CENTRAL CAROLINA VEHICLE PARTICULATE EMISSION STUDY
                         Final Report
                             by
             Kenneth T. Knapp and Silvestre B. Tejada
               US Environmental Protection Agency
                           MD-46
                Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
                        Steven H. Cadle
                  General Motors R&D Center
                       MD 480-106-269
                    Warren MI 48090-9055
                      Douglas R. Lawson
              National Renewable Energy Laboratory
                        1617 Cole Blvd
                       Golden CO 80401
                        Richard Snow
             Clean Air Vehicle Technology Center, Inc
                Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

-------
                                Table of Contents




Executive Summary	..	iii




Tables and Figures	v




Abbreviations and Symbols	  vii




Acknowledgment	ix




      Chapter 1  Introduction	1




      Chapter 2  Conclusions	2




      Chapter 3  Experimental	4




      Chapter 4  Emission Rates of PM and Regulated Gaseous Pollutants  	10




      Chapter 5  Chemical Composition of Emissions 	16




      Disclaimer	22
      References
22
      Appendix A	  A-l
                                      n

-------
                                  Executive Summary

Recent studies on light-duty motor vehicle exhaust particles have shown that the emission factors
in use have greatly under predicted the contribution of motor vehicles to the particulate pollution
problems. One of the first studies to show this under prediction was conducted in Nevada where
the particulate emissions from smoking vehicles (i.e., high emitters) were studied. However,
when non-smoking vehicles were tested for comparison, it was found that they too had
significant particulate emissions.  The Nevada study was followed by studies in California.,
Alaska, and a major study in the Denver, Colorado area. The Denver study was part of a major
air quality study to determine the causes of the winter "Brown Cloud" pollution problem. This
study has been completed and reported in several publications as part of the Northern Front
Range Air Quality Study (NFRAQS, http://nfraqs.cira.colostate.edu).

All of these previous studies have been conducted  on vehicle fleets in the western United States.
Particulate emissions data from vehicle fleets in the southeastern United States were needed for
comparison and for determining their contribution to the particulate pollution of this region. In
addition, source profiles were needed for input to source apportionment modeling. To obtain the
needed data, a study in central North Carolina was planned and carried out.  This report presents
data from this study.

The distribution of test vehicles chosen to represent the central Carolina vehicle fleet was based
on the light-duty vehicle registration data for the four counties in the Research Triangle Park
(RTF) area of North Carolina as recorded in the North Carolina vehicle registration data base.
The study was divided into two phases, a winter 1999 phase and a summer  1999 phase. The
vehicle testing was conducted by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its on-
site contractors  in the parking lot of the Home Depot hardware store in Cary, North Carolina.
Funding, assistance in planning, and sample analyses arrangements at the Desert Research
Institute (DRI) were provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle
Technologies through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and by the
Coordinating Research Council (CRC). A separate report with the chemical analyses conducted
by DRI will be prepared by DRI.

The recruited vehicle distribution was divided into four model year categories and further divided
into cars and pickup trucks.  In the winter and summer phases, 120 gasoline fueled vehicles and
four diesel fueled vehicles were tested on chassis dynamometers with the IM240 driving cycle
which is a test cycle for warmed-up vehicles. The  testing in the Home Depot in Cary the parking
lot was run on EPA's transportable dynamometer.  Because of a malfunction in the particle
sampling system, an additional 15 vehicles were run in the winter phase. A total  of 135 gasoline-
fueled and three diesel-fueled vehicles were tested  hi the winter phase. But only 106 gasoline-
fueled vehicles were run on  the transportable dynamometer in the Cary parking lot for particulate
emissions. The additional 14 gasoline-fueled and three diesel-fueled vehicles tested for
particulate emissions were run on the Cold Cell Research dynamometer located in the EPA ERC
                                           in

-------
Annex in RTF, NC. Recruiting problems limited the diesel fueled vehicle testing in the winter
phase. All 125 vehicle test runs in the summer phase were conducted on the transportable
dynamometer located in the parking lot of the Home Depot in Gary, NC.

The regulated gaseous emissions,  [carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen
oxides (NOx)], carbon dioxide (CO2), quartz and Teflon filter samples, and aldehydes and
ketones samples were taken on every test run. In addition, 25 PUF/XAD samples for semi- and
non-volatile organic emissions were collected in each test phase. Four Tedlar bag samples for
speciation of gaseous organics were taken each day. The number of organic speciation samples
was limited so that all collected speciation samples could be analyzed on the day of collection.
Forty-eight PM2.5 samples were collected in the winter phase and 14 PM 2.5 samples were
collected in the summer phase for comparison to the PM10.  The small number of PM2.5
samples in the summer phase was due to limited filters and time. Every tenth vehicle was tested
twice for QA purposes.

The combined summer and winter results of the particulate emissions measurements for the
gasoline vehicles were similar to those found in the NFRAQS Denver study. In both studies, the
late model 1993-1997 vehicles generally had low particulate emissions (< 7 mg/mi). The overall
(summer and winter) average particulate emission  rate found in this study was 19.40 mg/mile
compared  to 20.85 mg/mile found in the Denver study.  In the winter phase, the average PM10
emission rate was 27.62 mg/mile, while in the summer phase, PM10 averaged 10.56 mg/mile.
No correlation between PM10 and the regulated emissions was found. A slight correlation
between the vehicle model year and PM10 was found. The average PM10 emissions rate for the
8 diesel fueled vehicles was 445 mg/mile. This value is lower than the 550 mg/mile average for
20 diesel vehicles in the Denver study All the averages  given in this report are fleet averages of
the recruited test fleets and were not corrected for actual on-road fleet distribution nor of the
vehicle miles traveled of the on-road fleet.

The average 18.4 mg/mile emission rate of formaldehyde in the winter phase was twice as high
as that observed in the summer phase. Ethanol was observed only in the emissions  in the winter
phase. As expected, about half the gaseous organic emissions was alkanes with aromatic
hydrocarbons making up another fourth. The average 47 mg/mile benzene emission for the
summer phase was twice that  of the winter phase.  From the X-ray analyses, only zinc and sulfur
were found in the emissions of most vehicles. A few vehicles emitted iron and phosphorus. The
zinc, phosphorous, and some of the sulfur are due to additives in the motor oils.

The analyses for the elemental and organic carbon, PAHs, nitro-PAHs, oxy-PAHs, and the
hopanes and steranes are being performed by the Desert Research Institute and the results will be
given hi their report.
                                          IV

-------
                                 Tables and Figures




Table 3-1.    Research Triangle Area Vehicle Distribution	 5




Table 4-1.    Regulated and PM Emission Rates and Fuel Economy, Gasoline Vehicles .... 10




Table 4-2.    IM240 PM10 Emission Rates 	13




Table 4-3.    Diesel Fueled Vehicle Emission Rates	 15




Table 5-1.    Selected Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Rates	,	17




Table 5-2.    Winter Diesel Fueled Vehicle Emission Rates From Three Vehicles	 18




Table 5-3.    Summer Diesel Fueled Vehicle Emission Rates From Five Vehicles	18




Table 5-4.    Organic Class Distribution	19




Table 5-5.    Selected Organic Species Emission Rates	.20




Table A-l    Run Number, Vehicle ID, and Regulated and PM Data: Summer Phase 	 A-l




Table A-l    Run Number, Vehicle ID, and Regulated and PM Data: Winter Phase ...... A-5




Table A-2    Diesel Model Year, Style, Make, and Regulated and PM Data	 A-9




Table A-3    Winter Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data		..  A-l 1




Table A-4    Summer Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data	  A-14




Table A-5    Duplicate Runs Average  	  A-18




Table A-6    Duplicate Runs of Regulated Emissions	  A-22




Table A-7    Duplicate PM10 Runs, Winter Phase	  A-23




Table A-8    Comparison of Cars PM10 to Truck PM10	  A-23




Figure 3-1.    Transportable Dynamometer	 6




Figure 4-1.    PM10 Emission by Model Year and Vehicle Style	.11

-------
Figure 4-2    PM10 vs Vehicle Model Year	,. 14




Figure A-1    Scatter Plot Correlation of Regulated, PM10 Emissions and Fuel Economy   A-10
                                        VI

-------
          List of Abbreviations and Acronyms Used in this Report

amps        Electrical amperes
CO          Carbon monoxide
CO2         Carbon dioxide
CRC        Coordinating Research Council
CVS        Constant volume sampling system
DOE        U.S. Department of Energy
DRI         Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada
dyno        Dynamometer
EC          "Elemental" carbon as measured by thermal/optical reflectance method
EPA        U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
ERC        U.S. EPA Environmental Research Center, RTP, NC
FTP         Federal Test Procedure
gm/mile      Grams per mile
GC          Gas chromatography
GM         General Motors
HC          Hydrocarbons
ID           Identification
IM240       Emission test for motor vehicles lasting 240 seconds
Hp          Horse power
KVA        Kilovolt-amps
LD          Light-duty
LDD        Light-duty diesel vehicle
LDG        Light-duty gasoline vehicles
1pm         Liter per minute
nig/mile      Milligrams per mile
mph         Miles per hour
ND          Not detected
NFRAQS     Northern Front Range Air Quality Study
NOx        Oxides of nitrogen
NREL       National Renewable Energy Laboratory
OC          "Organic" carbon as measured by thermal/optical reflectance method
PAH        Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon compounds
PM          Particulate matter
PM10        Particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns
PM2.5       Particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns
Ppm         Parts per million
PUF         Polyurethane foam used for collecting semi-volatile organic compounds
QA/QC      Quality assurance/quality control
RTP         Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
SACB       U.S. EPA Source Apportionment and Characterization Branch
TC          Total carbon
                                  vn

-------
THC         Total hydrocarbons
UDDS       Urban dynamometer driving schedule
vac          Volts AC
VIN         Vehicle identification number
XAD         A polymer resin used to collect semi-volatile organic compounds
XKF         X-ray fluorescence
                                 vin

-------
                                  Acknowledgments

Many people assisted in this program and the authors are greatly indebted to them. Mark Smith
of the North Carolina Environmental Management Division for providing the vehicle distribution
of the Research Triangle area of North Carolina. DOE through NREL and CRC for providing
funding and planning assistance.  Jerroll Faircloth and Versal Mason for operating the
dynamometers and driving the test vehicles.  We also thank the CAVTC crew of William Crews,
Colleen Loomis, Jason Mills, and Ned Perry for their assistance in vehicle recruitment and
vehicle data collection. Michael Kirby is also recognized for filter changing and general
maintenance of the dynamometers.  Desert Research Institute for providing the PUF samples and
performing the various analyses.  And finally we thank Home Depot of Gary, NC for the use of
their parking lot and all the vehicle owners who participated in the study.
                                          IX

-------
                                       Chapter 1
                                      Introduction

The recent concern about the health effects of atmospheric particulate matter has led to several
studies of exhaust particles emitted from in-use motor vehicles. One of the first was the vehicle
emission study in Nevada where PM-10 samples were collected.1 The original intent of this study
was to measure the particulate emissions from smoking vehicles. As a reference, the particulate
emissions from the same number of non-smoking vehicles were collected. Unexpectedly, most
of the non-smoking vehicles had measurable particulate emissions and a few non-smoking
vehicles had as high or higher particulate emissions than the smoking vehicles. These results led
to several additional studies and the suggestion that vehicle emissions are significant contributors
to atmospheric particulate matter,2>s A cold temperature study was conducted in Alaska to
determine the effect of temperature on particulate emissions,4 and it demonstrated that the
particulate emissions increase with decreasing temperature.

While these studies provide some indication of the contribution of motor vehicles to the
particulate pollution problem, more data were needed to provide the emission factors to be used
in the large Colorado Northern Front Range Air Quality Study (NFRAQS,
http://nfraqs.cira.colostate.edu) designed to determine the cause of the winter "Brown Cloud"
pollution problem which occurs in Denver and other areas. As part of this study, a program for
measuring particulate emissions from in-use vehicles of the Denver fleet was planned and carried
out. The plan and results of this study are presented in a report and journal articles by Cadle et
al.5'6 Particulate emission rates for various vehicle classes  and model years are presented.
However, these are for vehicles tuned for operation at high altitude, so the question was asked
are  they representative of other areas? A comparison of these data and data from California and
Texas was made  and published.7 This comparison did not include data from the southeastern
area of the U.S.; therefore, a study to determine the emission rates from an in-use fleet of central
North Carolina area was planned. The study was also planned to include measurements that can
be used to create source profiles of the exhaust particulate emissions of this fleet, which is to be
used as input to source apportionment modeling.

The study objective was to measure the tailpipe emissions from a vehicle fleet representative of
the  central North Carolina area. North Carolina vehicle registration for the four counties in the
Research Triangle Park (RTP) area was used to determine the in-use fleet distribution.  The
vehicle registration information was provided by the State of North Carolina Environmental
Management Division. The fleet categories were divided into model year classes, which were
subdivided into cars and pickup trucks.  In addition, eight  diesel-fueled  vehicles were also to be
tested.

-------
                                      Chapter 2
                                     Conclusions

The study was designed to measure the particulate emissions from vehicles representative of the
central North Carolina area.  Vehicle registration data were provide by the State of North
Carolina Environmental Management Division and used to establish the model year and vehicle
distribution to be tested.  The test fleet was divided into model year and cars, pickup trucks, and
diesel fueled vehicles. Vehicles were tested on the IM 240 driving cycle.

The major conclusions from this study are similar to those found in the NFRAQS of Colorado
and are given below:
       The late model 1993-1997 gasoline vehicles generally had low particulate emissions.
       However, in the summer 1999 phase, two vehicles, a 1993 and a 1996, had PM10
       emission rates of 15.5 and 16.6 mg/mile.  Other 1993 vehicles also had moderately high
       emissions. Excluding these two moderately high emitters and the 1993 vehicles, the
       average summer emission rate for the!994-1997 vehicle was 3.79 mg/mile; more in line
       with the other studies. The winter average for the 1993-1997 vehicles was 7,79 mg/mile
       and the summer was 4.60 mg/mile.
       The PM10 summer average at 10.6 mg/mile was about one third that of the winter
       average (27.6 mg/mile).  However, if the high emitters (>100 mg/mile) are excluded, the
       summer average drops to 7.88 mg/mile and the winter average drops to 13.3 mg/mile, a
       factor of 1.68 difference.  The winter value is lower than that found in the Denver study
       which had an overall emission rate of 33.7 mg/mile. The overall (summer and winter)
       PM10 average for all gasoline fueled vehicles for this study is 19.34 mg/mile.
       The summer and winter average emission rates for gasoline vehicles suggest that the
       ambient temperature has a significant effect on the tailpipe emitted particles, although
       fuel changes and fleet composition may also be affecting the results.
       The average emission rates for the gasoline-fueled vehicles in the winter phase for the
       PM10 and the PM2.5 are 27.62 mg/mile (117 vehicles) and 32.24 mg/mile (45 vehicles)
       respectively.
       No correlation was found between the PM10 emission rates and the regulated gaseous
       emission rates and fuel economy for the gasoline fueled vehicles.
       A slight correlation was seen between the PM10 emission rates and model year for the
       gasoline fueled vehicles.
       The PM10 emission rates from the diesel fueled vehicles was about 20% lower than that
       from the diesels in the Denver study. The average PM10 emission rate from this study is
       445.33 mg/mile versus an emission rate of about 550 mg/mile from the Denver study.
       The average formaldehyde emission rate for the winter phase, 18,4 mg/mile, was about
       twice that of the summer phase.
       In both study phases the alkanes were the major class of organics hydrocarbons with
       aromatics second at about half the average emission rate of the alkanes.

-------
      Ethanol emissions were only observed  in the winter phase.
      The average emissions of benzene for the summer phase, 47 mg/mile was twice that of
       the winter phase.
      Only zinc and sulfur were found in the emissions from almost every vehicle. These
       elements are expected since they are elements in the additives in motor oil and sulfur is
       also in gasoline.
      A few vehicles had calcium, iron and phosphorus in their emissions. No other trace
       elements were detected.
      MTBE was much higher from the vehicles tested in the winter phase.
      The summer emissions of acetylene were about 3.5 time higher than in the winter.

The analyses for the elemental and organic carbon, PAHs, nitro-PAHs, oxy-PAHs, and the
hopanes and steranes are being performed by the Desert Research Institute and the results will be
given in their report.

-------
                                       Chapter 3
                                     Experimental

 The study was conducted in the parking lot of the Home Depot in Gary, North Carolina and at
 EPA's Environmental Research Center (ERC) Annex located in Research Triangle Park (RTP),
 NC. In the 1999 winter phase of the study, 106 gasoline-fueled vehicles were tested for
 particulate emissions on the EPA transportable dynamometer in the Home Depot parking. An
 additionalH gasoline-fueled and three diesel-fueled vehicles were tested at the EPA ERC Annex
 on the cold cell research chassis dynamometer. Another 15 vehicles were run on the
 transportable dynamometer, which then had a malfunction in its particle collection system. The
 particulate emissions for these 15 vehicles are not measured but their regulated emissions and
 aldehydes are and these pollutants are included in the study. The vehicles tested on the
 transportable dynamometer were run at ambient temperatures. It should be noted that the
 temperature difference between the summer tests and the winter tests was only about 15F,
 Summer test temperatures averaged 78 F,  while winter temperatures averaged 63 F, due to
 unseasonal warming. The 14 vehicles  tested at EPA ERC annex chassis dynamometer were all
 run at 35F.  In the summer phase of the study, all the vehicles tested were run on the
 transportable dynamometer in the Home Depot parking lot at ambient temperatures. A total of
 120 gasoline fueled vehicles and 5  diesel fueled vehicles were tested. All vehicles were run on
 the I/M 240 driving cycle which is  a test cycle for warmed-up vehicles.

