Endnotes for a Glance at Clean Freight

            Shipper Strategies
&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency

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               Endnotes  for a Glance at Clean Freight
                            Shipper Strategies
                             Transportation and Climate Division
                            Office of Transportation and Air Quality
                            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
&EPA
United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
EPA-420-B-16-041
January 2016

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           martWay*
        MENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 
 U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Idle  Reduction for Shippers
A Glance at Clean Freight Strategies

   ENDNOTES & RESOURCES
   (Endnotes)
   1    Consumer Reports, August 2014. http://www.consumerreports.0rg/cro/2012/1 1/average-gas-prices/index.htm
   2    Ross Somerville, Cummins Western Canada, Idling Myths: How Much is Enough? Presentation at Idle Free B.C. Idling Reduction
       and Green Fleets Workshop, March 3, 2006. http://www.idlefreebc.ca/2006Presentations/1 .RossSomervile-ldlingmyths.pdf
       Note: Despite the age of the presentation, and changes in diesel engine technology in the interim, the reasons why drivers idle
       their engines are valid today.
   3    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Greenhouse Gas Emissions
       Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles; Final Rule. Sept. 1 5, 201 1 .
       Federal Register, Vol. 76, No. 179, p. 57153
       U.S. EPA, Health Assessment Document for Diesel Engine Exhaust. 2002. p. 1 -3 http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/dieselfinal.pdf
   5    U.S. Government Accountability Office, Report to the Ranking Member, Subcommittee on  Highways and Transit, Committee on
       Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives. GAO-1 1 -1 98, January 201 1 .
       http://www.gao.gov/highlights/d1 1 198high.pdf
   6    U.S EPA and NHTSA, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards; Final Rule. Federal Register, Vol. 76,
       No. 1 79. p. 571 53 http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/rulemaking/pdf/cafe/2011-20740.pdf
   7    U.S. GAO, Report to Ranking Member, GAO-1 1 -1 98, January 201 1 .
       An example is on  the EPA.gov under Region 2 Air, Motor Vehicles and Diesel-Powered Equipment, "Reducing Diesel Emissions":
       http://www.epa.gov/region2/air/aq_mobile.html
   9    U.S. EPA, Technical Bulletin: Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They are Controlled.  November 1 999. EPA 456/F-99-006R.
       http://www.epa.gov/ttncatc1/dir1 /fnoxdoc.pdf
   10   C.S. Sluder, J.M.E. Storey, S.A.  Lewis, and L.A. Lewis. Low Temperature Urea Decomposition and SCR Performance. Oak Ridge
       National Laboratory. 2004. http://web.ornl.goV/~webworks/cppr/y2001/rpt/1 22009. pdf?origin = publication_detail
   1 ]   California ARB, Proposed Optional Low NOx Standards  for Heavy Duty Engines, Extended Engine Warranties, and Heavy Duty
       Zero Emission Vehicles Certification. Public Workshop, March 1 1, 2013.
       http://www.arb. ca.gov/msprog/onroad/optionnox/presentations/lownox_ws_031 1 1 3.pdf
   12   Consumer Reports, August 201 4

