United States
Environmental Protection
December 2015

  Tools, Strategies and Lessons Learned
       from EPA Green Infrastructure
       Technical Assistance Projects
         'ironmental Protection Agency, Office of Wastewater Management

What is Green Infrastructure?	2
How Can Green Infrastructure Benefit Your
Community?	3
Improve Water Quality and Conserve Water.. 4
  Save Money with Green Infrastructure on Public
  Projects	4
  Work with Developers to Identify Opportunities
  on Private Property	5
  Design It and They Will Build: Guidance and
  Standards	7
  Mythbusting Green Infrastructure	8
  Measuring Benefits for Water Quality	9
Strengthen the Local Economy	10
  Count Benefits for Decisionmakers	10
  Choose Projects to Maximize Community
  Benefits	11
Enhance Community and Infrastructure
Resiliency	13
  Use Green Infrastructure to Reduce Flooding and
  CSOs	13
  Support Water Reuse	14
  Adapt to Rising Sea Levels	14
Learn More About the Projects	15
  What Did the Communities Say?	15
Bibliography	18
                        This report was developed under EPA Contract No. EP-C-11-009.
                                             I mage Credits
        Photos: Jason Wright, p. 2, green alley •  John Kosco, p. 2, green roof • Martina Frey, all other photos
               Renderings: Tetra Tech, Inc., pp. 5, 6 and 14 •  Low Impact Development Center, p. 7
                                        Map: Tetra Tech, Inc., p. 15


This report summarizes practical, successful solutions to
inspire city managers, community leaders and engaged
citizens looking to design their community space for
better health, abundant water resources, and improved
quality of life.

Green infrastructure is an adaptable and
multifunctional approach to stormwater management
and climate resiliency with many benefits for

    •   Improves water quality and conserves water
    •   Strengthens the local economy
    •   Enhances community and infrastructure
Green infrastructure design and implementation also
has been identified as a critical tool for achieving goals
of the President's Priority Agenda Enhancing the
Climate Resilience of America's Natural Resources.

Urban stormwater continues to be a persistent and
growing source of water pollution across the United
States. Climate change is leading to more intense
weather events and dwindling water supplies.
Communities are feeling the effects of climate change
now through flooding, drought, heat waves, and coastal
erosion. Together these conditions are stressing the
performance of the nation's water infrastructure and
challenging all of us to consider new, integrated ways
to manage our water resources.
    Cities con incorporate green infrastructure
    into many different types of projects,
    including when wastewater or stormwater
    infrastructure is installed or modified,
    when a roadway intersection is rebuilt, or
    when a new park is being planned.
Communities can use green infrastructure principles as
a holistic and adaptive method to meet their
environmental and community goals now and into the
future. Larger-scale implementation of infiltration and
rainwater harvesting can build resiliency as different
parts of the country become drier, wetter or hotter.

Technical assistance is a key component of EPA's
investment for accelerating green infrastructure to
become business-as-usual for stormwater management
as well as infrastructure investments and community

This report summarizes results from EPA's green
infrastructure technical assistance program for cities,
communities and citizens who want to learn from the
experiences of others and find the best solutions for
their unique challenges. It's a quick reference guide that
matches problems with real-world, tested solutions.

                A living wall enhances the aesthetics of a courtyard

What is  Green  Infrastructure?
Green infrastructure uses plants, soils, and nature itself to manage stormwater and create healthier urban environments.
Green infrastructure practices can be used to reduce the need for expensive gray infrastructure—pipes, storage facilities, and
treatment systems—because plants and soils soak up, store, and use the rainwater. Communities also can create or preserve
existing vegetated areas to maintain a high quality of life for residents through flood protection, cleaner air and water, and
more appealing transportation corridors and outdoor spaces.

