United States
          Environmental Protection
          Agency
2012 Edition of the Drinking
Water Standards and Health
Advisories

-------
2012 Edition of the Drinking Water
 Standards and Health Advisories
              EPA 822-S-12-001

               Office of Water
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
              Washington, DC
                Spring 2012
            Date of update: April, 2012
                           Recycled/Recyclable
                           Printed on paper that contains
                           at least 50% recycled fiber.

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       Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories

Spring 2012                                                               Page iii of vi
The Health Advisory (HA) Program, sponsored by the EPA's Office of Water (OW), publishes
concentrations of drinking water contaminants at Drinking Water Specific Risk Level
Concentration for cancer (10~4 Cancer Risk) and concentrations of drinking water contaminants
at which noncancer adverse health effects are not anticipated to occur over specific exposure
durations - One-day, Ten-day, and Lifetime - in the Drinking Water Standards and Health
Advisories (DWSHA) tables. The One-day and Ten-day HAs are for a 10 kg child and the
Lifetime HA is for a 70 kg  adult. The daily drinking water consumption for the 10 kg child and
70 kg adult are assumed to  be 1 L/day and 2 L/day, respectively. The Lifetime HA for the
drinking water contaminant is calculated from its associated Drinking Water Equivalent Level
(DWEL), obtained from its RfD, and incorporates a drinking water Relative Source Contribution
(RSC) factor of contaminant-specific data or a default of 20% of total exposure from all sources.
Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) and Maximum Contaminant Level Goals (MCLGs) for
some regulated drinking water contaminants are also published.

HAs serve as the informal technical  guidance for unregulated drinking water contaminants to
assist Federal, State and local officials, and managers of public or community water systems in
protecting public health as needed. They are not to be construed  as legally enforceable Federal
standards. EPA's OW has provided MCL, MCLGs, RfDs, One-Day HAs, Ten-day HAs,
DWELs, and Lifetime HAs. Drinking Water Specific Risk Level Concentration for cancer (10~4
Cancer Risk), and Cancer Descriptors in the DWSHA tables. HAs are intended to protect against
noncancer effects. The 10"4 Cancer Risk level provides information concerning cancer effects.
The MCL values for specific drinking water contaminants must be used for regulated
contaminants  in public drinking water systems.

The DWSHA tables are revised periodically by the OW so that the benchmark values are
consistent with the most current Agency assessments. Reference dose (RfD) values are updated
to reflect the values in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and the Office of Pesticide
Programs (OPP) Reregi strati on Eligibility Decisions (REDs) documents.  The associated  DWEL
is recalculated accordingly.

A Lifetime noncancer benchmark is made available to risk assessment managers for comparison
to the cancer risk level drinking water concentration (10~4 Cancer Risk) and to determine whether
the noncancer Lifetime HA or the cancer risk level drinking water concentration provides a more
meaningful scenario-specific risk reduction. In this regard, the Office of Water defines the
Lifetime HA as the concentration in drinking water that is not expected to cause any adverse
noncarcinogenic effects for a lifetime of exposure, whereas the 10"4  Cancer Risk is the
concentration of the chemical contaminant in drinking water that is associated with a specific
probability of cancer. The Office of Water also advises consideration of the more conservative
cancer risk levels (10~5, 10"6), found  in the IRIS or OPP RED source documents, if it is
considered more appropriate for exposure-specific risk assessment.

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       Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories

Spring 2012                                                             Page iv of vi
      Many of the values on the DWSHA tables have been revised since the original HAs were
      published. Revised RfDs, 10~4 Cancer Risk values, and cancer designations or descriptors
      obtained from Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), and One-day and Ten-day
      Health Advisories are presented in BOLD type. Revised RfDs, 10~4 Cancer Risk values,
      and cancer designations or descriptors obtained from Office of Pesticide Program's
      Registration Eligibility Decision (OPP RED) are presented in BOLD ITALICS type.

      The summaries of IRIS Toxicological Reviews from which the RfDs and cancer
      benchmarks, as well as the associated narratives and references can be accessed at:
      http://www.epa.gov/IRIS. Those from OPP REDs can be accessed at:
      http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/status.htm.

      In some cases, there is an HA value for a contaminant but there is no reference to an HA
      document. Such HA values can be found in the Drinking Water Criteria Document for
      the contaminant.

      With a few exceptions, the RfDs, Health Advisories, and Cancer Risk values have been
      rounded to one significant figure following the convention adopted by IRIS.

      For unregulated chemicals with current IRIS or OPP REDs RfDs, the Lifetime Health
      Advisories are calculated from the associated DWELs, using the RSC values published in
      the HA documents for the contaminants.

The DWSHA tables may be reached from the Water Science home page at:
http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/. The DWSHA tables are accessed under the Drinking Water
icon.

Copies the Tables may be ordered free of charge from

                   SAFE DRINKING WATER HOTLINE
                   1-800-426-4791
                   Monday thru Friday, 9:00 AM to 5:30 PM EST
                                         IV

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       Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories

Spring 2012                                                              Page v of vi


DEFINITIONS

The following definitions for terms used in the DWSHA tables are not all-encompassing, and
should not be construed to be "official" definitions. They are intended to assist the user in
understanding terms used in the DWSHA tables.

Action Level: The concentration of a contaminant which, if exceeded, triggers treatment or other
requirements which a water system must follow. For example, it is the level of lead or copper
which, if exceeded in over 10% of the homes tested, triggers treatment for corrosion control.

