United States
            Environmental Protection
            Agency
              Region 10
              1200 Sixth Avenue
              Seattle WA 98101
September 1988
            Environmental Services Division
                            EPAS10J9-8&-216
&EPA
Coeur d'Alene Basin
EPA Water Quality Monitoring
            1972-1986
      Coeur d Alene Basin

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            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


                           Region 10
Coeur dPAlene Basin  EPA Water Quality Monitoring (1972-1986)
                        C. Evan Hornig
                      David A, Terpening
                       M. William Bogue

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                                 ABSTRACT

      The Region 10 Office of the U.S. EPA has conducted chemical  and
biological monitoring during low-flow conditions from 1972 to 1986 along the
South Fork Coeur d'Alene River in northern Idaho, a stream with a long history
of severe metals pollution from mining activities.  During 1986, metals
analysis of sediments and tissues from the lower Coeur d'Alene River and Coeur
d'Alene Lake was also conducted.  Due chiefly to effluent controls at the
Bunker Hill Complex, low-flow season South Fork concentrations of zinc,
cadmium, and lead downstream of Kellogg were reduced during the 1970*s from
13.6 mg/1, 0.24 mg/1, and 0.75 mg/1  to levels of 5.0 mg/1, 0.03 mg/1, and 0.03
mg/1, respectively.  During the 1986 low-flow survey, metal  loadings were
primarily a result of nonpermitted inputs to the stream, chiefly from the
vicinity of the Bunker Hill Central  Impoundment Area and from Canyon Creek, a
tributary near Wallace.  Although levels of zinc and cadmium remain well  above
national criteria for protection of cold water biota in both the South Fork
and lower mainstem of the Coeur d'Alene, recovery of aquatic life  has been
substantial,, with the lower mainstem now supporting a successful  sports
fishery.  Sediments in the lower Coeur d'Alene system remain heavily
contaminated with toxic metals, although high levels in edible fish tissue
were not found.  In terms of immediate benefits to the mainstem biota, the
cessation or treatment of the major discrete CIA seep at the Bunker Hill
Superfund Site is estimated to reduce mainstem summer low-flow zinc
concentrations by over 150 ug/1.   Allowable permit limits (as of 1986) for
metals (primarily cadmium) have the potential  of increasing  in-stream metals
concentrations substantially above the levels resulting from nonpermitted
sources.  Water quality-based permits are particularly important for aquatic
life protection of the South Fork upstream of Mull an and the mainstem
downstream of the S.F.  confluence.  Water quality management should take a
basin-wide, integrated approach that considers effects on downstream reaches
from upstream sources,  cost of rehabilitation of mine tailings and control  of
seeps, further control  of point and  nonpoint sources, and habitat  recovery.
                            ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

     Special  thanks to Ray Peterson for his continuous  lead  support of  EPA's
Coeur d*Alene monitoring throughout the 70's and  80s,  to Barry Baldigo  for his
considerable field and on-site laboratory biological  support provided during
the 1986 survey, and to the EPA Region 10 and ORD laboratory staffs for
performing a variety of toxicity tests and chemical  analyses on sediment,
water, and fish samples collected during the studies.   Additional  individuals
who contributed to the 1986 study and this report included Andy Hess, Sylvia
Kawabata, Mike Silverman, Mike Watson, Amber Wong,  Ken  Mosbaugh,  Joyce
Crosson, Kim Coble, Jack Sceva, Joe Cummins, Carolyn Gangmark, Bob Rieck,  John
Yearsley, Wayne Grotheer, Roy Jones, Dan McDonough,  Oiedre Gibson, Gina Foti,
Blythe SherFey, Barbara Lambourne, Al Nebeker,  and  Ooe  Amato of the EPA;  Mike
Beckwith, Jim OeSmet, Ed Tulloch and Bill  Clark of  IOHW; Ned Homer, Larry
LaBolle, Bill Morton, and Cindy Robertson of IDFG;  and  John  Wolflin, Jim  Nee,
and Maureen Loughlin of the USFWS.

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                             TABLE OF CONTENTS








 INTRODUCTION  	     1





 HEAVY  METAL LOADINGS AND  CONCENTRATIONS, 1972-1986  	     1





 1986 SURVEY RESULTS   	"..	     3



    Heavy  Metal  Loadings  and Concentrations   	     3



    Point  and  Nonpoint  Contributions   	     6



    Toxicity Tests   	     6



    Benthic Invertebrate  Survey    	     8



    Coeur  d*Alene System  Sediment  and  Fish Tissue Heavy Metal Loads    .   10





CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS    	   11



    Monitoring and  Research Needs   	   12





REFERENCES	     13





TABLES	    A-l






MAPS	    B-l

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                              LIST OF TABLES
 1   COEUR O'ALENE BASIN SAMPLE SITES 	     A-l

 2   SAMPLE ANALYSES           AT D'ALENE SAMPLE SITES        1986  AND
          1987.   ..................... 	     A-3

 3   HEAVY METAL CONTRIBUTIONS BY SOUTH FORK REACHES BETWEEN 1972 AND
          1986	   A-6

 4   SURVIVAL OF RAINBOW TROUT HELD IN LIVE BOXES AT SOUTH FORK AND
          MAINSTEM SITES	     A-7

 5   SURVIVAL OF CUTTHROAT TROUT EXPOSED TO BUNKER HILL CIA SEEP AND
                           D'ALENE             .  ..........     A-8

 6   SURVIVAL AND              OF                      TO       HILL
          CIA SEEP AND SOUTH FORK COEUR D'ALENE RIVER WATER .   . .  .     A-9

 7   SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF LARVAL FATHEAD MINNOWS EXPOSED TO BUNKER
          HILL CIA SEEP WATER	    A-10

 8   GROWTH OF THE ALGAE,  SELENASTRUM CAPRICORNUTAM,  EXPOSED TO SOUTH
          FORK COEUR D'ALENE RIVER WATER	    A-ll

 9   METAL LEVELS IN           COLLECTED        THE EPA 1986 SURVEY.    A-12

10   SURVIVAL OF         AND HYALELLA EXPOSED TO COEUR D'ALENE RIVER
          AND LAKE SEDIMENTS	    A-14

11   METAL LEVELS IN FISH TISSUE COLLECTED DURING THE EPA 1986-87
          SURVEY	    A-15
                               LIST OF MAPS


 I         D'ALENE STUDY SITES.  ... 	    B-l

 2   STUDY SITES IN THE VICINITY OF KELLOGG,  IDAHO	    8-2

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                             LIST OF FIGURES


 1   ZINC CONCENTRATIONS-UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF BUNKER HILL COMPLEX.   2

 2   CADMIUM CONCENTRATIONS-UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF BUNKER HILL
     COMPLEX	    2

 3   LEAD CONCENTRATIONS-UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF BUNKER HILL COMPLEX    2

 4   COPPER CONCENTRATIONS-UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF BUNKER HILL
     COMPLEX	    2

 5   ZINC CONCENTRATIONS-1986 COEUR D'ALENE LOW FLOW SURVEY 	    4

 6   CADMIUM CONCENTRATIONS-1986 COEUR D'ALENE LOW FLOW SURVEY	   4

 7   LEAD CONCENTRATIONS-1986 COEUR D'ALENE LOW FLOW SURVEY	   5

 8   COPPER CONCENTRATIONS-1986 COEUR D'ALENE LOW FLOW SURVEY	   5

 9   IRON CONCENTRATIONS-1986 COEUR D'ALENE LOW FLOW SURVEY	   5

10   MANGANESE CONCENTRATIONS-1986 COEUR- D'ALENE LOW FLOW SURVEY.  ...   5

11   ZINC CONCENTRATIONS-1986 COEUR D'ALENE STUDY POINT VS NONPOINT
      CONTRIBUTIONS.	   7

12   CADMIUM CONCENTRATIONS-1986 COEUR D'ALENE STUDY POINT VS NONPOINT
      CONTRIBUTIONS	   7

13   ZINC CONCENTRATIONS-1986 COEUR D'ALENE STUDY WORST-CASE CONDITIONS.   7

14   CADMIUM CONCENTRATIONS-1986 COEUR D'ALENE STUDY WORST-CASE
      CONDITIONS	   7

15   TAXA RICHNESS-1986 COEUR D'ALENE STUDY INVERTEBRATE SURVEY	   9

16   NUMBER OF ORGANISMS-1986 COEUR D'ALENE STUDY INVERTEBRATE SURVEY.  .   9

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                                 INTRODUCTION

      Wholesale deposition of mine tailings directly into the South Fork Coeur
d'Alene River occurred  from  the 1880s until construction of tailing ponds
during the 1960s.   In 1972,  the Clean Water Act was passed, requiring effluent
limits on all industrial and municipal point source discharges and mandating
the Environmental Protection Agency to oversee implementation of these
controls.  At the same  time, EPA's Region 10 Office began a monitoring program
on the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene to update conditions, document
improvements, and identify remaining important sources of heavy metals.  These
studies, conducted  during late summer low-flow periods, focused on inputs from
permitted dischargers and groundwater seeps and characterized conditions
during the most critical season to stream biota.  Recommendations generated by
the EPA studies has led to stricter control of dischargers and fewer "plant
upsets", particularly in the Bunker Hill complex.

