Converting
      Environmental Protection         1.31)0^0^  U II 11S
                                                                              into
 Consumer  Confidence  Report  Units
                              The National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) establish drinking
                              water standards. These standards are Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs),
                              Maximum Residual Disinfectant Levels (MRDLs), Action Levels (ALs), and
                              treatment techniques (TTs). These standards are typically numbers less than
                              1.0, because the detected concentrations in drinking water are so low. The
                              Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule requires community water systems
                              (CWSs) to present drinking water standards and water sample results as
                              numbers greater than or equal to 1.0 in order to enhance consumer
                              understanding of their drinking water quality. These units are often referred to
                              as CCR units. (Please note that  the water
                              sample or laboratory result may be less
                              than 1.0 after conversion.)
This factsheet is designed to assist CWSs, to convert their laboratory results into
CCR units. Several conversion examples are provided as well as resources for more
information. In addition, the complete list of NPDWR standards in CCR units and
their accompanying conversion factors is included at the end of this factsheet.
                         TTs are required processes
                         intended to reduce the level
                         of a contaminant in drinking
                         water. There is no conversion
                         for TTs.
Why Do I  Only Need to
Convert Some Results?

Laboratories may report results in a different
concentration unit than what is required for
the CCR. For certain contaminants, the CWS
must then convert the laboratory results before
reporting them in the CCR. There are some
instances however, where the drinking water
standard is reported  as a number greater than
or equal to 1.0 and then a conversion is not
needed.
The CCR is an annual water quality report that all CWSs
are required to provide to their customers. Some states
have more stringent requirements and may require non-
community water systems to create a CCR, so check with
your state to see if the requirement applies to your
system. The CCR aims to inform customers about their
water source,  detected contaminants, the health effects of
those contaminants and compliance history.
Key elements:
   Tables displaying the levels  of detected regulated
   contaminants.
-  Health-related and educational information on the
   detected contaminants.
    This document provides a summary of federal drinking water requirements; to ensure full compliance,
        please consult the federal regulations at 40 CFR 141 and any approved state requirements.

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                                                              Types  of Reporting Units
What Are Examples of How to  Convert
Laboratory Results to CCR Units?

The following examples explain how to prepare results for CCRs.
Appendix A is modified from the Code of Federal Regulations and
contains much of the basic information you need to include in
your CCR. For additional guidance refer to Preparing Your
Drinking Water Consumer Confidence Report available at
http://www.epa.gov/safewater/ccr.
                                                  milligrams per liter (mg/L)  =

                                                  micrograms per liter
                                                  (H8/L)
                                                  nanograms per liter (ng/L)  =
parts per million
(ppm)

parts per billion (ppb)

parts per trillion (ppt)
                                                  picograms per liter (pg/L)  = parts per quadrillion
                                                                           (ppq)
                                        Did You  Know?
  Another way to define these reportable units is by equating ppm to "1 drop in 1 million gallons," ppb to "1
  drop in 1 billion gallons", ppt to "1 drop in 1 trillion gallons," and ppq to "1 drop in 1 quadrillion gallons,"
  which  shows that these units reflect a very small amount.
Example A: Converting MCLs from Parts per Million (ppm) to
Parts per Trillion (ppt)
 o
     Review Laboratory Result. The laboratory sent Anytown Water Utility their annual water
     sample result for lindane of 0.00010 mg/L (or ppm).
       Determine if MCL is Greater Than or Equal to 1.0. The MCL for lindane in the NPDWR is 0.0002
       mg/L (ppm) (see Appendix A). The MCL is not a number greater than or equal to 1.0 and cannot
       be used for CCR reporting.
           Convert MCL to CCR Units. Anytown must multiply the MCL by the conversion factor of 1,000,000
           (see Appendix A for this conversion factor) so that the MCL can be reported as a number greater
           than or equal to 1.0. After multiplying by the conversion factor, the MCL in CCR Units is now 200
           ng/L (ppt). The CCR units for all MCLs are included in Appendix A.

                                 MCL * Conversion Factor = MCL in CCR Units
                                0.0002 mg/L (ppm) * 1,000,000 = 200 ng/L (ppt)
Convert Sample Result to CCR Unit. To match the lab result to the MCL in CCR Units, Anytown must
convert 0.00010 mg/L (ppm) to the CCR Units of ng/L (ppt). Therefore, Anytown must multiply the
lab result by the same conversion factor of 1,000,000 that was used for the MCL in Step 3 (see
Appendix A for the conversion factor).

