United States          Office of Water       EPA-820-R-12-007
          Environmental Protection      4304T          April 2012
          Agency
vxEPA
AQUATIC LIFE AMBIENT WATER
     QUALITY CRITERIA FOR
          CARBARYL - 2012

-------
                                         EPA-820-R-12-007
              AQUATIC LIFE
  AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR

               CARBARYL


        (CAS Registry Number 63-25-2)
                April 2012
 U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
            OFFICE OF WATER
   OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA DIVISION
            WASHINGTON, D.C.
                    11

-------
                                      NOTICES
This document has been reviewed by the Health and Ecological Criteria Division, Office of
Science and Technology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and is approved for
publication.

Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or
recommendation for use.

This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service
(NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.
                                          in

-------
                                      FOREWORD

       Section 304(a)(l) of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-217) requires that the
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) publish water quality criteria that
accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects
on health and welfare that might be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of
water, including ground water.  This document is a final ambient water quality criteria (AWQC)
document for the protection of aquatic life based upon consideration of all available information
relating to effects of carbaryl on aquatic organisms.

       The term "water quality criteria" is used in two sections of the Clean Water Act, section
304(a)(l) and section 303(c)(2). The term has a different program impact in each section.  In
section 304, the term represents a non-regulatory, scientific assessment of ecological effects.
Criteria presented in this document are such scientific assessments. If water quality criteria
associated with specific stream uses are adopted by a state or EPA as water quality standards
under section 303, they become maximum acceptable pollutant concentrations for permitting and
listing in ambient waters within that state. Water quality criteria adopted in state water quality
standards could have the same numerical values as criteria developed under section 304.
However, in many situations states might want to adjust water quality  criteria  developed under
section 304 to reflect local environmental conditions and human exposure patterns.
Alternatively,  states may use different data and assumptions than EPA in deriving numeric
criteria that are scientifically defensible and protective of designated uses. It is not until their
adoption as part of state water quality standards that criteria become regulatory. Guidelines to
assist the states and  Indian tribes in modifying the criteria presented in this document are
contained in the Water Quality Standards Handbook (U.S. EPA 1994). This handbook and
additional guidance on the development of water quality standards and other water-related
programs of this agency have been developed by the Office of Water.

       This final document is guidance only.  It does not establish or affect legal rights or
obligations.  It does not establish a binding norm and cannot be finally determinative of the
issues addressed. Agency decisions in any particular situation will be made by applying the
Clean Water Act and EPA regulations on the basis of specific facts presented and scientific
information then available.
                                                Elizabeth Southerland
                                                Director
                                                Office of Science and Technology
                                            IV

-------
                               ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Prepared by:
Diana Eignor (point of contact)
U.S. EPA, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology
Health and Ecological Criteria Division
Washington, DC
Reviewed by:
Thomas Steeger and Kristina Garber
U.S. EPA, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention, Office of Pesticide Programs
Environmental Fate and Effects Division
Washington, DC

Elizabeth Behl and Joseph Beaman
U.S. EPA, Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology
Health and Ecological Criteria Division
Washington, DC

Dale Hoff and Russ Erickson
U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development
Duluth, MN

Walter Berry
U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development
Narragansett, RI
 Contract Support:
 Gregory J. Smith and Craig M. Voros
 Great Lakes Environmental Center
 Columbus, OH
 This aquatic life criteria document for carbaryl has undergone many revisions and has
 benefittedfrom the insights of various reviewers, including members of the Ecological Risk
 Assessment Branch in the Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology. Additionally, much
 of the fate and transport information and additional toxicity information have been procured
from various ecological risk assessments documents in the Office of Pesticide Programs'
 Environmental Fate and Effects Division.

-------
                               EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Background
       Carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate; Ci2H22NO2, CAS #63-25-2) is an insecticide, a
molluscide, and is used to thin fruit in orchards, and it belongs to the N-methyl carbamate class
of pesticides. Introduced by the Union Carbide Corporation in 1956, carbaryl acts on animals
through contact and ingestion.  Carbaryl is registered in the United States for use in controlling
more than 160 insect pests on over 115 agricultural and non-crop use applications, including
home and garden uses (U.S. EPA 2007a; U.S. EPA 2010a). Major uses include insect control on
lawns, home gardens, citrus, fruit, forage and field crops, forests, nuts, ornamentals, rangeland,
turf, shade trees, poultry and pets (U.S. EPA 2010a). Agricultural crops with the greatest annual
use of carbaryl include apples, pecans, grapes,  alfalfa, oranges, and corn. Carbaryl was the third
most commonly used conventional pesticide used in homes and gardens in 2005 and 2007 with a
range of 4 to 6 million pounds of active ingredient used annually (U.S. EPA 2011).
       U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program
reported carbaryl as the second most frequently found insecticide in water, with detections in
approximately 50% of urban streams. Frequencies of detection in surface water associated with
urban uses are commonly higher than those associated with agricultural uses.  The majority of
these detections are below 0.1 |ig/L. The NAWQA program analyzed a total of 11,732 water
samples from 1999 to 2005 for carbaryl. They reported 29% of all samples with concentrations
greater than the minimum detection limit of 0.021 |ig/L. The mean concentration reported was
0.058 ug/L and the maximum concentration was 33.5 ug/L, associated with agricultural land.
The highest concentration reported in urban areas was 16 ug/L.

Carbaryl Criteria Derivation
       U.S. EPA is developing recommended  ambient water quality criteria for carbaryl through
its authority under section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). These water quality criteria
may be used by states and authorized tribes to establish water quality standards for carbaryl.  The
carbaryl aquatic life criteria are developed using peer reviewed methods and data that are
acceptable for the derivation of a freshwater and estuarine/marine criteria. Data evaluated for
criteria derivation include data submitted in support of the registration of this pesticide and
                                           VI

-------
reviewed by U.S. EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs as well as studies reported in the open
literature.
       The resulting recommended ambient water quality criteria indicate that freshwater
aquatic organisms would have an appropriate level of protection if the one-hour average
concentration does not exceed 2.1 |ig/L more than once every three years on average and if the
four-day average concentration of carbaryl does not exceed 2.1 |ig/L more than once every three
years on average (except where a locally important species may be more sensitive).
Estuarine/marine aquatic organisms would have an appropriate level of protection if the one-hour
average concentration does not exceed 1.6 jig/L more than once every three years on average
(except where a locally important species may be more sensitive).
       This document provides guidance to states and tribes authorized to establish water quality
standards under the CWA to protect aquatic life from the acute and chronic effects of carbaryl.
Under the CWA, states and authorized tribes may adopt water quality criteria into water quality
standards to protect designated uses. While this document constitutes U.S. EPA's scientific
recommendations regarding ambient concentrations of carbaryl, this document does not
substitute for the CWA or U.S. EPA's regulations; nor is it a regulation itself.  Thus, it cannot
impose legally binding requirements on U.S. EPA, states, authorized tribes, or the regulated
community, and it might not apply to a particular situation based upon the circumstances.  State
and tribal decision-makers retain the discretion to adopt approaches on a case-by-case basis that
differ from this guidance when appropriate. U.S. EPA may change this guidance in the future.

Table 1. Summary of Aquatic Life Criteria for Carbaryl

Freshwater
Estuarine/marine
Acute
2.1 |ig/L
1.6|ig/L
Chronic
2.1|ig/L
N/A
N/A - not available, unable to calculate estuarine/marine chronic criterion
                                           vn

-------
                                TABLE OF CONTENTS
NOTICES	iii
FOREWORD	iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS	v
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY	vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS	viii
TABLES	ix
FIGURES	ix
APPENDICES	x
I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND	1
II. PROBLEM FORMULATION	2
  A. Stressor Characteristics	2
     1. Mode of Action and Toxicity	2
     2. Overview of Pesticide Usage	4
     3. Environmental Fate and Transport	6
     4. Occurrence	7
  B. Assessment Endpoints and Measures of Effect	8
     1. Stressors of Concern	9
     2. Assessment Endpoints	9
     3. Measures of Effect	11
  C. Conceptual Model	14
     1. Conceptual Diagram	14
  D. Analysis Plan	16
  E. Identification of Data Gaps for Aquatic Organisms	18
III. EFFECTS ANALYSES TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS	18
  A. Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Animals	18
     1. Freshwater	18
     2. Estuarine/Marine	25
  B. Chronic Toxicity to Aquatic Animals	29
     1. Freshwater	29
     2. Estuarine/Marine	31
     3. Acute-Chronic Ratio	32
  C. Toxicity to Aquatic Plants	35
  D. Degradate Toxicity	35
  E. Summary of National Criteria	35
IV. EFFECTS CHARACTERIZATION	36
  A. Effects on Aquatic Animals	36
     1. Freshwater Acute Toxicity	36
     2. Freshwater Chronic Toxicity	38
     3. Freshwater Field Studies	40
     4. Estuarine/Marine Acute Toxicity	41
     5. Estuarine/Marine Chronic Toxicity	42
     6. Bioaccumulation	43
  B. Effects on Aquatic Plants	43
V. IMPLEMENTATION	44
REFERENCES	46
                                         Vlll

-------
                                         TABLES
                                                                                     Page
Table 1. Summary of Aquatic Life Criteria for Carbaryl	vii
Table 2. Summary of Assessment Endpoints and Measures of Effect Used in Criteria Derivation	12
Table 3. Summary Table of Number of Species with Acceptable Toxicity Data Separated into the
        Minimum Data Requirements in the "Guidelines"	13
Table 4. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Acute Values	21
Table 5. Ranked Estuarine/Marine Genus Mean Acute Values	27
Table 6. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Chronic Values	31
Table 7. Ranked Estuarine/Marine Genus Mean Chronic Values	32
Table 8. Acute-Chronic Ratios	33
Table 9. Summary Table of Aquatic Life Criteria for Carbaryl	36
                                        FIGURES

Figure 1: Historical Extent (2002) of carbaryl usage in agriculture	5
Figure 2: Conceptual model for carbaryl effects on aquatic organisms	15
Figure 3: Ranked Summary of Carbaryl Genus Mean Acute Values (GMAVs) - Freshwater Animals .... 24
Figure 4: Ranked Summary of Carbaryl Genus Mean Acute Values (GMAVs) - Estuarine/Marine
        Animals	28
Figure 5: Chronic Toxicity of Carbaryl to Aquatic Animals	34
                                            IX

-------
                                       APPENDICES
                                                                                       Page

Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals	100
Appendix B. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Animals	115
Appendix C. Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals	119
Appendix D. Chronic Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Animals used Qualitatively
            in the Assessment	121
Appendix E. Acceptable Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Plants	123
Appendix F. Acceptable Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Mainre Aquatic Plants	125
Appendix G. Acceptable Bioaccumulation Data of Carbaryl by Aquatic Organisms	128
Appendix H. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms	130
Appendix I. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms	139
Appendix J. List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons	149

-------
I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
       U.S. EPA is developing ambient water quality criteria for carbaryl through its authority
under section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Although not regulatory in themselves,
these water quality criteria may be used by states and authorized tribes to establish water quality
standards for carbaryl to protect aquatic life designated uses.  The criteria presented herein are
the agency's best estimate of maximum concentrations of carbaryl to protect most aquatic
organisms from unacceptable short- or long-term effects.
       Carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate; Ci2H22NO2, CAS #63-25-2) is an insecticide
belonging to the N-methyl carbamate class of pesticides. Carbaryl is registered in the United
States for use on over 115 agricultural and non-crop use applications, including home and garden
uses (U.S. EPA 2007a; U.S. EPA 2010a).  All pesticides distributed or sold in the United States
must be registered by U.S. EPA, and the registrations are periodically re-evaluated to determine
whether they meet current regulatory standards. The next Registration Review Decision for
carbaryl will be made by U.S. EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) in 2015.
       In 2003, OPP completed an ecological risk assessment to support a 2004 Interim
Registration Eligibility Decision (TRED) for carbaryl, which identified potential acute risk to fish
associated with one use,  and acute and chronic risks to aquatic invertebrates associated with most
registered uses of carbaryl (U.S. EPA 2004a). The IRED cited a study by the U.S. Geological
Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that reported carbaryl as the
second most frequently found insecticide in water, with detections in approximately 50% of
urban streams (U.S.G.S.  2006). Of the top five most frequently detected insecticides (listed in
descending order) - chloropyrifos, carbaryl,  carbofuran, diazinon, and malathion (U.S.G.S.
2006), there are existing ambient water quality criteria for chloropyrifos, diazinon and malathion;
carbofuran tolerances are now cancelled. In 2007 (U.S. EPA 2007b), OPP updated a summary
of U.S. surface water monitoring supporting the final Registration Decision. That assessment
concluded that carbaryl had relatively high frequencies of detection, with concentrations as high
as 33.5 ug/L in an agricultural area and 16.5 ug/L in urban areas. Detections were more frequent
in urban areas than agricultural areas, but concentrations were mostly less than 0.1 ug/L. In
more recent assessments by OPP, the Agency has made 'may affect' and 'likely to adversely
affect' determinations for the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii; U.S. EPA
2007a) and the California Delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus; U.S. EPA 201 Ob) from the use
                                            1

-------
of carbaryl in California. Additionally, the Agency determined that there is the potential for
modification of designated critical habitat for both of the Federally-listed species from the use of
carbaryl. Based on the conclusions of these assessments, the Agency indicated that formal
consultations with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service under section 7 of the Endangered Species
Act should be initiated for the pesticide registration action.

II. PROBLEM FORMULATION
       Problem formulation provides a strategic framework for water quality criteria
development by focusing the effects assessment on the most relevant chemical properties and
endpoints.  The structure of this effects assessment is consistent with U.S. EPA's Guidance for
Ecological Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1998) and the approach used by U.S. EPA for pesticide
effects assessment (U.S. EPA, 2004a).
       This ecological effects assessment develops scientifically defensible water quality criteria
values for carbaryl under section 304(a)(l) of the Clean Water Act. The goal of the Clean Water
Act is to protect and restore the biological, chemical and physical integrity of waters of the U.S.
Section 304(a)(l) of the Clean Water Act requires U.S. EPA to develop criteria for water quality
that accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge. These criteria are based solely on data and
best professional scientific judgments on toxicological effects.  Criteria are developed following
the guidance outlined in the Agency's "Guidelines for Deriving Numerical National Water
Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses" (Stephan et al. 1985).
       Once the section 304(a) water quality criteria are finalized, states and authorized tribes
may adopt the criteria into their water quality standards to protect designated uses of water
bodies. States and tribes may also modify the criteria to reflect site-specific  conditions or use
other scientifically defensible methods to develop standards. Water quality standards are
subsequently approved by U.S. EPA.

A. Stressor Characteristics

1. Mode of Action and Toxicity
       Carbaryl is an insecticide belonging to the N-methyl carbamate class of pesticides. After
contact or ingestion, the toxic mode of action of carbaryl (and other carbamate insecticides) for

-------
animals is inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at synaptic junctions in the
nervous system.  AChE breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.  Inhibition of AChE
results in the accumulation of acetylcholine in the nerve synapses which leads to continual firing
of nerve pulses throughout the nervous system.  This buildup results in uncontrolled movement,
paralysis, convulsions, tetany, and possible death (Gunasekara et al. 2008). Without proper
nerve function, the respiratory, circulatory and other vital body systems will fail, ultimately
causing death of the organism (Kuhr and Borough 1976). The acetylcholinesterase inhibition
effects of carbaryl are reversible with removal of exposure of the stressor chemical. The primary
degradate of carbaryl, 1-naphthol, does not inhibit acetylcholinesterase and its toxic mode of
action for animals is thought to be narcosis (Russom et al. 1997). In aquatic organisms, narcosis
is a reversible anesthetic effect that is caused by chemicals partitioning into cell membranes and
nervous tissue that result in disruption of cell functions including central nervous system
function (Barron et al. 2001).
       Carbaryl  is also used  to thin fruit (removing excess fruit so the remaining fruit increase in
size and flavor) in orchards; its activity in the abscission (dropping) of flower buds may be
related to its structural similarity to plant auxins, such as a-naphthalene acetic acid. The carbaryl
degradate 1-naphthol is a known plant auxin (Wood 2010).
       Carbaryl  is included on the final list of chemicals for initial Tier 1 Screening under U.S.
EPA's Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program (EDSP) released on April 2009.  This list
includes chemicals that the Agency has decided should be tested first, based upon exposure
pathway potential to humans; this list should not be construed as a list of known  or likely
endocrine disrupters. On October 2009, U.S. EPA issued test orders for a data call-in (DCI)
from manufacturers/formulators of carbaryl. Test results for carbaryl are due by November 12,
2011.
       Water temperature, pH and hardness are factors potentially affecting the toxicity of
carbaryl in the aquatic environment. Schoettger and Mauck (1978) found that the toxicity of
carbaryl increased with temperature and hardness (that were in the normal range for natural
waters) for the brook trout (Salvelinusfontinalis). Rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus  mykiss) and
bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) were similarly tested (Sanders et al.  1983). Bluegill showed
increased susceptibility to carbaryl with increases in pH, hardness, and temperature, whereas
rainbow trout showed no appreciable changes to any of the parameters tested. Midge larva,

-------
Chironomus ripariiis, showed no significant changes in toxicity when exposed to carbaryl at pHs
of 4, 6 and 8; additional testing at elevated temperatures showed that increased temperature
resulted in slight increases in carbaryl toxicity at pHs of 4 and 6, but not at 8 (Fisher and Lohner
1986). Thus, the lack of sufficient data showing consistent trends (with the exception of brook
trout) for specific physio-chemical parameters precludes the need to adjust water quality criteria
for these parameters.
       An assessment of the available data regarding the relative toxicity of the degradate 1-
naphthol to parent carbaryl compound is inconclusive.  Thus, additional acute and chronic
aquatic toxicity studies involving fish and invertebrates are needed to complete a more definitive
evaluation and to address the uncertainties surrounding the toxicity  and effects from 1-naphthol.

2. Overview of Pesticide Usage
       Carbaryl (main trade names: Sevin, Arilat, Carbatox, Dicarbam) was first registered by
the Union Carbide Corporation in 1956. Currently, carbaryl is nationally registered for over 115
uses in agriculture, professional turf management, ornamental production, and residential
settings (U.S. EPA 2010a). Carbaryl's main use is an insecticide in the control of mites, fleas,
aphids, fire ants, common garden insects, and other insect pests in orchards and agricultural
fields. Carbaryl also is registered for use as a mosquito adulticide and as a molluscacide.
Agricultural uses include root crops, tree fruit, nuts, fruit and vegetable, and grain crops.
Carbaryl is used by homeowners in residential settings for lawn care, gardening (vegetables and
ornamentals), and pet care (pet collars, powders, and dips, in kennels, and on pet sleeping
quarters).  Carbaryl also is used by nursery, landscape, and golf course industries on turf,
annuals, perennials, and shrubs. Carbaryl has forestry  and rangeland uses and is used for control
of grasshoppers and crickets, adult mosquitoes, ticks and fire ants.  Additionally, carbaryl is used
to thin fruit in orchards to enhance fruit size and enhance repeat bloom. Carbaryl is available  for
use in various formulations, including baits, dusts, wettable powders, molasses, oil and water
suspensions, pellets and granules.
       At the time of the carbaryl IRED (U.S. EPA 2004b), approximately 3.9 million pounds of
carbaryl active ingredient were sold annually in the U.S.; with about half used in agriculture and
half in non-agricultural settings (per 1998 data). The amount of carbaryl usage per year in
agriculture has declined somewhat from an average of 1.9 million pounds of active ingredient in

-------
1992 to 1 to 1.5 million pounds of active ingredient in 2001. Figure 1 depicts the extent of
estimated annual carbaryl agricultural use nationally as of 2002.  According to U.S. EPA's
October 19, 2009 Screening Level Estimates of Agricultural Uses of Carbaryl (U.S. EPA.
2010a), the amount of carbaryl (total formulated product) use has declined to approximately 1.5
million pounds used annually in 2001. The highest annual application is hay (approximately
600,000 Ibs), followed by apples (300,000 Ibs), pecans (100,000 Ibs), and oranges (100,000 Ibs)
(U.S. EPA 2010a). Usage of carbaryl in the home and garden sector was ranked third most
commonly used pesticide active ingredient with a range of 4 to 6 million pounds active
ingredient applied in 2005 and 2007. This was a decrease from the 6 to 9 million pounds active
ingredient of carbaryl applied in home and gardens during 2003 (U.S. EPA 2011). Usage data in
the home and garden sector is not available to allow development of a map for non-agricultural
use similar to Figure 1.

                                    CARBARYL - insecticide
                                   2002 estimated annual agricultural use
                Average annual use of
                  active ingredient
            (pounds per square mile of agricultural
                   land in county)
                  CH no estimated use
                  D 0.001 to 0.027
                  D 0.028 to 0.094
                  D 0.095 to 0.298
                  D 0.299 to 1.031
                   >= 1.032
Crops
other hay
pecans
apples
citrus fruit
soybeans
corn
grapes
cherries
peaches
alfalfa hay
Total
pounds applied
646072
373434
342293
278504
257502
194961
112199
100890
70904
63449
Percent
national use
22.64
13.09
11.99
9.76
9.02
6.83
3.93
3.54
2.48
2.22
Figure 1: Historical Extent (2002) of carbaryl usage in agriculture.
(Source http://ca.water.usgs.gov/pnsp/pesticide_use_maps/show_map.php?year=02&map=m6006)

-------
3. Environmental Fate and Transport
       Technical grade carbaryl is an odorless and colorless to tan crystal (depending on purity),
and has a molecular weight of 201.22 g/mole.  Carbaryl has a density of 1.21 g/mL at 20C, a
vapor pressure of 1.36 x 10~7 torr at 25C, and is soluble in water to 32 mg/L at 30C  (U.S. EPA
2010a). It has an n-octanol/water partitioning coefficient (Kow) of 229 and an organic-carbon
normalized partition coefficient (Koc) of 196 L/kgoc (U.S. EPA 2010a). Its Henry's law constant
of 1.28 x 10~8 atm m3 g/mol @ 25C suggests it will have minimal volatilization from aqueous
solutions (U.S. EPA 2010a).
       The hydrolysis of carbaryl is pH related, occurring more rapidly in alkaline solutions
(U.S. EPA 2010a).  There is no evidence of degradation at a pH of 5 and degradation occurs in
neutral (pH 7) and alkaline (pH 9) systems with measured half-lives (t/2) of 12 days and 0.13
days, respectively (U.S. EPA 2010a).  Hydrolysis of carbaryl is also evident in saltwater, with
reported half-life of one day (pH=7.9) in  filtered saltwater (Armbust and Crosby 1991). The
major degradate of hydrolysis is 1-naphthol. In aerobic soil and aquatic systems, microbially-
mediated degradation (metabolism) of carbaryl occurs fairly rapidly (t/2 =4.0 and 4.9  days
respectively) but more slowly under anaerobic conditions (t/2=72 days) (U.S. EPA 2010a).
Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions the major degradate is 1-naphthol.
       Aqueous photolysis is another route of degradation for carbaryl, and may occur in the
upper water column of an aquatic system, where clearer waters allow light to penetrate. Carbaryl
degraded rapidly by aqueous photolysis to 1-naphthol with a half-life of 1.8 days, which in turn
degraded very rapidly with a half-life of less than 1 hour.
       The primary degradate (i.e.., 1-naphthol) in all the degradation studies reviewed, only
formed transiently (ty~<\ hr) and in most cases completely degraded by the end of each study.
Data on the primary degradate, 1-naphthol are  limited; however, it appears to be less  mobile than
the parent (discussed below) and is not likely to persist due to fairly rapid degradation.  Since 1-
naphthol can occur from a variety of natural and anthropogenic processes, its presence cannot be
considered indicative of carbaryl use.
       Besides 1-naphthol, the only other major degradate reported was 1, 4-napthoquinone
which was found at  17.3% on the third day after study initiation in the aerobic aquatic
metabolism  study (U.S. EPA 2010a).  No additional environmental fate data were available for
this degradate.

-------
       Carbaryl is considered moderately mobile in soils and sorption of carbaryl is dependent
on soil organic matter (U.S. EPA 2010a). Following a high rain event, carbaryl may reach
aquatic environments from areas of application in sheet and channel flow runoff.  In urban
environments, carbaryl present in runoff from yards and gardens could eventually end up in
stormwater and wastewater treatment influent. Agricultural applications could have runoff that
is subsequently discharged into a surface water body.
       Potential transport mechanisms of carbaryl in air include spray drift, and secondary drift
of volatilized or soil-bound residues leading to deposition onto nearby or more distant
ecosystems. Carbaryl has been shown to be transported and deposited by atmospheric processes
(U.S. EPA 2010a); however, given carbaryl's relatively rapid degradation,  its potential for long-
range atmospheric transport is likely limited.

4. Occurrence
       In 2003, the OPP Environmental Fate and Effects Division reported that carbaryl was the
second most widely detected insecticide in surface water in the U. S. Geological Survey's
(USGS) National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) monitoring program. In the 2003
assessment of NAWQA data, 1,067 (21%) out of 5,198 surface water samples had detections
greater than the minimum detectable limit (0.021 |ig/L). The maximum reported concentration
was 5.5 |ig/L across all sites. The mean concentration was 0.11 ug/L, with a standard deviation
of 0.43 ug/L. In a summary of pesticide occurrence and concentrations for 40 NAWQA stream
sites with primarily agricultural basins, carbaryl was detected in 11% of the samples (N = 1,001)
with a maximum concentration of 1.5 ug/L.
       In a report released in 2006 summarizing pesticide results from NAWQA from  1992 to
2001 (U.S.G.S. 2006), carbaryl is listed as one of the 14 most frequently detected pesticide
compounds in surface water and one of the 3 most frequently detected along with diazinon and
chlorpyrifos.  Carbaryl was detected in 50% of urban samples over this time period. The
majority of carbaryl concentrations reported were low with 35% of the urban samples less than
0.1 ug/L.  Detection frequencies in agricultural and mixed land use streams were lower (10% and
17%, respectively), and concentrations associated with those land uses were almost all less than
0.1 ug/L.

-------
       In 2007, OPP obtained carbaryl data from the USGS NAWQA data warehouse from 1999
to 2005.  A total of 11,732 samples were collected in that timeframe and analyzed for carbaryl
with 29% of all samples reporting residues greater than the minimum  detection limit. For
samples with detections, the mean concentration reported was 0.058 ug/L. The maximum
concentration reported was 33.5 ug/L at a location associated with agricultural land (mean in
agricultural areas: 0.094 ug/L). The detection frequency associated with agricultural uses was
lower (19%) than that associated with urban uses (50%). The highest concentration reported in
an urban area was 16 ug/L. The higher detection frequency in urban streams (versus agricultural
or mixed land uses)  is consistent with data summarized in the USGS reports and earlier EPA
2003 assessment (U.S. EPA 2003).  The concentrations detected in urban streams  (mostly low
concentrations, a few detections in the multiple ppb range), are also consistent with earlier data.
The relatively high concentration reported associated with agricultural uses is unusual but not
outside of the range predicted by modeling done by EPA for pesticide registration (U.S. EPA
2008). Thus, carbaryl was detected less frequently but at higher concentrations in  agricultural
areas/uses, while carbaryl was detected more frequently but at lower concentrations in urban
areas.
       Carbaryl's vapor pressure (1.36 x 10"6 torr) and Henry's law constant (1.28 x 10"8 atm-m"3
mol"1) are consistent with compounds which are found at least occasionally in the  atmosphere.
Other than near-field spray drift studies, carbaryl was only measured in a two studies.  Carbaryl
was detected in 37 percent of rainfall samples collected from Maryland, Indiana, Nebraska and
California agricultural watersheds during the 2003 and 2004 growing  season, at concentrations
ranging from 0.024 to 0.093 ug/L (Vogel et al. 2008). Carbaryl was found in fog  in
concentrations as high as 0.069 ug/L in six samples collected  at three  sites along the Pacific
Coast in Monterey County, CA (Schomburg et al. 1991). Carbaryl has been also detected in
precipitation samples in California (Majewski et al. 2006).  Out of 137 rain samples, 93 had
detectable carbaryl with a maximum concentration of 0.756 ug/L.  Based on these data, it is
possible that carbaryl can be deposited on land and aquatic environments in precipitation.

B. Assessment Endpoints and Measures of Effect

       U.S. EPA derives ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life that are
protective of the designated uses established for waters of the  United States. U.S.  EPA is using

-------
the peer-reviewed procedures defined in the Agency's "Guidelines for Deriving Numerical
National Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Organisms and Their Uses"
(Stephan et al. 1985) to derive national Water Quality Criteria for carbaryl.

1.  Stressors of Concern
       This criteria document quantitatively considers effects of exposures of carbaryl only.
Carbaryl degrades into one major degradate: 1-naphthol; however, 1-naphthol is also formed
naturally as a degradation product of naphthalene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Available environmental  fate data indicate that 1-naphthol degrades more rapidly and is less
mobile than carbaryl.  Toxicity data indicate that 1-naphthol is roughly equal to or less toxic than
the parent compound depending on the species tested (U.S. EPA 201 Ob).  Additional data are
needed to better quantify  the relative toxicity of the degradate 1-naphthol to parent carbaryl.
Since 1-naphthol is less persistent and less mobile than the parent compound, acts through a
different mode of action,  and is  no more toxic than the parent compound, this criteria document
focuses on the parent compound alone.

2.  Assessment Endpoints
       Assessment endpoints are defined as "explicit expressions of the actual environmental
value that is to be protected" and are defined by an ecological entity (species, community, or
other entity) and its  attribute or characteristics (U.S. EPA 1998). Assessment endpoints may be
identified at any level of organization (e.g. individual, population, community). In the context of
the Clean Water Act, aquatic life criteria rely on the results of growth, reproduction, and survival
of the assessed taxa.  This information is aggregated into a species sensitivity analyses that
evaluates the impact on the aquatic community. Criteria are designed to be protective of the vast
majority of aquatic species in an aquatic community (i.e., 5th percent! le of tested aquatic animals
representing the aquatic community). As a result, the designated uses {i.e.., aquatic life support)
and their associated criteria may be considered as assessment endpoints. To develop 304(a)
aquatic life criteria under CWA, U.S. EPA typically requires the following:

-------
Acute toxicity test data for species from a minimum of eight diverse taxonomic groups.

The diversity of tested species is intended to ensure protection of various components of
an aquatic ecosystem.

   o   The acute freshwater requirement is fulfilled with the following 8 minimum data
       requirements:

            the family Salmonidae in the class Osteichthyes
            a second family in the class Osteichthyes, preferably a commercially or
             recreationally important warmwater species (e.g., bluegill, channel catfish,
             etc.)
            a third family in the phylum Chordata (may be in the class Osteichthyes or
             may be an amphibian, etc.)
            a planktonic crustacean (e.g., cladoceran, copepod, etc.)
            a benthic crustacean (e.g., ostracod, isopod, amphipod,  crayfish, etc.)
            an insect (e.g., mayfly, dragonfly, damselfly,  stonefly, caddisfly,
             mosquito, midge, etc.)
            a family in a phylum other than Arthropoda or Chordata (e.g., Rotifera,
             Annelida, Mollusca, etc.)
            a family in any order of insect or any phylum not already represented

   o   The acute estuarine/marine requirement is fulfilled with the following 8 minimum
       data requirements:

            two families in the phylum Chordata
            a family in a phylum other than Arthropoda or Chordata
            either the Mysidae or Penaeidae family
            three other families not in the phylum Chordata (may include Mysidae or
             Penaeidae, whichever was not used above)
            any other family


   o   Chronic toxicity test data (longer-term survival, growth, or reproduction) are

       required for a minimum of three taxa, with at least one chronic test being from an

       acutely-sensitive species. Acute-chronic ratios can be calculated with data from

       species of aquatic animals from at least three  different families if the following

       data requirements are met:
            at least one is a fish
            at least one is an invertebrate
            for freshwater chronic criterion: at least one is an acutely sensitive
             freshwater species (the other two may be estuarine/marine species) or for
             estuarine/marine chronic criterion: at least one is an acutely sensitive
             estuarine/marine species (the other two may be freshwater species).
                                     10

-------
3. Measures of Effect
       Each assessment endpoint requires one or more "measures of ecological effect" which are
defined as changes in the attributes of an assessment endpoint itself or changes in a surrogate
entity or attribute in response to chemical exposure.  Ecological effect data are used as measures
of direct and indirect effects to biological receptors.  The measures of effect selected represent
the growth, reproduction, and survival of the organisms.
          The acute measures of effect used for organisms in this document are the LC50,
          EC50, and IC50. LC stands for "Lethal Concentration" and LC50 is the
          concentration of a chemical that is estimated to kill 50% of the test organisms.  EC
          stands for "Effective Concentration" and the EC50 is the concentration of a chemical
          that is estimated to produce a specific effect in 50% of the test organisms. 1C stands
          for "Inhibitory Concentration" and the IC50 is the concentration of a chemical that is
          estimated to inhibit some biological process (i.e. growth, etc.) by 50% compared to a
          control organism.
          Endpoints for chronic measures of exposure are the NOEC, LOEC, and MATC. The
          NOEC (i.e., "No-Observed-Effect-Concentration") is the highest test concentration at
          which none of the observed effects were statistically different from the control. The
          LOEC (i.e., "Lowest-Observed-Effect-Concentration") is the lowest test
          concentration at which observed effects were statistically different from the control.
          The Maximum Acceptable Toxicant Concentration (MATC) is the calculated
          geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC.
       Data for carbaryl were obtained from studies submitted to EPA's Office of Pesticide
Programs by registrants to  support registration and from studies published in the open literature
and identified in a literature search using the ECOTOXicology database (ECOTOX) as meeting
data quality standards. ECOTOX is a source of high quality toxicity data for aquatic life,
terrestrial plants, and wildlife. The database was created and is maintained by the U.S. EPA,
Office of Research and Development, and the National Health and Environmental Effects
Research Laboratory's Mid-Continent Ecology Division.  The latest comprehensive literature
search for this document was conducted in May 2009.
       The amount of toxicity testing data available for any given pollutant varies significantly,
depending primarily on whether it has raised any significant  environmental issues and, in the
case of a pesticide, how long it has been registered. A further evaluation of available data is
performed by EPA to determine test acceptability. Appendix A of Quality Criteria for Water
                                           11

-------
1986 (U.S. EPA 1986) provides an in-depth discussion of the minimum data requirements and

data quality requirements for aquatic life criteria development.

    The assessment endpoints for aquatic life criteria are based on growth, reproduction, and

survival of the assessed taxa.  The measures of effect are provided by the acute and chronic

toxicity data.  These toxicity endpoints [expressed as genus means]  are used in the species

sensitivity distribution of the aquatic community to derive the aquatic life criteria. Endpoints

used in this assessment are listed in Table 2.
Table 2. Summary of Assessment Endpoints and Measures of Effect Used in Criteria
Derivation
 Assessment Endpoints for the Aquatic
 Community
Measures of Effect
 Survival, growth, and reproduction of
 freshwater fish, other freshwater vertebrates,
 and invertebrates
For acute effects: LC50, EC50
For chronic effects: NOEC and LOEC,
calculated MATC, or EC20
 Survival, growth, and reproduction of
 estuarine/marine fish and invertebrates
For acute effects: LC50, EC50
For chronic effects: NOEC and LOEC,
calculated MATC, or EC20
 Maintenance and growth of aquatic plants
 from standing crop or biomass (freshwater
 and estuarine/marine)
For effects: LOEC, EC20, EC50, IC50,
reduced growth rate, cell viability, calculated
MATC
MATC = Maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (geometric mean of NOEC and LOEC)
NOEC = No observed effect concentration
LOEC = Lowest observed effect concentration
LC50 =  Lethal concentration to 50% of the test population
EC50/EC20 = Effect concentration to 50%/20% of the test population
IC50 = Concentration of carbaryl at which growth is inhibited 50% compared to control organism growth.
       Table 3 provides a summary of the number of toxicity data available for genera and

species that fulfill the minimum dataset requirements for calculation of acute and chronic criteria

for both freshwater and estuarine/marine organisms.
                                           12

-------
Table 3. Summary Table of Number of Species with Acceptable Toxicity Data Separated
into the Minimum Data Requirements in the "Guidelines'

Genus Mean
Acute Value
(GMAV)
Species Mean
Acute Value
(SMAV)
Genus Mean
Chronic Value
(GMCV)
Species Mean
Chronic Value
(SMCV)
Freshwater
Family Salmonidae in the class
Osteichthyes
Second family in the class
Osteichthyes, preferably a
commercially or recreationally
important warmwater species
Third family in the phylum
Chordata (may be in the class
Osteichthyes or may be an
amphibian, etc.)
Planktonic Crustacean
Benthic Crustacean
Insect
Family in a phylum other than
Arthropoda or Chordata (e.g.,
Rotifera, Annelida, or Mollusca)
Family in any order of insect or any
phylum not already represented
Total
3
20
41
4
6
6
32
I3
47
9
23
41
6
8
6
32
I3
60
-
3

2
-
-

-
5
-
1

2
-
-

-
3
Estuarine/Marine
Family in the phylum Chordata:
phylum Chordata, family
Gasterosteidae
Family in the phylum Chordata:
phylum Chordata, family
Cyprinodontidae
Either the Mysidae or Penaeidae
family: family Mysidae
Family in a phylum other than
Arthropoda or Chordata
Family in a phylum other than
Chordata
Family in a phylum other than
Chordata
Family in a phylum other than
Chordata
Any other family
Any other family
Total
1
1
1
I4
P
I6
1'
I8
3y
11
1
1
1
I4
P
I6
2'
I8
3y
12


-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-


-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
 Phylum Chordata, Class Amphibia
2 Phylum Annelida and Phylum Mollusca
3 Class Insecta, Family Perlidae
4 Phylum Mollusca, Family Tellinidae
5 Phylum Mollusca, Family Cardiidae
6 Phylum Mollusca, Family Veneridae
7 Phylum Mollusca, Family Ostreidae
8 Phylum Mollusca, Family Mytilidae
9 Phylum Arthropoda
 Dash indicates not available
                                             13

-------
       The aquatic plant data available for carbaryl indicate that plants are roughly two orders of
magnitude less sensitive than the aquatic animals tested (Appendix E). Therefore, no further
analyses for development of plant criteria were initiated.

C. Conceptual Model

       Conceptual models consist of a written description and diagram (U.S. EPA 1998) that
illustrate the relationships between human activities, stressors, and ecological effects on
assessment endpoints. The conceptual model links exposure characteristics, with the ecological
endpoints important for management goals.  Under the Clean Water Act, these management
goals are established by  states and tribes as designated uses of waters of the United States (for
example, aquatic life support). In deriving aquatic life criteria, U.S. EPA is developing
acceptable thresholds for pollutants that, if not exceeded, are expected to protect designated uses.
A state and/or tribe may implement these criteria by adopting them into their respective water
quality standards.

1. Conceptual Diagram
       Environmental exposure to carbaryl, while ultimately determined by various site specific
conditions and processes, is initiated by an application of the pesticide. The environmental fate
properties of carbaryl indicate that runoff, ground water recharge, spray drift, and atmospheric
deposition represent potential transport mechanisms of carbaryl to surface water which serves as
habitat for aquatic organisms. These transport mechanisms are depicted in the conceptual model
below (Figure 2). The model also depicts exposure pathways for biological receptors of concern
(e.g., non-target aquatic  animals) and the potential attribute changes (i.e.,  effects such as reduced
survival, growth and reproduction) in the receptors due to carbaryl exposure.
       The conceptual model provides a broad overview of how aquatic organisms can
potentially be  exposed to carbaryl. Transport mechanisms and exposure pathways are not
considered in the derivation of aquatic life criteria. Derivation of criteria  focuses on effects on
survival, growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms.  However, the pathways, receptors, and
attribute changes depicted in Figure 2 may be helpful for states and tribes as they adopt criteria
into  standards and need to evaluate potential exposure pathways affecting designated uses.
                                            14

-------
  Stressor
                                          Carbaryl Applications


Source Spray drift


Runoff

t~ '
Y * r
Exposure Surface
* fl J "
-mm- .. Seam
Media
i
Uptake/jj
or integ
Fish/a (\
Receptors am
L
Juveni
rilk -
ment

uatic phase
thibiatis
Eggs
arvae
les /Adults
1
Attribute Individual organist
Change Reduced survival
55 Reduced growth
Reduced reproducti

water/ ^
4rm
lent . . . .

1 '
^ .
Uptake/gills
or integument
Aquatic Animals
Invertebrates
Vertebrates
t.
.^J ..
; \ ^.:-



ns f1
Fo(
Reduct
on Re due
1
1 Soil 1  Grouodwater
1



r Atmosphere




Uptake/cell,
roots, leaves
Aquatic Plants
Noo- vascular
Vascular
Reduced survival, growth,
and reproduction
Ingestson
. 

T 1
id chain Reductio
ion in algae
ion in prey C
T t
Riparian plant
exposure
Non-vascular
Vascular

T T
labitat integrity
n in primary productivity
Reduced cover
ommunity change
Figure 2: Conceptual model for carbaryl effects on aquatic organisms.
(Dotted lines indicate exposure pathways that have a low likelihood of contributing to ecological effects).
                                             15

-------
D. Analysis Plan

       During development of CWA section 304(a) criteria, U.S. EPA assembles available test
data and considers all the relevant data that meet acceptable data quality standard together for all
genera. In most cases, data on freshwater and estuarine/marine species are grouped separately to
develop separate freshwater and estuarine/marine criteria.  Thus, where data allow, four criteria
are developed (acute freshwater, acute estuarine/marine, chronic freshwater, and chronic
estuarine/marine). If plants are more sensitive than vertebrates and invertebrates, plant criteria
are developed.
       The CWA criteria are based on a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) comprised of
genus mean acute values (GMAVs), calculated from species mean acute values (SMAVs) for
acceptable available data.  SMAVs are calculated using the geometric mean for all acceptable
toxicity tests within a given species (e.g. all tests for Daphnia magnd). If only one test is
available, the SMAV is that test value by default. GMAVs are then calculated using the
geometric means of all SMAVs within a given genus (e.g.  all SMAVs for genus Daphnia -
Daphniapulex, Daphnia magnd). Once again, if only one SMAV is available for a genus, then
the GMAV is represented by that value.  GMAVs are then rank-ordered by sensitivity from most
sensitive to least sensitive.  The final acute  value (FAV) is determined by regression analysis
based on the four most sensitive genera (reflected as GMAVs) in the data set to interpolate or
extrapolate (as appropriate) to the 5th percentile of the distribution represented by the tested
genera. The acute criterion is the FAV divided by two, which is intended to provide an acute
criterion protective of nearly all individuals in  such a genus (see "Guidelines").
       Although the aquatic life criteria derivation process relies on selected toxicity endpoints
from the sensitive species tested, it does not necessarily mean that the selected toxicity endpoints
reflect sensitivity of the most sensitive species existing in a given environment. The intent of the
eight minimum data requirements is to serve as a sample representative of the aquatic
community. These minimum data requirements represent different ecological, trophic,
taxonomic and functional differences observed in the natural aquatic ecosystem. Use of species
sensitivity distribution where the criteria values are based on the four most sensitive taxa is
reflective of the whole distribution,  representing a censored statistical approach that improves
estimation of the lower tail when the shape  of the whole distribution is uncertain.
                                            16

-------
    The chronic criterion may be determined by one of two methods.  If all 8 minimum data
requirements are met with acceptable chronic test data, then the chronic criterion is derived using
the same method used for the acute criterion. In cases where less chronic data are available (i.e.,
must have at least three chronic tests from taxa that also have appropriate acute toxicity data) the
chronic criterion can be derived by determining an appropriate acute-chronic ratio (ACR).  The
ACR is a way of relating the acute and chronic toxicities of a material to aquatic organisms.
Acute-chronic ratios can be used to derive chronic criteria with data for species of aquatic
animals provided that at least three of the minimum data requirements are met and that:
       -   at least one is a fish
       -   at least one is an invertebrate
       -   at least one is an acutely sensitive freshwater species (or estuarine/marine species if
           estuarine/marine criteria are being derived); the other two species data may be
           freshwater or estuarine/marine as appropriate to the derivation.
    ACRs are calculated by dividing the acute toxicity test values by a "paired" (same lab, same
dilution water) chronic test value.  Comparisons of ACRs across taxa may elucidate differences
and similarities in taxa response.  For example,  invertebrate ACRs for carbaryl are similar
indicating similar taxonomic sensitivity. If variability is greater than ten-fold among  calculated
ACRs, and no explainable trend exists, then  a chronic criterion should not be derived. The Final
ACR (FACR) is then derived by calculating  the geometric mean of all acceptable ACRs. The
Final Chronic Value (FCV) is then estimated by dividing the FAV by the FACR. This serves as
the basis for the chronic criterion.  Finally, the acute or chronic criterion may be lowered to
protect recreationally or commercially important species.
       In addition, whenever adequately justified, a state or tribe may replace a national criterion
with a site-specific criterion (U.S. EPA 1983a),  which may include not only site-specific
criterion concentrations, but also site-specific durations of averaging periods and site-specific
frequencies of allowed excursions (U.S. EPA 1991).  For more information on criteria
derivation, see:
http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swguidance/waterquality/standards/upload/2009 01  13  criteria  85g
uidelines.pdf.
       The criteria presented herein are the agency's best estimate of maximum concentrations
of carbaryl to protect most aquatic organisms from any unacceptable short- or long-term effects.

                                            17

-------
Results of such intermediate calculations such as Species Mean Acute Values (Appendices A
and B) and chronic values (Appendices C and D) are specified to four significant figures to
prevent round-off error in subsequent calculations and the number of places beyond the decimal
point does not reflect the precision of the value.

E. Identification of Data Gaps for Aquatic Organisms

       Data gaps were identified for carbaryl.  No acceptable aquatic vascular plant data are
available. However, given the large difference between toxicity to aquatic plants and animals, it
is not likely that aquatic vascular plants would be more sensitive to carbaryl that aquatic animals.
Also, additional acute and chronic aquatic toxicity studies using the degradate  1-naphthol on fish
and invertebrates are recommended to address lack of information for this degradate. This data
gap was identified in EPA's problem formulation for the re-evaluation of carbaryl (U.S.  EPA
2010a) thus, in the future, additional  degradate data may become available. In addition,
supplemental estuarine/marine chronic studies would be beneficial since there  is only one study
available for evaluation.

III. EFFECTS ANALYSES TO AQUATIC  ORGANISMS

A. Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Animals

       All  available data relating to the acute effects of carbaryl on aquatic animals were
considered in deriving the carbaryl criteria. Data that were suitable (in terms of test acceptability
and quality), according to the "Guidelines," for the derivation of a freshwater and
estuarine/marine FAV are presented in Appendices A and B, respectively (most fish and
invertebrate data are 96-hr duration, except cladocerans, midges, mysids and certain embryos
and larvae of specific estuarine/marine groups are 48-hr duration).

