Making  Pests  a Thing
                    of the  Past
                    Integrated Pest Management for Healthier
                    Schools and Students
Integrated Pest Management  (IPM)  is  a science-
based strategy that addresses pest issues before they
arise,  reducing pest presence through  preventive
measures.1-2 IPM takes advantage of all appropriate pest
management strategies and controls pest populations
by removing their basic survival elements—such as food,
water and shelter—and by blocking access to facilities
where these items might be readily available.3

IPM strategies are comprehensive and
accessible and include—
• Regular inspection and monitoring for pests

• Accurate pest identification

• Maintaining pest records on each building

• Repairs to facilities to exclude pests

• Weatherizing buildings and sealing pest entryways

• Traps and baits

• Targeted application of pesticides

• Decreasing the presence of pests and eliminating
  the unnecessary use of pesticides

• Education of school staff, teachers and students on
  steps to prevent pests
                                        All students deserve a
                                        safe and healthy learning
                                        Integrated pest management
                                        (IPM) is a smart, sensible and
                                        sustainable way to reduce pests,
                                        improve health and address
                                        health disparities in  schools.
  "Children are the most vulnerable mem-
  bers of society when it comes to the
  effects of poor pest management. Our
  future is in their hands. We should invest
  in creating the healthiest, most effective
  learning environment for our students."

  —Dawn Gouge, Ph.D.,The University of Arizona

IPM: A Proven Solution
IPM isn't just a good idea: It's a science-based approach
to controlling pests that works. In a study of three school
districts in North Carolina, researchers found—

•  Schools implementing IPM practices reported
  decreased pest presence compared to those
  implementing conventional calendar-based pest
  management practices.

•  In schools with IPM programs, 14 percent of dust
  samples had detectable pest allergens compared
 to 44 percent of dust samples from schools with
 conventional pest management programs.
• Schools implementing IPM methods used
 99.9 percent less active pesticide ingredient than
  schools using conventional pest management

                                                                • A study conducted by Boston Children's Hospital
                                                                 found that mouse allergens were detectable on
                                                                 desktop surfaces in 100 percent of sampled urban
                                                                 preschools and 95 percent of sampled urban
                                                                 elementary schools.9
                                                                Health  problems can lead to  academic  problems.
                                                                More than 10 percent of children with asthma miss more
                                                                than 10 days of school each year, which can cost schools
                                                                as much as $100 million annually in attendance-based
                                                                funding.10-11 These issues are exacerbated in low-income
                                                                and minority communities, where children experience
                                                                higher rates of asthma and asthma morbidity.

                                                                Taking Action to Implement

                                                                IPM  in Your School
                                                                By implementing IPM practices, schools can reduce pest
                                                                presence and  related allergens and asthma triggers,
                                                                thereby improving student and staff health, increasing
                                                                student attendance, and potentially  boosting  school
                                                                funding while addressing health disparities. Focusing
                                                                on the health case can encourage schools and school
                                                                districts to commit to an  IPM program. Student, teacher
                                                                and staff health is a unifying issue that everyone can
                                                                agree on, and  making this the paramount message is
                                                                critical when communicating the benefits of using IPM
                                                                in schools.
The  Health  Case for  IPM
IPM creates healthier environments for students, teach-
ers and staff.Through use of this approach, food prepa-
ration  areas  are  cleaner, bacteria are reduced, the
spread of viral pathogens is limited, and the unneces-
sary exposure to pests and  pesticides is reduced. IPM
also reduces allergens, which can trigger asthma symp-
toms or contribute to the onset of asthma.

• Nearly 10 percent of children in the United States
  have asthma, and 80 percent of their asthma is
  caused by allergens.5-6
• Thirty-seven percent of children with asthma in the
  United States are allergic to cockroach allergens.7
  Children who are allergic to these cockroach
  allergens also are more likely to require medical
  attention for asthma-related issues.8

Suggested  Resources

  "Preventing Pests for Healthier Schools:The Health Case for Integrated Pest Management." U.S. EPA, 2016.
   This  brochure includes additional information and research on the health benefits of using IPM in schools.

  "The  Basics of School Integrated Pest Management" webinar. U.S. EPA, 2014.

   IPM  Checklist in the EPAs School IAQ Assessment Mobile App. U.S. EPA, 2015.

          1 Gouge, D. H., M. L. Lame, and J. L. Snyder. 2006."Use of an
           Implementation Model and Diffusion Process for Establishing
           Integrated Pest Management in Arizona Schools." American
           Entomologist 2006:190-96.
          2 Chambers, K.T., et al. 2011. The Business Case for Integrated Pest
           Management in Schools: Cutting Costs and Increasing Benefits.
           The IPM Institute of North America, Inc. 8 pp.
          3 Brenner, B. L.etal. 2003. "Integrated Pest Management in an
           Urban Community: A Successful Partnership for Prevention."
           Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (13): 1649-53.
          4 Williams, G. M.,et al."Comparison of Conventional and
           Integrated Pest Management Programs in Public Schools."
           Journal of Economic Entomology 98(4): 1275-83.
          5 Bloom, B., L. I. Jones, and G. Freeman. 2013."Summary Health
           Statistics for U.S. Children: National Health Interview Survey,
           2012." National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Statistics
           10(258): 1-81
           Breysse, R N.,etal. 2005. "Indoor Exposures to Air Pollutants and
           Allergens in the Homes of Asthmatic Children in Inner-City
           Baltimore." Environmental Research 98(2): 167-76.
                                                        Gore,J.C.,and C.Schal.2007."CockroachAllergen Biology
                                                        and Mitigation in the Indoor Environment." Annual Review of
                                                        Entomology 52: 439-63.
                                                        Rabito, F.A., J. Carlson, E.W. Holt,S. Iqbal, and M.A. James. 2011.
                                                        "Cockroach Exposure Independent of Sensitization Status and
                                                        Association with Hospitalizations for Asthma in Inner-City Children."
                                                        Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 106(20): 103-9.

                                                        Kanchongkittiphon,W.,et al. 2014."Allergens on Desktop
                                                        Surfaces in Preschools and Elementary Schools of Urban
                                                        Children with Asthma. Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and
                                                        Clinical Immunology 69(7): 960-3.
                                                       J CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), NCEH
                                                        (National Center for Environmental Health), EHHE (Division of
                                                        Environmental Hazards and Health Effects). 2015."Asthma-
                                                        Related Missed School Days Among  Children Aged 5-1 7 Years."
                                                        Last modified October 5.
                                                        FaryoaJ.2011 ."Empty Seats Costs San Diego School District
                                                        Millions." /new/source, /06/27/empty-seats-

                                                             March 2016