SEFft
EPA
Water Sense
        WaterSense
              at Work
           Best Management
           Practices for Commercial
           and Institutional Facilities

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On the Cover: Green Building at the U.S.
  Environmental Protection Agency's
         Region 8 Headquarters

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
(EPA's) Region 8 Headquarters building in Denver,
Colorado, is LEED® Gold certified and has earned
the ENERGY STAR® label. In addition to a sustain-
able design that maximizes energy efficiency,
improves indoor air quality, and incorporates low-
impact materials, EPA's Region 8 Headquarters
saves water by using high-efficiency sanitary fix-
tures, water-efficient mechanical systems design,
and water-smart landscape design using sustain-
able and native species. To learn more, visit
www.epa.gov/region8/building.

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       WaterSense at Work:
       Best  Management
       Practices for  Commercial
       and Institutional Facilities
       EPA
       WaterSense

       Office of Water
       U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
       October 2012

       EPA 832-F-12-034
       This guidebook was developed by WaterSense,9 a partnership program sponsored by EPA that seeks to
       protect the future of our nation's water supply by offering people a simple way to use less water with
       water-efficient products, new homes, and services. The work was supported under contract EP-C-09-008
       with Eastern Research Group, Inc.
October 2012

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Disclaimer
This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States
Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither
the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees,
makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the
accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or pro-
cess disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. EPA
hereby disclaims any liability for damages arising from the use of the document, includ-
ing, without limitation, direct, indirect or consequential damages including personal
injury, property loss, loss of revenue, loss of profit, loss of opportunity, or other loss.
Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by its trade
name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute nor imply
its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government nor
any agency thereof. The  views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not neces-
sarily state or reflect those of the United States Government nor any agency thereof.
                                                                                 October 2012

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              Table  of Contents
              Getting Started
              1.1   Introduction	1-2
              1.2   Water Management Planning	1 -7
                   Step 1. Making a Commitment	1-7
                   Step 2. Assessing Facility Water Use	1-8
                   Step 3. Setting and Communicating Goals	1-16
                   Step 4. Creating an Action Plan	1-17
                   Step 5. Implementing the Action Plan	1-24
                   Step 6. Evaluating Progress	1-24
                   Step 7. Recognizing Achievement	1-25

              Water Use Monitoring and Education
              2.1   Introduction to Water Use Monitoring and Education	2-2
              2.2   Metering and Submetering	2-4
              2.3   Leak Detection and Repair	2-9
              2.4   User Education and Facility Outreach	2-13
              2.5   Codes, Standards, and Voluntary Programs for Water Efficiency	2-16

              Sanitary Fixtures and Equipment
              3.1   Introduction to Sanitary Fixtures and Equipment	3-2
              3.2   Toilets	3-4
              3.3   Urinals	3-11
              3.4   Faucets	3-16
              3.5   Showerheads	3-23
              3.6   Laundry Equipment	3-27

              Commercial Kitchen Equipment
              4.1   Introduction to Commercial Kitchen Equipment	4-2
              4.2   Commercial Ice Machines	4-4
              4.3   Combination Ovens	4-11
              4.4   Steam Cookers	4-15
              4.5   Steam Kettles	4-19
              4.6   Wok Stoves	4-23
              4.7   Dipper Wells	4-30
              4.8   Pre-Rinse Spray Valves	4-36
              4.9   Food Disposals	4-40
              4.10  Commercial Dishwashers	4-47
              4.11  Wash-Down Sprayers	4-52
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              Outdoor Water Use
              5.1   Introduction to Outdoor Water Use	5-2
              5.2   Landscaping	5-4
              5.3   Irrigation	5-11
              5.4   Commercial Pool and Spa Equipment	5-20
              5.5   Vehicle Washing	5-29
              Mechanical Systems
              6.1   Introduction to Mechanical Systems	6-2
              6.2   Single-Pass Cooling	6-4
              6.3   Cooling Towers	6-8
              6.4   Chilled Water Systems	6-18
              6.5   Boiler and Steam Systems	6-25
              Laboratory and Medical Equipment
              7.1   Introduction to Laboratory and Medical Equipment	7-2
              7.2   Water Purification	7-4
              7.3   Vacuum Pumps	7-10
              7.4   Steam Sterilizers	7-16
              7.5   Glassware Washers	7-24
              7.6   Fume Hood Filtration and Wash-Down Systems	7-27
              7.7   Vivarium Washing and Watering Systems	7-33
              7.8   Photographic and X-Ray Equipment	7-38
              Onsite Alternative Water Sources	8-1
              Resources	9-1
              Appendix A:  Case Studies Demonstrating
              Best Management Practices in Action	A-1
              A.1   Introduction to Case Studies	A-2
              A.2   Federal Agency Implements Comprehensive Water Management Strategy	A-3
              A.3   Hotel Installs Water-Efficient Sanitary Fixtures	A-6
              A.4   Restaurants Install Water-Efficient Commercial Kitchen Equipment	A-9
              A.5   Office Complex Reduces Outdoor Water Use	A-13
              A.6   Laboratory Eliminates Single-Pass Cooling	A-15
              A.7   Hospital Installs Water-Efficient Laboratory and Medical Equipment	A-18
              A.8   University Makes the Most of Onsite Alternative Water Sources	A-22
              Appendix B:  Sample Worksheets for Water
              Management Planning	B-1
              Table B-1.  Building Water Survey Worksheet	B-3
              Table B-2.  List of Water Meters Worksheet	B-4
              Table B-3.  Water Consumption History Worksheet	B-5
              Table B-4.  Existing Plumbing Equipment Worksheet	B-6
              Table B-5.  Water Use Inventory Worksheet	B-7


iv                                                                                          October 2012

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Table of Contents
1.1  Introduction	1 -2
1.2  Water Management Planning	1-7
    Step 1. Making a Commitment	1-7
    Step 2. Assessing Facility Water Use	1 -8
    Step 3. Setting and Communicating
    Goals	1 -16
    Step 4. Creating an Action Plan	1 -17
    Step 5. Implementing the Action Plan	1 -24
    Step 6. Evaluating Progress	1-24
    Step 7. Recognizing Achievement	1 -25
     Getting  Started
                    EPA
                    Water Sense

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1.1  Introduction
                                           WaterSense
               Purpose

               WaterSense,® a voluntary partnership program sponsored by the U.S. Environmental
               Protection Agency (EPA), seeks to protect the future of our nation's water supply. By
               transforming the market for water-efficient products, services, and practices, Water-
               Sense is helping to address the increasing demand on the nation's water supplies and
               reduce the strain on municipal water infrastructure across the country. WaterSense
               labeled products are independently certified to use at least 20 percent less water and
               perform as well or better than standard models. In addition, WaterSense labeled new
               homes incorporate water-efficient products and designs, and WaterSense labeled
               certification programs focus on water-efficient practices by professionals.

                                                  WaterSense has developed WaterSense at
                                                  Work, a compilation of water-efficiency best
                                                  management practices, to help commercial
                                                  and institutional facility owners and man-
                                                  agers understand and better manage their
                                                  water use. WaterSense at Work\s designed
                                                  to provide guidance to help establish an
                                                  effective facility water management pro-
                                                  gram and identify projects and practices
                                                  that can reduce facility water use.

                                                  In today's economic and corporate environ-
                                                  ment, there is a strong business case to be
                                                  made for undertaking activities to reduce
                                                  water use, which in turn can reduce energy
                                                  and other operating costs. By implementing
               water-efficiency best management practices, commercial and institutional facility
               owners and managers can:

                •  Achieve cost savings. Improving water efficiency can lower variable costs associ-
                  ated with the operation and maintenance of equipment, as well as the energy
                  embedded in the treatment, storage, heating, and movement of water through-
                  out the facility. Organizations can often reduce associated costs of treatment
                  chemicals,  detergents, and other supplies when undertaking water-efficiency
                  improvements. When considered together, the cost savings from water, wastewa-
                  ter, energy, and supply bills create a greater return on investment and a shorter
                  payback period for an improvement project, while reducing a facility's impact on
                  local water supplies.

                •  Increase competitive advantage. Demand for green buildings and sustainable
                  products is increasing as consumers become more aware of the environmental
                  impacts of water and energy use. By promoting tangible improvements in a facil-
                  ity's environmental performance, organizations can reinforce their image as a
                  sustainable brand while reducing their environmental impact on the community.
1-2
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                                      1.1  Introduction
                   Practicing water efficiency not only enhances the public perception of the organ-
                   ization, but can also help differentiate the organization among its competitors.

                 • Reduce risk. Water-efficient facilities can be less vulnerable to fluctuations in
                   water supply and pricing by reducing their dependence on limited local water
                   resources. This not only reduces risk, but also the burden on associated water
                   and wastewater utility infrastructure, ensuring a more sustainable future water
                   supply for the community.

                 • Demonstrate leadership. Water-efficient organizations can clearly demonstrate
                   their commitment to the community and environmental leadership. By imple-
                   menting projects that result in real water savings, an organization can share both
                   quantitative and qualitative results. Water efficiency also contributes to meeting
                   corporate sustainability goals and demonstrates an organization's contribution
                   to reducing demand on natural resources.

                 • Access opportunities in the green building marketplace. The principles of
                   water efficiency are becoming ingrained in the commercial real estate market as
                   an integral part of green building and sustainable event planning. Implement-
                   ing specific measures that make a facility more water- and energy-efficient helps
                   an organization earn recognition from  local green building programs, EPA and
                   the U.S. Energy Department's (DOE's) ENERGY STAR,® or the U.S. Green Building
                   Council's LEED® rating system. At the same time, many national, state, and local
                   organizations have instituted environmental requirements for both their own
                   facilities and those where meetings and conferences are held. Hotels, restaurants,
                   and other facilities can strengthen their ability to compete in this growing mar-
                   ket niche by undertaking specific water- and energy-efficiency measures.

                Reducing facility water use not only makes sense at the facility level, but it also helps
                communities to delay costly infrastructure upgrades, while preserving our limited
                water supplies for future generations. WaterSense at Work is designed to help facility
                owners and managers do their part to reduce water demand and achieve organiza-
                tional goals in the process.

                Water Use in the Commercial and Institutional Sector

                The commercial and institutional sector is the second largest consumer of publicly
                supplied water in the United States, accounting for 17 percent of the withdrawals
                from public water supplies.1 This sector includes a variety of facility types, such as
                hotels, restaurants, office buildings, schools, hospitals, laboratories, and government
                and military institutions. Each facility type  has different  water use patterns depend-
                ing upon its function and use. Figure 1 -1 shows how water is used in several types of
                commercial and institutional facilities.2
1  Estimated from analyzing data in: Solley, Wayne B.,etal. 1998. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1200.
  water.usgs.gov/watuse/pdf1995/html/.
2  Created from analyzing data in: Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Institutional and Industrial Water Users. Prepared
  for the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html; Dziegielewski, Benedykt, et al. American Water Works Association (AWWA)
  and AWWA Research Foundation. 2000. Commercial and Institutional End Uses of Water; East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook: A Water-
  Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses, www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook;
  AWWA. Helping Businesses Manage Water Use—A Guide for Water Utilities.



October 2012                                                                                                   1-3

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1.1  Introduction
               Figure 1-1. End Uses of Water in VariousTypes of Commercial and Institutional Facilities
                    100%
                    60%
                    40%
                    20%
                     0%
                           Hospitals
 Office
Buildings
Schools
Restaurants
Hotels
                                                    Medical Equipment

                                                    I Pools

                                                    I Other

                                                    I Laundry

                                                    I Kitchen/Dishwashing

                                                    Landscaping

                                                    I Cooling and Heating

                                                    I Domestic/Restroom
               While the equipment and processes vary widely, there are opportunities in all com-
               mercial and institutional buildings to achieve significant water savings indoors and
               outdoors by making improvements in several operational areas.

               Using WaterSense at Work

               Any facility manager, owner, or employee involved in facility resource conservation
               can use WaterSense at Workto help:

                •  Assess facility water use.

                •  Establish a water management plan.

                •  Effectively communicate and achieve water management goals.

                •  Reduce water loss from leaks.

                •  Generate ideas for increasing the efficiency of water-using fixtures, equipment,
                   systems, and processes.

                •  Identify opportunities for reusing onsite alternative  water to replace potable
                   water use.

               WaterSense at Work provides water-efficiency best management practices that are
               relevant to multiple commercial and institutional sectors. Depending upon the type
               of water-using equipment or systems installed, these best management practices
               can be used as a whole or in part to guide facility water  management planning and
               to facilitate water use reductions. Table 1-1 provides a quick overview of what can be
               found in WaterSense at Work.
1-4
                                                          October 2012

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                                                                                  1.1 Introduction
               Facility owners and managers interested in better managing and reducing facility
               water use should review Sections 1 and 2. These sections provide overarching best
               management practices applicable to all facility types and outline actions that can be
               taken to ensure the success of any water management plan or water use reduction
               strategy. Sections 3 through 8 address opportunities associated with specific equip-
               ment and systems used at commercial and institutional facilities. Appendix A pre-
               sents case studies that illustrate how specific facilities have successfully implemented
               one or more of the best management practices described in WaterSense at Work.
               Appendix B provides sample worksheets to facilitate water management planning.

                                 Table 1 -1. Quick Guide to WaterSense at Work
                 1. Getting Started
                 2. Water Use Monitoring and Education
                 3. Sanitary Fixtures and Equipment
                 4. Commercial Kitchen Equipment
                 5. Outdoor Water Use
                 6. Mechanical Systems
                                                        Best Management Practices Covered
Water Management Planning
Metering and Submetering
Leak Detection and Repair
User Education and Facility Outreach
Codes, Standards, and Voluntary
Programs for Water Efficiency
Toilets
Urinals
Faucets
Showerheads
Laundry Equipment
Commercial Ice Machines
Combination Ovens
Steam Cookers
Steam Kettles
Wok Stoves
Dipper Wells
Pre-Rinse Spray Valves
Food Disposals
Commercial Dishwashers
Wash-Down Sprayers
Landscaping
Irrigation
Commercial Pool and Spa Equipment
Vehicle Washing
Single-Pass Cooling
Cooling Towers
Chilled Water Systems
Boiler and Steam Systems
                                                                                   (continued)
October 2012
                                                1-5

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1.1  Introduction
                               Table 1-1. Quick Guide to WaterSense at Work (cont.)
                                Section
                 7. Laboratory and Medical Equipment
Best Management Practices Covered
Water Purification
Vacuum Pumps
Steam Sterilizers
Glassware Washers
Fume Hood Filtration and Wash-Down
Systems
Vivarium Washing and Watering
Systems
Photographic and X-Ray Equipment
                 8. Onsite Alternative Water Sources
 Onsite Alternative Water Sources
                 9. Resources
Compilation of Water-Efficiency
Resources
                 Appendix A: Case Studies Demonstrating
                 Best Management Practices in Action
Federal Agency Implements Com-
prehensive Water Management Strategy
Hotel Installs Water-Efficient Sanitary
Fixtures
Restaurants Install Water-Efficient
Commercial Kitchen Equipment
Office Complex Reduces Outdoor
Water Use
Laboratory Eliminates Single-Pass
Cooling
Hospital Installs Water-Efficient
Laboratory and Medical Equipment
University Makes the Most of Onsite
Alternative Water Sources
                 Appendix B: Sample Worksheets for Water
                 Management Planning
Building Water Survey Worksheet
List of Water Meters Worksheet
Water Consumption History Worksheet
Existing Plumbing Equipment Work-
sheet
Water Use Inventory Worksheet
1-6
                                         October 2012

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 1.2 Water Management Planning
                                                          WaterSense
              Overview

              Water management planning serves as the foundation for any successful water
              reduction effort. It is the first step a commercial or institutional facility owner or man-
              ager should take to achieve and sustain long-term water savings. Water management
              planning generally addresses water use reductions in four areas:3

               •  Reducing water losses (e.g., leaks).

               •  Increasing the water efficiency of fixtures, equip-
                  ment, systems, and processes.

               •  Educating employees and occupants about
                  water efficiency to encourage water-saving
                  behaviors.

               •  Reusing onsite alternative water that would oth-
                  erwise be discarded or discharged to the sewer
                  (e.g., reusing treated gray water or rainwater to
                  water landscape areas).

              Effective water management planning is easily coupled with energy and waste man-
              agement. Water management follows the same framework used in the U.S. Environ-
              mental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Energy Department's (DOE's) ENERGY
              STAR® Guidelines for Energy Management,4 and consists of these seven basic steps:
               • Step 1.
               • Step 2.
               • StepS.
               • Step 4.
               • StepS.
               • Step 6.
               • Step 7.
Making a commitment
Assessing facility water use
Setting and communicating goals
Creating an action plan
Implementing the action plan
Evaluating progress
Recognizing achievement
              Step 1. Making a Commitment

              The relative success of any water management program hinges on the organization's
              long-term commitment to use water more efficiently. Commitment should come
              from all levels within an organization to ensure that appropriate water management
              goals are established and that continuous improvements are made. A champion is
              necessary to provide guidance, maintain momentum, and infuse energy into project
              implementation. A champion often advocates for the improvements and celebrates
              successes to support additional water-saving projects in the future.
3 Arizona Municipal Water Users Association (AMWUA) Regional Water Conservation Committee and Black and Veatch. August 2008. Facility Manager's Guide to
 Water Management Version 2.7. Page2.www.amwua.org/business.html.
4 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department's (DOE's) ENERGY STAR. Guidelines for Energy Management Overview.
 www.energystar.gov/index.cfm ?c=guidelines.guidelines_index.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
                                                                          1-7

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1.2  Water Management Planning
              When an organization chooses to make a commitment to water efficiency, it should
              consider the following:

                •  Form a dedicated water management team of staff and other professionals,
                  including a team leader (i.e., champion) that is responsible for overseeing and
                  implementing the water management program. Team members should include
                  people from all parts of the organization, including someone familiar with
                  regulatory compliance and a facility or building manager with knowledge of the
                  building's infrastructure and major mechanical systems.

                •  Develop a water management policy that provides the structure for establishing
                  and achieving water management goals.

                •  Incorporate water efficiency into long-term facility operation objectives and
                  allocate the resources necessary to achieve goals.

                •  Integrate water management planning and goal tracking into company perfor-
                  mance and sustainability reporting to elevate the importance of water efficiency
                  and maintain accountability.

                •  Consider incorporating water-efficiency policies and goals into the facility's
                  environmental management system (EMS),5 if one has been developed, and track
                  progress on the goals through the EMS process.


              Step 2. Assessing Facility Water Use

              Understanding how water is used within a facility is critical for the water management
              planning process. A water assessment provides a comprehensive account of all known
              water uses at the facility. It allows the water management team to establish a baseline
              from which progress and program success can be measured. It also enables the water
              management team to set achievable goals and identify and prioritize specific projects
              based on the relative savings opportunities and project cost-effectiveness. Assessing
              facility water use incorporates the following steps:

                •  Gathering readily available information
                •  Establishing a  water use baseline
                •  Inventorying major water-using fixtures, equipment, systems, and processes
                •  Creating a facility water balance

              Gathering Readily Available Information

              The first steps in conducting an in-depth water assessment include: collecting any
              readily available information that can provide a basic understanding of building
              operational characteristics and general water use  patterns; determining major uses
              of water within the facility; and estimating the costs of water use and sewer discharg-
              es. This information can be used to facilitate a more detailed investigation of facility
              water use and return on investment for any water-efficiency related projects.
5 EPA. Environmental Management Systems (EMS). www.epa.gov/EMS/.


1-8                                                                                           October 2012

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                                                        1.2 Water Management  Planning
               Developing an Understanding of Building Operational Characteristics

               To better understand a facility's water use patterns, consider the following:

                • Survey operations and maintenance personnel to determine typical facility
                  operating conditions (e.g., hours of operation, number of employees and visi-
                  tors) and building characteristics (e.g., size, number of floors). Document this
                  information using a tool such as the Building Water Survey Worksheet provided
                  in Appendix B.
                • Determine how many days the facility is
                  operating per year and when fluctuations
                  in water use may be expected. Facilities
                  such as schools use less water during
                  months when school is not in session;
                  office buildings use less water on the week-
                  ends; and hospitals operating 24 hours
                  per day, 365 days per year see no daily or
                  monthly variation.

               Defining How Water Is Used at the Facility

               Once the water management team has a clear
               understanding of the facility's operational
               attributes and typical water use patterns, the
               next step is to determine specifically how water
               is used and currently tracked at the facility by
               doing the following:

                • Identify all sources of water use at the
                  facility. This can include: municipally sup-
                  plied potable water, municipally  supplied
                  reclaimed water, wells or other freshwater
                  sources, and onsite alternative water. For
                  purposes of establishing a baseline, water
                  sources can be more broadly grouped as
                  potable, non-potable, onsite alternative, or
                  purchased reclaimed water.

                • Identify and record basic information for all
                  metered sources of water, including bill-
                  ing account numbers and meter  numbers,
                  size/type, and location. Also note whether
                  meters are dedicated to specific end uses
                  (e.g., irrigation, indoor water use). Docu-
                  ment this  information using a form such as
                  the List of Water Meters Worksheet pro-
                  vided in Appendix B. In addition, consider
             Water Sources

Water sources can be defined as follows,
based on the definitions developed by an
interagency group working to implement
requirements associated with a federal execu-
tive order on sustainability:6

• Potable water: Water that is of sufficient
  quality for human consumption and that is
  obtained from public water systems or from
  natural freshwater sources, such as lakes,
  streams, and aquifers that are classified,
  permitted, and approved for human con-
  sumption.

• Non-potable water: Water that is obtained
  from natural freshwater sources that is  not
  of sufficient quality for human consumption
  and has not been properly treated, permit-
  ted, or approved for human consumption.

• Onsite alternative water: Water that is
  not obtained from a surface water source,
  groundwater source, nor purchased
  reclaimed water from a third party. It can
  include rainwater or stormwater harvested
  on site, sump pump water harvesting, gray
  water, air-cooling condensate, reject water
  from water purification systems, water
  reclaimed on site, or water derived from
  other water reuse strategies.

• Purchased reclaimed water: Wastewater
  treatment plant  effluent purchased from a
  third party that has been diverted for bene-
  ficial uses, such as irrigation, that substitute
  the use of an existing freshwater source.
6 DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Federal Water Efficiency Requirements, wwwl .eere.energy.gov/
 femp/program/waterefficiency_requirements.html#eo13514.
October 2012
                                         1-9

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1.2  Water Management Planning
Water meter
documenting and tracking water use information for each meter using ENERGY
STAR'S Portfolio Manager.7

Identify sources of unmetered water use.

Work with operation and maintenance personnel to identify all submetered
fixtures, equipment, systems, and processes. If available, obtain copies of internal
log books or electronic records of submetered water use.

                                    Gathering and Reviewing Water Bills to
                                    Understand Use and Cost

                                    Collecting at least two years of water
                                    and sewer use data for the most recent
                                    timeframe possible for each identified
                                    source will help facility owners and
                                    managers better understand how much
                                    their facility's water use costs.These
                                    data can include records or logs from
                                    source water meters and/or utility water
                                    bills. If bills are delivered to and paid off
                                    site, be sure to receive copies for track-
                                    ing and evaluating costs. In addition,
                                    consider the following:

Water bills usually contain several separate charges, which vary by utility. Figure
1-2 provides an example bill with the charges specifically labeled. Water manag-
ers should contact the utility to clarify any questions before using the informa-
tion to evaluate potential water use reductions and any associated cost savings.
With this  information, the water management team can prioritize water-saving
project opportunities.

In addition to gathering data for metered sources, gather information necessary
to  estimate annual water use for any unmetered sources of water, such as well
water or other source water brought on site. For example, water use may be esti-
mated based on source water pumping rates or the consumption of the end uses
supplied  by the source.
7 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Portfolio Manager Overview. www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=evaluate_performance.bus_portfoliomanager.
1-10
                                                                             October 2012

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                                                                       1.2  Water Management Planning
                                        Figure 1-2. Example Information on a Water Bill
                                                  City Water and Wastewater Bill
                     Bill Date: October 1,2012
                     Due Date: November 1, 2012
                     Account Number: 987654-32
                     Billing Detail:

                     Water Charges: (a)
                     Tier 1-(0-100)      $2.70/ccf   100
                     Tier 2-(101-250)    $3.10/ccf   150
                     Tier 3-(251-500)    $3.73/ccf   250
                     Tier 4-(500+)       $4.13/ccf    50
                     Total Water Charges
                                                 550
                     Wastewater (Sewer) Charges: (b)
                     Sewer Consumption  $6.23/ccf   550
                     Total Wastewater Charges      550

                     Other Charges: (c)
                     Fire Service
                     Stormwater Charge  $104.89/acre2.1
                     Base/Service Charge
                     Total Other Charges

                     Total Charges
  $270.00
  $465.00
  $932.50
  $206.50
$1,874.00
$3,426.50
$3,426.50
   $27.33
  $220.27
  $204.33
  $451.93

$5,752.43
             Customer Name: Facility XYZ
             Service Address: 123 Anywhere Lane
Summary of Charges:

Previous Balance                     $6,221.38
Payment -Thankyou                  $6,221.38
Water, Wastewater, Other Charges       $5,752.43
Adjustments/Deposits                    $0.00
Total Charges       $5,752.43

Meter ID: 12345
Current Meter Reading                   33,127
Prior Meter Reading                     32,681
Water UsageThis Period (ccf) (d)             446
Water UsageThis Period Last Year            682

Meter ID: 67890
Current Meter Reading                     982
Prior Meter Reading                       878
Water UsageThis Period (ccf)               104
Water UsageThis Period Last Year            159

Consumption (e)
                                                                      1200

                                                                      1000
                                                                    3  400
                        II
                                                                          Oct  Nov  Dec  Jan  Pel)  Mar Apr May Jun  Jul Aug Sep Oct
                   (a) Example shows an increasing block rate structure in which the utility charges a higher rate for increasing increments
                      of water consumed. Some utilities charge a flat rate regardless of consumption volume, while other utilities charge a
                      decreasing block rate structure. Water charges take into account total water consumption from all water meters.
                   (b) Charge is per amount of water discharged to sewer, which is often billed at a single rate, but could also have
                      varying rates depending upon the quantity discharged. Oftentimes, this is based on the metered amount of
                      water use (not a separate wastewater meter), which assumes that all water used was discharged to the sewer. In
                      some cases, a facility can receive a sewer charge deduction for water uses that are known to not be sent to the
                      sewer, such as cooling tower evaporation and irrigation water use. This deduction might appear on the bill.
                   (c) The utility could charge other fees, including fire service, Stormwater, or other base or service charges. Stormwater
                      fees can be based on the facility acreage. The base or service charge could depend upon the size of the water meter.
                   (d) Water usage is for the billing period for a specific water meter. In this example, water usage is reported in units
                      of hundred cubic feet (ccf). Other common units include gallons and liters. Note: A ccf is equivalent to approxi-
                      mately 748 gallons.
                   (e) In some cases, the utility might provide historical water use information, which can help identify any large leaks
                      or anomalies. It might also show seasonal trends in water use.
October 2012
                                                                          1-11

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1.2  Water Management  Planning
               Establishing a Water Use Baseline

               Establishing a water use baseline provides a reference point from which progress
               can be measured toward achieving water management goals. It is also an important
               component of developing a facility water balance, as discussed below. To develop a
               water use baseline, consider the following:

                •  Using the water bills gathered from one or two years prior, document the facil-
                  ity's water use history using a form such as the Water Consumption History Work-
                  sheet provided in Appendix B. In addition, consider documenting and tracking
                  water use history using ENERGY STAR'S Portfolio Manager.8

                •  Calculate the facility's total annual water use for each metered and unmetered
                  water source and total for all water sources combined.This total annual water
                  figure will serve as the facility's water use baseline.

                •  If long-term historical water use data are available, look for any anomalies that
                  might suggest that the established water use baseline is not representative of
                  typical facility water use (e.g., a large leak or a system or process change that
                  occurred and temporarily skewed water use). If an anomaly is present, either
                  adjust the baseline as appropriate or identify a different year that can serve as
                  the baseline.

               Inventorying Major Water-Using Fixtures, Equipment, Systems, and Processes

               Once the baseline is established, it is critical to understand how specific fixtures,
               equipment, systems, and processes contribute to the overall facility water use.This
               process can help the water management team establish a baseline for individual  end
               uses of water and identify potential reduction opportunities. It can also facilitate the
               establishment of water management planning goals. Three important components
               of a water assessment include: reviewing existing data, touring the facility to inven-
               tory water-using equipment, and verifying water use when  possible.

               Reviewing Existing Data

               As a first step in the inventory process, plot one or two years of water use data from
               bills, log books, or other available sources to identify seasonal trends or abnormal-
               ities. Note any peaks, particularly in the summer months, which can indicate  how
               much additional water is used for building cooling and irrigation systems. Use this
               analysis to estimate cooling and irrigation water use, if those sources are not subme-
               tered.

               Touring the Facility to Inventory Water-Using Equipment and Meter Locations

               Touring the facility to identify and inventory all of the major water-using fix-
               tures, equipment, systems, and processes is a key step in identifying how a facil-
               ity can improve its water efficiency. During the tour, note any obvious areas for
8 Ibid.
1-12                                                                                           October 2012

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                                                         1.2 Water Management Planning
                 improvement (e.g., leaking fixtures, single-pass
                 cooling, outdated equipment). In addition, consider
                 the following:

                  •  Interview any personnel that manage water-
                    using systems or equipment to understand how
                    the systems and equipment are operated and
                    maintained and to verify water use.

                  •  Capture enough detailed information about
                    all water-using fixtures, equipment, systems,
                    and processes to determine how much water is
                    consumed by each end use.                     w^Tass^r conducting a facility tour

                  •  Use survey forms or checklists, such as the Existing Plumbing Equipment and
                    Water Use Inventory Worksheets, provided in Appendix B, to record fixture or
                    equipment inventories, water use specifications (e.g., fixture flow rates), and
                    water use patterns. This information can  later be used to estimate water use.9 Be
                    sure to record the hours of operation for each system or fixture to more accurate-
                    ly calculate water use over time.

                  •  During the tour, pay particular attention  to drain lines plumbed to floor drains
                    in building mechanical and utility spaces. Trace these drain lines back to the
                    originating equipment to make sure they are included in the inventory.

                  •  Identify locations of all meters and submeters if the locations were not deter-
                    mined during the data-gathering  phase. Read the meters and submeters, and
                    check that the units and scale of the readings match water bills and internal log
                    books.

                 Verifying Water Use When Possible

                 In some instances, it may be possible to measure or verify the water use from specific
                 fixtures, equipment, systems, or processes. When verifying water use, consider the
                 following:

                  •  If discharge from water-using equipment or processes is evident during the tour,
                    use a bucket to manually collect water use over a 15-, 30-, or 60-second time
                    period. Measure the water use collected  during that time period to determine
                    flow rates.

                  •  If possible, install temporary water meters or flow meters for larger water-using
                    equipment or processes and briefly monitor water use. If the water use is fairly
                    consistent throughout the day, water use could be measured for a period of a
                    few minutes to estimate typical water use. If the water use fluctuates throughout
                    the day, water use data should be collected over a 24-hour period to estimate an
                    average water use. It is important to note the days of operation for each water
                    use measured in order to estimate an annual water use.
9 AMWUA Regional Water Conservation Committee and Black and Veatch, op. at, Page 18.


  October 2012                                                                                           1-13

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1.2 Water Management Planning
               Consult the documents referenced in the Additional Resources section at the end of
               this section for more specific information about conducting a water assessment.

               Creating a Facility Water Balance

               The facility water balance is an accounting of all water uses at the facility. It indi-
               cates the relative contribution of specific end uses to the facility's overall water use
               (i.e., baseline) and is a powerful tool for identify-
               ing, evaluating, and prioritizing water-efficiency
               improvements. It also provides a mechanism to
               identify water that is unaccounted for, which might
               be attributed to leaks. See Tables 1 -2 and 1 -3 for an
               example of a laboratory facility water balance. It is
               important to develop a water balance for all types of
               source water that a facility might be using. The fol-
               lowing steps will help with creating a water balance:

                • Sum the measured or estimated water use from
                  all of the individual end uses for each water
                  source. The sum of all end uses should roughly
                  equal the facility's total baseline water use.

                • For metered or submetered fixtures,  equipment,
                  systems, and processes identified, calculate typi-
                  cal annual water use from meter readings, water
                  bills, or internal log books.

                • For unmetered fixtures, equipment, systems, and
                  processes identified, estimate the annual water
                  use from flow rate measurements collected dur-
                  ing the facility tour (if available) or use equip-
                  ment specifications and patterns of use. Consult
                  the relevant best management practices within WaterSenseat Workto help
                  develop water use estimates for specific fixtures or equipment. Most of these
                  sections provide equations to help calculate water use of existing equipment and
                  potential retrofits or replacements.

                • In some cases, the use of onsite alternative water sources (see Section 8: Onsite
                  Alternative Water Sources) can offset the use of potable water. Track these sources
                  separately in the facility water balance to fully account for all sources of supplied
                  water.

                • If more than 10 percent of water use  cannot be accounted for in the water bal-
                  ance, there could be an unidentified  source, a leak, or another issue warranting
                  further investigation. Refer to Section 2.3: Leak Detection and Repairto help iden-
                  tify and fix leaks.
1-14
October 2012

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                                               1.2 Water Management Planning
              Table 1-2. Example Laboratory Facility Water Balance for Potable Water Source
Major Process
Total Annual Potable
Water Supplied
Use 1 : Sanitary (e.g., toilets,
urinals, showerheads,
faucets)
Use 2: Water-Cooled Ice
Machine in Commercial
Kitchen
Use 3: Pre-Rinse Spray Valve
Use 4: Steam Sterilizer
(i.e., continuous discharge
tempering water)
Use 5: Reverse Osmosis
Supply
Use 6: Cooling Tower Make-
Up Water
Use 7: Steam Boiler Make-
Up Water
Sum of Accounted-for
Potable Water Use
Unaccounted-for Potable
Water Use
^13! Water Percent _ . -_ .
Basis of Estimate
gallons) ofTotal
4,900,000
550,000
300,000
50,000
300,000
100,000
3,000,000
300,000
4,600,000
300,000
100
11
6
1
6
2
62
6
94
6
Monthly Water Bills
Engineering estimate of
750,000 gallons per year,
subtracting onsite rainwater
supply of 200,000 gallons/year
Engineering estimate using
manufacturer product litera-
ture
Engineering estimate
Instantaneous flow rate mea-
surement
Metered
Metered
Metered
Summed from uses 1
through 7
Calculated by difference
from total water use and
accounted for water use
(since this is less than 1 0 per-
cent, the facility likely does
not have a significant leak)
            Table 1-3. Example Laboratory Facility Water Balance for Air Handler Condensate Supply
Major Process Annual Water Percent . .
Total Annual Air Handler
Condensate Supplied
Use 1 : Cooling Tower Make-Up
Water
Sum of Accounted-for Air
Handler Condensate Water Use
Unaccounted-for Air Handler
Condensate Water Use
500,000
500,000
500,000
0
100
100
100
0
Metered
Metered (separately from
city-supplied make-up
water)
Usel
Calculated by difference
from total water use and
accounted for water use
October 2012
1-15

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1.2  Water Management Planning
               Step 3. Setting and Communicating Goals

               Once the water management team understands how the facility is currently using
               water, the next step in the water management planning process is to gather building
               owners, facility management staff, senior management, and any other key decision
               makers to develop a list of water management goals and policy initiatives. Employ-
               ees from all different parts of the organization should be included in the goal-setting
               process to obtain a range of perspectives and promote a sense of ownership. The
               goals will drive the water management program and help fuel continuous improve-
               ment.

               Once water management goals and policies have been developed, they must be
               communicated to the entire organization with the support of senior management or
               the building owners.Top-level support gives legitimacy to the initiative and informs
               employees that water and energy reductions are a priority. A feedback mechanism
               should be created to encourage input, suggestions, and reporting of problems.

               Examples of water management goals might include:

                • Reduce water use by a certain percentage per year for a period of years for a total
                  target percent reduction, based upon the facility's established water use baseline.

                • Complete projects identified through the water management planning process
                  within a set timeframe.

                • Upgrade and focus on making whole areas water-efficient, such  as mechanical
                  systems, restrooms, or commercial kitchens.

                • Establish a leak detection program to identify and correct any water use that is
                  unaccounted for and could be attributed to leaks.

                • Use onsite alternative water sources to replace a certain percentage of potable
                  water use.

                • Participate in a program to incentivize water use reductions (e.g., ENERGY STAR
                  National Building Competition).10

                • Obtain recognition for water reduction efforts from a federal, state, or local
                  program (e.g., California Green Business Program, Wisconsin Green Tier Program,
                  New Mexico Green Zia Leadership Program).11'12'13

                • Achieve facility-level certification, such as the U.S. Green Building Council's LEED®
                  rating system or ENERGY STAR. State and local level certification programs can
                  also provide benefits to commercial and institutional buildings. Sector-specific
                  programs, such as the Michigan Green Lodging Program or the Green Restaurant
                  Association program, are often tailored to promote significant reductions in envi-
                  ronmental impacts.14'15

10 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR.The ENERGY STAR Challenge. www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=challenge.bus_challenge.
11 California Green Business Program, www.greenbusinessca.org/.
12 Wisconsin Green Tier Program, dnr.wi.gov/topic/greentier/.
13 New Mexico Green Zia Leadership Program. www.nmenv.state.nm.us/P2/GreenZia/index.html.
14 Green Lodging Michigan, www.michigan.gov/mdcd/0,1607,7-122-25676_25677_37026—,00.html.
15 Green Restaurant Association, www.dinegreen.com/.


1-16                                                                                            October 2012

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                                                       1.2 Water Management Planning
              When setting and communicating goals, consider the following:

                •  Ensure that goals are measureable and achievable. Remember that goals can
                  always be strengthened if the organization achieves success sooner than initially
                  anticipated.

                •  Establish realistic implementation timeframes and dates.

                •  Consider facility-specific conditions, such as long-term drought or water use
                  restrictions, when establishing goals.

                •  Communicate goals to employees, building occupants, and other relevant stake-
                  holders to gain support for future projects.

                •  Conduct a kickoff event to engage employees facility-wide.


              Step 4. Creating an Action Plan

              Using the water balance as a guide and considering any major areas for improve-
              ment noted during the water assessment, the water management team can create a
              detailed action plan.This includes solidifying water savings opportunities into spe-
              cific projects or operation and maintenance changes and prioritizing that project list.
              The action plan should determine which projects and practices can be implemented
              at the facility to achieve established water management goals. Creating an  action
              plan consists of the following steps:

                •  Identifying projects and calculating cost and potential savings
                •  Identifying financing sources
                •  Calculating simple payback
                •  Prioritizing projects
                •  Documenting project priorities in a detailed action plan

              Identifying Projects and Calculating Cost and Potential Savings

              To develop an initial  list of potential projects, consider the following:

                •  Utilize information gathered during the water assessment to determine which
                  operation and maintenance changes and retrofit and replacement projects
                  might be viable at the facility. Consider the largest uses of water identified from
                  the water assessment and included in the facility water balance. These might be
                  areas to target for the most significant water savings.

                •  Review the checklist in Table 1 -4 to help identify potential projects and  practices
                  for inclusion in the action plan. The checklist can be filled out after the water
                  assessment to help the facility owner or manager determine where to focus his
                  or her efforts.

                •  Consider the impact of codes and standards, which  may mandate or incentivize
                  the use of certain fixtures or equipment (see Section 2.5: Codes, Standards, and
                  Voluntary Programs for Water Efficiency).
October 2012                                                                                          1-17

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1.2 Water Management Planning
               Once all opportunities have been evaluated, develop a final list of potential projects
               to prioritize, and estimate individual project costs and potential savings as follows:

                 •  For each identified project or practice, calculate the total water, energy, and cost
                   savings from the water and energy use reductions. Remember to include savings
                   from other associated materials and disposal costs. Consult the relevant best
                   management practices in Sections 2 through 8 of WaterSense at Work for assis-
                   tance with some of these calculations.

                 •  South Florida Water Management District's Water Efficiency Self-Assessment Guide
                   for Commercial and Institutional Building Facility Managers provides several  equip-
                   ment and process-specific water use and savings calculators, which can be useful
                   for analyzing project-related water savings.16'17

               Identifying Financing Sources

               As a first step, determine  if the project can be funded through the facility's operat-
               ing expenses or capital funding mechanisms.The following financing sources and
               options can also be considered:

                 •  For larger, more expensive pieces of equipment,  consider leasing the equipment
                   from a technology vendor. ENERGY STAR provides information on a  variety of lease
                   types for energy-using equipment, many of which might apply to water-using
                   equipment, such as commercial laundry systems or water purification systems.18

                 •  Look for rebates and incentive programs offered by the local water utility to
                   assist commercial and institutional building owners in making water-efficiency
                   upgrades.  Energy utilities also have rebates and incentives available to support
                   projects that provide associated energy savings (e.g., laundry replacements,
                   pre-rinse spray valve  replacements). Rebate and incentive programs include free
                   product distribution, partial rebates on purchases of water- and energy-efficient
                   products, financial incentives based on total gallons of water saved from imple-
                   menting large-scale projects, and billing offsets based on submetered water
                   use that can account for water that is not being  sent to the sewer (e.g., metering
                   cooling tower make-up water and blowdown water to account for  evaporation).

                 •  Consider private financing, which can be obtained through performance con-
                   tracts managed by water management service companies and energy service
                   companies (ESCOs). The service company develops, finances, and installs proj-
                   ects designed to improve efficiency and maintenance costs for facilities over a
                   seven- to 10-year time period. Water management service companies and  ESCOs
                   generally act as project developers for a wide range of tasks and assume the
                   technical and performance risk associated with  the project. Water management
                   service companies will develop and finance water-efficiency projects, and  some
                   ESCOs will also develop and fund stand-alone water-efficiency projects, although

16 South Florida Water Management District Water Supply Development Section. April 2012. Water Efficiency Self-Assessment Guide for Commercial and Institu-
 tionalBuilding Facility Monogers.www.sfwmd.gov/portal/page/portal/xweb%20-%20release%203%20water%20conservation/water%20conservation%20
 businesses#efficiency.
"South Florida Water Management District. SFWMD Library & Multimedia. my.sfwmd.gov/portal/pls/portal/portal_apps.repository_lib_pkg.repository_browse?p_
 keywords=waterefficiency&p_thumbnails=no.
18 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. 2007. ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual. Chapter 4: Financing, www.energystar.gov/index.cfm ?c=business.bus_upgrade_manual.


1-18                                                                                              October 2012

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                                                         1.2 Water  Management Planning
                   it is more common for ESCOs to bundle energy- and water-efficiency upgrades.
                   The utility cost savings from the projects pay for the projects themselves, and any
                   additional cost savings on top of the capital cost are shared between the service
                   company and the facility.19'20

                •  Look for state-specific financing programs. Many states have made water-
                   efficiency projects eligible for Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing
                   programs that are carried out by local governments.21

               Calculating Simple Payback

               Simple payback, based on the project cost and anticipated annual water savings, can
               be an effective metric for prioritizing potential projects and practices for inclusion
               in the facility-specific action plan. In some cases, retrofitting or replacing equipment
               can also save energy, further reducing the simple payback period and increasing
               project cost-effectiveness. To calculate the simple payback for a specific project or
               practice, gather the following information and use Equation 1 -1:

                •  Determine the total project cost that will come from the facility's operating
                   budget. If an  alternative source of funding is available, such as a rebate to offset
                   money spent from the facility's budget, subtract it from the total project cost, as
                   it will make the project more cost-effective. The project cost should be the total
                   that will come directly from the facility's budget only.

                •  Estimate the water savings from the project, as calculated using equations in Sec-
                   tions 2 through 8 of WaterSense at Work.

                •  Identify the cost of water and wastewater. In some cases, the water utility deducts
                   sewer charges for water that is not discharged to the sanitary sewer (e.g., water
                   evaporated from the cooling tower or water applied to the landscape). In these
                   cases, only  consider the water cost when calculating simple payback of the project.


                                    Equation 1 -1. Simple Payback (years)


                      = Project Cost 4- (Water Savings x Cost of Water and Wastewater)

                      Where:

                          •  Project Cost (dollars)
                          • Water Savings (gallons per year)
                          • Cost of Water and Wastewater (dollars per gallon)


               If the project has  an associated energy impact, determine the energy source (e.g., gas
               or electricity) and utility cost. Calculate the energy impact and consider including it
               in the simple payback calculation.


19/Wd. Page 6.
20 National Association of Energy Service Companies. Resources—What is an ESCO? www.naesco.org/resources/esco.htm.
21 Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency. PACE Financing. dsireusa.org/solar/solarpolicyguide/?id=26.


October 2012                                                                                             1-19

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1.2 Water Management Planning
                 Table 1 -4. Action Plan Water Use Reduction Opportunity Checklist
••

Already
Implemented

Evaluate/

Not

Water Use Monitoring and Education
Read water meters and record monthly water use.
Install submeters on any major water-using equipment,
systems, or processes.
Implement a leak detection and repair program.
Educate facility staff, building occupants, employees, and visi-
tors on water management program goals and initiatives.
Review, understand, and utilize information in codes, stan-
dards, and voluntary programs for water efficiency.
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5















Sanitary Fixtures and Equipment
Replace old tank-type toilets with WaterSense labeled models.
Replace old flushometer-valve toilets flushing greater than
1 .6 gallons per flush (gpf) with high-efficiency models,
and install retrofit dual-flush conversion devices on 1 .6 gpf
flushometer valve toilets.
Replace old flushing urinals with WaterSense labeled models.
Replace lavatory faucets or faucet aerators (for private use)
with WaterSense labeled models and install 0.5 gallons per
minute (gpm) faucets or aerators in public-use settings.
Replace old showerheads with WaterSense labeled models.
Wash only full loads of laundry.
Replace old single-load clothes washers with ENERGY STAR
qualified models or consider the water factor when pur-
chasing larger or more industrial-sized laundry machines.
3.2
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.6





















Commercial Kitchen Equipment
Replace old ice machines with ENERGY STAR qualified models.
Replace old steam cookers with ENERGY STAR qualified
models.
Load steam cookers, steam kettles, and combination ovens
to capacity.
Switch to connectionless combination ovens, steam cook-
ers, and steam kettles.
Replace old water-cooled wok stoves with a waterless
model.
Install in-line flow restrictor to reduce dipper well flow rate
to 0.3 gpm.
4.2
4.4
4.3,4.4,4.5
4.3, 4.4, 4.5
4.6
4.7


















                                                                           (continued)
1-20
October 2012

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                                            1.2 Water Management Planning
               Table 1-4. Action Plan Water Use Reduction Opportunity Checklist (cont.)
••

Already
Implemented

Evaluate/

Not

Commercial Kitchen Equipment (cont.)
Replace existing pre-rinse spray valves with models that
use 1.3gpmor less.
Hand scrape food from dishes or install food strainers and
compost food waste.
Load dishwashers to capacity.
Replace old dishwashers with ENERGY STAR qualified mod-
els.
Use a broom or mop instead of a water broom or high-
pressure hose to clean floors.
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.10
4.11















Outdoor Water Use
Plant native or drought-tolerant species.
Use mulch around trees and plant beds.
Install WaterSense labeled weather-based irrigation control-
lers or consider irrigation controllers with rain or soil moisture
sensors.
Use drip irrigation to water plant beds.
Ensure irrigation schedule is appropriate for climate, soil
conditions, plant materials, grading, and season.
Have an irrigation professional certified by a WaterSense
labeled program conduct an irrigation audit.
Check the position and location of spray heads to ensure
that they are working properly and water is not being
directed onto non-landscaped areas, such as sidewalks.
Use pool covers to control evaporation loss.
Maintain proper pool chemistry to limit pool cleaning and
drainage events.
Use friction washing in vehicle washes and consider install-
ing a water reclamation and reuse system.
5.2
5.2
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.4
5.4
5.5






























Mechanical Systems
Eliminate single-pass cooling.
Professionally monitor cooling tower and boiler chemistry
and maximize cycles of concentration.
Install cooling tower meters and control systems to control
chemical feed and blowdown based on conductivity.
6.2
6.2, 6.5
6.3









                                                                            (continued)
October 2012
1-21

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1.2  Water Management Planning
                    Table 1-4. Action Plan Water Use Reduction Opportunity Checklist (cont.)
                 Water Use Reduction
                 Opportunity/Project
 ference
  Already
Implem
                                                                                   Evaluate/
  Mechanical Systems (cont.)
  Inspect chillers and air handler coils regularly and remove
  dirt and scale buildup.
  6.4
  Regularly check and maintain boilers, steam lines, and
  steam traps.
  6.5
  Laboratory and Medical Equipment
  Use water purification only when necessary.
  7.2
  Turn off pumps when not in use.
  7.3
  Install thermostatically actuated valves to control the flow
  of cooling water for steam sterilizer condensate discharge.
  7.4
  Replace old steam sterilizers and vacuum pumps with
  newer models that do not use single-pass cooling or con-
  densate discharge tempering water.
7.3, 7.4
  Replace old fume hoods with a filtration system that does
  not require water (e.g., activated carbon).
  7.6
  Inspect and repair worn cage-and-rack washer valves and
  rinse nozzles.
  7.7
  Run glassware and cage-and-rack washers only when full.
7.5, 7.7
  Consider converting from traditional film to digital X-ray
  equipment.
  7.8
  Onsite Alternative Water Use
  Consider using onsite alternative water for irrigation, cool-
  ing tower make-up, toilet and urinal flushing, fume hood
  scrubbers, and other uses not requiring potable water.
  8.0
               Prioritizing Projects

               All projects and practices selected should be considered in the context of achiev-
               ing established water management goals, as well as overall cost-effectiveness. Once
               water-saving opportunities have been identified, they should be prioritized using
               criteria, such as urgency, cost-effectiveness, amount of potential water savings, vis-
               ibility, and environmental impact.The water management team should address the
               simplest and most urgent tasks first, as follows:

                 •  Fix any equipment that is malfunctioning or leaking to target the most urgent
                   issues first.
                 •  Start with simple projects and practices, particularly for new water management
                   programs. This will help create initial positive results and gain acceptance of pro-
                   gram goals and initiatives.
1-22
                                         October 2012

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                                                         1.2 Water Management  Planning
                • Note where simply changing the operations and maintenance for equipment or
                  systems will result in savings. These changes are often are low- to no-cost options
                  that can be more cost-effective than retrofits or replacements.

