Emissions Warranties for 1995 and
                   Newer Light-duty Cars and Trucks
                   under 8,500 Pounds Gross Vehicle
                   Weight Rating (GVWR)
                      Federally required emission control warranties protect you, the
                      vehicle owner, from the cost of repairs for certain emission
                   related failures that result from manufacturer defects in materials
                   and workmanship or that cause your vehicle to exceed federal emis-
                   sion standards. Manufacturers have been required by federal law to
                   provide emission control coverage for vehicles since 1972. There are
                   two federal emission control warranties discussed in this fact sheet:
                   (A) "Performance Warranty" and (B) "Design and Defect Warranty".
                   This fact sheet explains each warranty in detail, provides you with
                   a list of some of the parts covered under these warranties, explains
                   the procedures for making an emissions warranty claim, and answers
                   some of the most commonly asked questions about emissions war-
                   ranties. Finally, we will give you some tips on how to prevent future
                   emission-related failures and maintain the longevity of your vehicle's
                   A. Perform a nee Warranty
                   The Performance Warranty covers repairs which are required during the first 2 years
                   or 24,000 miles of vehicle use (whichever first occurs) because the vehicle failed an
                   emission test. Specified major emission control components are covered for the first
                   8 years or 80,000 miles (whichever first occurs). If you are a resident of an area with
                   an Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) program that meets federal guidelines, you are
                   eligible for this warranty protection provided that:
United States
Environmental Protection
Office of Transportation and Air Quality
                  October 2015

                 Your car or light-duty truck fails an approved emissions test; and

                 Your vehicle is less than 2 years old and has less than 24,000 miles (up to 8 years/80,000
                  miles or certain components); and

                 Your state or local government requires that you repair the vehicle; and

                 The test failure does not result from misuse of the vehicle or a failure to follow the manu
                  facturers' written maintenance instructions;  and

                 You present the vehicle to a warranty-authorized manufacturer representative, along
                  with evidence of the emission test failure, during the warranty period.

           During the first 2 years/24,000 miles (whichever first occurs), the Performance Warranty covers
           any repair or adjustment which is necessary to make your vehicle pass an approved, locally-
           required emission test and as long as your vehicle has not exceeded the warranty time or mileage
           limitations and has been properly maintained according to the manufacturer's specifications,

          B. Design and Defect Warranty
           The Design and Defect Warranty covers  repair of emission related parts which become defective
           during the warranty period. The Design and Defect  warranty for model year 1995 and newer
           light-duty cars and trucks is outlined below,
C/J        Design and Defect Warranty Coverage for 1995 and newer light-duty vehicles:

                 Emission control and emission related parts are covered for the first 2 years or 24,000
                  miles of vehicle use (whichever first occurs); and

                 Specified major emission control components are covered for the first 8 years or 80,000
                  miles of vehicle use (whichever first occurs).

           According to federal law, an emission control or emission related part, or a specified major
           emission control component, that fails because of a  defect in materials or workmanship, must
           be repaired or replaced by the vehicle manufacturer free of charge as long as the vehicle has not
           exceeded the warranty time or mileage limitations for the failed part.

           Design and Defect Warranty coverage may vary depending on the type of vehicle you have (e.g.,
           heavy-duty trucks, motorcycles or recreational vehicles have different time and mileage require-
           ments). In addition,  manufacturers can voluntarily offer warranty coverage beyond the federally
           mandated warranty coverage of the first 2 years or 24,000 miles. To determine the length of
C]J        warranty coverage that applies to your vehicle, look for the emissions warranty information in
           your owner's manual or warranty booklet. If you own a California vehicle, you may be entitled
           to additional warranty coverage.

             The owner's manual or warranty booklet will also provide you with guidance on the procedures
             for obtaining warranty coverage. If you have questions about the emissions warranties on your
             vehicle or need help in filing a warranty claim, contact your local car dealer or the manufactur-
             er's zone or regional representative listed in your owner's manual or warranty booklet.
             What Emission Control and Emission Related Parts Are Covered by
             The Design and Defect Warranty?
             An emission control part is any part installed with the primary purpose of controlling emissions.
             An emission related part is any part that has an effect on emissions. Listed below are some examples
             of parts or systems which fall under these definitions. A more complete list can be found in your
             owner's manual/warranty booklet. If any of the parts listed below fail to function or function
             improperly because of a defect in materials or workmanship, causing your vehicle to exceed federal
             emission standards, they should be repaired or replaced under the emissions warranty if your vehicle
             is less than 2 years old and has been driven less than 24,000 miles. One manufacturer may use
             more parts than another, so the following list is not complete for all vehicles,

