Speciation Profiles and Toxic Emission

             Factors for Non-road Engines
&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency

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                  Speciation Profiles  and Toxic Emission
                        Factors for Non-road Engines
                                  Assessment and Standards Division
                                 Office of Transportation and Air Quality
                                 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                   NOTICE

                   This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or
                   positions.  It is intended to present technical analysis of issues using data
                   that are currently available. The purpose in the release of such reports is to
                   facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the public of
                   technical developments.
&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA-420-R-15-019
November 2015

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1.0    Introduction	3
  1.1    Air Toxics in MOVES2014a                                               4
  1.2    Speciation	6
  1.3    Methods	7
2.0    Gasoline Exhaust	8
  2.1    Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors	8
  2.2    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	10
  2.3    Metals	11
  2.4    Dioxins and Furans	12
3.0    Diesel Exhaust	13
  3.1    Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors	13
  3.2    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	15
  3.3    Metals	17
  3.4    Dioxins and Furans	18
4.0    Compressed Natural Gas Exhaust	20
  4.1    Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors	20
  4.2    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	21
  4.3    Metals	21
  4.4    Dioxins and Furans	23
5.0    Liquefied Petroleum Gas	24
  5.1    Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors	24
  5.2    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	26
  5.3    Metals	26
  5.4    Dioxins and Furans	27
6.0    Evaporative Emissions	28
  6.1    Gasoline Engines	28
    6.1.1    Vapor Venting and Refueling Emission Processes	28
    6.1.2    Permeation	28
  6.2    Diesel Engines	29
  6.3    CNG and LPG Engines                                                    29
7.0    Crankcase Exhaust Emissions	31
  7.1    Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors	31
  7.2    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons	32
  7.3    Metal and Dioxin Emissions	32

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Appendix A. Development of Exhaust TOG and VOC Speciation Profiles for Spark-
Ignition and Compression-Ignition Nonroad Engines	33
Appendix B. Responses to Peer-Review Comments	68
8.0 References	84

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1.0   Introduction

Air pollution inventory modelers have traditionally estimated emissions from nonroad, or non-
highway, engines and equipment by using EPA's NONROAD model. With the release of
MOVES2014, users are able to model emissions from both onroad highway vehicles and
nonroad engines and equipment within the same interfaced However, MOVES2014 did not
estimate emissions of nonroad toxics  or speciated hydrocarbons. This capability has been added
to MOVES2014a. This document describes the data used to generate speciation profiles and
emission rates for toxic compounds emitted from nonroad engines and equipment in the
MOVES2014a database and model.

Substantial updates to nonroad air toxic emission factors, historically estimated from the
National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM)1, were provided by incorporating data from several
test programs on speciated emissions  from gasoline and diesel engines and equipment.

This document details the research and development behind how MOVES2014a estimates air
toxic emissions for nonroad engines and equipment run on conventional gasoline without ethanol
(EO) and gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) as well as diesel fuel, compressed natural gas
(CNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).  For diesel engines, air toxic emissions may also be
differentiated by large  and small engine horsepower classifications (described in greater detail in
Section 3.1).

In addition, this document uses the same datasets used to develop speciation profiles and toxic
emission rates to develop estimates of organic gas emissions for a number of different
aggregations. These aggregations vary based on measurement method, and presence or absence
of methane, ethane, alcohols and aldehydes.  The aggregations are defined as follows:

Total Hydrocarbons (THC): "THC  is the measured hydrocarbon emissions using a Flame
lonization Detector (FID) calibrated with propane. The FID is assumed to respond to all
hydrocarbons identically as it responds to propane in determining the concentration of
carbon atoms in a gas sample. Most hydrocarbons respond nearly identically as propane
with notable exceptions being oxygenated hydrocarbons such as alcohols and aldehydes
commonly found in engine exhaust."2 That is because THC measurements do not respond fully
to carbon-oxygen bonds in oxygenated compounds,  such as aldehydes,  alcohols, and ketones.

Total Organic Gases (TOG): hydrocarbon emissions plus oxygenated hydrocarbons such
as alcohols and aldehydes.1 TOG is measured using gas and liquid chromatography methods.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC): TOG emissions minus those hydrocarbons that
contribute little to ozone formation, such as methane, ethane, and acetone.1

Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC): NMHC = THC - CH4 (methane)
A Prior to MOVES, the National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM) was used to develop county level criteria
pollutant and toxics inventories. NMIM incorporated onroad and the NONROAD model to calculate emission
inventories.

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Non-Methane Organic Gases (NMOG): NMOG = TOG- CH4 (methane)


1.1    Air Toxics in MOVES2014a

       The air toxics included in MOVES2014a are classified into four categories:

    1)  Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC): EPA defines VOC as any compound of carbon--
       excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or
       carbonates, and ammonium carbonate—which participates in atmospheric photochemical
       reactions, except those designated by EPA as having negligible photochemical
       reactivity.3
    2)  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): This category is defined as hydrocarbons
       containing fused aromatic rings. These compounds can be measured in the gaseous phase,
       particulate phase, or both, depending on properties of the compound, particle
       characteristics and conditions in the exhaust stream or the atmosphere. Currently, we use
       two separate sets of partitioning factors (one based on onroad diesel engine testing, and
       the other based on  onroad gasoline testing) that represent the conditions under which the
       PAHs were measured.
    3)  Dioxins and furans: This category includes polychlorinated organic compounds which are
       persistent in the environment and considered bioaccumulative in aquatic and terrestrial
       food chains.
    4)  Metals: This category includes metals or metal-containing compounds in elemental,
       gaseous and particulate phases.

Specific compounds in each category are listed in Table 1 through Table 4 and are identical to
the compounds modeled for  highway vehicles. Note that each compound is identified by its
"pollutantTD" in the MOVES database. Each compound is also identified by its Chemical
Abstracts Service Registry number (CAS number).

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Table 1. Hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds included in MOVES2014a
Pollutant
Benzene
Ethanol
1,3 -Butadiene
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
Methyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE)
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
Ethyl Benzene
Hexane
Propionaldehyde
Styrene
Toluene
Xylene(s)1
pollutantID
20
21
24
25
26
27
22
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
CAS Number
71-43-2
64-17-5
106-99-0
50-00-0
75-07-0
107-02-8
1634-04-4
540-84-1
100-41-4
110-54-3
123-38-6
100-42-5
108-88-3
1330-20-7
1 This species represents the sum of emissions from three isomers of xylene, i.e., ortho-,
meta-, and/>ara-xylene.
     Table 2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons included in MOVES2014a
Pollutant
Acenaphthene
Acenaphthylene
Anthracene
Benz(a)anthracene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(/?)fluoranthene
Benzo(g,/y)perylene
Benzo(£)fluoranthene
Chrysene
Dibenzo(a, /7)anthracene
Fluoranthene
Fluorene
Indeno( 1 ,2,3 ,c, J)pyrene
Naphthalene
Phenanthrene
Pyrene
pollutantID
(gaseous
phase)
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
168
169
181
182
185
183
184
(particulate
phase)
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
68
69
81
82
23
83
84
CAS Number
83-32-9
208-96-8
120-12-7
56-55-3
50-32-8
205-99-2
191-24-2
207-08-9
218-01-9
53-70-3
206-44-0
86-73-7
193-39-5
91-20-3
85-01-8
129-00-0

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                    Table 3. Dioxins and furans included in MOVES2014a
Pollutant
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3, 7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-
Dioxin
1,2,3, 6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-
Dioxin
1,2,3, 7,8, 9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-
Dioxin
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-
Dioxin
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran
,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
Octachlorodibenzofuran
pollutantID
142
135
134
141
130
132
131
136
144
137
145
140
146
139
143
138
133
CAS Number
1746-01-6
40321-76-4
39227-28-6
57653-85-7
19408-74-3
35822-46-9
3268-87-9
51207-31-9
67562-39-4
55673-89-7
70648-26-9
57117-44-9
72918-21-9
57117-41-6
60851-34-5
57117-31-4
39001-02-0
                         Table 4. Metals included in MOVES2014a
Pollutant
Mercury (elemental gaseous)
Mercury (divalent gaseous)
Mercury (particulate)
Arsenic compounds
Chromium (Cr6+)
Manganese compounds
Nickel compounds
pollutantID
60
61
62
63
65
66
67
CAS Number
7439.97-6
7439-97-6
7439.97-6
7440-38-2 (metal)
18540-29-9
7439-96-5 (metal)
7440-02-0 (metal)
1.2    Speciation

In addition to estimating emissions of pollutants that are discrete chemical compounds, such as
carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SCh), MOVES2014a produces emission rates for
aggregates of individual chemical compounds, including total hydrocarbons (THC), volatile
organic compounds (VOC), total organic gases (TOG) and particulate matter (PM). Organic gas
aggregations are described in the introduction, above.  Particulate matter is operationally defined
as the measured mass collected on a filter using EPA-defmed sampling filter media, conditions,
and practices. PM2.5 refers to particulate matter emissions collected downstream of a cyclone
that removes the particles  with aerodynamic diameter greater than 2.5 microns, while PMio refers
to particulate matter emissions with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns.

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Previous versions of MOVES produced highway vehicle emission estimates for a subset of
species that contribute to TOG and PM2.5. These include important organic gaseous toxics (e.g.,
formaldehyde and benzene), and toxic particle-phase elements (e.g., nickel and manganese).
These also include semi-volatile organic compounds, such as 15 individual polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (e.g., benzo(g,/7,/')perylene) that can exist in both the gaseous and particle phases
under different measurement conditions.

However, prior to MOVES2014, the individual species produced by MOVES had to be
estimated outside MOVES by emission pre-processors into a form suitable for use in air-quality
modeling, such as the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The process of
apportioning aggregate TOG and PM2.5 into sets of separate components is called "speciation."
MOVES2014 incorporated the process of TOG and PM2.5 speciation for highway vehicles, and,
thus, for these sources, can produce the TOG and PM2.5 species needed by air quality models.
The reasoning for bringing the speciation capability inside MOVES is further described
elsewhere.4

In MOVES2014a, toxics are estimated from the nonroad portion of the model, similar to the
highway sources. However, detailed TOG speciation, including the calculation of chemical
mechanism species6, and PM2.5 speciation from nonroad sources continue to be conducted via
post-processing of MOVES2014a results.5 Nonetheless, nonroad emissions from MOVES2014a
include a higher level of detail than in NONROAD2008, and can be distinguished by engine
type, engine technology, engine size, fuel and fuel sub-type, and emission processes. These are
the factors used to categorize distinctions in TOG and PM speciation profiles stored in EPA's
database SPECIATE. By outputting the emissions by these factors, the speciation of nonroad
emissions can occur in the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) processor
without any loss of information.

 1.3    Methods

We conducted a literature review of air toxics from nonroad engines and concluded that the best
available data sets for nonroad engines were from two test programs conducted by Southwest
Research Institute (SwRI), under contracts from EPA.  Exhaust emissions data from these
programs were used to create VOC  speciation profiles  and gaseous toxic emission  fractions for
nonroad spark-ignition (SI) engines6 and nonroad compression ignition (CI) engines.7'8 The test
programs and derivation of these speciation profiles are explained further in Appendix A and in
the literature.9  Data from the CI test programs were also used to develop PAH emission
fractions. Data from the SI engine test program provided the basis for profiles of uncontrolled 2-
stroke and 4-stroke engines operating on gasoline (EO) and gasoline containing 10% ethanol by
volume (E10).  Data from the CI engine test programs provided the basis for profiles of pre-Tier
1, Tier 1, and Tier 2 engines at various power levels.

Where data on nonroad emissions were absent, nonroad emission factors were derived from
onroad vehicles.   Onroad emission factors surrogates were used for nonroad gasoline engine
emissions of PAHs, metals, and dioxins/furans; diesel engine emissions of VOCs for Tier 4
B To make the chemistry of air quality models computationally feasible, the thousands of actual chemical species are
mapped to a relatively few "chemical mechanism" species.

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>56kW engines, PAHs for Tier 4 >56kW engines, metals, and dioxins/furans; and all air toxics
from CNG and LPG engines. For detailed information on the data and derivation of emission
factors for onroad vehicles, please refer to the peer-reviewed EPA report entitled Air Toxic
Emissions from Onroad Vehicles in MOVES2014 (referred to in this document as the "onroad
air toxics report").10

It is important to note that emissions factors for nonroad engines and equipment are based on
composites of running and cold start emissions and currently there are not separate emission
factors for idling, start, or hot-stabilized running emissions.  In highway vehicles, emission
factors vary substantially between these modes.  It should also be mentioned that toxic fractions
are mass-based (as opposed to using molar-ratios) and inputs used to estimate emissions of toxics
do not vary by temperature.  In addition, data from a limited number of equipment types were
applied to other equipment types with different operating conditions which could affect
composition of the emissions.

2.0    Gasoline Exhaust

       2.1    Organic Gas Aggregations and  Air Toxic Emission Factors

A single nonroad spark-ignition test program5 (further described in Appendix A) was used to
develop exhaust emission factors for organic gases according to engine type (2-stroke or 4-
stroke) and fuel subtype (EO or E10). The choice of 2-stroke or 4-stroke technology and the
choice of gasoline ethanol level are generally the most important factors influencing nonroad
gasoline engine speciated emissions  and thus all  nonroad gasoline engines were assigned volatile
organic compound (VOC) profiles according to stroke and fuel subtype. The presence of a three-
way catalyst also influences emissions0; however, as described in Appendix A, the limited data
for catalyst-equipped engines from 2-strokes had many inconsistencies which rendered the data
unusable.

In the MOVES model, individual VOC fractions are multiplied by total VOC emissions to obtain
emission factors.  Total VOC was derived from NMHC by first calculating NMOG according to
40 CFR §1066.635  (Equation I):11

Equation 1
                                                       N

                mNMOG = mNMHC +  moxygenates ~ PjVMHC ' }_i          '' ' ^^RFi
Where:
mmmc = the mass of NMHC and all oxygenated hydrocarbons in the exhaust
     G = the mass of NMOG in the exhaust
c For MY 2011, 54% of the small 2-cycle SI nonroad engines in EPA's certification database are equipped with
aftertreatment, with 28% of the small 4-cycle SI nonroad engines certified with aftertreatment. In MY 2015, 57% of
the small 2-cycle SI nonroad engines include aftertreatment, with 23% of the small 4-cycle SI nonroad engines
reporting aftertreatment. These numbers only reflect the percentage of engines certified for sale in the US, and may
not reflect the percentage of engines sold with aftertreatment. (http://www3.epa.gov/otaq/certdata.htnrfsmallsi)

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^oxygenates = the mass of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde
PNMHC = the effective Ci-equivalent density of NMHC, calculated using a C:H ratio of 1:2.64
^oxygenate! = the mass of oxygenated species /' in the exhaust as indicated in Table 19
yOoxygenatez = the Ci-equivalent density of oxygenated species /'

From NMOG, TOG can be obtained by the addition of methane. VOCs are obtained from
NMOG by the removal of ethane and acetone.
Equation 2
                           VOC = NMOG - ethane - acetone
Table 5 lists aggregate species (or groups of chemical compounds defined operationally or for
modeling purposes) including THC, NMHC, NMOG, TOG and VOC, and also includes ratios
used to derive NMOG, VOC and methane from THC and NMHC. NMHC was derived from the
THC and methane emissions, NMOG was derived from Equation 1, VOC from Equation 2, and
TOG as the sum of NMOG + methane. NMOG/NMHC and VOC/NMHC factors are derived
from these values are also presented.

       Table 5. Organic gas aggregations estimated from THC for nonroad gasoline engines
                                     in MOVES 2014a
Engine Technology
Fuel sub-type
Mass units3
THC
NMHC
NMOG
TOG
VOC
CH4

NMOG/NMHC
CH4/THC
VOC/NMHC
2-stroke
EO
mg/mi
36235
35491
35687
36432
35586
744

1.006
0.021
1.003
2-stroke
E10
mg/mi
31510
30875
32733
33368
32631
635

1.060
0.020
1.057
4-stroke
EO
mg/hp-hr
6667
5622
5774
6819
5692
1045

1.027
0.157
1.012
4-stroke
E10
mg/hp-hr
5855
4981
5232
6107
5156
874

1.051
0.149
1.035
              a 2-stroke engines were measured on a transient test cycle and 4-stroke engines were
              measured on a steady-state cycle, per Appendix A

Emission factors for individual VOC are reported as the fraction of the individual species divided
by total VOCs (Table 6). The remaining VOC species have been integrated into the term
NONHAPTOG which is listed at the bottom of Table 6.

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          Table 6. Nonroad gasoline toxic fractions for VOC included in MOVES2014a
Pollutant
1,3 -Butadiene
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
Benzene
Ethanol
Ethyl Benzene
Formaldehyde
Hexane
m-& p-Xylene
Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE)
o-Xylene
Propionaldehyde
Styrene
Toluene
NONHAPTOG
EO
4 stroke
0.01280
0.04610
0.00425
0.00037
0.06940
0.00172
0.02200
0.01980
0.00233
0.04400
0.00000
0.01460
0.00049
0.00976
0.08640
0.66600
EO
2 stroke
0.00214
0.08110
0.00103
0.00031
0.01390
0.00058
0.03440
0.00368
0.00772
0.06440
0.00000
0.02320
0.00051
0.00223
0.08640
0.67800
E10
4 stroke
0.01240
0.05720
0.00897
0.00045
0.04590
0.03030
0.01670
0.01760
0.00520
0.05460
0.00000
0.01530
0.00041
0.00715
0.07770
0.65000
E10
2 stroke
0.00272
0.13000
0.00336
0.00044
0.01260
0.07810
0.02230
0.00498
0.00715
0.05390
0.00000
0.01860
0.00052
0.00177
0.07770
0.58600
       2.2    Poly cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Emissions of PAH in the gaseous and particulate phases were estimated as fractions of total
VOC and PM2.5, respectively (Equations 3 and 4).  PAH emission factors for nonroad gasoline
engines were adapted from onroad gasoline engine data (described in section 2.2.1 of the on-road
air toxics report) due to unavailability of data for nonroad engines, which includes the same
partitioning assumptions between gas and particle as onroad gasoline. Since the nonroad portion
of MOVES2014a does not produce speciated PIVb.s measurements (in particular, it does not
estimate the  carbon fraction of PIVh.s), nonroad PAH emissions are estimated from total PIVb.s
emissions as opposed to the OC2.sDused for onroad emissions.  The onroad gasoline PAH
emission factor  is applied to both 2-stroke and 4-stroke gasoline engines and both EO and E10
fuel subtypes.
Equation 3
           PAH gaseous emission fraction =
                                                PAHt
  x Gaseous Fraction^
Equation 4
          PAH particulate emission fraction =
                                                PAHt
                                                PM
                                                   2.5
x Particulate Fraction^
D OC2.5 refers to the organic carbon portion of PM2.5 emissions

                                           10

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PAH;= ith species of PAH
    Table 7. Toxic fractions for PAH compounds in gaseous and particulate phases for nonroad
                                     gasoline engines
Species
Naphthalene
Acenaphthylene
Acenaphthene
Fluorene
Anthracene
Phenanthrene
Fluoranthene
Pyrene
Benz(a)anthracene
Chrysene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene
Indeno( 1 ,2,3 ,c,d)pyrene
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
Gaseous
Phase
(PAH/VOC)
2.07E-03
1.81E-04
3.99E-05
8.08E-05
3.35E-05
2.14E-04
5.60E-05
6.40E-05
5.40E-06
6.05E-06
2.94E-07
4.01E-06
4.01E-06
0.0
0.0
0.0
Particulate
Phase
(PAH/PM2.5)
6.38E-05
2.09E-05
0.0
0.0
2.21E-05
7.80E-05
7.81E-05
8.47E-05
2.03E-04
1.72E-04
5.09E-04
2.48E-04
2.48E-04
1.38E-03
5.17E-04
1.19E-05
       2.3    Metals

Emission factors for chromium 6, manganese, nickel, elemental gas-phase mercury (Hg),
reactive gas-phase Hg, particulate Hg, and arsenic were developed based on existing onroad
gasoline emission factors in MOVES2014 (Table 51 of the onroad air toxics report) due to the
lack of nonroad emissions tests data for these compounds. Onroad emission factors from
MOVES2014 were used as surrogates and converted from grams-per-mile to grams-per-gallon
using study-specific, miles per gallon (mpg) fuel economy estimates. A considerable source of
uncertainty in this approach is that the onroad data were obtained from vehicles with catalysts,
but are being applied to nonroad engines without catalyst controls.

Chromium  6 was estimated using data collected at U.S. EPA's National Vehicle Emissions
Laboratory and  analyzed at the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison.  These data were collected on a single vehicle,  a 2008 Chevrolet Impala
flexible-fuel vehicle. They are the only available data with direct measurement of hexavalent
chromium from a highway vehicle, gasoline or diesel. Development of a gasoline vehicle
                                           11

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emission rate from these data is detailed in Appendix A of the onroad air toxics report. Eighteen
percent of chromium was assumed to be hexavalent, based on combustion data from stationary
combustion turbines burning diesel fuel.12 To obtain the chromium 6 nonroad gasoline emission
factor, the onroad emission factor was converted to grams-per-gallon by using the Impala's fuel
economy estimate of 18 miles per gallon.

Nonroad gasoline vehicle emission factors for mercury (all phases) were obtained from the
onroad air toxics report, Appendix B. Nonroad grams-per-gallon emission factors were
calculated from the onroad factors using a fuel  economy estimate of 17 miles per gallon, based
on average fuel economy estimates for gasoline vehicles used to develop the onroad estimates.13

Emission rates for manganese and nickel were developed from 99 vehicles sampled for chemical
composition in the Kansas City test program.14  For manganese and nickel, the mean rates were
calculated as weighted averages of metal measured on Bag 2  of the LA92 test cycle. A fuel
economy estimate of 20.43 mpg was calculated from vehicles in the Kansas City test program.

The emission rate for arsenic is from a Health Effects Institute research report.15 In the absence
of a study-specific fuel economy estimate for the vehicles used in the study, the 2000 fuel
economy standard for gasoline vehicles (27.5 mpg) was used to reflect the fleet average fuel
economy at the time when the majority of data were collected.

A single factor for each metal  is applied to all nonroad gasoline engines and fuel sub-types (EO
and El0).

                 Table 8. Metal emission factors for nonroad gasoline engines
Pollutant
Chromium 6
Manganese
Nickel
Elemental Gas-Phase Hg
Reactive Gas-Phase Hg
Participate Hg
Arsenic
Emission Factor
fe/sal)
2.20E-07
2.72E-05
3.06E-05
1.80E-06
1.70E-07
6.90E-09
6.33E-05
       2.4     Dioxins and Furans

Emission factors for 17 dioxins and furans were developed (Table 9) based on onroad emission
factors (detailed in section 2.4 of the onroad air toxics report) because of a lack of available data
for nonroad engines. Onroad emission rates from MOVES2014 were obtained from a tunnel
study16 and used in EPA's dioxin assessment.17 These emission rates were converted from TEQ
(Toxicity Equivalence)E grams-per-mile to TEQ grams-per-gallon using a fuel economy of 23.5
E Toxicity Equivalence.  The various dioxin/furan congeners are expressed as TEQs of the most toxic
congener (2,3,7,8 TCDD). Further explanation can be found in section 2.4 of the on-road air toxics
report.
                                           12

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miles-per-gallon from the tunnel study.  Due to a lack of dioxin and furan test data differentiating
2-stroke and 4-stroke engines, the dioxin/furan emission factors in Table 9 will be applied to all
nonroad gasoline engines.  Each dioxin and furan rate is also applied across all fuel sub-types.
MOVES uses the gram-per-gallon emission rate, but we also calculated a gram-per-gram-fuel
emission rate by converting gallons to grams of gasoline using the default fuel density (2839
g/gallon) of highway conventional gasoline in MOVES2014. The fuel-based emission factor
(grams-per-grams-fuel) is calculated as a reference that is used for estimating CNG and LPG
emissions  as described in Section 4  and  5.
            Table 9. Dioxin and furan emission factors for nonroad gasoline engines.
Pollutant
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-/>-Dioxin
(TCDD)
l,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-/>-Dioxin
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
Octachlorodibenzofuran
Highway
Vehicle
Emission
Rate TEQ
(mg/mi)
8.27E-10
3.70E-10
3.87E-11
7.92E-11
4.93E-11
5.95E-11
1.41E-11
2.76E-10
3.96E-11
2.90E-10
1.09E-10
1.16E-10
3.17E-11
1.36E-10
1.21E-10
3.87E-12
4.11E-12
Emission
Factor
TEQ
(g/gal)
1.94E-11
8.70E-12
9.09E-13
1.86E-12
1.16E-12
1.40E-12
3.31E-13
6.49E-12
9.31E-13
6.82E-12
2.56E-12
2.73E-12
7.45E-13
3.20E-12
2.84E-12
9.09E-14
9.66E-14
Emission
Factor
TEQ (gig-
gasoline)
6.85E-15
3.06E-15
3.20E-16
6.56E-16
4.08E-16
4.93E-16
1.17E-16
2.28E-15
3.28E-16
2.40E-15
9.02E-16
9.60E-16
2.62E-16
1.13E-15
l.OOE-15
3.20E-17
3.40E-17
3.0    Diesel Exhaust

       3.1     Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors

Diesel engines were assigned VOC exhaust emission factors according to engine control
technology, as determined by the engine certification tier or phase, and engine size. Pre-Tier 1,
Tier 1, and Tier 2 diesel engine VOC profiles were developed from EPA's nonroad CI test
programs.6'7 In the absence of data, we applied the VOC profile developed for Tier 2 engines to
                                           13

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Tier 3 engines. The same VOC profiles are being applied across all engine sizes within each of
the Tier 3-and-earlier technology groups.

The stringency of the nonroad diesel Tier 4 emission standards varies considerably depending on
engine size. The NMHC standards are relatively unchanged for engines smaller than 56 kW with
Tier 4, so we have continued to apply the developed Tier 2 VOC emission profile to all Tier 4
engines smaller than 56 kW.

For engines greater than 56 kW, the emission standards for NMHC and NOx standards are
significantly reduced with Tier 4 vehicles. These standards have forced different configurations
of emission control technologies, utilizing advanced technology such as diesel oxidation
catalysts, diesel particulate filters, selective reduction catalysts, and ammonia slip catalysts.  An
onroad 2007 heavy-duty diesel profile was used to represent these engines. This profile was
based on heavy-duty diesel onroad engines equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts and diesel
particulate filters. For Tier 4 diesel engines >56 kW, we applied the  speciated emissions factors
derived from Phase 1 of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES), directed by the
Health Effects Institute and Coordinating Research Council, with participation from a range of
government and private-sector sponsors.18 It should be noted that manufacturers have been able
to meet Tier 4 nonroad standards without diesel particulate filters; thus, applying a profile based
on 2007 onroad engines introduces considerable uncertainty.