               Remaining projects should be prioritized based on facility goals. Depending on what
               the facility values most, projects can be prioritized in a variety of ways, including:

                • Shortest to longest simple payback period.

                • Highest to lowest potential of water savings.

                • Most visibility to least visibility (e.g., implementing a landscaping project before
                  increasing cooling tower cycles of concentration).

                • Greatest to least environmental impact (e.g., implementing projects with the
                  greatest associated energy savings before those with only water savings).

               Documenting Project Priorities in a Detailed Action Plan

               Documenting in order of priority the identified water-saving opportunities and spe-
               cific projects or operation and maintenance changes is an effective way to help ensure
               that projects are implemented and water management goals  are reached. Remember
               that projects can be re-prioritized as they are completed or based on changing goals.

               The water management team should also consider
               developing an emergency contingency plan, which
               can be a stand-alone document or incorporated
               into the facility-specific action plan.The emergency
               contingency plan can help the team further prioritize
               actions and identify ways to prepare for and respond
               to significant drought or other water restrictions.
               When developing an emergency contingency plan,
               consider the following tips:

                • Describe how the facility will meet minimum
                  water needs in an emergency or minimum
                  water use requirements in a drought or water
                  shortage.This may require determining the
                  highest-priority water use needs at the facility and planning for how those needs
                  will continue to be met in an emergency.

                • Work with the local water utility and other regional and state associations to
                  ensure that plans are compliant with all requirements and that water use will be
                  reduced regionally as needed.

                • Refer to the emergency water supply planning guide for water outages for hos-
                  pitals and health care facilities developed by the Centers  for Disease Control and
                  Prevention and the American Water Works Association for examples of issues to
                  consider when developing a facility-specific plan.22
2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American Water Works Association. 2012. Emergency Water Supply Planning Guide for Hospitals and Health Care
 Facilities. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.cdc.gov/healthywater/emergency/drinking_water_advisory/index.html#planningguide.
October 2012
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1.2 Water Management Planning
               Step 5. Implementing the Action Plan

               The water management team should develop a targeted implementation strategy
               for the action plan, which can significantly increase project success and help achieve
               water management goals. This might include gathering support for specific projects
               and practices.To maximize the opportunities for success, consider the following:

                • Ensure that the necessary resources (i.e., time, money, personnel) are available to
                  complete projects and practices included in the action plan.

                • Complete identified projects and practices in order of priority.

                • Promote key components of the action plan to employees and other relevant
                  stakeholders to gain support for specific projects.

                • Create incentives to encourage staff or those responsible for specific projects and
                  practices to take action and do their part to help achieve water management
                  goals.

                • Be creative and consider other resources that may be available to assist in imple-
                  mentation, such  as other employees, utility and government programs, interns,
                  or engineering students.

                • In the event of a  drought or other water emergency, implement measures as
                  specified  in the emergency contingency plan.


               Step 6. Evaluating Progress

               The water management team should periodically conduct a formal review of water
               use data and action plan implementation in the context of achieving the established
               water management goals.This review allows the organization to evaluate progress,
               set new goals, and continually improve. The water management team can  also use
               the review to  demonstrate and promote the success of the water management pro-
               gram, which can provide long-term support for the program and future projects and
               initiatives. Evaluations can include the following:

                • Review water bills and meter and submeter readings to verify that the  expected
                  water savings are achieved. Ensuring that expected savings are seen is referred
                  to as  measurement and verification, and it is an important exercise to ensure that
                  projects are operating as expected. DOE's FEMP has issued guidance on how to
                  conduct measurement and verification for water projects.23

                • Review the action plan, at least on an  annual basis, and revise water manage-
                  ment goals as they are achieved.

                • Use ENERGY STAR'S Portfolio Manager24 to track progress and compare water use
                  over time. The Portfolio Manager tool  is an effective way to keep track of water
                  use data and note water reduction successes.


23 DOE, EERE, FEMP. April 2008. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects, Version 3.0, Section 11.6. mnv.lbl.gov/keyMnVDocs/femp.
24 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR, Portfolio Manager Overview, op. at
1-24                                                                                         October 2012

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                                                      1.2 Water Management Planning
               •  Conduct a detailed reassessment of the facility approximately every four years to
                  develop an updated water balance and identify new water management goals
                  and savings opportunities.


              Step 7. Recognizing Achievements

              To gain and sustain support for a facility's water management program, the water
              management team can consider providing recognition for water management activi-
              ties and achievements. This includes recognizing the contributions of those who
              have helped achieve the water management goals, as well as promoting the success
              of the program internally and to external stakeholders. Following are a few ways to
              recognize water management efforts:

               •  Establish an internal recognition program to award personnel or teams that pro-
                  vided significant contributions toward achieving the water management goals.
                  This might include an award for the generation  of the best water-efficiency ideas
                  or the achievement of the greatest water use reductions (if measurable on an
                  individual basis).

               •  Respond to employee and staff suggestions and reports of issues to encourage
                  all parts of the organization to participate in the efforts.

               •  Explore opportunities for external recognition, such as competing in ENERGY
                  STAR'S annual National Building Competition,25 which recognizes top water savers.

               •  Report progress publicly to interested  stakeholders to gain support for initiatives
                  and recognition for water-efficiency achievements.

               •  Report progress to facility staff and building occupants by using a newsletter
                  or other outreach means as discussed  in Section 2.4: User Education and Facility
                  Outreach.
                 Water Management Planning Case Study

                To learn how EPA's comprehensive water
                management strategy resulted in an 18.7
                percent reduction in water use across 29 of
                its laboratories in just three short years, read
                the case study in Appendix A.
' EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. National Building Competition. www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=buildingcontest.index.
October 2012
1-25

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1.2 Water Management Planning
              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency, www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org.

              Arizona Municipal Water Users Association Regional Water Conservation Committee
              and Black and Veatch. August 2008. Facility Manager's Guide to Water Management
              Version 2.7. www.amwua.org/business.html.

              Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American Water Works Association.
              2012. Emergency Water Supply Planning Guide for Hospitals and Health Care Facilities.
              Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.cdc.gov/healthywater/
              emergency/drinking_water_advisory/index.html#planningguide.

              Cosaboon, David, et al. International Facility Management Association Foundation.
              2010. A Comprehensive Guide to Water Conservation: The Bottom Line Impacts, Chal-
              lenges and Rewards, www.ifmafoundation.org/research/how-to-guides.htm.

              Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency. PACE Financing.
              dsireusa.org/solar/solarpolicyguide/?id=26.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program
              (FEMP). April 2008. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy
              Projects, Version 3.0. Section 11.6. mnv.lbl.gov/keyMnVDocs/femp.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, FEMP. July 2010. Guidelines for Esti-
              mating Unmetered Landscaping Water Use. www! .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/
              waterefficiency_resources.html.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, FEMP. September 2011. Guidelines for
              Estimating Unmetered Industrial Water Use. www! .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/
              waterefficiency_resources.html.

              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficien-
              cy Plan ReviewGuide for New Businesses, www.ebmud.com/for-customers/
              conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

              Environment Agency of the United Kingdom. March 2006.Waterwise—good for
              business, great for the environment. Page 6. cdn.environment-agency.gov.uk/geh-
              00406bknl-e-e.pdf.

              EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR.  Portfolio Manager Overview, www.energystar.gov/
              index.cfm?c=evaluate_performance.bus_portfoliomanager.

              EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR.  2007. ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual. Page 4.
              www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=business.bus_upgrade_manual.

              EPA. Environmental Management Systems (EMS). www.epa.gov/EMS/.

              EPA. EPA Water Management Plans. www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/water/epa_plans.htm.

              National Association of Energy Service Companies. Resources—What is an ESCO?
              www.naesco.org/resources/esco.htm.
1-26                                                                                        October 2012

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                                                      1.2 Water Management Planning
              North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al. May 2009.
              Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Facilities. Page 28.
              savewaternc.org/bushome.php.

              Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Insti-
              tutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State Engi-
              neer, www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.

              South Florida Water Management District Water Supply Development Section. April
              2012. Water Efficiency Self-Assessment Guide for Commercial and Institutional Building
              Facility Managers, www.sfwmd.gov/portal/page/portal/xweb%20-%20release%20
              3%20water%20conservation/water%20conservation%20businesses#efficiency.

              South Florida Water Management District. SFWMD Library & Multimedia.
              my.sfwmd.gov/portal/pls/portal/portal_apps.repository_lib_pkg.repository_
              browse?p_keywords=waterefficiency&p_thumbnails=no.

              State of California Department of Water Resources. October 1994. Water Efficiency Guide
              for Business Managers and Facility Engineers, www.water.ca.gov/wateruseefficiency.
October 2012                                                                                         1-27

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        Table of Contents

        2.1  Introduction to Water Use
           Monitoring and Education	2-2
        2.2  Metering and Submetering	2-4
        2.3  Leak Detection and Repair	2-9
        2.4  User Education and Facility
           Outreach	2-13
        2.5  Codes, Standards, and Voluntary
           Programs for Water Efficiency	2-16
Water Use Monitoring
             and Education
                        EPA
                        Water Sense

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2.1  Introduction  to  Water Use
       Monitoring  and  Education
                                                                    WaterSense
Water meter
Two key factors to properly managing and reducing facility water use are actively
monitoring water use and effectively educating facility staff, building occupants,
employees, and visitors about facility water use and water management planning
goals. Monitoring and education are critical to the success of a facility's water man-
agement program because they provide the ability to track and measure progress, as
well as increase awareness and build support for specific projects or user behavioral
changes.

By routinely monitoring facility water use through existing water meters, building
owners and operators can understand and manage facility water use.To monitor
some specific activities more closely, some facilities install submeters on major end
uses, such as irrigation systems and cooling towers. Metering allows a facility to
quickly find and fix leaks or other unnecessary water use. It also has the added ben-
efit of enabling the facility to identify cost-effective water use reduction opportuni-
ties and to track project savings.

                    Leaks are water wasted with no intended use or purpose;
                    once identified, leaks should be the first area to target from
                    a water management perspective. Unfortunately, leaks often
                    go undetected, particularly if a facility is not routinely moni-
                    toring its water use. On average, leaks can account for more
                    than 6 percent of a facility's total water use. With a few simple
                    steps, a facility can establish a comprehensive leak detection
                    and repair program, which can save water, money, time, and
                    expenses that would otherwise be associated with unman-
                    aged leaks.

                    Once a facility has an accurate understanding of its water use
                    and has taken steps to eliminate leaks and other unnecessary
                    water waste, the next step is to educate building occupants,
                    employees, and visitors about using water efficiently. Build-
ing owners and operators can raise awareness of water-efficiency efforts by commu-
nicating reduction goals to their employees, guests, and other stakeholders. Much
of the water use within a facility is dependent upon user behavior and proper opera-
tion and maintenance of water-using products and equipment. Simple behavioral
changes, such as taking shorter showers, running dishwashers only with full loads, or
using a dual-flush toilet properly, can result in significant water savings. In addition,
maintaining equipment and training staff to look for and report leaks can be a key
component of a facility's leak detection and  repair program, helping to ensure the
long-term water savings associated with any water-efficient products or equipment
installed.

Another aspect of water use education is to understand the impact of national, state,
and local codes, standards, and voluntary water-efficiency programs. In many cases,
building and plumbing codes and standards establish the baseline for how build-
ings use water and  even the types of water-using products that can be installed.
Voluntary programs such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's)
2-2
                          WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                   2.1  Introduction  to Water Use Monitoring and Education
              WaterSense® program and EPA and the U.S. Energy Department's ENERGY STAR®
              have emerged to help facilities more easily implement water-efficient practices, tech-
              nologies, and products that go above and beyond the standards. Many water and
              energy utilities also offer rebates for water- and energy-efficient products, which can
              increase a project's cost-effectiveness. Facility managers can use this document as a
              starting point for finding information regarding the codes, standards, voluntary pro-
              grams, and product rebates in order to better manage and more strategically employ
              successful water-efficiency measures and practices.

              Section 2: Water Use Monitoring and Education ofWaterSense at Work provides specific
              guidance on:

               • Metering and submetering
               • Leak detection and repair
               • User education and facility outreach
               • Codes, standards, and voluntary programs for water efficiency
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2.2  Metering  and  Submetering
                                           WaterSense
               Overview

               An important rule in water management is that you can't manage what you don't
               measure.Tracking a facility's total water use, as well as specific end uses, is a key com-
               ponent of the facility's water-efficiency efforts. Source meters measure the amount
               of water being supplied to the facility, while submeters measure usage for specific
               activities, such as cooling tower, process, or landscape water use. Accurately measur-
               ing water use can help facility managers identify areas for targeted reductions and to
               track progress from water-efficiency upgrades. Submeters can also help identify leaks
               and indicate when equipment is  malfunctioning.

               Meters and submeters can  be integrated into a centralized building management sys-
               tem, making it easy to track usage and implement a water management plan (see Sec-
               t/on 1.2: Water Management Planning). These systems are capable of electronically storing
               data from meters and submeters, reporting hourly, daily, monthly, and annual water use.
               They can also trigger alerts when leaks or other operational anomalies are detected.

               Installing the correct meter and ensuring it functions properly are critical to accurate
               water measurement. There are many types and sizes of meters intended for different
               uses, so it is important to choose the correct one. Improper sizing or type can cause
               problems for the building. For example, an undersized water meter can cause exces-
               sive pressure loss, reduced flow, and noise. Oversized meters are not economical and
               do not accurately measure minimal flow rates.1 All utility-grade water  meters manu-
               factured and installed for domestic water service by a water utility in the United
               States must comply with American Waterworks Association (AWWA) standards. Sub-
               meters that are installed for water management purposes and not used for revenue
               purposes are not subject to such  standards.


               Best Practices

               There are several best practices for metering water use, including correctly choos-
               ing what to meter and submeter; selecting, installing, and maintaining meters; and
               reading and recording metered data to track water use and integrate it into the water
               management plan.


               Determining What to Meter and Submeter

               It's best to meter all water conveyed to the facility, regardless of source. For example,
               even if a building's water is solely supplied by an alternative source (e.g., municipally
               supplied reclaimed water), a source meter can still be installed to track and manage
               water use.2 If multiple sources of  water are provided to a facility, each source should
               be metered and tracked separately.

1 Smith,Timothy A. Park Environmental Equipment Company, LTD. April 22,2008. Water-Meter Selection and Sizing.
 www.park-usa.com/skins/park/standard.aspx?elid=71&arl=108.
2 U.S. Green Building Council's LEED.8 November 2010. Building Design and Construction. Page 151. www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentlD=8182.
2-4
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                                                         2.2 Metering and  Submetering
              Building owners and operators should consider installing separate submeters to
              measure specific end uses that are permanently plumbed, as indicated in Table 2-1.
              For more information and additional recommendations on metering and subme-
              tering, review the U.S. Green Building Council's LEED® rating system3 and the 2012
              International Green Construction Code.™4

                                Table 2-1. Submetering Recommendations
Submeter Application
Tenant Spaces
Cooling Towers
Heating, Ventilating,
and Air Conditioning
(HVAC) Systems
Steam Boilers
Single-Pass Cooling
Systems
Irrigation
Roof Spray Systems
Ornamental Water
Features
Pools and Spas
Industrial Processes
Recommendation
Meter all tenant spaces individually.
Meter cooling tower make-up water and blowdown water
supply lines. A single make-up meter and a single blowdown
meter can record flows for multiple cooling towers if they a re
controlled with the same system. Separately controlled cool-
ing towers should have separate make-up and blowdown
water meters.
Individually or collectively meter HVAC systems with ag-
gregate annual water use of 100,000 gallons or more or if
the facility has 50,000 square feet or more of conditioned
space. Metered systems should include evaporative coolers,
humidifiers, mist cooling devices, and recirculating water
systems with a fill water connection, such as chilled water,
hot water, and dual temperature systems.
Meter the make-up water supply line to steam boilers with
a rating of 500,000 British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) or
greater. A single make-up meter can record flows for mul-
tiple boilers.
Meter any systems or equipment that use single-pass cool-
ing water and do not use a chilled water system or closed-
loop recirculation.
Meter irrigation systems that are automatically controlled.
Meter roof spray systems for irrigating vegetated roofs or
thermal conditioning.
Meter make-up water supply lines for ornamental water
features with a permanently installed water supply.
Meter make-up water supply lines for indoor and outdoor
pools and spas.
Individually meter industrial processes consuming more
than 1,000 gallons per day on average.
                                                                               (continued)
3 Ibid
4 International Code Council. 20/2 International Green Construction Code.™ www.iccsafe.org/Store/Pages/Product.aspx?id=3750S12.
October 2012
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2.2  Metering  and Submetering
                              Table 2-1. Submetering Recommendations (cont.)
                 Submeter Application
                 Alternative Water
                 Sources
                 Recommendation
Meter water use from alternative water sources, such as
gray water, rainwater, air handler or boiler condensate, or
other sources discussed in Section 8: Onsite Alternative Water
Sources.
                 Other Processes
Meter any other process with a projected annual water use
of 100,000 gallons or more.
               Meter Selection

               The first step in choosing a meter is to determine its use and select the appropriate
               type of meter from the list below:5

                •  Positive displacement meters are best suited for small commercial or institutional
                   applications because they have high accuracy rates at low flows and can precise-
                   ly measure peak flows.

                •  Compound meters are a good choice for large commercial or institutional
                   facilities because they accurately measure low flows and high flows with their
                   multiple-measuring chamber design.

                •  Turbine and propeller meters are most appropriate for continuous, high-flow
                   applications and are inaccurate at low flows. These types of meters are not usu-
                   ally recommended for commercial, institutional, or residential  buildings because
                   water flows are in constant fluctuation, with very low minimum flow rates.

               Next, select the appropriate size of the meter. It is critical to understand the build-
               ing's size, function, fixture types, usage occupancy, and peak population in order to
               select the appropriately sized meter. These statistics determine the minimum and
               maximum flow rates and will assist in the selection of a properly sized water meter.6
               AWWA Manual M22, Sizing Water Service Lines and Meters, provides additional guide-
               lines for selecting and sizing utility-owned and installed  water meters.7

               Meter Installation and Maintenance

               After selecting a meter, consider the following installation and maintenance best
               practices to ensure optimal meter operation:

                •  When installing a meter, follow the manufacturer's instructions. Improper instal-
                   lation can lead to metering inaccuracies.

                •  Install meters in an accessible location  to allow for reading and repair. In addition,
                   ensure that the meter location  is protected from potential damage.
5 Smith, op. at.
6 Ibid.
7 American Waterworks Association (AWWA). 2004. Sizing Water Service Lines and Meters (AWWA Manual M22, Second Edition).
 apps.a wwa.org/eBusMAI N/Default.aspx?TablD=401&Productld=6711.
2-6
                                                        October 2012

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                                                             2.2 Metering  and Submetering
                •  To ensure uniform flow entering the meter, do not install the meter near pipe
                   bends. In general, place the meter in a location where there is a space of straight
                   pipe equivalent to at least 10 times the pipe diameter downstream of the meter
                   and five times the pipe diameter upstream of the meter.8

                •  Create a map indicating the location of all water supply meters and submeters to
                   be included in the facility water management plan.

                •  Include a strainer on all meters and submeters. Debris and sediment can enter a
                   meter and have an adverse effect on accurate measurement. An inline strainer on
                   the meter's inlet will collect debris and sediment and prevent them from enter-
                   ing the meter body.9

                •  Since meters deteriorate with age, test them for accuracy and calibrate them on
                   a regular basis. AWWA recommends that utility-owned meters be tested, on aver-
                   age, as follows:10
                    n Meter sizes 5/8 inch to  1 inch: Every 10 years
                    n Meter sizes 1  inch to 4 inches: Every five years
                    n Meter sizes 4 inches and larger: Every year

                •  Consider inspecting and calibrating submeters more frequently, depending
                   upon the type and size of the meter and its application.
               Water Use Tracking and Integration Into the Water Management Plan

               Building owners and operators should consider installing a water meter data man-
               agement system with remote communication capabilities that provides instant
               feedback on all metered water use in a central location. This
               type of system makes it easier for building managers to iden-
               tify leaks or other abnormalities and better understand and
               manage water use at the facility.

               If the facility is not integrating metering data into a central-
               ized data system, consider the following best practices:11

                •  Assign responsibility to track water use at least monthly.

                •  Ensure that staff understands how to read the meters
                   and record data properly. Pay special attention to the
                   units that the meter uses—gallons, cubic feet, and hun-
                   dred cubic feet are common units for water meters. Also,
                   ensure that staff record the numerical values properly.
                   Meters often include one or more trailing zeros that
                   must be added after the numerical dial reading.
A meter reads 201,670 cubic feet.
8 AWWA. 1999. Water Meters—Selection, Installation, Testing, and Maintenance (AWWA Manual M6, Fourth Edition). Pages 40-46.
 apps.a wwa.org/eBusMAI N/Default.aspx?TablD=401&Productld=28471.
9 Smith, op. cit.
10 Georgia Environmental Protection Division. August 2007. Water Meter Calibration, Repair, and Replacement Program. Page 7. wwwl .gadnr.org/cws/.
11 U.S. Energy Department, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program. Best Management Practice: Water Management Planning.
 wwwl .eere.energy.gov/femp/prog ram/waterefficiency_bmp1 .html.
October 2012
                                2-7

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2.2 Metering  and  Submetering
            • Plot total water use and submetered data monthly and examine data for unex-
              plained fluctuations.

            • Evaluate trends and investigate and resolve any unexpected deviations in water use.


           Additional Resources

           Alliance for Water Efficiency, www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org.

           American Waterworks Association (AWWA). 1999. Water Meters—Selection, Installa-
           tion, Testing, and Maintenance (AWWA Manual M6, Fourth Edition). Pages 40-46.
           apps.awwa.org/eBusMAIN/Default.aspx?TablD=401&Productld=28471.

           AWWA. 2004. Sizing Water Service Lines and Meters (AWWA Manual M22, Second
           Edition). apps.awwa.org/eBusMAIN/Default.aspx?TablD=401&Productld=6711.

           International Code Council. 2012 International Green Construction Code.™
           www.iccsafe.org/Store/Pages/Product.aspx?id=3750S12.

           Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Insti-
           tutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer.
           www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.

           State of California Department of Water Resources. October 1994. Water Efficiency
           Guide for Business Managers and Facility Engineers.
           www.water.ca.gov/wateruseefficiency.
                                                                                           October 2012

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2.3  Leak Detection  and  Repair
                                              WaterSense
               Overview
               Identifying and repairing leaks and other water use anomalies within a facility's water
               distribution system or from particular processes or equipment can keep a facility
               from wasting significant quantities of water. As described in Table 2-2, water leaks
               can add up over time.12'13
                                Table 2-2. Potential Losses From Water Leaks
                     Malfunction
                 Lea king Toilet
Leaking Flow
Rate (gallons
 per minute)
  0.5 gpm
  Water Loss
 21,600 gallons
  per month
 stimated Cost
 of Water Loss
 $2,100 per year
                 Drip Irrigation
                 Malfunction
   1.0 gpm
43,200 gallons
  per month
 $4,300 per year
                 Unattended Water
                 Hose at Night
  10.0 gpm
 5,400 gallons
   per day
$16,000 per year
                 Broken Distribution
                 Line for:
                 One Day
                 One Week
                 One Month
  15.0 gpm
  15.0 gpm
  15.0 gpm
 21,600 gallons
151,200 gallons
648,000 gallons
 Up to $64,000
   per year
                Tempering Water Line
                on a Steam Sterilizer
                Stuck in the On Position
  2.0 gpm
 86,400 gallons
  per month
 $8,600 per year
                Stuck Float Valve in a
                Cooling Tower
  5.0 gpm
216,000 gallons
  per month
$21,000 per year
               An aggressive leak detection and repair program can help facility managers better
               understand building water use and save money by avoiding water waste.

               Best Practices
               Reading meters, installing failure abatement technologies, and conducting visual
               and auditory inspections are important best practices to detect leaks.To reduce un-
               necessary water loss, all detected leaks should be repaired quickly.
12 City of Poway, California. How to Detect a Water Leak. www.poway.org/lndex.aspx?page=472.
"Estimated cost of water loss based on an average rate of $8.25 per 1,000 gallons for water and wastewater determined from data in: American Water
 Works Association (Raftelis Financial Consulting). 2010. Water and Wastewater Rate Survey.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
                                                               2-9

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2.3  Leak Detection and Repair
               Reading Meters and Installing Failure Abatement Technologies

               To reduce water loss, consider the following metering and leak detection methods:

                •  Read the facility water meter during off-peak hours when all water-using equip-
                   ment can be turned off, and building occupants, employees, and visitors are not
                   using sanitary fixtures. After all water uses have been shut off, read the meter;
                   and then read it again an hour later. If the water meter reading significantly
                   changed, this indicates there may be a leak somewhere within the distribution
                   system or within the facility.

                •  Read water meters and water bills monthly. Pay close attention to water me-
                   ter readings to ensure that they make sense and are consistent with expected
                   water use trends. Compare  monthly water bills to the previous month and to the
                   same month of the previous year, keeping in mind expected seasonal water use
                   increases (e.g., more water in the summer months for building cooling and land-
                   scape irrigation). If water use is unexpectedly high, a significant leak might be
                   present in the distribution lines or within the facility. Install submeters on major
                   water-using equipment (e.g., cooling tower make-up water lines, reverse osmosis
                   system supply lines, and irrigation systems). See Section 2.2: Metering and Subme-
                   tering for more information. Monitor the submeter readings to identify unexpect-
                   edly high water  uses, which may  indicate that equipment is malfunctioning or
                   that a leak is present.

                •  Install failure abatement devices, or leak detection systems, on major water-using
                   equipment. Failure abatement devices sense if equipment is malfunctioning or
                   potentially leaking by detecting abnormal increases in water flow. The devices
                   can alert a user if an issue is detected via alarm, flashing light, phone call, or other
                   method, or they can automatically turn off the water supply to the equipment.

               Visual and Auditory Inspection

               In addition to metering, conduct visual  and auditory inspections described in these
               best practices:

                •  Perform a water assessment of the facility once every four years, as outlined in
                   Section 1.2: Water Management Planning. During a water assessment, all major
                   water uses will be identified and estimated. If more than 10 percent of water use
                   cannot be accounted for by the water assessment, the facility may have leaks in
                   the distribution  lines or from equipment, and further investigation is warranted.

                •  Select an irrigation professional certified through a program that has earned the
                   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense® label14 to audit the
                   landscape irrigation system for outdoor water use leaks. All audits should be con-
                   ducted according to the Irrigation Association's recommended audit guidelines.15
14 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense program. Professional Certification Program. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/outdoor/cert_programs.html.
15 Irrigation Association.Technical Resources: Irrigation Audit Guidelines. www.irrigation.org/Resources/Audit_Guidelines.aspx.



2-10                                                                                             October 2012

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                                                            2.3 Leak Detection and  Repair
                  Perform daily tours of the building, including mechanical spaces. Pay close atten-
                  tion to all water-using equipment indoors and outdoors by listening and looking
                  for unexpected water use, such as:

                   n Sanitary fixtures continuously flushing, leaking, or left running.

                   n Unanticipated discharge to floor drains in mechanical spaces.

                   n Wet spots in parking lots and grassy areas surrounding the facility. If soggy
                     ground is unexpected, contact the water utility to determine if there is a leak
                     in the distribution line.

                  Train building occupants, employees, and visitors to report to facility mainte-
                  nance staff any leaks that they detect in restrooms, kitchen areas, or any part
                  of the facility. Building maintenance staff could complete these repairs without
                  much extra effort. Immediate leak detection is vital to avoid water and monetary
                  losses from unnecessary water waste. To encourage this feedback and build a cul-
                  ture of reporting leaks, be sure to repair leaks in a timely manner.
                                                                  Finding and Fixing Leaks

                                                        EPA's WaterSense program sponsors Fix a Leak Week
                                                        annually in March to remind Americans to find and
                                                        fix household leaks. This week is the perfect time to
                                                        educate employees about finding and fixing leaks at
                                                        home, as well as at the facility.

                                                        The Southern Nevada Water Authority has several
                                                        leak detection and repair videos16 available on its
                                                        website. Consider using these videos to further edu-
                                                        cate facility staff about identifying leaks.
Leak Repair

If a plumbing fixture or other piece of wa-
ter-using equipment is leaking, repair it
according to manufacturer specifications.
If necessary, replace it with new, properly
functioning equipment; look for Water-
Sense labeled models where available.

For specific information on operation and
maintenance, retrofit options, or replace-
ment options, see the relevant sections
for specific technologies within this
document.


Additional Resources

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers. Standard
189.1, Standard for the Design of'High-Performance, Green Buildings Except Low-Rise
Residential Buildings, www.ashrae.org/publications/page/927.

American Water Works Association. Water Loss Control Basics.
www.awwa.org/Resources/WaterLossControl.cfm?ltemNumber=47847.

DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program.
January 2009. Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair: Kirkland Air Force
Base—Leak Detection and Repair Program.
www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/waterefficiency_csstudies.html.
6 Southern Nevada Water Authority. How to Find a Leak, www.snwa.com/3party/findjeak/main.html.
October 2012
                                                                                      2-11

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2.3  Leak Detection and  Repair
               EPA's WaterSense program. Fix a Leak Week.
               www.epa.gov/watersense/our_water/fix_a_leak.html.

               Irrigation Association.Technical Resources: Irrigation Audit Guidelines.
               www.irrigation.org/Resources/Audit_Guidelines.aspx.

               North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al. May 2009.
               Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Facilities.
               savewaternc.org/bushome.php.

               Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Insti-
               tutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer.
               www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.

               Southern Nevada Water Authority. How to Find a Leak.
               www.snwa.com/3party/findjeak/main.html.
2-12                                                                                         October 2012

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2.4 User Education and  Facility
       Outreach
WaterSense
              Overview

              Educating building occupants on using water efficiently at work is essential to any
              organization's water conservation efforts. This is especially true when new water-
              efficient technologies or methods are being implemented. Installing a retrofit device
              or replacing outdated technology or fixtures alone might not necessarily produce
              expected water savings. Operation and maintenance procedures, retrofits, and
              replacements are most effective when employees, contractors, and visitors all under-
              stand their role  in using them properly. It is also important to offer building occu-
              pants simple, straightforward ways in which they can help reduce a facility's water
              use, along with  good reasons for doing so. User education is a cost-effective way to
              enhance your facility's water-efficiency efforts—even small changes in user behavior
              can result in significant water savings.


              Best  Practices

              To improve water efficiency outside and within a facility, there are a number of best
              practices to educate employees and other building occupants on water savings to
              promote success.

              Employee and  Occupant Education

              Consider the following approaches when educating employees and building occu-
              pants on your water-efficiency initiative:

               • Share management's commitment to water efficiency and the company's water
                 management program through staff meetings, posters, emails, newsletters, and
                 other communications. Include specifics on water-efficiency goals whenever
                 possible.

               • Graph and post monthly water use figures so that building occupants can stay
                 informed about the facility's progress and become invested in water-efficiency
                 efforts.

               • Create point-of-use reminders to reinforce positive behaviors (e.g., place instruc-
                 tions next to dual-flush toilets).

               • Include water-efficiency messages in facility-wide events, such as fairs, open
                 houses, or Earth Day events.

               • Train maintenance personnel, operators, and supervisors on any new or revised
                 procedures  involving water efficiency. Encourage relevant custodial, cleaning,
                 and maintenance personnel, as well as everyday users, to identify and report
                 leaks in accordance with Section 2.3: Leak Detection and Repair. Make it easy to
                 report problems by setting up a user-friendly communication system such as a
                 hotline. Be sure to repair leaks promptly.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
               2-13

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2.4 User Education and  Facility  Outreach
               Making Water Efficiency Fun

               Following are some creative ways to get employees involved in recognizing the im-
               portance of water efficiency at work:

                • Consider creating a "Green Team" responsible for environmental issues in and
                  around the facility.

                • Hold events related to water efficiency within the facility periodically through-
                  out the year to educate building occupants and celebrate successes. Earth Day
                  and Fix a Leak Week, which is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection
                  Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense® program, are good opportunities to bring attention
                  to water efficiency.17

                • Consider holding a contest to encourage water use reductions among building
                  occupants. Acknowledge those who identify successful projects or provide group
                  awards for major successes.

                • Start a suggestion and incentive system to recognize and encourage water sav-
                  ings in the facility. For best results, include a mechanism to acknowledge submis-
                  sions and provide information on how they were addressed.

                • Provide incentives to building occupants to promote water-saving success.
                  Consider rewarding guests for participating in towel and linen reuse programs at
                  hotels or employees for meeting challenges to reduce building water use.

               Providing Water-Efficiency Tips

               Periodically remind building occupants and employees of common tips they can fol-
               low to help reduce water use, including some of the following, where relevant:

                • Fill the sink and turn off the tap when washing dishes in community kitchen
                  areas.

                • When using the dishwasher, wash only full loads.

                • Look for and report leaky bathroom and kitchen fixtures, or any other leaks, to
                  the appropriate personnel.

                • Sweep instead of rinsing off sidewalks, kitchen floors, or other areas.

                • Report irrigation occurrences during less efficient times, including during the
                  middle of the day or when it is raining.

                • Report broken or improperly positioned irrigation sprinkler heads that spray
                  water on sidewalks or pavement.

                • To help building occupants learn more about how they can be water-efficient
                  at work or at home, direct them to the EPA's WaterSense website18 for more
                  information.


17 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program. Fix a Leak Week. www.epa.gov/watersense/our_water/fix_a_leak.html.
18 EPA's WaterSense program, www.epa.gov/watersense.


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                                         2.4 User Education  and  Facility  Outreach
              Outreach to Visitors and Audiences Outside the Facility
              Consider the following when looking to
              broaden the outreach of your facility's water-
              efficiency efforts:

               •  Work with local utilities to participate in
                 their commercial and institutional water
                 conservation programs and to share suc-
                 cess stories with other facilities.

               •  Create displays presenting facility water
                 savings for the facility lobby and other
                 public reception areas.

               •  Use signage, brochures, and other promo-
                 tional materials to inform visitors, custom-
                 ers, and others about the facility's water-
                 efficiency program and actions people can
                 take in restrooms or other areas to save
                 water.
        GREENING GED
                (Please Help)

       Turn Water Off When
      Not In Use and  Conserve
                   Water
Example signage atari EPA Gulf Ecology Division (GED) facility
              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency. Water Savings Tips: Commercial, Industrial, and Institu-
              tional Water Use. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/CII-tips.aspx.

              Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Insti-
              tutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer.
              www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.

              State of California, Department of Water Resources. October 1994. Water Efficiency
              Guide for Business Managers and Facility Engineers.
              www.water.ca.gov/wateruseefficiency.
October 2012
                                       2-15

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2.5 Codes, Standards, and  Voluntary
       Programs for  Water  Efficiency
                                        WaterSense
             Overview

             Codes and standards are important mechanisms for addressing the efficiency of
             plumbing equipment, water-using appliances, and building water use. In addition,
             voluntary programs and guidelines have recently emerged as key market mecha-
             nisms, helping to assist facilities adopt water-efficient products and practices.

             Standards

             Standards specify uniform technical criteria, methods, processes, and practices by
             which performance is measured. In a strict sense, standards are created through a
             consensus-based development process. This process seeks agreement of most partic-
             ipants (i.e., more than a  simple majority) and resolution of objections of the minority,
             but not necessarily unanimity.19 Standards developed by organizations accredited
             through the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), for example, are consid-
             ered consensus-based standards. Compliance with standards is considered voluntary
             unless they have  been adopted into law through legislation or regulation.

             Table 2-3 lists some of the organizations in the United States and internationally that
             develop standards related to commercial and institutional water-using products and
             equipment and water use in buildings.

                         Table 2-3. Select Standards Development Organizations
Standards Development Organization
American Society of Agricultural and
Biological Engineers (ASABE)
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,
and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME)
ASTM International (formerly the American
Society forTesting and Materials)
Association for the Advancement of Medical
Instrumentation (AAMI)
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
International Association of Plumbing and
Mechanical Officials (IAPMO)
International Code Council (ICC)
National Sanitation Foundation (NSF)
Products or Equipment Addressed
Irrigation equipment
Buildings, water heaters, and
humidifiers
Plumbing products
Food service equipment and medical
equipment
Medical equipment
Plumbing products
Plumbing products and systems
Buildings and plumbing systems
Commercial kitchen equipment and
drinking water treatment units
9 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Standards & Certification FAQ. www.asme.org/kb/standards/about-codes—standards.
2-16
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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     2.5 Codes,  Standards,  and  Voluntary Programs  for Water Efficiency


              In 1992, Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act (EPAct)20—and later, EPAct 2005—
              both of which established maximum water consumption requirements for many
              plumbing products and water-using appliances sold in the United States. Where
              applicable, EPAct references relevant standards, making their compliance mandatory.
              The U.S. Energy Department (DOE) is responsible for implementing and enforcing
              the requirements established under EPAct.

              The water-using products and appliances covered by EPAct 2005 include:

                • Toilets
                • Urinals
                • Faucets (e.g., residential lavatory, kitchen, commercial lavatory)
                • Showerheads
                • Residential clothes washers
                • Commercial clothes washers
                • Residential dishwashers
                • Commercial ice makers
                • Pre-rinse spray valves

              Codes

              Codes provide the criteria necessary to protect public health, safety, and welfare
              related to building construction and occupancy. Codes can also be adopted into law
              through regulation, making their compliance mandatory. Codes often reference stan-
              dards, which provide the details for how to comply with specific requirements.

              Plumbing codes are the primary code mechanism governing how water is used in
              buildings.This includes provisions for supply, distribution, disposal, and water use of
              specific products or equipment.There are two primary plumbing code development
              organizations in the United States. IAPMO produces the Uniform Plumbing Code, and
              ICC produces the International Plumbing Code. These plumbing codes have no legal
              status in and of themselves, but they serve as models and, in many cases, have been
              adopted into law by state and local jurisdictions.

              Water-Efficiency Codes, Standards, and Voluntary Programs

              Historically, standards and codes have focused primarily on protecting public health
              and safety. However,  in the past 20 years or so, water efficiency has emerged as a
              commensurate issue  that has been incorporated  into codes and standards in many
              places. More recently, voluntary programs have been created to specifically address
              water uses and water efficiency of products and buildings to go above and beyond
              federal law and the established codes and standards.
20 U.S. Energy Department (DOE). Energy Policy Act of 1992. wwwl .eere.energy.gov/femp/regulations/epactl 992.html.



October 2012                                                                                        2-17

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2.5 Codes,  Standards, and  Voluntary  Programs  for Water Efficiency


               Water-Efficient Products

               Recently, voluntary programs have emerged that seek to leverage public/private
               partnerships and use market-based incentives (e.g., certification label) to further
               improve the water efficiency and performance of individual products and appliances
               beyond the requirements established by EPAct or the conventional products avail-
               able in the marketplace. Notable national voluntary programs specifying product
               and appliance water efficiency include the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
               (EPA's) WaterSense® program, EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR,® and the Consortium for
               Energy Efficiency (CEE):21

                •  WaterSense is a public/private partnership program that develops specifications
                   for water-efficient, high-performing products. Products that are independently
                   certified to meet WaterSense criteria earn the WaterSense  label, which distin-
                   guishes them from standard products on the market. WaterSense has developed
                   specifications for both residential and commercial products. For more informa-
                   tion, visit the WaterSense website.22

                •  ENERGY STAR is a joint public/private partnership program sponsored by EPA
                   and DOE that develops specifications for energy-efficient products and buildings.
                   Products that meet ENERGY STAR criteria are qualified to earn the ENERGY STAR
                   label, which distinguishes them from standard  products on the market. ENERGY
                   STAR has developed specifications for many water-using products. For more
                   information, visit the ENERGY STAR website.23

                •  CEE is a non-profit consortium of efficiency program administrators that pro-
                   motes the use of energy-efficient products, technologies, and services. Where
                   there is significant opportunity and interest from its membership, CEE develops
                   national initiatives that can  be used as templates for individual energy-efficiency
                   programs. Related to water  efficiency, CEE has developed initiatives for commer-
                   cial ice makers, residential and commercial clothes washers, residential dishwash-
                   ers, and some commercial kitchen equipment.

               The Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE) maintains a  list of current and proposed
               national efficiency standards and voluntary specifications for residential and com-
               mercial water-using fixtures and appliances.24This is a useful reference tool for under-
               standing the types of water-efficient products and  appliances  that are available on
               the market and for determining their relative water savings potential.

               To further encourage the adoption of water-efficient products and appliances, local
               jurisdictions or utilities may offer rebates or incentive programs. In many instances,
               the incentives are provided for products recognized or labeled by the national volun-
               tary programs discussed above.
21 Consortium for Energy Efficiency, Inc. www.ceel .org.
22 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program, www.epa.gov/watersense.
23 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR, www.energystar.gov.
24 Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE). Green Building Guidelines & Standards. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Background_on_Green_Building_
 Specification s.aspx.
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     2.5 Codes, Standards, and  Voluntary Programs for Water Efficiency
               Water-Efficient Buildings

               As with products, substantial progress has been made to address water use and
               efficiency in building plumbing systems and whole buildings, primarily as part of a
               larger movement to improve the environmental performance of buildings. Tradition-
               ally, building and plumbing codes have addressed health and safety in plumbing and
               building water use. Now"green" building standards, codes, and voluntary guidelines
               are available that also address water-efficient design or construction practices, tech-
               nologies, performance thresholds, and metrics.

               In the world of green building, there is a distinction between green building stan-
               dards and codes and green building guidelines. As with the discussion of standards
               above, green building standards and codes are written in language that is enforce-
               able and ready for adoption into law by legislation or regulation, so that their com-
               pliance becomes mandatory. Green building guidelines, on the other hand, are not
               written in enforceable language and are usually intended to be voluntary. Both
               provide thresholds for efficiency that go above and beyond the established building
               and plumbing codes and standards.

               Table 2-4 shows the prominent national green building codes, standards, and volun-
               tary guidelines that address water efficiency in commercial and institutional build-
               ings.25 AWE also maintains a chart comparing the water-efficiency criteria of several
               of these national green building codes, standards, and guidelines.26
                Table 2-4. National Green Building Codes, Standards, and Voluntary Guidelines
                 Primary Developin
                    Organizatio
                U.S. Green Building
                Council (USGBC)
LEED® Rating Systems2
                                  Standard, Code, or
Guideline
                Green Globes Green
                Building Initiative (GBI)
ANSI/GBI01-2010-Green Building
Assessment Protocol for Commercial
Buildings
Standard
                ASHRAE
ASHRAE 189.1-Standardforthe
Design of High-Performance,
Green Buildings
Standard
                ASHRAE
ASHRAE 191-Standardforthe
Efficient Use of Water in Building,
Site, and Mechanical Systems
(in development)
Standard
                IAPMO
Green Plumbing and Mechanical
Code Supplement
Code
                ICC
Green Construction Code
Code
5 Ibid
6 Ibid.
7 U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC). USGBC: Rating Systems. www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPagelD=222.
October 2012
                                                               2-19

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2.5 Codes,  Standards,  and Voluntary Programs for Water  Efficiency


               These green building programs typically address water use and efficiency in the fol-
               lowing areas:28

                 •  Plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings.

                 •  Appliances (e.g., clothes washers, dishwashers).

                 •  Water treatment equipment (e.g., softeners, filtering systems).

                 •  Landscape and landscape irrigation.

                 •  Pools, fountains, and spas.

                 •  Cooling towers.

                 •  Decorative and recreational water features.

                 •  Water reuse and alternate sources of water (e.g., gray water, rainwater and storm-
                   water, cooling condensate and cooling tower blowdown, foundation drain water).

                 •  Specialty processes, appliances, and equipment (e.g., food service, medical, labo-
                   ratories, laundries, etc.).

                 •  Metering and submetering.

                 •  Single-pass cooling.

                 •  Vegetated green roofs.

                 •  Building water pressure.


               Water -Efficient Businesses

               In addition  to programs that incentivize green products and buildings, several initia-
               tives recognize businesses for their efforts to reduce the company's impact on the
               environment. Many of these programs have a multi-media scope while  others are
               specifically focused on water efficiency. These programs can help businesses meet
               stakeholder demand for transparency and accountability, often called corporate
               social responsibility. In fact, many companies are reporting their environmental im-
               pacts voluntarily to programs to demonstrate their commitment to the environment
               and goodwill toward the community in a more tangible way.29 Resources are avail-
               able at the  national, state, or local level, which can  assist companies or other orga-
               nizations on the path to sustainability and reduced environmental impact.30 Facility
               managers who actively track their water use, implement water-efficiency measures,
               and demonstrate savings can contribute to communicating their corporate commit-
               ment to sustainability.
28 AWE. Green Building Introduction. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Green_Building_lntroduction.aspx.
29 Pacific Institute. August 2012. The CEO Water Mandate: Corporate Water Disclosure Guidelines Toward a Common Approach to Reporting Water Issues.
 pacinst.org/reports/corpo rate_water_disclosure_guidelines/full_report.pdf.
30 Ceres. Ceres Aqua Gauge, www.ceres.org/issues/water/aqua-gauge/aqua-gauge.



2-20                                                                                             October 2012

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     2.5  Codes, Standards,  and Voluntary Programs  for Water Efficiency


               Several sector-specific programs are also available that focus on issues and challeng-
               es common across a particular sector. For example, green hospitality programs now
               exist in almost every state that provide recognition or facilitate information sharing
               between partners.31 These networks can provide expert advice to find new ways to
               implement water-efficiency initiatives—saving water, energy, and resources at the
               same time.


               Reference Resources

               If installing new or replacing existing water-using products or appliances, consider
               referencing resources, such as the AWE's list of current and proposed national effi-
               ciency standards and voluntary specifications for residential and commercial water-
               using fixtures and appliances.32This list is  updated on a regular basis to reflect the
               most recent standards and voluntary specifications. In addition, look for products
               that have the earned the WaterSense label or are ENERGY STAR qualified.

               Check with local jurisdictions or utilities regarding any water-efficiency incentives or
               rebates they may offer. Both WaterSense33 and ENERGY STAR34 maintain lists of some
               utility partners'rebate programs.

               For new construction or major renovation projects, consider following relevant por-
               tions of the national green building standards, codes, or voluntary guidelines. Com-
               pliance with these green building criteria  can save water and be cost-effective. Some
               of these programs even offer certification or public recognition for conformance. For
               example, LEED certified buildings can be advertised and marketed with the LEED
               logo and appropriate rating (i.e., Certified, Silver, Gold, Platinum).


               Additional Resources

               Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE). Green  Building Guidelines & Standards.
               www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Background_on_Green_Building_
               Specifications.aspx.

               American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers.
               www.ashrae.org.

               American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Standards & Certification FAQ.
               www.asme.org/kb/standards/about-codes—standards.

               AWE. Standards & Codes for Water Efficiency.
               www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Codes_and_Standards_Home_Page.aspx.

               Ceres. Ceres Aqua Gauge, www.ceres.org/issues/water/aqua-gauge/aqua-gauge.

               Consortium for Energy Efficiency, Inc. www.cee! .org.
31 Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Green Lodging Designation Program, www.dep.state.fl.us/greenlodging/default.htm.
32 AWE. Green Building Guidelines & Standards, op.cit.
33 EPA's WaterSense program. WaterSense Rebate Finder. www.epa.gov/watersense/rebate_finder_saving_money_water.html.
34 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Special Offers and Rebates from ENERGY STAR Partners. www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=rebate.rebate_locator.



October 2012                                                                                            2-21

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2.5  Codes, Standards,  and Voluntary Programs for Water Efficiency


              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program.
              Energy Management Requirements by Law and Regulation.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/regulations/requirements_by_reg.html.

              EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR, www.energystar.gov.

              EPA's WaterSense program, www.epa.gov/watersense.

              Green Building lnitiative.www.thegbi.org.

              International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials. 2072 Green Plumbing
              and Mechanical Code Supplement.
              iapmomembership.org/index.php?option=com_virtuemart&page=shop.product_
              details&flypage=flypage_iapmo.tpl&product_id=213<emid=3.

              International Code Council. 2012 International Green Construction Code.™
              www.iccsafe.org/Store/Pages/Product.aspx?id=3750S12.

              Pacific Institute. August 2012. The CEO Water Mandate: Corporate Water Disclosure
              Guidelines Toward a Common Approach to Reporting Water Issues.
              pacinst.org/reports/corporate_water_disclosure_guidelines/full_report.pdf.

              U.S. Green Building Council, www.usgbc.org.
2-22                                                                                     October 2012

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                      Table of Contents

                      3.1  Introduction to Sanitary Fixtures
                         and Equipment	3-2
                      3.2  Toilets	3-4
                      3.3  Urinals	3-11
                      3.4  Faucets	3-16
                      3.5  Showerheads	3-23
                      3.6  Laundry Equipment	3-27
Sanitary Fixtures  and Equipment
                                     EPA
                                     Water Sense

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3.1   Introduction  to  Sanitary  Fixtures
        and  Equipment
                                                   WaterSense
               Sanitary fixtures and equipment in restrooms and laundries can account for nearly 50
               percent of total water use within a facility. Figure 3-1 shows this water use for various
               commercial facility types.1 Depending on the type of facility and number of occu-
               pants and visitors, sanitary fixtures and equipment can provide significant oppor-
               tunities for water and energy savings, particularly in older buildings with inefficient
               fixtures and equipment.

