United States
Environmental Protection
                       Cooper's Ferry Partnership
                           Camden, New Jersey

   City of Camden Green Infrastructure Design
   Integrating Stormwater Management into Sustainable Urban Design
   Photo: Aerial view of Camden, New Jersey
                                                  AUGUST 2013
                                                EPA 830-R-13-008

About the Green  Infrastructure Technical Assistance Program
Stormwater runoff is a major cause of water pollution in urban areas. When rain falls in undeveloped areas,
the water is absorbed and filtered by soil and plants. When rain falls on our roofs, streets, and parking
lots, however, the water cannot soak into the ground. In most urban areas, stormwater is drained through
engineered collection systems and discharged into nearby waterbodies. The stormwater carries trash,
bacteria, heavy metals, and other pollutants from the urban landscape, polluting the receiving waters.
Higher flows also can cause erosion and flooding in urban streams, damaging habitat, property, and

Green infrastructure uses vegetation, soils, and natural processes to manage water and create healthier
urban environments. At the scale of a city or county, green infrastructure refers to the patchwork of natural
areas that provides habitat, flood protection, cleaner air, and cleaner water. At the scale of a neighborhood
or site, green infrastructure refers to stormwater management systems that mimic nature by soaking up and
storing water. These neighborhood or site-scale green infrastructure approaches are often referred to as
low impact development.

EPA encourages the use of green infrastructure to  help manage stormwater runoff. In  April 2011, EPA
renewed its commitment to green infrastructure with the release of the Strategic Agenda to Protect Waters
and Build More Livable Communities through Green Infrastructure. The agenda identifies technical
assistance as a key activity that EPA will pursue to accelerate the implementation of green infrastructure.
In February 2012, EPA announced the availability of $950,000 in technical assistance  to communities
working to overcome common barriers to green infrastructure. EPA received letters of  interest from over
150 communities across the country, and selected  17 of these communities to receive technical assistance.
Selected communities received assistance with a range of projects aimed at addressing common barriers
to green infrastructure, including code review, green infrastructure design, and cost-benefit assessments.
Cooper's Ferry Partnership was selected to receive assistance on integrating low impact development
design strategies and green infrastructure practices within the City of Camden Waterfront, as well as the
City as a whole.

For more information, visit
II   Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

 City of Camden Green Infrastructure

 Design  Handbook

 A handbook for the integration of green infrastructure into sustainable urban
  Corn den
         I1 V R 1 N I K i HIP


                                           Camden, NJ


Principal EPA Staff
Maureen Krudner, EPA Region II
Tamara Mittman, EPA Headquarters
Christopher Kloss, EPA Headquarters
Coopers Ferry Partnership
Meishka L. Mitchell, Cooper's Ferry Partnership
Maurie Smith, Cooper's Ferry Partnership

Consultant Team
John Kosco, Tetra Tech
Emily Clifton, LID Center
Doug Davies, LID Center
Neil Weinstein, LID Center
This guidance manual was developed under EPA Contract No. EP-C-11-009 as part of the 2012 EPA Green

Infrastructure Technical Assistance Program.

JV  Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

Camden, NJ   V

 Project Summary
 In 2011, the Camden SMART Initiative was formed to develop a comprehensive network of green
 and grey infrastructure programs and projects as a means to alleviate recurring flooding events,
 improve water quality, and restore and revitalize the City's neighborhoods. Formed as a public-private
 collaboration, its members include the City of Camden, Cooper's Ferry Partnership, the Camden County
 Municipal Utilities Authority, the Rutgers Cooperative Extension Water Resources Program, the New
 Jersey Tree Foundation, and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.

 With Camden's future tied to the environmental and economic health of the region, sustainability is a
 fundamental component of the city's revitalization strategy. The Camden SMART Initiative has taken
 the lead on implementing numerous green infrastructure projects that serve to improve the City's
 overall sustainability by: improving air, water, and climate quality; preventing neighborhood flooding
 and reducing combined sewer overflows; developing environmental policy; creating sustainable green
 jobs; adding recreational amenities and open space; providing economic development opportunities;
 beautifying neighborhoods; and increasing property values. This handbook is intended to further
 Camden SMART'S effort by providing residents, builders, city and county staff, and other interested
 groups with practical, state-of-the-art information on integrating low impact development design
 strategies and green infrastructure practices within  the City of Camden.

 This green  infrastructure handbook  is broken down as follows. Section One defines green infrastructure
 and identifies the multiple benefits it proves, while Section Two provides examples of green stormwater
 infrastructure tools - from the rooftop to the street -  that are applicable to the City of Camden. Section
 Three shows how these tools can be used within new development and retrofit projects within the City of

 This plan has been prepared under  the guidance of the Cooper's Ferry Partnership as part of the US
 EPA Green Infrastructure Community Partnership for targeted technical assistance.
VI  Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

vi     Project Summary
2           Definition of green infrastructure
2           Green infrastructure and stormwater management
3           Multiple benefits of green infrastructure
10           Green roof
12           Green wall
14           Downspout disconnection
15           Cistern/rain barrel
16           Bioretention systems
18           Street trees
19           Stormwater planters
20           Vegetated curb extensions
21           Permeable pavement
24           Residential Development
27           Commercial Development
30           Parking Lot Retrofits
32    References
34    Photo Credits
                                                                      Camden, NJ   1

Principles  of  Green   Infrastructure
Definition of Green Infrastructure and Low
Impact Development

Green infrastructure refers to the natural and
constructed stormwater controls that mimic the natural
hydrologic cycle by capturing, treating, and/or using
stormwater runoff from public and private properties.
These practices are incorporated into the planning,
site design and construction phases of development
projects. Green infrastructure practices are very flexible
and can be integrated into many different development
contexts, including new development, redevelopment,
and retrofit of public and private properties. Green
infrastructure can also be woven  into the built
environment at many different spatial scales - from the
site scale to the watershed scale.

When applied at the site development level, green
infrastructure is often referred to as Low Impact
Development (LID). Green infrastructure practices
include, but are not limited
to: rain gardens, permeable
pavements, and green roofs.
Green Infrastructure and
Stormwater Management

Green infrastructure and LID
are designed to function as part
of a sustainable stormwater
strategy that serves to meet
regulatory compliance and other
goals by reducing stormwater
runoff volumes and flows, and
by improving water quality. The
City of Camden, New Jersey,
is an older, industrial urban
community situated along the
scenic Delaware  River, and  is
one of 30 municipalities or other
public entities in the state that
has a combined sewer system.1
                    Whereas a separate stormwater sewer system
                    collects only stormwater and transmits it with little or
                    no treatment to nearby waterways, a combined sewer
                    system collects both stormwater and sewage in the
                    same pipe. Most of the time, Camden's combined
                    sewer system is able to successfully transport all of the
                    wastewater it collects to  the Camden County Municipal
                    Utilities Authority, where it is treated before being
                    released into the Delaware River.  During periods of
                    heavy rainfall or snowmelt, however, the system can
                    become overwhelmed, causing wastewater to overflow
                    into the Delaware Estuary via one of the City's 22 active
                    combined sewer outfall locations.

                    Green infrastructure helps to supplement traditional
                    investments in sewers, storage tunnels and treatment
                    facilities by adding storm water storage capacity
                    throughout the landscape. This, in turn, can help reduce
                    localized flooding and stormwater-related pollution
                    in nearby waterways during rainfall events. Green
                    infrastructure is often a cost-effective alternative that
Above: A green roof installation on the Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation headquarters
in Morristown, NJ. In addition to its stormwater benefits, the native plant rooftop
provides bird habitat in a downtown setting.
  2   Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

and  Sustainable  Stormwater  Design
serves to provide additional community benefits such
as improved air quality, improved neighborhood
aesthetics and safety, and reduced treatment costs.
Multiple Benefits of Green Infrastructure

The benefits of green infrastructure extend
beyond improved stormwater management. Green
infrastructure helps to protect and restore local
watersheds, to enhance and facilitate the experience
of walking, biking, and other community activities,
and to create sustainable and attractive community
gateways. Trees, for example, can provide shade
and cooling, improve local air quality, and create
improved perceptions of a street or neighborhood.2
Some benefits have a direct monetary value, such as
reduced capital costs for stormwater infrastructure,
reduced long-term O&M costs, and increased
property values.