NMOG and VOC ratios for diesel engines were calculated using THC measurements, similar to
the way we generated gasoline ratios (Section 2.1); this information is displayed in Table 10.
NMOG was calculated using Equation 1 but the effective Ci-equivalent density of NMHC was
calculated from a diesel #2 C:H molar ratio of 1:1.8. VOC and methane emission rates used to
develop emission factors for all diesel engines except Tier 4 >56kW engines were from the final
TOG speciation profiles listed in Appendix A of this document. The methane/THC value for
Tier 4 >56kW diesel engines is based on the  same ratio as the Tier 2 & 3,  and small Tier 4
value. .  The NMOG/NMHC and VOC/NMHC  rates for Tier 4 >56kW diesel engines are taken
from the onroad model year group of 2007-2050, as documented in the MOVES2014  Speciation
of TOG and PM Emissions report.4

VOC profiles were created by  subtracting the values for methane, ethane,  and acetone from TOG
profiles in Appendix A.  Emission factors are reported in fractions of individual species over
total VOCs (Table 11). The remaining VOC species have been integrated into the term
NONHAPTOG, which is listed at the bottom of Table 11.
                                           14

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  Table 10. Methane emission rates and organic gas ratios estimated from THC for nonroad diesel
                                engines in MOVES 2014a
Engine technology
Fuel type
Engine power
CH4a
NMOG/NMHC
CH4/THC
VOC/NMHC
Pre-Tier 1
Diesel
All
3.567
1.067
0.005
1.062
Tier 1
Diesel
All
4.722
1.116
0.022
1.110
Tiers 2 & 3
Diesel
All
7.960
1.233
0.098
1.233
Tier 4
Diesel
<56kW
7.960
1.233
0.098
1.233
Tier 4
Diesel
>56kW

1.3431
0.098
1.3058
a The units for methane emission rates are all mg/hp-hr

         Table 11. Toxic fractions of VOC for nonroad diesel vehicles by engine standard

Pollutant
1,3 -Butadiene
2,2,4-
Trimethylpentane
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
Benzene
Ethyl Benzene
Formaldehyde
Hexane
Xylenes
Propionaldehyde
Styrene
Toluene
NONHAPTOG
Toxic fraction
Pre-Tier 1
0.00186
0.00807
0.0746
0.0302
0.0196
0.00944
0.207
0.00230
0.02256
0.0141
0.000
0.0122
0.598
Tier 1
0.00186
0.00712
0.0783
0.0160
0.0225
0.00384
0.223
0.00279
0.01644
0.0386
0.000
0.0215
0.568
Tiers 2
&3
0.00186
0.00783
0.104
0.0187
0.0541
0.00438
0.292
0.000
0.0116
0.0220
0.000
0.0378
0.446
Tier 4
(<56
kW)
0.00186
0.00783
0.104
0.0187
0.0541
0.00438
0.292
0.000
0.0116
0.0220
0.000
0.0378
0.446
Tier 4
(>56
kW)
0.00080
0.00782
0.06934
0.00999
0.01291
0.00627
0.21744
0.00541
0.0380
0.00314
0.000
0.02999
0.59889
       3.2    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Unlike gasoline, we had measurements of PAHs from nonroad diesel engines from EPA's
nonroad CI test programs, but we did not have the PAH emissions measured separately from the
gaseous and particulate phases. We partitioned the nonroad PAH emission factors into gaseous
and particulate phases using the same set of partitioning factors used for pre-2007 highway diesel
exhaust documented in the onroad air toxics report (Table 58). The data used represent
partitioning is the sampled diluted exhaust, which may not be representative of partitioning as
seen in the atmosphere. However, because the PAH emissions in MOVES are based on the VOC
and PM emission factors, we felt it was more important that the partitioning be consistent with
the laboratory sampling conditions under which the VOC and PM emission factors were
measured.
                                           15

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Emissions of PAH in the gaseous and particulate phases were estimated as fractions of total
VOC and PM2.5, respectively (Equations 3 and 4).  Toxic fractions were determined according to
the same emission standard and horsepower distinctions discussed in the prior section.  Toxic
fractions for Pre-Tier 1, Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3, and Tier 4 <56kW were calculated using the
composite mass results from the EPA nonroad compression-ignition transient test program
described in Appendix A.

In the absence of PAH data on nonroad engines with advanced controls (Tier 4 engines >56kW),
we relied on onroad engine speciated emissions data from Phase 1 of the ACES study, which
tested vehicles equipped with diesel parti culate filters.18 The PAH toxic fractions for nonroad
Tier 4 >56kW engines were taken from the same onroad conventional heavy duty diesel engines
(hot stabilized running, profile 8995) detailed in Table 63 of the onroad air toxics report.
However, while onroad PAHs are calculated from OC2.5, MOVES does not estimate organic
carbon for nonroad equipment. Thus, MOVES calculates nonroad PAH emissions as a fraction
of total PM2.s.

Gaseous results and parti culate results were averaged separately according to the categories
identified in Table 3-2 of Appendix A.  The resulting PAH EFs are displayed in Table 12

                  Table 12. PAH emission factors for nonroad diesel engines

Pollutant
Benz(a)anthracene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Chrysene
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
Indeno(l ,2,3-cd)pyrene
Benzo(ghi)perylene
Acenapthene
Acenapthylene
Anthracene
Fluoranthene
Fluorene
Napthalene
Phenanthrene
Pyrene
Pre-Tier 1
Gaseous
2.56E-06
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.96E-06
0.0
0.0
6.20E-07
9.59E-04
4.64E-04
8.74E-05
2.27E-05
1.15E-03
3.18E-03
1.56E-03
7.51E-05
Particle
4.51E-06
2.14E-06
2.47E-06
2.09E-06
7.89E-06
1.89E-06
2.02E-06
1.80E-06
0.0
0.0
6.63E-05
2.07E-05
2.71E-04
0.0
6.79E-04
8.28E-05
Tier 1
Gaseous
3.22E-06
0.0
0.0
0.0
3.85E-06
0.0
0.0
1.22E-06
3.79E-04
4.95E-04
4.63E-05
5.22E-05
5.00E-04
2.73E-03
1.03E-03
6.65E-05
Particle
3.24E-06
2.13E-06
2.60E-06
2.03E-06
6.26E-06
9.64E-07
1.53E-06
1.62E-06
0.0
0.0
1.95E-05
1.78E-05
5.75E-05
0.0
2.03E-04
3.20E-05
Tier 2, Tier 3, &
Tier 4 <56kW
Gaseous
7.81E-06
0.0
0.0
0.0
7.68E-06
0.0
0.0
5.70E-06
6.06E-04
1.24E-03
8.81E-05
1.45E-04
7.90E-04
4.64E-03
1.28E-03
1.30E-04
Particle
7.76E-06
6.67E-06
1.07E-05
8.10E-06
1.31E-05
9.52E-07
6.72E-06
7.55E-06
0.0
0.0
2.90E-05
5.59E-05
7.98E-05
0.0
2.37E-04
6.15E-05
Tier 4 >56kW
Gaseous
3.00E-07
0.0
0.0
0.0
5.00E-07
0.0
0.0
2.00E-07
5.26E-05
8.53E-05
3.04E-05
4.57E-05
1.96E-04
1.63E-02
8.51E-04
3.79E-05
Particle
8.00E-07
3.30E-06
1.40E-06
1.40E-06
2.50E-06
l.OOE-06
5.00E-07
2.00E-07
0.0
0.0
2.65E-05
4.87E-05
5.38E-05
0.0
4.29E-04
4.67E-05
                                           16

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       3.3    Metals

Emission factors for chromium 6 (also seen as chromium-6, chromium VI, Cr6+ and CrVI),
manganese, nickel, elemental gas-phase mercury (Hg), reactive gas-phase Hg, particulate Hg,
and arsenic were developed based on existing onroad emission factors in MOVES2014 (Tables
60 and 64 of the onroad air toxics report) due to the lack of nonroad emissions test data for these
compounds.  Onroad emission factors were converted from grams-per-mile to grams-per-gallon
using study-specific, miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy estimates.  Studies used in
developing onroad emission factors and study-specific fuel economy estimates are described
below. Study-specific fuel economy estimates were unavailable for metals on some engine
types, therefore average fuel economies were used. Where there was information to do so, diesel
engine emission factors were determined by engine tier and power (as described in Section 3.1).

Chromium 6 emissions factors for nonroad diesel engines were developed from an onroad
gasoline engine. The chromium 6 emission factor for Tier 0 - Tier 3 and Tier 4 <56kW diesel
engines was obtained by multiplying the highway gasoline vehicle emission rate (documented in
Appendix A of the onroad air toxics report) by the ratio of total chromium in diesel exhaust19 to
that in gasoline exhaust.20 For Tier 4 engines > 56kW, the chromium 6 emission rate was
obtained by multiplying the gasoline vehicle emission rate by the ratio of total chromium from
diesel and gasoline engines. The total chromium estimates came from the ACES18 and Kansas
City test programs, respectively.

Mercury (all phases) emission factors were calculated from two Ford F-250 diesel vehicles as
documented in Appendix B of the onroad air toxics report. The fuel economy estimate for these
vehicles was 19 miles per gallon.

Emission factors for arsenic were developed from onroad data reported in tunnel studies.15 The
fuel average  economy for these vehicles was not reported, so, because most of the data was
collected in 2000,  the model-year-2000 average heavy-duty diesel  fuel  economy of 7 miles-per-
gallon was used.

Emission factors for manganese and nickel were developed from the CRC E-55/5921 test
program for Tier 0 - Tier 3 and Tier 4 <56kW diesel engines. To convert the grams-per-mile
highway vehicle emission rate to grams-per-gallon, an average (4.3 g/gal) was computed from
the UDDS mile/gallon values from Tables 26 and 27 of the report.  For Tier 4 >56 kW nonroad
diesel engines, emission factors were developed from  ACES.10'18 A study-specific fuel economy
of 6 mile-per-gallon was used from page 31 of the ACES report.18
                                          17

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                  Table 13. Metal emission factors for nonroad diesel engines
Engine Tier &
Power
Tier 0 - Tier 3,
Tier4(<56kW)
Tier4(>56kW)
Pollutant
Chromium 6
Manganese
Nickel
Elemental Gas-Phase Hg
Reactive Gas-Phase Hg
Participate Hg
Arsenic
Chromium 6
Manganese
Nickel
Elemental Gas-Phase Hg
Reactive Gas-Phase Hg
Particulate Hg
Arsenic
Emission Factor
fe/sal)
3.70E-07
3.46E-05
6.05E-05
1.20E-07
6.20E-08
3.20E-08
1.61E-05
l.OOE-07
3.30E-06
3.90E-06
1.20E-07
6.20E-08
3.20E-08
1.61E-05
       3.4     Dioxins and Furans

Emission factors for 17 dioxins and furans were developed and based on onroad emission factors
because of a lack of available data for nonroad engines. Onroad emission rates from
MOVES2014 were used as surrogates and converted from TEQ grams-per-mile to TEQ grams-
per-gallon (Table 14).

To represent emissions of dioxins and furans from onroad pre-2007 heavy-duty diesel engines,
the emissions rates for 17 related compounds or congeners were calculated from the results of an
EPA diesel dioxin/furan study of legacy onroad engines.22  The data used to calculate the
emission rates for 2007-2009 onroad engines were obtained from the EPA diesel dioxin study
using a MY 2008 onroad diesel engine with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The
2010+ later emission rates used the same MY 2008 diesel engine, and diesel particulate filter
(DPF), but also included a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control system23  More
information on the development of the onroad diesel emission rates and the studies used can be
found in Sections 3.4 and 4.4 of the onroad air toxics report.

To apply the onroad dioxin and furan rates to nonroad diesel engines, we grouped the engines
differently than for other pollutants. This is because dioxins and furans are formed in the exhaust
after combustion and may not be affected by after-treatment control technologies in the same
way as other air toxics. In particular, we expect less sophisticated engine combustion
technologies on Tier 0, Tier 1, Tier 2 and the smaller Tier 3 and Tier 4 diesel engines, and thus
higher dioxin and furan emissions on a per gallon basis. For all Tier 0, Tier 1, Tier 2 and the Tier
3 and Tier 4 engines diesel engines less than 56 kW we used an average of emission factors from
three legacy onroad engines.22 The rated-power of 56 kW (75 hp) was used as the dividing line
between smaller and larger engines because NMHC-specific Tier 4 standards only apply to 56
kW-and-larger engines.  Tier 3 > 56kW engines are considered to have similar dioxin/furan
emissions as Tier 4 engines > 56kW based on observations of onroad engines.23 Thus, for Tier 3
                                           18

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and Tier 4 diesel engines > 56kW, we used the emission factor from representing 2010 on-
highway engine (including DPF+SCR).

      Table 14. Dioxin and furan emission factors TEQ (g/gallon) for nonroad diesel engines
Pollutant
ID
142
135
134
141
130
132
131
136
139
138
145
140
146
143
144
137
133
CAS
Number
17466016
40321764
39227286
57653857
19408743
35822469
3268879
51207319
57117416
57117314
70648269
57117449
60851345
72918219
67562394
55673897
39001020
Pollutant
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-/>-Dioxin
(TCDD)
l,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-/>-Dioxin
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-
Dioxin
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,7,8,9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
Octachlorodibenzofuran
Tier 0 - Tier 2
(all hp
categories),
Tier 3 and Tier
4 (<56 kW)1
4.04E-12
ND
ND
1.88E-13
8.68E-13
7.59E-13
8.78E-14
1.18E-11
7.57E-13
1.21E-11
1.46E-12
7.71E-13
5.51E-13
ND
3.93E-13
ND
1.01E-14
Diesel > 56
kW Tiers 3
and 4 2
ND*
ND
ND
ND
ND
1.90E-13
3.80E-14
9.24E-14
5.84E-14
1.76E-12
4.00E-13
4.41E-13
3.27E-13
ND
1.80E-13
1.06E-14
9.46E-15
*ND = non-detect, fractions set to zero. Detection limits ranged from 2 to 18 pg/L, depending on the compound.
1. Used an average of the on-road pre-2007 legacy engines, converted pg/L to g/gal
2. Used the emission factors from representing an onroad 2010 engine, converted pg/L to g/gal
                                              19

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4.0    Compressed Natural Gas Exhaust
       4.1    Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors

In the absence of data on nonroad engines, VOC exhaust emission factors for compressed natural
gas equipment were borrowed from onroad exhaust CNG transit buses (Table 66 of the onroad
air toxics report). Toxic fractions were based on uncontrolled (pre-2002) transit buses (Table
15), since CNG nonroad engines are typically uncontrolled. However, since transit buses are
quite different from CNG nonroad engines, the quality of this surrogate is unclear.

               Table 15. Toxic fractions of VOC for nonroad CNG engines
Pollutant
1,3 Butadiene
Benzene
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
Xylenes
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Acrolein
Propionaldehyde
Toxic fraction
0.000234
0.00135
0.000691
0.0000841
0.000823
0.517
0.0305
0.00235
0.0153
The derivation of the exhaust CNG NMOG/NMHC and VOC/NMHC rates is documented in the
2014 Heavy-Duty Emissions Report24 and comes from CNG transit bus emissions with no
control technologies (Table 16).25

  Table 16. Organic gas aggregations estimated from THC for nonroad CNG engines in MOVES
                                        2014a
Measured values (mg/mile)
THC
Methane
Ethane
Acetone
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Calculated values (mg/mile)
NMHC
NMOG
VOC
Ratios
NMOG/NMHC
VOC/NMHC

8,660.0
7,670.0
217.0
4.7
860.0
50.7

990
1,881
1,664

1.90
1.68
                                          20

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       4.2    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

In the absence of data, PAH toxic fractions for CNG engines are estimated in a manner similar to
PAH toxic fractions from gasoline engines, using equations 3 and 4.  The PAH toxic fractions for
CNG engines are developed from onroad CNG transit buses (Table 67 of the onroad air toxics
report9) and are displayed in Table 17.

                      Table 17. PAH emission factors for CNG engines

Naphthalene
Acenaphthylene
Acenaphthene
Fluorene
Anthracene
Phenanthrene
Fluoranthene
Pyrene
Benz(a)anthracene
Chrysene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Indeno( 1,2,3 -cd)pyrene
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
Gaseous
Phase
(PAH/VOC)
9.554E-06
4.230E-06
1.243E-06
2.986E-06
1.164E-06
8.356E-06
1.936E-06
3.743E-06
1.682E-07
2.441E-07
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Particulate
Phase
(PAH/PM2.5)
1.144E-05
ND
9.027E-06
1.580E-05
1.315E-06
1.062E-05
1.507E-05
2.891E-05
5.155E-06
1.083E-05
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.633E-06
ND
                            ND = not detected, fractions set to 0.
       4.3    Metals
Emission factors for chromium 6, manganese, nickel, elemental gas-phase mercury (Hg),
reactive gas-phase Hg, paniculate Hg, and arsenic were developed based on the same data used
for the onroad CNG emission factors in MOVES2014 (Table 68 of the onroad air toxics report8)
due to the lack of nonroad emissions tests data for these compounds. For Chromium 6 and
nickel, the CNG onroad emission factors originate from measurements made by Okamoto et al.
(2006)26 on a CNG transit bus operating on the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle.
We used Equation 5 to calculate fuel-based chromium 6 and nickel emission factors for nonroad
equipment. The energy rate (45137.4 KJ/mile) is the average energy rate measured for a model
year 2000 CNG bus operating on the CBD driving cycle reported in the MOVES HD emissions
rate report24. The energy content (48.632 KJ/g) is the default CNG energy content in MOVES,
                                          21

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and the fuel density (2.767 g/gallon) is the density of CNG at ambient temperature and pressure
(i.e uncompressed).

Equation 5
   Nonroad CNG emission factor, g N
                              (gal>

                 = Emission rate,
              g . x	    x Enerqy Content,KJ\ x Fuel Density< g \
              Hi)   Energy rate (KL\       a'        (-f)             '(jsi)
                            \rnij
                      1
= Emission rate(_g_.  x —	   x 48.632 ,KJ\ x 2.767(

                                                                 (_§_)
The resulting emission rates calculated using Equation 5 are located in Table 18.

          Table 18. Chromium 6+ and Nickel emission factors for nonroad CNG engines
Pollutant
CR6+
Nickel
CNG
Transit Bus
Emission
Rate (g/mi)
2.20E-07
3.06E-05
CNG Emission
Rate (g/g-fuel)
2.37E-10
3.30E-08
CNG
Nonroad
Emission
Rate (g/gal)
6.56E-10
9.14E-08
We derived the elemental gas-phase mercury (Hg), reactive gas-phase Hg, paniculate Hg, and
arsenic emission rates for CNG nonroad equipment from the nonroad gasoline emission rates.
We assume that the grams-per-grams-fuel burned emission rates are the same for gasoline and
CNG fuels. We first converted the grams-per-gallon gasoline emission rates from Table 19 to
grams-per-grams gasoline using the energy density of conventional onroad gasoline in MOVES
(2839 g/gal). We then converted the grams-per-grams-gasoline emission rates to grams-per-
gallon-CNG using Equation 6.
Equation 6

    Nonroad CNG emission factor _g_ = Gasoline emission rate  g   x CNG Fuel Density(g-fUei\
                              (gal>                       (g-fuel>                  ( gai  )
                         = Gasoline emission rate, g   . x 2.767,g-fuei\
                                              (g-fuel>       (.gallon)

The resulting emission rates calculated using Equation 6 are located in Table 19.
                                            22

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   Table 19. Manganese, Mercury, and Arsenic Metal emission factors for nonroad CNG engines
Pollutant
Manganese
Elemental Gas-
Phase Hg
Reactive Gas-
Phase Hg
Participate Hg
Arsenic
Gasoline
Emission
Rate (g/gal)
2.72E-05
1.80E-06
1.70E-07
6.90E-09
6.33E-05
Emission Rate
(g/g-gasoline)
9.57E-09
6.34E-10
5.99E-11
2.43E-12
2.23E-08
CNG
Emission
Rate (g/gal)
2.65E-08
1.75E-09
1.66E-10
6.73E-12
6.16E-08
       4.4     Dioxins and Furans

Emission factors for 17 dioxins and furans were developed and based on emission factors from
onroad gasoline engines16'17 (section 5.4 of the onroad air toxics report) because of a lack of
available data for nonroad CNG engines (Table 19).  Because PAHs are emitted from CNG
engines, and formation of dioxins and furans can be driven by the presence of these compounds
combined with the availability of chlorine,27 it is reasonable to expect dioxin emissions from
CNG engines and we concluded it was better to use surrogate data rather than assume emissions
were zero.  Onroad emission rates from MOVES2014 were used as surrogates, and we assume
that the grams-per-grams-fuel burned emission rates are the same for gasoline and CNG fuels.
MOVES estimates CNG nonroad dioxin emissions from CNG fuel-usage expressed in gallons at
ambient pressure and volume (2.676 g/gallon). We converted the TEQ grams-per-gram-fuel  to
TEQ grams-per-gallon-CNG using Equation 7. The gasoline fuel-based emission rates and
resulting CNG grams-per-gallon emission factors are shown  in Table 20.
Equation 7
Nonroad CNG emission factor(_g_ = Gasoline emission rate.
                                                          x CNG Fuel Density (2.7 67) (g-fuei-\
                                          23

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             Table 20. Dioxin and furan emission factors for nonroad CNG engines
Pollutant
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
(TCDD)
1,2,3, 7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3, 6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3, 7,8, 9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3, 7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3, 6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3, 7,8, 9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
Octachlorodibenzofuran
Emission
Factor
TEQ
(g/g-fuel)
6.85E-15
3.06E-15
3.20E-16
6.56E-16
4.08E-16
4.93E-16
1.17E-16
2.28E-15
3.28E-16
2.40E-15
9.02E-16
9.60E-16
2.62E-16
1.13E-15
l.OOE-15
3.20E-17
3.40E-17
CNG
(g/gallon)
1.89E-14
8.47E-15
8.86E-16
1.81E-15
1.13E-15
1.36E-15
3.23E-16
6.32E-15
9.07E-16
6.64E-15
2.50E-15
2.66E-15
7.26E-16
3.11E-15
2.77E-15
8.86E-17
9.41E-17
5.0    Liquefied Petroleum Gas

       5.1    Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors

In the absence of nonroad LPG VOC data, the onroad VOC speciation profile 8860 was used to
develop exhaust VOC toxic fractions for nonroad LPG engines (Table 21).28'29  This profile is
based on the average of three light duty onroad LPG vehicles equipped with three-way catalysts
and tested in 2003.  It should be noted since this profile is based on data from catalyst-equipped
onroad vehicles, it may not be representative of the nonroad fleet.
                                          24

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                    Table 21. VOC toxic fractions for nonroad LPG engines
Pollutant
1,3 -butadiene
Acetaldehyde
Acetylene
Acrolein
Ethane
Ethylene
Formaldehyde
Methane
N-butane
Propane
Propylene
Unknown
Fraction
0.000357
0.004466
0.001189
0.004924
0.05549
0.038902
0.024523
0.176432
0.001402
0.658555
0.017313
0.016448
VOC ratios were calculated from the 8860 speciation profile following a method similar to that
used for nonroad gasoline engines (Table 22).  In absence of a THC or NMHC measurement, we
calculated NMHC by reversing the equation in 40 CFR §1066.635:
Equation 8
                mNMHC — mNMOG ~ moxygenates
 1\
I
                                                           m
                                                            oxygenatei
                                                                      FID
RFi
Where:
       = the mass of NMHC and all oxygenated hydrocarbons in the exhaust
       = the mass of NMOG in the exhaust
^oxygenates = the mass of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde
PNMHC = the effective Ci-equivalent density of NMHC, calculated using a C:H ratio of 1:2.64
^oxygenate; = the mass of oxygenated species / in the exhaust as indicated in Table 19
yOoxygenatez = the Ci-equivalent density of oxygenated species /'
                                             25

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        Table 22. Organic gas aggregations estimated from THC for nonroad LPG engines
                                    in MOVES 2014a
Aggregation
NMOG/NMHC
CH/THC
VOC/NMHC
VOC/THC
TOG/THC
THC
Ratio
1.035
0.181
0.965
0.790
1.028
       5.2     Poly cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

The toxic fractions used for PAHs from nonroad LPG engines are the same as those for nonroad
CNG engines (Table 17).

       5.3     Metals

For metals, we used the same gram-per-gram-fuel emission factors for LPG as for CNG. For use
in MOVES, we calculate gram-per-gallon-LPG emission factors using the default MOVES LPG
fuel density (1923 g/gallon), as shown in Equation 9.  Table 23 presents g/g-fuel emission rates
and resulting g/gal emission factors.
Equation 9
      Nonroad LPG emission factor _g_  = CNG emission factor
                               (gal>
(g-fuel)
      x LPG fuel density/
           Nonroad LPG emission f actor ,_g_. = CNG emission factor.  g   x 1923/ g
                                    (gal>                    (g-fuel)       (gallon

                  Table 23. Metal emission factors for nonroad LPG engines
allon)
Pollutant
CR6+
Nickel
Manganese
Elemental Gas-Phase Hg
Reactive Gas-Phase Hg
Participate Hg
Arsenic
Emission
Factor (g/g-
fuel)
2.37E-10
3.30E-08
9.57E-09
6.34E-10
5.99E-11
2.43E-12
2.23E-08
LPG Nonroad
Emission
Factor (g/gal)
4.56E-07
6.35E-05
1.84E-05
1.22E-06
1.15E-07
4.67E-09
4.28E-05
                                          26

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       5.4    Dioxins and Furans
As for nonroad CNG engines, we used the gasoline g/g-fuel emission factors for dioxins and
furans. We converted the factors from units of gram-per-gram-fuel to gram-per-gallon-LNG
using the default LPG fuel density in MOVES (1923 g/gallon) as shown in Equation 10. The
resulting dioxin and furan emission factors are shown in Table 24.
Equation 10

    Nonroad LPG emission factorf_g_. = Gasoline emission factor
( » i
WJ
q-fueV
                                  x LPG fuel densityf
         Nonroad LPG emission factor _g_ = Gasoline emission factor   g
                                   (gal>                        (g-fuel>
                                       X1923/
                                                                                \gallonJ
                                              lallon)
              Table 24. Dioxin and furan emission factors for nonroad LPG engines
Pollutant
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
(TCDD)
1,2,3, 7,8-Pentachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3, 6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3, 7,8, 9-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin
Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3, 7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3, 6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3, 7,8, 9-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
2,3,4,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-Heptachlorodibenzofuran
Octachlorodibenzofuran
Emission
Factor
TEQ
(g/g-fuel)
6.85E-15
3.06E-15
3.20E-16
6.56E-16
4.08E-16
4.93E-16
1.17E-16
2.28E-15
3.28E-16
2.40E-15
9.02E-16
9.60E-16
2.62E-16
1.13E-15
l.OOE-15
3.20E-17
3.40E-17
LPG
Emission
Factor
TEQ
(g/gallon)
1.32E-11
5.89E-12
6.16E-13
1.26E-12
7.85E-13
9.47E-13
2.24E-13
4.39E-12
6.30E-13
4.62E-12
1.74E-12
1.85E-12
5.05E-13
2.16E-12
1.93E-12
6.16E-14
6.54E-14
                                            27

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6.0    Evaporative Emissions
Emissions of toxics from the evaporation of unburned fuel are estimated as fractions of total
evaporative VOC. Currently, MOVES only estimates evaporative VOC emissions from nonroad
engines powered by gasoline (including gasoline-ethanol blends). Thus, air toxics from
evaporative emission processes are currently only estimated in MOVES from nonroad gasoline
engines. We anticipate incorporating evaporative emissions for LPG, CNG (e.g. refueling natural
gas leaks), and diesel engines (e.g. spillage emissions) in future versions of MOVES. Although
only the gasoline VOC speciation values and associated toxic fractions for evaporative processes
are currently used in MOVES, this section documents the HC speciation factors and toxic ratios
that are stored in the MOVES database for evaporative emissions from all nonroad engines,
including diesel, CNG, and LPG fueled engines.