             Emission Control Parts
                 1.  Exhaust Gas Conversion Systems: oxygen sensor, thermal reactor, catalytic converter,
                    dual-walled exhaust pipe

                 2.  Exhaust Gas Recirculation System: EGR valve, thermal vacuum switch, EGR solenoid,
                    EGR spacer plate, EGR backpressure transducer, sensor and switches use to control EGR

                 3.  Evaporative Emission Control System: purge valve, fuel filler cap, purge solenoid, vapor
                    storage canister and filter

                 4.  Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) System: PCV valve, PCV solenoid

                 5.  Air Injection System: Air pump, diverter, bypass, or gulp valve, reed valve, anti-backfire
                    or deceleration valve

                 6.  Early Fuel Evaporative  (EFE) System: EFE valve, thermal vacuum switch, heat riser valve
                 7.  Fuel Metering System:  electronic control module (unit) or EFI air flow meter, computer
O                    command module or mixture control unit, deceleration controls, electronic choke, fuel
                    injectors, fuel injection units and fuel altitude compensator sensor, bars or rails for EFI
                    or TBI systems, mixture settings on sealed fuel mixture control solenoid, diaphragm or
   ^               other systems, fuel metering components that achieve closed/other feedback control
  ^*-*               sensors/loop operation switches and valves

                 8.  Air Induction System:  thermostatically controlled air cleaner, air box

[     J
           9.  Ignition Systems: electronic spark advance timing advance/retard systems, high energy
              electronic ignition

           10. Miscellaneous Parts: hoses, gaskets, brackets, clamps and other accessories used in the
              above systems

       Emission Related Parts
       These are examples of other parts of your vehicle which have a primary purpose other than emis'
       sions control but which nevertheless have significant effects on your vehicle's emissions. If any
       of these parts fail to function or function improperly, your vehicle's emissions may exceed federal
       standards. Therefore, when any of the parts of the following systems are defective in materials or
       workmanship and have failed in a way that would be likely to cause your vehicle's emissions to
       exceed federal standards, they should be repaired or replaced under the emissions warranty:

           1.  Fuel Injection System: fuel distributor

           2.  Air Induction System: turbocharger, intake manifold

           3.  Exhaust System: exhaust manifold

           4.  Ignition System: distributor, spark plugs, ignition wires and coil

           5.  Miscellaneous Parts: hoses, gaskets, brackets, clamps, and other accessories used in the
              above systems,

       What Are Specified Major Emission Control Components?
       There are three specified major emission control components, covered for the first 8 years or
       80,000 miles of vehicle use (whichever first occurs) on 1995 and newer vehicles:
             Catalytic converters

             The electronic emissions control unit or computer (ECU)

             The onboard emissions diagnostic device or computer (OBD)
           Catalytic converters are critical emission control components that have been installed on most
           Ocars and trucks manufactured since 1975. Since engines don't burn fuel completely during the
           combustion process, the exhaust contains a significant amount of harmful pollutants such as
           carbon monoxide,  hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen. The catalytic converter aids the
^T        conversion of these pollutants to less harmful substances such as carbon dioxide, water vapor,
- ,        nitrogen, and oxygen before the exhaust is expelled into the environment,

           The electronic emissions control unit or computer monitors certain powertrain functions and
           controls various operating parameters to help the vehicle run efficiently and with the low-
           est possible emissions. Ignition, transmission function, air injection, exhaust gas recirculation

           (EGR), engine operating temperature and fuel system parameters are some of the systems
           monitored and/or controlled by the electronic emissions control unit.

           The onboard emissions diagnostic device monitors the operation of a vehicle's emission
           control system and alerts the driver with a dashboard light when malfunctions occur. The
           system will record where the problem is occurring and assist automotive technicians in diagnos-
           ing and repairing emission control malfunctions.  Since some emission control malfunctions do
           not have an adverse effect on vehicle performance, they can go undetected by the driver for
           quite some time. The onboard diagnostic device will help catch malfunctions early, preventing
           a significant output of harmful exhaust emissions from your vehicle, and possibly in time to be
           covered by the emissions control warranty. Often this "device" is part of the electronic control
           unit mentioned above.

           In the future, there may be other parts or components that qualify for this coverage. Check your
           owner's manual or warranty book for possible additional coverage.
           How Long Do the Emissions Warranties Apply to Individual Parts of
           My Vehicle?
           For 1995 and newer model year vehicles, emission control and emission related parts are war-
           ranted for the first 2 years or 24,000 miles of vehicle use (whichever first occurs). Specified
           major emission-control components are warranted for the first 8 years or 80,000 miles of vehicle
           use (whichever first occurs).