                      Figure 3-1. Water Use Attributed to Sanitary Fixtures and Equipment
                 100%
                  60%
                  40%
                  20%
                   0% "—
                                               Laundry

                                               Restrooms
                         Hospitals
 Office
Buildings
Schools
Restaurants
Hotels
               Nearly every type of commercial and institutional facility has at least some sanitary
               fixtures or equipment, including toilets, urinals, faucets, showerheads, and laundry
               equipment.

               Toilets, faucets, and to some extent, urinals are found in all commercial and institu-
               tional facility restrooms. Showerheads are likely to be found in healthcare facilities,
               hotels, schools, universities, and gyms, as well as in office buildings and other areas
               of employment providing showers for employee use. Laundry equipment, though
               less common, is generally found in dedicated laundromats and within hotels and
               healthcare facilities.

               Over the past 20 years, there has been an increased focus on developing more ef-
               ficient and better performing sanitary fixtures and equipment. For example, high-
               efficiency toilets, faucets, showerheads, and urinals are at least 20 percent more
               efficient than standard products on the market.Those that are labeled through the

1 Created from analyzing data in: Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial Institutional and Industrial Water Users. Prepared
 for the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html; Dziegielewski, Benedykt, et al. American Waterworks Association (AWWA)
 and AWWA Research Foundation. 2000. Commercial and Institutional End Uses of Water; East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook: A Water-
 Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses, www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook;
 AWWA. Helping Businesses Manage Water Use—A Guide for Water Utilities.
3-2
      WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                         3.1  Introduction  to Sanitary Fixtures  and Equipment
              U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense® program are tested and
              certified for performance as well. EPA and the U.S. Energy Department's ENERGY
              STAR® qualified commercial coin- or card-operated washers are 37 percent more
              energy-and water-efficient than standard washers. In addition, the advent of ozone
              and wash water recycling systems provides significant water and energy savings op-
              portunities for larger, more industrial types of laundry equipment.

              Section 3: Sanitary Fixtures and Equipment of WaterSense at Work provides an overview
              of and guidance for effectively reducing the water use of:
               • Toilets
               • Urinals
               • Faucets
               • Showerheads
               • Laundry equipment
                     Sanitary Fixtures Case Study

                To learn how the Holiday Inn near the San
                Antonio Airport in Texas saved 7 million gallons
                of water and an estimated 330,000 kilowatt-hours
                of energy per year by installing high-efficiency
                toilets, faucet aerators, and showerheads, read
                the case study in Appendix A.
October 2012
3-3

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3.2  Toilets
                                                                       Water Sense
Flushometer-valve toilet
Overview

Toilets, or water closets, can be found in nearly every commercial and institutional fa-
cility. Several types of toilet technologies are installed in commercial and institutional
settings, including tank-type toilets, flushometer-valve toilets, and less commonly,
composting toilets.Toilets currently on the market can perform well (i.e., adequately
clear waste) while using less water than older models installed before the Energy
Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 maximum flush volume requirements were established.

Tank-type toilets are designed with tanks that store and dispense water to the toilet
bowl to flush waste. Varieties of tank-type toilets include the standard gravity type
(found in most homes), pressure-assist (or flushometer-tank toilets), and electro-
mechanical hydraulic toilets.Tank-type toilets are available as single, constant-
volume flushing models or as dual-flush models, which include a full flush for solids
and a reduced flush for liquids. Tank-type toilets are commonly found in residential
and light commercial settings.

                       Flushometer-valve toilets are tankless fixtures with ei-
                       ther wall- or floor-mounted bowls attached to a lever- or
                       sensor-activated flushometer valve that releases a specific
                       volume of water at a high flow rate directly from the water
                       supply line to the bowl to remove (i.e., flush) waste. Unlike
                       tank-type toilets, which store water in the tank to provide
                       the necessary pressure and flow to remove waste from
                       the bowl, flushometer-valve toilets rely on larger diameter
                       water supply piping and high water supply line pressures
                       to remove waste.These fixtures are also available as single,
                       constant-volume flushing models, or as dual-flush models.
                       Flushometer-valve toilets are used predominantly in public-
                       use facilities and high-use commercial settings. Flushome-
                       ter-valve toilets include blowout and rear discharge toilets,
                       which have bowls that remove waste slightly differently
                       than standard siphonic bowls.

                       Flushometer-valve toilets can be equipped with electronic
                       sensors, which trigger the flushing mechanism when a
                       user has finished using the fixture. Sensors themselves
                       provide no additional water-efficiency benefits; however,
                       they provide health and sanitation benefits in public-use
                       facilities since they offer a hands-free option. If not properly
programmed, operated, and maintained, automatic flush sensors can cause double
or phantom flushing, which increases the water used at a facility.

EPAct 1992 established the maximum allowable flush volume for gravity tank-type,
flushometer tank (or pressure-assist), electromechanical hydraulic, and flushometer-
valve toilets sold in the United States at 1.6 gallons per flush (gpf).The maximum
flush volume for blowout toilets, which are used  primarily in locations subject to high
traffic or heavy use such as prisons, was set at 3.5 gpf. Due to the long, useful  life of
3-4
                           WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                                          3.2 Toilets
               toilets, many toilets in use today are older and have
               flush volumes of 3.5 gpf and up to 5.0 gpf.

               To further address efficiency and advances in tank-type
               toilet technology, the U.S. Environmental Protection
               Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense® program published a
               specification to label water-efficient, high-performing
               tank-type toilets. WaterSense labeled tank-type toilets2
               are independently certified to use 1.28 gpf or less and
               remove at least 350 grams of solid waste per flush. The
               WaterSense tank-type toilet specification does not
               include flushometer-valve toilets in its scope, but it does
               include pressure-assist toilets and tank-type electrome-
               chanical hydraulic toilets.

               Composting toilets are a less common alternative to
               typical water-using toilets.They are toilets that include
               an anaerobic processing system that can treat waste
WaterSense labeled tank-type toilet
               using little to no flush water.These toilets do not send the waste through the sanitary
               sewer for treatment at a wastewater treatment plant, although some applications
               treat the toilet waste in an onsite septic system.


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               Facility managers can reduce water use by taking simple steps to educate users on
               proper toilet use and maintenance. In addition, consider the following:

                • Train  users to report continuously flushing, leaking, or otherwise improperly
                  operating toilets to the appropriate personnel.

                • Educate and inform users with restroom signage and other means to avoid flush-
                  ing inappropriate objects, such as feminine products, wrappers, trash, or com-
                  pact disc cases. Train custodial staff on how to handle the inappropriate disposal
                  of such objects.

               In addition, consider the operation and maintenance tips specific to tank-type toilets
               and flushometer-valve toilets below.

               Tank-Type Toilets

                • Periodically check to ensure fill valves are working properly and the water level
                  is set correctly. Remove the toilet tank and check to see if water is flowing over
                  the top of the overflow tube inside of the tank. Ensure that the refill water level
                  is set below the top of the overflow tube. Adjust the float lower if the water level
                  is too high. If the toilet continues to run after the float is adjusted, replace the fill
                  valve. In order to prevent changes in  tank water levels due to line water pressure
                  fluctuations, only replace existing fill  valves with pilot-type fill valves.
2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Toilets. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/products/toilets.html.
October 2012
                                    3-5

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3.2  Toilets
                • Annually test toilets to ensure the flappers are not worn or allowing water to
                  seep from the tank into the bowl and down the sewer. Drop a dye tablet or
                  several drops of diluted food coloring in the tank. After 10 minutes, see if the
                  dye has leaked into the bowl. Flush the toilet immediately after conducting this
                  test to ensure the dye does not stain the tank or bowl. If there is a leak, check for
                  a tangled chain in the tank or replace a worn flapper valve. If leaking does not
                  subside after a flapper valve is replaced, consider replacing the flapper seat and
                  overflow tub assembly, which could also be worn.

                • Learn more by watching leak detection and repair videos3 posted on the South-
                  ern Nevada Water Authority website.

               Flushometer-Valve Toilets

                • At least annually, inspect diaphragm or piston valves and replace any worn  parts.
                  To determine if the valve is in need of replacement, determine the time it takes to
                  complete a flush cycle. A properly functioning 1.6gpf flush valve should not have
                  a flush cycle longer than four seconds.

                • If replacing valve inserts, make sure the replacements are consistent with the
                  valve manufacturer's specifications, including the rated flush volume. If replacing
                  the entire valve, make sure it has a rated flush volume consistent with  manufac-
                  turer specifications for the existing bowl.

                • Periodically check to ensure the control stop (which regulates the flow of water
                  from the inlet pipe to the flushometer valve and is necessary for shutting off the
                  flow of water during maintenance and replacement of the bowl or valve) is  set to
                  fully open during normal operation.

                • Upon installation of a flushometer-valve toilet, adjust the flush volume following
                  manufacturer's instructions to ensure optimum operation for the facility's specific
                  conditions. Periodically inspect the flush volume adjustment screw to ensure the
                  flush volume setting has not been modified from the original settings; if it has, it
                  could change the water use and performance of the product.

                • Ensure that the line pressure serving the flushometer-valve toilet meets the mini-
                  mum requirements specified by the fixture manufacturer.

                • If installed, check and adjust automatic sensors to ensure proper settings and
                  operation to avoid double or phantom flushing.


               Retrofit Options

               To retrofit an existing toilet to increase water efficiency, consider the following op-
               tions for tank-type and flushometer-valve toilets.
3 Southern Nevada Water Authority. How to Find a Leak, www.snwa.com/3party/findjeak/main.html.
3-6                                                                                             October 2012

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                                                                                           3.2 Toilets
               Tank-Type Toilets

               In general, avoid retrofitting existing tank-type toilets with displacement dams or
               bags, early-closing toilet flappers, or valves with different flush volumes, as these
               devices could impede overall performance and require increased operation and
               maintenance. In addition, the use of these devices and other retrofit products could
               void manufacturer warranties.

                                           Flushometer-Valve Toilets

                                           In general, it is best to avoid retrofit options, such as
                                           valve inserts, that reduce the flush volume of flushom-
                                           eter-valve toilets. These products might not provide
                                           the expected performance if the original bowl is not
                                           designed to handle a reduced flush volume. In addi-
                                           tion, the use of these devices could void  manufacturer
                                           warranties.

Dual-flush toilet handle                          Dual-flush conversion devices are available for flush-
                                           ometer-valve toilets.These devices usually replace the
               existing flush valve handle with a handle that provides a reduced flush volume for
               liquids and a standard flush for solids. When considering this type of retrofit, verify
               that the product has been certified to either American Society of Mechanical Engi-
               neers (ASME) A112.19.10, Dual-Flush Devices for Water Closets, or International Asso-
               ciation of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) PS 50-2008, Flush Valves With
               Dual-Flush Device for Water Closets or Water Closet Tanks with Integral Flush Valves with a
               Dual-Flush Device. In addition, before initiating a full-scale retrofit, test the product on
               a select number of toilets to verify it achieves and maintains the desired  performance.


               Replacement Options

               If installing a new toilet or replacing an older, inefficient toilet, consider the following
               replacement options.

               Tank-Type Toilets

               When installing new tank-type toilets or replacing older, inefficient tank-type toilets,
               choose WaterSense labeled models.4 WaterSense labeled tank-type toilets are inde-
               pendently certified to have an effective flush volume of 1.28 gpf or less  and pass a
               performance test to remove at least 350 grams or more of solid waste per flush.

               Flushometer-Valve Toilets

               When installing new or replacing older, inefficient flushometer-valve toilets, choose
               models that are designed to use 1.6 gpf or less. If considering 1.28 gpf or less
               flushometer-valve toilets, including dual-flush models, carefully evaluate the physi-
               cal conditions of existing drainlinesand the availability of supplemental water flow


4 EPA's WaterSense program, op. cit.


October 2012                                                                                               3-7

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3.2 Toilets
               upstream from the toilet fixtures to make sure that the conditions are appropriate for
               effective waste transport.

               For maximum water savings and performance, purchase the flushometer valve and
               bowl in hydraulically matched combinations that are compatible in terms of their
               designed flush volume.

               Composting Toilets

               Consider installing composting toilets in facilities where connecting to a plumbing
               system is cost-prohibitive or unavailable.
               Savings Potential
               Water savings can be achieved by replacing existing tank-type and flushometer-valve
               toilets. To estimate facility-specific water savings and payback, use the following
               information.

               Tank-Type Toilet Replacement

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of an existing tank-type toilet, identify the follow-
               ing information and use Equation 3-1:

                 •  Flush volume of the existing tank-type toilet. Toilets installed starting in the mid-
                   1970s typically have standard flush volumes of 3.5 gpf or 5.0 gpf.5 Toilets installed
                   in 1994 or later have standard flush volumes of 1.6 gpf.

                 •  Average number of times the toilet is flushed per day, which will be dependent
                   on the facility's male-to-female ratio. Female building occupants use the toilet
                   three times per day on average, while male building occupants use the toilet
                   once per day on average.6

                 •  Days of facility operation per year.


                               Equation 3-1. Water Use of Toilet (gallons per year)


                      = Toilet Flush Volume x Number of Flushes x Days of Facility Operation

                      Where:

                          • Toilet Flush Volume (gallons per flush)
                          • Number of Flushes (flushes per day)
                          • Days of Facility Operation (days  per year)


5 North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al. May 2009. Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Facilities.
 Page 28. savewaternc.org/bushome.php.
6 Vickers, Amy. 2001. Handbook of Water Use and Conservation. WaterPlow Press.


3-8                                                                                               October 2012

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                                                                                          3.2 Toilets
               Water Use After Replacement

               To estimate the water use of a WaterSense labeled replacement tank-type toilet, use
               Equation 3-1, substituting the flush volume of the replacement tank-type toilet. Wa-
               terSense labeled toilets use no more than 1.28 gpf on average.

               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing tank-
               type toilet, identify the following information and use Equation 3-2:

                •  Current water use as calculated using Equation 3-1.
                •  Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 3-1.
                    Equation 3-2. Water Savings From Toilet Replacement (gallons per year)


                      = Current Water Use of Toilet - Water Use of Toilet After Replacement

                      Where:

                          • Current Water Use of Toilet (gallons per year)
                          • Water Use of Toilet After Replacement (gallons per year)


               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing an
               existing tank-type toilet, consider the equipment and installation cost of the replace-
               ment tank-type toilet, the water savings as calculated using  Equation 3-2, and the
               facility-specific cost of water and  wastewater.

               Flushometer-Valve Toilet Replacement

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of an existing flushometer-valve toilet, use Equa-
               tion 3-1, substituting the flush volume of the existing flushometer-valve toilet. Toilets
               installed starting in the mid-1970s typically have standard flush volumes of 3.5 gpf or
               5.0 gpf.7 Toilets installed in 1994 or later have standard flush volumes of 1.6 gpf.

               Water Use After Replacement

               To estimate the water use of a replacement flushometer-valve toilet, use Equation
               3-1, substituting the flush volume of the replacement flushometer-valve toilet.
7 North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al., op. cit.
October 2012                                                                                             3-9

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3.2  Toilets
               Water Savings

               To calculate water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing flushome-
               ter-valve toilet, use Equation 3-2.

               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing an
               existing flushometer-valve toilet, consider the equipment and installation cost of the
               replacement flushometer-valve toilet, the water savings as calculated using Equation
               3-2, and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.


               Additional Resources

               Alliance for Water Efficiency. Toilet Fixtures Introduction.
               www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/toilet_fixtures.aspx.

               EPA's WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Toilets.
               www.epa.gov/watersense/products/toilets.html.

               North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al. May 2009.
               Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Facilities. Pages
               27-33.savewaternc.org/bushome.php.

               Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Insti-
               tutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State Engi-
               neer. Pages 33-36. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.

               Southern Nevada Water Authority. How to Find a Leak in Your Toilet.
               www.snwa.com/3party/findjeak/section4.html.
3-10                                                                                           October 2012

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3.3  Urinals
Water Sense
               Overview

               A urinal is defined in the applicable national standard for urinals as"a plumbing fix-
               ture that receives only liquid waste and conveys the waste through a trap seal into a
               gravity drainage system."8 Flushing urinals use water to remove (i.e., flush) the liquid
               waste from the fixture. Flushing urinals use a variety of different technologies. Wash-
               down or washout urinals require the activation of a flushometer valve. Gravity tank-
               type urinals, which are less common, rely on the release of water stored in an in-wall
               cistern to provide the necessary water pressure and flow to remove waste from the
               urinal, similar to the operation of a gravity tank-type toilet. Siphonic jet urinals  have
               an elevated flush tank and operate by using a siphon device to automatically dis-
               charge the  tank's contents when the water level in the tank reaches a certain height.
               This type of urinal requires no user activation.

                                                     Flushing urinals can be equipped with
                                                     electronic sensors that activate the flushing
                                                     mechanism when a user has finished using
                                                     the fixture. Automatic flush sensors provide
                                                     no additional water-efficiency benefits.
                                                     They do, however, provide health and
                                                     sanitation benefits in public-use facilities
                                                     because they offer a hands-free option. Al-
                                                     though, if not properly operated, automatic
                                                     flush sensors can cause double or phantom
                                                     flushing, actually increasing the water used
                                                     at a facility.

                                                     Flushing urinals come in two basic
                                                     types—standard, single-user fixtures and
Flushing urinal                                          trough-type, multi-user fixtures. Trough-
               type urinals are large fixtures designed for multiple users in high-traffic places, such
               as stadiums and sports arenas.Trough urinals are sold  in 36-, 48-, 60-, and 72-inch
               lengths. Some older models were designed to run continuously and, consequently,
               consumed  large amounts of water. New trough urinals either use flushometer valves
               on preset timers or are equipped with electronic sensors.

               Some urinals do not use water to flush the liquid waste from the fixture. A non-water
               urinal is "a plumbing fixture that is designed to receive and convey only liquid waste
               through a trap seal into the gravity drainage system without the use of water for
               such function."9

               Non-water  urinals use a specially designed trap that allows liquid waste to drain out
               of the fixture, through a trap seal, and into the drainage system. Many non-water
3 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Canadian Standards Association (CSA). August 2008. ASME A112.19.2-2008/CSA B45.1 -08, Ceramic
 Plumbing Fixtures.
3 International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO). February 19,2004. IAPMO Z124.9-2004, American National Standard for Plastic
 Urinal Fixtures.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
                3-11

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3.3  Urinals
               urinals on the market today use a cartridge that contains a liquid barrier seal to pre-
               vent the escape of odors and sewer gases. Other models feature cartridge-less de-
               signs that use a liquid barrier seal in the urinal's trap. A third type uses a self-sealing
               mechanical waste valve trap that does not require a liquid barrier seal. U.S. plumbing
               codes currently prohibit these self-sealing mechanical trap designs.

               The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 established the maximum allowable flush
               volume for all urinals sold in the United States starting in 1994 as 1.0 gallons per flush
               (gpf). Many urinals in facilities nationwide were installed prior to 1994, and thus flush
               higher than the 1.0 gpf standard, often between 1.5 and 3.5 gpf.

               To address efficiency and advances in flushing urinal technology, the U.S. Environ-
               mental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense® program published a specification to
               label water-efficient, high-performing flushing urinals. WaterSense labeled flushing
               urinals10 are independently certified to use 0.5 gpf or less, while still achieving equal
               or superior performance in removing liquid waste.


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               For optimum urinal efficiency, consider the following tips specific to flushing urinals
               and non-water urinals.

               Flushing Urinals

                 • At least annually, inspect diaphragm or piston valves and replace any worn parts.
                   If replacing valve inserts,  make sure the replacements are consistent with the
                  valve manufacturer's specifications, including the rated flush volume. If replacing
                  the entire valve,  make sure it has a rated flush volume consistent with manufac-
                  turer specifications for the existing urinal fixture.

                 • Annually check and adjust automatic sensors, if installed, to ensure they are op-
                  erating properly to avoid double or phantom flushing.

                 •  Flushing urinals  equipped with automatic flush sensors often will have an over-
                   ride switch, allowing maintenance personnel to manually activate the flush.
                  Activating the override switch may release a larger volume of water than is typi-
                  cal for the standard flush.Train cleaning and maintenance personnel on how to
                  effectively clean  and maintain urinals with automatic flush sensors to ensure that
                  the urinal is returned to its intended flush volume after maintenance operations
                  are completed.

                 • Train users to report continuously flushing, leaking, or otherwise improperly
                  operating urinals to the appropriate personnel.

               Non-Water Urinals

               If non-water urinals are selected for the facility, regularly clean and replace the seal
               cartridges or other materials as specified by the manufacturer and follow all other


10 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Urinals, www.epa.gov/watersense/products/urinals.html.


3-12                                                                                             October 2012

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                                                                                         3.3  Urinals
               manufacturer-provided guidance. Proper maintenance is vital to the long-term per-
               formance of non-water urinals.
               Retrofit Options
               In general, avoid retrofit options to reduce the flush volume of valves, including valve
               inserts that have a lower flush volume, unless the inserts are rated to provide a flush
               volume that is compatible with the existing urinal fixture. Confirm compatibility with
               the urinal fixture manufacturer, as many new urinal fixture models are designed to
               function at several different flush volumes. If the flush volume of the valve insert is
               not compatible with the urinal fixture, it may not provide the expected performance,
               especially if the original equipment is not designed to handle a reduced flush vol-
               ume.


               Replacement Options

               When installing new flushing urinals  or replacing older, inefficient flushing urinals,
               choose WaterSense labeled models." WaterSense labeled flushing urinals have
               been independently certified to use no more than 0.5 gpf, which is at least 50 per-
               cent more water-efficient than standard flushing  urinals on the market. In addition,
               WaterSense labeled flushing urinals must meet specific criteria for flush performance
               and drain trap functionality and are designed to be non-adjustable above their rated
               flush  volume. These features provide for the longevity of water savings. The specifica-
               tion is applicable to the following devices:

                • Urinal fixtures that receive liquid  waste and use water to convey the waste
                  through a trap seal into a gravity drainage system.

                • Pressurized flushing devices that deliver water to urinal fixtures.

                • Flush tank (gravity type) flushing devices that deliver water to urinal fixtures.

               To ensure high performance and water savings, choose a valve and fixture combina-
               tion with matching rated flush volumes.

               Non-water urinals can also be considered during  urinal installation or replacement.
               When looking to install non-water urinals and very low volume flushing urinals (e.g.,
               1.0 pint per flush urinals), consider the condition and design of the existing plumb-
               ing system and the expected usage patterns in order to ensure that these products
               will provide the anticipated performance. As a good rule of practice, adhere to the
               guidelines outlined in the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical
               Officials  (IAPMO) Green Plumbing and Mechanical Code Supplement?2 which requires
               at least one water supply fixture unit (i.e., a faucet) to be installed on the drainline up-
               stream of the fixtures to facilitate drainline flow and rinsing. Supplemental water or
               even  periodic manual flushing of the drainlines is important because these products
               have  little to no water going through the drain to flush out any solids that may build
11 Ibid.
12 IAPMO. February 2010. Green Plumbing & Mechanical Code Supplement. Page 9. www.iapmo.org/pages/iapmo_green.aspx.



October 2012                                                                                            3-13

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3.3  Urinals
               up over time. It is also important to carefully adhere to manufacturer-recommended
               cleaning and maintenance requirements to ensure products continue to perform as
               expected.


               Savings Potential

               Water savings can be achieved by replacing existing flushing urinals with WaterSense
               labeled flushing urinals, which use no more than 0.5 gpf.To estimate facility-specific
               water savings and payback, use the following information.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of an existing flushing urinal, identify the following
               information and use Equation 3-3:

                • Flush volume of the existing urinal. Urinals installed prior to 1994 have flush
                  volumes that typically range between 1.5 and 3.5 gpf. Urinals installed in 1994 or
                  later have flush volumes of 1.0 gpf.

                • Average number of times the urinal is flushed per day, which will be dependent
                  on the number of male building occupants. Male building  occupants use the
                  urinal two times per day on average.13

                • Days of facility operation per year.
                             Equation 3-3. Water Use of Urinal (gallons per year)


                      = Urinal Flush Volume x Number of Flushes x Days of Facility Operation

                      Where:

                          •  Urinal Flush Volume (gallons per flush)
                          •  Number of Flushes (flushes per day)
                          •  Days of Facility Operation (days per year)


               Water Use After Replacement

               To estimate the water use of a replacement WaterSense labeled flushing urinal, use
               Equation 3-3, substituting the flow rate of the replacement WaterSense labeled flush-
               ing urinal. WaterSense labeled flushing urinals use no more than 0.5 gpf.

               Water Savings

               To calculate water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing flushing
               urinal, identify the following information and use Equation 3-4:
13 Vickers, Amy. 2001. Handbook of Water Use and Conservation. WaterPlow Press.



3-14                                                                                           October 2012

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                                                                                        3.3 Urinals
                  Current water use as calculated using Equation 3-3.
                  Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 3-3.
                   Equation 3-4. Water Savings From Urinal Replacement (gallons per year)


                     = Current Water Use of Urinal - Water Use of Urinal After Replacement

                      Where:

                         • Current Water Use of Urinal (gallons per year)
                         • Water Use of Urinal After Replacement (gallons per year)


              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing an
              existing flushing urinal, consider the equipment and installation cost of the replace-
              ment flushing urinal, the water savings as calculated in Equation 3-4, and the facility-
              specific cost of water and wastewater.


              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency. Urinal Fixtures Introduction.
              www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Urinal_Fixtures_lntroduction.aspx.

              EPA's WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Urinals.
              www.epa.gov/watersense/products/urinals.html.

              North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al. May 2009.
              Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Facilities. Pages
              31-34.savewaternc.org/bushome.php.

              Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Insti-
              tutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State Engi-
              neer. Pages 33-36. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.
October 2012                                                                                          3-15

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3.4  Faucets
                                                                          WaterSense
Faucet accessory (aerator)
Overview

Faucets can be found in restrooms, kitchens, break rooms, and service areas in all
commercial and institutional buildings. Lavatory (i.e., restroom) faucets are designed
for either private or public use. Private-use faucets are generally found in homes, ho-
tel guest rooms, dorms, barracks, and hospital rooms. Public-use lavatory faucets are
those intended for unrestricted use by more than one individual (i.e., employees, visi-
tors, other building occupants) in facilities, such as public restrooms in offices, malls,
schools, restaurants, or other commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings.

When it comes to improving faucet water efficiency in these lavatories, there are two
different ways to apply technology: optimizing faucets and using faucet accessories.
A faucet accessory is defined as a component that can be added, removed, or re-
                                          placed easily and, when removed, does
               7Wtr~                not prevent the faucet from functioning
                                          properly.14 Faucet accessories include
                                          flow restrictors, flow regulators, aera-
                                          tors, and laminar flow devices. While
                                          faucet accessories can  be incorporated
                                          into new faucet design to control the
                                          flow rate, most often, accessories are
                                          external components that screw onto
                      j£              an existing faucet's end spout.

                                          In addition to typical, hand-operated
                                          components, lavatory faucets can also
                                          be equipped with automatic sensors
                                          to trigger the on/off mechanism when
                                          users place their hands under and
                                          remove them from the fixture. Depend-
                                          ing on use patterns before installation,
appropriately programmed automatic sensors may or may not provide additional
water savings.15 In most cases, automatic sensors open the faucet valve completely
when in use, whereas users of manually controlled faucets typically do not turn the
tap fully on. Some jurisdictions might mandate the use of automatic sensors by code
in certain applications. Automatic sensors can provide health and sanitation benefits
in public-use facilities, since they are a hands-free option. However, recent research
suggests that automatic sensor faucets might be more likely to be contaminated
with Legionella, compared to old-style fixtures with separate handles for hot and cold
water. This might be because the electronic faucet technology has more surfaces for
the bacteria to become trapped and grow, or it might be because of the low flow rate
of the faucets tested.16 The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Condi-
tioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) is currently developing a standard to protect users.
4 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), Canadian Standards Association (CSA). June 2011. ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1 Plumbing Supply Fittings.
5Gauley, Bill and Koeller, John. March 2010. Sensor-Operated Plumbing Fixtures: Do They Save Water? www.map-testing.com/assets/files/hillsborough~study.pdf.
6 Johns Hopkins Medicine. March 31,2011."Latest Hands-Free Electronic Water Faucets Found to Be Hindrance, Not Help, in Hospital Infection Control." www.
 hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/latest_hands_free_electronic_water_faucets_found_to_be_hindrance_not_help_in_hospital_infection_control.
3-16
                            WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                                           3.4 Faucets
               Once finalized, the Proposed New Standard 188, Prevention of Legionellosis Associated
               with Building Water Systems can assist building owners and managers in reducing
               the risk of legionellosis by specifying a practice to identify the conditions in a build-
               ing water system that can be made less favorable to the growth and transmission of
               Legionella.]7 In addition, medical facilities should consider facility-specific health and
               safety needs before installing low-flow faucets or faucets with automatic sensors. For
               example, medical facilities might want to install laminar flow devices instead of fau-
               cet aerators. Since laminar flow faucets do not inject air into the water, there might
               be a lower risk of bacterial contamination.

               Some restrooms can also be equipped with metered or self-closing faucets. Metered
               faucets, when activated by the user, dispense a preset amount of water before shut-
               ting off. Self-closing faucets, operated with a spring-loaded knob, automatically shut
               the water off when the user releases the knob.

               The standard flow rate of a faucet is dictated by its intended end use, as described
               below.
               Private-Use Lavatory Faucets

               To promote and enhance the market for water-efficient, private-use lavatory faucets,
               the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense® program has pub-
               lished a specification to label water-efficient,
               high-performing residential  lavatory faucets
               and faucet accessories. WaterSense labeled
               lavatory faucets and faucet accessories18 are
               independently certified to use between 0.8
               gallons per minute (gpm) at  20.0 pounds
               per square inch (psi) and 1.5  gpm at 60.0
               psi, which is 20 percent less than the federal
               standard.

               Public-Use Lavatory Faucets

               The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 address-
               es metered faucets found in  public restrooms
               and sets a maximum water use of 0.25 gallons
               per cycle (gpc).

               The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
               (ASME)A112.18.1/Canadian  Standards Asso-
               ciation (CSA) B125.1 specifies a maximum flow
               rate of 0.5 gpm at 60.0 psi for non-metered
               public-use lavatory faucets. Although not
Faucet aerator, 0.5 gpm
7 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). June 2011. Proposed Standard PI 88, Prevention of Legionellosis Associated
 with Building Water Systems.
8 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Sink Faucets & Accessories, www.epa.gov/watersense/products/
 bathroom_sink_faucets.html.
October 2012
                                             3-17

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3.4  Faucets
               a federal regulation, the ASME/CSA standard has been incorporated into both the
               International Plumbing Code (IPC) and the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC), two of the
               major plumbing codes adopted in many states and jurisdictions across the United
               States. Despite code requirements, many public-use faucets still have higher flow
               rates, typically between 2.0 and 2.5 gpm.

               Kitchen Faucets

               The U.S. Energy Department (DOE) adopted a 2.2 gpm at 60.0 psi maximum flow rate
               standard for all faucets, including kitchen faucets, in 1998 (see 63 FR 13307; March
               18,1998). This national standard is codified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations
               at 10 CFR Part 430.32.Thus far, codes and voluntary standards have not attempted
               to further address the efficiency of kitchen sink faucets because their uses may be
               volume-dependent.

               Service Sinks

               Sinks present in some facilities have purposes other than traditional kitchen or
               lavatory uses. These sinks can be found in janitorial closets, laundries, laboratories,
               classrooms, or other areas. There are no federal regulations limiting the flow rate of
               these faucets, but flow rate should be carefully considered with the intended end
               use, expected performance, and water efficiency in mind.


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               For optimum faucet efficiency, test the system's water pressure to make sure that it is
               between 20 and 80 psi.This level ensures the faucet delivers the expected flow and
               performance. In addition, consider the following:

                • Periodically inspect faucet aerators for scale buildup to ensure flow is not being
                  restricted. Clean or replace the aerator or other spout end device, if necessary.

                • If installed, check and adjust automatic sensors to ensure they are operating
                  properly to avoid faucets from running longer than necessary.

                • Post materials in restrooms and kitchens to ensure user awareness of the  facility's
                  water-efficiency goals. Remind users to turn off the tap when they are done and
                  to consider turning the tap off during sanitation activities when it is not being
                  used (i.e., when brushing teeth or washing dishes).

                • Train users to report continuously running, leaking, or otherwise malfunctioning
                  faucets to the appropriate personnel.


               Retrofit Options

               If looking to retrofit an existing faucet fixture to increase water efficiency, consider
               the following:
3-18                                                                                          October 2012

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                                                                                          3.4 Faucets
                •  For lavatory faucet retrofits in public restrooms, install faucet aerators or laminar
                   flow devices that achieve 0.5 gpm.

                •  For lavatory faucet retrofits in private restrooms, look for WaterSense labeled sink
                   faucets and accessories19 (aerators or laminar flow devices), which have flow rates
                   of 1 .5 gpm or less at 60.0 psi and no less than 0.8 gpm at 20.0 psi.

                •  For kitchen faucet retrofits, install aerators or laminar flow devices that achieve a
                   flow rate of 2.2 gpm.

                •  Install temporary shut-off or foot-operated valves for kitchen faucets in commer-
                   cial facilities. These valves stop water flow during intermittent activities, such as
                   scrubbing or dishwashing. The water can be reactivated at the previous tempera-
                   ture without the need to remix hot and cold water.

                •  Medical facilities should consider facility-specific health and safety needs before
                   installing  low-flow faucets or faucets  with automatic sensors. For example, medi-
                   cal facilities may want to install laminar flow devices instead of faucet aerators;
                   since laminar flow faucets do not inject air into the water, there is a lower risk of
                   bacterial contamination.20

                •  For service sinks, install retrofit devices that reduce the water flow as much
                   as possible without inhibiting the use of the sink (i.e., if the sink's function is
                   volume-dependent, do not reduce faucet flow rate to the point that it has to be
                   used significantly longer).


               Replacement Options

               If installing a new faucet fixture, consider the following:

                •  In public restrooms, install lavatory faucet fixtures that flow at 0.5 gpm (with or
                   without the self-closing feature) or metered faucets that use no more than 0.25
                   In private restrooms, select WaterSense labeled sink faucets and accessories,21
                   which have flow rates or 1 .5 gpm or less at 60.0 psi and no less than 0.8 gpm at
                   20.0 psi.

                   In kitchens, install faucet fixtures that flow at 2.2 gpm. Consider installing tempo-
                   rary shut-off or foot-operated valves for kitchen faucets in commercial facilities.

                   Medical facilities should consider facility-specific health and safety needs before
                   installing low-flow faucets or faucets with automatic sensors. For example, medi-
                   cal facilities may want to install laminar flow devices instead of faucet aerators;
                   since laminar flow faucets do not inject air into the water, there is a lower risk of
                   bacterial contamination.22
19 Ibid.
20 U.S. Energy Department (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Water ManagementTraining, Faucets
 and Showerheads.
21 EPA's WaterSense program, op. at.
22 DOE, EERE, FEMP, op. c;f.



October 2012                                                                                              3-19

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3.4 Faucets
                •  For service sinks, install faucets that flow as low as possible without inhibiting
                   the use of the sink (i.e., if the sink's function is volume-dependent, do not reduce
                   faucet flow rate to the point that it has to be used significantly longer).


               Savings Potential

               Water savings for both private- and public-use lavatory faucets can be achieved by
               retrofitting existing faucets with aerators or replacing existing faucets. The same
               amount of water savings can be expected for a retrofit or replacement, however,
               retrofitting existing faucets with aerators will yield the shortest payback period due
               to minimal equipment costs.

               To estimate facility-specific water savings and payback, use the following information:

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of an existing faucet, identify the following infor-
               mation and use Equation 3-5:

                •  Flow rate of the existing faucet. Private-and public-use lavatory faucets installed
                   in 1996 or later have flow rates of 2.2 gpm or less. Some public-use lavatory
                   faucets installed in more recent years may flow at 0.5 gpm. Faucet flow rate is
                   typically inscribed directly on the fixture itself.

                •  Average daily use time. The average private-use lavatory faucet use is approxi-
                   mately 8.1 minutes per person per day.23 Public-use faucets can be used between
                   15 seconds and one minute per use, and used three or four times per occupant
                   per day.

                •  Number of building occupants.

                •  Days of facility operation per year.
                              Equation 3-5. Water Use of Faucet (gallons per year)
                      = Faucet Flow Rate x Daily Use Time x Number of Building Occupants x
                        Days of Facility Operation
                      Where:
                            Faucet Flow Rate (gallons per minute)
                            Daily Use Time (minutes per person per day)
                            Number of Building Occupants (persons)
                            Days of Facility Operation (days per year)
23 Mayer, Peter W., and DeOreo, William B. American Water Works Association (AWWA) and AWWA Research Foundation. 1998. Residential End Uses of Water. Page 95.



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                                                                                        3.4  Faucets
               Water Use After Retrofit or Replacement

               To estimate the water use after retrofitting or replacing an existing faucet with a
               water-efficient model or aerator, use Equation 3-5, substituting the flow rate of the
               retrofit or replacement. WaterSense labeled aerators installed in private-use settings
               use no more than 1.5 gpm. Public-use lavatory faucets can be retrofitted with 0.5
               gpm aerators.

               Water Savings

               To calculate water savings that can be achieved from retrofitting or replacing an
               existing faucet, identify the following information and use Equation 3-6:

                • Current water use as calculated using Equation 3-5.
                • Water use after retrofit or replacement as calculated using Equation 3-5.
                      Equation 3-6. Water Savings From Faucet Retrofit or Replacement
                                            (gallons per year)
                      = Current Water Use of Faucet - Water Use of Faucet After Retrofit or
                       Replacement
                      Where:
                            Current Water Use of Faucet (gallons per year)
                            Water Use of Faucet After Retrofit or Replacement (gallons per year)
               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with the lavatory
               faucet retrofit or replacement, consider the equipment and installation cost of the
               retrofit or replacement faucet or aerator, the water savings as calculated  using Equa-
               tion 3-6, and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater. Aerators typically cost
               $10 and require no installation cost.

               Because faucets use hot water, a reduction in water use will also result in energy
               savings, further reducing the payback period and increasing replacement cost-
               effectiveness.


               Additional Resources

               Alliance for Water Efficiency. Faucet Fixtures Introduction.
               www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Faucet_Fixtures_lntroduction.aspx.

               EPA's WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Sink Faucets & Acessories.
               www.epa.gov/watersense/products/bathroom_sink_faucets.html.
October 2012                                                                                           3-21

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3.4 Faucets
               North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al. May 2009.
               Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Facilities. Pages
               36-37.savewaternc.org/bushome.php.

               Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Insti-
               tutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State Engi-
               neer. Pages 33-37. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.
3-22                                                                                           October 2012

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3.5  Showerheads
                                                                     WaterSense
Handheld showerhead
Overview

Showerheads come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and configurations, including: fixed
showerheads, which are affixed overhead and permanently attached to the wall;
handheld showerheads, which have a flexible hose that can be detached from the
wall and moved freely by the user; and body sprays (e.g., spas, jets), which spray
                water onto the user from a direction other than overhead, usually
                from a vertical column on the shower wall. Each type is uniquely
                suited to perform a specific function. In order to reduce overall
                water use, the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992 established the
                maximum allowable flow rate for all showerheads sold in the
                United States as 2.5 gallons per minute (gpm).

                Since this standard was enacted, many showerheads have been
                designed to use even less water. While these fixtures save water
                with a lower flow rate, the duration of the shower sometimes
                increases, resulting in an  overall increase water usage. Recent con-
                sumer market research identified three key performance attributes
                that are necessary to ensure user satisfaction under a variety of
                household conditions: flow rate across a range of pressures, spray
                force, and spray coverage. Each of these criteria can be tested
                using a specific protocol that measures accuracy and reliability.
                All three criteria must be  met to produce a "satisfactory"shower
                without using more water.

                To address efficiency and advances in showerhead technology, the
                U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense® pro-
                gram has published a specification to label water-efficient, high-
performing showerheads. WaterSense labeled showerheads24 are independently
certified to use 2.0 gpm or less, while also meeting or exceeding performance criteria
for force and coverage.


Operation, Maintenance, and  User Education

For optimum showerhead efficiency, the system  pressure should be tested to make
sure that it is between 20 and 80 pounds per square inch (psi).This will ensure that
the showerhead will deliver the expected flow and performance. In addition, con-
sider the following:

 • Verify that the hot and cold water plumbing  lines to the showerhead are routed
   through a shower valve that meets the temperature control performance re-
   quirements of the American Society of Sanitary Engineers (ASSE) 1016 or Ameri-
   can Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)  A112.18.1/Canadian Standards As-
   sociation (CSA) B125.1 standards when tested at the flow rate of the showerhead
   installed. This valve will prevent against significant fluctuations in water pressure
4 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Showerheads. www.epa.gov/watersense/products/showerheads.html.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
                                                                                    3-23

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3.5  Showerheads
                  and temperature and can reduce risks of thermal shock and scalding. A plumber
                  can check the compatibility of the showerhead and shower valve and, if neces-
                  sary, install a valve that meets the recommended standards for the flow rate of
                  the showerhead.

                •  Periodically inspect showerheads for scale buildup to ensure flow is not being
                  restricted. Certain cleaning products are designed to dissolve scale from shower-
                  heads with buildup. Do not attempt to bore holes in the showerhead or manually
                  remove scale buildup, as this can lead to increased water use or cause perfor-
                  mance problems.

                •  Provide a way for users to track showering time and encourage users to take
                  shorter showers by placing clocks or timers in or near the showers.

                •  Train  users to report leaking or malfunctioning showerheads to the appropriate
                  personnel.


              Retrofit Options

              Because showerheads are relatively inexpensive, replacement is often more eco-
              nomical and practical than a retrofit. In general, avoid retrofitting existing inefficient
              showerheads with flow control inserts (which restrict water flow) or flow control
              valves (which can be activated to temporarily shut off water flow) to reduce the flow
              rate and save water. These devices may not provide adequate performance in some
              facilities and can lead to user dissatisfaction.

              In certain circumstances, single shower stalls may be outfitted with multiple show-
              erheads that can be activated simultaneously or individually by the user. In some
              cases, when these showerheads are turned on simultaneously, they use more water
              than the federal maximum flow rate of 2.5 gpm for an individual showerhead (e.g.,
              two 2.5 gpm showerheads can use 5.0 gpm). In these instances, stalls can be retrofit-
              ted so that the showerheads can only be operated individually rather than all at the
              same time, or so the total volume of water flowing from all showerheads is equal to
              or less than 2.0 gpm. The latter may require replacing the existing showerheads with
              more efficient ones. The retrofit suggestions for single shower
              stalls provided here do not apply to communal showers  used
              in prisons, locker rooms, and barracks. Communal showers
              might have multiple showerheads that each flow at equal to or
              less than  2.0 gpm, since the showerheads are designed to be
              used by different users at once, as opposed to multiple show-
              erheads being  used by one user, as described above.


              Replacement Options

              When installing new showerheads or replacing older, ineffi-
              cient showerheads, choose WaterSense labeled models. Water-
              Sense labeled showerheads25 are designed to use 2.0 gpm or
                                                                      WaterSense labeled showerhead

5 Ibid.
3-24                                                                                        October 2012

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                                                                             3.5 Showerheads
              less and thus are 20 percent more water-efficient than standard showerheads on the
              market. In addition, WaterSense labeled showerheads are independently certified to
              meet or exceed minimum performance requirements for spray coverage and force.

              Except for communal settings in prisons, locker rooms, and barracks, avoid purchas-
              ing and installing multiple showerheads when remodeling, particularly if they can
              be operated simultaneously or so that the total volume of water flowing from all
              showerheads is greater than the 2.0 gpm WaterSense specification maximum. These
              multiple showerhead systems can waste a significant amount of water and energy.


              Savings Potential

              Water savings can be achieved by replacing existing showerheads.To estimate
              facility-specific water savings and payback, use the following information.

              Current Water Use

              To estimate the current water use of an existing showerhead, identify the following
              information and use Equation 3-7:

                • Flow rate of the existing showerhead. Showerheads installed in 1994 or later will
                 have a flow rate of 2.5 gpm or less. Older showerheads may flow as high as 3.0 to
                 5.0 gpm.

                • Average duration of each shower. The average shower duration is approximately
                 eight minutes.26

                • Average use rate of showers in terms of number of showers each person takes
                 per day.

                • Number of building occupants.

                • Days of facility operation per year.


                         Equation 3-7. Water Use of Showerhead (gallons per year)


                     = Showerhead Flow Rate x Duration of Use x Use Rate x Number of
                       Building Occupants x Days of Facility Operation
                     Where:
                           Showerhead Flow Rate (gallons per minute)
                           Duration of Use (minutes per shower)
                           Use Rate (showers per person per day)
                           Number of Building Occupants (persons)
                           Days of Facility Operation (days per year)
26 Mayer, Peter W. and DeOreo, William B. American Water Works Association (AWWA) and AWWA Research Foundation. 1998. Residential End Uses of Water. Page 102.



October 2012                                                                                          3-25

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3.5  Showerheads
               Water Use After Replacement

               To estimate the water use of a replacement WaterSense labeled showerhead, use
               Equation 3-7, substituting the flow rate of the replacement showerhead. WaterSense
               labeled showerheads use no more than 2.0 gpm.

               Water Savings

               To calculate water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing shower-
               head, identify the following information and use Equation 3-8:

                • Current water use as calculated using Equation 3-7.
                • Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 3-7.


                 Equation 3-8. Water Savings From Showerhead Replacement (gallons per year)


                      = Current Water Use of Showerhead - Water Use of Showerhead After
                       Replacement

                      Where:

                         • Current Water Use of Showerhead (gallons per year)
                         • Water Use of Showerhead After Replacement (gallons per year)


               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing an
               existing showerhead, consider the equipment and installation cost of the replace-
               ment showerhead, the water savings as calculated in Equation 3-8, and the facility-
               specific cost of water and wastewater.The average showerhead costs approximately
               $30 retail.27

               Because showerheads use hot water, a reduction in water use will also result in
               energy savings, further reducing the payback period and increasing replacement
               cost-effectiveness.


               Additional Resources

               Alliance for Water Efficiency. Residential Shower and  Bath Introduction.
               www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Residential_Shower_lntroduction.aspx.

               EPA's WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Showerheads.
               www.epa.gov/watersense/products/showerheads.html.

               Vickers, Amy. 2001. Handbook of Water Use and Conservation. WaterPlow Press.


27 EPA's WaterSense program. March 4,2010. WaterSense Specification for Showerheads Supporting Statement. Page6.www.epa.gov/WaterSense/partners/
 showerhead_spec.html.


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3.6  Laundry  Equipment
WaterSense
               Overview

               The type of laundry equipment used in commercial laundry operations depends on
               the type of laundry facility, the total quantity and type of laundry to be cleaned, and
               the frequency that cleaning is needed. Self-service laundromats provide a centralized
               location where individuals can bring their personal laundry. These types of laundry
               facilities typically use commercial coin- or card-operated, single-load, residential-
               style washers. On-premises laundries are onsite facilities dedicated to washing fabrics
               used at the location and are typically found in facilities such as hotels, hospitals,
               nursing homes, prisons, and universities. Industrial laundries are typically centralized
               contract laundries that launder fabrics from other businesses. Industrial laundries
               and on-premises laundries tend to use large, multi-load washers and washer extrac-
               tors. Very large on-premises laundries may use tunnel washers.The specific types of
               commercial laundry equipment are discussed in more detail below.

               Recent advances in commercial laundry equipment, including the availability of
               more efficient equipment, water recycling, and ozone technologies, have provided
               options for reducing water use in nearly all commercial laundry operations.

               Commercial Coin- or Card-Operated Washers

               Commercial coin- or card-operated washers are similar to conventional, residential-
               style washing machines.Top-loading machines have dominated this market, al-
               though they are being phased out and replaced by more efficient, front-loading
               machines.

               The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005 previously set requirements for commercial
               coin- or card-operated single-load, soft-mount (i.e., not bolted to the floor), residen-
               tial-style laundry equipment, but the U.S. Energy Department (DOE) recently revised
               those energy conservation standards. Commercial coin- or card-operated single-load
               laundry equipment must now meet a water factor of 8.5 gallons per cubic foot for
               top-loading washers and 5.5 gallons per cubic foot for front-loading washers.28

               To address efficiency and advances in commercial clothes washers, the U.S. Environ-
               mental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE's ENERGY STAR® has developed voluntary
               criteria to qualify high-efficiency clothes washers to earn the ENERGY STAR label.
               ENERGY STAR qualified washers29 are 37 percent more efficient than standard mod-
               els, saving energy, water, and detergent.30
28 U.S. Energy Department (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program. Commercial Clothes Washers, wwwl .eere.energy.gov/
 buildings/appliance_standards/commercial/clothes_washers.html.
29 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Clothes Washers. www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.
 showProductGroup&pgw_code=CCW.
30 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Clothes Washers, www.energystar.gov/index.cfm ?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=CCW.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
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3.6  Laundry Equipment
               Multi-Load Washers

               Some commercial laundromats have coin- or
               card-operated multi-load-capacity washers.
               These types of machines are not regulated
               for water use by EPAct 2005. Multi-load
               machines may be top- or front-loading,
               hard-mount (bolted to the floor) or conven-
               tional soft-mount machines with capacities
               often exceeding 80 pounds of laundry per
               load, compared to less than 20 pounds per
               load for a conventional commercial wash-
               ing machine. Unlike conventional washing
               machines, multi-load machines can allow a
               feature with programmable control settings
               (e.g., number of cycles, water levels per cycle). These settings can dictate the amount
               of water used by the machine and can be adjusted to improve efficiency.
                                          Multi-load washers
Washer extractors
Washer Extractors

Washer extractors are similar to multi-load washers, but can be larger, with capaci-
ties ranging from 30 to 800 pounds of per load. Washer extractors remove water and
detergent from clothes using high-speed, centrifugal force spin cycles and are only
configured with a horizontal front-loading axis, which makes them more efficient.
Washer extractor efficiency is usually measured in gallons of water per pound of
                                  fabric, as opposed to gallons per cubic foot for
                                  commercial coin- or card-operated washers.