Cancer Classification: A descriptive weight-of-evidence judgment as to the likelihood that an
agent is a human carcinogen and the conditions under which the carcinogenic effects may be
expressed. Under the 2005 EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, Cancer Descriptors
replace the earlier alpha numeric Cancer Group designations (US EPA 1986 guidelines).  The
Cancer Descriptors in the 2005 EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment are as follows:

       "carcinogenic to humans" (H)
       "likely to be carcinogenic to humans" (L)
      "likely to be carcinogenic above a specified dose but not likely to be carcinogenic below
       that dose because a key event in tumor formation does  not occur below that dose" (L/N)
       "suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential" (S)
       "inadequate information to assess carcinogenic potential" (I)
      "not likely to be carcinogenic to humans" (N)

The letter abbreviations provided parenthetically above are now used in the DWSHA tables in
place of the prior alpha numeric identifiers for chemicals that have been evaluated under the new
guidelines (the 2005 guidelines or the 1996 and 1999 draft guidelines) or whose records in the
DWSHA tables have been revised.

Cancer Group: A qualitative weight-of-evidence judgment as to the likelihood that a chemical
may be a carcinogen for humans. Each  chemical was placed into one of the following five
categories (US EPA 1986 guidelines). The Cancer Group designations are given in the Tables for
chemicals that have not yet been evaluated under the new guidelines or whose records in the
DWSHA tables have been revised.

Group Category

A     Human carcinogen
B     Probable human carcinogen:
       Bl indicates limited human evidence

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       Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories

Spring 2012                                                               Page vi of vi
       B2 indicates sufficient evidence in animals and inadequate or no evidence in humans
C      Possible human carcinogen
D      Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity
E      Evidence of noncarcinogenicity for humans

10~4 Cancer Risk: The concentration of a chemical in drinking water corresponding to an excess
estimated lifetime cancer risk of 1 in 10,000.

Drinking Water Advisory: A nonregulatory concentration of a contaminant in water that is
likely to be without adverse effects on health and aesthetics for the period it is derived.

DWEL: Drinking Water Equivalent Level. A DWEL is a drinking water lifetime exposure
level, assuming 100% exposure from that medium, at which adverse, noncarcinogenic health
effects would not be expected to occur.

HA: Health Advisory. An estimate of acceptable drinking water levels for a chemical substance
based on health effects information; an HA is not a legally enforceable Federal standard, but
serves as technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials.

       One-Day HA: The  concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to
       cause any adverse noncarcinogenic effects for up to one day of exposure. The One-Day
       HA is intended o protect a 10-kg child consuming 1 liter of water per day.

       Ten-Day HA: The concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to
       cause any adverse noncarcinogenic effects for up to ten days of exposure.  The Ten-Day
       HA is also intended to protect a 10-kg child consuming 1  liter of water per day.

       Lifetime HA: The concentration of a chemical in drinking water that is not expected to
       cause any adverse noncarcinogenic effects for a lifetime of exposure, incorporating a
       drinking water RSC factor of contaminant-specific data or a default of 20% of total
       exposure from all sources. The Lifetime HA is based on exposure of a 70-kg adult
       consuming 2 liters of water per day. For Lifetime HAs developed for drinking water
       contaminants before the Lifetime HA policy change to develop Lifetime HAs for all
       drinking water contaminants regardless of carcinogenicity status in this DWSHA update,
       the Lifetime HA for Group C carcinogens, as indicated by the 1986 Cancer Guidelines,
       includes an uncertainty adjustment factor of 10 for possible carcinogenicity.

MCLG: Maximum Contaminant Level Goal. A non-enforceable health benchmark goal which is
set at a level at which no known or anticipated adverse effect on the health of persons is expected
to occur and which allows an adequate margin of safety.
                                          VI

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       Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories

Spring 2012                                                               Page vii of vi
MCL: Maximum Contaminant Level. The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in
drinking water. MCLs are set as close to the MCLG as feasible using the best available analytical
and treatment technologies and taking cost into consideration. MCLs are enforceable standards.

Oral cancer slope factor: The slope factor is the result of application of a low-dose
extrapolation procedure and is presented as the risk per (mg/kg)/day.

RfD: Reference Dose. An estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of
a daily oral exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be
without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime.

Risk Specific Level Concentration: The concentration of the chemical contaminant in drinking
water or air providing cancer risks of 1 in 10,000, 1 in  100,000, or 1 in 100,000,000.

SDWR: Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. Non-enforceable Federal guidelines regarding
cosmetic effects (such as tooth or skin discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste, odor, or
color) of drinking water.

TT: Treatment Technique. A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in
drinking water.

Unit Risk: The unit risk is the quantitative estimate in  terms of either risk per |ig/L drinking
water or risk per |ig/m3 air breathed.
                                          Vll

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      Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
Spring 2012
Page viii of vi
ABBREVIATIONS

D           Draft
DWEL      Drinking Water Equivalent Level
DWSHA    Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
F           Final
HA         Health Advisory
I           Interim
IRIS        Integrated Risk Information System
MCL       Maximum Contaminant Level
MCLG      Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
NA         Not Applicable
NOAEL     No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
OPP        Office of Pesticide Programs
OW        Office of Water
P           Proposed
Pv          Provisional
RED        Registration Eligibility Decision
Reg        Regulation
RfD        Reference Dose
TT         Treatment Technique
                                      Vlll

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                               Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
Spring 2012
Page 1 of 12




Chemicals




CASRN
Number

Standards


Status MCLG MCL
Reg. (mg/L) (mg/L)