       6.1    Gasoline Engines

             6.1.1  Vapor Venting and Refueling Emission Processes

Vapor venting processes in the nonroad portion of MOVES include diurnal fuel, hot soak, and
running loss.  Refueling emission processes in the nonroad portion of MOVES include spillage
loss and displacement vapor loss. In absence of detailed data for nonroad engines, toxic
fractions for these evaporative VOC emission processes were taken from onroad vehicles.
Simple fractions for air toxics in evaporative non-permeation emissions were obtained from
profiles developed for EPA by Environ Corporation, using data from the Auto/Oil program
conducted in the early 1990's.30'31 These toxic fractions are listed below in Table 25.

Table 25. Toxic fractions for evaporative VOC emissions, for vapor-venting and refueling processes
Pollutant
Ethanol
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
Ethyl Benzene
N-Hexane
Toluene
Xylene
Benzene
Ethanol Level
0.0% (EO) 10% (E10)
0.00000
0.01984
0.02521
0.02217
0.09643
0.07999
0.03318
0.11896
0.03354
0.01721
0.02536
0.14336
0.06423
0.03187
              6.1.2  Permeation

Permeation processes in the nonroad portion of MOVES include tank and hose permeation. In
absence of detailed permeation data for nonroad engines, toxic fractions representing permeation
emissions were taken from onroad vehicles.  Work to characterize permeation emissions was
conducted by Southwest Research Institute for EPA and the Coordinating Research Council in
the CRC E-77-2b test program.32 It is important to note that tank and hose permeation were not
differentiated in the onroad portion of MOVES and the supporting studies. Thus, data on
                                           28

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separate tank and hose permeation processes is unavailable and a single value is used in
MOVES. The toxic fractions representing permeation emissions are listed below in Table 26.
Each of the toxic fractions listed in Table 26 are applied across all nonroad gasoline engine
types.

Table 26. Toxic fractions representing permeation emissions as components of total VOC emissions
Pollutant

Ethanol
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
Ethyl Benzene
N-Hexane
Toluene
Xylene
Benzene
Ethanol Level
0.0% (EO)
0.000
0.036
0.003
0.050
0.110
0.016
0.025
10% (E10)
0.202
0.024
0.001
0.065
0.101
0.011
0.023
       6.2    Diesel Engines

As stated earlier, MOVES does not estimate evaporative or refueling emissions from diesel
nonroad engines. Currently, the CH4/THC values are zero for these processes, and the
NMOG/NMHC and VOC/NMHC values are set to one. These values are consistent with the data
in SPECIATE profile 4547 'Diesel Headspace,' where there are no measurements of methane,
ethane, acetone, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or ethanol.

The toxic ratios are also set equal to zero currently as placeholder values.

       6.3    CNG and LPG Engines

As stated earlier, MOVES does not estimate evaporative or refueling emissions from CNG or
LPG emissions. However, the MOVES database  contains CH4/THC, NMOG/NMHC, and
VOC/NMHC values based on data analysis of CNG and LPG fuels.

We estimated organic gas aggregation values for evaporative and refueling emissions based on
speciated measurements of CNG fuel reported by Kato et al. (2005).33 Table 27 includes the
speciated measurements from two CNG fuel samples measured by Kato et al. (2005) used for
fueling CNG transit buses operating in Los Angeles, California. From the two fuel samples, we
calculated an average weight percent of methane, ethane, and propane, normalized to the total
hydrocarbon emissions. From these values we calculated CH4/THC, NMOG/NMHC, and
VOC/NMHC values as shown in Table 28.
                                          29

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                Table 27. Speciation of CNG fuel reported by Kato et al. (2005)
                                                                        33

Methane
Ethane
C3 -propane
CO2 + N2
Oxygen
mole %,
Test 1
94.33%
2.43%
0.83%
2.14%
0.07%
mole %,
Test 2
86.93%
6.40%
3.60%
2.39%
0.12%
Average
mole %
90.63%
4.42%
2.22%
2.27%
0.10%
g/mol
16.04
30.07
44.1


Average
weight %,
normalized to
THC
86.32%
7.88%
5.80%


  Table 28. Estimated organic gas aggregations used for evaporative and refueling CNG emissions
                                 calculated from Table 27.
Pollutant Ratio
CH4/THC
NMOG/NMHC
VOC/NMHC
Calculation
CH4/(CH4 + ethane + C3-propane)
(C3 -propane + ethane )/(C3 -propane + ethane)
C3-propane/(C3 -propane + ethane)
Value
0.863
1.0
0.424
Organic gas aggregations for evaporative and refueling emissions from LPG-fueled nonroad
equipment were estimated from the speciation profile ('LPG from Super Energy Propane &
Westex Conversion' #2444)28. The weight percent of the organic species are provided in Table
28.

Table 29. Organic speciation of LPG fuel reported by SPECIATE Profile 244428, and the estimated
           organic gas aggregations used for evaporative and refueling LPG emissions
Species
Propane
Ethane
Isobutane
Propylene (1-Propene)
N-butane

Organic Aggregation
CH4/THC
NMOG/NMHC
VOC/NMHC
Weight Percent
91.91%
7.31%
0.42%
0.25%
0.11%

Ratio
0.000
1.000
0.927
As for diesel, the toxic ratios are currently set to zero as placeholder values.
                                           30

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7.0    Crankcase Exhaust Emissions
Unlike onroad, MOVES does not estimate nonroad CO, NOx, and PM crankcase emission rates.
However, MOVES2014 does produce organic gas aggregations (e.g VOC) and air toxics (e.g.
benzene) that are based on the THC crankcase emissions.

MOVES models THC crankcase emissions from nonroad equipment using ratios to tailpipe
exhaust using the ratios shown in Table 30. The crankcase/exhaust THC ratios are documented
in the NONROAD2008 spark-ignition34 and compression-ignition35 reports.

By model year 2004, all nonroad gasoline, LPG, and CNG engines are modeled to have no
crankcase emissions, due to pre-control engines adopting closed crankcases and the
implementation of the Phase 1 nonroad gasoline standards (which require closed crankcases on
all spark-ignition engines under 25 hp and all recreational equipment). By model year 2011, all
diesel engines are modeled to have no crankcase emissions across all horsepower classes, due to
the implementation of the Tier 4 standards.

       Table 30. Crankcase/Exhaust THC Ratios used in MOVES for nonroad equipment
Fuel
Gasoline
LPG and
CNG
Diesel
Nonroad engines
2-stroke
4-stroke gasoline recreational marine
Baseline (Pre-control) lawn and garden 4-
stroke gasoline < 25 HP
Other Baseline (Pre-control) 4-stroke
Pre-control 4-stroke recreational
equipment equipped with closed
crankcases
Phase 1 or later 4-stroke engines
Baseline (Pre-control) LPG and CNG
Phase 1 or later LPG and CNG
Compression-ignition Tier 3 and prior
engines
Compression-ignition Tier 4 engines
(including Tier 4 transitional)
Crankcase/Exhaust
THC Ratio
0
0
0.083
0.393
0
0
0.33
0
0.02
0
       7.1    Organic Gas Aggregations and Air Toxic Emission Factors

MOVES2014 models crankcase CH4, NMHC, NMOG, VOC, and TOG using the corresponding
ratios for tailpipe exhaust. From crankcase VOC emissions, MOVES2014 estimates all of the
VOC toxics listed in Table 1, using the corresponding toxic/VOC ratios used for modeling toxics
from the tailpipe exhaust.
                                          31

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       7.2    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Similar to the VOC toxics, the gaseous phase PAH toxics are modeled from the crankcase VOC
emission, using the same PAH factors used for tailpipe exhaust.

Particle phase PAHs (based off of PIVh.s) are not modeled for crankcase emissions as the
nonroad portion of the model does not currently model crankcase PM.

       7.3    Metal and Dioxin Emissions

MOVES does not produce crankcase emission rates for metals, dioxins or furans from nonroad
or onroad engines. Because crankcase emissions are small in comparison to exhaust emissions,
we assume that these emissions are negligible.
                                          32

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Appendix A. Development of Exhaust TOG and VOC Speciation Profiles for
Spark-Ignition and Compression-Ignition Nonroad Engines

                                    Table of Contents
Al.O
Al.l
A1.2
A2.0
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2
A2.2
A3.0
A3.1
A3.2
A3.2.1
A3.2.2
A4.0
Introduction
Background
Purpose of the Project
Methods
Exhaust Emissions Data
Engines
Fuels
Sample Collection and Analysis, Spark-Ignition Engines
Sample Collection and Analysis, Compression-Ignition Engines
Assignment of SPECIATE Identification Numbers for TOG Speciation Profiles
Speciation Profile Development
SI Engine Profiles
CI Engine Profiles
CI Steady-State Profiles
CI Transient Profiles
Results
                                List of Tables and Figures

Table A2-1.    Spark-Ignition Test Engines and Equipment
Table A2-2.    Compression-Ignition Test Engines
Table A2-3.    Fuel Used for SI Engine Testing
Table A2-4.    SI Test Fuel Properties
Table A2-5.    CI Test Fuel Properties
Table A2-6.    SPECIATE Surrogates Used for Nonroad Profiles
Table A3-1.    Engine/Fuel Combinations Used for SI Engine Speciation Profile Development
Table A3-2.    Engine Combinations Used for CI Engine Speciation Profile Development
Table A3-3.    Regression comparing low and high sulfur diesel fuels
Table A4-1.    Composite SI TOG Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Table A4-2.    Composite SI TOG Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Table A4-3.    Composite SI Organic Gas Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as Weight Percentages
              of TOG
Table A4-4.    Composite Transient CI TOG Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Table A4-5.    Composite Transient CI TOG Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Table A4-6.    Composite Transient Cycle CI Organic Gas Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as
              Weight Percentages of TOG
Table A4-7.    Composite SI VOC Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Table A4-8.    Composite SI VOC Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Table A4-9.    Composite SI VOC profile percentages with all compounds
Table A4-10.   Composite Transient Cycle CI VOC Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Table A4-11.   Composite Transient Cycle CI VOC Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Table A4-12.   Composite Transient Cycle CI VOC Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as Weight
              Percentages of Total VOCs
                                           33

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Al.O Introduction

Exhaust emissions from nonroad engines or equipment vary based on engine/equipment type,
control technology, fuel, and operating conditions. Characterizing the magnitude and chemical
composition of these emissions is necessary for inventory and air quality modeling. To model
the impact of air pollutant emissions, speciation profiles are used to distribute individual
chemical compounds in total organic gas (TOG) emissions into emission estimates for individual
species. However, speciation data for nonroad engines is limited, especially for engines with
emission controls running on gasoline/ethanol blends and more recent diesel technologies.

In this document, we present the results of an extensive review and analysis of available
speciation data for TOG. Our review concluded that the best available data sets for nonroad
engines that had different levels of emission controls and were running on representative fuels
were from two test programs conducted by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), under contracts
from EPA.  Exhaust emissions data from these programs were used to create TOG speciation
profiles for nonroad spark-ignition (SI) engines5 and nonroad compression ignition (CI)
engines.6'7 Data from the SI engine test program provided the basis for profiles  of uncontrolled 2-
stroke and 4-stroke engines operating on gasoline (EO) and gasoline containing 10% ethanol by
volume (E10).  Data from the CI engine test programs using low and high sulfur diesel fuel
provided the basis for profiles of pre-Tier 1, Tier 1, and Tier 2 engines with varying power
levels. Profiles were developed for use in air quality modeling runs such as those done with the
Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and were submitted to EPA's database for
TOG and paniculate matter (PM) speciation profiles.  This database, called SPECIATE,
maintains the record of each profile including its referenced source, testing methods,  a subjective
rating of the quality of the data, and other detailed data that allow researchers to decide which
profile is most suitable for model input.

A2.0 Methods

A2.1 Exhaust Emissions Data

A2.1.1 Engines

Engines in the SI test program include those in Table A2-1. Seven small off-road engines
(SOREs) were used to create EO and E10 4-stroke  uncatalyzed profiles. These engines include
two mowers, two riding mowers, two generators and a blower (three non-handheld Class I, three
non-handheld Class II, one handheld). Data on recreational vehicles from the SI test  program,
including two all-terrain vehicles  (ATVs) and two nonroad motor cycles (NRMCs), were used to
create EO and E10 2-stroke uncatalyzed profiles. It should be noted that the 4-stroke  blower and
2-stroke ATVs and NRMC are not representative of most engines for those equipment types.
Engines in the CI test programs are listed in Table A2-2 and include a forklift truck, construction
engines/equipment, and an agricultural tractor.
                                           34

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Table A2-1. Spark-Ignition Test Engines and Equipment
 Type
SORE
SORE
SORE
SORE
SORE
SORE
SORE
Equipment Make
Model Year
Model

Type
Engine Make
Model
2-stroke or 4-stroke
Three-way Catalyst
Type
Engine Make
Model
Model Year
2-stroke or 4-stroke
Three-way Catalyst
Oil Lubrication
MTD Honda
2006 2007
11A-084F229 HRC
2163HXA
22" Mower Mower
Briggs & Stratton Honda
10T502158 GXV160
4 4
No No
NRMC NRMC
Honda Kawasaki
CR125 KX250
2007 2002
2 2
No No
Pre-mixed Pre-mixed
MTD 638RL
2007
Yard machine
13A1762F229
Riding Mower
Techumseh
OV 358 EA
4
No
ATV
Yamaha
Blaster
2006
2
No
Injected
Snapper
2007
S150X

Riding Mower
Kawasaki
FH641V-ES25-R
4
No
ATV
Polaris
Trailblazer
2005
2
No
Injected
Briggs & Stratton Honda Makita
2004 2006 2007
Elite Series 6200 EB 11000 BHX2500
30386
Generator Generator Blower
Briggs & Stratton Honda Makita
1015499427 GX620KI EHO25
4 44
No No No







Table A2-2. Compression-Ignition Test Engines

Intended Application
forklift truck
construction equipment
rubber-tired loader
motor grader
Excavator
agricultural tractor
telescoping boom excavator
Model
Manufacturer Model Year
Kubota V2203E 1999
Cummins QSL9 1999
Caterpillar 3408 1999
Deere 6068T 1996
Cummins Ml 1C 1997
Caterpillar 3196 2001
Cummins ISB190 2001

Tier hp
1 50
1 330
1 480
0 160
1 270
2 420
1 194

rpm
2800
2000
1800
2200
1700
2100
2300









                                                            35

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A2.1.2 Fuels

Test fuels for the SI test program included federal certification fuels (CERT1 and CERT2), fuels used in a
concurrent California Air Resources Board (ARB) program which are similar to California Phase III fuel
without ethanol (ARB EO), fuel being used for the California ARB program with ten percent ethanol (ARB
E10-7), a modified ARB E10 fuel with 10-psi RVP (designated as ARB E10-10), and an EPA gasoline blend of
E10. A brief description of the fuels is provided in Table A2-3 and the test properties of these fuels is included
in Table A2-4.

Table A2-3.  Fuel Used for SI Engine Testing

 Fuels	Fuel description	
 CERT1            Federal  Certification, non-oxygenated
 CERT2            Federal  Certification, non-oxygenated
 ARB EO          Non-oxygenated gasoline
 ARB El0-7        10% ethanol, RVP 7 psi
 ARB E10-10        10% ethanol, RVP 10 psi by adding butane to ARB El0-7
 EPA-E10	10% ethanol, RVP 9 psi	

Table A2-4.  SI Test Fuel Properties

                        EO                           ElO
Test fuel
Ethanol (Wt%)
RVP (psi)
T50 (deg F)
T90(degF)
Aromatics (Vol%)
Benzene (Wt%)
Sulfur Content (ppm)
ARBEO
<0.2
7.15
228
304
31.78
0.31
<10
CERT1
<0.1
8.98
224
309
31.5
0.7*
2.3
CERT2
NP
9.2
223
318
27.9
NR
3.2
ARB E10-7a
9.65
6.96
214
315
22.08
0.97
<10
ARB E10-7b
9.98
6.76
213
314
24.92
0.72*
2.8
ARBE10-10
9.69
9.79
207
313
22.66
0.70*
4.6
EPA-E10
9.39
8.99
211
319
24.7
0.68
21.9
 NP = Not performed for this non-oxygenated fuel
 NR = Not reported
 * Benzene content reported as volume percent

Fuels used in the CI test programs were an emissions certification test grade Type-2D diesel fuel and a high-
sulfur Nonroad-2D diesel fuel. The Type-2D fuel had a sulfur level of 390 ppm and the Nonroad-2D had a
sulfur level of 2570 ppm.  Additional fuel properties are described in Table A2-5. The high-sulfur diesel fuel
was in compliance with EPA fuel sulfur regulations at the time of the test program. The Type-2D diesel fuel
sulfur level complies with EPA diesel fuel sulfur standards (500 ppm) for nonroad engines as of 2007. Nonroad
diesel fuel sulfur levels have been further tightened by the Tier 4 Nonroad Diesel Rule to 15 ppm starting in
2010 and fully phased in by 2015.
                                                 36

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Table A2-5.  CI Test Fuel Properties
Test fuel
Sulfur, ppm
Cetane Number
T50 (deg F)
T90 (deg F)
Total Aromatics (Vol%)
Saturates (Vol%)
Specific Gravity
API Gravity
Type-2D
390
48.0
505
618
32.15
66.05
0.8444
36.1
Nonroad-2D
2570
46.1
511
613
31.9
67.45
0.8507
34.8
A2.1.3 Sample Collection and Analysis, Spark-Ignition Engines

Exhaust emission testing for the small SI engines was performed using modal test cycles applicable to the type
of equipment.  One complete emission test was performed with each test fuel using dilute exhaust test
methodologies. Steady-state modal emissions tests were performed on the small SI engines. More detail on the
steady-state operation modes used on these engines can be found in Table 18 of the SI test report.5 All non-
handheld engines were tested with the governor in control of load, and speed was controlled by the
dynamometer according to 40CFR Part 1065.510 protocols. Handheld engine load and speed were controlled
by the engine operator and dynamometer, respectively.

Testing for the ATVs and NRMCs was conducted using a Superflow CycleDyn Motorcycle and ATC eddy-
current (chassis)  dynamometer modified for vehicle-plus-driver weights as low as 153 kg (337 Ibs). Each ATV
and NRMC was tested using the Urban Dynamometer Drive Schedule (UDDS) drive cycle from 40 CFR, Part
86, Appendix I.  The test cycle consists of two test intervals of the UDDS, each 1370 s long (7.5 miles). The
first test interval  begins with a single cold-start UDDS.  The two test intervals were separated by stopping the
test vehicle for 10 minutes. Composite emission rates were calculated using weighting factors of 0.43 and 0.57
for the first (cold-start and running) and second phases (hot-start and running), respectively.

Regulated emissions were measured along with aldehydes, alcohols, ammonia, nitrous oxide, and speciated
hydrocarbons. Exhaust samples were analyzed for the presence of more than 200 different exhaust species.
Proportional dilute exhaust gas  samples were collected in bags for the analysis of hydrocarbons. Four gas
chromatography  with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) procedures, using a method similar to the Phase II
Auto-Oil method,F were used to identify and quantify C2-C4 species, C5-C12 species, benzene and toluene,  and
alcohols. The collection  of alcohols was accomplished by bubbling a fraction of the sample through glass
impingers. Aldehyde and ketone samples were collected on cartridges packed with silica gel impregnated with
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DHPH) and were extracted with acetonitrile. A high performance liquid
chromatography  (HPLC) procedure was used to analyze aldehydes and ketones. More details on the test
procedures can be found  in the SI test report, Appendix A.
 Coordinating Research Council (1997). Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program Final Report
                                                 37

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A2.1.4 Sample Collection and Analysis, Compression-Ignition Engines

The transient duty cycles used in testing each of these seven engines were the U.S. on-highway heavy-duty
Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the backhoe loader nonroad duty cycle (BHL). Engine emissions were
sampled under transient operating conditions for each engine using a test cell control strategy developed for
commanding dynamometer and throttle control for each engine over the FTP cycle. The on-highway FTP cycle
ran 20 minutes, and the BFIL cycle ran 16 minutes. All results were from single tests.

Steady-state engine tests were based on an 8-mode ISO Type-Cl weighting scheme. Calibration and sampling
methods of the steady-state Cl test adhered to test procedures in CFR, Part 89, and generally satisfied ISO
8178-1 guidelines.

Prior to emissions testing, engines were run over a preparatory test cycle, followed by a 20-minute engine-off
soak period. After engine soak, each transient  emission test was run from a hot-start, utilizing procedures and
sampling processes given in CFR 40, Part 86, Subpart N. Another 20-minute engine-off soak period separated
any duplicate runs of a test cycle.

Measurements of unregulated emissions consisted of carbonyls, ammonia, N2O, sulfate, and several Ci-Ci2
hydrocarbons. Proportional bag samples of dilute exhaust were analyzed via GC-FID to speciate hydrocarbons
from Ci through Ci2 using a method similar to  the Phase II Auto-Oil method.0 For carbonyls, an array of
impingers was used during each emission test to capture gaseous samples of dilute exhaust for later analyses.
Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured using a DNPH (2,4-dinitrophenyl solution) technique, as
outlined in CFR Title 40, Part 86. A liquid chromatograph was used to quantify additional aldehydes and
ketones captured by the  impingers in a DNPH solution.

A2.2 Assignment of SPECIATE Identification Numbers for TOG Speciation Profiles

For use in the SPECIATE database and air quality modeling, each speciated compound must be assigned a
unique identification number. SPECIATE identification numbers were matched to compounds in the TOG
exhaust emission profiles using CAS numbers.  For compounds that did not have a one-to-one match with a
SPECIATE identification number, the most similar listed compound was used. Table A2-6 lists the SPECIATE
substitutions used in developing the nonroad profiles.
 fE.R. Fanick (2005). Diesel Exhaust Standard - Phase II: CRC Project No. AVFL-lOb. Final Report.
                                                38

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Table A2-6. SPECIATE surrogates used for nonroad profiles
Original Chemical Analysis
Dimethylbenzaldehyde
Tert-l-but-2-methylbenzene
3,4-Dimethylcumene
Methylpropylbenzene
Cis-l-methyl-2-ethylcyclopentane
Trans- 1 -methyl-2-ethylcyclopentane
3-Ethyl-cis-2-pentene
Cyclopentadiene
2,2-Dimethylpropane
2-Methylpropene
2-Methylbutane
SPECIATE Substitution
2,5-Dimethylbenzaldehyde
1 -Methyl -2 -tert-butylbenzene
l,3-Dimethyl-4-isopropylbenzene
(1 -Methylpropyl)benzene
Cis-l-ethyl-2-methylcyclopentane
Tran-l-ethyl-2-m ethyl cyclopentane
3 -Ethyl-2-pentene
1,3 -Cyclopentadiene
Neopentane
Isobutylene
Isopentane
For some species that co-elute, the chromatography peak area was split equally between the two compounds by
the contractor. For other species, the contractor noted co-elution but only reported one of the co-eluted
compounds and assigned all mass to that species.  In such cases, the mass was subsequently split equally
between the co-eluted compounds and the unreported species were added to the chemical list. The following
were indicated as co-eluted species:

   •   2,2-dimethylpentane and methylcyclopentane
   •   3-methyl-3-ethyl-pentane and 3,4-dimethylhexane
   •   Cis-l,4-dimethylcyclohexane and trans-l,3-dimethylcyclohexane
   •   Propylcyclopentane and 2,6-dimethylheptane
   •   2,5-dimethylheptane and 3,5-dimethylheptane
   •   Decane and isobutylbenzene
   •   n-butylbenzene and 1-methyl-4-n-propylbenzene
   •   Isobutyraldehyde and methyl ethyl ketone

Unknown hydrocarbons were reported by the lab according to carbon number as unidentified C5, C6, C7, C8,
and C9-C12+. Reported designations were maintained in assigning species identification numbers instead of
combining unknowns into one specie identification number.

A3.0 Speciation Profile Development

A3.1 SI Engine Profiles

Four profiles were developed  from the SI  engine test  program,  one for  each  of the following engine/fuel
combinations shown in Table 3-1:
   •   4-stroke uncatalyzed engines running on EO
   •   4-stroke uncatalyzed engines running on E10
   •   2-stroke uncatalyzed engines running on EO
   •   2-stroke uncatalyzed engines running on E10

A speciation profile comprised of weight percents for every compound was created for each individual test by
dividing each compound's mass by the total mass of the all species. These individual test profiles were averaged
within their respective engine/fuel categories to obtain a composite profile representing that particular
                                                 39

-------
engine/fuel combination. The number of tests for each composite profile are indicated in Table A3-1 (note that
CERT1 and CERT2 test fuels are EO fuels). Two tests, not shown in Table A3-1, were excluded from the 4-
stroke EO profile: the B&S walk behind mower test (1-E10-759) was missing seven low weight paraffins and
olefins, and the Honda walk behind mower test (2-EO-776) was missing all alcohol data. We evaluated data to
identify potential outliers, defined as outside the range of 3.5 standard deviations. No SI data met this criterion.
Table A3-1. Engine/Fuel Combinations Used for SI Engine Speciation Profile Development
                           Engines
Tests
Fuels
4 stroke uncatalyzed, EO SOREs
SOREs
4 stroke uncatalyzed, E10 SOREs (
SOREs
2 stroke uncatalyzed, EO ATV-Blaster
ATV-Polaris
NRMC-CR125
NRMC-Kawasaki
2 stroke uncatalyzed, E10 ATV-Blaster


ATV-Polaris

NRMC-CR125

NRMC-Kawasaki

7 ARBEO
L CERT2
'^ ARE E10-7
EPA-E10
CERT1
CERT1
CERT1
CERT1
ARBE10-10
ARBE10-10
ARE E10-7
ARE E10-7
ARBE10-10
ARE E10-7
ARBE10-10
ARE E10-7
ARBE10-10
Although no outliers meeting the criteria described above were identified, several adjustments were made to
individual compounds following a thorough quality assurance assessment of the composite profiles. First, due
to the nature of the fuels used in the SI emissions testing, toluene was highly variable across both 2-stoke and 4-
stroke uncatalyzed profiles (ranging from 0.05% to  12.48 %). As a result, we replaced the nonroad composite
profile toluene values with values from pre-Tier 2 onroad vehicle profiles (from profiles 8750a and 875la).28
Specifically, toluene was adjusted to 8.64% for the EO profiles and 7.77% for the E10 profiles.  Second, the 1,3-
butadiene values in the 4-stroke uncatalyzed EO profiles were replaced with the composite E10 value because
the EO values were low for olefins. Third, 2,3-dimethylhexane in one of the 4-stroke E10 tests (the Makita
blower) was zeroed out due to its abnormally high value (1408 mg/hp-hr, 7.6%) and erroneously strong
influence (1%) on the composite profile. Finally, in the 2-stroke non-catalyst EO profile, one test (the CR125)
had an abnormally high fraction of 3-methylpentane (10.8% in the hot-start bag), causing the composite profile
fraction to be subsequently high (2.5%). The composite profile was adjusted by replacing the high 3-
methylpentane value in the hot-start CR125 test with the average value from the other 2-stroke EO tests.

The profiles for each engine/fuel combination were recalculated following the adjustments outlined above, and
the resulting profiles are listed in Table A4-3.