                                  One significant difference between a washer
                                  extractor and a coin- or card-operated com-
                                  mercial washer is the ability to significantly
                                  vary the number of wash cycles. For example,
                                  washing lightly soiled sheets at a hotel may
                                  only require a three-cycle operation consisting
                                  of wash (detergent), bleach, and rinse cycles.
                                  More heavily  soiled laundry may require ad-
                                  ditional cycles, including a first flush, an alkali
                                  cycle to adjust the pH, a wash cycle, a bleach
                                  cycle, several  rinse cycles, another pH adjust-
                                  ment to return the pH to neutral, and a final
                                  rinse  cycle. With each cycle, some machines
                                  even  have the ability to adjust water levels
and the amount of hot or cold water used. This flexibility illustrates the importance of
separating laundry by its level of soil, as doing so will determine the amount of water
used for the total wash operation. Most washer extractors require two to four gallons
of water per pound of fabric cleaned, depending upon the machine, the number of
wash cycles used, and the water level settings.
3-28
                                                                               October 2012

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                                                                  3.6 Laundry Equipment
              Tunnel Washers

              Tunnel washers are large-volume, continuous-batch washers with long chambers
              and a series of compartments through which the laundry is pulled for soaking, wash-
              ing, and rinsing.Tunnel washers are used in very large laundry operations serving
              institutional users, such as hospitals, prisons, hotels, motels, and restaurants. They
              are capable of handling up to 2,000 pounds of laundry per hour. Tunnel washers are
              more water-efficient, because the water moves in a counter-flow direction to the
              laundry starting with the last rinse, so that the water is used through several cycles of
              the wash before being sent to the drain (see Figure 3-2).Tunnel washers are costly to
              install, but they are capable of saving more water than washer extractors and require
              less operation and maintenance labor.Tunnel washers typically use two gallons of
              water or less per pound of fabric.

                                       Figure 3-2. Tunnel Washer
                Recycled
                 Water
Laundry Freshwater Supply
in ,
n
x
^ ^ ^
Pre-Wash
^^^^^-^^•^^
Water Flow
>„
*

Main Wash
v_x->_^^x->.^v.
Water Flow



Extraction
>^
^
/Urj Vr-7
Water Flow

r


Recovery for
Recycle
                                                                               Laundry
                                                                                 Out
              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

              Facility managers can reduce water use by taking simple steps to educate users on
              proper laundry equipment use and maintenance. In addition, consider the following:

               • Encourage users to wash only full loads. Consider using a laundry scale to weigh
                 loads to ensure the machine is filled to capacity.

               • Consider separating and washing laundry based on the number of wash cycles
                 needed (e.g., more soiled articles will require more wash cycles).
October 2012
3-29

-------
3.6 Laundry Equipment
                • Ensure multi-load washers are preset to meet a water factor of 8.0 gallons per
                  cycle per cubic foot of capacity or less.31

                • Work with the equipment supplier to provide an ongoing service and mainte-
                  nance program.

                • Consult the laundry chemical supplier for laundry methods that require fewer
                  wash and rinse steps.

                • Use detergents formulated for high-efficiency clothes washers. Normal deter-
                  gents may suds too much and can leave laundry that is not completely washed
                  or rinsed.


               Retrofit Options

               There are two main retrofit options to reduce water use associated with existing
               laundry equipment: water reuse/recycling and ozone systems.

               Water Reuse/Recycling

               Simple or complex recycling systems can be added to coin- or card-operated wash-
               ers, multi-load washers, and washer extractors to recycle a portion or all of the water
               for reuse in the next wash. Simple recycling systems recover discharge from the final
               rinse in a multi-cycle operation for use in the first rinse of the next cycle. The water
               from these systems rarely needs treatment prior to reuse, so potential water savings
               is 10 to 35 percent. Complex recycling systems treat the reclaimed water from wash
               and rinse cycles for use in all cycles of the next load  and can save more than 85 per-
               cent of water used. Complex recycle systems usually require water treatment before
               reuse.

               Be sure to evaluate space constraints when considering water reuse/recycling op-
               tions. Space may not be available to accommodate additional recycling equipment
               or storage tanks. Because recycling may also require adjustments in chemicals and
               detergents, contact the chemical supply vendor in any retrofit planning.

               Ozone Systems

               Ozone systems can be installed on all types of existing commercial laundry machines
               as retrofits, although they are not as common as a retrofit for tunnel washers. Ozone
               systems  generate ozone, which is injected into the wash as a powerful oxidant that
               reacts with dirt and organic materials. It also provides disinfection and whiten-
               ing properties. Ozone can allow for reduced water temperatures, typically to 80°F,
               which saves energy. It also can reduce the amount of detergents and other chemi-
               cals needed, lessening the amount of rinsing required. Ozone systems work well on
               lightly soiled laundry, but they are not recommended for heavily soiled laundry. For
               heavily soiled laundry, conventional washing, detergents, and hot water work best.
               See Figure 3-3 for an  example of the configuration of a laundry ozone system.


31 East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook: A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Page 31.
 www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.


3-30                                                                                           October 2012

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                                                                    3.6 Laundry Equipment
                                    Figure 3-3. Laundry Ozone System
                 Ozonated Water
                    Supply
Hot Water Supply
                               Wastewater to Drain
                                    Ozone
                                  Recirculation
   Ozonated
    Water
     Tank


pn Lontroi
(Optional)
r

d




Activated
^


Carbon Filter
(Optional)
                                                                             Cold Water
                                                                              Supply
              Replacement Options

              When installing new laundry equipment or replacing existing equipment, consider
              the following replacement options:

                •  For coin- or card-operated, single-load clothes washers, choose models that are
                  ENERGY STAR qualified.32 ENERGY STAR qualified washers use significantly less
                  energy, water, and detergent compared to standard models.

                •  For multi-load washers, choose models that use no more than 8.0 gallons per
                  cycle per cubic foot of capacity.

                •  For washer extractors, choose machines with built-in water recycling capabili-
                  ties that can store the rinse water from the previous load for use in the next load.
                  These types of washer extractors can use less than 2.5 gallons of water per pound
                  of fabric.

                •  For large industrial or commercial laundries, consider replacing old washer
                  extractors or multi-load washers with tunnel washers if large volumes of laundry
                  will be processed.

                •  Choose new machines that support remote diagnosis by the manufacturer to
                  minimize maintenance cost and time associated with troubleshooting equip-
                  ment problems.
2 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. ENERGY STAR Qualified Products, op. at.
October 2012
                                                        3-31

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3.6  Laundry  Equipment
              Savings Potential

              Water savings can be achieved through retrofitting existing laundry equipment to
              recycle wash water or reduce the amount of water required for rinsing, or by repla-
              cing existing laundry equipment with more efficient equipment.To estimate facility-
              specific water savings and payback, use the following information.

              Coin- or Card-Operated Washer or Multi-Load Washer Retrofit

              Use the following information to estimate water savings and payback potential that
              may be achieved with recycling or ozone retrofits. Water savings can vary based
              upon the water use and use patterns of the existing laundry equipment and the type
              of retrofit selected.

              Current Water Use

              To estimate the current water use from a commercial coin- or card-operated washer
              or multi-load washer, identify the following information and use Equation 3-9:

                •  Washer's water factor in gallons per cycle per cubic foot of capacity. Coin- or
                  card-operated washers installed since the early 1990s will have a water factor of
                  9.5 gallons per cycle per cubic foot of capacity or less.

                •  Capacity of the washer.

                •  Average number of cycles per load. The number of cycles refers to the number of
                  times the washer is filled with water.There may be one or two wash cycles and
                  one or two rinse cycles in typical coin- or card-operated washers or multi-load
                  washers.

                •  Average number of loads per year.
                  Equation 3-9. Water Use of Commercial Coin- or Card-Operated Washer or
                                  Multi-Load Washer (gallons per year)


                     = Water Factor x Washer Capacity x Number of Cycles x Number of Loads

                     Where:

                         • Water Factor (gallons per cycle per cubic foot capacity)
                         • Washer Capacity (cubic feet of capacity)
                         • Number of Cycles (cycles per load)
                         • Number of Loads (loads per year)


              Water Savings

              Studies have documented water savings for retrofits with a simple recycling system,
              retrofits with a complex recycling system, and ozone system retrofits.To estimate
3-32                                                                                        October 2012

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                                                                    3.6  Laundry Equipment
              water savings that can be achieved from retrofitting existing laundry equipment,
              multiply the water use of the existing laundry equipment (Equation 3-9) by the sav-
              ings potential for the appropriate retrofit option indicated in Table 3-1  below (see
              Equation 3-10).33
                Table 3-1. Potential Water Savings From Commercial Laundry Retrofit Options
Retrofit Option
Retrofit With Simple Recycling System
Retrofit With Complex Recycling System
Retrofit With Ozone System
Water Savings Potential
10% to 35%
85% to 90%
10% to 25%
                 Equation 3-10. Water Savings From Commercial Laundry Equipment Retrofit
                                           (gallons per year)


                     = Current Water Use of Laundry Equipment x Water Savings Potential

                     Where:
                           Current Water Use of Laundry Equipment (gallons per year)
                           Water Savings Potential (percent, from Table 3-1)
              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with retrofitting
              existing laundry equipment, consider the equipment and installation cost of the
              retrofit option, the water savings as calculated using Equation 3-10, and the facility-
              specific cost of water and wastewater.

              Because washers use hot water, a reduction in water use will also result in energy
              savings, further reducing the payback period and increasing replacement cost-
              effectiveness. More efficient washers may also require less detergent. If the facility is
              paying for the detergent used, this may reduce overall operating costs and reduce
              the payback period.

              Washer Extractor or Tunnel Washer Retrofit

              Existing washer extractors or tunnel washers can also be retrofitted to recycle and
              reuse a portion of the rinse water or retrofitted with an ozone system.

              Current Water Use

              To estimate the current water use from a washer extractor or tunnel washer, identify
              the following  information and use Equation 3-11:
3 EBMUD, op. cit, Pages LAUND 4-6.
October 2012
3-33

-------
3.6  Laundry Equipment
                • Washer's water-efficiency factor in gallons per pound of fabric.
                • Average number of pounds of fabric per load.
                • Average number of loads per year.


               Equation 3-11. Water Use of Washer Extractor or Tunnel Washer (gallons per year)


                     = Water-Efficiency Factor x Pounds of Fabric x Number of Loads

                     Where:

                         • Water-Efficiency Factor (gallons per pound of fabric)
                         • Pounds of Fabric (pounds of fabric per load)
                         • Number of Loads (loads per year)


               Water Savings

               To calculate water savings that can be achieved from retrofitting an existing washer
               extractor or tunnel washer, multiply the water use of the existing laundry equipment
               as calculated using Equation 3-11 by the savings potential for the  appropriate retrofit
               option indicated in theTable 3-1 above (Equation 3-10).

               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with retrofitting
               an existing washer extractor or tunnel washer, consider the equipment and installa-
               tion cost of the retrofit option, the water savings as calculated using Equation 3-10,
               and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

               Because washers use hot water, a reduction in water use will also result in energy
               savings, further reducing the payback period and increasing replacement cost-
               effectiveness. More efficient washers may also require less detergent, which may
               reduce overall operating costs and reduce the payback period.

               Coin- or Card-Operated Washer or Multi-Load Washer Replacement

               Coin- or card-operated washer or multi-load washers can be replaced with more ef-
               ficient laundry equipment. Look for washers with the ENERGY STAR label.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of a coin- or card-operated washer or multi-load
               washer, use Equation 3-9.

               Water Use After Replacement

               To estimate the water use of a more efficient replacement commercial  coin- or
               card-operated washer or multi-load washer, use Equation 3-9, substituting the water
3-34                                                                                         October 2012

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                                                                   3.6 Laundry Equipment
              factor and washer capacity of the replacement equipment. ENERGY STAR qualified
              coin- or card-operated washers will have a water factor of 6.0 gallons per cycle per
              cubic foot of capacity or less. An efficient multi-load washer will have a water factor
              of 8.0 gallons per cycle per cubic foot or less.

              Water Savings

              To calculate water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing coin- or
              card-operated washer or multi-load washer, identify the following information and
              use Equation 3-12:

                •  Current water use as calculated using Equation 3-9.
                •  Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 3-9.
               Equation 3-12. Water Savings From Commercial Laundry Equipment Replacement
                     = Current Laundry Equipment Water Use - Water Use of Laundry
                       Equipment After Replacement
                     Where:
                           Current Laundry Equipment Water Use (gallons per year)
                           Water Use of Laundry Equipment After Replacement (gallons per year)
              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing an
              existing coin- or card-operated washer or multi-load washer with an ENERGY STAR
              qualified model, consider the equipment and installation cost of the new equipment,
              the water savings as calculated using Equation 3-12, and the facility-specific cost of
              water and wastewater.

              Because washers use hot water, a reduction in water use will also result in energy
              savings, further reducing the payback period and increasing replacement cost-
              effectiveness. More efficient washers may also require less detergent. If the facility is
              paying for the detergent used, this may reduce overall operating costs and reduce
              the payback period.

              Washer Extractor or Tunnel Washer Replacement

              Existing washer extractors or tunnel washers can be replaced with more efficient
              laundry equipment.

              Current Water Use

              To estimate the current water use from a washer extractor or tunnel washer, use
              Equation 3-11.
October 2012                                                                                          3-35

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3.6  Laundry Equipment
               Water Use After Replacement

               To estimate the water use of a more efficient, replacement washer extractor or tunnel
               washer, use Equation 3-11, substituting the new washer's water efficiency. Existing
               washer extractors can be replaced with machines with built-in water recycling ca-
               pabilities that use less than 2.5 gallons of water per pound of fabric. Efficient tunnel
               washers typically use two gallons of water or less per pound of fabric.

               Water Savings

               To calculate water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing washer
               extractor or tunnel washer, use Equation 3-12.

               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing an
               existing washer extractor or tunnel washer, consider the equipment and installation
               cost of new equipment, the water savings as calculated using Equation 3-12, and the
               facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

               Because washers use hot water, a reduction in water use will also result in energy
               savings, further reducing the payback period and increasing replacement cost-
               effectiveness. More efficient washers may also require less detergent, which may
               reduce overall operating costs and reduce the payback period.


               Additional  Resources

               Alliance for Water Efficiency. Commercial Laundry Facilities Introduction.
               www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/commercialjaundry.aspx.

               East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook: A Water-Use Efficiency
               Plan Review/Guide for New Businesses. Pages 31, LAUND4-6. www.ebmud.com/
               for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-
               guidebook.

               EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Clothes Washers, www.energystar.gov/
               index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=CCW.

               Koeller, John, et al. Koellerand Company. January 2006. A Report on Potential Best
               Management Practices, Annual Report—Year Two. Prepared forThe California Urban
               Water Conservation Council, www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.

               Pacific Gas and Electric. 2009. Hospitality Fact Sheet: Ozonated Laundry Systems in Hos-
               pital Facilities, www.pge.com/includes/docs/pdfs/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/
               incentivesbyindustry/hospitality/Ozonated_Laundry_FS_Final.pdf.
3-36                                                                                          October 2012

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                                                                   3.6 Laundry Equipment
              Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Insti-
              tutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State Engi-
              neer. Page 41. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.

              Sullivan, G.P., et al. January 2008. Cal-UCONS Commercial Laundry Program Measure-
              ment and Evaluation, Southern California Gas Company and San Diego Gas and Electric
              Company, Final Report. eere.pnnl.gov/building-technologies/pdf/sempra_final.pdf.

              Water Management, Inc., et al. 2006. Reporton the Monitoring and Assessment of
              Water Savings from the Coin-Operated Multi-Load Clothes Washer Voucher Initiative
              Program. Prepared for the San Diego Water Authority.
              www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/commercialjaundry.aspx.
October 2012                                                                                         3-37

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                       Table of Contents

                       4.1  Introduction to Commercial
                           Kitchen Equipment	4-2
                       4.2  Commercial Ice Machines	4-4
                       4.3  Combination Ovens	4-11
                       4.4  Steam Cookers	4-15
                       4.5  Steam Kettles	4-19
                       4.6  Wok Stoves	4-23
                       4.7  Dipper Wells	4-30
                       4.8  Pre-Rinse Spray Valves	4-36
                       4.9  Food Disposals	4-40
                       4.10 Commercial Dishwashers	4-47
                       4.11 Wash-Down Sprayers	4-52
Commercial  Kitchen  Equipment
                                        EPA
                                        Water Sense

-------
4.1 Introduction  to  Commercial  Kitchen
       Equipment
                                               WaterSense
                In restaurants, water use in the kitchen can account for nearly 50 percent of the facil-
                ity's total water use. Several other commercial and institutional sectors, including
                hospitals, offices, schools, and hotels, also have substantial kitchen water use that
                accounts for as much as 10 to 15 percent of the facility's total water use.1 Figure 4-1
                shows the percentage of facility water use that is attributed to kitchen equipment for
                various commercial facility types.2

                       Figure 4-1. Water Use Attributed to Commercial Kitchen Equipment
                       100%
                       80%
                       60%
                       40%
                       20%
                        0%
                              Hospitals
 Office
Buildings
Schools
Restaurants
Hotels
               The type and water use of commercial kitchen equipment will vary depending upon
               the scope and scale of the kitchen's operations. A kitchen in an office building, for
               example, may only have a kitchen faucet and a small undercounter dishwasher.
               Commercial-style kitchens found in food service establishments, such as standalone
               and hotel restaurants or hospital and school cafeterias, on the other hand, may use
               water in almost every aspect of their operation, from food preparation to dish clean-
               ing. These types of kitchens may also have much larger and more water-intensive
               commercial kitchen equipment.

               In most commercial kitchens, the commercial dishwasher and pre-rinse spray valve
               account for over two-thirds of the water use.3 However, the presence of a sluice
               trough food disposal system or boiler-based food preparation equipment, such as
               combination ovens, steam kettles, and steam cookers, can dwarf this water use.

1 Fisher, Don. Food Service Technology Center. 2006. "Energy & Water Savings in Commercial Food Service."www.cuwcc.org/products/commercial-food-services-
 main.aspx.
2 Created from analyzing data in: Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial Institutional and Industrial Water Users. Prepared
 for the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html; Dziegielewski, Benedykt, et al. American Waterworks Association (AWWA)
 and AWWA Research Foundation. 2000. Commercial and Institutional End Uses of Water; East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook: A Water-
 Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses, www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook;
 AWWA. Helping Businesses Manage Water Use—A Guide for Water Utilities.
3 Alliance for Water Efficiency. Commercial Dishwashing Introduction. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/commercial_dishwash_intro.aspx.
4-2
  WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                            4.1  Introduction to Commercial Kitchen Equipment
               In addition, specialty equipment, such as dipper wells found in ice cream and coffee
               shops and wok stoves found in Asian-style restaurants, can be among the largest wa-
               ter-using commercial kitchen equipment if standard, inefficient equipment is installed.
               These typically discharge water continuously during operation, consuming hundreds
               of thousands of gallons per year.

               Because water use from commercial kitchens can account for a large percent of total
               facility water use, and a majority of that water is heated using facility energy, ensur-
               ing commercial kitchen equipment uses water efficiently affords both significant
               water and energy savings. Newer technologies and better practices are available that
               can significantly reduce commercial kitchen equipment water and energy use. For
               example, ENERGY STAR® qualified dishwashers,4 ice machines, and steam cookers are
               at least 10 percent more water-efficient and 15 percent more energy-efficient than
               standard models, with some models saving significantly more. Efficient dipper wells
               and waterless wok stoves can use 50 to 90 percent less water than standard models.

               Section 4: Commercial Kitchen Equipment of WaterSense at Work provides an overview
               of and guidance for effectively reducing the water use of:

                • Commercial ice machines
                • Combination ovens
                • Steam cookers
                • Steam kettles
                • Wok stoves
                • Dipper wells
                • Pre-rinse spray valves
                • Food disposals
                • Commercial dishwashers
                • Wash-down sprayers
                  Commercial Kitchen Equipment Case Study

                To learn how three restaurants in Chicago, Illinois;
                Omaha, Nebraska; and Washington, D.C. saved water
                and energy by implementing several of the best
                management practices discussed in this section, read
                the case study in Appendix A.
4 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Energy Department's ENERGY STAR. Dishwashers. www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.
 showProductGroup&pgw_code=DW.
October 2012
4-3

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4.2  Commercial Ice Machines
                                                                                     WaterSense
               Overview

               Commercial ice machines use refrigeration units to freeze water into ice for cool-
               ing or preserving food and other items. Ice machines have become a mainstay in
               all types of settings, including restaurants, commercial kitchens, fast food establish-
               ments, convenience stores, grocery stores, schools, hotels, hospitals, and laboratories.
               Ice machines typically use water for two purposes: cooling the refrigeration unit and
               making ice. There are mechanisms to address the efficiency of both aspects.

                            Because the ice-making process generates a significant amount of
                            heat, either water or air is used to remove this waste heat from the ice
                            machine's refrigeration unit. In the most basic configuration, water-
                            cooled ice machines pass water through the machine once to cool
                            it, and then dispose of the single-pass water down the drain. Water-
                            cooled systems can use less water by recirculating the cooling water
                            through a chiller or a cooling tower to lower the temperature, return-
                            ing the water to the machine for reuse.To eliminate using water to
                            cool the refrigeration unit altogether, air can be used to cool the unit
                            instead. Air-cooled ice machines use motor-driven fans or centrifugal
                            blowers to move air through the refrigeration unit to remove heat.5

                            There are three primary types of ice machines: ice-making head units,
                            self-contained units, and remote condensing units. Ice-making head
                            units include the ice-making mechanism and the condenser unit in
                            a single package, and the ice storage bins are sold separately. Self-
                            contained units have the ice-making mechanism, condenser unit, and
                            a built-in storage bin in an integral cabinet.These units are typically
                            small, undercounter units that produce a smaller volume  of ice. Re-
                            mote condensing units are models with the ice-making mechanism
               and the condenser unit in a separate section. They transfer the heat generated by the
               ice-making process outside the building.

               Regardless of how the machine is cooled, all ice machines use water to produce ice.
               If a machine were 100 percent water-efficient and wasted no water when produ-
               cing ice, the machine would use approximately 12 gallons of waterto produce 100
               pounds of ice.6 However, in order to create  ice of acceptable quality, some water is
               used  and sent down the drain during the process. The amount of water used for the
               ice-making process depends upon the facility's incoming  water quality and on the
               desired end  quality of the ice. Specifically, water is used to rinse ice-making surfaces
               and flush minerals that accumulate as water crystallizes into ice.

               As ice is formed in the freezing trays, minerals in the water collect on the equipment
               and must be rinsed occasionally. Ice machines at facilities with poorer incoming
               water quality (i.e., incoming potable water that contains high total dissolved solids
               or minerals)  will require more frequent rinse cycles. Some ice machines might be set

5 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department's (DOE's) ENERGY STAR. Commercial Ice Machines, www.energystar.gov/index.
 cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=CIM.
5 Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE). Ice Machines. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/lce_Machines.aspx.
Cubed ice machine
4-4
                                         WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

-------
                                                                4.2  Commercial  Ice Machines
               to rinse more frequently than needed, not taking into account the facility's incoming
               water quality and resulting in wasted water.

               In addition to equipment rinsing, some facilities require a higher
               quality of ice than other facilities, depending upon the end use
               of the ice. A restaurant serving ice in beverages, for example,
               might want very clear, high-quality ice, while a cafeteria using ice
               to cool prepared food in a display case might not be concerned
               with the clarity of the ice used. Some ice machines are designed
               to produce clearer and smoother ice using a repeated freez-
               ing and partial thawing process.This method produces ice with
               fewer air bubbles and is more crystalline, but the process uses
               more water.7

               The types of ice that ice machines can make include:

                 • Cubed  ice—clear, regularly shaped ice weighing up to 1.5
                   ounces per piece and containing  minimal amounts of liquid
                   water.

                 • Flake ice—chips or flakes of ice containing up to 20 percent
                   liquid water by weight.
                                                                              Crushed ice machine
                 • Crushed ice—small, irregular pieces made by crushing bigger pieces of ice.

                 • Nugget ice—small portions of ice created by extruding and freezing the slushy
                   flake ice into a nugget.8

               Cubed ice machines are the most prominent in the market, accounting for approxi-
               mately 80 percent of ice machine sales in the United States.9 Most cubed ice ma-
               chines use more water than flake ice machines because they run more water over the
               freezing ice to remove sediment and minerals left as the water freezes. In general, the
               higher the quality of ice, the more water is needed for the ice-making process.

               Water used for the ice-making process ranges from 15 gallons to more than 50 gal-
               lons per 100 pounds of ice,10 depending upon the amount of water used to rinse the
               ice-making surfaces and the amount of water needed to produce higher quality ice.

               In total, including the ice-making and cooling processes, water-cooled ice machines
               with single-pass cooling consume between 100 and 300 gallons of water per 100
               pounds of ice produced," while air-cooled ice machines can consume less than  50
               gallons of water per 100 pounds of ice produced. While air-cooled machines are usu-
               ally more water-efficient, water-cooled machines are usually more energy-efficient.
               Some air-cooled units, however, are able to match or exceed the energy efficiency of
               water-cooled units while also providing substantial water efficiency.12
7 Ibid.
3 Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Information Brief: Commercial Ice Machines, www.pge.com/includes/docs/pdfs/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/
 incentives byindustry/hospitality/icemachinetech.pdf.
9 Ibid
10 Koeller, John and Hoffman, H. W. (Bill). Koeller and Company. June 2008. A Report on Potential Best Management Practices—Commercial Ice Machines.
 Prepared for the California Urban Water Conservation Council. Page 6. www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.
11 Bohlig, Charles M. East Bay Municipal Utility District. February 7,2006."Water Efficiency in Commercial Food Service." Slides 13-20. www.awwa.org/Resources/
 Waterwiser.cfm?ltemNumber=33640&navltemNumber=3375.
l2AWE,op.c;f.
October 2012
4-5

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4.2  Commercial Ice  Machines
               The U.S. Energy Department (DOE) sets energy and water use standards for ice ma-
               chines under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005. Visit DOE's website for the most
               up-to-date information.13

               To recognize energy- and water-efficient ice machines, the U.S. Environmental
               Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE's ENERGY STAR® issued a specification14 to qualify
               certain types of commercial air-cooled ice machines that meet more stringent energy
               use and potable water use criteria. Commercial ice machines that are ENERGY STAR
               qualified are, on average, 15  percent more energy-efficient and 10 percent more
               water-efficient than standard air-cooled models.


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               For optimal ice machine efficiency, consider the following:

                •  Periodically clean the ice machine to remove lime and scale buildup; sanitize it
                   to kill bacteria and fungi. For self-cleaning or sanitizing machines, run the self-
                   cleaning option. For machines without a self-cleaning mode, shut down the ma-
                   chine, empty the bin of ice, add cleaning or sanitizing solution to the machine,
                   switch it to cleaning mode, and then switch it to ice production mode. For health
                   and safety purposes, create and discard several batches of ice to remove residual
                   cleaning solution.

                •  Keep the ice machine's coils clean to ensure the heat exchange process is run-
                   ning as efficiently as possible.

                •  Keep the lid closed to keep cool air inside the ice machine and maintain the ap-
                   propriate temperature.

                •  Install a timer to shift ice production to nighttime or off-peak hours. This will
                   decrease the facility's peak energy demand.

                •  Keeping in mind local water quality and site requirements, work with the  manu-
                   facturer to ensure that the ice machine's rinse cycle is set to the lowest possible
                   frequency that still provides sufficient ice quality. If available, use the ice ma-
                   chine's ability to initiate rinse cycles based on sensor readings of minerals.

                •  Follow the manufacturer-provided use and care instructions for the specific
                   model ice machine used at the facility.

                •  Train users to report leaking or otherwise improperly operating ice machines to
                   the appropriate personnel.


               Retrofit Options

               If the machine is cooled using single-pass water, modify the machine to operate on
               a closed loop that recirculates the cooling water through a cooling tower or heat

3 DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Building Technologies Program: Automatic Commercial Ice Makers, wwwl .eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_
 standards/commercial/automatic_ice_making_equipment.html.
4 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Ice Machines Key Product Criteria, www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=comm_ice_machines.pr_crit_comm_ice_machines.
4-6                                                                                             October 2012

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                                                              4.2 Commercial Ice Machines
               exchanger, if possible. If eliminating single-pass cooling is not feasible, consider reus-
               ing the cooling water for another application. See Section 8: Onsite Alternative Water
               Sources for more information.


               Replacement Options

               When replacing an ice machine or installing a new one, ensure that the new model
               is sized appropriately to fit the facility's need. If the machine produces too large of
               a yield, water will be wasted by producing unnecessary ice. Choose an  ice machine
               that is appropriate for the quality of ice needed. Producing ice of higher quality than
               required will use water unnecessarily. Look for ENERGY STAR qualified models,15 all of
               which are air-cooled. Also consider air- or water-cooled ice machines that meet the
               efficiency specifications outlined by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency.16 If feasible,
               consider selecting air-cooled flake or nugget ice machines, which use less water and
               energy than cubed ice machines.


               Savings Potential

               A facility will see varying levels of water savings, depending upon whether it is re-
               placing an existing air-cooled ice machine or an existing water-cooled  model.

               The Food Service Technology Center has a life cycle and energy cost calculator, which
               can be used to calculate the savings potential from replacing many types of commer-
               cial kitchen equipment, including commercial ice machines.17

               To estimate facility-specific water savings and payback, the facility can  also use the
               following information.

               Air-Cooled Ice Machine Replacement

               ENERGY STAR qualified ice machines are, on average, 15 percent more  energy-
               efficient and 10  percent more water-efficient than standard air-cooled  models. Total
               savings depend upon the type of machine selected.

               Use ENERGY STAR'S commercial kitchen equipment savings calculator18 to estimate
               facility-specific water, energy, and cost savings for replacing an existing ice machine
               with an ENERGY STAR qualified model.

               Water-Cooled Ice Machine Replacement

               A facility will see the most water savings from replacing a water-cooled ice machine
               with an air-cooled model. When replacing an ice machine, select an ENERGY STAR
               qualified model.
5 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Ice Machines, op. cit.
6 Consortium for Energy Efficiency, Inc. Commercial Kitchens, www.ceel .org/com/com-kit/com-kit-equip.php3.
7 Food Service Technology Center. Commercial Foodservice Equipment Lifecycle Cost Calculator, www.fishnick.com/saveenergy/tools/calculators/.
8 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Savings Calculator for ENERGY STAR Qualified Commercial Kitchen Equipment. www.energystar.gov/ia/business/bulk_purchasing/
 bpsavings_calc/commercial_kitchen_equipment_calculator.xls.
October 2012                                                                                              4-7

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4.2  Commercial Ice Machines
               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use from a water-cooled ice machine, identify the fol-
               lowing information and use Equation 4-1:

                • The ice machine's harvest rate, or how many pounds of ice it produces per day.

                • The ice machine's maximum water use rate. EPAct of 2005 provides different
                  water use maximums for water-cooled, self-contained units with harvest rates
                  less than 200 pounds per day and those with harvest rates greater than or equal
                  to than 200 pounds per day. It also provides different water use maximums for
                  water-cooled, ice-making head units with harvest rates less than 500 pounds
                  per day; those with harvest rates greater than or equal to 500 pounds per day
                  and less than 1,436 pounds per day; and those with harvest rates greater than or
                  equal to than 1,436 pounds per day.19

                • Days of facility operation per year.
                           Equation 4-1. Water Use of Ice Machine (gallons per year)


                      = Harvest Rate x Water Use Rate x Days of Facility Operation

                      Where:

                          • Harvest Rate (pounds of ice per day)
                          • Water Use Rate (gallons per 100 pounds of ice)
                          • Days of Facility Operation (days per year)


               Water Use After Replacement

               To estimate the water use of a replacement air-cooled model, use Equation 4-1,
               substituting the harvest rate (if it will change) and the new water use per hundred
               pounds of ice. ENERGY STAR provides different water use maximums for qualified air-
               cooled  models depending on the machine type and the harvest rate.20

               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing water-
               cooled  ice machine, identify the following information and use Equation 4-2:

                • Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-1.
                • Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 4-1.
9 Energy Policy Act of 2005. Public Law 109-58. August 8, 2005.
0 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Ice Machines Key Product Criteria, op. at.
4-8                                                                                            October 2012

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                                                           4.2  Commercial  Ice  Machines
                Equation 4-2. Water Savings From Ice Machine Replacement (gallons per year)


                     = Current Water Use of Ice Machine - Water Use of Ice Machine After
                       Replacement
1 AWE, op. at.
                     Where:
                           Current Water Use of Ice Machine (gallons per year)
                           Water Use of Ice Machine After Replacement (gallons per year)
              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing a
              water-cooled ice machine, consider the equipment and installation cost of the re-
              placement air-cooled model, the water savings as calculated in Equation 4-2, and the
              facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

              The facility should also consider the energy impact of replacing old equipment.
              While air-cooled machines are usually more water-efficient, water-cooled machines
              are usually more energy-efficient. Some air-cooled units, however, are able to match
              or exceed the energy efficiency of water-cooled units while also providing substan-
              tial water efficiency.21


              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE). Commercial Food Service Introduction.
              www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Commercial_Food_Service_lntroduction.aspx.

              AWE. Ice Machines. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/lce_Machines.aspx.

              California Urban Water Conservation Council. Resource Center, Commercial Food
              Services, lce-Makers.www.cuwcc.org/products/commercial-ice-makers.aspx.

              Consortium for Energy Efficiency, Inc. July 1,2011.  High Efficiency Specifications for
              Commercial Ice Makers, www.cee! .org/com/com-kit/com-kit-equip.php3.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program.
              Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Makers,  www! .eere.energy.gov/femp/
              technologies/eep_ice_makers.html#buying.

              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use
              Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages FOOD3-5.www.ebmud.com/
              for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

              EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Ice Machines, www.energystar.gov/index.
              cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=CIM.
October 2012                                                                                          4-9

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4.2  Commercial Ice Machines
              Food Service Technology Center (FSTC) Commercial Foodservice Equipment Lifecycle
              CostCalculators.www.fishnick.com/saveenergy/tools/calculators/.

              FSTC. Ice Machines, www.fishnick.com/savewater/appliances/icemachines/.

              Koeller, John and Hoffman, H. W. (Bill). Koeller and Company. June 2008. A Report
              on Potential Best Management Practices—Commercial Ice Machines. Prepared for the
              California Urban Water Conservation Council.
              www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.

              Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Information Brief: Commercial Ice Machines.
              www.pge.com/includes/docs/pdfs/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/
              incentivesbyindustry/hospitality/icemachinetech.pdf.
4-10                                                                                        October 2012

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4.3 Combination  Ovens
WaterSense
              Overview

              Combination ovens combine three modes of cooking into one oven: steam mode,
              circulated hot air (i.e., dry heat) mode, or a combination of both (i.e., combi-mode).
              The steam mode is used for rapid cooking of food items such as vegetables and shell-
              fish.The circulated hot air mode operates in the same manner as a typical convection
              oven and is traditionally used for roasting meats or baking.The combi-mode is used
              to reheat, roast, bake, or oven-fry foods. Steam and combi-modes require generation
              of steam, an energy and water-intensive process.

              The amount of water used by a combination oven is primarily dictated by whether
              it is boiler-based or connectionless (i.e., without a central boiler connection). Typi-
              cal boiler-based  combination ovens are connected to a boiler system that supplies
              the steam. These systems can waste large amounts of water because they require a
              continuous stream of water to cool the condensed steam before it is disposed down
              the drain. They may also supply steam regardless of whether the oven is in operation.
              In contrast, a connectionless combination oven has a self-contained water reservoir
              and heat source  to create the steam required for the cooking process. This eliminates
              the use of a separate, central boiler system and saves energy that would have been
              used to supply continuous steam. Connectionless combination ovens are typically
              drained and refilled each day and do not require a drain of condensate or the addi-
              tion of cooling water.


              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

              For optimal combination oven efficiency, consider the following:

               • Use the oven's programming capabilities to control the use of the different cook-
                 ing modes in order to minimize water and energy use, taking into account food
                 preparation  requirements. Specifically, where possible, use the steam mode and
                 combi-mode sparingly because these modes consume water and significantly
                 increase energy use. Instead, maximize the use of the circulated hot air mode.

               • Turn the oven off or down during slow times or when not in use.

               • Keep the oven doors completely closed.

               • Whenever possible, maximize the amount of food cooked per use by ensuring
                 that the combination oven is loaded to its full capacity.

               • Make sure to replace gaskets when necessary and keep door hinges tight, so that
                 the doors stay aligned and  provide a good  seal to retain heat or steam.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
               4-11

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4.3 Combination  Ovens
                Retrofit Options

                There are currently no known retrofit options available on the market to increase the
                efficiency of combination ovens.


                Replacement Options

                When purchasing a new combination oven or replacing an existing one, look for
                models that are connectionless and that use no more than 15 gallons of water per
                hour22 or 3.5 gallons per pan per hour.23

                Combination ovens come in varying sizes, depending upon the amount and types
                of food  cooked. Consult the manufacturer to choose a combination oven that is the
                appropriate size for the cooking needs of the facility. A larger-than-necessary combi-
                nation oven can waste water and energy to heat unused compartment space.


                Savings Potential

                Boiler-based combination ovens can  use as much as 30 to 40 gallons of water per
                hour.24 Switching to a connectionless combination oven can reduce that water use to
                15 gallons of water per hour or less.25

                The Food Service Technology Center  has a life cycle and energy cost calculator, which
                can be used to calculate the savings potential from replacing many types of commer-
                cial kitchen equipment, including combination ovens.26

                To estimate facility-specific water savings and  payback, the facility can also use the
                following information.

                Current  Water Use

                To estimate the current water use of an existing combination oven, identify the fol-
                lowing information and use Equation 4-3:

                 •  Hourly water use rate in gallons per hour. A typical boiler-based combination
                   oven may use as much as 30 to 40 gallons per hour.

                 •  Average daily use time. This will vary by facility.

                 •  Days of facility operation per year.
22 East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Page 43.
 www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.
23 Food Service Technology Center (FSTC). Combination Ovens.www.fishnick.com/savewater/appliances/combinationovens/.
24 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department's (DOE's) ENERGY STAR. Best Practices—How to Achieve the Most Efficient Use of Water
 in Commercial Food Service Facilities. www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=healthcare.fisher_nickel_feb_2005.
25 Ibid.
26 FSTC. Commercial Foodservice Equipment Lifecycle Cost Calculators, www.fishnick.com/saveenergy/tools/calculators/.
4-12                                                                                               October 2012

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                                                                     4.3  Combination Ovens
                       Equation 4-3. Water Use of Combination Oven (gallons per year)


                     = Water Use Rate of Combination Oven x Daily Use Time x Days of
                       Facility Operation

                     Where:

                         • Water Use Rate of Combination Oven (gallons per hour)
                         • Daily Use Time (hours per day)
                         • Days of Facility Operation (days per year)


               Water Use After Replacement

               To estimate the water use of a replacement combination oven, use Equation 4-3,
               substituting the replacement combination oven's hourly water use. Connectionless
               combination ovens can use 15 gallons per hour or less.

               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing com-
               bination oven, identify the following and use Equation 4-4:

                •  Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-3.
                •  Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 4-3.


               Equation 4-4. Water Savings From Combination Oven Replacement (gallons per year)


                     = Current Water Use of Combination Oven - Water Use of Combination
                       Oven After Replacement

                     Where:

                         • Current Water Use of Combination Oven (gallons per year)
                         • Water Use of Combination Oven After Replacement (gallons per year)


               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback associated with the water savings from replacing
               an existing combination oven, consider the equipment and installation cost of the
               replacement combination oven, the water savings as calculated using Equation 4-4,
               and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater. A combination oven can cost
               approximately $15,000.27

               By switching to a connectionless combination oven, facilities also save a significant
               amount of energy by reducing the water use and steam generation associated with

7 Harris, Richard. EBMUD. March 5,2008."Turning up the Heat on Commercial Kitchen Water Savings." Slide 26. www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/downloads/
 meetings/water_Richard_Harris.pdf.
October 2012                                                                                          4-13

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4.3  Combination  Ovens
              the use of the combination oven. This energy savings will further reduce the payback
              period and increase replacement cost-effectiveness.


              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency. Combination Ovens Introduction.
              www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/1Column.aspx?id=650&terms=combination+ovens.

              East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-
              Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Page FOOD8.www.ebmud.com/
              for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-
              guidebook.

              EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Best Practices—How to Achieve the Most Efficient Use
              of Water in Commercial Food Service Facilities.
              www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=healthcare.fisher_nickel_feb_2005.

              Food Service Technology Center (FSTC). Combination Ovens.
              www.fishnick.com/savewater/appliances/combinationovens/.

              FSTC. Commercial Foodservice Equipment Lifecycle Cost Calculators.
              www.fishnick.com/saveenergy/tools/calculators/.

              Harris, Richard. EBMUD. March 5,2008."Turning up the Heat on Commercial Kitchen
              Water Savings." www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/downloads/meetings/
              water_Richard_Harris.pdf.
4-14                                                                                        October 2012

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4.4  Steam  Cookers
WaterSense
              Overview

              Steam cookers, also known as food steamers, are commercial kitchen appliances
              used to prepare foods in a sealed vessel that limits the escape of air or liquids below
              a preset pressure. There are two types of steam cookers: boiler-based and connec-
              tionless (i.e., without a central boiler connection).

              Boiler-based steam cookers are connected to a central boiler, which delivers steam to
              the heating compartment. Steam that does not condense on the food escapes as a
              mixture of steam and condensate through a drain. In addition, some water is continu-
              ously bled off from the steam cooker to help reduce and manage scale buildup. Most
              manufacturers indicate that water supplied to the steam cooker should be under
              50 parts per million (ppm) of total dissolved solids (IDS), or else bleed off should be
              increased.

              Boiler-based steam cookers also use large amounts of water to further condense
              the steam and to cool (i.e., temper) the condensate water to less than 140°F before
              it enters the sewer system. Most boiler-based steam cookers offer a standby setting,
              which maintains the boiler in  a ready-to-use state. In many instances, the condensate
              cooling water will continue to flow even when the steam cooker is in standby mode,
              particularly if the condensate cooling water is controlled by a valve that must be
              manually turned on and off. Some boiler-based steam cookers, but not all, do allow for
              the condensate cooling water to be turned off while the steamer is in standby mode.
              Steamers that are timer-controlled will automatically switch to standby mode at the
              end of the set cook time, minimizing the amount of water wasted while the unit is not
              in use.

              Connectionless steam cookers can be either completely unconnected to any water sup-
              ply or can be connected to a water supply to keep the water reservoir full. Connection-
              less steam cookers have an individual reservoir where water is heated below the steam
              trays to create the steam. These types of steam cookers are manually drained and
              refilled and do not require a dedicated drain for condensate or the addition of cooling
              or tempering water. A small amount of steam is vented through the top of the steam
              cooker, but what is not vented or condensed on the food returns as condensate to the
              reservoir. Connectionless steam cookers that are connected to a water supply have a
              float valve that maintains the water level in the reservoir, but unlike the boiler-based
              steam cookers, there is no continuous flow of water. This type of steam cooker is usually
              as efficient as other connectionless models that are not connected to a water supply.

              Steam cookers can achieve lower idle energy rates and reduce the amount of steam
              needed and water used by reducing the temperature of the compartment during
              standby mode, not continuously supplying steam to the cooking compartment, and
              adding insulation.To address these efficiency advances in commercial steam cook-
              ers, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department's
              (DOE's) ENERGY STAR® has developed voluntary criteria to qualify energy-efficient—
              and thus, water-efficient—steam cookers. ENERGY STAR qualified models must
              meet minimum cooking  efficiency and maximum idle energy rate requirements.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
               4-15

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4.4  Steam Cookers
              ENERGY STAR qualified steam cookers typically use at least 90 percent less water
              when compared to standard steam cooker models. ENERGY STAR qualified steam
              cookers use an average of 3 gallons of water per hour, while standard models typi-
              cally use 40 gallons of water per hour.


              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

              For optimal steam cooker efficiency, consider the following:

               • Use batch production as opposed to staged loading of food pans (i.e., do not
                 continuously open the door to load and unload food pans).

               • In a multi-pan steamer, if possible, fill the steam cooker to capacity instead of
                 cooking one pan at a time.

               • Keep the doors closed while the steamer is operating.

               • Use only as many steamer compartments as needed.

               • Use a timer to ensure that the steam cooker returns to standby mode after use.

               • Turn the steam cooker off during long periods of non-use. This will reduce water
                 and energy use associated with keeping the steam  cooker in stand-by mode.

               • Fix  and repair any leaks. Remove any deposit buildup from the boiler on  boiler-
                 based models.


              Retrofit Options

              There are currently no known retrofit options available  on the market to increase the
              water efficiency of steam cookers.


              Replacement Options

              Steam cookers come in several sizes with varying numbers of boiler pans. Be sure to
              choose a steam cooker that is of the appropriate size for the steam cooking needs
              of the facility. A larger-than-necessary steam cooker can waste water and energy to
              heat unused compartment space.

              When purchasing a new steam cooker or replacing an existing one, choose models
              that are ENERGY STAR qualified.28


              Savings Potential

              ENERGY STAR qualified steam cookers can use 90 percent less water and 50 percent
              less energy as standard steam cookers.29 Traditional boiler-based steam cookers use
              as much as 40 gallons of water per hour. Switching to an ENERGY STAR qualified
              steam cooker can reduce that water use to 3 gallons of water per hour or less.

28 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department's (DOE's) ENERGY STAR. Commercial Steam Cookers.
 www.energystar.gov/index.cfm ?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=COC.
29 Ibid

4-16                                                                                       October 2012

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                                                                                4.4  Steam Cookers
               Use ENERGY STAR'S commercial kitchen equipment savings calculator30 to estimate
               facility-specific water, energy, and cost savings for replacing an existing boiler-based
               steam cooker with an ENERGY STAR qualified model.

               The Food Service Technology Center also has a life cycle and energy cost calculator,
               which can be used to calculate the savings potential from replacing many types of
               commercial kitchen equipment, including steam cookers.31

               To estimate facility-specific water savings and payback, the  facility can also use the
               following information.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the water use of a steam cooker, identify the following information and
               use Equation 4-5:
                   Water use rate of the existing steam cooker, typically provided in gallons per hour.
                   Average daily use time.
                   Days of facility operation per year.
                          Equation 4-5. Water Use of Steam Cooker (gallons per year)


                      = Steam Cooker Water Use Rate x Daily Use Time x Days of Operation

                      Where:

                          •  Steam Cooker Water Use Rate (gallons per hour)
                          •  Daily Use Time (hours per day)
                          •  Days of Operation (days per year)


               Water Use After Replacement

               To estimate the water use after replacing an existing steam cooker with an ENERGY
               STAR qualified steam cooker, use Equation 4-5, substituting the water use of the
               ENERGY STAR qualified steam cooker for the water use  of the existing steam cooker.

               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing steam
               cooker, identify the following information and use  Equation 4-6:

                 •  Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-5.
                 •  Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 4-5.
30 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Savings Calculator for ENERGY STAR Qualified Commercial Kitchen Equipment. www.energystar.gov/ia/business/bulk_purchasing/
 bpsavings_calc/commercial_kitchen_equipment_calculator.xls.
31 Food Service Technology Center. Commercial Foodservice Equipment Lifecycle Cost Calculator, www.fishnick.com/saveenergy/tools/calculators/.


October 2012                                                                                               4-17

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4.4  Steam  Cookers
                Equation 4-6. Water Savings From Steam Cooker Replacement (gallons per year)


                     = Current Water Use of Steam Cooker - Water Use of Steam Cooker After
                       Replacement
                     Where:
                           Current Water Use of Steam Cooker (gallons per year)
                           Water Use of Steam Cooker After Replacement (gallons per year)
              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing an
              existing steam cooker, consider the equipment and installation cost of the ENERGY
              STAR qualified steam cooker, the water savings as calculated in Equation 4-6, and the
              facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

              By switching to an ENERGY STAR qualified steam cooker, facilities can also save a
              significant amount of energy. ENERGY STAR qualified steam cookers can use half as
              much energy as standard steam cookers.32This energy savings will further reduce the
              payback period and increase replacement cost-effectiveness.


              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency. Food Steamers Introduction.
              www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/1Column.aspx?id=642&terms=steam.

              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use
              Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages FOOD7-8.www.ebmud.com/
              for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-
              guidebook.

              EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Steam Cookers, www.energystar.gov/
              index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=COC#buying.

              Food Service Technology Center (FSTC). Commercial Foodservice Equipment Life-
              cycle Cost Calculators, www.fishnick.com/saveenergy/tools/calculators/.

              FSTC. Steamers, www.fishnick.com/savewater/appliances/steamers/.
2 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Steam Cookers, op. at.
4-18                                                                                        October 2012

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4.5  Steam  Kettles
WaterSense
               Overview

               Steam kettles are boiler-based or self-contained cooking appliances that use circula-
               ting steam to perform tasks similar to traditional stockpots, including boiling pasta
               and simmering sauces. Steam kettles may be preferable to traditional stockpots due
               to their rapid, uniform cooking and ease of control.