                              Downspout Disconnection
                              Rerouting rooftop drain pipes to
                              direct rainwater to rain barrels,
                              cisterns, or permeable areas instead
                              of the sewer. This practice can
                              benefit any community but can be
                              particularly beneficial in cities with
                              combined sewer systems.
                              Rain Gardens and Bioswales
                              Shallow, vegetated areas that collect
                              and absorb runoff from rooftops,
                              sidewalks, and streets using plants
                              and soil. Versatile, attractive features
                              that can be installed in almost any
                              unpaved space. Also known as
                              bioretention or bioinfiltration  cells.
                              Green Roofs
                              Roofs covered with plants that soak
                              up and use rainwater. They cool and
                              insulate buildings, reducing energy
                              use. They are particularly cost
                              effective where land values and
                              traditional stormwater management
                              costs are high.
                              Green Alleys and Streets
                              Permeable pavement, bioswales,
                              planter boxes, and trees integrated
                              into street and alley designs to soak
                              up and store stormwater and
                              improve the pedestrian experience
                              through shading and traffic calming.
                              Land Conservation
                              Protecting open spaces and sensitive
                              natural areas within and adjacent to
                              a city can reduce stormwater while
                              providing recreational opportunities
                              for city residents. Natural areas that
                              should be a focus of this effort
                              include riparian areas, wetlands, and
                              steep hillsides.
Rainwater Harvesting
Systems that collect and store
rainfall for later use, slowing and
reducing the volume of runoff. This
can be especially important in arid
regions to reduce demands on
increasingly limited water supplies.
Planter Boxes
Rain gardens that collect and absorb
runoff from rooftops, sidewalks,
parking lots, and streets. They have
vertical walls that are ideal for space-
limited sites in dense urban areas
and can be used to provide seating
and attractive plantings.
Permeable Pavements
Paved surfaces that let water soak
into the ground, including pervious
concrete, porous asphalt, and
permeable interlocking pavers. They
are particularly cost effective where
land values are high and where
flooding or icing is a problem.
Green Parking
Permeable pavement, rain gardens,
and bioswales incorporated into
parking lot stalls, lanes, and
landscaping. Besides collecting and
absorbing stormwater, green parking
can provide more shade and reduce
the heat emitted by pavements.
Urban Tree Canopy
Urban trees soak up and use
rainwater, provide shade and help to
slow traffic. Homeowners,
businesses, and cities can all
participate in the planting and
maintenance of trees throughout the
urban environment.

How Can Green Infrastructure Benefit Your Community?
                          Improve Water Quality and Conserve Water
                         _. •' \ (i / //&"./• •' - .  • --./JBue5.
Reduce polluted runoff entering waterways
Reduce stream and habitat damage from high-
velocity runoff
Conserve water by recycling and using captured
Reduce the incidence and severity of combined
sewer overflows (CSOs) caused by excess
                                Strengthen the Local Economy
   • Reduce cost to build storm drain infrastructure
   • Reduce water treatment costs
   • Reduce energy needed to transport and treat
     wastewater and drinking water
   • Increase property value with green urban spaces
   • Reduce property damage from flooding
   • Make neighborhoods healthier and safer
   • Reduce household energy use
   • Create green jobs
                         Enhance Community and Infrastructure Resiliency
                                                •  Help reduce localized flooding and protect
                                                •  Capture rainwater for on-site use
                                                •  Decrease potable water demand
                                                •  Recharge groundwater supply
                                                •  Protect coastal areas from wave erosion with living
                                                •  Adapt to changes in sea level over time
                                                •  Reduce energy consumption needs

Improve Water Quality and  Conserve Water
Green infrastructure is designed to capture stormwater close to where it lands to be used by plants, soaked into the ground,
evaporated, or recycled for irrigation or other uses. Green infrastructure improves water quality by slowing down and filtering
polluted runoff before it reaches waterways. Green infrastructure helps to recharge groundwater and increases flow to
streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Cooler-temperature runoff and shading provided by trees benefit aquatic plants and
animals. Green infrastructure can be successful in a variety of settings including cold or arid climates, in ultra-urban areas, in
soils with slower infiltration rates, and in areas with intense rainstorms. Successful programs often have locally tailored
guidance and standards to address local water quality priorities, conditions, and constraints.
  Save Money with Green Infrastructure on Public Projects
  There are advantages to integrating green
  infrastructure on public property. The municipality
  already owns and maintains the property so there
  are no land acquisition costs or easements required.
  Also, the municipality already performs long-term
  maintenance on the property similar to maintenance
  necessary for green infrastructure.

  Municipally owned transportation corridors offer
  many right-of-way opportunities for green

    •  Installing bioswales between the sidewalk and
       street, at curb bump-outs, or in medians or
    •  Using permeable pavement in parking areas
       and sidewalks.
    •  Planting trees and installing planter boxes along
       streets and sidewalks.

  Green  infrastructure can be integrated into other
  community improvements or capital projects
  designed to improve traffic flow, increase pedestrian
  safety, create multi-modal transportation corridors,
  revitalize neighborhoods,  enhance aesthetics, or
  address localized flooding and poor drainage.