1. Freshwater
       Sixty freshwater species representing 47 genera were represented in the dataset of
acceptable  data for acute toxicity to carbaryl. Species Mean Acute Values (SMAV) ranged from
3.175 |ig/L for the stonefly (Isogenus sp.) to 27,609 |ig/L for the catfish (Glorias batrachus).
                                           18

-------
The second, third, fourth and seventh most sensitive tested species SMAVs are also stoneflies
(Skwala sp., Pteronarcys californica, Claassenia sabulosa and Pteronarcella badia), with
SMAVs of 3.6, 4.8, 5.6 and 9.163 |ig/L, respectively. Cladocerans are the next most sensitive
taxon (SMAVs ranged from 5.958 |ig/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia to 35 |ig/L for Daphnia
carinata), followed by amphipods (Gammaruspseudolimnaeus, G. lacustris, Hyalella azteca and
Pontoporeia hoyi with SMAVs of 10.12, 18.76, 15.2 and 250 |ig/L, respectively). Thus, the ten
freshwater genera most sensitive to carbaryl are in the classes Insecta and Crustacea (Table 4),
as would be expected for an insecticide.
       The most sensitive fish SMAV was for brown trout, Salmo trutta (SMAV of 700 |ig/L),
followed by the rainbow trout (SMAV of 860 |ig/L) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush,
SMAV of 988.1 |ig/L). Tests relating to effects on several endangered fish species were also
available: the shortnosed sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, with a SMAV of 1,810  |ig/L
(Dwyer et al. 2000); the razorback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus, with a SMAV of 4,350 |ig/L
(Dwyer et al. 1995); the Gila topminnow, Poeciliopsis occidentalis, with a SMAV of >3,000
|ig/L (Dwyer et al. 1999b); the bonytail  chub, Gila elegans, with a SMAV of 2,655 |ig/L (Dwyer
et al. 1995; Beyers et al. 1994); the  Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, with a SMAV of 1,129 |ig/L
(Mayer and Ellersieck 1986); and the Colorado pikeminnow (formerly squawfish), Ptychochelius
lucius, with a SMAV of 2,005 |ig/L (Dwyer et al. 1995; Beyers et al. 1994).  Tests relating to
effects on one threatened fish species was available, i.e., the Apache trout, Oncorhynchus
apache, with a SMAV of 1,540 |ig/L (Dwyer et al.  1995).  Tests relating to effects on two
threatened/endangered fish species  (certain populations threatened, and others endangered) were
also available, the Coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, with a SMAV of 1,654 |ig/L (Katz
1961; Macek and McAllister 1970;  Post and Schroeder  1971; Johnson and Finley 1980; Mayer
and Ellersieck 1986) and the Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, with a SMAV of
2,690 |ig/L (Johnson and Finley 1980; Mayer and Ellersieck 1986; Phipps and Holcombe 1985;
1990). Available data indicates endangered fish species tested are not found to be more sensitive
than non-endangered fish species.
       Aquatic-phase amphibians (Rana clamitans, SMAV =  16,296 |ig/L; Bufo boreas, SMAV
=  12,310 |ig/L; Hyla versicolor, SMAV = 2,470 |ig/L and Xenopus laevis (frog that is a common
test species with fully aquatic life cycle  that is non-native to the U.S.), SMAV = 1,730 |ig/L),
freshwater mussels (Anodonta imbecillis, SMAV = 24,632 |ig/L) and the aquatic air-breathing

                                           19

-------
snail (Aplexa hypnomm, SMAV = >27,000 |ig/L) were comparatively insensitive to carbaryl.
The least sensitive species tested with carbaryl is C. batrachus, with a SMAV of 27,609 |ig/L.
       GMAVs for 47 freshwater genera are provided in Table 4.  The four most sensitive
genera were within a factor of 1.8 of one another. The freshwater FAV (the 5th percentile of the
species sensitivity distribution) for carbaryl is 4.219 |ig/L, calculated using the procedures
described in the "Guidelines." The Final Acute Value is an estimate of the concentration of the
material corresponding to a cumulative probability of 0.05 in the acute toxicity values for the
genera with which acceptable acute tests have been conducted on the material. The FAV is
slightly higher than the GMAVs for two genera of stoneflies, Isogenus (3.175 |ig/L) and Skwala
(3.6 |ig/L). The FAV is then divided by two to account for the fact that the  toxicity tests were
designed to assess LC50 values, and the criterion needed to protect aquatic life at levels below
which effects on test organisms are indistinguishable from control (unexposed) organisms.
Therefore, the FAV/2, which is the freshwater continuous maximum concentration (CMC), for
carbaryl is 2.1 |ig/L and should be protective for all freshwater organisms potentially exposed to
carbaryl under short-term conditions (Figure 3).
                                           20

-------
Table 4. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Acute Values
Rank3
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39


38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
Genus Mean Acute
Value (jig/L)
27,609
>27,000
24,632
20,000
16,700
16,296
12,400
12,310
9,039
-
-
8,656
8,200
8,012
6,400
4,350
4,153
>3,000
2,930
2,655
2,600
2,515
Species
Walking catfish,
Glorias batrachus
Snail,
Aplexa hypnorum
Mussel,
Anodonta imbecillis
Black bullhead,
Ameiurus melas
Goldfish,
Carassius auratus
Green frog,
Rana clamitans
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Boreal toad,
Bufo boreas
Green sunfish,
Lepomis cyanellus
Redear sunfish
L. microlophus
Bluegill,
L. macrochirus
European chub,
Leuciscus cephalus
Oligochaete worm,
Lumbriculus variegatus
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Largemouth bass,
Micropterus salmoides
Razorback sucker,
Xyrauchen texanus
Common carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Gila topminnow,
Poeciliopsis occidentalis
Nile tilapia,
Oreochromis niloticus
Bonytail chub,
Gila elegans
Black crappie,
Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Guppy,
Poecilia reticulate
Species Mean Acute Valueb
Gig/L)
27,609
>27,000
24,632
20,000
16,700
16,296
12,400
12,310
9,460
11,200
6,970
8,656
8,200
8,012
6,400
4,350
4,153
>3,000
2,930
2,655
2,600
2,515
                                    21

-------
Table 4. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Acute Values
Rank3
27
26
25

24

23
22




21
20
19
18

17
16

15
Genus Mean Acute
Value (jig/L)
2,480
2,470
2,462
-
2,079
-
2,005
1,810
-
-
-
-
1,810
1,730
1,322
1,269
-
1,000
889.0
-
839.6
Species
Yellow perch,
Percaflavescens
Gray tree frog,
Hyla versicolor
Crayfish,
Orconectes immunis
Crayfish,
O. virilis
Greenthroat darter,
Etheostoma lepidum
Fountain darter,
E. fonticola
Colorado pikeminnow
(formerly squawfish),
Ptychochelius Indus
Apache trout,
Oncorhynchus apache
Coho salmon,
O. kisutch
Chinook salmon,
O. tshawytscha
Cutthroat trout,
O. clarkii
Rainbow trout,
O. mykiss
Shortnosed sturgeon,
Acipenser brevirostrum
African clawed frog,
Xenopus laevis
Striped bass,
Morons saxatilis
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Lake trout,
S. namaycush
Crayfish,
Procambarus clarkii
Atlantic salmon,
Salmo salar
Brown trout,
S. trutta
Crayfish,
Cambarus bartoni
Species Mean Acute Valueb
Gig/L)
2,480
2,470
2,870
2,112
2,140
2,020
2,005
1,540
1,654
2,690
3,300
860
1,810
1,730
1,322
1,629
988.1
1,000
1,129
700
839.6
                                    22

-------
Table 4. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Acute Values
Rank3
14
13
12
11
10
9

8


7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Genus Mean Acute
Value (jig/L)
280
250
230
200
15.2
13.78
-
11.90
-
-
9.163
8.781
5.958
5.6
4.8
3.6
3.175
Species
Aquatic sowbug,
Asellus brevicaudus
Amphipod,
Pontoporeia hoyi
Mysid,
Mysis relicta
Backswimmer,
Notonecta undulate
Amphipod,
Hyalella azteca
Amphipod,
Gammarus lacustris
Amphipod,
G. pseudolimnaeus
Cladoceran,
Daphnia carinata
Cladoceran,
D. magna
Cladoceran,
D. pulex
Stonefly,
Pteronarcella badia
Cladoceran,
Simocephalus serrulatus
Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Stonefly,
Claassenia sabulosa
Stonefly,
Pteronarcys californica
Stonefly,
Skwala sp.
Stonefly,
Isogenus sp.
Species Mean Acute Valueb
Gig/L)
280
250
230
200
15.2
18.76
10.12
35
7.521
6.4
9.163
8.781
5.958
5.6
4.8
3.6
3.175
 Ranked from the most resistant to the most sensitive based on Genus Mean Acute Value.
' From Appendix A.
                                       23

-------
Figure 3: Ranked Summary of Carbaryl Genus Mean Acute Values (GMAVs) - Freshwater

Animals
   100000
 1, 10000
  BO




 .o
 4-i
  TO
   1000

  E
  QJ
  u

  O
 U
  >

  ro


  ro   10
 U
        o.o
             _Q
Summary of Ranked Carbaryl GMAVs

                 Freshwater
                0.1
                         0.2
                        ,DAI
        Dl
                                                          Freshwater Final Acute Value = 4.219ug/L carbaryl
                                                         Criteria Maximum Concentration = 2.1 u.g/L carbaryl
                                 0.3
                                         0.4
                                                  0.5
                                                          0.6
                                                                  0.7
                                                                           0.8
                                                                                   0.9
                                                                                           1.0
                                   Genus Mean Acute Values

                                     (Cumulative Fraction)
                                               D Freshwater Invertebrates

                                                Freshwater Fish

                                               A Freshwater Amphibians
                                              24

-------
2. Estuarine/Marine
       SMAVs (SMAVs and GMAVs are equal with the exception of the genus Crassostred)
for 11 genera representing 12 species of estuarine/marine organisms were calculated for carbaryl
(Table 5).  SMAVs and GMAVs are equal when there is only one species present per genus.
The most sensitive genus was the mysid (Americamysis sp.), with a SMAV of 7.188 |ig/L,
followed by the Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) with a SMAV of 10 |ig/L. The two
most tolerant genera were the bent-nosed clam (Macoma nasuta) and the threespine stickleback
(Gasterosteus aculeatus), with SMAVs of 17,000 and 3,990 |ig/L, respectively (Figure 4).
       The four most sensitive estuarine/marine genera are Americamysis, Metacarcinus,
Callianassa and Upogebia with GMAVs that differ by a factor of approximately 8.3.  The ghost
shrimp (Callianassa californiensis) and mud shrimp (Upogebiapugettensis) studies were
conducted under static conditions with measured concentrations over a 48-hr duration (Stewart et
al. 1967).  Although the test duration is not the recommended 96-hr duration, these two
datapoints were determined to be acceptable and are included in the estuarine/marine acute
criteria calculation.  Acetylcholinesterase inhibition studies and recovery studies using carbaryl
indicate that results for 48-hr acute toxicity tests with invertebrates would be similar to results
from 96-hr tests. Scaps et al. (1997) determined the maximum percentage of
acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition occurred at 48 hours after exposure and then remained
stable for up to seven days for the estuarine/marine polychaete worm, Nereis diversicolor.
Therefore, the maximum  percentage of acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition at 48 hours would
lead  to the highest level of immobilization or death for the test organisms. Parsons and
Surgeoner (1991) found that third-instar mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) did not recover from
immobilization that occurred after a 24-hr exposure to carbaryl. The ability of larvae to recover
from immobilization following exposure to carbaryl decreased with increasing exposure time.
These results indicate that a 48-hr acute toxicity test EC50 or LC50 would be similar to those for
96-hr tests and provide justification for the use of 48-hr results in the criterion calculation.
       Bivalves are moderately insensitive to carbaryl, with GMAVs ranging from  1,650 |ig/L
for the bay mussel (Mytilus trossulus) to 3,850 |ig/L for cockle clam (Clinocardium nuttallii).
The threespine stickleback (G. aculeatus) has a similar SMAV of 3,990 |ig/L. The most
sensitive genus (Americamysis, GMAV of 7.188 |ig/L) is greater than 2,365 times more sensitive
than  the most tolerant genus tested, M. nasuta (SMAV = 17,000 |ig/L).
                                           25

-------
       The "Guidelines" indicate that eight minimum data requirements are needed to calculate
an estuarine/marine FAV; data are available for 11 genera and meet the family requirement
outlined above. The estuarine/marine FAV is 3.15 |ig/L (Table 5). The estuarine/marine CMC
(1.58 |ig/L) is protective of all estuarine/marine organisms acutely exposed to carbaryl (Figure
4).
                                           26

-------
 Table 5. Ranked Estuarine/Marine Genus Mean Acute Values
Rank3
11
10
9
8
7
6

5
4
3
2
1
Genus Mean Acute
Value (jig/L)
17,000
3,990
3,850
3,820
2,600
2,291
-
1,650
60.0
48.99
10
7.188
Species
Bent-nosed clam,
Macoma nasuta
Threespine stickleback,
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Cockle clam,
Clinocardium nuttalli
Hard clam,
Mercenaria mercenaria
Sheepshead minnow,
Cyprinodon variegatus
Pacific oyster,
Crassostrea gigas
Eastern oyster,
C. virginica
Bay mussel,
Mytilus edulis
Mud shrimp,
Upogebia pugettensis
Ghost shrimp,
Callianassa californiensis
Dungeness crab,
Metacarcinus magister formerly
Cancer magister
Mysid,
Americamysis bahia
Species Mean Acute Valueb
(ug/L)
17,000
3,990
3,850
3,820
2,600
2,200
2,386
1,650
60.0
48.99
10
7.188
 Ranked from the most resistant to the most sensitive based on Genus Mean Acute Value.
' From Appendix B.
                                         27

-------
Figure 4: Ranked Summary of Carbaryl Genus Mean Acute Values (GMAVs) -
Estuarine/Marine Animals
100000



^. 10000
I
c
,g
re
C 1000
Ol
u
o
u
4-*
u
Ol
 100
re
i_
re
u
10


1 
0



Summary of Ranked Carbaryl GMAVs
Estuarine/marine
D

D D 
D  '



D D

D D
Estuarine/marine Final Acute Value = 3.153 \ig/L carbaryl
Criteria Maximum Concentration = 1.6 \ig/L carbaryl

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
GenUS Mean ACUte Values Q Estuarine/marine Invertebrates
(Cumulative Fraction)
 Estuarine/marine Fish
                                      28

-------
B. Chronic Toxicity to Aquatic Animals

1. Freshwater
       Freshwater chronic toxicity data that meet the test acceptability and quality
assurance/control criteria in the "Guidelines" are presented in Appendix C. All tests were
conducted with measured concentrations of carbaryl.  Carbaryl chronic toxicity data are available
for five species of freshwater organisms: two invertebrate species (cladocerans) and three fish
species.
       Carbaryl was evaluated by Oris et al. (1991) using the cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia.
The pH of the seven-day static-renewal test was 8.18. The  mean total young per female was the
most sensitive endpoint with a final chronic value (geomean of NOEC and LOEC) of 10.6 |ig/L.
Replicate seven-day reproduction toxicity tests using hypothesis testing and median inhibition
concentration interpolation analysis (median IC50 value approximates chronic values) yielded
the same final chronic value.  Division of the 48-hr LC50 acute value of 11.6 |ig/L from the
same study (Appendix A) by the chronic value of 10.6 |ig/L results in an  acute-chronic ratio
(ACR) of 1.094 for C. dubia (Table 8).
       Two chronic exposures have been conducted with the cladoceran, Daphnia magna, to
carbaryl (Brooke 1991 and Surprenant 1985b). Daphnia magna was exposed for 21 days to five
measured concentrations of carbaryl - 0.29, 0.58, 1.07, 2.16, and 4.04 |ig/L at a mean pH of 8.2
(Brooke 1991). Neither survival of the adults nor the number of young produced was
significantly different from that of the control organisms at concentrations < 4.04 |ig/L. Since
there was no significant difference at the highest tested concentration of 4.04 |ig/L, the
"Guidelines" stipulate that a greater than value (>) be assigned. Therefore, the "no-effect"
concentration range for D. magna exposed to carbaryl was between 4.04 |ig/L and the 48-hr
EC50 of 10.1 |ig/L.  Given the 48-hr EC50 value of 10.1 |ig/L from the acute toxicity test
(Brooke 1991) this would produce  a "theoretical" ACR ranging from 1.0 to < 2.5.  This
theoretical ACR, while not usable in the direct calculation of the chronic criteria, is consistent
with the ACR from freshwater invertebrate taxa that is available, 1.094 for Daphnia magna.
This indicates that acute and chronic toxicities for the invertebrate taxa are closely related.
       Another study with the cladoceran, D.  magna, was conducted by Surprenant (1985b).
The author exposed the cladoceran for 21 days in a flow-through measured exposure.  The most

                                           29

-------
sensitive endpoint was an effect of reproduction observed at 3.3 |ig/L when compared to the
solvent control. The chronic value was calculated to be 2.225 |ig/L. An ACR was not derived
for this study because there was not an associated acute test.
       Two chronic exposures have been conducted with fathead minnows to carbaryl (Carlson
1971 and Norberg-King 1989). Both tests were conducted in the same laboratory by different
researchers in different years and with different test durations.  Carlson (1971) exposed fathead
minnows through a complete life-cycle test beginning with 1- to 5-day old fry at 5 exposure
concentrations, i.e., 8,  17, 62, 210, and 680 |ig/L. The exposure lasted 9 months resulting in
reduced survival at 6 months in the highest exposure concentration of 680 |ig/L. After 9 months
at the same concentration, fish exhibited reduced egg production and no larvae hatched.  No
statistically significant effects were noted for survival, growth or reproduction at the 210 |ig/L
exposure.  Thus, the chronic value of 378 |ig/L for this study is the geometric mean of the lowest
observed effect concentration (LOEC) of 680 |ig/L and the no observed effect concentration
(NOEC) of 210 |ig/L based on reproduction.  Division of the 96-hr LC50 of 9,000 |ig/L from the
same study by the chronic value of 377.9 |ig/L  results in an ACR of 23.82.
       A second chronic test with the fathead minnow was conducted as a 32-day early-life-
stage test (Norberg-King 1989). No adverse effects in fish were observed from exposure to
carbaryl at concentrations <720 |ig/L, but adverse effects were measured at 1,600 |ig/L.  Growth
in length, but not weight was reduced at 1,600 |ig/L, as was survival. The chronic value for
fathead minnows in this test is 1,073 |ig/L, which is the geometric mean of the lowest observed
effect concentration (LOEC) of 1,600  |ig/L and the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of
<720 |ig/L.  Calculation of an ACR from this study is not possible since the authors did not
measure the concentration of the exposure in the acute toxicity test.  However, two other acute
tests for fathead minnows have been conducted at the same laboratory since 1971. Carlson
(1971) reported a value of 9,000 |ig/L, and Phipps and Holcombe (1985) a value of 5,010 |ig/L.
The geometric mean of these values is 6,715 |ig/L which results in an ACR of 6.258 for the
early-life-stage chronic test. The ACR for the complete life cycle test is 23.82, which shows
more sensitivity to carbaryl chronic toxicity.
       Beyers et al. (1994) conducted individual 32-day early life-stage (ELS) chronic toxicity
tests with the endangered Colorado pikeminnow (formerly squawfish), Ptychochelius Indus, and
the bonytail chub, Gila elegans. In both studies, however, considerable ontogenetic development

                                           30

-------
of the test organisms had occurred before test initiation whereby the required embryo and
protolarva life stages were not present during the exposure period (mesolarval, metalarval and
juvenile life stages were present). Thus, the ELS tests were initiated with 41-day old
pikeminnow larvae and 48-day old chub larvae. In both tests, growth was as sensitive as or more
sensitive than survival as a measure of chronic toxic effects, and was the only value reported.
The NOEC and LOEC for Colorado pikeminnow and bonytail chub were 445 and 866 |ig/L, and
650 and 1,240 |ig/L, respectively. The final chronic value for P. lucius was 620.8 |ig/L and
897.8 |ig/L for G. elegans. ACR values could not be determined for these studies because an
accompanying flow-through measured acute toxicity value was not available for each species,
nor were there any other available appropriate acute toxicity tests for these species.

Table 6. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Chronic Values
Rank3
5
4
3
2
1
Genus Mean
Chronic Value
(HS/L)
897.8
636.8
620.8
10.6
3.770
Species
Bonytail chub,
Gila elegans
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Colorado pikeminnow
(formerly squawfish),
Ptychochelius Lucius
Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Species Mean Chronic Valueb
(US/L)
897.8
636.8
620.8
10.6
3.770
a Ranked from the most resistant to the most sensitive based on Genus Mean Chronic Value.
b From Appendix C.

2. Estuarine/Marine
       One carbaryl estuarine/marine chronic toxicity test is available for inclusion in the
document.  A 28-day flow-through test with measured concentrations initiated with 24-hr old
neonates was conducted with the mysid, Americamysis bahia (Thursby and Champlin 1991b).
The NOEC and LOEC based on survival were 7.18 |ig/L and 13.7 |ig/L, respectively for a final
chronic value of 9.918 |ig/L carbaryl. The total percent control survival of 63% is below the
acceptable total percent control survival of 70% required in ASTM guide El 191-03a (ASTM
                                           31

-------
2008).  The percent control survival for mating pairs is 75% and exceeds the ASTM requirement
of 70%. However, the number of young produced by the first-generation females in the controls
was less than three which is an ASTM requirement. Two young were produced by the first-
generation females in the control and is below the ASTM requirement of three. Therefore, this
study is used qualitatively and used in the discussion of acute-chronic ratios. The calculated
ACR of 0.8530 is based on the 96-hr LC50 of 8.46 |ig/L reported for the same study.


 Table 7.  Ranked Estuarine/Marine Genus Mean Chronic Values
Rank3
1
Genus Mean
Chronic Value
(ug/L)
9.918
Species
Mysid,
Americamysis bahia
Species Mean Chronic
Value" (ug/L)
9.918
a Ranked from the most resistant to the most sensitive based on Genus Mean Chronic Value.
b From Appendix D.

3. Acute-Chronic Ratio
       Four valid ACRs are available for carbaryl using the fifth, eighth and thirty-sixth most
sensitive genera of freshwater organisms (Table 4). Since the difference between the lowest
ACR (1.094 for Ceriodaphnia dubid) and the highest ACR (23.82 for Pimephalespromelas) is a
factor of 22, and since the "Guidelines" stipulate that if the species mean ACR seems to increase
as the SMAV increases, the FACR (final ACR) should be calculated as the geometric mean of
the ACRs for species whose SMAVs are close to the FAV. Using this recommendation, the
FACR would be the geometric mean of 1.094 (C. dubid) and 1.581 (D. magna), or 1.315.
However, the "Guidelines", also stipulate that if the most appropriate species mean ACRs are
less than 2.0, the FACR should be assumed to be 2.0.  Low ACRs may reflect acclimation to the
toxicant during the chronic test, or test organisms being fed vs. unfed which may affect
bioavailability and susceptibility. Thus, the FACR for carbaryl is assumed to be 2.0 for
freshwater organisms.
       Dividing the freshwater FAV of 4.219 by the ACR of 2.0 results in a freshwater final
chronic value (FCV) of 2.1  |ig/L. It is concluded that all freshwater species will be protected
                                          32

-------
(Figures 3 and 5) from adverse effects due to chronic carbaryl exposure with the freshwater

FCVof2.1
Table 8.  Acute-Chronic Ratios
Species
Acute Value
(HS/L)
Chronic Value
(HS/L)
Ratio
Reference
Freshwater Species
Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
11.6
10.1
9,000
6,715
10.6
6.389a
377.9
1,073
1.094
1.581
23.82
6.258b
Onset al. 1991
Brooke 1991
Carlson 1971
Norberg-King 1989
aThe chronic value of 6.389 ug/L is calculated as the geometric mean of the highest chronic test exposure
 concentration (4.04 ug/L) which had no adverse impact and the 48-hr EC50 value of 10.1 ug/L from the
 acute toxicity test.
b Only data from Carlson (1971) used to calculate ACR for this species.

Freshwater
       Final Acute Value = 4.219 ug/L
       Final Acute-Chronic Ratio = 2.0
       Final Chronic Value = (4.219 |ig/L)/2.0 = 2.1 ug/L
                                              33

-------
Figure 5: Chronic Toxicity of Carbaryl to Aquatic Animals
    1000 n
     100
   01
   u
   o
   u
   u
   
-------
C. Toxicity to Aquatic Plants

       No carbaryl toxicity tests with important aquatic plant species in which the
concentrations of test material were measured and the endpoint was biologically important are
available in the literature. Therefore, a Final Plant Value cannot be determined. Effects on
aquatic plants are discussed qualitatively in the Effects Characterization chapter.

D. Degradate Toxicity

       Acute toxicity testing of carbaryl's major degradate 1-naphthol in fish shows that the
compound ranged from being moderately to highly toxic (LC50 range 750 to  1,600 |ig/L).  The
toxic mode of action for 1-naphthol is thought to be narcosis (Russom et al. 1997).  In aquatic
organisms,  narcosis is a reversible anesthetic effect that is caused by chemicals partitioning into
cell membranes and nervous tissue that result in disruption of central nervous system function
(Barren et al. 2001). Chronic exposure of fathead minnows to 1-naphthol reduced larval growth
and survival with aNOEC =  100  jig/L (U.S. EPA 2010a). No data are available on the acute or
chronic toxicity of 1-naphthol to amphibians.  For freshwater invertebrates, 1-naphthol ranged
from moderately to highly toxic with an EC50 range: 200 to 3,000 |ig/L (U.S. EPA 2010a).
Toxicity data are not available for the other major degradate,  1,4-napthoquinone which is a data
gap.

E. Summary of National Criteria

       The resulting recommended ambient water quality criteria indicate that freshwater
aquatic organisms would have an appropriate level of protection if the one-hour average
concentration does not exceed 2.1 |ig/L more than once every three years on average and if the
four-day average concentration of carbaryl does not exceed 2.1 |ig/L more than once every three
years on average (except where a locally important species may be more sensitive).
Estuarine/marine aquatic organisms would have an appropriate level of protection if the one-hour
average concentration does not exceed 1.6 jig/L more than once every three years on average
(except where a locally important species may be more sensitive). Note: a Criterion Continuous
                                           35

-------
Concentration (CCC) could not be calculated for estuarine/marine aquatic organisms due to
insufficient data.

 Table 9. Summary Table of Aquatic Life Criteria for Carbaryl

Freshwater
Estuarine/Marine
Acute
2.1 |ig/L
1.6,ig/L
Chronic
2.1 |ig/L
N/A
N/A - not available, unable to calculate estuarine/marine chronic criterion

IV. EFFECTS CHARACTERIZATION

       Carbaryl is expected to be mobile, but degrades rapidly in neutral to alkaline aquatic
systems; however, under acidic conditions, carbaryl is more persistent. Its environmental fate
characteristics are consistent with other carbamate insecticides (e.g. carbofuran). Based on
environmental fate data, potential exposure would be expected to be greater in aquatic
environments with pH less than 7. Fate data on the primary degradate, 1-naphthol, has been
identified as a data gap.  Although 1-naphthol appears to be somewhat mobile, it is not likely to
persist due to fairly rapid degradation.
       The primary mode of action for carbaryl is acetylcholinesterase inhibition.  This effect is
reversible with removal  of exposure to carbaryl leading to the possibility of recovery of test
organisms at sub-lethal concentrations.  The following information addresses studies that are not
used in the calculation of criteria but provide supporting evidence for the validity of the criteria.

A. Effects on Aquatic Animals

1. Freshwater Acute Toxicity
       Acceptable acute toxicity data are available for 60 freshwater species representing 47
genera and represents a dataset supporting development of the acute criterion. In general,
technical grade carbaryl is classified as highly toxic to fish, aquatic-phase amphibians  and is very
highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates on an acute exposure basis (U.S. EPA 2010a). Chronic
                                            36

-------
exposure to carbaryl resulted in decreased growth in freshwater fish and decreased reproduction
in freshwater invertebrates.
       Invertebrate species, particularly arthropods (e.g., daphnids, mysids) are the most
sensitive, with the 10 lowest SMAVs (and GMAVs) ranging from 3.175 to 15.2 |ig/L, and
represented by the classes Insecta and Crustacea (Table 4). Cladocerans and amphipods showed
high sensitivity to carbaryl in acute toxicity tests. The most sensitive genus tested is the stonefly
Isogemis, which is more than 8,600 times as sensitive as the most resistant genus tested, i.e., the
walking catfish Glorias (Figure 3).
       Several  studies were identified as not meeting screening guidelines for inclusion in
criterion calculations (Appendix H), but showed similar ranges of toxicity and are presented
here to provide additional supporting evidence of the potential toxicity of carbaryl to aquatic
organisms. Daphnia magna LC50 values ranged from 0.66 |ig/L (Rawash et al. 1975) to 21
|ig/L (Wernersson and Dave 1997) for exposures lasting 24 hours. Mayer and Ellersieck (1986)
showed similar sensitivities to the amphipod species Gammamspseudolimnaeus, with 48-hr
measured LC50 values of 8 and 13 |ig/L carbaryl.  Several species of Diptera larvae were also
exposed to carbaryl; larvae of midges appear to be more sensitive than larvae of mosquitoes.
The LC50 values (24-hr) of various midge species ranged from 1.0 to 110 |ig/L. These studies
were not used in quantitative criterion calculations because test durations were insufficient.
       A study of the persistence of carbaryl toxicity was conducted by Mayer and Ellersieck
(1986).  Stonefly nymphs (Isogenus sp.) were exposed to carbaryl solutions which were fresh
(Appendix A) and others that had been aged 7, 14 or 21 days (Appendix H).  Aged solutions
were mixed and allowed to sit under normal laboratory conditions.  The results showed a trend of
decreased toxicity with aging of the solutions.  The toxicity of carbaryl solutions aged 21 days
decreased the toxicity to about one-third that of fresh solutions.  These data support conclusions
based on environmental fate properties that the "aging" process decreased exposure
concentration, thus decreasing toxicity.  Results from the aged solutions were not used in the
quantitative criterion calculations because the concentrations of carbaryl were not measured at
the initiation or completion of the aged solution toxicity tests.
       In general, fish are less sensitive to carbaryl than invertebrates. Of the fish tested, brown
trout, Salmo trutta (SMAV of 700 |ig/L) is the most sensitive tested vertebrate species by a
factor of approximately 39 times compared to the least sensitive fish tested, i.e., walking catfish,

                                           37

-------
Clarias batmchus, with a SMAV of 27,609 |ig/L.  Mayer and Ellersieck (1986) exposed
cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkif) to carbaryl solutions aged for 0, 7, 14 and 21 days.  Again,
results from the aged solutions were not used in the quantitative criterion calculations because
the concentrations of carbaryl were not measured at the initiation of the aged solution toxicity
tests.  Cutthroat trout exposed to fresh carbaryl solutions had a 96-hr LC50 of 6,800 |ig/L at pH=
7.3 (Appendix A), and a LC50 of 2,300 |ig/L at pH= 7.2 when exposed to a solution aged 21
days.  The results from this study show enhanced sensitivity to aged carbaryl solutions and are
not consistent with the similar "aged" solution study with stonefly nymphs (Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986).  These data may indicate potential taxa differences or differences in responses
to degradates.
       Similar to the response offish, amphibians are also less sensitive to carbaryl than
invertebrates.  Two different FETAX studies showed divergent values for effects on embryos of
the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. A 24-hr static study of carbaryl with unmeasured
concentrations had an LC50 of 4,700  |ig/L, while an exposure for the same amount of time and
experimental conditions caused  developmental abnormalities (localized edema and ventral
bending) at 110 |ig/L (Elliott-Freeley and Armstrong 1982). However, Bacchetta et al. (2008)
reported substantially reduced sensitivity for the species with a LC50 of 20,280 |ig/L after a 115-
hr static exposure (unmeasured concentrations) of larvae. These studies were not used in
quantitative criterion calculations because of insufficient duration of the tests. The SMAV
calculated using acceptable LC50 values forX. laevis in Appendix A is 1,730 |ig/L carbaryl,
which is lower than reported LC50 values in these qualitative studies.
       Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in fish is also demonstrated in the results of Zinkl et al.
(1987) with rainbow trout (Appendix H).  The authors observed decreased brain cholinesterase
activity within 24 hours at carbaryl  concentrations >500 |ig/L.  This study was not included in
quantitative criterion calculations because it is an atypical endpoint; while it is reflective of the
MO A, it is not directly measuring the typical endpoints of survival, growth, or reproduction.

2. Freshwater Chronic Toxicity
       Acceptable chronic toxicity data are available for five freshwater species representing
five different genera (two crustaceans and three fish; Appendix C).  No data were available for
coldwater fish.  Similar to  acute toxicity testing results, invertebrates were more sensitive to
                                           38

-------
carbaryl than fish on a chronic toxicity basis as well. Chronic toxicity values for cladocerans
ranged from 2.2 to 10.6 |ig/L, while fish chronic toxicity values ranged from 620.8 to 897.8
Hg/L. However, paired acute and chronic toxicity data were only available for three of the
freshwater species (two crustaceans and one fish), and these were the only studies used in
derivation of the ACR to calculate the FCV (Table 8).
       An additional fathead minnow study did not meet screening guidelines for inclusion in
criterion calculations because of test duration, but the study showed similar ranges of toxicity
and provides additional supporting evidence. Larval fathead minnows (<24-hr old) were
exposed for seven days (Norberg-King 1989)(Appendix H). Exposure for seven days is too
short a duration for this test to be used quantitatively for evaluating chronic toxicity.  However,
the chronic values estimated for four studies ranged from 576 to 1,088 |ig/L, which is consistent
with the fathead minnow chronic values of the life-cycle toxicity test (378 |ig/L) and the 32-day
ELS toxicity test (1,073 |ig/L).
       The use of NOEC/LOEC/MATC approach in criteria derivation can contribute to
uncertainty.  Potential sources of uncertainty are the range of test concentrations (dilution series)
and the sample size used in the test. Where the design is suboptimal, higher NOEC and LOEC
values may be reported due to low statistical power and high error variance. Typically, as the
accuracy of the test increases, the NOEC decreases. Additional uncertainty is inherent in the
calculation of the MATC which is the geometric mean  of the NOEC and LOEC. The calculation
compounds the fact that higher NOEC and LOEC values may be reported due to poor design.
Thus some effects could occur below the calculated MATC due to the inherent uncertainty in the
calculation.
       Another source of uncertainty for chronic criterion calculations is the use of ACRs.
When chronic  data are lacking for a particular species'  response to a given  chemical, ACRs are
determined using a formula that relates acute responses (LC50  values) to chronic concentrations
using empirical relationships between acute and chronic values for taxonomically similar species
for which both acute and chronic data are available. This approach has been incorporated into
the 1985 "Guidelines" for evaluating chronic toxicity thresholds where the  species mean chronic
value (SMCV) is calculated to be the geometric mean between the NOEC and LOEC. For
example, the carbaryl FACR is assumed to be 2.0 for freshwater species. The most appropriate
calculated species mean ACRs are less than 2.0, and the "Guidelines" stipulate acclimation has

                                           39

-------
probably occurred during the chronic test and the FACR should be assumed to be 2.0. This
assumption is a potential source of uncertainty.

3. Freshwater Field Studies
       Field studies have been conducted to measure effects of aerial application of carbaryl for
forest pest control upon the non-target aquatic stream and pond organisms. In northern Maine,
nine streams, with different substrate, velocity and cover conditions, were studied to determine
the effect of aerial application of carbaryl formulated endproduct (Sevin  -4-oil) on aquatic
stream invertebrates applied at a rate of 0.840 kg active ingredient per hectare (0.840 kg a.i./ha).
Drift of aquatic invertebrates (defined as the release, dispersal, and downstream displacement of
invertebrates normally inhabiting benthic substrates) increased by 170 times two days post-
treatment compared to controls, with drift samples commonly containing Plecoptera (stoneflies),
Ephemeroptera (Mayflies), and Diptera (flies/mosquitoes) (Courtemanch and Gibbs 1980).  In
forest ponds, amphipods were severely impacted following aerial spraying of Sevin-4-oil applied
at the same rate (Gibbs et al.  1984). The amphipods Hyalella azteca and Crangonyx
richmondemis were completely eliminated and failed to recolonize 30 months after treatment,
with maximum residue concentrations of 254 |ig/L found in the water and 53,793 |ig/kg (dry
weight) in the sediment.
       In a 77-day mesocosm study, researchers examined the effects of carbaryl on amphibians
in terms of body size, length of larval period, and survival to metamorphosis when  exposed to
carbaryl (21.3% active ingredient) early in the larval period (Boone and Semlitsch 2002).  The
study units consisted of fifty  1480-L polyethylene ponds (1.85 m in diameter) containing 1,000 L
of well water, 1 kg of leaf litter, and plankton from natural ponds. The study manipulated initial
larval density, i.e., low (80) and high (240), pond hydroperiod, (constant or drying), and
chemical concentration (absent, 3.5 mg/L, 5.0 mg/L, or 7.0 mg carbaryl /L). Frog species
included: Southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala), Plains leopard frog (R. blairi), green
frog (R. clamitans), and the Woodhouse's toad (Bufo woodhousif). Toads in the high-density
larval ponds showed greater survival than those in low-density larval ponds at the highest
carbaryl level.  For Southern and Plains leopard frogs, carbaryl treatment did not have a
significant effect on either species. For R. clamitans, carbaryl exposure had a significant effect
                                           40

-------
(p<0.05) on days to metamorphosis with tadpoles in the chemical treatments generally having
longer larval periods.

4. Estuarine/Marine Acute Toxicity
       Acute toxicity data are available for 12 estuarine/marine species representing 11 genera.
These data represent a dataset supporting the development of an estuarine/marine acute criterion.
       SMAVs for carbaryl range from 7.188 to 17,000 |ig/L.  The most sensitive genus was the
mysid (Americamysis), with a GMAV of 7.188 |ig/L, followed by the Dungeness crab
(Metacarcinus) with a GMAV of 10 |ig/L. The two most tolerant genera were the bent-nosed
clam (Macoma) and the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus), with SMAVs of 17,000 and 3,990
|ig/L, respectively (Table 5 and Figure 4).
       The four most sensitive estuarine/marine genera are Americamysis, Metacarcinus,
Callianassa and Upogebia with SMAVs of 7.188, 10, 48.99, and 60.0 |ig/L, respectively.
Additional toxicity data on  the effect of carbaryl on estuarine/marine species that were not used
quantitatively are very similar to acute and chronic ranges of toxicity and provide additional
supporting evidence of potential toxicity of carbaryl.  Shrimp were found to be more sensitive
than bivalves to carbaryl by different researchers (Appendix I). Various 24- to 96-hr LC50
values for different species  ranged from  1.5 |ig/L (Penaeus aztecus) to 76 |ig/L (Palaemonetes
pugio). The LC50 values for other test species include: Crangon septemspinosa (20 |ig/L),
Americamysis bahia (21 |ig/L), Penaeus duorarum (32 |ig/L), Callianassa californiensis (49
|ig/L), and Upogebiapugettensis (40 |ig/L for 24-hr test and 60 |ig/L for a 48-hr test). These
studies were excluded from quantitative  calculation of a criterion due to test design.  Similarly,
sensitive organisms include testing with the prezoea Dungeness crab, Metacarcinus magister,
where a concentration of 6  |ig/L for 24 hours prevented half of the test organisms from molting
to zoea (Buchannan et al. 1970).  The duration of this test was too short for quantitative use in
this assessment.  Another sensitive species tested was the embryo of the killifish, Fundulus
heteroclitus, which at a carbaryl concentration of 10 |ig/L for 40 days exhibited slowed
development and diminished pigmentation in fry (Crawford and Guarino 1985). This study was
excluded from use in quantitative criterion calculations because of test design.
       Bivalves are moderately insensitive to carbaryl, with SMAVs ranging from 1,650 |ig/L
for the bay mussel (Mytilus) to 3,850 |ig/L for cockle clam (Clinocardium).  Tests with the blue
                                           41

-------
mussel (Mytilus edulis) at various lifestages for 1 hour exposure had EC 50 values for
development (e.g., disjunction of blastomeres, reduced development rate and asynchronus and
unaligned cleavages) that ranged from 5,300 to 24,000 |ig/L (Armstrong and Milleman 1974c).
This study was excluded from quantitative assessment due to less than 3 exposure concentrations
and a community field exposure test. However, the test results are consistent with longer term
tests (10-40 days) on shell growth that had effect concentrations of >1,300 to >2,900 |ig/L (Liu
and Lee 1975, Appendix I).
       The sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegates) and the threespine stickleback
(Gasterosteus aculeatus) have SMAVs of 2,600 and 3,990 |ig/L, respectively.  Acute toxicity of
carbaryl to striped bass, Morone saxatilis was reported by (Korn and Earnest 1974).  The
bioassays were 4-day tests using proportional diluters and carbaryl had a 96-hr LC50 = 1,000
(ig/1. Although the LC50 for striped bass is more sensitive than the sheepshead minnow and the
threespine stickleback, the study was not included in criterion calculations because control
survival was not reported.
       There were three studies available for estuarine/marine species that evaluated atypical
endpoints and were not included in the quantitative criterion calculations.  Sheepshead minnows
(Cyprinodon variegatus) did not avoid water with 100 jig carbaryl/L after 1.5 hour of exposure
(Hansen  1969; 1970). Likewise, grass shrimp (Palaemonetespugio) did not avoid water with
100 jig carbaryl/L after a similar 1.5 hour exposure (Hansen et al. 1973). However, Weis and
Weis (1974b) observed schooling behavior disrupted in Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia)
after 24 hour exposure at 100 jig carbaryl/L.

5. Estuarine/Marine Chronic Toxicity
       Only one carbaryl estuarine/marine chronic toxicity test is available for qualitative
consideration in this document.  Survival was the most sensitive endpoint for the mysid, A.
bahia, with a chronic value of 9.918 |ig/L (Thursby and Champlin 1991b).  There is uncertainty
associated with this study because reported total control survival was 63% and the number of
young produced by the first-generation females in the control was below the accepted ASTM
requirement.  However, the calculated ACR for this study is similar to the freshwater chronic
invertebrate  studies and provides an additional line of evidence for the sensitivity of
invertebrates to carbaryl.
                                           42

-------
       A ten week flow-through colonization study where exposure concentrations were
measured provides qualitative information on the chronic effects of carbaryl on the development
of estuarine/marine communities. This study, conducted in laboratory aquaria (Tagatz et al.
1979) showed similar tendencies as the mysid test.  The amphipods were exposed to measured
carbaryl concentrations of 0, 1.1, 11.1 and 103 |ig/L. The number of species collected in the two
highest concentrations was approximately half that from the control and lowest concentration,
with the Phylum Arthropoda most obviously reduced. The number of amphipods, Corophium
acherusicum, decreased by about 48 percent relative to the control at 1.1  |ig/L, and this
amphipod was totally absent at 11.1 and 103 |ig/L.

6. Bioaccumulation
       No acceptable data on the bioaccumulation of carbaryl in freshwater or estuarine/marine
waters are available; however, because of its low octanol/water partition coefficient (229),
carbaryl is not expected to bioconcentrate to a significant extent (U.S. EPA 2010a). Reported
Kow values range from 65 to 229 (Bracha and O'Brian 1966; Mount and Oehme 1981; Windholz
etal. 1976).
       The U.S. EPA Office of Water's fish tissue sampling program does not include carbaryl
as an analyte, as it is not expected to bioaccumulate or bioconcentrate. No U.S. Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) action level  or other maximum acceptable concentration in tissue, as
defined in the "Guidelines" is available for carbaryl. Therefore, a Final Residue Value cannot be
calculated for fish tissue.

B. Effects on Aquatic Plants

       In general, freshwater and estuarine/marine plants appear less sensitive than animals to
carbaryl. The most sensitive aquatic plant tests are roughly two orders of magnitude less
sensitive to carbaryl than the aquatic animal tests (Appendix E). For freshwater plants the effect
concentrations ranged from 100 |ig/L for the green alga, Scenedesmus quadricaudata (Lejczak
1977), to 50,000 |ig/L for the blue green alga, Anabaena torulosa (Obulakondaiah et al. 1993).
A planktonic alga mixture was adversely impacted at a concentration of 10,000 |ig/L for two
weeks (Butler et al. 1975), and growth of the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii was reduced by
                                          43

-------
a concentration of 25,000 |ig/L in a 48-hr test (Kopecek et al. 1975).  Other algae were adversely
impacted by much lower concentrations. The green alga, Chlorellapyrenoidosa, had reduced
growth after a four-day exposure to 100 jig/L (Christie 1969), and the blue-green alga,
Microcystis aeruginosa, began to show adverse effects after eight days of exposure to 1,350
|ig/L carbaryl (Bringmann and Kuhn 1978a;  1978b). The only freshwater vascular plant tested is
duckweed (Lemna minor), which had a 50%  inhibition of growth at 23,900 |ig/L (Brooke 1993).
       Estuarine/marine plant growth effect values varied widely ranging from 100 |ig/L for
green algae (Chlorella sp., Dunaliella euchora and Protococcus sp.), diatoms (Phaeodactylum
tricornutum) and golden algae (Monochrysis lutherf) to 100,000 |ig/L for the same species.  The
main difference between the values is that cells were viable at the lower concentrations (the
effect of carbaryl was algistatic, i.e., the cells recovered after exposure was terminated), but not
at the higher values where the effect was algicidal (i.e., the cells were killed as a result of the
exposure) (Ukeles 1962).

V. IMPLEMENTATION

       As discussed in the Water Quality Standards Regulation (U.S. EPA 1983a) and the
Foreword to this document, a water quality criterion for aquatic life has regulatory impact only
when it has been adopted in a state/tribal water quality standard or EPA promulgated standard
for a state or tribe. Such a regulatory standard would specify a criterion for a pollutant that
would be protective of a particular designated use. With the approval of the U.S. EPA,
states/tribes designate one or more uses for waters in their states/tribes and adopt criteria that are
protective of those use(s) they have designated (U.S. EPA 1983a;b; 1987; 1994).  States/tribes
may adopt water quality criteria with the same numerical values as EPA's recommended section
304  criteria. However there  are situations where states and authorized tribes might want to
adjust water quality criteria developed under section 304 to reflect either statewide or site-
specific natural environmental conditions and/or sensitivities of local species.  Alternatively,
states and tribes may use different data and assumptions than the EPA in deriving numeric
criteria when those data have been reviewed  and deemed to be scientifically defensible and the
resulting criteria value is protective of designated uses.  State/tribe  water quality standards
include both numeric and narrative criteria.  A state/tribe may adopt a numeric criterion within
                                           44

-------
its water quality standards and apply it either to all waters for the use the criterion is designed to
protect or to a specific site. A state/tribe may use an indicator characteristic or the national
criterion supplemented with other relevant information, to interpret its narrative criteria within its
water quality standards to develop a numeric value for use in developing National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) effluent limitations under 40 CRF 122.44(d)(l)(vi).2
(http://cfr.vlex.com/vid/122-44-establishing-applicable-npdes-see-123-19811557).
       Site-specific criteria may include not only site-specific criterion concentrations (U.S.
EPA 1994), but also site-specific, and possibly pollutant-specific, durations of averaging periods
and frequencies of allowed excursions (U.S. EPA 1991).  The averaging periods of "one hour"
and "four days" were selected by the U.S. EPA on the basis of data concerning how rapidly some
aquatic species react to increases in the concentrations of some aquatic pollutants, and "three
years" return frequency is the Agency's scientific judgment regarding the average amount of time
aquatic ecosystems should be provided to recover between excursions (Stephan et al. 1985; U.S.
EPA 1991). However, various species and ecosystems react and recover at greatly  differing
rates. Therefore, if adequate justification is provided, site-specific and/or pollutant-specific
concentrations,  durations, and frequencies may be higher or lower than those given in national
recommended water quality criteria for aquatic life.
                                            45

-------
                                    REFERENCES
Abbasi, S.A. and R. Soni. 1991. Studies on the environmental impact of three common pesticides
with respect to toxicity towards a larvivore (channelfish N. denricus). J. Inst. Public Health Eng.
(India) 2: 8-12.

Acevedo, R. 1991. Preliminary observations of effects of pesticides carbaryl, naphthol, and
chlorpyrifos on planulae of the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis. Pacific Sci. 45(3): 287-
289.

Adhikary, S.P. 1989. Effect of pesticides on the growth, photosynthetic oxygen evolution and
nitrogen fixation of Westiellopsisprolific.  J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 35: 319-325.

Adhikary, S.P., P. Dash and H. Pattnaik. 1984. Effect of the carbamate insecticide sevin on
Anabaenasp. and Westiellopsisprolifica. Acta Microbiol. Hung. 31(4): 335-338.

Aggarwal, T.C., N. Narula and K.G. Gupta. 1986. Effect of some carbamate pesticides on
nodulation, plant yield and nitrogen fixation by Pisum sativum and Vigna sinensis in the
presence of their rhizobia. Plant Soil.94: 125-132.

Agrawal, H.P. 1986. The accumulation of biocide residues in a few tissues ofLamellidens
marginalis. J. Anim. Morphol. Physiol. 33(1/2): 45-50.

Almar, M.M., M.M.D. Ferrando, V. Alarcon, C. Soler and E. Andreu. 1988. Influence of
temperature on several pesticides toxicity ioMelanopsis dufouri under laboratory conditions. J.
Environ. Biol. 9(2): 183-190.

Anbu, R.B. and M. Ramaswamy. 1991. Adaptive changes in respiratory movements of an air-
breathing fish, Channa striatus (Bleeker) exposed to carbamate pesticide, sevin. J. Ecobiol. 3(1):
11-16.

Andreu-Moliner, E.S., M.M. Almar, I. Legarra and A. Nunez.  1986. Toxicity of some ricefield
pesticides to the crayfish P. clarkii, under laboratory and field conditions in Lake Albufera
(Spain). J. Environ. Sci. Health Part B. 21(6):  529-537.

Ansara-Ross, T.M., V. Wepener, PJ. Van den Brink and MJ. Rose. 2008. Probabilistic risk
assessment of the environmental impacts of pesticides in the Crocodile (west) Marico catchment,
North-West Province. Water SA 34(5): 637-646.

Areekul, S. 1986. Toxicity to fishes of insecticides used in paddy fields and water resources. I.
Laboratory experiment. Kasetsart J. 20(2): 164-178.

Ariaratnam, V. and G.P. Georghiou. 1975. Carbamate resistance in Anopheles albimanus.
Penetration and metabolism of carbaryl in propoxur-selected larvae. Bull. W.H.O. 52(1):  91-96.

Armbust, K. and D. Crosby. 1991.  Fate of carbaryl, 1-naphthol, and atrazine in  seawater.  Pac.
Sci. 45: 314-320.

                                           46

-------
Armstrong, D.A. and R.E. Millemann. 1974a. Effects of the insecticide carbaryl on clams and
some other intertidal mud flat animals. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 31(4): 466-470.

Armstrong, D.A. and R.E. Millemann. 1974b. Pathology of acute poisoning with the insecticide
sevin in the bent-nosed clam, Macoma nasuta. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 24(2): 201-212.

Armstrong, D.A. and R.E. Millemann. 1974c. Effect of the insecticide sevin and its first
hydrolytic product, 1-naphthol, on some early development stages of the bay mussel, Mytilus
edulis. Mar. Biol. 28:  11-15.

Arora, N. and S.K. Kulshrestha. 1984. Comparison of the toxic effects of two pesticides on the
testes of a fresh water teleost Channa striatus Bloch. Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 12(4): 435-
441.

Arora, N. and S.K. Kulshrestha. 1985. Effects of chronic exposure to sublethal doses of two
pesticides on alkaline and acid phosphatase activities in the intestine of a fresh water Teleost,
Channa striatus Bloch. (Channidae). Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 13(5): 619-624.

Arunachalam, S. and S. Palanichamy. 1982. Sublethal effects of carbaryl on surfacing behaviour
and food utilization in the air-breathing fish, Macropodus cupanus. Physiol. Behav. 29(1): 23-27.

Arunachalam, S., K. Jeyalakshmi  and S. Aboobucker. 1980. Toxic and sublethal effects of
carbaryl on a freshwater catfish, Mystus vittatus (Bloch). Arch. Contam. Toxicol. 9(3): 307-316.

Arunachalam, S., S. Palanichamy  and M.P. Balasubramanian. 1985a. Effect of carbaryl on
esterases in the air-breathing fish Channapunctatus (Bloch). Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Anim.
Sci.) 94(1): 73-77.

Arunachalam, S., S. Palanichamy  and M.P. Balasubramanian. 1985b. Sublethal effects of
carbaryl on food utilization and oxygen consumption in the air-breathing fish, Channa punctatus
(Bloch). J. Environ. Biol. 6(4): 279-286 .

Arunachalam, S., S. Palanichamy, M. Vassanthi and P. Baskaran. 1990. The impact of pesticides
on the feeding energetics and body composition in the freshwater catfish, Mystus vittatus. In:
Proc. of the 2n Asian Fisheries Forum, Apr. 17-22, 1981, Tokyo, Japan. Hirano, R. and J. Hanyo
(Eds.). Asian Fish. Soc., Manila, Philippines, pp. 939-941.

Ashauer, R., A.B.A Boxall and C.D. Brown. 2007a. Simulating toxicity of carbaryl to
Gammaruspulex after sequential pulsed exposure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(15): 5528-5534.

Ashauer, R., A.B.A Boxall and C.D. Brown. 2007b. Modeling combined effects of pulsed
exposure to carbaryl and chlorpyrifos on Gammarus pulex. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(15): 5535-
5541.

Atallah, Y.H. and M.M. Ishak. 1971. Toxicity of some commonly used insecticides to the snail
Biomphalaria alexandria, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt. Z. Angew.
Entemol. 69: 102-106.
                                          47

-------
ASTM. 2008. Standard guide for conducting life-cycle toxicity tests with saltwater mysids.
Designation: El 191 - 03a (Reapproved 2008). American Society for Testing and Materials,
Philadelphia, PA.

Bacchetta, R., P. Mantecca, M. Andrioletti, C. Vismara and G. Vailati. 2008. Axial-skeletal
defects caused by carbaryl in Xenopus laevis embryos. Sci. Total Environ. 392(1): 110-118.

Bailey, H.C. and D.H.W Liu. 1980. Lumbriculus variegatus, a benthic oligochaete, as a bioassay
organism. In: Aquatic toxicology and hazard assessment. Eaton, J.C., P.R. Parrish and A.C.
Hendricks (Eds.). ASTM STP 707. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia,
PA. pp. 205-215.

Bajpai, V.N. and S.L. Perti. 1969. Resistance to malathion. Pesticides. 3(10): 43-45.

Bakr, R., N.M. Abo Gabal and M.A. Hussein. 1989. Insect growth regulators: I. Biological
activity of some IGR's against the susceptible and resistant strains of Culexpipiem larvae: II.
Pattern of cross resistance to IGR's in carbaryl-resistant strain. J. Egypt Soc. Parasitol. 19(2):
589-597.

Balasubramanian, S. and M. Ramaswami. 1991. Effect of pesticide sevin on acetylcholinesterase
(AchE) activity in different tissues of Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). J. Ecobiol. 3(2): 117-
122.

Bansal, S.K., S.R. Verma, A.K. Gupta, S. Rani and R.C. Dalela.  1979. Pesticide-induced
alterations in the oxygen uptake rate of a freshwater major carp Labeo rohita. Ecotoxicol.
Environ. Saf. 3(4): 374-382.

Bansal, S.K., S.R. Verma, A.K. Gupta and R. Dalela. 1980. Predicting long-term toxicity by
subacute screening of pesticides with larvae and early juveniles of four species of freshwater
major carp. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 4: 224-231.

Barahona, M.V. and S.  Sanchez-Fortun. 1999. Toxicity of carbamates to the brine shrimp
Artemia salina and the effect of atropine, BW284c51, iso-OMPA and 2-PAM on carbaryl
toxicity. Environ. Pollut.  104: 469-476.

Barker, J., M.R.W. Brown, PJ. Collier, I. Farrell and P. Gilbert.  1992. Relationship between
Legionellapneumophila and Acanthamoebapolyphaga: physiological status and susceptibility to
chemical inactivation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58(8): 2420-2425.

Barren, M.G., J. Hansen and J. Lipton. 2001.  Association between contaminant tissue residues
and adverse effects in aquatic organisms. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 173: 1-37.

Barry, MJ. 1999. The effects of a pesticide on inducible phenotypic plasticity in Daphnia.
Environ. Pollut. 104: 217-224.

Basak, P.K. and S.K. Konar. 1975. Effects of an organophosphorus insecticide, dimethoate, on
the survival, behavior, growth and reproduction offish. Indian Sci. Congr. Assoc. Proc. 62: 170.

                                           48

-------
Basak, P.K. and S.K. Konar. 1976a. Toxicity of six insecticides to fish. Geobios. 3(6): 209-210.

Basak, P.K. and S.K. Konar. 1976b. Pollution of water by pesticides and protection of fishes:
parathion. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. India. 46(B): 382-391.

Basha, S.M., K.S.P. Rao, K.R.S. Rao and K.V.R. Rao. 1983. Differential toxicity of malathion,
BHC, and carbaryl to the freshwater fish, Tilapia mossambica (Peters). Bull. Environ. Contam.
Toxicol. 31(5): 543-546.

Basha, S.M., K.S.P. Rao, K.R.S. Rao and K.V.R. Rao. 1984. Respiratory potentials of the fish
(Tilapia mossambica) under malathion, carbaryl and lindane intoxication. Bull. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 32(5): 570-574.

Basol, M.S., S. Eren and M.H. Sadar. 1980. Comparative toxicity of some pesticides on human
health and some aquatic species. J. Environ. Sci. Health, PartB.  15(6): 993-1004.

Basso, A., L. Matera, G. Elia, L. Ambrosi, F. Vitiello and C. Di Benedetta. 1986. Alterations of
Aplysia feeding behavior following acute carbamate intoxication. Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper.
62(8): 993-1000.

Beauvais, S.L., S.B. Jones, J.T. Parris, S.K. Brewer and E.E. Little.  2001. Cholinergic and
behavioral neurotoxicity of carbaryl and cadmium to larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf 49(1): 84-90.

Beyers, D.W. and PJ. Sikoski. 1994. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in federally endangered
Colorado squawfish exposed to carbaryl and malathion. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13(6): 935-
939.

Beyers, D.W., TJ. Keefe and C.A. Carlson.  1994. Toxicity of carbaryl and malathion to two
federally endangered fishes, as estimated by regression and ANOVA.  Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
13(1): 101-107.

Beyers, D.W., M.S. Farmer and PJ. Sikoski. 1995. Effects of rangeland aerial application of
sevin-4-oil on fish and aquatic invertebrate drift in Little Missouri River, North Dakota. Arch.
Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 28(1): 27-34.

Bhatia,  H.L. 1971a. Toxicity of some pesticides to Puntius ticto  (Hamilton). Sci. Cult. 37(3):
160-161.

Bhatia,  H.L. 1971b. Toxicity of some insecticides to Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) and Colisa
fasciata (Bloch & Schneider). J. Inland Fish. Soc. India.  3: 114-116.

Bhattacharya,  S. 1993. Target and non-target effects of anticholinesterase pesticides in fish. Sci.
Total Environ. (Suppl.): 859-876.

Bhattacharya,  S. 2001. Stress response to pesticides and  heavy metals in fish and other
vertebrates.  Proc. Indian. Nat. Sci. Acad. B67(5): 215-246.
                                           49

-------
Bhavan, P.S. and P. Geraldine. 2002. Carbaryl-induced alterations in biochemical metabolism of
the prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii.  J. Environ. Biol. 23(2): 157-162.