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            martWay*
         MENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 
 U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Intermodal f or Shippers
A Glance at Clean Freight Strategies
   ENDNOTES & RESOURCES
   (Endnotes)
   1    Adrien Bailey, "Navigating the Intermodal Landscape," Journal of Commerce, Jan. 27, 2014.
       http://www.ioc. com/rail-intermodal/intermodal-shipping/navigating-intermodal-landscape_20 140 127. html Free subscription
       required.  Bailey's growth estimate of 6.8 percent in 2013 is based on data from the Intermodal Association of North America,
       Yusen Logistics, and TTX fleet size data.
   2    Adrien Bailey, "Navigating the Intermodal Landscape," JOC. Ibid.
   3    Anthony B. Hatch, "1 0 Years After: The Second Intermodal Revolution." January 201 4. p. 8. This is a white paper sponsored
       by the Intermodal Association of North America and the American Association of Railroads.
       http://www.intermodal.org/information/research/assets/tenyrsafter.pdf
       United States Geological Survey, National Map, http://www.nationalatlas.gov/articles/transportation/a_freightrr.html.
   5    American Association of Railroads, The Environmental Benefits of Moving Freight By Rail, April 2014.
       https://www.aar.org/BackgroundPapers/Environmental%20Benefits%20oP/o20Moving%20Freighf/o20by%20Rail.pdf
   6    Cristian Facanha and Jeff Ang-Olson, "Policies to Reduce GHG Emissions from Freight Movements," ICF International
       workshop presentation, slide 15. https://www. fhwa.dot.gov/policy/otps/innovation/issuel /policies. htm
   7    James Kruse et.  al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public. 2007. Prepared by
       the Texas Transportation Institute for U.S Maritime Administration and National Waterways Foundation, p. 38.
   8    Ibid.
   9    International Association of  North America, Intermodal Fact Sheet, http://www.intermodal.org/information/factsheet.php
   10   James Kruse et.  al., A Modal Comparison of Domestic Freight Transportation Effects on the General Public. 2007. Prepared by
       the Texas Transportation Institute for U.S Maritime Administration and National Waterways Foundation, p. 38.
       http://d2dtl5nnlpfrOr.cloudfront.net/tti.tamu.edu/documents/TTI-2012-5.pdf
   11   Baxter International, "Sustainability Report, Product Transport," 2013.
       http://sustainability.baxter.com/product-responsibility/product-transport.html#intermodal-transport
   12   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency presentation to the National Retail Federation, June 18, 2014.  Slide 32.
       http://www.epa.gov/otaq/smartway/about/documents/webinars/SW-nrf-06-1 8-1 4 -webinar.pdf
   13   Jason Mathers, Elena Craft, Marcelo Norsworthy, and Christina Wolfe, The Green Freight Handbook. The Environmental
       Defense Fund, http://business.edf.org/proiects/green-freight-handbook/.
   14   Ibid.
                                            15   A. Craig, et. al.  Estimating the CO2 Intensity of Intermodal Freight
                                                Transportation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, August 201 2. p. 4
                                                https://esd.mit.edu/WPS/2012/esd-wp-201 2-24.pdf Note: This paper states
                                                that while modal shift from road to rail is one of a number of proposed
                                                strategies for reducing emissions, and intermodal transport offers shippers an
                                                attractive alternative to truckload service, little data is available to shippers to
                                                 calculate the potential savings.
                                                        16   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, SmartWay Transport
                                                            Partnership: Driving  Data Integrity in Transportation Supply Chains,
                                                            http://www.epa.gov/smartway/forpartners/documents/
                                                            dataaualitv/420b1 3005.pdf.

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        SmartWay*
        MENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 
 U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Load Optimization for Shippers
A Glance at Clean Freight Strategies
EPA-420-F-16-007
   ENDNOTES & RESOURCES
   (Endnotes)
   1   A IMS is business management software that enables companies to manage transportation operations, including carrier
      procurement and route optimization. Common IMS suppliers include TMW Systems, McLeod Software, and Precision. These
      companies are mentioned for illustration only and it does not constitute an endorsement.IMS software can reduce fuel costs
      between five and 1 5 percent.
      http://www.chemlogix.com/pdf/Planning_Optimization.pdf
      http://www.topseng.com/MaxLoad_Case_Study.html
   2   Global  Commerce Initiative and Capgemini, 201 6: Future Supply Chain, May 2008. p. 9.
      http://www.capgemini.com/resources/future_supply_chain_201 6
   3   Commonwealth  Supply Chain Advisors, Implementing Best Practices in Supply Chain Management, July 201 1. p. 3.
      http://www.commonwealth-sca.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Transportation-Best-Practices-Report-Web.pdf
      William Cassidy, Seeking Space, Creating Capacity, Journal of Commerce, Oct. 24, 201 1.
      http://www.ioc.com/logistics-economy/seeking-space-creating-capacity
   5   Jason Mathers, Elena Craft, Marcelo Norsworthy, and Christina Wolfe, The Green Freight Handbook. The Environmental
      Defense Fund.
      http://business.edf.org/proiects/green-freight-handbook/.
   6   Ibid.
   7   Ibid.