               Steam kettles have a double wall that covers at least half of the height of the sides
               of the kettle. Steam is circulated  within this double wall, or "jacket," then condenses
               to transfer heat to the food product by means of conduction. Steam kettles range in
               capacity from 0.5 gallon to more than 200 gallons each.33 Steam kettles can also be
               designed with tilting capability, strainers, and covers.

               Boiler-based steam kettles rely on an external central boiler to deliver steam. These
               types of steam kettles are commonly found in large facilities with centrally located
               boilers. Boiler-based steam kettles require a regular blowdown to remove conden-
               sate on the steam supply line and can consume more than  100,000 gallons of water
               per year. Returning condensate to the boiler as make-up water can reduce this water
               consumption.34

               Self-contained steam kettles rely on their own  heat source to generate steam under
               pressure (see Figure 4-2). Self-contained steam kettles use less water and energy than
               boiler-based steam kettles because they do not require significant blowdown water.
               Boiler water must be dumped at the  end of the day to prevent mineral buildup. They
               also require de-liming on a regular basis and regular manual venting and refilling.35

                                    Figure 4-2. Self-Contained Steam Kettle
                                                               Heating
                                                               Elements
3 The Northeast Center for Food Entrepreneurship at the New York State Food Venture Center, Cornell University. January 2007. Steam Kettles in Food Processing:
 Fact Sheets for the Small Scale Food Entrepreneur, necfe.foodscience.cornell.edu/publications/fact-sheets.php.
4 East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Page FOOD6.
 www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.
5 The Northeast Center for Food Entrepreneurship at the New York State Food Venture Center, Cornell University, op. cit.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
                4-19

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4.5  Steam Kettles
              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

              For optimal steam kettle efficiency, consider the following:

               • Regularly monitor self-contained steam kettle water levels and maintain tem-
                 perature control components to ensure efficient operation.

               • Turn the steam kettle down or off between uses.

               • Make sure the steam kettle lid is secured whenever possible to reduce the
                 amount of energy required for simmering and boiling.


              Retrofit Options

              Since the steam does not come into contact with the food, if a boiler-based steam
              kettle is used, a condensate return system can be installed to direct the conden-
              sate back into the central boiler system for reuse (see Figure 4-3).This process will
              improve both water and energy efficiency because the condensate can be used as
              boiler make-up water. Facilities can purchase packaged condensate return systems
              from most steam equipment suppliers and plumb them directly into an existing sys-
              tem. Insulating condensate return lines will further improve their efficiency.

                                  Figure 4-3. Boiler-Type Steam Kettle
                 Steam Supply


Steam
Trap

Condensate Return
>+
*

              Replacement Options

              When purchasing a new steam kettle or replacing an old one, consider the kettle
              cooking needs of the kitchen. For smaller needs, consider a self-contained steam
              kettle without an external boiler, which uses less water and energy than boiler-based
              steam kettles. If daily operations require a boiler-based steam kettle, consider a mod-
              el with a condensate return system. Be sure to choose a steam kettle with a properly
              sized steam trap, to prevent inadvertent dumping of condensate.
4-20
October 2012

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                                                                               4.5  Steam  Kettles
               Savings Potential

               Retrofitting or replacing existing steam kettles can yield significant water savings. For
               a boiler-based steam kettle, the water savings achieved by returning the condensate
               to the boiler can be substantial. Actual water savings are difficult to approximate
               because the water use of a steam kettle varies based on its size and the pressure of
               the steam.

               To estimate facility-specific water savings and payback, use the following informa-
               tion.
               Current Water Use

               To estimate the water use of a steam kettle, identify the following information and
               use Equation 4-7:

                • Water use per day of the existing steam kettle. The equipment manufacturer or
                  vendor should be able to help determine the daily water use.

                • Days of facility operation per year.
                          Equation 4-7. Water Use of Steam Kettle (gallons per year)


                      = Water Use of Steam Kettle x Days of Facility Operation

                      Where:

                          •  Water Use of Steam Kettle (gallons per day)
                          •  Days of Facility Operation (days per year)


               Water Use After Retrofit or Replacement

               To estimate the water use after retrofitting or replacing an existing steam kettle, use
               Equation 4-7, substituting water use of the new configuration or new system for the
               water use of the existing steam kettle.


               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from retrofitting or replacing an
               existing steam kettle, identify the following information and use Equation 4-8:

                • Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-7.
                • Water use after retrofit or replacement as calculated using Equation 4-7.
October 2012                                                                                           4-21

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4.5  Steam  Kettles
                Equation 4-8. Water Savings From Steam Kettle Retrofit or Replacement (gallons
                                                per year)
                      = Current Water Use of Steam Kettle - Water Use of Steam Kettle After
                       Retrofit or Replacement

                      Where:

                         • Current Water Use of Steam Kettle (gallons per year)
                         • Water Use of Steam Kettle After Retrofit or Replacement (gallons per
                           year)


               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback associated with the water savings from retrofitting
               or replacing an existing steam kettle, consider the equipment and installation cost of
               the retrofit or replacement, the water savings as calculated in Equation 4-8, and the
               facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

               By switching to a self-contained steam kettle or by returning condensate back to the
               boiler in a boiler-based system, facilities can  also save a significant amount of energy.
               This energy savings will further reduce the payback period and increase  replacement
               cost-effectiveness.


               Additional Resources

               DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program.
               Best Management Practice: Commercial Kitchen Equipment.
               www! .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/waterefficiency_bmp11 .html.

               East Bay Municipal  Utility District. 2008.  WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Effi-
               ciency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages FOOD5-6. www.ebmud.com/for-
               customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

               Food Service Technology Center. Steam  Kettles.
               www.fishnick.com/equipment/appliancetypes/steamkettles.

               The Northeast Center for Food Entrepreneurship at the New York State Food Venture
               Center,  Cornell University. January 2007. Steam Kettles in Food Processing: Fact Sheets
               for the Small Scale Food Entrepreneur.
               necfe.foodscience.cornell.edu/publications/fact-sheets.php.

               Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center. Food Technology Fact Sheet:
               Steam Kettle Hookup, www.fapc.okstate.edu/files/factsheets/fapc120.pdf.
4-22                                                                                          October 2012

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4.6 Wok  Stoves
WaterSense
              Overview

              A wok stove is a Chinese pit-style stove that has a wok, or multiple woks, recessed
              into the stove top, allowing heat to be fully directed onto the bottom of the wok.
              Wok stoves can use water for cooling, cleaning, and cooking.36

              Cooling

              In a conventional water-cooled wok stove, the burner chimney and ring are affixed to
              the top of the stove, trapping heat under the cooktop. To absorb the heat and keep
              thecooktop cool, water jets spray cooling water across the cooktop at a rate of ap-
              proximately 1.0 gallon per minute (gpm) per burner.

              Cleaning

              Wok stoves can be outfitted with a rinsing spout used to rinse and clean the wok
              between uses. In many cases, the rinsing spout might be left running continuously,
              even when not in use, because the operator may not have time to turn it off.

              Cooking

              Many wok stoves also have a separate reservoir tap that fills a small reservoir used for
              cooking. As with rinsing spouts, the reservoir tap might be left running continuously
              even when the reservoir is full.

              An illustration of a conventional water-cooled wok stove is shown in Figure 4-4.
               Wok stoves
5 Sydney Water. Wok stoves: The waterless wok stove. www.sydneywater.com.au/Water4Life/lnYourBusiness/FactSheets.cfm.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
               4-23

-------
4.6 AA/ok Stoves
                                      Figure 4-4. Water-Cooled Wok Stove
                             Reservoir
                               Tap
                                            I
Cooling Water
                                  Cooktop
                                   Heat
                                 Generated
                                   From
                                   Burner
                      Heat
                    Generated
                      From
                      Burner
                                                      Burner
                Waterless wok stoves, a relatively new technology, are cooled with air, and thus do
                not require the use of cooling water. One such type of wok stove functions by creat-
                ing an air gap between the burner chimney and ring and the top of the stove, so
                that the heat can be released directly from beneath the cooktop and vented to the
                kitchen exhaust  (see Figure 4-5).This eliminates the need for cooling water entirely.
                Waterless wok stoves can further reduce water use if they a re outfitted with a rinsing
                spout that shuts off the water supply when it is not needed for wok cleaning. In ad-
                dition, waterless wok stoves may have a mechanism such as a knee-operated timer
                reservoir tap that limits both the flow rate and duration of flow of the reservoir tap.37

                Another new wok stove technology connects to a built-in recirculation loop origina-
                ting from under  the wok stove cooktop to recirculate cooling water via an external
                point-of-use chiller. This type of wok stove has an internal backup water-using  system
                in the event that the recirculated chilled water is not  available. A study of this type
                of wok stove conducted by the Food Service Technology Center showed negligible
                energy use associated with the use of the external chiller.38
 7 Alliance for Water Efficiency. Waterless Wok Introduction. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/1Column.aspx?id=700.
 8 Sham, Kong and Zabrowski, David. Food Service Technology Center. March 2010. Wok Water Saver Performance Test. Prepared for Pacific Gas & Electric Company.
 www.fishnick.com/publications/appliancereports/rangetops/Wok_Water_Saver.pdf.
4-24
                                                 October 2012

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                                                                              4.6 AA/ok Stoves
                              Figure 4-5. One Type of Air-Cooled Wok Stove
Heat Escaping Heat Escaping
)
Automatic Shut-Off
Rinsing Spout


v y
Cooktop /




Heat
Generated
From
Burner
\^°^/






A f\ A
o
k


r
Cooktop
Reservoir
\ Cooktop





—


Heat
Generated
From
Burner

ReservoirTap


r^5
Knee-Operated
Lever for
ReservoirTap




                                                 Burner

              By replacing conventional wok stoves with waterless or recirculating chilled water
              models and reducing the flow rate and duration of rinse spouts and reservoir taps,
              facilities could use 90 percent less water than normally required for cooling, cleaning,
              and cooking in wok stoves.39


              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

              For optimal wok stove efficiency, consider the following:

               • Encourage cooking staff to turn off rinse spouts and reservoir taps when not in use.

               • Inspect and ensure the shut-off valves for the rinse spouts and reservoir taps are
                 in working order.

               • Ensure the cooling water is shut off when the wok stove is not in use, especially
                 at the end of each day.

               • Routinely check cooling water lines for leaks and corrosion.
9 Sydney Water, op. cit.
October 2012
4-25

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4.6 AA/ok  Stoves
               Retrofit Options

               If retrofitting an existing conventional wok stove, check to see if rinse spouts can be
               replaced with spouts that automatically shut off or that can switch off when pushed
               back away from the wok.


               Replacement Options

               When purchasing a new wok stove or replacing an existing conventional wok stove,
               look for models that are considered waterless, or are air-cooled instead of water-
               cooled. Waterless wok stoves can use about 2 percent more energy than a conven-
               tional wok stove,40 but they can use 90 percent less water. Alternatively, look for
               models that use recirculated chilled water. Also, consider models that have automatic
               shut-off rinse spouts and/or knee-operated timer reservoir taps to limit both the flow
               rate and duration of the flow to the rinse spout and reservoir tap.


               Savings  Potential

               Water savings can be achieved through two mechanisms: eliminating the use of
               cooling water and reducing the flow rate and duration of use of rinse spouts and
               reservoir tap.

               To calculate facility-specific water savings and payback, use the following information.

               Wok Stove Retrofit

               Wok cleaning and cooking activities can use 500 to 800 gallons of water per day,
               particularly if the rinse spouts and reservoir taps are left constantly running.
               Retrofitting the wok stove to reduce the flow rate and duration of use of rinse spouts
               and reservoir taps can significantly reduce water use associated with wok cleaning
               and cooking.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water  use of the existing wok stove rinse and reservoir
               spouts, identify the following information and use Equation 4-9:

                • Flow rate of each rinse and reservoir spout.
                • Average daily use time of rinse and reservoir spouts.
                • Number of days the facility operates each year.
40 International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO). 2010. "2010'sTop-5 New and Innovative Water Efficient Products." Green Newsletter.
 forms.iapmo.org/newsletter/green/2010/05/2010_Top5.asp.


4-26                                                                                           October 2012

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                                                                                  4.6 AA/ok Stoves
               Equation 4-9. Water Use of Wok Stove Rinse and Reservoir Spouts (gallons per year)
                      = Flow Rate of Rinse or Reservoir Spout x Daily Use Time x Days of
                       Facility Operation

                      Where:

                          •  Flow Rate of Rinse or Reservoir Spout (gallons per minute)
                          •  Daily Use Time (minutes per day)
                          •  Days of Facility Operation (days per year)


               Water Use After Retrofit

               To estimate the water use of more efficient rinse and reservoir spouts, use Equation
               4-9, substituting the flow rate and use time of the retrofit rinse and reservoir spouts.

               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings from the retrofit of an existing wok stove with more ef-
               ficient rinse and reservoir spouts, identify the following information and use Equation
               4-10:

                • Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-9.
                • Water use after retrofit using Equation 4-9.
               Equation 4-10. Water Savings From Wok Stove Rinse and Reservoir Spout Retrofit
                                             (gallons per year)
                      = Current Water Use of Wok Stove Rinse and Reservoir Spouts - Water
                       Use of Wok Stove After Retrofit of Rinse and Reservoir Spouts

                      Where:

                          •  Current Water Use of Wok Stove Rinse and Reservoir Spouts (gallons
                            per year)
                          •  Water Use of Wok Stove After Retrofit of Rinse and Reservoir Spouts
                            (gallons per year)


               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with retrofitting
               an existing wok stove with more efficient rinse and reservoir spouts, consider the
               equipment and installation cost of the retrofit rinse and reservoir spouts, the water
               savings as calculated using Equation 4-10, and the facility-specific cost of water and
               wastewater.
October 2012                                                                                            4-27

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4.6  AA/ok Stoves
               Wok Stove Replacement

               During the course of a 12-hour day, a conventional water-cooled wok stove can use
               more than 700 gallons of water. Switching to a waterless wok or one that uses recir-
               culated chilled water can eliminate this use of single-pass cooling water. To estimate
               facility-specific water savings and payback, use the following information.

               Water Use and Savings

               To estimate the water used for cooling of a conventional wok stove and subsequent
               water savings associated with a waterless wok stove or one that uses recirculated
               chilled water, identify the following information and use Equation 4-11:

                • Flow rate of the cooling water. This flow rate is typically 1.0 gpm.
                • Average daily use time.
                • Days of facility operation per year.

               Equation 4-11. Water Use and Savings From Water-Cooled Wok Stove Replacement
                                            (gallons per year)
                      = Current Wok Stove Cooling Water Flow Rate x Daily Use Time x Days of
                       Facility Operation
                      Where:
                          •  Current Wok Stove Cooling Water Flow Rate (gallons per minute)
                          •  Daily Use Time (minutes per day)
                          •  Days of Facility Operation (days per year)
               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing an exis-
               ting conventional wok stove, consider the equipment and installation cost of the replace-
               ment waterless wok stove or one that uses recirculated chilled water, the water savings as
               calculated using Equation 4-11, and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

               The facility should also consider the energy impact of replacing old equipment.
               Waterless wok stoves can use about 2 percent more energy than a conventional wok
               stove,41 but they use at least 90 percent less water.


               Additional Resources

               Alliance for Water Efficiency. Waterless Wok Introduction.
               www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/1Column.aspx?id=700.

               City West Water Limited. Programs and Assistance, Woking the Way to Water Savings.
               www.citywestwater.com.au/business/programs_and_assistance_woking_the_way_
               to_water_savings.aspx.
  IAPMO, op. at
4-28                                                                                           October 2012

-------
                                                                                4.6 AA/ok Stoves
              International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials. 2010.
              "2010'sTop-5 New and Innovative Water Efficient Products." Green Newsletter.
              forms.iapmo.org/newsletter/green/2010/05/2010_Top5.asp.

              Sydney Water. Wok stoves: The waterless wok stove.
              www.sydneywater.com.au/Water4Life/lnYourBusiness/FactSheets.cfm.
October 2012                                                                                         4-29

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4.7  Dipper Wells
                                             Water Sense
               Overview

               Dipper wells are used in some restaurants, coffee houses, and ice cream shops to
               rinse utensils between uses. Most dipper wells have a single spigot and a valve that
               controls the flow of either hot or cold water into a receiving well. Shops often have
               dipper wells running constantly during service hours to provide a continuous ex-
               change of the water in the well, in order to reduce the potential for bacterial growth.

               Dipper wells have flow rates between 0.5 and 1.0 gallon per minute (gpm).42

               Food service locations should ensure that the requirements of the U.S. Department
               of Health and Human Services Food Code43 are met when considering changes to
               facility operations that may involve installing, retrofitting, or replacing a dipper well.


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               For optimal dipper well efficiency, consider the following:

                • Turn off water when service periods are slow and the dipper well is not in use. Also,
                  turn off the water to the dipper well at the end of each day. Be sure to clean the
                  dipper well prior to  restarting the water in order to remove any bacterial buildup.

                • Keep the flow rate of the dipper well valve at its minimum level. Some munici-
                  palities recommend no more than 0.3 gpm.44

                • Consider rinsing utensils with a sink faucet only as needed, rather than using the
                  dipper well.

               Retrofit Options

               To reduce the water use associated with a dipper well, consider installing an in-line
               flow restrictor to reduce the flow rate from 0.5 or 1.0 gpm to 0.3 gpm.

               Replacement Options

               When looking to replace dipper wells, consider these options:

                • Install a push-button, metered faucet for utensil rinsing.

                • If the facility has enough utensils to run full dishwasher loads, consider installing
                  an ENERGY STAR® qualified, commercial undercounter dishwasher45 to replace
                  the dipper well to wash utensils after use. These commercial dishwashers can use
                  less than 1.0 gallon  per rack.

 2 East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages FOOD8-9.
 www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.
 3 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 3—Food. Sections 3-304.11 and 3-304.12. www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/
 RetailFoodProtection/FoodCode/FoodCode2009/ucm 186451. htm.
 4 Arizona Department of Water Resources. Implementing a Water Management Plan Checklist for Facility Managers. Page 8.
 www.azwater.gov/azdwr/StatewidePlanning/Conservation2/Commerciallndustrial/FacilityManagers.htm.
 5 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department's (DOE's) ENERGY STAR. Commercial Dishwashers, www.energystar.gov/index.
 cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=COH.
4-30
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

-------
                                                                                 4.7 Dipper Wells
               Savings Potential

               Water savings can be achieved in two ways: by retrofitting the dipper well to reduce
               the flow rate or by replacing a dipper well with a metered faucet or an ENERGY STAR
               qualified commercial undercounter dishwasher.

               Dipper Well Retrofit With In-Line Flow Restrictor

               Retrofitting a dipper well with an in-low flow restrictor can be a simple way to save
               water.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the water use of an existing dipper well, identify the following informa-
               tion and use Equation 4-12:

                • Flow rate of the existing dipper well. Most dipper wells have flow rates between
                  0.5 and 1.0 gpm.46

                • Average daily use time.

                • Days of facility operation per year.


                          Equation 4-12. Water Use of Dipper Well  (gallons per year)


                      = Dipper Well Flow Rate x Daily Use Time x Days of Facility Operation

                      Where:

                         •  Dipper Well Flow Rate (gallons per minute)
                         •  Daily Use Time (minutes per day)
                         •  Days of Facility Operation (days per year)


               Water Use After Retrofit

               To estimate the water use after retrofitting an existing dipper well with an in-line
               flow restrictor, use Equation 4-12, substituting the flow rate of the retrofit in-line flow
               restrictor for the flow rate of the existing dipper well. An efficient, retrofit in-line flow
               restrictor should provide a maximum flow rate of 0.3 gpm.

               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from retrofitting an existing dip-
               per well, identify the following information and use Equation 4-13:

                • Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-12.
                • Water use after retrofit as calculated using Equation 4-12.


46EBMUD,op.c;f.

October 2012                                                                                            4-31

-------
4.7  Dipper Wells
                Equation 4-13. Water Savings From Dipper Well Retrofit or Replacement (gallons
                                                 per year)
                      = Current Water Use of Dipper Well - Water Use After Retrofit or
                        Replacement

                      Where:

                          • Current Water Use of Dipper Well (gallons per year)
                          • Water Use After Retrofit or Replacement (gallons per year)


               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with retrofitting
               an existing dipper well, consider the equipment and installation cost of the retro-
               fit in-line flow restrictor, the water savings as calculated in Equation 4-13, and the
               facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

               After retrofitting an existing  dipper well with an in-line flow restrictor, facilities can
               save energy from the reduced hot water use. This energy savings will further reduce
               the payback period and increase replacement cost-effectiveness.

               Dipper Well Replacement With Push-Button, Metered Faucet

               Although installing a dipper well retrofit is likely the most cost-effective choice for a
               facility, significant water savings can also be achieved by replacing a dipper well with
               a push-button, metered faucet.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of an existing dipper well, use Equation 4-12.

               Water Use After Replacement With Metered Faucet

               To estimate the water use after replacing an existing dipper well with a push-button,
               metered faucet, identify the  following information and use Equation 4-14:

                 •  Flow rate of the push-button, metered faucet (in gallons per cycle).
                 •  Average  cycles used per hour.
                 •  Average  daily use time.
                 •  Days of facility operation per year.
4-32                                                                                            October 2012

-------
                                                                                4.7 Dipper Wells
                  Equation 4-14. Water Use of Push-Button, Metered Faucet (gallons per year)
                      = Flow Rate of Push-Button, Metered Faucet x Uses per Hour x Daily Use
                       Time x Days of Facility Operation

                      Where:

                         •  Flow Rate of Push-Button, Metered Faucet (gallons per cycle)
                         •  Uses per Hour (cycles per hour)
                         •  Daily Use Time (hours per day)
                         •  Days of Facility Operation (days per year)
               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing dipper
               well with a push-button, metered faucet, identify the following information and use
               Equation 4-13:

                •  Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-12.
                •  Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 4-14.

               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing
               an existing dipper well with a push-button, metered faucet, consider the equipment
               and installation cost of installing the new push-button, metered faucet; the water
               savings as calculated in Equation 4-13; and the facility-specific cost of water and
               wastewater.

               After replacing an existing dipper well with a push-button, metered faucet, facilities
               may save energy from the reduced hot water use. This energy savings will further
               reduce the payback period and increase replacement cost-effectiveness.

               Dipper Well Replacement With an ENERGY STAR Qualified Dishwasher

               Although installing a dipper well retrofit is likely the most cost-effective choice for a
               facility, significant water savings can also be achieved by replacing a dipper well with
               an ENERGY STAR qualified commercial undercounter dishwasher.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of an existing dipper well, use Equation 4-12.
October 2012                                                                                           4-33

-------
4.7 Dipper Wells
               Water Use After Replacement With an ENERGY STAR Qualified Dishwasher

               To estimate the water use after replacing an existing dipper well with an ENERGY
               STAR qualified commercial undercounter dishwasher, identify the following informa-
               tion and use Equation 4-15:

                 •  Water use per rack washed. A high-temperature, ENERGY STAR qualified commer-
                   cial undercounter dishwasher uses 1.0 gallons per rack or less. A low-temperature
                   model uses 1.7 gallons per rack or less.47

                 •  Average estimate of racks washed per  day.

                 •  Days of facility operation per year.
                      Equation 4-15. Water Use of an ENERGY STAR Qualified Commercial,
                                 Undercounter Dishwasher (gallons per year)
                      = Water Use per Rackx Racks Washed per Dayx Days of Facility Operation

                      Where:

                          •  Water Use per Rack (gallons per rack)
                          •  Racks Washed per Day (racks per day)
                          •  Days of Facility Operation (days per year)


               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing dipper
               well with an ENERGY STAR qualified commercial undercounter dishwasher, identify
               the following information and use Equation 4-13:

                 •  Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-12.
                 •  Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 4-15.

               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing
               an existing dipper well with an  ENERGY STAR qualified commercial undercounter
               dishwasher, consider the equipment and installation cost of the new dishwasher, the
               water savings as calculated in Equation 4-13, and the facility-specific cost of water
               and wastewater. Installing a new ENERGY STAR qualified commercial undercounter
               dishwasher can cost approximately $6,000.48

               The facility should also consider the energy impact of replacing the dipper well with
               an ENERGY STAR qualified dishwasher. The dishwasher might use less hot water than
               the dipper well, but it also uses energy to run cleaning cycles.
47 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Dishwashers Key Product Criteria. www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=comm_dishwashers.pr_crit_comm_dishwashers.
48 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Life Cycle Cost Estimate for 1 ENERGY STAR Qualified Commercial Dishwasher(s). www.energystar.gov/ia/business/bulk_purchasing/
 bpsavings_calc/CalculatorCommercialDishwasher.xls.


4-34                                                                                              October 2012

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                                                                             4.7  Dipper Wells
              Additional Resources

              Arizona Department of Water Resources. Implementing a Water Management Plan
              Checklist for Facility Managers. Page 8. www.azwater.gov/azdwr/StatewidePlanning/
              Conservation2/Commerciallndustrial/FacilityManagers.htm.

              Brean, Henry. June 8, 2009."UNLV professor targets 'wasteful'dipper wells."Las Vegas
              Review-Journal, www.lvrj.com/news/47195482.html.

              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use
              Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages FOOD8-9.www.ebmud.com/
              for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

              EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Best Practices—How to Achieve the Most Efficient Use
              of Water in Commercial Food Service Facilities.
              www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=healthcare.fisher_nickel_feb_2005.

              EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Dishwashers Key Product Criteria.
              www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=comm_dishwashers.pr_crit_comm_dishwashers.
October 2012                                                                                         4-35

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4.8  Pre-Rinse  Spray Valves
                                           WaterSense
 Pre-rinse spray valve
              Overview

              Commercial pre-rinse spray valves are spray nozzles that use water under pressure to
              remove food residue from plates, pots, pans, and other kitchen utensils prior to sani-
              tation in a dishwasher. Pre-rinse spray valves designed for commercial dishwashing
              are different from spray valves used for filling glasses, pots, or kettles and for washing
              down countertops, floors, and other kitchen areas, all of which typically have very dif-
              ferent usage patterns and higher flow rates. These other types of spray valves are not
              the focus of this section. Sink faucets for commercial kitchen use are covered under
              Section 3.4: Faucets.

                                                Pre-rinse spray valves designed for commer-
                                                cial dishwashing are connected to a hose,
                                                which is connected to the water supply.
                                                These handheld devices consist of a spray
                                                nozzle, a squeeze lever that controls the
                                                water flow, and a dish guard bumper.They
                                                often include a spray handle clip, allowing
                                                the user to lock the lever at full spray for
                                                continual use, which can reduce hand irrita-
                                                tion. They can be installed at the end of a
                                                flexible stainless steel hose and can include
                                                a foot-operated, on-off lever. Pre-rinse spray
                                                valves are usually located at the entrance to
                                                a dishwasher or over a sink and are used in
                                                conjunction with a faucet fixture.
              The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005 established the maximum allowable flow rate
              for all commercial pre-rinse spray valves sold in the United States at 1.6 gallons per
              minute (gpm). Older models can use between 3.0 and 4.5 gpm. Since EPAct 2005
              established maximum flow rate requirements, more efficient products have been
              developed with flow rates as low as 0.65 gpm.

              The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense® program is con-
              sidering a label for high-efficiency pre-rinse spray valves, with plans to set a water-
              efficiency level at least 20 percent below the federal standard and address product
              performance. Replacing a pre-rinse spray valve that flows at 1.6 gpm or higher with
              one that is at least 20 percent more water-efficient will result in significant water and
              energy savings and a simple payback period of less than one year for most facilities.


              Operation, Maintenance, and User  Education

              For optimal pre-rinse spray valve efficiency, system pressure should be tested to
              ensure that it is between 20 and 80 pounds per square inch (psi).This will ensure that
              the pre-rinse spray valve will deliver the expected flow and performance. In addition,
              consider the following:
4-36
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                 4.8  Pre-Rinse Spray Valves
                • Ensure that the pre-rinse spray valve unit's hose height is appropriate for the user
                  (i.e., neither too high nor too low). If the pre-rinse spray valve is not situated at
                  an optimal height, users could choose to use other kitchen sprayers, which may
                  have higher flow rates.

                • To decrease water use, train users to manually scrape as much food waste from
                  dishes as possible before using the pre-rinse spray valve.

                • If possible, pre-soak heavily soiled dishes in a basin of water
                  to loosen food residue.

                • Train users how to properly use the always-on clamp, if avail-
                  able. Improper use of the always-on clamp could lead to
                  unnecessary water waste. If a constant stream of water is not
                  necessary, train users to manually depress the pre-rinse spray
                  valve handle only when water is needed.

                • Periodically inspect pre-rinse spray valves for scale buildup to
                  ensure flow is not being restricted.There are certain cleaning
                  products designed to dissolve scale buildup from pre-rinse
                  spray valves. Do not attempt to bore holes in the pre-rinse
                  spray valve, as this may lead to increased water use or cause
                  performance problems. If scale cannot be removed, consider
                  replacing the pre-rinse spray valve with  a new model.

                • Periodically inspect pre-rinse spray valves for leaks and bro-
                  ken or loose parts. If necessary and possible, tighten screws
                  and fittings to stop leakage. If the product cannot be manu-
                  ally adjusted to perform properly, consider replacing the
                  pre-rinse spray valve.
User manually depressing pre-rinse spray
valve handle during use
                • Conduct routine inspections for leaks and train appropriate custodial and clean-
                  ing personnel and users to identify and report leaks.

               Retrofit Options

               Because pre-rinse spray valves are relatively inexpensive, consider replacement rath-
               er than a retrofit or extensive repair. In general, avoid retrofitting existing, inefficient
               pre-rinse spray valves with flow control inserts (which restrict water flow) to reduce
               the flow rate.These devices might not provide adequate performance in some facili-
               ties, thereby increasing use time and total water used.

               Replacement Options

               When installing new pre-rinse spray valves or replacing older, inefficient pre-rinse
               spray valves, choose models with flow rates of 1.3 gpm or less.
October 2012
                          4-37

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4.8 Pre-Rinse  Spray Valves
               Savings Potential

               Water savings can be achieved by replacing existing pre-rinse spray valves. Because
               water use of pre-rinse spray valves is dependent on facility operations and factors
               such as average throughput, water savings will vary by facility.To estimate facility-
               specific water savings and payback, use the following information.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of a pre-rinse spray valve, identify the following
               information and use Equation 4-16:

                 •  Flow rate of the existing pre-rinse spray valve. Pre-rinse spray valves installed af-
                   ter 2005 have flow rates of 1.6 gpm or less. Pre-rinse spray valves installed before
                   2005 can have flow rates of up to 4.5 gpm.

                 •  Average daily use time. This will vary by facility, but facilities typically use pre-
                   rinse spray valves for no more than 200 minutes per day.49

                 •  Days of facility operation per year.
                      Equation 4-16. Water Use of Pre-Rinse Spray Valve (gallons per year)
                       = Flow Rate of Pre-Rinse Spray Valve x Daily Use Time x Days of Facility
                        Operation

                       Where:

                           •  Flow Rate of Pre-Rinse Spray Valve (gallons per minute)
                           •  Daily Use Time (minutes per day)
                           •  Days of Facility Operation (days per year)


                Water Use After Replacement

                To estimate the water use of a more efficient replacement pre-rinse spray valve, use
                Equation 4-16, substituting the flow rate of the replacement pre-rinse spray valve.
                Efficient pre-rinse spray valves use 1.3 gpm or less.

                Water Savings

                To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing pre-
                rinse spray valve, identify the following information and use Equation 4-17:

                 •  Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-16.
                 •  Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 4-16.
49 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program. March 31,2011. Pre-Rinse Spray Valves Field Study Report. Page 19.
 www.epa.gov/watersen se/prod ucts/prsv.htm I.


4-38                                                                                              October 2012

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                                                               4.8  Pre-Rinse  Spray Valves
                Equation 4-17. Water Savings From Pre-Rinse Spray Valve Replacement (gallons
                                               per year)
                     = Current Water Use of Pre-Rinse Spray Valve - Water Use of Pre-Rinse
                       Spray Valve After Replacement
                     Where:
                           Current Water Use of Pre-Rinse Spray Valve (gallons per year)
                           Water Use of Pre-Rinse Spray Valve After Replacement (gallons per year)
              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing
              an existing pre-rinse spray valve, consider the equipment cost of the replacement
              pre-rinse spray valve, the water savings as calculated using Equation 4-17, and the
              facility-specific cost of water and wastewater. Pre-rinse spray valves typically cost less
              than $100.

              By replacing a pre-rinse spray valve with a more efficient model, facilities can also
              save a significant amount of energy due to the reduction in hot water use. This
              energy savings will further reduce the payback period and increase replacement
              cost-effectiveness.


              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency. Commercial Food Service Introduction.
              www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Commercial_Food_Service_lntroduction.aspx.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program.
              Covered Product Category: Pre-Rinse Spray Valves, www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/
              technologies/eep_low-flow_valves.html.

              EPA's WaterSense program. Pre-Rinse Spray Valves. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/
              products/prsv.html.

              Food Service Technology Center. Commercial Kitchen Equipment—Pre-Rinse Spray
              Valves.www.fishnick.com/equipment/sprayvalves/.
October 2012                                                                                         4-39

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4.9  Food  Disposals
                                                                         WaterSense
Garbage disposal with grinder
               Overview

               Scraping dishes and disposing of food waste prior to dishwash-
               ing can be a very water- and energy-intensive process, depending
               upon the food disposal method used. Typically, commercial kitchens
               dispose of food scraps using a garbage disposal with a grinder that
               processes food waste into pieces small enough to pass through the
               plumbing system.

               Garbage disposals in and of themselves do not use water; however,
               kitchen staff often run water at high flow rates through the garbage
               disposal to prevent damage to the grinder blades and keep food waste
               from building up and clogging the plumbing system. Some facilities
               have a sluice trough, which feeds the garbage disposal and is usually
               built into a stainless steel table system. Water is applied continuously at
               the top of the trough, often at a rate of 2.0 to 15.0 gallons per minute
               (gpm),50 depending upon how many nozzles are installed. Food waste  is
scraped into the trough and rinsed down into the garbage disposal. Alternatively, some
facilities rinse food from dishes into a garbage disposal using a pre-rinse spray valve.
               As an alternative to a traditional garbage disposal with a grinder, some facilities use food
               pulpers to collect and dispose of food scraps. Food pulpers are located where the grinder
               would otherwise be located. Unlike a traditional garbage disposal with a grinder, how-
               ever, food pulpers crush food waste into a pulp (i.e., slurry), extract excess water from the
               pulp, then send the pulp waste to a bin for later disposal or composting. In many food
               pulper systems, the extracted water can be recycled within the food pulping process or
               reused to pre-rinse dishes or act as a sluice trough where food wastes are dumped. When
               a recirculation system is used, pulpers can recirculate 5.0 to 15.0 gpm through the system,
               needing only 2.0 gpm for make-up water.51 Figure 4-6 illustrates the food  pulping process.
                Sluice trough

50Koellerand Company and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC. June 2010. A Report on Potential Best Management Practices—Commercial Dishwashers. Prepared
 for the California Urban Water Conservation Council. Pages 5-7. www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.
51 Ibid
4-40
                            WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                              4.9 Food  Disposals
                                  Figure 4-6. Food Pulper System Diagram

                                              Recycled Water
                   Food Scraps

>


r


Food Pulper/
Waste Extractor






                                                  T
                                              Food Waste Pulp
                                                                    Waste Pulp
                                                                     Storage/
                                                                    Disposal Bin
               Food strainers are an alternative to traditional garbage disposals and food pulpers.
               As food scraps are rinsed from dishes, a scrap or strainer basket in the bottom of the
               sink captures the waste for later disposal or composting. Another type of combina-
               tion system acts as both a food pulper and food strainer, recirculating water for pulp-
               ing of food scraps and collecting food scraps in a strainer basket for later disposal.52

               Before installing a new or replacing an existing food disposal system, consider any local
               restrictions on systems that discharge food waste to the sanitary sewer. Some areas have
               banned garbage disposals or have placed additional sewer charges on operations using
               them, due to concerns about increased loads on the local wastewater treatment plant.53


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               For optimal food disposal efficiency, consider the following:

                • Where possible, turn off the water to the food  disposal system during idle peri-
                  ods when the system is  not in use and when the facility is closed.

                • Scrape larger food scraps into a trash receptacle prior to rinsing food waste into
                  the food disposal system. Consider composting food waste if appropriate. See
                  the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's  (EPA's) composting Web page54 for
                  more information.

                • Do not pour grease into the food disposal system. Doing so can clog pipes over time.

                • Do not place any hard objects into the food  disposal system.This can dull the
                  blades, reducing the unit's efficiency.

52 Ibid.
53 Ibid.
54 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Composting of Organic Materials, www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/organics/food/fd-compost.htm.
October 2012
4-41

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4.9  Food Disposals
                • Run cold water through the food disposal system instead of hot water. This will
                  reduce the energy use associated with heating the water. It will also help to keep
                  the system cool.

                • Regularly inspect and clean the food disposal system to make sure the blades are
                  sharp and the system is not clogged with debris.


               Retrofit Options

               To reduce the water use associated with a traditional garbage disposal, consider
               installing a device that can sense the disposal motor's load and regulate the amount
               of water necessary. These devices can reduce the idle flow rate when the garbage
               disposal is not in use, from between 2.0 and 15.0 gpm to 1.0 gpm, thus saving a sig-
               nificant amount of water. Also, consider installing a timer to stop the flow of water to
               the garbage disposal after 15 minutes, so that the user must periodically reactivate
               the system.55


               Replacement Options

               When purchasing a new food disposal system or looking to replace an existing food
               disposal system, consider these options:

                • Purchase a garbage disposal with a load sensor to regulate the amount of water
                  conveyed through the disposal depending upon whether it is in use or idling.

                • Install a food pulper or food pulper/strainer combination system, which can
                  recycle 75 percent of the water used for the food disposal process.

                • Replace mechanical food disposal systems with food strainers, which use little to
                  no water.


               Savings Potential

               Conventional garbage disposals can use a constant water flow of 2.0 to 15.0 gpm
               when in use.This water use can be significantly reduced either by retrofitting with a
               load sensor to regulate and reduce the amount of water used by the existing gar-
               bage disposal during idle mode, or by replacing the garbage disposal with a food
               pulper or food strainer. To estimate facility-specific water savings and payback, use
               the following information.

               Conventional Garbage Disposal Retrofit

               Water use can be reduced by retrofitting an existing conventional garbage disposal
               with a load sensor. Load sensors can reduce the flow rate through the garbage dispo-
               sal to as little as 1.0 gpm when the garbage disposal is  not in use (i.e., during idle peri-
               ods). Water savings from the reduction in flow rate during idle use can be calculated.
55 East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages FOOD9-11.
 www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.


4-42                                                                                           October 2012

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                                                                              4.9 Food  Disposals
               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of an existing garbage disposal during idle periods,
               identify the following information and use Equation 4-18:

                • Flow rate of water through the garbage disposal. This flow rate typically ranges
                  from 2.0 to 15.0gpm.

                • Average daily idle period of the garbage disposal. Idle period is the time when
                  the garbage disposal is turned on but not in use. While this will vary by facility,
                  some estimates indicate that garbage disposals are typically used three hours
                  per day. For a facility operating 12 hours a day, this would mean an idle period of
                  nine hours if the garbage disposal is kept on throughout the day.56

                • Days of facility operation per year.
               Equation 4-18. Water Use of Garbage Disposal During Idle Periods (gallons per year)
                      = Flow Rate Through Garbage Disposal x Daily Idle Period x Days of
                        Facility Operation

                      Where:

                          •  Flow Rate Through Garbage Disposal (gallons per minute)
                          •  Daily Idle Period (minutes per day)
                          •  Days of Facility Operation (days per year)


               Water Use After Retrofit

               To estimate the water use from an existing garbage disposal that is retrofitted with a
               load sensor during idle period, use Equation 4-18, substituting the reduced idle flow
               rate. A load sensor can reduce the idle flow rate when the garbage disposal is not in
               use to as little as 1.0 gpm.

               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from retrofitting an existing con-
               ventional garbage disposal, identify the following and use Equation 4-19:

                • Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-18.
                • Water use after retrofit as calculated using Equation 4-18.
6 Ibid
October 2012                                                                                            4-43

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4.9  Food Disposals
                Equation 4-19. Water Savings From Garbage Disposal Retrofit (gallons per year)
                      = Current Water Use of Garbage Disposal During Idle Periods - Water Use
                       of Garbage Disposal During Idle Periods After Retrofit

                      Where:

                          •  Current Water Use of Garbage Disposal During Idle Periods (gallons
                            per year)
                          •  Water Use of Garbage Disposal During Idle Periods After Retrofit (gal-
                            lons per year)


               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with retrofitting
               an existing conventional garbage disposal with a load sensor, consider the equip-
               ment and installation cost of the retrofit load sensor, the water savings as calculated
               in Equation 4-19, and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

               Because garbage disposals may use hot water, a reduction in water use could also
               result in energy savings. Reducing the use time of the garbage disposal can also save
               energy. The potential energy savings may further reduce the payback period and
               increase the cost-effectiveness.

               Conventional Garbage Disposal Replacement—Food Pulper

               Conventional garbage disposals can be replaced with a food pulper. A food pulper
               can recycle and reuse 75 percent of the water used for the food disposal process,
               thus reducing the flow rate of fresh water  required to run through the garbage dis-
               posal unit.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of an  existing garbage  disposal, identify the follow-
               ing information and use Equation 4-20:

                • Flow rate of water through the garbage disposal. This flow rate typically ranges
                  from 2.0 to 15.0gpm.

                • Average daily use time of the garbage disposal.

                • Days of facility operation per year.
4-44                                                                                           October 2012

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                                                                            4.9  Food Disposals
                       Equation 4-20. Water Use of Garbage Disposal (gallons per year)
                     = Flow Rate Through Garbage Disposal x Daily Use Time x Days of
                       Facility Operation
7 Ibid.
                     Where:
                           Flow Rate Through Garbage Disposal (gallons per minute)
                           Daily Use Time (minutes per day)
                           Days of Facility Operation (days per year)
               Water Use After Replacement

               To estimate the water use of a replacement food pulper, use Equation 4-20, substi-
               tuting the flow rate of fresh water through the food pulper. Freshwater flow rate
               through a food pulper that recirculates water for pre-rinsing is typically 2.0 gpm.57


               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing con-
               ventional garbage disposal with a food pulper, identify the following information and
               use Equation 4-21:

                •  Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-20.
                •  Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 4-20.
               Equation 4-21. Water Savings From Garbage Disposal Replacement (gallons per year)
                     = Current Water Use of Garbage Disposal - Water Use of Garbage
                       Disposal After Replacement
                     Where:
                           Current Water Use of Garbage Disposal (gallons per year)
                           Water Use of Garbage Disposal After Replacement (gallons per year)
              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing a
              garbage disposal with a food pulper, consider the equipment and installation cost
              of the food pulper, the water savings as calculated in Equation 4-21, and the facility-
              specific cost of water and wastewater.

              Because garbage disposals can use hot water, a reduction in water use could also
              result in energy savings, which can further reduce the payback period and increase
              the cost-effectiveness.
October 2012                                                                                          4-45

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4.9  Food Disposals
               Conventional Garbage Disposal Replacement—Food Strainer

               Conventional garbage disposals can be replaced with a food strainer. Because a food
               strainer does not use water for the grinding/food disposal process, installing a food
               strainer to replace an existing garbage disposal can eliminate this water use.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of an existing garbage disposal, use Equation 4-20.

               Water Use After Replacement

               A food strainer can completely eliminate the use of water for the grinding/food dis-
               posal process.

               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing con-
               ventional garbage disposal with a food strainer, use Equation 4-21. In this case, water
               savings will be exactly equal to the current water use because the replacement food
               strainer uses no water.

               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing a
               garbage disposal with a food strainer, consider the equipment and installation cost
               of the food strainer, the water savings as calculated in Equation 4-21, and the facility-
               specific cost of water and wastewater.

               Because garbage disposals can  use hot water, a reduction  in water use could also
               result in energy savings. Eliminating the use of the garbage disposal may also save
               energy. The potential energy savings could further reduce the payback period and
               increase the cost-effectiveness.


               Additional Resources

               East Bay Municipal  Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use
               Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages FOOD9-11. www.ebmud.com/
               for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-
               guidebook.

               Koeller and Company and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC. June 2010. A Report
               on Potential Best Management Practices-Commercial Dishwashers. Prepared for the
               California Urban Water Conservation Council. Pages 5-7.
               www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.
4-46                                                                                           October 2012

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4.10  Commercial  Dishwashers
WaterSense
               Overview

               Commercial dishwashers are one of the largest water users in commercial kitchens.
               They clean and sanitize plates, glasses, bowls, utensils, and other food service ware.
               These machines can account for more than one-third of the overall water use in a
               commercial  kitchen.58 Commercial dishwasher design can vary greatly by application,
               depending on the how many employees, visitors, and/or customers are served by the
               commercial  kitchen (i.e., the amount of facility throughput).

               The most efficient commercial dishwashers reuse water from
               one wash load to the next, using one or more holding tanks.
               This not only reduces water use, but also reduces the amount
               of energy required to heat additional water. Alternatively, fill-
               and-dump commercial dishwashers discard water after each
               load, making this type of commercial dishwasher inherently
               less efficient.

               The basic design of commercial dishwashers varies. Commer-
               cial dishwasher design can be separated into several catego-
               ries:

                •  Undercounter
                •  Stationary door- or hood-type
                •  Conveyor-type
                •  Flight-type

               Smaller facilities serving fewer than 60 people per day often
               use undercounter dishwashers, which are similar to residential
               dishwashers and tend to be smaller in size.                     stationary hood-type dishwasher

               Stationary door- or hood-type commercial dishwashers are used for slightly larger
               throughputs of 150 people per day. These are usually manually front-loaded with
               racks (generally 20 inches by 20 inches in size) that contain dishes and other kitchen-
               ware.

               Conveyor-type machines also wash dishes that are manually loaded on  removable
               racks; however, multiple racks can be washed at a time, and the racks are pulled
               through the washer using a conveyor to complete each cycle.The conveyor is typi-
               cally turned  off between loads. These types of machines are ideal for larger service
               facilities serving up to 300 people per day.

               Flight-type machines are used in facilities with the highest throughputs. They also
               use a conveyor, but instead of loading racks full of dishes onto the conveyor, the
               conveyor itself serves as a rack, and dishes are loaded onto the pegs or fingers of the
               conveyor rack as it comes around. The conveyor is typically continuously moving as
               dishes are loaded, washed, and removed.59

3 Alliance for Water Efficiency. Commercial Dishwashing Introduction. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/commercial_dishwash_intro.aspx?terms=commercial+
 dishwasher.
'Koellerand Company and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC. June 2010. A Report on Potential Best Management Practices—Commercial Dishwashers. Prepared
 for the California Urban Water Conservation Council, www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
               4-47

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4.10  Commercial Dishwashers
                                         ,
                                         I
 Rack conveyor-type dishwasher
There are no federal standards limiting the water
or energy consumption of commercial dishwash-
ers.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) and the U.S. Energy Department's (DOE's) EN-
ERGY STAR® qualifies energy- and water-efficient
commercial dishwashers,60 including undercounter,
stationary single-tank door-, and conveyor- (single-
and multi-stage tank-) type machines.

ENERGY STAR specifies that commercial dishwash-
ers demonstrate a maximum water consumption in
gallons per rack in order to qualify for the ENERGY
STAR. ENERGY STAR qualified commercial dish-
washers can reduce both energy and water use by
25 percent.
               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               For optimal commercial dishwasher efficiency, consider the following:

                • Only run dishwashers when they are full. Each dishwasher rack should be filled to
                  maximum capacity.

                • Educate staff to scrape dishes prior to loading the dishwasher.

                • Replace any damaged dishwasher racks.

                • Ensure that the final rinse pressure and water temperature are within the manu-
                  facturer's recommendations.

                • Operate the dishwasher close to or at the minimum flow rate recommended by
                  the manufacturer. Set the rinse cycle time to the manufacturer's minimum rec-
                  ommended setting and periodically verify that the machine continues to operate
                  with  that rinse cycle time.

                • Turn  off machines at night when not in use.

                • Make sure that manual fill valves close completely after the wash tank is filled.

                • Find  and repair any leaks. Inspect valves and rinse nozzles for proper operation
                  and repair worn nozzles.

               For conveyor-type machines, these further steps can be taken to ensure optimal
               efficiency:

                • Install and/or maintain wash curtains. Wash curtains are able to retain heat within
                  the machine.

                • Ensure the rinse bypass drain is properly adjusted so that the wash tank is ad-
                  equately replenished during operation.

0 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department's (DOE's) ENERGY STAR. Commercial Dishwashers Key Product Criteria.
 www.energystar.gov/index.cfm ?c=comm_dishwashers.pr_crit_comm_dishwashers.
4-48
                                                October 2012

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                                                             4.10 Commercial  Dishwashers
                • Operate conveyor-type machines in auto-mode.This will save energy by running
                  the conveyor motor only when needed.


               Retrofit Options

               Efficient retrofit options are available for conveyor-type dishwasher units. When ret-
               rofitting an existing conveyor-type dishwasher, consider installing rack sensors that
               allow water flow only when dishes are present, saving water by initiating the clean-
               ing cycle less frequently.


               Replacement Options

               When purchasing or leasing a new commercial dishwasher or replacing an existing
               commercial dishwasher, look for ENERGY STAR qualified models,61 which save water,
               conserve energy, and reduce overall operating costs. For flight-type dishwashers,
               which do not qualify for the ENERGY STAR, choose equipment with a water use of
               less than 0.01 gallons per dish.62 In addition, choose models that reuse rinse water, if
               possible, as opposed to traditional fill-and-dump machines.