      EPA conducted late-summer, low-flow season monitoring for heavy metals
during 1972, 1974,  19.75, 1976, 1979, 1980, 1982, 1984, and 1986.  The most
recent survey included  analysis of fish tissues and sediments from the lower
Coeur d*Alene River, including the lateral lakes, and from Lake Coeur d'Alene.
This report summarizes  the water quality trends during the 1970s and describes
current conditions.  1986 study sites and analyses are listed in Tables 1 and
2 and located on basin maps  (Maps 1 and 2).  Details on methods, including
quality assurance aspects, and data printouts of chemistry and
macroinvertebrate survey results are available from Region 10*s Water
Monitoring and Analysis Section.  A considerable amount of additional  data
sources and study results.from the Coeur d'Alene system are available and have
recently been compiled  (Wai, et al. 1985; Savage, 1986; Woodward-Clyde
Consultants and Terragraphics, 1986; Neufield, 1987; Tetra Tech, Inc.  and
Morrison-Knudsen Engineers,  Inc., 1987),


                 HEAVY METAL LOADINGS AND CONCENTRATIONS,  1972-19861

      The heavy metals of concern on the Coeur d'Alene system have been zinc,
cadmium, and copper for aquatic life impact and lead and cadmium for animal
and human health concerns.    From 1972 through 1986, low flow season
concentrations of these metals upstream of the Bunker Hill (BH) complex in
Kellogg (at Bunker Avenue bridge) have been relatively constant while water
quality downstream of the BH complex (near Airport Avenue Bridge) has  improved
considerably (Figs. 1-4).

      The differences in metals concentrations between these two sites can be
explained by loadings upstream of and from the Bunker Hill complex (Table 3).
Zinc loadings upstream of the Bunker Avenue bridge showed no apparent  trends:
1984 level  (1100 #/day) was  similar to that during 1972 (1153 #/day),  while
the 1986 level  (591 I/day)  was similar to the 1979 level  (682 #/day).   Cadmium
loadings also did not vary noticeably;  1972 and      values were 8 and 6
     *A11  Values  are for totals (dissolved and  total  results for metals during
the low-flow sampling seasons have consistently been  nearly equal).

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  FIS. f.   ZINC CONCENTRATIONS
    UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF
       BUNKER  HILL COMPLEX
FI6. 2.  CADMIUM CONCENTRATIONS
     UPSTREAM AND  DOWNSTREAM
     OF BUNKER HILL COMPLEX
          AVI. ea.    UHPOCT AW. M.
           SOUTH FORK SITE
                                               BUNKfiH
                  AERPQRT U(t. ffl
           SOLTTri FORK SITE
  FIS. 3.   LEAD CONCENTRATIONS
             AND DOWNSTREAM  OF
       BUNKEfl HILL  COMPLEX
330 -
 FIS. 4.          eCWCeNTRATIONS
   UPSTREAM  AND DOWNSTREAM  OF
       BUNKER HILL  COMPLEX
         *c, FUJ55   *!i>(KT V.
           E2UTH FOflK SIT
                                          10 -
                                                             SITE

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#/day, respectively, while 1975 and  1984 both had  loadings of  11 #/day.   There
is some evidence of a trend in upstream lead  loadings:  values  varied  between
18 and 49 #/day from 1972 to 1976 and  between 9  and  13  from  1979 to  1984.   The
lead loading during the 1986 survey  was three #/day.

      The difference in metal  levels between  the Bunker Avenue bridge site  and
the site immediately above Bunker Creek reflect  loadings  immediately  adjacent
to the Bunker Hill CIA (Table 3). Although the  CIA  remains  a  major
contributor of zinc to the basin, substantial  reductions  of  CIA zinc  loadings
occurred since the 1970s; zinc loads (#/day)  to  this stream  reach ranged  from
10Z5 to 3692 prior to 1982, and from 365 to 582  during  the mid-1980s.

  CIA contribution of cadmium has always been relatively  minor, with  load
increases between the two sampling sites that bracket the CIA  varying between
0 and 5 #/day.  Some loading of lead over this reach was  evident during the
earlier surveys:  27, 24, and 16 #/day during 1974,  1975, and  1976,
respectively-  However, almost no lead loadings  were apparent  here from 1980
through 1986.

      The next EPA sampling site downstream on the South  Fork  is located  near
the Airport Avenue bridge.  This site and the above  Bunker Creek site bracket
Bunker and Government {Silver King)  Creeks and differences in  load values
between these sites reflect loads released from the  Bunker Hill complex to  the
South Fork via these two creeks.  Up until  the mid-1970s, this area
experienced massive loadings of cadmium and lead in  addition to further
substantial loads of zinc (Table 3).  The implementation  of  effluent  controls
at the Bunker Hill complex has resulted in a  dramatic success  story  as
evidenced by the monitoring data; during the  mid 1970s, zinc contributions
ranged from 1852 to 2919 I/day cadmium loads from 33 to  57  #/day, and lead
loads from 48 to 78 #/day.  Between  1979 and  1986, however,  load increases
over this reach of the South Fork did not exceed 288 I/day for zinc,  9 I/day
for cadmium and 13 #/day for lead, '  In summary,  the  Bunker Hill Complex was
responsible for the great majority of the metals loading  observed in  the  early
1970s.  Between 1972 and 1986, the low-flow loads  of zinc, cadmium,  and  lead
from the tributaries and seeps of the Bunker  Hill  complex were reduced
respectively from 8247, 158, and 469 pounds to 509,  7,  and Z pounds  (Table  3).
                             1986 SURVEY RESULTS

Heavy Metal Loadings and Concentrations

      Although loadings of metals into the S.F.  Coeur d'Alene have decreased
substantially since 1972, low-flow concentrations of zinc and cadmium remain
well above national criteria levels for protection of aquatic life (Figs. 5
and 6).1  The first major upstream increases of  these metals  are  a  result of
nonpoint source loadings from Canyon Creek (located between the S.F.  above
Canyon Creek and S.F. above Lake Creek sites).
     National criteria for many metals are dependent on  hardness  and vary
accordingly along the Coeur d'Alene system.

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FI6,  5.  ZINC CONCENTRATIONS
      1986  COEUfl D'ALENE
        LOW FLOW SURVEY
                             61* CrlUrl*
                               icut
                             Tottl
FIS.  6,  CADMIUM CONCENTRATIONS
        1986 CQEUR D'ALENE
         LOW FLOW SURVEY

US/L
       The next major  increase of zinc occurs along the South Fork river reach
 bordering the Bunker  Hill  Central  Impoundment Area (CIA).   The zinc
 concentration in the  South Fork increased here (between Bunker Avenue bridge
 and Bunker Creek)  from 1480 to 2500 ug/1.  Although much of this increase
 might be attributed to diffuse contamination, a single discrete seepage
 running from the base of  the CIA to the  river that was sampled during the EPA
 1986 survey had a concentration of 15,900 ug/1 and a gaged flow of 2.35 cfs.
 The loading of over 200 Ibs/day of zinc  from this seep accounted for 528 ug/1
 concentration at the  above Bunker Creek  site or over 50% of the zinc increase
 found over this reach.  Curtailment or treatment of this seep alone  would
 translate to a low-flow season reduction of over 150 ug/1  or 18% of  the zinc
 concentration on the  mainstem Coeur d'Alene.