 Vehicle Recruitment

 After considering the time and funding available for this study, the number of vehicles to be
 tested was set at 120 gasoline-fueled and 4 diesel-fueled vehicles in each of the winter and
 summer phases of the study. The distribution of the gasoline fueled vehicles was divided into
 four categories; pre-1982,1982-86, 1987-91, and 1992-97.  Each category was to have at least 10
 vehicles and was to be based on the vehicle registrations in the Research Triangle Park area of
 North Carolina. Table 3-1 gives the projected distribution.  One change over the registration
 distribution was to move vehicles into the pre-1982 category,  so the mininium number of 10
 could be reached.  The distribution was further divided into cars and pickup trucks. This
 distribution was generally followed in the winter phase since enough time was available for
recruiting this distribution. However,  due to the limited selection time in the summer phase,
 vehicles were taken as available. The  categories used in the data analyses differ from the
recruiting categories to get a more even distribution.

 The approach for recruiting vehicles in the winter phase was to use several media to notify
prospective participants. These approaches included handbills, articles in the local newspapers,
 and advertisements on local television news programs. With all media, a contact phone number
was provided for setting-up appointments.  The requests asked for participation in an
environmental study for testing the exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles, cars and pickup
trucks.  We asked that the prospective  participant's vehicle have an intact exhaust system, good
tires, and no fluid leaks. The accepted participants would be given a $25 gift check for the 20

-------
 minute test. All vehicles were tested with the fuel on-board and no fuel was added to any vehicle.

 The recruiting went well and all appointments were filled. When a few people did not show for
 their appointment, their place was filled by onlookers inquiring as to what we were doing.  Some
 of the diesel-fueled vehicles were obtained by contacting the owners.
                          Table 3-1. Triangle Area Vehicle Distribution

Vehicle Class
1992-1997
1987-91
1982-86
Pre-82

Total
Number of Vehicles per Study Phase
Cars
52
24
12
8

96
Pickup
10
6
A
4

24
Total Vehicles
62
30
16
12

120
In the summer phase, because of the time and funding constraints, no handbills were prepared but
we did have newspaper and television advertising.  The response was very good to these two
forms of advertising.  In the summer phase, 120 gasoline-fueled vehicles and five diesel-fueled
vehicles were tested.  The total number of diesel-fueled vehicles was three from the winter and
five from the summer for the planned eight vehicles.

Dynamometers

In the winter phase of the study, two different dynamometers were used, the EPA transportable
dynamometer (which was set  up outside in the Gary parking lot) and the EPA/ERC Annex cold
cell research chassis dynamometer (inside).

       Transportable Dynamometer
The transportable dynamometer is a unique dynamometer set-up that can be transported to sites
where in-use vehicles can be tested for their tailpipe exhaust emissions. The system is designed

-------
so that it can be used to measure the regulated emissions (CO, THC, and NOx) and CO2 for fuel
economy on the driving cycles that do not exceed 60 mph and an acceleration of more than 6
miles/hr/sec. The system can also collect samples for particulate emissions, gaseous speciation,
and aldehydes and ketones. It is a self-contained system that operates with portable generators.
The set-up requires a space of about 30 by 26 feet and a drive up area.

If the owner of the vehicle consents to testing, a vehicle ID sheet is filled out which records the
make, model, model year, vehicle identification number (VTN), and other pertinent information
                                             10'
                                           Ramps = 15'
      Dynamometer Roll Assembly


Power Absorption Unit

Cooling Water Storage Tank
Air Compressor   ;
                                                                                8'    26'S"
    Cooling Water Heat Exchanger
                                                             Dynamometer Control Box

                                                             Catwalk



                                                             Catwaik Extention
                              VEHICLE TEST CELL LAYOUT

                         Figure 3-1.  Transportable Dynamometer

concerning the vehicle. Dynamometer inertial weight and road load horsepower (Hp) at 50 mph
are determined from test tables provided by EPA. The vehicle is then driven onto the
dynamometer, secured, and driven at 50 mph steady state to set the proper road load Hp at 50
mph.  Depending on the driving cycle to be used, a warm-up run will he made, followed
immediately by the testing driving cycle. Regulated emissions and unregulated emissions are
sampled. The test data are stored on the dedicated computer with a hard copy of the regulated
emissions and fuel economy prepared in less than five minutes. For the IM 240, the total test
time per vehicle is in the order of 20 minutes.  Other test times will depend on the length of the
driving cycle employed, with three minutes required to drive the vehicle on and off the

-------
 dynamometer, and about five minutes for the data processing. Regulated emissions are
 determined with a constant volume sampling system (CVS) dilution technique and continuous
 monitors for CO, C02, THC, and NOx.  The diluted exhaust is sampled "real-time" (the data is
 transferred to the computer once per second) during the driving cycle with the results logged onto
 a computer.  Once the driving cycle is completed, the acquired data is calculated to yield
 emission rates in terms of grams/mile. However, other types of emission rates can be
 determined.  The CVS is equipped to collect bag samples for gaseous emissions, cartridge
 samples  for aldehydes and ketones, and three cyclone systems with filters for emitted particle
 collection. In the winter phase, all sample transfer lines were heated. In the summer phase only
 the aldehyde cartridge line was heated.

 The layout of the transportable dynamometer is shown in Figure 3-1. The drive-on ramps are 15
 feet and requires about a 25 foot approach. The overall width needed is about 30 feet and the
 length including the drive-up ramps and approach is about 70 feet. The power requirement for
 operating the dynamometer is 15 KVA or about 70 amps at 230 volts. The overall system
 (dynamometer and analysis bench) requires about 50 KVA.   When the system was operated in
 the winter phase, a dilution air heater was used that required about 25 KVA and was powered by
 a separate generator because of the off-and-on operation of the heaters which could have
 interfered with the dynamometer and computer operations. A weather-proof mobile home was
 used as the operational center and contained the regulated emissions monitors and the bag and
 aldehyde/ketone sampling systems.

 The vehicle test cell consists of a Clayton model CTE  50-0 water brake chassis dynamometer
 mounted on a Freuhauf trailer. The dynamometer is coupled to a Clayton direct drive variable
 inertia flywheel system allowing vehicle testing at inertia weights of 1750 to 5500 pounds.
 Vehicle road load (Hp at 50 mph) may be set either in  an automatic or a manual mode. In the
 automatic mode, road load is selected automatically by the dynamometer controller as a function
 of the inertia class used. In the manual mode, road load is selected by the operator via driver's
 pendant switch,

 All utilities necessary for dynamometer operation (compressed air, cooling water, and electrical
power distribution) are self-contained on the trailer.  A Devilbiss model 220 compressor provides
 compressed air for operation of the dynamometer's roll brake, vehicle lift, and flywheel clutches.
 Compressed air is also available at  each corner of the trailer via quick-disconnect fittings for
 adjusting test vehicle tire pressure. A closed-loop water system provides the dynamometer's power
 absorption unit with both cooling and load water. The water system includes a Teel shallow well jet
pump, a 12 gallon storage tank, and a liquid to air heat exchanger. The water system is normally
 filled with a 50/50 mixture of water and antifreeze to prevent freeze damage in colder weather. The
 air compressor and water system are electrically hardwired into the test cell's electrical power
 distribution box. Electrical outlets, also hardwired to the power distribution box, are located
underneath the trailer and provide power for the tow truck and motor home. Additional outlets are
 available for both 110 vac and 220 vac power requirements.

-------
       ERC Annex Cold Cell Research Dynamometer

This dynamometer system can be used to test vehicles at temperatures between 110 and -20 F.
The system is a Horiba Model CDC800/DMA915 computerized DC electric chassis
dynamometer housed in a temperature controlled chamber. All current driving cycles now in use
can be run with this system.  The test procedures used in this part of the winter phase were the
US EPA Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the I/M 240.8 Only the Urban Dynamometer Driving
Schedule (HDDS) part of the FTP was used since no evaporative emissions measurements were
to be included. Only the IM240 data are given in this report. This system is equipped with
monitors for the regulated gaseous emissions, CO2, aldehyde/ketone cartridges, bag samples for
speciation, and cyclone systems for exhaust particle collection, All sampling lines and make-up
air in the ERC cold cell research dynamometer are heated.
Emission Sampling

The regulated gaseous emissions, aldehyde and ketone samples, and the organic speciated bag
samples were collected through a Teflon transfer line from the CVS to the monitors and sample
collection systems. A separate line was used for each sampling system. On the portable
dynamometer, all lines were heated in the winter phase but only the aldehyde and ketone
sampling system were heated in the summer phase. All sampling lines and make-up air in the
ERC cold cell research dynamometer were heated. The particulate emission samples were
collected through a cyclone system that had probes directly inserted into the CVS duct. Two 10
micron and one 2,5 micron cyclones were used.  The probes for each cyclone were designed so
that the particle sampling was isokinetic with the 10 micron system operating at a flow of 28.3
1pm and the 2.5 micron system operating at a flow of 16.71pm. The flows were controlled by
mass flow controllers and were checked periodically for proper flow. For all runs, samples were
taken with the two 10 micron systems.  One of the 10 micron used quartz  filters used carbon
analyses, "elemental" and "organic" carbon (EC and OC). The other system used Teflon filters
for mass measurements and X-ray fluorescence analyses for elemental composition. In the
winter phase, at about every fifth test, a 2.5 micron cyclone Teflon filter sample was collected to
compare to  the 10 micron particle collection. Even fewer 2.5 micron samples were taken in the
summer phase because of time constraints. The 10 micron system was used as the main
sampling system because of its higher volume through-put and its availability.

The speciated organic samples were collected from the first four vehicles each day in Tedlar bags
and sent immediately to the ERC annex laboratory for analyses. The aldehyde and ketone
samples were collected from every test run on Waters Sep-Pak DNPH-Silica Cartridges and
returned to the ERC Annex laboratory each day. These samples were stored in a freezer until
analyzed.

Twenty-five samples were taken in each phase on vapor phase traps consisting of five grams of
XAD-4 resin (polystrene/divinylbenzene polymer) sandwiched between two polyurethane foam


                                          8

-------
(PUF) plugs. The PUF sampling system was located down stream of the quartz filter on the 10
micron cyclone system.
 Sample Analyses

As stated above, the regulated gaseous emissions were measured real-time with continuous
monitors with the data collected once per second and logged onto a computer. The regulated
emission rates were determined at the test site from these data within a few minutes after each
test run.

The Teflon filters were pre-weighed and stored in numbered plastic Petri dishes. The quartz
filters were also pre-weighed and stored in numbered plastic Petri dishes. The Teflon and quartz
filters were carefully loaded into the labeled filter holders of the cyclone sampling systems. After
the test run, the filters were removed from the filter holders and returned to the numbered plastic
Petri dishes, sent to the laboratory, and stored in a freezer until analyzed. The Teflon filters were
re-weighed on the same microbalance as used in the pre-weighing and sent off for XRF
elemental analyses. The quartz filter and the PUF samples were shipped to Desert Research
Institute (DRI) in coolers under "blue ice".

DRI will analyze the quartz filters for "elemental" carbon (EC) and "organic" carbon (OC) and
the PUF samples for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAHs, oxy-PAHs, and
hopanes and steranes.  DRI will also analyze about a dozen Teflon filters by XRF for QA
comparison. These results are not yet available.

On each test day, gaseous samples were collected in Tedlar bags from the first four vehicle tests.
These samples were then taken to the EPA ERC Annex mobile source laboratory and analyzed
by their standard speciated organic gas chromatography (GC) method.  This method uses a
temperature program procedure that begins at -80 C, where about 70 cc of sample are
cryogenically trapped on the end of the 105 meter methyl silicone coated capillary column. The
temperature is then programmed to a final temperature of 270 C. More than 300 compounds are
speciated by this GC procedure.

The collected aldehyde and ketone samples were analyzed by the standard mobile source
aldehyde method developed by Tejada,9 In this method, the collected samples are extracted with
acetonitrile.  Aliquots of the extracts are then analyzed by high performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC).  About 24 components are measured, but only 9 are reported in this
report.

-------
                                     Chapter 4.
                Emission Rates of Regulated Gaseous Pollutants and FM
Regulated Gaseous Emission Rates

       Gasoline Fueled Vehicles

Both the transportable dynamometer and the in-house cold cell dynamometer have the
capabilities to monitor continuously the regulated gaseous emissions, carbon monoxide (CO),
total hydrocarbons (detection from a flame ionization detector, HC), and oxides of nitrogen
(NOx). The system also continuously measures carbon dioxide (CO2) from which fuel economy
(FE) is calculated. The CO2 measurements is also used to determine if there are any major
exhaust leaks. The results from all of these measurements, for both the winter and summer
phases, are given in Appendix A, Table A-l.  The mean, minimum, maximum, and median
results for the regulated emissions, PM, and FE for both phases for the gasoline vehicles are
given in Table 4-1.  As shown in this table, the average CO emissions are similar for the winter
and summer testing with values of 14.53 and 15.32 gm/mile. The maximum CO for the summer
is about twice that for the winter and came from a high emitter, a 1988 Plymouth  Voyager. The
highest winter emission rate came from a 1975 Ford Bronco. The median values for both phases
were also similar.

      Table 4-1. Regulated and PM Emission Rates and Fuel Economy, Gasoline Vehicles
Summer


Mean
Minimum
Maximum
Median
Count
HC
gm/miles
0.63
0.02
7.11
0.30
120
CO
gm/miles
15.32
0,18
320.18
4.83
120
NOx
gm/miles
1.82
0.03
8.23
1.40
120
CO2
gm/miles
375.35
194.38
584.55
365.60
120
FE-ruel
economy
miles/gal
21.61
7.45
35.20
PM10
mg/miles
10.56
0.42
300.07
21.34J 3.70
120 120
PM2.5
mg/miles
7.72
0.70
33.56
3.47
16
Winter


Mean
Minimum
Maximum
Median
Count
HC
gm/mile
1.08
0.03
9.84
0.55
119
CO
gm/mile
14.53
0.46
173.07
6.15
119
NOx
gm/mile
2.06
0.09
8.39
1.52
119
CO2
gm/mile
397.80
141.58
663.48
403.25
119
fuel
economy
mile/gal
19.82
6.13
31.64
19.76
119
PM10
mg/mile
27.62
0.98
451.87
6.37
117
PM2.5
mg/mile
32.24
0.34
289.45
8.84
45
                                         10

-------
The mean, maximum and median of the HC emission rates were higher for the winter than for
the summer testing.  The average values were 1.08 nig/mile for the winter testing and 0.63
mg/mile for the summer. The maximum values were 9.84 mg/mile for the winter and 7.11
mg/mile for the summer. These emission rates came from the same Ford Bronco in the winter
phase and from a 1985 Ford F150 pickup in the summer. The mean, maximum, and median
emission rates for NOx were about the same for both winter and summer.  Similarly, the C02
emission rates and the fuel economy are about the same.

The average PM10 emission rate is 27.62 mg/mile for the winter and 10.56 mg/mile for the
summer.  This is almost a threefold increase in emission rate from summer to winter. The
observed seasonal difference may be impacted by fuel changes and fleet composition. However,
if the high emitters (>100 mg/mile) are excluded, the winter average drops to 13.3 mg/mile and
the summer average to 7.88 mg/mile, a factor of 1.69 difference.  This observation suggests that
the temperature plays a significant role in the formation of primary particles.

Figure 4-1 shows the PM10 emission rates of the gasoline vehicles categorized by model year
and vehicle styles. Two high emitters (> 100 mg/mile) are identified in the summer data set and
eight in the winter set.
                                                    100       100      300      400

WAGON



















MINI VAN


VAN


Ml Ml VAN
Summer 1993-97


ft

9

Summer 1990-92





*

Summer 1985-89

^ ^ &5 Dodge Caravan

**
_^, 65 CHvy

Summer 1965-84



**

Winter 1993-97



 "


Winter 1S90-92





^ Q1 Dodge
 
Winter 1985-89


88 Honda Civic
| , 8 Olds Cutlass

^- esctwvySiiwrado
Winter 1965-&4

TSJeopCJS
/
B3 HorOf Civic -^ __ 84 Honda Civic

^
82FoiF10
             100      200      300      400
                                     PM10, mg/mile

             Figure 4-1.  PM10 Emissions by Model Year and Vehicle Style

                                         11

-------
The PM10 and PM2.5 average emission rates from the gasoline fueled vehicles from the winter
testing are 27.62 and 32.24 mg/miles respectively, a difference of about 15%.  The average for
the PM10 is from 117 vehicles and that for the PM2.5, from 45 vehicles. However, when the
emission rate averages were calculated from the subset of forty four winter vehicles that have
complete PM10 and P2.5 data, the average emission rates dropped to 23.76 and 26.02 rag/mile
respectively. The difference here is less than 10% and may be due the difference in face velocity
and/or absorption of organics on the filters. If the eight high emitters (>100 mg/mile) are
excluded in the statistics, the hundred and nine (109) PM10 data average is 13.30 and the forty
one (41)  PM2.5 data average is 13.23 mg/mile indicating excellent agreement between PM10
and PM2.5 values.

