
Common shapes
include cones, spheres
and disc-like
Carbon-based NMs are stable,
have limited reactivity, are
composed entirely of carbon
and are strong antioxidants.

High reactivity; photolytic

High surface reactivity.
Common starting materials
used in production include
ferric or ferrous salts with
sodium borohydride.

Closely packed semiconductor
whose excitons (bound
electron-hole pairs) are
confined in all three spatial
dimensions. Possible metal
structures include cadmium
selenide, cadmium telluride,
cadmium selenide telluride,
zinc selenide, indium
phosphide or lead selenide, for
the core; cadmium sulfide or
zinc sulfide for the shell.
Highly branched; multi-
functional polymers.

applications, super-
capacitors, sensors
and photovoltaics.

pigments, drug
release, medical
cosmetics, ultraviolet
blockers in
sunscreen, diesel
fuel additive and

Remediation of
waters, sediments
and soils to reduce
contaminants such
as nitrates,
trichloroethene and

Medical imaging,
and sensors.

Drug delivery,
chemical sensors,
modified electrodes
and DNA transferring

 Technical Fact Sheet - Nanomaterials
Types of NMs Physical
(Occurrence) Example Properties Chemical Properties Uses
Composite NMs
(EPA 2007; Gil
and Parak2008)

(Klaine and others
2008; Luoma

Produced using two
different NMs or NMs
combined with larger,
bulk-type materials.
They can also be
made with NMs
combined with
synthetic polymers or

Forms include
colloidal silver, spun
silver, nanosilver
powder and polymeric

Composite NMs have
novel electrical,
magnetic, mechanical,
thermal or imaging

Size: 10 to 200
Made up of many
atoms of silver in the
form of silver ions.

Multifunctional components,
catalytic features.

High surface reactivity, strong
antimicrobial properties.

applications in drug
delivery and cancer
detection. Also used
in auto parts and
packaging materials
to enhance
mechanical and
applications, water
purification and
antimicrobial uses.
They are used for a
wide variety of
How can nanomaterials affect the environment?
   NMs in solid wastes, wastewater effluents, direct
   discharges or accidental spills may be transported
   to aquatic systems by wind or rainwater runoff
   (Klaine and others 2008).
   NPs fate and transport in the environment are
   largely dependent on material properties such as
   surface chemistry, particle size and biological and
   abiotic processes in environmental media.
   Depending on these properties, NPs  may stay in
   suspension as individual particles, aggregate
   forming larger sized NMs, dissolve or react with
   other materials (EPA 2009; Luoma 2008).
   Because of their small size and slower rate of
   gravitational settling, some NMs may remain
   suspended in air and water for longer periods and
   may be readily transported over much greater
   distances than larger particles of the  same
   material (EPA 2007, 2009).
   The mobility of NMs in porous media is influenced
   by their ability to attach to mineral surfaces to form
   aggregates. For example,  NMs that readily attach
   to mineral surfaces may be less mobile in
   groundwater aquifers (Wiesner and others 2006);
   smaller NMs that can fit into the interlayer spaces
   between soil particles may travel longer distances
   before they become trapped in the soil matrix
   (EPA 2007); and soils with high clay content tend
   to stabilize NMs and allow greater dispersal (EPA
A field study demonstrated that once nanoscale
zero-valent iron (nZVI) is emulsified to form
emulsified zero-valent iron (EZVI), the nZVI
particles generally agglomerate and the size of the
particles is significantly greater than nanoscale,
thereby reducing the mobility of nZVI in the
subsurface (ESTCP 2010).
The surface chemistry and therefore the mobility
of NMs in porous media may be affected through
the addition of surface coatings. For example,
nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) can be harmless in
soil, but could be problematic in water or once a
surface coating is added.  In addition, uncoated
nZVI can aggregate more rapidly in soil and water
compared with coated nZVI, thereby reducing the
NM's environmental transport in soil and water
(EPA 2008a; Keller and others 2012; Lubick
Some NMs are reported to be photoactive, but
their susceptibility to photodegradation in the
atmosphere has not been studied (EPA 2007).
The potential mechanisms of biodegradation of
NMs are the subject of current investigation. Some
fullerenes such as C60 and C70 have  been found
to biodegrade after several months. Many NMs
containing inherently non-biodegradable inorganic
chemicals such as metals and metal oxides may
not biodegrade as readily (EPA 2007).