One approach for evaluating the effect and overall
value of the multiple benefits is the Triple Bottom
Line (TBL) approach.3 This approach aides decision
makers and stakeholders by considering the social,
economic, and environmental benefits of projects
rather than just the construction life-cycle costs.
The TBL approach can identify opportunities to
integrate green technologies into public and private
development and redevelopment projects as well
as planned and ongoing improvements to the
transportation infrastructure.

Expected Environmental Benefits

Air Quality
Green infrastructure features such as trees and
other vegetation help to reduce ground level ozone
by reducing power plant emissions, reducing the
amount of electricity used for air conditioning, and
reducing temperatures. Trees and vegetation also
reduce particulate matter within the air by absorbing
and filtering pollutants which,  left unabated, can enter
into the lungs and cause serious health problems.4
Green infrastructure's air quality benefits are of
special importance to the City of Camden, which
is designated by the  US EPA as non-attainment
areas for not meeting national air quality standards
for fine particles in the ambient air.5

In the Camden Waterfront South area, a three-
year study further identified toxic components
such as arsenic and  lead in airborne particulate
matter. Increasing vegetation was one of four
recommendations provided for reducing overall
particulate amounts,  and was identified as a
strategy with relatively immediate short-term
Above: Street trees adorn Chestnut Street in nearby
Philadelphia's Chinatown. The city has a goal to plant
15,000 new trees in Philadelphia every year.
                                                                        Camden, NJ   3

Climate Change
Climate change is considered a critical threat to our
social well being and economic future.7 In the North,
average annual temperatures have increased by 2F
and winter temperatures by 4F since 1970. In the
Delaware Estuary region, annual temperatures are
expected to rise between another 3 to 7F, precipitation
is expected to increase by 7-9%, and the sea level is
expected to rise between 1.7 and 5 ft. or greater by the
year 2100.8

Strategically locating green infrastructure and  adding
green spaces into urban environments has the potential
to help cities to adapt through the provision of cooler
microclimates and reduced runoff.9 Green roofs, for
example, have the ability to retain large amounts
of storm water, reduce  roof surface and ambient
temperatures, and sequester carbon. Planting trees in
a manner that optimizes cooling and wind break effects
has been shown to indirectly  impact climate change
through reducing the amount of energy needed for
heating and cooling, as well as reducing stormwater
requiring treatment off-site.

Urban Heat Island
Annual mean temperatures in urban areas can average
2-5F higher than suburban temperatures. On a clear
night, the difference can be as much as 22F.  This
difference is due to the large  amount of hard, reflective
surfaces in developed  areas that absorb solar radiation
and re-radiate it as heat.10 By substituting soils and
vegetation for hard, heat-absorbing pavement and
pervious surfaces,9 green infrastructure can help reduce
the urban heat island effect. Water vapor emitted
by trees and other plant materials also acts to cool
ambient temperatures  because heat energy is used by
vegetation to evaporate water.

Water Quality and Habitat
Stormwater runoff from urban areas has a significant
impact on nearby waterbodies. Pollutants draining from
the urban landscape degrade water quality, while higher
flow rates cause erosion and  habitat loss.
Green infrastructure can help to mitigate these impacts
by retaining, slowing, and filtering runoff from small
storms.  Retaining and slowing stormwater runoff
reduces flow rates in urban streams, mitigating the
impact of sediment erosion on water quality and aquatic
habitat. In addition, the first flush of runoff carries a
higher concentration of pollutants, so filtering the runoff
from small storms allows green infrastructure to treat the
most polluted runoff before it reaches the groundwater
or nearby streams.

Groundwater Recharge
In the State of New Jersey, any development project
disturbing at least 1  acre of land or creating at least
0.25 acres of new or additional impervious surface
must include non-structural and/or structural stormwater
management measures that prevent the loss of
groundwater recharge at the project site (see NJAC
7:8). While the primary focus of green infrastructure
is typically to slow and clean stormwater runoff, green
infrastructure practices that direct runoff to vegetated
areas or areas with porous materials can also help
recharge groundwater supplies - particularly where
drought-tolerant plants and trees are incorporated
into the design.11 In New Jersey, this requirements is
included because of the adverse impact that the loss of
groundwater recharge can have on water supplies and
on the health of streams and wetlands.12

Expected Social Benefits

Community Reference Point
The  phrase community reference point refers to the
ability of a feature to serve as a signature or destination
for community residents or visitors, and/or serve as
a model for development or redevelopment.13  Green
infrastructure features can contribute to a community
reference point, enhancing the attractiveness of a site
or neighborhood and serving as a source of pride for
the community.  The benefits of a community reference
point are difficult to quantify, but may include an
increase in visitors to the project location, an increase in
ceremonies  held at the location, and/or an increase in
sales by nearby merchants.
  4    Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

                        Minimal evapotranspiration

                        t    t
   Minimal vegetation
   Large amounts of impervious area
                                Minimal infiltration
                                                                                              o   o
                                                            Large amounts of stormwater runoff flowing
                                                            through pipes
                        Increased evapotranspiration
    Increased vegetation

  Less impervious area
    Less stormwater runoff
                                   Increased infiltration
                                   on site
Traditional (top image) versus green (bottom) design. Greener approaches serve to treat a greater
amount of stormwater on-site, providing multiple benefits along the way.
                                                                                         Camden, NJ    5

                                                                       Recreational Opportunities
                                                                       Through adding green spaces
                                                                       and wooded vegetation, green
                                                                       infrastructure can increase publicly
                                                                       available recreation and gathering
                                                                       areas. Recognizing this connection,
                                                                       the City of Lenexa, KS, developed an
                                                                       award-winning "Rain to Recreation"
                                                                       program in 2000 to reduce flooding
                                                                       and protect water while preserving
                                                                       natural habitat and providing
                                                                       educational and recreational
                                                                       opportunities for residents. Similar
                                                                       opportunities are available for
                                                                       Camden to build upon its waterfront
                                                                       area by linking its development
                                                                       efforts with low impact development

                                                                       Expected Economic Benefits
Above: Incomplete sidewalks and crosswalks force pedestrians to walk in travel
Improved Safety
All too often, roads are built without sidewalks or
proper crosswalks. Where they do exist, they are often
inadequate, with crosswalks spaced too far apart, or
sidewalks not connected.14  Green infrastructure in the
form of curb extensions help to slow down traffic and
reduce crossing distances while increasing awareness
of places where people cross. Adding sidewalks and
bike lanes can further add to public safety.

In addition, studies have shown that increased
vegetation and  green spaces within urban areas can
reduce crime and promote safer communities.15'16
Outdoor spaces with natural landscapes have less
graffiti, vandalism, and littering than in comparable
plant-less spaces.17 In a study of community policing
innovations, there was a 20%  overall decrease in calls
to police from the parts of town that received location-
specific treatments.  Cleaning up vacant lots was one of
the most effective treatment strategies.
                 Avoided Capital Costs
                 Green infrastructure often costs less
                 than gray stormwater infrastructure
to install, which is a benefit to developers.18
Development projects that incorporate green
infrastructure may have lower costs for site grading
and preparation, stormwater infrastructure, site paving,
and landscaping. When properly placed, such features
can also reduce inflow and infiltration into sewer lines
otherwise burdened by increased wear, tear, and repair.
Over time, these practices can reduce pressures to
increase storm drain capacity.