The results from the summer testing of gasoline vehicles gave average emission rates of 10.56
mg/mile for the PM10 and 7.72 mg/mile for the PM2.5, a difference of about 27%. However, as
seen in Figure 4-1 and Table 4-1, the PM10 average is heavily influenced by a few high emitters.
When the high emitter data was excluded, the PM10 average was reduced to 7.88 mg/mile, in
very good agreement with the PM2.5 average of 7,72 mg/mile. Fewer PM2.5 samples were
taken  in the summer due to time constraints.  The main difference in the two rates is that only 16
usable PM2.5 samples were collected versus  120 for PM10 and no PM2.5 samples were taken on
several high emitters.  When the 17 vehicles with PM2.5 data are averaged for PM10, the PM10
average (8.11 mg/mile) is practically the same as that of the PM2.5 average (8.13 mg/mile). The
excellent agreement between the PM10 and the PM2.5 average values when high emitters are
excluded for both the summer and the winter phases, indicates that the primary exhaust particles
are mostly fine particles.  This agrees with data generated in previous particulate studies.6

The PM10 average for all runs in the summer phase is 10.56 mg/mile. This average is about a
third of the average found in the summer study of the IM240 vehicle testing phase of the
Northern Front Range Air Quality Study (NFRAQS) of the Denver, Colorado area. The value
from Denver is 33.7 mg/mile.5 The mean, minimum, maximum, and median emission rates for
both the winter and summer testing are also given in Table  4-1.  The overall PM10 emission rate
average, for both summer and winter,  found in this study is 19.40 mg/mile. This number
compares surprisingly well with the overall 20.85 mg/mile  value observed in the IM240 phase of
the Denver study. Taking all runs from both summer and winter and from both the PM10  and
PM2.5 the grand average is 20.7 mg/mile. All the data for PM10 and PM2.5 are given in
appendix A, Table A-l along with the regulated emission rates.

The PM10 emission rates summarized by season, model year and vehicle styles are given in
Table  4-2. A comparison of the average and median values in conjunction with the PM10
distribution shown in Figure 4-1, indicates that some averages are heavily skewed by a few high
emitters.  A good example of this is the summer 1985-89 year statistics, which shows a PM10
average of 17.27 , a maximum of 300.07 and  a median of 3.91 mg/mile. If this apparent outlier
is excluded, the average PM10 emission rate for the 1985-89 model year drops to 9.63  , the
maximum to 96.95, and the median to 3.75 mg/mile.  In the VAN category, the average drops to
5.41, the maximum to 16.59, and  the median to 3.82 mg/mile. Similarly, if the eight high
                                         12

-------
 emitters identified in the winter testing in Figure 4-1 are excluded, the average PM emission rate
 drops from about 24 to 8 mg/mile.  Late model vehicles emit less PM10 particles than older
 models. For the same model year category, the summer average is generally lower than the
 winter average. The same trend is similarly observed in the vehicle style or type category.

                         Table 4-2. IM 240 PM 10 Emission Rates
Period

Summer
Summer
Summer
Summer
Summer

Winter
Winter
Winter
Winter
Winter

Summer
Summer
Summer
Summer
Summer

Winter
Winter
Winter
Winter
Winter

Category

Pre85
1985-89
1990-92
1993-97
Diesels
Total
Pre85
1985-89
1990-92
1993-97
Diesels
Total
PICKUP
SEDAN
SUV
VAN
WAGON
Total
MINIVAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SUV
VAN
Total
Average
Temp., DF
77.6
78.6
79.3
78.7
82.4

62.8
62.2
63.4
63.3
35

78.3
79.1
78.2
78.2
75.5

65.1
61.1
63.2
62.6
64.1

Number

10
38
25
36
5
114
22
35
20
40
3
120
20
68
8
9
4
109
11
23
72
9
2
117
Average
mg/mile
19.59
17.27
5.34
4.60
487.09

69.39
25.96
24.27
7.79
375.72

12.81
7.04
6.33
38.15
5.60

31.69
36.95
22.75
39.75
19.09

Minimum
mg/mile
3.18
0.42
0.43
0.43
135.13

3.24
0.98
1.9
1.13
228.48

1.09
0.42
2.60
0.64
3.18

1.18
0.98
1.13
2.18
3.25

Maximum
mg/mile
60.91
300.07
18.68
16.59
895.6

451.87
181.91
245.68
38.44
450.2

96.95
60.91
12.55
300.07
12.15

245.68
451.87
279.70
104.09
34.93

Median
mg/mile
7.41
3.91
3.46
3.49
429.86

26.31
6.37
7.63
4.31
448.47

5.93
3.48
6.33
6.35
3.53

31.69
36.94
5.84
39.75
19.09

While the categories listed in Table 4-2 differ slightly from those used in the NFRAQS, a
comparison can be made with Table 4.8 in the final report of the vehicle testing phase of
NFRAQS.5 The CCVPES diesel emission rates averaged 375.72 mg/mile for three vehicles in
the winter and 487.09 mg/mile for five vehicles in the summer. The winter average compares
                                          13

-------
 favorably with the 350-403 mg/mile average for twelve vehicles in the NFRAQS study while the
 summer average is 40% lower than the 762 mg/mile NFRAQS average for eight vehicles. The
 overall (winter and summer) diesel PM10 average is about 20% lower than the corresponding
 NFRAQS average.The gasoline summer emission rates for the two studies are similar for the
 1985-97 model year.

 A matrix scatter plot of the regulated emissions (HC, CO, NO), fuel economy and PM10
 emissions did not show PM10 correlation with any of the other variables. The matrix plot is
 shown in Appendix A as Figure A-l. A similar matrix plot of the data subset of the 20 highest
 PMlO-emitting vehicles did not show PM10 correlation with any of the emission variables.
 Figure 4-2 shows a regression plot of model year versus PM10 for the summer, the winter and
 the combined winter and summer gasoline vehicle data sets.  The high emitters were included in
 the regression but not shown in the plot to graphically magnify the difference between the winter
 and summer data sets.  The summer data set has a slope of-0.0230 and an R-square value of
 0.0235.  The winter data set has slope of-0.0277 and an R-square of 0.08975. The combined
 winter and summer data has a slope of-0.0274 and an R-square of 0.06895. When the high
 emitters identified in Figure 4-lare excluded, the overall slope is -0.1502 and the R-square is
 0.1763.
    o
    o
    CN
    O
    in
.3?
I-
    o -
    8-
    o -
o-- Summer

-E3 Winter

	 Summer & Winter
                                                        n
                                                      n
                                        D
                                      8 n o  o
        1965       1970       1975       1980       1985

                                     MODEL YEAR

                        Figure 4-2. PMlOvs Vehicle Model Year

                                         14
                                             i           i
                                           1990       1995

-------
Diesel Fueled Vehicles

A total of eight diesel-fiieled vehicles were tested in this program.  Three were tested in the
winter phase and five in the summer phase.  Emission rates are given in Table 4-3 for these
vehicles.
                     Table 4-3.  Diesel Fueled Vehicle Emission Rates
YEAR

STYLE

MAKE

HC
gm/mi
CO
gm/mi
NOx
gm/mi
CO2
gm/mi
FE
mpg
PM10
mg/mile
Winter
1983
1977
1980
Pickup
Sedan
Wagon
Chevy
Mercedes
VW
Average
0.16
0.17
0.45
0.26
1.27
1.32
2.06
1.55
1.77
1.67
0.98
1.47
501.79
422.41
275.63
399.94
19.80
23.49
35.62
228.48
450.20
448.47
26.30J 375.72
Summer
1983
1985
1981
1989
1982
Sedan
Wagon
Pickup
Sedan
Sedan
Mercedes
Mercedes
VW
VW
AUDI
Average
0.18
0.23
0.48
0.06
0.26
0.24
1.44
1.11
2.39
1.00
5.18
2.22
1.72
1.92
1.00
0.98
2.04
1.53
400.69
414.41
24.00! 895.60
23.29
318.38! 30.44
266.49 36.40
286.34J 33.51
337.26 29.53
253.92
429.86
135.13
720.96
487.09
All Diesels
Mean
Minimum
Maximum
Median
0.25
0.06
0.48
0.20
1.97
1.00
5.18
1.38
1.51
0.98
2.04
1.69
360.77
266.49
501.79
359.54
28.32
19.80
36.40
27.22
445.33
135.13
895.60
439.17
 The overall PM10 average for all the diesels is 445 mg/mile which is comparable to that
obtained in NFRAQS which had average values of 394 mg/mile from the winter study and 762
mg/mile for the summer study for an overall average of 543 mg/mile. The regulated gaseous
emissions were about the same between winter and summer for all vehicles.
                                          15

-------
                                      Chapter 5.
                           Chemical Composition of Emissions
 Aldehydes and Ketones
 Aldehyde and ketone samples were collected for all runs. In the winter study, on the second
 study day, a malfunction in the particle collection system was detected and those particulate
 samples were discarded. However, the aldehyde and ketone sample results from these runs were
 not affected and are included in the data analyses, A total of 135 gasoline and 3 diesel vehicles
 were tested in the winter phase of the study for aldehydes and ketones.  One hundred and twenty
 one of the vehicles were tested in the field at the Gary, NC test site on the EPA  transportable
 dynamometer. The remaining 14 gasoline fueled and the three diesel fueled vehicles were tested
 on the EPA in-house cold cell research dynamometer located in the EPA ERC annex in Research
 Triangle Park, NC. For quality assurance, 27 repeat runs were made in this phase.  These results
 are given  in Appendix A, Tables A-5 and A-6. The two runs on the same vehicle were averaged
 and the average value used for the data analyses. The analytical reports included 24 compounds
 for each sample analyzed. However, for several of these compounds reported, only a few
 samples had values. To reduce  the number of reported compounds, these compounds were
 eliminated and the three isomers of tolualdehyde were combined.  Nine compounds are included
 in the data analyses for both the winter and summer phases. Table 5-1 gives the mean, minimum
 values that are 0.01 mg/mile or greater, the maximum, and the median values for the 135
 gasoline vehicles tested in the winter and 120 vehicles tested in the summer phases. The
 minimum values for all nine compounds reported are 0.01 mg/mile. The maximum value found
 in the winter phase for formaldehyde is 210 mg/mile from a 1985 Ford F150 pickup. This
 vehicle was tested twice and the two values are 205.61 and 216.23 for the average of 210.92
 which is only about a 2.5 % difference in the two runs.  The overall average from the winter
 phase for formaldehyde from the gasoline vehicles is 18.39 mg/mile. Table 5-2  gives the results
 of the three diesels. As is seen in this table, the three diesels gave about the same results for the
 nine reported compounds. Formaldehyde values were 39, 52, and 34 mg/mile.  The values for
 the nine compounds for all vehicles tested are given in Appendix A, Tables A-3 and A-4.

 In the summer phase of the study, 120 gasoline-fueled and five diesel-fueled vehicles were tested
 at the same Gary, NC site on the EPA transportable dynamometer.  As planned for in the study,
 eight diesels were tested. However, because only three were tested in the winter phase, five were
 then tested in the summer phase to achieve the total of eight. As in the winter phase, duplicate
 tests were made randomly on selected vehicles. Table 5-1 gives the mean results of the 120
 gasoline-fueled vehicles tested in the summer phase. As in the winter data, the results given for
the vehicles tested twice are the average values from the two tests for each vehicle.  The highest
 formaldehyde emission rate in the summer phase was 131 mg/mile from a 1985 Ford Ranger
pickup. The overall average for formaldehyde from the summer phase is 9.21 mg/mile. The
maximum and the average formaldehyde emissions rates from the summer phase are about half
those of the corresponding values from winter phase.  The results for all summer vehicle tests are
                                          16

-------
given in Appendix A, Table A-4.

Table 5-2 shows the results from the three diesels tested in the winter phase.  Table 5-3 gives the
mean, minimum, maximum and median results of the  summer diesel vehicles. These data show
that the summer values of diesel fueled vehicles are also lower than those from the winter phase
as was the case for the gasoline fueled vehicles.
                 Table 5-1.  Selected Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Rates
Winter from 135 Vehicles

Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone
Mean
mg/mile
18.39
2.53
0.54
0.42
0.44
0.56
0.16
0.30
0.85
Minimum
mg/mile
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
Maximum
Median
mg/mile 1 mg/mile
210.92! 6.33
22.33! 0.86
4.22 1 0.15
3.10J 0.16
4.48
5.36
1.03
1.88
0.01 6.06
0.17
0.23
0.08
0.13
0.37
Summer from 120 Vehicles

Compound
Formaldehyde
Acejaldehyde__
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone
Mean
__jmgAnile__
9.21
1.71
0.29
0.12
0.29
0.35
0,08
0.16
0.62
Minimum
mg/mile
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
Maximum
mg/mile
131.63
20.63
7.99
2.16
4.49
4.97
1.08
2.62
5.86
Median
mg/mile
3.22
0.50
0.00
0.00
0.08
0.09
0.02
0.04
0.25
                                          17

-------
        Table 5-2 . Winter Diesel Fueled Vehicle Emissions Rates From Three Vehicles


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone
Vehicle run nos.
33060 ! 33061
mg/mile nig/mile
39.92 52.24
7.98 6,65
2.08 0.74
0.63 0.69
0.23
0,07
0.23
0.62
1.45
33062
mg/mile
34.35
6.85
0.84
0.70
0.45 0.36
0.00 0.18
0.12
0.00
0.17
0.31


Mean I Minimum
mg/mile mg/mile
42.17 34.35
7.16 6.65
1.22 0.74
0.67 0.63
0.35
0.08
0.17
0.31
1.08 1.51 1.35
0.23
0.00
0.12
0.00

Maximum
mg/mile
52.24
7.98
2.08
0.70
0.45
0.18
0.23
0.62
1.08 1.51
        Table 5-3. Summer Diesel Fueled Vehicle Emission Rates From Five Vehicles


Vehicle run nos.
9077 1 9080
Compound mg/mile (nig/mile.
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone
9.27 9.17
2.63 2.76
0.54 0.64
0.34
0.12
0.12
0.10
0.12
0.39
9085
mg/mile
20.36
6.85
1.59
0.31 1.00
0.1 ll 0.39
0.07J 0.33
0.081 0.20
9114 9125 Mean
mg/mile mg/mile mg/mile
11.69
3.15
0.55
0.43
0.09
0.04
0.13
0.12 0.28 0.14
0.43 1.00 0.60
26.59 15.42
5.73 4.22
1.66 0.99
0.48
0.25
0.25
0.27
0.23
1.02
0.51

Min
mg/mile
9.17
2.63
0.54
0.31
0.19J 0.09
0,16] 0.04
0.16J 0.08
0.18| 0.12
0.69 0.39
Max
mg/mile

Median
mg/mile
26.59 11.69
6.85 3.15
1.66 j 0.64
1.00 0.43
0.39 0.12
0.33 0.12
0.27 0.13
0.28
1.02
0.14
0.60
Speciated Hydrocarbons (Organics)

The standard EPA/SACB mobile source gas chromatographic (GC) method for speciating
organic emissions was used.  Since this method requires about two hours per run and each run
analyzes two samples, the number of vehicle gaseous emission samples was limited. Considering
the time needed to transport the collected samples from the test site and to run the analyses, only
                                         18

-------
the gaseous emission samples from the first four tests each day were collected and analyzed.
This amounted to analyzing 33 samples in the winter phase and 31 samples in the summer phase.
The results of these analyses are given in Tables 5-4 and 5-5.
                           Table 5-4, Organic Class Distribution



Alkanes
Alkenes
Aromatics
Alkynes
Alcohols/Ethers
Unknowns
Total

Alkanes
Alkenes
Aromatics
Alkynes
Alcohols/Ethers
Unknowns
Total
Counts


33
33
33
33
33
33


31
31
31
31
31
31

Distribution
%

49.59
11.74
21.70
0.92
15.68
0.38
100.00

41.46
21.99
28.71
5.69
1.65
0.49
100.00
Average
mg/mile
Winter
378.55
157.31
249.13
19.50
226.13
4.25

Summer
514.41
272.86
356.25
70.64
20.42
6.13

Minimum
mg/mile

35.81
0.84
3.30
0.00
1.47
0.06


51.36
4.41
25.77
0.00
1.35
0.89

Maximum
mg/mile

1739.69
1137.28
1853.96
189.41
4125.43
27.90


3616.33
1796.05
2195.02
951.69
159.17
33.24

Median
mg/mile

266.02
59.18
118,53
1.14
13.07
1.71


238.12
65.90
112.46
1.95
4.41
2.44

Table 5-4 presents the data by organic class with alkanes making up about half the winter organic
emissions and 41% of the summer organic emissions. Aromatics were the second most abundant
class with 22% in the winter and 29% in the summer. The largest absolute seasonal difference in
the emissions are observed with the alcohols/ethers (oxygenates) and alkenes. As seen in Table
5-5 MTBE changes from 261mg/mile in the winter emissions to only 15mg/mile in the summer
emissions. In addition ethano] was only found in the winter emissions. All the alkenes
emissions presented in Table 5-5 had a higher rate for the summer versus the winter. Similarly,
the same distribution of the aromatics is seen. The average emission rates for benzene and
toluene from the summer phase were about double that of the winter phase. Another significant
increase in the summer emission rates is that for acetylene. These increases in summer versus
winter can have several causes ranging from fuel types to vehicle distributions. One surprising
observation is that these speciated organic emission rate differences between the summer and
                                          19

-------
 winter are not reflected in the regulated emission rates. The summer and winter regulated HC
 emission rates are about the same.