  Technical Fact Sheet - Nanomaterials
How can nanomaterials affect the environment? (continued)
    Research is still being conducted on the effects of
    NMs on wildlife species. Some studies have
    reported oxidative stress and pathological
    changes in aquatic species, specifically trout, after
    exposure to nano-TiO2 (Federici and others 2007).
    Additionally, study results indicate potential
    hepatic effects in rainbow trout after exposure to
    nanosilver and potential toxic effects to
    phytoplankton species after exposure to some
    forms of nZVI (Keller and others 2012; Monfared
    and Soltani2013).
    A recent study compared the toxic effects of zinc
    oxide (ZnO) NPs and ion zinc toward Dunaliella
tertiolecta, a type of marine algae. Results found
the ZnO NPs affected the growth rate of the algae
and suggested that the ZnO NPs were more toxic
to the marine algae than bulk ZnO (Manzo and
others 2012).
Although nZVI is widely used in site remediation,
information is limited on its fate and transport in
the environment. While increased mobility
because of the smaller size may allow for efficient
remediation, research is ongoing to determine
whether these NMs could migrate beyond the
contaminated plume area and persist in drinking
water aquifers or surface water (EPA 2008a).
What are the routes of exposure to nanomaterials?
    Human exposure to NMs may occur through
    ingestion, inhalation, injection and dermal
    exposure, depending on the source and activities
    of the person. In the workplace, inhalation is a
    widely recognized route of human exposure
    (DHHS 2009; EPA 2007; Watlington 2005).
    The small size, solubility and large surface area of
    NMs may enable them to translocate from their
    deposition site (typically in the lungs) and interact
    with biological systems. Circulation time increases
    drastically when the NMs are water-soluble. With
    smaller NM sizes, the likelihood of greater
    pulmonary deposition and potential toxicity exists
    (DHHS 2009; SCENIHR 2009).
    Studies have shown that NMs, as a result of their
    small size, have the potential to pass through both
    the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the placenta.
    For example, a recent study showed that nano-
    anatase TiO2 may pass the BBB of mice when
    mice are injected with high doses (DHHS 2009;
    Liu and others 2009).
    Some types of NMs that translocate into
    systematic circulation may reach the liver and
    spleen, the two major organs for detoxification and
    further circulatory distribution. Various
    cardiovascular and other extra pulmonary effects
may also occur (Nel and others 2006; SCENIHR
Animal studies indicate that nano-TiO2 may
accumulate in the liver, spleen, kidney and brain
after it enters the bloodstream through various
exposure routes (Chang and others 2013).
In humans, although most inhaled NMs remain in
the  respiratory tract, less than  1 percent of the
inhaled dose may reach the circulatory system
(SCENIHR 2009).
Use of sunscreen products may lead to dermal
exposure to NMs (TiO2 and ZnO), depending on
the  properties of the sunscreen and the condition
of the skin. In  healthy skin, the epidermis may
prevent NM migration to the dermis. However,
damaged or flexed skin may allow NMs to
penetrate the dermis and access regional lymph
nodes, as suggested by quantum dots and
nanosilver (EPA 2010; Mortensen and others
2008; Nel and others 2006).
Ingestion exposure may occur from consuming
NMs contained in drinking water or food (for
example, fish) or from  unintentional hand to mouth
transfer of NMs (DHHS 2009; Wiesner and others
What are the health effects of nanomaterials?
    Further epidemiological studies are needed to
    determine whether NMs, under realistic exposure
    scenarios, may present adverse health effects to
    humans (Chang and other 2013).
    The potential health effects of NMs are variable,
    depending on their characteristics. Clinical and
    experimental animal studies indicate that NMs can
    induce different levels of cell injury and oxidative
stress, depending on their charge, particle size
and exposure dose. In addition, particle coatings,
size, charge, surface treatments and surface
excitation by ultraviolet (UV) radiation can modify
surface properties and thus the aggregation and
potential biological effects of NMs (Chang and
others 2013; Nel and others 2006).