Increased Property Values
Green infrastructure features such as  increased
plantings and street trees lead to more attractive
neighborhoods, which serves to increase nearby
property values. A study in Portland, Oregon, for
example, found that street trees added an average of
$7,020 to the price of nearby houses.19 In addition,
studies have shown that access to green spaces and
parks can inflate the value of property in a three-block
  6    Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

radius, while also providing valuable recreation
opportunities that boost communities.20 Such
benefits can also translate into increased annual
property tax revenue for local communities.
                                                                                 Camden, NJ   7

Stormwater  Design  Toolbox

The City of Camden was originally incorporated in
1828 and is the county seat of Camden County.
At approximately 6,600 acres in size, it is an urban
community situated along the scenic Delaware River,
with its waterfront just one mile from Philadelphia's
historic district.

While the City's overall population density is still high,
Camden's population has been in decline for the last
several decades, falling from a peak of about 125,000
residents in 1950 to 77,334 in 2010.21 For many years,
Camden has struggled against the impacts of urban
decay: the closing of major manufacturing industries,
a thinning population, crumbling infrastructure,
abandoned parcels, a high rate of poverty, a high rate
of crime, and struggling communities. Through this,
however, the City of Camden's residents have showed
a sense of resiliency and determination. Significant new
public and private resources - coupled with tremendous
community willpower- are leading to a new vision for
the City of Camden, where neighborhoods are built
up holistically, and green and grey infrastructure are
considered together as part of the solution.

Integrating green infrastructure throughout the City
of Camden will not only help to alleviate flooding and
pressures on the City's combined sewer infrastructure,
but is a necessary step in the City's revitalization. The
City of Camden, its partners, and  its residents have
already recognized the role that green infrastructure can
play in its reinvestment. Through extensive community
Green Up efforts and the Neighborhood Improvement
Program, blighted vacant lots have been turned into
green havens. With the help of the New Jersey Tree
Foundation Urban Airshed Reforestation Program,
citywide tree planting efforts have taken root. Numerous
greenway efforts and bike trails have been established.
The Camden SMART initiative is furthering these
efforts by developing a comprehensive network of
green infrastructure programs and projects for the City
of Camden. The purpose of the green infrastructure
Stormwater toolbox is to help further this effort by
identifying practices that are applicable within the city.
Green Infrastructure Toolbox

Green  infrastructure,  when  incorporated  into  new
construction, can  be designed to handle significant
amounts of runoff. In retrofit scenarios, opportunities may
be more limited, but green infrastructure can generally be
designed to handle the small storm events that convey
the most pollution, while  allowing runoff from larger
storms to overflow into the storm sewer system.

From  green roofs to permeable pavements, the tools
identified in this chaptershowcase some of the many green
infrastructure practices available within the development
and redevelopment process. Technical specifications for
many of these and other green Stormwater infrastructure
practices can be  found in the New Jersey Stormwater
Best Management Practices Manual,12 the New Jersey
Department of Agriculture's Soil Erosion and Sediment
Control  Standards,  and  the  Rutgers  Cooperative
Extension Water Resources Program.
  8   Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

Above: A rendering of the proposed design for the Haddon Avenue Transit Village in Camden depicts how "green" is
already being integrated into Camden's design concepts.
                                                                                  Camden, NJ   9

Above: The 3ist Street Harbor green roof rests atop the harbor services building in Chicago. The development, which includes
a l,ooo-slip marina and a park with newly configured bike and walking paths, transformed an under-used portion of Lake
Michigan's shoreline into a public amenity. The consideration of social and economic components was critical to its development.
The area serves as one of the Chicago Park District's largest revenue generators, and has helped to revitalize surrounding
Green roofs -- also commonly referred to as living
roofs or eco roofs -- use soil and plants in place
of traditional roof materials. Green roofs provide
multiple economic, environmental, and social benefits.
In addition to water quality benefits,  green roofs
reduce the life cycle costs of roofs, provide energy
savings and greater fire protection, remove airborne
paniculate matter,  create wildlife habitat, provide
space for food production,  and can create usable
green space in urban environments.

Green roofs come  in two general types:  extensive
and intensive. Extensive green roofs typically have
a growing medium of 3-4",  are usually planted
with sedum, require less irrigation, and have low
maintenance requirements. Intensive green roofs
have up to 12" of growing medium and can support
shrubs and trees. The ability to maintain larger
                                      Plants (e.g. Gross, Sedum)
                                      Growing Medium
                                      OI,",V,,T|| P Filter Fleeos
                                      Oldroyd XvlD Green Xtra
                                      Drainage Layer (
plant material also introduces a need for constant
irrigation and a more regular maintenance schedule.

Research conducted on green roof installations in
the Northeast indicates that they retain 50% or more
of annual rainfall,22 and can add 3 hours to the time
it takes runoff to leave a roof.23 An intensive 7,000
square-foot green roof on top of Hackensack UMC's
John Theurer Cancer Center in Hackensack, NJ,
retains up to 90% of summertime precipitation and
40% of wintertime precipitation.24
In addition, green roof installations can help
neutralize the effects of acid rain, which is a problem
in Northeastern states such as New Jersey.22
Recent research has also shown that green roofs
have the capability to sequester large amounts of
carbon. Replacing traditional roofing materials in an
urban area of about one million people, for example,
would capture more than 55,000 tons of carbon --
the same effect as removing more than 10,000 mid-
sized SUVs or trucks off the road a year.25

Several factors can influence the costs of green
roofs. These include whether the project involves
a retrofit or is new construction, the type of green
roof (extensive versus intensive), accessibility,
maintenance requirements, and market maturity.
The installation cost for extensive green roofs range
from $10.30 to $12.50 more per square foot than
a conventional black roof, while intensive green
roof costs range from $16.20 to $19.70 more per
square foot than a conventional black roof. Annual
maintenance costs are generally $0.21 to $0.31
more per square foot than a conventional black roof.
However, the average life expectancy of a green
roof is more than twice that of a traditional one.
And, when adding in the monetary benefits derived
from stormwater runoff reductions, energy savings,
improved real estate values, and community
improvements, a recent report by the General
Services Administration determined that the money
invested into installing a green roof of 3-6" in depth
                               can be recouped
                                                                                 within about 6.4
                                                                                 years for a 5,000
                                                                                 sq. ft. installation,
                                                                                 and 6.2 years for
                                                                                 a 10,000 sq.ft.
Above: Close-up of an extensive green roof atop of the newly constructed Rutgers dorm. Such
systems can significantly extend the amount of time it takes for water to leave a site.
                                                                               Camden, NJ  11

Green infrastructure technology is continuously evolving
as engineers, designers, and landscape architects
find new, creative ways to integrate the concepts of
sustainability into urban landscapes. Green walls, also
know as biowalls, living walls, and vertical gardens, are
one such evolving technology.

While the idea of having greenery growing up a
building or retaining wall is not new, coupling it with
ways to ensure improved stormwater uptake, improve
air quality, and provide additional community benefits
is. Researchers such as those at the University of
Washington (see image below) are experimenting with
ways to improve their utility and ease of maintenance.

Green walls can be designed to help slow down and
absorb stormwater, clean the air, modify micro-climates,
and add beauty to a garden or living space. When
designed without soil, cisterns placed higher than the
top of the growing medium can help provide a constant
supply of water.
     Green Wall will
     prcvFde vertical
        habilat and
   increase building
     The Green Wall 
     K designed on
    a manual pulley
    system lor ease
    in research and
   Irom the adjacent
          A Water
  Harvesting System
  will capture, reuse
    and cleanse roof
    runoff for use in
     the Green Wall
Just as green roofs can reduce the strains on combined
sewer systems by slowly releasing stormwater over
time, this delay in runoff is also considered a benefit of
green wall technology. Research has yet to quantify the
runoff  reduction benefits of green walls,26 but preliminary
studies suggest that these systems can retain as much
as 45 to 75% of a given rain event.27