Bhunia, A.K., D. Roy and S.K. Banerjee. 1993. Carbaryl-induced effects of glutathione content,
glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activity of the cyanobacterium Nostoc
muscorum. Letters Appl. Microbiol. 16: 10-13.

Bhunia, A.K., R. Marik and S.K. Banerjee. 1994. Biochemical effects of carbaryl on nitrogen
assimilating enzymes of cyanobacteria Nostoc muscorum. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
52(6): 886-892.

Bhunya, S.P. and S.N. Sahoo. 2004. Genotoxic potential of carbaryl in the peripheral blood
erythrocytes of Anabas testudineus. Indian J. Fish. 51(4): 417-423.

Bielecki, A. 1987.  The effect of phoschlorine, carbatox and copper sulphate on the development
of eggs and hatching of miracidia in Fasciola hepatica L. Zool. Pol. 34(1-4): 209-219.

Bierkens,  J., J. Maes and F.V. Plaetse. 1998. Dose-dependent induction of heat shock protein 70
synthesis in Raphidocelis subcapitata following exposure to different classes of environmental
pollutants. Environ. Pollut. 101: 91-97.

Binelli, A., F. Ricciardi,  C. Riva and A. Provini. 2006. New evidence for old biomarkers: effects
of several xenobiotics on EROD and AChE activities in zebra mussel (Dreissenapolymorphd).
Chemosphere. 62:  510-519.

Bluzat, R. and J. Seuge.  1979. Effects of three insecticides (lindane, fenthion, and carbaryl) on
the acute toxicity to four aquatic invertebrate species and the chronic toxicity. Environ. Pollut.
18(1): 51-70.

Bogacka,  T. and J.  Groba. 1980. Toxicity and biodegradation of chlorfenvinphos, carbaryl and
propoxur in water environment. Bromatol. Chem. Toksykol. 13(2): 151-158.

Bogaerts,  P., J. Bohatier and F. Bonnemoy. 2001. Use of ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena
pyriformis for the assessment of toxicity and quantitative structure-activity relationships of
xenobiotics: comparison with the microtox test. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf 49(3): 293-301.

Bonning, B.C. and J. Hemingway. 1991. The efficacy of acetylcholinesterase in
organophosphorus  and carbamate resistance in Culexpipiens L. from Italy. Pestic. Biochem.
Physiol. 40(2): 143-148.

Boone, M.D. 2008. Examining the single and interactive effects of three insecticides on
amphibian metamorphosis. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 27(7): 1561-1568.

Boone, M.D. and C.M. Bridges. 1999. The effect of temperature on the potency of carbaryl for
survival of tadpoles of the green frog (Rana clamitans). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18(7): 1482-
1484.
                                           50

-------
Boone, M.D. and C.M. Bridges. 2003. Effects of carbaryl on green frog (Rana clamitans)
tadpoles: timing of exposure versus multiple exposures. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22(11): 2695-
2702.

Boone, M.D. and S.M. James. 2003. Interactions of an insecticide, herbicide, and natural
stressors in amphibian community mesocosms. Ecol. Appl. 13(3): 829-841.

Boone, M.D. and R.D. Semlitsch. 2001. Interactions of an insecticide with larval density and
predation in experimental amphibian communities. Conserv. Biol. 15(1):  228-238.

Boone, M.D. and R.D. Semlitsch. 2002. Interactions of an insecticide with competition and pond
drying in amphibian communities. Ecol. Appl. 12(1): 307-316.

Boone, M.D. and R.D. Semlitsch. 2003. Interactions of bullfrog tadpole predators and an
insecticide: predation release and facilitation. 2003. Oecol. 137: 610-616.

Boone, M.D., C.M. Bridges and B.B. Rothermel. 2001. Growth and development of larval green
frogs (Rana clamitans) exposed to multiple doses of an insecticide. Oecol. 129:  518-524.

Boone, M.D., R.D. Semlitsch, J.F. Fairchild and B.B. Rothermel. 2004. Effects of an insecticide
on amphibians in large-scale experimental ponds. Ecol. Appl. 14(3):  685-691.

Boone, M.D., C.M. Bridges, J.F. Fairchild and E.E. Little. 2005. Multiple sublethal chemicals
negatively affect tadpoles of the green frog, Rana clamitans. Enviro. Toxicol. Chem. 24(5):
1267-1272.

Boone, M.D., R.D. Semlitsch, E.E. Little and M.C. Doyle. 2007. Multiple stressors in amphibian
communities: Effects of chemical contamination, bullfrogs, and fish. Ecol. Appl. 17(1): 291-
301.

Boran, M., I. Altnok, E. Capkn, H. Karacam and V. Bicer. 2007. Acute toxicity  of carbaryl,
methiocarb and carbosulfan to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and guppy (Poecilia
reticulatd). Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 31(1): 39-45.

Bracha,  P. and R. O'Brian. 1966. J. Econ.  Entomol. 59: 1255.

Bradbury, S.P., R.W. Carlson, G.J. Niemi and T.R. Henry. 1991. Use of respiratory-
cardiovascular responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in identifying acute toxicity
syndromes in fish: part 4. Central nervous system seizure agents. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 10:
115-131.

Bridges, C.M.  1997. Tadpole swimming performance and activity affected by acute exposure to
sublethal levels of carbaryl. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16(9): 1935-1939.

Bridges, C.M.  1999a. Effects of a pesticide on tadpole activity and predatory avoidance
behavior. J. Herpetol. 33(2): 303-306.
                                          51

-------
Bridges, C.M. 1999b. Predator-prey interactions between two amphibian species: effects of
insecticide exposure. Aquat. Ecol. 33: 205-211.

Bridges, C.M. 2000. Long-term effects of pesticide exposure at various life stages of the
southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephald). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 39: 91-96.

Bridges, C.M. and M.D. Boone. 2003. The interactive effects of UV-B and insecticide exposure
on tadpole survival, growth and development. Biol. Conserv. 113: 49-54.

Bridges, C.M. and R.D. Semlitsch. 2000. Variation in pesticide tolerance of tadpoles among and
within species of Ranidae and patterns of amphibian decline. Conserv. Biol. 14(5): 1490-1499.

Bridges, C.M. and R.D. Semlitsch. 2001. Genetic variation in insecticide tolerance in a
population of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephald):  implications for amphibian
conservation. Copeia. 1: 7-13.

Bridges, C.M., FJ. Dwyer, D.K. Hardesty and D.W. Whites. 2002. Comparative contaminant
toxicity: are amphibian larvae more sensitive than fish? Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 69(4):
562-569.

Bringmann, G. and R. Kuhn. 1977. Limiting values for the damaging action of water pollutants
to bacteria (Pseudomonasputidd) and green algae (Scenedesmus quadricaudd) in the  cell
multiplication inhibition test. Z. Wasser-Abwasser-Forsch. 10(3/4): 87-98.

Bringmann, G. and R. Kuhn. 1978a. Grenzwerte der schadwirkung wassergefahrdender stoffe
gegen blaualgen (Microcystis aeruginosd) und grunalgen (Scenedesmus quadricaudd) in
zellvermehrungshemmtest. Vom Wasser 50: 45-60.

Bringmann, G. and R. Kuhn. 1978b. Testing of substances for their toxicity threshold: Model
organism $ Microcystis (diplocystis) aeruginosa and Scenedesmus quadricauda. Mitt.  Int. Ver.
Theor. Angew. Limnol. 21: 275-284.

Brooke, L.T. 1990. Center for Lake Superior Environmental  Studies, University of Wisconsin-
Superior, Superior, WI. (Memorandum to R.L. Spehar, U.S. EPA, Duluth, MN. January 30).

Brooke, L.T. 1991. Results of freshwater exposures with the chemicals atrazine, biphenyl,
butachlor, carbaryl, carbazole, dibenzofuran, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, dichlorvos, 1,2-
epoxyethylbenzene (styrene  oxide), isophorone, isopropalin, oxychlordane, pentachloroanisole,
propoxur (baygon), tetrabromobisphenol a, 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, and 1,2,3-
trichloropropane to selected  freshwater organisms. Center for Lake Superior Environmental
Studies, University of Wisconsin-Superior, Superior, WI. 110 p.

Brooke, L.T. 1993. Acute and chronic toxicity of several pesticides to five species of aquatic
organisms. Final report for Work Assignment No. 2 of U.S. EPA Contract No. 68-C1-0034.  Mr.
Robert Spehar, Project Officer, U.S. EPA, Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth, MN. 31
pp.
                                          52

-------
Brown, H.L. 1980. Effects of split applications of sevin-4-oil on aquatic invertebrate drift. In:
Environ. Monit. Rep. from the 1979 Maine Cooperative Spruce Budworm Suppression Project.
K.G. Straton (Ed.) Bur. of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Augusta, Maine, pp 272-300.

Brown, K.W., D.C. Anderson, S.G. Jones, L.E. Deuel and J.D. Price. 1979. The relative toxicity
of four pesticides in tap water and water from flooded rice paddies. Int. J. Environ. Stud. 14(1):
49-53.

Bruner, K.A. and S.W. Fisher. 1993.  The effects of temperature, pH, and sediment on the fate
and toxicity of 1-naphthol to the midge larvae Chironomus riparius. J. Environ. Sci. Health.
A28(6): 1341-1360.

Buchanan, D.V., R.E. Millemann and N.E. Stewart. 1970. Effects of the insecticide sevin on
various stages of the Dungeness crab, Metacarcinus magister (formerly Cancer magistef). J.
Fish. Res. Board Canada. 27(1): 93-104.

Burdick, G.E., HJ. Dean and EJ. Harris. 1960. Effect of sevin upon the aquatic environment.
New York Fish Game J. 7(1): 14-25.

Burdick, G.E., HJ. Dean, EJ. Harris, J. Skea and D. Colby. 1965. Toxicity of sevin (carbaryl) to
fingerling brown trout. New York Fish Game J. 12(2):  127-146.

Butler, G.L., T.R. Deason and J.C. O'Kelley. 1975. The effect of atrazine, 2,4-D, methoxychlor,
carbaryl and diazinon on the growth of planktonic algae. Br. Phycol. J.  10(4): 371-376.

Butler, J.A., R.E. Millemann and N.E. Stewart. 1968. Effects of the insecticide sevin on survival
and growth of the cockle clam Clinocardium nuttalli. J. Fish. Res. Board Canada. 25(8): 1621-
1635.

Butler, P. A. 1963. Pesticide-wildlife  studies, 1964. A review of Fish and Wildlife Service
investigations during 1961 and  1962. Fish Wild.  Serv. Circ. 167. 25 p.

Butler, P. A. 1964. Pesticide-wildlife  studies, 1964. A review of Fish and Wildlife Service
investigations during the calendar year.  Fish Wild. Serv. Circ. 199. 28 p.

Butler, P.A., AJ. Wilson and AJ. Rick. 1960. Effect of pesticides on oysters. Proc. Natl.
Shellfish Assoc.  51:23-32.

Cajaraville, M.P., A. Recio, V.  Saez and J.A. Marigomez. 1989a. Acute toxicity of two
hydroxylated hydrocarbons to the prosobranch gastropod Littorina littorea. In: Topics in Marine
Biology, Proceedings of the 22" European Mar. Biol. Symp. J. Ros (Ed.) Barcelona, Spain.
53(2-3): 745-748.

Cajaraville, M.P., J.A. Marigomez and E. Angulo. 1989b. A stereological survey of lysosomal
structure alterations in Littorina littorea exposed to 1-naphthol. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
93C(2): 231-237.
                                           53

-------
Cajaraville, M.P., J.A. Marigomez and E. Angulo. 1990. Short-term toxic effects of 1-naphthol
on the digestive gland-gonad complex of the marine prosobranch Littorina littorea (L): a light
microscopic study. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.  19(1): 17-24.

Calapaj, G.G. 1973. Chemical pollution ofMytilus. I. Radiostrontium, radiocesium, inorganic
mercury, hexavalent chromium. Ig. Mod. 66(3): 243-270.

Campero, M., F. Ollevier and R. Stoks. 2007a. Ecological relevance and sensitivity depending on
the exposure time for two biomarkers. Environ. Toxicol. 22(6): 572-581.

Campero, M., S. Slos, F. Ollevier and R. Stoks. 2007b. Sublethal pesticide concentrations and
predation jointly shape life history: Behavioral and physiological mechanisms. Ecol. Appl. 17(7):
2111-2112.

Capaldo, P.S. 1987. Effects of carbaryl (SEVIN) on the stage I zoeae of the red-jointed fiddler
crab, Uca minax (LeConte). Estuaries. 10(2): 132-135.

Carlson, A.R. 1971. Effects of long-term exposure to carbaryl (sevin) on survival, growth, and
reproduction of the fathead minnow (Pimephalespromelets). J. Fish. Res. Board Canada. 29:
583-587.

Carlson, R.W.  1990. Ventilatory patterns of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) exposed to organic
chemicals with different mechanisms of toxic action. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 95C(2): 181-196.

Carlson, R.W., S.P. Bradbury, R.A. Drummond and D.E. Hammermeister. 1998. Neurological
effects on startle response and escape from predation by medaka exposed to organic chemicals.
Aquat. Toxicol. 43: 51-68.

Carter, F.L. 1971. 'In vivo' studies of brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphate
and carbamate insecticides in fish. Ph.D. Thesis. The Louisiana State University and Agricultural
and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, LA.

Carter, F.L. and J.B. Graves. 1972. Measuring effects of insecticides on aquatic animals. La.
Agric. 16(2): 14-15.

Chaiyarach, S., V. Ratananun and R.C. Harrel.  1975. Acute toxicity of the insecticides toxaphene
and carbaryl and the herbicides propanil and molinate to four species of aquatic organisms. Bull.
Environ.  Contam. Toxicol. 14(3): 281-284.

Chakrawarti, J.B. and R.C. Chaurasia. 1981. Toxicity of some organophosphate, chlorinated and
carbamate pesticides to some fresh water fishes. Indian J. Zool. 9(2): 91-93.

Chambers, J.S. 1969. Investigation of chemical control of ghost shrimp on oyster grounds 1960-
1963. Washington State Dept. Fish., Tech. Rep. No. 1. pp 25-62

Champlin, D. and S. Poucher.  1992. Homarus americanus acute toxicity test with carbaryl.
Memorandum to Suzanne Lussier on October 5, 1992. 2 pg.
                                          54

-------
Chandran, G.J., K.S. Harilal and S.A. Sahai. 1991. Method for the estimation of safe
experimental concentration for intermediate toxicity test. J. Nat. Conserv. 3(2): 211-217.

Chang, K.H., M. Sakamoto and T. Hanazato. 2005. Impact of pesticide application on
zooplankton communities with different densities of invertebrate predators: an experimental
analysis using small-scale mesocosms. Aquat. Toxicol. 72: 373-382.

Chapman, R.A. and C.M. Cole. 1982. Observations on the influence of water and soil pH on the
persistence of insecticides. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part B. 17: 487-504.

Chari, M.S. 1992. A rapid bioassay procedure to determine the toxicity of pesticides to Channa
punctatus Block. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India. 24(2): 88-90.

Cheah, M., J.W. Avault and J.B. Graves.  1980a. Some effects of rice pesticides on crawfish. LA
Agric. 23: 8-11.

Cheah, M., J.W. Avault and J.B. Graves.  1980b. Acute toxicity of selected rich pesticides to
crayfish. Procambarus clarki. Prog. Fish-Cult. 42: 169-172.

Chen, P.S., Y.N. Lin and C.L. Chung. 1971. Laboratory studies on the susceptibility of
mosquito-eating fish, Lebistes reticulatus and the larvae of Culexpipiens fatigans to insecticides.
Tai-Wan I. Hsueh Hui Tsa Chih. 70(1): 28-35.

Chen, Y.P. and K.I. Sudderuddin.  1978. Toxicological studies of insecticides on Culex
quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.). Southeast Asian J.  Trop. Med. Public Health. 9(3):
378-383.

Chin, Y.N. and K.I. Sudderuddin.  1979. Effect of methamidophos on the growth rate and
esterase activity of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.  Environ. Pollut. 18(3): 213-220.

Chitra, S. andM.K.K. Pillai. 1984. Development of organophosphorus and carbamate-resistance
in Indian strains of Anopheles Stephens! Listen. Proc. Indian Sci. 93(3): 159-170.

Choudhury, C. A., K. Ray, S. Bhattacharya and S. Bhattacharya. 1993. Non lethal concentrations
of pesticide impair ovarian function in the freshwater perch, Anabas testudineus. Environ. Biol.
Fish.  36:319-324.

Christensen, G.M. and J.H Tucker. 1976. Effects of selected water toxicants on the in vitro
activity of fish carbonic anhydrase. Chem.-Biol. Interact.  13:  181-192.

Christie, A.E. 1969. Effects of insecticides on algae. Water Sewage  Works. 116(5): 172-176.

Christoffers, D. and D.E.W. Ernst. 1983.  The in-vivo fluorescence oiChlorellafusca as a
biological test for the inhibition of photosynthesis. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 7: 61-71.

Chung, K., A. Chandler and P. Key. 2008. Toxicity of carbaryl, diquat dibromide, and
fluoranthene, individually and in mixture, to larval grass  shrimp, Palaemonetespugio. J.
Environ. Sci. Health Part B. 43(4): 293-299.

                                           55

-------
Cocks, J.A. 1973. The effect of aldrin on water balance in the freshwater pulmonate gastropod
(Biomphalaria glabrata). Environ. Pollut. 5(2): 149-151.

Conners, D.E. and M.C. Black. 2004. Evaluation of lethality and genotoxicity in the freshwater
mussel Utterbackia imbecillis (Bivalvia: Unionidae) exposed singly and in combination to
chemicals used in lawn care. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 46: 362-371.

Conti, E. 1987. Acute toxicity of three detergents and two insecticides in the lugworm, Arenicola
marina (L.): A histological and a scanning electron microscopic study. Aquat. Toxicol. 10: 325-
334.

Cook, W.L., D. Fiedler and A.W. Bourquin. 1980. Succession of microfungi in estuarine
microcosms perturbed by carbaryl, methyl parathion and pentachlorophenol. Bot. Mar.  23: 129-
131.

Coors, A. and L. De Meester. 2008. Synergistic, antagonistic and additive effects of multiple
stressors: Predation threat, parasitism and pesticide exposure mDaphniamagna. J. Appl. Ecol.
45: 1820-1828.

Cope, O.B. 1965. Effects on pesticides on fish and wildlife: 1964 findings of the fish and wildlife
services, Washington D.C. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Cicr. 226, Fish and Wildlife Service,
Washington, D.C. 77 p.

Coppage, D.L. 1977. Anticholinesterase action of pesticidal carbamates in the central nervous
system of poisoned fishes. In:  Symp. Physiol. Responses of Marine Biota to Pollutants,
J.F.Vernberg (Ed.), Academic Press, New York, NY. pp. 93-102.

Courtemanch, D.L. and K.E. Gibbs. 1978. The effects of sevin-4-oil on lentic communities. In:
Environmental monitoring of cooperative spruce budworm control projects, Maine 1976 and
1977. Stratton, K.G. (Ed.). Maine Forest Serv., Dep. of Conservation, Augusta, ME. pp.141-150.

Courtemanch, D.L. and K.E. Gibbs. 1980.  Short- and long-term effects of forest spraying of
carbaryl (sevin-4-oil) on stream invertebrates.  Can. Entomol. 112(3): 271-276.

Coutant, C.C. 1964. Insecticide sevin: Effect of aerial spraying on drift of stream insects. Science
146:420-421.

Crawford, R.B. and A.M. Guarino. 1976. Sand dollar embryos as monitors of environmental
pollutants.  Bull. Mt. Desert Isl. Biol. Lab. 16: 17.

Crawford, R.B. and A.M. Guarino. 1985. Effects of environmental toxicants on development of a
teleost embryo. J. Environ. Pathol.  Toxicol. 6: 185-194.

Cutkomp, L.K., H.H. Yap, E.Y. Cheng and R.B. Koch. 1971. ATPase activity in fish tissue
homogenates and inhibitory effects of DDT and related compounds. Chem.-Biol. Interact 3: 439-
447.
                                           56

-------
Dahlberg, M.D. 1971. Toxicity to acrolein to barnacles (Balanus eburneus). Chesapeake Sci.
12(4): 282-284.

Damalas, C.A., K.V. Dhima and I.G. Eleftherohorinos. 2008. Bispyribac-sodium efficacy on
early watergrass (Echinochloa oryzoides) and late watergrass (Echinochloaphyllopogori) as
affected by coapplication of selected rice herbicides and insecticides. Weed Technol. 22: 622-
627.

Das, M.K. and S.P. Adhikary. 1996. Toxicity of three pesticides to several rice-field
cyanobacteria. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad). 73(2): 155-157.

Das, U.K. and D. Kumar. 1993. Toxicity of carbaryl on a-amylase of the fish Colisafasciatus. J.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monitor. 3(2): 143-146.

Das, P.K. and P.K. Rajagopalan. 1979. Susceptibility of larvae of Culex fatigans (Wiedmann),
Anopheles Stephens! (Listen) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.) to insecticides in Pondicherry. Indian J.
Med. Res. 70: 412-416.
                                           14
Das, Y. 1990. Photodegradation  of 1-Naphthyl- C-Carbaryl in Aqueous Solution Buffered at pH
5 Under Artificial Sunlight.  Lab Project Number: ISSI 90060. Unpublished study prepared by
Innovative Scientific Services, Inc. 101 p. submitted by Rhone-Poulenc Ag Company, Research
Triangle Park, NC. MRID 41982603.

Davey, R.B., M.V. Meisch and F.L. Carter. 1976. Toxicity of five ricefield pesticides to the
mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis,  and green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus, under laboratory and field
conditions in Arkansas. Environ. Entomol. 5(6): 1053-1056.

Davidson, C., M.F. Benard, H.B. Shaffer, J.M. Parker, C. O'Leary, J.M. Conlon and L.A.
Rollins-Smith. 2007. Effects  of chytrid and carbaryl exposure on survival, growth and skin
peptide defenses in foothill yellow-legged frogs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(5): 1771-1776.

Davis, H.C. 1961. Effects of some pesticides on eggs and larvae of oysters (Crassostrea
virginicd) and clams (Venus mercenarid). Commer. Fish. Rev. 23(12): 18-23.

Davis, H.C. and H. Hidu. 1969. Effects of pesticides on  embryonic development of clams and
oysters and on survival  and growth of the larvae. Fisheries Bulletin. 67: 393-404.

de Mel, G.WJ.L.M.V.T.M. and A. Pathiratne. 2005. Toxicity assessment of insecticides
commonly used in rice pest management to the fry of common carp, Cyprinus carpio,  a food fish
culturable in rice fields. J. Appl.  Ichthyol. 21(2): 146-150.

dela Cruz, C.R. and A.G. Cagauan. 1981. Preliminary study on the bioassay of seven pesticides
and five weedicides with tilapia, carps, clam and shrimp as test species. Fish.  Res. J. Philipp.
6(1): 11-18.

Deshmukh, P.B. and R. Keshavan. 1984. Acute toxicity of DDT and sevin to the bullfrog, Rana
tigrina. J. Curr. Biosci.  1(4):  141-145.
                                           57

-------
Dhanapakiam, P. and J. Premlatha. 1994. Histopathological changes in the kidney of Cyprinus
carpio exposed to malathion and sevin. J. Environ. Biol. 15(4): 283-287.

Dimayuga, J.B., P.P. Ocampo and B.M. Lontoc. 2008. Insecticide-induced accumulation of
melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.). Philipp.
Entomol. 22(1): 71-85.

Dimick, R.E. and W.P. Breese. 1965. Bay mussel embryo bioassay. Proc. 12th Pacific Northwest
Ind. Waste Conf, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA. pp. 165-175.

Dive, D., H.  Leclerc and G. Persoone. 1980. Pesticide toxicity on the ciliate protozoan
Colpidium campylum: Possible consequences of the effect of pesticides in the aquatic
environment. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf 4: 129-133.

Dodson, S.I., T. Hanazato andP.R. Gorski. 1995.  Behavioral responses of Daphniapulex
exposed to carbaryl and Chaoborus kairomone. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.  14(1): 43-50.

Donkin, P., J. Widdows, S.V. Evans, FJ. Staff and T. Yan. 1997. Effect of neurotoxic pesticides
on the feeding rate of marine  mussels (Mytilus edulis). Pestic. Sci. 49(2):  196-209.

Douglas, M.T., D.O. Chanter, IB. Pell and G.M. Burney. 1986. A proposal for the reduction of
animal numbers required for the acute toxicity to fish test (LC50 determination). Aquat. Toxicol.
8(4): 243-249.

Downing, A.L., K.M. DeVanna, C.N. Rubeck-Schurtz, L. Tuhela and H. Grunkemeyer. 2008.
Community  and ecosystem responses to a pulsed pesticide disturbance in freshwater ecosystems.
Ecotoxicol. 17(6): 539-548.

Dumbauld, B.R., D.A. Armstrong and J. Skalski.  1997. Efficacy of the pesticide carbaryl for
thalassinid shrimp control in Washington State oyster (Cmssostrea gigas, Thunberg, 1793)
aquaculture.  J. Shellfish Res.  16(2): 503-518.

Dumbauld, B.R., K.M. Brooks, and M.H. Posey. 2001. Response of an estuarine benthic
community to application of the pesticide carbaryl and cultivation of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea
gigas) in Willapa Bay, Washington. Mar Pollut Bull. 42(10): 826-44.

Dumbauld, B.R., S. Booth, D. Cheney, A. Suhbier and H. Beltran. 2006. An integrated pest
management program for burrowing shrimp control in oyster aquaculture. Aquaculture 261: 976-
992.

Durfey, I.E.  and J.B. Simpson. 1995.  Control of two burrowing shrimp species, ghost shrimp,
Callianassa  californiensis and mud shrimp, Upogebiapugettensis, using subsurface injection of
carbaryl ("sevin") as an alternative to aerial application in preparation of oyster beds for seeding.
J. Shellfish Res. 14(1): 264.

Dwyer, F.J.,  L.C. Sappington, D.R. Buckler and S.B. Jones. 1995. Use of surrogate species in
assessing contaminant risk to endangered and threatened fishes. EPA/600/R-96/029, U.S. EPA,
Washington, D.C.

                                           58

-------
Dwyer, F.J., O.K. Hardesty, C.E. Henke, C.G. Ingersoll, D.W. Whites, D.R. Mount and C.M.
Bridges.  1999a. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened species:
Toxicant classes. EPA 600/R-99/098, U.S. EPA, Washington, D.C.

Dwyer, F.J., O.K. Hardesty, C.E. Henke, C.G. Ingersoll, D.W. Whites, D.R. Mount and C.M.
Bridges.  1999b. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened species:
Effluent toxicity tests. EPA 600/R-99/099, U.S. EPA, Washington, D.C.

Dwyer, F.J., O.K. Hardesty, C.G. Ingersoll, J.L. Kunz and D.W. Whites. 2000. Assessing
contaminant sensitivity of American shad, Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon, Final
Report - February 2000. Final Rep., U.S. Geol. Surv., Columbia Environ. Res. Ctr., Columbia,
MO.

Dwyer, F.J., F.L. Mayer, L.C. Sappington, D.R. Buckler, C.M. Bridges, I.E. Greer, O.K.
Hardesty, C.E. Henke, C.G. Ingersoll, J.L. Kunz, D.W. Whites, T. Augspurger, D.R. Mount, K.
Hattala, and G.N. Neuderfer. 2005. Assessing contaminant sensitivity  of endangered and
threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals. Arch. Environ. Contam.
Toxicol. 48: 143-154..

Edmiston, C.E. Jr., M. Goheen and G.W. Malaney. 1984.  Environmental assessment of
carbamate toxicity: Utilization of the Coomassie Blue G soluble protein assay as an index of
environmental toxicity. Hazard. Waste. 1(2): 205-215.

Edmiston, C.E.Jr, M. Goheen, G.W. Malaney and W.L. Mills. 1985. Evaluation of carbamate
toxicity: Acute toxicity in a culture of paramecium multimicronucleatum upon exposure to
aldicarb, carbaryl, and mexacarbate as measured by Warburg respirometry and acute plate assay.
Environ. Res. 36(2): 338-350.

Eichelberger, J.W. and J.J. Lichtenberg. 1971. Persistence of pesticides in river water. Environ.
Sci. Technol. 5: 541-544.

Elliott-Feeley, E. and J.B. Armstrong.  1982. Effects of fenitrothion and carbaryl on Xenopus
laevis development. Toxicol. 22(2): 319-335.

El-Magid, M.M.A. 1986. Effects of some pesticides on the growth of blue-green alga Spirulina
platensis. Egypt. J. Food Sci. 14(1): 67-74.

Epstein, S.S. and M.S. Legator. 1971. The mutagenicity of pesticides concepts and evaluation.
In: The Mutagenicity of Pesticides Concepts and Evaluation, Epstein,  S.S. and M.S. Legator
(Eds.). MIT Press.

Estenik, J.F. and W.J. Collins. 1979. In vivo and in vitro studies of mixed-function oxidase in an
aquatic insect, Chironomus riparius. In: Pesticide and xenobiotic metabolism  in aquatic
organisms. Khan, M.A.Q., J.J. Lech and J.J. Menn (Eds.), Am. Chem.  Soc. Symp. Ser. 99,
Chapter 21, 349-370.
                                           59

-------
European Commission DG Environment. 2002. Endocrine disrupters: Study on gathering
information on 435 substances with insufficient data. Final Report, B4-
3040/2001/325850/MAR/C2, RPS BKH Consulting Engineers, Delft, Netherlands.

Farm Chemicals Handbook. 2000. Meister Publ. Co., Willoughby, OH.

Federle, P.F. and WJ. Collins. 1976. Insecticide toxicity to three insects from Ohio ponds. Ohio
J. Sci. 76(1): 19-24.

Feldhaus, J.M., AJ. Feldhaus, L.N. Ace and C.N. Pope. 1998. Interactive effects of pesticide
mixtures on the neurobehavioral responses and AChE levels of the planaria. In: Environmental
Toxicology and Risk Assessment: Seventh Volume, ASTM STP 1333. E.E. Little, AJ. DeLonay
and B.M. Greenberg (Eds.), West Conshohocken, PA. pp. 140-150.

Fernandez, M., J. L'Haridon, L. Gauthier and C. Zoll-Moreux. 1993. Amphibian micronucleus
test(s): A simple and reliable method for evaluating in vivo genotoxic effects of freshwater
pollutants and radiations: Initial assessment. Mutat. Res. 292(1): 83-99.

Fernandez-Alba, A.R., L.H. Guil, G.D. Lopez and Y. Chisti. 2001. Toxicity of pesticides in
wastewater: a comparative assessment of rapid bioassays. Analy. Chimica Acta. 426: 289-301.

Ferrari, A., O.L. Anguiano, J. Soleno, A. Venturino and A.M. Pechen de D'Angelo. 2004.
Different susceptibility of two aquatic vertebrates (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Bufo arenaruni) to
azinphos methyl and carbaryl. Compar.  Biochem. Physiol. Part C. 139: 239-243.

Ferrari, A., A. Venturino and A.M. Pechen de D'Angelo. 2007a. Muscular and brain
cholinesterase sensitivities to azinphos methyl and carbaryl in the juvenile rainbow trout
Oncorhynchus mykiss. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. 146(3): 308-313.

Ferrari, A., A. Venturino and A.M. Pechen de D'Angelo. 2007b. Effects of carbaryl and azinphos
methyl on juvenile rainbow trout {Oncorhynchus mykiss) detoxifying enzymes. Pestic. Biochem.
Physiol. 88(2): 134-142.

Ferrari, A., C.I. Lascano, O.L. Anguiano, A.M. Pechen de D'Angelo and A. Venturino. 2009.
Antioxidant responses to azinphos methyl and carbaryl during the embryonic development of the
toadRhinella (Bufo) arenarum Hensel. Aquat. Toxicol. 93: 37-44.

Fischer, E., M. Lovas and L. Molnar. 1982. The effect of benzimidazole, carbamate and
organophosphorous pesticides on the oxygen-dependent nuclear volume alterations in the
chloragocytes of Tubifex tubifexMull. Environ. Pollut. Ser. A. 28(4): 285-289.

Fisher, S.W. and T.W. Lohner. 1986. Studies on the environmental fate of carbaryl as a function
of pH.  Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15(6): 661-667.

Fisher, S.W., M.L. Lydy, J. Barger and P.F. Landrum. 1993. Quantitative structure-activity
relationships for predicting the toxicity of pesticides in aquatic systems with sediment. Environ.
Toxicol. Chem. 12: 1307-1318.
                                          60

-------
Fitzgerald, G.P., G.C. Gerloff and F. Skoog. 1952. Studies on chemicals with selective toxicity
to blue-green algae. Sewage Ind. Wastes. 24(7): 888-896.

Fleeger, J.W., K.R. Carman and R.N. Nisbet. 2003. Indirect effects of contaminants in aquatic
ecosystems.  Sci. Total Environ. 317: 207-233.

Forcella, M., E. Berra, R. Giacchini, B. Rossaro and P. Parenti. 2007.  Increased alanine
concentration is associated with exposure to fenitrothion but not carbamates in Chironomus
riparius larvae. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf 66(3): 326-334.

Foster, G.D. and R.E. Tullis. 1984. A quantitative structure-activity relationship between
partition coefficients and the acute toxicity of naphthalene derivatives in Artemia salina nauplii.
Aquat. Toxicol. 5(3): 245-254.

Freitag, D., H. Geyer, A. Kraus, R. Viswanathan, D. Kotzias, A. Attar, W. Klein and F. Korte.
1982. Ecotoxicological profile analysis. VII. Screening chemicals for their environment behavior
by comparative evaluation. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 6: 60-81.

Frempong-Boadu, J. 1966. A laboratory study of the effectiveness of methoxychlor, fenthion and
carbaryl against blackfly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae). Mosq. News. 26(4): 562-564.

Gaaboub, I.A., F.M. El-Gayar and E.M. Helal.  1975. Comparative bioassay studies on larvae of
Culexpipiens and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Egypt, Econ. Ser. 9:
77-84.

Galindo Reyes, J.G., N.R. Leyva, O.A. Millan and G.A. Lazcano. 2002. Effects of pesticides on
DNA and protein of shrimp larvae Litopenaeus stylirostris of the California Gulf. Ecotoxicol.
Environ. Saf. 53(2): 191-195.

Gallo, D., A. Merendino, J. Keizer, and L.Vittozzi.  1995. Acute toxicity of two carbamates to the
guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). Sci. Total Environ.  171: 131-
136.

Garcia-Ripoll, A., A.M. Amat, A. Arques, R. Vicente,  M.M. Ballesteros Martin, J.A. Sanchez
Perez, I. Oiler and S. Malato. 2009. Confirming Pseudomonasputida as a reliable bioassay for
demonstrating biocompatibility enhancement by solar photo-oxidative process of a
biorecalcitrant effluent. J. Haz. Materials. 162:  1223-1227.

Geiger, D. L., C.E. Northcott, DJ. Call and L.T. Brooke. 1985. Acute toxicities of organic
chemicals to fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelets). Vol. 2. Center for Lake Superior
Environmental Studies, Univ. of Wisconsin-Superior, Superior, WI.

Geiger, D.L., DJ. Call and L.T. Brooke. 1988.  Acute toxicities of organic chemicals to fathead
minnows (Pimephalespromelets) Volume IV. Center for Lake Superior Environmental Studies,
University of Wisconsin-Superior, WI.
                                           61

-------
Ghosh, P.K. 1990. Interrelationship of acetylcholinesterase-acetylcholine, triiodothyronine-
thyroxine and gonadotropin-gonadotropin releasing hormone in pesticide treated murrel, Channa
punctatus (Bloch). Ph.D. Thesis, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan, India. 6 pg.

Ghosh, S. and S. Bhattacharya. 1992. Elevation of c-reactive protein in serum of Channa
punctatus as an indicator of water pollution. Indian J. Exper. Biol. 30(8): 736-737.

Ghosh, P., S. Bhattacharya and S. Bhattacharya. 1989. Impact of nonlethal levels of metacid-50
and carbaryl on thyroid function and cholinergic system of Channa punctatus. Biomed. Environ.
Sci. 2: 92-97.

Ghosh, P., S. Bhattacharya and S. Bhattacharya. 1990. Impairment of the regulation of gonadal
function in Channa punctatus by the metacid-50 and carbaryl under laboratory and field
conditions. Biomed. Environ. Sci. 3: 106-112.

Ghosh, P., S. Ghosh, S. Bose and S. Bhattacharya. 1993. Glutathione depletion in the liver and
kidney ofChanna punctatus exposed to carbaryl and metacid-50. Sci. Total Environ.  (Suppl.):
641-645.

Gibbs, K.E. 1979. Effects of a split application of sevin-4-oil on aquatic organisms. Report to the
Maine Forest Service. University of Maine, Orono, ME. 50 pg.

Gibbs, K.E., T.M. Mingo, D.L. Courtemanch and  DJ. Stairs. 1981. The effects on pond
macroinvertebrates from forest spraying of carbaryl (sevin-4-oil) and its persistence in water and
sediment. In: Environmental Report from the 1980 Maine Cooperative Budworm Suppression
Project. K.G. Stratton (Ed.). Augusta, ME. pp. 121-147.

Gibbs, K E., T.M. Mingo and D.L. Courtemanch.  1982. The effects in 1982 on pond
macroinvertebrates from forest spraying of carbaryl, sevin-4-oil, in 1980. In: Environmental
Monitoring Reports from the 1982 Maine  Cooperative Spruce Budworm Suppression Project.
K.G. Stratton (Ed.) Augusta, ME: 1-20.

Gibbs, K E., T.M. Mingo and D.L. Courtemanch.  1984. Persistence of carbaryl (sevin-4-oil) in
woodland ponds and its effects on pond macroinvertebrates following forest spraying. Can.
Entomol.  116: 203-213.

Gilbert, F., F. Galgani and Y. Cadiou. 1992. Rapid assessment of metabolic activity in marine
microalgae: application in ecotoxicological test and evaluation of water quality. Mar.  Biol.
112(2): 199-205.

Gill, T.S., J.C. Pant and J. Pant. 1988. Gill, liver, and kidney lesions  associated with
experimental exposures to carbaryl and dimethoate in the fish (Puntius conchonius Ham.). Bull.
Environ.  Contam. Toxicol. 41(1): 71-78.

Gillott, M. A., G.L. Floyd and D.V. Ward.  1975. The role of sediment as a modifying factor in
pesticide-algae interactions. Environ. Entomol. 4(4): 621-624.
                                           62

-------
Goel, H.C. and C.P. Srivastava. 1981. Laboratory evaluation of some molluscicides against fresh
water snails, Indoplanorbis andLymnaea species. J. Commun. Dis. 13(2): 121-127.

Gouda, R.K., N.K. Tripathy and C.C. Das. 1981. Toxicity of dimecron, sevin and lindex to
Anabas scandens andHeteropneustesfossilis. Comp. Physiol. Ecol. 6(3): 170-172.

Gray, L.E., E. Monosson and W.R. Kelce. 1996. Emerging issues: The effects of endocrine
disrupters on reproductive development. In: Interaconnections between human and ecosystem
health. Di Giulio, R.T. and E. Monosson (Eds.), Chapman and Hall Ecotoxicology Ser. 3,
Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, England, pp. 45-82.

Groba, J. and B.  Trzcinska. 1979. Effect of selected organophosphorous and carbamate
insecticides on rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.). Bromatol. Chem. Toksykol. 12(1): 33-38.

Grosch, D.S. 1973. Reproduction tests: the toxicity forArtemia of derivatives from non-
persistent pesticides. Biol. Bull. 145(2): 340-351.

Gruber, SJ. and  M.D. Munn. 1998. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural
waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Arch. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 35: 391-396.

Gunasekara, A.S., A.L. Rubin, K.S. Goh, F.C. Spurlock and R.S. Tjeerdema. 2008.
Environmental fate and toxicology of carbaryl. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 196: 95-121.

Gupta, R. and Y.N. Sahai. 1989. Qualitative detection of organochlorine and carbamate residues
in the brain of catfish, Heteropenustes fossilis (Bloch) by thin layer chromatography. Environ.
Exper. Toxicol.:  151-156.

Gupta, S.K. and  V. Sundararaman. 1991.  Correlation between burrowing capability and AChE
activity in the earthworm, Pheretimaposthuma, on exposure to carbaryl. Bull. Environ.  Contam.
Toxicol. 46: 859-865.

Haines, T.A.  1981. Effect of an aerial application of carbaryl on brook trout (Salvelinus
fontinalis). Bull.  Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 27: 534-542.

Han I, R., J.C. Shim, H.K. Hong, IS. Lee, H.W. Cho and C.L.  Kim.  1981. Studies on control
effects of pesticide applications against the vector mosquito larvae in rice fields in Korea.
Korean!. Entomol.  11(2): 39-45.

Hanazato, T.  199la. Effects of long- and short-term exposure to carbaryl on survival, growth and
reproduction of Daphnia ambigua. Environ. Pollut. 74: 139-148.

Hanazato, T.  1991b. Effects of repeated application of carbaryl on zooplankton communities in
experimental ponds with or without the predator Chaoborus. Environ. Pollut. 74: 309-324.

Hanazato, T.  1991c. Pesticides as chemical agents inducing helmet formation on Daphnia
ambigua. Fresh.  Biol. 26: 419-424.
                                           63

-------
Hanazato, T. 1992. Insecticide inducing helmet development in Daphnia ambigua. Arch.
Hydrobiol. 123(4): 451-457.

Hanazato, T. 1995. Combined effect of the insecticide carbaryl and the Chaoborus kairomone on
helmet development in Daphnia ambigua. Hydrobiol. 310(2): 95-100.

Hanazato, T. and S.I. Dodson. 1992. Complex effects of a kairomone of Chaoborus and an
insecticide on Daphniapulex. J. Plank. Res. 14(12): 1743-1755.

Hanazato, T. and S.I. Dodson. 1993. Morphological responses of four species of cyclomorphic
Daphnia to a short-term exposure to the insecticide carbaryl. J. Plankton Res. 15(9):  1087-1095.

Hanazato, T. and H. Hirokawa. 2004. Changes in vulnerability of Daphnia to an insecticide
application depending on the population phase. Fresh. Biol. 49(4):  402-409.

Hanazato, T. and M. Yasuno. 1987. Effects of a carbamate insecticide, carbaryl, on the summer
phyto- and zooplankton communities in ponds. Environ. Pollut. 48(2):  145-159

Hanazato, T. and M. Yasuno. 1989a. Influence of overwintering Daphnia on spring zooplankton
communities: an experimental study. Ecol. Res. 4:  323-338.

Hanazato, T. and M. Yasuno. 1989b. Effects of carbaryl on the spring zooplankton communities
in ponds. Environ. Pollut.  56(1): 1-10.

Hanazato, T. and M. Yasuno. 1990a. Influence of persistence period of an insecticide on
recovery patterns of a zooplankton community in experimental ponds. Environ. Pollut. 67: 109-
122.

Hanazato, T. and M. Yasuno. 1990b. Influence of time of application of an insecticide on
recovery patterns of a zooplankton community in experimental ponds. Arch. Environ. Contam.
Toxicol.  19(1): 77-83.

Hanazato, T. and M. Yasuno. 1990c. Influence of Chaoborus density on the effects of an
insecticide on zooplankton communities in ponds. Hydrobiol. 194(3):  183-197.

Hansen, C.R. Jr. and J. Kawatski. 1976. Application of 24-hour postexposure observation to
acute toxicity studies with invertebrates. J. Fish. Res. Board Canada. 33(5):  1198-1201.

Hansen, DJ. 1969. Avoidance of pesticides by untrained sheepshead minnows. Trans. Am.
Fish. Soc. 98: 426-429.

Hansen, DJ. 1970. Behavior of estuarine organisms. In: Progress report of the bureau of
commercial fisheries, center for estuarine and menhaden research,  U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Circ.
335, Washington, D.C. pp. 23-28.

Hansen, DJ. 1980. Results of toxicity tests with fishes and macroinvertebrates. Unpublished
Data, Data Sheets Available from U.S. EPA Res. Lab., Gulf Breeze, FL. 65 p.
                                          64

-------
Hansen, D.J., E. Matthews, S.L. Nail and D.P. Dumas. 1972. Avoidance of pesticides by
untrained mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 8(1): 46-51.

Hansen, D.J., S.C. Schimmel and J.M. Keltner. 1973. Avoidance of pesticides by grass shrimp
(Palaemonetespugio). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 9(3): 129-133.

Hardersen, S. and S.D. Wratten.  1996. The sensitivity of the nymphs of two New Zealand
damselfly species (Odonata: Zygoptera) to azinphos-methyl and carbaryl. Aust. J. Ecotoxicol.
2(2): 55-60.

Hardersen, S. and S.D. Wratten.  1998. The effects of carbaryl exposure on the penultimate larval
instars of Xathocnemis zealandica on emergence and fluctuating asymmetry. Ecotxicol. 7: 297-
304.

Harilal, K.S. and Y.N. Sahai. 1990. Qualitative identification of metabolites of carbaryl in the
gonads of catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). J. Environ. Biol. ll(2-Supp.): 253-258.

Hashimoto, Y. and Y. Nishiuchi. 1981. Establishment of bioassay methods for the evaluation of
acute toxicity of pesticides to aquatic organisms. J. Pestic. Sci.  6(2): 257-264.

Havens, K.E. 1994. An experimental comparison of the effects of two chemical stressors on a
freshwater zooplankton assemblage. Environ. Pollut. 84(3): 245-251.

Havens, K.E. 1995. Insecticide (carbaryl, 1-napthyl-n-methylcarbamate) effects on a freshwater
plankton community: zooplankton  size, biomass,  and algal abundance. Water Soil Air Pollut.
84(1/2): 1-10.

Haynes, H.L., H.N. Moorefield, AJ. Borash and J.W. Keays. 1958. The toxicity of sevin to
goldfish. J. Econ. Entomol. 51(4): 540.

Heldal, M., S. Norland, T. Lien, G. Knutsen, K. Tjessem and A. Aarberg. 1984. Toxic responses
of the green algaDunaliella bioculata (Chlorophycea, Volvocales) to selected oxidized
hydrocarbons. Environ. Pollut. Ser. A 34: 119-132.

Hemingway, J. and G.P. Georghiou. 1983.  Studies on the acetylcholinesterase of Anopheles
albimanus resistant and susceptible to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Pestic.
Biochem. Physiol. 19(2): 167-171.

Henderson, C., Q.H. Pickering and C.M. Tarzwell. 1960. The toxicity of organic phosphorus and
chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides to fish. In: Biological problems in water pollution, Trans.
2nd Seminar, April 20-24, 1959. Tarzwell, C.M. (Ed.). Tech. Rep. W60-3, U.S. Public Health
Service, R.A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, OH. pp. 76-88.

Hendrick, R.D., T.R. Everett and H.R. Caffey. 1966. Effects of some insecticides on the survival,
reproduction, and growth of the Louisiana red crawfish. J. Econ. Entomol. 59(1): 188-192.

Hermann, G. 1975. Routine testing of new Bayer pesticides for fish toxicity, as part of the
product development programme. Pflanzenschutz-Nachr. 28(2): 197-209.

                                          65

-------
Hernandez, D.A., RJ. Lombardo, L. Ferrari andM.C. Tortorelli. 1986. Toxicity of ethil-
parathion and carbaryl on early stages of the development of sea urchin. Arch. Biol. Med. Exp.
19(2): R212.

Hernandez, D.A., RJ. Lombardo, L. Ferrari andM.C. Tortorelli. 1990. Toxicity of ethyl-
parathion and carbaryl on early development of sea urchin. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
45(5): 734-741.

Hernando, M.D., S. De Vettori, MJ. Martinez Bueno and A.R. Fernandez-Alba. 2007. Toxicity
evaluation with Vibrio fischeri test of organic chemicals used in aquaculture. Chemosphere 68:
724-730.

Hidaka, H., M. Hattanda and R. Tatsukawa. 1984. Avoidance of pesticides with medakas
(Oryzias latipes). J. Agric. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 58(2):  145-151.

Hiltibran, R.C. 1974. Oxygen and phosphate metabolism of bluegill liver mitochondria in the
presence of some insecticides. Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 67: 228-237.

Hirose, K. and M. Kitsukawa.  1976. Acute toxicity of agricultural chemical to seawater teleosts,
with special respect to TLm and the vertebral abnormality. Bull. Tokai Reg. Fish. Res. Lad. 84:
11-20.

Holcombe, G.W., G.L. Phipps, M.L. Knuth and T.  Felhaber. 1984. The acute toxicity of selected
substituted phenols, benzenes and benzoic acid esters to fathead minnows Pimephalespromelas.
Environ. Pollut. (Ser. A) 35: 367-381.

Hopf, H.S. and R.L.  Muller. 1962. Laboratory breeding and testing of Australorbis glabratus for
molluscicidal screening. Bull. World Health Org. 27: 783-789.

Hopkins, W.A. and C.T. Winne. 2006. Influence of body size on swimming performance of four
species of neonatal natricine snakes acutely exposed to a cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25(5): 1208-1213.

Hopkins, W.A., C.T. Winne and S.E. DuRant. 2005. Differential swimming performance of two
natricine snakes exposed to a cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide. Environ. Pollut. 133: 531-540.

Hota, A.K., D.K. Mishra and P.C. Tripathy. 1993. Metabolic effects of kilex carbaryl on  a fresh
water teleost, Channapunctatus (Bloch). Environ.  Impact Aquat. Terr. Hab. pp. 335-342.

Hulbert, PJ. 1978. Effects of sevin, a spruce budworm insecticide on fish and invertebrates in
the Mattawamkeag River in 1976. In: Environmental monitoring of cooperative spruce
budworm control projects, Maine 1976 and 1977. Stratton, K.G. (Ed.). Maine Forest Serv., Dep.
of Conservation, Augusta, ME. pp. 1-32.

Huque, H. 1972. Preliminary report on the residues of carbaryl  granules in rice plants. IAEA-PL-
469/15:  107-109.
                                          66

-------
Hydorn, S.B., C.F. Rabeni and D.T. Jennings. 1979. Effect of forest spraying with acephate
insecticide on consumption of spiders by brook trout (Salvelinusfontmalis). Can. Ento. Ill:
1185-1192.

Imada, K. 1976. Studies on the vertebral malformation of fishes. III. Vertebral deformation of
goldfish (Carassius auratus) and medaka fish (Olyzias latipes) exposed to carbamate
insecticides. Hokkaidoritsu Suisan Fukajo Kenkyu Hokoku. 31: 43-65.

Ishii, Y. and Y. Hashimoto.  1970. Metabolic fate of carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methyl carbamate)
orally administered to carp, Cyprinus carpio. Bull. Agric. Chem. Insp. Stn. 10: 48-50.

Jacob,  S.S., N.B. Nair andN.K. Balasubramanian. 1982. Toxicity of certain pesticides found in
the habitat to the larvivorous fishes Aplocheilus lineatus (Cuv. & Val.) and Macropodus cupanus
(Cuv. & Val.). Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Anim. Sci. 91(3): 323-328.

Jadhv,  S., Y.B. Sontakke and V.S.  Lomte. 1995. Effect of pesticides on amylase activity in
digestive gland of fresh water bivalve Corbicula striatella. Indian J. Comp. Anim. Physiol.
13(1): 27-29.

Jadhv,  S., Y.B. Sontakke and V.S.  Lomte. 1996. Carbaryl toxicity to freshwater bivalve
Corbicula striatella. Environ. Ecol. 14(4): 863-865.

James, R. and K. Sampath. 1994. Combined toxic effects of carbaryl and methyl parathion on
survival,  growth, and respiratory metabolism in Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Acta Hydrobiol.
36(3): 399-408.

Jamnback, H. and J. Frempong-Boadu. 1966. Testing blackfly larvicides in the laboratory and in
streams. Bull. W.H.O. 34: 405-421.

Jauhar, L. and S.K. Kulshrestha. 1983. Histopathological changes induced by the sublethal doses
of endosulfan and carbaryl in the intestine of Channa striatus Bloch. Indian J. Zool. 11(2): 35-
42.

Jauhar, L. and S.K. Kulshrestha. 1985. Histopathological effects induced by sublethal doses of
sevin and thiodan on the gills of Channa striatus Bloch. (Pisces, Channidae). Acta Hydrochim.
Hydrobiol.  13(3): 395-400.

Jayaprada, P. and K.V. Ramana Rao. 1991.  Carbaryl toxicity on tissue acetylcholinesterase in the
penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monceros (Fabricius) a monitoring study. Indian J. Comp. Anim.
Physiol. 9(1): 38-43.

Jeyasingam, D.N.T., B.  Thayumanavan and S. Krishnaswamy. 1978. The relative toxicities of
insecticides on aquatic insect Eretes sticticus (Linn.) (Coleoptera:  Dytiscidae). J. Madurai Univ.
7(1): 85-87.

John, P.J. 2007. Alteration of certain blood parameters of freshwater teleost Mystus vittatus after
chronic exposure to metasystox and sevin. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 33(1):  15-20.
                                           67

-------
John, PJ. and A. Prakash. 1998. Acute toxicity of metasystox and sevin to Mystus vittatus. J.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit. 8(3): 169-177.