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        SmartWay*
        MENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 
 U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Packaging  Reduction for Shippers
A Glance at Clean Freight Strategies
EPA-420-F-16-008
   ENDNOTES & RESOURCES
   (Endnotes)
   1    Ronald Sasine, Sustainable Packaging Goes Beyond Size, Treehugger.com, August 20, 201 1
       http://www.treehugger.com/corporate-responsibility/sustainable-packaging-goes-beyond-size.html
   2    Lisa McTigue Pierce,"2013 Sustainable Packaging Survey: Reduce Gains As Cost Concerns Rise," Packaging Digest,
       December 2013. p 14.
       http://www.packagingdigest.com/sustainable-packaging/reduce-gains-cost-concerns-rise
   3    Product stewardship is a policy that ensures that all those involved in the lifecycle of a product share responsibility for
       reducing its  health and environmental impacts, with producers bearing primary financial responsibility.
       http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/tools/stewardship/products/packaging.htm
       Justin Lehrer, "Use Reusables: Fundamentals of Reusable Transport Packaging," Reusable Packaging Association. 2012.
       http://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/documents/pdf/3-iustin-lehrer-stopwaste.pdf
   5    U.S.  Packaging and Wrapping, LLC, Consumer Packaging No-No's, March 31, 2014.
       http://www.uspackagingandwrapping.com/blog/Consumer-Packaging-No-No-s.html
   6    Fetzer Vineyards, "Fetzer Vineyards Converts to Lightweight Glass" 2009.
       http://fe1zer.com/assets/client/File/Fe1zer-Lightweight-Bottle-fact-sheet-final.pdf
   7    Ibid.
       Gunilla Jonson etal., "Packaging Logistics and Retailer Profitability: An IKEA case study," Lund University, 2005. p. 5.
       http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOld=541306&fileOld = 626088
   9    Claudia Girrbach, Cisco, "EnergyWise Return on Investment with Cisco Unified IP Phones Solution Overview." 2010
       http://www.cisco.eom/c/en/us/products/col lateral/col laboration-endpoints/unified-ip-phone-6900-series/solution_overview_
       c22-589129.html

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SmartWay*
MENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 
                                                                                    EPA-420-F-16-009
 U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

 Route & Network Optimization for Shippers
A Glance at Clean Freight Strategies

   ENDNOTES & RESOURCES
   (Endnotes)
   1   RoadNet, "Case Study: Associated Food Stores Stays Competitive By Reducing Costs to Retailers." 2012.
      http://www.roadnet.com/pub/case-studies/Associated-Food-Stores-Stays-Competitive-by-Reducing-Costs-to-Retailers/
   2   Calculation based on this online carbon emissions calculator:
      http://www.roadnet.com/pages/products/carbon-emissions/index.aspx which is based on U.S. DOE, March 2008 assumptions
   3   ERP and IMS are business management software that enable companies to integrate operational processes. Processes
      including manufacturing, distribution, sales, and marketing are shared to enable the smooth flow of data across all operations.
      Common ERP systems include Oracle, SAP, and Microsoft; common IMS suppliers include TMW Systems, McLeod Software,
      and Precision. These companies are mentioned for illustration only and do not constitute an endorsement.
      Nikolaus Fries and Zachery Patterson, "Carrier or Mode: The Dilemma of Shipper's Choice in Freight Modeling." 2008
      http://www.strc.ch/conferences/2008/2008_Fri es_Patterson_CarrierOrMode.pdf
   5   Tina Fitzgerald, Tim Brown, and Elizabeth Stewart, "Subway's Green Journey," Logistics Management, Reed Business
      Information, April 2009. http://www.chainalytics.com/wp-content/uploads/201 1/03/2009-04-Subways-Journey-to-Green.pdf
   6   Compass, When In Doubt: UPS Avoids Left Turns, July 2012. http://compass.ups.com/UPS-driver-avoid-left-turns/
   7   Jason Mathers, Elena Craft, Marcelo Norsworthy, and Christina Wolfe, The Green Freight Handbook. The Environmental
      Defense Fund, http://business.edf.org/proiects/green-freight-handbook/.
   8   Ibid.

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