       A substantial  increase for cadmium occurred at the Airport Avenue Bridge
 in Kellogg, due to point  and nonpoint discharges directly to the South Fork
 and to Bunker Creek.   The lead values in the water column during low-flow
 season fall between  the national acute and chronic criteria levels,  while
 copper levels remained below both  chronic and acute criteria (Figs.  7 and 8).
 Iron and manganese, which are not  generally considered as toxic problems for
 aquatic life, show highly elevated levels on  the South Fork along and
 downstream of the Bunker  Hill Site, and  these metals could well be adding to
 the water quality problems along this reach  (Figs. 9 and 10).  Of particular
 note is the obvious  flocculent deposits  in the vicinity of the Bunker Hill
 Site, which continues to affect  the benthic  habitat quality.

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  FIG,
UG/L
7.  lAD CONCENTRATIONS
1996 COEUR D'ALENE
  LOW FLOW SURVEY
FI6. 8.  COPPSl CONCENTRATIOKS
      1986 COEUR D'ALENE
       LOW FLOW SURVEY
  FI6. 9.   IRON
                  D'ALENE
         LOW FLOW SURVEY
USA,
                                F16.  10.             CONCOnHATlOMS
                                                   O'ALENE
                                         LOW FLOW SURVEY
US/L
3500
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Point and Nonpoint Contributions

      Largely due to depressed silver prices during the summer  of 1986,  the
majority of mining operations along the South Fork were either  sharply reduced
or curtailed.  As a result, the relative contribution of metals from point
sources, as calculated from the industries'  September, 1986,. Discharge
Monitoring Reports, was generally minor (Figs.  11 and 12).   The one relatively
important point source loading at the time of the study was cadmium from the
Syringa discharge to Bunker Creek.  However, recent startup of  additional
control equipment decreased the cadmium contribution from Syringa about
10-fold from September to November of 1986 (Discharge Monitoring Reports,
Syringa, Inc).

      An estimate of "worst-case" conditions for point source contribution of
zinc and cadmium (using 1986 NPOES permit limits) does, however, indicate that
point sources do have the potential for substantial contribution of these
metals to the system (Figs. 13 and 14).*  These  conditions  would be realized
if al1 permitted discharges were contributing their maximum allowable average
load during the lowest 7-day flow conditions that is expected to occur on the
average of once every 10 years.  Of particular  note, is the potential
importance of permitted zinc and cadmium loading to the water quality of the
South Fork upstream of Canyon Creek at Wallace  and (to a lesser extent)  of
permitted cadmium loading to water quality throughout the system.


Toxicity Tests

      Results of 1986 EPA livebox bioassays  with hatchery rainbow trout
fingerlings showed considerable acute mortality downstream from Canyon Creek
at Wallace (Table 4).  Similar livebox bioassays conducted during previous EPA
low flow surveys showed similar patterns of  toxicity.  Considering the levels
of cadmium and zinc in the water are each well  above acute criteria levels,
these results are not surprising.

       Dilution series acute toxicity tests  conducted with hatchery cutthroat
trout during the 1986 survey resulted in an  LC50 of 2 to 3% (i.e. a mixture of
approximately 2 to 3% Bunker Hill CIA seep water to 97-98% control water
caused mortality to half the exposed fish).   The LC50 of South  Fork Coeur
d'Alene water collected above Pine Creek was approximately 10%  (Table 5).

      Chronic and acute toxicity tests conducted at the Ouluth  EPA Lab with
the water flea, Ceriodaphnia dubia and the fathead minnow, Pimephales
promelas,  and at the Region 10 lab with the  algae, Selenastrum  capricornutam
also confirmed the toxic conditions found along the S.F. Coeur  d'Alene (Tables
6,  7, and 8).  Particularly toxic was the CIA seep, which showed acute
toxicity to Ceriodaphnia at the 1% dilution  level.
      This
 imits
iis  aneiysis  excluded  several of  the permitted  dischargers,  where  load
for specific  metals were not  defined  in the permits.

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    FIS.  11.  ZINC CONCSfTBATIONS
      1986 COEUR D'ALENE STUDY
  POINT VS. NONPOINT CONTRIBUTIONS
                             D
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FI6. 12.   CAOMIUK CONCENTRATIONS
    1966  COEUa  D'ALENE STUDY
POINT VS.  NONPOINT CONTRIBUTIONS
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    FIS.  13.  ZIKC CONCSfTRATIONS
     1986      O'ALENE STUDY
       WORST-CASE CONDITIONS
                             [~~]P01MT
FIS. 14.   CADMJUH
    1986        D'ALENE STUDY
     HOflST-CASE CONDITIONS

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Benthic  Invertebrate  Survey

      An invertebrate survey was conducted during mid-August,  1986,  of the
South Fork  Coeur d'Alene  from upstream of the mining district  (above Mullen)
to  its mouth  (at Enanville), the mainstem above the confluence of the South
Fork (unimpacted background site), and the mainstem downstream of the South
Fork confluence at Cataldo.  The purposes of the survey were to 1)  determine
the availability of a salmonid  food base, 2) provide information on the actual
biological  consequences of the  Silver Valley pollution, including
determination of the  degree to  which the more sensitive indigenous  cold-water
species  are present in the impacted areas, 3) document effectiveness of
previous controls towards restoring Coeur d'Alene biota, and 4) provide
baseline information  to be used towards assessing further recovery  of system
or  for detecting unexpected pollution events.

      Surveys conducted in the  early 1930s (Ellis, 193Z), early 1950s (Wilson,
1952), and  early 1960s (Olson,  1963) found virtually no benthic invertebrates
throughout  the impacted areas of the South Fork and mainstem  Coeur d'Alene
River downstream of the South Fork.  In the late 1960s and early 1970s, with
the advent  of Silver  Valley tailings ponds and subsequent decrease  of
discharge of  mine slimes  to the stream bottom, the more tolerant midge fly
larvae (Chironomidae)  became established first on the mainstem (Cataldo site)
and later on  the impacted reaches of the South Fork Coeur d'Alene.   By 1971,
the ubiquitous mayfly species,  Baetfs trfcaudatus, and riffle beetles had also
been collected from impacted sites on the mainstem and lower South  Fork
(Stokes,  1969; Savage and Rabe, 1973).  EPA Region 10 collections in 1975
yielded  numerous midges and a few mayflies from the South Fork and  impacted
mainstem.   Caddisflies were also common in the mainstem collection,  with a few
collected from the lower  South  Fork.

       The  EPA Region  10  1986 survey demonstrated that recovery of  benthic
invertebrates has made considerable further progress.  Species richness,
although  depressed along  the impacted South Fork compared to control sites
(South Fork upstream  of Mull an  and mainstem upstream of the South Fork),
showed a  remarkable recovery from earlier times (Fig. 15).  Total insect
numbers  at  the affected sites were also comparable to that found at the
control  sites and sufficient to eliminate lack of food as a limiting factor
for fish  populations  (Fig. 16).1  The reestablishment of the Coeur d'Alene
fauna coincides with  the  implementation of South Fork effluent controls and
the resultant large reductions  in South Fork metals concentrations.

      The 1986 biological survey provides insight on the relative sensitivity
of  the major  groups (orders) of insects.  The mayflies were the most sensitive
to  the Silver Valley  metals pollution, with all  but one species virtually
absent from all  impacted  sites.  The stoneflies exhibited intermediate
sensitivity to the Silver Valley contaminants, with numbers and diversity
similar at  the more moderately  impacted sites (South Fork just above Canyon
      The high nutrient levels and  profuse algal  growth at  the  above  Pine
Creek site (downstream of the Smeltervi11e POTW effluent} are the probable
causes of the excessive numbers of  organisms (chiefly f i 1 ter-feecii ng  black
flies and caddisf1ies).