Status
HA
Document

Health Advisories
10-kg Child


One-day
(mg/L)
ORGANICS
Acenaphthene
Acifluorfen (sodium)
Acrylamide
Acrylonitrile
Alachlor
Aldicarb3
Aldicarb sulfone
Aldicarb sulfoxide3
Aldrin
Ametryn
Ammonium sulfamate
Anthracene (PAH) 5
Atrazine
Baygon
Bentazon
Benz[a]anthracene (PAH)
Benzene
Benzo[a]pyrene (PAH)
Benzo[b]fluoranthene (PAH)
Benzo[g,h,i]perylene (PAH)
Benzo[k]fluoranthene (PAH)
Bis(2-chloro- 1 -methyl ethyl) ether
Bromacil
Bromobenzene
83-32-9
62476-59-9
79-06-1
107-13-1
15972-60-8
116-06-3
1646-88-4
1646-87-3
309-00-2
834-12-8
7773-06-0
120-12-7
1912-24-9
114-26-1
25057-89-0
56-55-3
71-43-2
50-32-8
205-99-2
191-24-2
207-08-9
108-60-1
314-40-9
108-86-1
.
-
F zero TT2
-
F zero 0.002
F4 0.001 0.003
F4 0.001 0.002
F4 0.001 0.004
.
.
.
.
F 0.003 0.003
.
.
.
F zero 0.005
F zero 0.0002
.
-
-
-
.
-
-
F'88
F'87
-
F'88
F'95
F'95
F'95
F'92
F'88
F'88
-
F'88
F'88
F'99
-
F'87
-
-
-
-
F'89
F'88
D'86
-
2
1.5
-
0.1
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.0003
9
20
-
-
0.04
0.3
-
0.2
-
-
-
-
4
5
4


Ten-day
(mg/L)

-
2
0.3
-
0.1
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.0003
9
20
-
-
0.04
0.3
-
0.2
-
-
-
-
4
5
4



RfD
(mg/kg/day)

0.06
0.01
0.002
-
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.00003
0.009
0.2
0.3
ft 02
0.004
0.03
-
0.004
-
-
-
-
0.04
ft 1
0.008


DWEL
(mg/L)

2
0.4
0.07
-
0.4
0.035
0.035
0.035
0.001
0.3
8
10
0.7
0.1
1
-
0.1
-
-
-
-
1
3.5
0.3


Life-time
(mg/L)



-
-
-
0.007
0.007
0.007
-
0.06
2
-
-
0.003
0.2
-
0.003
-
-
-
-
0.3
0.07
0.06
mg/L at
10^ Cancer
Risk




Cancer
Descriptor1



0.1
-
0.006
0.04
-
_
-
0.0002
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ItolO
0.0005
-
-
-
-
-
-

UN
L
Bl
B2
D
D
D
B2
D
D
D
N
C
E
B2
H
B2
B2
D
B2
-
C
I
  Chemicals evaluated under the 2005 Cancer Guidelines or the 1996 or 1999 drafts are demoted by an abbreviation for their weight-of-the-evidence descriptor (see page iii). If the agency
  has not completed a new assessment for the chemical, the 1986 Guidelines Group designation (see page iii) is given in the Cancer Descriptor column.
  When Acrylamide is used in drinking water systems, the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level shall not exceed that equivalent to a polyacrylamide polymer containing
  0.05% monomer dosed at 1 mg/L.
  The MCL value for any combination of two or more of these three chemicals should not exceed 0.007 mg/L because of a similar mode of action.
  Administrative stay of the effective date.
  PAH = Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.
                                                                        1

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                       Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
Spring 2012
Page 2 of 11




Chemicals

Bromochloromethane
Bromodichloromethane (THM)
Bromoform (THM)
Bromomethane
Butyl benzyl phthalate
Butylate
Carbaryl
Carbofuran
Carbon tetrachloride
Carboxin
Chloramben
Chlordane
Chloroform (THM)
Chloromethane
Chlorophenol (2-)
Chlorothalonil
Chlorotoluene o-
Chlorotoluene p-
Chlorpyrifos
Chrysene (PAH)
Cyanazine



CASRN
Number

74-97-5
75-27-4
75-25-2
74-83-9
85-68-7
2008-41-5
63-25-2
1563-66-2
56-23-5
5234-68-4
133-90-4
12798-03-6
67-66-3
74-87-3
95-57-8
1897-45-6
95-49-8
106-43-4
2921-88-2
218-01-9
21725-46-2
Standards


Status
Reg.

-
F
F
-
-
-
-
F
F
-
-
F
F
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-


MCLG
(mg/L)

-
zero
zero
-
-
-
-
0.04
zero
-
-
zero
0.07
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-


MCL
(mg/L)

-
0.081
0.081
-
-
-
-
0.04
0.005
-
-
0.002
0.081
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-


Status
HA
Document

F'89
-
-
D'89
-
F'89
F'88
F'87
F'87
F'88
F'88
F'87
-
F'89
D'94
F'88
F'89
F'89
F'92
-
D'96
Health Advisories
10-kg Child


One-day
(mg/L)
50
1
5
0.1
-
2
1
-
4
1
3
0.06
4
9
0.5
0.2
2
2
0.03
-
0.1


Ten-day
(mg/L)
1
0.6
0.2
0.1
-
2
1
-
0.2
1
3
0.06
4
0.4
0.5
0.2
2
2
0.03
-
0.1



RfD
(mg/kg/day)
0.01
0.003
0.03
0.001
0.2
0.05
0.01
0.00006
0.004
0.1
0.015
0.0005
0.01
-
0.005
0.015
0.02
0.02
ft 0003
-
0.002


DWEL
(mg/L)
0.5
0.1
1
0.05
7
2
0.4
-
0.1
3.5
0.5
0.02
0.35
-
0.2
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.01
-
0.07