                    Table 5-5, Selected Organic Species Emission Rates

Winter
Count
Ave
I ing/mile
METHANE
ETHANE
ISO-BUTANE
N-BUTANE
33 1 109,79
Min
mg/mile
33.92
27 1 21.371 2.16
31
33
ISOPENTANE 33
N-PENTANE 33

ETHYLENE
PROPYLENE
PROPADffiNE
1-BUTENE
ISO-BUTYLENE
1,3-BUTADIENE

BENZENE
TOLUENE
ETHYLBENZENE
M&P-XYLENE
0-XYLENE
1 -METHYL4-ETH YLBENZENE
1 ,2,4-TRJMETHYLBENZENE

ACETYLENE
METHYLACETYLENE
28
27
27
27
30
25

33
33
33
33
33
31
33

126 0.02
36.55
40.12
14.88
0.08
0.07
0.07
Max
mg/mile
427.11
63.77
42.79
221.52
194.15
70.43

82.52] 1.4o] 469.18
35.861 1.00 204.67
2.30| 0.00
6.77
9.62
4.62

24.20
35.41
10.06
32.40
13.76
7.80
20.11

14! 39.11
29] 1.40
I
1
MTBE 27 261,64
METHANOL 33 8.29
23.94
0.02 38.03
0.00 82,45
0.14[ 41.22

0.30
0.15
0.06
0.16
0.10
0.08
0.12

0.60
0.00

0.35
0.95
_____ ^~3i| 40ll 09?

Median
mg/mile
91.29
16,43
4.85
22.37
26.74
9.99

32.46
15.04
0.31
2.19
3.11
1.42

133.62 16.00
173.43 16.26
77.17J 4.13J
223.57 13.14!
108.94 5.49]
52,64
171.79

174.51
18.60

4122.90
58.72
11.80
5.54
6.87|

18.40
0.28

1.22
__3.79_
3.40
Summer
Count 1 Ave ! Min

31
29
31
30
31
30

29
31
25
24
28
28

31
31
31
31
31
31
31

15
23

Max
mg/mile 1 mg/miie ! mg/mile
136.56! 40.83 1 876.37
20.15
3.01
4.42 63.77
0.01 16.16
12.83 0.14 89.48
64.26 1.42 540.01
25.57] 0.51 1 204.30

117.76
46.68
2.53
11.58
16.92
7.82

47,97
76.25
16.14
53.53
20.90
11.66
23.45

133.56
4.04


1.55 676.51
0.37
0.01
0,01
0.03
0.02

0-85
1.00
0.42
1.44
0.59
0.33
0.82

1.07
0.01

271.21
15.75
58.74
158.96
58.08

290,94
504,93
95.72
337.97
138.65
67.84
175.14

921.63
Median
_tng/tajle_
84.88
16.35
1.40
4.26
22.51
9.12

40.55
11.78
0.50
2.73
4.34
1,46

21.72
26.17
4.37
15,14
5.77
3.91
7.50

4.13
25.56J 0,54

3l| 15.31! 1.35J 102.32! 4.04
1 	 22
._J?^LL^^ 0-93
__j ^| ~~~^y ND
 1 ND None Detected
More than 300 GC peaks were measured in all 64 samples. The database for these analyses is
too large to be included in this report but can be obtained from EPA/NERL/SACB laboratory in
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. One compound not given in Table 5-5  is propane. It
was not detected in the winter samples and was found in only about half of the summer samples.
This is probably due to the Reid vapor pressure adjustments.  One other compound of note is that
no ethanol was found in the summer samples.
                                         20

-------
Elemental Composition

The Teflon samples used for weighing were also submitted for X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
analyses to determine the elemental composition of the collected particulate emissions. The XRF
data reported in this study are from analyses done at EPA/RTP.  A subset of the samples are also
being analyzed by Desert Research Institute (DRT) in Reno, Nevada. These data will be provided
later in the DRI report. Sulfur and zinc were found in most samples. Calcium was detected in
about 60% of the samples, iron, in about one third of the samples, and phosphorus, in about one
fourth of the samples. The zinc and phosphorus are oil-additive derived, while the sulfur is fuel-
derived.

Other Analyses

Besides the Teflon filter collected to determine the particulate emission rate, the regulated
emission measurements, the aldehyde and ketone cartridge samples, and the organic gaseous
samples, additional quartz filters and PUF/XAD samples were taken. The quartz filter samples
are being analyzed for "elemental" and "organic" carbon, EC and OC. The PUF/XAD samples
are being analyzed for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAHs, oxy-PAHs, and
hopanes and steranes. These analyses are being performed by DRI and the results will be given
later in a report from them. Some extraction analyses will also be done on the quartz filters at a
later date.
                                         21

-------
                                      Disclaimer

The information in this document has been funded wholly or in part by the United States
Environmental Protection Agency through Contract 68-D5-1056 to CAVTC.  It has been
subjected to Agency review and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or
commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
                                      References
1.      Sagebiel, J.,et al,"PM-l0 Exhaust Samples Collected during M-240 Dynamometer tests
       of In-Service Vehicles in Nevada," Environ. Set. and Technol, 31, 75 - 83,1997.

2.      Lawson, D. R., et al, "Program for the Use of Remote Sensing Devices to Detect High-
       Emitting Vehicles," Final Report to the South Coast Air Quality Management District,
       Diamond Bar, CA, 1996.

3.      Cadle, S. H., et al, "Particulate Emission Rates from In-Use High-Emitting Vehicles
       Recruited in Orange County, California," Environ, Sci. and Technol., 31, 3405-3412,
       1997.

4.      Mulawa, P. A., et al, "Effect of Ambient Temperature and E-10 Fuel on Primary Exhaust
       Particulate Matter Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles," Environ. Sci. and Technol., 31,
       1302-1307,1997.

5.      Cadle, S. H., et al, "Measurement of Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from In-Use
       Light-Duty Motor Vehicles in the Denver Colorado Area," CRC Project E-24-1 Final
       Report, 1998.

6.      Cadle, S. H., et al, "Composition of Light-Duty Motor Vehicle Exhaust Particulate Matter
       in the Denver, Colorado Area," Environ. Sci. and Technol., 33, 2328-2339, 1999.

7.      Cadle, S. H., et al., "Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from In-Use Passenger
       Vehicles Recruited in Three Locations," SAE 99FL-215,1999.

8.      Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 86, U.S. Government Printing Office,
       Washington, DC, 1994.

9.      Tejada, S., "Evaluation of Silica Gel Cartridges Coated in situ with Acidified 2,4
       Dinitrophenylhydrazine for Sampling Aldehydes and Ketones in Air." Intern. J. Environ.
       Anal. Chem. 26:167(1986).
                                          22

-------
                  APPENDIX A




Table A-l.  Run Number, Vehicle ID and Regulated PM Data
Table A-l . Summer Phase, Gasoline Vehicles
RUN
9000
9001
9002
9003
9004
9005
9006
9007
9008
9009
9010
9011
9012
9013
9014
9015
9016
9017
9018*
9020
9021
9022
9023
9024
9025
9026
9027*
9029
9030
9031
9032
YEAR
1992
1992
1992
1993
1992
1990
1987
1990
1987
1991
1989
1985
1994
1987
1980
1993
1995
1994
1988
1992
1989
1995
1986
1995
1992
1989
1987
1993
1982
1995
1996
STYLE
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
VAN
SUV
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
VAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
VAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
WAGON
WAGON
PICKUP
PICKUP
SUV
VAN
SEDAN
VAN
SEDAN
SUV
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
MAKE
FORD
MAZDA
HONDA
MERC
ISUZU
GEO
AUDI
FORD
CHEVY
HONDA
TOYOTA
HONDA
FORD
MAZDA
DODGE
PLYMOUTH
DODGE
BUICK
FORD
OLDS
CHEV
FORD
FORD
MERC
NISSAN
DODGE
CHEV
ISUZU
OLDS
SATURN
HONDA
MODEL
TAURUS
626.00
CIVIC
VILLAGER
RODEO
PRIZM
QUATTRO
F250
ASTROVAN
CIVIC
COROLLA
PRELUDE
ESCORT
626.00
OMNI
VOYAGER
DAKOTA
CENTURY
ESCORT
CUT CIERRA
1500.00
RANGER
BRONCOII
VILLAGER
SENTRA
CARAVAN
CELEBRITY
RODEO
CUTLASS
SL
ACCORD
HC
g/mile
0.13
1.02
1.18
0.47
0.80
0.20
0.20
1.50
0.80
0.46
0.23
0.19
0.10
0.21
1.66
0.20
0.28
0.02
0.16
0.17
0.57
0.26
0.50
0.06
0.30
1.01
0.46
0.40
1.81
0.26
0.16
CO
g/mile
5.70
2.41
8.62
8.53
77.10
2.62
2.13
19.06
7.74
14.63
7.25
4.32
2.86
7.14
60.21
4.83
6.23
0.34
3.73
0.54
7.99
5.43
8.09
1.58
3.28
8.48
7.28
7.11
24.95
2.55
0.61
NOX
g/mile
1.03
2.24
5.72
0.96
1.37
1.49
0.86
4.26
3.90
2.04
1.23
2.62
0.74
0.86
2.22
1.55
2.18
0.93
0.47
1.26
1.02
1.18
3.66
0.53
1.10
2.63
1.98
2.25
4.03
0.36
0.10
CO2
g/mile
412.36
316.93
311.81
427.13
584.55
296.94
310.97
493.66
364.17
197.16
298.50
289.30
290.19
263.86
267.86
391.43
479.46
451.04
343.46
363.42
456.77
347.69
449.68
415.04
281.14
374.51
315.98
466.52
365.72
339.73
338.70
FE
mi/gal
20.61
22.66
21.81
18.75
11.66
28.15
27.00
14.13
20.54
35.20
27.23
28.71
29.41
30.62
18.59
21.47
17.43
19.57
24.618
23.60
17.44
23.69
17.85
21.04
28.91
19.38
24.710
17.55
16.72
24.50
25.28
PM10
mg/mile
2.20
7.71
7.61
1.29
2.60
6.80
1.37
13.48

4.74
21.93
2.17
12.17
21.09
4.59
6.35
3.45
3.93
3.64
3.42
3.56
3.21
9.05
1.09
2.17
300.07
3.49
12.55
38.45
3.95
3.33
PM2.5
mg/mile







33.56




19.50




7.41



4.71


3.68






Odometer
mile
72400
106000
137268
210000
99837
92876
148000
154000
163000
155000
151000
165000
96582
187000
198000
86300
52100
85000
62000
73004
66859
86500
115000
68000
97000
117000
142000
85000
138000
38000
67720
Temp.
op
100
78
73
74
74
74
73
70
70
70
71
70
69
70
73
73
73
72
72
73
71
72
73
75
76
76
77
78
80
80
81
                       A-l

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A-l. Summer Phase, Gasoline Vehicles
RUN
9033
9034
9035
9036
9037
9038
9039
9040
9041
9042
9043
9044
9045
9046
9047*
9049
9050
9051
9052
9053
9054
9055
9056
9057
9058
9059
9060
9061
9062
9063*
9065
9066
9067
YEAR
1989
1996
1993
1986
1993
1994
1996
1982
1990
1986
1995
1993
1993
1992
1986
1993
1995
1997
1986
1985
1989
1984
1986
1990
1977
1987
1991
1994
1997
1987
1985
1995
1991
STYLE
SUV
VAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SUV
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
WAGON
MAKE
FORD
PLYMOUTH
CHEVY
TOYOTA
FORD
PLYMOUTH
INFINITI
HONDA
EAGLE
FORD
CHEVY
FORD
M1TS
NISSAN
BU1CK
HONDA
FORD
OLDS
ACURA
HONDA
SUBARU
CHYRSLER
HONDA
BMW
CHEVY
CHEVY
VOLVO
FORD
FORD
TOYOTA
BUICK
CHRYSLER
OLDS
MODEL
BRONCOII
VOYAGER
S10
CAMRY
ESCORT
ACCLAIM
130
ACCORD
SUMMIT
F150
LUMINA
EXPLORER
ECLIPSE
SENTRA
CENTURY
ACCORD
RANGER
ACHIEVA
LEGEND
ACCORD
GL
LEBARON
ACCORD
5251
ELCAMINO
CELEBRITY
740.00
F150
ESCORT
PICKUP
RIVIERA
CIRRUS
CRUISER
HC
g/mile
0.63
0.05
0.22
0.29
0.39
0.20
0.18
0.92
0.97
0.71
0.26
0.10
0.40
0.22
0.51
0.07
0.12
0.03
0.27
1.02
0.25
1.69
0.45
0.06
1.59
0.43
0.15
0.44
0.17
0.31
0.98
0.05
0.74
CO
g/mile
9.33
0.58
3.09
2.02
2.55
4.09
0.22
22.96
8.05
4.02
2.47
3.74
10.28
2.41
6.95
0.98
6.74
0.68
4.53
54.00
3.16
54.30
4.83
0.81
67.92
2.94
0.77
3.34
2.52
0.48
21.98
0.35
23.84
NOX
g/mile
1.59
0.44
1.01
0.78
1.19
0.92
0.31
0.03
3.27
4.38
0.47
1.05
0.66
1.09
3.69
1.19
1.48
0.67
1.57
1. 01
0.79
3.31
0.93
1.60
2.52
0.82
0.80
1.69
0.80
0.91
0.83
0.26
0.67
CO2
g/mile
371.49
446.05
364.49
289.64
290.67
338.36
305.69
271.54
261.50
515.39
300.66
404.51
370.03
261.57
331.23
318.11
377.62
331.45
352.27
194.38
264.10
319.90
324.04
346.52
569.96
349.88
339.73
436.36
280.51
299.78
435.66
387.82
389.59
FE
mi/gal
20.63
19.69
23.06
28.36
27.56
24.72
27.82
23.90
26.00
15.54
27.51
21.25
21.42
31.57
23.62
27.35
22.38
26.49
23.47
25.37
30.95
16.99
24.45
25.18
11.27
23.07
25.26
18.78
29.93
22.576
16.48
22.65
18.55
PM10
mg/mile
3.33
16.59
3.85

0.86
11.38

42.35
18.68
12.26
5.50
4.87
15.51
2.34
4.08

4.65
3.57
4.64
0.83
2.77
60.91
5.88
1.92
8.50
2.55
3.51
7.66
0.84
3.75
10.21
2.78
12.15
PM2.5
mg/mile

14.59


2.54


30.76








1.71



3.25

2.13










Odometer
mile
1 10000
38159
67000
133848
66580
77000
29000
221000
95000
97000
53000
79000
67000
38000
198000
107000
42000
53000
146000
115000
59900
179000
127400
130000
257000
157000
77000
63000
17000
40000
152798
51000
142000
Temp.
F
82

71
75
75
76
78
78
79
80
80
80
81
82
83
83
83
84
75
76
77
76
75
77
78
79
81
82
82
82
84
77
77
    A-2

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A-l. Summer Phase, Gasoline Vehicles
RUN
9068
9069
9070*
9072
9073
9074
9075
9076
9078
9079
9081
9082
9083
9084
9086
9087
9088
9089
9090
9091*
9093
9094
9095
9096
9097
9098
9099
9100
9101
9102
9103
9104
9105
YEAR
1994
1988
1992
1992
1997
1989
1990
1991
1987
1995
1985
1992
1986
1987
1997
1988
1988
1995
1994
1987
1996
1988
1985
1980
1991
1988
1984
1996
1994
1994
1990
1992
1994
STYLE
SEDAN
SEDAN
SUV
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
VAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
VAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
VAN
VAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
MAKE
HONDA
FORD
CHEV
CHRYSLER
MERC
HONDA
NISSAN
ACURA
NISSAN
CHEV
PONTIAC
CHRYSLER
MAZDA
HONDA
TOYOTA
FORD
HONDA
BUICK
DODGE
CHEVY
HONDA
PLYMOUTH
CHEVY
PONTIAC
CHEVY
CHRYSLER
NISSAN
DODGE
MAZDA
DODGE
DODGE
TOYOTA
TOYOTA
MODEL
ACCORD
TEMPO
SI 0 BLAZER
NEW YORKER
SABLE
ACCORD
PICKUP
LEDGEND
SENTRA
CORSICA
6000.00
LE BARON
626.00
ACCORD
CAMRY
RANGER
ACCORD
LE SABRE
CARAVAN
ELCAMINO
ACCORD
VOYAGER
CIO
GRAND PRIX
S10
LE BARON
STANZA
STRATUS
626.00
RAM350
CARAVAN
CAMRY
CAMRY
HC
g/mile
0.13
0.11
0.34
0.29
0.21
0.06
0.63
0.14
0.27
0.19
0.38
0.28
0.54
0.32
0.21
0.74
0.25
0.16
0.16
1.18
0.15
5.76
3.92
2.28
0.79
0.36
0.27
0.24
0.37
0.87
0.53
0.30
0.05
CO
g/mile
2.25
1.79
6.14
3.81
1.97
0.37
10.98
1.97
9.54
3.55
7.41
4.99
6.55
8.57
1.97
12.89
4.23
0.47
2.48
64.31
0.98
320.18
170.96
11.09
15.06
8.72
3.01
14.04
6.06
16.10
8.57
3.71
4.55
NOX
g/mile
0.27
1.73
1.49
2.68
1.09
2.66
2.24
1.69
1.37
0.88
4.73
3.25
2.25
2.06
0.47
1.97
2.21
0.19
0.60
3.150
0.41
0.96
1.70
3.53
1.59
3.81
1.42
1.55
3.07
2.48
5.66
1.05
0.57
C02
g/mile
354.18
250.43
359.66
435.60
438.95
324.89
336.62
414.99
315.72
364.17
243.87
392.12
358.58
295.14
445.92
409.32
345.80j
423.49
423.41
503.68
413.05
288.76
485.97
522.06
390.43
403.50
340.33
419.40
373.20
540.44
498.72
396.50
368.74
FE
mi/ gal
24.18
33.97
22.58
19.21
19.41
26.91
22.32
20.73
25.38
23.15
31.43
21.15
21.82
26.83
19.12
18.44
24.00
20.37
20.25
12.94
20.86
7.45
8.65
12.73
18.91
20.05
24.40
19.36
21.71
14.17
16.16
20.97
23.38
PM10
mg/mile
5.58
1.99
3.70
0.43
2.57
2.52
9.49
0.43
6.04
1.71
8.54
3.46
9.62
0.85
4.44
4.56
1.48
2.02
1.26
15.39