                    Sample Result * Conversion Factor = Result in CCR Units
                       0.00010 mg/L (ppm) * 1,000,000 = 100 ng/L (ppt)
             Report Result in CCR Contaminant Table. Anytown Water Utility has now correctly
             converted its lindane lab result into CCR Units and can report this result in their CCR
             contaminant table as shown on the following page.
                                                                                             ii
                                                                                             ii
                                                                                             ii
                                                                                             
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  Contaminant
    MCL (Highest
    Level Allowed)
   MCLG      Your
(Ideal Goal)    Water
Range
  of
Results
Violation
Sources in Drinking Water

Lindane


200 ppt


200 ppt

100

ppt

NA


NO

Runoff or leaching from
insecticide used on cattle,
lumber, gardens
Example B: Converting MCLs from Parts per Million (ppm) to Parts per Billion (ppb)
   o
Review Laboratory Result. The laboratory sent Anytown Water Utility their water sample
result. The running annual average of monthly results for bromate is 0.06 mg/L (ppm),
which is greater than the MCL thus resulting in an MCL violation.
        Determine if MCL is Greater Than or Equal to 1.0. The MCL for bromate in the NPDWR is 0.010
        mg/L (ppm) (see Appendix A). The MCL is not a number greater than or equal to 1.0 and cannot
        be used for CCR reporting.
            Convert MCL to CCR Units. Anytown must multiply the MCL by the conversion factor of 1,000 (see
            Appendix A for this conversion factor) so that the MCL can be reported as a number greater than or
            equal to 1.0. After multiplying by the conversion factor, the MCL in CCR Units is now 10 u.g/L (ppb).
            The CCR units for all MCLs are included in Appendix A.

                                   MCL * Conversion Factor = MCL in CCR Units
                                    0.010 mg/L (ppm) * 1,000 = 10  u,g/L (ppb)
        Convert Sample Result to CCR Unit. To match the lab result to the MCL in CCR Units, Anytown must
        convert 0.06 mg/L (ppm) to the CCR Units of u.g/L (ppb). Therefore, Anytown must multiply the lab
        result by the same conversion factor of 1,000 that was used for the MCL in Step 3 (see Appendix A
        for the conversion factor).

                            Sample Result * Conversion Factor = Result in CCR Units
                                   0.06 mg/L (ppm) * 1,000 = 60 u,g/L (ppb)
              Report Result in CCR Contaminant Table. Anytown has now correctly converted its bromate
              result into CCR Units and can report this result in their CCR contaminant table. Because this
              bromate sample result caused Anytown's running annual average to exceed the MCL, Anytown
              must explain the bromate MCL violation in their CCR, as seen in the contaminant table below and
              health effects language on the following page.
                                                                             By-product of drinking
                                                                             water disinfection

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Violations and Exceedances: Bromate
Some people who drink water containing bromate in excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of
getting cancer. Bromate is a chemical that is formed when a system uses ozone to disinfect drinking water and it reacts
with naturally occurring bromide in source water. We are working to minimize the formation of bromate while ensuring
an adequate level of disinfection to protect customers from exposure to bacteria. Testing results from October 2014
caused the running annual average to exceed the MCL. The Utility has taken steps to correct this violation and prevent
future violations from occurring. Modifications to operational procedures have been made that should ensure that
future violations do not occur. We sent a notice warning you of the problem when it occurred.  If you would like more
information about bromate or the violation call us at 111-2233 or Sample County's Health Department at 111-3377.
(Note: For more  information on reporting violations in your CCR, please refer to Preparing Your Consumer Confidence
Report: Guidance for Water Suppliers.)

Example C: Converting Lead Action Levels
  o
Review Laboratory Result. The laboratory sent Anytown Water Utility their water sample
result for lead. The utility ranked its lead results from the lowest to highest value and
determined that its 90th percentile lead value is 0.0007 mg/L (ppm). (For guidance on
calculating the 90th percentile, see EPA's fact sheet developed for schools and child care
facilities titled Lead and Copper Rule: A Quick Reference Guide for Schools and Child Care
Facilities that are Regulated Under the Safe Drinking Water Act. This and additional
guidance materials for Lead and Cooper Rule compliance are available at:
http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/lcr.)
          Determine if Action Level (AL) is Greater Than or Equal to 1.0. The ALfor lead in the NPDWR
          is 0.015 mg/L (ppm) (see Appendix A). The AL is not a number greater than or equal to 1.0 and
          cannot be used for CCR reporting.
              Convert AL to CCR Units. Anytown must multiply the AL by the conversion factor of 1,000 (see
              Appendix A for this conversion factor) so that the AL can be reported as a number greater than
              or equal to 1.0. After multiplying by the conversion factor the AL in CCR Units is now 15 u.g/L
              (ppb). The CCR units for all ALs are included in Appendix A.
                                    AL * Conversion Factor = AL in CCR Units

                                   0.015 mg/L (ppm) * 1,000 =  15 u,g/L (ppb)
        Convert 90th Percentile Result to CCR Unit. To match the 90th Percentile result to the AL in CCR
        Units, Anytown must convert 0.0007 mg/L (ppm) to the CCR Units of u.g/L (ppb). Therefore,
        Anytown must multiply the 90th Percentile result by the same conversion factor of 1,000 that was
        used for the AL in Step 3 (see Appendix A for the conversion factor).