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  FI6. IS.  TAX* RICHNESS
  1986 COEUH Q'ALENE STUOY
     INVERTEBRATE SURVEY
FI6.  16.   NUHBEH OF OHGANISKS
   1986 COEUfl D'ALENE STUDY
      INVERTEBRATE SURVEY
                                       Organ 13^3
Creek and mainstem downstream of the  South Fork at Cataldo) to those at the
unirapacted sites.  Greatest-" tolerance to metals pollution was demonstrated by
the caddisflies and true fHes;  their numbers and diversity were similar at
all sites.  Several inter-specific -and inter-generic differences in metals
tolerances were also indicated,  particularly among the mayflies, crane flies,
and riffle beetles.

      The increase in metal  levels immediately downstream of the Bunker Hill
Superfund Site did not show  a corresponding increased impact on the late-
summer benthic invertebrates as  collected at the above Pine Creek site.  This
may be partly due to the increase in  water hardness that occurs from Kellogg
to Pine Creek and to the high organic matter at the Pine Creek Site,  Dissolved
organic matter can decrease  bioavailability by increasing chelation (binding)
of metal ions {Stephenson and Mackie, 1988).  However, these factors are much
less important in the mainstem downstream of the South Fork confluence, due to
a 2:1 dilution of softer waters  from  the upstream mainstem, and less nutrients.

      A 15% to 20% decrease  in zinc concentrations, as would occur with
cessation of the principal CIA seep channel, could be expected to improve the
biological health of the lower mainstem.  For example, the more metals-
sensitive populations of benthic fauna will continue to reestablish
themselves, allowing further recovery towards a more diverse "natural"
community.  In addition, chronic or subletnal effects of heavy metals on the
resident and migrating mainstem  fish  populations should be reduced (e.g. less
of the biological energy "budget" could be allocated to detoxification needs
and more towards growth, disease resistance, reproduction, etc).

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Coeur d'Alene System Sediment and Fish Tissue Heavy Metal  Loads

      Mining operations in the Silver Valley from the  last  century  and  into
the 1960s resulted in approximately 72 million tons of contaminated  tailings
released into the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River.-  These  tailings were  washed
into the lower Coeur d'Alene River and Lake system (Keely,  et  al.   1976).
Bottom sediment sampling conducted in the early 70s confirmed  that  levels of
metals in the Coeur d'Alene delta area were comparable to  that found  in the
mine tailings themselves and that high levels of contamination extended
throughout the northern two-thirds of Lake Coeur d'Alene,  Coeur  d'Alene River
and the lateral lakes (Funk et al.,  1973; Maxfield, et al.,  1974a,b;  Rabe and
Bauer, 1977; Reece et al., 1978).

      The purpose of the 1986 sampling was to provide  a general  update  of the
extent and degree of sediment contamination, particularly  of the metals of
greatest concern to human health: cadmium and lead. Nine  locations  on  Coeur
d'Alene Lake, two locations on the lower Coeur d'Alene River,  and one each
from two of the lateral  lakes were sampled.  In addition,  sediments  were
collected from 10 sites within the South Fork Coeur d'Alene basin.

      Results from these analyses indicate that heavy  metal  contamination of
sediments remains severe throughout  the South Fork, lower  mainstem,  and
northern two-thirds of the lake (Table 9).  Levels of  lead  are essentially the
same as that found in the early seventies, while cadmium  levels  have  decreased
approximately five fold.  Sediment toxicity tests performed on the  amphipod,
Hyalella azteca with sediments from  some of these sites indicate the  toxicity
of metals in these sediments to aquatic organisms is currently low  (Table 10).
Similar conclusions cannot be made from results of the Daphnia magna  tests, as
this species showed high mortality in the "clean" sediments collected near the
mouth of the St. Joe River.

      The Region 10 Laboratory conducted heavy metal analyses  on composites of
several species of game fish collected by the Idaho Department of Fish  and
Game from Coeur d'Alene Lake, the mainstem lateral lakes,  and  the South Fork
at Mullan.  The purpose of these analyses was not to provide a full  human
health risk assessment, but rather to get a general picture of the  degree of
contamination in edible tissues, and to locate which species and locations
would be candidates for follow-up analyses.  The preliminary results from
these analyses indicate that the heavy metals, which are  at very elevated
levels in the sediments, are not accumulating in edible fish tissue at  levels
considered dangerous to sports fishermen (Table 11).  High levels of cadmium,
however, were found in liver and kidney organs, which  indicates  that this
metal remains bioavailable and points to the potential of using  these organs
for assessing long term trends in cadmium levels.
                                      10

-------
                          CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION

      Although heavy metal concentrations in the South Fork  and  lower mainstem
Coeur d'Alene River have been dramatically reduced over the  last two decades,
concentrations of cadmium and zinc remain well  above criteria  levels for
protection of aquatic life.  Acute toxicity test results conducted on
laboratory invertebrates and hatchery trout confirm the toxicity of the river
water.  Nevertheless, conditions are now suitable on the South Fork for many
of the less sensitive indigenous populations of aquatic biota, while
conditions on the mainstem are supporting a successful  sports  fishery.

      This apparent contradiction is not surprising, considering that many
other waters with high metal content also support aquatic life (LaPoint et
al-, 1984).  Metals toxicity varies with differing combinations of the
numerous characteristics of water, e.g. hardness, pH  organic  and inorganic
constituents (Connell and Miller, 1984).  Field and laboratory tests also show
fish and invertebrate tolerance to metals will  increase when exposed to
sublethal levels (Thomas, et al,, 1985; Brown,  1976),

      Concentrations of cadmium and zinc are the major limiting  factors for
continued restoration of aquatic biota in the South Fork and mainstem Coeur
d'Alene River,  Although much of the loading of these metals are diffuse, at
least one discrete seepage channel (at the Bunker Hill  CIA)  contributes to a
substantial proportion of the total zincjoading into the system.  Its
cessation or treatment should result in further recovery of  the downstream
biota.

        The potential for relatively important  metals contributions from point
sources to the system indicates the need here for water quality-based
permitting.  Water quality-based controls on the South Fork  are of particular
importance upstream of Mull an and on the mainstem downstream of  the South Fork
confluence, where State Standards currently include protection of aquatic
life.

        Additional substantial sources of these metals from  Wallace downstream
may not be so easily addressed since they are generally related  to
contaminated aquifers and diffuse seepages from tailings, particularly  in the
Kellogg area and along Canyon Creek.  Restoration plans of tailings along the
South Fork and tributaries have been developed (Eisenbarth and Wrigley, 1978;
Gross, 1982).  However, cost estimates for restoration together with the
potential for introduction of contamination resulting from reclamation
activities have not yet been determined.  As with point sources, nonpoint
source controls on the South Fork need to address metal levels and aquatic
life protection of the mainstem downstream of the South Fork confluence.

      A whole basin environmental management approach to the Coeur d'Alene
system should also address the relative importance of habitat  degradation and
other factors (e.g. nonpoint impacts from agricultural or forestry practices)
in the prevention of full potential of aquatic resources. The dynamics of
cadmium and lead in the ecosystem also needs to be further addressed,
including the relative importance of the contribution of present South  Fork
loadings of these metals to the downstream sediments and biota.

                                      11

-------
Monitoring and Research Needs

      Future assessments should further document  status  and  condition  of
populations, particularly of those fish that inhabit  the mainstem  Coeur
d'Alene and lateral  lakes and the salmonids that  use  the Coeur  d'Alene River
for migration to spawning areas upstream of the South Fork confluence.

      Now that inputs from point source and groundwater  seeps have been
characterized, and in the case of point sources,  largely reduced,  a critical
issue to be resolved is the loading of heavy metals  from high-flow runoff
events.  This is particularly important for lead  due  to  its  high affinity  to
binding with sediments.  Monitoring of Silver Valley  pollutants should
therefore be conducted year round, with particular emphasis  placed on
collection of samples during high-flow events.