               Be sure to consider the typical kitchen throughput to select an appropriately sized
               commercial dishwasher. A commercial dishwasher that is larger than necessary will
               waste water if the machine is not loaded to capacity.


               Savings Potential

               ENERGY STAR qualified commercial dishwashers use 25 percent less water than con-
               ventional models, on average. Use ENERGY STAR'S commercial kitchen equipment
               savings calculator63 to estimate facility-specific water, energy, and cost savings for
               replacing an existing commercial dishwasher with an ENERGY STAR qualified model.

               The Food Service Technology Center also has a life cycle and energy cost calculator,64
               which can be used to calculate the savings potential from replacing many types of
               commercial kitchen equipment, including commercial dishwashers.

               Depending upon the type of machine, a range of water and energy savings can be
               achieved.To estimate facility-specific water savings and payback, the facility can also
               use the following information.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the water use of a commercial  dishwasher, identify the following infor-
               mation and use Equation 4-22:

                • Water use per rack washed.
                • Average estimate of racks washed per day.
                • Days of facility operation per year.

61 Ibid.
62 Koeller and Company and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC, op. at.
63 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Savings Calculator for ENERGY STAR Qualified Commercial Kitchen Equipment. www.energystar.gov/ia/business/bulk_purchasing/
 bpsavings_calc/commercial_kitchen_equipment_calculator.xls.
64 Food Service Technology Center. Commercial Foodservice Equipment Lifecycle Cost Calculator, www.fishnick.com/saveenergy/tools/calculators/.
October 2012                                                                                           4-49

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4.10  Commercial Dishwashers
                    Equation 4-22. Water Use of Commercial Dishwasher (gallons per year)


                     = Water Use per Rack x Racks Washed per Day x Days of Facility
                       Operation
                     Where:
                           Water Use per Rack (gallons per rack)
                           Racks Washed per Day (racks per day)
                           Days of Facility Operation (days per year)
               Water Use After Replacement

               To estimate the water use after replacing an existing commercial dishwasher with an
               ENERGY STAR qualified commercial dishwasher, use Equation 4-22, substituting the
               water use per rack washed of the new machine. ENERGY STAR specifies maximum
               water consumption rates per rack for undercounter, stationary single-tank door-,
               single-tank conveyor-, and multiple-tank conveyor-type machines.65

               Water Savings

               To calculate water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing commer-
               cial dishwasher, identify the following and use Equation 4-23:

                •  Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-22.
                •  Water use after retrofit as calculated using Equation 4-22.


                Equation 4-23. Water Savings From Dishwasher Replacement (gallons per year)


                      = Current Water Use of Dishwasher - Water Use of Dishwasher After
                       Replacement

                      Where:

                         • Current Water Use of Dishwasher (gallons per year)
                         • Water Use of Dishwasher After Replacement (gallons per year)


               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water use associated with replacing an
               existing commercial dishwasher, consider the equipment and installation cost of the
               ENERGY STAR qualified commercial dishwasher, the water savings as calculated in
               Equation 4-23, and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

               ENERGY STAR qualified commercial dishwashers also use less energy due to lower
               idle energy rates  and a reduction in the use of hot water. This energy savings will
               further reduce the payback period and increase replacement cost-effectiveness.

65 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Dishwashers Key Product Criteria, op. cit.

4-50                                                                                          October 2012

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                                                          4.10  Commercial Dishwashers
              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency. Commercial Dishwashing Introduction, www.
              allianceforwaterefficiency.org/commercial_dishwash_intro.aspx?terms=commercial+
              dishwashers+introduction.

              Consortium for Energy Efficiency, Inc. 2010. High Efficiency Specifications for Commer-
              cial Dishwashers, www.cee1.org/com/com-kit/com-kit-equip.php3.

              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use
              Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages FOOD12-14. www.ebmud.com/
              for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-
              guidebook.

              EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Commercial Dishwashers, www.energystar.gov/index.
              cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=COH.

              Food Service Technology Center (FSTC). Commercial Foodservice Equipment Life-
              cycle Cost Calculators, www.fishnick.com/saveenergy/tools/calculators/.

              FSTC. Dishwashing Machines, www.fishnick.com/savewater/appliances/dishmachines/.

              Koeller and Company and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC. June 2010. A Report on
              Potential Best Management Practices—Commercial Dishwashers. Prepared for the Califor-
              nia Urban Water Conservation Council, www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.

              North Carolina Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance. May
              2009. Water Efficiency, Water Management Options, Kitchen and Food Preparation.
              Pages 2-4. www.savewaternc.org/busresources.php.
October 2012                                                                                         4-51

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4.11  Wash-Down  Sprayers
                                          WaterSense
              Overview

              Wash-down sprayers are hoses used for a variety of cleaning purposes, including
              washing countertops, floors, mats, and other kitchen areas. Wash-down sprayers use
              large volumes of water to provide a high-pressure stream capable of cleaning dirt
              and residue from surfaces.

              A wash-down sprayer features a nozzle attached to a hose, which is connected to
              the water supply. Wash-down sprayers typically deliver flow rates of 7.0 gallons per
              minute (gpm),66 while heavy-duty hoses can deliver higher flow rates from 9.0 to 20.0
              gpm.67

              Because wash-down sprayers use large volumes of water to perform cleaning tasks,
              using another cleaning method could be a viable alternative.These alternative
              cleaning methods (e.g., mopping, sweeping) are able to perform the same tasks, yet
              require significantly less water or no water at all. If implementing  new cleaning meth-
              ods is not feasible, replacement options  exist that use lower flow rates than wash-
              down sprayers, including pressure washers and water brooms.


              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

              For optimal wash-down sprayer efficiency, consider the following:

               • Only use wash-down sprayers to clean floors, countertops, and other surfaces.
                 Do not use wash-down sprayers to clean dishware, which should be cleaned with
                 pre-rinse spray valves.

               • If the wash-down sprayer does not have a self-closing  nozzle, shut off the water
                 supply when the sprayer is not in use.

               • For floor washing applications, consider using a broom and dust pan to clean up
                 solid waste and/or using a mop and  squeegee instead of a wash-down sprayer.


              Retrofit Options

              If a high-flowing wash-down sprayer hose is used without a nozzle, consider install-
              ing a self-closing nozzle. This can reduce the flow rate of the wash-down sprayer
              from up to 20.0 gpm down to 7.0 gpm and prevent water from being wasted when
              the wash-down sprayer is not in use.


              Replacement Options

              There are several replacement options for wash-down sprayers. For certain appli-
              cations, wash-down sprayers can be replaced with mopping or sweeping, which
              require little to no water use.

6 Food Service Technology Center (FSTC). 2010. Water Conservation Measures for Commercial Food Service, www.fishnick.com/savewater/bestpractices.
7 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department's (DOE's) ENERGY STAR. Best Practices—How to Achieve the Most Efficient Use of Water
 in Commercial Food Service Facilities. www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=healthcare.fisher_nickel_feb_2005.
4-52
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                                                                4.11  Wash-Down  Sprayers
              Pressure washers serve as good replacement options for facilities that rely on the
              washing ability of wash-down sprayers. Pressure washers typically have flow rates of
              3.0 gpm or less at high pressure and often perform better than wash-down sprayers.

              For floor cleaning applications, water brooms can replace existing wash-down spray-
              ers. Water brooms have wide spray patterns with multiple jets that can clean more
              efficiently than a wash-down sprayer and use significantly less water.68


              Savings Potential

              Water savings can be achieved through wash-down sprayer retrofit or replacement.
              Existing high-flowing wash-down sprayers can be retrofitted with a self-closing
              nozzle. Wash-down sprayers can be replaced with a pressure washer or water broom.

              To estimate facility-specific savings and payback, use the following information.

              Wash-Down Sprayer Retrofit

              Wash-down sprayers typically deliver flow rates of 7.0 gallons per minute (gpm),69
              while heavy-duty hoses can deliver higher flow rates from 9.0 to 20.0 gpm.70

              Current Water Use

              To estimate the current water use of an existing wash-down sprayer, identify the fol-
              lowing information and use Equation 4-24:

                • Flow rate of the existing, high-flowing wash-down sprayer. Most high-flowing
                 wash-down sprayers have flow rates between 9 and 20 gpm.71

                • Average daily use time.

                • Days of facility operation per year.
                 Equation 4-24. Water Use of Wash-Down Sprayer or Water Broom (gallons per
                                                year)


                     = Flow Rate of Wash-Down Sprayer or Water Broom x Daily Use Time x
                       Days of Facility Operation

                     Where:

                         •  Flow Rate of Wash-Down Sprayer or Water Broom (gallons per minute)
                         •  Daily Use Time (minutes per day)
                         •  Days of Facility Operation (days per year)
68 FSTC, op. cit.
«Ibid.
70 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR, op. cit.
71 Ibid


October 2012                                                                                        4-53

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4.11 Wash-Down Sprayers
               Water Use After Retrofit

               To estimate the water use after retrofitting an existing wash-down sprayer with a
               nozzle, use Equation 4-24, substituting the flow rate of the retrofit nozzle. Self-closing
               nozzles often flow at a rate of 7.0 gpm.72

               Water Savings

               To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from retrofitting an existing
               wash-down sprayer with a nozzle, identify the following information and use Equa-
               tion 4-25:

                • Current water use as calculated using Equation 4-24.
                • Water use after retrofit as calculated using Equation 4-24.
                Equation 4-25. Water Savings From Wash-Down Sprayer Retrofit or Replacement
                                            (gallons per year)
                      = Water Use of Wash-Down Sprayer - Water Use After Retrofit or
                       Replacement
                      Where:
                            Current Water Use of Wash-Down Sprayer (gallons per year)
                            Water Use After Retrofit or Replacement (gallons per year)
               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with the wash-
               down sprayer retrofit, consider the equipment and installation cost of the retrofit
               self-closing nozzle, the water savings as calculated using Equation 4-25, and the
               facility-specific cost of water and wastewater. Self-closing nozzles typically cost $100.

               Wash-Down  Sprayer Replacement

               A pressure washer or water broom typically uses 2.0 gpm, while heavy-duty hoses
               can deliver higher flow rates from 9.0 to 20.0 gpm.73

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of an existing wash-down sprayer, use Equation
               4-24.
2 FSTC, op. at.
3 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR, op. at.
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                                                                4.11  Wash-Down Sprayers
              Water Use After Replacement

              To estimate the water use of a replacement pressure washer or water broom, use
              Equation 4-24, substituting the flow rate of the water broom. Water brooms can use
              as little as 2.0 gpm.74 Pressure washers flow at similar flow rates using high water
              pressure.

              Water Savings

              To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing wash-
              down sprayer with a pressure washer or water broom, use Equation 4-25.

              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing the
              wash-down sprayer with a pressure washer or water broom, consider the equipment
              and installation cost of the replacement, the water savings as calculated using Equa-
              tion 4-25, and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater. Pressure washers
              and water brooms typically cost $100.


              Additional Resources

              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use
              Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages FOOD8-9.www.ebmud.com/
              for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

              EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Best Practices—How to Achieve the Most Efficient Use
              of Water in Commercial Food Service Facilities.
              www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=healthcare.fisher_nickel_feb_2005.

              Food Service Technology Center (FSTC). 2010. Water Conservation Measures for Com-
              mercial Food Service, www.fishnick.com/savewater/bestpractices.

              FSTC. April 2005. Green Sheet: Water, Water Every where and Not a Drop to Waste.
              www.fishnick.com/saveenergy/greensheets/GreenSheet_Water_Waste_1.pdf.
4 FSTC, op. at.
October 2012                                                                                         4-55

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Table of Contents

5.1  Introduction to Outdoor Water Use	5-2
5.2  Landscaping	5-4
5.3  Irrigation	5-11
5.4  Commercial Pool and Spa Equipment	5-20
5.5  Vehicle Washing	5-29
                     Water Sense

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                                                                                         C rrt
5.1  Introduction  to  Outdoor Water  Use         WaterSense
               Outdoor water use can account for between 5 and 30 percent of a facility's total
               water use, as shown in Figure 5-1J Water is used outdoors for a variety of purposes,
               including landscape irrigation, swimming pools, and vehicle washing. Improved
               landscaping and pool maintenance practices and more efficient irrigation equipment
               can provide opportunities for significant water savings.
                             Figure 5-1. Water Use Attributed to Outdoor Purposes
                       100%
                        40%
                        20%
                               Hospitals
 Office
Buildings
Schools
Restaurants
Hotels
               Most commercial and institutional facilities that own or maintain surrounding
               landscape will have some outdoor water use associated with irrigation or landscape
               maintenance. The amount of outdoor water use is dictated by the size and design of
               the landscape and the need for supplemental irrigation. Not surprisingly, larger com-
               plexes with larger areas of maintained landscape, such as offices, schools, and hotels,
               can use as much as 30 percent of their water to maintain the health and quality of
               the landscape. The amount of water used outdoors may also vary due to local climate
               and facility type. For example, a 2003 study in California estimated that 72 percent of
               water use in K-12 schools was used outdoors, compared to the 35 percent average
               from  the eight sectors studied.2 Several sectors, including schools and hotels, also
               consume a measurable amount of water for the operation and maintenance of pools.
               Finally, some commercial buildings also use a significant amount of water to clean
               their  fleet of vehicles with a washing station on site.

               In many instances, outdoor water use can be controlled and minimized with
               proper landscape design. Regionally appropriate plant choices, healthy soils with

1 Created from analyzing data in: Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial Institutional and Industrial Water Users. Prepared
 for the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html; Dziegielewski, Benedykt, et al. American Waterworks Association (AWWA)
 and AWWA Research Foundation. 2000. Commercial and Institutional End Uses of Water; East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook: A Water-
 Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses, www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook;
 AWWA. Helping Businesses Manage Water Use—A Guide for Water Utilities.
2 Gleick, Peter H., et al. Pacific Institute. 2003. Waste Not, Want Not: The Potential for Urban Water Conservation in California. Page 83 and Appendix E.
5-2
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                                                  5.1 Introduction  to Outdoor Water Use
                appropriate grading, the use of mulches, and limiting the use of high water-using
                plants such as turfgrass can significantly reduce the need for supplemental irrigation.
                In addition, proper design, installation, and maintenance of irrigation equipment
                can have a dramatic impact on outdoor water use. For example, using drip irrigation
                on plant beds instead of traditional sprinklers can reduce irrigation water use by 20
                to 50 percent.3 More efficient sprinkler heads can reduce irrigation water use by 30
                percent compared to traditional sprinkler heads.4 Smart irrigation controllers that
                schedule irrigation based on weather data or onsite conditions can reduce irrigation
                water use by 15 percent compared to manual or clock timer irrigation systems.5

                For schools or hotels with pools, proper pool operation and maintenance can reduce
                water loss associated with evaporation, filter cleaning, mineral buildup control, leaks,
                and splashing. For example, pool covers have been shown to reduce evaporation
                losses by 30 to 50 percent.6 More efficient filters can reduce water use associated
                with filter cleaning by 68 to 98 percent.7

                Vehicle wash facilities are another specialty sector with significant outdoor water use.
                As much as 95 percent of the water use associated with vehicle wash systems can be
                attributed to the washing processes and equipment.8 Reclaiming and reusing ve-
                hicle wash water has been shown to save at least 50 percent of the water used in the
                vehicle-washing process.9

                Section 5.0: Outdoor Water Use of WaterSense at Work provides an overview of and
                guidance for effectively reducing the water use associated with:

                 •  Landscaping
                 •  Irrigation
                 •  Commercial pool and spa equipment
                 •  Vehicle washing
                          Outdoor Water Use Case Study

                  To learn how the Granite Park office complex in
                  Piano,Texas, saved nearly 12.5 million gallons of
                  water by increasing the efficiency of the irrigation
                  system, read the case study in Appendix A.
3 Ibid. Page 8.
4 Solomon, K.H., et al. 2007. Performance and Water Conservation Potential of Multi-Stream, Multi-Trajectory Rotating Sprinklers for Landscape Irrigation. Applied Engi-
 neering in Agriculture. 23(2):153-163.
5 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program. November 3,2011. WaterSense Specification for Weather-Based Irrigation Controllers Support-
 ing Statement. Page 8. www.epa.gov/watersense/partners/controller_fmal.html.
6 Koeller, John and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC. September 2010. Evaluation of Potential Best Management Practices—Pools, Spas, and Fountains. Prepared
 forThe California Urban Water Conservation Council. Page 34. www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.
7/Wd. Page 35.
8 Created from  analyzing data in: Schultz Communications, op. cit.
9 Brown, Chris.  2000. Water Conservation in the Professional Car Wash Industry. Prepared for the International Carwash Association.
 www.carwash.org/operatorinformation/research/Pages/EnvironmentalReports.aspx.
October 2012
5-3

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5.2  Landscaping
                                             WaterSense
Reduction of turf area with plantings
               Overview

               Water applied to a landscape can account for a significant portion of a commercial
               or institutional property's overall water use. Studies show that average landscape
               water use in the commercial and institutional sector can range from 7 percent of
               total water use for hospitals, 22 percent for office buildings, and up to 30 percent for
               schools.10 Typically, a landscape is watered to supplement natural precipitation based
                                                     on a plant's water needs. In some areas of
                                                     the country, such as the arid Southwest,
                                                     this gap in water needs and precipitation
                                                     can be significant. Landscape design, soil
                                                     conditions, plant choice, and maintenance
                                                     all affect the amount of water a landscape
                                                     needs. Section 5.2: Landscaping outlines
                                                     best management practices that can guide
                                                     a facility in making more water-efficient
                                                     landscaping choices.
               A well-designed landscape should be supported by healthy soils with appropriate
               grading, mulches, regionally appropriate plant choices, appropriately sized turf areas,
               and hydrozones.The following information should also be considered for a well-
               designed landscape:

                •  Healthy soils allow water to properly infiltrate and help healthy plant root sys-
                   tems to develop. Soil health can be maintained with a combination of aeration
                   and applying compost or mulch to help the soil retain its nutrients while sup-
                   porting plant growth.

                •  Appropriately graded sites with gentle slopes allow water to stay where it is
                   applied and get delivered  to the root zone of the plants, instead of leading to
                   stormwater runoff.

                •  Mulches on landscaped beds can help keep soils cool and minimize evaporation.
                   If organic mulches, such as wood chips or shredded leaves, are used, they can
                   add nutrients to the soil as they decompose.

                •  An appropriate plant palette consisting of drought-tolerant, native, or regionally
                   appropriate species lays a  solid foundation for a water-efficient landscape,
                   reducing water requirements, as well as the time and cost associated with main-
                   taining the landscape."

                •  A smaller turf area can reduce resources and costs associated with watering,
                   mowing, fertilizing, and removing debris.
0 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA's) WaterSense program. August 20,2009. Water Efficiency in the Commercial and Institutional Sector: Considerations for
 a WaterSense Program. Pages 7-10. www.epa.gov/watersense/docs/cLwhitepaper.pdf.
1 EPA's WaterSense program. December 2009. Research Report on Turfgrass Allowance. Page 6. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/docs/home_turfgrass-report508.pdf.
5-4
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                                  5.2  Landscaping
                •  Hydrozoning, or grouping plants according to their
                   water needs, will promote efficient irrigation in those
                   zones that require supplemental water.

               It is possible in many parts of the country to design a land-
               scape that does not require any supplemental irrigation. If
               irrigation is used, the irrigation system efficiency is another
               important factor that affects landscape water use. For infor-
               mation on the efficient use of landscape irrigation systems,
               refer to Section 5.3: Irrigation.

               If a water feature (e.g., pond or ornamental pool) is included in
               a landscape, it should provide a beneficial use, such as a wild-    Non-turf landscape
               life habitat or stormwater management. In addition, the feature should recirculate water
               instead of serving as a single-pass device, which can waste significant amounts of water.

               Many of the actions that can be taken to improve a landscape's water efficiency can
               have the co-benefit of reducing stormwater runoff. The U.S. Environmental Protection
               Agency's (EPA's) Green Infrastructure program focuses on solutions to reduce runoff,
               such as rain gardens and permeable pavements.12 Local water utilities or municipal
               governments13 may also have green infrastructure practices to share or incentives to
               help improve landscapes to reduce stormwater runoff.


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               To optimize a landscape's water efficiency, hire a landscape professional with a dem-
               onstrated knowledge of water-efficient landscape design, maintain the soil quality
               and existing plants, and minimize water used for other purposes with respect to the
               overall landscape design.

               Hiring a Landscape Professional

               When selecting  or employing a landscape professional, consider the following
               attributes and management strategies:

                •  Consider selecting landscape  professionals trained and certified in water-efficient
                   or climate-appropriate landscaping. Existing professionals can attend courses or
                   seminars to  learn water-efficient techniques.

                •  Periodically  review all landscape service and maintenance agreements to incor-
                   porate water-, chemical-, and  energy-efficiency requirements or performance
                   standards.

                •  Encourage landscape professionals to report and/or fix irrigation system prob-
                   lems. Many landscape professionals not only install and maintain plants in your
                   landscape, but also install and maintain the irrigation system.These professionals
                   can identify and report leaks or other inefficiencies over time.

2 EPA. Green Infrastructure, water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/index.cfm.
3 Portland Bureau of Environmental Services. Stormwater Solutions. www.portlandonline.com/bes/index.cfm?c=31870; Philadelphia Water  Department.
 Businesses. www.phillywatersheds.org/whats_in_it_for_you/businesses.
October 2012
5-5

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5.2  Landscaping
               Maintaining Soil Quality

               Consider the following maintenance tactics to ensure a healthy soil quality:

                • Add mulch to plant beds to cover bare soil. Re-mulch areas annually to maintain
                  soil coverage and prevent erosion.

                • Maintain a sufficient quantity of good topsoil—four to six inches deep—to cap-
                  ture precipitation as it falls and release water back to plants over time, reducing
                  irrigation requirements.

                • Consider incorporating soil amendments into water-logged or fast-draining soils
                  to attain proper soil water holding capacity. For soils with poor drainage (i.e.,
                  clay soils) or soils that drain too quickly (i.e., sandy soils), consider incorporating
                  topsoil or compost to balance soil composition and restore nutrients.

                • For areas that undergo regular foot or vehicular traffic, aerate the soil annually to
                  alleviate compaction and improve water infiltration rates.

               Maintaining Existing Plants

               When maintaining your landscape's existing plant life, consider the following water-
               efficient tips:

                • Keep the irrigated landscape free of weeds so that water is available for the deco-
                  rative landscaping. Pull weeds manually instead of using herbicides, which can
                  contaminate local water sources.

                • Raise the blade on mowers to allow grass to grow longer. Longer grass promotes
                  deeper root growth and more drought-resistant turf. Some species of turfgrass
                  go dormant during dry periods. Consider letting the grass turn brown during
                  these times. It will recover when rainfall returns.

                • Encourage the inclusion of shaded areas in the overall landscape design, which
                  decreases the water needs of surrounding plants. Consider planting additional
                  trees and shrubbery to increase the amount of shaded area in the future.

               Minimizing Water Used for Other Purposes

               To minimize the amount of water used for other outdoor-related purposes, consider
               the following:

                • Recirculate water in decorative fountains, ponds, and waterfalls. Shut off these
                  features when possible to reduce evaporation losses. Check water recirculation
                  systems annually for leaks and other damage. Consider using non-potable water
                  in these systems (refer to Section 8: Onsite Alternative Water Sources for additional
                  information).

                • Do not use water to clean sidewalks, driveways, parking lots, tennis courts, pool
                  decks, or other hardscapes. Sweep these areas instead.
5-6                                                                                             October 2012

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                                                                                 5.2 Landscaping
               Retrofit and Replacement Options

               Many of the actions that might be undertaken to retrofit or replace a landscape are
               similar. The goal for either retrofitting or replacing landscaping should be to optimize
               water use and hold water in the soil rather than allowing it to run off site. Differences
               in practices and options are primarily those of scale. Because the replacement of a
               commercial or institutional landscape could carry a considerable cost, it is important
               to ensure that the landscape is properly designed from the start. Consider hiring
               a licensed landscape architect or a qualified site planner/designer to assist.  Local
               botanical gardens may also have information on how to develop a landscape that is
               beautiful, functional, and water-efficient. For example, the Conservation Garden Park
               developed by the Jordan Valley Water Conservancy District in West Jordan,  Utah,14
               has a wealth of information and virtual tours demonstrating water-smart landscap-
               ing that can even be beneficial to people outside of the area.

               Site Preparation

               How the site is prepared has a significant impact on the ability for the landscape to
               retain moisture and limit the need for supplemental irrigation. Before retrofitting,
               replacing, or installing a new landscape, consider the following site preparation tips:

                • To the extent feasible, limit the removal of native vegetation and soils.

                • Minimize soil compaction in the construction phase by limiting areas for use of
                  heavy equipment.

                • Install temporary protective fencing around trees to protect their root zones.

                • Reduce runoff from steep slopes in the landscape by either grading appropriately
                  or terracing. If slopes cannot be avoided in landscape design, install plants with
                  deeper root zones to provide stabilization and prevent erosion.

                • Before the landscape is installed, ensure that the soil is properly amended, tilled,
                  and contoured to hold water. Where turfgrass is used, the area should include
                  at least six inches of well-amended soil capable of easily absorbing and holding
                  water in the root zone.
               Plant Selection

               Plant selection can make all the difference in a water-efficient landscape. Consider
               the following when redesigning a landscape:

                • Evaluate site conditions and plant appropriately. Areas of the same site may vary
                  significantly in soil type or exposure to sun and wind, as well as evaporation rates
                  and moisture levels. Be mindful of a site's exposure to the elements and choose
                  plants that will thrive in the site's conditions.
14 Jordan Valley Conservation Gardens Foundation. Visit the Conservation Garden Park, conservationgardenpark.org/visit/.



October 2012                                                                                             5-7

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5.2 Landscaping
Climate-appropriate plants
                                              Select drought-tolerant or climate-appropriate
                                              turfgrass, trees, shrubs, and ground cover when
                                              replanting landscaped areas. Information about
                                              climate-appropriate plants may be available
                                              through your local extension office15 or on EPA's
                                              WaterSense® program website.16

                                              Incorporate shade trees into your landscape or plant
                                              near large shade trees. Shaded areas typically require
                                              less supplemental water than areas exposed to direct
                                              sun. Additionally, shade trees and other vegetation
                                              placed strategically to shade the south-facing wall of a
                                              building can eventually help to reduce energy costs.17
                    Consider reducing the area of turfgrass in the landscape, as most turf generally
                    requires more water than planted beds, especially if the plants are climate-
                    appropriate and their surrounding soil is covered with mulch.18

                    Avoid installing "strip grass/'such as small strips of grass between the sidewalk and
                    street, because these areas are hard to maintain and difficult to water efficiently.

                    Consider installing rain gardens throughout the
                    landscape. These excavated, shallow depressions
                    should include native plantings designed to cap-
                    ture rainwater runoff from roofs, driveways, and
                    sidewalks. These gardens can keep water on the
                    property and absorb up to 40 percent more runoff
                    than typical lawns.19
                Irrigation
                                                                     Avoided strip grass
                Although it is possible in many parts of the country to design a landscape that can
                live on rainfall alone, some irrigation may be needed to ensure landscape health.
                There are many factors that should be taken into account to ensure that an irrigation
                system is well designed, operated, and maintained. More detailed information about
                irrigation systems is available in Section 5.3: Irrigation, but following are a few tips:

                 •  Use the technique of hydrozoning to group plants with similar irrigation needs
                    together.

                 •  Consider how the interplay between the types of plants and irrigation compo-
                    nents can affect the  volume of water needed to sustain the landscape. EPA's
                    WaterSense Water Budget Tool,20 developed to address residential landscapes in
                    WaterSense labeled  new homes, can be used as a guide to see how plant types
5 U.S. Department of Agriculture. Cooperative Extension System Offices. www.csrees.usda.gov/Extension/.
6 EPA's WaterSense program. What to Plant. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/outdoor/what_to_plant.html.
7 Sailor, David J. and Dietsch, Nikolaas. October 3,2005. The Urban Heat Island Mitigation Impact Screening Tool (MIST). Page 2.
8 EPA's WaterSense program. December 2009, op. cit.
9 EPA's WaterSense program. Resource Manual for Building WaterSense Labeled New Homes. www.epa.gov/watersense/docs/newhome_builder_resource_
 manual508.pdf.
0 EPA's WaterSense program. The WaterSense Water Budget Tool. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/water_budget/.
5-8
                                                                                                    October 2012

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                                                                                5.2 Landscaping
                  and irrigation methods affect the ability of a landscape to meet a water budget
                  based on the local climate. The Water Budget Tool is not intended to estimate
                  actual savings, but it is a tool to help evaluate the relative water savings that can
                  be achieved with different plant palette and technology choices.

                  Consider installing a separate meter to measure the volume of water applied to
                  the landscape. Separately metering irrigation systems can reduce wastewater
                  costs in some jurisdictions and can help to identify leaks more quickly.

                  Consider where alternative water sources can be used as a substitute for potable
                  water sources for irrigation. Information about rainwater harvesting and reuse
                  can be found on the WaterSense website21 or see Section 8: Onsite Alternative
                  Water Sources for more information.
               Other Features

               When planning hardscape retrofits, consider the following
               to enhance outdoor water efficiency:

                •  If replacing sidewalks or parking lot pavement, consider
                  installing permeable surfaces (e.g., permeable pave-
                  ment) rather than impermeable hardscape.

                •  Use bushes, mulch, rain gardens, permeable hardscape,
                  or curb cuts in parking lot islands or in the areas be-
                  tween sidewalks and the roadway.These should be at
                  a lower elevation than surrounding hardscape so that
                  runoff flows into them.
                                                                      Rain garden
                • While water features are common in many landscapes, consider the annual water
                  use of the specific feature before installing one. Ideally, these features should
                  provide a beneficial use, such as a wildlife habitat, stormwater management,
                  and/or noise reduction. Because water from these features is often lost to evapo-
                  ration, use alternative water sources or look for a feature that recirculates water in
                  order to reduce the amount of potable water used. Smaller pumps, lower pump-
                  ing rates, and/or pressure-reducing valves can help reduce water flow.22


               Savings Potential

               Landscape water use is largely dependent upon climate, plant type, and an irrigation
               system's efficiency. Soil health, grade, and maintenance also play a role. In order to
               evaluate landscape improvements and their associated savings,  one must first know
               how much water is being applied to the landscape. Dedicated irrigation meters can
               be used to track irrigation water use and document savings from various measures.

               Savings for converting high water-using landscapes to low water-using landscapes
               vary by plant type and climate. Keep  in mind that calculations are property-specific.
               In general, various studies have reported savings ranging from 18 to 50 percent from

1 EPA's WaterSense program. Rainwater & Reuse. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/outdoor/rainwater_reuse.html.
2 EPA's WaterSense program, op. cit, Page 41.
October 2012
5-9

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5.2 Landscaping
               converting landscape plants with high water requirements to those with lower water
               requirements.23 A more water-efficient landscape can also provide ancillary benefits
               by reducing the need for maintenance, fertilizer application, and fuel use.24


               Additional Resources

               American Society of Landscape Architects, www.asla.org.

               Denver Water. Xeriscape Plans.
               www.denverwater.org/Conservation/Xeriscape/XeriscapePlans/.

               EPA. Green Infrastructure.
               water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/index.cfm.

               EPA. GreenScapes Program.
               www.epa.gov/epawaste/conserve/rrr/greenscapes/index.htm.

               EPA's WaterSense program. Resource Manual for Building WaterSense Labeled New
               Homes. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/docs/newhome_builder_resource_manual508.pdf.

               EPA's WaterSense program. The WaterSense Water Budget Tool.
               www.epa.gov/WaterSense/water_budget/.

               EPA's WaterSense program. Water-Efficient Landscape Design.
               www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor/landscaping.html.

               Rosenberg, David E., et al. June 2011. Value Landscape Engineering: Identifying Costs,
               Water Use, Labor, and Impacts to Support Landscape Choice. Journal of the American
               Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(3):635-649.

               Rushton, Betty, Ph.D. Southwest Florida Water Management District. May 2002. Infil-
               tration Opportunities in Parking Lot Designs Reduce Runoff and Pollution.
               www.p2pays.org/ref/41/40363.pdf.

               Sailor, David J. and Dietsch, Nikolaas. October 3,2005. The Urban Heat Island Mitigation
               Impact Screening Tool (MIST), www.heatislandmitigationtool.com/lntroduction.aspx.
23 EPA's WaterSense program. December 2009, op. cit.
24 Rosenberg, David E., et al. June 2011. Value Landscape Engineering: Identifying Costs, Water Use, Labor, and Impacts to Support Landscape Choice. Journal of the
 American Water Resources Association (JAWRA). 47(3):635-649.



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5.3  Irrigation
WaterSense
               Overview

               The efficiency of an irrigation system is dictated by many factors, including human,
               mechanical, and environmental components. Implementing mechanisms and prac-
               tices that increase an irrigation system's efficiency could save a property more than
               half of its outdoor water use. In landscapes around the country, a significant amount
               of water is lost from evaporation, wind, or runoff due to improper irrigation system
               design, installation, and maintenance. Eliminating this waste requires trained profes-
               sionals, appropriate irrigation schedules, and efficient technologies. Additionally, the
               landscape itself (e.g., plant palette, soil type, etc.) plays a role in irrigation water use
               and provides the potential for additional water savings. See Section 5.2: Landscaping
               for more details.

               One of the most important concepts associated with irrigation system efficiency
               is distribution uniformity, or how evenly water is applied over the landscape. This
               concept is illustrated in Figure 5-2.25 Extra water is often applied if the system is not
               distributing water in a uniform manner. Without proper distribution, the landscape is
               watered to keep the driest spot green, over-irrigating other areas. Figure 5-3 provides
               an illustration of head-to-head coverage, which is a practice to increase distribu-
               tion uniformity. Using this practice, each sprinkler head (depicted with numbers 1
               through 4 in Figure 5-3) is positioned so that its spray arch just touches the head of
               each surrounding sprinkler. This ensures that there is sufficient overlap and no areas
               are without coverage.

                              Figure 5-2. Good and Poor Distribution Uniformity

                                  Good Uniformity
                                    (Never Perfect)
                                                                            Application Depth
                                   Poor Uniformity
                                                                            Application Depth
5 Irrigation Association (IA). Falls Church, Virginia.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
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5.3 Irrigation
                          Figure 5-3. Example of Head-to-Head Coverage Spray Pattern


                                                                 x*
                In addition to considering how evenly water is applied, it is equally important to
                consider the irrigation schedule, which dictates the amount and timing of the water
                applied. Landscape water needs change with the seasons, and so should the irriga-
                tion schedule. Many landscapes are watered at the same level all year, which is
                unnecessary. Over-watering can damage plants more than under-watering and
                can also damage streets, curbs, other paving, and building foundations.

                Not only do proper design, installation, and maintenance of an irrigation system play
                a significant role in landscape water efficiency, but there are also a variety of irriga-
                tion technologies that can help reduce water use. For example, drip irrigation is a
                highly efficient method of application because it directs water to plant roots at a low
                flow rate, avoiding water lost to wind or runoff. This technology uses between 20 to
                50 percent less water than conventional in-ground sprinkler systems.26 There are also
                efficient types of sprinkler heads that distribute water in larger droplets, avoiding
                wind drift and increasing distribution uniformity. The Southern Nevada Water Au-
                thority (SNWA) estimates water-efficient sprinkler technologies can reduce water use
                by as much as 30 percent when compared to standard pop-up sprinklers.27 Addition-
                ally, scheduling technologies relying on weather data, soil moisture, or other onsite
                conditions apply water only when needed.

                To capitalize on the water savings potential from these scheduling technologies,
                the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense® program published
                a specification to label weather-based irrigation controllers. WaterSense labeled
                weather-based irrigation controllers (WBICs)28 are independently certified to meet
                plants' watering needs without over-watering.

26 Gleick, Peter H., et al. Pacific Institute. 2003. Waste Not, Want Not: The Potential for Urban Water Conservation in California. Page 8.
27 Solomon, K.H., et al. 2007. Performance and Water Conservation Potential of Multi-Stream, Multi-Trajectory Rotating Sprinklers for Landscape Irrigation. Applied Engi-
 neering in Agriculture. 23(2):153-163.
28 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Irrigation Controllers. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/products/
 controltech.html.


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                                                                                         5.3 Irrigation
               WaterSense has evaluated a number of studies conducted by a variety of organiza-
               tions that cover numerous WBIC brands. Results from these studies indicate a range
               of overall savings from 6 to 30 percent. Individual site savings can vary beyond these
               overall numbers, depending upon the watering habits prior to installing the WBIC.
               In some cases, site water use can increase if the facility was practicing deficit irriga-
               tion before installing a WBIC. In a 2009 comprehensive study, first-year savings were
               shown to be approximately 6 percent.29 For a limited subset of controllers in this
               study that  were tracked for three years, overall savings were shown to be 16 percent
               in the third year after installation. In full consideration of the findings of these numer-
               ous studies, WaterSense anticipates seeing  overall water savings of approximately
               15 percent after proper installation of WBICs, when compared to systems that use a
               clock timer with manual programming.30

               The key to saving irrigation water is to combine efficient irrigation practices with
               efficient technologies. Additional details on many of these principles, practices, and
               technologies can be found in the Irrigation Association's (lA's) Landscape Irrigation
               Scheduling and Water Management and Turf and Landscape Best Management Prac-
               tices31 documents.


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               There are several best practices a facility can consider to optimize an irrigation sys-
               tem's efficiency, such as ensuring irrigation professionals are properly educated on
               water-efficient practices and that existing irrigation systems are properly operated
               and maintained.

               Irrigation  Professional Education

               Consider the following to ensure irrigation  professionals have a  strong understand-
               ing of the principles of water-efficient irrigation:

                 • Ensure existing professionals or staff managing the irrigation system become
                   familiar with water-efficient irrigation practices through partnerships, classes,
                   seminars,  and/or published guidance documents. Encourage professionals or
                   staff managing the system to:

                    n  Become certified through a WaterSense labeled irrigation certification pro-
                       gram with an emphasis on water efficiency.32

                    n  Consult the local water utility, community colleges, or agricultural services
                       for courses or seminars on water-efficient irrigation practices.

                    n  Review technical guidance documents provided by local cooperative exten-
                       sion services and irrigation trade  associations.
29 Mayer, Peter, et al.The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California and the East Bay Municipal Utility District. July 1,2009. Evaluation of California Weather-
 Based "Smart" Irrigation Controller Programs, www.aquacraft.com/node/32.
30 EPA's WaterSense program. November 3,2011. WaterSense Specification for Weather-Based Irrigation Controllers Supporting Statement. Page 12. www.epa.gov/
 watersense/partners/controller_final.html.
31IA. Best Practices & Standards: Turf & Landscape Irrigation Best Management Practices. www.irrigation.org/Resources/Turf	Landscape_BMPs.aspx.
32 EPA's WaterSense program. Professional Certification Program. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/outdoor/cert_programs.html.



October 2012                                                                                                 5-13

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5.3 Irrigation
                 •  When hiring new irrigation professionals to work with the system, inquire about
                   their water-efficiency certification or specific training that promotes efficient ir-
                   rigation. For example, professionals certified by WaterSense labeled irrigation cer-
                   tification programs33 have demonstrated knowledge in water-efficient irrigation.

               Irrigation System Operation

               In addition to periodically reviewing all irrigation service agreements to emphasize
               the operation of a water-efficient system, verify that the irrigation schedule is appro-
               priate for climate, soil conditions, plant materials, grading, and season as follows:

                 •  Irrigation schedules should be updated based on changing weather conditions
                   and as part of regular maintenance. Require the irrigation professional and/or
                   auditor to deliver options for automating schedule changes based on changing
                   weather conditions. Installing and  properly programming WaterSense labeled
                   WBICs34 or soil moisture sensors can provide this capability.

                 •  Certain soil types or steep slopes could increase the chance of surface runoff.
                   Irrigation events may need to be separated into multiple applications depend-
                   ing upon landscape conditions. This is commonly known as a "cycle and soak"
                   methodology. If currently installed irrigation controller(s) are not capable of such
                   programming, consider using more current technology.

                 •  Generally, it is better to apply water in larger amounts, but less frequently, result-
                   ing in deep watering. A less frequent but more intense schedule encourages the
                   growth of deep roots, resulting in healthy plants. Note that soil type plays a role
                   in creating this type of schedule and should be taken into consideration.

                 •  Incorporate a water budget, which can be used as a performance standard for wa-
                   ter use. A budget provides a specified amount of water that should be applied to
                   the landscape and can be used  as a comparison to the property's actual water use.

               Irrigation System Maintenance

               Irrigation systems require regular maintenance to ensure optimal performance.
               Consider the following key system maintenance tips:

                 •  Require a full audit of the irrigation system every three years by a qualified irriga-
                   tion auditor, such as a professional certified by a WaterSense labeled program.35
                   IA provides audit guidelines.36 A full audit should include an in-depth assessment
                   of the irrigation system, its performance, and schedule. In addition, the audit
                   should expose deficiencies that have occurred from either system changes
                   and/or landscape changes. The audit is an opportunity to identify appropriate,
                   new technologies as well. An audit should analyze the distribution uniformity
                   of the system to ensure it is at least 65 percent. A distribution uniformity of
33 Ibid.
34 EPA's WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Irrigation Controllers, op. at.
35 EPA's WaterSense program. Professional Certification Program, op. cit.
36IA.Technical Resources: Irrigation Audit Guidelines. www.irrigation.org/Resources/Audit_Guidelines.aspx.



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                                                                                       5.3 Irrigation
                   65 percent is equal to a rating of "very goocTfor fixed spray heads, according to
                   IA.37To help ensure consistent uniformity, require that replacement equipment is
                   compatible with existing equipment and made by the same manufacturer.

                •  In addition to a full audit every few years, the system should be periodically
                   monitored for effectiveness throughout the year. Ask the irrigation professional
                   or staff managing the system to ensure certain sprinkler components are placed
                   and adjusted so that they water the cultivated plants and not the pavement or
                   other hardscape. Verify that irrigation system pressure is within manufacturer
                   specifications.

                •  Request that irrigation professionals or staff managing the system include immedi-
                   ate reporting and repair of problems in maintenance programs, and require regu-
                   lar maintenance routines as part of the overall irrigation maintenance program.

                •  Install a dedicated water meter for the irrigation system to measure the amount
                   of water applied to the landscape. Some water utilities offer an interruptible rate
                   for the service or will not apply sewer charges to water used for irrigation. The ir-
                   rigation professional or staff managing  the system should keep a record of trends
                   in irrigation water use as part of the maintenance program.


               Retrofit Options

               If retrofitting an irrigation system, consider the follow-
               ing options to decrease landscape water use.

               Irrigation System Controllers and Sensors

               An existing irrigation system can be optimized by the
               following retrofits to the controls or components:

                •  Consider replacing existing irrigation system con-
                   trollers With a more advanced control system that    Weather-based irrigation controller
                   waters plants only when  needed. There are many available technologies using
                   weather or soil moisture  information to schedule irrigation according to plant
                   needs.The following are  a few options to discuss with the service provider, audi-
                   tor, or consultant/designer:

                    n WaterSense labeled WBICs38 can be added to an existing system. These prod-
                      ucts are independently certified to minimize irrigation excess and maximize
                      irrigation adequacy, while also providing other performance and user fea-
                      tures. In order to work effectively, these WBICs must be installed and pro-
                      grammed properly, taking into account facility-specific landscape conditions
                      and the irrigation system installed.
37IA. March 2005. Landscape Irrigation Scheduling and Water Management. Pages 1 -22. www.asla.org/uploadedFiles/PPN/Water%20Conservation/Documents/
 LISWM%20Draft.pdf.
38 EPA's WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Irrigation Controllers, op. at.



October 2012                                                                                              5-15

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5.3  Irrigation
                    n Soil moisture sensors can be inserted into the soil to measure moisture.They
                      can be connected to an existing system, enabling irrigation as needed by plants.

                •  Consider installing rain-sensing technology to prevent irrigation from taking
                   place during periods of sufficient moisture. Many cities and some states require
                   rain-sensing technology by law. Check with the state or city on relevant man-
                   dates.

                •  Consider installing other sensors to cut down on wasted water. For example,
                   wind-sensing technology interrupts irrigation cycles in the  presence of signifi-
                   cant wind. Freeze-sensing technology prevents irrigation during freeze condi-
                   tions. Flow rate-monitoring equipment can interrupt irrigation if excess flow is
                   detected (i.e., caused by broken pipes, fittings, emitters, sprinklers, etc.).

                •  If managing a large property, consider installing complete central  control sys-
                   tems that use demand-based controls to enable a water manager  to centrally
                   operate and manage multiple irrigation systems at multiple locations with vari-
                   ous means of communication.

               Irrigation System Hardware

               In addition to retrofitting the control system to decrease water  use, a facility can con-
               sider retrofitting irrigation system hardware as follows:

                •  Consider retrofitting a portion of the spray heads that water trees, shrubs, or
                   plant beds with low-flow, low-volume irrigation, also called micro-irrigation or
                   drip irrigation. Many plant beds do not require the spray heads traditionally used
                   to water turf areas.

                •  Consider exchanging existing sprinkler heads with more efficient heads designed
                   to minimize water lost to wind and distribute water in a more uniform man-
                   ner. Sprinklers with a fine mist are susceptible to water waste from wind drift.
                   Also, some sprinklers do not apply water evenly over the landscape. Consider
                   pressure-regulating heads with matched precipitation and/or multi-trajectory
                   rotating spray heads as water-efficient sprinkler head options.

                •  Pay attention to sprinkler head spacing during replacement to ensure the heads
                   have matched trajectories and offer head-to-head coverage.

                •  Retrofit other water-using devices on the property to use water more efficiently.
                   For example, attach shut-off nozzles to handheld hoses to make sure water is go-
                   ing directly to the plants rather than dripping on the ground.


               Replacement Options

               If replacing an irrigation system, there are as many opportunities to increase its
               efficiency during the phases of system design and installation as there are during
               system operation and maintenance. Hiring qualified irrigation professionals and
               ensuring a well-designed system are key to ensuring water savings from an irrigation
               system replacement.
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                                                                                       5.3 Irrigation
               Qualified Irrigation Professionals

               Select an irrigation installation and maintenance professional that has been certified
               by a WaterSense labeled program39 or otherwise has experience in water efficiency.
               In addition, consider the following:

                 •  If using onsite staff, encourage them to become certified through a WaterSense
                   labeled certification program that focuses on water efficiency.

                 •  Upon completion of new irrigation systems, use a qualified irrigation auditor,
                   such as one certified by a WaterSense labeled program,40 to audit the system and
                   ensure the installed system's performance meets the design intent. The auditor
                   can then make minor adjustment recommendations as needed.

               System Design Considerations

               When replacing an irrigation system, recommend that the system be designed,
               installed, and maintained according to technical guidance published by local co-
               operative extensions or IA. Following industry best practices helps the irrigation
               professional address water-efficient techniques from design through installation and
               proper maintenance. Visit lA's website for further technical guidance and information
               related to the most widely known irrigation best practices.41 In addition, consider the
               following:

                 •  Design the system for maximum water application uniformity (i.e., distribution
                   uniformity). As noted above, aim for a distribution uniformity of at least 65 per-
                   cent. Request the following of the designer:

                    n  Ensure no direct distribution of water over impermeable surfaces or non-
                       target areas.

                    n  Maximize sprinkler distribution uniformity by following manufacturer rec-
                       ommendations for head spacing and design the system with head-to-head
                       coverage.

                 •  Create irrigation hydrozones by placing plants with similar water needs together.
                   Also consider varying soil conditions, sun/shade/wind exposure, slope, and other
                   site specifics that could impact watering needs.

                 •  Consider installing the following components for optimal water efficiency:

                    n  Drip/micro-irrigation for all areas suitable for such technology.

                    n  High-efficiency sprinkler heads for turf and other areas that require spray
                       irrigation.

                    n  Check valves in all sprinklers to retain water in lateral pipes between cycles.

                    n  Demand-based irrigation controls  (i.e., weather- or sensor-based controls).


39 EPA's WaterSense program. Professional Certification Program, op. cit.
40 Ibid.
41IA.Technical Resources. www.irrigation.org/Resources/TechnicaLResources.aspx.


October 2012                                                                                              5-17

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5.3  Irrigation
                    n Rain, freeze, and wind sensors to interrupt irrigation during unfavorable
                      weather conditions.

                    n Flow rate-monitoring equipment that can interrupt irrigation if excess flow is
                      detected.

                 •  Use alternative sources of water (see Section 8: Onsite Alternative Water Sources)
                   where environmentally appropriate and local regulations allow. Keep in mind
                   that while alternative sources are an additional way to save water in a landscape,
                   efficiency should come first. Apply all the principles above to build the optimal,
                   efficient system, and then consider using alternative sources.


               Savings Potential

               Irrigation water savings can be achieved through proper design, installation, and
               maintenance, combined with efficient technologies. In addition, the landscape itself
               (e.g., plant palette, soil type, etc.) plays a role in irrigation water use and provides
               potential for additional water savings (see Section 5.2: Landscaping for more details).

               In order to consider irrigation system improvements and their associated savings, it
               is important to first understand how much water is being applied to the landscape.
               Dedicated irrigation meters track irrigation water use and allow facilities to docu-
               ment actual savings.

               The WaterSense Water Budget Tool,42 developed by EPA to support residential land-
               scapes associated with WaterSense labeled new homes, can be used to see how
               relative water needs adjust by changing the plant palette and associated irrigation
               type. For example, replacing a large turf area irrigated by spray heads with plant beds
               irrigated by drip irrigation could significantly reduce water use. The Water Budget
               Tool allows a landscape professional to alter the irrigation type in a virtual setting,
               analyzing the relative water savings associated with each design change. The tool,
               however, is not  intended to estimate actual savings; it is meant to evaluate the rela-
               tive water savings achieved with different palette and technology choices.