We note that there were emissions test data from 2-stroke catalyst engines, however we were unable to use
these tests to create speciation profiles due to many inconsistencies  and high values in the data. For example,
cyclohexane E10 values were eight times higher than EO values, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane decreased from EO to

                                                 40

-------
E10 opposite the uncatalyzed profiles), and values of hexane, 3-methylheptane and 3-methyl-cis-2-pentene were
abnormally high in the E10 profiles. Without additional test programs on catalyzed 2-stroke engines to validate
these variable measurements, we decided to exclude these tests from our analysis.

A3.2 CI Engine Profiles

Three profiles were developed from the CI engine test program by the following emission control categories:
    •   Pre-Tier 1 uncontrolled engines
    •   Tier 1 controlled engines
    •   Tier 2 controlled engines

While both CI engine steady state and transient operation tests are presented in this report, only the transient
data were used for NONROAD-MOVES because transient tests better represent real world conditions. In
addition, we have a greater number of transient tests, allowing for greater confidence in the data. We initially
looked at the breakpoint of 50 horsepower (37 kW) to differentiate low and high horsepower engines because
the Tier 1 emission standards for 11 to 50 Hp engines are less stringent (NMHC + NOx g/hp-hr) than +50 hp
engines.  However, differences in horsepower between profiles were insignificant and thus all  Tier 1 engines
were grouped together.

As with the SI engine profiles, a speciation profile was first created for each individual test by dividing each
compound's mass by the total mass of the all species for that test.  These profiles were averaged within their
respective emission control/power categories to obtain a composite profile representing that particular
control/power combination under steady state and transient operating conditions. The number  of tests for each
CI engine profile are indicated in Table 3-2. As discussed in Section A2.1.2, tests for each engine were
performed on both a high sulfur fuel and a low sulfur fuel.  To increase the robustness of the composite profiles,
we doubled the number of samples by including tests on both fuel types after our analysis found that speciated
compounds had similar weight percent values between high and low sulfur fuel tests (Table 3-3).  After
incorporating both high and low sulfur fuels, a standard deviation test was performed to identify potential
outliers.  All measurements outside the range of 3.5 standard deviations were evaluated as potential outliers.
Outliers were addressed as described below.
                                                  41

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Table A3-2.  Engine Combinations Used for CI Engine Speciation Profile Development

                            Rated
              Transient     Power      Model
              Total Tests   (Hp, kW)   Year   Engines
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1



Tier 2
6 160hp
119kW
36 270hp
201kW
194hp
145kW
330hp
261kW
480hp
358kW
50hp
37kW
6 420hp
313kW
1996
1997
2001
1999
1999
1999
2001
Deere 6068T motor grader
Cummins Ml 1C excavator
Cummins ISB190 telescoping boom
excavator
Cummins QSL9 construction
equipment
Caterpillar 3408 rubber-tired loader
Kubota V2203E forklift truck
Caterpillar 3196 agriculture tractor
Table A3-3. Regression comparing low and high sulfur diesel fuels
              R2   Slope
95% confidence
    interval
Pre-Tier 1
Tier 1
Tier 2
0.98
0.99
0.91
0.98
0.99
1.03
0.95
0.97
0.96
1.00
1.01
1.09
Following a quality assurance assessment of the initial transient profiles, several adjustments were made to
individual compounds. Unusual variability was observed in the 1,3-butadiene tests across all profiles, so all
weight percents were replaced with the current NONROAD CI engine exhaust weight percent of 0.18616%.
The acetone mass in one Caterpillar 3196 high-sulfur fuel test (E12DBHL1) and one Kubota V2203E low-
sulfur fuel test (KP2DFTP1) failed the standard deviation checks and were subsequently zeroed out (41.9
mg/hp-hr for the Caterpillar 3196 while all other similar tests were 0.0 mg/hp-hr; 28.1 mg/hp-hr for the Kubota
V2203E while all other similar tests were 0-0.7 mg/hp-hr).  One Caterpillar 3196 test (E12DFTP1) had an
abnormally high propane value which was also zeroed out (19.54% where other tests were 0.00%). Finally, a
different Caterpillar 3196 test (E12DBHL1) had an unrealistically high acetylene value (10.82% where the
other tests averaged to  1.15%); thus we  did not use this high value in developing the profile.

The profiles for each emission control/power combination were recalculated following the adjustments outlined
above, and the resulting profiles are listed in Table A4-9.

A4.0 Results

Chemical comparisons between currently used onroad profiles and the profiles developed in this report are also
detailed in the literature.9  The final composite SI speciation profiles are presented in Tables A4-1, A4-2, and
A4-3.  Table A4-1 shows percentages of compounds grouped by class. Table A4-2 shows percentages for 10
compounds of interest. Table A4-3 shows the complete profiles with all compounds and includes CAS and

                                                 42

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SPECIATE ID numbers. In a similar fashion, the composite CI speciation profiles are presented in Tables A4-4
through A4-9. Composite SI and CI VOC emission factors are presented in Tables A4-10 through A4-18.

Table A4-1. Composite SI TOG Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Compound
Paraffins
Aromatics
Olefins
Aldehyde/Ketones
Oxygenates
Unknowns
E0%
4 stroke,
noncatalyst
33.90
27.32
33.76
3.25
0.47
1.30
E0%
2 stroke,
noncatalyst
50.88
31.46
11.79
0.85
0.15
4.86
E10 %
4 stroke,
noncatalyst
31.85
24.75
35.76
3.06
2.76
1.81
E10%
2 stroke,
noncatalyst
47.31
26.72
12.98
1.21
7.76
4.03
Table A4-2. Composite SI TOG Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Compound
Methane
Ethyl ene
Propylene
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
2-Methylbutane
Toluene
m-& p-Xylene
o-Xylene
Ethylbenzene
2,3-Dimethylpentane
E0%
4 stroke
15.89
8.94
5.29
3.76
2.22
8.64
3.58
1.20
1.79
1.87
E0%
2 stroke
1.70
1.79
1.14
7.94
10.25
8.64
6.30
2.27
3.37
0.62
E10 %
4 stroke
15.40
10.11
5.29
4.70
1.46
7.77
4.49
1.26
1.37
1.42
E10 %
2 stroke
1.74
1.94
1.26
12.72
6.14
7.77
5.27
1.82
2.18
0.00
Table A4-3. Composite SI Organic Gas Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as Weight Percentages of TOG
Specie ID
1
9
12
13
19
20
21
36
22
23
CAS Number
135-98-8
4259-00-1
3073-66-3
4516-69-2
590-66-9
1638-26-2
16747-50-5
135-01-3
488-23-3
527-53-7
Compound
(1 -methylpropyl)benzene
, 1,2-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
,1,3 -TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
,1,3 -TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
, 1 -DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
, 1 -DIMETHYLCYCLOPENT ANE
, 1-Methylethylcyclopentane
,2 DIETHYLBENZENE
,2,3,4-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
,2,3,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
E0%
4 stroke
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.30E-02
O.OOE+00
3.20E-03
5.91E-04
2.73E-02
1.50E-03
8.65E-02
E0%
2 stroke
3.33E-03
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
8.70E-03
1.86E-02
8.83E-02
6.99E-02
1.29E-02
E10 %
4 stroke
4.43E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.54E-02
O.OOE+00
3.16E-03
1.55E-03
O.OOE+00
4.05E-02
4.89E-02
E10 %
2 stroke
3.23E-03
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.92E-03
1.90E-02
7.61E-02
6.97E-02
1.16E-02
                                               43

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E0% E0% E10% E10%
Specie ID CAS Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
25
28
29
30
37
39
42
43
44
55
46
51
52
53
54
59
60
64
65
357
996
75
76
78
80
81
84
89
90
92
94
97
100
103
106
107
108
607
730
1540
112
113
117
118
121
122
123
526-73-8
95-93-2
877-44-1
95-63-6
933-98-2
934-80-5
463-49-0
102-25-0
108-67-8
934.74.7
106-99-0
141-93-5
2870-04-4
874-41-9
4706-89-2
105-05-5
1758-88-9
106-98-9
107-00-6
15890-40-1
872-05-9
637-92-3
592-76-7
592-41-6
611-14-3
527-84-4
1074-17-5
620-14-4
535-77-3
1074-43-7
622-96-8
99-87-6
1074-55-1
693-89-0
124-11-8
111-66-0
109-67-1
71-23-8
15890-40-1
2815-58-9
464-06-2
564-02-3
16747-26-5
540-84-1
3522-94-9
75-83-2
1071-26-7
1,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4-TRIETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
l,2-dimethyl-3-ethylbenzene
l,2-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
1,2-PROPADIENE
1,3,5-TRIETHYLBENZENE
1,3,5-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
l,3,-DIMETHYL-5-ETHYLBENZENE
1,3-BUTADIENE
1,3-DIETHYLBENZENE
l,3-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
l,3-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
l,3-dimethyl-4-isopropylbenzene
1,4-DIETHYLBENZENE
l,4-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
1-BUTENE
1-butyne
1-CIS,2-TRANS,3-
TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1-DECENE
1-ethyltertbutylether
1-HEPTENE
1-HEXENE
l-METHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-2-ISOPROPYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-2-N-PROPYLBENZENE
1 -METH YL-3 -ETHYLBENZENE
1 -METHYL-3 -ISOPROPYLBENZENE
1 -METHYL-3 -N-PROP YLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-ISOPROPYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-N-PROPYLBENZENE
1 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
1-NONENE
1-OCTENE
1-pentene
1-Propanol
1-TRANS-2-CIS-3-
TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1-TRANS-2-CIS-4-
TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBUTANE
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2,4-trimethylhexane
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,2-DIMETHYLBUTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2.24E-01
1.44E-02
6.84E-04
1.39E+00
O.OOE+00
1.25E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.33E-01
O.OOE+00
1.02E+00
6.40E-02
6.25E-02
3.43E-02
2.54E-02
1.98E-02
5.71E-02
3.61E-01
O.OOE+00
3.53E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.34E-02
3.35E-01
1.77E-01
3.82E-02
1.01E+00
2.83E-01
1.27E-01
4.16E-01
O.OOE+00
1.15E-01
1.42E-02
1.09E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
9.58E-02
7.23E-03
O.OOE+00
2.46E-02
4.21E-01
4.45E-03
3.76E+00
3.08E-01
2.94E-02
O.OOE+00
2.09E-02
1.26E-01
2.32E-02
2.10E+00
5.66E-03
3.58E-02
O.OOE+00
2.42E-02
7.52E-01
O.OOE+00
2.08E-01
1.73E-01
1.74E-02
7.90E-02
O.OOE+00
4.10E-01
2.50E-01
1.17E-01
O.OOE+00
1.44E-01
1.52E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
9.29E-02
6.14E-01
6.51E-02
3.65E-02
1.81E+00
3.94E-02
2.20E-01
7.70E-01
O.OOE+00
4.37E-02
1.11E-01
1.74E-01
O.OOE+00
1.71E-01
O.OOE+00
6.32E-02
7.46E-02
5.81E-02
9.40E-01
2.56E-02
7.94E+00
5.77E-01
9.06E-02
O.OOE+00
1.63E-01
8.82E-03
O.OOE+00
1.29E+00
O.OOE+00
9.44E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.71E-01
O.OOE+00
1.02E+00
6.40E-02
2.50E-02
9.26E-02
5.91E-02
O.OOE+00
6.49E-02
4.34E-01
O.OOE+00
5.17E-02
7.69E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
9.76E-02
3.36E-01
2.66E-01
9.27E-02
9.11E-01
2.22E-01
2.32E-01
2.98E-01
O.OOE+00
5.86E-02
6.36E-02
2.41E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.96E-02
1.77E-02
O.OOE+00
4.54E-02
2.99E-01
O.OOE+00
4.70E+00
5.06E-02
4.12E-02
O.OOE+00
6.39E-02
1.41E-01
2.02E-02
2.00E+00
4.09E-03
2.75E-02
O.OOE+00
1.84E-02
7.21E-01
O.OOE+00
2.65E-01
1.69E-01
1.38E-02
7.72E-03
O.OOE+00
3.91E-01
2.40E-01
1.27E-01
O.OOE+00
1.56E-01
1.36E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.08E-01
4.93E-01
5.08E-02
2.82E-02
1.53E+00
2.65E-02
1.84E-01
6.37E-01
O.OOE+00
2.33E-02
1.66E-01
6.89E-02
O.OOE+00
2.23E-01
O.OOE+00
7.80E-02
6.90E-02
6.84E-02
1.05E+00
1.93E-02
1.27E+01
4.09E-02
6.98E-02
O.OOE+00
44

-------
E0% E0% E10% E10%
Specie ID CAS Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
132
135
136
137
138
140
141
142
143
148
149
151
152
155
156
160
170
511
181
2185
184
185
186
187
508
2568
193
194
198
199
491
497
513
203
205
206
208
209
211
212
215
590-73-8
15869-87-1
590-35-2
463-82-1
560-21-4
921-47-1
565-75-3
1069-53-0
10574-37-5
79-29-8
3074-71-3
584-94-1
565-59-3
107-39-1
107-40-4
16747-30-1
2213-23-2
589-43-5
4032-94-4
108-08-7
2216-30-0
592-13-2
1072-05-5
503-17-3
78-79-5
563-46-2
6094-02-6
763-29-1
513-35-9
2738-19-4
625-27-4
78-78-4
03968-85-2
592-27-8
591-76-4
3221-61-2
107-83-5
75-28-5
115-11-7
67-63-0
558-37-2
4032-86-4
563-16-6
562-49-2
7385-78-6
922-28-1
583-48-2
926-82-9
2,2-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,2-DIMETHYLOCTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE
(NEC-PENT ANE)
2,3,3-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,3,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,3,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,3,5 -TRIMETH YLHEX ANE
2,3-DIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
2,3-DIMETHYLBUTANE
2,3-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,3-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,3-DIMETHYLPENTANE
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-l-PENTENE
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
2,4,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,4-DIMETHYLOCTANE
2,4-DIMETHYLPENTANE
2,5-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2, 5 -dimethy Ihexane
2,6-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2-butyne
2-METHYL-l,3-BUTADIENE
2-methyl- 1 -butene
2-METHYL-l -HEXENE
2-METHYL-l -PENTENE
2-METHYL-2 -BUTENE
2-methyl-2-hexene
2-METHYL-2 -PENTENE
2-METHYLBUTANE (ISOPENTANE)
2-METHYLBUTYLBENZENE (sec
AMYLBENZENE)
2-METHYLHEPTANE
2-METHYLHEXANE
2-METHYLOCTANE
2-METHYLPENTANE
2-METHYLPROPANE (ISOBUTANE)
2-METHYLPROPENE (ISOBUTYLENE)
2-Propanol
3,3-DIMETHYL-l-BUTENE
3,3-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
3,3-DIMETHYLHEXANE
3,3-DIMETHYLPENTANE
3,4-DIMETHYL- 1 -PENTENE
3,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
3,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
3,5-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
4.50E-03
5.59E-02
6.08E-02
O.OOE+00
6.05E-01
O.OOE+00
9.31E-01
4.82E-02
O.OOE+00
3.88E-01
O.OOE+00
1.38E-01
1.87E+00
7.17E-03
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.42E-02
4.78E-01
7.68E-03
1.09E+00
5.39E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.89E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.34E-02
2.01E-01
O.OOE+00
3.68E-02
2.22E+00
1.18E-02
2.17E-01
O.OOE+00
1.83E-01
3.31E-01
1.40E-01
2.66E+00
1.42E-02
1.80E-02
O.OOE+00
2.53E-02
2.60E-02
8.31E-03
O.OOE+00
3.85E-02
5.39E-02
9.91E-02
9.31E-02
4.21E-01
8.52E-02
1.45E+00
1.98E-02
2.40E+00
9.10E-02
O.OOE+00
7.34E-01
1.81E-02
O.OOE+00
6.24E-01
8.99E-02
1.17E-02
O.OOE+00
7.87E-02
1.29E+00
5.93E-02
1.41E+00
8.94E-02
2.37E-03
4.45E-03
O.OOE+00
1.09E-01
2.91E-01
2.66E-02
1.04E-01
5.86E-01
1.06E-01
1.31E-01
1.02E+01
1.55E-01
7.75E-01
2.60E+00
6.15E-01
1.73E+00
2.24E-01
7.48E-01
1.67E-02
9.77E-03
3.17E-02
8.53E-02
9.62E-02
1.69E-02
4.27E-02
8.67E-02
8.94E-02
7.65E-03
2.81E-02
2.16E-01
O.OOE+00
1.08E-01
O.OOE+00
2.17E-01
1.16E-02
O.OOE+00
1.95E-01
O.OOE+00
1.14E-02
1.42E+00
6.60E-02
5.20E-02
O.OOE+00
2.31E-02
3.50E-01
3.31E-02
3.29E-01
3.22E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.62E-01
O.OOE+00
4.24E-03
9.76E-02
2.40E-01
1.32E-02
7.13E-02
1.46E+00
O.OOE+00
2.07E-01
O.OOE+00
1.63E-01
7.82E-01
3.15E-02
3.07E+00
4.77E-03
3.83E-02
O.OOE+00
4.40E-02
7.03E-03
1.29E-02
O.OOE+00
9.33E-03
3.22E-02
8.83E-02
5.55E-02
6.11E-01
7.04E-02
2.08E-01
2.04E-02
6.65E-01
3.74E-02
O.OOE+00
5.40E-01
2.45E-02
1.29E-01
1.47E-03
1.07E-01
1.84E-02
O.OOE+00
5.99E-02
1.14E+00
6.70E-02
9.47E-01
6.76E-02
O.OOE+00
6.71E-03
O.OOE+00
1.43E-01
4.42E-01
2.97E-02
1.28E-01
7.56E-01
1.32E-01
1.84E-01
6.14E+00
1.54E-01
5.49E-01
5.02E+00
4.70E-01
2.32E+00
1.58E-02
1.02E+00
O.OOE+00
9.95E-03
3.74E-02
8.09E-02
4.08E-02
2.13E-02
2.90E-02
7.15E-02
6.76E-02
45

-------
E0% E0% E10% E10%
Specie ID CAS Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
221
226
229
230
231
232
233
236
242
244
245
247
248
239
240
253
1471
258
260
264
267
262
279
281
282
283
301
302
592
351
360
352
353
354
362
364
367
368
369
370
371
2616
372
373
382
385
388
48
816-79-5
619-99-8
617-78-7
563-45-1
3404-61-3
760-20-3
1067-08-9
922-62-3
1120-62-3
589-81-1
589-34-4
2216-33-3
96-14-0
616-12-6
3899-36-3
1068-19-5
2216-32-2
691-37-2
691-38-3
589-53-7
2216-34-4
674-76-0
75-07-0
67-64-1
74-86-2
107-02-8
100-52-7
71-43-2
106-97-8
2207-01-4
1192-18-3
638-04-0
2532-58-3
624-29-3
930-89-2
2613-66-3
590-18-1
6443-92-1
7688-21-3
7642-04-8
627-20-3
7642-10-6
7642-09-3
20237-46-1
4170-30-3
110-82-7
110-83-8
542-92-7
3 -ethyl-2-pentene
3-ETHYLHEXANE
3-ETHYLPENTANE
3-METHYL-l-BUTENE
3 -methyl- 1 -hexene
3-METHYL-l-PENTENE
3 -Methy 1-3 -ethy 1-pentane
3-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
3 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
3 -METH YLHEPT ANE
3-METHYLHEXANE
3 -METH YLOCT ANE
3 -METH YLPENT ANE
3 -METHYL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
3 -methyl-trans-3 -hexene
4,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
4-ETHYLHEPTANE
4-METHYL-l -PENTENE
4-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
4-METHYLHEPTANE
4-methyloctane
4-METHYL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
ACETYLENE
Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
BENZENE
BUTANE
CIS-1,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
CIS-1,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
Cis- 1 , 3 -dimethylcyclohexane
CIS-1,3-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
Cis-l,4-Dimethylcyclohexane
Cis- 1 -ethyl-2-methylcyclopentane
CIS-l-METHYL-3-
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
CIS-2-BUTENE
CIS-2-HEPTENE
CIS-2-HEXENE
CIS-2-OCTENE
CIS-2-PENTENE
CIS-3-HEPTENE
CIS-3 -HEXENE
CIS-3-NONENE
Crotonaldehyde
CYCLOHEXANE
CYCLOHEXENE
CYCLOPENTADIENE
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.65E-02
4.18E-02
O.OOE+00
3.09E-02
3.85E-02
3.20E-02
3.41E-03
2.69E-01
1.89E-01
1.14E-01
2.01E-01
3.70E-02
O.OOE+00
4.23E-03
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.92E-02
O.OOE+00
5.18E-03
3.49E-01
2.48E-01
1.35E+01
3.05E-02
4.26E-01
5.64E+00
6.22E-01
3.55E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.13E-02
1.14E-03
9.97E-03
1.78E-02
1.79E-01
1.62E-02
2.40E-02
O.OOE+00
1.01E-01
O.OOE+00
5.50E-03
O.OOE+00
3.01E-02
5.26E-02
1.19E-01
3.47E-01
l.OOE-02
O.OOE+00
2.14E-01
1.98E-01
1.91E-02
8.00E-02
8.67E-02
1.56E-01
3.00E-03
1.20E+00
1.57E+00
4.35E-01
1.07E+00
1.97E-01
O.OOE+00
9.56E-02
O.OOE+00
1.20E-03
O.OOE+00
7.29E-01
O.OOE+00
6.54E-02
1.01E-01
3.92E-02
3.10E+00
3.04E-02
1.06E-01
1.36E+00
1.69E+00
1.10E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
6.81E-02
2.59E-02
8.48E-02
4.71E-02
7.69E-02
5.13E-02
7.63E-02
7.55E-02
2.15E-01
O.OOE+00
9.20E-02
6.70E-03
1.91E-02
5.26E-02
2.77E-02
1.17E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.01E-01
7.99E-02
O.OOE+00
4.21E-02
9.33E-03
6.75E-02
1.85E-02
2.31E-01
4.07E-01
9.49E-02
5.36E-01
9.19E-02
O.OOE+00
9.31E-03
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.44E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.40E-01
2.04E-01
1.30E+01
3.71E-02
2.13E-01
3.77E+00
5.01E-01
3.63E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
8.82E-02
7.12E-03
1.65E-02
4.03E-02
1.95E-01
2.19E-02
2.06E-02
O.OOE+00
1.43E-01
O.OOE+00
2.78E-02
O.OOE+00
2.45E-02
5.31E-01
4.58E-02
3.92E-01
1.21E-02
O.OOE+00
3.27E-01
1.27E-01
1.98E-02
8.82E-02
7.15E-02
2.35E-01
3.33E-03
7.25E-01
1.35E+00
3.11E-01
1.55E+00
2.74E-01
O.OOE+00
7.20E-02
O.OOE+00
1.95E-02
O.OOE+00
1.76E-01
O.OOE+00
8.16E-02
3.28E-01
4.86E-02
2.69E+00
4.33E-02
6.51E-02
1.23E+00
1.17E+00
9.95E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.91E-02
2.71E-02
6.56E-02
5.83E-02
1.04E-01
5.69E-02
9.53E-02
1.26E-02
2.81E-01
O.OOE+00
1.16E-01
6.23E-03
2.35E-02
7.58E-02
3.71E-02
1.21E-01
46

-------
E0% E0% E10% E10%
Specie ID CAS Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
390
391
598
2735
1712
599
438
442
449
450
451
452
465
600
840
601
602
485
3
2119
514
2560
517
522
2164
536
529
531
548
550
551
611
595
596
603
606
608
604
1467
620
605
671
673
677
678
109
698
701
86
63
287-92-3
142-29-0
124-18-5
108-20-3
5779.94-2
112-40-3
74-84-0
64-17-5
100-41-4
1678-91-7
1640-89-7
74-85-1
50-00-0
142-82-5
66-25-1
110-54-3
1077-16-3
496-11-7
538-93-2
78-84-2
98-82-8
3875-51-2
590-86-3
1330-20-7
1334-78-7
78-93-3
74-82-8
67-56-1
1634-04-4
108-87-2
96-37-7
91-20-3
71-36-3
104-51-8
111-84-2
538-68-1
103-65-1
00111-65-9
529-20-4
95-47-6
109-66-0
74-98-6
123-38-6
2040-96-2
115-07-1
74-99-7
100-42-5
994-05-8
1074-92-6
98-19-1
CYCLOPENTANE
CYCLOPENTENE
DECANE
DI-ISOPROPYL ETHER
Dimethylbenzaldehyde
DODECANE
ETHANE
Ethanol
ETHYLBENZENE
ETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
ETHYLENE
Formaldehyde
HEPTANE
Hexanaldehyde
HEXANE
HEXYLBENZENE
INDAN
ISOBUTYLBENZENE
ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE
ISOPROPYLBENZENE (CUMENE)
ISOPROPYLCYCLOPENTANE
Isovaleraldehyde
m-& p-XYLENE
m/p-Tolualdehyde
MEK
METHANE
Methanol
Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE)
METHYLCYCLOHEXANE
METHYLCYCLOPENTANE
NAPHTHALENE
N-butyl alcohol
n-Butylbenzene
NONANE
N-PENT-BENZENE
n-PROPYLBENZENE
OCTANE
o-Tolualdehyde
o-XYLENE
PENTANE
PROPANE
Propionaldehyde
Propylcyclopentane
PROPYLENE
PROPYNE
STYRENE
T-amylmethylether
TERT- 1 -BUT-2-METHYLBENZENE
TERT- 1 -BUT-3 ,5 -DIMETHYLBENZENE
3.65E-02
2.94E-02
5.43E-02
O.OOE+00
8.82E-02
1.90E-02
9.26E-01
1.40E-01
1.79E+00
2.24E-02
1.95E-03
8.94E+00
1.61E+00
2.60E-01
9.63E-04
1.89E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.12E-02
1.37E-02
9.56E-02
4.85E-03
5.06E-02
3.58E+00
2.67E-01
1.38E-02
1.59E+01
1.68E-01
O.OOE+00
8.24E-02
5.96E-02
3.36E-02
5.64E-02
1.15E-01
1.70E-01
2.62E-02
2.76E-01
2.21E-01
6.87E-02
1.20E+00
3.33E-01
2.68E-01
4.07E-02
O.OOE+00
5.29E+00
3.60E-03
7.93E-01
O.OOE+00
3.58E-03
2.24E-03
7.45E-02
9.05E-02
7.60E-02
O.OOE+00
1.99E-02
8.03E-02
2.46E-01
5.67E-02
3.37E+00
1.75E-01
O.OOE+00
1.79E+00
3.60E-01
1.15E+00
1.89E-03
7.55E-01
1.78E-02
O.OOE+00
7.17E-02
9.61E-03
1.08E-01
1.13E-02
1.39E-02
6.30E+00
4.58E-02
9.61E-03
1.70E+00
7.63E-02
O.OOE+00
4.30E-01
4.13E-01
5.84E-02
O.OOE+00
2.97E-02
3.41E-01
7.75E-02
6.70E-01
4.49E-01
4.46E-02
2.27E+00
8.44E-01
4.51E-02
4.94E-02
2.99E-03
1.14E+00
2.27E-02
2.18E-01
O.OOE+00
1.29E-01
1.16E-01
5.60E-02
7.18E-02
3.90E-02
O.OOE+00
4.35E-02
9.15E-03
8.63E-01
2.49E+00
1.37E+00
2.44E-02
1.13E-02
1.01E+01
1.45E+00
2.22E-01
4.49E-03
4.29E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.68E-02
1.97E-02
3.83E-02
6.00E-03
4.42E-02
4.49E+00
1.94E-01
1.97E-02
1.54E+01
1.72E-01
O.OOE+00
2.30E-01
2.12E-01
7.17E-02
3.21E-02
5.86E-02
6.08E-02
2.77E-02
2.40E-01
1.44E-01
3.34E-02
1.26E+00
3.21E-01
7.13E-02
3.43E-02
O.OOE+00
5.29E+00
O.OOE+00
5.86E-01
O.OOE+00
3.00E-02
7.28E-04
1.04E-01
1.27E-01
5.86E-02
O.OOE+00
2.37E-02
5.22E-02
2.86E-01
7.63E+00
2.18E+00
1.07E-01
O.OOE+00
1.94E+00
4.86E-01
6.18E-01
1.91E-03
6.99E-01
2.84E-02
O.OOE+00
5.53E-02
9.95E-03
6.22E-02
3.37E-02
1.85E-02
5.27E+00
7.57E-02
9.95E-03
1.74E+00
1.29E-01
O.OOE+00
6.30E-01
5.99E-01
4.58E-02
O.OOE+00
2.33E-02
1.56E-01
8.99E-02
4.75E-01
3.01E-01
1.77E-02
1.82E+00
8.67E-01
3.05E-02
5.10E-02
6.71E-03
1.26E+00
1.88E-02
1.73E-01
O.OOE+00
1.57E-01
1.36E-01
47