  EPA worked with several communities to develop
  conceptual designs for road rights-of-way and parks
  to address local stormwater concerns. Each  project
  provided the opportunity  to highlight typical
  obstacles faced by municipalities undertaking
  community improvements. The Boone Boulevard
  concept design in Atlanta, Georgia, was for a
  community facing a range of environmental, social,
  and economic challenges; the design integrated
  seamlessly with other planned roadway
improvements, making the project easier to
implement. In Beaufort, South Carolina,
representatives of the Northwest Quadrant
neighborhood wanted to ensure that green
infrastructure elements were consistent with the
historic character of the neighborhood. In Boise,
Idaho, local stakeholders sought to encourage
redevelopment of an urban area west of downtown
by allowing private property owners to meet
stormwater retention requirements using green
infrastructure improvements in the right-of-way,
thereby saving them money. In Denver, Colorado,
and Gary, Indiana, renderings show how local streets
would look if they were retrofitted with different
types of green infrastructure practices that met local
stormwater management standards. In Iowa City,
Iowa, a diverse group of stakeholders and developers
worked on a design to enhance a wetland and creek
and incorporate green infrastructure features into a
large-scale park system at the site of a
decommissioned wastewater treatment plant.

One of the key factors in the success of these
projects was local stakeholder participation,
including neighborhood residents. EPA's green
infrastructure designs were tailored to achieve the
benefits desired by stakeholders and support the
neighborhood's vision while meeting local
development codes, stormwater management
standards, historic preservation guidelines, and other
requirements. The designs were also sensitive to
driveway access, parking, and utility constraints. It
was also helpful for the communities to identify
green street projects where other roadway
improvements were planned or underway to
minimize traffic disruption and save money.

   Work with Developers to Identify Opportunities on Private Property
   Private property constitutes substantially more land
   area in communities than public property; therefore,
   there are many opportunities to incorporate green
   infrastructure on individual private parcels as part of
   new development or redevelopment.

   Local stormwater management regulations can
   require that green infrastructure be implemented
   through retention or other requirements. In such
   cases, municipalities can work with developers to
   identify ways that green infrastructure can be
   incorporated into a development plan to maximize
   environmental and community benefits. They can
   provide design assistance and facilitate  accelerated
   plan reviews and approvals for stormwater
   management plans that include green infrastructure.
In some circumstances, on-site stormwater
management requirements might be difficult to
meet on certain properties. A municipality may want
to offer alternatives to allow developers to install
green infrastructure features at another location or
contribute to a fund that is used for stormwater
management projects elsewhere in the watershed.
EPA worked with the Ada County Highway District
and the City of Boise, Idaho, to examine different
types of off-site alternative compliance options that
could be used to achieve local  stormwater
management goals and developed a conceptual
design for a redevelopment project where the
desired development density limited on-site green
infrastructure use.
Rendering of a street retrofitted with stormwater planters in Denver, Colorado

                                           Rendering of permeable pavement and tree planters along Fairview Avenue in Boise, Idaho
Where green infrastructure is not explicitly required
by local codes and regulations, municipalities can
offer incentives for green infrastructure
implementation on private property. Incentives
could include financing or cost-share programs for
design and construction of green infrastructure,
rebates for installation undertaken by the property
owner, or stormwater utility fee credits or discounts
in exchange for green  infrastructure implementation.
More information about incentives for green
infrastructure implementation can be found in
Managing Wet Weather with Green Infrastructure
Municipal Handbook: Incentive Mechanisms.

EPA worked  in partnership with several local
governments and private developers to prepare
green infrastructure conceptual designs for private
development projects that met local water quality
and stormwater management goals. For the Blake
Street conceptual design in Denver, Colorado, EPA
worked with stakeholders at a former industrial site
in a neighborhood undergoing revitalization to
identify cost-effective  green infrastructure that
provided stormwater treatment to meet local
requirements while also providing desired amenities
to residents. At Zidell Yards in Portland, Oregon, EPA
developed phased stormwater management concept
plans in which stormwater from private property and
the transportation right-of-way are managed in a
unified collection system. Similarly, in the West Side
Flats neighborhood of St.  Paul, Minnesota, the city
and EPA developed three  greenway concept designs
that allow stormwater from multiple private parcels
to be managed in a shared, multi-benefit green
infrastructure system that incentivizes
redevelopment, treats stormwater, provides
recreational space, and  improves air quality. In the
Iron Arts District in Scranton, Pennsylvania, EPA
identified green infrastructure opportunities-
including green streets and rain gardens in vacant
lots that serve as demonstration parks and gathering
spaces—that could reduce CSOs, catalyze community
reinvestment, and remove blight in the historically
and culturally significant neighborhood.