Johnson, W.W. and M.T. Finley. 1980. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and
aquatic invertebrates. Resour. Publ. 137, Fish Wildl. Serv., U.S. D.I., Washington, D.C. 98 p.

Johnson, I C., A.E. Keller and S.G. Zam. 1993. A method for conducting acute toxicity tests with
the early life stages of freshwater mussels. In: Environmental toxicology and risk assessment.
Landis, W.G., J.S. Hughes and M.A. Lewis (Eds.), ASTM STP 1179. American Society for
Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 381-396.

Jones, S.B., L.B. King, L.C. Sappington, F.J. Dwyer, M. Ellersieck and D.R. Buckler. 1998.
Effects of carbaryl, permethrin, 4-nonylphenol, and copper on muscarinic cholinergic receptors
in brain of surrogate and listed fish species.  Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. 120: 405-414.

Joshi, N. and S. Kumar. 2001. Acid and alkaline phosphates activity in different tissues of fresh
water crab, Paratelphusa masoniana (Henderson) to pesticide exposure. Himalayan J. Environ.
Zool. 15(2):  101-104.

Juchelka, C.M. and T.W. Snell. 1995. Rapid toxicity assessment using ingestion rate of
cladocerans and ciliates. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 28(4): 508-512.

Juhnke,  I. and D. Luedemann. 1978. Results of the investigation of 200 chemical compounds for
acute fish toxicity with the golden orfe test (Ergebnisse der untersuchung von 200 chemischen
verbindungen auf akute fischtoxizitat mit dem goldorfentest). Z. Wasser-Abwasser-Forsch.
11(5): 161-164.

Jyothi, B. and G. Narayan. 1999a. Toxic effects of carbaryl on gonads of freshwater fish, Glorias
batrachus (Linnaeus). J. Environ. Biol. 20(1): 73-76.

Jyothi, B. and G. Narayan. 1999b. Certain pesticide-induced carbohydrate metabolic disorders in
the serum of freshwater fish Clarias batrachus (Linn.). Food Chem. Toxicol. 37: 417-421.

Jyothi, B. and G. Narayan. 2000. Pesticide induced alterations of non-protein nitrogenous
constituents in the serum of a fresh water cat fish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.). Indian J. Exp. Biol.
38(10): 1058-1061.

Jyothi, B. and G. Narayan. 2001. Effect of pesticides carbaryl and phorate on serum cholesterol
level in fish, Clarias batrachus (Linn). J. Environ. Biol. 22(3): 233-235.

Kader, H.A., B. Thayumanavan and S. Krishnaswamy. 1976. The relative toxicities often
biocides on Spicodiaptomus chelospinus rajendran (1973) [Copepoda: Calanoida]. Comp.
Physiol. Ecol. 1(3): 78-82.

Kallander, D.B.,  S.W. Fisher and M.J. Lydy. 1997. Recovery following pulsed exposure to
organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in the midge, Chironomus riparius. Arch. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 33: 29-33.
                                           68

-------
Kanazawa, J. 1975. Uptake and excretion of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides by
fresh water fish, motsugo, Pseudorasboraparva. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14(3): 346-
352.

Kanazawa, J. 1980. Prediction of biological concentration potential of pesticides in aquatic
organisms. Rev. PlantProt. Res. 13: 27-36.

Kanazawa, J. 1981. Bioconcentration potential of pesticides by aquatic organisms. Japan Pest.
Inf. 39: 12-16.

Kanazawa, J. 1983a. In vitro and in vivo effects  of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides
on brain acetylcholinesterase activity of fresh-water fish, topmouth gudgeon. Bull. Natl. Inst.
Agric. Sci. Sect. C. 37: 19-30.

Kanazawa, J. 1983b. A method of predicting the bioconcentration potential of pesticides by
using fish. JARQ 17(3): 173-179.

Kanazawa, J., A.R. Isensee and P.C. Kearney. 1975. Distribution of carbaryl and 3,5-xylyl
methylcarbamate in an aquatic model ecosystem. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23(4): 760-763.

Karnak, R.E. and WJ. Collins.  1974. The susceptibility to selected insecticides and
acetylcholinesterase activity in a laboratory colony of midge larvae, Chironomus tentans
(Diptera:  Chironomidae). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12(1): 62-69.

Kasai, S., IS. Weerashinghe and T. Shono.  1998. P450 monooxygenases are an important
mechanism of permethrin resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae. Arch. Insect
Biochem. Physiol. 37(1): 47-56.

Kashiwada, S., H. Tatsuta, M. Kameshiro, Y. Sugaya, T. Sabo-Attwood, G.T. Chandler, P.L.
Ferguson and K. Goka. 2008. Stage-dependent differences in effects of carbaryl on population
growth rate in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 27(11): 2397-2402.

Katz, M.  1961. Acute toxicity of some organic insecticides to three species of salmonids and to
the threespine stickleback. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 90: 264-268.

Kaur, K.  and A. Dhawan.  1993. Variable sensitivity of Cyprinus carpio eggs, larvae, and fry to
pesticides. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 50(4): 593-599.

Kaur, K.  and A. Dhawan.  1996. Effect of carbaryl on tissue composition, maturation, and
breeding  potential ofdrrhina mrigala (Ham.). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 57(3): 480-486.

Kaur, K.  and H.S. Toor. 1977. Toxicity of pesticides to embryonic stages of Cyprinus carpio
communis Linn. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 15:  193-196.

Kaur, K.  and H.S. Toor. 1980. Role of abiotic factors in the embryonic development of scale
carp. Proc. Indian. Nat. Sci. Acad. B46(l): 136-148.
                                          69

-------
Kaur, K. and H.S. Toor. 1995. Toxicity of some insecticides to the fingerlings of Indian major
carp, Cirrhinamrigala (Hamilton). Indian J. Ecol. 22(2): 140-142.

Kaur, K. and H.S. Toor. 1997. Histopathological changes in the liver of fingerlings of Indian
major carp, Cirrhina mrigala (Hamilton) exposed to some biocides. Indain J. Ecol. 24(2): 193-
195.

Kaushik, N. and S. Kumar. 1993. Susceptibility of the freshwater crab Paratelphusa masoniana
(Henserson) to three pesticides, singly and in combination. Environ. Ecol. 11(3): 560-564.

Kaushik, N. and S. Kumar. 1998. Midgut pathology of aldrin, monocrotophos, and carbaryl in
the freshwater crab, Paratelphusa masoniana (Henderson). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 60:
480-486.

Kay, K. 1973. Toxicology of pesticides: Recent advances. Environ. Res. 6: 202-243.

Kem, W.R., F. Soti and D. Rittschof. 2003. Inhibition of barnacle larval settlement and
crustacean toxicity of some hoplonemertine pyridyl alkaloids. Biomol. Engineer. 20: 355-361.

Khalil, H.M., M.A. Rifaat, A.M. Gad and S. Sadek. 1974. Filarial infectivity rate ofCulex
pipiens molestus subjected to sublethal concentrations of insecticides abate and sevin and
distribution of infective filaria larvae in mosquito body regions. J. Egypt. Public Health Assoc.
49(4/5): 221-224.

Khan, M.Z. and J. Nelson. 2005. Adverse effects of some selected agrochemicals and
Pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment with reference to amphibians and fish. J. Basic Appl.
Sci. 1(1): 23-26.

Khangarot, B.S., A. Sehgal and M.K. Bhasin. 1985. "Man and biosphere" - studies on the Sikkim
Himalayas.  Part 6: Toxicity of selected pesticides to frog tadpole Rana hexadactyla (Lesson).
Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 13(3): 391-394.

Khillare, Y.K. and S.B. Wagh. 1987a. Chronic effects of endosulfan, malathion and sevin in the
fresh water fish, Barbus stigma testis histopathology. J. Sci. Res. 9(1): 19-22.

Khillare, Y.K. and S.B. Wagh. 1987b. Developmental abnormalities induced by the pesticides in
the fish, Barbus stigma (Ham.). Indian J. Appl. Pure Biol. 2(2):  73-76.

Khillare, Y.K. and S.B. Wagh. 1988a. Long-term effects of pesticides endosulfan, malathion and
sevin on the fish, Puntius stigma. Environ. Ecol. 6(3): 589-593.

Khillare, Y.K. and S.B. Wagh. 1988b. Acute toxicity of pesticides in the freshwater fish Barbus
stigma: histopathology of the stomach. Uttar Pradesh J. Zool. 8(2): 176-179.

Khillare, Y.K. and S.B. Wagh. 1989. Effect of certain pesticides on spermatogenesis in fish
Barbus stigma (Ram.). Oikoassay. 6(1): 19-21
                                           70

-------
Kikuchi, M., Y. Sasaki and M. Wakabayashi. 2000. Screening of organophosphate insecticide
pollution in water by using Daphnia magna. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 47(3): 239-245.

Kimura, T. and H.L. Keegan. 1966. Toxicity of some insecticides and molluscicides for the
Asian blood sucking leech, Hirudo nipponia Whitman. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 15(1): 113-115.

Klassen, W., WJ. Keppler and J.B Kitzmiller. 1965. Toxicities of certain larvicides to resistant
and susceptible Aedes aegypti (L.). Bull. W.H.O. 33: 117-122.

Kolankaya, D. 2006. Organochlorine pesticide residues and their toxic effects on the
environment and organisms in Turkey. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 86(1-2): 147-160.

Kong, L. and A.T. Lemley. 2006. Modeling evaluation of carbaryl degradation in a continuously
stirred tank reactor by anodic Fenton treatment. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(26):  10061-9.

Kopecek, K., F. Fuller, W. Ratzmann and W. Simonis. 1975. The light dependent effect of
insecticides on unicellular algae. (Lichtabhangige insektizidwirkungen auf einzellige algen). Ber.
Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 88(2): 269-281.

Korn, S. 1973. The uptake and persistence of carbaryl in channel catfish. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.
102(1):  137-139.

Korn, S. and R. Earnest. 1974. Acute toxicity of twenty insecticides to striped bass, Morone
saxatilis. Calif. Fish Game. 60(3): 128-131.

Koundinya, P.R. and R. Murthi.  1979. Hematological  studies in Sarotherodon (Tilapid)
mossambica (Peters) exposed to lethal (LC50/48 hrs) concentration of sumithion and sevin. Curr.
Sci. 48(19): 877-879.

Koundinya, P.R. and R. Ramamurthi. 1979. Comparative study of inhibition of
acetylcholinesterase activity in the freshwater teleost Sarotherodon (Tilapid) mossambica
(Peters) by sevin (carbamate) and sumithion (organophosphate). Curr. Sci. 48(18): 832-833.

Koundinya, P.R. and R. Ramamurthi. 1980a. Effect of sub-lethal concentration of sumithion and
sevin on certain hematological values of Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters). Curr. Sci. 49(16):
645-646.

Koundinya, P.R. and R. Ramamurthi. 1980b. Toxicity of sumithion and sevin to the freshwater
fish, Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters). Curr. Sci. 49(22): 875-876.

Koundinya, P.R. and R. Ramamurthi. 1981. Tissue respiration in Sarotherodon mossambicus
(Peters) exposed to sub-lethal concentration of sumithion and sevin. Curr.  Sci. 50(21): 968-969.

Koval'Chuk, L.Y., I.I. Perevozchenko and L.P. Braginskii. 1971. Acute toxicity of yalan, eptam
and sevin for Daphnis magna. Exp. Water Toxicol. (Eksp.  Vodn. Toksikol.) 2: 56-64.
                                          71

-------
Krieger, R.I. and P.W. Lee. 1973. Inhibition of in vivo and in vitro epoxidation of aldrin, and
potentiation of toxicity of various insecticide chemicals by diquat in two species offish. Arch.
Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1(2): 112-121.

Krishnan, M. and S. Chockalingam. 1989. Toxic and sublethal effects of endosulfan and carbaryl
on growth and egg production ofMoina micrura Kurz (Cladocera: Moinidae). Environ. Pollut.
56: 319-326.

Kuhr, RJ. and H.W. Borough 1976. Carbamate insecticides: chemistry, biochemistry, and
toxicology. CRC Press, Inc., Cleveland, OH.

Kulshrestha, S.K. and N. Arora. 1984a. Effect of sublethal doses of carbaryl and endosulfan on
the skin of Channel striatus Bloch. J. Environ. Biol. 5(3): 141-147.

Kulshrestha, S.K. andN. Arora. 1984b. Impairments induced by sublethal doses of two
pesticides in the ovaries of a freshwater teleost Channa striatus Bloch. Toxicol. Lett. 20(1): 93-
98.

Kulshrestha, S.K. and L. Jauhar. 1986. Impairments induced by  sublethal doses of sevin and
thiodan on the brain of a freshwater teleost Channa striatus Bloch. (Channidae). Acta
Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 14(4): 429-432.

Kumar, B. and V. Banerjee. 1991. Effects of lethal toxicity of sevin (carbaryl) on the blood
parameters in Glorias batrachus (L). Himalayan J. Environ. Zool. 5(1): 13-17.

Kurtak, D., R. Meyer, M. Ocran, M. Ouedraogo, P. Renaud, R.O. Sawadogo and B. Tele.  1987.
Management of insecticide resistance in control of the Simulium damnosum complex by the
onchocerciasis control programme, West Africa: Potential use of negative correlation between
organophosphate resistance and pyrethroid susceptibility. Med. Vet. Entomol. 1(2): 137-146.

Labenia, J.S., D.H. Baldwin, B.L. French, J.W. Davis andN.L. Scholz. 2007. Behavioral
impairment and increased predation mortality in cutthroat trout exposed to carbaryl. Mar. Ecol.
Prog. Ser. 329: 1-11.

Laetz, C.A., D.H. Baldwin, T.K. Collier, V. Herbert, J.D. Stark andN.L. Scholz. 2009. The
synergistic toxicity of pesticide mixtures: Implications for risk assessment and the conservation
of endangered Pacific salmon. Environ. Health. Perspect. 117(3): 348-353.

Lakota, S.,  A. Raszka and I. Kupczak. 1981. Toxic effect of cartap, carbaryl, and propoxur on
some aquatic organisms. Acta Hydrobiol. 23(2): 183-190.

Lakshmi, G.V., C. Bharathi, B.V. Sandeep and B.V.S.S.R. Subba Rao. 2002. Toxicity of
endosulfan and carbaryl to a brackish water oligochaete Pontodrilus bermudensis. J. Ecophysiol
Occup. Health. 2(1/2): 39-43.
                                           72

-------
Landrum, P.P. and W.S. Dupuis. 1990. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of pentachlorophenol and
carbaryl to Pontoporeia hoyi andMysis relicta. In: Aquatic toxicology and risk assessment, 13th
Volume. Landis, W.G. and W.H. Van der Schalie (Eds.). ASTM STP 1096. American Society
for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 278-289.

Lange, M., W. Gebauer, J. Markl and R. Nagel. 1995. Comparison of testing acute toxicity on
embryo of zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio and RTG-2 cytotoxicity as possible alternatives to the
acute fish test. Chemosphere 30(11): 2087-2102.

Lata, S., K. Gopal andN.N. Singh. 2001. Toxicological evaluations and morphological studies in
a catfish Clarias batrachus exposed to carbaryl and carbofuran. J.  Ecophysiol. Occup. Health. 1:
121-130.

Lejczak, B. 1977. Effect of insecticides: chlorphenvinphos, carbaryl and propoxur on aquatic
organisms. Pol. Arch. Hydrobiol. 24(4): 583-591.

Li, G.C. and C.Y. Chen. 1981. Study on the acute toxicities of commonly used pesticides to two
kinds offish. K'O Hsueh Fa Chan Yueh K'an. 9(2): 146-152.

Lichtenstein, E.P., K.R. Schulz, R.F. Skrentny and Y. Tsukano. 1966. Toxicity and fate of
insecticide residues in water. Arch. Environ. Health. 12: 199-212.

Lin,  C.C., M.N.Y. Hui and S.H. Cheng. 2007. Toxicity and cardiac effects of carbaryl in early
developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 222(2): 159-168.

Lingaraja, T. and V.K. Venugopalan. 1978. Pesticide induced physiological and behavioural
changes in an estuarine teleost Theraponjarbua (Forsk). Fish. Technol.  15(2): 115-119.

Lintott, D.R.  1992a. Carbaryl technical: acute toxicity to the mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, under
flow-through test conditions. Laboratory Project ID: J9112004a. Study performed by Toxikon
Environmental Sciences for Rhone-Poulenc Ag Company.

Lintott, D.R.  1992b. Carbaryl technical: acute toxicity to the sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon
variegatus, under flow-through test conditions.  Study ID No. J9112004b. Performed by Toxikon
Environmental Sciences, Jupiter, FL. Submitted by Rhone-Poulenc Ag Company, Research
Triangle Park, NC.

Lintott, D.R.  1992c. Carbaryl technical: acute toxicity to the freshwater green alga, Selenastrum
capricormitum, under static test conditions. Laboratory Project ID No. J9112004c. Conducted by
Toxikon Environmental Sciences, Jupiter, FL. Submitted by Rhone-Poulenc Ag Company,
Research Triangle Park, NC.

Lintott, D.R.  1992d. Carbaryl technical: acute toxicity to the freshwater diatom, Navicula
pelliculosa, under static test conditions. Laboratory Project ID No. J9112004f. Conducted by
Toxikon Environmental Sciences, Jupiter, FL. Submitted by Rhone-Poulenc Ag Company,
Research Triangle Park, NC.
                                          73

-------
Little, E.E., R.D. Archeski, B.A. Flerov and V.I. Kozlovskaya. 1990. Behavioral indicators of
sublethal toxicity in rainbow trout. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 19(3): 380-385.

Little, E.E., R. Calfee, L. Cleveland, R. Skinker, A. Zaga-Parkhurst and M.G. Barren. 2000.
Photo-enhanced toxicity in amphibians: Synergistic interactions of solar ultraviolet radiation and
aquatic contaminants. J. Iowa Acad. Sci. 107(3): 67-71.

Liu, D.H.W. and J.M. Lee. 1975. Toxicity of selected pesticides to the bay mussel (Mytilus
edulis). EPA-660/3-75-016, U.S. EPA, Corvallis, OR. 102 p.

Lloyd, R. 1961. The toxicity of ammonia to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii Richardson). Water
Waste Treat. J. 8: 278-279.

Lohner, T.W. and S.W. Fisher.  1990. Effects of pH and temperature on the acute toxicity and
uptake of carbaryl in the midge, Chironomus riparius. Aquat. Toxicol. 16(4): 335-354.

Lowe, J.I. 1967. Effects of prolonged exposure to sevin on a estuarine fish, Leiostomus
xanthurusLacepede. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2(3): 147-155.

Lubick, N. 2007. Order matters in pesticide exposures. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41(15): 5169-
5170.

Lunn, C.R., D.P. Toews and DJ. Free.  1976. Effects of three pesticides on respiration, coughing,
and heart rates of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Can.  J. Zool. 54(2): 214-219.

Lydy, M.J., K.A. Bruner, D.M.  Fry and S.W. Fisher. 1990. Effects of sediment and the route of
exposure on the toxicity and accumulation of neutral lipophilic and moderately water-soluble
metabolizable compounds in the midge, Chironomus riparius. In: Aquatic toxicology and risk
assessment, 13th Volume. Landis, W.G. and W.H. Van der Schalie (Eds.). ASTM STP 1096.
American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 140-164.

Lysak, A. and J. Marcinek. 1972. Multiple toxic effect of simultaneous action of some chemical
substances on Fish. Rocz. NaukRoln. Ser. HRybactwo. 94(3): 53-63.

Ma, J., N. Lu, W. Qin, R. Xu, Y. Wang and X. Chen. 2006. Differential responses of eight
cyanobacterial and green algal species, to carbamate insecticides. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 63:
268-274.

Macek, KJ. 1975. Acute toxicity of pesticide mixtures to bluegills. Bull. Environ. Contam.
Toxicol. 14(6): 648-651.

Macek, KJ. and W.A. McAllister. 1970. Insecticide susceptibility of some common fish family
representatives. Trans. Am.  Fish. Soc. 99(1): 20-27.

MacKenzie, C.L. Jr. and L.W. Shearer. 1959. Chemical control of Polydorawebsteri and other
annelids inhabiting oyster shells. Proc. Nat.  Shellfish Assoc. 50: 105-111.
                                           74

-------
Majewski, M.S., C. Zamora, W.T. Foreman and C.R. Kratzer. 2006. Contribution of
atmospheric deposition to pesticide loads in surface water runoff. United States Geological
Survey. Open-file Report 2005-1307. Available at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1307/

Maly, M.P. 1980. A study of the effects of pesticide on single and mixed species cultures of
algae. Ph.D. Thesis. Northeastern University, Boston, MA.

Maly, M. and E. Ruber. 1983. Effects of pesticides on pure and mixed species cultures of salt
marsh pool algae. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 30: 464-472.

Manna, A.K. and JJ. Ghosh. 1987. Anaerobic toxicity of sublethal concentration of carbaryl
pesticide sevin to guppy Lebistes reticulatus. Environ. Ecol. 5(3): 447-450.

Manonmani, A.M., V. Vasuki and K. Balaraman.  1989. Establishment of a standard test method
for determining susceptibility of mesocyclops to different insecticides. Indian J.  Med. Res. 89:
43-47.

Mansour, S.A. and T.M. Hassan. 1993. Pesticides andDaphnia. 3. An analytical bioassay
method, using Ceriodaphnia quadrangula, for measuring extremely low concentrations of
insecticides in waters. Int. J. Toxicol. Occup. Environ. Health. 2(2): 34-39.

Marian, M.P., V. Arul and TJ. Pandian. 1983. Acute and chronic effects of carbaryl on survival,
growth, and metamorphosis in the bullfrog (Rana tigrind). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
12(3): 271-275.

Markey, K.L., A.H. Baird, C. Humphrey and A.P. Negri. 2007.  Insecticides and a fungicide
affect multiple coral life stages. Mar. Ecol. 330: 127-137.

Marking, L.L. and T.D. Bills.  1985. Effects of contaminants on toxicity of the lampricides TFM
and Bayer 73 to three species of fish. J. Great Lakes Res. 11: 171-178.

Marking, L.L., T.D. Bills and J.R. Crowther. 1984. Effects of five diets on sensitivity of rainbow
trout to eleven chemicals. Prog. Fish-Cult. 46: 1-5.

Martin, J.D., C.G. Crawford and SJ. Larson. 2003. Pesticides in streams: Preliminary results
from cycle I of the National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), 1992-2001.

Marutani, M. and V. Edirveerasingam.  2006. Influence of irrigation methods and an adjuvant on
the persistence of carbaryl on pakchoi.  J. Environ. Qual. 35: 1994-1998.

Massachusetts Pesticide Board. 1966. Report of the surveillance program conducted in
connection with an application of carbaryl (sevin) for the control of gypsy moth on Cape Cod,
Massachusetts. Mass. Pestic. Board Publ. No. 547. 75 p.

Mathur, D.S. 1974. Toxicity of sevin to certain fishes. J. Inl. Fish. Soc. India. 6:  0.
                                           75

-------
Matos, P., A. Fontainhas-Fernandes, F. Peixoto, J. Carrola and E. Rocha. 2007. Biochemical and
histological hepatic changes of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to carbaryl. Pestic.
Biochem. Physiol. 89(1): 73-80.

Matsumura, F. 1975. Toxicology of insecticides. In: Toxicology of insecticides, 1st edition,
Plenum Press, NY.

Mayer, F.L.  1987. Acute toxicity handbook of chemicals to estuarine organisms. U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, FL.
EPA/600/8-87/017.

Mayer, F.L. and M.R. Ellersieck. 1986. Manual of acute toxicity: Interpretation and data base for
410 chemicals and 66 species of freshwater animals. Resour. Publ. No. 160, U.S. Dep. Interior,
Fish Wildl. Serv., Washington, DC. 505 p.

Mazzeo, N., B. Dardano and A. Marticorena.  1998. Interclonal variation in response to simazine
stress in Lemna gibba (Lemnaceae). Ecotoxicol. 7: 151-160.

McCann, J.A. and R. Young. 1969. Sevin: toxicity to bluegill: test no. 142. U.S. Agricultural
Research Service, Pesticides Regulation Div., Animal Biology Laboratory.  Unpublished study;
CDL: 104387-A

McKim, J.M., P.K. Schmieder, G.J. Niemi, R.W. Carlson and T.R. Henry. 1987. Use of
respiratory-cardiovascular responses of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerf) in identifying acute
toxicity syndromes in fish: Part 2. Malathion, carbaryl, acrolein and benzaldehyde. Environ.
Toxicol. Chem. 6: 313-328.

McLeese, D.W., V. Zitko and M.R. Peterson. 1979. Structure-lethality relationships for phenols,
anilines and other aromatic compounds in shrimp and clams. Chemosphere 8(2): 53-57.

McNulty, E.W., FJ. Dwyer, M.R. Ellersieck, E.I. Greer, C.G. Ingersoll and C.F. Rabeni. 1999.
Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the
amphipod Hyalella azteca. Environ. Toxicol.  Chem. 18(3): 544-548.

Megharaj, M., K. Venkateswarlu and A.S. Rao.  1989. The use of unicellular soil green algae for
insecticide bioassay. J. Microbiol. Methods 10(2): 119-122.

Metcalf, R.L. and J.R.  Sanborn. 1975. Pesticides and environmental quality in Illinois. D. Nat.
Hist. Surv. Bull. 31(9):  381-436.

Metts, B.S., W.A. Hopkins and J.P. Nestor. 2005. Interaction of an insecticide with larval density
in pond-breeding salamanders (Ambystomd). Fresh. Biol. 50: 685-696.

Meyer, F.P. 1981. Quarterly report of progress, April-June, 1981. National Fishery Research
Laboratory, LaCrosse, Wisconsin and Southeastern Fish Control Laboratory, Warm Springs,
Georgia. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv.
                                           76

-------
Mills, N.E. and R.D. Semlitsch. 2004. Competition and predation mediate the indirect effects of
an insecticide on southern leopard frogs. Ecol. Appl. 14(4): 1041-1054.

Mishra, D.K., P.C. Tripathy and A.K. Hota. 1991. Toxicity of kilex carbaryl to a fresh water
teleost Channapunctatus (Bloch). J. Appl. Zool. Res. 2(2): 96-98.

Mishra, D.K., K. Bohidar, A.K. Pandey. 2006. Responses of interregnal cells of freshwater
teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch), exposed to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl and cartap.  J.
Ecophysiol. Occup. Hlth. 6: 137-141.

Mitsuhashi, J., T.D.C.  Grace and D.F. Waterhouse. 1970. Effects of insecticides on cultures of
insect cells. Entomol. Exp. Appl.  13: 327-341.

Mora, P., X. Michel and J.F. Narbonne. 1999. Cholinesterase activity as potential biomarker in
two bivalves. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 7: 253-260.

Mora, B.R., L. Martinez-Tabche, E. Sanchez-Hidalgo, G.C. Hernandez, M.C.G. Ruiz and F.F.
Murrieta. 2000. Relationship between toxicokinetics of carbaryl and effect on
acetylcholinesterase activity mPomaceapatula snail. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 46: 234-239.

Morgan, W.S.G.  1975. Monitoring pesticides by means of changes in electric potential caused by
fish opercular rhythms. Prog. Water Technol. 7(2): 33-40.

Morison, R. 1984. The acute and sublethal effects of the pesticides carbaryl and malathion on
partial ethograms of the yellow bullhead (Ictalurus natalis (Lesueur)). Ph.D.  Thesis.  University
of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.  Available from University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor,
MI.  Order No. 8411114.

Mount, M.E. and F.W. Oehme. 1981. Carbaryl:  a literature review. Residue Reviews. (80): 1-64.

Muirhead-Thomson, R.C. 1973. Laboratory evaluation of pesticide impact on stream
invertebrates. Freshwater Biol. 3(5):  479-498.

Mulla, M.S., R.L. Norland, D.M. Fanara, H.A. Darwazeh and D.W. McKean. 1971. Control  of
chironomid midges in  recreational lakes. J. Econ. Entomol. 64(1): 300-307.

Mulla, M.S., R.L. Norland, W.E. Westlake, B. Dell and J.S. Amant. 1973. Aquatic midge
larvicides, their efficacy and residues in water, soil, and fish in a warm-water lake. Environ.
Entomol. 2(1): 58-65.

Muncy, RJ. and  A.D.  Oliver.  1963. Toxicity often insecticides to the red crawfish,
Procambarus clarki (Girard). Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 92(4): 428-431.

Murray, H.E. and R.K. Guthrie. 1980. Effects of carbaryl, diazinon and malathion on native
aquatic populations of microorganisms. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 24(4): 535-542.

Nalecz-Jawecki,  G. and J. Sawicki.  1999. Spirotox - a new tool for testing the toxicity of volatile
compounds. Chemosphere. 38(14): 3211-3218.

                                           77

-------
Nalecz-Jawecki, G, E. Kucharczyk and J. Sawicki. 2002. The sensitivity of protozoan
Spirostomum ambiguum to selected pesticides. Fresenius Environ. Bull. 11(2): 98-101.

Naqvi, S.M.Z. 1973. Toxicity of twenty-three insecticides to a tubificid worm Branchiura
sowerbyi from the Mississippi delta. J. Econ. Entomol. 66(1): 70-74.

Naqvi, S.M. and D.E. Ferguson. 1968. Pesticide tolerances of selected freshwater invertebrates.
J. Mississippi Acad. Sci. 14:  121-127.

Naqvi, S.M. and D.E. Ferguson. 1970. Levels of insecticide resistance in fresh-water shrimp,
Palaemonetes kadiakensis. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 99(4): 696-699.

Naqvi, S.M. and R. Hawkins. 1988. Toxicity of selected insecticides (thiodan, security, spartan,
and sevin) to mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 40(5): 779-784.

Nimmo, D.R., T.L. Hamaker, E. Matthews and J.C. Moore. 1981. An overview of the acute and
chronic effects of first and second generation pesticides on an estuarine mysid. In: Biological
monitoring of marine pollutants. Vernberg, F.J., A. Calabrese,  F.P.  Thurberg and W.B. Vernberg
(Eds.). Academic Press, Inc., NY. pp. 3-19.

Nishiuchi, Y. 1976. Toxicity of formulated pesticides to some  fresh water organisms.  Aquicult.
24(3):  102-105.

Nishiuchi, Y. 1977. Toxicity of formulated pesticides to some  freshwater organisms. Aquicult.
25(3):  105-107.

Nishiuchi, Y. and K. Asano.  1978. Toxicity of formulated agrochemicals to fresh water
organisms. Suisan Zoshoku. 26(1): 26-30.

Nishiuchi, Y. and K. Asano.  1981. Comparison of pesticide susceptibility of colored carp with
Japanese common carp. Bull. Agric. Chem. Insp. Stn. 21:61-63.

Nishiuchi, Y. and Y. Hashimoto. 1967. Toxicity of pesticide ingredients to some fresh water
organisms. Sci. Pest Control. 32(1): 5-11.

Nishiuchi, Y. and K. Yoshida. 1972. Toxicities of pesticides to some fresh water snails. Bull.
Agric.  Chem. Insp. Stn. 12: 86-92.

Nogrady, T. and J. Keshmirian. 1986. Rotifer neuropharmacology -1. Cholinergic drug effects
on oviposition of Philodina acuticornis (Rotifera, Aschelminthes).  Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
83C(2): 335-338.

Nollenberger, E.L.  1981. Toxicant-induced changes in brain, gill, liver, and kidney of brook trout
exposed to carbaryl, atrazine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid,  and parathion: a cytochemical
study. Ph.D. Thesis. The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA. 213 pg.

Norberg-King, TJ. 1989. An evaluation of the fathead minnow seven-day  subchronic test for
estimating chronic toxicity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8(11): 1075-1089.

                                           78

-------
Obulakondaiah, M., C. Sreenivasulu and K. Venkateswarlu. 1993. Nontarget effects of carbaryl
and its hydrolysis product, 1-naphthol, towards Anabaena torulosa. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int.
29(4): 703-710.

Omkar and R. Murti. 1985. Toxicity of some pesticides to the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium
dayanum (Henderson) (Decapoda, Caridea). Crustaceana. 49(1): 1-6.

Omkar and G.S. Shukla.  1985. Toxicity of insecticides to Macrobrachium lamarrei (H. Milne
Edwards) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae). Crustaceana. 48(1): 1-5.

Oris, J.T., R.W. Winner and M.V. Moore. 1991. A four-day survival and reproduction toxicity
test for Ceriodaphnia dubia. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 10(2): 217-224.

Osman, M. and M.  Belal. 1980. Persistence of carbaryl in canal water. J. Environ.  Sci. Health B.
15: 307-311.

Overmyer, J.P., K.L. Armbrust and R. Noblet. 2003. Susceptibility of black fly larvae (Diptera:
Simuliidae) to lawn-care insecticides individually and as mixtures. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
22(7): 1582-1588.

Owen, B.B. 1967. Aquatic insect populations reduced by aerial spraying of insecticide sevin.
Penn. Acad. Sci. 40(2): 63-69.

Padhy, R.N. and K. Mohapatra. 2001. Toxicity of two carbamate insecticides to the
cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 and the computations of partial lethal concentrations by
the probit method. Microbios 106: 81-95.

Palanichamy, S., S. Arunachalam and P.  Baskaran. 1989. Effect of pesticides on protein
metabolism in the freshwater catfish Mystus vittatus. J. Ecobiol. 2(2): 90-97.

Palawski, D., J.B. Hunn and FJ. Dwyer.  1985. Sensitivity of young striped bass to organic and
inorganic contaminants in fresh and saline waters. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114(5): 748-753.

Panigrahy, K.C. and R.N. Padhy. 2000. Toxicity of carbamate pesticides to cells, heterocysts and
akinetes of the  cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. Arch. Hydrobiol. 134: 95-115.

Pant, J C. and T.  Singh.  1983. Inducement of metabolic dysfunction by carbamate  and
organophosphorus compounds in a fish, Puntius conchonius. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 20(3):
294-298.

Parker, B.L., I.E. Dewey and C.A. Bache. 1970. Carbamate bioassay using Daphnia magna. J.
Econ. Entomol. 63(3): 710-714.

Parsons, J.T. and G.A. Surgeoner. 1991.  Effects of exposure time on the acute toxicities of
permethrin, fenitrothion, carbaryl and carbofuran to mosquito larvae. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
10: 1219-1227.
                                          79

-------
Patil, P.S., M.P. Gadkari, K.B. Bhale and K.M. Kulkarni. 1992. Toxicity of carbamate
insecticides to freshwater crab Paratelphusa jacquemontii (Rathbun). Environ. Ecol. 10(2): 397-
399.

Patnaik, L. and A.K. Patra. 2006. Haemoatopoietic alterations induced by carbaryl in Glorias
batrachus (Linn.). J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag. 10(3): 5-7.

Pauli, B.D., J.A. Perrault and S.L. Money. 2000. RAIL: A database of reptile and amphibian
toxicology literature. Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 357, Natl. Wildl. Res. Ctr. 494 p.

Pelletier, E., P. Sargian, J. Payet and S. Demers. 2006. Symposium-in-print: UV effects on
aquatic and coastal ecosystems. Ecotoxicological effects of combined UVB and organic
contaminants in coastal waters: A review. Photochemistry Photobiol. 82: 981-993.

Perry, J.A. 1979. Pesticide and PCB residues in the Upper Snake River ecosystem, southeastern
Idaho, following the collapse of the TetonDam 1976. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 8: 139-
159.

Pesando, D., P. Huitorel, V. Dolcini, C. Angelini, P. Guidetti and C. Falugi. 2003. Biological
targets of neurotoxic pesticides analyzed by alteration of developmental events in the
Mediterranean sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. Mar. Environ. Res. 55: 39-57.

Pesch, C.E. and G.L. Hoffman. 1982. Adaption of the polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata to
copper. Mar. Environ. Res. 6(4): 307-317.

Peterson, J. L., P. C. Jepson, and J. J. Jenkins. 2001a. Effect of varying pesticide exposure
duration and concentration on the toxicity of carbaryl to two field-collected stream invertebrates,
Calineuria californica (Plecoptera: Perlidae) and Cinygma sp. (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae).
Environ.  Toxicol. Chem. 20(10): 2215-2223.

Peterson, J. L., P. C. Jepson, J. J.  Jenkins. 2001b. A test system to evaluate the susceptibility of
Oregon native stream invertebrates to triclopyr and carbaryl. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20(10):
2205-2214.

Peterson, R.H. 1976. Temperature selection of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo solar) as
influenced by various toxic substances. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33(8):  1722-1730.

Pfeiffer, C.J., B. Qiu and C.H. Cho. 1997. Electron microscopic perspectives of gill pathology
induced by 1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate in the goldfish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus). Histol.
Histopathol. 12(3): 645-653.

Phipps, G.L. and G.W. Holcombe. 1985. A method for aquatic multiple species toxicant testing:
Acute toxicity of 10 chemicals to 5 vertebrates and 2 invertebrates. Environ. Pollut. Ser. A 38(2):
141-157.
                                           80

-------
Phipps, G.L. and G.W. Holcombe. 1990. Toxicity of sevin (carbaryl) to Chinook salmon. U.S.
EPA, Duluth, MN. (Memorandum to L. Brooke, Center of Lake Superior Environmental Studies,
University of Wisconsin-Superior, WI. September 11).

Pickering, Q.H., J.M. Lazorchak and K.L. Winks. 1996. Subchronic sensitivity of one-, four-,
and seven-day-old fathead minnow (Pimephalespromelas) larvae to five toxicants. Environ.
Toxicol. Chem. 15(3): 353-359.

Post, G. and T.R. Schroeder. 1971. The toxicity of four insecticides to four salmonid species.
Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 6(2): 144-155.

Pozarycki, S.V. 1999. Sublethal effects of estuarine carbaryl applications on juvenile English
sole (Pleuronectes vetulus). Ph.D. Thesis. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. 105 pg.

Prescott, L.M., M.K. Kubovec and D. Tryggestad.  1977. The effects of pesticides,
polychlorinated biphenyls and metals on the growth and reproduction of Acanthamoeba
castellanii. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 18(1): 29-34.

Pridgeon, J.W., R.M. Pereira, J.J. Becnel, S.A. Allan, G.C. Clark and KJ. Linthicum. 2008.
Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say
to 19 pesticides with different modes of action. J. Med. Entomol. 45(1): 82-87.

Puglis, HJ. and M.D. Boone. 2007. Effects of fertilizer, an insecticide, and a pathogenic fungus
on hatching and survival of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
26(10): 2198-2201.

Rajagopal, B.S., G.P. Brahmaprakash, B.R. Reddy, U.D. Singh and N.  Sethunathan. 1984. Effect
and persistence of selected carbamate pesticides in soils. In: Reviews of environmental
contamination and toxicology. Gunther, F.A. and J.D.  Gunter (Eds). Residue Rev. 93: 87-203.

Rajendran, N. and V.K. Venugopalan. 1983. Effect of pesticides on phytoplankton production.
Mahasagar-Bull. Nat. Inst. Oceanog. 16(2): 193-197.

Ramachandran, S., N. Rajendran, R. Nandakumar and V.K. Venugopalan. 1984. Effect of
pesticides on photosynthesis and respiration of marine macrophytes. Aquat. Bot.  19: 395-399.

Ramakrishnan, M., S. Arunachalam and  S. Palanichamy. 1997a. Sublethal effects of pesticides
on feeding energetics in the air breathing fish Channa striatus. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monitor.
7(3): 169-175.

Ramakrishnan, M., S. Arunachalam and  S. Palanichamy. 1997b. Sublethal effects of pesticides
on physiological energetics of freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. J. Ecotoxicol.
Environ. Monit. 7(4): 237-242.

Ramaswami, M. 1990. Adaptive trends in lipid levels of liver and muscle of Sarotherodon
mossambicus (Peters) exposed to sevin. J. Ecobiol. 2(1): 56-61.
                                          81

-------
Ramaswamy, M. 1987. Effects of sevin on blood free amino acid levels of the fish Sarotherodon
mossambicus. Environ. Biol. 5(4): 633-637.

Ramaswamy, M. and R.U. Maheswari. 1993. Comparative lactic acidosis in fishes following
pesticide stress. Sci. Total Environ. (Suppl.): 877-885.

Ramaswamy, M., P. Thangavel and N.P. Selvam. 1999. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
(GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) enzyme activities in different tissues of
Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters) exposed to a carbamate pesticide, carbaryl. Pest. Sci. 55:
1217-1221.

Rao, M.B. 1981. Effect of y-hexachloran and sevin on the survival of the Black Sea mussel,
MytilusgalloprovincialisLam. Hydrobiol. 78: 33-37.

Rao, K.R.S.S. 1987. Variations in the nitrogen products of Chcmnapunctatus augmented by
interaction of carbaryl and phenthoate in the media. J. Environ. Biol. 8(2-Suppl.): 173-177.

Rao, G.S. and T. Kannupandi. 1990. Acute toxicity of three pesticides and their effect on the
behavior of the edible crab Scylla serrate (Forskal). Mahasagar. 23(2): 159-162.

Rao, K.R.S. and J.C. Rao. 1987. Independent and combined action of carbaryl and phethoate on
snake head, Channapunctatus (Bloch). Curr. Sci. 56(7): 331-332.

Rao, D.M., A.S. Murty and P.A. Swarup. 1984a. Relative toxicity of technical grade and
formulated carbaryl and 1-naphthol to, and carbaryl-induced biochemical changes in the fish
Cirrhinus mrigala. Environ. Pollut. Ser. A 34(1): 47-54.

Rao, K.S.P., S.M. Basha and K.V.R. Rao.  1984b. Differential action of malathion, carbaryl and
BHC on acetyl-cholinesterase activity of ateleost, Tilapia mossambica (Peters). J. Environ. Biol.
5(4): 241-247.

Rao, K.R.S.S., K.S.P. Rao, I.K.A. Sahib and K.V.R. Rao. 1985a. Combined action of carbaryl
and phenthoate on a freshwater fish (Channapunctatus Bloch).  Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf 10(2):
209-217.

Rao, K.S.P., K.R.S.S. Rao, I.K.A. Sahib and K.V.R. Rao. 1985b. Combined action of carbaryl
and phenthoate on tissue lipid derivatives of murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch). Ecotoxicol.
Environ.  Saf. 9(1): 107-111.

Rao, K.V.R., S. Ghouselazam and P.  Surendranath. 1991. Inhibition and recovery of selected
target enzyme activities in tissues of penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricus),
exposed to different insecticides. Indian. J. Exp. Bio. 29(5): 489-491.

Rawash,  LA., LA. Gaaboub, P.M. El-Gayar and A.Y. El-Shazli. 1975. Standard curves for
nuvacron, malathion, sevin,  DDT and kelthane tested against the mosquito Culexpipiens L. and
the microcrustacean Daphnia magna Straus. Toxicol. 4(2):  133-144.
                                           82

-------
Ray, S.K. and M.K. Poddar. 1983. Carbaryl induced elevation of corticosterone level and
cholinergic mechanism. Biol. Sci. Rep. 3: 973-977.

Razmi, M.S., S.S. Yazdani, S.P. Singh, S.C. Gupta and S.F. Hameed. 1991. Persistence of
toxicity of some insecticides against the neonate larvae ofLeucinodes orbonalis Guen. J.
Entomol. Res.  15(3): 218-221.

Reddy, M.S. and K.V.R. Rao. 1991a. Tissue glycolytic potentials of penaeid prawn,
Metapenaeus monoceros during methylparathion, carbaryl and aldrin exposure. Biochem. Int.
23(2): 367-375.

Reddy, M.S. and K.V.R. Rao. 1991b. Methylparathion, carbaryl and aldrin impact on nitrogen
metabolism of prawn, Penaeus indicus. Biochem. Int. 23(2): 389-396.

Reddy, M.S. and K.V.R. Rao. 1992. Toxicity of selected insecticides to the penaeid prawn,
Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 48(4): 622-629.

Reddy, M.S., P. Jayaprada and K.V.R. Rao. 1990. Recovery of carbaryl inhibited AChE in
penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros. Biochem. Int. 22(1): 189-198.

Regoli, F., M. Nigro and E. Orlando. 1992. Effects of copper and cadmium on the presence of
renal concretions in the bivalve Donacilla cornea. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 102C(1):  189-192.

Relyea,  R.A. and N. Mills. 2001. Predator-induced stress makes the pesticide carbaryl more
deadly to gray  treefrog tadpoles (Hyla versicolor). PNAS. 98(5): 2491-2496.

Relyea,  R.A. 2004. Growth and survival  of five amphibian species exposed to combinations of
pesticides. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23(7): 1737-1742.

Relyea,  R.A. 2005. The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and
productivity of aquatic communities. Ecol. Appl. 15(2): 618-627.

Relyea,  R.A. 2006. The effects of pesticides, pH, and predatory stress on amphibians under
mesocosm conditions. Ecotoxicol. 15: 503-511.

Relyea,  R.A. 2009. A cocktail of contaminants: How mixtures of pesticides at low
concentrations affect aquatic communities. Oecologia.  159: 363-376.

Relyea,  R.A. and N. Mills. 2001. Predator-induced stress makes the pesticide carbaryl more
deadly to gray  treefrog tadpoles (Hyla versicolor). PNAS 98(5): 2491-2496.

Rettich, F. 1977. The susceptibility of mosquito larvae to eighteen insecticides in
Czechoslovakia. Mosq. News 37(2): 252-257.

Riad, Y., H.M. El-Nahas, E.M. El-Kady  and A. A. El-Bardan. 1992. Aromatic sulphides,
sulphoxides, and sulphones as larvicides for Culexpipiens molestus andAedes caspius (Diptera:
Culicidae).  J. Econ. Entomol. 85(6): 2096-2099.
                                          83

-------
Ribera, D., J.F. Narbonne, C. Arnaud and M.S. Denis. 2001. Biochemical responses of the
earthworm Eiseniafetida andrei exposed to contaminated artificial soil: Effects of carbaryl. Soil
Biol. Biochem. 33: 1123-1130.

Rifaat, M.A., H.M. Khalil, A.M. Gad and S. Sadek. 1974. Effect of sublethal concentrations of
the insecticides DDT, abate and sevin applied to 3rd stage larvae of Anophelespharoensis on
malaria cycle in the adult mosquito. J. Egypt. Public Health Assoc. 49(6): 329-340.

Roberts, D. 1975. The effects of pesticides on byssus formation in the common mussel, Mytilus
edulis. Environ. Pollut. 8: 241-254.

Rohr, J.R., A.A. Elskus, B.S. Shepherd, P.H. Crowley, T.M. McCarthy, J.H. Niedzwiecki, T.
Sager, A. Sih, B.D. Palmer. 2003. Lethal and sublethal effects of atrazine, carbaryl, endosulfan,
and octylphenol on the streamside salamander (Ambystoma barbouri). Environ. Toxicol.
Contam. Chem. 22(10): 2385-2392.

Rohr, J.R., T.R. Raffel, S.K. Sessions and P.J. Hudson. 2008. Understanding the net effects of
pesticides on amphibian trematode infections. Ecol. Appl. 18(7): 1743-1753.

Rossini, G.D.B. and A.E. Ronco. 1996. Acute toxicity bioassay using Daphnia obtusa as a test
organism. Environ. Toxicol. Water Qual.: Int. J. 11(3): 255-258.

Ruber, E. and J. Baskar.  1968. Sensitivities of selected microcrustacea to eight mosquito
toxicants. Proc. N. J. Mosq. Exterm. Assoc. 55: 99-103.

Russom, C.L., S.P. Bradbury, SJ. Broderius, D.E. Hammermeister and R.A.  Drummond. 1997.
Predicting modes of toxic action from chemical structure: Acute toxicity in the fathead minnow
(Pimephalespromelets). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16 (5): 948-967.

Rybakova, M.N. 1966. On the toxic effect of sevin on animals. Gig. Sanit. 3: 42-47.

Rzehak, K., A. Maryanska-Nadachowska and M. Jordan. 1977. The effect of karbatox 75, a
carbaryl insecticide, upon the development of tadpoles ofRana temporaria andXenopus laevis.
Folia Biol. (Krakow). 25(4): 391-399.

Sadek, S., A.M. Gad, M.A. Rifaat and H.M. Khalil. 1974. Effect of sublethal concentrations of
the insecticides DDT, abate and sevin, applied to 3rd stage larvae of Culexpipiens molestus on
certain biological aspects of the mosquito. J. Egypt. Public Health Assoc. 49(6):  314-328.

Sahai, Y.N. and R. Gupta. 1992. Residue analysis of some pesticides in the brain of a teleost fish
Heteropneustesfossilis (Bloch). J. Tissue Res. 2(1): 35-41.

Sahu, J., M.K. Das and S.P. Adhikary. 1992. Reaction of blue-green algae of rice-field soils to
pesticide application. Trop. Agric. 69(4): 362-364.

Sakamoto, M., K.H. Chang and T. Hanazato. 2005. Differential sensitivity of a predacious
cladoceran (Leptodora) and its prey (the cladoceran Bosmina) to the insecticide carbaryl: Results
of acute toxicity tests. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 75(1): 28-33.

                                           84

-------
Sakamoto, M., K. Chang and T. Hanazato. 2006. Inhibition of development of anti-predator
morphology in the small cladoceran Bosmina by an insecticide: Impact of an anthropogenic
chemical on prey-predator interactions. Freshwater Biol. 51: 1974-1983.

Sampath, K. and P. Elango. 1997. Lipid metabolism in common frog (Rana tigrina) exposed to
carbaryl. J. Environ. Biol. 18(1): 23-26.

Sampath, K., P. Elango and S. Thanalakshmi.  1992. Effect of carbaryl (sevin) on the
carbohydrate metabolism of the common frogRana tigrina. Environ. Ecol. 10(2): 278-281.

Sampath, K., P. Elango and V. Roseline. 1995. Effect of carbaryl on the levels of protein and
amnioacids of common frogRana tigrina. J. Environ. Bio. 16(1): 61-65.

Sampath, K., JJ. Kennedy and R. James. 2002. Pesticide impact on excretory physiology of the
common frog, Rana tigrina. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 68: 652-659.

Sanders, H.O. 1969. Toxicity of pesticides to the crustacean Gammarus lacustris. Tech. Pap. No.
25, U.S. D.I., Bur. Sports Fish. Wildl., Fish Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C. 18 p.

Sanders, H.O. 1972. Toxicity of some insecticides to four species of malacostracan crustaceans.
Tech. Pap. No. 66, Bur. Sports Fish. Wildl., Fish Wildl. Serv., U.S. D.I., Washington, D.C. 19 p.

Sanders, H.O. and O.B. Cope. 1966. Toxicities of several pesticides to two species of
cladocerans. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 95(2): 165-169.

Sanders, H.O. and O.B. Cope. 1968. The relative toxicities of several pesticides to naiads of
three species of stoneflies. Limnol. Oceanogr. 13(1): 112-117.

Sanders, H.O., M.T. Finley and J.B. Hunn. 1983. Acute toxicity of six forest insecticides to three
aquatic invertebrates and four fishes. Tech. Pap. No. 110, U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Washington,
D.C. pp.1-5.

Santharam, K.R., B. Thayumanavan and S. Krishnaswamy. 1976. Toxicity of some insecticides
to Daphnia carinata King, and important link in the food chain in the freshwater ecosystems.
Indian!. Ecol. 3:70-73.

Sastry, K.V. and A.A. Siddiqui. 1982. Chronic toxic effects of the carbamate pesticide sevin on
carbohydrate metabolism in a freshwater snakehead fish, Channapunctatus. Toxicol. Lett.
14(1/2): 123-130.

Sastry, K.V. and A.A. Siddiqui. 1985. Effect of the carbamate pesticide sevin on the intestinal
absorption of some nutrients in the teleost fish, Channa punctatus. Water Air Soil Pollut. 24(3):
247-252.

Sastry, K.V., A.A. Siddiqui and M. Samuel. 1988. Acute and chronic toxic effects of the
carbamate pesticide sevin on  some haematological, biochemical and enzymatic parameters in the
fresh water teleost fish Channa punctatus. ActaHydrochim. Hydrobiol. 16: 625-631.
                                           85

-------
Saxena, P.K. and S. Aggarwal. 1970. Toxicity of some insecticides to the Indian cat-fish,
Heteropneustesfossilis (Bloch). Anat. Anz. Bd. 127: 502-503.

Saxena, P.K. and M. Garg. 1978. Effect of insecticidal pollution on ovarian recrudescence in the
fresh water teleost Channapunctatus (Bloch.). Indian J. Exp. Biol. 16: 689-691.

Saxena, P.K., V.P.  Singh, J.K. Kondal and G.L. Soni. 1989. Effects of some pesticides on in-
vitro lipid and protein synthesis by the liver of the freshwater teleost, Channa punctatus (Bl.).
Environ. Pollut. 58: 273-280.

Sayce, C.S. and J.S. Chambers. 1969. Observations on potential uptake of sevin by Pacific
oysters. Tech. Rep. No. 1, Washington State Dep. Fish. pp. 18-24.

Scaps, P.,  S. Demuynck, M. Descamps and A. Dhainaut. 1997. Effects of organophosphate and
carbamate pesticides on acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase activities of the
polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 33(2): 203-208.