0.64
96.95
22.80
1.09
3.60
3.27
0.43
2.12
6.88
9.16
2.16

PM2.5
mg/mile






1.07




1.47












4.43

2.22


4.11


0.70
Odometer
mile
69000
152000
125000
58000
32973
145000
182000
92000
76337
63000
188000
130000
189000
215000
19000
137000
180000
51203
115000
295000
53000
135000
95780
190228
132000
147000
165000
69000
105000
100883
156000
140000
65000
Temp.
op
78
78
78
80
79
80
81
82
85
86
79
79
80
80
82
82
87
88
88
89
90
91
77
77
76
77
77
77
78
78
78
78
79
    A-3

-------
                                                   APPENDIX A
Table A-l. Summer Phase, Gasoline Vehicles
RUN
9106
9107
9108
9109
9110
9111
9112
9113
9115
9116
9117
9118
9119
9120
9121
9122
9123
9124
9126
9127
9128
9129
9130
YEAR
1988
1988
1985
1988
1978
1997
1995
1993
1978
1985
1990
1996
1992
1985
1997
1991
1981
1987
1989
1997
1994
1995
1991
STYLE
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SUV
WAGON
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
PICKUP
PICKUP
SUV
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
MAKE
TOYOTA
NISSAN
MERC
ISUZU
FORD
FORD
CHEVY
GMC
FORD
FORD
TOYOTA
DODGE
BUICK
FORD
BUICK
HONDA
FORD
VOLVO
HONDA
FORD
BUICK
ACURA
HONDA
MODEL
CAMRY
MAXIMA
MARQUIS
TROOPER
LTD
PROBE
CAPRICE
SONOMA
COURIER
F150
4RUNNER
NEON
LESABRE
RANGER
LESABRE
ACCORD
F150
240.00
ACCORD
CONTOUR
PARK AVENUE
INTEGRA
ACCORD
HC
g/mile
0.51
0.26
0.48
0.73
1.98
0.16
0.13
0.85
4.80
7.11
0.38
0.22
0.35
1.60
0.17
0.35
1.37
0.44
0.14
0.20
0.04
0.28
0.12
CO
g/mile
3.00
5.32
4.17
19.08
78.86
0.88
3.49
11.64
51.98
161.74
4.61
0.62
10.73
17.43
0.18
3.27
32.83
6.80
10.45
5.37
0.95
2.61
2.40
NOX
g/mile
1.72
2.44
2.00
7.76
1.24
0.27
1.61
1.11
2.66
1.10
1.62
0.75
1.11
8.23
0.65
2.46
6.41
6.43
1.59
0.47
0.20
0.63
2.10
CO2
g/mile
358.22
449.55
397.60
442.24
546.67
407.71
531.02
391.33
372.94
344.55
498.77
346.00
428.43
455.11
442.61
365.48
333.47
460.68
236.60
408.77
443.55
418.17
338.58
FE
mi/gal
22.26
18.64
20.29
16.97
10.98
21.10
16.26
18.92
11.28
8.13
16.65
24.50
18.89
14.95
19.49
22.45
18.50
17.67
33.78
20.56
19.79
20.09
25.29
PM10
mg/mile
17.20

13.34
3.47
3.18


1.47
6.32
19.61
11.07
0.66

31.39
2.77
1.95
5.54
2.13
0.42
3.52
0.82

1.25
PM2.5
mg/mile
















1.08






Odometer
mile
189000
160000
91000
136000
110000
22000
80000
93600
178000
75469
137000
24000
76583
87000
45000
138123
175000
137000
141000
19000
39500
33000
185000
Temp.
F
80
80
80
80
80
80
81
81
79
80
80
80
80
80
78
79
79
83
83
83
83
82
83
* Average of two runs
                                                         A-4

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A-l. Winter Phase, Gasoline Vehicles
RUN
33041
33043
33045
33047
33049
33051
33052
33053
33054
33055
33056
33057
33058
33059
99001
99002
99003
99004
99005
99006*
99008
99009
99025
99026
99027
99028
99029*
99030
99031
99032
99033
99034*
YEAR
1977
1987
1984
1979
1985
1992
1995
1991
1989
1985
1996
1992
1982
1994
1993
1995
1982
1982
1992
1996
1982
1979
1995
1995
1984
1974
1988
1993
1984
1991
1995
1996
STYLE
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
PICKUP
PICKUP
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SUV
SEDAN
PICKUP
MINFVAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
SUV
PICKUP
SUV
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SUV
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
MINIVAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
MAKE
CHEVY
CHEVY
CHRYSLER
FORD
FORD
DODGE
OLDS
ACURA
NISSAN
SAAB
NISSAN
CHEVY
CHEVY
MAZDA
PLYMOUTH
BMW
FORD
TOYOTA
BU1CK
FORD
CHEVY
JEEP
MAZDA
NISSAN
NISSAN
TOYOTA
PONTIAC
FORD
OLDSMOBILE
DODGE
FORD
CHEVY

MODEL
CAPRICE
C10DELUX
LEBARON
F100 EXPLORER
RANGER
DAKOTA
ACHIEVA
INTEGRA
MAXIMA
900S
MAXIMA
S10 BLAZER
CAPRICE
B3000
VOYAGER
3181
F150
CRESSIDA
SKYLARK
EXPLORER
S10
CJ5
PROTEGE
MAXIMA
PULSAR
LANDCRUISER
FIREBIRD
RANGER
CUTLASS
CARAVAN
ESCORT
1500
HC
g/mile
3.19
1.57
1.87
5.11
3.85
1.70
0.35
0.28
0.18
0.41
0.09
0.69
1.67
0.50
0.36
0.06
2.80
0.81
2.36
0.05
1.93
2.98
0.19
0.39
1.35
5.75
0.87
0.11
1.36
2.49
0.15
0.17
CO
g/mile
49.02
7.55
32.04
77.34
30.88
25.98
5.82
7.55
3.56
8.92
0.95
12.84
37.23
7.78
5.62
2.11
69.05
10.25
91.10
0.98
37.74
18.91
4.61
6.34
13.82
29.06
7.92
2.18
20.92
17.36
5.44
1.26
NOX
g/mile
4.36
3.23
2.61
2.03
1.61
5.95
0.76
1.00
0.76
2.29
0.23
0.65
4.70
1.65
1.61
0.09
3.24
3.56
0.71
0.98
4.25
4.40
0.90
1.35
3.16
3.65
0.92
0.61
2.76
8.39
1.32
0.31
CO2
g/mile
440.24
465.37
330.95
309.47
315.98
576.99
375.81
314.20
347.05
354.37
363.46
369.40
460.63
417.30
510.46
412.86
594.51
406.23
290.35
526.25
341.65
470.07
259.85
367.95
310.58
447.98
413.68
446.71
443.03
497.27
343.87
501.24
FE
mi/gal
16.33
17.86
22.24
19.27
22.87
13.82
22.30
26.33
24.37
23.29
23.56
21.98
16.42
19.97
16.30
21.08
9.89
18.54
14.87
16.70
16.59
12.57
31.64
21.89
20.85
9.95
18.23
19.36
15.56
12.74
24.45
17.35
PM10
mg/mile
23.38
0.98
20.29
32.46
18.08
8.65
5.27
33.88
9.54
2.26
3.29
48.01
11.41
4.28
38.44
11.22
451.87
8.06
25.77
36.23
25.86
104.09

2.67
26.77
55.78
3.73
4.03
3.24
9.21
4.33
2.12
PM2.5
mg/mile






















1.91





4.84



Odometer
mile
170274
97196
165385
168723
47710
88389
70024
170000
135411
205743
'84862
119626
80522
52823
78777
102048
127341
165385
125289
41278
263756
35470
72803
86878
139799
117848
179529
55042
125332
121293
58179
79081
Temp.
op
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
35
69
68
71
72
71
73
72
72
67
63
64
64
62
64
66
68
70
71
    A-5

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A- 1. Winter Phase, Gasoline Vehicles
RUN
99035*
99036
99037
99038
99039
99040*
99041
99042
99043
99044
99045*
99046*
99047
99048
99049
99050
99051*
99052
99053
99054
99055*
99056*
99057
99058
99059
99060*
99061
99062
99063*
99064
99065
99066*
YEAR
1975
1997
1986
1988
1989
1990
1992
1979
1994
1994
1987
1985
1989
1996
1987
1989
1991
1993
1987
1995
1990
1986
1993
1997
1989
1990
1988
1994
1987
1997
1993
1993
STYLE
SUV
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
MINIVAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SUV
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
MINIVAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SUV
MAKE
FORD
SATURN
FORD
PONTIAC
HONDA
FORD
OLDS
OLDS
FORD
FORD
HONDA
CHEVY
FORD
TOYOTA
CHEVY
CADILLAC
ACURA
JEEP
TOYOTA
SATURN
OLDS
TOYOTA
FORD
DODGE
MAZDA
TOYOTA
VW
DODGE
DODGE
TOYOTA
ACURA
ISUZU
MODEL
BRONCO
GL
MUSTANG
GRANDAM
ACCORD
F150
CUTLASS CIERA
NINETY-EIGHT
ESCORT
TAURUS
PRELUDE
SILVERADO 10
AEROSTAR
AVALON
CAPRICE
DEVILLE
LEGEND
CHEROKEE
CELICA
GL
NINETY-EIGHT
CELICA
MUSTANG
INTREPID
626
CAMRY
JETTA
CARAVAN
OMNI
CAMRY
INTEGRA
RODEO
HC
g/mile
9.84
0.27
0.88
0.50
0.74
0.87
0.22
3.25
0.55
0.26
0.29
0.74
0.89
0.31
0.47
0.45
0.33
0.61
0.39
0.89
0.31
0.72
0.60
0.30
0.30
0.23
0.64
0.14
0.06
0.32
0.58
0.36
CO
g/mile
173.07
2.03
4.41
6.73
5.82
5.11
1.64
20.43
4.23
2.29
2.50
2.23
13.56
1.00
7.40
10.57
2.41
5.47
3.30
9.78
6.38
7.73
4.26
2.80
2.95
5.57
6.83
2.82
0.46
2.51
6.98
8.22
NOX
g/mile
3.88
0.27
1.25
6.12
1.45
1.51
1.89
4.53
1.10
0.48
2.75
2.01
1.62
0.60
1.30
2.18
0.11
1.70
1.02
0.68
1.80
0.81
1.89
0.81
0.59
0.93
1.59
0.36
5.02
0.33
0.71
2.90
C02
g/mile
480.66
319.45
373.62
351.64
314.03
461.89
419.91
563.63
319.21
409.77
308.22
663.48
420.94
412.20
441.39
456.36
409.94
421.77
288.10
301.83
492.45
334.71
401.50
432.35
322.98
330.26
278.07
427.30
397.92
409.48
330.59
508.78
FE
mi/gal
6.19
25.99
20.10
22.35
23.70
16.77
20.25
10.81
24.35
20.56
26.70
12.35
17.59
20.37
18.27
17.59
20.35
18.76
27.67
23.43
16.94
22.39
19.71
19.38
25.43
24.99
26.63
20.09
22.05
20.36
23.24
16.23
PM10
mg/mile
75.61
3.39
2.77
3.90
2.15
18.71
3.54
3.55
7.23
6.28
1.37
150.13
5.44
3.68
5.88
7.40
1.9
6.19
2.84
15.20
3.1
2.44
10.55
1.19
2.55

3.88
1.18
78.26
2.71
4.70
5.88
PM2.5
mg/mile


5.01

6.30

4.43
3.49

2.99



14.75

9.57

7.87

23.15



0.34



2.79
89.57

10.28

Odometer
mile
123612
25332
14480
165705
146935
86724
57938
84085
62580
49545
106074
100545
104171
41633
80765
1 10803
58738
89786
119301
68316
69940
187611
66958
60656
104657
162674
111662
22319
54815
31345
40725
77114
Temp.
op
70
71
71
71
71
72
70
69
50
53
53
55
55
56
57
58
59
60
62
63
62
61
68
67
66
67
65
68
60
60
61
61
    A-6

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A-l. Winter Phase, Gasoline Vehicles
RUN
99067
99068
99069
99070*
99071*
99072
99073
99074
99075
99076*
99077
99078
99079
99080
99081*
99082*
99083
99084
99085
99086*
99087
99088
99089
99090*
99091*
99092
99093
99094
99095
99096*
99097
99098
YEAR
1985
1996
1979
1984
1993
1993
1986
1991
1997
1985
1988
1997
1996
1991
1994
1993
1980
1985
1984
1995
1993
1991
1992
1985
1989
1996
1984
1987
1990
1987
1993
1984
STYLE
SEDAN
PICKUP
PICKUP
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
MINIVAN
SEDAN
SUV
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SUV
PICKUP
PICKUP
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
VAN
SEDAN
MINIVAN
PICKUP
MAKE
OLDS
FORD
CHEVY
CHEVY
CHEVY
FORD
OLDS
FORD
FORD
FORD
HONDA
FORD
CMC
DODGE
BU1CK
FORD
BMW
BUICK
NISSAN
FORD
NISSAN
CHEVY
HONDA
FORD
FORD
TOYOTA
VW
FORD
FORD
TOYOTA
DODGE
FORD
MODEL
CUTLASS
SUPREME
RANGER
LUV
CD20
CAVALIER
TAURUS
CUTLASS C1ERA
ESCORT
TAURUS
ESCORT
CIVIC
MUSTANG
SONOMA
CARAVAN
LESABRE
EXPLORER
3201
LESABRE
300ZX
EXPLORER
0
1500
CIVIC
F150
PROBE
T100
RABBIT
MUSTANG
ECONOLINE
CELICA
CARAVAN
RANGER
HC
g/mile
3.65
0.28
1.65
5.48
0.25
0.24
0.54
1.11
0.17
2.34
1.87
0.38
0.25
1.44
0.03
0.23
0.77
0.63
0.67
0.30
0.40
1.80
0.36
5.85
0.21
0.19
1.10
0.90
2.40
1.68
0.31
2.28
CO
g/mile
129.27
0.80
25.59
105.25
3.82
2.80
7.21
6.45
1.77
15.89
9.80
3.61
2.98
7.92
1.10
4.43
4.86
18.99
5.55
5.18
4.47
21.09
13.03
77.47
2.99
0.94
8.61
1.25
14.91
8.42
4.97
12.13
NOX
g/mile
1.15
0.78
3.47
2.61
0.96
1.29
1.50
4.60
0.83
0.58
5.12
0.39
0.66
3.32
0.57
1.25
1.60
2.96
2.90
1.25
0.97
2.31
0.77
3.87
0.49
1.10
2.82
2.17
6.10
3.74
4.00
2.04
CO2
g/mile
473.79
425.48
373.08
620.73
313.56
427.75
403.25
306.45
459.26
141.58
295.65
331.40
322.23
420.72
497.48
489.13
316.30
566.15
315.63
401.69
335.06
489.76
253.44
525.20
378.75
442.07
304.05
425.85
485.07
254.78
459.43
305.29
FE
mi/gal
9.54
19.87
16.82
7.62
26.32
19.76
19.63
22.53
18.73
27.02
20.13
24.41
25.76
16.64
17.70
17.35
23.53
13.86
23.92
20.60
24.00
13.71
29.68
8.44
22.29
19.42
22.51
18.09
13.15
23.08
18.15
18.39
PM10
mg/mile
60.20
4.96
11.44
32.23
2.13
5.07
181.91
9.83
1.13
17.11
122.81
3.06
3.98
245.68
21.52
23.78
38.00
21.13
5.81
2.18
1.17
2.84
2.12
29.03
5.95
3.45
5.05
5.42
34.93
25.68
7.51
17.59
PM2.5
mg/mile
64.98

15.19

3.77

202.28

3.18

147.09

2.89

?.0.6
24.89

19.41

1.34

3.21

26.62

7.46

7.28

24.73

22.52
Odometer
mile
88255
40653
189124
210635
147650
72166
90000
158368
60000
97034
213395
20956
24413
134760
51420
88387
160078
207864
273395
54693
54502
76622
122933
123952
85653
62825
139000
26807
162580
174000
89571
86478
Temp.
op
61
62
63
62
64
64
66
65
65
64
65
66
67
32
58
60
60
65
67
68
72
70
74
75
75
75
78
61
63
64
65
65
    A-7