                                              Rendering of the Schimpff Court rain garden pilot project in Scranton, Pennsylvania
Design  It and They Will Build: Guidance and Standards
Sometimes green infrastructure practices are not
well-represented or described in local stormwater
management practice design guidance. Developers
and engineers may not be familiar with what green
infrastructure is or how it can perform in local soil,
topographic, and climate conditions. Communities
that want to promote the use of green infrastructure
can develop a concise green infrastructure handbook
or fact sheets that visually demonstrate  how green
infrastructure can be used locally and provide the
design tools necessary for the development
community to implement green infrastructure.

EPA helped several communities develop local green
infrastructure guidance. Through work with these
communities, EPA learned that to be effective,
guidance should include visual examples of how
green infrastructure could be integrated into specific
local settings, as demonstrated by Neosho,
Missouri's handbook and Denver, Colorado's
guidance. Renderings of green infrastructure
features integrated into local streetscapes are an
excellent way to demonstrate how green
infrastructure can enhance the aesthetics of a site
while helping to meet stormwater management

Local guidance  should also focus on tools that
designers and engineers will use to choose, locate,
and design green infrastructure practices appropriate
for their sites. Such tools include the following:

  •  Standard  BMP details and cross-sections that
     can be readily adapted to different
     development settings.
  •  Plant lists and guidelines for selecting
     appropriate vegetation.
  •  Instructions for sizing green infrastructure
     facilities to meet local stormwater
     management requirements.


A sculptural element links this green infrastructure to the aquatic resources it is intended to protect
    EPA supported the development of Pima County,
    Arizona's green infrastructure guidance, which
    includes standard engineering drawings, a plant list,
    and BMP sizing guidance.

    Plan submittal checklists are helpful to ensure that all
    calculations and details are provided in submittals to
    expedite plan reviews. Inspection checklists will help
    to ensure that long-term maintenance of green
    infrastructure facilities is completed as  needed.
Checklists also can be developed for local staff to
review plans that include green infrastructure, to
inspect and approve newly built green infrastructure
features, and to periodically inspect practices to
ensure they are maintained and function properly.
EPA developed a series of checklists for Denver,
Colorado, including a plan review checklist, post-
construction inspection checklist, and maintenance
    Mythbusting Green Infrastructure
    A potential barrier to green infrastructure
    implementation is the perception that it cannot be
    used in certain climates or when certain site
    conditions are present. Developers and designers
    often state that topography, soil, rainfall
    characteristics, and available space are factors that
    could preclude the use of green infrastructure at a
    development site. Research shows, however, that
    green infrastructure can function well in most site
    conditions with certain design modifications. To
    address these concerns, EPA developed a series of
white papers and fact sheets with Pittsburgh UNITED
detailing how green infrastructure can be designed
for sites with steep slopes, clay soils, high-intensity
rainfall, and space constraints. Communities can
tailor their own local green infrastructure guidance
to address specific concerns they have heard from
local developers and the design community and can
include design modifications in standard drawings
(e.g., hydraulic barriers, underdrains) to address the

    Measuring Benefits for Water Quality
    Many communities look to green infrastructure to
    help reduce the discharge of specific pollutants into
    local waterways. Green infrastructure practices can
    be selected, sited, and designed to remove a
    particular pollutant or group of pollutants (e.g.,
    sediment, nutrients). Green infrastructure can be
    incorporated into various pollution reduction
    strategies. Quantifying the effects of green
    infrastructure on pollutant loads is an important tool
    for local communities to  plan how and where to
    implement green infrastructure to  reduce water

    EPA provided technical assistance to several
    communities looking to use green infrastructure to
    address specific water quality concerns. In Barnstable
    and Yarmouth, Massachusetts, EPA evaluated  parcels
    for green infrastructure suitability and proposed
    several conceptual designs to reduce the discharge
    of nitrogen into coastal waters. EPA used a decision-
    support tool—the System for Urban Stormwater
Treatment and Analysis integration (SUSTAIN)—to
simulate and compare the effectiveness of the
proposed green infrastructure practices in reducing
nitrogen in runoff. In Franklin, Massachusetts, EPA
developed a strategy to implement green
infrastructure policy changes, build new green
infrastructure facilities, and undertake other
activities, such as education and outreach, to reduce
phosphorus pollution that is causing algal blooms in
the Charles River.