           Parts with a stated replacement interval, such as, "replace at 15,000 miles or 12 months," are
           warranted up to the first replacement point only.
             How Do I Know Whether I Am Entitled to Coverage Under the Emis-
             sions Warranties?
             If you or a qualified automotive technician can show that an emission control or emission
             related component, or a specified major, emission-control component, is defective, the repair
             or replacement of the part is probably covered under the Design and Defect warranty. If your
             vehicle failed a federally approved emissions test and has not exceeded the time and mileage
             limitations for the Performance warranty, any repairs or adjustments necessary for your vehicle
             to pass should be covered by the manufacturer if the failure was not caused by improper mainte-
             nance  or abuse. When you believe you have identified a defective part, or your vehicle fails an
             emission test, you should follow the procedures for making a warranty claim as identified by the
             manufacturer in your owner's manual or warranty booklet. When taking your vehicle in to have
             repairs performed under the Performance Warranty, be  sure to have with you a copy of the I/M
  /i \        test report as proof of your emissions test failure,

/""^J      May  I Have My Regular Repair Facility Perform Warranty Repairs?
^^^/        If you plan to have the manufacturer pay for a repair under either of the  emissions warranties,

           you must take the vehicle to a facility authorized by the vehicle manufacturer for repair to give
           them the opportunity to diagnose and repair it. Note that if your regular repair facility is not
           authorized by the vehicle manufacturer, they are not obligated to advise you of parts that are
           covered under warranty. Before giving your automotive technician the "go ahead" to perform
           repairs, check your owner's manual/warranty booklet for possible warranty coverage.
           Do the Emissions Warranties Apply to Used Vehicles?
           Yes. It does not matter if you bought your vehicle new or used from a dealer or anyone else. As
           long as the vehicle has not exceeded the warranty time or mileage limitations, these warranties

           IMPORTANT NOTE: Before buying a used vehicle, be sure that all of the emission control
           components as originally installed by the manufacturer are present and functioning properly. If
           emission control components are missing or have been tampered with, or the configuration of
           the exhaust system has been changed, the emissions warranties on this vehicle may be void. In
           addition, if you live in an area with an I/M program, the vehicle will probably not pass inspec-
           tion and you will incur the expense of parts or repairs necessary for the vehicle to pass,
>T\        Can Any Portion of An Emissions Warranty Repair  Be Charged to Me?
           If you have valid warranty claim, you cannot be charged for any costs associated with the
           diagnosis or repair of the problem, including labor charges, parts, or miscellaneous items that
           are necessary to complete the repair. For example, if a manufacturer agrees to replace a catalytic
           converter under the emissions warranty, you should not be charged for the diagnosis of the bad
           converter, or any pipes, brackets, adjustments, or labor needed to complete the replacement.
           What Reasons Can the Manufacturer Use to Deny a Warranty Claim?
           If your vehicle is within the age and mileage limits for the applicable emissions warranty, the
           manufacturer can only deny coverage if evidence shows that you have failed to properly main-
           tain and use your vehicle, causing the part or emission test failure. Some examples of misuse and
           malmaintenance include the following:
                vehicle abuse such as off-road driving or overloading; or

                tampering with emission control parts or systems, including removal or intentional dam-
                 age of such parts or systems; or

                improper maintenance, including failure to follow maintenance schedules and instruc
/i \              tions specified by manufacturer, or use of replacement parts which are not equivalent to
^^              the originally installed parts.

             What Should I Do If My First Attempt to Obtain Warranty Coverage Is
             If your first attempt to receive emissions warranty coverage is denied, you should do the following:

                1.  Ask for a detailed explanation, in writing as to why emissions warranty coverage was
                   denied; and

                2.  Ask for the name(s) of the person(s) involved in the decision to deny coverage, including
                   anyone from the manufacturer's regional or zone office; and

                3.  Ask for the name(s) of the person(s) with the manufacturer you should contact to appeal
                   the denial of coverage under the emissions warranty,

                4.  Contact and, if necessary, write to the person mentioned above requesting coverage and
                   giving the basis for your request. Repeat and continue the appeal process until you are
                   satisfied or have exhausted all means of appeal,

             What If the Dealer Claims That My Vehicle Can Pass the I/M Test With-
             out Repair?
             The law does not require that you fail every I/M test in order to trigger the warranty. If a valid
             test shows that you have an emission problem or there is a defective part, you should get it fixed,
  rf\        while your vehicle is still within the warranty period. Otherwise, you might fail a future test
             because of the same problem  and have to pay for the repair yourself. If you doubt your original
             test results or the dealer's results or diagnosis, you can always get another opinion from another
             dealer or your I/M program.
             How Can Maintenance Affect My Emission Warranty Coverage?
             Performance and the cost of scheduled maintenance are your responsibility. You may either
             perform scheduled maintenance yourself or have a qualified repair facility perform it for you.