-------
E0% E0% E10% E10%
Specie ID CAS Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
2329
703
717
724
725
726
727
729
1586
736
737
739
740
2244
741
742
743
744
745
746
610
1989
1999
2005
2011
327
845
7364-19-4
98-06-6
108-88-3
6876-23-9
822-50-4
2207-03-6
1759-58-6
2207-04-7
930-90-5
2613-65-2
624-64-6
14686-13-6
4050-45-7
6434-78-2
13389-42-9
646-04-8
14686-14-7
13269-52-8
20063-92-7
14850-23-8
1120-21-4
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
#N/A
110-62-3
TERT- 1 -BUTYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
TERT-BUTYLBENZENE
TOLUENE
TRANS-1,2-
DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
TRANS-1,2-
DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS-1,3-
DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
TRANS-1,3-
DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS-1,4-
DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
Trans-l-ethyl-2-methyl-cyclopentane
TRANS-l-METHYL-3-
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS-2-BUTENE
TRANS-2-HEPTENE
TRANS-2-HEXENE
TRANS-2-NONENE
TRANS-2-OCTENE
TRANS-2-PENTENE
TRANS-3-HEPTENE
TRANS-3-HEXENE
TRANS-3-NONENE
Trans -4-octene
UNDECANE
UNIDENTIFIED C5 OLEFINS
UNIDENTIFIED C6
UNIDENTIFIED C7
UNIDENTIFIED C8
UNIDENTIFIED C9-C12+
Valeraldehyde
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
8.64E+00
5.85E-03
2.86E-02
1.14E-03
3.23E-03
O.OOE+00
1.60E-03
O.OOE+00
3.20E-01
1.23E-02
1.29E-02
O.OOE+00
6.34E-03
3.34E-02
7.30E-04
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.12E-02
O.OOE+00
1.32E-01
1.03E-01
1.99E-03
1.06E+00
1.34E-02
5.62E-02
2.98E-02
8.64E+00
3.84E-01
1.01E-01
3.07E-02
2.27E-01
9.26E-03
9.08E-02
1.05E-01
2.04E-01
5.96E-02
1.40E-01
1.25E-02
8.23E-02
3.75E-01
8.62E-02
O.OOE+00
4.49E-02
5.47E-02
1.14E-01
1.35E-02
7.24E-02
7.53E-01
1.63E-01
3.86E+00
4.47E-03
2.33E-02
O.OOE+00
7.77E+00
2.20E-02
2.88E-02
7.12E-03
O.OOE+00
9.87E-03
2.66E-02
2.55E-02
2.53E-01
2.47E-02
4.27E-02
O.OOE+00
4.15E-02
9.06E-02
2.57E-02
O.OOE+00
1.18E-02
O.OOE+00
3.21E-02
O.OOE+00
1.57E-01
9.89E-02
8.50E-03
1.55E+00
4.39E-03
6.05E-02
3.14E-02
7.77E+00
1.73E-01
9.91E-02
3.03E-02
3.52E-01
2.39E-02
1.12E-01
1.37E-01
2.28E-01
6.73E-02
1.78E-01
7.99E-03
1.11E-01
4.91E-01
1.09E-01
O.OOE+00
5.13E-02
4.55E-02
1.08E-01
8.74E-03
6.99E-02
2.70E-01
1.17E-01
3.56E+00
4.73E-03
Table A4-4. Composite Transient CI TOG Profile Percentages by Compound Class




 Compound
Pre-Tier 1    Tier 1
Tier 2
Paraffins
Aromatics
Olefins
Aldehydes/Ketones
Oxygenates
Unknowns
16.55
11.80
26.39
39.72
0.00
5.54
17.66
6.48
30.45
43.96
0.00
1.46
17.69
9.37
22.67
44.36
0.00
5.91
                                               48

-------
Table A4-5. Composite Transient CI TOG Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
 Compound            Pre-Tier 1   Tier 1    Tier 2
Methane
Ethyl ene
Propylene
2,2,4-
Trimethylpentane
2-Methylbutane
Toluene
m-& p-Xylene
o-Xylene
Ethylbenzene
2,3-Dimethylpentane
1.74
16.65
0.00

0.78
0.00
1.17
1.48
0.70
0.91
0.09
7.09
18.94
3.79

0.65
0.49
1.97
1.09
0.41
0.36
0.14
7.95
17.42
0.00

0.61
0.00
3.20
1.07
0.00
0.39
0.26
Table A4-6. Composite Transient Cycle CI Organic Gas Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as Weight
Percentages of TOG
CAS Number
135-98-8
4259-00-1
3073-66-3
4516-69-2
590-66-9
1638-26-2
16747-50-5
135-01-3
488-23-3
527-53-7
526-73-8
95-93-2
877-44-1
95-63-6
933-98-2
934-80-5
463-49-0
102-25-0
108-67-8
934.74.7
106-99-0
141-93-5
2870-04-4
874-41-9
4706-89-2
105-05-5
COMPOUND
(1 -methylpropyl)benzene
1, 1,2-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1,1,3-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
1,1,3-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1, 1-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
1, 1-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1, 1-Methylethylcyclopentane
1,2 DIETHYLBENZENE
1,2,3,4-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,3,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4-TRIETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
l,2-DIMETHYL-3-ETHYLBENZENE
l,2-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
1,2-PROPADIENE
1,3,5-TRIETHYLBENZENE
1,3,5-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
l,3,-DIMETHYL-5-ETHYLBENZENE
1,3-BUTADIENE
1,3-DIETHYLBENZENE
l,3-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
l,3-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
l,3-dimethyl-4-isopropylbenzene
1,4-DIETHYLBENZENE
Pre-Tier 1
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.10E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.79E-01
O.OOE+00
3.95E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.41E-01
O.OOE+00
1.86E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.89E-01
Tierl
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.03E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.34E-02
1.74E-02
6.87E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.86E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.28E-02
Tier 2
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.86E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
                                               49

-------
CAS Number
1758-88-9
106-98-9
107-00-6
15890-40-1
872-05-9
637-92-3
592-76-7
592-41-6
611-14-3
527-84-4
1074-17-5
620-14-4
535-77-3
1074-43-7
622-96-8
99-87-6
1074-55-1
693-89-0
124-11-8
111-66-0
109-67-1
15890-40-1
2815-58-9
464-06-2
564-02-3
16747-26-5
540-84-1
3522-94-9
75-83-2
1071-26-7
590-73-8
15869-87-1
590-35-2
463-82-1
560-21-4
921-47-1
565-75-3
1069-53-0
10574-37-5
79-29-8
3074-71-3
584-94-1
565-59-3
COMPOUND
l,4-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
1-BUTENE
1-BUTYNE
1 -CIS,2-TRANS,3 -TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1-DECENE
1 -ethyltertbutylether
1-HEPTENE
1-HEXENE
l-METHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-2-ISOPROPYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-2-N-PROPYLBENZENE
1 -METH YL-3 -ETHYLBENZENE
1 -METHYL-3 -ISOPROPYLBENZENE
1 -METHYL-3 -N-PROP YLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-ISOPROPYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-N-PROPYLBENZENE
1 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
1-NONENE
1-OCTENE
1-PENTENE
1 -TRANS-2-CIS-3 -TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1-TRANS-2-CIS-4-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBUTANE
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,2-DIMETHYLBUTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,2-DIMETHYLOCTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE (NEOPENTANE)
2,3,3-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,3,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,3,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,3,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,3-DIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
2,3-DIMETHYLBUTANE
2,3-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,3-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,3-DIMETHYLPENTANE
Pre-Tier 1
9.40E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
6.44E-01
2.85E-01
3.85E-01
O.OOE+00
4.15E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.43E-01
O.OOE+00
2.51E-01
3.48E-01
7.74E-01
O.OOE+00
1.27E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
6.62E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.78E-01
O.OOE+00
3.52E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.50E-01
1.84E-02
O.OOE+00
7.75E-02
O.OOE+00
2.50E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
8.81E-02
Tierl
3.15E-03
2.98E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.10E-01
3.28E-03
1.04E-01
O.OOE+00
1.47E-02
7.96E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.16E-02
O.OOE+00
9.19E-02
O.OOE+00
5.46E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.47E-03
2.56E-01
O.OOE+00
6.49E-01
4.14E-02
1.69E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.72E-02
5.65E-02
8.29E-02
4.07E-01
O.OOE+00
6.46E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.55E-01
O.OOE+00
3.12E-01
1.38E-01
Tier 2
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.48E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.22E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.27E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.39E-02
O.OOE+00
3.77E-01
O.OOE+00
4.56E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.92E-01
50

-------
CAS Number
107-39-1
107-40-4
16747-30-1
2213-23-2
589-43-5
4032-94-4
108-08-7
2216-30-0
592-13-2
1072-05-5
503-17-3
78-79-5
563-46-2
6094-02-6
763-29-1
513-35-9
2738-19-4
625-27-4
78-78-4
03968-85-2
592-27-8
591-76-4
3221-61-2
107-83-5
75-28-5
115-11-7
558-37-2
4032-86-4
563-16-6
562-49-2
7385-78-6
922-28-1
583-48-2
926-82-9
816-79-5
619-99-8
617-78-7
563-45-1
3404-61-3
760-20-3
1067-08-9
922-62-3
1120-62-3
COMPOUND
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-l-PENTENE
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
2,4,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,4-DIMETHYLOCTANE
2,4-DIMETHYLPENTANE
2,5-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,5-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,6-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2-BUTYNE
2-METHYL-l,3-BUTADIENE
2-METHYL-l -BUTENE
2-METHYL-l -HEXENE
2-METHYL-l -PENTENE
2-METHYL-2 -BUTENE
2-METHYL-2 -HEXENE
2-METHYL-2 -PENTENE
2-METHYLBUTANE (ISOPENTANE)
2-METHYLBUTYLBENZENE (sec AMYLBENZENE)
2-METHYLHEPTANE
2-METHYLHEXANE
2-METHYLOCTANE
2-METHYLPENTANE
2-METHYLPROPANE (ISOBUTANE)
2-METHYLPROPENE (ISOBUTYLENE)
3,3-DIMETHYL-l-BUTENE
3,3-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
3,3-DIMETHYLHEXANE
3,3-DIMETHYLPENTANE
3,4-DIMETHYL- 1 -PENTENE
3,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
3,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
3,5-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
3-ETHYL-2 -PENTENE
3-ETHYLHEXANE
3-ETHYLPENTANE
3-METHYL-l-BUTENE
3-METHYL-l-HEXENE
3-METHYL-l-PENTENE
3 -Methy 1-3 -ethy 1-pentane
3-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
3 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
Pre-Tier 1
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.93E-01
5.29E-01
1.90E-01
2.19E-01
O.OOE+00
5.40E-01
O.OOE+00
9.20E-02
2.65E-01
O.OOE+00
6.44E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.12E+00
1.46E-01
O.OOE+00
3.41E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.19E-01
O.OOE+00
1.11E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
Tierl
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.06E-01
5.34E-02
4.33E-01
3.65E-02
O.OOE+00
1.72E-01
O.OOE+00
3.21E-01
1.76E-01
O.OOE+00
4.10E-01
9.71E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.93E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.92E-01
2.72E-01
4.46E-01
7.38E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.45E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.65E-02
O.OOE+00
2.44E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.56E-02
O.OOE+00
Tier 2
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.64E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
9.92E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.69E-01
O.OOE+00
1.48E-01
2.96E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.19E-01
6.57E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
51

-------
CAS Number
589-81-1
589-34-4
2216-33-3
96-14-0
616-12-6
3899-36-3
1068-19-5
2216-32-2
691-37-2
691-38-3
589-53-7
2216-34-4
674-76-0
75-07-0
67-64-1
74-86-2
107-02-8
100-52-7
71-43-2
106-97-8
2207-01-4
1192-18-3
638-04-0
2532-58-3
624-29-3
930-89-2
2613-66-3
590-18-1
6443-92-1
7688-21-3
7642-04-8
627-20-3
7642-10-6
7642-09-3
20237-46-1
4170-30-3
110-82-7
110-83-8
542-92-7
287-92-3
142-29-0
124-18-5
108-20-3
COMPOUND
3 -METH YLHEPT ANE
3-METHYLHEXANE
3 -METH YLOCT ANE
3 -METH YLPENT ANE
3 -METHYL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
3 -METHYL-TRANS-3 -HEXENE
4,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
4-ETHYLHEPTANE
4-METHYL-l -PENTENE
4-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
4-METHYLHEPTANE
4-METHYLOCTANE
4-METHYL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
ACETALDEHYDE
ACETONE
ACETYLENE
ACROLEIN
BENZALDEHYDE
BENZENE
BUTANE
CIS-1,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
CIS-1,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
CIS-1,3-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
CIS-1,3-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
Cis-l,4-Dimethylcyclohexane
Cis- 1 -ethyl-2-methylcyclopentane
CIS- 1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
CIS-2-BUTENE
CIS-2-HEPTENE
CIS-2-HEXENE
CIS-2-OCTENE
CIS-2-PENTENE
CIS-3-HEPTENE
CIS-3 -HEXENE
CIS-3-NONENE
CROTONALDEHYDE
CYCLOHEXANE
CYCLOHEXENE
CYCLOPENTADIENE
CYCLOPENTANE
CYCLOPENTENE
DECANE
DI-ISOPROPYL ETHER
Pre-Tier 1
O.OOE+00
l.OOE-01
5.97E-01
5.51E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.62E-01
O.OOE+00
3.11E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.18E+00
1.89E+00
2.91E+00
2.92E+00
3.49E-01
1.88E+00
3.36E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.31E-01
O.OOE+00
3.52E-02
6.16E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.94E+00
9.16E-02
3.93E-01
O.OOE+00
2.02E-01
4.34E-02
1.85E-01
O.OOE+00
Tierl
2.19E-02
9.25E-02
7.07E-02
6.93E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.97E-02
O.OOE+00
2.48E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.14E+00
1.04E+00
3.41E+00
1.47E+00
8.94E-01
1.97E+00
9.72E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.48E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.47E-01
O.OOE+00
1.76E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.35E-02
O.OOE+00
2.48E-02
O.OOE+00
3.85E+00
O.OOE+00
1.15E-01
8.87E-03
3.75E-02
3.71E-02
2.55E-02
O.OOE+00
Tier 2
1.92E-01
O.OOE+00
1.98E-01
3.71E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.84E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
9.51E+00
O.OOE+00
1.12E+00
1.70E+00
7.02E-01
5.07E+00
5.47E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.16E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
52

-------
CAS Number
5779-94-2
112-40-3
74-84-0
64-17-5
100-41-4
1678-91-7
1640-89-7
74-85-1
50-00-0
142-82-5
66-25-1
110-54-3
1077-16-3
496-11-7
538-93-2
78-84-2
98-82-8
3875-51-2
590-86-3
1330-20-7
1334-78-7
78-93-3
74-82-8
67-56-1
1634-04-4
108-87-2
96-37-7
91-20-3
71-36-3
104-51-8
111-84-2
538-68-1
103-65-1
00111-65-9
529-20-4
95-47-6
109-66-0
74-98-6
123-38-6
2040-96-2
115-07-1
74-99-7
100-42-5
COMPOUND
DIMETHYLBENZALDEHYDE
DODECANE
ETHANE
ETHANOL
ETHYLBENZENE
ETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
ETHYLENE
FORMALDEHYDE
HEPTANE
HEXAN ALDEHYDE
HEXANE
HEXYLBENZENE
INDAN
ISOBUTYLBENZENE
ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE
ISOPROPYLBENZENE (CUMENE)
ISOPROPYLCYCLOPENTANE
ISOVALERALDEHYDE
m-& p-XYLENE
M/P-TOLU ALDEHYDE
MEK
METHANE
METHANOL
Methyl t-butyl ether
METHYLCYCLOHEXANE
METHYLCYCLOPENTANE
NAPHTHALENE
N-butyl alcohol
n-Butylbenzene
NONANE
N-PENT-BENZENE
n-PROPYLBENZENE
OCTANE
O-TOLU ALDEHYDE
o-XYLENE
PENTANE
PROPANE
PROPIONALDEHYDE
Propylcyclopentane
PROPYLENE
PROPYNE
STYRENE
Pre-Tier 1
1.42E-01
4.43E-01
1.26E-01
O.OOE+00
9.09E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.66E+01
1.99E+01
2.63E-01
2.09E-01
2.24E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.77E-01
6.16E-01
3.70E-01
O.OOE+00
6.75E-01
1.48E+00
1.36E+00
6.16E-01
1.74E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.48E-01
1.84E-02
4.74E-02
O.OOE+00
2.51E-01
2.23E+00
4.52E-02
9.57E-01
7.49E-01
1.09E-01
6.97E-01
1.17E-01
6.28E-02
1.39E+00
5.40E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
Tierl
2.77E-01
1.12E-01
4.66E-01
O.OOE+00
3.56E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.89E+01
2.03E+01
9.25E-02
2.20E-01
2.45E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.40E-02
7.02E-01
7.32E-02
O.OOE+00
4.90E-01
1.09E+00
1.75E+00
7.07E-01
7.09E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.56E-01
5.51E-02
5.42E-02
O.OOE+00
1.16E-02
4.19E-01
O.OOE+00
1.95E-02
3.62E-01
6.03E-01
4.09E-01
6.81E-01
5.71E-01
3.55E+00
1.72E-01
3.79E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
Tier 2
3.90E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.87E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.84E+01
2.66E+01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
8.43E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.07E+00
6.78E-01
8.43E-01
8.28E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.39E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.29E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.56E+00
1.48E-01
1.99E+00
9.92E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
53

-------
CAS Number
994-05-8
1074-92-6
98-19-1
7364-19-4
98-06-6
108-88-3
6876-23-9
822-50-4
2207-03-6
1759-58-6
2207-04-7
930-90-5
2613-65-2
624-64-6
14686-13-6
4050-45-7
6434-78-2
13389-42-9
646-04-8
14686-14-7
13269-52-8
20063-92-7
14850-23-8
1120-21-4





110-62-3
COMPOUND
T-AMYLMETHYLETHER
TERT- 1 -BUT-2-METHYLBENZENE
TERT-l-BUT-3,5-DIMETHYLBENZENE
TERT- 1 -BUTYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
TERT-BUTYLBENZENE
TOLUENE
TRANS-1,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
TRANS-1,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS-1,3-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
TRANS-1,3-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS-1,4-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
Trans-l-ethyl-2-methyl-cyclopentane
TRANS- 1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS-2-BUTENE
TRANS-2-HEPTENE
TRANS-2-HEXENE
TRANS-2-NONENE
TRANS-2-OCTENE
TRANS-2-PENTENE
TRANS-3-HEPTENE
TRANS-3-HEXENE
TRANS-3-NONENE
TRANS-4-OCTENE
UNDECANE
UNIDENTIFIED C5 OLEFINS
UNIDENTIFIED C6
UNIDENTIFIED C7
UNIDENTIFIED C8
UNIDENTIFIED C9-C12+
VALERALDEHYDE
Pre-Tier 1
O.OOE+00
3.52E-01
3.41E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.17E+00
7.14E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.50E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.47E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.41E-01
O.OOE+00
4.50E-01
4.60E-02
3.95E-02
5.00E+00
4.53E-01
Tierl
O.OOE+00
4.12E-02
8.15E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.97E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
8.59E-03
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.88E-02
4.79E-01
8.08E-03
6.71E-03
O.OOE+00
6.58E-02
3.72E-03
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
9.29E-03
2.65E-01
1.08E-01
5.63E-01
5.85E-02
2.82E-02
6.98E-01
9.24E-01
Tier 2
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.43E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.32E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.61E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
6.08E+00
1.85E-01
Table A4-7.   Composite SI VOC Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Compound
Paraffins
Aromatics
Olefins
Aldehyde/Ketones
Oxygenates
Unknowns
E0%
4 stroke
20.96
31.61
41.57
3.68
0.58
1.60
E0%
2 stroke
50.01
31.97
12.07
0.83
0.15
4.97
E10 %
4 stroke
18.95
28.46
43.56
3.47
3.35
2.20
E10%
2 stroke
46.31
27.15
13.29
1.19
7.94
4.12
                                            54

-------
Table A4-8.  Composite SI VOC Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
Compound
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Ethylene
Propylene
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
2-Methylbutane
Toluene
m-& p-Xylene
o-Xylene
Ethylbenzene
E0%
4 stroke
1.98
0.43
11.00
6.51
4.61
2.73
8.64
4.40
1.46
2.20
E0%
2 stroke
0.37
0.10
1.83
1.17
8.11
10.47
8.64
6.44
2.32
3.44
E10%
4 stroke
1.76
0.90
12.32
6.44
5.72
1.79
7.77
5.46
1.53
1.67
E10 %
2 stroke
0.50
0.34
1.99
1.30
13.01
6.28
7.77
5.39
1.86
2.23
Table A4-9.  Composite SI VOC profile percentages with all compounds
                                                            E0%
E0%
E10 %   E10 %
Specie CAS
ID Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
1
9
12
13
19
20
21
36
22
23
25
28
29
30
37
39
42
43
44
55
135-98-8
4259-00-1
3073-66-3
4516-69-2
590-66-9
1638-26-2
16747-50-5
135-01-3
488-23-3
527-53-7
526-73-8
95-93-2
877-44-1
95-63-6
933-98-2
934-80-5
463-49-0
102-25-0
108-67-8
934.74.7
(1 -methylpropyl)benzene
1, 1,2-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1,1,3-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
1,1,3-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1, 1-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
1, 1-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1, 1-Methylethylcyclopentane
1,2 DIETHYLBENZENE
1,2,3,4-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,3,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4-TRIETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
l,2-dimethyl-3-ethylbenzene
l,2-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
1,2-PROPADIENE
1,3,5-TRIETHYLBENZENE
1,3,5-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
l,3,-DIMETHYL-5-ETHYLBENZENE
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
2.84E-02
O.OOE+0
0
3.99E-03
7.32E-04
3.39E-02
1.87E-03
1.07E-01
2.75E-01
1.77E-02
8.47E-04
1.71E+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
1.53E-01
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
5.36E-01
O.OOE+0
0
3.41E-03
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
8.79E-03
1.90E-02
9.03E-02
7.15E-02
1.32E-02
2.13E-02
1.28E-01
2.37E-02
2.14E+0
0
5.79E-03
3.67E-02
O.OOE+0
0
2.47E-02
7.68E-01
O.OOE+0
0
5.38E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
3.11E-02
O.OOE+0
0
3.81E-03
1.90E-03
O.OOE+0
0
5.00E-02
6.05E-02
1.98E-01
1.07E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.58E+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
1.16E-01
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
6.95E-01
O.OOE+0
0
3.31E-03
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
2.99E-03
1.94E-02
7.78E-02
7.12E-02
1.19E-02
6.57E-02
1.44E-01
2.07E-02
2.05E+0
0
4.18E-03
2.81E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.88E-02
7.37E-01
O.OOE+0
0
                                             55

-------
               E0%
E0%
E10 %
E10 %
Specie CAS
ID Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
46
51
52
53
54
59
60
64
65
357
996
75
76
78
80
81
84
89
90
92
94
97
100
103
106
107
108
607
730
1540
112
113
117
118
121
106-99-0
141-93-5
2870-04-4
874-41-9
4706-89-2
105-05-5
1758-88-9
106-98-9
107-00-6
15890-40-1
872-05-9
637-92-3
592-76-7
592-41-6
611-14-3
527-84-4
1074-17-5
620-14-4
535-77-3
1074-43-7
622-96-8
99-87-6
1074-55-1
693-89-0
124-11-8
111-66-0
109-67-1
71-23-8
15890-40-1
2815-58-9
464-06-2
564-02-3
16747-26-5
540-84-1
3522-94-9
1,3-BUTADIENE
1,3-DIETHYLBENZENE
l,3-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
l,3-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
l,3-dimethyl-4-isopropylbenzene
1,4-DIETHYLBENZENE
l,4-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
1-BUTENE
1-butyne
1-CIS,2-TRANS,3-
TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1-DECENE
1-ethyltertbutylether
1-HEPTENE
1-HEXENE
l-METHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-2-ISOPROPYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-2-N-PROPYLBENZENE
1 -METH YL-3 -ETHYLBENZENE
1 -METHYL-3 -ISOPROPYLBENZENE
1 -METHYL-3 -N-PROP YLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-ISOPROPYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-N-PROPYLBENZENE
1 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
1-NONENE
1-OCTENE
1-pentene
1-Propanol
1-TRANS-2-CIS-3-
TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1-TRANS-2-CIS-4-
TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBUTANE
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2,4-trimethylhexane
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
1.28E+0
0
7.93E-02
7.72E-02
4.13E-02
3.13E-02
2.36E-02
6.99E-02
4.43E-01
O.OOE+0
0
4.34E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
4.08E-02
4.15E-01
2.17E-01
4.63E-02
1.25E+0
0
3.46E-01
1.56E-01
5.13E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.40E-01
1.76E-02
1.34E-01
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
1.17E-01
8.82E-03
O.OOE+0
0
3.01E-02
5.17E-01
5.29E-03
4.61E+0
0
3.78E-01
2.14E-01
1.77E-01
1.78E-02
8.14E-02
O.OOE+0
0
4.19E-01
2.55E-01
1.20E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.48E-01
1.55E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
9.50E-02
6.28E-01
6.66E-02
3.73E-02
1.85E+0
0
4.03E-02
2.25E-01
7.87E-01
O.OOE+0
0
4.47E-02
1.14E-01
1.78E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.75E-01
O.OOE+0
0
6.46E-02
7.61E-02
5.95E-02
9.61E-01
2.63E-02
8.11E+0
0
5.90E-01
1.24E+0
0
7.83E-02
3.04E-02
1.14E-01
7.21E-02
O.OOE+0
0
7.94E-02
5.27E-01
O.OOE+0
0
6.27E-02
9.41E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
1.18E-01
4.09E-01
3.24E-01
1.12E-01
1.11E+0
0
2.73E-01
2.82E-01
3.64E-01
O.OOE+0
0
7.16E-02
7.73E-02
2.94E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
7.27E-02
2.15E-02
O.OOE+0
0
5.49E-02
3.64E-01
O.OOE+0
0
5.72E+0
0
6.16E-02
2.72E-01
1.73E-01
1.42E-02
7.96E-03
O.OOE+0
0
4.00E-01
2.45E-01
1.30E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.60E-01
1.39E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
1.11E-01
5.05E-01
5.19E-02
2.88E-02
1.57E+0
0
2.71E-02
1.88E-01
6.51E-01
O.OOE+0
0
2.39E-02
1.70E-01
7.05E-02
O.OOE+0
0
2.28E-01
O.OOE+0
0
7.98E-02
7.06E-02
7.01E-02
1.07E+0
0
1.98E-02
1.30E+0
1
4.18E-02
56