  Technical Fact Sheet - Nanomaterials
What are the health effects of nanomaterials?(continued)
    EPA is researching how NMs interact with
    biological processes important to human health
    and identifying the unique properties that regulate
    their activity (EPA 2013).
    Some NMs may generate reactive oxygen species
    (ROS), which can lead to membrane damage,
    including increases in membrane permeability and
    fluidity. As a result,  cells may become more
    susceptible to osmotic stress or impaired nutrient
    uptake (Klaine and  others 2008).
    ROS production may also lead to DMA damage.
    For example, study results indicate that C60
    fullerenes and nano-TiO2 may impair the structure,
    stability and biological functions of DMA (EPA
    2007; Jaeger and others 2012; Klaine and others
    When cultured cells are  exposed to NMs of
    various  metals (such as  NMs containing titanium
    and iron), NMs may be absorbed and gain access
    to tissues that the metals alone cannot normally
    reach. The  uptake-and-damage mechanism is
    frequently called the "Trojan Horse effect," where
    the NMs appear to "trick" the cells to let them
    enter, and once  inside, the toxic metals can
    significantly increase the damaging action of such
    materials (Limbach and  others 2007).

    Metal-containing  NMs may cause toxicity to cells
    by releasing harmful trace elements or chemical
    ions. For example, silver NMs may release silver
    ions that can interact with proteins and inactivate
vital enzymes. The lead and cadmium used in
quantum dots are known reproductive and
developmental toxins. However, estimates of
releases of these metals from NMs are crude
because of varying factors such as the
concentration of metal in the source (Klaine and
others 2008; Luoma 2008; Powell & Kanarek

Research has shown that NMs may stimulate or
suppress immune responses (or both) by binding
to proteins in the blood (Dobrovolskaia & McNeil
Study results suggest that certain NMs may pose
a respiratory hazard after inhalation exposure. For
example, rodent studies indicate that single-walled
carbon  nanotubes may cause pulmonary
inflammation and fibrosis. Exposures to nano-TiO2
have also resulted in persistent pulmonary
inflammation in rats and mice (EPA 2007; NIOSH
2011, 2013a;OSHA 2013b).
Based on the results of available animal inhalation
and epidemiologic studies, the National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has
concluded  that nano-TiO2 may have a higher
mass-based potency than larger particles and
should be considered as a potential occupational
carcinogen. Additional data and information are
needed to  assist NIOSH in evaluating potential
occupation and health issues (NIOSH 2011).
Are there any federal and state guidelines or health standards for
    Federal standards and guidelines:
     Many currently available nano-products fall
     under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's
     (FDA) regulation (such as foods, cosmetics,
     drugs, veterinary products and sunscreens).
     FDA regulates these products based on a safety
     assessment of the bulk material ingredients or
     product. For example, FDA regulates nZVI the
     same as all forms of iron and carbon nanotubes
     the same as all forms of carbon (FDA 2012).
     FDA has proposed guidelines on the evaluation
     and use of NMs in FDA-regulated products. In
     June 2011, FDA published the "Draft Guidance
     for Industry: Considering Whether an FDA-
     Regulated Product Involves the Application of
     Nanotechnology." In April 2012, FDA issued two
     new draft guidelines for manufacturers of food
     substances and cosmetics (FDA 2012).
  The presence of a NM in a pesticide may affect
  EPA's assessment under the Federal
  Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
  (FIFRA) of whether the product causes
  unreasonable adverse effects on the
  environment. In 2011, EPA issued a notice
  announcing the proposed plan forgathering
  information on  NMs present in pesticide
  products and their potential effects on humans
  or the environment (EPA 2007, 2011 b).
  Many NMs are regarded as "chemical
  substances" under the Toxic Substances Control
  Act (TSCA) and therefore are subject to the
  requirements of the Act. EPA has already
  determined that carbon  nanotubes are subject to
  reporting under Section  5 of TSCA. Under
  TSCA, EPA may also regulate NMs considered
  as existing chemicals (EPA 2008b, 2011 a).