      Because of the possibility that periodic grab  samples  of  water chemistry
will "miss" unsuspected pollution events caused by tailings  failures or  "plant
upsets", integrative monitoring methods should also  be employed for purposes
of detecting their occurrence and possibly locating  their sources.   Sampling
of benthic invertebrates is well suited for this  purpose, as weeks or  months
are required for these relatively sessile animals to  recover from  a toxic
event.  When an effect on the biota is detected,  the  source  may be located by
sampling upstream to where the effect begins (Hynes,  1960).   If a  point  source
is suspected, follow-up investigations might then include use of automatic
water samplers for more frequent surveillance of  water quality. Fortunately,
invertebrate density and diversity have recovered in  the Coeur  d'Alene system
to the point that they can be used for this purpose.   Continuous monitoring
techniques using indicator parameters, such as data  pods with conductivity
probes, may also be  useful for flagging a spike of heavy metal  pollution.

      Research efforts should be encouraged that  elucidate how  the specific
physical, chemical,  and biological characteristics of the Coeur d'Alene  River
and Lake system may  affect the availability and toxicity of  Silver Valley
metal pollutants to  the different components of the  ecosystem.   Results  from
such studies, together with continued assessments of  water quality and biota
in the Coeur d'Alene River (mainstem and South Fork)  can then  be used  towards
predicting environmental results of control actions.
                                      12

-------
                                  REFERENCES

  Brown, 8.E.  1976.  Observations on  the tolerance of the  isopod Asellus
meridianus Rac. to copper and lead. Water Research 10:  555-559,

  Connell, D.W. and G.J. Miller.  1984.   Chemistry and Eeotoxicology of
Pollution,  John Wiley & Sons, New York.   444 pp.

  Eisenbarth, F. and J. Wriglty.  1978.   A plan to rehabilitate  the South
Fork Coeur d'Alene River.  Idaho Water Resource Board.

  Ellis, M.M.  1932.  Pollution of the Coeur d'Alene River  and adjacent
waters by mine wastes.  Manuscript Report to the Commissioner.   U.S. Bureau  of
Fisheries, Washington, D.C,

  Funk, W.H., F.W,  Rabe, R.  Filby, J.I.  Parker, J.E.  Winner, L. Bartlett,
N,L, Savage, P, Dunigan, N. Thompson,  R.  Condit, P.J,  Bennett, and K.  Shah.
1973.  Biological impact of combined metallic and organic pollution in the
Coeur d'Alene-Spokane River drainage system.  Office of Water Resources
Research Project Completion Report Nos.  B-044 WASH & B-015  IDA.  187 pp.

  Gross, M.R.  1982.  Reclamation plans  for abandoned mill  tailing
impoundments in the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River basin.  M.S.  Thesis.
University of Idaho, Moscow,  ID.

  Hynes, H.B.N.  1960.  The biology of polluted waters.   Liverpool University
Press.  Liverpool, England,  202 pp.

  Keely, J.F., F.I. Hutchison, M.G. Sholley, and C.M. Wai.   1976.  Heavy
metal pollution in the Coeur d'Alene mining district.   Project Technical
Report of National Science Foundation,  Grant no.  EPP75^08500.

  LaPoint, T.W., S.M. Melancon, and M.K.  Morris.  1984.   Relationships among
observed metal concentrations, criteria,  and benthic community structural
responses in 15 streams.  J.  Wat. Pollut. Contr. Fed. 56; 1030-1038.

  Lyman, W.J., A.E. Glazer, J,H, Ong,  and S.F. Coons.  1987.  An overview of
sediment quality in the United States.  EPA-90Q/9-88-OQ2.  Office of Water
Regulations and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,
D.C.

  Maxfield, 0., J.M. Rodriguez, M. Buettner, J. Davis, L. Forbes, R. Kovacs,
W. Russel, L. Schultz, R. Smith, J, Stanton, and C.M. Wai.   1974a.  Heavy
metal content in the sediments of the  southern part of the  Coeur d'Alene  Lake.
Environ. Pollut-  6: 263-266.

  Maxfield, 0., J.M. Rodriguez, M. Buettner, J. Davis, L, Forbes, R. Kovacs,
W. Russel, L. Schultz, R. Smith, J, Stanton, and C.M, Wai.   1974b.  Heavy
metal pollution in the sediments of the  Coeur d'Alene River delta.  Environ.
Pollut.  7: 1-6.

  Nauen, C.E.  1983.  Compilation of legal limits for hazardous  metals in  fish
and  fishery product.  FAQ Fisheries Circular 764.  102pp.


                                      13

-------
  Neufield, J.   1987.  A summary of heavy metal  contamination  in  the  lower
Coeur d'Alene River valley with particular reference  to  the  Coeur d'Alene
River Wildlife Management Area.  In-house Report.   Idaho Department of  Fish
and Game, Coeur  d'Alene, ID.

  Olson, R.P.  1963.  Biological Survey of the Coeur  d'Alene River.
Unpublished Report.  State of Idaho Engineering  and Sanitation Division.

  Rabe, F.W., and S.B. Bauer.  1977.  Heavy metals  in lakes  of the Coeur
d'Alene River Valley, Idaho.  Northwest Sci. 51:  183-197.

  Reece, D.E., J.R. Pel key, and C.M. Wai.  1978.  Heavy  metal  pollution in
the sediments of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho.  Environmental Geology
2:  289-293.

  Savage, N.L. and F.W. Rabe.  1973.  The effects of  mine and  domestic wastes
on macroinvertebrate community structure in the  Coeur d'Alene  River.
Northwest Sci. 47: 159-168.

  Savage, N.L.   1986.  A topical review of environmental  studies  in the Coeur
d'alene river-lake system.   Idaho Water Resources Research Institute.
University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.

  Stephenson, M. and G.L. Mackie, 1988.  MuKivariate analysis of correlations
between environmental parameters and cadmium concentrations  in Hyalella azteca
(Crustacea: Amphipoda) from central Ontario Lakes.  Can  0,  Fish.  Aquat. Sci.
45: 1705-1710.

  Stokes, L.W.  1969.  Biological survey of the  Coeur d'Alene  River.
Unpublished Report.

  Tetra Tech, Inc. and Morrison-Knudsen Engineers,  Inc.   1987.  Bunker  Hill
site remedial investigation/feasibility study work  plan  for  unpopulated areas.
Gulf Resources and Chemical Corporation, Boston, MA.

  Thomas, D.G., M.W. Brown, D.  Shurben, J.F. del G. Sol be,  A.  Cryer,  and 0.
Kay.  1985.  A comparison of the sequestration of cadmium and  zinc in the
tissues of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) following  exposure  to  the  metals
singly or in combination.  Comp, Biochem. Physiol.  82:  55-62.

  USEPA.  1986.  Quality criteria for water.  EPA-440/5-86-001.   U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency.  Washington, O.C.

  Wai, C.M., S.G. Hutchison, J.D. Kauffman, and  F.I.  Hutchison.   1985.  A
bibliography of environmental  studies of the Coeur  d'Alene mining area,  Idaho-
Project completion report to IDHW-EPA.  Water Resources  Research  Institute,
University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.

  Wilson, 0.  1952.  Report on  biological reconnaissance of the Coeur d'Alene
River system, Idaho.  Unpublished Report.  U.S.  Public Health  Service,
Portland, OR.

  Woodward-Clyde Consultants and Terragraphics.   1986.  Site characterization
report - Bunker Hi I! superfund  site.  EPA contract  No.  68-01-6939.