             If a part fails as a direct result of your vehicle not being properly maintained or being used in a
             manner inconsistent with the manufacturer's recommendations, or a part fails as a result of the
             vehicle being involved in an accident, the manufacturer may not be required to repair or replace
             the failed part under warranty. For example, failure to replace the spark plugs at the intervals
             specified in the maintenance schedule can lead to misfiring and eventual damage to your cata-
             lytic converter - a very expensive  part to replace. If the maintenance is not performed properly
             as recommended, the manufacturer may deny warranty coverage.

             To ensure maximum air pollution reduction from the emission control system,  as well as to ensure
             continued warranty coverage, better gas mileage and performance, and longer vehicle life, you

            should have all maintenance performed as recommended by the manufacturer's schedule. A
            list of scheduled maintenance for your vehicle can be found in the owner's manual or warranty
            Do I  Have to Show Any Maintenance Receipts Before I Can Make an
            Emissions Warranty Claim?
            No. Proof of maintenance is not required in order to obtain coverage under the emissions war-
            ranty if an emission control or emission related component, or a specified major emission con
            trol component, is found to be defective in materials or workmanship. However, when it is likely
            that the lack of proper maintenance has caused the particular part to fail, you may be asked to
            show that scheduled maintenance was performed.

            If you perform scheduled maintenance yourself, you should keep a detailed log of work per
            formed and any receipts for parts purchased to perform the maintenance. In some instances, you
            may be asked to qualify your ability to perform such maintenance. Vehicles should always be
            maintained according to manufacturers' specifications,

            Are Dealers the Only  Persons Allowed to Perform Scheduled Mainte-
            nance Recommended by the Manufacturer?
            No. Scheduled maintenance may be performed by anyone who has the knowledge and ability
            to perform the maintenance and repair. You may even maintain the vehicle yourself, as long as
  rf\       the maintenance is performed according to the manufacturer's instructions provided with the

            For your protection, before taking your vehicle to a repair facility to have any maintenance
            performed, check your maintenance booklet and make a list of the scheduled maintenance to be
            performed at that time. We suggest that you present this list to your auto technician as opposed
            to merely asking for a "tune-up" or a "12,000 miles servicing." Your receipt should list all the
            maintenance performed and should be kept for your records.

            If you maintain the vehicle yourself, you should keep receipts for parts and a maintenance log to
            verify your work.
            If I Need Replacement Parts, Must I Use the Vehicle Manufacturer's
            Parts Only?
            No. A manufacturer cannot require the use of any specific brand of parts in the maintenance of
            your vehicle. However, the manufacturer can require you to use parts that are of equal quality to
            the original parts.


             Agency (EPA) is authorized to investigate the failure of manufacturers to comply with the
             terms of these warranties. If you have followed the manufacturer's procedures (including those
             for appeals) for making a warranty claim as set out in your owner's manual or warranty booklet,
             have received a written denial and you are not satisfied with the manufacturer's determination,
             you may submit a letter to EPA at the following address. It should provide details of the situa-
             tion including the basis for the claim, a copy of the written denial, copies of your letters to the
             manufacturers, and copies of any receipts for emission control parts and repairs you have paid

                       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                       Office of Transportation and Air Quality
                       Compliance Division, Light'Duty Vehicle Group
                       Attn:  Warranty Complaints
                       2000 Traverwood Drive
                       Ann Arbor, MI 48105

             Other sources of  assistance may be your local or State consumer protection agency or office of
             the Attorney General. You also should be aware that low-cost or free legal assistance may be
             available through a local legal aid office, the State bar association, or a law school clinic staffed
             by law students,
             In Summary
             If an emission control or emission related part, or a specified major emission control component
  C/J        is defective, or if your vehicle fails an I/M test, and your vehicle is within the time and mileage
             limitations for emissions warranty coverage:
                    Present a warranty claim to an authorized warranty representative,
^^T                If your warranty claim is denied:
                            Ask for the reason for denial, in writing,
                            Follow the appeal procedures in your owner's manual,
                    If you are not satisfied with the manufacturer's decision:
                            Contact the EPA, which will investigate the denial of a valid emissions
                            warranty complaint,
                    Keep This With Your Vehicle for Future Reference,
             For More Information
             For further information on emissions warranties, please contact us at:

                       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                       Office of Transportation and Air Quality
                       Compliance Division, Light-Duty Vehicle Group
                       Attn: Warranty Complaints
                       2000 Traverwood Drive
                       Ann Arbor, MI 48105
                       Email:  complianceinfo@epa.gov