-------
                                                    APPENDIX A
Table A-l. Winter Phase, Gasoline Vehicles
RUN
99099
99100*
99101*
99102
99103
99104
99105
99106*
99107
99108
99109
99110*
99111*
99112
99113
99114
99115
99116*
99117
99118
99119
99120*
99121*
YEAR
1995
1993
1992
1995
1988
1990
1992
1986
1991
1989
1988
1987
1987
1996
1991
1965
1984
1995
1985
1986
1983
1996
1992
STYLE
SEDAN
PICKUP
SEDAN
MINIVAN
MINIVAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
PICKUP
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
VAN
MINIVAN
MINIVAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
MINIVAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
SEDAN
MAKE
FORD
FORD
FORD
FORD
PLYMOUTH
BMW
OLDS
FORD
FORD
TOYOTA
TOYOTA
PLYMOUTH
CHEVY
PLYMOUTH
DODGE
PLYMOUTH
HONDA
FORD
CHEVY
TOYOTA
HONDA
FORD
BUICK
MODEL
CONTOUR
F150
TEMPO
WINDSTAR
VOYAGER
5351
CUTLASS C1ERA
RANGER
RANGER
CAMRY
CELICA
HORIZON
20
VOYAGER
CARAVAN
BARRACUDA
CIVIC
WINDSTAR
MONTE CARLO
TERCEL
CIVIC
MUSTANG
LESABRE
HC
g/mile
0.08
0.34
0.17
0.15
0.77
0.13
0.62
1.22
0.83
0.25
0.80
1.25
0.28
0.31
0.37
4.90
0.80
0.08
0.83
0.50
0.78
0.18
0.63
CO
g/mile
2.23
0.79
1.34
1.03
9.52
2.08
7.08
7.82
6.15
2.82
7.24
23.43
3.49
2.61
6.71
75.31
4.53
1.93
7.13
5.44
0.86
2.66
19.48
NOX
g/mile
0.77
1.35
2.06
0.53
4.15
0.34
1.75
4.13
1.40
0.74
2.95
0.95
1.35
0.73
1.70
3.44
3.82
0.66
4.66
3.49
5.49
0.72
1.52
CO2
g/mile
421.83
547.56
395.08
455.38
451.77
480.13
467.36
371.85
391.14
284.58
352.38
330.39
400.30
431.90
431.29
372.81
262.71
430.57
399.48
253.82
243.46
357.09
414.55
FE
mi/gal
20.58
15.50
21.70
18.96
17.05
18.01
17.00
18.99
19.34
28.98
21.17
19.61
20.87
19.39
18.97
10.69
27.25
20.23
18.95
29.84
29.69
23.74
18.18
PM10
mg/mile
10.47
16.87
15.92
2.99
13.33
3.20
5.96
6.37
2.59
3.64
19.64
53.72
3.25
2.74
6.61
48.01
279.70
15.44
13.78
22.13
246.38
2.98
2.85
PM2.5
mg/mile
13.47

17.06

12.96

8.84

2.83

23.04

3.5

5.09

289.45
1.5
15.04

269.68

3.84
Odometer
mile
106226
75596
105068
49395
174174
90304
113205
60803
55509
104938
178882
135898
64189
62838
128173
54293
214959
62249
149569
167000
95088
51602
0
Temp.
F
67
68
70
70
71
73
73
73
74
74
73
60
66
64
66
73
71
70
79
79
79
80
80
11 Average of two runs
                                                         A-8

-------
                       APPENDIX A




Table A-2. Diesel Model Year, Style, Make,, and Regulated PM Data
RUN
YEAR
STYLE
MAKE
MODEL

33060
33061
33062
1983
1977
1980
PICKUP
SEDAN
WAGON
Chevy
Mercedes
VW
Scottsdale
240D
Dasher

9077
9080
9085
9114
9125
1983
1985
1981
1989
1982
SEDAN
WAGON
PICKUP
SEDAN
SEDAN
Mercedes
Mercedes
VW
VW
AUDI
300D
300SD
PICKUP
JETTA
4000
HC
g/mile
CO
g/mile
NOX
g/mile
CO2
g/mile
FE
mi/gal
PM10
mg/mile
PM2.5
mg/mile
Odometer
mile
Temp.
F
Winter Phase
0.16
0.17
0.45
1.27
1.32
2.06
1.77
1.67
0.98
501.79
422.41
275.63
19.80
23.49
35.62
228.48
450.20
448.47



118862
173963
168398
35
35
35
Summer Phase
0.18
0.23
0.48
0.06
0.26
1.44
1.11
2.39
1.00
5.18
1.72
1.92
1.00
0.98
2.04
400.69
414.41
318.38
266.49
286.34
24.00
23.29
30.44
36.40
33.51
895.60
253.92
429.86
135.12
720.96
580.18




217000
187000
104317
147000
160000
83
86
81
79
83
                            A-9

-------
                                            APPENDIX A
     i   i   i
                        0    100  200  300
                                      I	I	I	I    i_
                                                    10  20  30  40  50
                                                     L	  J	I	I	|
                                                                                 I	I	I	|	I
            HC
                oo
                                o
                               o
                                            o
                                            o
                                               O  o
                                       #o  
                                     -a$>   o
                                     ^~     
                                                                                          -8
                                                                                          -6
                                                                                          -4
                                                                                          -2
                                                                                          -o
 50-
 40-
 30-
 20-
 10-
                                   o
                                   o  o
o"o     o
                    0
                                                            FE
                                                                             o   o
                                                                             O  o
                                             i<9
     o
     o
                                     o
                                      o
                                                               O   O  o O
                                                                                        PM10
                                               >o  o
                                                                o;L o   o
                                                                           00  O
                                                                                      -800
                                                                                      -600
                                                                                      -400
                                                                                      -200
                                                                                      -0
     T  I    1   I   \   \
     0  2   4   6   8  10
                        \     \
                                      I     I    i    I   1    I    1    I    1    I     \
                                  02468
                                                                    0  200 400 600 800
          Figure A-l. Scatter Plot Correlation of Regulated and PM10 Emissions and Fuel Economy

                                                 A-10

-------
                    APPENDIX A




Table A-3. Winter Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data
Table A-3. Winter Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data

Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
99001
mg/mile
2.66
0.86
0
0.17
0.19
0.26
0.13
0.06
0.27

99016
mg/mile
1.52
0.36
0.12
0.03
0.1
0.14
0
0
0.23

99031
mg/mile
11.13
3.65
0.17
0.36
0.51
0.65
0.18
0.24
99002
mg/mile
2.43
0
0
0.01
0.17
0.24
0.01
0.01
0.04

99017
mg/mile
8.49
0.4
0.09
0.01
0.04
0.07
0
0
0.15

99032
mg/mile
80.9
8.42
2.51
1.23
2.9
3.62
0.44
1.16
99003
mg/mile
52.82
7.41
0.88
1.84
1.45
1.58
0.33
0.77
1.74

99018
mg/mile
6.29
0.87
0
0.09
0.25
0.36
0.05
0.04
0.46

99033
mg/mile
2.21
0.09
0
0.03
0.1
0.15
0.05
0.02
99004
mg/mile
11.67
1.08
0.01
0.21
0.33
0.47
0.1
0.11
0.63

99019
mg/mile
4.4
1.33
0
0.04
0.17
0.24
0.03
0
0.5

99034
mg/mile
6.01
0.35
0
0
0.12
0.18
0.13
0.01
99005
mg/mile
4.2
4.58
0.06
0.6
0.72
0.81
0.24
0.4
1.35

99020
mg/mile
0.4
0.07
0
0
0.04
0.06
0.03
0
0.13

99035
mg/mile
152.14
12.43
4.11
1.49
4.18
5
0.55
1.53
99006
mg/mile
4.49
0.01
0
0
0.04
0.09
0
0
0.06

99021
mg/mile
3.44
1.25
0
0.2
0.41
0.63
0.12
0.1
0.58

99036
mg/mile
8.74
0.09
0
0
0.17
0.31
0.05
0
99007
mg/mile
2.67
0.01
0
0
0.01
0,01
0
0
0.06

99022
mg/mile
4.1
0.16
0.13
0.01
0.11
0.19
0.04
0
0.13

99037
mg/mile
2.78
1.22
0
0.07
0.23
0.3
0.16
0.04
99008
mg/mile
78.43
7.99
1.62
1.37
1.45
2.02
0.45
0.85
2.02

99023
mg/mile
1.14
0
0.16
0
0.04
0.08
0.05
0
0.13

99038
mg/mile
13.05
2.49
0.11
0.27
0.62
0.76
0.19
0.16
99009
mg/mile
56.57
4.44
0.83
1
1.04
1.59
0.21
0.68
1.38

99024
mg/mile
11.03
0.21
0.16
0
0.02
0.02
0.03
0
0.14

99039
mg/mile
3.42
2.43
0
0.16
0.29
0.33
0.2
0.12
99010
mg/mile
1.8
0.27
0.1
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.02
0.02
0.17

99025
mg/mile
1.97
0.26
0.15
0.01
0.08
0.1
0.04
0.01
0.2

99040
mg/mile
21.09
4.82
0.42
0.37
0.46
0.58
0.43
0.31
99011
mg/mile
24.66
1.36
0.18
0.18
0.23
0.35
0.02
0.08
0.36

99026
mg/mile
2.43
0.94
0.16
0.15
0.16
0.2
0.05
0.05
0.5

99041
mg/mile
8.88
0.29
0.14
0.02
0.09
0.14
0.05
0
99012
mg/mile
23.92
1.35
0.15
0.18
0.22
0.23
0.02
0.08
0.26

99027
mg/mile
9.34
3.29
0.2
0.51
0.56
0.66
0.13
0.31
1.07

99042
mg/mile
59.05
12.24
2.43
1.39^
1.56
1.87
0.87
1.15
99013
mg/mile
4.38
0.47
0
0.04
0.18
0.24
0.02
0.04
0.36

99028
mg/mile
90.84
9.74
2.99
1.51
2.7
3.06
0.37
1.06
2.81

99043
mg/mile
3.36
0.61
0
0.1
0.21
0.27
0.03
0.03
99014
mg/mile
13.97
5.32
0.64
0.59
0.99
1.23
0.22
0.59
1.36

99029
mg/mile
17.51
1.93
0.09
0.17
0.37
0.59
0.12
0.13
0.85

99044
mg/mile
1.29
0.02
0
0
0.02
0.06
0
0
99015
mg/mile
2.84
0.03
0.1
0
0.1
0.17
0.03
0
0.01

99030
mg/mile
6.83
0.28
0
0
0.15
0.22
0.12
0
0.24

99045
mg/mile
17.03
0.68
0.06
0.05
0.06
0.09
0.04
0.02
                        A-ll

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A-3. Winter Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
1.76

99046
mg/mile
69.44
10.19
0.22
0.3
0.22
0.29
0.73
0.27
4.36

99061
mg/mile
0.94
0.91
0
0.16
0.14
0.18
0.03
0.14
0.44

99076
mg/mile
27.23
4.04
0.31
0.63
0.63
0.82
0.2
0.33
3.13

99047
mg/mile
9.79
1.52
0
0.09
0.17
0.23
0.07
0.08
0.63

99062
mg/mile
2.14
0.19
0
0.01
0.13
0.17
0.05
0
0.21

99077
mg/mile
70.44
8.46
1.3
1.6
1.52
1.92
0.42
0.88
0.15

99048
mg/mile
6.17
0.69
0
0.08
0.19
0.23
0.08
0.05
0.42

99063
mg/mile
23.61
0.76
0.08
0.17
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.02
0.22

99078
mg/mile
4.65
0.2
0.11
0.04
0.13
0.19
0.04
0
0.24

99049
mg/mile
6.37
0.56
0
0
0.04
0.02
0.02
0
0.45

99064
mg/mile
2.61
0.09
0
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.03
0
0.15

99079
mg/mile
0.73
0.54
0.12
0.01
0.04
0.07
0.04
0
4.19

99050
mg/mile
6.1
0.7
0
0.07
0.09
0.1
0.03
0
0.57

99065
mg/mile
0.99
0.22
0
0.03
0.09
0.13
0.02
0
0.24

99080
mg/mile
12.77
4.8
0.14
0.95
0.78
1.13
0.29
0.52
0.19

99051
mg/mile
3.2
0.13
0.06
0.01
0.13
0.21
0.02
0
0.21

99066
mg/mile
8.93
0.86
0.04
0.09
0.2
0.27
0.04
0.02
0.37

99081
mg/mile
13.04
0.14
0
0.01
0.02
0.05
0
0
0.78

99052
mg/mile
7.71
1.22
0
0.13
0.19
0,26
0.13
0.09
0.54

99067
mg/mile
49.07
7.18
0.64
0.95
1.06
1.36
0.48
0.66
2.26

99082
mg/mile
8.52
0.02
0
0.01
0.03
0.06
0.02
0
1.13

99053
mg/mile
1.92
0.4
0
0.12
0.23
0.28
0
0.06
0.24

99068
mg/mile
5.48
0.15
0
0.04
0.09
0.11
0.04
0
0.15

99083
mg/mile
14.25
1.37
0.02
0.23
0.35
0.38
0.1
0.13
0.9

99054
mg/mile
2.15
1.87
0
0.12
0.35
0.5
0.03
0.1
0.66

99069
mg/mile
98.55
22.33
2.06
1.91
1.9
2.03
0.41
0.85
3.88

99084
mg/mile
16.14
2.196
0.08
0.21
0.32
0.43
0.05
0.06
2.24

99055
mg/mile
14.96
0.75
0.05
0
0.07
0.1
0.08
0.03
0.2

99070
mg/mile
210.92
21.43
4.22
3.1
4.48
5.36
1.03
1.88
6.06

99085
mg/mile
12.52
2.028
0.07
0.28
0.37
0.49
0.13
0.2
0.19

99056
mg/mile
3.4
0.58
0.05
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.03
0.02
0.27

99071
mg/mile
7.94
0.88
0.03
0.11
0.21
0.33
0.09
0.08
0.39

99086
mg/mile
1.72
0.12
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.04
0.01
0
4.55

99057
mg/mile
3.35
0.64
0
0.08
0.04
0.04
0.06
0.04
0.56

99072
mg/mile
4.69
0.43
0
0.05
0.2
0.27
0.16
0.08
0.23

99087
mg/mile
0.691
0.125
0
0.03
0.03
0.08
0
0.02
0.13

99058
mg/mile
1.15
0.13
0
0.02
0.04
0.04
0.13
0.05
0.14

99073
mg/mile
24.05
2.17
0.34
0.28
0.38
0.52
0.16
0.22
0.62

99088
mg/mile
29.52
8.838
0.6
1.56
1.4
1.57
0.47
0.96
0

99059
mg/mile
1.41
0.05
0
0
0.03
0.02
0.03
0
0.11

99074
mg/mile
39.69
5
0.58
1.06
1.01
1.16
0.25
0.48
1.26

99089
mg/mile
1.533
0.566
0
0.16
0.19
0.28
0
0.05
0.28

99060
mg/mile
0.88
0.2
0.05
0.06
0.09
0.1
0.03
0.02
0.17

99075
mg/mile
2.67
0.38
0
0
0.06
0.1
0.03
0.01
0.1

99090
mg/mile
141.11
16.27
3.46
2.32
2.59
3.48
0.77
1.55
    A-12

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A-3. Winter Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data
Acetone



Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
1.15


99091
mg/mile
2.76
0.15
0
0.06
0.07
0.13
0
0.01
0.01

99106
mg/mile
42.49
4.56
0.39
0.79
0.52
0.77
0.14
0.34
1.2

99121
mg/mile
1.31
0.63
0.05
0.04
0.06
0.06
0
2.66


99092
mg/mile
5.99
0.06
0
0
0.09
0.13
0.01
0
0.02

99107
mg/mile
12.6
2.31
0.07
0.27
0.19
0.18
0.08
0.13
0.95

33041
mg/mile
0.01
0
0.02
0
0
0.03
0.06
0.29


99093
mg/mile
3.45
1.65
0.03
0.17
0.21
0.28
0.11
0.07
0.33

99108
mg/mile
0.91
0.16
0
0.06
0.05
0.09
0.05
0.05
0.01

33043
mg/mile
0
0.09
0.01
0
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.17