EPA also worked with Lincoln, Nebraska, to develop a
pollution reduction strategy for Antelope Creek to
reduce the discharge of bacteria into local
waterways. EPA helped to identify pollutant sources,
conducted a review of local water quality-related
plans, gathered examples of pollution reduction
plans from other areas of the country that targeted
bacteria, and proposed a set of prioritized
recommendations to most effectively reduce
bacteria in stormwater.
A courtyard bioswale serves dual purposes as stormwater management and attractive landscaping

Strengthen the Local  Economy
Green infrastructure can provide a wide range of economic benefits to a community through tangible infrastructure savings-
reduced gray infrastructure needs, lower water management and treatment costs (including energy consumption), and potable
water conservation. However, some of the important benefits of green infrastructure are harder to monetize. For example,
studies show that properties that incorporate more green space or are located closer to green space are more valuable and
therefore demand higher sales prices and generate higher property taxes for municipalities (Ward et al. 2008; Schultz 2008;
Anderson 1998; Voicu 2008; Espey 2001). Also, areas that are greener promote more outdoor activity, more walking, more
spending, are safer and generally improve people's sense of well-being and health. Happier, healthier, safer people work
harder, get sick less, and invest more in their communities. (Kardin et al. 2015; Wolf 1998; Kuo 2001a; Kuo 2001b; Kuo 2003;
Hastie 2003; Wolf 1999). All of these economic benefits are essential for decision makers to consider when assessing the value
of green infrastructure in public spaces or on private property.
   Count Benefits for Decisionmakers
   The costs to build green infrastructure practices are
   straightforward, but the monetized benefits of green
   infrastructure implementation are not as obvious.
   When evaluating green infrastructure benefits, it is
   important to have the following:

    •   Local data or estimates of water storage and
        infiltration capacity for typical green
        infrastructure  practices to estimate benefits.
    •   Costs of green infrastructure construction and
        maintenance to estimate expenditures.
    •   Water supply,  wastewater treatment,
        regulatory compliance, and gray infrastructure
        costs to estimate avoided costs.

   If these data are not available, values available in
   scientific literature can be substituted and still
   provide meaningful  information for decisionmakers.

   One of the tools that allows a community to estimate
   the economic value of green infrastructure is the
   Center for Neighborhood Technology's The Value of
   Green Infrastructure: A Guide to Recognizing Its
   Economic, Environmental and Social Benefits
   (CNT 2010). EPA, the Center for Neighborhood
   Technology, and the City of Lancaster, Pennsylvania,
   used  The Value of Green Infrastructure to estimate
   the value of the economic benefits of green
infrastructure buildout as proposed in Lancaster's
Green Infrastructure Plan relative to the estimated
costs to install the practices. The analysis showed
that Lancaster received the majority of the economic
benefit from green infrastructure through reduced
costs of wastewater treatment.

Similarly, the City of Seattle, Washington, was
interested in quantifying the benefits of the green
infrastructure that had already been installed as well
as several future green infrastructure buildout
scenarios. Seattle and EPA sought to examine
benefits that typically aren't quantified:

  •   Energy savings for household use and
     stormwater treatment.
  •   Greenhouse gas emissions savings.
  •   Carbon sequestration in biomass and soil.
  •   Preserved sewer system/pipe capacity for
     climate adaptation.
  •   Criteria air pollutant reductions.
  •   Job impacts.

For example, it was shown that trees provided
significant value in terms of air quality improvement,
heat island reduction, household energy use
reduction, and climate change mitigation.

Choose Projects to  Maximize Community Benefits
To allocate limited resources to provide as much
benefit to the community and the environment as
possible, municipalities should evaluate green
infrastructure opportunities to identify the most
suitable locations. For example, sites with some
open space that have moderate to high soil
infiltration and flat or moderately sloped topography
will likely be the most appropriate for green
infrastructure. In addition to site  suitability
conditions, communities can further evaluate sites
for ownership (because public parcels do not require
land acquisition or easements) and other local
priorities such as history of flooding, storm drain
system capacity concerns,  socio-economic issues,
park and open space deficits, and co-location with
other planned improvements. EPA undertook one
such prioritization study with Clarkesville, Georgia,
using the following criteria:

  •  Parcel ownership (public vs. private).
  •  Parcel characteristics (size, slope,
     imperviousness, and  infiltration capacity).
  •  Location in a priority watershed.
  •  Association with identified maintenance needs
     or other stormwater structures.