Life- time
(mg/L)
0.09
-
-
0.01
-
0.4
-
-
0.03
0.7
0.1
0.004
0.07
-
0.04
-
0.1
0.1
0.002
-
0.001
mg/L at
10^4 Cancer
Risk

-
0.1
0.8
-
-
-
4
-
0.05
-
-
0.01
-
-
-
0.15
-
-
-
-
-



Cancer
Descriptor

D
L
L
D
C
D
L
N
L
D
D
B2
L/N
I
D
B2
D
D
D
B2

  1998 Final Rule for Disinfectants and Disinfection By-products: The total for trihalomethanes (THM) is 0.08 mg/L.

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                            Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
Spring 2012
Page 3 of 12




Chemicals
Cyanogen chloride1
2,4-D (2,4-
dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)
DCPA (Dacthal)
Dalapon (sodium salt)
Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
Diazinon
Dibromochloromethane (THM)
Dibromochloropropane (DBCP)
Dibutyl phthalate
Dicamba
Dichloroacetic acid
Dichlorobenzene o-
Dichlorobenzene 
Dichlorobenzene p-
Dichlorodifluoromethane
Dichloroethane (1,2-)
Dichloroethylene (1,1-)
Dichloroethylene (cis-1,2-)
Dichloroethylene (trans- 1,2-)
Dichloromethane
Dichlorophenol (2,4-)
Dichloropropane (1,2-)
Dichloropropene (1,3-)
Dieldrin
Diethyl phthalate



CASRN
Number
506-77-4

94-75-7
1861-32-1
75-99-0
103-23-1
117-81-7
333-41-5
124-48-1
96-12-8
84-74-2
1918-00-9
76-43-6
95-50-1
541-73-1
106-46-7
75-71-8
107-06-2
75-35-4
156-59-2
156-60-5
75-09-2
120-83-2
78-87-5
542-75-6
60-57-1
84-66-2
Standards


Status
Reg.
-

F
-
F
F
F
-
F
F
-
-
F
F
-
F
-
F
F
F
F
F
-
F
-
-
-


MCLG MCL
(mg/L) (mg/L)
-

0.07 0.07
-
0.2 0.2
0.4 0.4
zero 0.006
-
0.06 0.082
zero 0.0002
-
-
zero 0.063
0.6 0.6
-
0.075 0.075
-
zero 0.005
0.007 0.007
0.07 0.07
0.1 0.1
zero 0.005
-
zero 0.005
-
-
-


Status
HA
Document
-

F'87
F'08
F'89
-
-
F'88
-
F'87
-
F'88
-
F'87
F'87
F'87
F'89
F'87
F'87
F'90
F'87
D'93
D'94
F'87
F'88
F'88
-
Health Advisories
10-kg Child

One-day
(mg/L)
0.05

1
2
3
20
-
0.02
0.6
0.2
-
-
3
9
9
11
40
0.7
2
4
20
10
0.03
-
0.03
0.0005
-

Ten-day
(mg/L)
0.05

0.3
2
3
20
-
0.02
0.6
0.05
-
-
3
9
9
11
40
0.7
1
3
2
2
0.03
0.09
0.03
0.0005
-


RfD
(mg/kg/day)
0.05

0.005
0.01
0.03
0.6
0.02
0.0002
0.02
-
0.1
ft 5
0.004
0.09
0.09
0.1
0.2
-
0.05
0.002
0.02
0.06
0.003
-
0.03
0.00005
0.8

DWEL
(mg/L)
2

0.2
0.35
0.9
20
0.7
0.007
0.7
-
4
18
0.1
3
3
4
5
-
2
0.07
0.7
2
0.1
-
1
0.002
30

Life- time
(mg/L)
-

-
0.07
0.2
0.4
-
0.001
0.06
-
-
4
0.03
0.6
0.6
0.075
1
-
0.4
0.01
0.1
0.2
0.02
-
-
-
-
mg/L at
10^4 Cancer
Risk
-

-
-
-
3
0.3
-
0.08
0.003
-
-
0.07
-
-
-
-
0.04
0.006
-
-
0.5
-
0.06
0.04
0.0002
-



Cancer
Descriptor
D

D
C
D
C
B2
E
S
B2
D
N
L
D
D
C
D
B2
S
I
I
L
E
B2
L
B2
D
1  Under review.
2  1998 Final Rule for Disinfectants and Disinfection By-products: The total for trihalomethanes is 0.08 mg/L.
  1998 Final Rule for Disinfectants and Disinfection By-products: The total for five haloacetic acids is 0.06 mg/L.
4  The values for m-dichlorobenzene are based on data for o-dichlorobenzene.

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                           Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
Spring 2012
Page 4 of 12




Chemicals
Diisopropylmethylphosphonate
Dimethrin
Dimethyl methylphosphonate
Dimethyl phthalate
Dinitrobenzene (1,3-)
Dinitrotoluene (2,4-)
Dinitrotoluene (2,6-)
Dinitrotoluene (2,6 & 2,4) '
Dinoseb
Dioxane p-
Diphenamid
Diquat
Disulfoton
Dithiane(l,4-)
Diuron
Endothall
Endrin
Epichlorohydrin
Ethylbenzene
Ethylene dibromide (EDB)3
Ethylene glycol
Ethylene Thiourea (ETU)
Fenamiphos



CASRN
Number
1445-75-6
70-38-2
756-79-6
131-11-3
99-65-0
121-14-2
606-20-2

88-85-7
123-91-1
957-51-7
85-00-7
298-04-4
505-29-3
330-54-1
145-73-3
72-20-8
106-89-8
100-41-4
106-93-4
107-21-1
96-45-7
22224-92-6
Standards


Status MCLG MCL
Reg. (mg/L) (mg/L)


.
.