-------
               E0%
E0%
E10 %
E10 %
Specie CAS
ID Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
132
135
136
137
138
140
141
142
143
148
149
151
152
155
156
160
170
511
181
2185
184
185
186
187
75-83-2
1071-26-7
590-73-8
15869-87-1
590-35-2
463-82-1
560-21-4
921-47-1
565-75-3
1069-53-0
10574-37-5
79-29-8
3074-71-3
584-94-1
565-59-3
107-39-1
107-40-4
16747-30-1
2213-23-2
589-43-5
4032-94-4
108-08-7
2216-30-0
592-13-2
1072-05-5
503-17-3
78-79-5
563-46-2
6094-02-6
763-29-1
513-35-9
2738-19-4
625-27-4
2,2-DIMETHYLBUTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,2-DIMETHYLOCTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE (NEC-PENT ANE)
2,3,3-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,3,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,3,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,3,5 -TRIMETH YLHEX ANE
2,3-DIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
2,3-DIMETHYLBUTANE
2,3-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,3-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,3-DIMETHYLPENTANE
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-l-PENTENE
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
2,4,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,4-DIMETHYLOCTANE
2,4-DIMETHYLPENTANE
2,5-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2, 5 -dimethy Ihexane
2,6-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2-butyne
2-METHYL-l,3-BUTADIENE
2-methyl- 1 -butene
2-METHYL-l -HEXENE
2-METHYL-l -PENTENE
2-METHYL-2 -BUTENE
2-methyl-2-hexene
2-METHYL-2 -PENTENE
3.61E-02
O.OOE+0
0
5.44E-03
6.82E-02
7.50E-02
O.OOE+0
0
7.43E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.14E+0
0
5.92E-02
O.OOE+0
0
4.76E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.70E-01
2.28E+0
0
8.70E-03
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
5.42E-02
5.85E-01
9.48E-03
1.34E+0
0
6.60E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
2.33E-01
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
4.08E-02
2.45E-01
O.OOE+0
0
4.53E-02
9.26E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.01E-01
9.52E-02
4.30E-01
8.74E-02
1.48E+0
0
2.03E-02
2.46E+0
0
9.31E-02
O.OOE+0
0
7.50E-01
1.85E-02
O.OOE+0
0
6.31E-01
9.19E-02
1.19E-02
O.OOE+0
0
8.05E-02
1.32E+0
0
6.06E-02
1.44E+0
0
9.15E-02
2.45E-03
4.56E-03
O.OOE+0
0
1.12E-01
2.97E-01
2.72E-02
1.06E-01
5.99E-01
1.08E-01
1.34E-01
5.02E-02
O.OOE+0
0
9.04E-03
3.41E-02
2.62E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.31E-01
O.OOE+0
0
2.65E-01
1.39E-02
O.OOE+0
0
2.37E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.40E-02
1.72E+0
0
7.99E-02
6.27E-02
O.OOE+0
0
2.81E-02
4.26E-01
3.94E-02
4.00E-01
3.93E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
3.19E-01
O.OOE+0
0
5.24E-03
1.18E-01
2.92E-01
1.58E-02
8.68E-02
7.14E-02
O.OOE+0
0
9.03E-02
5.68E-02
6.25E-01
7.21E-02
2.13E-01
2.09E-02
6.80E-01
3.83E-02
O.OOE+0
0
5.52E-01
2.50E-02
1.32E-01
1.49E-03
1.09E-01
1.88E-02
O.OOE+0
0
6.13E-02
1.17E+0
0
6.85E-02
9.68E-01
6.90E-02
O.OOE+0
0
6.88E-03
O.OOE+0
0
1.47E-01
4.52E-01
3.04E-02
1.31E-01
7.74E-01
1.35E-01
1.88E-01
57

-------
               E0%
E0%
E10 %
E10 %
Specie CAS
ID Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
508
2568
193
194
198
199
491
497
513
203
205
206
208
209
211
212
215
221
226
229
230
231
232
233
236
242
244
245
247
248
239
240
253
1471
258
78-78-4
03968-85-2
592-27-8
591-76-4
3221-61-2
107-83-5
75-28-5
115-11-7
67-63-0
558-37-2
4032-86-4
563-16-6
562-49-2
7385-78-6
922-28-1
583-48-2
926-82-9
816-79-5
619-99-8
617-78-7
563-45-1
3404-61-3
760-20-3
1067-08-9
922-62-3
1120-62-3
589-81-1
589-34-4
2216-33-3
96-14-0
616-12-6
3899-36-3
1068-19-5
2216-32-2
691-37-2
2-METHYLBUTANE (ISOPENTANE)
2-METHYLBUTYLBENZENE (sec
AMYLBENZENE)
2-METHYLHEPTANE
2-METHYLHEXANE
2-METHYLOCTANE
2-METHYLPENTANE
2-METHYLPROPANE (ISOBUTANE)
2-METHYLPROPENE (ISOBUTYLENE)
2-Propanol
3,3-DIMETHYL-l-BUTENE
3,3-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
3,3-DIMETHYLHEXANE
3,3-DIMETHYLPENTANE
3,4-DIMETHYL- 1 -PENTENE
3,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
3,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
3,5-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
3 -ethyl-2-pentene
3-ETHYLHEXANE
3-ETHYLPENTANE
3-METHYL-l-BUTENE
3 -methyl- 1 -hexene
3-METHYL-l-PENTENE
3 -Methy 1-3 -ethy 1-pentane
3-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
3 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
3 -METH YLHEPT ANE
3 -METH YLHEX ANE
3-METHYLOCTANE
3 -METH YLPENT ANE
3 -METHYL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
3 -methyl-trans-3 -hexene
4,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
4-ETHYLHEPTANE
4-METHYL-l -PENTENE
2.73E+0
0
1.44E-02
2.66E-01
O.OOE+0
0
2.24E-01
4.07E-01
1.72E-01
3.28E+0
0
1.76E-02
2.22E-02
O.OOE+0
0
3.10E-02
3.20E-02
1.01E-02
O.OOE+0
0
4.71E-02
6.61E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
3.23E-02
5.11E-02
O.OOE+0
0
3.78E-02
4.71E-02
3.95E-02
4.18E-03
3.29E-01
2.35E-01
1.40E-01
2.47E-01
4.54E-02
O.OOE+0
0
5.18E-03
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
1.05E+0
1
1.58E-01
7.91E-01
2.66E+0
0
6.29E-01
1.77E+0
0
2.29E-01
7.64E-01
1.71E-02
9.98E-03
3.24E-02
8.73E-02
9.83E-02
1.73E-02
4.35E-02
8.84E-02
9.15E-02
1.03E-02
O.OOE+0
0
2.19E-01
2.03E-01
1.96E-02
8.18E-02
8.84E-02
1.60E-01
3.06E-03
1.23E+0
0
1.61E+0
0
4.45E-01
1.09E+0
0
2.01E-01
O.OOE+0
0
9.77E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.23E-03
1.79E+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
2.51E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.99E-01
9.50E-01
3.85E-02
3.74E+0
0
5.81E-03
4.66E-02
O.OOE+0
0
5.36E-02
8.52E-03
1.56E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.13E-02
3.93E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
1.23E-01
9.65E-02
O.OOE+0
0
5.11E-02
1.13E-02
8.21E-02
2.24E-02
2.81E-01
4.95E-01
1.15E-01
6.51E-01
1.12E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.13E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
6.28E+0
0
1.58E-01
5.62E-01
5.14E+0
0
4.80E-01
2.38E+0
0
1.62E-02
1.04E+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
1.02E-02
3.83E-02
8.27E-02
4.17E-02
2.18E-02
2.96E-02
7.29E-02
6.90E-02
1.24E-02
O.OOE+0
0
3.35E-01
1.31E-01
2.03E-02
9.03E-02
7.29E-02
2.40E-01
3.40E-03
7.42E-01
1.38E+0
0
3.18E-01
1.58E+0
0
2.80E-01
O.OOE+0
0
7.37E-02
O.OOE+0
0
2.00E-02
58

-------
               E0%
E0%
E10 %
E10 %
Specie CAS
ID Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
260
264
267
262
279
282
283
301
302
592
351
360
352
353
354
362
364
367
368
369
370
371
2616
372
373
382
385
388
48
390
391
598
2735
1712
599
442
449
450
691-38-3
589-53-7
2216-34-4
674-76-0
75-07-0
74-86-2
107-02-8
100-52-7
71-43-2
106-97-8
2207-01-4
1192-18-3
638-04-0
2532-58-3
624-29-3
930-89-2
2613-66-3
590-18-1
6443-92-1
7688-21-3
7642-04-8
627-20-3
7642-10-6
7642-09-3
20237-46-1
4170-30-3
110-82-7
110-83-8
542-92-7
287-92-3
142-29-0
124-18-5
108-20-3
5779.94-2
112-40-3
64-17-5
100-41-4
1678-91-7
4-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
4-METHYLHEPTANE
4-methyloctane
4-METHYL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
Acetaldehyde
ACETYLENE
Acrolein
Benzaldehyde
BENZENE
BUTANE
CIS-1,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
CIS-1,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
Cis- 1 , 3 -dimethylcyclohexane
CIS-1,3-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
Cis-l,4-Dimethylcyclohexane
Cis- 1 -ethyl-2-methylcyclopentane
CIS- 1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYL CYCLOPENTANE
CIS-2-BUTENE
CIS-2-HEPTENE
CIS-2-HEXENE
CIS-2-OCTENE
CIS-2-PENTENE
CIS-3-HEPTENE
CIS-3-HEXENE
CIS-3-NONENE
Crotonaldehyde
CYCLOHEXANE
CYCLOHEXENE
CYCLOPENTADIENE
CYCLOPENTANE
CYCLOPENTENE
DECANE
DI-ISOPROPYL ETHER
Dimethylbenzaldehyde
DODECANE
Ethanol
ETHYLBENZENE
ETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
O.OOE+0
0
7.24E-02
O.OOE+0
0
6.44E-03
4.25E-01
1.66E+0
1
3.71E-02
5.24E-01
6.94E+0
0
7.65E-01
4.37E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
2.61E-02
1.42E-03
1.22E-02
2.20E-02
2.21E-01
1.98E-02
2.94E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.24E-01
O.OOE+0
0
6.63E-03
O.OOE+0
0
3.67E-02
6.54E-02
1.43E-01
4.27E-01
4.50E-02
3.61E-02
6.56E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.08E-01
2.32E-02
1.72E-01
2.20E+0
0
2.72E-02
O.OOE+0
0
7.48E-01
O.OOE+0
0
6.68E-02
1.03E-01
3.17E+0
0
3.12E-02
1.08E-01
1.39E+0
0
1.72E+0
0
1.13E-01
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
7.00E-02
2.65E-02
8.66E-02
4.80E-02
7.86E-02
5.24E-02
7.79E-02
7.71E-02
2.20E-01
O.OOE+0
0
9.40E-02
6.86E-03
1.96E-02
5.38E-02
2.83E-02
1.20E-01
7.61E-02
9.25E-02
7.76E-02
O.OOE+0
0
2.03E-02
8.21E-02
5.79E-02
3.44E+0
0
1.78E-01
O.OOE+0
0
4.15E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
8.97E-01
1.59E+0
1
4.49E-02
2.59E-01
4.59E+0
0
6.09E-01
4.37E-02
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
1.07E-01
8.64E-03
2.02E-02
4.86E-02
2.37E-01
2.67E-02
2.52E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.74E-01
O.OOE+0
0
3.38E-02
O.OOE+0
0
2.96E-02
6.40E-01
5.54E-02
4.77E-01
6.80E-02
8.73E-02
4.72E-02
O.OOE+0
0
5.23E-02
1.12E-02
3.03E+0
0
1.67E+0
0
2.98E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.80E-01
O.OOE+0
0
8.35E-02
3.36E-01
2.75E+0
0
4.43E-02
6.66E-02
1.26E+0
0
1.20E+0
0
1.02E-01
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
1.96E-02
2.77E-02
6.71E-02
5.97E-02
1.06E-01
5.82E-02
9.75E-02
1.29E-02
2.87E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.18E-01
6.37E-03
2.41E-02
7.75E-02
3.80E-02
1.24E-01
1.06E-01
1.30E-01
5.99E-02
O.OOE+0
0
2.42E-02
5.34E-02
7.81E+0
0
2.23E+0
0
1.09E-01
59

-------
               E0%
E0%
E10 %
E10 %
Specie CAS
ID Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
451
452
465
600
840
601
602
485
3
2119
514
2560
517
522
2164
536
531
548
550
551
611
595
596
603
606
608
604
1467
620
605
671
673
677
678
109
698
701
86
1640-89-7
74-85-1
50-00-0
142-82-5
66-25-1
110-54-3
1077-16-3
496-11-7
538-93-2
78-84-2
98-82-8
3875-51-2
590-86-3
1330-20-7
1334-78-7
78-93-3
67-56-1
1634-04-4
108-87-2
96-37-7
91-20-3
71-36-3
104-51-8
111-84-2
538-68-1
103-65-1
00111-65-9
529-20-4
95-47-6
109-66-0
74-98-6
123-38-6
2040-96-2
115-07-1
74-99-7
100-42-5
994-05-8
1074-92-6
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
ETHYLENE
Formaldehyde
HEPTANE
Hexanaldehyde
HEXANE
HEXYLBENZENE
INDAN
ISOBUTYLBENZENE
ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE,
ISOPROPYLBENZENE (CUMENE)
ISOPROPYLCYCLOPENTANE
Isovaleraldehyde
m-& p-XYLENE
m/p-Tolualdehyde
MEK
Methanol
Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE)
METHYLCYCLOHEXANE
METHYLCYCLOPENTANE
NAPHTHALENE
N-butyl alcohol
n-Butylbenzene
NONANE
N-PENT-BENZENE
n-PROPYLBENZENE
OCTANE
o-Tolualdehyde
o-XYLENE
PENTANE
PROPANE
Propionaldehyde
Propylcyclopentane
PROPYLENE
PROPYNE
STYRENE
T-amylmethylether
TERT- 1 -BUT-2-METHYLBENZENE
2.43E-03
1.10E+0
1
1.98E+0
0
3.18E-01
1.19E-03
2.33E-01
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
6.19E-02
1.68E-02
1.18E-01
6.02E-03
6.12E-02
4.40E+0
0
3.27E-01
1.69E-02
2.05E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.02E-01
7.35E-02
4.15E-02
6.80E-02
1.40E-01
2.08E-01
3.23E-02
3.39E-01
2.71E-01
8.48E-02
1.46E+0
0
4.11E-01
3.30E-01
4.94E-02
O.OOE+0
0
6.51E+0
0
4.52E-03
9.76E-01
O.OOE+0
0
4.44E-03
O.OOE+0
0
1.83E+0
0
3.68E-01
1.18E+0
0
1.93E-03
7.72E-01
1.82E-02
O.OOE+0
0
7.32E-02
9.85E-03
1.11E-01
1.16E-02
1.42E-02
6.44E+0
0
4.65E-02
9.85E-03
7.84E-02
O.OOE+0
0
4.40E-01
4.22E-01
5.96E-02
O.OOE+0
0
3.03E-02
3.49E-01
7.90E-02
6.85E-01
4.59E-01
4.58E-02
2.32E+0
0
8.63E-01
4.61E-02
5.06E-02
3.06E-03
1.17E+0
0
2.31E-02
2.23E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.32E-01
1.41E-02
1.23E+0
1
1.76E+0
0
2.70E-01
5.32E-03
5.20E-01
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
4.46E-02
2.37E-02
4.69E-02
7.23E-03
5.26E-02
5.46E+0
0
2.35E-01
2.37E-02
2.09E-01
O.OOE+0
0
2.79E-01
2.57E-01
8.86E-02
3.94E-02
7.16E-02
7.42E-02
3.38E-02
2.91E-01
1.75E-01
4.04E-02
1.53E+0
0
3.90E-01
8.69E-02
4.11E-02
O.OOE+0
0
6.44E+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
7.15E-01
O.OOE+0
0
3.64E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.99E+0
0
4.98E-01
6.31E-01
1.95E-03
7.15E-01
2.90E-02
O.OOE+0
0
5.65E-02
1.02E-02
6.35E-02
3.45E-02
1.90E-02
5.39E+0
0
7.74E-02
1.02E-02
1.32E-01
O.OOE+0
0
6.44E-01
6.13E-01
4.68E-02
O.OOE+0
0
2.39E-02
1.59E-01
9.19E-02
4.86E-01
3.08E-01
1.82E-02
1.86E+0
0
8.87E-01
3.12E-02
5.23E-02
6.88E-03
1.30E+0
0
1.94E-02
1.77E-01
O.OOE+0
0
1.61E-01
60

-------
               E0%
E0%
E10 %
E10 %
Specie CAS
ID Number Compound 4 stroke 2 stroke 4 stroke 2 stroke
63
2329
703
717
724
725
726
727
729
1586
736
737
739
740
2244
741
742
743
744
745
746
610
1989
1999
2005
2011
327
845
98-19-1
7364-19-4
98-06-6
108-88-3
6876-23-9
822-50-4
2207-03-6
1759-58-6
2207-04-7
930-90-5
2613-65-2
624-64-6
14686-13-6
4050-45-7
6434-78-2
13389-42-9
646-04-8
14686-14-7
13269-52-8
20063-92-7
14850-23-8
1120-21-4





110-62-3
TERT- 1 -BUT-3 ,5 -DIMETHYLBENZENE
TERT- 1 -BUTYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
TERT-BUTYLBENZENE
TOLUENE
TRANS- 1 ,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
TRANS- 1 ,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS- 1 ,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
TRANS- 1 ,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS- 1 ,4-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
Trans-l-ethyl-2-methyl-cyclopentane
TRANS- 1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS-2-BUTENE
TRANS-2-HEPTENE
TRANS-2-HEXENE
TRANS-2-NONENE
TRANS-2-OCTENE
TRANS-2-PENTENE
TRANS-3-HEPTENE
TRANS-3-HEXENE
TRANS-3-NONENE
Trans -4-octene
UNDECANE
UNIDENTIFIED C5 OLEFINS
UNIDENTIFIED C6
UNIDENTIFIED C7
UNIDENTIFIED C8
UNIDENTIFIED C9-C12+
Valeraldehyde
2.66E-03
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
8.64E+0
0
7.25E-03
3.52E-02
1.42E-03
4.02E-03
O.OOE+0
0
1.99E-03
O.OOE+0
0
3.93E-01
1.50E-02
1.56E-02
O.OOE+0
0
7.72E-03
4.11E-02
9.04E-04
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
O.OOE+0
0
3.85E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.62E-01
1.26E-01
2.48E-03
1.31E+0
0
1.62E-02
1.19E-01
5.73E-02
3.05E-02
8.64E+0
0
3.92E-01
1.03E-01
3.14E-02
2.32E-01
9.47E-03
9.29E-02
1.08E-01
2.08E-01
6.09E-02
1.43E-01
1.28E-02
8.42E-02
3.83E-01
8.81E-02
O.OOE+0
0
4.59E-02
5.59E-02
1.17E-01
1.38E-02
7.41E-02
7.69E-01
1.68E-01
3.94E+0
0
4.58E-03
8.90E-04
2.85E-02
O.OOE+0
0
7.77E+0
0
2.67E-02
3.51E-02
8.64E-03
O.OOE+0
0
1.18E-02
3.28E-02
3.10E-02
3.08E-01
3.01E-02
5.20E-02
O.OOE+0
0
5.05E-02
1.10E-01
3.13E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.41E-02
O.OOE+0
0
3.94E-02
O.OOE+0
0
1.91E-01
1.21E-01
1.03E-02
1.88E+0
0
5.35E-03
1.39E-01
6.18E-02
3.22E-02
7.77E+0
0
1.77E-01
1.01E-01
3.09E-02
3.60E-01
2.45E-02
1.14E-01
1.40E-01
2.34E-01
6.89E-02
1.82E-01
8.18E-03
1.14E-01
5.02E-01
1.12E-01
O.OOE+0
0
5.24E-02
4.67E-02
1.11E-01
8.96E-03
7.17E-02
2.77E-01
1.20E-01
3.64E+0
0
4.83E-03
61

-------
Table A4-10.  Composite Transient Cycle CIVOC Profile Percentages by Compound Class
Pre-Tier
Compound 1 Tier 1
Paraffins
Aromatics
Olefins
Aldehydes/Ketones
Oxygenates
Unknowns
15.26
12.23
27.56
39.22
0.00
5.73
11.16
7.13
33.16
47.00
0.00
1.54
Tier 2
7.54
10.79
24.04
51.08
0.00
6.55
Table A4-11.  Composite Transient Cycle CI VOC Profile Percentages of Selected Compounds
 Compound
Pre-Tier 1
Tierl
Tier 2
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Ethylene
Propylene
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
2-Methylbutane
Toluene
m-& p-Xylene
o-Xylene
Ethylbenzene
20.67
7.46
17.36
0.00
0.81
0.00
1.22
1.53
0.73
0.94
22.27
7.83
20.74
4.10
0.71
0.53
2.15
1.20
0.44
0.38
29.19
10.41
20.34
0.00
0.78
0.00
3.78
1.16
0.00
0.44
Table A4-12.  Composite Transient Cycle CI VOC Exhaust Speciation Profiles Displayed as Weight
Percentages of Total VOCs
Specie ID
1
9
12
13
19
20
21
36
22
23
25
28
29
30
37
CAS Number
135-98-8
4259-00-1
3073-66-3
4516-69-2
590-66-9
1638-26-2
16747-50-5
135-01-3
488-23-3
527-53-7
526-73-8
95-93-2
877-44-1
95-63-6
933-98-2
COMPOUND
(1 -methylpropyl)benzene
1, 1,2-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1,1,3-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
1,1,3-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1, 1-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
1, 1-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1, 1-Methylethylcyclopentane
1,2 DIETHYLBENZENE
1,2,3,4-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,3,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4,5-TETRAMETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4-TRIETHYLBENZENE
1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
l,2-DIMETHYL-3-ETHYLBENZENE
Pre-Tier 1
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.15E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.95E-01
O.OOE+00
Tierl
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.11E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.47E-02
1.74E-02
Tier 2
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
                                              62

-------
Specie ID
39
42
43
44
55
46
51
52
53
54
59
60
64
65
357
996
75
76
78
80
81
84
89
90
92
94
97
100
103
106
107
108
730
1540
112
113
117
118
121
122
123
124
125
CAS Number
934-80-5
463-49-0
102-25-0
108-67-8
934.74.7
106-99-0
141-93-5
2870-04-4
874-41-9
4706-89-2
105-05-5
1758-88-9
106-98-9
107-00-6
15890-40-1
872-05-9
637-92-3
592-76-7
592-41-6
611-14-3
527-84-4
1074-17-5
620-14-4
535-77-3
1074-43-7
622-96-8
99-87-6
1074-55-1
693-89-0
124-11-8
111-66-0
109-67-1
15890-40-1
2815-58-9
464-06-2
564-02-3
16747-26-5
540-84-1
3522-94-9
75-83-2
1071-26-7
590-73-8
15869-87-1
COMPOUND
l,2-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
1,2-PROPADIENE
1,3,5-TRIETHYLBENZENE
1,3,5-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
l,3,-DIMETHYL-5-ETHYLBENZENE
1,3-BUTADIENE
1,3-DIETHYLBENZENE
l,3-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
l,3-DIMETHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
l,3-dimethyl-4-isopropylbenzene
1,4-DIETHYLBENZENE
l,4-DIMETHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
1-BUTENE
1-BUTYNE
1 -CIS,2-TRANS,3 -TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1-DECENE
1 -ethyltertbutylether
1-HEPTENE
1-HEXENE
l-METHYL-2-ETHYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-2-ISOPROPYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-2-N-PROPYLBENZENE
1 -METH YL-3 -ETHYLBENZENE
1 -METHYL-3 -ISOPROPYLBENZENE
1 -METHYL-3 -N-PROP YLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-ISOPROPYLBENZENE
l-METHYL-4-N-PROPYLBENZENE
1 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
1-NONENE
1-OCTENE
1-PENTENE
1 -TRANS-2-CIS-3 -TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
1-TRANS-2-CIS-4-TRIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLBUTANE
2,2,3 -TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2,5 -TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,2-DIMETHYLBUTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,2-DIMETHYLOCTANE
Pre-Tier 1
4.06E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.59E-01
O.OOE+00
1.86E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.04E-01
9.66E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
6.66E-01
2.90E-01
3.96E-01
O.OOE+00
4.32E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.48E-01
O.OOE+00
2.62E-01
3.89E-01
8.04E-01
O.OOE+00
1.33E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.36E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
8.07E-01
O.OOE+00
3.68E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.60E-01
Tierl
7.23E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.86E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.33E-02
3.36E-03
3.05E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.31E-01
3.37E-03
1.11E-01
O.OOE+00
1.54E-02
8.13E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.17E-02
O.OOE+00
9.49E-02
O.OOE+00
5.86E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.77E-03
2.79E-01
O.OOE+00
7.12E-01
4.41E-02
1.82E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.76E-02
Tier 2
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.86E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.48E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.22E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.83E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
63

-------
Specie ID
126
127
128
129
130
132
135
136
137
138
140
141
142
143
148
149
151
152
155
156
160
170
511
181
2185
184
185
186
187
508
2568
193
194
198
199
491
497
203
205
206
208
209
211
CAS Number
590-35-2
463-82-1
560-21-4
921-47-1
565-75-3
1069-53-0
10574-37-5
79-29-8
3074-71-3
584-94-1
565-59-3
107-39-1
107-40-4
16747-30-1
2213-23-2
589-43-5
4032-94-4
108-08-7
2216-30-0
592-13-2
1072-05-5
503-17-3
78-79-5
563-46-2
6094-02-6
763-29-1
513-35-9
2738-19-4
625-27-4
78-78-4
03968-85-2
592-27-8
591-76-4
3221-61-2
107-83-5
75-28-5
115-11-7
558-37-2
4032-86-4
563-16-6
562-49-2
7385-78-6
922-28-1
COMPOUND
2,2-DIMETHYLPENTANE
2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE (NEOPENTANE)
2,3,3-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,3,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,3,4-TRIMETHYLPENTANE
2,3,5 -TRIMETH YLHEX ANE
2,3-DIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
2,3-DIMETHYLBUTANE
2,3-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,3-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,3-DIMETHYLPENTANE
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-l-PENTENE
2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
2,4,4-TRIMETHYLHEXANE
2,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,4-DIMETHYLOCTANE
2,4-DIMETHYLPENTANE
2,5-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2,5-DIMETHYLHEXANE
2,6-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
2-BUTYNE
2-METHYL-l,3-BUTADIENE
2-METHYL-l -BUTENE
2-METHYL-l -HEXENE
2-METHYL-l -PENTENE
2-METHYL-2 -BUTENE
2-METHYL-2 -HEXENE
2-METHYL-2 -PENTENE
2-METHYLBUTANE (ISOPENTANE)
2-METHYLBUTYLBENZENE (sec
AMYLBENZENE)
2-METHYLHEPTANE
2-METHYLHEXANE
2-METHYLOCTANE
2-METHYLPENTANE
2-METHYLPROPANE (ISOBUTANE)
2-METHYLPROPENE (ISOBUTYLENE)
3,3-DIMETHYL-l-BUTENE
3,3-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
3,3-DIMETHYLHEXANE
3,3-DIMETHYLPENTANE
3,4-DIMETHYL- 1 -PENTENE
3,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
Pre-Tier 1
1.91E-02
O.OOE+00
8.10E-02
O.OOE+00
2.58E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
9.07E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.11E-01
5.50E-01
1.94E-01
2.27E-01
O.OOE+00
5.62E-01
O.OOE+00
9.85E-02
2.74E-01
O.OOE+00
6.66E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.15E+00
1.54E-01
O.OOE+00
3.54E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
Tierl
5.95E-02
8.75E-02
4.85E-01
O.OOE+00
7.42E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.77E-01
O.OOE+00
3.63E-01
1.60E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.30E-01
5.52E-02
5.06E-01
3.78E-02
O.OOE+00
1.83E-01
O.OOE+00
3.59E-01
1.87E-01
O.OOE+00
4.31E-01
1.09E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.29E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.98E-01
3.19E-01
5.45E-01
7.71E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.48E-02
O.OOE+00
Tier 2
6.15E-02
O.OOE+00
4.30E-01
O.OOE+00
4.88E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.00E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.08E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.11E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.92E-01
O.OOE+00
1.48E-01
2.96E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.19E-01
6.57E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
64