Scaps, P., M. Descamps and S. Demuynck. 2002. Biochemical and physiological responses
induced by toxics in annelida: utilization as biomarkers. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 9: 165-173.

Schacht, S., C. Sinder, F. Pfeifer and J. Klein. 1999. Bioassays for risk assessment of coal
conversion products. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 52(1): 127-130.

Schoettger, R.A. and W.L. Mauck. 1978. Toxicity of experimental forest insecticides to fish and
aquatic invertebrates. In: Proc.  1st and 2nd USA-USSR symposium on effects of pollutants upon
aquatic ecosystems. Mount, D.I., W.R.  Swain and N.K. Ivanikiw (Eds.). Vol. 1, Symp. Oct. 21-
23, 1975, Vol. 2, USSR Symposium, June 22-26, 1976, Duluth, MN. pp. 2-17

Scholz, N.L., N.K.  Truelove, J.S. Labenia, D.H. Baldwin and T.K. Collier. 2006. Dose-additive
inhibition of chinook salmon acetylcholinesterase activity by mixtures of organophosphate and
carbamate insecticides. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25(5): 1200-1207.

Schomburg, C.J., D.E. Glotfelty and J.N. Seiber. 1991. Pesticide occurrence and distribution in
fog collected near Monterey, California. Environ. Sci. Technol. 25(1):  155-160.

Schulz, R. 2004. Field studies on exposure, effects, and risk mitigation of aquatic nonpoint-
source insecticide pollution: A review. J. Environ. Qual. 33: 419-448.

Scott, J.G. and G.P. Georghiou. 1986. Malathion-specific resistance in anopheles Stephens! from
Pakistan. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 2(1): 29-32.

Scott, G.R. and K.A. Sloman. 2004. The effects of environmental pollutants on complex fish
behavior: integrating behavioural and physiological indicators of toxicity. Aquat. Toxicol. 68:
369-392.

Seiffer, E.A. and H.F. Schoof. 1967. Tests of 15 experimental molluscicides against Australorbis
glabratus. U.S.  Public Health Rep. 82(9): 833-839.
                                           86

-------
Selvakumar, S., P. Geraldine, S. Shanju and T. Jayakumar. 2005. Stressor-specific induction of
heat shock protein 70 in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (H. Milne Edwards)
exposed to the pesticides endosulfan and carbaryl. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 82: 125-132.

Semlitsch, R.D., C.M. Bridges and A.M. Welch. 2000. Genetic variation and a fitness tradeoff in
the tolerance of gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles to the insecticide carbaryl. Oecologia.
125: 179-185.

Seuge, J. and R. Bluzat. 1979a. Chronic toxicity of carbaryl and lindane to the freshwater
mollusc Lymnea stagnalis L. Water Res. 13(3): 285-293.

Seuge, J. and R. Bluzat. 1979b. Study of the chronic toxicity of two insecticides (carbaryl and
lindane) toward the F-sub-1 generation of Lymnea stagnalis L. (Mollusca, Gasteropoda,
Pulmonata). 2. Consequences on the reproductive potential. Hydrobiol. 66(1): 25-31.

Seuge, J. and R. Bluzat. 1983. Chronic toxicity of three insecticides (carbaryl, fenthion and
lindane) in the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Hydrobiol. 106(1): 65-72.

Shacklock, P.P. and G.B. Croft. 1981. Effect of grazers on Chondrus crispus in culture.
Aquacult. 22: 331-342.

Shaikila, I, P.  Thangavel and M. Ramaswamy. 1993. Adaptive trends in tissue acid and alkaline
phosphatases of Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters) under sevin toxicity. Indian J. Health.
35(1): 36-39.

Shamaan, N.A., R. Hamidah, J. Jeffries, AJ. Hashim and W.Z. Wan Hgah. 1993. Insecticide
toxicity, glutathione transferases and carboxylesterase activities in the larva of theAedes
mosquito. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 104C(1): 107-110.

Shanmugam, M., M. Venkateshwarlu and A. Naveed. 2000. Effect of pesticides on the
freshwater crab Barytelphusa cunicularis (West Wood). J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit. 10(4):
273-279.

Sharma, B. 1999. Effect of carbaryl on some biochemical constituents of the blood and liver of
Clarias batrachus, a fresh-water teleost. J. Toxicol. Sci. 24(3): 157-164.

Sharma, B. and K. Gopal. 1995. Changes in lactic acid content and activity of lactate
dehydrogenase in Clarias batrachus, exposed to carbaryl.  Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 47(2):  89-95.

Sharma, B., K. Gopal and Y.P. Khanna. 1993. Interaction of carbaryl with acetylcholinesterase
of the teleost, Clarias batrachus. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 39(4): 147-152.

Shea, P J. 1977. Testing of chemical and microbial insecticides for safety...some techniques.
Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 23(3): 176-178.

Shea, T.B. and E.S. Berry.  1983. Toxicity of carbaryl and  1-naphthol to goldfish (Carassius
auratus) and killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 31(5): 526-529.
                                           87

-------
 Sherstneva, L.A. 1978. Effect of some pesticides on the fresh water crustaceans. Rybn. Khoz.
 (Mosc.). 2: 33-35.

 Shrivastava, S. and S. Singh. 2003. Toxic effect of carbaryl on glucose level in the muscles of
 Heteropneustesfossilis. Nat. Environ. Pollut. Technol. 2(1): 35-37.

 Shrivastava, S. and S. Singh. 2004. Changes in protein content in the muscle of Heteropneustes
fossilis exposed to carbaryl. J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit. 14(2): 119-122.

 Shrivastava, S., S.  Singh and A. Khare. 2005. Study of cholesterol content in muscle of carbaryl
 exposed Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch.). Nat. Environ. Pollut. Technol. 4(2):  223-225.

 Shukla, G.S. and P.K. Mishra. 1980. Bioassay studies on effects of carbamate insecticides on
 dragonfly nymphs. Indian J. Environ. Health 22(4): 328-335.

 Shukla, G.S. and Omkar. 1984. Insecticide toxicity toMacrobrachium lamarrei (H. Milne
 Edwards) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae). Crustaceana. 46(3): 283-287.

 Shukla, G.S., Omkar and V.B. Upadhyay. 1982. Acute toxicity of few pesticides to an aquatic
 insect, Ranatra elongata (Fabr.). J. Adv.  Zool. 3(2): 148-150.

 Sikka, H.C. and C.P. Rice. 1974. Interaction of selected pesticides with marine microorganisms.
 Report No. TR-74-562. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. 78 pg.

 Sikka, H.C., S. Miyazaki and C.P. Rice. 1973. Metabolism of selected pesticides by marine
 microorganisms. Report No. SURC-TR-73-520. Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. 16 pg.

 Simon, K.A. 1982. Acute toxicity of carbaryl, alpha naphthol and sevin-4-oil tank mix to
 Cambarus bartoni and Orconectes virilis. In: Environmental monitoring report from the 1982
 Maine cooperative spruce budworm suppression project. Maine Forest Service, Dept. of
 Conservation,  Augusta, ME. pp. 61-91.

 Singh, O. and R.A. Agarwal. 1981. Toxicity of certain pesticides to two economic species of
 snails in northern India. J. Econ. Entomol. 74: 568-571.

 Singh, D.K. and R.A. Agarwal. 1983a. In vivo and in vitro studies on synergism with
 anticholinesterase pesticides in the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
 12(4):  483-487.

 Singh, D.K. and R.A. Agarwal. 1983b. Inhibition kinetics of certain organophosphorus and
 carbamate pesticides on acetylcholinesterase from the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Toxicol. Lett.
 19: 313-319.

 Singh, O. and R.A. Agarwal. 1984. Carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides against snails.
 Pesticides. 18: 30-33.
                                           88

-------
Singh, D.K. and R.A. Agarwal. 1986a. Synergistic effect of sulfoxide with carbaryl on the in
vivo acetylcholinesterase activity and carbohydrate metabolism of the snail Lymnaea acuminata.
Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 14(4): 421-427.

Singh, D.K. and R.A. Agarwal. 1986b. Toxicity of pesticides to fecundity, hatchability and
survival of young snails of Lymnaea acuminata. Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 14(2):  191-194.

Singh, D.K. and R.A. Agarwal. 1989. Toxicity of piperonyl butoxide - carbaryl synergism on the
snail Lymnaea acuminata. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. 74(6): 689-699.

Singh, S. and N. Shrivastava. 1998. Histopathological changes in the liver of the fish Nandus
nandus exposed to endosulfan and carbaryl. J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit. 8(2): 139-144.

Singh, V.P., S. Gupta and P.K. Saxena. 1984. Evaluation of acute toxicity of carbaryl and
malathion to freshwater teleosts, Channapunctatus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).
Toxicol. Lett. 20(3): 271-276.

Singh, S.K., P.K. Tripathi, R.P. Yadav, D. Singh and A. Singh. 2004. Toxicity of malathion and
carbaryl pesticides: effects on some biochemical profiles of the freshwater fish Colisafasciatus.
Bull. Environ.  Contam. Toxicol. 72: 592-599.

Sinha, P.K., S. Pal, K. Kumar, S.B. Triar and R. Singh. 1986a. Thiodicarb, an effective
molluscicide for grazer snails of blue green algae. J. Entomol. Res. 10(1): 116-118

Sinha, P.K., S. Pal and S.B.  Triar. 1986b. An effective molluscide for grazer snails of blue green
algae. Pesticides. 20(2): 44-45.

Sinha, N., B. Lai and T.P. Singh. 1991a. Carbaryl-induced thyroid dysfunction in the freshwater
catfish Clarias batrachus. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 21(3): 204-247.

Sinha, N., B. Lai and T.P. Singh. 1991b. Pesticides induced changes in circulating thyroid
hormones in the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 100C(l/2): 107-
110.

Sinha, N. B. Lai and T.P. Singh. 1993. Effect of pesticides on extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to
TS in the freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus. In: Responses of Marine Organisms to Pollutants,
Part 2. Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India, pp. 226-227.
                                             14
Skinner, W. 1994. Soil Adsorption/Desorption of  C-Carbaryl by the Batch Equilibrium
Method: Lab Project Number: 446W: 446W-1. Unpublished study prepared by PTRL West Inc.
113 p. MRID 43259301.

Smith, J.W. and S.G. Grigoropoulos. 1968. Toxic effects of odorous trace organics. Am. Water
Works Assoc. J. 60: 969-979.

Smulders, C.J.G.M., R.G.D.M. Van Kleef, A.  de Groot, C. Gotti and H.P.M. Vijverberg. 2004. A
noncompetitive, sequential mechanism for inhibition of rat a4p2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine
receptors by carbamate pesticides.  Toxicol. Sci.  82: 219-227.

                                          89

-------
Solomon, H.M. 1978. The teratogenic effects of the insecticides DDT, carbaryl, malathion and
parathion on developing medaka eggs (Oryzias latipes). Diss. Abst. Int. B Sci. Eng. 39(5): 2176-
2177.

Solomon, H.M. and J.S. Weis. 1979. Abnormal circulatory development in medaka caused by
the insecticides carbaryl, malathion and parathion. Teratol. 19: 51-62.

Somnuek, C., C. Boonphakdee, V. Cheevaporn and K. Tanaka. 2009. Gene expression of
acetylcholinesterase in hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macroephalus) exposed to
chlorpyrifos and carbaryl. J. Environ. Biol. 30(1): 83-88.

Sprague, L.A. and L.H. Nowell. 2008. Comparison of pesticide concentrations in streams at low
flow in six metropolitan areas of the United States. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 27(2): 288-298.

Srivastava, R. and S.K. Pandey. 2007. Effect of carbaryl on Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae).
Indian. J. Entomol. 69(4): 400-403.

Stadnyk, L., R.S. Campbell and B.T. Johnson. 1971. Pesticide effect on growth and 14C
assimilation in a freshwater alga. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 6(1): 1-8.

Statham, C.N. and JJ. Lech.  1975a. Potentiation of the acute toxicity of several pesticides and
herbicides in trout by carbaryl. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 34(1): 83-87.

Statham, C.N. and JJ. Lech.  1975b. Synergism of the acute toxic effects of 3,4-D butyl ester,
dieldrin, rotenone, and pentachlorophenol in rainbow trout by carbaryl. In: 14th annual meeting
of the society of toxicology. Mar. 9-13, 1975, Williamsburg, VA. 133 p.

Statham, C.N. and JJ. Lech 1976.  Studies on the mechanism of potentiation of the acute toxicity
of 2,4-D n-butyl ester and 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide in rainbow trout by carbaryl.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol 36: 281-296.

Statham, C.N., S.K. Pepple and JJ. Leek. 1975. Biliary excretion products of l-[l-14C]naphthyl
N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl) in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Drug Metab. Dispos. 3: 400-
406.

Stephan,  C.E., D.I. Mount, DJ. Hansen, J.H. Gentile, G.A. Chapman and W.A. Brungs. 1985.
Guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic
organisms and their uses.  National Technical Information Service No. PB85-227049.

Stewart, N.E., R.E. Millemann and W.P. Breese. 1967. Acute toxicity of the insecticide sevin
and its hydrolytic product 1-naphthol to some marine organisms. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 96: 25-
30.

Strickman, D. 1985. Aquatic bioassay of 11 pesticides using larvae of the mosquito, Wyeomyia
smithii (Diptera: Culicidae). Bull. Environ. Contam.  Toxicol. 35(1):  133-142.
                                           90

-------
Sukumar, R.V. and M.B. Rao. 1985. Toxicity of ^-HCH, methyl parathion and carbaryl to two
varieties of a tropical freshwater gastropod, Bellamya bengalensis (Lamarck) (Gastropoda:
Viviparidae). Proc. Symp. Assess. Environ. Pollut. : 101-106.

Sundaram, K.M.S. and S.Y. Szeto. 1987. Distribution and persistence of carbaryl in some
terrestrial and aquatic components of a forest environment. J. Environ. Sci. Health B22 (5):  579-
599.

Surprenant, D. 1985a. Acute toxicity of sevin technical to sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon
variegatus). Bionomics Report No. BW-85-4-1773: Bionomics Study No. 565.0185.6109.510.
Unpublished study prepared by Springborn Bionomics, Inc. 14 p.

Surprenant, D. 1985b. The chronic toxicity of carbaryl technical to Daphnia magna under flow
through conditions. Report No. BW-85-7-1813: Study No. 565.0185.6109.130. Unpublished
study prepared by Springborn Bionomics, Inc.  35 p.

Surprenant, D.C., T. Kendall and E. Dionne. 1985. Acute toxicity of carbaryl technical to
embryo-larvae of eastern oysters (Cmssostrea virginicd). Preformed by Springborn Bionomics,
Inc., Wareham, MA. Submitted by: Union Carbide, Research Triangle Park, NC. Accession No.
259037.

Suseela, K.P., R. Ramadevi and J. Chandrakantha.  1994. Toxic effects of pesticides on survival
and proximate composition of Tubifex tubifex.  J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit. 4(1): 21-26.

Suwanchaichinda, C. and L.B. Brattsten. 2001. Effects of exposure to pesticides on carbaryl
toxicity and cytochrome P450 activities inAedes albopictus larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Pestic.
Biochem. Physiol. 70(2): 63-73.

Suwanchaichinda, C. and L.B. Brattsten. 2002. Induction of microsomal cytochrome P450s by
tire-leachate compounds, habitat components of Aedes albopictus mosquito larvae. Arch. Insect
Biochem. Physiol. 49: 71-79.

Swanson, S. M., C.R. Pickard, K.E. Freemark and P. MacQuarrie. 1991. Testing for pesticide
toxicity to aquatic plants: Recommendations for test species. In: Plants for toxicity assessment,
2nd Volume, Gorsuch, J.W., W.R. Lower, W. Wang and M.A. Lewis (Eds.). ASTM STP 1115.
American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp. 77-97.

Tagatz, M.E, J.M. Ivey, H.K. Lehman and J.L. Oglesby.  1979. Effects of sevin on development
of experimental estuarine communities. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 5: 643-651.

Takahashi, M. and K. Yasutomi. 1987. Insecticidal resistance of Culex tritaeniorhynchus
(Diptera: Culicidae) in Japan: Genetics and mechanisms  of resistance to organophosphorus
insecticides. J. Med. Entomol. 24(6): 595-603.

Tegelberg, H. and D. Magoon. 1969. Sevin treatment of a subtidal oyster bed in Grays Harbor.
Tech. Report No. 1. Washington State Dept. Fish. pp. 1-8.
                                          91

-------
Tejada, A.W., C.M. Bajet, M.G. Magbauna, N.B. Gambalan, L.C. Araez and E.D. Magallona.
1994. Toxicity of pesticides to target and non-target fauna of the lowland rice ecosystem. In:
Environmental Toxicology in South East Asia. Widianarko, B., K. Vink and N.M. van Straalen
(Eds.). University Press, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 89-103.

Thakur, N. and S. Sahai. 1994. Toxicity assessment of some commonly used pesticides to three
species of fishes. Environ. Ecol. 12(2): 462-464.

Thakur, R.B., S.S. Mishra and N.N. Sharma. 1988. Effect of pesticides on N-use efficiency and
growth dynamic in rice. Indian J. Agron. 33(2): 181-185.

Tham, L.G., N. Perumal, M.A. Syed, N.A. Shamaan and M.Y. Shukor. 2009. Assessment of
Clarias batrachus as a source of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for the detection of insecticides. J.
Environ. Biol. 30(1): 135-138.

Thomas, P.C. and T.L. Murthy. 1976. Acid phosphatase activity in a fresh-water air breathing
fish Heteropneustes fossilis and the effect of certain organic pesticides on it. Indian J. Biochem.
Biophys. 13: 347-349.

Thursby, G.B. and D. Champlin. 1991a. Static acute toxicity data for carbaryl. Memo to DJ.
Hansen. Environmental Research Laboratory-Narragansett, U.S. EPA. June 13, 1991.

Thursby, G.B. and D. Champlin. 1991b. Flow-through acute and chronic toxicity of carbaryl to
Mysidopsis bahia. (Memorandum to DJ. Hansen. U.S. EPA, Narragansett, RI. June 13).

Tierney, K.B., P.S. Ross and C.J. Kennedy. 2007. Linuron and carbaryl differentially impair
baseline amino acid and bile salt olfactory responses in three salmonids. Toxicol. 231: 175-187.

Tilak, K.S. 1982. Relative toxicity of carbaryl, 1-naphthol, and three formulations of carbaryl to
Channapunctata (Bloch). Matsya. 8: 45-47.

Tilak, K.S., D.M.RRao, A.P. Devi and A.S. Murty. 1980. Toxicity of carbaryl and 1-naphthol to
the freshwater fish Labeo rohita. Indian J.  Exp. Biol. 18: 75-76.

Tilak, K.S., D.M.R. Rao, A.P. Devi and A.S. Murty. 1981. Toxicity of carbaryl and 1-naphthol
to four species of freshwater fish. J. Biosci. 3(4): 457-462.

Todd, N.E. and M.V. Leeuwen. 2002. Effects of sevin (carbaryl  insecticide) on early life stages
of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 53: 261-212.

Tomlin, C.D.S. 2000. The pesticide manual,  12th Ed. British Crop Protection Council, Surrey,
UK.  pp.  133-134.

Tompkins, W.A. 1966. Report of the surveillance program conducted in connection with an
application of carbaryl (sevin) for the control of gypsy moth on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Mass.
Pestic. Board Publ. 547: 37-47.
                                           92

-------
Toor, H.S. and K. Kaur. 1974. Toxicity of pesticides to the fish, Cyprinus carpio communis
Linn. Indian J. Exp. Biol.  12(4): 334-336.

Trial, J.G. 1978. The effects of sevin-4-oil on aquatic insect communities of streams: a
continuation of 1976 studies. In: Environmental monitoring of cooperative spruce budworm
control projects, Maine 1976 and 1977. Stratton, K.G. (Ed.). Maine Forest Serv., Dep. of
Conservation, Augusta, ME. pp. 124-140.

Trial, J.G. 1979. The effects of sevin-4-oil on aquatic insect communities of streams (1976-
1978). In: Environmental monitoring of cooperative spruce budworm control project. Stratton,
K.G. (Ed.). Maine Forest Serv., Dep. of Conservation, Augusta, ME. pp. 6-22.

Trial, J.G. 1980a. The effects of sevin-4-oil on aquatic insect communities of streams (1976-
1979). In: Environmental monitoring report from the 1979 Maine cooperative spruce budworm
suppression project. Stratton, K.G. (Ed.). Bur. Forest., Dep. of Conservation, Augusta, ME. pp.
253-270.

Trial, J.G. 1980b. The effectiveness of unsprayed buffers in lessening the impact of aerial
applications of carbaryl on aquatic insects. In: Environmental monitoring report from the 1979
Maine cooperative  spruce budworm suppression project.  Stratton, K.G. (Ed.). Bur. Forest., Dep.
of Conservation, Augusta, ME. pp. 98-132.

Trial, J.G. 1981. The effect of carbaryl on leaf litter processing in Maine streams. In:
Environmental monitoring report from the 1980 Maine cooperative spruce budworm suppression
project.  Stratton, K.G. (Ed.). Maine Forest Serv., Dep. of Conservation, Augusta, ME. pp. 150-
167.

Trial, J.G. 1982. The effectiveness of upstream refugia for promoting recolonization of
plecoptera killed by exposure to carbaryl. J. Fresh. Ecol. 1(6): 563-567.

Trial, J.G. and K.E. Gibbs. 1978. Effects of orthene, sevin 4 oil and dylox on aquatic
insects incidental to attempts to control spruce budworm in Maine,  1976. In: Environmental
monitoring of cooperative spruce budworm control projects, Maine 1976 and 1977. Stratton,
K.G. (Ed.). Maine Forest Serv., Dep. of Conservation, Augusta, ME. pp. 207-216.

Tripathi, A.M. and R.A. Agarwal. 1997. Synergism in tertiary mixtures of pesticides.
Chemosphere.  35(10): 2365-2374.

Tripathi, G. and S.P. Shukla. 1988. Toxicity bioassay of technical and commercial formulations
of carbaryl to the freshwater catfish, Clarias  batrachus. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 15(3): 277-
281.

Tripathi, P.K. and A. Singh. 2002.  Toxic effects of dimethoate and carbaryl pesticides on
carbohydrate metabolism of freshwater snail  Lymnaea acuminata. Bull. Environ. Contam.
Toxicol. 68(4): 606-611.
                                           93

-------
Tripathi, P.K. and A. Singh. 2003a. Toxic effects of dimethoate and carbaryl pesticides on
protein metabolism of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70:
146-152.

Tripathi, P.K. and A. Singh. 2003b. Toxic effects of dimethoate and carbaryl pesticides on
reproduction and related enzymes of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata. Bull. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 71(3): 535-542.

Tripathi, P.K. and A. Singh. 2004. Carbaryl induced alterations in the reproduction and
metabolism of freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 79: 1-9.

Tsuge, S., T. Nishimura, H. Kazano and C. Tomizawa. 1980. Uptake of pesticides from
aquarium tank water by aquatic organisms. J. Pestic. Sci. 5(4): 585-593.

Ukeles, R. 1962. Growth of pure cultures of marine phytoplankton in the presence of toxicants.
Appl. Micro. 10: 532-537.

Upadhyay, R.R. and L. Upadhyay. 1993. Development of marked basophilia in the liver of
Heteropneustesfossilisby some selected chemicals. Curr. Sci. 65(9): 708-710.

U.S. EPA. 1983a. Water quality standards regulation. Federal Regist. 48:51400-51413.

U.S. EPA. 1983b. Water quality standards handbook. Office of Water Regulations and
Standards, Washington, D.C.

U.S. EPA. 1985a. Appendix B - Response to  public comments on "Guidelines for deriving
numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms  and their uses.
Federal Regist. 50:30793-30796.

U.S. EPA. 1985b. Technical support document for water quality-based toxics control. Office of
Water, Washington, D.C.

U.S. EPA. 1986. Chapter I - Stream design flow  for steady-state modeling. In: Technical
guidance manual for performing waste load allocation. Edited by Book VI-Design conditions.
Office of Water, Washington, D.C.

U.S. EPA 1987. Permit writers guide to water quality-based permitting for toxic pollutants.
Office of Water, Washington, D.C.

U.S. EPA. 1991. Technical support document for water quality-based toxics control. EPA-505/2-
90-001 orPB91-127415. National Technical  Information Service, Springfield, VA.

U.S. EPA. 1994. Water quality standards handbook: 2nd ed. EPA-823-B-94-005a,b. National
Technical Information Service,  Springfield, VA.

U.S. EPA. 1998. Guidelines for ecological risk assessment. United States Environmental
Protection Agency. Risk Assessment Forum.  Office of Research and Development, Washington,
D.C. EPA/630/R-95/002F.

                                          94

-------
U.S. EPA. 2003. Environmental fate and ecological risk assessment for the reregi strati on of
carbaryl. Office of Pesticide Programs, United States Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, DC.

U.S. EPA. 2004a. Interim reregi strati on eligibility decision document for carbaryl. Available at:
http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrdl/REDs/carbaryl  ired.pdf

U.S. EPA. 2004b. Overview of the ecological risk assessment process in the Office of Pesticide
Programs. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Fate and Effects
Division. Office of Pesticide Programs. Available at
http://www.epa.gov/espp/consultation/ecorisk-overview.pdf

U.S. EPA. 2007a. Risks of carbaryl use to the federally-listed California red legged frog. Office
of Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C. Available at:
http://www.epa.gov/espp/litstatus/effects/redleg-frog/carbaryl/determination.pdf

U.S. EPA. 2007b. Revised carbaryl drinking water assessment including time-series simulations.
Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C., May 2, 2007, EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-0941-0014

U.S. EPA. 2008. Amended reregi strati on eligibility decision (RED) for carbaryl. Office of
Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C. Available at:
http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrdl/REDs/carbaryl-red-amended.pdf

U.S. EPA. 2010a. Registration review - preliminary problem formulation for ecological risk and
environmental fate, endangered species, and drinking water assessments for carbaryl.  September
3, 2010.  EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0230-0004.

U.S. EPA. 2010b. Risks of carbaryl use to the federally threatened delta smelt.  Office of
Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C. Available at:
http://www.epa.gov/oppfeadl/endanger/litstatus/effects/redleg-frog/2010/carbaryl-
deltasmelt/analy si s .pdf

U.S. EPA. 2011. Pesticides industry sales and usage: 2006 and 2007 market estimates. Office of
Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C. February 2011. Available at:
http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/pestsales/07pestsales/market estimates06-07.pdf

U.S.G.S. 2006. The quality of our nation's waters: Pesticides in the nation's streams and ground
water, 1992-2001. Circular 1291. U.S. Geological Survey. Reston, VA.

Vaishampayan, A. 1985. Mutagenic activity of alachlor, butachlor and carbaryl to  a N2-fixing
cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 104: 571-576.

VanHoof, F. 1980. Evaluation of an automatic system for detection of toxic substances in surface
water using trout. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 25(2):  221-225.

Van Hoof, F.M., E.G. De Jonghe, M.G. Briers, P.O. Hansen, HJ. Pluta, D.M. Rawson and AJ.
Wilmer.  1992. The evaluation of bacterial biosensors for screening of water pollutants. Environ.
Toxicol. Water Qual. 7(1): 19-34.

                                           95

-------
Vasseur, P., D. Dive, Z. Sokar and H. Bonnemain. 1988. Interactions between copper and some
carbamates used in phytosanitary treatments. Chemosphere. 17(4): 767-782.

Vasumathi, D., K. Sampath and R. James. 2001. Acute toxicity of endosulfan, methyl parathion
and carbaryl on Macropodus cupanus. Environ. Ecol. 19(3): 576-579.

Venkateswaran, P. and M. Ramaswamy. 1987. Lactic acidosis in different of Sarotherdon
mossambicus (Peters) exposed to sevin. Curr. Sci. 56(7): 320-322.

Verep, B.A. 2006. A research on the sensitivity of European chub to some pesticides. Fresenius
Environ. Bull. 15(12A): 1517-1520.

Verma, S.R. and S.P. Gupta. 1976. Pesticide in relation to water pollution (accumulation of
aldrin and ethyl parathion in the few tissues ofColisafasciatus and Notopterus notopterus).
Indian J. Environ. Health. 18(1): 10-14.

Verma, S.R. and IP. Tonk.  1984. Biomonitoring of the contamination of water by a sublethal
concentration of pesticides - a system analysis approach. Act Hydrchim. Hydrbiol.  12(4): 399-
409.

Verma, S.R., S.K. Bansal and R.C. Dalela. 1977. Quantitative estimation of biocide residues in a
few tissues ofLabeo rohita and Saccobranchusfossilis. Indian J. Environ. Health. 19(3): 189-
198.

Verma, S.R., S.K. Bansal, A.K. Gupta, N. Pal, A.K. Tyagi, M.C. Bhatnagar, K. Kumar and R.C.
Dalela. 1979. Acute toxicity of twenty three pesticides to a fresh water teleost, Saccobranchus
fossilis. Proc. Symp. Environ. Biol. pp. 481-497.

Verma, S.R., IP. Tonk and R.C. Dalela. 1981a. Determination of the maximum acceptable
toxicant concentration (MATC) and the safe concentration for certain aquatic pollutants. Acta
Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 9(3): 247-254.

Verma, S.R., V. Kumar and R.C. Dalela.  1981b. Studies on the accumulation and elimination of
three pesticides in the gonads of Notopterus notopterus and Colisafasciatus. Indian J. Environ.
Health. 23(4): 275-281.

Verma, S.R., S.K. Bansal, A.K. Gupta, N. Pal, A.K. Tyagi, M.C. Bhatnagar, V. Kumar and R.C.
Dalela. 1982. Bioassay trials with twenty three pesticides to a fresh water teleost, Saccobranchus
sossilis. Water Res. 16(5): 525-529.

Verma, S.R., IP. Tonk, A.K. Gupta and M. Saxena. 1984. Evaluation of an application factor for
determining the safe concentration of agricultural and industrial chemicals. Water Res. 18(1):
111-115.

Versteeg, DJ. 1990. Comparison of short- and long-term toxicity test results for the green alga,
Selenastrum capricornutum. In: Plants for toxicity assessment. Wang, W., J.W.  Gorsuch and
W.R. Lower (Eds.). ASTM  STP 1091. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia,
PA. pp. 40-48.

                                           96

-------
Vickers, D.H. and C.E. Boyd. 1971. Effects of organic insecticides upon carbon-14 uptake by
freshwater phytoplankton. Rep. No. CONF-710501-PL, Proc. SrdNatl. Symposium on
Radioecology, Oak Ridge, TN. pp. 492-496.

Virk, S., K. Kaur and S. Kaur. 1987. Histopathological and biochemical changes induced by
endrin and carbaryl in the stomach, intestine and liver of Mystus tengara. Indian J. Ecol. 14(1):
14-20.

Vogel, J.R., M.S. Majewski and P.D. Capel. 2008. Pesticides in rain in four agricultural
watersheds in the United States. J. Environ. Qual. 37: 1101-1115.

von Windeguth, D.L., D.A. Eliason and H.F. Schoof. 1971. The efficacy of carbaryl, propoxur,
abate and methoxychlor as larvicides against field infestations of Aedes aegypti. Mosq. News.
31: 91-95.

Vonesh, J.R. and J.C. Buck. 2007. Pesticide alters oviposition site selection in gray tree frogs.
Oecologia 154(1): 219-226.

Vryzas, Z., G. Vassiliou, C. Alexoudis and E. Papadopoulou-Mourkidou. 2009. Spatial and
temporal distribution of pesticide residues in surface waters in northeastern Greece. Water Res.
43: 1-10.

Walsh, A.H. 1974. The pathology of pesticide poisoning in fish. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of
Wisconsin, Madison, WI. 205 p.

Walsh, G.E. and S.V. Alexander. 1980. A marine algal bioassay method: Results with pesticides
and industrial wastes. Wat. Air Soil Pollut. 13: 45-55.

Walsh, A.H. and W.E. Ribelin. 1973. The pathology of pesticide poisoning. In:  The pathology of
fishes. Ribelin, W.E. and G. Migaki (Eds.). University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI pp.
515-541.

Weber, F.H. and F.A. Rosenberg. 1984. Interactions of carbaryl with estuarine bacterial
communities. Microb. Ecol. 10: 257-269.

Weber, F.H., T.B. Shea and E.S. Berry. 1982. Toxicity of certain insecticides to protozoa. Bull.
Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 28(5): 628-631.

Weis, J.S. and L.H. Mantel. 1976. DDT as an accelerator of limb  regeneration and molting in
fiddler crabs. Estuar. Coast. Mar. Sci. 4(4): 461-466.

Weis, P. and J.S. Weis. 1974a. Cardiac malformations and other effects due to insecticides in
embryos of the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Teratol. 10(3): 263-267.

Weis, P. and J.S. Weis. 1974b. Schooling behavior ofMenidia menidia in the presence of the
insecticide sevin (carbaryl). Mar. Biol.  28(4): 261-263.
                                           97

-------
Weis, J.S. and P. Weis. 1975. Retardation of fin regeneration in Fundulus by several insecticides.
Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 104(1): 135-137.

Weis, J.S. and P. Weis. 1976. Optical malformations induced by insecticides in embryos of the
Atlantic si\verside,Menidiamemdia. Fish. Bull. 74(4): 208-211.

Wernersson, A.S. and G. Dave. 1997. Phototoxicity identification by solid phase extraction and
photoinduced toxicity to Daphnia magna. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 32(3): 268-273.

Whitmore, D.H.J. and D.H. Hodges. 1978. In vitro pesticide inhibition of muscle esterases of the
mosquitofish, Gambusia a/finis. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 59: 145-149.

Whitten, B.K. and CJ. Goodnight. 1966. Toxicity of some common insecticides to tubificids. J.
Water Pollut. Control Fed. 38(2): 227-235.

Whyard, S., A.E.R. Downe and V.K. Walker. 1994. Isolation of an esterase conferring
insecticide resistance in the mosquito Culex tarsalis. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 24(8): 819-827.

Wilder, IB. and J.G. Stanley. 1983. RNA-DNA ratio as an index to growth in salmonid fishes in
the laboratory and in streams contaminated by carbaryl. J. Fish Biol. 22(2):  165-172.

Windholz M., S. Budavari, R. Blumetti and E. Otterbein. 1976.  The Merck Index: an
Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals, 9th ed. Rahway, NJ, USA.

Wolfe, N.L., R.G. Zepp and D.F. Paris. 1978. Carbaryl, propham and chlorpropham: a
comparison of the arates of hydrolysis and photolysis with the rate of biolysis. Water Res. 12:
565-571.

Wood, R.J., N. Pasteur and G. Sinegre. 1984. Carbamate and organophosphate resistance in
Culexpipiens L. (Diptera:  Culicidae) in southern France and the significance of EST-3A. Bull.
Entomol. Res. 74(4): 677-687.

Wood, A. 2010. Compendium of common pesticide names. Available at:
http://www.alanwood.net/pesticides/l-naphthol.html

Woodward, D.F. and W.L. Mauck. 1980. Toxicity of five forest insecticides to cutthroat trout
and two species of aquatic invertebrates. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 25(6): 846-854.

Worthley, E.G. and C.D. Schott. 1972. The comparative effects of Cs and various pollutants  on
fresh water phytoplankton colonies of Wolffiapapulifera Thompson. Edgewater Arsenal Tech.
Rep. EATR4595.29p.

Yasutomi, K., K.I. Urabe and Y. Wada. 1986. Insecticide-resistance of Anopheles sinensis and
Culix tritaeniorhynchus in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Jpn. J. Sanit. Zool. 37(4): 357-362.

Yokoyama, T., H. Saka, S. Fujita and Y. Nishiuchi. 1988. Sensitivity of Japanese eel, Anguilla
japonica, to 68 kinds of agricultural  chemicals. Bull. Agr. Chem. Inspect. Stn. 28:  26-33.
                                           98

-------
Yoshida and Y. Nishiuchi. 1972. Toxicity of pesticides to some water organisms. Bull. Agr.
Chem. Inspect. Stn. 12: 122-128.

Yoshioka, Y., T. Mizuno, Y. Ose and T. Sato.  1986. The estimation for toxicity of chemicals on
fish by physico-chemical properties. Chemosphere. 15(2): 195-203.

Zaga, A., E.E. Little, C.F. Rabeni and M.R. Ellersieck. 1998. Photoenhanced toxicity of a
carbamate insecticide to early life stage anuran amphibians. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17(12):
2543-2553.

Zinkl, J.G., PJ. Shea, RJ. Nakamoto and J. Callman. 1987. Brain cholinesterase activity of
rainbow trout poisoned by carbaryl. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 38(1): 29-35.
                                          99

-------
Appendix A
    100

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Method3
Chemical
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
Reference
Freshwater Species
Oligochaete worm,
Lumbriculus variegatus
S,U
Analytical
30
8,200
8,200
Bailey and Liu 1980

Snail (adult),
Aplexa hypnorum
F, M
-
44.4
>27,000
>27,000
Phipps and Holcombe 1985

Mussel
(juvenile; 1-2 d),
Anodonta imbecillis
Mussel
(juvenile; 7-10 d),
Anodonta imbecillis
R,U
R,U
99%
99%
40-50
40-50
23,700
25,600
-
24,632
Johnson etal. 1993
Johnson etal. 1993

Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Cladoceran (<12 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
R, M
R,M
98%
>99%
169
57
3.06
11.6
-
5.958
Brooke 1990; 1991
Orisetal. 1991

Cladoceran
(adult; 2-2.5 mm),
Daphnia carinata
S,U
Technical
-
35
35
Santharam et al. 1976

Cladoceran (5 d),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
s,u
R, M
s,u
R, M
97.6%
99%
99.5%
98%
-
40-50
40
181.8
7.2b
l,900b
(LC, not EC
value)
5.6
10.1
-
-
-
7.521
Lakotaetal. 1981
Johnson etal. 1993
Sanders etal. 1983
Brooke 1991

Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia pulex
s,u
-
40-48
6.4
6.4
Sanders and Cope 1966

Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Simocephalus
sermlatus
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Simocephalus
sermlatus
s,u
s,u
99.5%
-
44
44
11
(10C)
7.6
(16C)
-
-
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Sanders and Cope 1966
                                          101

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Simocephalus
sermlatus
Method3
S,U
Chemical
99.5%
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
44
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
8.1
(21C)
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
8.781
Reference
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986

Mysid,
Mysis relicta
R, M
98%
139.3
230
230
Landrum and Dupuis 1990

Aquatic sowbug
(mature),
Asellus brevicaudus
S,U
99.5%
44
280
280
Johnson and Finley 1980;
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986

Amphipod (2 mo),
Gammams lacustris
Amphipod (mature),
Gammams lacustris
s,u
s,u
100%
99.5%
30.5
44
16
22
-
18.76
Sanders 1969
Johnson and Finley 1980;
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986

Amphipod,
Gammarus
pseudolimnaeus
Amphipod (mature),
Gammarus
pseudolimnaeus
Amphipod (mature),
Gammarus
pseudolimnaeus
Amphipod (mature),
Gammarus
pseudolimnaeus
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
99%
99%
99%
99.5%
40
40
40
40
13
(pH=6.5)
7
(pH=7.5)
7.2
(pH=8.5)
16
-
-
-
10.12
Woodward and Mauck 1980
Woodward and Mauck 1980
Woodward and Mauck 1980
Sanders etal. 1983

Amphipod (14 d),
Hyalella azteca
s,u
Technical
280
15.2
15.2
McNultyetal. 1999

Amphipod,
Pontoporeia hoyi
R,M
98%
139.3
250
250
Landrum and Dupuis 1990

Crayfish (3 -4 cm),
Cambams bartoni
R,U
99.8%
-
839.6
839.6
Simon 1982

Crayfish (3. 9 g),
Orconectes immunis
F,M
-
44.4
2,870
2,870
Phipps and Holcombe 1985

Crayfish
(5-8 cm; males),
Orconectes virilis
R,U
99.8%
-
2,112
2,112
Simon 1982

                                          102

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Crayfish (15-38 g),
Procambarus clarkii
Method3
S,U
Chemical
-
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
250
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
1,000
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
1,000
Reference
Andreu-Mo liner et al. 1986

Stonefly (nymph),
Claassenia sabulosa
s,u
Technical
44
5.6
5.6
Sanders and Cope 1968

Stonefly
(Istyr class),
Isogenus sp.
Stonefly
(Istyr class),
Isogenus sp.
s,u
s,u
99.5%
99.5%
35
42
2.8
3.6
-
3.175
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986

Stonefly
(Istyr class; 15-20
mm),
Pteronarcella badia
Stonefly (1st yr class),
Pteronarcella badia
Stonefly (1st yr class),
Pteronarcella badia
Stonefly (1st yr class),
Pteronarcella badia
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
Technical
99%
99%
99%
44
38
38
38
1.7
11
(pH=6.5)
13
(pH=7.5)
29
(pH=8.5)
-
-
-
9.163
Sanders and Cope 1968
Woodward and Mauck
1980; Mayer and Ellersieck
1986
Woodward and Mauck
1980; Mayer and Ellersieck
1986
Woodward and Mauck
1980; Mayer and Ellersieck
1986

Stonefly (1st yr class),
Pteronarcys californica
s,u
Technical
44
4.8
4.8
Sanders and Cope 1968

Stonefly (naiad),
Skwala sp.
s,u
99.5%
-
3.6
3.6
Johnson and Finley 1980

Backswimmer (adult),
Notonecta undulata
s,u
94%
-
200
200
Federle and Collins 1976

Apache trout
(0.38-0.85 g),
Oncorhynchus apache
s,u
99.7%
169
1,540
1,540
Dwyeretal. 1995

Coho salmon
(2.7-4. Ig),
Oncorhynchus Msutch
s,u
95%
-
997
-
Katz 1961
                                          103

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Coho salmon,
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon (1.50 g),
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon (1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon (4.6 g),
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon (5.1g),
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon (10. 10 g),
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Coho salmon (19.1 g),
Oncorhynchus kisutch
Method3
S,U
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
Chemical
99%
98%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
40-48
318-348
44
42
42
42
42
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
764
1,300
4,340
2,400
1,750
2,700
1,150
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
1,654
Reference
Macek and McAllister 1970
Post and Schroeder 1971
Johnson and Finley 1980;
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986

Chinook salmon
(fingerling),
Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha
Chinook salmon
(3.0 g),
Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha
F,U
F,M
99.5%
-
314
44.4
2,400C
2,690
-
2,690
Johnson and Finley 1980;
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Phipps and Holcombe 1985;
1990

Cutthroat trout (0.37 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (1.30 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (0. 5 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (0.6 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (0.7 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (0.6 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (0. 5 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout (0. 5 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
98%
98%
99.5%
99%
99%
99%
99%
99.5%
318-348
318-348
40
40
40
40
320
40
1,500
2,169
7,100
6,000
(pH=7.5)
(7C)
5,000
(pH=6.5)
(12C)
970
(pH=8.5)
(12C)
3,950
(pH=7.8)
(12C)
6,800
(pH=7.3)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Post and Schroeder 1971
Post and Schroeder 1971
Johnson and Finley 1980;
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Woodward and Mauck
1980; Mayer and Ellersieck
1986
Woodward and Mauck
1980; Mayer and Ellersieck
1986
Woodward and Mauck
1980; Mayer and Ellersieck
1986
Woodward and Mauck
1980; Mayer and Ellersieck
1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
                                          104

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Cutthroat trout (0. 9 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout,
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Greenback cutthroat
trout (0.31 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
stomias
Lahontan cutthroat trout
(0.34-0.57 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
henshawi
Method3
S,U
s,u
s,u
s,u
Chemical
99.5%
99%
99.7%
99.7%
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
42
40
169
169
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
6,700
(pH=7.5)
3,950
(pH=7.5)
(12C)
1,550
2,250
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
-
-
-
3,300
Reference
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Woodward and Mauck 1980
Dwyeretal. 1995
Dwyeretal. 1995

Rainbow trout (3.2 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.24 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.5 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
95%
99%
98%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
-
-
-
-
-
40-48
318-348
42
40
40
40
40
40
40
320
-
-
-
-
1,350
4,340
1,470
1,950
2,200
(12C)
2,800
(7C)
1,100
(pH=6.5)
800
(pH=7.5)
1,500
(pH=8.5)
900
800
935
1,000
1,400
1,000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Katz 1961
Macek and McAllister 1970
Post and Schroeder 1971
Johnson and Finley 1980;
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986;
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Marking etal. 1984
Marking etal. 1984
Marking etal. 1984
Marking etal. 1984
                                          105

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout (1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(juvenile),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.5 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.8 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.8 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1. 1 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1. 1 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.5 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (0.8 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1. 1 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.2 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1. 1 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.2 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.2 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(0.48-1.25 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Method3
S,U
R,U
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
Chemical
-
99%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.7%
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
-
-
272
40
40
40
40
314
40
40
40
40
40
320
40
40
40
40
40
169
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
1,740
4,835
1,200
1,360
2,080
1,900
2,300
1,330
<750
<320
1,090
1,460
3,500
3,000
1,600
1,100
1,200
780
1,450
1,880
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Reference
Marking et al. 1984
Douglas etal. 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Dwyeretal. 1995
                                          106

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Rainbow trout
(juvenile; 2.7 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (19.7 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Method3
S,M
F, M
Chemical
99%
Technical
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
-
44.4
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
5,400C
860
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
-
860
Reference
Ferrari et al. 2004
Phipps and Holcombe 1985

Atlantic salmon (0.4 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.8 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.8 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.4 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.8 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.8 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.2 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.2 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.2 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.2 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.2 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.2 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.2 g),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon (0.2 g),
Salmo salar
S,U
S,U
S,U
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
42
42
42
42
12
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
42
4,500
2,070
1,180
905
2,010
1,430
500
1,000
1,150
1,100
1,350
220
900
1,000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1,129
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986

Brown trout,
Salmo trutta
Brown trout (0.6 g),
Salmo trutta
Brown trout
(fingerling),
Salmo trutta
s,u
s,u
F,U
99%
99.5%
99.5%
40-48
42
314
l,950b
6,300b
2,000b
-
-
-
Macek and McAllister 1970
Johnson and Finley 1980;
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
                                          107

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Brown trout (fry),
Salmo trutta
Method3
S,U
Chemical
97.6%
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
-
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
700
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
700
Reference
Lakotaetal. 1981

Brook trout (1.1 5 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout (2.04 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout (l.Og),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout (0.7 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout (0.7 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout (0.7 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout (0.8 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout (0.8 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout (1. 3 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
98%
98%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
318-348
318-348
42
42
42
42
42
300
42
1,070
1,450
680
4,560
2,130
1,130
1,200
1,290
4,500
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1,629
Post and Schroeder 1971
Post and Schroeder 1971
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986

Lake trout (1.7 g),
Salvelinus namaycush
Lake trout (1.7 g),
Salvelinus namaycush
Lake trout (1.7 g),
Salvelinus namaycush
Lake trout (0.5 g),
Salvelinus namaycush
Lake trout (2.6 g),
Salvelinus namaycush
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
F,U
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
40
40
40
162
260
690
740
920
872
2,300
-
-
-
-
988.1
Johnson and Finley 1980;
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986

Goldfish (0.9 g),
Carassius auratus
Goldfish (0.9 g),
Carassius auratus
Goldfish
(juvenile; 1.3-3.3 g),
Carassius auratus
Goldfish (14.2 g),
Carassius auratus
s,u
s,u
s,u
F,M
99%
99.5%
99.7%
-
40-48
272
-
44.4
13,200C
12,800C
17,500C
16,700
-
-
-
16,700
Macek and McAllister 1970
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Pfeiffer et al. 1997
Phipps and Holcombe 1985

                                          108

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Common carp (0.6 g),
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp (0.38 g),
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp (fry),
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp
(20-34 mm),
Cyprinus carpio
Method3
S,U
s,u
s,u
s,u
Chemical
99%
94%
97.6%
85%
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
40-48
22
-
-
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
5,280
1,700
4,220
7,850
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
-
-
-
4,153
Reference
Macek and McAllister 1970
Chin and Sudderuddin 1979
Lakotaetal. 1981
de Mel and Pathiratne 2005

European chub
(12.43cm; 18.14 g)
Leuciscus cephalus
s,u
85%
61-65
8,656
8,656
Verep 2006

Fathead minnow
(0.5 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.8 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.8 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(larvae),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.32-0.56 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(2 mo),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(0.3 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (3 1 d),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (28 d),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (28 d),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow (29 d),
Pimephales promelas
s,u
s,u
s,u
R,U
s,u
F, M
F, M
F,M
F,M
F,M
F, M
99.5%
99%
99.5%
99%
99.7%
80%
Technical
99%
99%
99%
99%
42
40-48
272
44-49
173
41-49
44.4
43.8
45.4
44.1
45.4
14,000C
14,600C
7,700C
>1,600C
5,210C
9,000
5,010
9,470
8,930
10,400
6,670
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8,012
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Macek and McAllister 1970;
Sanders etal. 1983
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Norberg-King 1989
Dwyeretal. 1995
Carlson 1971
Phipps and Holcombe 1985
Geigeretal. 1985; 1988
Geigeretal. 1985; 1988
Geigeretal. 1985; 1988
Geigeretal. 1985; 1988

Bonytail chub
(0.29-0.52 g),
Gila elegans
s,u
99.7%
173
3,490
-
Dwyeretal. 1995
                                          109

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Bonytail chub (6 d),
Gila elegans
Method3
R, M
Chemical
99%
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
212-216
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
2,020
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
2,655
Reference
Beyers etal. 1994

Colorado pikeminnow
(formerly squawfish)
(0.32-0.34 g),
Ptychochelius Indus
Colorado pikeminnow
(26 d),
Ptychochelius lucius
S,U
R,M
99.7%
99%
173
212-216
3,070
1,310
-
2,005
Dwyeretal. 1995
Beyers etal. 1994

Razorback sucker
(0.3 1-0.32 g),
Xyrauchen texanus
S,U
99.7%
173
4,350
4,350
Dwyeretal. 1995

Black bullhead (1.2 g),
Ameiurus melas
S,U
99%
40-48
20,000
20,000
Macek and McAllister 1970

Channel catfish (1.5 g),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (0.3 g),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish (1.5 g),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish
(fmgerling),
Ictalurus punctatus
Channel catfish
(27.6 g),
Ictalurus punctatus
s,u
s,u
s,u
F,U
F,M
99%
100%
99.5%
99.5%
-
40-48
10
272
314
44.4
15,800C
1,300C
7,790C
17,300C
12,400
-
-
-
-
12,400
Macek and McAllister 1970
Brown etal. 1979
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Phipps and Holcombe 1985

Walking catfish
(17-18 cm; 60-70 g),
Glorias batrachus
Walking catfish
(14 cm; 25 g),
Glorias batrachus
R,U
S,U
Technical
99%
-
-
46,850
16,270
-
27,609
Tripathi and Shukla 1988
Lata etal. 2001

Guppy (2.0 cm),
Poecilia reticulata
R, M
99%
-
2,515
2,515
Galloetal. 1995

Gila topminnow
(219 mg),
Poeciliopsis
occidentalis
S,U
99.7%
167
>3,000
>3,000
Dwyeretal. 1999b

                                          110

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Striped bass (56 d),
Morone saxatilis
Striped bass,
Morone saxatilis
Method3
S,U
s,u
Chemical
-
-
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
40
45.5
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
760
2,300
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
-
1,322
Reference
Palawski et al. 1985
Palawski et al. 1985

Green sunfish (1. 1 g),
Lepomis cyanellus
s,u
99.5%
272
9,460
9,460
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986

Redear sunfish (1.1 g),
Lepomis microlophus
s,u
99%
40-48
11,200
11,200
Macek and McAllister 1970

Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (1.2 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill,
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (1.2 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.6 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.4 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.4 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.8 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.8 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.8 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
F,U
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
99.9%
99%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
-
40-48
40
40
40
40
40
40
320
272
314
44
44
40
40
40
14,000C
6,760C
16,000C
(12C)
8,200C
(22C)
5,400C
(pH=6.5)
5,200C
(pH=7.5)
1,800C
(pH=8.5)
2,200C
1,000C
5,230C
5,047C
7,400C
5,200C
16,000C
7,000C
8,200C
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
McCann and Young 1969
Macek and McAllister 1970
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Sanders etal. 1983
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Sanders et al. 1983; Mayer
and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
                                          111

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Bluegill (0.4 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.7 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.7 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.7 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.7 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.5 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Method3
S,U
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
F, M
Chemical
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
-
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
320
40
40
40
40
44.4
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
6,200C
5,400C
5,200C
1,800C
2,600C
6,970
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
6,970
Reference
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Phipps and Holcombe 1985

Largemouth bass
(0.9 g),
Micropterus salmoides
S,U
99%
40-48
6,400
6,400
Macek and McAllister 1970

Black crappie (1.0 g),
Pomoxis
nigromaculatus
S,U
99.5%
40
2,600
2,600
Johnson and Finley 1980;
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986;

Greenthroat darter
(133 mg),
Etheostoma lepidum
S,U
99.7%
167
2,140
2,140
Dwyeretal. 1999b

Fountain darter
(62 mg),
Etheostoma fonticola
s,u
99.7%
167
2,020
2,020
Dwyer et al. 2005