99094
mg/mile
22.37
1.75
0.02
0.2
0.14
0.21
0.2
0.16
2.13

99109
mg/mile
12.89
1.98
0.17
0.45
0.35
0.56
0.04
0.21
0.55

33045
mg/mile
12.04
2.65
0.47
0.52
0.55
0.58
0
1.57


99095
mg/mile
81.18
9.86
1.53
2.26
1.76
2.47
0.52
1.01
2.45

99110
mg/mile
35.35
2.94
0.32
0.71
0.68
0.87
0.11
0.41
1.12

33047
mg/mile
11
3.65
0.66
0.75
0.95
1.34
0.21
0


99096
mg/mile
64.34
7.74
0.96
1.74
1.42
2.07
0.44
0.79
2.39

99111
mg/mile
7.52
1.25
0.03
0.28
0.16
0.21
0.06
0.13
0.31

33049
mg/mile
5.74
3.82
0.52
0.55
0.59
0.96
0.33
0


99097
mg/mile
7.92
0.46
0
0.06
0.15
0.25
0.01
0.03
0.19

99112
mg/mile
3.14
0.47
0
0.08
0.15
0.19
0
0.03
0.07

33051
mg/mile
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.72


99098
mg/mile
53.2
9.39
0.68
1.3
0.75
1.22
0.7
0.59
3.04

99113
mg/mile
2.69
0.35
0.03
0.05
0.11
0.19
0
0.03
0

33052
mg/mile
0.95
0.17
0
0
0.02
0.01
0
1.07


99099
mg/mile
6.747
0
0
0
0.02
0.06
0.02
0
0

99114
mg/mile
51.78
6.7
0.92
1.21
1.27
1.48
0
0.67
1.44

33053
mg/mile
0.61
0.25
0
0
0.05
0.07
0
1.28


99100
mg/mile
32
0.8
0
0.03
0.02
0.05
0.05
0.02
0.27

99115
mg/mile
16.04
3.04
0.14
0.46
0.32
0.39
0.13
0.2
0.87

33054
mg/mile
7.06
2.59
0.23
0.26
0.33
0.45
0.12
0.01


99101
mg/mile
5.84
0.14
0
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.04
0
0.11

99116
mg/mile
4.99
0.08
0
0.01
0.01
0.03
0
0
0

33055
mg/mile
2.32
0.34
0
0.07
0.07
0.08
0
0.05


99102
mg/mile
1.92
0
0
0
0
0.01
0.01
0
0

99117
mg/mile
16.44
2.5
0.19
0.28
0.28
0.38
0.19^
0.13
1.15

33056
mg/mile
1.03
0
0
0
0.03
0.02
0
3.19


99103
mg/mile
9.6
1.5
0.08
0.27
0.31
0.41
0.12
0.18
0.53

99118
mg/mile
1.62
0.36
0
0.04
0.03
0.05
0
0.01
0.05

33057
mg/mile
3.15
1.9
0.04
0.12
0.2
0.27
0
0.21


99104
mg/mile
2.5
0.03
0
0
0
0.01
0
0
0

99119
mg/mile
36.24
5.16
0.51
1.1
0.52
0.72
0.26
0.46
1.64

33058
mg/mile
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3.8


99105
mg/mile
8.37
0.65
0.04
0.05
0.12
0.21
0.05
0.07
0.23

99120
mg/mile
2.38
0.04
0
0.01
0.01
0.04
0
0
0

33059
mg/mile
3.68
0.36
0
0
0.04
0
0
    A-13

-------
                   APPENDIX A
Table A-3. Winter Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data
Methacrolein
Acetone
0.02
0.12
0
0.01
0
0
0
0.03
0.51
0.05
0.36
0.65
0
0
0
0.04
0
0.11
0.18
0.83
0
0.07
0
0
0.07
0.6
0
0
0
0.08
Table A-4.  Summer Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data
Table A-4. Summer Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data

Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
9000
mg/mile
0.58
1.25
0
0
0
0
0.06
0.02
0.13

9014
mg/mile
10.49
3.82
0.21
0.27
0.66
0.85
0.19
0.39
0.94

9030
mg/mile
67.63
8.27
9001
mg/mile
0.45
0.47
0
0
0.02
0.04
0
0
0.06

9015
mg/mile
2.81
0.4
0.05
0
0.12
0.21
0.03
0.1
0.11

9031
mg/mile
11.08
0.13
9002
mg/mile
16.05
6.05
0.08
0.49
0.79
1.14
0.41
0.7
1.74

9016
mg/mile
4.99
0.89
0.05
0
0.07
0.14
0.03
0.07
0.34

9032
mg/mile
4.55
0.06
9003
mg/mile
10.3
0.65
0
0
0.11
0.26
0.03
0.02
0.37

9017
mg/mile
4.38
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
0

9033
mg/mile
4.25
0.46
9004
mg/mile
6.32
2.05
0
0
0.34
0.41
0.07
0.14
0.91

9018
mg/mile
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
0

9034
mg/mile
5.61
0.09
9005
mg/mile
7.94
0.47
0
0
0.33
0.42
0.03
0.01
0.12

9020
mg/mile
0.42
0
0
0
0
0.01
0
0.01
0

9035
mg/mile
5.28
0
9006
mg/mile
6.15
0.43
0
0
0.12
0.2
0.03
0.04
0.16

9021
mg/mile
3.81
2.43
0.14
0.16
0.29
0.47
0.16
0.3
0.97

9036
mg/mile
1.78
0
9007
mg/mile
35.37
9.98
0.47
0.45
1.37
1.42
0.59
0.75
3.7

9022
mg/mile
1.65
0
0
0
0
0.03
0
0.01
0

9037
mg/mile
6.45
0.24
9008
mg/mile
21.87
5.64
0.38
0.49
0.83
1.07
0.34
0.66
2

9023
mg/mile
6.13
2.42
0.15
0.09
0.35
0.37
0.13
0.2
0.84

9038
mg/mile
1.39
0.2
9009
mg/mile
2.61
1.01
0
0.08
0.28
0.28
0.05
0.09
0.51

9024
mg/mile
3.67
0.04
0
0
0
0.01
0
0.01
0

9039
mg/mile
2.66
0
9010
mg/mile
6.01
0.55
0
0
0.11
0.18
0
0.04
0.35

9025
mg/mile
5.09
0.31
0
0
0.08
0.17
0
0.04
0.11

9040
mg/mile
2.58
1.53
9011
mg/mile
2.25
0.93
0
0
0.05
0.07
0
0.12
0.58

9026
mg/mile
6.04
3.14
0.29
0.22
0.35
0.61
0.14
0.34
0.9

9041
mg/mile
12.32
4.24
9012
mg/mile
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
0.02
0

9027
mg/mile
4.98
0.57
0
0
0.07
0.12
0.01
0.04
0.13

9042
mg/mile
18.88
3.29
9013
mg/mile
0.62
0.32
0
0
0
0.01
0
0
0.05

9029
mg/mile
7.08
0.49
0
0
0.07
0.13
0
0.04
0.13

9043
mg/mile
3.85
0
                        A-14

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A-4. Summer Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
2.43
0.45
2.18
2.8
0.13
0.91
2.4

9044
mg/mile
4.25
0
0
0
0
0.05
0
0.02
0

9059
mg/mile
11.75
0.68
0.02
0
0.15
0.25
0
0.08
0.38

9075
mg/mile
3.81
0.76
0
0
0.15
0.27
0
0.06
0.05

9045
mg/mile
4.19
0.8
0.06
0.01
0.18
0.3
0.02
0.09
0.17

9060
mg/mile
5.91
0.05
0
0
0
0.06
0.01
0.02
0.07

9076
mg/mile
0.51
0.09
0
0
0
0.04
0
0.01
0

9046
mg/mile
1.81
0.15
0
0
0
0.03
0
0.03
0.02

9061
mg/mile
6.3
0.72
0
0
0
0.02
0
0
0.45

9077
mg/mile
2.77
0.27
0
0
0.01
0.05
0
0.02
0.19

9047
mg/mile
12.67
2.17
0.26
0.08
0.31
0.48
0.09
0.22
0.63

9062
mg/mile
1.41
0
0
0
0
0.01
0
0
0

9078
mg/mile
1.15
0.07
0
0
0.03
0.04
0
0.03
0

9049
mg/mile
5.01
0.03
0
0
0.04
0.06
0
0.02
0

9063
mg/mile
6.84
0.37
0
0.07
0.08
0.07
0.14
0.02
0.31

9079
mg/mile
5.43
1.37
0.05
0
0.1
0.16
0
0.05
0.21

9050
mg/mile
2.05
0.01
0
0
0
0.03
0
0.01
0

9065
mg/mile
16.45
2.71
0.13
0.1
0.59
0.66
0.25
0.16
3.48

9080
mg/mile
1.9
0.55
0
0
0
0.03
0
0.02
0

9051
mg/mile
2.53
0
0
0
0
0.03
0
0.01
0

9066
mg/mile
2.66
0.54
0
0
0.03
0
0.1
0.01
0.4

9081
mg/mile
1.61
0.86
0.06
0
0.14
0.21
0
0.05
0.01

9052
mg/mile
3.21
0.87
0.02
0.01
0.11
0.1
0.04
0.08
0.23

9067
mg/mile
1.87
2.01
0.08
0.06
0.16
0.2
0.19
0.13
0.87

9082
mg/mile
0.26
0.32
0.02
0
0.02
0.06
0
0.04
0

9053
mg/mile
2.54
1.75
0.09
0.1
0.29
0.38
0.01
0.15
0.44

9068
mg/mile
1.39
0.51
0
0
0.06
0.03
0.16
0.02
0.4

9083
mg/mile
2.15
0.29
0
0
0
0
0.02
0.03
0

9054
mg/mile
1.78
0
0
0
0
0.02
0
0.01
0

9069
mg/mile
2.33
0.58
0
0
0.04
0.02
0.15
0.01
0.42

9084
mg/mile
2.97
0.97
0.08
0
0.11
0.18
0.06
0.09
0.5

9055
mg/mile
5.97
3.28
0.64
0.28
0.67
0.7
0.15
0.45
0.74

9070
mg/mile
1.92
0.7
0.06
0.01
0.07
0.07
0.1
0.02
0.47

9085
mg/mile
2.07
0.38
0.7
0.32
0.63
0.88
0.29
0.46
1.26

9056
mg/mile
0.62
0.18
0.04
0
0.04
0.07
0
0.04
0

9072
mg/mile
2.82
1.14
0.11
0.04
0.15
0.14
0.11
0.06
0.69

9086
mg/mile
1.76
0.22
0.11
0.05
0.12
0.19
0.19
0.14
1.55

9057
mg/mile
1.85
0.13
0.01
0
0.01
0.04
0
0.03
0

9073
mg/mile
1.01
0.05
0
0
0
0.01
0
0
0.03

9087
mg/mile
0.6
0.2
0
0
0
0.02
0
0
0

9058
mg/mile
21.15
3.61
0.81
0.44
1.03
0.94
0.14
0.41
0.89

9074
mg/mile
0.61
0.13
0
0
0
0.01
0
0
0.06

9088
mg/mile
6.6
2.74
    A-15

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A-4. Summer Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Vtethacrolein
Acetone



Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
one


Compound
Formaldehyde
0.03
0.01
0.22
0.23
0
0.05
0.51


9089
mg/mile
1.76
0.22
0
0
0
0.01
0
0
0.06

9103
mg/mile
2.6
1.35
0.08
0.14
0.21
0.29
0.08
0.13
0.65

9118
mg/mile
4.55
0
0
0
0.01
0
0
0.06


9090
mg/mile
0.6
0.2
0
0
0
0.01
0
0.01
0.13

9104
mg/mile
1.55
0.38
0
0
0.09
0.14
0
0.03
0.21

9119
mg/mile
1.72
0
0
0.02
0.03
0
0.01
0.1


9091
mg/mile
6.43
2.63
0.13
0.17
0.32
0.4
0.08
0.16
1.03

9105
mg/mile
0.35
0.24
0.04
0
0
0.03
0
0.02
0.14

9120
mg/mile
30.33
0
0
0
0.01
0
0
0.05


9092
mg/mile
6.76
2.85
0.23
0.23
0.27
0.36
0.04
0.21
0.89

9106
mg/mile
3.23
1.27
0.08
0.15
0.36
0.35
0.1
0.1
0.6

9121
mg/mile
12.61
0.09
0.15
0.18
0.29
0.02
0.13
0.54


9093
mg/mile
6.56
0.36
0
0.02
0.11
0.01
0.05
0.03
0.15

9107
mg/mile
1.27
0.57
0
0
0.05
0.08
0.12
0.04
0.37

9122
mg/mile
3.85
0
0.03
0.1
0.17
0.06
0.07
0.19


9094
mg/mile
51.11
10.14
1.89
1.06
1.67
2
0.11
0.76
1.81

9108
mg/mile
3.57
2
0.03
0.03
0.05
0.06
0.09
0.05
1.61

9123
mg/mile
13.46
0.1
0.1
0.13
0.17
0.06
0.12
0.37


9095
mg/mile
123.19
15.33
4.91
1.74
4.49
4.97
0.68
1.91
5.86

9109
mg/mile
5
2.83
0.4
0.5
0.55
0.62
0.17
0.3
0.76

9124
mg/mile
4.87
0
0
0.05
0.05
0
0.03
0.09


9096
mg/mile
87.65
18.91
5.98
2.16
2.83
2.92
0.48
1.57
4.13

9110
mg/mile
4.2
3.28
0.18
0.12
0.4
0.37
0.27
0.23
2.04

9126
mg/mile
2.5
0
0
0.02
0.05
0
0.02
0.1


9097
mg/mile
7.37
1.65
0.03
0.06
0.14
0.15
0.1
0.08
0.71

9111
mg/mile
0.84
0.17
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.11

9127
mg/mile
1.29
0.04
0.06
0.07
0.14
0
0.07
1.06


9098
mg/mile
1.66
0.6
0.04
0.04
0.08
0.1
0
0.05
0.25

9112
mg/mile
0.14
0.25
0.02
0
0.04
0.01
0.09
0.02
0.13

9128
mg/mile
1.89
0
0
0.02
0.05
0.03
0.04
0.3


9099
mg/mile
1.98
0.46
0
0.02
0.07
0.1
0
0.03
0.25

9113
mg/mile
1.76
1.21
0
0
0.07
0.12
0.14
0.04
0.66

9129
mg/mile
1.05
0
0
0
0.01
0
0
0.06


9100
mg/mile
2.2
0.59
0
0
0.06
0.08
0
0.03
0.3

9115
mg/mile
131.63
20.63
7.99
1.73
3.15
4.04
1.08
2.62
5.06

9130
mg/mile
3.16
0
0
0
0.01
0
0.01
0.13


9101
mg/mile
0.21
0.49
0
0
0.03
0.08
0
0.03
0.29

9116
mg/mile
75.37
9.34
2.76
0.95
2.06
2.35
0.54
0.96
2.09




0.18
0.2
0.3
0.38
0.06
0.18
0.96


9102
mg/mile
3.18
2.45
0.07
0.09
0.2
0.23
0.09
0.14
0.92

9117
mg/mile
13.59
0.53
0
0
0.15
0.23
0
0.03
0.28




    A-16

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A-4. Summer Phase Aldehyde and Ketone Emission Data
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone
0.23
0
0
0.08
0.02
0.11
0
0.14
0.34
0
0
0
0.01
0
0.04
0.18
7.04
1.03
0.68
1.13
1.45
0.44
0.79
3.85
0.24
0
0
0.17
0.05
0
0.03
0.2
0.42
0
0
0.09
0.04
0.12
0.06
0.25
4.41
0.64
0.44
0.56
0.77
0.08
0.38
1.1
1.3
0.17
0.05
0.19
0.28
0.01
0.12
0.68
0.4
0.02
0
0.01
0.01
0
0.02
0.19
0.17
0
0
0
0
0.01
0
0.21
0.19
0
0
0.09
0.03
0
0.02
0.17
0.29
0
0
0.01
0.02
0
0.02
0.2
0.32
0
0.06
0.09
0.05
0.06
0.02
0.38
















    A-17

-------
         APPENDIX A
Table A-5. Duplicate Runs Average
Table A-5. Duplicate Runs Average, Winter


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone

99029
mg/mile
27.05
2.29
0.17
0.22
0.52
0.78
0.16
0.16
1.1

99045
mg/mile
,_ 10.2
0.74
0
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.04
0
0.29

99060
mg/mile
0.92
0.17
0
0.08
0.11
0.15
0.02

99529
mg/mile
7.98
1.57
0
0.12
0.22
0.4
0.07
0.09
0.6

99545
mg/mile
23.86
0.62
0.11
0.04
0.06
0.09
0.03
0.03
0.27

99560
mg/mile
0.85
0.23
0.09
0.03
0.08
0.05
0.05

avg
mg/mile
17.51
1.93
0.09
0.17
0.37
0.59
0.12
0.13
0.85

avg
mg/mile
17.03
0.68
0.06
0.05
0.06
0.09
0.04
0.02
0.28

avg
mg/mile
0.88
0.2
0.05
0.06
0.09
0.1
0.03

99034
mg/mile
4.16
0.65
0
0
0.19
0.29
0.12
0.03
0.3

99051
mg/mile
4.91
0.24
0
0.02
0.18
0.28
0.01
0
0.25

99563
mg/mile
26.54
0.86
0.09
0.15
0.08
0.02
0.05

99534
mg/mile
7.87
0.05
0
0
0.04
0.08
0.14
0
0.17

99551
mg/mile
1.48
0.02
0.12
0.01
0.08
0.15
0.03
0
0.17

99063
mg/mile
20.69
0.66
0.07
0.2
0.09
0.03
0.03

avg
mg/mile
6.01
0.35
0
0
0.12
0.18
0.13
0.01
0.24

avg
mg/mile
3.2
0.13
0.06
0.01
0.13
0.21
0.02
0
0.21

avg
mg/mile
23.61
0.76
0.08
0.17
0.08
0.03
0.04

99035
mg/mile
160.61
13.82
4.77
1.61
4.59
5.52
0.6
1.67
4.62

99055
mg/mile
7.63
1.26
0
0
0.09
0.14
0.03
0
0.2

99066
mg/mile
9.6
1.6
0
0.18
0.32
0.42
0.04

99535
mg/mile
143.67
11.03
3.44
1.37
3.77
4.48
0.51
1.39
3.77

99555
mg/mile
22.29
0.24
0.11
0
0.04
0.06
0.14
0.05
0.2

99566
mg/mile
8.25
0.13
0.08
0
0.09
0.12
0.04

avg
mg/mile
152.14
12.43
4.11
1.49
4.18
5
0.55
1.53
4.19

avg
mg/mile
14.96
0.75
0.05
0
0.07
0.1
0.08
0.03
0.2

avg
mg/mile
8.93
0.86
0.04
0.09
0.2
0.27
0.04

99040
mg/mile
27.38
7.99
0.85
0.7
0.84
1.03
0.65
0.55
3.17

99056
mg/mile
2.77
0.8
0
0.12
0.12
0.16
0.03
0.04
0.38

99070
mg/mile
205.61
20.8
4.48
3.09
4.27
5.34
0.96

99540
mg/mile
14.79
1.65
0
0.04
0.09
0.13
0.21
0.08
1.3

99556
mg/mile
4.04
0.35
0.1
0.04
0.08
0.09
0.03
0
0.16

99570
mg/mile
216.23
22.06
3.95
3.1
4.68
5.37
1.09

avg
mg/mile
21.09
4.82
0.42
0.37
0.46
0.58
0.43
0.31
2.24

avg
mg/mile
3.4
0.58
0.05
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.03
0.02
0.27

avg
mg/mile
210.92
21.43
4.22
3.1
4.48
5.36
1.03
             A-18

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A-5. Duplicate Runs Average, Winter
vlethacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldelryde 	
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methaerolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzatdehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
0-05
0.15