-------
Specie ID
212
215
221
226
229
230
231
232
233
236
242
244
245
247
248
239
240
253
1471
258
260
264
267
262
279
282
283
301
302
592
351
360
352
353
354
362
364
367
368
369
370
371
2616
CAS Number
583-48-2
926-82-9
816-79-5
619-99-8
617-78-7
563-45-1
3404-61-3
760-20-3
1067-08-9
922-62-3
1120-62-3
589-81-1
589-34-4
2216-33-3
96-14-0
616-12-6
3899-36-3
1068-19-5
2216-32-2
691-37-2
691-38-3
589-53-7
2216-34-4
674-76-0
75-07-0
74-86-2
107-02-8
100-52-7
71-43-2
106-97-8
2207-01-4
1192-18-3
638-04-0
2532-58-3
624-29-3
930-89-2
2613-66-3
590-18-1
6443-92-1
7688-21-3
7642-04-8
627-20-3
7642-10-6
COMPOUND
3,4-DIMETHYLHEXANE
3,5-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
3-ETHYL-2-PENTENE
3-ETHYLHEXANE
3-ETHYLPENTANE
3-METHYL-l-BUTENE
3-METHYL-l-HEXENE
3-METHYL-l-PENTENE
3 -Methy 1-3 -ethy 1-pentane
3-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
3 -METH YLCYCLOPENTENE
3 -METH YLHEPT ANE
3-METHYLHEXANE
3 -METH YLOCT ANE
3 -METH YLPENT ANE
3 -METHYL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
3 -METHYL-TRANS-3 -HEXENE
4,4-DIMETHYLHEPTANE
4-ETHYLHEPTANE
4-METHYL-l -PENTENE
4-METHYL-CIS-2-PENTENE
4-METHYLHEPTANE
4-METHYLOCTANE
4-METHYL-TRANS-2-PENTENE
ACETALDEHYDE
ACETYLENE
ACROLEIN
BENZALDEHYDE
BENZENE
BUTANE
CIS- 1 ,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
CIS- 1 ,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
CIS- 1 ,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
CIS- 1 ,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
Cis-l,4-Dimethylcyclohexane
Cis- 1 -ethyl-2-methylcyclopentane
CIS- 1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
CIS-2-BUTENE
CIS-2-HEPTENE
CIS-2-HEXENE
CIS-2-OCTENE
CIS-2-PENTENE
CIS-3-HEPTENE
Pre-Tier 1
O.OOE+00
2.27E-01
O.OOE+00
1.14E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.01E-01
6.20E-01
5.69E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.71E-01
O.OOE+00
3.24E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.46E+00
3.04E+00
3.02E+00
3.56E-01
1.96E+00
3.56E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.36E-01
O.OOE+00
3.68E-02
6.38E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
Tierl
O.OOE+00
3.78E-02
O.OOE+00
2.53E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.58E-02
O.OOE+00
2.77E-02
9.78E-02
7.34E-02
7.72E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.18E-02
O.OOE+00
2.76E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.83E+00
3.78E+00
1.60E+00
9.84E-01
2.25E+00
1.09E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.64E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.62E-01
O.OOE+00
1.87E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.58E-02
O.OOE+00
Tier 2
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.92E-01
O.OOE+00
2.22E-01
3.71E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.07E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.04E+01
1.15E+00
1.87E+00
7.21E-01
5.41E+00
5.47E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
65

-------
Specie ID
372
373
382
385
388
48
390
391
598
2735
1712
599
442
449
450
451
452
465
600
840
601
602
485
3
2119
514
2560
517
522
2164
536
531
548
550
551
611
595
596
603
606
608
604
1467
CAS Number
7642-09-3
20237-46-1
4170-30-3
110-82-7
110-83-8
542-92-7
287-92-3
142-29-0
124-18-5
108-20-3
5779.94-2
112-40-3
64-17-5
100-41-4
1678-91-7
1640-89-7
74-85-1
50-00-0
142-82-5
66-25-1
110-54-3
1077-16-3
496-11-7
538-93-2
78-84-2
98-82-8
3875-51-2
590-86-3
1330-20-7
1334-78-7
78-93-3
67-56-1
1634-04-4
108-87-2
96-37-7
91-20-3
71-36-3
104-51-8
111-84-2
538-68-1
103-65-1
00111-65-9
529-20-4
COMPOUND
CIS-3-HEXENE
CIS-3-NONENE
CROTONALDEHYDE
CYCLOHEXANE
CYCLOHEXENE
CYCLOPENTADIENE
CYCLOPENTANE
CYCLOPENTENE
DECANE
DI-ISOPROPYL ETHER
DIMETHYLBENZALDEHYDE
DODECANE
ETHANOL
ETHYLBENZENE
ETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
ETHYLENE
FORMALDEHYDE
HEPTANE
HEXAN ALDEHYDE
HEXANE
HEXYLBENZENE
INDAN
ISOBUTYLBENZENE
ISOBUTYRALDEHYDE
ISOPROPYLBENZENE (CUMENE)
ISOPROPYLCYCLOPENTANE
ISOVALERALDEHYDE
m-& p-XYLENE
M/P-TOLU ALDEHYDE
MEK
METHANOL
Methyl t-butyl ether
METHYLCYCLOHEXANE
METHYLCYCLOPENTANE
NAPHTHALENE
N-butyl alcohol
n-Butylbenzene
NONANE
N-PENT-BENZENE
n-PROPYLBENZENE
OCTANE
O-TOLU ALDEHYDE
Pre-Tier 1
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.98E+00
9.57E-02
4.39E-01
O.OOE+00
2.09E-01
4.41E-02
1.86E-01
O.OOE+00
1.47E-01
4.58E-01
O.OOE+00
9.44E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.74E+01
2.07E+01
2.73E-01
2.14E-01
2.30E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.79E-01
6.31E-01
3.71E-01
O.OOE+00
7.01E-01
1.53E+00
1.41E+00
6.31E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.63E-01
1.91E-02
4.87E-02
O.OOE+00
2.62E-01
2.31E+00
4.52E-02
9.92E-01
7.81E-01
1.12E-01
Tierl
2.65E-02
O.OOE+00
4.27E+00
O.OOE+00
1.21E-01
9.20E-03
3.93E-02
3.84E-02
2.70E-02
O.OOE+00
3.01E-01
1.14E-01
O.OOE+00
3.84E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.07E+01
2.23E+01
9.71E-02
2.40E-01
2.79E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.54E-02
7.96E-01
7.41E-02
O.OOE+00
5.20E-01
1.20E+00
1.92E+00
8.01E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.74E-01
5.81E-02
6.07E-02
O.OOE+00
1.17E-02
4.37E-01
O.OOE+00
2.03E-02
3.76E-01
6.44E-01
Tier 2
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.47E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.28E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.38E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.03E+01
2.92E+01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
9.19E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.16E+00
7.52E-01
9.19E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
6.15E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.80E-01
O.OOE+00
66

-------
Specie ID
620
605
671
673
677
678
109
698
701
86
63
2329
703
717
724
725
726
727
729
1586
736
737
739
740
2244
741
742
743
744
745
746
610
1989
1999
2005
2011
327
845
CAS Number
95-47-6
109-66-0
74-98-6
123-38-6
2040-96-2
115-07-1
74-99-7
100-42-5
994-05-8
1074-92-6
98-19-1
7364-19-4
98-06-6
108-88-3
6876-23-9
822-50-4
2207-03-6
1759-58-6
2207-04-7
930-90-5
2613-65-2
624-64-6
14686-13-6
4050-45-7
6434-78-2
13389-42-9
646-04-8
14686-14-7
13269-52-8
20063-92-7
14850-23-8
1120-21-4





110-62-3
COMPOUND
o-XYLENE
PENTANE
PROPANE
PROPIONALDEHYDE
Propylcyclopentane
PROPYLENE
PROPYNE
STYRENE
T-AMYLMETHYLETHER
TERT- 1 -BUT-2-METHYLBENZENE
TERT- 1 -BUT-3 ,5 -DIMETHYLBENZENE
TERT- 1 -BUTYL-4-ETHYLBENZENE
TERT-BUTYLBENZENE
TOLUENE
TRANS- 1 ,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
TRANS- 1 ,2-DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS- 1 ,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
TRANS- 1 ,3 -DIMETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS- 1 ,4-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
Trans-l-ethyl-2-methyl-cyclopentane
TRANS- 1 -METHYL-3 -ETHYLCYCLOPENTANE
TRANS-2-BUTENE
TRANS-2-HEPTENE
TRANS-2-HEXENE
TRANS-2-NONENE
TRANS-2-OCTENE
TRANS-2-PENTENE
TRANS-3-HEPTENE
TRANS-3-HEXENE
TRANS-3-NONENE
TRANS-4-OCTENE
UNDECANE
UNIDENTIFIED C5 OLEFINS
UNIDENTIFIED C6
UNIDENTIFIED C7
UNIDENTIFIED C8
UNIDENTIFIED C9-C12+
VALERALDEHYDE
Pre-Tier 1
7.26E-01
1.23E-01
6.94E-02
1.41E+00
5.62E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.65E-01
3.54E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.22E+00
7.36E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
1.57E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
7.74E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.44E-01
O.OOE+00
4.59E-01
4.77E-02
4.06E-02
5.18E+00
4.66E-01
Tierl
4.44E-01
7.39E-01
6.30E-01
3.86E+00
1.83E-01
4.10E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
4.17E-02
8.22E-02
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
2.15E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
9.03E-03
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.00E-02
5.01E-01
8.36E-03
6.71E-03
O.OOE+00
6.93E-02
3.98E-03
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
9.37E-03
2.69E-01
1.15E-01
5.91E-01
6.80E-02
2.87E-02
7.38E-01
9.75E-01
Tier 2
O.OOE+00
1.63E+00
1.48E-01
2.20E+00
1.11E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
3.78E+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
5.55E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
8.52E-01
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
O.OOE+00
6.55E+00
1.85E-01
67

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Appendix B. Responses to Peer-Review Comments

B.I Overview of the Peer-Review

Two reviewers reviewed the March 2015 draft of the "Speciation Profiles and Toxic Emission Factors for
Nonroad Engines." The two peer-reviewers were:

Tom Durbin, PhD
Research Engineer
University of California, Riverside
CE-CERT

Timothy H. DeFries, PhD
Principal Scientist
Eastern Research Group, Inc.

The Peer-reviewers were given the following charge:

We are submitting this material for you to review selected methods and under lying assumptions, their consistency
with the current science as you understand it, and the  clarity and completeness of the presentation. For this
review, no independent data analysis is required.  Rather, we ask that you assess whether the  information
provided is representative of the state of current understanding, and whether incorporating the information in
MOVES will result in appropriate predictions and conclusions.

We request you provide us comments on content sequentially. Grammatical/formatting and other minor comments
can be provided separately.

Below  are questions to define the scope of the review; we are not expecting individual responses to the questions,
but would like them to help guide your response.

General Questions to Consider

1.     Does the presentation describe the selected data sources sufficiently to allow the reader to form a general
view of the quantity, quality and representativeness of data used in the development of emission rates? Are you
able to recommend alternate data sources that might better allow the model to estimate national or regional
default values?

2.     Is the description of analytic methods and procedures clear and detailed enough to allow the reader to
develop an adequate understanding of the steps taken and assumptions made by EPA while developing the model
inputs? Are examples selected for  tables and figures well chosen and designed to  assist the reader in
understanding approaches and methods?

3.     Are the methods and procedures employed technically appropriate and reasonable,  with respect to the
relevant disciplines,  including physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and statistics? Are you able to
suggest or recommend alternate approaches that might better achieve the goal of developing accurate and
representative model inputs? In making recommendations please distinguish between cases involving reasonable
disagreement in adoption of methods as opposed to cases where you conclude that current methods involve
specific technical errors.
                                                 68

-------
4.     In areas where EPA has concluded that applicable data is meager or unavailable, and consequently has
made assumptions to frame approaches  and arrive  at solutions, do you agree that the assumptions are
appropriate and reasonable?  If not, and you are so able, please suggest alternative sets of assumptions that
might lead to more reasonable or accurate model inputs while allowing a reasonable margin of environmental
protection.

5.     Are the resulting model inputs appropriate, and to the best of your knowledge and experience, reasonably
consistent with physical and chemical processes involved in mobile source emissions formation and control? Are
the resulting model inputs empirically consistent with the body of data and literature that  has come to your
attention?

B.2 General Comments from Tom Durbin:

1.0 Introduction - footnote A is worded very awkwardly. . . "incorporated onroad and the NONROAD model". . .

       RESPONSE: Wording was corrected.

Section 1.2

End of 1st paragraph - The current regulation under 1065 require a 2.5 micron cyclone for PM measurements. So,
is PM as defined as material collected on a filter using EPA-defmed sampling practices thus defined as PM2.5.

       RESPONSE: 40 CFR 1065.145(f) provides the option to use a cyclonic  separator as a PM classifier,
       however it is not required. The derivation of the PM emission rates for nonroad equipment, including
       PM2.5/PM10  ratios   are   discussed   in  the   Nonroad   Technical  reports  available  at:
            jVjV^
4th paragraph - 2nd sentence - The second sentence needs to be clarified about how.... PM2.5 speciation from
nonroad sources  continue to be conducted in SMOKE with the use of MOVES2014a. What is MOVES2014a
used within the SMOKE model. Also, a reference to SMOKE should be given.

       RESPONSE: Edited the text to read, " ...PM2.5 speciation from nonroad sources  continues to be
       conducted via post-processing ofMOVES2014a results. " Also, a citation was added for SMOKE.

Section 1.3

References 3,4,5, which represent the heart of the report, do not seem to be as complete as they should be. Are
these documents publically available? Was a report ever done for the 2004  studies? Did they get document
numbers?  Can someone put these document/work assignment numbers into a web search  and find these
documents readily?

       RESPONSE: These documents will be made available on the web along with the final version of this
       technical report.

Section 2.1

The sentence about Equation 2 - The sentence implies that the derivation of VOCs from NMOG by removal of
ethane and acetone is clearly defined in the introduction, but the NMOG/ethane/acetone combination is not really
alluded to in the introduction.

                                                69

-------
       RESPONSE: The reference to the introduction has been removed.

Equations 3 and 4 need better clarification. Such as, the PAH gaseous and particulate emissions factors are those
for the ith species. Also, the term "emissions factor" seems to really be a "fraction".

       RESPONSE: The suggested changes were made.

Section 2.3

3rd paragraph - It talks about using a fuel economy estimate of 17 mpg. A description of where the 17 mpg number
is from should be given (just one sentence), and a reference or footnote.

       RESPONSE: We added a sentence and citation stating the source of the fuel economy estimate.

For this and section 2.4, in deriving nonroad emissions factors for metals and dioxins and furans from onroad
emission factors, an important consideration should be whether the source has or does not have a catalyst. With
the onroad sources predominantly being catalyst equipped, it seems like some discussion should be given on this
point. This does not necessary mean that the emissions rates would be significantly higher for these emissions for
the nonroad sources without catalysts, but it just seemed like some related discussion would be worthwhile.

       RESPONSE: We added a sentence that discusses this source of uncertainty, in applying catalyst-derived
       emission rates to nonroad equipment without catalytic after treatment.

Section 3.1

In terms of the estimates for Tier 4 nonroad engines, it is important to point out that the emissions standards are
slightly looser than those for the corresponding 2007+ model year onroad engines. Thus, it is my understanding
that DPFs are not  as universally  applied as for the onroad vehicles. While ACES data for newer onroad engines
is probably the best estimate for filling in data for Tier 4 nonroad engines, some explanation of this caveat should
be included in this report, as it is an important distinction.

       RESPONSE: We added a sentence in order to acknowledge this source of uncertainty.

Paragraph 5  - It says NMHC is derived from equation 1, but equation 1 is for NMOG, so some discussion of
rearrangement needed to get NMHC should be provided.

       RESPONSE:  The discussion has been corrected to correctly link NMOG to equation 1.  NMHC is
       calculated from THC and methane as defined in the expanded introduction.

It seems commas could be  added to the final sentences in both paragraph 5 and 6.  Paragraph 5 .. , as document
in....   Paragraph 6  .... , which is listed ...

       RESPONSE: Commas added.

Section 3.2

1st paragraph final sentence .... Represent partitioning as seen in the sampled diluted exhaust,

       RESPONSE: Added.

                                                 70

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Section 3.3

In the first paragraph, it talks about studies used in developing onroad emissions factor and study specific fuel
economy estimates are outlined in the notes of Table 13.1 don't see any of that information in Table 13 and it
would be useful. This could include some information in the footnotes.

       RESPONSE: We incorporated the vehicles, and respective fuel economy in the text (paragraph 3).

Section 3.4

3rd paragraph - (75hp) add space to (75 hp)

Appendix A

It seems like the numbering system for Appendix A should be different than that used in the main test. Maybe
call the section A-1.0 Introduction.

In paragraph 2 of Introduction 1.0, the references 3,4,5 should be superscripted.

       RESPONSE: We updated the format of the report in response to these suggestions.

Some of the text near the end of the 2nd paragraph on CMAQ/SPECIATE might be worth adding to the main text
to strengthen the introduction.

       RESPONSE: We added definition and brief discussion of CMAQ and SPECIATE in Section 1.2 of the
       Introduction

Section 2.1.2

A reference should be added for the ARE study that is discussed in the 1st paragraph.

       RESPONSE: The concurrent ARE study was a study being conducted at Southwest Research Institute at
       the same time as the testing conducted for the US EPA.  We do not have details on that study.

Section 2.1.3

Paragraph 2. Why were the FTPs for the ATVs and motorcycles run as 4 bag as opposed to 3 bag FTPs.

       RESPONSE: We tested two test intervals of the UDDS cycles (hot and cold) for completeness.  We agree
       that for certification purposes on the FTP according to 40 CFR 1066, a 3-bag test can be used to estimate
       the FTP composite emissions.

Paragraph 3. A little more detail should be  given on the Phase II Auto-Oil methods for the 4 methods used for
Ci-C4,  Cs-Ci2 species (include subscripts), benzene and toluene, and alcohols.

       RESPONSE: We added a reference to  the SI test report, Appendix A where additional details on the test
       procedures are provided.

Section 2.1.4

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It would be worthwhile discussing a bit more about how many replicate tests were conducted for the different
tests.

       RESPONSE: We added text stating that the results were from a single-tests.

Paragraph 4 - Is an array of impingers 2 or more impingers?

       RESPONSE: Yes, an array of impingers refers to two or more impingers.

Section A3.1

At the end of the 2nd paragraph, it talks about there being no outliers, but it then goes on to discuss data adjustments
in the 3rd paragraph.

       RESPONSE: We added revised the text to state "We evaluated data to identify potential outliers, defined
       as  outside the range of 3.5 standard deviations.  No SI data met this criterion. "

Final paragraph - It indicates that the 2-stroke catalyst data were not utilized due to various issues with the data.
First, it would be useful to know how common or what percentage of the nonroad population are 2-stroke catalyst
engines, and where would they most commonly be used.

       RESPONSE: We added a footnote to Section 2.1, where we present the percentage of certified engines
       with aftertreatment of small gasoline engines.

Secondly,  for the abnormalities in the data, could some of this  be due  to making measurements at very low
emission levels. For example,  are the numbers for  the  abnormalities  still  much lower than those for the
uncatalyzed 2-stroke engines?

       RESPONSE: The 2-stroke engines equipped with catalyst aftertreatment were small off-road engines, and
       were tested in the same test cell as the 4-stroke small off-road engines. The NMOG emissions from the
       catalyzed 2-stroke engines were at the same level or higher than the 4-stroke counterparts. Thus, it does
       not appear the abnormalities could be due to lower NMOG emissions.

       We do not have an explanation for the abnormalities in the test results, and have not updated the text.

Section A3.2

2nd paragraph - 1st sentence ...transient data would be used .... Should be written	transient data was used.
Also +50 hp (a space is needed).

       RESPONSE: Corrected.

4th paragraph right below Table 3-3. It talks about zeroing out a high acetylene value. Doesn't this wind up biasing
the 1.15% average low? Maybe it rather be not available (NA) as opposed to being zeroed.

       RESPONSE: We decided it was more defensible to report a 0.0% acetone value, than to use a 1.15% value
       from another test.

Section 4

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The reviewer agrees that data on toxic emissions from NGVs is limited, hence necessitating the use of on-road
emissions factors. So this seems to be a reasonable estimate to make. In addition, to the source that is cited in the
report, additional data on a subset of toxic species should be available from recent work done by UCR as part of
a series of programs that have been conducted to evaluate the effects of varying natural gas fuel composition on
emissions. These  studies focused on measuring just carbonyl species. Additionally, West Virginia University
(WVU) conducted some studies of NGVs that included some toxics measurements, such as BTEX species and
carbonyls. It is expected that more work in characterizing CNG emissions from heavy-duty vehicles will be
conducted over the next several years as part of additional efforts that are being planned in California.

Sections  4.2 and 4.3  both reference emission factors from the onroad air toxics report. I expect that these also
originate from reference 22, but that reference should be included in both sections as the original source of the
raw emissions data. It is worth noting that we also conducted some analyses on some of our filters from NGV
testing, but no PAHs were detected with the level of sample collected,  as these  runs were not designed to be
elongated to collect higher levels of mass.

The reviewer agrees that dioxin and furan emissions are probably not available for natural gas engines, and the
estimates from the onroad gasoline vehicles seems as reasonable as any.

It is worth noting that if it is desired to obtain additional toxics data from natural gas vehicles that the addition of
these measurement to the upcoming California efforts to study natural gas vehicle emissions could be considered.

       RESPONSE: References were added to sections 4.2 and 4.3. Also, we decided not to use data from studies
       where only a subset of toxics were measured, since we wanted consistency between toxics estimates and
       speciation profiles.

Section 5

It is agreed that there is an absence of toxics data from LPG nonroad engines, and that estimates based on onroad
vehicles are  needed to fill this category. Profiles developed from the 3 light-duty LPG vehicles are probably not
terribly representative of nonroad engines,  even if these  data may be the only  available. It  should be worth
mentioning that utilizing emission factors from catalyst-equipped vehicles could under report the toxics for
engines without catalysts. It might also be useful to compare the relative  hydrocarbon levels from the light-duty
vehicles to those of some recent testing of LPG heavy-duty vehicles conducted at UC Riverside. It would also be
useful to  provide the reference of the original source data from which the  3 light-duty LPG vehicles was derived.
In the absence of data for PAHs, metals, and dioxins and furans, utilizing estimates based on the CNG engines
seems reasonable.

       RESPONSE: The caveat suggested above was added, as well as the reference for the original source data.

Section 6
Toxics measurements of evaporative emissions  are relatively limited. The EPA was a part of the most recent E-
77-2b test program on permeation emissions. For the permeation emissions, there is a good discussion of some
of the limitations  that tank and hose permeation are not differentiated in the onroad portion  of MOVES. For
section 6.1 on the vapor venting and refueling emissions, the data date back to the early 1990s. It would be useful
to reference the original  Auto/Oil source materials as well as the Environ study. I thought that studies of
evaporative emission toxics were also conducted by EPA in a similar timeframe, although these are quite old as
well. I have included a list of some of these older references at the end of this document.

       RESPONSE: The original reference for Auto/Oil data was added.

                                                  73

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   Section 7

   The approach for developing the crankcase running exhaust emissions from the onroad gasoline and  diesel
   engines profiles seems to be a reasonable methodology. In terms of explanation, some of the details are provided
   in Sections 2.1 and 3.1. The crankcase to exhaust ratios are the other key piece of information in developing these
   emissions factors. Although these are included in this document by reference, it really would be useful to have
   some values for the ratios for at least THC in this  document as well, as this provides an important context for
   understanding the air toxic emission factors in this report.

          RESPONSE: We added Table 29, which summarizes the THC crankcase/exhaust ratios. We also revised
          the text in this  section to clarify how nonroad computes  THC crankcase emissions,  and then the
          corresponding VOC and toxic crankcase emissions.

   Some clarifications  could be added to the PAH section. It seems reasonable to use the  gaseous phase PAH
   fractions from Table 7 and 12.

          RESPONSE: We have revised the text, to clarify that crankcase gaseous PAH emissions are calculated in
          the same way as crankcase VOC toxics.

   One question about this methodology is how the distribution of gaseous VOCs might change between gaseous
   exhaust emissions and vapor from lubricant oil.

          RESPONSE: We agree that this is a worthwhile question. There has been research on the distribution of
          particle-bound PAHs between  the crankcase and tailpipe exhaust from on-road diesel engines (Zielinska
          et al. 2008). However, we are not aware of research that have evaluated gaseous-phase toxics between
          the crankcase and tailpipe exhaust.

   It seems unlikely that there would be significant metal  or dioxin/furan emissions  from the lubricant oil,  so the
   assumption that these emissions would be negligible in comparison with exhaust emissions  seems  reasonable.

   Tom Durbin: Comments in Response to the Charge Questions

1.  Does the presentation describe the selected data sources sufficiently to allow the reader to form a general view
   of the quantity, quality and representativeness of data to be used in the development of emission rates? Are you
   able to recommend alternate data sources that might better allow the model to estimate  national or regional
   default values?

   Overall, speciation data from nonroad sources are pretty limited, so the data sets identified and utilized appear to
   be good selections in terms of developing the speciation profiles.  Two other questions of importance are how
   representative are these data, and what areas should EPA be looking to collect data in the future.

   In terms of the representativeness of the data, it might be useful to discuss in the document how  representative
   the data are in describing the data sources. For example, for the NRMC and ATVs, the data set did not include
   any 4-stroke NDMC/ATVs. While 4-stroke represent a smaller percentage of the overall sales, it would be  useful
   to provide or obtain  information on what percentage of these vehicles are actually 4-stroke, and as such not
   accounted for. This could be more important for the nonroad compared to onroad sources because there is  such a
   diverse mix of engines in the nonroad  category compared to onroad vehicles.