Yellow perch (1.4 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch (0.6 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch (1.0 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch (1.0 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch (1.0 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch (1.0 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch (0.9 g),
Perca flavescens
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
99%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
40-48
42
42
42
42
42
42
745
5,100
13,900
5,400
3,400
1,200
4,000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Macek and McAllister 1970
Johnson and Finley 1980;
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
                                          112

-------
Appendix A. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Yellow perch (0.9 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch (0.9 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch (0.9 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch (1.0 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch (1.0 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch (1.0 g),
Perca flavescens
Yellow perch
(fingerling),
Perca flavescens
Method3
S,U
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
F,U
Chemical
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
42
42
42
42
170
300
314
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
4,200
480
350
3,800
5,000
3,750
1,420
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
2,480
Reference
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and Ellersieck 1986

Shortnosed sturgeon,
Acipenser brevirostrum
s,u
99.7%
170
1,810
1,810
Dwyer et al. 2000

Nile tilapia
(45-55 mm; 3. 17 g),
Oreochromis niloticus
s,u
85%
-
2,930
2,930
dela Cruz and Cagauan
1981

Green frog (Gosner
stage 25 tadpole),
Rana clamitans
Green frog (Gosner
stage 25 tadpole),
Rana clamitans
Green frog (Gosner
stage 25 tadpole),
Rana clamitans
s,u
s,u
s,u
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
286
286
286
22,020
(17C)
17,360
(22C)
11,320
(27C)
-
-
16,296
Boone and Bridges 1999
Boone and Bridges 1999
Boone and Bridges 1999

Boreal toad (200 mg),
Bufo boreas
s,u
99.7%
286
12,310
12,310
Dwyer etal. 1999b

Gray tree frog
(tadpole),
Hyla versicolor
s,u
99.7%
-
2,470
2,470
Zagaetal. 1998

African clawed frog
(embryo),
Xenopus laevis
s,u
99.7%
-
15,250b
-
Zagaetal. 1998
                                          113

-------
 Appendix A.  Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
African clawed frog
(tadpole),
Xenopus laevis
Method3
S,U
Chemical
99.7%
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
-
LC50 or
EC50
(HS/L)
1,730
Species
Mean
Acute
Value
(ng/L)
1,730
Reference
Zagaetal. 1998
a S = static; R = renewal; F = flow-through; M = measured; U = unmeasured.
bData not used to calculate SMAV because a more sensitive life stage or endpoint, or definitive value available for the
     species.
0 Data not used to calculate SMAV because a more sensitive test exposure available for the species.
Dash indicates not available
                                                    114

-------
Appendix B
    115

-------
Appendix B. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Animals
Species
Method3
Chemical
Salinity
(g/kg)
LC50 or
EC50
(ng/L)
Species Mean
Acute Value
(ng/L)
References
Estuarine/marine Species
Bay mussel (adult),
Mytilus edulis
Bay mussel
(embryo/larva),
Mytilus edulis
Bay mussel
(embryo/larva),
Mytilus edulis
Bay mussel
(embryo/larva),
Mytilus edulis
Bay mussel (larva),
Mytilus edulis
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,M
S,U
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
80%
25
25.9
25.9
25.9
25
22,700b
1,480
(22C)
1,800
(22C)
1,210
(22C)
2,300
-
-
-
-
1,650
Liu and Lee 1975
Liu and Lee 1975
Liu and Lee 1975
Liu and Lee 1975
Stewart etal. 1967

Pacific oyster (larva),
Crassostrea gigas
S,U
80%
25
2,200
2,200
Stewart etal. 1967

Eastern oyster
(embryo/larva),
Crassostrea virginica
Eastern oyster (juvenile),
Crassostrea virginica
Eastern oyster (juvenile),
Crassostrea virginica
Eastern oyster (embryo),
Crassostrea virginica
S,U
F,U
F,U
S,M
-
99.7%
99.7%
99%
-
27
17
-
3,000
(24C)
>2,000
(29C)
>2,000
(20C)
2,700
-
-

2,386
Davis and Hidu 1969
Hansen 1980; Mayer 1987
Hansen 1980
Surprenant et al. 1985

Cockle clam (2-5 mm),
Clinocardium nuttalli
R,U
80%
25
3,850
3,850
Butler etal. 1968

Bent-nosed clam (2.5 g),
Macoma nasuta
R,U
80%
25
17,000
17,000
Armstrong and Millemann
1974b

Hard clam
(embryo/larva),
Mercenaria mercenaria
s,u
-
-
3,820
(24C)
3,820
Davis and Hidu 1969

Mysid (24 hr)
Americamysis bahia
Mysid (juvenile),
Americamysis bahia
R,U
F, M
99%
-
30
-
19C
>7.7
-
-
Thursby and Champlin 199 la
Nimmoetal. 1981
                                          116

-------
Appendix B. Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Animals
Species
Mysid (24 hr)
Americamysis bahia
Mysid (<24 hr)
Americamysis bahia
Method3
F,M
F,M
Chemical
99%
99.7%
Salinity
(g/kg)
31
20
LC50 or
EC50
(ng/L)
8.46
(pH=7.85)
5.7
Species Mean
Acute Value
(ng/L)
-
7.188
References
Thursby and Champlin 1991b
Lintott 1992a

Mud shrimp
(larva; 3 mm),
Upogebia pugettensis
Mud shrimp
(larva; 3 mm),
Upogebia pugettensis
S,U
s,u
80%
80%
25
25
90
(16C)
40
(20C)
-
60.0
Stewart etal. 1967
Stewart etal. 1967

Ghost shrimp
(larva; 3 mm),
Callianassa
californiensis
Ghost shrimp
(larva; 3 mm),
Callianassa
californiensis
s,u
s,u
80%
80%
25
25
80
(17C)
30
(20C)
-
48.99
Stewart etal. 1967
Stewart etal. 1967

Dungeness crab
(9th stage),
Metacarcinus magister
(formerly Cancer
magister)
Dungeness crab
(9th stage),
Metacarcinus magister
(formerly Cancer
magister)
Dungeness crab (adult),
Metacarcinus magister
(formerly Cancer
magister)
Dungeness crab (adult),
Metacarcinus magister
(formerly Cancer
magister)
Dungeness crab (zoea),
Metacarcinus magister
(formerly Cancer
magister)
R,U
R,U
R,U
R,U
s,u
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
25
25
25
25
25
300b
(10C)
280b
(10C)
180b
(18C)
260b
(11C)
10
(10C)
-
-
-
-
10
Buchanan et al. 1970
Buchanan et al. 1970
Buchanan et al. 1970
Buchanan et al. 1970
Buchanan et al. 1970

Sheepshead minnow
(10.27 g; 24 mm),
Cyprinodon variegatus
s,u
99%
32
2,200C
-
Surprenant 1985a
                                          117

-------
 Appendix B.  Acceptable Acute Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Animals
Species
Sheepshead minnow
(juvenile; 0.9 g; 29 mm),
Cyprinodon variegatus
Method3
F,M
Chemical
99.7%
Salinity
(g/kg)
20
LC50 or
EC50
(ng/L)
2,600
Species Mean
Acute Value
(ng/L)
2,600
References
Lintott 1992b

Threespine stickleback
(0.38-0.77 g; adult),
Gasterosteus aculeatus
Threespine stickleback
(0.38-0.77 g; adult),
Gasterosteus aculeatus
S,U
s,u
95%
95%
5
25
3,990
3,990
-
3,990
Katz 1961
Katz 1961
a S = static; R = renewal; F = flow-through; M = measured; U = unmeasured.
bData not used to calculate SMAV because a more sensitive life stage or endpoint, or definite value available for the
 species.
0 Data not used to calculate SMAV because a more sensitive test exposure available for the species.
Dash indicates not available
                                                    118

-------
Appendix C
    119

-------
 Appendix C.  Acceptable Chronic Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Animals
Species
Test3
Chemical
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
Chronic
Limitsb
(HS/L)
Chronic
Value0
(HS/L)
Species Mean
Chronic Value
(HS/L)
Reference
Freshwater Species
Cladoceran (<12 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
LC
>99%
57
-
10.6
10.6
Orisetal. 1991

Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
LC
LC
99%
98%
140-170
201.5
1.5-3.3
4.04-10.1d
2.225
6.389
-
3.770
Surprenant 1985b
Brooke 1991

Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales promelas
LC
ELS
80%
99%
41-49
44-49
210-680
720-1,600
377.9
1,073
-
636.8
Carlson 1971
Norberg-King 1989

Bonytail chub (48 d),
Gila elegans
ELS
99%
344-378
650-1,240
897.8
897.8
Beyers etal. 1994

Colorado
pikeminnow
(formerly squawfish)
(41 d),
Ptychochelius Indus
ELS
99%
344-378
445-866
620.8
620.8
Beyers etal. 1994
a LC = life-cycle or partial life-cycle; ELS = early life-stage.
b NOEC is listed first, then the LOEC.
0 Chronic value = calculated geometric mean of NOEC and LOEC
d LOEC is based on the EC50 value obtained in a parallel acute test conducted in the same study (Brooke 1991).
 Chronic value should be considered an upper bound value for the species from this study.
Dash indicates not available
                                                     120

-------
Appendix D
    121

-------
 Appendix D.  Chronic Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Animals used
 Qualitatively in the Assessment
Species
Test3
Chemical
Salinity
(g/kg)
Chronic
Limitsb
(ng/L)
Chronic
Value0
(ng/L)
Species Mean
Chronic Value
(Mg/L)
Reference
Estuarine/marine Species
Mysid (24 hr),
Americamysis bahia
LC
99%
31.5
7.18-13.7
9.918
9.918
Thursby and
Champlin 1991b
a LC = life-cycle or partial life-cycle; ELS = early life-stage.
b NOEC is listed first, then the LOEC.
0 Chronic value = calculated geometric mean of NOEC and LOEC
                                               122

-------
Appendix E
    123

-------
Appendix E. Acceptable Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Plants
Species
Chemical
Method3
Hardness
(mg/L as
CaCO3)
Duration
(days)
Effect
Concentration
(HS/L)
Reference
Freshwater Species
Blue green alga,
Nostoc muscomm
Blue green alga,
Anabaena tomlosa
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Green alga,
Pseudokirchneriella
subcapitata
Green alga,
Scenedesmus
quadricauda
Green alga,
Scenedesmus
quadricauda
Diatom,
Navicula pelliculosa
Duckweed,
Lemna minor
99.9%
99.9%
Analytical
99.7%
98%
97%
97%
99.7%
98%
S,U
s,u
s,u
S,M
-
s,u
-
S,M
-
-
-
-
-
81.9
-
-
-
171
4
21
4
5
4
10
10
5
4
Chronic Value
(growth)
LOEC
(growth)
EC20
(growth, cell #)
Chronic Value
(cell number)
IC50b
LOEC
(chlorophyll
content)
Reduced
chlorophyll
content
LOEC
(cell number)
IC50b
7,071
50,000
1,040
537.2
490
100
100
400
23,900
Bhuniaetal. 1994
Obulakondaiah et al.
1993
Versteeg 1990
Lintott 1992c
Brooke 1993
Lejczak 1977
Lejczak 1977
Lintott 1992d
Brooke 1993
 S = static; R = renewal; F = flow-through; M = measured; U
b IC50 = concentration of carbaryl at which growth is inhibited
Dash indicates not available
                                                   unmeasured.
                                                  50% compared to control organism growth.
                                                   124

-------
Appendix F
    125

-------
Appendix F. Acceptable Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Plants
Species
Chemical
Method3
Salinity
(g/kg)
Duration
(days)
Effect
Concentration
(ng/L)
Reference
Estuarine/marine Species
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Green alga,
Chlorella sp.
Green alga,
Dunaliella euchora
Green alga,
Dunaliella euchora
Green alga,
Dunaliella euchora
Green alga,
Dunaliella euchora
Green alga,
Protococcus sp.
Green alga,
Protococcus sp.
Green alga,
Protococcus sp.
Green alga,
Protococcus sp.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
S,U
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
4
12
12
4
4
12
12
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
10% reduced
growth rate
20% reduced
growth rate
100% reduced
growth rate,
cells not viable
100% reduced
growth rate,
cells not viable
10% reduced
growth rate
3 5% reduced
growth rate
100% reduced
growth rate,
cell viable
100% reduced
growth rate,
cells not viable
20% reduced
growth rate
26% reduced
growth rate
100% reduced
growth rate,
cell viable
100% reduced
growth rate,
cells not viable
2,100
1,800
2,700
2,900
1,000
600
1,200
1,400
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
                                             126

-------
 Appendix F. Acceptable Toxicity Data of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Plants
Species
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Skeletonema
costatum
Diatom,
Nitzschia angularum
Diatom,
Nitzschia angularum
Diatom,
Nitzschia angularum
Diatom,
Nitzschia angularum
Diatom,
Phaeodactylum
tricornutum
Diatom,
Phaeodactylum
tricornutum
Diatom,
Phaeodactylum
tricornutum
Diatom,
Phaeodactylum
tricornutum
Chrysophyte,
Monochrysis lutheri
Chrysophyte,
Monochrysis lutheri
Chrysophyte,
Monochrysis lutheri
Chrysophyte,
Monochrysis lutheri
Chemical
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
95%
Method3
S,U
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
s,u
Salinity
(g/kg)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Duration
(days)
4
4
12
12
4
4
12
12
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
Effect
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
EC50
(growth)
100% reduced
growth rate,
cells viable
100% reduced
growth rate,
cells viable
100% reduced
growth rate,
cells viable
100% reduced
growth rate,
cells viable
13% reduced
growth rate
100% reduced
growth rate,
cells viable
100% reduced
growth rate,
cells not viable
100% reduced
growth rate,
cells not viable
Concentration
(ng/L)
1,700
900
1,800
1,600
1,500
1,000
1,600
1,500
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Reference
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Walsh and
Alexander 1980
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
Ukeles 1962
 S = static; R = renewal; F = flow-through; M = measured; U = unmeasured.
Dash indicates not available
                                                   127

-------
Appendix G
     128

-------
Appendix G. Acceptable Bioaccumulation Data of Carbaryl by Aquatic Organisms




There are no acceptable bioaccumulation data for carbaryl.
                                         129

-------
Appendix H
     130

-------
Appendix H. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms
Species
Chemical
Duration
Effect
Concentration
(HS/L)
Reference
Reason Other
Data
Freshwater Species
Bacterium,
Vibrio fischeri
Bacteria,
Pseudomonas putida
Planktonic algae
mixture
Blue-green algae
mixture
Blue-green algae,
Microcystis
aeruginosa
Green alga,
Ankistrodesmus
braunii
Green algae,
Chlorella
pyrenoidosa
Green alga,
Raphidocelis
subcapitata
Green alga,
Raphidocelis
subcapitata
Green algae,
Scenedesmus
quadricaudata
Green algae,
Scenedesmus
quadricaudata
Ciliate protozoa,
Colpidium campylum
Protozoa (7 day),
Paramecium aurelia
Protozoa (7 day),
Paramecium
bursaria
Protozoa (7 day),
Paramecium
caudatum
Protozoa (7 day),
Paramecium
multimicronucleatum
Protozoa (12 day),
Paramecium
multimicronucleatum
Tubificid worm,
Branchiura sowerbyi
Analytical
-
99.7%
-
-
-
-
Analytical
Analytical
-
-
-
97.5%
97.5%
97.5%
97.5%
97.5%
-
30 min
-
14 day
24 hr
8 day
48hr
96 hr
6 day
6 day
6 day
8 day
43hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24 hr
72 hr
EC50
(luminescence)
LOEC
(reduced cell growth)
LOEC
(growth inhibition)
Reduced carbon
uptake
LOEC
(reduced cell growth)
Reduced growth
LOEC
(growth)
LOEC
(growth)
LOEC
(heat shock protein 70)
Increased cell biomass
Reduced cell growth
LOEC
(growth inhibition)
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
LOEC
(mortality)
2,440
>5,000
10,000
500
1,350
25,000
100
5,030
2,072
100
1,400
<10,000
46,000
31,000
10,000
24,000
28,000
4,000
Hernando et al.
2007
Bringmann and
Kuhn 1977
Butler etal. 1975
Vickers and Boyd
1971
Bringmann and
Kuhn 1978a; b
Kopecek et al.
1975
Christie 1969
Bierkens et al.
1998
Bierkens et al.
1998
Stadnyk et al.
1971
Bringmann and
Kuhn 1977;
1978a; b
Dive etal. 1980
Edmiston et al.
1984
Edmiston et al.
1984
Edmiston et al.
1984
Edmiston et al.
1984
Edmiston et al.
1985
Naqvi 1973
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Community
exposure
Community
exposure
Lack of exposure
details
Duration
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details
Atypical endpoint
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details
Duration
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Duration
                                            131

-------
Appendix H. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms
Species
Snail (< 24 hr),
Lymnea stagnalis
Snail,
Physa acuta
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Ceriodaphnia dubia
Cladoceran
(2nd instar),
Daphnia galeata
mendotae
Cladoceran
(1st and 2nd instar),
Daphnia lumholtzi
Cladoceran (<26 hr),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran (<24 hr),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran (0-24 hr),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran (4 day),
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran
(2nd instar),
Daphnia pulex
Cladoceran,
Dapnia pulex
Cladoceran,
Daphnia pulex
Cladoceran
(1st and 2nd instar),
Daphnia retrocurva
Cladoceran,
Moina macrocopa
Cladoceran,
Moina macrocopa
Cladoceran
(adult female),
Bosmina longirostris
Cladoceran
(juvenile/adult),
Leptodora kindtii
Ostracod,
Cypretta kawatai
Opossum shrimp
(adult),
Mysis relicta
Seed shrimp
(mature),
Cypridopsis vidua
Chemical
97-99%
Technical
99.7%
>99%
>99%
-
Technical
grade
-
-
>99%
-
Technical
>99%
-
Technical
>99%
>99%
99.9%
98%
99.5%
Duration
1 mo
48 hr
7 day
8-14hr
8-14hr
24hr
0.5hr
24hr
24hr
8-14hr
3hr
3hr
8-14hr
3hr
3hr
24hr
24hr
72hr
6hr
48 hr
Effect
82. 5% mortality
LC50
IC25
LOEC
(enlarged helmet)
LOEC
(enlarged helmet)
LC50
EC50
(erratic swimming)
LC50
LC50
LOEC
(enlarged helmet)
LC50
LC50
LOEC
(enlarged helmet)
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
Avg. BCF = 149
EC50
Concentration
(HS/L)
2,000
27,000
<330
5
10
1.1
12
0.66
21
15
0.85
50
20
1.0
50
8.597
3.477
1,800
7.24 and 15.95
115
Reference
Seuge and Bluzat
1983
Hashimoto and
Nishiuchi 1981
Dwyer et al.
1999a
Hanazato and
Dodson 1993
Hanazato and
Dodson 1993
Gaaboub et al.
1975
Parker etal. 1970
Rawash et al.
1975
Wernersson and
Dave 1997
Hanazato and
Dodson 1993
Nishiuchi and
Hashimoto 1967
Hashimoto and
Nishiuchi 1981
Hanazato and
Dodson 1993
Nishiuchi and
Hashimoto 1967
Hashimoto and
Nischiuchi 1981
Sakamoto et al.
2005
Sakamoto et al.
2005
Hansen and
Kawatski 1976
Landrum and
Dupuis 1990
Johnson and
Finley 1980
Reason Other
Data
Unmeasured
exposure
Duration
Static,
unmeasured
exposure
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
                                            132

-------
Appendix H. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms
Species
Amphipod (mature),
Pontoporeia hoyi
Amphipod,
Gammarus
pseudolimnaeus
Amphipod (mature),
Gammarus
pseudolimnaeous
Amphipod (mature),
Gammarus
pseudolimnaeous
Grass shrimp,
Palaemonetes
kadiakensis
Red Crayfish,
Procambams clarkii
Mayfly (nymph),
Cloeon dipterum
Stonefly
(1st year class),
Isogenus sp.
Stonefly
(1st year class),
Isogenus sp.
Stonefly
(1st year class),
Isogenus sp.
Stonefly (nymph),
Pteronarcys
californica
Crawling water
beetle (5 mg),
Peltodytes sp.
Blackfly (larva),
Simulium vittatum
Midge (4th instar),
Chironomus
plumosus
Midge (4th instar),
Chironomus riparius
Midge (4th instar),
Chironomus riparius
Midge (4th instar),
Chironomus tentans
Mosquito (2nd stage),
Aedes aegypti
Mosquito
(4th instar larvae),
Culexpipiens
Chemical
98%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
-
Technical
Technical
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
>94%
>98%
99.5%
Analytical
>98%
99.9%
97.6%
-
Duration
6hr
96hr
48hr
48hr
24hr
72hr
48hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
48hr
48hr
24hr
24hr
72hr
36 hr
24 hr
Effect
Avg. BCF = 18,700
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
(solution aged 7 days)
LC50
(solution aged 14
days)
LC50
(solution aged 21
days)
LC50
LC50
LC50
EC50
EC50
(reduced lactate)
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
Concentration
(HS/L)
1.44-3.81
16
13
8
42.5
2,000
370
6.6
6.6
12
2
3,300
23.72
10
1.0
110
5,900
336
75
Reference
Landrum and
Dupuis 1990
Schoettger and
Mauck 1978
Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986
Naqvi and
Ferguson 1970
Muncy and Oliver
1963
Hashimoto and
Nishiuchi 1981
Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986
Schoettger and
Mauck 1978
Federle and
Collins 1976
Overmyer et al.
2003
Sanders et al.
1983
Forcella et al.
2007
Lydyetal. 1990
Hansen and
Kawatski 1976
Lakotaetal. 1981
Rawash et al.
1975
Reason Other
Data
Duration
Control survival
not reported
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Aged solution
Aged solution
Aged solution
Control survival
not reported
Three species
exposed
simultaneously
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
                                            133

-------
Appendix H. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms
Species
Mosquito
(4th instar larvae),
Culexpipiens
Apache trout,
Oncorhynchus
apache
Coho salmon
(6-18 mo),
Oncorhynchus
kisutch
Coho salmon
(4.9 cm; 1.3 g; 4-7
mo),
Oncorhynchus
kisutch
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (2 yr),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout (2 yr),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(1-1.5 yr),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(1-1.5 yr),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(1.8 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(2.2 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(30-80 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(30-80 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout
(0.5-1.0 g),
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chemical
-
-
-
99%
99%
99%
-
-
-
-
99.5%
99.5%
Technical
Technical
99.9%
-
Duration
24 hr
96 hr
< 30 day
96 hr
96 hr
96 hr
48hr
24 hr
4.5 hr
4.5 hr
24 hr
24 hr
24 hr
24 hr
96 hr
96 hr
Effect
LC50
NOEC
(muscarinic
cholinergic receptors)
BCF = 3.58
(substantial mortality
at 30 days)
LC50
EC50
(muscular
cholinesterase)
EC50
(brain cholinesterase)
LCO
LC100
LOEC
(respiration rate)
NOEC
(respiration rate)
LC50
LC50
LC50
LOEC
(depression of brain
cholinesterase activity)
LOEC
(survival from
predation)
NOEC (muscarinic
cholinergic receptors)
Concentration
(HS/L)
170
1,300
2,600
>150
270
19.24
30,000
100,000
2,000
1,000
4,620
6,090
1,410
500
10
3,600
Reference
Gaaboub et al.
1975
Jones etal. 1998
Walsh and Ribelin
1973
Laetz et al. 2009
Ferrari et al.
2007a
Ferrari et al.
2007a
Lysak and
Marcinek 1972
Lysak and
Marcinek 1972
Lunnetal. 1976
Lunnetal. 1976
Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986
Zinkletal. 1987
Zinkletal. 1987
Little etal. 1990
Jones etal. 1998
Reason Other
Data
Duration
Atypical endpoint
Control issues
Control survival
not reported
Atypical endpoint
Atypical endpoint
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Atypical endpoint
Atypical endpoint
Atypical endpoint
                                            134

-------
Appendix H. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms
Species
Lahontan cutthroat
trout,
Oncorhynchus clarkii
henshawi
Cutthroat trout
(0.5 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout
(0.5 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Cutthroat trout
(0.5 g),
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Atlantic salmon
(3-4 cm),
Salmo salar
Atlantic salmon
(0.4 g),
Salmo salar
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Brook trout (0.8 g),
Salvelinus fontinalis
Chemical
-
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
-
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
Duration
96hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
24hr
24hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
96 hr
24 hr
Effect
NOEC
(muscarinic
cholinergic receptors)
LC50
(solution aged 7 days)
LC50
(solution aged 14
days)
LC50
(solution aged 21
days)
NOEC
(temperature
preference)
LC50
(pH=6.5)
LC50
(pH=7.5)
(7C)
LC50
(pH=7.5)
(12C)
LC50
(pH=7.5)
(17C)
LC50
(pH=8)
(12C)
LC50
(pH=8)
(12C)
LC50
(pH=6.5)
(12C)
LC50
(pH=7.5)
(12C)
LC50
(pH=8.5)
(12C)
LC50
(pH=9.0)
(12C)
LC50
Concentration
(HS/L)
2,200
4,000
(pH=7.3)
3,380
(pH=7.2)
2,300
(pH=7.2)
1,000
1,400
3,000
2,100
900
5,400
2,500
4,600
3,700
2,100
1,100
10,000
Reference
Jones etal. 1998
Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986
Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986
Peterson 1976
Mayer and
Ellersieck 1986
Schoettger and
Mauck 1978
Schoettger and
Mauck 1978
Schoettger and
Mauck 1978
Schoettger and
Mauck 1978
Schoettger and
Mauck 1978
Schoettger and
Mauck 1978
Schoettger and
Mauck 1978
Schoettger and
Mauck 1978
Schoettger and
Mauck 1978
Mayer and
Ellerseick 1986
Reason Other
Data
Atypical endpoint
Aged solution
Aged solution
Aged solution
Atypical endpoint
Duration
Control survival
not reported
Control survival
not reported
Control survival
not reported
Control survival
not reported
Control survival
not reported
Control survival
not reported
Control survival
not reported
Control survival
not reported
Control survival
not reported
Duration
                                            135

-------
Appendix H. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms
Species
Lake trout
(6-18 month old),
Salvelinus
namaycush
Goldfish,
Carassius auratus
Goldfish,
Carassius auratus
Goldfish,
Carassius auratus
Carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp (larva;
8 mm; 3 day),
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp (larva;
8 mm; 3 day),
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp (larva;
8 mm; 3 day),
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp
(20-34 mm),
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp (egg),
Cyprinus carpio
Common carp (egg),
Cyprinus carpio
Carp (1.2 g),
Cyrpinus carpio
Carp(3.0g),
Cyrpinus carpio
Zebrafish (embryo),
Danio rerio
Zebrafish (embryo),
Danio rerio
Fathead minnow
(1-2 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1-2 g),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(larva),
Pimephales promelas
Chemical
-
-
99%
-
Technical
Commercial
Commercial
Commercial
-
85%
-
-
Technical
Technical
99.9%
99.9%
95%
95%
99.9%
Duration
< 30 day
48 hr
10 day
7 day
48 hr
96 hr
60 day
60 day
48 hr
7&14
day
55-74 hr
55-74 hr
72 hr
48 hr
24 hr
24 hr
96 hr
96 hr
7 day
Effect
BCF = 4.00
(substantial mortality
at 30 days)
LC50
LC50
40% with vertebral
deformation
LC50
LC50
NOEC
(growth)
LOEC
(growth)
LC50
LOEC
(reduced AChE
activity in brain)
LC50
100% mortality
LC50
LC50
LC50
EC50
(pericardia! edema, tail
malformations)
LC50
LC50
Chronic Value
(growth)
Concentration
(HS/L)
2,600
>10,000
>10,000
5,000
13,000
2,000
50
80
>10,000
39
1,400
2,500
13,000
13,000
44,660
7,520
13,000
7,000
576
Reference
Walsh and Ribelin
1973
Nishiuchi and
Hashimoto 1967
Shea and Berry
1983
Imada 1976
Hashimoto and
Nishiuchi 1981
Verma et al.
1981a
Verma et al.
1981a
Verma et al.
1981a
Nishiuchi and
Hashimoto 1967
de Mel and
Pathiratne 2005
Kaur and Toor
1977
Kaur and Toor
1977
Nishiuchi and
Asano 1981
Nishiuchi and
Asano 1981
Lin et al. 2007
Lin et al. 2007
Henderson et al.
1960
Henderson et al.
1960
Norberg-King
1989
Reason Other
Data
Control issues
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Duration
Atypical endpoint
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Control survival
not reported
Control survival
not reported
Duration
                                            136

-------
Appendix H. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms
Species
Fathead minnow
(larva),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(larva),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(larva),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(larva),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(larva),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(1 day),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(4 day),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(7 day),
Pimephales promelas
Fathead minnow
(<24 hr),
Pimephales promelas
Colorado
pikeminnow
(formerly squawfish),
Ptychocheilus lucius
Colorado
pikeminnow,
Ptychocheilus lucius
Colorado
pikeminnow
(5-6 day),
Ptychocheilus lucius
Bonytail chub
(2-7 day),
Gila elegans
Razorback sucker
(6-7 day),
Xyrauchen texanus
Yellow bullhead
(adult),
Ictalurus natalis
Walking catfish
(15-20 cm; 20-30 g),
Glorias batrachus
Chemical
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.9%
99.8%
99.8%
99.8%
99.7%
99%
99%
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
80%
99%
Duration
12 day
7 day
7 day
7 day
7 day
7 day
7 day
7 day
7 day
24 hr
24 hr
7 day
7 day
7 day
48 hr
15 day
Effect
Chronic Value
(growth)
Chronic Value
(survival and growth)
Chronic Value
(survival)
Chronic Value
(growth)
Chronic Value
(survival and growth)
Chronic Value
(growth)
Chronic Value
(growth)
Chronic Value
(growth)
IC25
NOEC
(AChE inhibition)
LOEC
(AChE inhibition)
IC25
IC25
IC25
LOEC
(behavior)
Decreased glucose and
protein
Concentration
(HS/L)
1,275
1,088
1,018
569
976
707
<250
707
420
29.3
49.1
1,330
250
2,060
1,000
4,000
Reference
Norberg-King
1989
Norberg-King
1989
Norberg-King
1989
Norberg-King
1989
Norberg-King
1989
Pickering et al.
1996
Pickering et al.
1996
Pickering et al.
1996
Dwyer et al.
1999a
Beyers and
Sikoski 1994
Beyers and
Sikoski 1994
Dwyer et al.
1999a
Dwyer et al.
1999a
Dwyer et al.
1999a
Morison 1984
Sharma 1999
Reason Other
Data
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Atypical endpoint
                                            137

-------
Appendix H. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms
Species
Walking catfish
(15-20 cm; 70-90 g),
Glorias batrachus
Walking catfish
(15-20 cm; 70-90 g),
Glorias batrachus
Walking catfish
(15-20 cm; 70-90 g),
Glorias batrachus
Killifish,
Fundulus heteroclitus
Mosquitofish
(20-45 mm),
Gambusia affmis
Mosquitofish,
Gambusia affmis
Mosquitofish,
Gambusia affmis
Guppy (juvenile),
Poecilia reticulata
Bluegill (adult),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (1-2 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Bluegill (0.87 g),
Lepomis macrochirus
Mozambique tilapia,
Tilapia mossambica
Plains Leopard frog,
Rana blairi
Gray tree frog
(Gosner stage 25),
Hyla versicolor
African clawed frog
(embryo),
Xenopus laevis
African clawed frog
(tadpole),
Xenopus laevis
African clawed frog
(embryo),
Xenopus laevis
Chemical
99%
99%
99%
99%
98%
Analytical
Analytical
97.6%
-
95%
Technical
Commercial
99.7%
99.7%
-
-
99.8%
Duration
96 hr
96 hr
96 hr
10 day
24 hr
24 hr
24 ru-
se hr
96 hr
96 hr
96 hr
48 hr
24 hr
48hr
24hr
24 hr
115 hr
Effect
Increased lactic acid in
liver and muscle
Increased lactic acid in
heart, gills, kidney and
spleen
Reduced AChE levels
in various tissues
40% Mortality
Irritated
Avoidance
LC50
LC50
Increased ventilator
response
LC50
LC50
LC50
LOEC
(reduced activity)
LC50
LC50
Abnormal
development
LC50
Concentration
(HS/L)
1,000
2,000
1,000
10,000
10,000
13,000
13,000
3,840
2,400
5,600
2,000
5,495
3,500
>2,510
4,700
110
20,280
Reference
Sharma and Gopal
1995
Sharma and Gopal
1995
Sharma et al.
1993
Shea and Berry
1983
Hansenetal. 1972
Krieger and Lee
1973
Krieger and Lee
1973
Lakotaetal. 1981
Carlson 1990
Henderson et al.
1960
Cope 1965
Bashaetal. 1983
Bridges 1997
Little et al. 2000
Elliott-Freeley
and Armstrong
1982
Elliott-Freeley
and Armstrong
1982
Bacchetta et al.
2008
Reason Other
Data
Atypical endpoint
Atypical endpoint
Atypical endpoint
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Atypical endpoint
Control survival
not reported
Control survival
not reported
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
  Dash indicates not available
                                               138

-------
Appendix I
    139

-------
Appendix I. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms
Species
Chemical
Duration
Effect
Concentration
(ng/L)
Reference
Reason Other
Data
Estuarine/marine Species
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacteria
Bacterium,
Vibrio fischeri
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Green alga,
Chlorococcum sp.
Diatom,
Nitzschia closterium
Diatom,
Nitzschia closterium
Diatom,
Nitzschia closterium
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
Analytical
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
34 day
42 day
(field)
42 day
(field)
42 day
(field)
70 day
(lab)
70 day
(lab)
70 day
(lab)
30 min
48hr
48 hr
48 hr
48 hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
96hr
48hr
48 hr
48 hr
Reduction in diversity
No effect on numbers,
diversity or filter paper
composition
No effect on numbers,
diversity or filter paper
composition
No effect on numbers,
diversity or filter paper
composition
No effect on filter
paper decomposition
No effect on filter
paper decomposition
Complete inhibition of
filter paper
decomposition
EC50
(luminescence)
75% reduced growth
rate
40% reduced growth
rate
48% reduced growth
rate
No significant
reduction in growth
rate
>100% reduced
growth rate
92% reduction in
growth rate between
48 & 96 hr
54% reduction in
growth rate between
48 & 96 hr
No sign, reduction in
growth rate between
48 and 96 hr
>100% reduced
growth rate
69% reduced growth
rate
No significant
reduction in growth
rate
100,000
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,651
10,000
2,000
1,000
500
10,000
2,000
1,000
500
10,000
2,000
1,000
Weber and
Rosenberg 1984
Weber and
Rosenberg 1984
Weber and
Rosenberg 1984
Weber and
Rosenberg 1984
Weber and
Rosenberg 1984
Weber and
Rosenberg 1984
Weber and
Rosenberg 1984
Hernando et al.
2007
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Single-cell
organism
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details
Duration
Duration
Duration
                                             140

-------
Appendix I. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms
Species
Diatom,
Nitzschia closterium
Diatom,
Amphora
coffeaformis v.
bore alls
Diatom,
Amphora
coffeaformis v.
bore alls
Diatom,
Amphora
coffeaformis v.
borealis
Diatom,
Amphora
coffeaformis v.
borealis
Diatom,
Amphora
coffeaformis v.
borealis
Diatom,
Amphora
coffeaformis v.
borealis
Diatom,
Amphiprora sp.
Diatom,
Amphiprora sp.
Diatom,
Amphiprora sp.
Diatom,
Amphiprora sp.
Diatom,
Amphiprora sp.
Dinoflagellate,
Gonyaulax sp.
Dinoflagellate,
Gonyaulax sp
Hermatypic coral,
Pocillopora
damicornis
Chemical
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Analytical
Duration
96hr
48hr
48hr
48hr
48hr
96hr
96hr
48hr
48hr
48hr
48hr
96hr
48hr
96 hr
96 hr
Effect
No significant
reduction in growth
rate between 48 and
96 hr
>100% reduced
growth rate
>100% reduced
growth rate
99% reduced growth
rate
No significant
reduction in growth
rate
69% reduction in
growth rate between
48 & 96 hr
No significant
reduction in growth
rate between 48 & 96
hr
>100% reduced
growth rate
75% reduced growth
rate
63% reduced growth
rate
No significant
reduction in growth
rate
No significant
reduction in growth
rate between 48 & 96
hr
No significant
reduction in growth
rate
No significant
reduction in growth
rate between 48 & 96
hr
NOEC
(survival)
Concentration
(ng/L)
10,000
10,000
2,000
1,000
500
10,000
2,000
10,000
2,000
1,000
500
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000
Reference
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Maly and Ruber
1983
Acevedo 1991
Reason Other
Data
Lack of exposure
details
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Lack of exposure
details
Duration
Lack of exposure
details
Duration
                                             141

-------
Appendix I. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms
Species
Polychaete worm,
Nereis diversicolor
Lugworm,
Arenicola marina
Bay mussel
(30-40 mm),
Mytilus edulis
Bay mussel
(embryo),
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel
(unfertilized egg),
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel
(1st polar body),
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel (2 cell),
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel
(>64 cell),
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel
(ciliated blastula),
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel
(trochophore),
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel
(early veliger),
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel,
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel,
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel,
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel,
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel,
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel,
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel,
Mytilus edulis
Blue mussel,
Mytilus edulis
Eastern oyster,
Crassostrea virginica
Chemical
-
99%
98%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
99.7%
-
-
>95%
Duration
2-8 day
48hr
72hr
48hr
Ihr
Ihr
Ihr
Ihr
Ihr
Ihr
Ihr
10 day
20 day
20 day
40 day
40 day
20 day
24 hr
48 hr
24 hr
Effect
Reduced AChE
activity
LC50
EC50
(feeding rate)
EC50
(development)
EC50
(development)
EC50
(development)
EC50
(development)
EC50
(development)
EC50
(development)
EC50
(development)
EC50
(development)
EC50
(shell growth)
EC50
(shell growth)
EC50
(metamorphosis with
dissoconch shell)
LC50
EC50
(shell growth)
Chronic Value
(growth)
EC50
(# of byssal threads)
EC50
( # of byssal threads)
LOEC
(growth)
Concentration
(ng/L)
201.2
7,200
8,370
2,400
20,070
5,300
7,000
8,300
16,000
19,000
24,000
>2,610
>1,300
>2,900
>2,900
>2,900
463.1
>30,000
>30,000
1,000
Reference
Scapsetal. 1997
Conti 1987
Donkinetal. 1997
Dimick and
Breese 1965
Armstrong and
Milleman 1974c
Armstrong and
Milleman 1974c
Armstrong and
Milleman 1974c
Armstrong and
Milleman 1974c
Armstrong and
Milleman 1974c
Armstrong and
Milleman 1974c
Armstrong and
Milleman 1974c
Liu and Lee 1975
Liu and Lee 1975
Liu and Lee 1975
Liu and Lee 1975
Liu and Lee 1975
Liu and Lee 1975
Roberts 1975
Roberts 1975
Butler etal. 1960
Reason Other
Data
Atypical endpoint
Duration
Atypical endpoint
Control survival
not reported
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Control issues
Control issues
Control issues
Control issues
Control issues
Control issues
Atypical endpoint
Atypical endpoint
Duration
                                             142

-------
Appendix I.  Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms
Species
Eastern oyster
(fertilized egg),
Crassotrea virginica
Eastern oyster,
Crassostrea virginica
Eastern oyster,
Crassostrea virginica
Eastern oyster,
Crassostrea virginica
Cockle clam (adult),
Clinocardium
nuttallii
Hard clam,
Mercenaria
mercenaria
Quahog clam
(fertilized egg),
Mercenaria
mercenaria
Amphipod,
Corophium
acherusicum
Amphipod,
Corophium
acherusicum
Amphipod,
Corophium
acherusicum
Mysid shrimp
(juvenile),
Americamysis bahia
Mysid shrimp
(juvenile),
Americamysis bahia
Mysid shrimp
(juvenile),
Americamysis bahia
Mysid shrimp
(juvenile),
Americamysis bahia
Grass shrimp,
Palaemonetes pugio
Grass shrimp,
Palaemonetes pugio
Grass shrimp,
Palaemonetes pugio
Grass shrimp,
Palaemonetes pugio
Chemical
-
-
-
-
80%
-
-
99.5%
99.5%
99.5%
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
99%
98%
Duration
48 hr
12 day
96hr
96 hr
24 hr
14 day
48 hr
10 wk
10 wk
10 wk
72hr
24hr
48hr
72hr
24hr
72 hr
96 hr
1.5 hr
Effect
LOEC
(development)
LC50
(larvae)
19% decrease in shell
growth
14% decrease in shell
growth
EC50
LC50
(larvae)
LOEC
(development)
48% reduction in # of
individuals
100% reduction in # of
individuals
100% reduction in # of
individuals
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
(fed)
LC50
(fed)
NOEC
(contaminant
avoidance)
Concentration
(ng/L)
1,000
3,000
2,000
2,000
7,300
>2,500
2,500
1.1
11.1
103
8.45
21
19
19
76
22
22
100
Reference
Davis 1961
Davis and Hidu
1969
Butler 1963
Butler 1963
Stewart et al.
1967
Davis and Hidu
1969
Davis 1961
Tagatzetal. 1979
Tagatzetal. 1979
Tagatzetal. 1979
Thursby and
Champlin 1991b
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Hansenetal. 1973
Reason Other
Data
Lack of exposure
details
Duration
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details
Duration
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details
Community
exposure
Community
exposure
Community
exposure
96 hr value used
96 hr value used
96 hr value used
96 hr value used
Duration
Test species fed
Test species fed
Atypical endpoint
                                             143

-------
Appendix I. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms
Species
Grass shrimp,
Palaemonetes pugio
Grass shrimp
(juvenile),
Palaemonetes pugio
Brown shrimp
(juvenile),
Penaeus aztecus
Brown shrimp
(adult),
Penaeus aztecus
Brown shrimp,
Penaeus aztecus
Pink shrimp
(juvenile),
Penaeus duorarum
Mud shrimp (larva),
Upogebia pugettensis
Mud shrimp (larva),
Upogebia pugettensis
Ghost shrimp (larva),
Callianassa
californiensis
Ghost shrimp (larva),
Callianassa
californiensis
Ghost shrimp (larva),
Callianassa
californiensis
Ghost shrimp (adult),
Callianassa
californiensis
Sand shrimp
(2.4-4.5 g),
Crangon
septemspinosa
American lobster
(1st stage),
Homarus americanus
American lobster
(1st stage),
Homarus americanus
American lobster
(1st stage),
Homarus americanus
American lobster
(1st stage),
Homarus americanus
Blue crab (juvenile),
Callinectes sapidus
Chemical
98%
99.7%
99.7%
-
-
99.7%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
-
99%
99%
99%
99%
99.7%
Duration
1.5 hr
48hr
48hr
48hr
24hr
48hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
96hr
24hr
48hr
72hr
96 hr
48 hr
Effect
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
EC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
EC50
EC50
EC50
EC50
Lethal threshold
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
Concentration
(ng/L)
38
28
1.5
2.5
5.5
32
130
40
470
170
5,600
130
20
38.73
23.13
20.89
20.89
320
Reference
Hansenetal. 1973
Hansen 1980;
Mayer 1987
Hansen 1980;
Mayer 1987
Butler 1963
Butler 1963
Hansen 1980;
Mayer 1987
Stewart et al.
1967
Stewart et al.
1967
Stewart et al.
1967
Stewart et al.
1967
Stewart et al.
1967
Stewart et al.
1967
McLeese et al.
1979
Champlin and
Poucher 1992
Champlin and
Poucher 1992
Champlin and
Poucher 1992
Champlin and
Poucher 1992
Hansen 1980;
Mayer 1987
Reason Other
Data
Atypical endpoint
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Atypical endpoint
Duration
Test species fed
Test species fed
Test species fed
Duration
                                             144

-------
Appendix I. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms
Species
Blue crab (juvenile),
Callinectes sapidus
Dungeness crab
(prezoea),
Metacarcinus
magister (formerly
Cancer magister)
Dungeness crab
(juvenile male),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(juvenile female),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(egg),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(prezoea),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(prezoea),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(prezoea),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(zoea; 1-2 day),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(zoeae; 1-2 day),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(zoeae),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(zoea; 1 day),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(juvenile),
Metacarcinus
magister
Chemical
-
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
Duration
48hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24 hr
48 hr
Effect
LC50
NOEC
(hatching)
EC50
EC50
NOEC
(hatching @ 10C)
EC50
(molting to zoea @
10C)
EC50
(molting to zoea @
10C)
EC50
(molting to zoea @
10C)
LC50
(17C)
LC50
(17C)
EC50
(cessation of
swimming)
(10C)
EC50
(10C)
EC50
(14C)
Concentration
(HS/L)
550
1,000
600
630
1,000
6
20
30
80
5
6.5
>1,000
76
Reference
Butler 1963
Buchanan et al.
1970
Stewart et al.
1967
Stewart et al.
1967
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Reason Other
Data
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
                                             145

-------
Appendix I. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms
Species
Dungeness crab
(juvenile),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(9th stage; juvenile),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(9th stage; juvenile),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(9th stage; juvenile),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(9th stage; juvenile),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(adult),
Metacarcinus
magister
Dungeness crab
(adult),
Metacarcinus
magister
Shore crab
(adult male),
Hemigrapsus
oregonensis
Shore crab
(adult female),
Hemigrapsus
oregonensis
Sand dollar,
Echinarachnius
parma
Sea urchin
(embryo/larva),
Arbacia punctulata
Sheepshead minnow,
Cyprinodon
variegatus
Sheepshead minnow,
Cyprinodon
variegatus
Sheepshead minnow,
Cyprinodon
variegatus
Chemical
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
80%
-
99%
99%
99%
99%
Duration
48hr
24hr
24hr
48hr
48hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
24hr
72hr
48hr
24hr
48 hr
72 hr
Effect
EC50
(12C)
EC50
(18C)
EC50
(18C)
EC50
(18C)
EC50
(18C)
EC50
(11C)
EC50
(18C)
EC50
EC50
NOEC
(development)
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
Concentration
(ng/L)
57
350
320
620
220
320
490
710
270
10,000
4,700
6,300
6,300
6,000
Reference
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Buchannan et al.
1970
Stewart et al.
1967
Stewart et al.
1967
Crawford and
Guarino 1976
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Reason Other
Data
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
                                             146

-------
Appendix I. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms
Species
Sheepshead minnow,
Cyprinodon
variegatus
Sheepshead minnow,
Cyprinodon
variegatus
Sheepshead minnow,
Cyprinodon
variegatus
Longnose killifish
(juvenile),
Fundulus similis
Longnose killifish,
Fundulus similis
Longnose killifish,
Fundulus similis
Killifish (embryo),
Fundulus heteroclitus
Killifish,
Fundulus heteroclitus
Mummichog,
Fundulus heteroclitus
Killifish,
(8-16 cell stage),
Fundulus heteroclitus
Atlantic silverside
(2-3 wk),
Menidia beryllina
Atlantic silverside
(2-3 wk),
Menidia beryllina
Atlantic silverside
(2-3 wk),
Menidia beryllina
Atlantic silverside
(2-3 wk),
Menidia beryllina
Atlantic silverside
(juvenile),
Menidia beryllina
Threespine
stickleback
(juvenile),
Gasterosteus
aculeatus
Threespine
stickleback,
Gasterosteus
aculeatus
Chemical
99%
98%
98%
99.7%
-
-
-
99%
99.1%
99.2%
99%
99%
99%
99%
99.2%
80%
95%
Duration
96 hr
24 hr
1.5 hr
48hr
24 hr
48 hr
40 day
10 day
10 day
72hr
24hr
48hr
72hr
96hr
24hr
24 hr
48 hr
Effect
LC50
(fed)
LC50
No avoidance
EC50
(mortality)
LC50
LC50
LOEC
(fry development)
LC50
LC40
NOEC
(development arrest)
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
(fed)
Disruption in
schooling behavior
EC50
LC50
Concentration
(ng/L)
5,800
2,800
100
1,600
1,750
1,750
10
>10,000
10,000
100
1,800
1,700
1,600
1,600
100
6,700
10,450
Reference
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Hansen 1969;
1970
Hansen 1969;
1970
Hansen 1980;
Mayer 1987
Butler 1963
Butler 1963
Crawford and
Guarino 1985
Shea and Berry
1983
Shea and Berry
1983
Weis and Weis
1974a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Thursby and
Champlin 1991a
Weis and Weis
1974b
Stewart et al.
1967
Katz 1961
Reason Other
Data
Test species fed
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
Test species fed
Duration
Duration
Duration
                                             147

-------
Appendix I. Other Data on Effects of Carbaryl to Estuarine/Marine Aquatic Organisms
Species
Threespine
stickleback,
Gasterosteus
aculeatus
Threespine
stickleback,
Gasterosteus
aculeatus
Threespine
stickleback,
Gasterosteus
aculeatus
Striped bass
(3 1mm; 0.42 g),
Morone saxatilis
Shiner perch
(juvenile),
Cymatogaster
aggregate
Mullet (juvenile),
Mugil cephalus
White mullet
(juvenile),
Mugil curema
English sole
(juvenile),
Parophrys vetulus
Chemical
95%
95%
95%
98%
80%
99.7%
-
80%
Duration
72 hr
48hr
72hr
96hr
24hr
48hr
48 hr
24 hr
Effect
LC50
LC50
LC50
LC50
EC50
EC50
(mortality)
LC50
EC50
Concentration
(ng/L)
4,940
16,625
6,175
1,000
3,900
2,400
2,500
4,100
Reference
Katz 1961
Katz 1961
Katz 1961
Korn and Earnest
1974
Stewart et al.
1967
Hansen 1980;
Mayer 1987
Butler 1963
Stewart et al.
1967
Reason Other
Data
Duration
Duration
Duration
Control survival
not reported
Duration
Duration
Duration
Duration
  Dash indicates not available
                                                148

-------
Appendix J
    149

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Title
Date
Organism(s)
Concentration
(ng/L)
Reason Unused
Expanded
Reason

Abbasi and Soni
Adhikary
Adhikary et al.
Aggarwal et al.
Agrawal
Almar et al.
Anbu and
Ramaswamy.
Ansara-Ross et
al.
Areekul
Ariaratnam and
Georghiou
Annstrong and
Millemann
Arora and
Kulshrestha
Arora and
Kulshrestha
Studies on the environmental
impact of three common
pesticides with respect to toxicity
towards a larvivore (channelfish
N. denricus).
Effect of pesticides on the growth,
photo synthetic oxygen evolution
and nitrogen fixation of
Westiellopsis prolific.
Effect of the carbamate
insecticide sevin onAnabaena
sp. and Westiellopsis prolifica.
Effect of some carbamate
pesticides on nodulation, plant
yield and nitrogen fixation by
Pisum sativum and Vigna sinensis
in the presence of their rhizobia.
The accumulation of biocide
residues in a few tissues of
Lamellidens marginalis.
Influence of temperature on
several pesticides toxicity to
Melanopsis dufouri under
laboratory conditions.
Adaptive changes in respiratory
movements of an air-breathing
fish, Channa striatus (Bleeker)
exposed to carbamate pesticide,
sevin.
Probabilistic risk assessment of
the environmental impacts of
pesticides in the Crocodile (west)
Marico catchment, North- West
Province.
Toxicity to fishes of insecticides
used in paddy fields and water
resources. I. Laboratory
experiment.
Carbamate resistance in
Anopheles albimanus.
Effects of the insecticide carbaryl
on clams and some other
intertidal mud flat animals.
Comparison of the toxic effects of
two pesticides on the testes of a
fresh water teleost Channa
striatus Bloch.
Effects of chronic exposure to
sublethal doses of two pesticides
on alkaline and acid phosphatase
activities in the intestine of a fresh
water Teleost, Channa striatus
Bloch. (Channidae).
1991
1989
1984
1986
1986
1988
1991
2008
1986
1975
1974a
1984
1985
Channelfish,
Nuria denricus
Cyanobacteria,
Westiellopsis
prolifica
Cyanobacteria,
Anabaena sp.
Westiellopsis
prolifica
Garden pea,
Pisum sativum
Cow pea,
Vigna sinensis
Bivalve,
Lamellidens
marginalis
Snail,
Melanopsis dufouri
Snakehead catfish,
Channa striatus
-
-
Mosquito,
Anopheles
albimanus
-
Snakehead catfish,
Channa striatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa striatus
96 hr
LC50=34,670
-
-
-
-
96 hr
LC50=10,100
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Not North
American species
Formulation
Formulation
Sediment exposure
Bioaccumulation:
steady state not
reached
Not North
American species
Formulation
Data modeling
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species
Too few exposure
concentrations
(<3)
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation

Sevin
(50% carbaryl)
Sevin
(50% carbaryl)

Static, unmeasured
study

Sevin (10% dust)

Text in foreign
language
Metabolism study
Community field
exposure
Sevin (50 WP)
Sevin (50 WP)
                                              150