The analysis resulted in a prioritized list of high-value
parcels that was further refined based on field visits
and input from stakeholders.

In conjunction with the Buffalo Sewer Authority, EPA
developed a protocol and mobile application to
assess vacant properties for their suitability to serve
as green space and retain stormwater to reduce
CSOs. EPA collected information on general site
conditions, elevations, vegetation, waste, impervious
areas, soil types, and soil hydrology to identify
parcels where green infrastructure practices could
result in the most CSO reduction and economic
value. The assessment protocol can be adapted for
other communities to evaluate vacant properties for
beneficial use in light of population decline and

  Results of green infrastructure parcel prioritization in Clarkesville, Georgia
                                                                                       Parcel Ranking
                                                                                          4.16- 5.55
                                                                                      ^B 7.85 - 8 S (Top 10 Priority Parcels)
                                                                                       •>  SOQUQ River
                                                                                      £„{ Swcclgum Creek Vtolcrshed
                                                                                      [|^J Rocky Branch Watershed
                                                                                      [_ 	1 City Limits

Drought-tolerant plants enhance the sustainability of green infrastructure in arid and semi-arid environments

    Use Green Infrastructure to Support the Regulatory Landscape
    Communities can make the case for green infrastructure
    by examining how it can be used to meet multiple
    regulatory requirements and goals.

    EPA worked with the Council for Watershed Health in Los
    Angeles, California, to evaluate how green infrastructure
    could be used to meet several state and local regulatory
    objectives in addition to improving stormwater
    management and water quality. The analysis showed that
    green infrastructure can help local communities in the
    region meet specific climate-change and water security
    initiatives and mandates, water quality regulations such
    as municipal stormwater permits and total maximum
daily loads (TMDLs), and integrated water planning

EPA also developed a protocol to assess vacant parcels or
infill redevelopment sites that are potentially
contaminated (commonly known as brownfields) to
determine how stormwater management practices can be
safely used. The protocol allows developers and
communities to reconcile the goal of sustainably
managing stormwater with brownfield site considerations
to prevent stormwater infiltration from mobilizing
contaminants and increasing the potential for
groundwater contamination.

 Enhance  Community and Infrastructure Resiliency
 Communities are facing different challenges caused by climate change depending on where they are located. Impacts may
 include increased flooding due to more frequent and intense rainfall, drought due to less frequent rainfall, and coastal damage
 and erosion caused by sea level rise. Green infrastructure can help to alleviate some of these climate change effects while
 providing other community benefits and helping to mitigate further climate change with increased vegetation. Green
 infrastructure's vegetation, particularly trees, can improve communities' climate change resiliency by reducing the urban heat
 island effect, absorbing carbon dioxide, and filtering air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and ground-level ozone. Enhanced
 tree canopy and other vegetation can reduce urban temperatures and offer respite during heat waves and can reduce costs
 associated with residential and commercial cooling. Green infrastructure can also help to conserve water, enhance local water
 supply, and reduce need for imported water. Prolonged droughts have  brought water supply and conservation to the forefront
 of many communities' agendas. Cisterns and rain barrels can capture water for  irrigation and use in graywater applications,
 reducing the amount of potable and recycled water needed for on-site  use. Green infrastructure also can recharge
 groundwater supplies and help maintain drinking water supply levels during dry weather.
    Use Green Infrastructure to Reduce Flooding and CSOs
    Green infrastructure can reduce the amount of water
    entering the sewer system and stream channels, reducing
    localized flooding when the storm sewer capacity is
    exceeded and reducing the incidence of overflows in
    combined sewer systems.  In La Crosse, Wisconsin, EPA
    analyzed several green infrastructure street improvement
    options to address flooding problems in the Johnson
    Street Basin. Replacing traditional asphalt with
    permeable pavement provided the greatest amount of
    flood reduction for less cost than other alternatives

    In Bath, Maine, EPA analyzed how green infrastructure
    practices could be used in concert with gray infrastructure

Trees can offer a welcome respite from the heat in warm climates
improvements to reduce the frequency and magnitude of
CSOs in the low-lying Willow Street neighborhood.
Similarly, in Fall River, Massachusetts, EPA examined how
street-side tree filters could provide the triple benefits of
increased tree canopy, replacement of failing
infrastructure, and CSO reduction. In Omaha, Nebraska,
EPA helped the city compare green vs. gray infrastructure
solutions to eliminate CSOs and evaluated green and gray
solutions in a pilot project area using a cost-benefit
approach. Through these projects, EPA found that green
infrastructure could be used  cost-effectively—both alone
and in concert with gray infrastructure improvements—to
reduce flooding and CSOs.