                   90th Percentile Result * Conversion Factor = 90th Percentile Result in CCR Units
                                   0.0007 mg/L (ppm) * 1,000 = 0.7 u,g/L (ppb)
              Report the 90th Percentile Result in CCR Contaminant Table. Anytown has now corre
              converted its lead 90th percentile result into CCR Units. The converted 90th percentile result is not
              a number greater than or equal to 1.0 but is reported in the same CCR units as the AL (which is a
              number equal to or greater than 1.0) and Anytown can report this result in their CCR
              contaminant table.

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  Contaminant   AL
                         MCLG    90% of Utility Levels
# Sites
                       (Ideal Goal)    were less than    Exceeding the AL
            Violation
               15 ppb     0 ppb
Sources in Drinking
      Water
                     Corrosion of
                     household plumbing
Where Can  I Find More Information?

The following resources are available to help CWSs when performing unit conversions.

      EPA's CCR Compliance Help/Tools for Systems, http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/ccr.

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Appendix A.  What Are the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations'
CCR Units?

The following Appendix is modified from the Code of Federal Regulations, Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 141
Regulated Contaminants. This Appendix provides the contaminant MCL and MCLG, MRDLs, TTs and ALs in CCR units,
along with the associated conversion factor, for all regulated contaminants that may need to be reported by a CWS.
Appendix A also describes the major sources and health effects language for all regulated contaminants of drinking
water that must be reported in the CCR.
           Acronym
           MCLG
           MRDL
           MRDLG
           mrem/year
Definition
                                Action Level
                                Maximum Contaminant Level
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
                                million fibers per liter
Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level
Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal
millirems per year (a measure of radiation absorbed by the body)
                                Not Applicable
                                Nephelometric Turbidity Units (a measure of water clarity)
                                picocuries per liter (a measure of radioactivity)
                                parts per million, or milligrams per liter (mg/L)
                                parts per billion, or micrograms per liter (u.g/L)
                                parts per trillion, or nanograms per liter (ng/L)
                                parts per quadrillion, or picograms per litter (pg/L)
                                Treatment Technique

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Contaminant
(CCR units)



MCL

To Convert

For CCR
Multiply By


MCL in CCR Units


MCLG in
CCR Units


Major Sources In
Drinking Water



Health Effects Language

Microbiological
Contaminants
Total Coliform
Bacteria
(Until March 31,
2016)



Total Coliform
Bacteria (Beginning
April 1, 2016)
Fecal coliform and 
CO//
(Until March 31,
2016)




 co//
(Beginning April 1,
2016)








Fecal Indicators
(enterococci or
coliphage)





MCL: (systems that collect
>40 samples per month) 5%
of monthly samples are
positive; (systems that collect
<40 samples per month) 1
positive monthly sample

TT


0







Routine and repeat samples
are total coliform-positive
and either is  co//-positive
or system fails to take repeat
samples following  coli-
positive routine sample or
system fails to analyze total
coliform positive repeat
sample for  co//.


TT







-






-


-







-










-







MCL: (systems that
collect >40 samples per
month) 5% of monthly
samples are positive;
(systems that collect <40
samples per month) 1
positive monthly sample
TT


0







Routine and repeat
samples are total
coliform-positive and
either is  co//-positive or
system fails to take
repeat samples following
 co//-positive routine
sample or system fails to
analyze total coliform
positive repeat sample
for  co//.
TT







0






N/A


0







0










N/A







Naturally present in
the environment





Naturally present in
the environment

Human and animal
fecal waste






Human and animal
fecal waste









Human and animal
fecal waste






Coliforms are bacteria that are naturally present in the
environment and are used as an indicator that other,
potentially-harmful, bacteria may be present. Coliforms
were found in more samples than allowed and this was
a warning of potential problems.


Use language found in  141.153(h)(7)(i)(A)


Fecal coliforms and  co// are bacteria whose presence
indicates that the water may be contaminated with
human or animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can
cause short-term effects, such as diarrhea, cramps,
nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose
a special health risk for infants, young children, some of
the elderly, and people with severely-compromised
immune systems.
 co// are bacteria whose presence indicates that the
water may be contaminated with human or animal
wastes. Human pathogens in these wastes can cause
short-term effects, such as diarrhea, cramps, nausea,
headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose a
greater health risk for infants, young children, the
elderly, and people with severely-compromised
immune systems.