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Arunachalam and
Palanichamy
Arunachalam et
al.
Arunachalam et
al.
Arunachalam et
al.
Arunachalam et
al.
Ashauer et al.
Ashauer et al.
Atallah and Ishak
Bajpai and Perti
Bakr et al.
Balasubramanian
and Ramaswami
Bansal et al.
Bansal et al.
Title
Sublethal effects of carbaryl on
surfacing behaviour and food
utilization in the air-breathing
fish, Macropodus cupanus.
Toxic and sublethal effects of
carbaryl on a freshwater catfish,
Mystus vittatus (Bloch).
Effect of carbaryl on esterases in
the air-breathing fish Channa
punctatus (Bloch).
Sublethal effects of carbaryl on
food utilization and oxygen
consumption in the air-breathing
fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).
The impact of pesticides on the
feeding energetics and body
composition in the freshwater
catfish, Mystus vittatus.
Simulating toxicity of carbaryl to
Gammarus pulex after sequential
pulsed exposure.
Modeling combined effects of
pulsed exposure to carbaryl and
chlorpyrifos on Gammarus pulex.
Toxicity of some commonly used
insecticides to the snail
Biomphalaria alexandria,
intermediate host of Schistosoma
mansoni in Egypt.
Resistance to malathion.
Insect growth regulators: I.
Biological activity of some IGR's
against the susceptible and
resistant strains of Culexpipiens
larvae: II. Pattern of cross
resistance to IGR's in carbaryl-
resistant strain.
Effect of pesticide sevin on
acetylcholinesterase (AchE)
activity in different tissues of
Oreochromis mossambicus
(Peters).
Pesticide-induced alterations in
the oxygen uptake rate of a
freshwater major carp Labeo
rohita.
Predicting long-term toxicity by
subacute screening of pesticides
with larvae and early juveniles of
four species of freshwater major
carp.
Date
1982
1980
1985a
1985b
1990
2007a
2007b
1971
1969
1989
1991
1979
1980
Organism(s)
Paradise fish,
Macropodus
cupanus
Catfish,
Mystus vittatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Catfish,
Mystus vittatus
Amphipod,
Gammarus pulex
Amphipod,
Gammarus pulex
Snail,
Biomphalaria
alexandria
Mosquito,
Culexfatigans
Mosquito,
Culexpipiens
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Carp,
Labeo rohita
Carp,
Labeo rohita,
Cirrhina mrigala,
Catla catla,
Cyprinus carpio
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
96 hr
LC50=6,000
-
-
-
24 hr
LC50=47,000
-
-
24 hr
decrease AChE
activity in brain
and heart at 3, 000
-
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Mixture; Pulsed
exposure
Not North
American species
Prior exposure
Prior exposure
Only two exposure
concentrations
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Formulation
Expanded
Reason
Carbaryl (50 WP)
Carbaryl (50 WP)


Carbaryl (50 EC)
Pulsed exposure
Carbaryl and
chlorpyrifos

Malathion resistant
strain
Carbaryl-resistant
strain

Sevin (50% WP)
Sevin (50% WP)
                                              151

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Barahona and
Sanchez-Fortun.
Barker et al.
Barry
Basak and Konar
Basak and Konar
Basak and Konar
Basha et al.
Basol et al.
Basso et al.
Beauvais et al.
Beyers et al.
Bhatia
Title
Toxicity of carbamates to the
brine shrimp Artemia salina and
the effect of atropine, BW284c51,
iso-OMPA and 2-PAM on
carbaryl toxicity.
Relationship between Legionella
pneumophila and Acanthamoeba
polyphaga: physiological status
and susceptibility to chemical
inactivation.
The effects of a pesticide on
inducible phenotypic plasticity in
Daphnia.
Effects of an organophosphorus
insecticide, dimethoate, on the
survival, behavior, growth and
reproduction offish.
Toxicity of six insecticides to
fish.
Pollution of water by pesticides
and protection of fishes:
parathion.
Respiratory potentials of the fish
(Tilapia mossambica) under
malathion, carbaryl and lindane
intoxication.
Comparative toxicity of some
pesticides on human health and
some aquatic species.
Alterations of Aplysia feeding
behavior following acute
carbamate intoxication.
Cholinergic and behavioral
neurotoxicty of carbaryl and
cadmium to larval rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Effects of rangeland aerial
application of sevin-4-oil on
fish and aquatic invertebrate drift
in Little Missouri River, North
Dakota.
Toxicity of some pesticides to
Puntius ticto (Hamilton).
Date
1999
1992
1999
1975
1976a
1976b
1984
1980
1986
2001
1995
1971a
Organism(s)
Brine shrimp,
Artemia salina
-
Cladoceran,
Daphnia
longicephala
-
Carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Electric eel
Marine snails,
Aplysia depilans,
Aplysia punctata,
Aplysia fasciata
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
-
Ticto barb,
Puntius ticto
Concentration
(ng/L)

-
-
-
-
-
48 hr
decreased oxygen
consumption at
1,832
-
-
-
-
96 hr
TLm=70,000
Reason Unused
Brine shrimp
Not applicable
Formulation
Not applicable
Formulation
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration
Altered test
species; No
scientific name
given
Formulation
Excessive solvent
Formulation
Not North
American species
Expanded
Reason

No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Yates Carbaryl
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Sevin (50% WP)
Sevin (50% WP)


AS 50, Sipcam
(47.5% carbaryl)
0.75 mL/L acetone
Sevin-4-oil

                                              152

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Bhatia
Bhattacharya
Bhattacharya
Bhavan and
Geraldine
Bhunia et al.
Bhunya and
Sahoo
Bielecki
Binelli et al.
Bluzat and Seuge
Bogacka and
Groba
Bogaerts et al.
Bonning and
Hemingway
Title
Toxicity of some insecticides to
Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) and
Colisafasciata (Bloch &
Schneider).
Target and non-target effects of
anticholinesterase pesticides in
fish.
Stress response to pesticides and
heavy metals in fish and other
vertebrates.
Carbaryl-induced alterations in
biochemical metabolism of the
prawn, Macrobmchium
malcolmsonii.
Carbaryl-induced effects of
glutathione content, glutathione
reductase and superoxide
dismutase activity of the
cyanobacterium Nostoc
muscorum.
Genotoxic potential of carbaryl in
the peripheral blood erythrocytes
ofAnabas testudineus.
The effect of phoschlorine,
carbatox and copper sulphate on
the development of eggs and
hatching of miracidia in Fasciola
hepatica L.
New evidence for old biomarkers:
effects of several xenobiotics on
EROD and AChE activities in
zebra mussel (Dreissena
polymorpha).
Effects of three insecticides
(lindane, fenthion, and carbaryl)
on the acute toxicity to four
aquatic invertebrate species and
the chronic toxicity.
Toxicity and biodegradation of
chlorfenvinphos, carbaryl and
propoxur in water environment.
Use of ciliated protozoan
Tetrahymena pyriformis for the
assessment of toxicity and
quantitative structure-activity
relationships of xenobiotics:
comparison with the microtox
test.
The efficacy of
acetylcholinesterase in
organophosphorus and carbamate
resistance in Culexpipiens L.
from Italy.
Date
1971b
1993
2001
2002
1993
2004
1987
2006
1979
1980
2001
1991
Organism(s)
Mrigal,
Cirrhinus mrigala
Kholisa,
Colisa fasciata
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
-
Prawn,
Macrobrachium
malcolmsonii
Cyanobacterium,
Nostoc muscorum
Climbing perch,
Anabas testudineus
Liver fluke,
Fasciola hepatica
Zebra mussel,
Dreissena
polymorpha
Amphipod,
Gammarus pulex
Mayfly,
Clean sp.
Midge,
Chaoborus sp.
Snail,
Lymnaea stagnalis
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Protozoan,
Tetrahymena
pyriformis
Mosquito,
Culexpipiens
Concentration
(ng/L)
96 hr
LC50=3,168
LC50=1,237
-
-
-
-
-
3hr
inhibit egg
development at
3,000,000
96 hr
Decrease AChE
activity at
100,000
48 hr
LC50=29
LC50=480
LC50=296
LC50=2 1,000
48 hr
LC50=1
-
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species
Formulation
Review of
previous studies
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Altered test species
Injected toxicant;
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration
Only one exposure
concentration
Excessive solvent
used; Text in
foreign language
Lack of detail; text
in foreign language
Excessive solvent
used
Prior exposure
Expanded
Reason

50% carbaryl

Sevin
(50% carbaryl)
Excised tissue
Sevin
(50% carbaryl)


1% solvent

DMSO(0.12%)
Carbaryl resistant
strain
                                              153

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons

Author
Boone


Boone and
Bridges






Boone and James







Boone and
Semlitsch





Boone and
Semlitsch




Boone et al.


Boone et al.

Boone et al.

Title
Examining the single and
interactive effects of three
insecticides on amphibian
metamorphosis.
Effects of carbaryl on green frog
(Rana clamitans) tadpoles: timing
of exposure versus multiple
exposures.




Interactions of an insecticide,
herbicide, and natural stressors in
amphibian community
mesocosms.





Interactions of an insecticide with
larval density and predation in
experimental amphibian
communities.




Interactions of bullfrog tadpole
predators and an insecticide:
predation release and facilitation.



Growth and development of larval
green frogs (Rana clamitans)
exposed to multiple doses of an
insecticide.

Effects of an insecticide on
amphibians in large-scale
experimental ponds.

Multiple sublethal chemicals
negatively affect tadpoles of the
green frog, Rana clamitans.

Date
2008


2003






2003







2001





2003




2001


2004

2005

Organism(s)
American toad,
Bufo americanus
Green frog,
Rana clamitans

Green frog,
Rana clamitans

American toad,
Bufo americanus
Southern leopard
frog,
Rana
sphenocephala
Spotted salamander,
Ambystoma
maculatum
Small-mouth
salamander,
A. texanum
Woodhouse toad,
Bufo woodhouse
Gray treefrog,
Hyla versicolor
Green frog,
Rana clamitans
Bullfrog,
Rana catesbeiana
Red- spotted newt,
Notophthalmus
viridescens
Bluegill,
Lepomis
macrochirus
Crayfish,
Orconectes sp.

Green frog,
Rana clamitans

Woodhouse toad,
Bufo woodhouse
Southern leopard
frog,
Rana
sphenocephala
Green frog,
Rana clamitans
Concentration
(jig/L)
-


-






-







-





-




-


-

-

Reason Unused
Formulation; Only
two exposure
concentrations


Pulsed exposure






Only two exposure
concentrations;
Formulation







Formulation





Only two exposure
concentrations;
Formulation




Formulation


Formulation

Only one exposure
concentration;
Formulation
Expanded
Reason
Sevin
(22.5% carbaryl)









Sevin
(21. 3% carbaryl)







Sevin
(21. 3% carbaryl)





Sevin
(21. 3% carbaryl)




Sevin
(21. 3% carbaryl)


Sevin
(21. 3% carbaryl)

Sevin
(22.5% carbaryl)
                                              154

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Boone et al.
Boran et al.
Bradbury et al.
Bridges
Bridges
Bridges
Bridges and
Boone
Bridges and
Semlitsch
Bridges and
Semlitsch
Bridges et al.
Title
Multiple stressors in amphibian
communities: Effects of chemical
contamination, bullfrogs, and fish.
Acute toxicity of carbaryl,
methiocarb and carbosulfan to the
rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss) and guppy (Poecilia
reticulata).
Use of respiratory-cardiovascular
responses of rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) in
identifying acute toxicity
syndromes in fish: part 4. Central
nervous system seizure agents.
Effects of a pesticide on tadpole
activity and predatory avoidance
behavior.
Predator-prey interactions
between two amphibian species:
effects of insecticide exposure.
Long-term effects of pesticide
exposure at various life stages of
the southern leopard frog (Rana
sphenocephala).
The interactive effects of UV-B
and insecticide exposure on
tadpole survival, growth and
development.
Variation in pesticide tolerance of
tadpoles among and within
species of ranidae and patterns of
amphibian decline.
Genetic variation in insecticide
tolerance in a population of
southern leopard frogs (Rana
sphenocephala). implications for
amphibian conservation
Comparative contaminant
toxicity: are amphibian larvae
more sensitive than fish?
Date
2007
2007
1991
1999a
1999b
2000
2003
2000
2001
2002
Organism(s)
American toad,
Bufo americanus
Southern leopard
frog,
Rana
sphenocephala
Bullfrog,
Rana catesbeiana
Spotted salamander,
Ambystoma
maculatum
Bluegill,
Lepomis
macrochirus
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Guppy,
Poecilia reticulata
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Gray treefrog,
Hyla versicolor
Southern leopard
frog,
Rana
sphenocephala
Red- spotted newt,
Notophthalmus
viridescens
Southern leopard
frog,
Rana
sphenocephala
Southern leopard
frog,
Rana
sphenocephala
-
Southern leopard
frog,
Rana
sphenocephala
-
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
96 hr
LC50=522
LC50=1,383
-
24 hr
decrease tadpole
activity at 2,500
Ihr
decrease newt
consumption of
tadpoles at 2,500
-
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Formulation
Excessive solvent
used
Too few test
organisms;
Surgically altered
test species
Only two exposure
concentrations
Only one exposure
concentration
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration
Only one exposure
concentration
Review of
previous studies
Expanded
Reason
Sevin
(22.5% carbaryl)
0.2%
Spinally transected
trout



Sevin 
(22.5% carbaryl)



                                              155

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Brown
Brunei and Fisher
Burdick et al.
Burdick et al.
Butler
Cajaraville et al.
Cajaraville et al.
Cajaraville et al.
Calapaj
Campero et al.
Campero et al.
Capaldo
Carlson et al.
Carter
Carter and Graves
Title
Effects of split applications of
sevin-4-oil on aquatic
invertebrate drift.
The effects of temperature, pH,
and sediment on the fate and
toxicity of 1-naphthol to the
midge larvae Chironomus
riparius.
Effect of sevin upon the aquatic
environment.
Toxicity of sevin (carbaryl) to
fingerling brown trout.
Pesticide- wildlife studies, 1964.
A review of Fish and Wildlife
Service investigations during the
calendar year.
Acute toxicity of two
hydroxylated hydrocarbons to the
prosobranch gastropod Littorina
littorea.
A stereological survey of
lysosomal structure alterations in
Littorina littorea exposed to 1-
naphthol.
Short-term toxic effects of 1-
naphthol on the digestive gland-
gonad complex of the marine
prosobranchLzfton'wa littorea (L):
a light microscopic study.
Chemical pollution of Mytilus. I.
Radio strontium, radiocesium,
inorganic mercury, hexavalent
chromium.
Ecological relevance and
sensitivity depending on the
exposure time for two
biomarkers.
Sublethal pesticide concentrations
and predation jointly shape life
history: Behavioral and
physiological mechanisms.
Effects of carbaryl (SEVIN) on
the stage I zoeae of the red-
jointed fiddler crab, Uca minax
(LeConte).
Neurological effects on startle
response and escape from
predation by medaka exposed to
organic chemicals.
'In vivo' studies of brain
acetylcholinesterase inhibition by
organophosphate and carbamate
insecticides in fish.
Measuring effects of insecticides
on aquatic animals.
Date
1980
1993
1960
1965
1964
1989a
1989b
1990
1973
2007a
2007b
1987
1998
1971
1972
Organism(s)
-
Midge,
Chironomus
riparius
-
Brown trout
Marine shrimp and
drills
Snail,
Littorina littorea
Snail,
Littorina littorea
Snail,
Littorina littorea
-
Damselfly,
Coenagrion puella
Damselfly,
Coenagrion puella
Red-jointed fiddler
crab,
Uca minax
Medaka,
Oryzias latipes
-
-
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7d Growth
NOEC=5
LOEC=40
-
-
48 hr
LC50=9,400
-
-
Reason Unused
Formulation
Not applicable
Formulation
Lack of detail;
Formulation
Formulation
Not applicable
Not applicable
Not applicable
Lack of detail
Not North
American species
Not North
American species
Formulation
Not North
American species
Excessive solvent
Lack of exposure
details
Expanded
Reason
Sevin-4-oil
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Sevin
Sevin; Species
name not given
Sevin
(10%, 3% and 2%)
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Text in foreign
language

Predator present in
exposure medium
Sevin
(27% carbaryl)


No scientific
names given
                                              156

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons

Author



Chaiyarach et al.



Chakrawarti and
Chaurasia


Chambers



Chandran et al.








Chari

Cheah et al.

Cheah et al.



Chen et al.



Chen and
Sudderuddin


ChitraandPillai


Title


Acute toxicity of the insecticides
toxaphene and carbaryl and the
herbicides propanil and molinate
to four species of aquatic
organisms.


Toxicity of some
organophosphate, chlorinated and
carbamate pesticides to some
fresh water fishes.

Investigation of chemical control
of ghost shrimp on oyster grounds
1960-1963.


Method for the estimation of safe
experimental concentration for
intermediate toxicity test.

Impact of pesticide application on
zooplankton communities with
different densities of invertebrate
predators: an experimental
analysis using small-scale
mesocosms.
A rapid bioassay procedure to
determine the toxicity of
pesticides to Channa punctatus
Bloch.
Some effects of rice pesticides on
crawfish.
Acute toxicity of selected rice
pesticides to crayfish,
Procambarus clarkii.
Laboratory studies on the
susceptibility of mosquito-eating
fish, Lebistes reticulatus and the
larvae of Culex pipiens fatigans to
insecticides.
lexicological studies of
insecticides on Culex
quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes
aegypti(L.).
Development of
organophosphorus and carbamate-
resistance in Indian strains of
Anopheles Stephens! Listen.

Date



1975



1981


1969



1991



2005




1992

1980a

1980b



1971



1978


1984


Organism(s)
Mosquito fish,
Gambusia qffinis
Grass shrimp,
Palaemonetes
Crayfish,
simulans
Clam,
Rangia cuneata
Walking catfish,
Clarias batrachus
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Ghost shrimp,
Callianassa
californiensis
Catfish,
Mystus tengara
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Catfish,
Anabas testudineus







Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus

Crayfish,
Procambarus
clarkii
Crayfish,
Procambarus
clarkii
Guppy,
Lebistes reticulatus
Mosquito,
Culex pipiens
fatigans
Mosquito,
quinquefasciatus
Mosquito,
Aedes aegypti

Mosquito,
Anopheles stephensi

Concentration
(ng/L)


96 hr
LC50=3 1,800
LC50=120
LC50=2,430
LC50=125,000


96hrLC50=
>1, 200,000
for both species


-


96 hr
LC50=18,000
LC50=58,000
LC50=20,500








-

96 hr
LC50=500

-


24 hr
LC50=2,600
LC50=400

74 v,r
LC50=680
LC50=690


-


Reason Unused



Prior exposure



Lack of exposure
details


Formulation



Not North
American species



Only one exposure
concentration



Formulation

Lack of exposure
details

Formulation


Excessive solvent
used; Lack of
exposure details


Lack of exposure
details


Excessive solvent

Expanded
Reason







Dilution water not
characterized


Sevin












Sevin



Sevin


0.4%; Dilution
water not
characterized


Dilution water not
characterized


4 mL/L ethanol

                                              157

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Choudhury et al.
Christensen and
Tucker
Christoffers and
Ernst
Chung et al.
Cocks
Corners and
Black
Cook et al.
Coors and De
Meester
Coppage
Courtemanch and
Gibbs
Cutkomp et al.
Dahlberg
Damalas et al.
Title
Non lethal concentrations of
pesticide impair ovarian function
in the freshwater perch, Anabas
testudineus.
Effects of selected water toxicants
on the in vitro activity of fish
carbonic anhydrase.
The in- vivo fluorescence of
Chlorella fusca as a biological
test for the inhibition of
photosynthesis.
Toxicity of carbaryl, diquat
dibromide, and fluoranthene,
individually and in mixture, to
larval grass shrimp, Palaemonetes
pugio.
The effect of aldrin on water
balance in the freshwater
pulmonate gastropod
(Biomphalaria glabrata).
Evaluation of lethality and
genotoxicity in the freshwater
mussel Utterbackia imbecillis
(Bivalvia: Unionidae) exposed
singly and in combination to
chemicals used in lawn care.
Succession of micro fungi in
estuarine microcosms perturbed
by carbaryl, methyl parathion and
pentachlorophenol.
Synergistic, antagonistic and
additive effects of multiple
stressors: Predation threat,
parasitism and pesticide exposure
mDaphnia magna.
Anticholinesterase action of
pesticidal carbamates in the
central nervous system of
poisoned fishes.
The effects of sevin-4-oil on
lentic communities.
ATPase activity in fish tissue
homogenates and inhibitory
effects of DDT and related
compounds.
Toxicity to acrolein to barnacles
(Balanus eburneus).
Bispyribac-sodium efficacy on
early watergrass (Echinochloa
oryzoides) and late watergrass
(Echinochloa phyllopogon) as
affected by coapplication of
selected rice herbicides and
insecticides.
Date
1993
1976
1983
2008
1973
2004
1980
2008
1977
1978
1971
1971
2008
Organism(s)
Perch,
Anabas testudineus
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Green alga,
Chlorella fusca
Grass shrimp,
Palaemonetes pugio
Snail,
Biomphalaria
glabrata
Mussel,
Utterbackia
imbecillis
-
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Sailfin molly,
Poecilia latipinna
-
Bluegill,
Lepomis
macrochirus
Barnacle,
Balanus eburneus
Early Watergrass,
Echinochloa
oryzoides
Late Watergrass,
Echinochloa
phyllopogon
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
96 hr
LC50=43.02
24 hr
heart beat 31% of
control at 64,390
-
-
21 d reduced
reproduction at
5.6
1 5 hr reduced
survival at 1,333
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Surgically altered
test species
Only one exposure
concentration;
Excessive solvent
Excessive solvent
used
Not North
American species
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration
Only one exposure
concentration;
Lack of exposure
details
Only one exposure
concentration;
Lack of exposure
details
Formulation
Surgically altered
test species
Not applicable
Mixture
Expanded
Reason

Red blood cells
1% acetone
0.1%

Sevin
(22.5% carbaryl)

Dilution water not
characterized
Dilution water not
characterized
Sevin-4-oil
Homogenized
tissue
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Bispyribac-sodium
and carbaryl
                                              158

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Das and Adhikary
Das and Kumar
Das and
Rajagopalan
Davey et al.
Davidson et al.
Deshmukh and
Keshavan
Dhanapakiam and
Premlatha
Dimayuga et al.
Dodson et al.
Downing et al.
Dumbauld et al.
Dumbauld et al.
Dumbauld et al.
Title
Toxicity of three pesticides to
several rice-field cyanobacteria.
Toxicity of carbaryl on a-amylase
of the fish Colisafasciatus.
Susceptibility of larvae of Culex
fatigans (Wiedmann), Anopheles
stephensi (Listen) andAedes
aegypti (Linn.) to insecticides in
Pondicherry.
Toxicity of five ricefield
pesticides to the mosquito fish,
Gambusia qffinis, and green
sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus, under
laboratory and field conditions in
Arkansas.
Effects of chytrid and carbaryl
exposure on survival, growth and
skin peptide defenses in foothill
yellow-legged frogs.
Acute toxicity of DDT and sevin
to the bullfrog, Rana tigrina.
Histopathological changes in the
kidney of Cyprinus carpio
exposed to malathion and sevin.
Insecticide-induced accumulation
of melanomacrophage centers
(MMCs)inNiletilapia
(Oreochromis niloticus Linn.).
Behavioral responses ofDaphnia
pulex exposed to carbaryl and
Chaoborus kairomone
Community and ecosystem
responses to a pulsed pesticide
disturbance in freshwater
ecosystems.
Efficacy of the pesticide carbaryl
for thalassinid shrimp control in
Washington State oyster
(Crassostrea gigas, Thunberg,
1793) aquaculture.
Response of an estuarine benthic
community to application of the
pesticide carbaryl and cultivation
of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea
gigas) in Willapa Bay,
Washington.
An integrated pest management
program for burrowing shrimp
control in oyster aquaculture.
Date
1996
1993
1979
1976
2007
1984
1994
2008
1995
2008
1997
2001
2006
Organism(s)
Cyanobacteria
Giant gourami,
Colisafasciatus
Mosquito,
Culex fatigans
Mosquito,
Anopheles stephensi
Mosquito,
Aedes aegypti
Mosquito fish,
Gambusia qffinis
Green sunfish,
Lepomis cyanellus
Foothill yellow-
legged frog,
Rana boylii
Bullfrog,
Rana tigrina
Carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Nile tilapia,
Oreochromis
niloticus
Cladoceran,
Daphnia pulex
Aquatic mesocosm
-
Estuarine benthic
community
-
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
48 hr
LC50=112
-
-
-
96 hr
LC50=70,000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Lack of detail
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation; Only
one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species
Formulation
Formulation
Only two exposure
concentrations
Formulation
Mixture, Field
exposure;
Formulation
Formulation;
Mixture
Mixture
Expanded
Reason
Sevin (50% WP)
No procedure
information
provided
Sevimol
(40% carbaryl)



Sevin
(commercial
grade)
Sevin

Sevin
(5% carbaryl)

Field exposure

                                              159

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Durfey and
Simpson
El-Magid
Epstein and
Legator
Estenik and
Collins
European
Commission DG
Environment
Feldhaus et al.
Fernandez et al.
Fernandez-Alba
etal.
Ferrari et al.
Ferrari et al.
Fischer et al.
Fisher and
Lohner
Title
Control of two burrowing shrimp
species, ghost shrimp,
Callianassa californiensis and
mud shrimp, Upogebia
pugettensis, using subsurface
injection of carbaryl ("sevin") as
an alternative to aerial application
in preparation of oyster beds for
seeding.
Effects of some pesticides on the
growth of blue-green alga
Spirulina platensis.
The mutagenicity of pesticides
concepts and evaluation.
In vivo and in vitro studies of
mixed-function oxidase in an
aquatic insect, Chironomus
riparius. In: Pesticide and
xenobiotic metabolism in aquatic
organisms.
Endocrine disrupters: Study on
gathering information on 435
substances with insufficient data.
Interactive effects of pesticide
mixtures on the neurobehavioral
responses and AChE levels of the
planaria.
Amphibian micronucleus test(s):
A simple and reliable method for
evaluating in vivo genotoxic
effects of freshwater pollutants
and radiations: Initial assessment.
Toxicity of pesticides in
wastewater: a comparative
assessment of rapid bioassays.
Effects of carbaryl and azinphos
methyl on juvenile rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
detoxifying enzymes.
Antioxidant responses to azinphos
methyl and carbaryl during the
embryonic development of the
toad Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum
Hensel.
The effect of benzimidazole,
carbamate and
organophosphorous pesticides on
the oxygen-dependent nuclear
volume alterations in the
chloragocytes of Tubifex tubifex
Mull.
Studies on the environmental fate
of carbaryl as a function of pH.
Date
1995
1986
1971
1979
2002
1998
1993
2001
2007b
2009
1982
1986
Organism(s)
Ghost shrimp,
Callianassa
californiensis
Mud shrimp,
Upogebia
pugettensis
Blue-green alga,
Spirulina platensis
-
Midge,
Chironomus
riparius
-
Brown planaria,
Dugesia tigrina
Newt,
Pleurodeles waltl
Bacterium,
Vibrio fischeri
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Toad,
Rhinella (Bufo)
arenarum
Tubificid worm,
Tubifex tubifex
Midge,
Chironomus
riparius
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
5 d Growth
NOEC= 1,000
LOEC=5,000
-
24 hr
LC50=104.5
-
-
8d
increased
micronucleus
frequency at
2,500
-
96 hr
decreased liver
CbEat
1,000
Increased
embryonic
development
malformations at
20,000
5d
did not induce
nuclear swelling
within the
physiological
range at
1,000
24 hr
LC50=103
Reason Unused
Sediment exposure
Not North
American species
Review of
previous studies
Excessive solvent
used
Review of
previous studies
Dilution water is
deionized water
without the proper
salts added
Only one exposure
concentration
Not applicable
Only two exposure
concentrations
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Only one exposure
concentration
Excessive solvent
used
Expanded
Reason



0.1%



No carbaryl
toxicity
information



1 mL/L
                                              160

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Fisher et al.
Fitzgerald et al.
Fleeger et al.
Foster and Tullis
Freitag et al.
Frempong-Boadu
Galindo Reyes et
al.
Garcia-Ripoll et
al.
Ghosh
Ghosh and
Bhattacharya
Ghosh et al.
Ghosh et al.
Title
Quantitative structure-activity
relationships for predicting the
toxicity of pesticides in aquatic
systems with sediment.
Studies on chemicals with
selective toxicity to blue-green
algae.
Indirect effects of contaminants in
aquatic ecosystems.
A quantitative structure-activity
relationship between partition
coefficients and the acute toxicity
of naphthalene derivatives in
Artemia salina nauplii.
Ecotoxicological profile analysis.
VII. Screening chemicals for their
environment behavior by
comparative evaluation
A laboratory study of the
effectiveness of methoxychlor,
fenthion and carbaryl against
blackfly larvae (Diptera:
Simuliidae).
Effects of pesticides on DNA and
protein of shrimp larvae
Litopenaeus stylirostris of the
California Gulf.
Confirming Pseudomonas putida
as a reliable bioassay for
demonstrating biocompatibility
enhancement by solar photo-
oxidative process of a
biorecalcitrant effluent.
Interrelationship of
acetylcholinesterase-
acetylcholine, triiodothyronine-
thyroxine and gonadotropin-
gonadotropin releasing hormone
in pesticide treated murrel,
Channa punctatus (Bloch).
Elevation of c-reactive protein in
serum of Channa punctatus as an
indicator of water pollution.
Impact of nonlethal levels of
metacid-50 and carbaryl on
thyroid function and cholinergic
system of Channa punctatus.
Impairment of the regulation of
gonadal function in Channa
punctatus by the metacid-50 and
carbaryl under laboratory and
field conditions.
Date
1993
1952
2003
1984
1982
1966
2002
2009
1990
1992
1989
1990
Organism(s)
Midge,
Chironomus
riparius
-
-
Brine shrimp,
Artemia salina
Green alga,
Chlorellafusca var.
vacuolated
Blackflies,
Prosimulium
mixtum,
P. magnum,
Simulium venustum,
S. tuberosum
Shrimp larvae,
Litopenaeus
stylirostris
Bacteria,
Pseudomonas
putida
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Excessive solvent
used; Sediment in
exposure media
Not applicable
Review of
previous studies
Brine shrimp
Bioaccumulation
study: steady state
not reached, static
exposure
Formulation
Formulation
Sediment exposure
Lack of detail
(procedures); Not
North American
species; Only one
exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Expanded
Reason
1 mL/500 mL
acetone
No carbaryl
toxicity
information



1% carbaryl
Sevin





                                              161

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Ghosh et al.
Gibbs
Gibbs et al.
Gibbs et al.
Gibbs et al.
Gilbert et al.
Gill et al.
Gillott et al.
Goel and
Srivastava
Gouda et al.
Gray et al.
Groba and
Trzcinska
Grosch
Title
Glutathione depletion in the liver
and kidney of Channa punctatus
exposed to carbaryl and metacid-
50.
Effects of a split application of
sevin-4-oil on aquatic organisms.
The effects on pond
macroinvertebrates from forest
spraying of carbaryl (sevin-4-oil)
and its persistence in water and
sediment.
The effects in 1982 on pond
macroinvertebrates from forest
spraying of carbaryl, sevin-4-oil,
in 1980.
Persistence of carbaryl (sevin-4-
oil) in woodland ponds and its
effects on pond
macroinvertebrates following
forest spraying.
Rapid assessment of metabolic
activity in marine microalgae:
application in ecotoxicological
test and evaluation of water
quality.
Gill, liver, and kidney lesions
associated with experimental
exposures to carbaryl and
dimethoate in the fish (Puntius
conchonius Ham.).
The role of sediment as a
modifying factor in pesticide-
algae interactions.
Laboratory evaluation of some
molluscicides against fresh water
snails, Indoplanorbis and
Lymnaea species.
Toxicity of dimecron, sevin and
lindex to Anabas scandens and
Heteropneustesfossilis.
Emerging issues: The effects of
endocrine disrupters on
reproductive development.
Effect of selected
organophosphorous and
carbamate insecticides on rainbow
trout (Salmo gairdneri R.).
Reproduction tests: the toxicity
forArtemia of derivatives from
non-persistent pesticides.
Date
1993
1979
1981
1982
1984
1992
1988
1975
1981
1981
1996
1979
1973
Organism(s)
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
-
-
-
Spruce budworm,
Choristoneura
fumiferana
Green alga,
Tetraselmis suecica
Skeletonema
costatum
Prorocentrum lima
Barb,
Puntius conchonius
Alga,
Euglena gracilis
Snail,
Indoplanorbis
exustus
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Climbing perch,
Anabas scandens
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
-
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Brine shrimp,
Artemia salina
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
24 hr
C-14
incorporation
NOEC=5
LOEC=10
24 hr
LC50=30,000
LC50=15,980
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Lack of details
(procedure, purity,
exposure media)
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Excessive solvent
used
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not applicable
Only two exposure
concentrations;
Lack of exposure
details
Brine shrimp
Expanded
Reason

Sevin-4-oil
Sevin-4-oil
Sevin-4-oil
Sevin-4-oil
(49% carbaryl)

Sevin (50% WP)
1 mL/L
Dilution water not
characterized
Sevin
(50% carbaryl)
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Text in foreign
language

                                              162

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Gruber and Munn
Gupta and Sahai
Gupta and
Sundararaman
Haines
Han 11 et al.
Hanazato
Hanazato
Hanazato
Hanazato
Hanazato
Hanazato and
Dodson
Hanazato and
Hirokawa
Hanazato and
Yasuno
Title
Organophosphate and carbamate
insecticides in agricultural waters
and cholinesterase (ChE)
inhibition in common carp
(Cyprinus carpio).
Qualitative detection of
organochlorine and carbamate
residues in the brain of catfish,
Heteropenustes fossilis (Bloch)
by thin layer chromatography
Correlation between burrowing
capability and AChE activity in
the earthworm, Pheretima
posthuma, on exposure to
carbaryl.
Effect of an aerial application of
carbaryl on brook trout
(Salvelinus fontinalis)
Studies on control effects of
pesticide applications against the
vector mosquito larvae in rice
fields in Korea.
Effects of long- and short-term
exposure to carbaryl on survival,
growth and reproduction of
Daphnia ambigua.
Effects of repeated application of
carbaryl on zooplankton
communities in experimental
ponds with or without the
predator Chaoborus.
Pesticides as chemical agents
inducing helmet formation on
Daphnia ambigua.
Insecticide inducing helmet
development in Daphnia
ambigua.
Combined effect of the insecticide
carbaryl and the Chaoborus
kairomone on helmet
development in Daphnia
ambigua.
Complex effects of a kairomone
of Chaoborus and an insecticide
on Daphnia pulex.
Changes in vulnerability of
Daphnia to an insecticide
application depending on the
population phase.
Effects of a carbamate insecticide,
carbaryl, on the summer phyto-
and zooplankton communities in
ponds.
Date
1998
1989
1991
1981
1981
1991a
1991b
1991c
1992
1995
1992
2004
1987
Organism(s)
Common carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Catfish,
Heteropenustes
fossilis
Earthworm,
Pheretima
posthuma
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Mosquito,
Culex
tritaeniorhynchus
Anopheles sinensis
Cladoceran,
Daphnia ambigua
Zooplankton
community
Cladoceran,
Daphnia ambigua
Cladoceran,
Daphnia ambigua
Cladoceran,
Daphnia ambigua
Cladoceran,
Daphnia pulex
Cladoceran,
Daphnia pulex
Zooplankton
community
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Mixture
Lack of detail
(procedure)
Dilution water is
distilled water
without proper
salts added
Lack of details
(procedure)
Formulation
Lack of details
(procedure,
duration)
Only two exposure
concentrations
Excessive solvent
used
Only two exposure
concentrations
Lack of details
(procedure,
duration)
Lack of details
(procedure,
duration)
Only one exposure
concentration
Only one exposure
concentration
Expanded
Reason




Sevin
(50% carbaryl)


3.5 mL/L ethanol





                                              163

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Hanazato and
Yasuno
Hanazato and
Yasuno
Hanazato and
Yasuno
Hanazato and
Yasuno
Hanazato and
Yasuno
Hardersen and
Wratten
Hardersen and
Wratten
Harilal and Sahai
Havens
Havens
Haynes et al.
Heldal et al.
Hemingway and
Georghiou
Title
Influence of overwintering
Daphnia on spring zooplankton
communities: an experimental
study.
Effects of carbaryl on the spring
zooplankton communities in
ponds.
Influence of persistence period of
an insecticide on recovery
patterns of a zooplankton
community in experimental
ponds.
Influence of time of application of
an insecticide on recovery
patterns of a zooplankton
community in experimental
ponds.
Influence of Chaoborus density
on the effects of an insecticide on
zooplankton communities in
ponds.
The sensitivity of the nymphs of
two New Zealand damselfly
species (Odonata: Zygoptera) to
azinphos-methyl and carbaryl.
The effects of carbaryl exposure
on the penultimate larval instars
of Xathocnemis zealandica on
emergence and fluctuating
asymmetry.
Qualitative identification of
metabolites of carbaryl in the
gonads of catfish Heteropneustes
fossilis (Bloch).
An experimental comparison of
the effects of two chemical
stressors on a freshwater
zooplankton assemblage.
Insecticide (carbaryl, 1 -napthyl-n-
methylcarbamate) effects on a
freshwater plankton community:
zooplankton size, biomass, and
algal abundance.
The toxicity of sevin to goldfish.
Toxic responses of the green alga
Dunaliella bioculata
(Chlorophycea, Volvocales) to
selected oxidized hydrocarbons.
Studies on the
acetylcholinesterase of Anopheles
albimanus resistant and
susceptible to organophosphate
and carbamate insecticides.
Date
1989a
1989b
1990a
1990b
1990c
1996
1998
1990
1994
1995
1958
1984
1983
Organism(s)
Zooplankton
community
Zooplankton
community
Zooplankton
community
Zooplankton
community
Zooplankton
community
Damselfly,
Xanthocnemis
zealandia
Austrolestes
colensonis
Damselfly,
Xanthocnemis
zealandia
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Zooplankton
community
Plankton
community
Goldfish,
Carassius auratus
Green alga,
Dunaliella
bioculata
Mosquito,
Anopheles
albimanus
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
48 hr
LC50=600
LC50=3,130
-
-
-
-
-
-
24 hr
LC50=890
Reason Unused
Only one exposure
concentration;
Possible mixture
used
Only one exposure
concentration
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Exposure
concentrations
fluctuated widely
Bioaccumulation
study: steady state
not reached; Mot
North American
species
Dilution water not
characterized;
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Not applicable
Excessive solvent
used; Waxed cups
used
Expanded
Reason


50% carbaryl
50% carbaryl
50% carbaryl



Commercial grade
Commercial grade
Sevin
(50% carbaryl)
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
ImL/lOOmL
                                              164

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Hendrick et al.
Hermann
Hernandez et al.
Hernandez et al.
Hidaka et al.
Hiltibran
Hirose and
Kitsukawa
Holcombe et al.
Hopf and Muller
Hopkins and
Winne
Hopkins et al.
Hota et al.
Hulbert
Title
Effects of some insecticides on
the survival, reproduction, and
growth of the Louisiana red
crawfish.
Routine testing of new Bayer
pesticides for fish toxicity, as part
of the product development
programme.
Toxicity of ethil-parathion and
carbaryl on early stages of the
development of sea urchin.
Toxicity of ethyl-parathion and
carbaryl on early development of
sea urchin.
Avoidance of pesticides with
medakas (Oryzias latipes).
Oxygen and phosphate
metabolism of bluegill liver
mitochondria in the presence of
some insecticides.
Acute toxicity of agricultural
chemical to seawater teleosts,
with special respect to TLm and
the vertebral abnormality.
The acute toxicity of selected
substituted phenols, benzenes and
benzoic acid esters to fathead
minnows Pimephalespromelas.
Laboratory breeding and testing
of Australorbis glabratus for
molluscicidal screening.
Influence of body size on
swimming performance of four
species of neonatal natricine
snakes acutely exposed to a
cholinesterase-inhibiting
pesticide.
Differential swimming
performance of two natricine
snakes exposed to a
cholinesterase-inhibiting
pesticide.
Metabolic effects of kilex
carbaryl on a fresh water teleost,
Channa punctatus (Bloch).
Effects of sevin, a spruce
budworm insecticide on fish and
invertebrates in the
Mattawamkeag River in 1976.
Date
1966
1975
1986
1990
1984
1974
1976
1984
1962
2006
2005
1993
1978
Organism(s)
Crawfish,
Procambarus
clarkia
-
Sea urchin,
Pseudechinus
magellanicus
Sea urchin,
Pseudechinus
magellanicus
Medaka,
Oryzias latipes
Bluegill,
Lepomis
macrochirus
Medaka,
Oryzias latipes
Fathead minnows,
Pimephales
promelas
Snail,
Australorbis
glabratus
Semi-aquatic
snakes,
Nerodia taxispilota,
N. rhombifer,
N. fasciata,
Seminatrix pygaea
Black swamp snake,
Seminatrix pygaea
Diamondback water
snake,
Nerodia rhombifer
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
-
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
96 hr
EC50=92.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
24 hr
decline in protein
concentration in
liver at 2,000
-
Reason Unused
Formulation; Field
application
Review of
previous studies
Text in foreign
language; Not
North American
species
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Surgically altered
test species
Text in foreign
language
Not applicable
Lack of details
(procedure)
Formulation
Only two exposure
concentrations;
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration; Not
North American
species
Formulation
Expanded
Reason




Text in foreign
language
Liver mitochondria

No carbaryl
toxicity
information

Sevin
(commercial
grade)
Sevin

Sevin-4-oil
                                              165

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Huque
Hydorn et al.
Ishii and
Hashimoto
Jacob et al.
Jadhv et al.
Jadhv et al.
James and
Sampath
Jamnback and
Frempong-Boadu
Jauhar and
Kulshrestha
Jauhar and
Kulshrestha
Jayaprada and
Ramana Rao
Jeyasingam et al.
Title
Preliminary report on the residues
of carbaryl granules in rice plants.
Effect of forest spraying with
acephate insecticide on
consumption of spiders by brook
trout (Salvelinusfontinalis).
Metabolic fate of carbaryl (1-
naphthyl N-methyl carbamate)
orally administered to carp,
Cyprinus carpio.
Toxicity of certain pesticides
found in the habitat to the
larvivorous fishes Aplocheilus
lineatus (Cuv. & Val.) and
Macropodus cupanus (Cuv. &
Val.).
Effect of pesticides on amylase
activity in digestive gland of fresh
water bivalve Corbicula
striatella.
Carbaryl toxicity to freshwater
bivalve Corbicula striatella.
Combined toxic effects of
carbaryl and methyl parathion on
survival, growth, and respiratory
metabolism in Heteropneustes
fossilis (Bloch).
Testing blackfly larvicides in the
laboratory and in streams.
Histopathological changes
induced by the sublethal doses of
endosulfan and carbaryl in the
intestine of Channa striatus
Bloch.
Histopathological effects induced
by sublethal doses of sevin and
thiodan on the gills of Channa
striatus Bloch. (Pisces,
Channidae).
Carbaryl toxicity on tissue
acetylcholinesterase in the
penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus
monceros (Fabricius) a
monitoring study.
The relative toxicities of
insecticides on aquatic insect
Eretes sticticus (Linn.)
(Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).
Date
1972
1979
1970
1982
1995
1996
1994
1966
1983
1985
1991
1978
Organism(s)
-
-
Carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Panchax,
Aplocheilus lineatus
Paradise fish,
Macropodus
cupanus
Bivalve,
Corbicula striatella
Bivalve,
Corbicula striatella
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Blackfly,
Simulium sp.
Snakehead catfish,
Channa striatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa striatus
Prawn,
Metapenaeus
monceros
Diving beetle,
Eretes sticticus
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
96 hr
decrease amylase
activity at 2,500
96 hr
LC50=5,100
-
5 min.
47% detachment
at 400
-
-
96 hr
LC50=24.87
48 hr
TLm=890
Reason Unused
Formulation;
Bioaccumulation
study: steady state
not reached
Not applicable
Dietary exposure;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Only two exposure
concentrations;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species
Not North
American species
Expanded
Reason
Carbaryl 10%
granules
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Text in foreign
language
Sevin (50% WP)


Carbaryl
(50% WDP)
Dilution water not
characterized
Sevin (50 WP)
Sevin (50 WP)


                                              166

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
John
John and Prakash
Joshi and Kumar
Juchelka and
Snell
Juhnke and
Luedemann
Jyothi and
Narayan
Jyothi and
Narayan
Jyothi and
Narayan
Jyothi and
Narayan
Kader et al.
Kallander et al.
Kanazawa
Kanazawa
Kanazawa
Title
Alteration of certain blood
parameters of freshwater teleost
Mystus vittatus after chronic
exposure to metasystox and sevin.
Acute toxicity of metasystox and
sevin to Mystus vittatus.
Acid and alkaline phosphates
activity in different tissues of
fresh water crab, Paratelphusa
masoniana (Henderson) to
pesticide exposure.
Rapid toxicity assessment using
ingestion rate of cladocerans and
ciliates.
Results of the investigation of 200
chemical compounds for acute
fish toxicity with the golden orfe
test.
Toxic effects of carbaryl on
gonads of freshwater fish, Glorias
batrachus (Linnaeus).
Certain pesticide-induced
carbohydrate metabolic disorders
in the serum of freshwater fish
Glorias batrachus (Linn.).
Pesticide induced alterations of
non-protein nitrogenous
constituents in the serum of a
fresh water cat fish, Glorias
batrachus (Linn.).
Effect of pesticides carbaryl and
phorate on serum cholesterol level
in fish, Clarias batrachus (Linn).
The relative toxicities often
biocides on Spicodiaptomus
chelospinus Rajendran (1973)
[Copepoda: Calanoidal.
Recovery following pulsed
exposure to organophosphorus
and carbamamte insecticides in
the midge, Chironomus riparius.
Uptake and excretion of
organophosphorus and carbamate
insecticides by fresh water fish,
motsugo, Pseudorasbora parva.
Prediction of biological
concentration potential of
pesticides in aquatic organisms.
Bioconcentration potential of
pesticides by aquatic organisms.
Date
2007
1998
2001
1995
1978
1999a
1999b
2000
2001
1976
1997
1975
1980
1981
Organism(s)
Catfish,
Mystus vittatus
Catfish,
Mystus vittatus
Crab,
Paratelphusa
masoniana
-
Golden orfe,
Leuciscus idus
melanotus
Walking catfish,
Clarias batrachus
Walking catfish,
Clarias batrachus
Walking catfish,
Clarias batrachus
Walking catfish,
Clarias batrachus
Copepod,
Spicodiaptomus
chelospinus
Midge,
Chironomus
riparius
Motsugo,
Pseudorasbora
parva
Topmouth gudgeon,
Pseudorasbora
parva
-
Concentration
(ng/L)
30 d
decreased blood
ESR and Hb% at
7,000
-
-
-
48 hr
LC50=20,000
-
-
-
-
48 hr
TLm=130
-
-
14 d
BCF=9
(whole body)
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Lack of details
(procedure)
Not applicable
Lack of exposure
details
Only one exposure
concentration;
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration;
Formulation
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Excessive solvent
used
Not North
American species;
Bioaccumulation
study: steady state
not reached
Not North
American species
Review of
previous studies
Expanded
Reason
Dilution water not
characterized
Sevin
(505 carbaryl)

No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Dilution water not
characterized
Commercial grade
Sevin
(50% WDP
powder)
Sevin
(50% WDP
powder)
Commercial grade
Dilution water not
characterized
1.0 mL/L acetone



                                              167

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Kanazawa
Kanazawa
Kanazawa et al.
Kamak and
Collins
Kasai et al.
Kashiwada et al.
Kaur and Dhawan
Kaur and Dhawan
Kaur and Toor
Kaur and Toor
Kaur and Toor
Kaushik and
Kumar
Kaushik and
Kumar
Title
In vitro and in vivo effects of
organophosphorus and carbamate
insecticides on brain
acetylcholinesterase activity of
fresh- water fish, topmouth
gudgeon.
A method of predicting the
bioconcentration potential of
pesticides by using fish.
Distribution of carbaryl and 3,5-
xylyl methylcarbamate in an
aquatic model ecosystem.
The susceptibility to selected
insecticides and
acetylcholinesterase activity in a
laboratory colony of midge
larvae, Chironomus tentans
(Diptera: Chironomidae).
P450 monooxygenases are an
important mechanism of
permethrin resistance in Culex
quinquefasciatus Say larvae.
Stage-dependent differences in
effects of carbaryl on population
growth rate in Japanese medaka
(Oryzias latipes).
Variable sensitivity of Cyprinus
carpio eggs, larvae, and fry to
pesticides.
Effect of carbaryl on tissue
composition, maturation, and
breeding potential of Cirrhina
mrigala (Ham.).
Role of abiotic factors in the
embryonic development of scale
carp.
Toxicity of some insecticides to
the fingerlings of Indian major
carp, Cirrhina mrigala
(Hamilton).
Histopathological changes in the
liver of fingerlings of Indian
major carp, Cirrhina mrigala
(Hamilton) exposed to some
biocides.
Susceptibility of the freshwater
crab Paratelphusa masoniana
(Henserson) to three pesticides,
singly and in combination.
Midgut pathology of aldrin,
monocrotophos, and carbaryl in
the freshwater crab, Paratelphusa
masoniana (Henderson).
Date
1983a
1983b
1975
1974
1998
2008
1993
1996
1980
1995
1997
1993
1998
Organism(s)
Topmouth gudgeon,
Pseudorasbora
parva
Topmouth gudgeon,
Pseudorasbora
parva
Community model
ecosystem
Midge,
Chironomus tentans
Mosquito,
Culex
quinquefasciatus
Medaka,
Oryzias latipes
Common carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Carp,
Cirrhina mrigala
Common carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Carp,
Cirrhina mrigala
Carp,
Cirrhina mrigala
Crab,
Paratelphusa
masoniana
Crab,
Paratelphusa
masoniana
Concentration
(ng/L)
24 hr
reduced brain
AChE by 72-78%
at 4,000
-
-
24 hr
LC50=2.5
-
14 d
decreased embryo
growth at 5,000
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Bioaccumulation:
steady state not
reached
Sediment present
in test media
Excessive solvent
used; Test species
fed
Dilution water is
distilled water
without proper
salts added
Not North
American species;
Only two exposure
concentrations;
Excessive solvent
Formulation
Formulation
Lack of details
(procedure)
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
only one exposure
concentration
Expanded
Reason





0.1%
Sevin
(50 WP)
50% WP

Carbaryl 50 WP

Carbaryl 50% WP

                                              168

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Kay
Kem et al.
Khalil et al.
Khan and Nelson
Khangarot et al.
Khillare and
Wagh
Khillare and
Wagh
Khillare and
Wagh
Khillare and
Wagh
Khillare and
Wagh
Kikuchi et al.
Kimura and
Keegan
Klassen et al.
Kolankaya
Title
Toxicology of pesticides: Recent
advances.
Inhibition of barnacle larval
settlement and crustacean toxicity
of some hoplonemertine pyridyl
alkaloids.
Filarial infectivity rate of Culex
pipiens molestus subjected to
sublethal concentrations of
insecticides abate and sevin and
distribution of infective filaria
larvae in mosquito body regions.
Adverse effects of some selected
agrochemicals and
Pharmaceuticals in aquatic
environment with reference to
amphibians and fish.
Man and biosphere - studies on
the Sikkim Himalayas. Part 6:
Toxicity of selected pesticides to
frog tadpole Rana hexadactyla
(Lesson).
Chronic effects of endosulfan,
malathion and sevin in the fresh
water fish, Barbus stigma testis
histopathology.
Developmental abnormalities
induced by the pesticides in the
fish, Barbus stigma (Ham.).
Long-term effects of pesticides
endosulfan, malathion and sevin
on the fish, Puntius stigma.
Acute toxicity of pesticides in the
freshwater fish Barbus stigma:
histopathology of the stomach.
Effect of certain pesticides on
spermatogenesis in fish Barbus
stigma (Ham.).
Screening of organophosphate
insecticide pollution in water by
using Daphnia magna.
Toxicity of some insecticides and
molluscicides for the Asian blood
sucking leech, Hirudo nipponia
Whitman.
Toxicities of certain larvicides to
resistant and susceptible Aedes
aegypti(L.)
Organochlorine pesticide residues
and their toxic effects on the
environment and organisms in
Turkey.
Date
1973
2003
1974
2005
1985
1987a
1987b
1988a
1988b
1989
2000
1966
1965
2006
Organism(s)
-
Barnacle,
Balanus amphitrite
-
-
Frog,
Rana hexadactyla
Barb,
Barbus stigma
Barb,
Barbus stigma
Fish,
Puntius stigma
Barb,
Barbus stigma
Barb,
Barbus stigma
-
Leech,
Hirudo nipponia
Mosquito,
Aedes aegypti
-
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
48 hr
LC50=5,500
LC50=4,400
-
Reason Unused
Review of
previous studies
Not applicable
Lack of exposure
details; Mixture
Review of
previous studies
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Lack of details
(procedure)
Not North
American species;
Lack of details
(procedure)
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not applicable
Not North
American species
Prior exposure;
Lack of exposure
details
Not applicable
Expanded
Reason

No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Dilution water not
characterized

Kelex
(50% carbaryl)





No carbaryl
toxicity
information

Dilution water not
characterized;
Duration not given
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
                                              169