               Savings from implementing any of these technologies are dependent upon the
               system as a whole, including the landscape and climate, and, therefore, are land-
               scape-specific. Following are a few examples of savings realized from implementing
               water-efficient technologies in the landscape:

                 •  Installing drip irrigation uses 50 percent less water than conventional in-ground
                   sprinkler systems.43

                 •  Water-efficient sprinkler technologies can reduce water use by as much as 30
                   percent when compared to standard pop-up sprinklers.44
2 EPA's WaterSense program. The WaterSense Water Budget Tool. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/water_budget/.
3 Gleick, Peter H., op. at.
4 Solomon, K.H., et al., op. cit.
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                                                                                      5.3 Irrigation
                • Properly installing a WaterSense labeled WBIC may reduce irrigation water use by
                  15 percent.45

                • A project in Florida demonstrated a savings of 13,567 gallons every time a rain
                  sensor prevented an irrigation event on half an acre of landscape.46


               Additional Resources

               EPA's WaterSense program. The WaterSense Water Budget Tool.
               www.epa.gov/WaterSense/water_budget/.

               EPA's WaterSense program. Resource Manual for Building WaterSense Labeled New
               Homes. www.epa.gov/WaterSense/docs/newhome_builder_resource_manual508.pdf.

               EPA's WaterSense program. Meet Our Partners.
               www.epa.gov/watersense/meet_our_partners.html.

               EPA's WaterSense program. Watering Wisely.
               www.epa.gov/watersense/outdoor/waterwisely.html.

               EPA's WaterSense program. WaterSense Labeled Irrigation Controllers.
               www.epa.gov/watersense/products/controltech.html.

               Irrigation Association. Best Practices & Standards: Turf & Landscape Irrigation Best
               Management Practices.www.irrigation.org/Resources/Turf	Landscape_BMPs.aspx.

               Irrigation Association. March 2005. Landscape Irrigation Scheduling and Water Man-
               agement. www.asla.org/uploadedFiles/PPN/Water%20Conservation/Documents/
               LISWM%20Draft.pdf. "

               Irrigation Association.Technical Resources: Irrigation Audit Guidelines.
               www.irrigation.org/Resources/Audit_Guidelines.aspx.
45 EPA's WaterSense program. November 3,2011, op. cit.
46 Dukes, Michael D. and Haman, Dorota Z. University of Florida IFAS Extension. August 2002. Residential Irrigation System RainfallShutoff Device, edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae221.



October 2012                                                                                            5-19

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5.4  Commercial  Pool and  Spa
        Equipment
                                           WaterSense
               Overview

               Pools and spas are found in many commercial or institutional settings, including
               hotels, schools, community centers, hospitals, and apartment complexes.The size
               and features of these pools vary widely depending on their intended use and set-
               ting.Table 5-1, which summarizes typical pool sizes for commercial pools and spas in
               California,47 shows that a typical commercial pool can contain between 34,000 and
               860,000 gallons of water. Spas are much smaller, containing on average 1,100 gal-
               lons. Due to a lack of data, the California Urban Water Conservation Council (CUWCC)
               document from which this data was taken assumes that the typical pool sizes esti-
               mated for California are representative of pool sizes nationally.

                           Table 5-1. Typical Sizes for Commercial Pools and Spas
tjjMBn»i
Spa
Hotel (in-ground)
Public (in-ground)
Olympic (in-ground)
Area Depth
(square feet) (feet)
40
1,000
4,000
14,000
3.0
4.5
5.0
8.0
Volume
(gallons)
1,100
34,000
1 50,000
860,000
               Overall, a large volume of water is used to fill commercial pools or spas. Much of this
               water is often lost in day-to-day operation due to evaporation, leaking, and splash-
               ing. Ongoing pool or spa maintenance also creates significant losses in filter cleaning
               and mineral buildup control.

               Because evaporation, filter cleaning, and mineral buildup control represent the great-
               est uses of water for commercial pools and spas, they also provide the most significant
               opportunities to achieve water savings. CUWCC estimates that water evaporation,
               filter backwashing, and mineral buildup control account for 56,23, and 21 percent
               of pool water use, respectively, across all pools installed in California.48 Water losses
               from leaks and splashing are not included in this estimate because they are difficult
               to quantify. Although the estimates used in this section are specific to California, EPA
               assumes that, with the exception of evaporation (which is dependent  upon local cli-
               mate), they are applicable to and representative of pools and spas nationwide.

               Evaporation

               Water continually escapes pools and spas due to evaporation from the pool/spa
               surface. The rate of evaporation will depend upon several factors, including: water
               temperature, the pool's ambient conditions (e.g., indoor or outdoor), the extent of
               convection over the pool's open surface, and the surface area of water that comes in
7 Koeller, John and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC. September 2010. Evaluation of Potential Best Management Practices—Pools, Spas, and Fountains. Prepared
 for the California Urban Water Conservation Council. Pages 3-30. www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.
8 Ibid. Page 30.
5-20
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                                            5.4 Commercial  Pool and  Spa Equipment
               contact with air. Table 5-2 provides an overview of evaporation losses for various pool
               sizes, as estimated by CDWCC.49 These estimates show that water losses from evapo-
               ration can be significant. For example, the total volume of water lost annually in spas
               is several times larger than the volume of the spa itself. For larger pools, this effect
               is reduced; however, the water loss still can be significant and of the same order of
               magnitude as the volume of the pool itself.

                              Table 5-2. Evaporation Water Losses by Pool Type
Pool Type Pool Volume (gallons) Water Loss (gallons per year)
Spa
Hotel (in-ground)
Public (in-ground)
Olympic (in-ground)
1,100
34,000
150,000
860,000
QSj^^^^^^^^H
40,000
160,000
570,000
               Filter Cleaning

               All swimming pools require pool filtration systems in order to keep the water free
               of particulate matter. These systems include pumps, filters, drains, and skimmers.
               In terms of water efficiency, the distinguishing factors are the type of filter and the
               amount of maintenance associated with it. The other components of the filtration
               system have little impact on water use.

               Pool filters are differentiated by the media used to treat pool water. These media pri-
               marily include sand, sorptive media (i.e., pre-coat filters), and cartridge filters. While
               these filter types operate on the same principle of circulating  water through filter
               media to separate suspended particles, their design differences affect how often
               they need to be cleaned, which in turn affects how much water they use. Each type
               requires a trade-off between water and material use efficiency.

               Pool and spa filters must be cleaned on a regular basis to maintain efficiency. As de-
               bris builds up on the filter, water flow becomes restricted and reduces filter efficien-
               cy, performance, and sanitation. For this reason, filters must be cleaned regularly.The
               rule of thumb is that filter cleaning is necessary after the filter pressure has increased
               by 5.0 to 10.0 pounds per square inch (psi).50

               Pool operators must backwash sand and sorptive media
               filters to clean them. During this process, water is run back-
               wards through the filter to remove the accumulated debris
               and particulates from the filter media.The filter backwash
               water is typically drained to sanitary sewer lines.51

               Sand filters are composed of silica sand, zeolite, or crushed
               recycled glass, while sorptive media filters have a diato-
               maceous earth, cellulose, or perlite base. Sand filters can
               be backwashed several times before the media must be       Commercial pool
9/Wd. Page 10.
5/Wd. Page 19.
1 Southern Nevada Water Authority. How to Drain a Pool or Spa. www.snwa.com/land/pools_drain.html.
October 2012
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5.4 Commercial Pool  and  Spa Equipment
                replaced, but they use the greatest amount of water to flush particulates out of the
                sand in the backwash process. Sorptive media filters use less water, but must be
                replenished after every backwash, as the media is purged from the filter grid along
                with the debris. Replenishment is accomplished by mixing new sorptive media with
                water and pouring it into the skimmer closest to the pump. The pump then trans-
                ports the sorptive media to the filter and deposits it onto the filter grid.

                Cartridge units eliminate backwashing by using pleated filters made from a paper-
                type material that can be reused or disposed. Instead of backwashing, disposable
                cartridge filters are removed, discarded, and replaced with a new filter. Reusable
                filters are rinsed with a spray hose or soaked in a cleaning solution before being
                brushed or rinsed. While cartridge filtration is the most water-efficient, it is not usu-
                ally a viable option for large commercial pools because the cartridge replacement
                rate quickly becomes cost-prohibitive  and  labor-intensive.52

                Large commercial pools sometimes use a fourth filter type, industrial filters, which
                area specific type of sorptive media filter. These filters are more efficient than tra-
                ditional sorptive media filters because they can recycle the sorptive media up to 30
                times before it must be discarded and  replaced. Unlike traditional sorptive media
                filters, which pass water straight through the filter during backwashing, industrial fil-
                ters recycle the water that is used to backwash the filter. As a result, the total volume
                of water used  during backwashing is reduced to only twice the volume of the filter.53

                The East Bay Municipal Utility District in Oakland, California, recommends using sorp-
                tive media for commercial pools and cartridge filters for spas.54Table 5-3 provides an
                overview of the water use associated with each filter type, as estimated by CU WCC.55
                These estimates show that, for smaller pools and spas, cartridge filters use less water
                than sand, sorptive media, or industrial filters. For larger pools, industrial filters are
                much more efficient.

                 Table 5-3. Filter Cleaning Water Consumption Estimates by Pool and Filter Type
                 Hotel
                 (in-ground)
                 Public
                 (in-ground)
                 Olympic
                 (in-ground)
                               1,100
34,000
150,000
860,000
                                                       Water Use (gallons per y
            940
30,000
170,000
960,000
                                                          Media
                                                                      Cartridge    Industrial
             470
9,400
42,000
240,000
             300
3,600
N/A
N/A
             N/A*
5,000
9,000
17,000
               *N/A: not applicable
52 East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Page 171.
 www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.
53 Koeller, John and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC, op. at, Pages 18-19.
54 EBMUD, op. at, Page 174.
55 Koeller, John and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC, op. at, Page 35.
5-22
                                                                   October 2012

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                                            5.4 Commercial Pool  and Spa Equipment
56 Ibid. Page 15.
57/Wd. Page 12.
               Mineral Buildup Control

               Water in pools and spas experiences a continual buildup of dissolved solids in the
               form of mineral salts and treatment chemicals. This buildup must be treated or re-
               moved to prevent scale buildup or corrosion of pool surfaces and equipment. Proper
               pool maintenance and water quality control are essential for extending the useful life
               of the water. Water quality control significantly saves water by reducing the number
               of times the pool must be completely drained and refilled, the number of filter back-
               washes needed, and the potential for leaks due to corrosion or other factors.

               All pools require water to be exchanged periodically in order to control the buildup of
               solids and other contaminants. This water exchange can be either partial or full and
               can  be controlled manually or through an automated process. When draining the pool
               manually, the pool operator will simply pump pool water directly to the drain at some
               predetermined point in time.The automated approach utilizes conductivity control-
               lers, which drain a portion of the pool water once a predetermined concentration of
               total dissolved solids is reached. Conductivity controllers save water by limiting ex-
               changes to when they are necessary. The amount of water lost in the exchange process
               will depend upon pool volume, dissolved solids concentration in the make-up water,
               type and amount of treatment chemicals added, and the local evaporation rate.56

               Reverse osmosis systems, which operate independently from pool filters, are also utilized
               to prolong the useful life of pool water. During reverse osmosis filtration, pool water is
               passed through a membrane filter, which selectively excludes dissolved minerals and sus-
               pended particles from passing through the filter. Water is able to permeate through the
               barrier and is recovered and returned to the pool.The dissolved minerals and suspended
               particles that are trapped behind the membrane filter are then discharged to sanitary
               sewer lines as reject water. Recovering the pool water in this manner eliminates the need
               to dump and refill the pool. While reverse osmosis systems are effective at filtering miner-
               als, they waste a large amount of water in the treatment process. A large facility should
               consider the amount of reject water that would be produced  if utilizing this equipment.
               Leaks and Splashing

               Water is lost in pools and spas from leaks and splash-
               ing throughout their useful life. Common leak locations
               include pump seals, pipe joints, piping in filtration system
               suction or return lines, pool liners, and along pool edges.
               A leak may be present if a pool is losing more than two
               inches of water per week. Air bubbles in either the pump
               strainer basket or water return line can also indicate the
               presence of a leak.57 Water is also lost during pool use from
               splashing and drag-outs as swimmers exit. Water loss from
               drag-outs can be mitigated by the  use of gutter and grate
               systems installed along the edge of the pool. Although
               leaks and splashing  contribute to water loss, it is difficult to
               quantify the frequency and extent  to which they can occur.
October 2012
5-23

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5.4 Commercial  Pool and  Spa Equipment
               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               Controlling evaporation, splashing, leaks, and mineral buildup and ensuring that
               filters are cleaned properly are important operation and maintenance measures to
               ensure commercial pool and spa equipment efficiency.

               Evaporation

               To control evaporation, consider the following:

                 •  Do not heat pools above 79°F to reduce water evaporation rates.58

                 •  Limit the use of sprays, waterfalls, and other features.59

                 •  Use pool covers to reduce evaporation rates during periods in which the pool is
                   not in use. Covers also prevent debris from entering the pool, which in turn leads
                   to reduced water usage from filter backwashing.60

                 •  As an alternative to pool covers, liquid barriers can be used to control evapora-
                   tion. These alcohol-based chemicals prevent evaporation by forming a thin film
                   along pool surfaces that acts as a barrier.61 Liquid evaporation barrier products
                   are available through pool supply vendors.62

               Splashing

               Splashing contributes to water loss. To reduce the amount of water loss from splash-
               ing, set the pool water level to several inches below the edge of the pool.63 In addi-
               tion, plug the overflow line when the pool is in use or when adding water.64

               Filter Cleaning

               Filter cleaning represents the greatest use of water attributed to pools or spas. Al-
               though water use depends upon the type of filter system installed and the extent to
               which the pool is used, consider the following:

                 •  Clean filter media only as necessary and  not on a set schedule (i.e., clean only
                   when the filter is  no longer operating effectively). Although there are several
                   methods by which effectiveness is measured, the typical rule of thumb is that fil-
                   ter cleaning is necessary after the filter pressure has increased by 5.0 to 10.0 psi.65

                 •  Utilize the sight glass if one is installed to monitor the visual quality of the
                   backwash  water running through the filter and determine when backwashing is
                   complete, rather than backwashing for a predetermined set amount of time (e.g.,

58 Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE). Swimming Pool and Spa Introduction. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Swimming_Pool_and_Spa_lntroduction.aspx.
59 Koeller, John and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC, op. at, Page 33.
60 Ibid.
61 Ibid. Page 34.
62 Williams, Kent. Professional Pool Operators of America. November 2002. "Liquid Pool Covers Save Energy." Pumproom Press. # 25. www.lincolnaquatics.com/
 Documents/7536.pdf.
63 Koeller, John and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC, op. cit, Page 13.
64AWE,op.c;f.
65 Koeller, John and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC, op. cit, Page 19.


5-24                                                                                              October 2012

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                                           5.4  Commercial  Pool  and Spa Equipment
                  five minutes). Backwashing is complete once the water that passes through the
                  sight glass is clear and free of particulates.

              Mineral Buildup Control

              Pools and spas must be drained of some water on a regular basis in order to con-
              trol the mineral salt concentrations that gradually build up. The frequency of these
              events can be reduced by prolonging the useful life of the water by considering the
              following:

                •  Maintain proper pH, alkalinity, and hardness levels to avoid the need to drain the
                  pool or to avoid using excess make-up water to correct water quality issues.

                •  When draining the pool, perform a partial drain rather than a full drain. Consider
                  using the drained pool water for irrigation or other purposes. See Section 8: On-
                  site Alternative Water Sources for more information.66

              Leaks

              To check your pool for leaks and prevent them for occurring, actively monitor the
              pool's water levels. If the pool is losing more than two inches of water per week, it
              could be leaking.67 In addition, actively monitor for leaks around the pump seals, pipe
              joints, piping in filtration system suction or return lines, pool liners, and along the
              pool edges. Repair leaks as soon as they are identified.


              Retrofit and Replacement Options

              If retrofitting an existing pool or spa, there are a several options to minimize overall
              water use by addressing evaporation, filter cleaning, mineral buildup control, leaks,
              and splashing. If designing a new or replacement pool or spa, use the management
              techniques listed in the previous section and the equipment options below.

              Evaporation

              To prevent water loss from evaporation, cover the pool when it is not in use. In addi-
              tion, consider the following to control the evaporation of pool or spa water:

                •  Reduce wind movement across the water by using fences, walls, non-shedding
                  hedges, or other similar barriers.

                •  Use a liquid barrier.These alcohol-based chemicals prevent evaporation by
                  forming a thin film along pool surfaces that acts as a barrier.68 Liquid evaporation
                  barrier products are  available through pool supply vendors.69
6/Wd. Page 15.
7/Wd. Page 12.
8 Ibid. Page 34.
9 Williams, Kent, op. at.
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5.4 Commercial Pool and Spa Equipment
               Filter Cleaning

               In addition to the operation and maintenance tips outlined in the previous section,
               consider the following for optimum filter efficiency:

                • Install a pool filter pressure gauge.This will provide a means for determining
                  when filter cleaning is necessary (i.e., after a pressure increase of 5.0 to 10.0 psi).

                • Install a pool filter sight glass to provide a visual means for determining when
                  backwashing is complete and minimize the backwashing time.

                • If replacing existing filtration systems, consider installing cartridge filters for
                  small pools and spas, sorptive media filters for medium-sized pools, or industrial
                  filters for very large pools.

               Mineral Buildup Control

               To control mineral buildup, consider the following:

                • Install a reverse osmosis system to prolong the useful life of pool water and to
                  reduce the number of times that the pool must be drained in order to control the
                  concentration of dissolved solids.

                • Install a conductivity controller system to manage the concentration of dissolved
                  solids in the pool. This system will monitor the buildup of dissolved solids so
                  that at a predetermined level, a  portion of the pool water can  be drained and
                  replaced, rather than the entire volume. This also offers the added benefit of
                  providing a frequent source of water that can be used for irrigation or other pur-
                  poses. See Section 8: Onsite Alternative Water Sources for more information.70

               Leaks

               To reduce water loss from leaks, install a water meter to the pool's make-up line.
               This will provide a means for directly monitoring and tracking water use for signs of
               potential leaks.

               Splashing

               To reduce water loss from splashing, install pool gutter and grate systems along the
               pool perimeter to mitigate drag-out losses during pool use.


               Savings Potential

               Significant water savings can be achieved through proper pool and spa operation
               and maintenance and other water-efficient technologies. Following are a few ex-
               amples of savings that can be realized from implementing water-efficient practices
               or technologies in pools or spas:
70 Koeller, John and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC, op. cit, Page 15.



5-26                                                                                           October 2012

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                                            5.4  Commercial  Pool and  Spa  Equipment
                • USA Swimming estimates that using pool covers overnight at heated, commer-
                  cial indoor swimming pools can save approximately 575,000 gallons of water per
                  year and also provide energy savings.71

                • CUWCC estimates that evaporation losses can be reduced by 30 to 50 percent by
                  using pool covers and 10 to 30 percent with liquid evaporation barriers.72 For an
                  Olympic-sized pool, this could save as much as 290,000 gallons per year.

                • CUWCC estimates that replacing conventional sand and sorptive media filters
                  with cartridge or industrial filters, where appropriate, can save between 68 and
                  98 percent of backwash water. For an Olympic-sized pool, replacing sand filters
                  with industrial filters could save as much as 940,000 gallons of water per year.73

                • CUWCC identified one manufacturer who reported that installing a reverse os-
                  mosis system could potentially reduce water consumption by saving 78 percent
                  of the pool water that would otherwise be drained to control mineral buildup.
                  For an Olympic-sized pool, this could save as much as 300,000 gallons of water
                  per year.74

                • Based on the CUWCC estimates listed above, the combined use of pool covers,
                  cartridge or industrial filters, and reverse osmosis systems could provide a total
                  annual  water savings of as much as 1,500,000 gallons for Olympic-sized pools.


              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency. Swimming Pool and Spa Introduction.
              www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Swimming_Pool_and_Spa_lntroduction.aspx.

              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use
              Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses, www.ebmud.com/for-customers/
              conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

              Koeller and Company and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC. September 2010.
              Evaluation of Potential Best Management Practices—Pools, Spas, and Fountains. Pre-
              pared for the California Urban Water Conservation Council. Pages 3-30.
              www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.

              Marin Municipal Water District. Swimming Pool Tips.
              www.marinwater.org/controller?action=menuclick&id=268.

              Poolmanual.com. Pool Manual, www.poolmanual.com/poolmanual.aspx.

              Southern Nevada Water Authority. How to Drain a Pool or Spa.
              www.snwa.com/land/pools_drain.html.

              State of California Department of Water Resources. 2012. Commercial, Institutional
              and Industrial Task Force Best Management Practices Report to the Legislature.

71 USA Swimming. A Green Initiative Unique to Natatoriums. www.usaswimming.org/ViewMiscArticle.aspx?Tabld=1755&Alias=rainbow&l_ang=en
 &mid=7715<emld=3633.
72 Koeller and Company and H.W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associates, LLC, op. at., Page 34.
73 Ibid. Page 35.
74/Wd. Page 30.


October 2012                                                                                            5-27

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5.4 Commercial Pool and  Spa Equipment
             USA Swimming. A Green Initiative Unique to Natatoriums.
             www.usaswimming.org/ViewMiscArticle.aspx?Tabld=1755&Alias=rainbow&Lang=en
             &mid=7715<emld=3633.

             Williams, Kent. Professional Pool Operators of America. November 2002. "Liquid Pool
             Covers Save Energy."Pumproom Press. # 25.
             www.lincolnaquatics.com/Documents/7536.pdf.
5-28                                                                                 October 2012

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5.5  Vehicle Washing
WaterSense
               Overview

               Whether at self-service or full-service car washes, or as part of gas stations or vehicle
               service facilities, there are three types of vehicle-washing technologies: conveyor,
               in-bay, and self-service. These technologies incorporate some or all of the following
               steps, as defined by the International Carwash Association:75

                • Pre-soak: An automated nozzle or handheld spray.

                • Wash: A high-pressure spray or brushes with a detergent solution.

                • Rocker panel/undercarriage: Brushes or high-pressure sprays on the sides and
                  bottom of the vehicle.

                • First rinse: A high-pressure rinse.

                • Wax and sealers: An optional surface finish that is sprayed on the vehicle.

                • Final rinse: A low-pressure rinse with fresh or membrane-filtered water.

                • Air blowers: Air blown over the vehicle to remove water and assist drying.

                • Hand drying: Wiping  down the vehicle with towels or chamois cloths, which are
                  often laundered  in onsite washing machines. See Section 3.6: Laundry Equipment
                  for information on using water efficiently in commercial laundry systems.

               Many commercial vehicle wash facilities have adopted water reclamation technol-
               ogy, which treats wash and rinse water from previous wash cycles for use during the
               next vehicle wash in  an effort to reduce overall water use.There are several other
               opportunities for these facilities to minimize water use. In fact, efficient vehicle wash
               systems can use less water on average per vehicle than washing a car at home.76

               Conveyor Systems

               Conveyor vehicle wash systems use a conveyor belt to pull vehicles through a wash-
               ing tunnel, which consists of a series of spray arches and/or washing cloths. Vehicle
               washing can be conducted with the customer inside the vehicle during the wash
               process, or the customer  can wait outside the vehicle as both the interior and exteri-
               or are cleaned. In some states, the driver and passengers are required to wait outside
               the vehicle during washing.

               Conveyor facilities employ two different methods of washing: friction orfrictionless.
               During friction washing, the wash equipment (e.g., a cloth curtain) makes contact
               with the vehicle. Frictionless, or touch-free, washing relies on high-pressure nozzles
               to clean the vehicle. Conveyors with friction wash cycles use less water per vehicle,
5 Brown, Chris. 2000. Water Conservation in the Professional Car Wash Industry. Prepared for the International Carwash Association.™ Page 10. www.carwash.org/
 operatorinformation/research/Pages/EnvironmentalReports.aspx.
6 Alliance for Water Efficiency. Vehicle Wash Introduction. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Vehicle_Wash_lntroduction.aspx.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
                5-29

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5.5 Vehicle Washing
               because the cloth brushes or curtains collect water and detergent from previous
               washes and require less re-wetting.77

               Conveyor vehicle wash facilities are good candidates for installing reclamation sys-
               tems because the tunnel length allows for wash wastewater to be easily separated
               from rinse water of higher quality. Without reclamation, conveyor vehicle washing
               can use 65.8 gallons per vehicle (gpv) of fresh water during friction washing and
               85.3 gpv of fresh water during frictionless washing. A reclamation system can reduce
               freshwater consumption to as low as 7.8 gpv during friction washing and 16.8 gpv
               during frictionless washing.78

               In-Bay Systems

               In-bay vehicle washes can be found at many gas stations or similar facilities where
               vehicle washing is a secondary service option. For in-bay vehicle washing, the vehicle
               remains stationary while the washing process occurs. Like conveyor vehicle washing,
               a series of nozzles and/or brushes is used to complete either a friction or frictionless
               wash process. One set of nozzles is typically used to perform all wash cycles.

               In-bay vehicle washing facilities can also benefit from the use of a water reclamation
               system. However, because there is typically only one wastewater collection pit, an in-
               bay water reclamation system must be properly designed  to separate contaminated
               water from cleaner water. A water reclamation system can reduce average in-bay
               water use from 60.0 gpv to as low as 8.0 gpv.79

               Self-Service Car Washes

               Self-service car washes allow customers to  wash vehicles themselves, using a hand-
               held nozzle to perform all washing processes. In some cases, there could be a brush
               available for the wash cycle. The pricing structure for a self-service car wash is typi-
               cally set up so that the customer pays for a base amount of time of water use and can
               make additional payments for each additional time increment.

               Of the three types of vehicle washing, self-service vehicle washing tends to use the
               least amount of water—15.0 gpv, on average.80 While self-service vehicle washing
               typically uses the smallest amount of water per vehicle, water reclamation systems
               are often not feasible for use with a self-service washing facility, because it is diffi-
               cult to collect and separate the wastewater. Coupled with  the fact that water use  in
               these facilities is driven by user behavior, self-service vehicle washing offers the least
               potential for water savings through retrofit or replacement.
77 East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages 37-39, WASH 1-6.
 www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.
78 Brown, Chris, op. cit., Page 16.
79 Ibid.
80 Ibid.



5-30                                                                                               October 2012

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                                                                         5.5  Vehicle Washing
              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education
              For optimal vehicle wash system efficiency, consider the following:
                •  Conduct routine inspections for leaks and train appropriate custodial and clean-
                  ing personnel and users to identify and report leaks.
                •  Ensure that the main shut-off valve is in proper working order.
                •  If possible, use a friction washing component in all cycles, especially if water is
                  not reused.
                •  Sweep all driveways and impervious surfaces instead of washing.
                •  Minimize pump head pressures based on manufacturer recommendations.
              Consider participating in the International Carwash Association™ (ICA) WaterSavers®
              recognition program, which requires participants to meet certain water usage and
              quality standards. For more information on the program, refer to the WaterSavers
              website.81
              For further vehicle washing efficiency, follow the operating and maintenance tips
              specific to each type of vehicle wash system described below.
              Conveyor Systems
              For optimal conveyor system efficiency, consider the following:
                •  Make sure conveyors are properly calibrated by timing spray nozzles to activate
                  only as the vehicle reaches the spray arch.
                •  Align spray nozzles properly; they should be oriented parallel to the spray arch.
                •  If using a water reclamation system, orient blowers so that water is sent back to
                  the water reclamation pit for reuse. Create a dwell time after the final rinse to al-
                  low for water to flow back into the reclamation pit.
                •  Maximize conveyor speed based on manufacturer recommendations.
              In-Bay Systems
              For optimal in-bay system efficiency, consider the following:
                •  Align spray nozzles properly; they should be oriented parallel to the spray arch.
                •  If using sensors that detect when a vehicle is present, make sure they are prop-
                  erly calibrated. Sensors should activate the spray nozzles only as the vehicle
                  reaches the spray arch.
1 WaterSavers.8 washwithwatersavers.com/.
October 2012                                                                                         5-31

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5.5  Vehicle Washing
                  If using a reclaim system, create a five-second dwell time before the vehicle exits
                  the bay to allow for water runoff to be collected.

                  Maximize wash and rinse cycle speeds based on manufacturer recommendations.
               Self-Service Car Washes

               For optimal self-service car wash efficiency, educate customers on how to efficiently
               wash their vehicles using less water.


               Retrofit Options

               Water reclamation systems that treat wash and rinse water from previous wash cycles
               for use during the next vehicle wash offer the greatest potential water savings for
               vehicle wash systems (see Figure 5-4 for an example of a vehicle wash with a water
               reclamation system). The degree of water treatment needed depends upon which
               vehicle washing steps use the reclaimed water. At a minimum, water reclaim systems
               should separate grit, oil, and grease from wash water. This level of water treatment is
               enough to use reclaimed water during the rocker/undercarriage wash stage. Addi-
               tional treatment, such as oxidation, filtration, membrane filtration, and deionization,
               might be necessary for use of reclaimed water during additional vehicle-washing
               steps. Table 5-4 outlines the recommended level of water treatment for reclaimed
               water use during each phase.82
                             Figure 5-4. Vehicle Wash Water Reclamation System

                       Reuse Water Supply for Select Stages
                                                                .'•V
                                                                          Freshwater Supply
                    Filtration
                                                           Sediment Filters-':.-'.-:''-v:'
                                                           Reclaimed Water
2 Created from analyzing data in: Brown, Chris, op. cit., Page 29.
5-32
October 2012

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                                                                               5.5 Vehicle Washing
                        Table 5-4. Recommended Level of Treatment for Reclaim Systems
                 Pre-Soak
                 Wash
                 Rocker Panel/
                 Undercarriage
                 First Rinse
                 Wax and
                 Sealers
                 Final Rinse
N/A*
N/A
N/A
N/A
Reverse
osmosis
Reverse
osmosis
N/A
Filtration
Filtration
Filtration
Reverse
osmosis
Reverse
osmosis
Filtration, reverse
osmosis or
deionization
Separation,
filtration
Separation,
filtration
Filtration
Reverse osmosis
or deionization
Reverse osmosis
or deionization
Reverse osmosis
or deionization
N/A
Separation,
filtration
Filtration
Reverse osmosis
or deionization
Reverse osmosis
or deionization
               *N/A: not applicable

               If considering a water reclamation retrofit, be sure to evaluate the feasibility of the in-
               stallation.The ability to install additional piping and water treatment equipment will
               determine whether a reclamation system retrofit is appropriate. Industry experts rec-
               ommend taking the following into account when designing a reclamation system:83

                 •  Nature of the contamination to be treated
                 •  Concentration of the contaminants
                 •  Volume of water used per day
                 •  Flow rate per minute of different processes in the professional car wash
                 •  Chemicals and procedures used in the wash or rinse process
                 •  Discharge limits (if applicable)
                 •  Intended use of the reclaimed water and the desired quality for its use

               Water reclamation systems require additional maintenance to clean filters and other
               system components. Cleaning and finish products should be compatible with the
               system operation.84

               Water reclamation systems can be retrofitted with existing conveyor or in-bay vehicle
               washing systems, but they are not recommended for retrofit with self-service vehicle
               washing.

               For additional retrofit options to reduce water use, consider the following retrofit op-
               tions for each washing type.
3/Wd. Page 21.
4 Koeller and Company and Chris Brown Consulting. October 2006. Evaluation of Potential Best Management Practices—Vehicle Wash Systems. Prepared for The
 California Urban Water Conservation Council. Page 23. www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.
October 2012
                                                                         5-33

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5.5 Vehicle  Washing
               Conveyor Systems
               When retrofitting a conveyor system, consider the following:
                 •  Limit freshwater consumption to 40.0 gpv, as recommended by ICA's WaterSavers
                   recognition program.85
                 •  For conveyor systems that utilize frictionless washing, consider installing friction
                   washing components to use during the wash cycles.
                 •  If a reverse osmosis treatment system is installed for use with a water reclamation
                   system or to supply spot-free rinse water, capture reject water and reuse during
                   wash cycles.
                 •  Install check valves to prevent backflow wherever possible.
               In-Bay Systems
               When retrofitting in-bay systems, consider the following:
                 •  Limit freshwater consumption to 40.0 gpv, as recommended by ICA's WaterSavers
                   recognition program.86
                 •  For in-bay systems that utilize frictionless washing, consider installing friction
                   washing components to use during the wash cycles.
                 •  If a reverse osmosis treatment system is installed for use with a reclaim system
                   or to supply spot-free rinse water, capture reject water and reuse during wash
                   cycles.
                 •  Install check valves to prevent backflow wherever possible.
                 •  Install laser sensors to evaluate the length of the vehicle being washed and ad-
                   just the washing procedure to the specific length of the vehicle.
                 •  Limit water consumption during the rocker panel/undercarriage cycle to 12.0
                   gallons per cycle.
               Self-Service Car Washes
               When retrofitting self-service car washes, consider the following:
                 •  Limit nozzle flow rate to 3.0 gallons per minute  (gpm), as recommended by ICA's
                   WaterSavers recognition program.87
                 •  Install check valves to prevent backflow wherever possible.
                 •  If towel ringers are installed, use a positive shut-off valve.
85 International Carwash Association (ICA). WaterSavers Criteria. www.carwash.org/industryinformation/watersavers/Pages/default.aspx.
86 Ibid.
87 Ibid.

5-34                                                                                             October 2012

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                                                                         5.5 Vehicle Washing
              Replacement Options

              Due to the high capital costs involved with replacing a vehicle wash system, first
              implement all efficient operation and maintenance procedures and perform any
              retrofits available to optimize the efficiency of the system. Retrofitting an existing
              vehicle wash system with a water reclamation system can yield the most potential for
              water and operational cost savings.

              Water reclamation systems are appropriate for conveyor and in-bay vehicle washing.
              When designing a new vehicle washing facility, consider one that incorporates the
              features described in the earlier"Retrofit Options"section.


              Savings Potential

              Water savings can be achieved by installing a water reclamation system for conveyor
              or in-bay vehicle wash facilities. A study by ICA found that facilities using reclama-
              tion systems were able to fulfill 51 percent of their water needs, on average, from
              reclaimed water.88

              To calculate facility-specific water savings and payback, use the following information.

              Current Water Use

              To estimate the current water use of an existing vehicle wash system, identify the fol-
              lowing information and use Equation 5-1:

                •  Water use per vehicle. This can  be determined based on metered water use. If the
                  facility does not have a meter, ICA found that conveyor and in-bay washes use an
                  average of 75.0 gpv and 55.0 gpv of fresh water, respectively.89

                •  Number of vehicles washed per day.

                •  Days of facility operation per year.
                         Equation 5-1. Water Use of Vehicle Wash (gallons per year)


                     = Water Use per Vehicle x Vehicles Washed x Days of Facility Operation

                     Where:

                         •  Water Use per Vehicle (gallons per vehicle)
                         •  Vehicles Washed (number of vehicles washed per day)
                         •  Days of Facility Operation (days per year)
8 Brown, Chris. 2000, op. cit.
11 Ibid. Page 16.
October 2012                                                                                         5-35

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5.5 Vehicle Washing
               Water Savings

               According to the ICA's study, vehicle wash facilities can reduce their freshwater use
               by approximately 50 percent by using a water reclamation system. To calculate water
               savings that can be achieved from retrofitting an existing vehicle wash system, iden-
               tify the current water use (as calculated using Equation 5-1) and use Equation 5-2.
                Equation 5-2. Water Savings From Vehicle Wash System Retrofit (gallons per year)


                      = Current Water Use of Vehicle Wash System x Savings (0.5)

                      Where:
                            Current Water Use of Vehicle Wash System (gallons per year)
                            Savings (percent)
               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with the vehicle
               wash system retrofit, consider the equipment and installation cost of the retrofit wa-
               ter reclamation system, the water savings as calculated using Equation 5-2, and the
               facility-specific cost of water and wastewater. Water reclamation systems might cost
               $35,000 for equipment and installation.90


               Additional Resources

               Alliance for Water Efficiency. Vehicle Wash Introduction.
               www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Vehicle_Wash_lntroduction.aspx.

               Brown, Chris. 2000. Water Conservation in the Professional Car Wash Industry.
               Prepared for the International Carwash Association (ICA). www.carwash.org/
               operatorinformation/research/Pages/EnvironmentalReports.aspx.

               Brown, Chris. 2002. Water Use in the Professional Car Wash Industry. Prepared for ICA.
               www.carwash.org/operatorinformation/research/Pages/EnvironmentalReports.aspx.

               East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency
               Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages 37-39, WASH 1 -6. www.ebmud.com/
               for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

               ICA. WaterSavers Environmental Reports, www.carwash.org/industryinformation/
               WaterSavers/Pages/WaterSaversEnvironmentalReports.aspx.

               Koeller and Company and Chris Brown Consulting. October 2006. Evaluation of Po-
               tential Best Management Practices—Vehicle Wash Systems. Prepared for the California
               Urban Water Conservation Council, www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.
90 Brown, Chris. September 2002. Water Use in the Professional Car Wash Industry. Prepared for ICA. Page 43. www.carwash.org/operatorinformation/research/Pages/
 EnvironmentalReports.aspx.



5-36                                                                                            October 2012

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    Table of Contents

    6.1  Introduction to Mechanical Systems	6-2
    6.2  Single-Pass Cooling	6-4
    6.3  Cooling Towers	6-8
    6.4  Chi I led Water Systems	6-18
    6.5  Boiler and Steam Systems	6-25
Mechanical  Systems
                   LJ i r\
                   Water Sense

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                                                                                         tfA
6.1  Introduction  to  Mechanical  Systems        WaterSense
                Mechanical systems are used in nearly every type of commercial and institutional
                facility to provide building heating and cooling. Some facilities also use mechanical
                systems to cool specific pieces of equipment, such as vacuum pumps, X-ray equip-
                ment, and ice machines. In many instances, these mechanical systems use water as
                the heat transfer medium. As a result, the use of water for building and equipment
                heating and cooling can be significant, in some cases as much as 30 percent of the
                total water use within a facility, as shown in Figure 6-1 for various commercial facility
                types.1

                   Figure 6-1. Water Use Attributed to Mechanical Equipment for Heating and
                                  Cooling in Various Commercial Facility Types
                        100%
                         60%
                         40%
                         20%
                                Hospitals
 Office
Buildings
Schools
Restaurants
Hotels
                Common mechanical systems that use water as the heat transfer medium include
                single-pass cooling, cooling towers, chilled water systems, and boiler and steam
                systems. When looking to reduce mechanical system water use, facilities should first
                eliminate single-pass cooling or reuse that water, then evaluate other cooling and
                heating systems to maximize efficiency. Single-pass cooling systems use water to re-
                move heat and cool specific pieces of equipment. However, after the water is passed
                through the equipment, it is typically discharged to the sewer, rather than being re-
                cooled and recirculated. In some cases, single-pass cooling can be the single largest
                water user at a facility, using approximately 40 times more water to remove the same
                heat load than a cooling tower operating at five cycles of concentration.2

1 Created from analyzing data in: Schultz Communications. July  1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial Institutional and Industrial Water Users. Prepared
 for the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html; Dziegielewski, Benedykt, et al. American Waterworks Association (AWWA)
 and AWWA Research Foundation. 2000. Commercial and Institutional End Uses of Water; East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook: A Water-
 Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses, www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook;
 AWWA. Helping Businesses Manage Water Use—A Guide for Water Utilities.
2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Energy Department, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program. May 2005.
 Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices, Water Efficiency Guide for Laboratories. Page 4. www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/labs21_bmp.html.
6-2
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                             6.1  Introduction to Mechanical  Systems
              All facilities should be on the lookout for single-pass cooling, which is often a hid-
              den but rather significant water use associated with certain heating, air conditioning,
              and refrigeration equipment; hydraulic equipment; CAT scanners; X-ray equipment;
              vacuum pumps; ice machines; and wok stoves.

              Like single-pass cooling systems, cooling towers also use significant quantities of
              water by design. Cooling towers dissipate heat from recirculating water that is used
              to cool chillers, air conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. After as-
              sessing whether single-pass cooling can be eliminated, facilities should focus next
              on ensuring that the cooling tower is properly maintained to minimize the need for
              make-up water. Facilities can also consider alternative sources of water for cooling
              tower make-up to significantly reduce the demand for potable water.

              In many cases, cooling towers are used in conjunction with chilled water systems to
              remove heat by passing recirculated cold water through equipment. Chilled water
              systems are often used to cool air passing through air handling units, but they can
              also be used to cool a number of other systems or specific pieces equipment. Chilled
              water systems and/or cooling towers can be found in relatively small facilities, such
              as office buildings, schools, and supermarkets and in large facilities, such as hospitals,
              office complexes, and university campuses. Energy-efficiency measures should be
              used to decrease the load of the entire system to significantly reduce water used in
              both chilled water systems and cooling towers.

              Boiler and steam systems are used in large building heating systems for heating
              water or to produce steam for industrial processes, cooking, or other operations. For
              example, hospitals might have central steam systems to supply steam for steriliza-
              tion, while large commercial kitchens use them to operate combination  ovens, steam
              cookers, and steam kettles. Other types of facilities might use boilers to supply hot
              water. Returning steam condensate back to the boiler is an important first step in
              improving water efficiency of boiler and steam systems.

              Section 6: Mechanical Systems of WaterSense at Work provides an overview of and
              guidance for effectively reducing the water use of:

                •  Single-pass cooling
                •  Cooling towers
                •  Chilled water systems
                •  Boiler and steam systems
                        Single-Pass Cooling Case Study

                To learn how the U.S. Environmental Protection
                Agency's Mid-Continent Ecology Division Labora-
                tory in Duluth, Minnesota, eliminated single-pass
                cooling and reduced its potable water use by 90
                percent, read the case study in Appendix A.
October 2012
6-3

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6.2  Single-Pass  Cooling
                                            WaterSense
               Overview

               Single-pass or once-through cooling systems use water to remove heat and cool
               equipment components. After water is passed once through a coil within or casing
               around a piece of equipment, the water is discharged to the sewer. Types of equip-
               ment that use single-pass cooling include:

                • Point-of-use chillers or other refrigeration systems
                • Condensers
                • Air compressors
                • Air conditioners
                • Hydraulic equipment
                • CAT scanners
                • Degreasers
                • Welding machines
                • Vacuum pumps
                • X-ray equipment
                • Ice machines
                • Wok stoves

               Vacuum pumps, X-ray equipment, ice machines, and wok stoves use water for pro-
               cesses in addition to the water used for single-pass cooling. Such equipment and its
               associated water use, apart from single-pass cooling, are discussed in other sections
               within WaterSense at Work.

               Eliminating single-pass cooling offers a significant opportunity for water savings.
               Single-pass systems use approximately 40 times more water to remove the same
               heat load than a cooling tower operating at five cycles of concentration.3 Many types
               of equipment cooled with single-pass water can be  replaced with air-cooled systems.

               For equipment that requires cooling with water, installing an air-cooled, point-of-
               use chiller or converting to a recirculating water system that makes use of a  process
               water chiller and/or a cooling tower will eliminate single-pass cooling.

               The International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials 2010 Green
               Plumbing & Mechanical Code Supplement, which establishes requirements for green
               building and water efficiency applicable to plumbing, prohibits the use of single-
               pass cooling. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning
               Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard for the Design of High-Performance, Green Buildings
               Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (ASHRAE Standard 189.1) also prohibits the use
               of single-pass cooling.
3 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Energy Department, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program. May 2005.
 Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices, Water Efficiency Guide for Laboratories. Page 4. www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/labs21_bmp.html.
6-4
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                   6.2 Single-Pass  Cooling
              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

              As a first step, identify all equipment using single-pass cooling and follow these tips
              to minimize or eliminate this water use:

               • Use the minimum flow rate required to cool the system recommended by the
                 manufacturer.

               • Install solenoid valves that shut off single-pass cooling water when the equip-
                 ment is turned off.

               • Regularly check operation of the water control valve so that cooling water only
                 flows when there is a heat load that needs to be removed.

               • Keep coil loops clean to maximize heat exchange.

               • If single-pass cooling cannot be eliminated, consult the Section 8: Onsite Alterna-
                 tive Water Sources to identify methods of reusing single-pass cooling water in
                 other applications.


              Retrofit Options

              For maximum savings, eliminate single-pass cooling by modifying equipment to
              recirculate cooling water.This can be achieved by installing a closed-loop recircula-
              tion system that will reuse cooling water instead of discharging it. A dedicated air-
              cooled, point-of-use chiller can be added to most cooling systems to reject heat and
              allow the cooling water to be reused. Alternatively, at some facilities, the single-pass
              cooling water can be replaced with water from an existing recirculating chilled water
              loop or cooling tower water loop, which are mechanical systems used to remove heat
              from the water.

              If single-pass cooling water cannot be eliminated  through cooling water recircula-
              tion, consider installing an automatic control that stops cooling water flow when
              the equipment is not in use or no heat load is present.This retrofit will not entirely
              eliminate water use, but it will minimize unnecessary water use.


              Replacement Options

              When possible, replace single-pass, water-cooled  equipment with air-cooled
              equipment. Air-cooled equipment uses no water for cooling purposes. If considering
              air-cooled equipment as a replacement, evaluate the potential energy use of the
              equipment in addition to the water use to ensure  that the cost benefit from water
              savings is not offset by an increase in energy use.

              For detailed replacement options for specific equipment using single-pass cooling,
              refer to the WaterSense at Work sections covering vacuum pumps, X-ray equipment,
              ice machines, and wok stoves.
October 2012                                                                                         6-5

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6.2  Single-Pass  Cooling
               Savings Potential

               Single-pass cooling can be eliminated by retrofitting the existing equipment with a
               recirculating system or replacing with air-cooled equipment.

               Potential savings can be estimated by measuring the existing cooling water dis-
               charge with a gallon bucket and stopwatch and determining how often the cooling
               water flows (e.g., how many hours per day and days per year). Many applications of
               single-pass cooling water flow continuously. To estimate facility-specific water sav-
               ings and payback, use the following information.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of existing equipment cooled with single-pass
               water, identify the following information and use Equation 6-1:

                • Flow rate of the discharge water from the equipment cooled with single-pass
                  water.

                • Average daily use time. This will vary by facility and the type of equipment
                  cooled with single-pass water.

                • Days of facility operation per year.
                   Equation 6-1. Single-Pass Cooling Equipment Water Use (gallons per year)
                      = Single-Pass Cooling Equipment Flow Rate x Daily Use Time x Days of
                       Facility Operation
                     Where:
                           Single-Pass Cooling Equipment Flow Rate (gallons per minute)
                           Daily Use Time (minutes per day)
                           Days of Facility Operation (days per year)
               Water Savings

               Replacing existing equipment cooled with single-pass water with an air-cooled
               system or retrofitting with a recirculating cooling water system will entirely eliminate
               discharge water use, as shown in Equation 6-2.
6-6                                                                                           October 2012

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                                                                   6.2 Single-Pass  Cooling
               Equation 6-2. Water Savings From Retrofitting or Replacing Single-Pass Cooling
                                     Equipment (gallons per year)


                     = Current Water Use of Single-Pass Cooling Equipment

                     Where:

                        •  Current Water Use of Single-Pass Cooling Equipment (gallons per year)


              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing ex-
              isting equipment cooled with single-pass water, consider the equipment and instal-
              lation cost of the replacement option, the water savings as calculated using Equation
              6-2, and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

              If single-pass cooling is eliminated by replacing equipment with air-cooled models,
              facilities might see an increase in energy usage. The increased energy use, depending
              upon how significant, might increase the payback time and decrease replacement
              cost-effectiveness.


              Additional Resources

              EPA and DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management
              Program. May 2005. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices, Water Efficiency
              Guide for Laboratories, www! .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/labs21 _bmp.html.
October 2012                                                                                         6-7

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6.3  Cooling Towers
                                                                      WaterSense
Cooling towers
Overview

Cooling towers are used in a variety of commercial and institutional applications to
remove excess heat. They serve facilities of all sizes, such as office buildings, schools,
supermarkets, and large facilities, such as hospitals, office complexes, and university
campuses. Cooling towers dissipate heat from recirculating water that is used to cool
chillers, air conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. By design, they use
significant amounts of water.

Cooling towers often represent the largest use of water in institutional and commer-
cial applications, comprising 20 to 50 percent or more of a facility's total water use.
However, facilities can save significant amounts of water by optimizing the operation
and maintenance of cooling tower systems.4

                                  Cooling towers work by circulating a stream
                                  of water through systems that generate heat
                                  as they function. To cool the systems, heat
                                  is transferred from the systems to the water
                                  stream. This warm water is then pumped
                                  to the top of the cooling tower, where it is
                                  sprayed or dripped through internal fill (i.e.,
                                  a labyrinth-like packing with a large surface
                                  area). Fans pull or push air through the tower
                                  in a counterflow, crossflow,  or parallel flow
                                  to the falling water. As some of the water is
                                  evaporated, the heat is removed.5The remain-
                                  ing cooled water is recirculated back through
                                  the systems to repeat the process.