Recently published research on the air quality
benefits of green walls in urbanized areas is also very
compelling. In high-density areas, it is not uncommon
for the height of buildings on either side of a street to be
twice the width of a road or more. When this happens,
air flow is restricted, and air pollution can become
trapped in  the "street canyon." The strategic placement
of green walls with street trees and other greenery,
however, can reduce air pollution (e.g., nitrogen oxide
and  paniculate matter) by up to 30%, proving to be a
more cost-efficient measure than other strategies that
are currently employed.28
             Solar panels will
             be installed in
             phase II to offset
             100% of electrical
             needs for the
             An Edible Green
             Screen will explore
             1he efficacy ol
             verlical surfaces to
             support local food
             The existing
             garden below will
             provide sealing
             tor reflection
             and restoration
             opportunities with
             vertical nature
Left: A concept design for
a recently unveiled green
wall at the University of
Washington College of
Built Environment's Green
Futures Lab to study more
efficient methods in plant
growth, water circulation,
and biodiversity. The upper
wall was planted with 80 to
85% native species, and the
lower wall with about 50%
native plants. Temperature
systems were installed to
track the wall's temperature
and measure energy
efficiency, and throughout
winter months, the wall will
be irrigated via a rooftop
water cistern. A crank-and-
pulley system allows for
easier maintenance.
  12  Green Infrastructure Design Handbook


Above: A temporary green wall was installed by the popular Shake Shack as their recently-opened Philadelphia Shack
was undergoing construction in its Rittenhouse Square neighborhood. In addition, several permanent green walls can be
spotted throughout Philadelphia.
In general, the cost to design and install a green
wall can range from $100 to $175 per sq. ft.,
depending on the complexity of the system and plant
materials chosen. Maintenance requirements and
costs also vary by system. However, these costs
must  be weighed against the monetary benefits
associated with improved air quality, reduced energy
consumption (green walls can reduce surface
energy use by 23% in the summer), reduced noise
pollution, and reduced stormwater runoff.29

These systems are equally viable for use in interior
settings in combination with a rainwater capture and
filtration system, and can serve to add greenery
without taking up valuable floor space. In the U.S.,
where retail and office space average $25.50 per
sq. ft., dedicating 35 sq. ft. of wall space is much
cheaper on an annual basis than dedicating the
same amount of floor space to indoor plants,30
while also providing a more stunning backdrop and
allowing for the integration of stormwater reuse
                                                                                Camden, NJ  13

    ownspout  Disconnection
A downspout is a pipe that carries rainwater off of
rooftops. Some downspouts drain into yards or other
vegetated surfaces. Other downspouts drain directly
onto paved surfaces or are piped into stormwater inlets.
Even during very short rains, downspouts that flow
onto pavement and/or directly into stormwater inlets
contribute to sewer overflows. When the sewer system
fills up with rainwater, sewage overflows into the
nearest local waterway.

Downspout disconnection reconfigures rooftop drainage
to flow into vegetated areas, rather than flowing into
pipes or paved areas.  Discouraging or eliminating
direct connections  of impervious areas to stormdrains
is a simple yet effective green infrastructure practice
that is applicable to a wide variety of site conditions
and development designs. By directing downspouts
into rain barrels, water can be stored and used later
for irrigation. When directed to rain gardens or other
pervious areas, increased infiltration will result.
To ensure effectiveness and to minimize possible
problems such as building or street flooding, close
attention must be paid to site drainage patterns. This
practice is not well  suited to properties when cracks
                               disconnected for
                              healthier streams
Above: A disconnected downspout flows into a stormwater
planter. Left: Due to the relative ease in which a downspout
disconnection program can be developed, several cities like
Gresham, OR, have encouraged downspout disconnections as
part of a community outreach campaign to promote better on-
site stormwater management.

exist in basement walls and/or lawn area is not available
or properly graded. In these instances, other toolbox
practices, such as rain barrels and cisterns, could be an

Typically costing less than $15 per downspout,
downspout disconnections are very inexpensive and
can be implemented on a large-scale relatively easily.
In Portland, OR, the city disconnected downspouts on
more than 26,000 properties,  removing more than 1.2
billion gallons of stormwater from its combined sewer
annually.31 In Detroit, Ml, modeling extrapolated from
a pilot project indicate that a city-wide downspout
disconnection program there would result in reducing
annual combined  sewer volumes by 2 billion gallons.32
  14 Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

                                            Cistern/Rain  Barrel
Rain barrels and cisterns are cost efficient, easy
to maintain features that have applications in
residential, commercial and industrial settings. By
capturing stormwater from the rooftop and storing it
on site, large-scale systems can help reduce runoff
volumes and velocity, protecting delicate watersheds
and aquatic life. To be most effective, they should be
completely dewatered between rain events.

Rain barrels and cisterns hold water that is free
of most sediment and dissolved salts, making the
stored water perfect for landscape irrigation. These
systems help reduce a building's overall potable
water usage while capturing rain water for reuse.

An average-sized rain barrel can hold 55 gallons
and costs between $90 - $120. However, for a
20x25 sq. ft. roof, a 1" rain may produce more than
300 gallons of water, which would fill most barrels
4-5 times.33 Cisterns are typically used in more
commercial applications. Cisterns can hold as much
as 10,000 gallons of rainwater and can be stored
either above or below grade. Because of their large
size, cisterns can offset a significant proportion of
a building's water use. As their use has increased,
some residential builders have begun offering
cisterns as well. The cost of a cistern can range from
                     several hundred to several
                     thousand dollars, depending
                     on the size and type.34
                                                                    Above: A rain barrel installed
                                                                    in the City ofCamden. Left:
                                                                    Rendering of a cistern in
                                                                    an upcoming mixed use
                                                                    development in Seattle, WA.
                                                                    The water collected will be used
                                                                    for irrigation, and is expected
                                                                    to reduce the building's water
                                                                    usage by 35%, as compared to a
                                                                    typical building.
                                                                           Camden, NJ  15

Bioretention  System
Bioretention systems are green infrastructure practices
that use a combination of vegetation, such as trees,
shrubs, and grasses, planted in a specialized soil bed to
slow down, collect, and filter stormwater runoff. Runoff
is directed into bioretention systems either as overland
flow or through a stormwater drainage system. When
configured as a basin, bioretention systems are most
commonly referred to as rain gardens. Bioretention
basins are designed to collect water and give it time to
infiltrate into the  ground or evapotranspirate into the air.
Alternatively, a bioretention  system can be constructed
directly in a drainage channel or swale. Bioretention
swales differ from basins in  that they are designed more
as conveyance treatment devices, not storage devices.

Because of their relatively small footprint and flexible
design features,  bioretention systems can easily fit
into an urban landscape or other areas where space
is limited. Bioretention basins are just as applicable in
residential settings as they are in  commercial, industrial,
and street settings. Bioretention swales, are less likely
to be found in residential settings, unless used in the
design of a large, multi-family dwelling, and more likely
Above: Bioretention basins (i.e., rain gardens) allow rain and
snowmelt to seep naturally into the ground while also providing
visually appealing landscaping. Below: Water from the roof of
a rowhouse in downtown DC is directed towards a backyard
rain garden/bioretention basin.
                                                                    to be found in parking lots or along
                                                                    streets or sidewalks.

                                                                    Bioretention systems can remove
                                                                    a wide range of pollutants from
                                                                    stormwater runoff, including
                                                                    suspended solids, nutrients, metals,
                                                                    hydrocarbons, and bacteria. They
                                                                    can also be used to slow water down
                                                                    to reduce peak runoff rates.12  In
                                                                    areas where infiltration is not desired
                                                                    due to a high water table or where
                                                                    adjacent soils are contaminated,
                                                                    both systems can be designed with
                                                                    an underdrain to move excess water
                                                                    into a conventional storm sewer pipe.

                                                                    In addition to their numerous
                                                                    stormwater management benefits,
                                                                    other benefits associated with
                                                                    bioretention systems include
  16  Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

reduced urban heat island effect, reduced
downstream erosion and sedimentation, and
improved community aesthetics. Many other green
infrastructure techniques such as vegetated curb
extensions and tree planters are based off of this
structural best management practice.