Support Water Reuse
Green infrastructure can also address water scarcity
caused by more frequent and prolonged drought. Green
infrastructure water harvesting practices can capture
runoff for on-site use and decrease potable water
demand. Infiltration practices can be used to recharge
groundwater supply and restore flow to streams, rivers,
lakes, and reservoirs. EPA supported several projects that
had a water capture component. In Albuquerque, New
Mexico, EPA designed an integrated green infrastructure
system for the Imperial Building project that provided
irrigation for a rooftop garden, practices at the ground
level to capture and treat additional site runoff, and
planter boxes and street trees to treat nuisance dry-
weather flows in the adjacent storm drain system.
In Santa Monica, California, EPA developed plans for a
water harvesting system using green infrastructure at
Ozone Park. The system included a cistern and a 0.5-acre-
foot underground infiltration gallery. The system has the
potential to provide up to 100 percent of the
approximately 450,000 gallon annual irrigation demand at
Ozone Park. EPA also made policy recommendations for
changing development codes to allow or encourage water
harvesting and other green infrastructure practices for
the Council for Watershed Health in the Los Angeles
Region, Macatawa Area Coordinating Council in Michigan,
and for the City of Franklin, Massachusetts.
Adapt to Rising Sea Levels
Green infrastructure practices can protect coastal areas
from increased wave erosion caused by sea level rise and
can be designed to adapt to changes in sea level over
time. EPA worked with the City of Norfolk, Virginia, and
local watershed groups to develop a living shoreline
project that will stabilize the existing eroded shoreline
and takes the impacts of future sea level changes into
consideration. The Mayflower Road BMP design includes
a planned transition of infiltration-based bioswales to a
wetland or wet pond over time as water levels rise.
 - m
                     & I
                                                             Rendering of Mayflower Road conceptual design in Norfolk, Virginia

Learn More About the  Projects
Since 2012, EPA provided technical assistance in communities to address significant barriers to using green infrastructure and
share lessons learned. Projects were designed to serve as case studies for other communities with similar goals. Project
locations are shown on the map below, and a catalog of technical assistance products can be found in the table on pp. 16-17.
The goals of the projects included creating conceptual designs, reviewing local codes to remove barriers, developing guidance,
estimating economic benefits, and modeling the effect of green infrastructure. Links to completed reports, manuals, and
conceptual designs can be found on EPA's Green Infrastructure website at
            Seattle, WA

          Portland, OR
                                                                                           £ Bath, ME

                                                                                          • Sanford, ME
                                                                                   Chelsea, MA
                                                                         Buffalo, NY
                                                                             £   Franklin, MA
                                                                  Holland, Ml                    / Barnstable,
                                                       Milwaukee, Wl 9  0   £    Scranton, PA £   Y^^V MA
                                                                                          Fall River, MA

                                                                                      Camden, NJ
                                                                                    ^Norfolk, VA
         Santa Monica, CA
        •^ Los Angeles, CA
  What Did the Communities Say?
The project has impacted the
region's green infrastructure/
outlook in providing us with a clear
and comprehensive document for
outreach and education with
municipalities and engineers in
evaluating green infrastructure
                                            The [technical assistance] process was good, and it
                                            sowed a seed with our public works department.
                                            Hopefully that will grow in the next year or two!
We continue to seek ways that [our
community] can benefit from the
experience gained by other cities in
implementing green infrastructure.
                                             The project
                                             thinking about use of the
                                             [right-of-way] for
                                             addressing runoff from
                                             redevelopment activities
                                             in a way not done in the
The report helped
the City see the
possibilities more
clearly, and helped
us raise awareness
and support for the
Greenway.  It is a
great foundational