-
.
F 0.007 0.007
.
-
F 0.02 0.02
.
.
.
F 0.1 0.1
F 0.002 0.002
F zero TT
F 0.7 0.7
F zero 0.00005
-
.
-


Status
HA
Document
F'89
F'88
F'92
-
F'91
F'08
F'08
F'92
F'88
F'87
F'88
-
F'88
F'92
F'88
F'88
F'87
F'87
F'87
F'87
F'87
F'88
F'88
Health Advisories
10-kg Child

One-day
(mg/L)
8
10
2
-
0.04
1
0.4
-
0.3
4
0.3
-
0.01
0.4
1
0.8
0.02
0.1
30
0.008
20
0.3
0.009

Ten-day
(mg/L)
8
10
2
-
0.04
1
0.04
-
0.3
0.4
0.3
-
0.01
0.4
1
0.8
0.005
0.1
3
0.008
6
0.3
0.009


RfD
(mg/kg/day)
0.08
0.3
0.2
-
0.0001
0.002
0.001
-
0.001
0.03
0.03
ft 005
0.0001
0.01
0.003
0.007
0.0003
0.002
0.1
0.009
2
ft 0002
0.0001

DWEL
(mg/L)
3
10
7
-
0.005
0.1
0.04
-
0.035
1
1
0.02
0.0035
0.4
0.1
0.25
0.01
0.07
3
0.3
70
0.007
0.0035

Life- time
(mg/L)
0.6
2
0.1
-
0.001
-
-
-
0.007
0.2
0.2
-
0.0007
0.08
-
0.05
0.002
-
0.7
-
14
-
0.0007
mg/L at
10-" Cancer
Risk
-
0.7
-
-
0.005
0.005
0.005
-
.035
-
-
-
-
0.2
-
-
0.3
-
0.002
-
0.06
-



Cancer
Descriptor
D
D
C
D
D
L
L
B2
D
L
D
E
E
D
L
N
I
B2
D
L
D
B2
E
  Technical grade.
  When epichlorohydrin is used in drinking water systems, the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level shall not exceed that equivalent to an epichlorohydrin-based polymer
  containing 0.01% monomer dosed at 20 mg/L.
3  1,2-dibromoethane.

-------
                              Drinking  Water Standards and Health Advisories
Spring 2012
Page 5 of 12




Chemicals
Fluometuron
Fluorene (PAH)
Fonofos
Formaldehyde
Glyphosate
Heptachlor
Heptachlor epoxide
Hexachlorobenzene
Hexachlorobutadiene
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
Hexachloroethane
Hexane (n-)
Hexazinone
HMX3
Indeno[l,2,3,-c,d]pyrene (PAH)
Isophorone
Isopropyl methylphosphonate
Isopropylbenzene (cumene)
Lindane4
Malathion
Maleic hydrazide
MCPA5
Methomyl
Methoxychlor
Methyl ethyl ketone
Methyl parathion




CAS Number
2164-17-2
86-73-7
944-22-9
50-00-0
1071-83-6
76-44-8
1024-57-3
118-74-1
87-68-3
77-47-4
67-72-1
110-54-3
51235-04-2
2691-41-0
193-39-5
78-59-1
1832-54-8
98-82-8
58-89-9
121-75-5
123-33-1
94-74-6
16752-77-5
72-43-5
78-93-3
298-00-0
Standards


Status MCLG MCL
Reg. (mg/L) (mg/L)
-
.
.
F 0.7 0.7
F zero 0.0004
F zero 0.0002
F zero 0.001
.
F 0.05 0.05
.
.
.
.
.
-
-
.
F 0.0002 0.0002
.
.
.
.
F 0.04 0.04
.
-


Status
HA
Standards
F'88
F'88
D'93
F'88
F'87
F'87
F'87
-
-
F'91
F'87
F'96
F'88
-
F'92
F'92
D'87
F'87
F'92
F'88
F'88
F'88
F'87
F'87
F'88
Health Advisories
10-kg Child

One-day
(mg/L)
2
0.02
10
20
0.01
0.01
0.05
0.3
-
5
10
3
5
-
15
30
11
1
0.2
10
0.1
0.3
0.05
75
0.3

Ten-day
(mg/L)
2
0.02
5
20
0.01
-
0.05
0.3
-
5
4
2
5
-
15
30
11
1
0.2
10
0.1
0.3
0.05
7.5
0.3


RfD
(mg/kg/day)
0.01
0.04
0.002
0.2
2
0.0005
0.00001
0.0008
0.0003
0.006
0.001
-
ft 05
0.05
-
0.2
0.1
0.1
ft 005
0.07
0.5
0.004
0.025
0.005
0.6
ft 0002

DWEL
(mg/L)
0.5
1
0.07
7
70
0.02
0.0004
0.03
0.01
0.2
0.04
-
2
2
-
7
3.5
4
0.2
2
20
0.14
0.9
0.2
20
0.007

Life- time
(mg/L)
0.09
0.01
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.001
-
0.4
0.4
-
0.1
0.7
-
-
0.5
4
0.03
0.2
0.04
4
0.001
mg/L at
10-" Cancer
Risk

-
-
-
0.0008
0.0004
0.002
0.09
-
0.3
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-



Cancer
Descriptor
D
D
D
Bl1
D
B2
B2
B2
L
N
C
I
D
D
B2
C
D
D
S
S
D
N
E
D
D
N
  Carcinogenicity based on inhalation exposure.
  Regulatory Determination Health Effects Support Document for Hexachlorobutadiene
  (http://www.epa.gov/safewater/ccl/pdfs/reg_determinel/support_cc l_hexachlorobutadiene_healtheffects.pdf).
  HMX = octahydro-l,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7-tetrazocine.
  Lindane = y - hexachlorocyclohexane.
  MCPA = 4 (chloro-2-methoxyphenoxy) acetic acid.