Installation and maintenance costs for bioretention
systems vary depending on the site preparation
required and the plants selected. Residential
systems generally average $3 to $4 per sq. ft.,
depending on soil conditions and the density and
types of plants used. Commercial, industrial, and
institutional site costs can range between $10
to $40 per sq. ft., based on the need for control
structures, curbing, storm drains, and underdrains.
Those landscaping expenses that would be
required regardless of the bioretention installation
should be subtracted when determining the net
cost. Additionally, the use of bioretention systems
can decrease the costs required for constructing
traditional storm water conveyance systems at
a site and reduce the public burden to maintain
large centralized
Above: A bioretention swale filters rainwater in a shopping
center parking lot. Below: A bioretention swale in an urban
park setting.
                                                                                Camden, NJ  17

Street trees are one of the most economical green
infrastructure practices available. In a study of
urban street trees in Minneapolis, MN, it was
estimated that the average street tree intercepts
1,685 gallons of stormwater.35 Urban trees
intercept stormwater in their canopies, improve air
quality, reduce the urban heat island effect, and
improve neighborhood aesthetic. In addition, a
study of street trees in nearby Philadelphia found
that they can raise a house's value up to 9% and
increase the time shoppers spend in stores by

More important than the number of street trees is
the size and composition of the soil area which
allows for proper tree growth. In urban areas,
the size potential and stormwater benefit of trees
are often limited by densely compacted soils and
confined growing areas.
                                            estimated crown spread -
                                              30 feel diameter
   estimated crown spread -
  Soil Volume = 120 cubic feet
                    Soil Volume = 500 cubic feet
                                        Soil Volume = 1000 cubic feet
Above: As the potential growing medium increases (soil volume), the
tree size over time can be greatly enhanced.
For urban trees to reach their full maturity, trees need
1 to 2 ft3 of soil volume for every square foot of crown
area spread. However, a typical urban street tree only
       has about 120 cubic feet of available soil, restricting its
       tree canopy spread to 10 ft. before it begins to decline.
       By expanding tree spaces to allow for 500 ft3 of soil,
       the same tree canopy can grow more than 20 ft. Even
       larger soil volumes will yield larger trees.37
                                                                                While costs vary, an average
                                                                                Camden street tree costs
                                                                                approx.  $500 to plant. Triple
                                                                                bottom line analyses show
                                                                                that the  value of the benefits
                                                                                provided by street trees
                                                                                compares favorably to their
                                                                                cost. For example, a Los
                                                                                Angeles, CA, study found
                                                                                that one tree produces a
                                                                                $2.80 return on investment
                                                                                in energy savings,  pollution
                                                                                reduction, stormwater
                                                                                management, and  increased
                                                                                property values ,38

                                                                                Left: Street trees along Riverside
                                                                                Dr. near  the Aquarium in Camden
                                                                                provide multiple benefits. However,
                                                                                the root growth area  (RGA) is
                                                                                limited. Increasing RGAs will allow
                                                                                for trees to reach a larger size at
                                                                                maturity, further increasing benefits.
       Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

                                        Stormwater  Planters
Stormwater planters, also known as infiltration or
flow-through planters, are a type of bioretention
system that is adapted to fit into "containers" within
urban landscapes. Integrated into tree boxes or
urban landscaping planters, Stormwater planters
collect Stormwater from pavement  (mostly sidewalk
and roads) and filter it through a bioretention system
to treat pollutants such as excess nutrients, heavy
metals, oil, and grease. Treated Stormwater is then
either infiltrated into the ground (infiltration  planters)
or discharged into a conventional storm sewer pipe
(flow-through planters), where infiltration is not

Stormwater planters have a small footprint  and
are often rectangular. With their hard edges and
concrete sides, they can easily be  incorporated
into street retrofits or built to fit between driveways,
utilities, trees and other existing constraints. These
systems can be used in conjunction with permeable
pavement and curb extensions to create a  green
street that significantly reduces overall Stormwater
runoff. Stormwater planters also help to provide
greenery, improve air quality, and reduce the urban
heat island effect.

A Stormwater planter can be expected to last about
25 years. Installation costs vary on the planter's
size, materials and plants used, and whether or not
an underdrain is required. For a 500 sq. ft. planter,
however, a simple estimate would  be $4,000, or $8
per sq. ft., with annual maintenance costs of $400.39
Stormwater planters are often less expensive
to install and maintain than more conventional
Stormwater management facilities.40
Above: Cross-section of Stormwater planter.
Right: Stormwater planters along Rockville Pike in
Rockville, MD.
                                                                          Camden, NJ  19

Vegetated  Curb  Extensions
Curb extensions are a type of traffic calming device
that serve to narrow the roadway width. When modified
to incorporate stormwater treatment into their design,
they are capable of filtering and infiltrating all of the
stormwater from the street on which they are located.
Stormwater flowing down the street is directed towards
the curb extension, where it is filtered and infiltrated in a
vegetated area.
Vegetated curb extensions are ideal retrofits for low to
medium density residential or commercial areas where
some loss of on-street parking is tolerable.

In addition to providing stormwater treatment and
traffic calming, vegetated curb extensions also help to
reduce the urban heat island effect, improve air quality,
and improve community aesthetics. They can also be
                                                 Above: Rendering of a curb bumpout along a residential street.
                                                 Left: Vegetated curb extension in Portland, OR. Below: Cut-
                                                 away of a curb bumpout with permeable pavers on sidewalk.
combined with mid-block crossings to further increase
pedestrian safety when crossing streets. In areas where
on-street parking is at a premium, smaller vegetated
curb extensions that are spaced more frequently can
minimize parking loss to any individual property.

Curb extensions are appropriate where on-street
parking lanes already exist.  The cost of a curb
extensions, which can range from $2,000 to $20,000,
depends largely on the design and existing site
condition, with drainage usually being most significant
  20  Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

                                                     ermeable  Paving
Permeable pavement comes in many varieties, but
the most common include open grid and interlocking
pavers, porous concrete, and asphalt. Permeable
pavement provides the same load-bearing support
as conventional pavement and is good for walking,
biking, and parking areas, and for driving on low- to
moderately-trafficked streets. Permeable pavement
is specially designed to allow stormwater to infiltrate
through the pavement to an underground storage
basin or exfiltrate into the ground and recharge the
water table.

Permeable pavement is ideal for planting trees in
a paved environment because they allow adjacent
trees to receive more air and water, while still
permitting full use of the pavement. Because they
are light in color and have an open-cell structure,
they also  help to reduce the urban heat-island effect.
From a safety perspective, permeable pavements
are observed to reduce hydroplaning, and are
gaining popularity for use on highways and other
high-traffic areas.

Permeable pavement costs vary based on the site
conditions, design requirements, and type of paving
that is selected. The cost per sq. ft. (installed) can
vary from $0.50 to $10.00. When comparing the
costs of permeable versus conventional pavements,
                         Concrete Pavws
                               Feimeabls Joint Material
                                 Sedcting Course

                                  Open -graded
                                  Base Reservoir

                                     (as required)

                                 Optional Geotexlile
                            Uncompleted Subgrade Soil
Above: System Components of Permeable Interlocking
Concrete Pavement. The base layer is similar to those for
permeable pavers, porous asphalt, and pervious concrete.
Below: Pervious pavement in Portland, OR.
the costs of both the paving system and stormwater
management system should be considered. For
example, when costs for drains, reinforced concrete
pipes, catch basins, outfalls and stormwater
connects are included, an asphalt or conventional
concrete pavement can cost two times more than its
permeable alternative.42
                                                                            Camden, NJ  21

Applying Green  Infrastructure
Practices  within  the  City  of  Camden
As Camden redevelops, incorporating LID and
green infrastructure techniques will allow the City to
address stormwater runoff concerns while providing
additional environmental, social, and economic
benefits. This section provides examples of how
LID and green infrastructure can be interwoven into
development, redevelopment, and retrofit projects
within the Central and North Waterfront area.

Three case studies were selected to  represent
the range of urban development opportunities
considered representative of the area: Multi-
Residential Developments, Commercial
Developments, and Parking Lot Retrofits. First,
multi-residential and commercial development are
discussed by taking two case studies and identifying
both structural and landscape opportunities.
Structural opportunities focus on innovative ways
to reduce stormwater, energy, and resource
consumption within the building footprint. Landscape
opportunities look at ways to reduce stormwater
runoff from impervious surfaces, reduce the urban
heat island effect, and increase pedestrian safety
and connectivity.