  Technical Fact Sheet - Nanomaterials
Are there any federal and state guidelines or health standards for
    Federal standards and guidelines (continued):
     EPA is developing a Significant New Use Rule
     (SNUR) under TSCA Section 5(a)(2) that would
     require persons who intend to manufacture,
     import or process new NMs based on chemical
     substances listed on the TSCA Inventory to
     submit a Significant New Use Notice (SNUN) to
     EPA at least 90 days before that activity
     commences (EPA 2011 a).
     If NMs  enter drinking water or are injected into a
     well, they may be regulated under the Safe
     Drinking Water Act (EPA 2007). However,
     currently no maximum contaminant level goals
     (MCLGs) and maximum contaminant levels
     (MCLs) have been established for NMs based
     solely on their size. MCLGs and MCLs are
     established for the macro-sized forms of NMs.
     Risks from NMs at waste sites may be evaluated
     and addressed under the Comprehensive
     Environmental Response, Compensation, and
     Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource
     Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (EPA
     Discharges to waters of the United States that
     contain NMs may require authorization under a
     Clean Water Act (CWA) permit pursuant to
     Section 402 of the CWA. EPA can establish
     compound-specific effluent limits in  permits
     under the CWA (EPA 2007).
     NMs may also be regulated under the Clean Air
     Act if their use or manufacture results in
     emissions of pollutants that are or could  be
     listed as criteria air pollutants or hazardous air
     pollutants (EPA 2007).
     Some Occupational Health and Safety
     Administration (OSHA) standards may apply to
     situations where workers handle or are exposed
     to NMs. In addition, OSHA has approved plans
     for 25 states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands
     that enable  them to adopt federal safety
     standards for workers  in private industry.  These
  plans allow states to adopt guidelines to manage
  the risks of NMs in the workplace (OSHA 2013a,
 NIOSH has developed interim guidelines on the
  occupational safety and health implications and
  applications of NMs, including the use of
  effective control technologies, work practices
  and personal protective equipment (NIOSH
 NIOSH has established a recommended
  exposure limit (REL) of 1.0 micrograms per
  cubic meter (ug/m3) as an 8-hour time-weighted
  average (TWA) for carbon nanotubes and
  carbon nanofibers. In addition, NIOSH
  established a REL of 2.4 milligrams per cubic
  meter (mg/m3)  for fine TiO2 (primary particle
  diameter between about 100 nm and 3,000 nm)
  and 0.3 mg/m3 for ultrafine (primary particle
  diameter less than 100 nm including engineered
  nanoscale) TiO2 as a 10-hour TWA (NIOSH
State and local standards and guidelines:
 In 2006, Berkeley, California, adopted the first
  local regulation specifically for NMs, requiring all
  facilities manufacturing or using manufactured
  NMs to disclose current toxicology information,
  as available (Berkeley 2006).
 In 2010 and 2011, the California Department of
  Toxic Substances Control (CA DTSC) issued
  formal request  letters to the manufacturers of
  certain carbon  nanotubes, nanometal oxides,
  nanometals and quantum dots requesting
  information related to chemical and physical
  properties, including analytical test methods and
  other relevant information (CA DTSC 2013).
 Several other states may have community right-
  to-know laws that authorize reporting or
  disclosures broader than the federal law; this
  may provide authority to require reporting when
  facilities use or produce NMs (Keiner2008).
What detection and characterization methods are available for
   The detection, extraction and analysis of NMs
   are challenging because of NM's small size,
   unique structure, physical and chemical
   characteristics, surface coatings and interactions
   in the environment, including agglomeration and
   sequestration (EPA 2007).
  The analysis of NMs in environmental samples
  often requires the use of multiple technologies in
  tandem. Analysis can include use of size
  separation technologies combined with particle
  counting systems, morphological analysis and
  chemical analysis technologies (EPA 2007,