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Kom
Koundinya and
Murthi
Koundinya and
Ramamurthi
Koundinya and
Ramamurthi
Koundinya and
Ramamurthi
Koundinya and
Ramamurthi
Koval'Chuk et al.
Krishnan and
Chockalingam
Kulshrestha and
Arora
Kulshrestha and
Arora
Kulshrestha and
Jauhar
Kumar and
Banerjee
Title
The uptake and persistence of
carbaryl in channel catfish.
Haematological studies in
Sarotherodon (Tilapia)
mossambica (Peters) exposed to
lethal (LC50/48 hrs)
concentration of sumithion and
sevin.
Comparative study of inhibition
of acetylcholinesterase activity in
the freshwater teleost
Sarotherodon (Tilapia)
mossambica (Peters) by sevin
(carbamate) and sumithion
(organophosphate).
Effect of sub-lethal concentration
of sumithion and sevin on certain
hematological values of
Sarotherodon mossambicus
(Peters).
Toxicity of sumithion and sevin
to the freshwater fish,
Sarotherodon mossambicus
(Peters).
Tissue respiration in
Sarotherodon mossambicus
(Peters) exposed to sub-lethal
concentration of sumithion and
sevin.
Acute toxicity of yalan, eptam
and sevin for Daphnia magna.
Toxic and sublethal effects of
endosulfan and carbaryl on
growth and egg production of
Moina micrura Kurz (Cladocera:
Moinidae).
Effect of sublethal doses of
carbaryl and endosulfan on the
skin of Channa striatus Bloch.
Impairments induced by sublethal
doses of two pesticides in the
ovaries of a freshwater teleost
Channa striatus Bloch.
Impairments induced by sublethal
doses of sevin and thiodan on the
brain of a freshwater teleost
Channa striatus Bloch.
(Channidae).
Effects of lethal toxicity of sevin
(carbaryl) on the blood
parameters in Clarias batrachus
(L).
Date
1973
1979
1979
1980a
1980b
1981
1971
1989
1984a
1984b
1986
1991
Organism(s)
Channel catfish,
Ictalurus punctatus
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambica
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambica
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambica
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambica
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambica
Cladoceran,
Daphnia magna
Cladoceran,
Moina micrura
Snakehead catfish,
Channa striatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa striatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa striatus
Walking catfish,
Clarias batrachus
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
24 hr
LC50=119.6
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Bioaccumulation:
steady state not
reached
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration
Expanded
Reason

Sevin
(commercial
grade)
Sevin
(commercial
grade)
Carbaryl
(50% WP)
Sevin
(50% WP)
Sevin
Text in foreign
language

Sevin (50% WP)
Sevin (50 WP)
Sevin

                                              170

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Kurtak et al.
Labenia et al.
Lakshmi et al.
Lange et al.
Li and Chen
Lichtenstein et al.
Lingaraja and
Venugopalan
Lloyd
Lohner and
Fisher
Lowe
Lubick
Ma et al.
Macek
Title
Management of insecticide
resistance in control of the
Simulium damnosum complex by
the onchocerciasis control
programme, West Africa:
Potential use of negative
correlation between
organophosphate resistance and
pyrethroid susceptibility.
Behavioral impairment and
increased predation mortality in
cutthroat trout exposed to
carbaryl.
Toxicity of endosulfan and
carbaryl to a brackish water
oligochaete Pontodrilus
bermudensis.
Comparison of testing acute
toxicity on embryo of zebrafish,
Brachydanio rerio and RTG-2
cytotoxicity as possible
alternatives to the acute fish test.
Study on the acute toxicities of
commonly used pesticides to two
kinds offish.
Toxicity and fate of insecticide
residues in water.
Pesticide induced physiological
and behavioural changes in an
estuarine teleost Therapon jarbua
(Forsk).
The toxicity of ammonia to
rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii
Richardson).
Effects of pH and temperature on
the acute toxicity and uptake of
carbaryl in the midge,
Chironomus riparius.
Effects of prolonged exposure to
sevin on an estuarine fish,
Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepede.
Order matters in pesticide
exposures.
Differential responses of eight
cyanobacterial and green algal
species, to carbamate insecticides.
Acute toxicity of pesticide
mixtures to bluegills.
Date
1987
2007
2002
1995
1981
1966
1978
1961
1990
1967
2007
2006
1975
Organism(s)
Blackfly,
Simulium
damnosum
Cutthroat trout,
Oncorhynchus
clarkii clarkii
Oligochaete,
Pontodrilus
bermudensis
Zebrafish,
Danio rerio
Mosquito fish,
Gumbusia patruelis
Tilapia,
Tilapia sp.
Carp,
Cyprinus carpio
Mosquito,
Aedes aegypti
Fish,
Therapon jarbua
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Midge,
Chironomus
riparius
Spot,
Leiostomus
xanthurus
Amphipod,
Gammarus pulex
Cyanobacteria and
green alga
Bluegill,
Lepomis
macrochirus
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
6hr
decreased
swimming
performance at
750
-
-
48 hr
TLm=955
TLm=l,958
TLm= 10,000
24 hr
70% mortality at
1,000
-
-
24 hr
EC50=96
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species;
Lack of details
(procedure)
In vitro study
Text in foreign
language
Only one exposure
concentration;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species;
Lack of details
(procedure)
Not applicable
Excessive solvent
used
High control
mortality; Only
one exposure
concentration
Mixture
Lack of detail
Mixture
Expanded
Reason
Dilution water not
characterized;
Duration not given
Dilution water not
characterized



Distilled water
without proper
salts added

No carbaryl
toxicity
information
2mL/L
65%
Carbaryl and
chlorpyrifos
LC50 values are
not identified to
the species
Sevin and
malathion
                                              171

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
MacKenzie and
Shearer
Maly
Manna and
Ghosh
Manonmani et al.
Mansour and
Hassan
Marian et al.
Markey et al.
Marking and Bills
Marutani and
Edirveerasingam
Massachusetts
Pesticide Board
Mathur
Title
Chemical control ofPolydora
websteri and other annelids
inhabiting oyster shells.
A study of the effects of pesticide
on single and mixed species
cultures of algae.
Anaerobic toxicity of sublethal
concentration of carbaryl
pesticide sevin to guppy Lebistes
reticulatus.
Establishment of a standard test
method for determining
susceptibility of mesocy clops to
different insecticides.
Pesticides and Daphnia. 3. An
analytical bioassay method, using
Ceriodaphnia quadrangula, for
measuring extremely low
concentrations of insecticides in
waters.
Acute and chronic effects of
carbaryl on survival, growth, and
metamorphosis in the bullfrog
(Rana tigrina).
Insecticides and a fungicide affect
multiple coral life stages.
Effects of contaminants on
toxicity of the lampricides TFM
and Bayer 73 to three species of
fish.
Influence of irrigation methods
and an adjuvant on the persistence
of carbaryl on pakchoi.
Report of the surveillance
program conducted in connection
with an application of carbaryl
(sevin) for the control of gypsy
moth on Cape Cod,
Massachusetts.
Toxicity of sevin to certain fishes.
Date
1959
1980
1987
1989
1993
1983
2007
1985
2006
1966
1974
Organism(s)
Worm,
Polydora websteri
-
Guppy,
Lebistes reticulatus
Copepod,
Mesocyclops sp.
Cladoceran,
Ceriodaphnia
quadrangula
Bullfrog,
Rana tigrina
Coral,
Acropora millepora
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
White sucker,
Catostomus
commersoni
Fathead minnow,
Pimephales
promelas
Pakchoi,
Brassica rapa L.
subsp. chinensis
-
Barb,
Esomus danrica
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Catfish,
Channa punctatus
Rasbora,
Rasbora daniconius
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
18hr
EC50=1
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Only one exposure
concentration
Only one exposure
concentration; No
control
information
Lack of details
(procedure, purity
not given)
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Mixture
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species
Mixture
Only one exposure
concentration;
Filed exposure;
Sediment present
Formulation;
Only one exposure
concentration;
Aerial application
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Expanded
Reason



Carbaryl
(50% WP)

50% WP

Carbaryl and TFM
or Bayer 73


Sevin
                                              172

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Mates et al.
Matsumura
Mazzeo et al.
McKim et al.
Megharaj et al.
Mete alf and
Sanbom
Metts et al.
Meyer
Mills and
Semlitsch
Mishra et al.
Mishra et al.
Mitsuhashi et al.
Mora et al.
Mora et al.
Morgan
Title
Biochemical and histological
hepatic changes of Nile tilapia
Oreochromis niloticus exposed to
carbaryl.
Toxicology of insecticides.
Interclonal variation in response
to simazine stress in Lemna gibba
(Lemnaceae).
Use of respiratory-cardiovascular
responses of rainbow trout (Salmo
gairdneri) in identifying acute
toxicity syndromes in fish: Part 2.
Malathion, carbaryl, acrolein and
benzaldehyde.
The use of unicellular soil green
algae for insecticide bioassay.
Pesticides and environmental
quality in Illinois.
Interaction of an insecticide with
larval density in pond-breeding
salamanders (Ambystoma).
Quarterly report of progress,
April- June, 1981.
Competition and predation
mediate the indirect effects of an
insecticide on southern leopard
frogs.
Toxicity of kilex carbaryl to a
fresh water teleost Channa
punctatus (Bloch).
Responses of interregnal cells of
freshwater teleost, Channa
punctatus (Bloch), exposed to
sublethal concentrations of
carbaryl and cartap.
Effects of insecticides on cultures
of insect cells.
Cholinesterase activity as
potential biomarker in two
bivalves.
Relationship between
toxicokinetics of carbaryl and
effect on acetylcholinesterase
activity in Pomacea patula snail.
Monitoring pesticides by means
of changes in electric potential
caused by fish opercular rhythms.
Date
2007
1975
1998
1987
1989
1975
2005
1981
2004
1991
2006
1970
1999
2000
1975
Organism(s)
Nile tilapia,
Oreochromis
niloticus
-
Duckweed,
Lemna gibba
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
Green alga,
Chlorella vulgaris
Scenedesmus
bijugatus
-
Salamander,
Ambystoma
maculatum
A. opacum
Rainbow trout
Southern leopard
frog,
Rana
sphenocephala
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Mosquito,
Aedes aegypti
Mussel,
Mytilus
galloprovincialis
Asiatic clam,
Corbicula fluminea
Snail,
Pomacea patula
Largemouth bass
Concentration
(ng/L)
14 d
decreased hepatic
activity at 250
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
96 hr
TLm=14,000
96 hr
caused kidney
hyperplasia at
5,200
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Only two exposure
concentrations
Review of
previous studies
Not applicable
Surgically altered
test species
Agar exposure
media
Review of
previous studies
Only two exposure
concentrations;
Formulation
Lack of exposure
details
Formulation
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Surgically altered
test species
Lack of exposure
details
Excessive solvent
used
Formulation; No
scientific name
given
Expanded
Reason


No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Spinally transected


Sevin
(22.5% carbaryl)
Dilution water not
characterized; No
scientific name
given
Sevin
(2 1.3 5 carbaryl)


Cell culture
Dilution water not
characterized
4 mL/L ethanol
Karbaspray
(50% carbaryl)
                                              173

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Muirhead-
Thomson
Mulla et al.
Mulla et al.
Murray and
Guthrie
Nalecz-Jawecki
and Sawicki
Nalecz-Jawecki
etal.
Naqvi and
Ferguson
Naqvi and
Hawkins
Nishiuchi
Nishiuchi
Nishiuchi and
Asano
Nishiuchi and
Yoshida
Nogrady and
Keshmirian
Title
Laboratory evaluation of pesticide
impact on stream invertebrates.
Control of chironomid midges in
recreational lakes.
Aquatic midge larvicides, their
efficacy and residues in water,
soil, and fish in a warm- water
lake.
Effects of carbaryl, diazinon and
malathion on native aquatic
populations of microorganisms.
Spirotox - a new tool for testing
the toxicity of volatile
compounds.
The sensitivity of protozoan
Spirostomum ambiguum to
selected pesticides.
Pesticide tolerances of selected
freshwater invertebrates.
Toxicity of selected insecticides
(thiodan, security, spartan, and
sevin) to mosquitofish, Gambusia
qffinis.
Toxicity of formulated pesticides
to some fresh water organisms.
Toxicity of formulated pesticides
to some freshwater organisms.
Toxicity of formulated
agrochemicals to fresh water
organisms.
Toxicities of pesticides to some
fresh water snails.
Rotifer neuropharmacology - 1.
Cholinergic drug effects on
oviposition ofPhilodina
acuticornis (Rotifera,
Aschelminthes).
Date
1973
1971
1973
1980
1999
2002
1968
1988
1976
1977
1978
1972
1986
Organism(s)
Dragonfly naiads
Midges
Midges
-
-
Protozoan,
Spirostomum
ambiguum
Cyclopoid copepods
Mosquitofish,
Gambusia affinis
Japanese toad,
Bufo bufo japonicas
-
Dragonfly,
Orthetrum
albistylum
speciosum
Red snail,
Indoplanorbis
exustus
Marsh snail,
Semisulcospira
libertina
Round snail,
Cipangopaludina
malleata
Saka snail,
Physa acuta
Rotifer,
Philodina
acuticornis
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
48 hr
TLm=28,000
TLm=25,000
TLm=30,000
TLm=27,000
-
Reason Unused
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration;
Lack of exposure
details
Not applicable
Excessive solvent
used
Prior exposure
pesticides
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species
Formulation
Expanded
Reason
Sevin
20% carbaryl
Carbaryl
(20% granules)
Dilution water not
characterized
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
1% acetone

Sevin
(5% carbaryl)
Text in foreign
language
Text in foreign
language
Text in foreign
language

Sevin
                                              174

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Nollenberger
Omkar and Murti
Omkar and
Shukla
Owen
Padhy and
Mohapatra
Palanichamy et
al.
Panigrahy and
Padhy
Pant and Singh
Patil et al.
Patnaik and Patra
Pauli et al.
Pelletier et al.
Perry
Title
Toxicant-induced changes in
brain, gill, liver, and kidney of
brook trout exposed to carbaryl,
atrazine, 2,4-
dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and
parathion: a cytochemical study.
Toxicity of some pesticides to the
freshwater prawn Macrobrachium
dayanum (Henderson) (Decapoda,
Caridea).
Toxicity of insecticides to
Macrobrachium lamarrei (H.
Mihie Edwards) (Decapoda:
Palaemonidae).
Aquatic insect populations
reduced by aerial spraying of
insecticide sevin.
Toxicity of two carbamate
insecticides to the
cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC
7120 and the computations of
partial lethal concentrations by
the probit method.
Effect of pesticides on protein
metabolism in the freshwater
catfish Mystus vittatus.
Toxicity of carbamate pesticides
to cells, heterocysts and akinetes
of the cyanobacterium
Cylindrospermum sp.
Inducement of metabolic
dysfunction by carbamate and
organophosphorus compounds in
a fish, Puntius conchonius.
Toxicity of carbamate insecticides
to freshwater crab Paratelphusa
jacquemontii (Rathbun).
Haemoatopoietic alterations
induced by carbaryl in Glorias
batrachus (Linn.).
RATL: A database of reptile and
amphibian toxicology literature.
Symposium-in-print: UV effects
on aquatic and coastal
ecosystems. Ecotoxicological
effects of combined UVB and
organic contaminants in coastal
waters: A review.
Pesticide and PCB residues in the
Upper Snake River ecosystem,
southeastern Idaho, following the
collapse of the Teton Dam 1976.
Date
1981
1985
1985
1967
2001
1989
2000
1983
1992
2006
2000
2006
1979
Organism(s)
Brook trout,
Salvelinus fontinalis
Prawn,
Macrobrachium
dayanum
Prawn,
Macrobrachium
lamarrei
-
Cyanobacteria,
Anabaena
Catfish,
Mystus vittatus
Cyanobacterium,
Cylindrospermum
sp.
Barb,
Puntius conchonius
Crab,
Paratelphusa
jacquemontii
Walking catfish,
Clarias batrachus
-
-
-
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
96 hr
LC50=19
-
-
-
-
-
-
96 hr
LC50=15,300
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Only one exposure
concentration
Formulation
Not North
American species
Formulation
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Lack of exposure
details
Review of
previous studies
Mixture
Mixture
Expanded
Reason

Sevin
(50 WP)

Sevin
Sevin
(SOW)

Sevin
(SOW)
Sevin (50% WP)
Sevimol
Dilution water not
characterized

Carbaryl, atrazine,
and acifluorfen

                                              175

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons

Author
Pesando et al.
Pcsch cinci
Irlo f frricin



Peterson et al.








Peterson et al.








Pozarycki


Prescott et al.


Pridgeon et al.




Puglis and Boone

Rajendran and
Venugopalan

Title
Biological targets of neuro toxic
pesticides analyzed by alteration
of developmental events in the
Mediterranean sea urchin,
Paracentrotus lividus.
Adaption of the polychaete
Neanthes arenaceodentata to
copper.
Effect of varying pesticide
exposure duration and
concentration on the toxicity of
carbaryl to two field-collected
stream invertebrates, Calineuria
californica (Plecoptera: Perlidae)
and Cinygma sp. (Ephemeroptera:
Heptageniidae).






A test system to evaluate the
susceptibility of Oregon, USA,
native stream invertebrates to
triclopyr and carbaryl.





Sublethal effects of estuarine

carbaryl applications on juvenile
English sole (Pleuronectes
vetulus).
The effects of pesticides,
polychlorinated biphenyls and
metals on the growth and
reproduction of Acanthamoeba
castellanii.

Susceptibility ofAedes aegypti,
Culex quinquefasciatus Say and
Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say
to 19 pesticides with different
modes of action.


Effects of fertilizer, an
insecticide, and a pathogenic
fungus on hatching and survival
of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)
tadpoles.
Effect of pesticides on
phytoplankton production.

Date
2003

1982



200 la








2001b








1999


1977


2008




2007

1983

Organism(s)
Mediterranean sea
urchin,
Paracentrotus
lividus
Polychaete,
Neanthes
arenaceodentata

Stonefly,
Cct lifi&it j^ict
californica
Ivlavflv
Cinygma sp.

Stonefly,
Calineuria
californica
Mayfly,
Cinygma sp.
Caddisfly,
Brachycentrus
americanus
Caddisfly
Lepidostoma
unicolor
Caddisfly,
Psychoglypha sp.
Mayfly,
Ameletus sp.

Enslish sole
Pleuronectes
v&tulits


Amoeba,
Acanthamoeba
castellanii

Mosquito,
Aedes aegypti
Mosquito,
Culex
quinquefasciatus
Mosquito,
Anopheles
quadrimaculatus

Bullfrog
Rana catesbeiana

-
Concentration
(ng/L)
-

-



-








-








-


6d
decreased growth
at 10,000


-




-

-

Reason Unused
Not North
American species;
Lack of details
(procedure)

Not applicable



Formulation








Formulation








Mixture


Only one exposure
concentration


Topically applied
contaminant




Formulation

Mixture
Expanded
Reason

No carbaryl
toxicity
information


Clean Crop 
(43% carbaryl)








Clean Crop 
(43% carbaryl)


















SGVIH.
(22.5% carbaryl)


                                              176

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Ramachandran et
al.
Ramakrishnan et
al.
Ramakrishnan et
al.
Ramaswami
Ramaswamy
Ramaswamy and
Maheswari
Ramaswamy et
al.
Rao
Rao
Rao and
Kannupandi
Rao and Rao
Rao et al.
Rao et al.
Title
Effect of pesticides on
photosynthesis and respiration of
marine macrophytes.
Sublethal effects of pesticides on
feeding energetics in the air
breathing fish Channa striatus.
Sublethal effects of pesticides on
physiological energetics of
freshwater fish, Oreochromis
mossambicus.
Adaptive trends in lipid levels of
liver and muscle of Sarotherodon
mossambicus (Peters) exposed to
sevin.
Effects of sevin on blood free
amino acid levels of the fish
Sarotherodon mossambicus.
Comparative lactic acidosis in
fishes following pesticide stress.
Glutamic oxaloacetic
transaminase (GOT) and glutamic
pyruvic transaminase (GPT)
enzyme activities in different
tissues of Sarotherodon
mossambicus (Peters) exposed to
a carbamamte pesticide, carbaryl.
Effect of y-hexachloran and sevin
on the survival of the Black Sea
mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis
Lam.
Variations in the nitrogen
products of Channa punctatus
augmented by interaction of
carbaryl and phenthoate in the
media.
Acute toxicity of three pesticides
and their effect on the behavior of
the edible crab Scylla serrata
(Forskal).
Independent and combined action
of carbaryl and phethoate on
snake head, Channa punctatus
(Bloch).
Relative toxicity of technical
grade and formulated carbaryl and
1-naphthol to, and carbaryl-
induced biochemical changes in
the fish Cirrhinus mrigala.
Differential action of malathion,
carbaryl and BHC on acetyl-
cholinesterase activity of a
teleost, Tilapia mossambica
(Peters).
Date
1984
1997a
1997b
1990
1987
1993
1999
1981
1987
1990
1987
1984a
1984b
Organism(s)
Macrophytes
Snakehead catfish,
Channa striatus
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Mussel,
Mytilus
galloprovincialis
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Crab,
Scylla serrata
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Carp,
Cirrhinus mrigala
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-

-
-

96 hr
LC50=>10,000
48 hr
decreased level of
ammonia and
urea at 3,000
96 hr
LC50=466
-
96 hr
LC50=2,500
-
Reason Unused
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species
Formulation
Expanded
Reason

Hexavin
Hexavin
Sevin
(10% dust)
Sevin
Sevin
(10% dust)
Commercial grade
(lOOg/kg dust)

Dilution water not
characterized



Carbaryl (50% EC)
                                              177

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Rao et al.
Rao et al.
Rao et al.
Ray and Poddar
Razmi et al.
Reddy and Rao
Reddy and Rao
Reddy and Rao
Reddy et al.
Regoli et al.
Relyea
Relyea
Title
Combined action of carbaryl and
phenthoate on a freshwater fish
(Channa punctatus Bloch).
Combined action of carbaryl and
phenthoate on tissue lipid
derivatives of murrel, Channa
punctatus (Bloch).
Inhibition and recovery of
selected target enzyme activities
in tissues of penaeid prawn,
Metapenaeus monoceros
(Fabricus), exposed to different
insecticides.
Carbaryl induced elevation of
corticosterone level and
cholinergic mechanism.
Persistence of toxicity of some
insecticides against the neonate
larvae ofLeucinodes orbonalis
Guen.
Tissue glycolytic potentials of
penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus
monoceros during
methylparathion, carbaryl and
aldrin exposure.
Methylparathion, carbaryl and
aldrin impact on nitrogen
metabolism of prawn, Penaeus
indicus.
Toxicity of selected insecticides
to the penaeid prawn,
Metapenaeus monoceros
(Fabricius).
Recovery of carbaryl inhibited
AChE in penaeid prawn,
Metapenaeus monoceros.
Effects of copper and cadmium
on the presence of renal
concretions in the bivalve
Donacilla cornea.
Growth and survival of five
amphibian species exposed to
combinations of pesticides
The impact of insecticides and
herbicides on the biodiversity and
productivity of aquatic
communities.
Date
1985a
1985b
1991
1983
1991
1991a
1991b
1992
1990
1992
2004
2005
Organism(s)
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Prawn,
Metapenaeus
monoceros
-
Shoot borer,
Leucinodes
orbonalis
Prawn,
Metapenaeus
monoceros
Prawn,
Penaeus indicus
Prawn,
Metapenaeus
monoceros
Prawn,
Metapenaeus
monoceros
Bivalve,
Donacilla cornea.
Gray tree frog,
Hyla versicolor
Leopard frog,
Rana pipiens
Bullfrog,
R. catesbeiana
Green frog,
R. clamitans
Bullfrog,
Bufo americanus
Various species
Concentration
(ng/L)
48 hr
LC50=8,710
48 hr
lethal
concentration at
8,710
48 hr
LC50=137
-
-
96 hr
LC50=120
96 hr
LC50=21
96 hr
LC50=24.3
96 hr
LC50=24.87
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species
Not applicable
Not North
American species;
Aerial application
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Not applicable
Formulation; Only
two exposure
concentrations
Formulation
Expanded
Reason
Dilution water not
characterized
Dilution water not
characterized

No carbaryl
toxicity
information





No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Commercial grade
Carbaryl
(22.3%)
                                              178

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Relyea
Relyea
Relyea and Mills
Rettich
Riad et al.
Rifaat et al.
Rohr et al.
Rohr et al.
Rossini and
Ronco
Ruber and Baskar
Rybakova
Rzehak et al.
Title
The effects of pesticides, pH, and
predatory stress on amphibians
under mesocosm conditions.
A cocktail of contaminants: How
mixtures of pesticides at low
concentrations affect aquatic
communities.
Predator-induced stress makes the
pesticide carbaryl more deadly to
gray treefrog tadpoles (Hyla
versicolor).
The susceptibility of mosquito
larvae to eighteen insecticides in
Czechoslovakia.
Aromatic sulphides, sulphoxides,
and sulphones as larvicides for
Culexpipiens molestus and Aedes
caspius (Diptera: Culicidae).
Effect of sublethal concentrations
of the insecticides DDT, abate
and sevin applied to 3rd stage
larvae of Anopheles pharoensis
on malaria cycle in the adult
mosquito.
Lethal and sublethal effects of
atrazine, carbaryl, endosulfan, and
octylphenol on the streamside
salamander (Ambystoma
barbouri).
Understanding the net effects of
pesticides on amphibian
trematode infections.
Acute toxicity bioassay using
Daphnia obtusa as a test
organism.
Sensitivities of selected
microcrustacea to eight mosquito
toxicants.
On the toxic effect of sevin on
animals.
The effect of karbatox 75, a
carbaryl insecticide, upon the
development of tadpoles of Rana
temporaria wAXenopus laevis.
Date
2006
2009
2001
1977
1992
1974
2003
2008
1996
1968
1966
1977
Organism(s)
Bullfrog,
Rana catesbeiana
Green frog,
R. clamitans
Gray tree frog,
Hyla versicolor
Leopard frog,
Rana pipiens
Gray tree frog,
Hyla versicolor
Mosquitoes,
Aedes cantons,
A. vexans,
A. excrucians,
Culexpipiens,
A. punctor
Mosquito,
Culexpipiens
Aedes caspius
Mosquito,
Anopheles
pharoensis
Streamside
salamander,
Ambystoma
barbouri
Trematode,
Echinostoma
trivolvis
Snail,
Planorebella
trivolvis
Green frog,
Rana clamitans
Cladoceran,
Daphnia obtusa
Mosquitoes
-
Common frog,
Rana temporaria
African clawed
frog,
Xenopus laevis
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-57 d
no effect on
metamorphosis,
growth, and
survival at 6.9
(both species)
10-16 d
3-4% of LC50
killed 10-60% of
frog
24 hr
LC50=376.6
LC50=322.6
LC50=145.5
LC50=333
LC50=298.3
-
24 hr
LC50=600
-
Survival
24hrNOEC
14dNOEC
14dNOEC
at 33. 5
48 hr
EC50=11.5
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Lack of exposure
details;
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration;
High TOC
Unmeasured
chronic exposure
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details; Excessive
solvent used
Lack of exposure
details
Prior exposure
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species
Lack of exposure
details
Not applicable
Formulation
Expanded
Reason
Dilution water not
characterized;
Sevin
(22% carbaryl)


Distilled water
without proper
salts added
4 mL/L acetone
Dilution water not
characterized,
purity not given
Organisms
collected in an
agricultural area


Dilution water not
characterized
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Karbatox 75
                                              179

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Sadek et al.
Sahai and Gupta
Sahu et al.
Sakamoto et al.
Sampath and
Elango
Sampath et al.
Sampath et al.
Sampath et al.
Sanders
Sastry and
Siddiqui
Sastry and
Siddiqui
Sastry et al.
Title
Effect of sublethal concentrations
of the insecticides DDT, abate
and sevin, applied to 3rd stage
larvae of Culexpipiens molestus
on certain biological aspects of
the mosquito.
Residue analysis of some
pesticides in the brain of a teleost
fish Heteropneustesfossilis
(Bloch).
Reaction of blue-green algae of
rice-field soils to pesticide
application.
Inhibition of development of anti-
predator morphology in the small
cladoceran Bosmina by an
insecticide: Impact of an
anthropogenic chemical on prey-
predator interactions.
Lipid metabolism in common frog
(Rana tigrina) exposed to
carbaryl.
Effect of carbaryl (sevin) on the
carbohydrate metabolism of the
common frog Rana tigrina.
Effect of carbaryl on the levels of
protein and amnioacids of
common frog Rana tigrina.
Pesticide impact on excretory
physiology of the common frog,
Rana tigrina.
Toxicity of some insecticides to
four species of malacostracan
crustaceans.
Chronic toxic effects of the
carbamate pesticide sevin on
carbohydrate metabolism in a
freshwater snakehead fish,
Channa punctatus.
Effect of the carbamate pesticide
sevin on the intestinal absorption
of some nutrients in the teleost
fish, Channa punctatus.
Acute and chronic toxic effects of
the carbamate pesticide sevin on
some haematological,
biochemical and enzymatic
parameters in the fresh water
teleost fish Channa punctatus.
Date
1974
1992
1992
2006
1997
1992
1995
2002
1972
1982
1985
1988
Organism(s)
Mosquito,
Culexpipiens
molestus
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Blue-green alga
Cladoceran,
Bosmina fatalis
Common frog,
Rana tigrina
Common frog,
Rana tigrina
Common frog,
Rana tigrina
Common frog,
Rana tigrina
Amphipod,
Gammarus fasciatus
Sowbug,
Asellus brevicaudus
Shrimp,
Palaemonetes
kadinkensis
Crayfish,
Orconectes nais
Snakehead,
Channa punctatus
Snakehead,
Channa punctatus
Snakehead,
Channa punctatus
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
6d
reduced
reproduction at 2
-
-
-
-
96 hr
LC50=26
LC50=240
LC50=5.6
LC50=8.6
60 d
caused blood
alterations at
1,050
Ihr
decreased rate of
absorption of
glucose at 10,000
-
Reason Unused
Lack of exposure
details;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation;
Injected toxicant
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Excessive solvent
used
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Expanded
Reason
Dilution water not
characterized

Carbaryl (50%)

Sevin
(50% WP)
Sevin
(50% WDP)
Sevin
(50% WDP)
Dilution water not
characterized,
purity unknown
ImL/L



                                              180

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Saxena and
Aggarwal
Saxena and Garg
Saxena et al.
Sayce and
Chambers
Scaps et al.
Schacht et al.
Scholz et al.
Schulz
Scott and
Georghiou
Scott and Sloman
Seiffer and
Schoof
Selvakumar et al.
Semlitsch et al.
Seuge and Bluzat
Title
Toxicity of some insecticides to
the Indian catfish, Heteropneustes
fossilis (Bloch).
Effect of insecticidal pollution on
ovarian recrudescence in the fresh
water teleost Channa punctatus
(Bloch).
Effects of some pesticides on in-
vitro lipid and protein synthesis
by the liver of the freshwater
teleost, Channa punctatus (Bl.).
Observations on potential uptake
of sevin by Pacific oysters.
Biochemical and physiological
responses induced by toxics in
annelida: utilization as
biomarkers.
Bioassays for risk assessment of
coal conversion products.
Dose-additive inhibition of
Chinook salmon
acetylcholinesterase activity by
mixtures of organophosphate and
carbamate insecticides.
Field studies on exposure, effects,
and risk mitigation of aquatic
nonpoint-source insecticide
pollution: A review.
Malathion-specific resistance in
Anopheles stephensi from
Pakistan.
The effects of environmental
pollutants on complex fish
behavior: integrating behavioural
and physiological indicators of
toxicity.
Tests of 15 experimental
molluscicides against
Australorbis glabratus.
Stressor-specific induction of heat
shock protein 70 in the freshwater
prawn Macrobrachium
malcolmsonii (H. Milne Edwards)
exposed to the pesticides
endosulfan and carbaryl.
Genetic variation and a fitness
tradeoff in the tolerance of gray
treefrog (Hyla versicolof)
tadpoles to the insecticide
carbaryl.
Chronic toxicity of carbaryl and
lindane to the freshwater mollusc
Lymnaea stagnalis L.
Date
1970
1978
1989
1969
2002
1999
2006
2004
1986
2004
1967
2005
2000
1979a
Organism(s)
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
-
Polychaete,
Nereis diversicolor
-
Chinook salmon,
Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha
-
Mosquito,
Anopheles stephensi
-
Snail,
Australorbis
glabratus
Prawn,
Macrobrachium
malcolmsonii
Green treefrog,
Hyla versicolor
Snail,
Lymnaea stagnalis
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
24 hr
LC50=720
-
6hr
100% death at
10,000
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Lack of details
Only one exposure
concentration
Not applicable
Surgically altered
test species
Review of
previous studies
Not North
American species
Review of
previous studies
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Only two exposure
concentrations
Only one exposure
concentration
Only two exposure
concentrations;
Text in foreign
language
Expanded
Reason
50% WP
Carbaryl
(50% WP)
Carbaryl
(50% WP)
Dilution water not
characterized

No carbaryl
toxicity
information
Olfactory rosettes
removed







                                              181

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Seuge and Bluzat
Shaddock and
Croft
Shaikila et al.
Shamaan et al.
Shanmugam et al.
Shea
Sherstneva,
Shrivastava and
Singh
Shrivastava and
Singh
Shrivastava et al.
Shukla and
Mishra
Shukla and
Omkar
Shukla et al.
Sikka and Rice
Sikka et al.
Title
Study of the chronic toxicity of
two insecticides (carbaryl and
lindane) toward the F-sub-1
generation ofLymnaea stagnalis
L. (Mollusca, Gasteropoda,
Pulmonata). 2. Consequences on
the reproductive potential.
Effect of grazers on Chondrus
crispus in culture.
Adaptive trends in tissue acid and
alkaline phosphatases of
Sarotherodon mossambicus
(Peters) under sevin toxicity.
Insecticide toxicity, glutathione
transferases and carboxylesterase
activities in the larva of theAedes
mosquito.
Effect of pesticides on the
freshwater crab Barytelphusa
cunicularis (West Wood).
Testing of chemical and microbial
insecticides for safety... some
techniques.
Effect of some pesticides on the
fresh water crustaceans.
Toxic effect of carbaryl on
glucose level in the muscles of
Heteropneustesfossilis.
Changes in protein content in the
muscle of Heteropneustesfossilis
exposed to carbaryl.
Study of cholesterol content in
muscle of carbaryl exposed
Heteropneustesfossilis (Bloch. ).
Bioassay studies on effects of
carbamate insecticides on
dragonfly nymphs.
Insecticide toxicity to
Macrobrachium lamarrei (H.
Milne Edwards) (Decapoda,
Palaemonidae).
Acute toxicity of few pesticides to
an aquatic insect, Ranatra
elongata (Fabr.).
Interaction of selected pesticides
with marine microorganisms.
Metabolism of selected pesticides
by marine microorganisms.
Date
1979b
1981
1993
1993
2000
1977
1978
2003
2004
2005
1980
1984
1982
1974
1973
Organism(s)
Snail,
Lymnaea stagnalis
Irish moss,
Chondrus crispus
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Mosquito,
Aedes aegypti
Crab,
Barytelphusa
cunicularis
-
-
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Dragonfly,
Brachythermis
contaminate
Prawn,
Macrobrachium
lamarrei
Water scorpion,
Ranatra elongata
-
-
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
96 hr
increased alkaline
phosphatase
enzyme activities
of liver and
muscle at 3,000
-
-
-
-
30 d
decrease in
glucose content
of muscles at 40
30 d
decrease in
protein of
muscles at 40
30 d
decrease in
cholesterol
content of
muscles at 40
-
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Only two exposure
concentrations;
Text in foreign
language
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration
Dilution water is
distilled water
without the proper
salts added
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Formulation
Lack of details
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Lack of exposure
details
Excessive carrier
solvent
Expanded
Reason

Sevin
(50% carbaryl)


50% carbaryl
Sevin-4-oil
Text in foreign
language



Carbaryl
(WDP 10%)
Sevin (50 WP)
50% WP

l%ethanol
                                              182

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Singh and
Agarwal
Singh and
Agarwal
Singh and
Agarwal
Singh and
Agarwal
Singh and
Agarwal
Singh and
Agarwal
Singh and
Agarwal
Singh and
Shrivastava
Singh et al.
Singh et al.
Sinha et al.
Sinha et al.
Sinha et al.
Sinha et al.
Title
Toxicity of certain pesticides to
two economic species of snails in
northern India.
In vivo and in vitro studies on
synergism with anticholinesterase
pesticides in the snail Lymnaea
acuminata.
Inhibition kinetics of certain
organophosphorus and carbamate
pesticides on acetylcholinesterase
from the snail Lymnaea
acuminata.
Carbamate and organophosphorus
pesticides against snails.
Synergistic effect of sulfoxide
with carbaryl on the in vivo
acetylcholinesterase activity and
carbohydrate metabolism of the
snail Lymnaea acuminata.
Toxicity of pesticides to
fecundity, hatchability and
survival of young snails of
Lymnaea acuminata.
Toxicity of piperonyl butoxide -
carbaryl synergism on the snail
Lymnaea acuminata.
Histopathological changes in the
liver of the fish Nandus nandus
exposed to endosulfan and
carbaryl.
Evaluation of acute toxicity of
carbaryl and malathion to
freshwater teleosts, Channa
punctatus (Bloch) and
Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).
Toxicity of malathion and
carbaryl pesticides: effects on
some biochemical profiles of the
freshwater fish Colisafasciatus.
Thiodicarb, an effective
molluscicide for grazer snails of
blue green algae.
An effective molluscide for grazer
snails of blue green algae.
Carbaryl-induced thyroid
dysfunction in the freshwater
catfish Glorias batrachus.
Pesticides induced changes in
circulating thyroid hormones in
the freshwater catfish Glorias
batrachus.
Date
1981
1983a
1983b
1984
1986a
1986b
1989
1998
1984
2004
1986a
1986b
1991a
1991b
Organism(s)
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Pila globosa
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Pila globosa
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Fish,
Nandus nandus
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Gourami,
Colisafasciatus
Snails
Snails
Walking catfish,
Glorias batrachus
Walking catfish,
Glorias batrachus
Concentration
(ng/L)
96 hr
LC50=4,500
LC50=36,500
96 hr
LC50=4,400
-
96 hr
LC50=4,150
LC50=35,500
-
48 hr
LOEC(fecundity)
=11,000
LOEC
(hatchability)
=1,000
-
-
-
96 hr
LC50=8,000
-
-
96 hr
decreased
thyroxin levels at
12,000
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Surgically altered
test species
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Mixture
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Only two exposure
concentrations
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species
Formulation
Formulation
Only two exposure
concentrations
Formulation
Expanded
Reason


Nervous tissue
around the buccal
mass





50% WP

Carbaryl 50 WP
Carbaryl 50 WP

50% carbaryl
                                              183

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Sinha et al.
Smith and
Grigoropoulos
Smulders et al.
Solomon
Solomon and
Weis
Somnuek et al.
Srivastava and
Pandey
Statham and Lech
Statham and Lech
Statham and Lech
Strickman
Sukumar and Rao
Sundaram and
Szeto
Title
Effect of pesticides on
extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to
T3 in the freshwater catfish
Clarias batrachus.
Toxic effects of odorous trace
organics.
A noncompetitive, sequential
mechanism for inhibition of rat

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Suseela et al.
Suwanchaichinda
and Brattsten
Suwanchaichinda
and Brattsten
Swanson et al.
Takahashi and
Yasutomi
Tegelberg and
Magoon
Tejada et al.
Thakur and Sahai
Thakur et al.
Tham et al.
Thomas and
Murthy
Tiemey et al.
Tilak
Title
Toxic effects of pesticides on
survival and proximate
composition of Tubifex tubifex.
Effects of exposure to pesticides
on carbaryl toxicity and
cytochrome P450 activities in
Aedes albopictus larvae (Diptera:
Culicidae).
Induction of microsomal
cytochrome P450s by tire-
leachate compounds, habitat
components of Aedes albopictus
mosquito larvae.
Testing for pesticide toxicity to
aquatic plants: Recommendations
for test species.
Insecticidal resistance of Culex
tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera:
Culicidae) in Japan: Genetics and
mechanisms of resistance to
organophosphorus insecticides.
Sevin treatment of a subtidal
oyster bed in Grays Harbor.
Toxicity of pesticides to target
and non-target fauna of the
lowland rice ecosystem.
Toxicity assessment of some
commonly used pesticides to
three species of fishes.
Effect of pesticides on N-use
efficiency and growth dynamic in
rice.
Assessment of Glorias batrachus
as a source of acetylcholinesterase
(AChE) for the detection of
insecticides.
Acid phosphatase activity in a
fresh- water air breathing fish
Heteropneustes fossilis and the
effect of certain organic pesticides
on it.
Linuron and carbaryl
differentially impair baseline
amino acid and bile salt olfactory
responses in three salmonids.
Relative toxicity of carbaryl, 1-
naphthol, and three formulations
of carbaryl to Channa punctata
(Bloch).
Date
1994
2001
2002
1991
1987
1969
1994
1994
1988
2009
1976
2007
1982
Organism(s)
Tubificid worm,
Tubifex tubifex
Mosquito,
Aedes albopictus
Mosquito,
Aedes albopictus
-
Mosquito,
Culex
tritaeniorhynchus
-
Various species
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
C. striatus
Garra gotyla gotyla
Rice
Walking catfish,
Clarias batrachus
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Coho salmon,
Oncorhynchus
kisutch
Sockeye salmon,
O. nerka
Rainbow trout,
O. mykiss
Snakehead catfish,
Channa punctatus
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
24 hr
LC50=830
-
-
24 hr
LC50=268
-
-
96 hr
LC50=15,000
LC50=17,500
LC50=7,500
-
-
-
-
96 hr
LC50=5,000
Reason Unused
Formulation
Inappropriate
dilution water
Mixture;
Inappropriate
dilution water
Review of
previous studies
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details;
Formulation
Formulation
Not North
American species
Formulation;
Only one exposure
concentration
Surgically altered
test species
Not North
American species;
Injected toxicant
Surgically altered
test species
Not North
American species
Expanded
Reason
Sevin
Distilled water
without proper
salts added
Pure water without
proper salts added

Dilution water not
characterized
Dilution water not
characterized
Sevin

Carbaryl 4G
Brain extract

Olfactory rosette
removed

                                              185

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Tilak et al.
Tilak et al.
Todd and
Leeuwen
Tompkins
Toor and Kaur
Trial
Trial
Trial
Trial
Trial
Trial
Trial and Gibbs
Tripathi and
Agarwal
Tripathi and
Singh
Title
Toxicity of carbaryl and 1-
naphthol to the freshwater fish
Labeo rohita.
Toxicity of carbaryl and 1-
naphthol to four species of
freshwater fish.
Effects of sevin (carbaryl
insecticide) on early life stages of
zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Report of the surveillance
program conducted in connection
with an application of carbaryl
(sevin) for the control of gypsy
moth on Cape Cod,
Massachusetts.
Toxicity of pesticides to the fish,
Cyprinus carpio communis Linn.
The effects of sevin-4-oil on
aquatic insect communities of
streams: a continuation of 1 976
studies.
The effects of sevin-4-oil on
aquatic insect communities of
streams (1976-1978).
The effects of sevin-4-oil on
aquatic insect communities of
streams (1976-1979).
The effectiveness of unsprayed
buffers in lessening the impact of
aerial applications of carbaryl on
aquatic insects.
The effect of carbaryl on leaf
litter processing in Maine
streams.
The effectiveness of upstream
refugia for promoting
recolonization of plecoptera killed
by exposure to carbaryl.
Effects of orthene, sevin 4 oil
and dylox on aquatic insects
incidental to attempts to control
spruce budworm in Maine, 1976.
Synergism in tertiary mixtures of
pesticides.
Toxic effects of dimethoate and
carbaryl pesticides on
carbohydrate metabolism of
freshwater snail Lymnaea
acuminata.
Date
1980
1981
2002
1966
1974
1978
1979
1980a
1980b
1981
1982
1978
1997
2002
Organism(s)
Rohu,
Labeo rohita
Catfish,
Catla catla
Anabas testudineus
Mystus cavasius
Mystus vittatus
Zebrafish,
Danio rerio
-
Carp,
Cyprinus carpio
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Concentration
(ng/L)
96 hr
LC50=4,600
96 hr
LC50=6,400
LC50=5,500
LC50=4,600
LC50=2,400
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
96 hr
decrease
hepatopancreas
glycogen at 3,000
Reason Unused
Not North
American species
Not North
American species
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Field survey;
Mixture
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation
Formulation; Lack
of exposure details
(procedure)
Formulation
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Mixture
Not North
American species
Expanded
Reason


21. 3% carbaryl

Carbaryl
(50% WP)
Sevin-4-oil
Sevin-4-oil
Sevin-4-oil
Sevin-4-oil

Sevin-4-oil
Sevin-4-oil
Sevin and Decis

                                              186

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Tripathi and
Singh
Tripathi and
Singh
Tripathi and
Singh
Tsuge et al.
Upadhyay and
Upadhyay
Vaishampayan
Van Hoof
Van Hoof et al.
Vasseur et al.
Vasumathi et al.
Venkateswaran
and Ramaswamy
Verma and Gupta
Title
Toxic effects of dimethoate and
carbaryl pesticides on protein
metabolism of freshwater snail
Lymnaea acuminata.
Toxic effects of dimethoate and
carbaryl pesticides on
reproduction and related enzymes
of freshwater snail Lymnaea
acuminata.
Carbaryl induced alterations in
the reproduction and metabolism
of freshwater snail Lymnaea
acuminata.
Uptake of pesticides from
aquarium tank water by aquatic
organisms.
Development of marked
basophilia in the liver of
Heteropneustes fossilis by some
selected chemicals.
Mutagenic activity of alachlor,
butachlor and carbaryl to a N2-
fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc
muscorum.
Evaluation of an automatic
system for detection of toxic
substances in surface water using
trout.
The evaluation of bacterial
biosensors for screening of water
pollutants.
Interactions between copper and
some carbamates used in
phyto sanitary treatments.
Acute toxicity of endosulfan,
methyl parathion and carbaryl on
Macropodus cupanus.
Lactic acidosis in different of
Sarotherdon mossambicus
(Peters) exposed to sevin.
Pesticide in relation to water
pollution (accumulation of aldrin
and ethyl parathion in the few
tissues of Colisa fasciatus and
Notopterus notopterus).
Date
2003a
2003b
2004
1980
1993
1985
1980
1992
1988
2001
1987
1976
Organism(s)
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Snail,
Lymnaea acuminata
Guppy,
Lebistes reticulatus
Red snail,
Indoplanorbis
exustus
Mosquito,
Culexpipiens
Cladoceran,
Daphniapulex
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Cyanobacterium,
Nostoc muscorum
Rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus
mykiss
-
Bacteria,
Photobacterium
phosphoreum
Protozoa,
Colpidium
campylum
Paradisefish,
Macropodus
cupanus
Mozambique tilapia,
Oreochromis
mossambicus
Fish,
Colisa fasciatus
Notopterus
notopterus
Concentration
(ng/L)
96 hr
decrease
hepatopancreas
total protein at
3,000
-
96 hr
decrease number
of eggs at 2,000
-
-
-
-
-
-
96 hr
LC50=14,540
-
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species
Not North
American species
Not North
American species
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species;
Only one exposure
concentration
Sediment present
Only one exposure
concentration
Lack of exposure
details; Only two
exposure
concentrations
Mixture
Not North
American species
Formulation
Not applicable
Expanded
Reason



Text in foreign
language




Carbaryl and
copper

Sevin
(10% dust)
No carbaryl
toxicity
information
                                              187

-------
Appendix J.  List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Verma and Tonk
Verma et al.
Verma et al.
Verma et al.
Verma et al.
Verma et al.
Virk et al.
von Windeguth et
al.
Vonesh and Buck
Vryzas et al.
Walsh
Weber et al.
Weis and Mantel
Weis and Weis
Title
Biomonitoring of the
contamination of water by a
sublethal concentration of
pesticides - a system analysis
approach.
Quantitative estimation of biocide
residues in a few tissues ofLabeo
rohita and Saccobranchusfossilis.
Acute toxicity of twenty three
pesticides to a fresh water teleost,
Saccobranchusfossilis.
Studies on the accumulation and
elimination of three pesticides in
the gonads ofNotopterus
notopterus and Colisafasciatus.
Bioassay trials with twenty three
pesticides to a fresh water teleost,
Saccobranchusfossilis.
Evaluation of an application
factor for determining the safe
concentration of agricultural and
industrial chemicals.
Histopathological and
biochemical changes induced by
endrin and carbaryl in the
stomach, intestine and liver of
Mystus tengara.
The efficacy of carbaryl,
propoxur, abate and methoxychlor
as larvicides against field
infestations ofAedes aegypti.
Pesticide alters oviposition site
selection in gray tree frogs.
Spatial and temporal distribution
of pesticide residues in surface
waters in northeastern Greece.
The pathology of pesticide
poisoning in fish.
Toxicity of certain insecticides to
protozoa.
DDT as an accelerator of limb
regeneration and molting in
fiddler crabs.
Retardation of fin regeneration in
Fundulus by several insecticides.
Date
1984
1977
1979
1981b
1982
1984
1987
1971
2007
2009
1974
1982
1976
1975
Organism(s)
Catfish,
Heteropneustes
fossilis
Rohu,
Labeo rohita
Catfish,
Saccobranchus
fossilis
Catfish,
Saccobranchus
fossilis
Fish,
Colisafasciatus
Notopterus
notopterus
Catfish,
Saccobranchus
fossilis
Carp,
Cirrhina mrigala
Catfish,
Mystus tengara
Mosquito,
Aedes aegypti
Gray treefrog,
Hyla chrysoscelis
-
Coho salmon,
Oncorhynchus
kisutch
Lake trout,
Salvelinus
namaycush
Protozoa
Fiddler crab,
Uca pugilator
U. pugnax
Killifish,
Fundulus sp.
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
30 d
decreased relative
spleen weight at
1,000
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details
Not North
American species;
Lack of exposure
details (procedure)
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Not North
American species;
Formulation
Formulation
Only one exposure
concentration;
Formulation
Not applicable
Only one exposure
concentration
Lack of exposure
details (procedure)
Not applicable
Surgically altered
test species
Expanded
Reason
Sevin (50% WP)
Dilution water not
characterized

Sevin (50% WP)
Sevin (50% WP)
Sevin (50% WP)
Carbaryl
(50% WP)
0.5, 1.25 and 2. 5%
carbaryl
Sevin
(commercial
grade)
No carbaryl
toxicity
information


No carbaryl
toxicity
information

                                              188

-------
Appendix J. List of Carbaryl Studies Not Used in Document Along with Reasons
Author
Weis and Weis
Whitmore and
Hodges
Whitten and
Goodnight
Whyard et al.
Wilder and
Stanley
Wood et al.
Worthley and
Schott
Yasutomi et al.
Yokoyama et al.
Yoshida and
Nishiuchi
Yoshioka et al.
Title
Optical malformations induced by
insecticides in embryos of the
Atlantic silverside, Menidia
menidia.
In vitro pesticide inhibition of
muscle esterases of the
mosquitofish, Gambusia affmis.
Toxicity of some common
insecticides to tubificids.
Isolation of an esterase conferring
insecticide resistance in the
mosquito Culex tarsalis.
RNA-DNA ratio as an index to
growth in salmonid fishes in the
laboratory and in streams
contaminated by carbaryl.
Carbamate and organophosphate
resistance in Culex pipiens L.
(Diptera: Culicidae) in southern
France and the significance of
EST-3A.
The comparative effects of Cs and
various pollutants on fresh water
phytoplankton colonies of Wolffia
papulifera Thompson.
Insecticide-resistance of
Anopheles sinensis and Culex
tritaeniorhynchus in Saitama
Prefecture, Japan.
Sensitivity of Japanese eel,
Anguilla japonica, to 68 kinds of
agricultural chemicals.
Toxicity of pesticides to some
water organisms.
The estimation for toxicity of
chemicals on fish by physico-
chemical properties.
Date
1976
1978
1966
1994
1983
1984
1972
1986
1988
1972
1986
Organism(s)
Atlantic silverside,
Menidia menidia
Mosquito,
Gambusia qffinis
Tubificid worms,
Tubifex sp.
Limnodrilus sp.
Mosquito,
Culex tarsalis
-
Mosquito,
Culex pipiens
Duckweed,
Wolffia papulifera
Mosquito,
Anopheles sinensis
Mosquito,
Culex
tritaeniorhynchus
Japanese eel,
Anguilla japonica
-
-
Concentration
(ng/L)
-
-
-
-
-
24 hr
LC50=500
-
-
-
-
-
Reason Unused
Lack of exposure
details (procedure)
Surgically altered
test species
Formulation
Prior exposure
Only one exposure
concentration;
Formulation
Inappropriate
dilution water
Formulation
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details
Lack of exposure
details
Review of
previous studies
Expanded
Reason

Homogenized
muscle tissue
Sevin (20% EC)

Sevin-4-oil
Deionized water
without proper
salts added
21. 5% carbaryl
Text in foreign
language
Text in foreign
language
Text in foreign
language

   Dash indicates not available
                                                 189

-------