Parking lot retrofits are divided into short-term and
long-term proposals. Short-term proposals focus
on projects that could be implemented quickly with

Parking Lot
Rain Barrel




Green Roof


Street Tree
Green Wall

22  Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

Multi-Family  Residential  Development
The  Meadows,  Phase  II
little investment. These projects are designed to be
implemented in parking lots slated for development
in 3-5 years time. Long-term proposals look at more
permanent parking lot improvements. These projects
are designed for parking lots slated for development
in 5+ or more years.

Three possible projects in the Camden Waterfront
area were chosen as case studies. The Meadows
(Phase II) at Pyne Poynt, which is an upcoming
multi-family residential development; the Coopers
Ferry Office development, which is an upcoming
commercial development, and lastly the Federal
Street surface parking lot, which is representative
of the existing parking lots within the Camden
Waterfront. It should be noted that these case  studies
were prepared solely to provide examples of how
green infrastructure could be incorporated into their
design. No developers were engaged in this process.

Multi - Family Residential Development:
The Meadows, Phase II

Multi-family residential and mixed residential
developments provide numerous opportunities
to integrate green infrastructure techniques  into
redevelopment projects within the Camden Waterfront
area. They also have the potential to target  both
management and residents in their greening efforts.

From the early planning stages, multi-family projects
can incorporate green roofs, green walls, permeable
pavements, and bioretention systems into the design.
Residents can step in and incorporate additional rain
gardens, rain barrels, and disconnect downspouts
depending on the type of development. The
following case study takes an upcoming multi-family
development scheduled for the Camden Waterfront
Area to showcase how green infrastructure  could
be incorporated into the project.  The following
discussion is solely conceptual in nature and is
intended to provide examples of how a planned
development project could be reconfigured to allow for
the incorporation of green infrastructure features.

In 2011, an affordable housing rental development
known as The Meadows at Pyne Point was developed
in a city block along North Camden Waterfront area's
Erie Street and bound by Fourth, Fifth and Byron
Streets. Just north of this development sits a two-city
block area that is expected to be the future location of
Meadows Phase II. The site, which is north of Byron
St. and bounded by N 4th St. on the west and N 6th
St. on the east  holds a prime location just south of
Pyne Poynt Park and the North Camden Waterfront.

Project Description

Completed in 2011, The Meadows at Pyne Point
was the first new construction component a robust
redevelopment of the North Camden neighborhood.
Currently, development is being planned for Pyne
Point II, and includes twelve townhouses on two
blocks with a community center and parking. The
site is currently adjacent to open space to the north.
The case study presented here considers how green
infrastructure could be incorporated by moving back
the current subdivision line to allow for 1 -2 more
blocks of development.

At  the north end of the newly proposed subdivision
line, the existing North Camden Neighborhood
Waterfront Park Plan (NCNWP) outlines an up and
coming new greenway trail, boat launch, fishing
pier and tidal wetland restoration area. The concept
design presented here envisions Meadows Phase II
project using the momentum from the NCNWP to help
showcase environmentally responsible development.

There are many possibilities for incorporating green
infrastructure into the Meadows Phase II site. In order
to break them down, the opportunities presented
here are divided into two categories: structural and
landscape opportunities. Structural opportunities
explore the potential to add green infrastructure within
the townhomes themselves; landscaping opportunities
identify how green infrastructure can be incorporated
into surrounding landscape, streets, and parking lots.
                                                                         Camden, NJ  23

     urn-Family  Residential  Development
                 Community Center:
                 Learning & Community Gardens
                 Green Roof
                 Pervious Pavements

The sketch at
right identifies
several structural
opportunities to
incorporate green
features within the
Meadows Phase
II townhomes.
These include
an accessible
green roof and
an underground

Besides the
many stormwater
benefits that
a green roof
would provide,
an accessible
green roof
would provide
additional outdoor space for residents while helping
to further insulate the building, reduce the urban
Tree Box Filter
                              Existing Meadows
                Above: Upcoming developments such as Meadows at Pyne Point II offer many opportunities to
                integrate green infrastructure features. This concept sketch adds green features to the existing plan.
                Options include adding a green roof and an cistern to the building and integrating rain gardens,
                permeable pavement, and vegetated curb extensions within the landscape and along the street.
                                              heat island affect, and increase long-term property
                                              values.  In addition, a recent (2005) study on air
                                              toxics in the Camden Waterfront South Neighborhood
                                              recommended the vegetating of vacant lots to
                                              address the large amount of airborne paniculate
                                              matter in the Waterfront area. A large, vegetated
                                              green roof would provide similar benefits.

                                              In conjunction with the green roof, excess water that
                                              would typically be piped to the storm sewer could
                                              be collected in the basement of the  structures to be
                                              reused for gray water uses. These uses can include
                                              irrigation or indoor uses such as flushing, or heat
Above: Canal Park in Washington DC connects across
several streets. Using a colored paver in the roadway
helps slow traffic and encourage foot traffic.
  24  Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

                                          e  Meadows,  Phase  II
Above: Community centers such as this one in North Carolina provide multiple opportunities to showcase green
infrastructure features, including a green roof, rain gardens to capture roof runoff, and permeable pavement.
Incorporating features such as these in development projects adjacent to the North Camden Neighborhood
Waterfront Park master plan area are vital for completing the City's vision for North Camden's future: a community
reconnected to the river, with signficant volumes of housing nestled between a revitalized core and a green ribbon of
parkland along its length.
Landscaping Opportunities

Outside of the townhomes, the streetscape and
parking lots offer many opportunities to incorporate
green infrastructure and LID. In order to enhance
stormwater uptake on-site, permeable pavements
should be utilized wherever possible. In parking lots
and on street parking strips, permeable pavements
can be installed to infiltrate and store stormwater,
and light colored pavements can help reflect heat
and reduce the urban heat island effect. Sidewalks
and plazas can also be retrofitted with permeable

Vegetated curb extensions along North 5th Street
would serve to reduce vehicle speed and crossing
distance while also infiltrating stormwater and
reducing demand on the storm sewer network. It is
suggested that the section of North 5th Street that
separates  Phase II be at-grade and constructed of
different material to encourage slower traffic  and
improve pedestrian connectivity. The community
center at the corner of Erie Street and N. 5th Street
should have a strong connection with the open
space across N. 5th Street as well as the lots

Open space between the townhomes and parking
also provides opportunities for installing rain
gardens. These would serve to help infiltrate
stormwater that may not be captured by the green
roofs, rain barrels, or permeable pavements.
                                                                           Camden, NJ  25

    ommercial  Developmen
                                                            tu tit mi
                                                            in 111111 
     : Tnis Green WaZZ af PJVC's Headquarters in Pittsburgh is the largest in the US.
Like multi-family and mixed residential developments,
commercial provide numerous opportunities to integrate
green infrastructure techniques into development, and
are a common land use in the Camden Waterfront area.
Conventional commercial developments are rarely
designed with rain capturing islands or other low impact
features in mind. The following case study shows how
such features could be incorporated into an upcoming
development to improve stormwater uptake and provide
additional triple bottom line benefits.
                               Project  Description

                               Located among the
                               waterfront's many cultural
                               destinations and a growing
                               center of commerce, the
                               existing building proposal
                               does a good job integrating
                               green features into its
                               design. Opportunities for
                               integrating additional green
                               infrastructure practices into
                               the building proposal are
                               broken into structural and
                               landscape opportunities.
                               Structural opportunities are
                               focused on recommendations
                               to incorporate green
                               infrastructure techniques
                               into the office complex
                               building design. Landscape
                               opportunities focus on
                               additional streetscape
          elements for the office complex site, as well as
          opportunities to incorporate green infrastructure
          within the larger development. Based off the
          architectural standards guide developed by Urban
          Design Associates, the existing designs could easily
          be retrofitted to allow for green infrastructure to be
          seamlessly integrated.