  Technical Fact Sheet - Nanomaterials
What detection and characterization methods are available for
nanomaterials? (continued)
   Aerosol mass spectrometer provides chemical
   analysis of NMs suspended in gases and liquids
   by vaporizing them and analyzing the resulting
   ions in a mass spectrometer (SCENIHR 2009).
   Aerosol fractionation technologies (differential
   mobility analyzers and scanning mobility particle
   sizers) use the mobility properties of charged
   NMs in an electrical field to obtain size fractions
   for subsequent analysis. Multi-stage impactor
   samplers separate NM fractions based on the
   aerodynamic mobility properties of the NMs
   (EPA 2007).
   Expansion condensation nucleus counters
   measure and derive NM density in gas
   suspension through adiabatic expansion
   followed by optical measurement. Currently
   available instruments can detect NPs as small
   as 3 nm (Saghafifar and others 2007).
   Size-exclusion chromatography, ultrafiltration
   and field flow fractionation can be used for size
   fractionation and collection of NM fractions in
   liquid media (EPA 2007).
   NM fractions may be further analyzed using
   dynamic light scattering for size analysis and
   mass spectrometry for chemical characterization
   (EPA 2007).
  One of the main methods of analyzing NM
  characteristics is electron microscopy. Scanning
  electron microscopy and transmission electron
  microscopy can be used to determine the size,
  shape and aggregation state of NMs below 10
  nm (EPA 2007; SCENIHR 2006).
  Atomic force microscopy can provide single
  particle size and morphological information at
  the nanometer level in air and liquid media (EPA
  Dynamic light scattering is used to characterize
  manufactured NMs and provides information on
  the hydrodynamic diameter of NMs in
  suspensions.  It is capable of measuring NPs
  from a few nm in size (EPA 2010).
  Other analytical techniques include X-ray
  diffraction to measure the crystalline phase and
  X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine
  the surface oxidation states and chemical
  composition of NMs (EPA 2010).
  Additional research is needed to determine
  methods to detect and quantify engineered NMs
  in environmental media. EPA is currently
  researching practical methods for detecting,
  quantifying and characterizing NMs in the
  environment (EPA 2013).
What technologies are being  used to control nanomaterials?
    Limited information is available about which
    technologies can be used to control NMs in
    water and wastewater streams.
    Air filters and respirators are used to filter and
    remove NMs from air. A study found that
    membrane-coated fabric filters could provide an
    NP collection efficiency above 95 percent (Tsai
    and others 2012; Wiesner and others 2006).
  NMs in groundwater, surface water and drinking
  water may be removed using flocculation,
  sedimentation and sand or membrane filtration
  (Wiesner and others 2006).
  A recent study stabilized silver NPs using
  different capping agents to control the transport
  of the NPs in porous media (Badawy and others
Where can  I find more information about nanomaterials?
    Badawy, A.M., Hassan, A.A., Scheckel, K.G.,
    Suidan, M.T. and T.M Tolymat. 2013. "Key Factors
    Controlling the Transport of Silver Nanoparticles in
    Porous Media." Environmental Science and
    Technology. Volume 47  (9). Pages 4039 to 4045.

    California Department of Toxic Substances
    Control (CA DTSC). 2013.  Nanomaterials
    Information Call-In, www.dtsc.ca.qov/pollution
    prevention/chemical  call in.cfm
Chang, X., Zhang, Y., Tang, M., and B. Wang.
2013. "Health Effects of Exposure to nano-TiO2: a
Meta-Analysis of Experimental Studies."
Nanoscale Research Letters. Volume 8 (51).

Council of the City of Berkeley, California
(Berkeley). 2006. Section 12.12.040 Filing of
Disclosure Information and  Section  15.12.050
Quantities Requiring Disclosure. Ordinance No.
6,960-N.S. www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/citycouncil/

  Technical Fact Sheet - Nanomaterials
Where can  I find more information  about nanomaterials? (continued)
    Dobrovolskaia, M.A. and S.E McNeil. 2007.
    "Immune-logical Properties of Engineered
    Nanomaterials." Nature Nanotechnology. Volume
    2. Pages 469 to 478.
    Environmental Security Technology Certification
    Program (ESTCP). 2010. "Emulsified Zero-Valent
    Nano-Scale Iron Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent
    DNAPL Source Areas" (ER-200431).

    Federici, G., Shaw, B.J., and R.R. Handy. 2007.
    "Toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles to
    Rainbow Trout: Gill Injury, Oxidative Stress, and
    Other Physiological Effects." Aquatic Toxicology.
    Volume 84. Pages 415 to 430.

    Gil, P.R. and W.J  Parak. 2008. "Composite
    Nanoparticles Take Aim at Cancer." ACS Nano.
    Volume 2 (11). Pages 2200 to 2205.

    Jaeger, A., Weiss, D.G., Jonas, L, and R.
    Kriehuber. 2012. "Oxidative Stress-Induced
    Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Nano-Sized
    Titanium Dioxide Particles in Human HaCaT
    Keratinocytes." Toxicology. Volume 296 (1 to 3).
    Pages 27 to 36.

    Keiner, S. 2008. "Room at the Bottom?: Potential
    State and Local Strategies for Managing the Risks
    and Benefits of Nanotechnology." Woodrow Wilson
    International Center for Scholars.
    cc59-46fe-9ed5-7795e6eea5b5/pen11  keiner.pdf

    Keller, A.A., Garner, K., Miller,  R.J., and H.S.
    Lenihan. 2012. "Toxicity of Nano-Zero Valent Iron
    to Freshwater and Marine Organisms." PLoS One.
    Volume 7(8).