                                      14

-------
Table 1.  COEUR O'ALENE BASIN SAMPLE SITES.
  MAP      STORET
STATION    STATION
   #          #       STATION NAME AND LOCATION
  01

  02
  03
  04

  05

  06
  07
  08
  09
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  34

  35
153541     S.F. Coeur d Alene R,  @ Culvert @ Shoshone  Park  above
           Mull an
153368     S.F, Coeur d Alene R.  below Lucky Friday #003
03#052     Heel a Star Morning #002 discharge
03E011     S.F. Coeur d Alene R.  below Hecla Star Morning #002
           di scharge
153097     S.F. Coeur d Alene R.  100-ft above Canyon Creek  at
           Wai 1 ace
153125     Canyon Creek at mouth  at Wallace
153132     Ninemile Creek at mouth at Wallace
153100     S.F. Coeur d Alene R.  100-ft above Lake Creek
153137     Lake Creek at mouth
153369     S.F. Coeur d Alene R.  at Silverton
153104     S.F. Coeur d Alene R.  at bridge above Big Creek
153147     Big Creek at mouth
03#009     Sunshine Mine effluent
03E009     S.F. Coeur d Alene R.  above Kellogg
153148     Milo Creek near mouth
153108     S.F. Coeur d Alene R.  at Bunker Ave Bridge, Kellogg
03Z038     Cook Creek near mouth
Q3#061     Bunker CIA seep #1 to  S.F. Coeur d Alene R.,  1986
03#062     Bunker CIA seep #2 to  S.F. Coeur d Alene R.,  1986
03#063     Bunker CIA seep #3 to  S.F. Coeur d Alene R.,  1986
03#064     Bunker CIA seep #4 to  S.F, Coeur d Alene R.,  1986
03#065     Bunker CIA seep #5 to  S.F. Coeur d Alene R.,  1986
03#066     Bunker CIA seep #6 to  S.F. Coeur d Alene R.,  1986
153362     S.F. Coeur d Alefie R.  100-ft above Bunker Creek
03#055     Bunker Ltd. discharge  #006 (CIA)
153165     Bunker Creek at mouth
153152     Silver King (Government) Creek at mouth
153110     S.F. Coeur d Alene R.  at Airport Ave Bridge,  Kellogg
153616     Page Pond STP effluent channel
153810     S.F. Coeur d Alene R.  below Smelterville
153333     S.F. Coeur d Alene R.  above Pine Creek
153207     Pine Creek near mouth
153023     S.F. Coeur d Alene R.  at mouth
03A056     Coeur d Alene R. near  Enaville at EPA Bioassay Trailer
           si te
153019     Coeur d Alene R. 150-m above mouth of South Fork at
           Enavi11e
                                    A- 1

-------
Table 1 (cent.).  COEUR D'ALENE 8ASIN SAMPLE  SITES.
  MAP      STORET
STATION    STATION
   #          #
STATION NAME AND LOCATION
  36       153018     Coeur d Alene R.  near 1-90  bridge at Cataldo
 *37                  Mission Flats Slough  near Cataldo
  38       153007     Coeur d Alene R.  above bridge near Rose Lake
 *39       03A057     Killarney Lake
  40       03A041     Coeur d Alene R.  adjacent to Blue Lake
  41       03A04Z     Thompson Lake near  center
  42       03A043     Anderson Lake near  center
  43       03A048     Coeur d Alene River delta
  44       03D005     Chatcolet Lake at Chatcolet (near St. Joe River mouth)
 *45       030007     Round Lake near Chatcolet
  46       03D006     Lake Coeur d  Alene  200-m east of Conk!ing Point
  47       03D002     Lake Coeur d  Alene  centered between Conkling Point &
                      Shingle Bay
  48       03A047     Lake Coeur d  Alene  centered between Rockford and East
                      Points
  49       03A040     Lake Coeur d  Alene  center!ine Rockford Bay near mouth
  50       03A050     Lake Coeur d  Alene  at  center of Carl in Bay
  51       03A046     Lake Coeur d  Alene  center-off Carl in Bay
  52                  Lake Coeur d  Alene  at  center of Delcardo Bay
  53       03A049     Lake Coeur d  Alene  Echo Bay 400-m from mouth
  54                  Wolf Lodge Creek  at 1-90 bridge
  55       03Z039     Lake Coeur d-Alene  in  Wolf Lodge Bay
  56       03Z037     Lake Coeur d  Alene  in  Wolf Lodge Bay btw Blue Creek &
                      Beauty Bay
  57       03A055     Lake Coeur d  Alene  Northern portion
  58       03A051     Lake Coeur d  Alene  500-m south of Sanders Beach
  59       03A045     Lake Coeur d  Alene  at  outlet
      Samples  collected  in the  spring of 1987
                                   A- 2

-------
Table 2.  SAMPLE ANALYSES PERFORMED AT COEUR  D'ALENE  STUDY SITES DURING 198S
AND 1987.  (See Table 1 for description of study  sites  and Figs, 1 and Z  for
maps of study sites.)

MAP
SITE
NUMBER
01
02.
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
G
a
9
1
n
9
X



X
X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X
X




CHEMISTRV
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t













X

X
X
X


w
a
t
e
r
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
T
1
S
S
u
e
X


X
















BIOASSAYS
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t




















A
c
u
t
e

















X


C
h
r
0
n
c
X



X





X


X

X

X


L
i
V
e
b
0
X
X



X





X


X

X




BIQSl
P
1
a
n
k
t
0
n




















JRVEY
B
e
n
t
h
o
S
X



X




X



X






                                    A- 3

-------
Table 2 (cont.).  SAMPLE ANALYSES PERFORMED AT COEUR D'ALENE STUDY  SITES
DURING 1986 AND 1987.  (See Table 1 for description  of study sites  and
Figs. 1 and 2 for maps of study sites.)

MAP
SITE
NUMBER
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
G
a
g
i
n
g



X

X
X
X


X
X
X

X
X




CHEMISTRY
s
e
d
i
m
e
n
t





X
X

X
X
X

X


X

X

X
W
a
t
e
r
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X


X
X
X
X
X
X




T
i
s
s
u
e
















X

X

BIOASSAYS
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t

















X

X
A
c
u
t
e










X









C
h
r
0
n
i
c







X


X

X


X




L
i
V
e
b
o
X









X
X

X
X

X




BIOSl
P
1
a
n
k
t
0
n




















JRVEY
B
e
n
t
hi
0
s










X

X

X
X




                                    A-

-------
Table 2 (cont.).  SAMPLE ANALYSES           AT       D'ALENE STUDY  SITES
            AND 1987.  (See Table 1 for description of study sites  and
Figs. 1 and 2 for maps of study sites.)

MAP
SITE
NUMBER
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
G
a
9
i
n
9



















CHEMISTRY
S
e
d
i
m
e.
n
t
X
X
X
X

X



X

X
X




X
X
w
a
t
e
r


X



X
X


X




X


X
T
i
s
s
u
e



X
X








X
X

X


BIOASSAYS
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t


X
X

X


X










A
c
u
t
e



















C
h
r
0
n
i
c



















L
i
V
e
b
o
X



















BIOSL
P
1
a
n
k
t
o
n






X
X


X




X

X
X
IRVEY
B
e
n
t
h
0
s



















                                    A- 5

-------
Table 3.  HEAVY METAL CONTRIBUTIONS BY SOUTH FORK REACHES BETWEEN 1972 AND
1986.

                                 STREAM REACH

            UPSTREAM OF     BUNKER AV. BR.   BUNKER CR.       BUNKER AV.  BR.
            BUNKER AV. BR.  TO BUNKER CR.    TO AIRPORT BR.    TO AIRPORT  BR.
YEAR

1972
1974
1975
1976
1979
1980
1982
1984
1986


1153
1494
975
1229
682
1070
991
1100
591

ZINC LOADINGS
_
1198
2552
3692
1167
1025
570
582
365

(pounds/day)
_
1852
1947
2919
0
123
288
23
144


8247
3050
4499
6611
1167
1148
858
605
509
                         CADMIUM  LOADINGS  fpounds/day1

1972               8               -                               158
1974               4               5               33                38
1975              11               0               57                57
1976               6               3               46                49
1979               4178
1980               71                9                10
1982               4358
1984              11               0                6                 6
1986               6077
                          LEAP LOADINGS fpounds/davl

1972              49                                               469
1974              21              27               48               75
1975              33              24               78              102
1976              18              16               67               83
1979               9606
1980              13               0               13               13
1982              12               1                5                6
1984               9022
1986               3022
                                    A-6

-------
Table 4.  SURVIVAL OF         TROUT HELD IN LIVE       AT SOUTH FORK AND
MAINSTEH SITES,  (Ten* hatchery rainbow trout 10-15 cm long were placed in
each livebox.)