-------
                              Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
Spring 2012
Page 6 of 12




Chemicals

Metolachlor
Metribuzin
Monochloroacetic acid
Monochlorobenzene
Naphthalene
Nitrocellulose2
Nitroguanidine
Nitrophenol p-
N-nitrosodimethylamine
Oxamyl (Vydate)
Paraquat
Pentachlorophenol
PFOA3
PFOS4
Phenanthrene (PAH)
Phenol
Picloram
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
Prometon
Pronamide
Propachlor
Propazine
Propham
Pyrene (PAH)
RDX5
Simazine
Styrene
2,4,5-T (Trichlorophenoxy-acetic
acid)



CASRN
Number

51218-45-2
21087-64-9
79-11-8
108-90-7
91-20-3
9004-70-0
556-88-7
100-02-7

23135-22-0
1910-42-5
87-86-5
335-67-1
1763-23-1
85-01-8
108-95-2
1918-02-1
1336-36-3
1610-18-0
23950-58-5
1918-16-7
139-40-2
122-42-9
129-00-0
121-82-4
122-34-9
100-42-5
93-76-5

Standards


Status MCLG MCL
Reg. (mg/L) (mg/L)

.
.
F 0.03 0.061
F 0.1 0.1
.
.
.
-
.
F 0.2 0.2
-
F zero 0.001
.
.
.
.
F 0.5 0.5
F zero 0.0005
.
.
.
-
-
.
.
F 0.004 0.004
F 0.1 0.1
.



Status
HA
Document

F'88
F'88
-
F'87
F'90
F'88
F'90
F'92
-
F'05
F'88
F'87
Pv'09
Pv'09
-
D'92
F'88
D'93
F'88
F'88
F'88
F'88
F'88
-
F'88
F'88
F'87
F'88

Health Advisories
10-kg Child

One-day
(mg/L)

2
5
0.2
4
0.5
-
10
0.8
-
0.01
0.1
1
-
-
-
6
20
-
0.2
0.8
0.5
-
5
-
0.1
-
20
0.8


Ten-day
(mg/L)

2
5
0.2
4
0.5
-
10
0.8
-
0.01
0.1
0.3
-
-
-
6
20
-
0.2
0.8
0.5
-
5
-
0.1
-
2
0.8



RfD
(mg/kg/day)

ft 1
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
-
0.1
0.008
-
0.001
0.0045
0.005
-
-
-
0.3
ft 02
-
0.05
0.08
0.05
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.003
ft 02
0.2
0.01


DWEL
(mg/L)

3.5
0.35
0.35
0.7
0.7
-
3.5
0.3
-
0.035
0.2
0.2
-
-
-
11
0.7
-
2
3
2
0.7
0.6
-
0.1
0.7
7
0.35


Life- time
(mg/L)

0.7
0.07
0.07
0.1
0.1
-
0.7
0.06
-

0.03
0.04
-
-
-
2
-
-
0.4
-
-
0.01
0.1
-
0.002
-
0.1
0.07

mg/L at
10^4 Cancer
Risk

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.00007
-
-
0.009
-
-
-
-
-
0.01
-
0.1
0.1
-
-
-
0.03
-
-
-





Cancer
Descriptor
C
D
I
D
I
-
D
D
62
N
E
L
-
-
D
D
D
B2
N
B2
L
N
D
D
C
N
C
D

1  1998 Final Rule for Disinfectants and Disinfection By-products: the total for five haloacetic acids is 0.06mg/L.
2 The Health Advisory Document for nitrocellulose does not include HA values and describes this compound as relatively nontoxic.
3Perfluorooctanoic Acid.Provisional short-term value 0.0004mg/L.
 PerfluorooctaneSulfonate.Provisional short-term value 0.0002mg/L.
5  RDX = hexahydro -l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine.

-------
                        Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
Spring 2012
Page 7 of 12




Chemicals
2,3,7,8-TCDD (Dioxin)
Tebuthiuron
Terbacil
Terbufos
Tetrachloroethane ( 1 , 1 , 1 ,2-)
Tetrachloroethane (1,1 ,2,2-)
Tetrachloroethylene1
Tetrachloroterephthalic acid
Trichlorofluoromethane
Toluene
Toxaphene
2,4,5-TP (Silvex)
Trichloroacetic acid
Trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-)
Trichlorobenzene (1,3,5-)
Trichloroethane (1,1,1-)
Trichloroethane ( 1 , 1 ,2-)
Trichloroethylene '
Trichlorophenol (2,4,6-)
Trichloropropane (1,2,3-)
Trifluralin
Trimethylbenzene (1,2,4-)
Trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-)
Trinitroglycerol
Trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-)
Vinyl chloride
Xylenes



CASRN
Number
1746-01-6
34014-18-1
5902-51-2
13071-79-9
630-20-6
79-34-5
127-18-4
236-79-0
75-69-4
108-88-3
8001-35-2
93-72-1
76-03-9
120-82-1
108-70-3
71-55-6
79-00-5
79-01-6
88-06-2
96-18-4
1582-09-8
95-63-6
108-67-8
55-63-0
118-96-7
75-01-4
1330-20-7
Standards