    Klaine, S.J., Alvarez, P.J.J., Batley, G.E.,
    Fernandes, T.E., Hand, R.D., Lyon, D.Y.,
    Mahendra, S., McLaughlin, M.J., and J.R. Lead.
    2008. "Nanoparticles in the Environment:
    Behavior, Fate, Bioavailability and Effects."
    Environmental Toxicology and  Chemistry. Volume
    27(9). Pages 1825 to 1851.

    Limbach, K. L., Wick, P., Manser, P., Grass, R.N.,
    Bruinink, A., and W.J. Stark. 2007. "Exposure of
    Engineered Nanoparticles to Human Lung
    Epithelial Cells: Influence of Chemical
    Composition and Catalytic Activity on Oxidative
    Stress." Environmental Science & Technology.
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Lubick, N. 2008. "Risks of Nanotechnology Remain
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Luoma, S.N. 2008. "Silver Nanotechnologies and
the Environment: Old Problems or New
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for Scholars.

Monfared, A.L. and S. Soltani. 2013. "Effects of
Silver Nanoparticles Administration on the Liver of
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and Biochemical Studies."  European Journal of
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Mortensen, L.J, Oberdorster, G., Pentland, A.P.,
and L.A. Delouise. 2008. "In Vivo Skin Penetration
of Quantum Dot Nanoparticles in the Murine
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National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH). 2011. "Occupational Exposure to
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NIOSH. 2013a. "Occupational Exposure to Carbon
Nanotubes and Nanofibers." Current Intelligence
Bulletin 65.

NIOSH. 2013b. "Nanotechnology." Workplace and
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Nel, A., Xia, T., Madler, L., and N. Li. 2006. "Toxic
Potential of Materials at the Nanolevel." Science.
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Occupational Safety and Health Administration
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Health Plans, www.osha.gov/dcsp/osp/index.html

OSHA. 2013b. 'Working Safely with
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Powell, M.C. and M.S. Kanarek. 2006.
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orq/ WMS/publications/wmi/pdf/105/3/18.pdf

  Technical Fact Sheet - Nanomaterials
Where can I find more information about nanomaterials? (continued)
    Saghafifar, H., Kurten, A., Curtius, J. and S.
    Borrmann. 2007. "Modification and
    Characterization of an Expansion Condensation
    Nucleus Counter for Nanometer-sized Particles."
    European Aerosol Conference 2007.

    Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly
    Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR).  2006. "The
    Appropriateness of Existing Methodologies to
    Assess the Potential Risks Associated with
    Engineered and Adventitious Products of
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    SCENIHR. 2009. "Risk Assessment of Products of
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    Tsai, C.S., Echevarrfa-Vega M.E., Sotiriou, G.A.,
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    M. Ellenbecker. 2012. "Evaluation of Environmental
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    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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    Concerns Associated with Engineered
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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
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    EPA. 2008a. "Nanotechnology for Site
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    and Emergency Response. EPA 542-F-08-009.
EPA. 2008b. "Toxic Substances Control Act
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EPA. 2009. "Final Nanomaterial Research Strategy
(NRS)." Office of Research and Development.
EPA 620/K-09/011. www.epa.gov/nanoscience/
files/nanotech research  strategy  final.pdf

EPA. 2010. "State of the  Science Literature
Review:  Everything Nanosilver and More."
Scientific, Technical, Research, Engineering and
Modeling Support Final Report. EPA 600/R-10/084.

EPA. 2011 a. "Control of Nanoscale Materials under
the Toxic Substances Control Act." Office of
Pollution Prevention and  Toxics.

EPA. 2011b. "Regulating Pesticides that Use
Nanotechnology." www.epa.gov/pesticides/

EPA. 2012. Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials
Research, www.epa.gov/nanoscience/

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).  2012.
Nanotechnology. Science and Research Special
Topics. www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/Special

Watlington, K. 2005. "Emerging Nanotechnologies
for Site Remediation and Wastewater Treatment."
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Wiesner, M.R., Lowry, G.V., Alvarez, P., Dionysiou,
D., and P. Biswas. 2006. "Assessing the Risks of
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4336 to 4365.
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
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on Emerging Nanotechnologies.
Contact  Information
If you have any questions or comments on this fact sheet, please contact: Mary Cooke, FFRRO, by phone at
(703) 603-8712 or by email at cooke.marvt@epa.gov.