Fecal indicators are microbes whose presence indicates
that the water may be contaminated with human or
animal wastes. Microbes in these wastes can cause
short-term health effects, such as diarrhea, cramps,
nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. They may pose
a special health risk for infants, young children, some of
the elderly, and people with severely compromised
immune systems.

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Contaminant
(CCR units)
Total Organic
Carbon (ppm)
Turbidity (NTU)
MCL
TT
TT
To Convert
For CCR
Multiply By


MCL in
CCR
Units
TT
TT
MCLG in
CCR Units
N/A
N/A
Major Sources In
Drinking Water
Naturally present in the
environment
Soil runoff
Health Effects Language
Total organic carbon (TOC) has no health effects. However, total organic
carbon provides a medium for the formation of disinfection by products.
These byproducts include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids
(HAAs). Drinking water containing these byproducts in excess of the MCL
may lead to adverse health effects, liver or kidney problems, or nervous
system effects, and may lead to an increased risk of getting cancer.
Turbidity has no health effects. However, turbidity can interfere with
disinfection and provide a medium for microbial growth. Turbidity may
indicate the presence of disease-causing organisms. These organisms include
bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause symptoms such as nausea,
cramps, diarrhea and associated headaches.
Radioactive
Contaminants
Beta/photon
emitters (mrem/yr)
Alpha emitters
(pCi/L)
Combined radium
(pCi/L)
Uranium (pCi/L)
4 mrem/yr
15 pCi/L
5 pCi/L
30|jg/L


-

4 mrem/yr
15 pCi/L
5 pCi/L
30 ppb
0 mrem/yr
0 pCi/L
0 pCi/L
0 ppb
Decay of natural and man-
made deposits
Erosion of natural deposits
Erosion of natural deposits
Erosion of natural deposits
Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as
photons and beta radiation. Some people who drink water containing beta
particle and photon radioactivity in excess of the MCL over many years may
have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Certain minerals are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as
alpha radiation. Some people who drink water containing alpha emitters in
excess of the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting
cancer.
Some people who drink water containing radium-226 or -228 in excess of the
MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing uranium in excess of the MCL over
many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer and kidney toxicity.
Inorganic
Contaminants
Antimony (ppb)
Arsenic (ppb)
Asbestos (MFL)
0.006 ppm
0.010 ppm
7 MFL
1,000
1,000

6 ppb
10 ppb
7 MFL
6 ppb
Oppb
7 MFL
Discharge from petroleum
refineries; fire retardants;
ceramics; electronics; solder
Erosion of natural deposits;
Runoff from orchards; Runoff
from glass and electronics
production wastes
Decay of asbestos cement
water mains; Erosion of
natural deposits
Some people who drink water containing antimony well in excess of the MCL
over many years could experience increases in blood cholesterol and
decreases in blood sugar.
Some people who drink water containing arsenic in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience skin damage or problems with their circulatory
system, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing asbestos in excess of the MCL over
many years may have an increased risk of developing benign intestinal
polyps.

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Contaminant
(CCR units)
Barium (ppm)
Beryllium (ppb)
Bromate (ppb)
Cadmium (ppb)
Chloramines (ppm)
Chlorine (ppm)
Chlorine dioxide
(ppb)
Chlorite (ppm)
Chromium (ppb)
MCL
2 ppm
0.004 ppm
0.010 ppm
0.005 ppm
MRDL=4 ppm
MRDL=4 ppm
MRDL=.8 ppm
1 ppm
0.1 ppm
To Convert
For CCR
Multiply By