Status MCLG MCL
Reg. (mg/L) (mg/L)
F zero 3E-08
.
.
.
.
F zero 0.005
.
.
F 1 1
F zero 0.003
F 0.05 0.05
F 0.02 0.062
F 0.07 0.07
-
F 0.2 0.2
F 0.003 0.005
F zero 0.005
.
-
.
.
-
-
-
F zero 0.002
F 10 10


Status
HA
Document
F'87
F'88
F'88
F'88
F'89
F '08
F'87
F'08
F'89
D'93
F'96
F'88
-
F'89
F'89
F'87
F'89
F'87
D'94
F'89
F'90
D'87
D'87
F'87
F'89
F'87
D'93
Health Advisories
10-kg Child

One-day
(mg/L)
1E-06
3
0.3
0.005
2
3
2
100
7
20
0.004
0.2
3
0.1
0.6
100
0.6
-
0.03
0.6
0.08
-
10
0.005
0.02
3
40

Ten-day
(mg/L)
1E-07
3
0.3
0.005
2
3
2
100
7
2
0.004
0.2
3
0.1
0.6
40
0.4
-
0.03
0.6
0.08
-
-
0.005
0.02
3
40


RfD
(mg/kg/day)
1E-09
0.07
0.01
0.00005
0.03
0.01
0.01
-
0.3
0.08
0.0004
0.008
0.03
0.01
0.006
2
0.004
0.007
0.0003
0.004
ft 02
-
-
-
0.0005
0.003
0.2

DWEL
(mg/L)
4E-08
2
0.4
0.002
1
0.4
0.5
-
10
3
0.01
0.3
1
0.35
0.2
70
0.1
0.2
0.01
0.1
0.7
-
-
-
0.02
0.1
7

Life-time
(mg/L)
0.5
0.09
0.0004
0.07
-
0.01
-
2
-
-
0.05
0.02
0.07
0.04
-
0.003
-
-
-
0.01
-
-
0.005
0.002
-
-

mg/L at 10 -
Cancer Risk
2E-08
-
-
0.1
0.04
-
-
-
-
0.003
-
-
-
-
-
0.06
0.3
0.3
-
0.4
-
-
0.2
0.1
0.002
-



Cancer
Descriptor
B2
D
E
D
C
L
-
I
D
I
B2
D
S
D
D
I
C
B2
B2
L
C
D
D
-
C
H
I
 Under review.
 1998 Final Rule for Disinfectants and Disinfection By-products: The total for five haloacetic acids is 0.06 mg/L.

-------
                                Drinking Water Standards  and Health Advisories
Spring 2012
Page 8 of 12

Chemicals
CASRN
Number
Standards
Status
Reg.

Ammonia
Antimony
Arsenic
Asbestos (fibers/1 >10,um length)
Barium
Beryllium
Boron
Bromate
Cadmium
Chloramine3
Chlorine
Chlorine dioxide
Chlorite
Chromium (total)
Copper (at tap)
Cyanide
Fluoride
Lead (at tap)
Manganese
Mercury (inorganic)
Molybdenum
Nickel
7664-41-7
7440-36-0
7440-38-2
1332-21-4
7440-39-3
7440-41-7
7440-42-8
7789-38-0
7440-43-9
10599-90-3
7782-50-5
10049-04-4
7758-19-2
7440-47-3
7440-50-8
143-33-9
7681-49-4
7439-92-1
7439-96-5
7487-94-7
7439-98-7
7440-02-0
-
F
F
F
F
F
-
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
-
F
MCLG
(mg/L)

-
0.006
zero
7MFL1
2
0.004
-
zero
0.005
44
44
0.84
0.8
0.1
1.3
0.2
4
zero
0.002
-
-
MCL
(mg/L)
Status
HA Document
Health Advisories
10-kg Child
One-day Ten-<
(mg/L) (mg/
INORGANICS
-
0.006
0.01
7MFL
2
0.004
-
0.01
0.005
44
44
0.84
1
0.1
TT6
0.2
4
TT6
0.002
-
-
D'92
F'92
-
-
D'93
F'92
F'08
D'98
F'87
D'95
D'95
D'98
D'98
F'87
D'98
F'87
-
F"04
F'87
D'93
F'95
-
0.01 0.
-
-
0.7 0

lay RfD
L) (mg/kg/day)

-
01 0.0004
0.0003

7 0.2
30 30 0.002
3 3 0.2
0.2
0.04 0.
-
0.004
04 0.0005
0.1
3 3 0.1
0.8 0
0.8 0
1
-
8 0.03
8 0.03
1 0.0035

DWEL
(mg/L)

-
0.01
0.01
-
7
0.07
7
0.14
0.02
3.5
5
1
1
0.1
-
Life- time
(mg/L)

30
0.006
-
-
-
-
6
-
0.005
3.0
4
0.8
0.8
-
-
mg/L at
lO^Cancer
Risk
Cancer
Descriptor

-
-
0.002
700-MFL
-
-
-
0.005
-
-
_
-
-
-
-
0.2 0.2 0.00067
8
1
0.069
1 0.1410
0.002 0.002 0.0003
0.08 0.
1
08 0.005
1 0.02

1.6
0.01
0.2
0.7

0.3
0.002
0.04
0.1

;
-
-
-
D
D
A
A2
N
-
I
B2
D
-
D
D
D
D
D
I

B2
D
D
D
-
  MFL = million fibers per liter.
  Carcinogenicity based on inhalation exposure.
  Monochloramine; measured as free chlorine.
  1998 Final Rule for Disinfectants and Disinfection By-products: MRDLG=Maximum Residual Disinfection Level Goal; and MRDL=Maximum Residual Disinfection Level.
  IRIS value for chromium VI.
  Copper action level 1.3 mg/L; lead action level 0.015 mg/L.
  This RfD is for hydrogen cyanide.
  In case of overfeed of the fluoridation chemical see CDC Guidelines in Engineering and Administrative Recommendations on Water Fluoridation
  www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00039178.htm. Elevated F levels > lOmg/L require action by the water system operator.
  Based on dental fluorosis in children, a cosmetic effect.  MCLG based on skeletal fluorosis.
  Dietary manganese.  The lifetime health advisory includes a 3 fold modifying factor to account for increased bioavailability from drinking water.