                                              OF  FISH ALIVE AT           OF:
SITE
S.F. Coeur d'Alene
River above Mull an
S.F, Coeur d'Alene
River above Canyon Creek
S.F. Coeur d'Alene
River above Big Creek
S.F. Coeur d'Alene
River above Kellogg
S.F. Coeur d'Alene
River at Bunker Ave.
S.F. Coeur d'Alene
River below Smelterville
* S.F. Coeur d'Alene
above Pine Creek
S.F. Coeur d'Alene
River at mouth
Coeur d'Alene River
at Enaville
Coeur d'Alene River
7-hrs
10
10
10
9
10
10
6
10
10
10
24-hrs
10
10
10
4
10
10
5
10
10
10
48-hrs
10
10
0
1
3
3
1
7
10
10
72-hr s
10
10
0
0
3
1
0
7
10
9
96-hrs
10
10
0
0
3
0
0
6
10
7
  at  Cataldo
 *  Only six  trout  were placed  in  the  chamber at Pine Creek.
                                   A- 7

-------
Table 5.  SURVIVAL OF CUTTHROAT TROUT EXPOSED TO BUNKER HILL CIA SEEP AND
SOUTH FORK COEUR D'ALENE RIVER WATER. (Ten hatchery cutthroat trout 3-4 cm
long were placed in each chamber.)1
 AUGUST TEST (BUNKER HILL CIA SEEPS)
TEST
HOUR
24

48

72

96

REP. SURVIVAL AND DILUTIONS
# 100% 50% 25% 12% 6.2% 3.1% 1.6%
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
SEPTEMBER
TEST
HOUR
24

48

72

96

REP
#
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
02558
02889
00000
00001
00000
00000
00000
00000
TEST (ABOVE PINE CREEK)
SURVIVAL AND
100% 50% 25% 12%
7 6 7 10
4789
1014
0103
1002
0002
1000
0002
8 10
10 10
5 8
8 9
2 8
5 9
2 7
4 7

DILUTIONS
6.2% 3.1%
10 10
10 10
10 10
10 10
10 10
10 10
10 10
10 10
0.8% 0% LCI LC50 UCI
9 10 16 	 21 	 29
10 10
8 10 2.7 	 3.5 	 4.4
8 10
7 10 1.9 	 2.4 	 3.1
7 10
7 10 1.7 	 2.2 	 2.8
7 10


0% LCI LC50 UCI
10 appx. 100
10
10 9.6  11.3 -- 13,4
10
10 8.9  10.1  11.6
10
10 8.6 	 9.4 	 10.4
10
      Tests  conducted in cm-site,  mobile bioassay  trailer operated  by  EPA  Las
Vegas Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory,

                                    A- 8

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Table  6.   SURVIVAL AND  REPRODUCTION OF CERIQDAPHNIA EXPOSED TO BUNKER HILL
CIA  SEEP AND  SOUTH FORK COEUR O'ALENE RIVER WATER.1

SITE
Control Water
Lake Superior
S.F, Coeur d* Alene
R. above Mullan
S,F. Coeur d' Alene
R. above Canyon Creek
S.F. Coeur d' Alene
R. above Big Creek
S.F. Coeur d' AT ene
R. above Kel logg



Di 1 ution
S.F. Coeur d* Al ene
R. at Bunker Ave Br.
Bunker CIA Seeps




Di 1 ution
S.F, Coeur d ' Al ene
R. at Ai rport Av. Bri
TEST
CONC
100%

100%

100%

100%

100%
30%
10%
3%
1%
Control**
100%

10.0%
3.0%
1.0%
0 . 3%
0.1%
control **
100%
dge
MEAN # 95 PERCENT
OF YOUNG CONIDENCE INTERVAL
22.6 17.9  27.3

23.1 16.0  30,1

0*

0*

0*
0*
0*
20.6 14.6  26.8
19.7 15.4  24.0
24.3 18.8  29.9
0*

0*
0*
0*
15.1 11.5  18.7
18.6 16.2 -- 21.0
17.4 14.8  20.0
0*

7 DAY %
SURVIVAL
100

90

0*

0*

0*
0*
0*
90
100
90
0*

0*
0*
0*
90
100
100
0*

* Significantly lower than the control water value at P < 0.05.
** Dilution water was from Coeur d
'Alene River above S.F. mouth.

     LTests conducted with Ceriodaphm'a dubia at the EPA Duluth Environmental
Research Laboratory.

                                    A- 9

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Table 6 (cont.).  SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION OF CERIODftPHHIA EXPOSED TO BUNKER
HILL CIA SEEP AND SOUTH FORK COEUR D'ALENE RIVER WATER,
TEST MEAN # 95 PERCENT
SITE
S.F. toeur
above Pine




S.F. Coeur
R. at mouth
CONC OF YOUNG CONIDENCE INTERVAL
d* Alene R.
Creek 30%
10%
3%
1%
Dilution Control**
d' Alene 100%

0*
0*
0*
22.0 15.9 -- 28.0
24.8 21.9  27.7
27.3 24.9  29.7
0*

7 DAY %
SURVIVAL
0*
0*
0*
70
90
100
0*

    Coeur d1 Alene R.       100%      Q*                                  0*
    at Cataldo
Table 7.  SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF LARVAL FATHEAD MINNOWS EXPOSED TO BUNKER HILL
CIA SEEP WATER.1
TEST
SITE
Bunker CIA Seeps 30.0%

10.0%

3.0%

1.0%

0.3%

Dilution control

REPLICATES
A
B
, A
B
A
B
A
' B
A
B..
A
B
INDIVIDUAL
DRY WEIGTH fmql




0.345
0.430
0.542
0.466
0.780
0.645
0.609
0,633
7 DAY %
SURVIVAL
0*
0*
0*
0*
60
20
90
80
90
80
100
100
*   Significantly lower than the control  water value at P < 0.05.
**  Dilution water was from Coeur d'Alene River above S.F. mouth.
            conducted with Pimephales  promelas  at  the EPA Duluth  Environmental
Research Laboratory.
                                    A-1Q

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 Table  8.   GROWTH  OF  THE  ALGAE, SELEHASTRUM CAPRICORNUTAM, EXPOSED TO SOUTH
 FORK COEUR D'ALENE RIVER WATER.1


SITE
Control  Algal
Assay Medium
(AAM) w/0 EOTA*
S.F. Coeur d'Alene
R. above Pine Creek
September


w/o AAM Nutrients
S.F. Coeur d'Alene
R. above Pine Creek
October


w/o AAM Nutrients
S.F. Coeur d'Alene
R. above Kellogg
October


w/o AAM Nutrients

TEST
CONC
0%


6%
12%
25%
50%
100%
100%
6%
12%
25%
50%
100%
100%
6%
12%
25%
50%
100%
100%
FOUR DAY
MEAN NUMBER
OF CELLS/ML
409,300


19,900
16,,300
13,300
14,500
11,900
13,600
19,300
16,000
11,600
15,400
13,200
10,700
34,100
19,000
14,400
11,000
11,000
11,900
FOUR DAY
ALGAL STANDING CROP
(MG/L. DRY WEIGHT)
7.81022


0.84629
0.79296
0.62169
0.54370
0.33755
0.45162
0.91600
0.76108
0.50324
0.52219
0.39388
0.30920
0.99366
0.80150
0.69158
0.44748
0.32743
0.31659
  This solution also served as the dilution water.
      Tests  conducted with Selemstrutn  capricornutam  at  the  EPA  Region  10
Laboratory,  Manchester, Washington.