1,000
1,000
1,000


1,000

1,000
MCL in
CCR
Units
2 ppm
4 ppb
10 ppb
5 ppb
MRDL=4
ppm
MRDL=4
ppm
MRDL=800
Ppb
1 ppm
100 ppb
MCLG in
CCR Units
2 ppm
4 ppb
Oppb
5 ppb
MRDLG = 4
ppm
MRDLG = 4
ppm
MRDLG =
800 ppb
0.8 ppm
100 ppb
Major Sources In
Drinking Water
Discharge of drilling wastes;
Discharge from metal
refineries; Erosion of natural
deposits
Discharge from metal
refineries and coal-burning
factories; Discharge from
electrical, aerospace, and
defense industries
By-product of drinking water
disinfection
Corrosion of galvanized
pipes; Erosion of natural
deposits; Discharge from
metal refineries; Runoff from
waste batteries and paints
Water additive used to
control microbes
Water additive used to
control microbes
Water additive used to
control microbes
By-product of drinking water
disinfection
Discharge from steel and
pulp mills; Erosion of natural
deposits
Health Effects Language
Some people who drink water containing barium in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience an increase in their blood pressure.
Some people who drink water containing beryllium well in excess of the MCL
over many years could develop intestinal lesions
Some people who drink water of containing bromate in excess of the MCL
over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing cadmium in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience kidney damage.
Some people who use water containing chloramines well in excess of the
MRDL could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Some people
who drink water containing chloramines well in excess of the MRDL could
experience stomach discomfort or anemia.
Some people who use water containing chlorine well in excess of the MRDL
could experience irritating effects to their eyes and nose. Some people who
drink water containing chlorine well in excess of the MRDL could experience
stomach discomfort.
Some infants and young children who drink water chlorine dioxide in excess
of the MRDL could experience nervous system effects. Similar effects may
occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorine
dioxide in excess of the MRDL. Some people may experience anemia.
Some infants and young children who drink water containing chlorite in
excess of the MCL could experience nervous system effects. Similar effects
may occur in fetuses of pregnant women who drink water containing chlorite
in excess of the MCL. Some people may experience anemia.
Some people who use water containing chromium well in excess of the MCL
over many years could experience allergic dermatitis.

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Contaminant
(CCR units)
Copper (ppm)
Cyanide (ppb)
Fluoride (ppm)
Lead (ppb)
Mercury [inorganic]
(ppb)
Nitrate (ppm)
Nitrite (ppm)
Selenium (ppb)
MCL
AL=1.3 ppm
0.2 ppm
4 ppm
AL=0.015 ppm
0.002 ppm
10 ppm
1 ppm
0.05 ppm
To Convert
For CCR
Multiply By

1,000

1,000
1,000


1,000
MCL in
CCR
Units
AL=1.3
ppm
200 ppb
4 ppm
AL=15 ppb
2 ppb
10 ppm
1 ppm
50 ppb
MCLG in
CCR Units
1.3 ppm
200 ppb
4 ppm
0 ppb
2 ppb
10 ppm
1 ppm
50 ppb
Major Sources In
Drinking Water
Corrosion of household
plumbing systems; Erosion of
natural deposits
Discharge from steel or
metal factories; Discharge
from plastic and fertilizer
factories
Erosion of natural deposits;
Water additive which
promotes strong teeth;
Discharge from fertilizer and
aluminum factories
Corrosion of household
plumbing systems; Erosion of
natural deposits
Erosion of natural deposits;
Dis charge from refineries
and factories; Runoff from
landfills; Runoff from
cropland
Runoff from fertilizer use;
Leaching from septic tanks,
sew age; Erosion of natural
deposits
Runoff from fertilizer use;
Leaching from septic tanks,
sew age; Erosion of natural
deposits
Discharge from petroleum
and metal refineries; Erosion
of natural deposits;
Discharge from mines
Health Effects Language
Copper is an essential nutrient, but some people who drink water containing
copper in excess of the action level over a relatively short amount of time
could experience gastrointestinal distress. Some people who drink water
containing copper in excess of the action level over many years could suffer
liver or kidney damage. People with Wilson's disease should consult their
personal doctor.
Some people who drink water containing cyanide well in excess of the MCL
over many years could experience nerve damage or problems with their
thyroid.
Some people who drink water containing fluoride in excess of the MCL over
many years could get bone disease, including pain and tenderness of the
bones. Fluoride in drinking water at half the MCL or more may cause
mottling of children's teeth, usually in children less than nine years old.
Mottling, also known as dental fluorosis, may include brown staining or
pitting of the teeth or both, and occurs only in developing teeth before they
erupt from the gums.
Infants and children who drink water containing lead in excess of the action
level could experience delays in their physical or mental development.
Children could show slight deficits in attention span and learning abilities.
Adults who drink this water over many years could develop kidney problems
or high blood pressure.
Some people who drink water containing inorganic mercury well in excess of
the MCL over many years could experience kidney damage.
Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate in
excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die.
Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue baby syndrome.
Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrite in
excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die.
Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue baby syndrome.
Selenium is an essential nutrient. However, some people who drink water
containing selenium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience
hair or fingernail losses, numbness in fingers or toes, or problems with their
circulation.
10