99571
mg/mile
2.57
0.07
0
0.01
0.09
0.18
0,04
0
0.15

99086
mg/mile
1.77
0.24
0
0.01
0.02
0.06
0.03
0
0.01

99100
mg/mile
24.83
0.81
0
0.02
0.01
0.04
0.09
0
0.18

99071
mg/mile
13.31
1.7
0.06
0.22
0.34
0.48
0.13
0.16
0.64

99586
mg/mile
1.66
0
0.02
0
0.01
0.03
0
0
0

99600
mg/mile
39.17
0.8
0
0.03
0.03
0.07
0.02
0.17

avg
mg/mile
7.94
0.88
0.03
0.11
0
0.23

99076
mg/mile
27.07
4.09
0.31
0.58
0.2 lj_ 0.62
0.33
0.09
0.08
0.39

avg
mg/mile
1.72
0.12
0.01
0
0.01
0.04
0.01
0
0.01

avg
mg/rnile
32
0.8
0
0.03
0.02
0.05
0.02 0.05
0.84
0.18
0.37
1.1

99090
mg/mile
137.89
15.96
3.63
2.28
2.62
3.51
0.74
1.61
3.73

99101
mg/mile
5.36
0.17
0
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.04
0.21

99576
_jTTg/rnile__
27.39
3.98
0.31
0.68
0.64
0.79
0.23
0.29
1.2

99590
mg/mile
144.33
16.58
3.3
2.36
2.56
3.45
0.8
1.5
3.88

99601
mg/mile
6.32
0.11
0
0.0!
0.02
0.05
0.07] 0.02
0.02
0.22

avg
mg/mile
27.23
4.04
0.31
0.63
0.63
0.82
0.2
0.33
1.15

avg
rng/mile
141.11
16.27
3.46
2.32
2.59
3.48
0.77
1.55
3.8

avg
mg/mile
5.84
0.14
0
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.61

99081
mg/mile
8.39
0.06
0
0.02
0.03
0.05
0
0
0

99091
mg/mile
2.32
0.05
0
0.03
0.07
0.13
0.0 i
0.01
0.01

99106
mg/mile
34,92
3.82
0.27
0.61
0.37
0.51
0.12
0
0.14

99581
mg/mile
17.7
0.21
0
0
0.01
0.05
0
0
0

99591
mg/mile
3.2
0.25
0
0.09
0.07
0.12
0
0.01
0.01

99606
mg/mile
50.07
5.3
0.52
0.98
0.68
1.03
0.16
0.02
0.37

__avg___
mg/mile
13.04
0.14
0
0.01
0.02
0.05
0
1.97
5.76

99082
mg/mile
6.04
0
0
0
0.03
0.06
0.03
	 pj_ o
0

avg
mg/mile
2.76
0.15
0
0.06
0.07
0.13
0
0.01
0.01

avg
mg/mile
42.49
4.56
0.39
0

99096
mg/mile
54.49
7.33
0.96
1.67
1.32
1.91
0.4
0.78
2.22

99110
mg/mile
1.8
6.37

99582
mg/mile
11
0.03
0
0.01
0.02
0.06
0.01
0
0

99596
mg/mile
74.19
8.14
0.96
1.82
1.51
2.23
0.48
0.81
2.47

99610
mg/mile
27.86| 42.83
2.93
0.26
0.79i 0.62
0.52
0.77
0.14
0.71
0.96
0.12
2.94
0.38
0.79
0.65
0.78
0.1
1.88
6.06

avg
mg/mile
8.52
0.02
0
0.01
0.03
0.06
0.02
0
0

avg
mg/mile
64.34
7.74
0.96
1.74
1.42
2.07
0.44
0.79
2.35

avg
mg/mile
35.35
2.94
0.32
0.71
0.68
0.87
0.11
    A-19

-------
APPENDIX A
Table A-5. Duplicate Runs Average, Winter
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone
0.02
0.27

99116
mg/mile
2.39
1 	 _0.16
0
0.01
0.02
0.04
0
0
0
0.02
0.26

99616
mg/mile
7.6
0
0
0.01
0.01
0.02
0
0
0
0.02
0.27

avg
mg/mile
4.99
0.08
0
0.01
0.01
0.03
0
0
0
0
0.15

99120
mg/mile
3.19
0
0
0.02
0.02
0.07
0
0
0
0
0.08

99620
mg/mile
1.57
0.09
0
0
0
0.01
0
0
0
0
0.11

avg_
mg/rni]e__
2.38
0.04
0
0.01
0.01
0.04
0
0
0
0.25
1.17

99121
mg/mile
1.08
0.37
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0
0.01
0.02
0.43
1.22

99621
mg/mile
1.53
0.9
0.07
0.06
0.08
0.08
0
0.03
0.21
0.34
1.2

avg
mg/mile
1.31
0.63
0.05
0.04
0.06
0.06
0
0.02
0.12
0.42
1.17












0.41
1.06












0.41
1.12












Table A-5. Duplicate Runs Average, Summer

Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone


Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
x-Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
9018
mg/mile
1.49
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
0

9070
mg/mile
1.78
0.63
0
0
0.05
9019
mg/mile
0.32
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
0

9071
mg/mile
2.05
0.77
0.12
0.03
0.09
avg
mg/mile
0.9
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.02
0

avg
mg/mile
1.92
0.7
0.06
0.01
0.07
9027
mg/mile
4.08
0.73
0
0
0.09
0.09
0.03
0.06
0.22

9091
mg/mile
6.43
2.63
0.13
0.17
0.32
9028
mg/mile
5.89
0.42
0
0
0.05
0.14
0
0.03
0.05

9092
mg/mile
6.76
2.85
0.23
0.23
0.27
avg
mg/mile
4.98
0.57
0
0
0.07
0.12
0.01
0.04
0.13

avg
mg/mile
6.6
2.74
0.18
0.2
0.3
9027
mg/mile
15.41
3.15
0.39
0.13
0.48
0.71
0.14
0.3
0.96








9028
mg/mile
9.92
1.2
0.13
0.03
0.15
0.26
0.04
0.15
0.31








avg
mg/mile
12.67
2.17
0.26
0.08
0.31
0.48
0.09
0.22
0.63








9063
mg/mile
4.23
0.11
0
0
0.01
0.07
0
0.01
0.1








9064
mg/mile
9.46
0.62
0
0.14
0.15
0.07
0.28
0.03
0.52








avg
mg/mile
6.84
0.37
0
0.07
0.08
0.07
0.14
0.02
0.31








    A-20

-------
APPENDIX A
Tolualdehydes
2-Butanone
Methacrolein
Acetone
0.04
0.1
0.02
0.46
0.1
0.1
0.03
0.48
0.07
0.1
0.02
0.47
0.4
0.08
0.16
1.03
0.36
0.04
0.21
0.89
0.38
0.06
0.18
0.96
























    A-21

-------
               APPENDIX A




Table A-6. Duplicate Runs of Regulated Emissions
Winter Phase

YR
75
84
85
85
85
86
86
87
87
87
87
87
88
89
90
90
_2_
91

MAKE
FORD
CHEVY
FORD
HC
gtn/mile
#1
9.64
5.05
2.43
CHEVY 0.59
FORD
FORD
5.76
1.05
TOYOTA 0.88
HONDA
CHEVY
PLYMOUTH
TOYOTA
DODGE
PONTIAC
FORD
TOYOTA
FORD
OLDS__ 	
ACURA
92! FORD
92 BUICK
93 ! FORD
93 ISUZU
93
93
94
95
95
96
96

FORD
CHEVY
BUICK
FORD
FORD
CHEVY
0.31
0.34
CO
gm/mile
#2 ave #1
10.04
5.92
2.26
0.90
5.93
1.38
0.57
0,27
0.21
1.47! 1.03
1.73 1.64
0,06 0.06
0.91 1 0.84
0.31 0.11
0.35 0.12
1.22[ 0.53
^JL??J_ 0-32
0.36
0.15
0.37
0.40
0.51
0.30
0.33
0.03
0.37
0.14
0.18
FORD 0.16
0.29
9,84 165.39
5.48 99.70
2.34] 15.45
#1
180.75
110.80
16.34
0.74 1 2.68 1.78
5.85 1 75.66 79.28
1.22
0.72
0.29
0.28
1.25
1.68
0,06
0.87
0.21
0.23
0.87
__jyy_
0.33
0.19 0.17
0,89 0.63
0.28 0.34
0.21 0.36
0.16 0.23
0.18
0.03
0.23
0.02
0.15
0.20

0,25
6.32 9.32
8.30 7.16
2.09) 2,90
4.60
25.44
8.22
0.54
6.56
2.96
7.83
8.74
5.60
2.56
1.52
12.88
1.04
7.94
5.52
4.59
0.03 ! 1.34
0.30 5.42
0.08 1 2.10
0.17 1.52
0.18

1.54
ave
173.07
105,25
15.89
2.23
77.47
7.82
7.73
2.50
2.38 3.49
21.4l| 23.43
NOx
gm/mile
#1 #2
4.41 3.35
2.63 2.58
0.58
2.16
3,66
4.21
0.99
2,85
1.58
1.05
8.63 8.42 3.68
0.38) 0.46 5.42
9.27
3,02
3.31
1.47
7.17
2.27
1.16
26.08
0.55
8.51
3.34
3.04
0.85
4.93
1.75
0.99
3.78

__J.92!jOJ8
^T 0^
5.57 0.92
5.11| 1.60
6.38 1.95
2.41
1.34
19.48
0.79
8.22
4.43
3.82
1.10
5.18
1.93
1.26
2.66

0.12
0.59
1.86
ave
3.88
2.61
0.58
2.01
4.09 3.87
4.06 4,13
0.64 0.81
2.64 1 2.75
1.13
0.84
3.81
4,62
0.86
0.54
0.95
1.43
1.64
0.09
2.09 1 2.03
1.22 1.82
1.25] 1.45
3.08 j 2.72
1.42 1.08
1.18 0.75
_JI62J 0.53
1.05
0.75
0.26
0,75

1.44
0.56
0.37
1.35
0.95
CO2
gm/mile
#1 #2 ! ave
492.96 468.36 480.66
631.81 609.65 620.73
145.56 137,60 141.58
662.44
526.64
363,15
341.21
304.08
400.71
338.07
3.74J 248.68
5.02 1 410.58
0.92 419.39
0.49 374.50
0.93 331.30
1.51 462.01
1,80| 491.58
0.11
2.06
1.52
1.35
2.90
1.25
0.96
0.57
1.25
0.66
0.31
0.68 [ 0.72

423.46
664.52 663.48
523.77
380.55
328.22
312.36
399.89
322.71
260.88
385.27
407.97
383,01
329.22
461.77
493.33
396.42
399.09! 391.07
420.11! 408.99
544.89! 550.23
501.54! 516.03
502,42! 475.83
311.24 315.88
503,73 491,24
398 .20| 405.18
443.09J 418.06
456.26
353.41

546,21
360.76

525.20
371.85
334.71
308,22
400.30
330.39
254.78
397.92
413.68
378.75
330.26
461.89
492.45
409.94
395.08
414.55
547.56
508.78
489.13
313.56
497.48
401.69
430.57
501.24
357.09

Summer Phase

YR
86
87
87
87
88

MAKE
BUICK
CHEV
TOYOTA
CHEVY
FORD
92JCHEV
HC
gm/mile
#1 #2
0.78 1 0.24
0.38! 0.53
0.33 ! 0.28
1.04 1,31
0.12) 0.20
0.36 1 0.32
ave
0.51
0.46
0,31
1.18
0.16
0.34
CO
gm/mile
#1
7.65
5.02
0.65
50.43
4.00
5.29
#2 ave
6.25 6.95
9.54 7.28
0.31 0,48
78. 19 (" 64.31
3.46
6.99
3.73
6.14
NOx
gm/mile
#1
4.22
1.99
0.92
3.29
0.52
1.49
#2
3.17
1.98
0.89
3.01
0.42
1.49
ave
3.69
1,98
0.91
CO2
gm/mile
#1
339.46
318.92
296.95
3,15 511.88
0.47 339.64
1,49 363.39
#2
323,00
313.05
302.60
495.49
347.27
355,93
ave
331.23
315,98
299.78
503.68
343.46
359.66
                  A-22

-------
                             APPENDIX A




              Table A-7.  Duplicate PM10 Runs, Winter Phase
PM 10, nig/mile
run#l

2.12
3,10
3.75
run #2

6.69
5.41
3.65
32.231 58.97
21.52! 25.47
29.03 25.09
Ave

4.40
4.26
3.70
45.60
23.49
27.06
16.87 34.72 25.80
53.72 54.46| 54.09
2.98 1.51 2.24
           Table A-8.  Comparison of Cars PM10 to Truck PM10
Category
93-97
93-97
90-92
90-92
85-89
85-89
Pre-85
Pre-85
Season
Summer
Winter
Slimmer
Winter
Summer
Winter
Summer
Winter
#Cars
22
21
16
11
24
27
6
13
# Trucks
14
19
9
9
14
8
4
9
PM1 0 cars,
mg/mi
4.11
6.10
4.21
9.82
6.20
25.26
28.73
55.36
PM10 trucks,
mg/mi
5.37
9.65
7.35
41.91
9.22*
28.33
5.88
89.66
* two high emitters (96.95 and 300.05 mg/mile) excluded from the average
                                 A-23

-------
NERL-RTP-0-659
1. REPORT NO.
EPA/600/R-99/090
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
Central Carolina Vehicle
TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
2.
Particulate Emission Study

7. AUTHOR) S)
Kenneth T. Knapp, Silvestre Tejada, Steven
Douglas R. Lawson , and Richard Snow

H. Cadle,
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
US EPA, RTF, NC 27711, CAVTC, RTF, NC 27711, OM R&D, Warren MI
48090, NREL, Golden CO 80401, and Coordinating Research Council, Atlanta
GA 30346
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
same as 9
3.1
5. RE PORT DATE
6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
IO.PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
1 1 . CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
1 3. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
16. ABSTRACT
A vehicle emission study was canted out in the Research Triangle Park area of North Carolina to determine die PM emission
rates and emissions profiles of the fleet of in-use vehicles in central Carolina. The NERL transportable dynamometer was set-
up in the parking lot of Home Depot in Gary, NC. Vehicles from the general area were recruited and tested for their
particulate and gaseous emissions. The study was divided into two phase, a winter phase and a summer phase. In the winter
phase, 121 gasoline fueled vehicles were tested in Cary and 14 gasoline fueled and three diesel fueled vehicles were tested at
the NERL, cold cell dynamometer located in the ERC annex at 35 F. la the summer phase all vehicles were tested on the
transportable dynamometer in Cary. A total of 120 gasoline fueled and five diesel fueled vehicles were tested in the summer.
Samples were collected for all tests for PM 10 [both for mass, and carbon analyses (elemental and organic)], regulated gaseous
emissions [carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (HC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOxjJ and aldehydes. On some vehicle,
tests for PM2.5, organic speciation, and samples for semi- and non-volatile organies were collected. The PM emissions rate
was very close to mat found in the Denver NFRAQS at 32 nig/mile in the winter and 34 mg/mi in the summer. The Denver
study had a PM emission rate of 33.7 mg/mi. Li the winter study the PM10 and 2.5 were almost identical at 32.8 and 32.5
mg/mi. The eight diesel fueled vehicles had a much higher emission rate at 1781 mg/mi.
17.
KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
a. DESCRIPTORS

18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
RELEASE TO PUBLIC


b .IDENTIFIERS/ OPEN ENDED c.COS ATI
TERMS

1 9. SECURITY CLASS (IKs Repon) 21 .NO. OF PAGES
UNCLASSIFIED
10. SECUIOTY CLASS (TKs Page) 22. PRICE
UNCLASSIFIED
\.

-------