-------
                           Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
Spring 2012
Page 9 of 12
Chemicals
Nitrate (as N)
Nitrite (as N)
Nitrate + Nitrite (both as N)
Perchlorate2
Selenium
Silver
Strontium
Thallium
White phosphorous
Zinc
RADIONUCLIDES
Beta particle and photon
activity (formerly
man-made radionuclides)
Gross alpha particle activity
Combined Radium 226 & 228
Radon


Uranium
CASRN
Number
14797-55-8
14797-65-0
14797-73-0
7782-49-2
7440-22-4
7440-24-6
7440-28-0
7723-14-0
7440-66-6



7440-14-4
10043-92-2


7440-61-1
Standards
Status MC
Reg. (mj
F 10
F 1
F 10
F 0.05
-
-
LG MCL
!/L) (mg/L)
10
1
10
0.05
-
-
F 0.0005 0.002
-
-

F zero
F zero
F zero
P zero


F zero
-
-

4 mrem/
yr
15 pCi/L
5 pCi/L
300
pCi/L
AMCL4
4000
pCi/L
0.03
Status
HA
Document
D'93
D'93
D'93
I '08
-
F'92
D'93
F'92
F'90
D'93


-
-



_
Health Advisories
10-kg Child
Life-
One-day Ten-day RfD DWEL time mg/L at 10 4
(mg/L) (mg/L) (mg/kg/day) (mg/L) (mg/L) Cancer Risk
100 100 1.6
10 10 0.16
0.007 0.025 0.015
0.005 0.2 0.05
0.2 0.2 0.0053 0.2 O.I3
25 25 0.6 20 4
0.007 0.007 ....
0.00002 0.0005 0.0001
6 6 0.3 10 2 -

4 mrem/yr
15pCi/L
.



150pCi/L
0.00065 0.02
Cancer
Descriptor
-
-
L/N
D
D
D
I
D
I

A
A
A



A
A
  These values are calculated for a 4-kg infant and are protective for all age groups.
  Subchronic value for pregnant women.
3  Based on a cosmetic effect.
4  AMCL = Alternative Maximum Contaminant Level.
  Soluble uranium salts. Radionuclide Rule.

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    Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
Spring 2012                                     Page 10 of 12
         Secondary Drinking Water Regulations
Chemicals
Aluminum
Chloride
Color
Copper
Corrosivity
Fluoride
Foaming agents
Iron
Manganese
Odor
PH
Silver
Sulfate
Total dissolved solids (IDS)
Zinc
CAS Number
7429-90-5
7647-14-5
NA
7440-50-8
NA
7681-49-4
NA
7439-89-6
7439-96-5
NA
NA
7440-22-4
7757-82-6
NA
7440-66-6
Status
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
SDWR
0.05 to 0.2 mg/L
250 mg/L
15 color units
1.0 mg/L
non-corrosive
2.0 mg/L
0.5 mg/L
0.3 mg/L
0.05 mg/L
3 threshold odor numbers
6.5-8.5
0.1 mg/L
250 mg/L
500 mg/L
5 mg/L
                           10

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           Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
Spring 2012
Page 11 of 12
                                Microbiology

Cryptosporidium
Giardia lamblia
Legionella
Heterotrophic Plate Count
(HPC)
Mycobacteria
Total Conforms
Turbidity
Viruses
Status
Reg.
F
F
F1
F1
_
F
F
F1
Status HA
Document
F01
F98
F01
-
F99

-
-
MCLG
-
_
zero
NA
_
zero
NA
zero
MCL
TT
TT
TT
TT
_
5%
TT
TT
Treatment Technique
Systems that filter must remove
99% of Cryptosporidium
99.9% killed/inactivated
No limit; EPA believes that if
Giardia and viruses are inactivated,
Legionella will also be controlled
No more than 500 bacterial
colonies per milliliter.
_
No more than 5.0% samples total
coliform-positive in a month. Every
sample that has total conforms must
be analyzed for fecal conforms; no
fecal conforms are allowed.
At no time can turbidity go above 5
NTU (nephelometric turbidity units)
99.99% killed/inactivated
 Regulated under the surface water treatment rule.
                                       11

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Spring 2012
              Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories
                           Drinking Water Advisory Table
Page 12 of 12
Chemicals
Ammonia
Methyl tertiary butyl
ether (MtBE)
Sodium
Sulfate
Status
D'92
F'98
F'03
F'03
Health-based Value
Not Available
Not Available
20 mg/L (for
individuals on a 500
mg/day restricted
sodium diet).
500 mg/L
Taste
Threshold
30 mg/L
40 |ig/L
30-60 mg/L
250 mg/L
Odor
Threshold

20 ^g/L


Taste Threshold: Concentration at which the majority of consumers do not notice an adverse taste in drinking water; it is
recognized that some sensitive individuals may detect a chemical at levels below this threshold.

Odor Threshold: Concentration at which the majority of consumers do not notice an adverse odor in drinking water; it is
recognized that some sensitive individuals may detect a chemical at levels below this threshold.
                                                12

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