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Contaminant
(CCR units)
Thallium (ppb)
MCL
0.002 ppm
To Convert
For CCR
Multiply By
1,000
MCL in
CCR
Units
2 ppb
MCLG in
CCR Units
0.5 ppb
Major Sources In
Drinking Water
Leaching from ore-
processing sites; Discharge
from electronics, glass, and
drug factories
Health Effects Language
Some people who drink water containing thallium in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience hair loss, changes in their blood, or problems
with their kidneys, intestines, or liver.
Synthetic Organic Contaminants
including Pesticides and Herbicides
2,4-D (ppb)
2,4,5-TP
[Silvex](ppb)
Acrylamide
Alachlor (ppb)
Atrazine (ppb)
Benzo(a)pyrene
[PAH] (ppt)
Carbofuran (ppb)
Chlordane (ppb)
Dalapon (ppb)
Di(2-ethylhexyl)
adipate (ppb)
0.07 ppm
0.05 ppm
TT
0.002 ppm
0.003 ppm
0.0002 ppm
0.04 ppm
0.002 ppm
0.2 ppm
0.4 ppm
1,000
1,000

1,000
1,000
1,000,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
70 ppb
50 ppb
TT
2 ppb
3 ppb
200 ppt
40 ppb
2 ppb
200 ppb
400 ppb
70 ppb
50 ppb
0
0 ppb
3 ppb
Oppt
40 ppb
0 ppb
200 ppb
400 ppb
Runoff from herbicide used
on row crops
Residue of banned herbicide
Added to water during
sewage and wastewater
treatment
Runoff from herbicide used
on row crops
Runoff from herbicide used
on row crops
Leaching from linings of
water storage tanks and
distribution lines
Leaching of soil fumigant
used on rice and alfalfa
Residue of banned
termiticide
Runoff from herbicide used
on rights of way
Discharge from chemical
factories
Some people who drink water containing the weed killer 2,4-D well in excess
of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their kidneys,
liver, or adrenal glands.
Some people who drink water containing silvex in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience liver problems.
Some people who drink water containing high levels of acrylamide over a
long period of time could have problems with their nervous system or blood,
and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing alachlor in excess of the MCL over
many years could have problems with their eyes, liver, kidneys, or spleen, or
experience anemia, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing atrazine well in excess of the MCL
over many years could experience problems with their cardiovascular system
or reproductive difficulties.
Some people who drink water containing benzo(a)pyrene in excess of the
MCL over many years may experience reproductive difficulties and may have
an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing carbofuran in excess of the MCL
over many years could experience problems with their blood, or nervous or
reproductive systems.
Some people who drink water containing chlordane in excess of the MCL
over many years could experience problems with their liver or nervous
system, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing dalapon well in excess of the MCL
over many years could experience minor kidney changes.
Some people who drink water containing di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate well in
excess of the MCL over many years could experience toxic effects such as
weight loss, liver enlargement or possible reproductive difficulties.
11

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Contaminant
(CCR units)
Di(2-ethylhexyl)
phthalate (ppb)
Dibromochloro-
propane (ppt)
Dinoseb (ppb)
Diquat (ppb)
Dioxin [2,3,7,8-
TCDD] (ppq)
Endothall(ppb)
Endrin (ppb)
Epichlorohydrin
Ethylene dibromide
(ppt)
Glyphosate (ppb)
Heptachlor (ppt)
Heptachlor epoxide
(ppt)
MCL
0.006 ppm
0.0002 ppm
0.007 ppm
0.02 ppm
0.00000003
ppm
0.1 ppm
0.002 ppm
TT
0.00005 ppm
0.7 ppm
0.0004 ppm
0.0002 ppm
To Convert
For CCR
Multiply By
1,000
1,000,000
1,000
1,000
1,000,000, 000
1,000
1,000

1,000,000
1,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
MCL in
CCR
Units
6 ppb
200 ppt
7 ppb
20 ppb
30 ppq
100 ppb
2 ppb
TT
50 ppt
700 ppb
400 ppt
200 ppt
MCLG in
CCR Units
Oppb
Oppt
7 ppb
20 ppb
Oppq
100 ppb
2 ppb
0
Oppt
700 ppb
Oppt
Oppt
Major Sources In
Drinking Water
Discharge from rubber and
chemical factories
Runoff or leaching from soil
fumigant used on soybeans,
cotton, pineapples, and
orchards
Runoff from herbicide used
on soybeans and vegetables
Runoff from herbicide use
Emissions from waste
incineration and other
combustion; Discharge from
chemical factories
Runoff from herbicide use
Residue of banned
insecticide
Discharge from industrial
chemical factories; An
impurity of some water
treatment chemicals
Discharge from petroleum
refineries
Runoff from herbicide use
Residue of banned pesticide
Breakdown of heptachlor
Health Effects Language
Some people who drink water containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate well in
excess of the MCL over many years may have problems with their liver, or
experience reproductive difficulties, and may have an increased risk of
getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing DBCP in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience reproductive problems and may have an
increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing dinoseb well in excess of the MCL
over many years could experience reproductive difficulties.
Some people who drink water containing diquat in excess of the MCL over
many years could get cataracts.
Some people who drink water containing dioxin in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience reproductive difficulties and may have an
increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing endothall in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience problems with their stomach or intestines.
Some people who drink water containing endrin in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience liver problems.
Some people who drink water containing high levels of epichlorohydrin over
a long period of time could experience stomach problems, and may have an
increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing ethylene dibromide in excess of the
MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, stomach,
reproductive system, or kidneys, and may have an increased risk of getting
cancer.
Some people who drink water containing glyphosate in excess of the MCL
over many years could experience problems with their kidneys or
reproductive difficulties.
Some people who drink water containing heptachlor in excess of the MCL
over many years could experience liver damage and may have an increased
risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing heptachlor epoxide in excess of the
MCL over many years could experience liver damage, and may have an
increased risk of getting cancer.
12