EPA Region  I Project Name
Conceptual Design
              Birch Street Green Infrastructure Pilot Program
              Willow Street Green Infrastructure Design
              Conceptual Green Infrastructure Design for Washington Street, City of Sanford
              Conceptual Green Infrastructure Design in the Point Breeze Neighborhood
              Conceptual Green Infrastructure Design in the Brookline Neighborhood
              Conceptual Green Infrastructure Design in the Swisshelm Park Neighborhood
              Greening the Iron Arts District
              Restoring Knitting Mill Creek through Green Infrastructure
              Boone Boulevard Green Infrastructure Conceptual Design
              Block-Scale Green Infrastructure Design for the Historic Northwest Quadrant
              Northside Neighborhood Green Infrastructure Master Plan
              Gary,  IN Green Infrastructure Conceptual Design
              West Side Flats Greenway Conceptual Green Infrastructure Design
              Imperial Building Site Design
              Pueblo de Cochiti Green Infrastructure Concept Design
              North Wastewater Treatment Plant Restoration
              Lincoln Children's Zoo Student Conceptual  Designs
              City of Neosho Green Infrastructure Design Handbook
              Conceptual Green Infrastructure Design for the Blake Street Transit-Oriented
              Development Site, City of Denver (PDF)
              Building Resilience to Drought in Ozone Park
              Fairview Avenue Green Street Conceptual Design
              District-Scale Green Infrastructure Scenarios for the Zidell Development Site
Guidance Development
              Using Green Infrastructure in the City of Chelsea (Brochure)
              Technical Support Document to Assist the City to Further Encourage and Promote
              the Use of Green Infrastructure
              City of Camden Green Infrastructure Design Handbook
              Addressing Green Infrastructure Challenges in the Pittsburgh Region: Fact Sheet
              Addressing Green Infrastructure Challenges in the Pittsburgh Region: Space
              Addressing Green Infrastructure Challenges in the Pittsburgh Region: Steep Slopes
              Addressing Green Infrastructure Challenges in the Pittsburgh Region: Abundant
              and Frequent Rainfall
              Addressing Green Infrastructure Challenges in the Pittsburgh Region: Clay Soils
              Implementing Stormwater Infiltration Practices at Vacant Parcels and Brownfield
 Fall River           MA
 Bath               ME
 Sanford            ME
 Pittsburgh          PA
 Pittsburgh          PA
 Pittsburgh          PA
 Scranton           PA
 Norfolk            VA
 Atlanta             GA
 Beaufort           SC
 Spartanburg        SC
 Gary               IN
 St. Paul            MN
 Albuquerque        NM
 Pueblo de Cochiti    NM
 Iowa City           IA
 Lincoln             NE
 Neosho            MO
 Denver            CO

 Santa Monica       CA
 Boise              ID
 Portland            OR
 Chelsea            MA
 Chelsea            MA

 Camden            NJ
 Pittsburgh          PA

 Pittsburgh          PA

 Pittsburgh          PA
 Pittsburgh          PA

 Pittsburgh          PA
 Chicago            IL

EPA Region   I Project Name
Guidance Development (continued)
            Green Street Opportunities in Gary, IN
            BMP Fact Sheet Series
            Green Infrastructure Checklists and Renderings
            Tools to Promote Green Infrastructure Implementation in Arid and Semi-Arid
Policy Review/Recommendations
            Chelsea, Massachusetts Development Code Review to Promote Green
            Green Infrastructure Barriers and Opportunities in Camden, New Jersey
            Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy
            Northside Neighborhood Green Infrastructure Master Plan
            Community Engagement Framework for the City of Gary
            Green Infrastructure Barriers and Opportunities in the Macatawa Watershed,
            Elements of a Green Infrastructure Maintenance Business Plan
            Green Infrastructure Barriers and Opportunities in Dallas, Texas
            Urban Pollutant Reduction Strategies
            Support Process Development for Assessing Green Infrastructure in Omaha
            Green Infrastructure Barriers and Opportunities in Neosho, Missouri
            Green Infrastructure Barriers and Opportunities in Phoenix, Arizona
            Green Infrastructure Barriers and Opportunities in the Greater Los Angeles Region
            Fairview Avenue Green Street Conceptual Design
Screening and Prioritization
 Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy for the Town of Franklin,
 Urban Vacant Land Assessment Protocol
 Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy
 Green Infrastructure Targeting in Southeast Michigan
 Support Process Development for Assessing Green Infrastructure in Omaha
 Nitrogen-reducing Green Infrastructure in Environmental Justice Communities
 Using Green Infrastructure to Mitigate  Flooding in La Crosse, Wl
 Support Process Development for Assessing Green Infrastructure in Omaha
Economic Benefits
            The Economic Benefits of Green Infrastructure: A Case Study of Lancaster, PA
            Expanding the Benefits of Seattle's Green Stormwater Infrastructure
 Pima County



 Los Angeles

 La Crosse




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