   In terms of characterizing NRMCs and their use, it appears that EPA has done some work in this  area, and may
   have other resources at its disposal.
                                                    74

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                                      1010 1 > pdf
   The California Air Resources Board (CARB) is also in the process of evaluating the respective populations of 2-
   stroke and 4-stroke NRMC. Cassie Lopinais working to compile this information, which should be available
   shortly.

   Similarly, for other spark-ignited SOREH engines, the test matrix included only 4-stroke engines with the mowers,
   generators, and blower. A large percentage of smaller hand held and other equipment are equipped with 2-stroke
   engines, however.  Some discussion of how prevalent 2-stroke engines are in these applications would be useful
   to the reader in determining how representative these data actually are.

   It is worth noting that CARB is in the process of conducting speciation measurements  on a small subset of
   NRMCV This  data collection  effort is  scheduled to begin shortly, and should be considered by EPA in future
   updates of nonroad speciation profiles. The contact would be Sherry Zhang.

          RESPONSE: Toxic emissions for 4-stroke NRMC/ATVs are accounted for using the toxic to VOC
          fractions for 4-strokes in Table 6.  These fractions were obtained from mowers, generators and blowers.
          We added a caveat to the introductions that data from a limited number of equipment types were applied
          to other equipment types with different operating conditions which could affect composition of the
          emissions.  We also added text in Appendix A that the engines we relied on are not representative of the
          fleet as a whole.

2.  Is the description of analytic methods and procedures clear and detailed enough to allow the reader to develop
   an adequate understanding of the steps taken and the assumptions made by EPA in developing the model inputs?
   Are examples selected for tables and figures well chosen and do they assist the reader  in understanding the
   intended approaches and methods?

   Most of the recommendations related to this question are included above. The discussion of getting VOCs from
   Equation 2 in section 2.1 and getting NMHC from equation  1 in section 3.1. In section 2.3, the origin of the 17
   mpg fuel economy estimate used in the  conversion. Including information on the applicable studies in Table 13.
   Also, in the Appendix, section 2.1.3, providing more information on the Auto-Oil methods utilized. Zeroing out
   the acetylene values before averaging is also something that  could use some consideration. In sections 4, 5,  and
   6, references to the original source material where data is derived from should be added.  In section 7, more
   information on the crankcase to exhaust ratios should be added, since this is key to understanding this section.

          RESPONSE: These comments are addressed above.

3.  Are the methods and procedures employed technically appropriate and reasonable with respect  to the relevant
   disciplines, including physics,  chemistry,  engineering, mathematics and statistics? Are you able to suggest or
   recommend alternate approaches that might better achieve the goal of developing accurate and representative
   model inputs? In making recommendations please distinguish between cases involving reasonable disagreement
   in adoption of methods as opposed to cases where you conclude that current methods involve specific technical
   errors.

   Again, most of the recommendations related to this question are included above. One of the bigger ones in this
   category is using the onroad sources from  catalyzed vehicles  to make estimates for nonroad sources without
   catalysts, as discussed in sections 2.3 and 2.4. Also, the subtleties of the differences between the certification
   H Small Off-Road Engines (SORE)
   1 Nonroad motorcycle (NRMC)
                                                     75

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   levels for the Tier 4 nonroad diesel engines vs. the 2007+ onroad diesel engines should be explained in section
   3.1. Also, the zeroing out the acetylene values before averaging.

          RESPONSE: These comments are addressed above.

4.  In areas where EPA has concluded that applicable data is meager or unavailable, and consequently has made
   assumptions to frame approaches and arrive at solutions, do you agree that the assumptions are appropriate and
   reasonable?  If not, and you are so able, please suggest an alternative set(s) of assumptions that might lead to
   more reasonable or accurate model inputs while allowing a reasonable margin of environmental protection.

   Overall, the estimates and assumptions made appear to be reasonable for cases where little or no data is applicable.
   In making assumptions, one of the aspects worth noting in the report is where estimates from catalyst equipped
   vehicles are utilized for nonroad engines that may not be equipped with catalysts. Again, the subtleties of the
   differences between the certification levels for the Tier 4 nonroad diesel engines vs. the 2007+ onroad diesel
   engines should be explained in the report.

   In terms of additional data sets,  consideration should be given to work that has been carried out in California in
   terms of testing of natural gas vehicles,  as well as upcoming  studies that  will be carried  out in nonroad
   motorcycles. A listing of references that would be worth considering for MOVES (most of which being onroad)
   is provided at the end of this document.

          RESPONSE: These comments are addressed above.   We will evaluate additional emissions research for
         future updates of MOVES.

5.  Are the resulting model inputs appropriate, and to the best of your knowledge and experience, reasonably
   consistent with physical and chemical processes involved in mobile source emissions formation and control? Are
   the resulting model inputs  empirically  consistent with  the  body of data and literature that has come to your
   attention?

   The results appear to be consistent with  the larger body of literature available on speciation and toxics, including
   data from onroad vehicles for which data are more readily available.

                                                  References

       Natural Gas On-road
   •   Hajbabaei, M., Karavalakis, G.,  Johnson, K.C, Lee, L., and Durbin,  T.D., 2013,  Impact of natural gas fuel
       composition on  criteria, toxic,  and particle emissions  from  transit buses equipped with lean burn and
       stoichiometric engines, Energy, 62, 425-434.
   •   Karavalakis, G., Hajbabaei, M., Johnson, K.C, Durbin, T.D.,  Zheng, Z., Miller, J.W., 2013. The effect of
       natural  gas composition on the regulated emissions, gaseous toxic pollutants, and ultrafine particle number
       emissions from a refuse hauler vehicle, Energy, 50, 280-291.
   •   Karavalakis, G., Gysel, N.,  Hajbabaei, M., Durbin, T.D., Johnson, K.C., Miller, J.W., 2012, Influence of
       Different Natural Gas Compositions on the Regulated Emissions, Aldehydes, and Particle Emissions from a
       Transit Bus, SAE Int. J. Fuels. Lubr., 5, 928-944.
   •   Karavalakis, G., Hajbabaei, M., Durbin, T.D., Zheng, Z., Johnson, K.C., 2012. Influence of different Natural
       Gas Blends on the  Regulated  Emissions, Particle Number and Size  Distribution Emissions from a Refuse
       Hauler Truck, SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1583.
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Karavalakis, G., Durbin, T.D., Shrivastava, M., Zheng, Z., Villela, M., Jung, H., 2012. Air pollutant Emissions
of Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Various Natural Gas Compositions. Journal of Natural Gas Science &
Engineering, Vol. 4, pp. 8-16.
Durbin, T.D., Karavalakis, G., Johnson,  K.C., Miller, J.W., and Hajbabaei, M. (2014) Evaluation of the
Performance and Air Pollutant Emissions of Vehicles Operating on Various Natural Gas Blends - Heavy-
Duty  Vehicle Testing - Regulated  Emissions  and PM,  Final Report for the South Coast Air  Quality
Management District by the University of California at Riverside, June.
Durbin, T.D., Karavalakis, G., Johnson,  K.C., Miller, J.W., and Hajbabaei, M. (2014) Evaluation of the
Performance and Air Pollutant Emissions of Vehicles Operating on Various Natural Gas Blends - Heavy-
Duty Vehicle Testing - Regulated Emissions and PM, Final Report for the California Energy Commission by
the University of California at Riverside, April.
Durbin, T.D., Karavalakis, G., Johnson,  K.C., Miller, J.W., and Hajbabaei, M. (2014) Evaluation of the
Performance and Air Pollutant Emissions of Vehicles Operating on Various Natural Gas Blends - Heavy-
Duty Vehicle Testing - Regulated Emissions and PM, Final Report for the California Air Resources Board
by the University of California at Riverside, April.
Carder, O.K.,  Gautam,  M., Thiruvengatam, A.,  Besch, M.C., (2014) In-Use  Emissions Testing and
Demonstration of Retrofit Technology for Control of On-Road Heavy-Duty Engines,  Draft Final Report for
the South Coast Air Quality Management District under Contract No. 11611, January.

LPG On-road
Robert R. Russell, Kent C. Johnson, Thomas D. Durbin, Nicole Davis, and Jim Lents. 2014. Regulated Emissions
from  Liquefied  Petroleum Gas  (LPG)  Powered Vehicles.  SAE Technical Paper No. 2014-01-1455,
Presentation at the SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition. Detroit, MI, April.

Diesel On-road
Nicholas Gysel, George  Karavalakis, Thomas Durbin, Debra Schmitz, Arthur Cho. 2014. Emissions and
Redox Activity of Biodiesel  Blends Obtained  From Different Feedstocks from a Heavy-Duty  Vehicle
Equipped With DPF/SCR Aftertreatment and a Heavy-Duty Vehicle without Control Aftertreatment. SAE
Technical Paper No. 2014-01-1455. Presentation at the SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition. Detroit, MI,
April.
Karavalakis, G., Durbin, T.D., Russell, R., Short, D., and Vu, D. (2014) Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel
Characterization and Testing  in  Modern LD Diesel Passenger  Cars and Trucks,  Final Report  for  the
Coordinating Research Council Project No. AVFL-17b by the  University of California at Riverside,
November.
Wayne Miller, Kent C. Johnson, Thomas Durbin, and Poornima Dixit (2013) In-Use Emissions Testing and
Demonstration of Retrofit Technology for Control of On-Road Heavy-Duty Engines,  Draft Final Report for
the South Coast Air Quality Management District under Contract No. 11612, September.
Durbin, T.D., Miller, J.W., Johnson, K.C., Hajbabaei, M., KadoN.Y., Kobayashi, R., Liu, X., Vogel, C.F.A.,
Matsumura, F., Wong, P.S., and Cahill, T. (2011) Assessment of the Emissions from the Use of Biodiesel as
a Motor Vehicle Fuel in California -  Biodiesel Characterization and NOX Mitigation Study, Final report for
the California Air Resources Board by the University of California at Riverside, the University of California
at Davis, and Arizona State University, October.
Gasoline On-Road
George Karavalakis, Daniel Short, Diep Vu, Mark Villela, Robert Russell, Heejung Jung, Akua Asa-Awuku,
Thomas Durbin, 2014, Regulated Emissions, Air Toxics, and Particle Emissions from SI-DI Light-Duty


                                             77

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Vehicles Operating on Different Iso-Butanol and Ethanol Blends. SAE Technical Paper No. 2014-01-1451.
Presentation at the SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition. Detroit, MI, April.
Karavalakis, G., Short, D., Hajbabaei, M., Vu, D., Villela, M., Russell, R., Durbin, T.D., A. Asa-Awuku,
2013, Criteria Emissions, Particle Number Emissions, Size Distributions, and Black Carbon Measurements
from PFI Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled with Different Ethanol and Butanol Blends,  SAE Technical Paper 2013-
01-1147
Hajbabaei, M., Karavalakis, K., Miller, J.W., Villela, M., Xu, K.H., and Durbin, T.D., 2013. Impact of Olefm
Content on Criteria and Toxic Emissions from Modern Gasoline Vehicles, Fuel,  107, 671-679.
Karavalakis, G., Durbin, T.D.,  Shrivastava, M., Zheng, Z., Villela, M.,  Jung, H., 2012. Impacts of Ethanol
Fuel Level on Emissions of Regulated  and Unregulated Pollutants from a Fleet  of Gasoline Light-Duty
Vehicles, Fuel, Vol. 93, pp. 549-558.
Durbin, T.D., J.W. Miller, T. Younglove, T. Huai, K. Cocker. 2007. Effects of Ethanol and Volatility on
Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions for the Latest Technology Gasoline Vehicles. Environ. Sci. &
Techno!., 41, 4059-4064.
Durbin, T.D., Karavalakis, G., Norbeck, J.M., Short, D., Villela,  M.,  Vu, D.,  and Hajbabaei, M. (2014)
Alternative Fuels/Mixed Alcohols Testing  Program,  Draft Final Report  for the  California Energy
Commission under contract no.  500-09-051 by the University of California at Riverside, December.
Durbin, T.D., Karavalakis, G, Miller, J.W., Hajbabaei, M., Bumiller, K., Villela, M., and Xu, K.H., 2012.
Effects of Olefins  Content on  Exhaust  Emissions: CRC Project E-83, Final report for the  Coordinating
Research Council by the University of California at Riverside, June.
Durbin,T.D., J.W. Miller, T.  Younglove, T. Huai, and K. Cocker.  2006. Effects of Ethanol  and Volatility
Parameters on Exhaust Emissions: CRC Project No. E-67. Final report for Coordinating Research Council,
CRC Project No. E-67, January.

Evaporative Emissions

Crary, B., (2000) "Effects of Ethanol on Emissions of Gasoline LDVs" Presentation by Toyota Motor
Corporation to the California  Air Resources Board, May.
Stump, F.D., Knapp, K.T., Ray,  W.D., Siudak, P.O., and Snow, R., (1990b) "The Seasonal Impact of Blending
Oxygenated  Organics with Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Tailpipe and Evaporative Emissions - Part II" SAE
Technical Paper No. 902129,  SAE, Warrendale, PA.
Stump, F.D., Knapp, K.T., and Ray, W.D. (1990a)  "Seasonal Impact of Blending Oxygeanted Organics with
Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Tailpipe and Evaporative Emissions," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 40, 872-880.
Warner-Selph, M.A.  and Harvey, C.A., (1990) "Assessment of Unregulated Emissions from Gasoline
Oxygenated Blends" SAE Technical Paper No. 902131, SAE, Warrendale, PA.
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B.3 General Comments from Tom DeFries:

1 A. In many places the report uses emission data from onroad engine measurements when nonroad emissions
measurements are not available. It makes sense to me that the emissions between onroad and nonroad engines
would be the same, but maybe I am just naive. I would like to see a discussion (up front somewhere) of why the
emissions of nonroad and onroad engines might be expected to be different. Is it a consequence of different
emission standards, different emission controls (as a result of standard differences), and a difference in how the
vehicles are used, or what?

      RESPONSE: Speciation profiles may differ between onroad and nonroad engines due to differences in
      operating conditions. In addition, data from 2007 and later highway diesel engines are used for Tier 4
      nonroad diesels, although the former have paniculate filters and nonroad diesels do not.  This could
      result in differences. Finally, for some pollutants, data from onroad vehicles with catalysts were applied
      to emissions from nonroad engines without catalysts. These potential sources of differences have all
      been highlighted in the revised report.

IB. In several (many) places in the report an analysis of emission factors for the sought after nonroad vehicle,
fuel type, and emissions type cannot be performed because the  needed data does not exist. In each instance a
substitute dataset is analyzed. For example, the dioxin and furan emission factors for nonroad CNG exhaust are
based on an analysis of onroad gasoline exhaust dioxin and furan data. The reasons why these substitutions
might be reasonable are not given - other than the substitute data exists. To me the lack of discussion makes the
substitution highly questionable. The argument that "MOVES needs  something" doesn't really cut it for me.
There are those who would argue that zero is a better guess than a completely incorrect emission factor value.
So, what can be done about this? Let me suggest there be a separate discussion of the believed formation
mechanism or source for each emission category. Ideally, there would be research to reference that identifies the
sources. This discussion could be in the Introduction, perhaps in Subsection 1.1, which already has a
presentation of each emission category. For  example, one category of emissions are the PAHs. Are PAHs in the
exhaust derived from PAHs in the fuel, from fuel combustion, from PAHs in the engine oil, from combustion of
engine oil, or what? If the predominant source is known, it could provide a reason for choosing the substitute
dataset used to determine the PAH emission factors. If none of the sources are known, then the reader at least
knows that we tried to find a reasonable substitute based on some sort of logic.

      RESPONSE: We agree that the substitution of dioxin data from onroad gasoline vehicles to CNG
      nonroad needs additional justification.  However, since onroad CNG vehicles emit compounds like
      PAHs, which can form dioxins andfurans in the presence of chlorine,  we felt it reasonable to use
      emission factors from highway gasoline engines rather  than assume emissions were zero. Some
      discussion was added to the report.  Other substitutions, such as use of onroad diesel speciation for
      nonroad diesels, are much more obvious substitutions and we elected not to include discussion of
      formation mechanisms.

2. The second paragraph of the Intro says that factors are updated using from test program data of gasoline  and
diesel. Are there  no test programs on CNG and LPG?

      RESPONSE: We are not aware of CNG or LPG test programs for nonroad engines that include full
      speciation. Recent CNG highway vehicle test programs have been conducted with measurements of a
      subset of toxics species.

3. The section heading for 1.1 in the text and in the TOC differ.

      RESPONSE: This has been corrected.
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4. Section 1.2, second paragraph: benzo(g,h,i)perylene.

       RESPONSE: Correct.

5. Section 1.2, fourth paragraph, second line: "chemical mechanism species" is a term I don't recognize.

       RESPONSE: We have added a footnote explaining this term.

6. Section 1.3, second paragraph: Why is it "important to note"? Do you expect that emission factors would
vary greatly by the factors mentioned? I guess that without any data you don't know, but maybe you could
mention that for other emission factors where data does exist as a function of the factors mentioned, the
emission factors vary greatly. By inference the nonroad emission factors are also likely to vary greatly. We just
don't know by how much.

       RESPONSE: We added text pointing out there is significant variation in highway vehicles.

1. Section 2.1, first paragraph: I don't understand why the section starts out with "In the absence of data" when
it seems that data does exist and it is used for the analysis.

       RESPONSE: We have deleted this clause.

8. Section 2.1, first paragraph: The "single" test program apparently actually measured emissions of nonroad
vehicles. Many of the sections that follow mention that nonroad data was not available so onroad data was used
for the analysis. So, I think it is important to make clear for Section 2.1 that nonroad data was actually used.

       RESPONSE: Clarifying language has been added.

9. Section 2.1, second paragraph: I am a novice when it comes to the definitions and differences among VOC,
NMOG, NMHC, THC, and TOG. Then, Equation 2 throws ethane and acetone into the mix, and I am lost. I
know this was explained in Section 1.2, but I need a graphic or something to make clear the differences. As it is,
when I get to the two paragraphs above Table 5,1 just say to myself, "if you say so..." Maybe "those in the
know" don't need anything more, and it's OK as is for them.

       RESPONSE: We have added text to the introduction to better define  VOC, NMOG, NMHC, THC and
       TOG.

10.  Section 2.2, first paragraph: Is OC2.5 the correct term, or is it a typo and should be PM2.5? If it's correct, it is
out of the blue for me.

       RESPONSE: OC2.5 is now defined as organic carbon fraction o/"PM2.5 in a footnote.

11.1 thought that I had understood what was going on, but when I got to Section 3.11 began to get confused. I
guess maybe this confusion may have begun in my mind with the introduction of the terms "VOC profiles" and
"VOC  emission profile," which are first mentioned in Section 3.1.1 presume these terms mean a set of VOC
fractions. But I then realized that I was not really certain what all of this work was trying to get.  I think (but I'm
not sure) that it's two things:

1) emission rates for THC, NMHC, NMOG, TOG, VOC, etc., and

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2) the fraction of each by species that make up the VOCs.

So, for example, for Item 1, Table 5 says that for 2-stroke, EO the VOC emission rate is 35586 mg/mi. And for
Item 2, Table 6 gives the fractions of the 35586 mg/mi that it attributed to 1,3-butadiene (0.00214), etc.
Multiplying, that would mean that the 1,3-butadiene emission rate is 76 mg/mi (=35586*0.00214). Is that what
the report is trying to figure? That is what is stated at the beginning of the second paragraph of Section 2.1 "In
the MOVES model, individual VOC fractions are multiplied by total VOC emissions to obtain emission
factors."
It seems that the toxic fractions (as in Table 6) apply only to VOCs. So, then why are THC, NMHC, NMOG,
TOG, and CH4 shown in Table 5? So, it's not clear to me the distinction  between 1) how MOVES will do a
calculation  and 2) how the  literature data is being used to come up with emissions numbers to put into MOVES.

I think this  could be solved by adding another subsection to the Introduction. It would tell what MOVES needs
to do the calculations, that  is, what this report is trying to figure out. Section 1.1 starts out by listing the species,
but doesn't complete the idea by telling how calculations are done in MOVES. Section 1.2 talks about the
operational definitions of THC, NMOG, etc., what previous MOVES versions lacked, ...  Section 1.3 talks
about what literature was used to calculate the numbers in this report. But what is missing is what quantities we
are trying to calculate.
The idea would be that for  each type of fuel/emission (gasoline exhaust, diesel exhaust, CNG exhaust, LPG
exhaust, evaporative emissions, and crankcase running exhaust emissions) we want to calculate X, Y, Z for use
in MOVES. Basically the section needs to say: "MOVES needs the following information: X, Y, Z. So, we're
going to estimate these quantities from literature studies." This could be perhaps most clearly portrayed using a
table with blank cells. Please tell me in the Introduction. I think that this new subsection could go between
Speciation and Methods, and it might be called something like Emission  Factors to be Determined. Then, in the
later sections, if the report used the same tabular layout, but now with the numbers for the fuel type, the clarity
would be much better.

Somewhere around where you tell what you are going to calculate, you could include Equations 1, 2, 3, 4. It
looks to me like they may apply to more fuels than just gasoline exhaust, so putting them early in the report and
explaining them may be more appropriate for the Introduction.

       RESPONSE: We agreed that the text was unclear and added a section to the introduction explaining
       that the report presents estimates for organic gas aggregations and then defining them.

12. Section 3.1, fourth paragraph: Why are you talking about MY 2007 all of a sudden?

       RESPONSE: The paragraph was restructured for improved clarity.

13. Section 3.1, fifth paragraph, fourth line: Better to say "diesel #2 C:H  molar ratio of. At first I thought it was
a weight ratio.

       RESPONSE: This change has been made.

14. Section 3.4, second paragraph: What's a congener?

       RESPONSE: We have defined the term.

15. Table 14: Is it possible  to tell what the detection limits are so that we know what the emission factors with
ND are less than? I don't mind that in MOVES NDs will be set to zero, but I think that you should tell in this
document what the ND values are.
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       RESPONSE: Detection limits varied among compounds, but we have added a range to the document.

16. Section 4.1, first paragraph: What does "conservative" mean? "Conservative" from the environmentalist's
point of view or from the engine manufacturer's point of view? Does it mean that the real emissions, which we
have no data for, are expected to be less or more than the emissions that the existing data provides? Let me say
that "conservative" is always a poor term for use in a technical report.

       RESPONSE: We concur and the language has been revised.

17. Section 4.1, first paragraph: It strikes me that a transit bus is quite different from  a nonroad vehicle. Can you
say anything that might make us think that the CNG transit bus is a reasonable surrogate for a CNG nonroad
engine? Are even the overall (i.e., non-speciated) emissions similar?

       RESPONSE: We added language indicating that since these two types of engines are much different, the
       quality of the surrogate is unclear.

18. Section 4.2, first paragraph, first sentence: Does "in a manner similar" mean using Equations 3 and 4? If
that's it, say so. My suggestion, as I have stated earlier, is that the technique may best be covered in a new
subsection in  the Introduction. Then, here,  you could just refer to the Introduction.

       RESPONSE: We added text referring to equations 3 and 4.

19. Table 17:  Is it possible to tell what the detection limits are so that we know what the emission factors with
ND are less than? I don't mind that in MOVES NDs will be set to zero, but I think that you should tell in this
document what the ND values are.

       RESPONSE: Unfortunately, the source reference did not provide detection limits for PAHs.

20. Table 18.  To follow along with Equation 5, shouldn't the title for Column 2 be Onroad CNG Emission
Factor  (g/mi)  and the title for Column 3 be Nonroad CNG Emission Factor (g/gal)? I think that would make the
table clearer.  So, I am assuming that Column 3 has the values that we need for nonroad vehicles, and Column 2
just shows the onroad values that they are derived from.

       RESPONSE: This change has been made.

21. Section 4.4: Boy, this is  a stretch! CNG dioxins and furans from onroad gasoline engines!  All we can do is
convert the units using Equation 5? Can you mention ANY reason that these      guesses are at all reasonable
(see comment IB)?

       RESPONSE: Please  see response to comment IB

22. Table 19.  To follow along with Equation 5, shouldn't the title for Column 2 be Onroad CNG Emission Rate
TEQ (g/mi) and the title for  Column 3 be Nonroad CNG Emission Factor TEQ (g/gal)? I think that would make
the table clearer. So, I am assuming that Column 3 has the values that we need for nonroad vehicles, and
Column 2 just shows the onroad values that they are derived from.

       RESPONSE: This change has been made.
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23. Section 6.1.1: In the case of evaporative emissions using toxic fraction data from onroad vehicles makes
complete sense because the mechanism of evaporation is independent of the type of vehicle.

24. Section 6.1.1: An alternate source of toxic fraction information is Sam Reddy's ReddyEvap model. This
model uses physical chemistry and compound properties to calculate gasoline vapor compositions for different
liquid gasoline compositions. The model also calculates vapor composition for different conditions such as Reid
vapor pressure, ethanol content, fuel tank fill level, atmospheric pressure,  and tank temperature.

       RESPONSE: We will consider this model for future versions of MOVES.

25. Section 6.1.2:1 seem to recall (I could be remembering incorrectly) that ReddyEvap also calculates the
increased permeation of gasoline hydrocarbon compounds when ethanol is present in the gasoline - a
synergistic effect. The data in Table 23 don't seem to show this effect.

       RESPONSE: We will consider this model for future versions of MOVES.
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8.0 References
1 USEPA. National Mobile Inventory Model. NMIM2008. Available for download at
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2 USEPA (2003). Conversion Factors for Hydrocarbon Emission Components. EPA420-P-03-002. May 2003
3 Code of Federal Regulations, 40: Chapter 1, Subchapter C, Part 51, SubpartF, 51100
4 USEPA (2015). Speciation of Total Organic Gas and Paniculate Matter Emissions from On-road Vehicles in
MOVES2014. EPA-420-R-15-022. Office of Transportation and Air Quality. US Environmental Protection
Agency. Ann Arbor, MI. October 2014. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/models/moves/moves-reports.htm.
5 SMOKE version 3.6.5. Accessed August, 2015 at www.cmascenter.org/smoke.
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Engines. EPA-420-R-14-029. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/emission-factors-research/index.htm
 7 M. Starr (2004) Air Toxic Emission from In-Use Nonroad Diesel Equipment. US EPA Contract 68-C-98-158,
Work Assignment 3-04. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/emission-factors-research/index.htm
8 M. Starr (2004) Nonroad Duty Cycle  Testing For Toxic Emissions. US EPA Contract 68-C-98-158, Work
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9Reichle, L., R. Cook, C. Yanca, D. Sonntag. 2015. Development of Organic Gas Exhaust Speciation Profiles
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10 USEPA (2015). Air Toxic Emissions from On-road Vehicles inMOVES2014. EPA-420-R-15-021. Office of
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16 Gertler, A. W., J. C. Sagebiel, W. A. Dippel and R. J. Farina.  1998. Measurement of dioxin and furan
emission factors from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. J. Air and Waste Manage. Assoc. 48: 276-278.
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20 Kansas City Particulate Matter Characterization Study. Final Report, EPA420-R-08-009. Assessment and
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22 Laroo, A. Christopher, Charles R. Schenk, L. James Sanchez, Joseph McDonald, Peter L. Smith. (2012)
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33 Kado, N. Y., R. A. Okamoto, P. A. Kuzmicky, R. Kobayashi, A. Ayala, M. E. Gebel, P. L. Rieger, C.
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