                                    A-ll

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TABLE 9.  METAL LEVELS  (mg/kg wet wt) IN SEDIMENTS COLLECTED DURING THE EPA
1986 SURVEY.  Nationwide levels (Lyman, et al)  are included for comparison
purposes.
LOCATION
LEAD
CADMIUM
ZINC
ARSENIC
COPPER
LAKE COEUR D'ALENE
NORTHERN PART
Lake Outlet at
Spokane River 1146 8.2 2740 16.4
500 meters south of
Sanders Beach (City
of Coeur d' Alene) 573Z 7.8 5360 37.7
Echo Bay 4716 7.1 5190 56.4
Delcardo Bay 2718 7.3 4720 79.0
Carlin Bay 2262 6.6 4320 87.0
LAKE COEUR D'ALENE
CENTRAL PART
Rockford Bay 2136 7.7 3620 96.6
Coeur d 'Al ene
River Delta 4158 8.0 3680 83.2
Coeur d 'Alene
River Delta (1971)* 3700 43.0 3800
LAKE COEUR D'ALENE
SOUTH PART
Blue Point
(Conkling Park) 367 9.9 1310 14.5
Near St. Joe R. Mouth 10 0.6 77 3.9
(Chacolet Lake)
LATERAL LAKES
Anderson Lake 2492 9.7 2180 46.1
Thompson Lake 3386 8.9 2560 95.9
64
197
176
141
109
135
110
115
36
26

88
97
*  Mean levels from surface layer of multiple  core  samples  taken  throughout
   the delta (Maxfield, et al.  1974b).
                                    A-12

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TABLE 9 (cont.).  METAL LEVELS (mg/kg wet wt) IN SEDIMENTS COLLECTED DURING
THE EPA 1986 SURVEY.
_QCATION
CADMIUM
LEAD
ARSENIC
COPPER   ZINC
LOWER COEUR D'ALENE
RIVER
Near Blue Lake
Rose Lake Bridge
At Cataldo
SOUTH FORK
COEUR D'ALENE RIVER
At Mouth
Abv. Pine Cr.
Page Pond STP
Effluent Channel
At Airport Ave. Bridge
Silver King Cr.
Mouth
Bunker Cr. Mouth
CIA Seep Area
Cook Cr. at Mouth
At Banker Ave. Bridge
Abv. Kellogg
Median Level in
sediments ( nationwide)*
95% of sediments
nationwide have
level s bel ow:*

8.3
7.2
4.8

3.1
2.9
3.1
3.0
4.0
4.5
3.6
4.3
3.4
3.5

1.0

12.0

3992
3870
2310

5768
4298
4106
4967
5636
298
996
292
7048
7897

16

199

77.5
50.1
90.0

180
230
114
191
0.1
12
0.2
106
232
57

4.0

39

124
153
52

220
210
210
160
600
550
32
59
160
185



_

4220
7300
1350

29740
26680
16520
4080
9780
28400
27260
203
1634
10600

41

379
'Lyman  et  al.,  1987.
                                    A-13

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Table 10.  SURVIVAL OF DAPHNIA AND HYALELLA EXPOSED TO COEUR D'ALENE RIVER
AND LAKE SEDIMENTS.1


SITE
Chatcolet Lake at
Railroad Bridge
(Control site)
Coeur d'Alene River
near Rose Lake Bridge

Coeur d'Alene River
near Blue Lake

Coeur d'Alene Lake
at Coeur d'Alene
River Delta


BEAKER
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
No. Daphina
alive after
48-hr (n=10)
4
5
1
7
10
5
3
3
2
8
7
4
No. HyaleUa
alive after
96-hr(n=2Q)
17
16
20
13
14
12
5
9
8
15
18
15
Coeur d'Alene Lake
near Conk! ing Point

Coeur d'Alene Lake
in Rockford Bay near
mouth
A
B
C
A
B
C
5
6
10
9
. 9
8
20
20
16
18
16
12
     lSediment  toxieity tests  conducted  with Ddphnia  msgna  and  HyaleTla  azteca
at the the EPA Coryallis Environmental  Research Laboratory.
                                    A-14

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 Table 11.   METAL  LEVELS  (nig/kg wet wt) IN FISH TISSUE COLLECTED DURING THE EPA
 1986-87  SURVEY.1  (International legal limits for fish consumption included.)
SPECIES
ORGAN
I
1 Cadmium
Lead
METALS
Arsenic Mercurv
Cooper
Zinc
COEUR D'ALENE LAKE
Chinook
Chinook
Chinook
Chinook
Chinook
Chinook
Chinook
Kokanee
Kokanee
Kokanee
Kokanee
Kokanee
Kokanee
Kokanee
Kokanee
Kokanee
F
K
L
CK
CK
CL
CL
F
F
F
F
F
W
w
CF
CF
0,050.
5.27
2,14
3.67
5,91
1.73
1.92
0.08
0.13
0,11
0.22
0.17
0.72
0.79
0.012
0.052
0.02U
0.50
0,32
0.20
0.02U
0.08
0.16
0.02U
0.02U
0.02U
0.46
0.02U
0-58
0,20
1.12
0.02U
0.04 0.13
0.10 0.07
0.16 0.18
0.14 *
0,22 *
0.28 *
0.02U *
0.06 *
0,06 *
0.14 *
0.02 *
0.18 *
0.02U *
0.02U *
0.04 0.039
0.12 0.032
0.38
2.60
66,9
1,88
4.64
33.4
24.9
1.12
0.54
0.58
1.12
0.68
2.16
0.66
0,22
0.44
4.9
36.5
66.1
31.2
32.5
66.5
51.7
8.7
8.4
6.7
8.9
11.5
48.3
51.7
4.5
9.2
* -  Parameter not analyzed

U  -  Compound was not detected; number is the minimum detection limit.

F -  Single filet                      CF - Composite filet
K -  Single kidney                     CK - Composite kidney
L -  Single liver                      CL - Composite liver
W -  Single Whole fish
     "All  Salmonids  were collected  during  August-September,  1986;  other
species collected during June, 1987.

                                    A-15

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Table ll(cont.).  METAL (mg/kg wet  wt)  LEVELS  IN FISH TISSUE COLLECTED DURING
THE EPA 1986-87 SURVEY.

                             Lead	Arsenic	Mercury    Copper     Zinc
WOLF LODGE CREEK AT COEUR O'ALENE
Cutthroat F
Chinook CF
Chinook CF
Chinook CF
MISSION SLOUGH
B. Bull head F
Y. Perch CF
N.Pike CF
KILLARNEY LAKE
B. Bull head CF
Y. Perch CF
B.Crappie CF
LgM.Bass CF
N.Pike CF
ROUND LAKE
B. Bullhead CF
Y. Perch CF
B.Crappie CF
LgM.Bass CF
N.Pike F
S.F, COEUR D'ALENE
Rainbow CF
Salmonids CF
0.032
0.006
0.014
0.006
0.03
0.006
0.012
0.031
0.011
0.022
0.007
0.011
0.008
0.008
0.011
0.01
0.007
RIVER
0.01
0.06
0.20
0.02U
0.02U
0.02U
0.08
0.06
0.01U
0.49
0.03
0.01U
0.01U
0.01U
0.01U
0.01U
0.11
0.01U
0.01U
ABOVE MULLAN
0.02U
0.02U
MEDIAN INTERNATIONAL LEGAL LIMITS FOR
0.02U
0.02U
0.12
0.02U
0.15
0.22
0.09
0.12
0.18
0.18
0.21
0.26
0.23
0.11
0.30
0.25
0.23
0.48
0.08
FISH CONSUMPT
0.095
0.138
0.164
0.141
0.035
0.063
0.034
0.14
0.086
0.12
0.37
0.21
0.016
0.088
0.28
0.18
0.18
0.005
0.008
ION (Hauen
0.36
0.58
1.9
0.24
0.28
0.14
0.24
0.39
0.22
0.17
0.14
0.22
0.29
0.11
0.13
0.30
0.33
0.52
0.82
. 1983)
5.7
3.8
8.1
3.9
6.4
4.6
4.3
5.5
7.8
5.9
3.9
6.5
4.5
5.1
6.1
4.4
3.6
4.3
6.3

                                                                         45
                                    A-16

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MAE. 1.  COEUft D" A1.ENE STUDY SITES.   (Soo  Tables 1  & 2-for- site and sampling description).

-------
MAP, 2,   STUDY SITiS IN VICINITY OF KELLOG6,  IDAHO. (See Tables 1  &  2  for site and sampling description).
                                                                                                           i
                                                                                                          oa

-------