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Contaminant
(CCR units)
Hexachloroben-zene
(ppb)
Hexachlorocyclo-
pentadiene (ppb)
Lindane (ppt)
Methoxychlor(ppb)
Oxamyl [Vydate]
(ppb)
PCBs
[Polychlorinated
biphenyls] (ppt)
Pentachloro-phenol
(ppb)
Picloram (ppb)
Simazine (ppb)
Toxaphene (ppb)
MCL
0.001 ppm
0.05 ppm
0.0002 ppm
0.04 ppm
0.2 ppm
0.0005 ppm
0.001 ppm
0.5 ppm
0.004 ppm
0.003 ppm
To Convert
For CCR
Multiply By
1,000
1,000
1,000,000
1,000
1,000
1,000,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
MCL in
CCR
Units
Ippb
50 ppb
200 ppt
40 ppb
200 ppb
500 ppt
Ippb
500 ppb
4 ppb
3 ppb
MCLG in
CCR Units
Oppb
50 ppb
200 ppt
40ppb
200 ppb
Oppt
Oppb
500 ppb
4 ppb
0 ppb
Major Sources In
Drinking Water
Discharge from metal
refineries and agricultural
chemical factories
Discharge from chemical
factories
Runoff or leaching from
insecticide used on cattle,
lumber, gardens
Runoff or leaching from
insecticide used on fruits,
vegetables, alfalfa, livestock
Runoff or leaching from
insecticide used on apples,
potatoes and tomatoes
Runoff from landfills;
Discharge of waste chemicals
Discharge from wood
preserving factories
Herbicide runoff
Herbicide runoff
Runoff or leaching from
insecticide used on cotton
and cattle
Health Effects Language
Some people who drink water containing hexachlorobenzene in excess of the
MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys,
or adverse reproductive effects, and may have an increased risk of getting
cancer.
Some people who drink water containing hexachlorocyclopentadiene well in
excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their
kidneys or stomach.
Some people who drink water containing lindane in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience problems with their kidneys or liver.
Some people who drink water containing methoxychlor in excess of the MCL
over many years could experience reproductive difficulties.
Some people who drink water containing oxamyl in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience slight nervous system effects.
Some people who drink water containing PCBs in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience changes in their skin, problems with their
thymus gland, immune deficiencies, or reproductive or nervous system
difficulties, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing pentachlorophenol in excess of the
MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys,
and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing picloram in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience problems with their liver.
Some people who drink water containing simazine in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience problems with their blood.
Some people who drink water containing toxaphene in excess of the MCL
over many years could have problems with their kidneys, liver, or thyroid,
and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Volatile Organic
Contaminants
Benzene (ppb)
0.005 ppm
1,000
5 ppb
0 ppb
Discharge from factories;
Leaching from gas storage
tanks and landfills
Some people who drink water containing benzene in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience anemia or a decrease in blood platelets, and
may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
13