This case study focuses on an upcoming
Coopers Ferry Partnership Office (CFPO)
development in the Waterfront Area. The
proposed CFPO building sits inside of
Aquarium Loop, off of Riverside Drive,
between an entertainment attraction and
vacant development site.
                   Evapotranspi ration
Landscape Irrigation
Internal Gray Water
                                                                              Sanitary Sewer
  26  Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

                                               Coopers  Ferry
        DI ev? build-up depend*
        an the wind load frtIndian*.
        building height, trrjil>
        cslejoiY. distance 1o Ihe
        *dg, dy weight of th
        substrate ind module siiei
        pursuant loOptljreen
Olh- standard i
Fin* retiatttkli.
Dlhe*Sun Root "product
*(*mnl ilibllls* d by "root
stiffener*". Th*jren tool
build-up provides A
superimposed load to
counteract tiling through
wind fore- fh **!' (wwr
modules are held set i^rery rr
D R.nnwjter is conducted
undeineath Ih modules by
OO K suction mtUipilljty
fleece (wofks c-n counter
alop^i of up ta 5 %): pro-
vides watet Jo (he plants
and cooling through evapo-
                                                                             PICTURE OTPIGRONAC
Structural Opportunities

The current designs for the office complex provide
outdoor seating, balconies and ample light to the
office space.  The following structural opportunities
identify ways to improve stormwater uptake while
providing additional benefits. Additionally, the
Above: The existing proposal includes ample outdoor space,
providing multiple opportunities to incorporate GI and LID.
         project could consider incorporating
         green energy concepts such as photovoltaic cells
         or solar panels to supplement building power
         usage and further the goal of improving the overall
         environment of the Camden Waterfront while serving
         as a leader in promoting innovative technologies.
            Green Roof and Underground Cisterns
            The location of the office complex lends itself
            to dramatic views of the Delaware River,
            Philadelphia,  Benjamin Franklin Bridge,
            and downtown Camden. Economic benefits
            associated with green roofs include real estate
            benefits (higher rent, value), reduced energy
            costs, and reduced roof replacement period.

            The proposed roof system will provide open
            space for seating, as well as green space. Sloped
            up to the edges of the roof, the landscape will
            hide the walls, giving the illusion of open space.
                                                                                  Camden, NJ  27

Above: Infiltration tree boxes at Canal Park in Washington
DC blend in with the existing streetscape. Security edging
and curb cuts blend seamlessly into the street profile.

The decking will sit above the green roof allowing water
to pass through to roof drains that will collect the excess
runoff and fill cisterns located in the basement of the
building. The water captured in these cisterns could
be used to  irrigate the surrounding landscape or flush
toilets and other internal gray water uses. A small rain
barrel on the roof could capture water from the building
core (elevators, stairs,  etc.) and be used to water plants
located on the roof.

Landscape Opportunities
Landscape features include everything outside the
building envelope. From sidewalks to parking spaces,
the landscape provides the most opportunity for LID and
Above: Permeable pavers blend in with existing brick. A
thick grout/gravel line is the only discernible difference.

extensions, parallel parking, low traffic lanes, sidewalk,
open space, and street trees; all of which can be
retrofitted to address stormwater runoff.

Vegetated curb extensions and  infiltration planters are
easy retrofit projects that can blend with the proposed
street character. In the Coopers Crossing Pattern Book,
security edges are already proposed for street tree
The Aquarium Loop provides a great case study for Gl
and LID in the Camden area. The street provides curb
Above: Proposed tree boxes outlined in the Cooper's Crossing
Pattern Book already provide security edging.
  28  Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

Outdoor Space
Above: Rendering of a green roof atop the proposed Cooper's Ferry Partnership Office.
In locations where infiltration planters or vegetated
curb extensions are not needed, street trees should
be provided to increase the urban tree canopy,
reduce the urban heat island effect, and to provide
a more hospitable street environment. Ample soil
space (volume) should be given so that trees can
grow quickly, and to a sizable canopy. Street trees
can infiltrate stormwater even when not fed through
a curb extension.

Permeable pavements can be utilized in the street
and the sidewalk to improve stormwater infiltration.
Permeable pavement systems include permeable
concrete, asphalt, and permeable concrete pavers.

Permeable concrete pavers come in many sizes,
shapes, and colors,  making them the perfect fit
for this project. The sidewalks in the Cooper's
Ferry development are brick and, in places where
infiltration is  possible, red colored permeable pavers
could be used so that the street character remains
consistent throughout.

Crosswalks in conjunction with curb extensions
provide space where permeable pavements can
                    be used. Providing a different colored material and/
                    or a raised surface in crosswalks reduces crossing
                    distance and vehicle speed, improving pedestrian
                                                                               Camden, NJ  29

    arking  Lot  Retrofit
Numerous surface parking lots exist within the Central
Camden Waterfront. In the long-term, these provide
the City with tremendous redevelopment opportunities.
However, it is not expected that surface parking would
ever be removed completely. The following examples
provide both short-term and long-term opportunities to
incorporate green infrastructure practices into surface
parking areas.


The Federal Street parking lot is located between
Federal Street and Dr. Martin Luther King Boulevard.
The parking lot is only accessible from Federal Street
and is a private lot.

Project  Descri ption

The Federal Street Surface Parking lot was chosen
to explore potential short- and long-term solutions to
reduce runoff  from Camden's surface parking lots.  As
redevelopment continues, it is expected that some will
convert to buildings in the next 10 years. For these,
only less expensive LID techniques are recommended.
Other parking lots will likely remain. Potential solutions
are broken down into less expensive, short-term fixes
and more expensive, long-term solultions.
Above: This parking lot in Berkley, CA provides solar panels,
permeable pavements and landscaping.

Short-term solutions focus on low cost projects that
improve stormwater runoff, increase efficiency and
reduce impervious surface within 3-5 years. Long-term
solutions provide increased benefits and are designed
to last for 10+ years.

Short Term
There are multiple opportunities for increasing the
stormwater benefits of existing  lots while reducing the
Above: The Federal St. surface parking lot, in its current
layout. Short and long-term options include taking
advantage of the lot's size and wide yard fronting the street.
Above: These thermal camera shots shows the temperatures
on a light colored pavement parking lot vs. asphalt and
surrounding landscapes.
  30 Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

           ederal  Street  Surface  Parking  Lo
operational cost of the parking lot. In lots that are
underutilized, one cost effective measure is to
remove excess parking spaces. This helps improve
stormwater conditions by reducing the amount of
impervious surface. This could  be combined with
re-striping the lot to allow for angled parking that
maximize efficiency of the existing spaces.

Another alternative is to add green infrastructure
features along the street. For example, for the
Federal Street lot, where development is set back
from Dr. Martin Luther King Boulevard, rain gardens
or bioswales could be installed  along the boulevard
to intercept stormwater. These  features could
also include vegetated curb extensions, infiltration
planters or permeable pavements in the sidewalk.

Long-term solutions encompass all of the short
term solutions but incorporate some practices that
demand more robust  design and construction.
Parking lots can provide multiple community
services. Long-term surface parking lots, for the
purposes of this report, are defined as lasting 10
years or more.

One of the most dramatic ways to reduce impervious
surface and treat stormwater in a surface parking
lot is to convert asphalt to permeable pavers.
Above: Parking lot stormwater system utilizing
permeable pavement, street trees, and bioretention.
Above: Permeable parking spaces at the Navy Yard in
Washington DC.

There are several ways that this can be done.
Permeable parking bays, permeable strips, or whole
lot permeable pavers are just a few. Based on the
size of the Federal Street parking lot (roughly two
acres), it is recommended that the parking bays
be converted to permeable pavement. Leaving the
aisles as asphalt would reduce rutting and provide
a clear distinction between drive ways and parking

Much like the streetscape, strategically placing
shade trees in a parking lot is an effective green
infrastructure measure. Parking lots in the City of
Camden produce tremendous amount of runoff and
heat.  It is recommended that, after every ten car
spaces, there be a street tree and landscape island.

Lastly, in lots where tree cover is not an option, solar
systems can be installed as car canopies to reduce
in-car temperatures and produce energy for local
businesses or to power street lighting.
                                                                         Camden, NJ 31

1.  United States Environmental Protection Agency
   (2011) Keeping Raw Sewage and Contaminated
   Water Out of the Public's Water. Retrieved from www. .pdf.

2.  Pataki, D.E., M.M. Carreiro, J. Cherrier, N.E. Grulke,
   V. Jennings, S. Pincetl, et al. (2011). Coupling biogeo-
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3.  Elkington, J. (1994) Towards the Sustainable
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4.  United States Environmental Protection Agency
   (2011) Why Green Infrastructure? Last updated
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5.  United States Environmental Protection Agency
   (2012). Fine Particle (PM2.5) Designations. Retrieved
   designations/index.htm. Last upated on 10/23/2012.

6.  New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
   (2005) Camden Waterfront South Air Toxics Pilot
   Project: Final Report.

7.  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007)
   Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, www.ipcc.

8.  Kreeger, D., J. Adkins, P.  Cole, R. Najjar,  D. Velinsky,
   P. Conolly,  and J. Kraeuter (2010) Climate Change
   and the Delaware Estuary: Three Case Studies in
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9.  Gill, S.E., J.F. Handley, A.R. Ennos and S. Pauleit
   (2007) Adapting Cities for Climate Change: The Role
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   (2008) Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of

11. Stephens, D.B., M. Miller, S.J. Moore, T. Umstot
   and Salvato, D.J. (2012) Decentralized Groundwater
   Recharge Systems Using Roofwater and Stormwater
   Runoff. JAWRA Journal of the American Water
   Resources Association, Vol. 48, Issue 1.

12. New Jersey Department of Environmental  Protection
   (2009) New Jersey Stormwater Best Management
   Practices Manual (Apr 2004, Revised Sep 2009).
   Retrieved from:

13. District of Columbia Office of Planning (2011) New
   York Avenue Green Infrastructure Assessment.

14. Transportation for America (2011) Dangerous
   by Design: Solving the Epidemic of  Preventable
   Pedestrian Deaths. Transportation for America:
   Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://t4america. org/
   docs/dbd2011/Dangerous-by-Design-2011 .pdf.

15. Lorenzo, A.B., and D. Wims (2004)  Do Designed
   Landscapes Deter Crime? Proceedings of the Florida
   State Horticultural Society.

16. Donovan, G.H, and J.P. Prestemon (2012) The Effect
   of Trees on Crime in Portland, Oregon. Environment
   and Behavior Vol. 44, Issue 1.

17. Brunson, L, F.E. Kuo and W.C. Sullivan (2001)
   Resident Appropriation of Defensible Space in Public
   Housing: Implications for Safety and Community.
   Environment and Behavior, Vol. 33, Issue  5.

18. United States Environmental Protection Agency
   (2007) Reducing Stormwater Costs through Low
   Impact Development (LID) Strategies and  Practices.

19. Donovan, G.H. and D.T. Butry (2010) Trees in the
   city. Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 94.
  32 Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

20. Trust for Public Lands (TPL) (2009) Measuring
   the Economic Value of a City Park System.

21. Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission
   (2012) City of Camden Access Study.

22. United States Environmental Protection Agency
   (2009) Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff

23. General Services Administration (2011) The
   Benefits and Challenges of Green Roofs on
   Public and Commercial Buildings.

24. United States Environmental Protection Agency
   (2012) Hackensack University Medical Center
   Environmental Assessment: MOU SemiAnnual

25. Getter, Kristin L, D. Bradley Rowe, G. Philip
   Robertson, Bert M. Cregg and Jeffrey A.
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   of Extensive Green Roofs. Environmental
   Science & Technology, Vol 43, Issue 19.

26. Loh, S. (2008) Living Walls-A way to green the
   built environment,  BEDP Environment Design

27. Laband, D.N., ed.  (2010) Proceedings of
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28. Pugh, T.A.M., A.R. MacKenzie, J.D. Whyatt
   and C.N. Hewitt (2012) Effectiveness of Green
   Infrastructure for Improvement of Air Quality in
   Urban Street Canyons, Environmental Science
   and Technology, Vol. 46.

29. American Society  of Landscape Architects (2011)
   Green Infrastructure (Updated 2011). Retrieved

30. Irwin, G. (2009) Green Walls and Indoor Air
   Quality, The Green Walls Column. Retrieved

31. Garrison, N., K. Hobbs, A. Berzins, E. Clifton, L.
   Levine and R. Hamner (2011) Rooftops to Rivers
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32. Salim, I., M. Rabbaig, M. Grazioli, A. Igwe and
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   Stormwater Alternatives: Rain Barrels. Retrieved

34. Fairfax County, VA (2008) Residential
   Low Impact Landscaping Workshop, www.

35. E.G. McPherson, J.R. Simpson, P.J. Peper,
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36. Wachter, S.M. and K.C. Gillen (2006) Public
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37. Casey Trees (2008) Tree Space Design: Growing
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38. Next Great City (2007) Next Great City
                                                                              Camden, NJ  33

 References (cont.)

 39. Low Impact Development Center (LIDC) (2005)
    Low Impact Development for Big Box Retailers,
    Prepared Under EPA Assistance Agreement #

 40. Portland Environmental Services (2006)
    Infiltration Planters. WS 0603.

 41. United States Department of Transportation
    (USDOT) (No date) Selecting Pedestrian Safety
    Improvements: Curb Extensions. Retrieved from:

 42. Low Impact Development Center (2007) Urban
    Design Tools: Permeable Pavers. Retrieved
34 Green Infrastructure Design Handbook

                                                                 Photo  Credits
We gratefully acknowledge the following people and organizations for the use of their images. Every effort
has been made to trace and contact the original copyright holders. If there are any inadvertent omissions, we
apologize to those concerned and ask that you contact us so that we can correct any oversight as soon as
possible. Any such inquiries should be directed to the Low Impact Development Center. Contact information is
provided at the front this handbook. All other photos or images on these pages are copyright  The Low Impact
Development Center.
 Page  Credit

 Cover  Image courtesy of US EPA
     2  Image courtesy of the Geraldine R. Dodge
     3  Image courtesy of Hounddiggity under a
        Creative Commons license
     6  Image courtesy of Boneau
     9  Image courtesy of Cooper's Ferry
    10  Top image courtesy of AECOM. Bottom
        image courtesy Progressive Times
        WordPress Blog.
    11  Image courtesy of the Rutgers Housing and
        Residence Life
    12  Image courtesy of Green Futures Lab,
        University of Washington
    13  Image courtesy of Mickey Pascarella
    14  Top image from the US EPA; bottom image
        courtesy of the City of Gresham, OR.
    15  Top image courtesy of the Cooper's Ferry
        Partnership; bottom image courtesy of Studio
    16  Top image courtesy of the Cooper's Ferry
        Partnership; bottom image courtesy of Moody
        Landscape Architecture.
    17  Bottom image courtesy of LPA Inc./Costea
        Photography, Inc.
    18  Top image courtesy of Casey Trees; bottom
        image courtesy of the Cooper's Ferry
    20  Middle left photo courtesy of Environmental
        Services, City of Portland, Oregon
Page  Credit

    21   Top image courtesy of the Interlocking
        Concrete Pavement Institute
    24  Bottom image courtesy of Jacqueline
    25  Image courtesy of Lisa Wagner
    26  Top image courtesy of Lucy Wang
    27  Top image courtesy of Optigreen System
        Solutions; bottom image courtesy of Coopers
        Ferry Partnership
    28  Top right image courtesy of Cooper's Ferry
        Partnership; bottom right image courtesy of
        Coopers Crossing
    30  Top right image courtesy of Bayer; bottom
        left image courtesy of Google Earth; bottom
        right image courtesy of Steve Mclntyre
                                                                               Camden, NJ  35


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