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Contaminant
(CCR units)
Carbon tetrachloride
(ppb)
Chlorobenzene
(ppb)
o-Dichlorobenzene
(ppb)
p-Dichlorobenzene
(ppb)
1,2-Dichloroethane
(ppb)
1,1-Dichloro-
ethylene (ppb)
cis-l,2-Dichloro-
ethylene (ppb)
trans-l,2-Dichloro-
ethylene (ppb)
Dichloromethane
(ppb)
1,2-Dichloro-
propane (ppb)
Ethylbenzene (ppb)
Haloacetic Acids
(HAA) (ppb)
Styrene (ppb)
Tetrachloroethylene
(ppb)
MCL
0.005 ppm
0.1 ppm
0.6 ppm
0.075 ppm
0.005 ppm
0.007 ppm
0.07 ppm
0.1 ppm
0.005 ppm
0.005 ppm
0.7 ppm
0.060 ppm
0.1 ppm
60 ppb
To Convert
For CCR
Multiply By
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
MCL in
CCR
Units
5 ppb
100 ppb
600 ppb
75 ppb
5 ppb
7 ppb
70 ppb
100 ppb
5 ppb
5 ppb
700 ppb
60 ppb
100 ppb
5 ppb
MCLG in
CCR Units
Oppb
100 ppb
600 ppb
75 ppb
Oppb
7 ppb
70ppb
100 ppb
0 ppb
0 ppb
700 ppb
N/A
100 ppb
Oppb
Major Sources In
Drinking Water
Discharge from chemical
plants and other industrial
activities
Discharge from chemical and
agricultural chemical
factories
Discharge from industrial
chemical factories
Discharge from industrial
chemical factories
Discharge from industrial
chemical factories
Discharge from industrial
chemical factories
Discharge from industrial
chemical factories
Discharge from industrial
chemical factories
Discharge from
pharmaceutical and chemical
factories
Discharge from industrial
chemical factories
Discharge from petroleum
refineries
By-product of drinking water
disinfection
Discharge from rubber and
plastic factories; Leaching
from landfills
Discharge from factories and
dry cleaners
Health Effects Language
Some people who drink water containing carbon tetrachloride in excess of
the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver and
may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing chlorobenzene in excess of the
MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys.
Some people who drink water containing o-dichlorobenzene well in excess of
the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver,
kidneys, or circulatory systems.
Some people who drink water containing p-dichlorobenzene in excess of the
MCL over many years could experience anemia, damage to their liver,
kidneys, or spleen, or changes in their blood.
Some people who drink water containing 1,2-dichloroethane in excess of the
MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing 1,1-dichloroethylene in excess of
the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.
Some people who drink water containing cis-l,2-dichloroethylene in excess
of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver.
Some people who drink water containing trans-l,2-dichloroethylene well in
excess of the MCL over many years could experience problems with their
liver.
Some people who drink water containing dichloromethane in excess of the
MCL over many years could have liver problems and may have an increased
risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing 1,2-dichloropropane in excess of
the MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing ethylbenzene well in excess of the
MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver or kidneys.
Some people who drink water containing haloacetic acids in excess of the
MCL over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing styrene well in excess of the MCL
over many years could have problems with their liver, kidneys, or circulatory
system.
Some people who drink water containing tetrachloroethylene in excess of
the MCL over many years could have problems with their liver, and may have
an increased risk of getting cancer.
14

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Contaminant
(CCR units)
1,2,4-
Trichlorobenzene
(ppb)
1,1,1-
Trichloroethane
(ppb)
1,1,2-
Trichloroethane
(ppb)
Trichloroethylene
(ppb)
TTHMs [Total
trihalomethanes]
(ppb)
Toluene (ppm)
Vinyl Chloride (ppb)
Xylenes (ppm)
MCL
100 ppb
0.2 ppm
0.005 ppm
0.005 ppm
0.10/0.080
Ppm
1 ppm
0.002 ppm
10 ppm
To Convert
For CCR
Multiply By
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000
1,000

1,000

MCL in
CCR Units
70 ppb
200 ppb
5 ppb
5 ppb
100/80 ppb
1 ppm
2 ppb
10 ppm
MCLG in
CCR Units
70 ppb
200 ppb
3 ppb
0 ppb
N/A
1 ppm
0 ppb
10 ppm
Major Sources In
Drinking Water
Discharge from textile-
finishing factories
Discharge from metal
degreasing sites and other
factories
Discharge from industrial
chemical factories
Discharge from metal
degreasing sites and other
factories
By-product of drinking water
disinfection
Discharge from petroleum
factories
Leaching from PVC piping;
Discharge from plastics
factories
Discharge from petroleum
factories; Discharge from
chemical factories
Health Effects Language
Some people who drink water containing 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene well in
excess of the MCL over many years could experience changes in their adrenal
glands.
Some people who drink water containing 1,1,1-trichloroethane in excess of
the MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver, nervous
system, or circulatory system.
Some people who drink water containing 1,1,2-trichloroethane well in excess
of the MCL over many years could have problems with their liver, kidneys, or
immune systems.
Some people who drink water containing trichloroethylene in excess of the
MCL over many years could experience problems with their liver and may
have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing trihalomethanes in excess of the
MCL over many years may experience problems with their liver, kidneys, or
central nervous systems, and may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing toluene well in excess of the MCL
over many years could have problems with their nervous system, kidneys, or
liver.
Some people who drink water containing vinyl chloride in excess of the MCL
over many years may have an increased risk of getting cancer.
Some people who drink water containing xylenes in excess of the MCL over
many years could experience damage to their nervous system.
Off ice of Water [4606M]
EPA816-F-15-001
July 2015

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