                                  The thermal efficiency and longevity of the
                                  cooling tower and its associated water  loops
depend upon the proper management of water  recirculated through the tower.
Water leaves a cooling tower system in four ways: evaporation, blowdown or bleed-
off, drift, and leaks or overflows.
               Evaporation

               Evaporation is the primary function of the tower and is the method that transfers
               heat from the cooling tower system to the environment. The quantity of evaporation
               is not typically targeted for water-efficiency efforts because it controls the cooling
               process, although improving the energy efficiency of the systems that use the cool-
               ing water will reduce the evaporative load on the tower. The rate of evaporation from
4 North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al. May 2009. Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Facilities.
 Page 39. savewaternc.org/bushome.php.
5 Ibid.
                                         WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                            6.3  Cooling Towers
               a cooling tower is typically equal to approximately 1 percent of the rate of recirculat-
               ing water flow for every 10°F in temperature drop that the cooling tower achieves.6

               Blowdown or Bleed-Off

               When water evaporates from the tower, dissolved solids (e.g., calcium, magnesium,
               chloride, silica) are left behind. As more water evaporates, the concentration of total
               dissolved solids (IDS) increases. If the concentration gets too high, the IDS can cause
               scale to form within the system or can lead to corrosion. The concentration of IDS is
               controlled by removing (i.e., bleeding or blowing down) a portion of the water that
               has high IDS concentration and replacing that water with make-up water, which has
               a lower concentration of IDS. Carefully monitoring and controlling the quantity of
               blowdown provides the most significant opportunity to conserve water in cooling
               tower operations. Blowdown can be conducted manually using a batch method, in
               which blowdown is initiated, and  make-up water is fed to the system for a preset
               time to decrease the concentration of IDS. It can also happen automatically through
               a control scheme that initiates blowdown and make-up when the IDS concentration
               reaches a preset point.
               Drift

               A small quantity of water can be carried from the tower as mist or small droplets
               known as "drift." Drift loss is small compared to evaporation and blowdown and is
               controlled with baffles and drift eliminators.
               Drift can vary from 0.05 to 0.2 percent of the
               flow rate through the cooling tower.7 Modern
               drift eliminators can reduce this loss to less
               than 0.005 percent, which would be negli-
               gible.

               Leaks or Overflows

               Properly operated towers and associated pip-
               ing should not have leaks or overflows. How-
               ever, an overflow  drain is provided within the
               tower in case of malfunction and subsequent
               overflow. Most green codes require overflow
               alarms.

               The water used by the cooling tower is equal
               to the amount of  make-up water that is added
               to the system. The amount of make-up water needed is dictated by the amount of
               water that is lost from the cooling tower through evaporation, drift, blowdown, and
               leakage, as illustrated by Equation 6-3.
Cooling tower
5 Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Institutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State
 Engineer. Page 60. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.
' Ibid.
October 2012
                                            6-9

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6.3  Cooling Towers
                            Equation 6-3. Cooling Tower Make-Up Water (gallons)


                      = Evaporation + Drift + Slowdown + Leaks and Overflows

                      Where:

                          •  Evaporation (gallons)
                          •  Drift (gallons)
                          •  Slowdown (gallons)
                          •  Leaks and Overflows (gallons)
               See Figure 6-2 for an illustration of the water being recirculated, added to, or lost
               from a cooling tower.
                                     Figure 6-2. Cooling Tower System

                                         Evaporated Water

                                                        Circulated Cooling Water
                                                    JT
                                 Drift Loss
                                    V
                       Make-Up Water.
                         Supply
                                                                             Chiller
                                              Cooling Tower
                                                                 Slowdown
               A key parameter used to evaluate cooling tower operation is cycles of concentration
               (sometimes referred to as "cycles" or "concentration ratio"). The concentration ratio
               is the ratio of the concentration of TDS (i.e., conductivity) in the blowdown water
               divided by the conductivity of the make-up water. Since TDS enter the system in the
               make-up water and exit the system in the blowdown water, the cycles of concentra-
               tion are also approximately equal to the ratio of volume of make-up water to blow-
               down water. See Equations 6-4 and 6-5.
6-10
October 2012

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                                                                           6.3  Cooling Towers
                            Equation 6-4. Cooling Tower Cycles of Concentration


                     = Conductivity of Slowdown Water 4- Conductivity of Make-Up Water

                     Where:

                         • Conductivity of Slowdown Water (parts per million of IDS)
                         • Conductivity of Make-Up Water (parts per million of IDS)
                            Equation 6-5. Cooling Tower Cycles of Concentration


                     = Make-Up Water + Slowdown Water

                     Where:
                           Make-Up Water (gallons)
                           Slowdown Water (gallons)
              To use water efficiently in the cooling tower system, the cycles of concentration must
              be maximized.This is accomplished by minimizing the amount of blowdown re-
              quired, thus reducing make-up water demand. The degree to which the cycles can be
              maximized depends on the water chemistry within the cooling tower and the water
              chemistry of the make-up water supply. As cycles of concentration are increased, the
              amount of TDS that stays within the system also increases.

              Facilities often employ a water treatment vendor to monitor the cooling tower, add
              chemicals to the system to control scaling and chemical buildup, and maximize the
              cycles of concentration. Critical water chemistry parameters that require review and
              control include pH, alkalinity, conductivity, hardness, microbial growth, biocide, and
              corrosion inhibitor levels.8 Controlling these parameters allows water to be recycled
              through the system longer, thereby increasing cycles of concentration. Controlling
              blowdown using an automatic scheme allows a better opportunity to maximize
              cycles of concentration, as the TDS concentration can be kept at a more constant set
              point.

              Equations 6-4 and 6-5 can also be used to determine if there is a leak, overflow, or
              excessive drift. Since the equations assume that the water lost to drift and overflow
              is negligible, if cycles of concentration are calculated using both equations and the
              results from Equation 6-5 are higher than that from Equation 6-4 by more than 10
              percent, the cooling tower might be losing water due to one of these malfunctions.

              In addition to carefully controlling  blowdown and checking for unexpected losses,
              facilities can also reduce potable water demand from cooling towers. Water from
              other equipment within a facility can sometimes be recycled and reused for cooling

"North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, etal., op. at., Page 44.


October 2012                                                                                          6-11

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6.3  Cooling Towers
              tower make-up with little or no pre-treatment, including air handler condensate (i.e.,
              water that collects when warm, moist air passes over the cooling coils in air handling
              units).This reuse is particularly appropriate because the condensate has a low min-
              eral content and is generated in greatest quantities when cooling tower loads are the
              highest. For additional sources of water that could be used as cooling tower make-up
              water, refer to Section 8: Onsite Alternative Water Sources.


              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

              For optimum cooling tower efficiency, there are a number of operations, mainte-
              nance, and user education strategies to consider, such as maintaining system energy
              efficiency, monitoring the cooling tower's water chemistry and flow, choosing a
              water treatment vendor, maximizing cycles of concentration in the tower, and paying
              close attention to water chemistry reports.

              Maintaining System Energy Efficiency

              To maintain the system energy efficiency, consider the following:

                •  Implement energy-efficiency measures to reduce the heat load to the tower.
                  As the heat load is reduced, cooling tower water use will be commensurately
                  reduced.

                •  Implement a comprehensive air handler coil maintenance program. Dirty coils
                  can increase the load on the chilled water system used to maintain  building tem-
                  peratures. Increased load on the chilled water system will increase the load on
                  the evaporative cooling process, requiring  more make-up water for the cooling
                  tower.

                •  Properly maintain and clean heat exchangers, condensers, and evaporator coils
                  to prevent scale, biological growth, and sediment from building up in the tubes.

                •  Properly insulate all piping. Insulate chillers and storage tanks, if installed.

                •  When cooling specific equipment using the cooling tower water loop or chilled
                  water system, use the minimum flow rate required to cool the system  recom-
                  mended by the manufacturer. In addition, regularly check operation of the water
                  control valve so that cooling water only flows when there is a heat load that
                  needs to be removed.

              Monitoring the Cooling Tower's Water Chemistry and Flow

              Monitor the cooling tower's water chemistry and flow by considering the following:

                •  If available, have operations and maintenance personnel read the conductivity
                  meter and the make-up and blowdown flow meters regularly to quickly identify
                  problems and determine when to make adjustments.

                •  Keep a detailed log of make-up and blowdown quantities, conductivity, and
                  cycles of concentration and monitor trends to spot deterioration in  performance.
6-12                                                                                         October 2012

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                                                                           6.3 Cooling Towers
                •  Make sure the tower fill valve cuts off cleanly when the tower basin is full to mini-
                  mize wasted water from leaks.

              Choosing a Water Treatment Vendor

              When considering a water treatment vendor, select one that focuses on water ef-
              ficiency. Request an estimate of the quantities and costs of treatment chemicals, vol-
              umes of make-up and blowdown water expected per year, and the expected cycles
              of concentration that the vendor plans to achieve. Select a vendor that can achieve
              high cycles of concentration while keeping costs for chemicals low.

              Maximizing Cycles of Concentration

              In addition, to maximize cycles of concentration, consider the following:

                •  Calculate and understand the cooling tower's cycles of concentration. Check the
                  ratio of make-up water to blowdown water. Then check the ratio of conductiv-
                  ity of blowdown water and make-up water. Use a handheld conductivity meter
                  if the tower is not equipped with permanent conductivity meters. These ratios
                  should match the target cycles of concentration. If both ratios are not roughly
                  the same, check the tower for leaks. If the tower is not maintaining target cycles
                  of concentration, check the conductivity controller, the make-up water valve, and
                  the blowdown valve for proper operation.

                •  Work with the cooling tower water treatment vendor to maximize the cycles
                  of concentration. Many systems operate at two to four cycles of concentration,
                  while six cycles or more might  be possible. Increasing cycles from three to six re-
                  duces cooling tower make-up water by 20 percent and cooling tower blowdown
                  by 50 percent.

                •  Work with the water treatment vendor to add chemicals to the system to control
                  scaling and chemical buildup. Critical water chemistry parameters that require re-
                  view and control include pH, alkalinity, conductivity, hardness, microbial growth,
                  biocide, and corrosion inhibitor levels.

                •  When increasing cycles of concentration, ensure that discharged water meets
                  allowable water quality standards.

              Reading Water Chemistry Reports

              The water treatment vendor should produce a report every time he or she evaluates
              the water chemistry in the cooling tower. When these reports are received, read them
              to ensure that monitoring characteristics, such as conductivity and cycles of concen-
              tration, are within the target range. By paying proper attention to the water chemis-
              try  reports, problems within the system can  be identified quickly.
October 2012                                                                                         6-13

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6.3  Cooling Towers
               Retrofit Options

               To improve the efficiency of an existing cooling tower, some retrofit options are
               available, including: installing meters and control systems to help facility managers
               monitor water use; improving the tower's water quality to increase cycles of concen-
               tration; using onsite alternative sources of water to replace potable make-up water;
               and taking steps to reduce biological growth.

               Installing Meters and Control Systems

               When installing meters and control systems, consider the following:

                • To automatically control blowdown, install a conductivity controller, which can
                  continuously measure the conductivity of the cooling tower water and will initi-
                  ate blowdown only when the conductivity set point is exceeded. Working with
                  the water treatment vendor, determine the maximum cycles of concentration
                  that the cooling tower can sustain, then identify and program the conductivity
                  controller to the associated conductivity set point, typically measured in  micro-
                  Siemens per centimeter (uS/cm), necessary to achieve that number of cycles.

                • Install automated chemical feed systems on large cooling tower systems (more
                  than 100 tons).The automated feed will monitor conductivity, control blow-
                  down, and add chemicals based on make-up water flow. These systems minimize
                  water and chemical use while protecting against scale, corrosion, and biological
                  growth.

                • If not already present, install flow meters on make-up and blowdown lines.
                  Meters can be installed on  most cooling towers for less than $1,000.9 Refer to the
                  previous "Operation, Maintenance, and User Education"section for recommenda-
                  tions on how to use the meters once they are installed.

                • Consider contacting the water utility to determine if the facility can receive a
                  sanitary sewer charge deduction from the potable water lost to evaporation. If
                  the utility agrees to provide this deduction, calculate the difference between the
                  city-supplied potable make-up water and the blowdown water that is discharged
                  to the sanitary sewer.

               Improving Cooling Tower Water Quality

               To improve the cooling tower water quality, consider the following:

                • To cleanse the cooling tower basin water and help the system operate more effi-
                  ciently, install a rapid sand  filter or high-efficiency cartridge filter on a sidestream
                  taken from the cooling tower basin. This system will filter out sediments within
                  the basin water and return it to the cooling tower. This is especially helpful if the
                  cooling tower is subject to dusty conditions.

                • Install a water softening system on the make-up water line if hardness (e.g., cal-
                  cium and magnesium) limits the ability to increase cycles of concentration.

" Ibid.


6-14                                                                                          October 2012

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                                                                           6.3  Cooling Towers
              Using Appropriate Onsite Alternative Water Sources

              Use onsite alternative water sources where appropriate and feasible (see Section 8:
              Onsite Alternative Water Sources for more information). Work with the water treat-
              ment vendor to ensure that the alternative sources identified are a good match for
              the cooling tower, considering the water chemistry of the source and water quality
              needs of the cooling tower.

              Reducing Biological Growth

              Install covers to block sunlight penetration. Reducing the amount of sunlight on
              tower surfaces can significantly reduce biological growth such as algae. Controlling
              algae growth can help increase cycles of concentration and improve water quality in
              the tower.


              Replacement Options

              Since replacing a cooling tower involves significant capital cost, facilities should first
              implement all efficient operation and maintenance procedures and perform any
              retrofits available to optimize the current cooling tower's management scheme. After
              exhausting all efficient management practices and considering the costs and ben-
              efits of a new tower, new cooling tower designs and improved materials can provide
              additional water and energy savings.


              Savings Potential

              Significant water savings can be achieved by improving the cooling tower manage-
              ment approach. A key mechanism to reduce water use is to maximize the cycles of
              concentration. Table 6-1 shows the percentage of make-up water savings that can
              be expected by increasing a cooling tower's cycles of concentration, denoted as the
              concentration ratio (CR).10 Figure 6-3 further illustrates this point by showing how in-
              creasing cycles of concentration can decrease water use in a 100-ton cooling tower."
              Each facility should determine the maximum cycles of concentration it can achieve
              depending upon the quality of the make-up water supply and other facility-specific
              characteristics.
10 Ibid. Page 42.
11 Texas Water Development Board. November 2004. Water Conservation Best Practices Guide. Page 148. www.twdb.state.tx.us/conservation/municipal/plans/.



October 2012                                                                                          6-15

-------
6.3  Cooling Towers
              Table 6-1. Percent of Make-Up Water Saved by Maximizing Cycles of Concentration
New Concentration Ratio (CRf )
Initial Concentration Ratio (Cri)

1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
2
33%
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2.5
44%
17%
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
50%
25%
10%
-
-
-
-
-
3.5
53%
30%
16%
7%
-
-
-
-
4
56%
33%
20%
11%
5%
-
-
-
5
58%
38%
25%
17%
11%
6%
-
-
6
60%
40%
28%
20%
14%
10%
4%
-
7
61%
42%
30%
22%
17%
13%
7%
3%
8
62%
43%
31%
24%
18%
14%
9%
5%
9
63%
44%
33%
25%
20%
16%
10%
6%
10
64%
45%
34%
26%
21%
17%
11%
7%
                Figure 6-3. Cooling Tower Water Usage at Various Cycles of Concentration for a
                                           100-Ton Tower
                                               456

                                              Cycles of Concentration
              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency. Introduction to Cooling Towers. www.a4we.org/cooling_
              towerjntro.aspx.

              Cooling Technology Institute, www.cti.org.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Federal Energy Management
              Program (FEMP). February 2011. Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of
              Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Efficiency, www! .eere.energy.gov/femp/
              program/waterefficiency_bmp10.html#resources.
6-16
October 2012

-------
                                                                           6.3  Cooling Towers
              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use
              Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses, www.ebmud.com/for-customers/
              conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

              EPA and DOE, EERE, FEMP. May 2005. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices,
              Water Efficiency Guide for Laboratories, www! .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/
              Iabs21_bmp.html.

              North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al. May 2009.
              Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Facilities. Pages 39-
              48. savewaternc.org/bushome.php.

              Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial,
              Institutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State
              Engineer. Pages 60-65. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.

              Texas Water Development Board. November 2004. Water Conservation Best Practices
              Guide. Pages 145-149. www.twdb.state.tx.us/conservation/municipal/plans/.
October 2012                                                                                          6-17

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6.4  Chilled Water  Systems
                                            WaterSense
               Overview

               Chilled water systems remove heat by passing recirculated cold water through equip-
               ment. They are often used in place of single-pass cooling because the water is recir-
               culated, rather than being discharged, to the drain. Chilled water systems are often
               used to cool air passing through air handling units, but they can also be used to cool
               a number of systems, including:

                • Air compressors
                • Air conditioners
                • Hydraulic equipment
                • CAT scanners
                • Degreasers
                • Welding machines
                • Vacuum pumps
                • X-ray equipment
                • Ice machines

               Water can be used to transfer heat loads within a chilled water system in two ways, as
               illustrated in Figure 6-4. First, water can be recirculated as a heat transfer fluid be-
               tween the chiller and the equipment to be cooled.This water is contained in a closed
               loop, and  no water is gained or lost when the system is operating properly. Second,
               the chiller, or refrigeration unit, might use water or air to remove heat from the refrig-
               eration condenser. These types of chillers are referred to as water-cooled or air-cooled
               units.

               A chiller's  cooling capacity is measured in tons of refrigeration, a metric used to repre-
               sent the amount of heat that can be extracted  by the system in a 24-hour period.
               Small systems (i.e., 40 to 50 tons of refrigeration and below) are often designed as
               air-cooled systems because they are less expensive, although the energy consump-
               tion of air-cooled systems is usually significantly higher, especially as the systems
               approach  500 tons. In addition, the space required for air-cooled systems greater
               than 500 tons becomes impractical in many applications. Since air-cooled systems are
               used in limited applications and use air instead of water as the cooling mechanism,
               they are not the focus of this section.12

               Water-cooled units tend to be more energy-efficient than air-cooled units, particu-
               larly in larger facility applications.13

               As shown  in Figure 6-4, there are four main stages of operation  in a water-cooled
               chilled water system:

                • First, chilled water at a temperature between 38° and 45°F is pumped through
                  heat exchange units to transfer heat from equipment. By removing  heat, the
                  chilled water temperature typically rises 10° to 20°F.

2 Koeller and Company and Riesenberger, James. January 2006. A Report on Potential Best Management Practices—Commercial-Industrial Cooling Water Efficiency.
 Prepared for the California Urban Water Conservation Council. Page A-5. www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.
 Ibid.
6-18
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                 6.4  Chilled  Water  Systems
                •  The water that has absorbed heat is sent to the chiller to re-cool. Inside the
                  chiller, an evaporator with refrigerant inside removes heat from the chilled water
                  loop. As the refrigerant absorbs the excess heat, it expands and becomes a gas.

                •  The refrigerant gas is then sent to a compressor prior to passing through a con-
                  denser, where heat is removed by the condenser water loop and the refrigerant
                  gas returns to the liquid phase. Condenser water is typically between 80° and
                  85°F when it is sent through the chiller condenser and rises in temperature 10° to
                  20°F after it  has removed the heat from the refrigerant.14

                •  In the final stage, the condenser water is re-cooled in a cooling tower.

                              Figure 6-4. Water-Cooled Chilled Water System




>







1
1







k.







k.





>„
*

(Hot Water In)

(Hot Water Out)
^
5

V


(Warm Water In)
(Warm Water Out)
4




















Cooling Tower


Chiller

Condenser

7^ Refrigerant J
Evaporator




Heat Exchange
Unit



















>„
*

(Cold Water Out)


>
5

v
r

(cnnied water out)
(Chilled Water In)
>
5





T







1
*



                                                                           Condenser
                                                                             Water
                                                                             Supply
                                                                           Chilled
                                                                            Water
                                                                           Supply
              In water-cooled chilled water systems, the condenser water is typically recirculated
              to give off heat through evaporation. Cooling by evaporation can occur in either
              an open cooling tower, where the condenser water is open to the atmosphere, or
              in a closed-loop evaporative cooler, where the condenser water is not open to the
              atmosphere. Both cooling towers and evaporative coolers are installed outdoors to
              mechanically circulate air used to cool condenser water. Refer to Section 6.3: Cooling
              Towers for more information on cooling towers.

              Alternatively, single-pass cooling systems can be used, which rely on a source of
              freshwater supply for condenser cooling water, which is ultimately discharged. In
              small systems, the discharge might be to the sewer, but in large systems, it might be
              discharged to a  local body of water depending upon the discharge permit. Single-
              pass cooling systems should be avoided if the water goes to the sewer after it is used.
 Ibid. Page A-2.
October 2012
6-19

-------
6.4 Chilled  Water Systems
                There are several main components of a chilled water system: chillers, pumps, heat
                exchangers, piping, and valves. The systems used to cool condenser water (e.g., a
                cooling tower) are auxiliary to the chilled water system.

                Chillers are central to the chilled water system design. Chillers contain a refrigerant
                used to remove  heat from the chilled water loop and a compressor to compress the
                refrigerant. Proper sizing of chillers is determined by evaluating the peak load and
                cooling load profile of the facility or process. Improper sizing of chillers can lead to
                undersized units that are unable to cool equipment or oversized units that do not
                operate efficiently.

                Some facilities might require multiple chillers or cooling towers to meet equipment
                cooling needs. In the case of multiple chillers or cooling towers, there might be
                several options for the way in which the system  is staged. For example, if  multiple
                cooling towers are installed, they could be plumbed in parallel to allow for condenser
                water to pass through multiple cooling towers.

                The efficiency of a chilled water system is dictated by its net useful refrigerating
                effect, or its ability to remove heat, compared to the energy supplied to do so. A sys-
                tem that removes more heat per unit of supplied energy is considered more efficient
                than a comparable system.

                There are no federal standards for the efficiency of a chilled water system; however,
                the American  Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers
                (ASHRAE) ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residen-
                tial Buildings has minimum required efficiencies for water chillers and is specified in
                several local and state building codes.15


                Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

                Because chilled water systems a re complex systems, the efficiency of the  system as a
                whole is dependent upon the combined performance of each individual  component.
                Considering the interaction between components helps ensure optimum energy and
                water savings from efficient operation and maintenance measures.16

                Prior to implementing any operation and maintenance efficiency measures, the
                potential energy savings should be evaluated using the University of Massachusetts
                Amherst Center for Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy's Chilled Water Systems
                AnalysisTool.17'18The tool was developed for  facility personnel to evaluate potential
                changes to existing chilled water systems and can be used to calculate the potential
                energy-saving—and inherently water-saving—opportunities that exist from the
                measures listed  below.The maximum water efficiency can be reached by reducing
                energy use, since it reduces the overall cooling load on the system.


15 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). 2007. ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise
 Residential Buildings.
16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department's (DOE's) ENERGY STAR. Building Upgrade Manual, Chapter 9: Heating and Cooling Up-
 grades. www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=business.bus_upgrade_manual.
17 University of Massachusetts Amherst, Center for Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (CEERE), Industrial Assessment Center (IAC). Chilled Water Systems Analy-
 sis Tool (CWSAT). www.ceere.org/iac/iac_assess_tools.html.
18 DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). October 2005. Improving Chilled Water System Performance: Chilled Water System Analysis Tool (CWSAT) Im-
 proves Efficiency, wwwl .eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_deployment/pdfs/chiller_tool.pdf.


6-20                                                                                               October 2012

-------
                                                                  6.4  Chilled  Water Systems
               Optimizing Chiller Efficiency

               To optimize chiller efficiency, consider the following:

                • Use controls to monitor the capacity of the chiller and turn chillers on or off as
                  necessary, depending upon the cooling demand of equipment connected to
                  each chiller.

                • The smaller the temperature difference between the chilled water and condenser
                  water loop, the higher the chiller efficiency. Therefore, raising the chilled water
                  temperature and lowering the condenser water temperature will improve ef-
                  ficiency. Such temperature adjustments can only be made within the constraints
                  of outside conditions. The chilled water temperature will be constrained by the
                  cooling load. A condenser water return temperature 5° to 7°F above the ambient
                  wet bulb temperature is optimal.19

                • Apply variable speed control to circulation  pump motors.20

                • Inspect chillers regularly to remove any scale buildup, which can decrease the
                  heat-transfer efficiency of the chiller.

               Reducing Demand on Chilled Water System

               WaterSense at Work includes a number of best management practices for technolo-
               gies that might be connected to the chilled water loop. Optimizing these products or
               systems can reduce the load on the chilled water system, which will, in turn, reduce
               the load on the cooling tower.


               Optimize Cooling Tower Efficiency

               To optimize cooling tower efficiency, consider the following:

                • Refer to Section 6.3: Cooling Towers to ensure that the cooling tower is operating
                  most efficiently  in order to deliver cooled condenser water to the chilled water
                  system.

                • If the facility has multiple cooling towers that are plumbed in parallel, run con-
                  denser water over as many cooling towers as possible at the lowest possible fan
                  speed.21


               Retrofit Options

               With proper preventative maintenance, chilled water systems have a typical life-
               time of 20 years or longer.Therefore, it is often  practical to retrofit individual system
               components, rather than the whole system. However, the functioning of the overall
               system should still be considered. The effect of an individual component retrofit on


19 Pacific Gas and Electric Company. January 2006. High Performance Data Centers: A Design Guidelines Sourcebook. hightech.lbl.gov/datacenters-bpg.html.
20 University of Massachusetts Amherst, CEERE, IAC, op. at.
21 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR, op. at.


October 2012                                                                                           6-21

-------
6.4 Chilled  Water Systems
                other system component performance should be evaluated prior to performing the
                retrofit. By using University of Massachusetts Amherst Center for Energy Efficiency
                & Renewable Energy's Chilled Water Systems Analysis Tool,22'23 facility managers can
                evaluate which of the following retrofit options are the best.

                Water-Related Retrofits

                For retrofit options that involve water reduction, consider the following:

                 •  Install a make-up water meter on the chilled water loop, which will allow for leaks
                   to be easily identified.

                 •  Insulate the pipes on the chilled water loop to ensure that the chilled water does
                   not absorb unnecessary heat, therefore requiring more water to cool.

                Energy-Related Retrofits

                In addition retrofit opportunities to increase the water efficiency of a chilled water sys-
                tem are in many cases directly related to reducing energy use by reducing the overall
                cooling load on the system. Consider the following energy-related retrofits in addition
                to the retrofit options discussed in University of Massachusetts Amherst's Chilled Water
                Systems Analysis Tool. For additional information on increasing the energy efficiency
                of existing chilled water systems, review Energy Design Resources'Chilled Water Plant
                Design Guide24 and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy
                Department's (DOE's) ENERGY STAR® Building Upgrade Manual.75

                Replacing Pump Valves

                 •  Standard valves can be replaced with low-friction valves to reduce flow resis-
                   tance in the chilled water loop, thereby reducing pump energy use.

                 •  For valves that control flow by inducing a pressure drop, consider removing the
                   valves or eliminating their use by keeping the valve open. These types of valves
                   can be replaced by using variable-speed controls, trimming the impeller, or stag-
                   ing pumps instead.

                Replacing Pumps

                 •  Standard or oversized pumps can be replaced with more efficient pumps. Pumps
                   typically reach peak efficiency when they are approximately 75 percent loaded,
                   but they are less effective if they are  fully or under loaded.
22 University of Massachusetts Amherst, CEERE, IAC, op. at.
23 DOE, EERE, op. at.
24 Energy Design Resources. December 2009. Chilled Water Plant Design Guide, www.energydesignresources.com/resources/publications/design-guidelines/design-
 guidelines-cooltools-chilled-water-plant.aspx.
25 EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR, op. at.



6-22                                                                                               October 2012

-------
                                                                 6.4  Chilled Water  Systems
              Replacement Options

              Replacing a chilled water system involves significant capital cost and involves many
              design considerations. Before replacing an existing chilled water system, first consid-
              er implementing efficient operation and maintenance and procedures and perform-
              ing any retrofits available to optimize the current chilled water system. After con-
              sidering the costs and benefits of installing a new chilled water system, if the facility
              plans to do so, the design process should take into account all system components.
              Facility managers and design professionals should consult design guides for efficient
              chilled water systems.

              Because chillers are central to chilled water system design, replacing an existing chill-
              er might allow for efficiency improvements. If the existing chiller is inefficient, and
              the potential energy and cost savings merit a replacement, both water and energy
              efficiency should be considered as part of the planned design. Water-cooled systems
              are typically the most efficient option for larger facilities with cooling towers. Alter-
              nate technologies, such as ground source heat pumps, can also be more energy- and
              water-efficient than traditional chiller and cooling tower technology. Choose a sys-
              tem that will operate most efficiently under typical load conditions. For most cooling
              loads less than 100 tons, air cooling is just as cost-effective as a water-cooled system.
              An analysis of the total cost of cooling with air versus cooling towers should include
              the cost of the water, wastewater, water treatment to prevent scale and corrosion,
              and labor needed to operate a cooling tower versus the 0.2 to 0.3 kilowatt-hour/ton-
              hour savings realized with chilled water/cooling tower/chiller systems.


              Savings Potential

              Chilled water systems are completely closed loops and thus consume no water when
              operating properly with no leaking components. However, if cooling towers are
              used to operate the refrigeration loop, the tower requires approximately 2.0 gallons
              per hour of evaporation for each ton of cooling.26 By improving the efficiency of the
              chilled water system, the heat load on the cooling tower can be reduced, thereby
              reducing the evaporative cooling load and the water use of the system as a whole.


              Additional Resources

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. October 2005. Improving Chilled Water
              System Performance: Chilled Water Systems Analysis Tools (CWSAT) Improves Efficiency.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_deployment/pdfs/chiller_tool.pdf.

              Energy Design Resources. December 2009. Chilled Water Plant Design Guide, www.
              energydesignresources.com/resources/publications/design-guidelines/design-
              guidelines-cooltools-chilled-water-plant.aspx.

              EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Building Upgrade Manual, Chapter 9: Heating and Cooling
              Upgrades. www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=business.bus_upgrade_manual.
26 Conservation Mechanical Systems, Inc. Water Use in Cooling Towers. www.conservationmechsys.com/wp-content/siteimages/Water%20use%20in%20Cool-
 ing%20Towers.pdf.



October 2012                                                                                          6-23

-------
6.4 Chilled Water Systems
               Koeller and Company and Riesenberger, James. January 2006. A Report on Potential
               Best Management Practices—Commercial-Industrial Cooling Water Efficiency. Prepared
               for The California Urban Water Conservation Council. Page A-2.
               www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.

               Pacific Gas and Electric Company. January 2006. High Performance Data Centers: A
               Design GuidelinesSourcebook. hightech.lbl.gov/datacenters-bpg.html.

               University of Massachusetts Amherst, Center for Energy Efficiency & Renewable En-
               ergy, Industrial Assessment Center. Chilled Water Systems Analysis Tool.
               www.ceere.org/iac/iac_assess_tools.html.
6-24                                                                                         October 2012

-------
6.5  Boiler  and  Steam  Systems
WaterSense
               Overview

               Boiler and steam systems are used in large building heating systems for heating
               water or to produce steam for industrial processes, cooking, or other operations. Hot
               water boilers are a subset of commercial and industrial boilers used to heat water.
               Steam boilers, which include water-tube and fire-tube systems, produce steam by
               boiling water. Low-pressure boilers are used most for commercial applications and
               heating water, while high-pressure boilers are more common for power generation
               and industrial processes.27

               Hot Water Boilers

               Hot water boilers are used to provide hot water for bathing, laundry, dishwashing,
               or similar operations. Unlike steam boilers, however, they do not produce steam.
               Instead, hot water boilers essentially act as commercial- or industrial-scale water
               heaters.28

               Hot water boiler distribution  systems can be open or closed. Open systems provide
               hot water to end uses, such as hand washing, bathing, and laundry. These can either
               be direct-supply systems or have loop piping, whereby the hot water is recirculated
               back to the hot water boiler. Open systems are typically found in food service or laun-
               dry operations. Recirculating systems are most commonly used in applications that
               need hot water instantaneously, such as hotels.

               Closed systems are often used for heating buildings. Hot water is  circulated in a
               closed loop for space heating, using either air heat-exchange or hydronic floor-heat-
               ing systems. Water in closed-loop systems is typically treated to prevent corrosion
               and scaling. Additional water is needed only to make up for leaks and periodic addi-
               tions.29 Because water efficiency isn't a primary concern for hot water boiler systems,
               they are  not discussed further in this section.

               Water-Tube Boilers

               Water-tube boilers (see Figure 6-5) are used for high-pressure boiler applications.
               In these systems, water circulates through tubes that are indirectly heated by fire.
               Exhaust gases remain inside the boiler shell and  pass over tube surfaces to heat the
               water. The heated water then rises as steam to be used for cooking, as process steam,
               or for other operations. Water-tube boilers are lighter by design and thus able to
               withstand higher pressures. They are also capable of high efficiencies and generating
               saturated or superheated steam.
7 East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages THERM 10-14. www.
 ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.
8 Ibid.
9 Ibid.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
               6-25

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6.5  Boiler and  Steam  Systems
                             Figure 6-5. Water-Tube Steam Boiler Configuration

                                                            Smoke Stack
                                                  Steam Generated
                                                      t
                                                                         Water Supply
               Fire-Tube Boilers

               The most common type of steam boiler is the fire-tube boiler (see Figure 6-6).30 In
               this type of system, a gas-or oil-fired heater directs heat onto a series of tubes that
               are immersed in water, which transfers heat to the water, generating steam.
                              Figure 6-6. Fire-Tube Steam Boiler Configuration
                            Steam Generated
                                                                           Smoke Stack
                                 t.
                                                  Hot Metal Pipes
                                                                          "I  I
                                               Water Heated by Hot Pipes
0 Ibid.
6-26
October 2012

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                                                             6.5  Boiler  and Steam  Systems
               In both types of steam boiler configurations, as the steam is distributed, its heat is
               transferred to the ambient environment and, as a result, it recondenses to water.This
               condensate is then either discharged to the sewer or captured and returned to the
               boiler for reuse. If the condensate is discharged to the sanitary sewer, most codes
               require it to be cooled to an acceptable temperature before discharging.The hot
               condensate is typically tempered with cool water to meet the temperature discharge
               requirements.

               As the water is converted to steam, dissolved solids, such as calcium, magnesium,
               chloride, and silica, are left behind. With evaporation, the total dissolved solids
               (TDS) concentration increases. If the  concentration gets too high, theTDS can cause
               scale to form within the system or  can lead to corrosion. The concentration of TDS
               is controlled by removing (i.e., blowing down) a portion of the water that has a high
               concentration of TDS and replacing that water with make-up water, which has a
               lower concentration of TDS. Some  boiler operators practice continuous blowdown by
               leaving the blowdown valve partially open, requiring a continuous feed of make-up
               water.

               From a water-efficiency standpoint, installing and maintaining a condensate recov-
               ery system to capture and return condensate to the boiler for reuse is the  most effec-
               tive way to reduce water use. Recovering condensate:

                • Reduces the amount of make-up water required.

                • Eliminates or significantly reduces the need to add tempering water to cool con-
                  densate before discharge.

                • Reduces the frequency of blowdown, as the condensate is highly pure and adds
                  little to no additional TDS to the  boiler water.

               In addition, since the steam condensate is relatively hot, when it is added  back to the
               boiler, it requires less energy to reheat to produce steam again.

               Proper control of boiler blowdown water is also critical to ensure efficient boiler op-
               eration and  minimize make-up water use. Insufficient blowdown can lead to scaling
               and corrosion, while excessive blowdown wastes water, energy, and chemicals. The
               optimum blowdown rate is influenced  by several factors, including boiler type, oper-
               ating pressure, water treatment, and quality of make-up water. Generally,  blowdown
               rates range from 4 to 8 percent of the make-up water flow rate, although they can be
               as high as 10 percent if the make-up water is poor quality with high concentrations
               of solids.31'32

               Blowdown is typically assessed and controlled by measuring the conductivity of the
               boiler make-up water compared to that in the boiler blowdown water. Conductivity
               provides an indication of the overall TDS concentration in the boiler. The blowdown
               percentage  can be calculated as indicated in Equation 6-6.The boiler water quality is
31 U.S. Energy Department (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). January 2012. Minimize Boiler Blowdown. wiv/wl.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestprac-
 tices/pdfs/steam9_blowdown.pdf.
32 DOE, EERE. January 2012. Return Condensate to Boiler, wwwl .eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_deployment/pdfs/steam8_boiler.pdf.



October 2012                                                                                            6-27

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6.5  Boiler and  Steam Systems
              often expressed in terms of cycles of concentration, which is the inverse of the blow-
              down percentage.33


                    Equation 6-6. Boiler or Steam System Slowdown Percentage (percent)


                     = Conductivity of Make-Up Water 4- Conductivity of Slowdown

                     Where:

                         • Conductivity of Make-Up Water (milligrams per liter of IDS)
                         • Conductivity of Slowdown (milligrams per liter of IDS)


              Controlling the blowdown percentage and maximizing the cycles of concentration
              will reduce make-up water use; however, this can only be done within the constraints
              of the make-up and boiler water chemistry. As the IDS concentration in the blow-
              down water increases, scaling and corrosion problems can occur, unless carefully
              controlled.

              The amount of make-up water required is a key driver of the overall water use of the
              boiler. Make-up water quantity is dictated  by the amount of water that is lost from
              the system, particularly steam condensate that is discharged  and not returned to the
              boiler, and the amount of blow down, as illustrated in Equation 6-7.


                        Equation 6-7. Boiler or Steam System Make-Up Water (gallons)


                     = Condensate Loss + Blowdown

                     Where:

                         • Condensate Loss (gallons)
                         • Blowdown (gallons)


              By recovering steam condensate and carefully controlling the amount and frequency
              of blowdown, boiler water and energy use can be significantly reduced.


              Operation, Maintenance, and User  Education

              There are a number of ways to improve water efficiency of boiler and steam systems
              by changing operation, maintenance, and  user education techniques. Best manage-
              ment practices include: maintaining boilers, steam lines, and  steam traps; choosing a
              water treatment vendor that focuses on water efficiency; reading meters and water
              chemistry reports to closely monitor water use; minimizing blowdown; and improv-
              ing make-up water quality to increase cycles of concentration.


33 North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al. May 2009. Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Facilities.
 Pages 49-52. savewaternc.org/bushome.php.


6-28                                                                                        October 2012

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                                                            6.5 Boiler and  Steam  Systems
              Maintaining Boilers, Steam Lines, and Steam Traps

              When maintaining boilers, steam lines, and steam traps, consider the following:

                •  Regularly check steam and hot water lines for leaks and make repairs promptly.

                •  Regularly clean and inspect boiler water and fire tubes.

                •  Develop and implement an annual boiler tune-up program.

                •  Provide proper insulation on piping and the central storage tank to conserve
                  heat.

                •  Implement a steam trap inspection program for boiler systems with condensate
                  recovery. When steam traps exceed condensate temperature, this inspection can
                  reveal whether the trap is leaking condensation. Monitor temperature using an
                  infrared temperature device.34 Repair leaking  traps as soon as possible.35

              Choosing a Water Treatment Vendor

              When choosing a water treatment vendor, select  one that focuses on water ef-
              ficiency. Request an estimate of the quantities and costs of treatment chemicals,
              volumes of make-up and blowdown water expected per year. Choose a vendor that
              can minimize water use, chemical use, and cost, while maintaining appropriate water
              chemistry for efficient scale and corrosion control.

              Reading Meters and Water Chemistry Reports

              When reading meters and water chemistry reports, consider the following:

                •  If available, have operations and maintenance personnel read the make-up and
                  condensate return flow meters regularly to quickly identify leaks or other prob-
                  lems.

                •  Ensure the water treatment vendor produces a  report every time he or she evalu-
                  ates the water chemistry in the boiler. When these reports are received, read
                  them to ensure that monitoring characteristics, such as conductivity and cycles
                  of concentration, are within the target range. By paying proper attention to the
                  water  chemistry reports, problems within the system can be identified quickly.

              Minimizing Blowdown

              To minimize blowdown, consider the following:

                •  Calculate and understand the boiler's cycles of concentration. Check the ratio of
                  conductivity of blowdown water to the make-up water. Use a handheld conduc-
                  tivity meter if the boiler is not equipped with  permanent conductivity meters.
                  This ratio should match the target cycles of concentration.

34 Ibid.
35 DOE, EERE, Federal Energy Management Program. July 1999. Steam Trap Performance Assessment: Advanced technologies for evaluating the performance of steam
 traps, wwwl .eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/FTA_SteamTrap.pdf.


October 2012                                                                                          6-29

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6.5  Boiler and  Steam Systems
                •  Work with the water treatment vendor to prevent scaling and corrosion and opti-
                  mize cycles of concentration.

               Improving Make-up Water Quality

               To improve make-up water quality, consider the following:

                •  Consider pre-treating boiler make-up water to remove impurities, which can in-
                  crease the cycles of concentration the boiler can achieve. Water softeners, reverse
                  osmosis systems, or demineralization are potential pre-treatment technology
                  options. Refer to Section 7.2: Water Purification for more information.

                •  When increasing cycles of concentration, ensure that discharged water meets
                  allowable water quality standards.


               Retrofit Options

               To improve the efficiency of an existing boiler and steam system, consider retrofit-
               ting the system by recovering steam condensate and installing meters and control
               systems to monitor water use.

               Recovering Steam Condensate

               When recovering steam condensate, consider the following:

                •  Install and maintain a condensate recovery system to return condensate to the
                  boiler for reuse.

                •  Where condensate cannot be returned to the boiler and must be discharged to
                  the sanitary sewer, employ an expansion tank to temper hot condensate rather
                  than adding water to cool it.

               Installing Meters and Control Systems

               When installing meters and control systems, consider the following:

                •  Install an automatic blowdown control system, particularly on boilers that are
                  more than 200 horsepower, to control the amount and frequency of blowdown
                  rather than relying on continuous blowdown.36 Control systems with a conduc-
                  tivity controller will initiate blowdown only when theTDS concentrations in the
                  boiler have built up to a certain concentration.

                •  If not already present, install flow meters on the make-up water line and the con-
                  densate return line to monitor the amount of make-up water added to the boiler.
                  Refer to the previous "Operation, Maintenance, and User Education" section for
                  recommendations on how to use the meter once it is installed.
6EBMUD,op.c;f.
6-30                                                                                         October 2012

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                                                          6.5 Boiler  and  Steam Systems
               • Install automated chemical feed systems to monitor conductivity, control blow-
                 down, and add chemicals based on make-up water flow. These systems minimize
                 water and chemical use while protecting against scale buildup and corrosion.


              Replacement Options

              Because replacing a boiler involves significant capital costs, first implement efficient
              operations and maintenance procedures and perform any retrofits available to opti-
              mize the current boiler's management scheme. After exhausting all efficient manage-
              ment practices, consider the costs and benefits of boiler replacement.

              Boiler replacement options will vary depending upon the size of the facility and
              existing equipment. Conduct an energy audit to help reduce heating loads; ensure
              the boiler system is appropriately sized; and identify whether it is possible to reduce
              the boiler size. When looking to replace an existing boiler, consider installing a small
              summer boiler, distributed system, or heat-capture system for reheating or dehumid-
              ification requirements. Also, consider alternative technologies such as heat pumps.


              Savings Potential

              Significant water savings can be achieved by improving the  boiler system manage-
              ment scheme. A key mechanism to reduce water use is to maximize the cycles of con-
              centration. Installing an automatic blowdown control system is one way to minimize
              blowdown and maximize cycles of concentration. Switching to an automatic control
              system can reduce a boiler's energy use by 2 to 5 percent and reduce blowdown by
              as much as 20 percent.


              Additional Resources

              American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1994. Consensus Operating Practices for
              Control ofFeedwater/Boiler Water Chemistry in Modern Industrial Boilers.

              Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO). November 1997. ClBO Energy Efficiency
              Handbook, www.cibo.org/pubs/steamhandbook.pdf.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. January 2012. Minimize Boiler Blowdown.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/steam9_blowdown.pdf.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. January 2012. Return Condensate to
              Boiler. www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/steam8_boiler.pdf.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program.
              July 1999. Steam Trap Performance Assessment:  Advanced technologies for evaluating
              the performance of steam traps.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/FTA_SteamTrap.pdf.
October 2012                                                                                        6-31

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6.5  Boiler and  Steam Systems
               East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Effi-
               ciency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses, www.ebmud.com/'for-customers/conser-
               vation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

               North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al. May 2009.
               Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Facilities. Pages 49-
               52. savewaternc.org/bushome.php.

               Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Insti-
               tutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State Engi-
               neer. Page 68. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.
6-32                                                                                         October 2012

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   Table of Contents
   7.1  Introduction to Laboratory
      and Medical Equipment	7-2
   7.2  Water Purification	7-4
   7.3  Vacuum Pumps	7-10
   7.4  Steam Sterilizers	7-16
   7.5  Glassware Washers	7-24
   7.6  Fume Hood Filtration and
      Wash-Down Systems	7-27
   7.7  Vivarium Washing and
      Watering Systems	7-33
   7.8  Photographic and X-Ray Equipment	7-38
       Laboratory  and
Medical  Equipment
                   EPA
                   Water Sense

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7.1   Introduction  to  Laboratory and
        IVIedical  Equipment
                                                WaterSense
               From dental and doctor's offices to large general hospitals, veterinary clinics, and
               research laboratories, medical and laboratory facilities have special operations and
               equipment. These systems can consume a significant amount of water through water
               purification, sterilization, photographic and X-ray processes, and vacuum systems.
               As shown in Figure 7-1, equipment such as steam sterilizers and reverse osmosis
               systems can account for 5 percent of a laboratory's total water use.1 Hospitals can
               attribute more than 15 percent of their total water use to laboratory and medical
               equipment, including steam sterilizers and X-ray processing equipment, as shown in
               Figure 7-2.2

                                Figure 7-1. Laboratory Water Consumption
                                      Sanitary,
                                       12%
                        Cooling Tower
                           42%
                               Laboratory
                                Process
                                 25% —
                               Other Building
                              Heating and Cooling
                                 Reverse Osmosis
                                   System
                        Single-Pass
                         Cooling
                               X-Ray
                              Processing
                                  Figure 7-2. Hospital Water Consumption

                                              Leaks-

                                                            ' Sanitary
Irrigation
                                  Laundry
                                   10% '
                                        Steam
                                       Sterilizers
                  Building Heating
                    and Cooling
                     13%
1 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Laboratory Water Use vs. Office Water Use. www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/water/lab_vs_office.htm.
2 East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). June 25,2003."EBMUD Hospital Water Efficiency: Water Conservation Division." Page 5. www.cuwcc.org/WorkArea/
 downloadasset.aspx?id=2230.
7-2
    WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                      7.1  Introduction to Laboratory and Medical Equipment
              Many older pieces of medical and laboratory equipment use single-pass cooling
              continuously for the purpose of keeping equipment cool or for tempering hot water
              before it is discharged to the sewer. Newer technologies and better practices are
              available that can significantly reduce this water use. For example, retrofitting a
              steam sterilizer with a thermostatically actuated valve can reduce tempering water
              needed to cool hot steam condensate before discharge by up to 90 percent. Vacuum
              pump recirculation systems can save 50 to 80 percent of the water used to cool the
              vacuum. For traditional photographic and X-ray equipment, recycling and reusing
              the final rinse effluent as make-up for the developer or fixer solution can save 50 per-
              cent or more of the water required to process film. Converting to digital equipment
              can eliminate this water use entirely.

              One consideration to note is that laboratories and medical facilities might face
              unique challenges because of the high quality of the water required for their equip-
              ment. Most of these facilities require the use of potable water at a minimum and
              more highly treated water in many cases. Water is frequently used to disinfect parts
              of these facilities as  well. The need to maintain high-quality standards can preclude
              the use of certain technologies and alternative sources of water, as described in other
              sections within this  document. For example, laboratories often require purified or de-
              ionized water to perform tests and experiments. Medical facilities also must maintain
              high standards for health and safety. These standards can limit the types of technolo-
              gies that can be utilized in these types of facilities. Water efficiency alone will not be
              a driver in the choice of technologies or processes in these facilities. Rather, it should
              be a consideration after other requirements have been met.

              Section 7: Laboratory and Medical Equipment of WaterSense at Work provides an over-
              view of and guidance for effectively reducing the water use of:

                •  Water purification
                •  Vacuum pumps
                •  Steam sterilizers
                •  Glassware washers
                •  Fume hood filtration and wash-down systems
                •  Vivarium washing and watering systems
                •  Photographic and X-ray equipment
                          Laboratory and Medical
                          Equipment Case Study

                To learn how Providence St. Peter Hospital in Olym-
                pia, Washington, saved 31 million gallons of water
                by installing water-efficient laboratory and medical
                equipment and implementing many additional
                best management practices described in Water-
                Sense at Work, read the case study in Appendix A.
October 2012
7-3

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7.2  Water Purification
                                                                                      WaterSense
               Overview

               Water purification systems are used in laboratory and medical applications requir-
               ing high-quality water that is free of minerals and organic contaminants. Generally,
               these systems purify water through physical or chemical means. Many water puri-
               fication systems use additional water during a backwash phase to remove particle
               buildup on the purification media, or discharge a reject stream containing concen-
                                 trated contaminants.Typically, as finer particles are removed, the
                                 purification process becomes more water- and energy-intensive.
                                 Therefore, it is important to evaluate the level of water quality
                                 required to ensure that the system does not deliver a higher level
                                 of purification than is needed. Systems that deliver a higher wa-
                                 ter quality than the facility needs will often be more expensive to
                                 operate than a more appropriate system and can result in wasted
                                 water and energy.

                                 There are several technical standards for water quality that facili-
                                 ties can use to evaluate the appropriate water purification method,
                                 including ASTM International ASTMD1193 Standard Specification
                                 for Reagent Water and the International Organization for Standard-
                                 ization (ISO) ISO 3696 Water for Analytical Laboratory Use—Specifi-
                                 cation and Test Methods. These standards generally classify water
                                 quality into specific types based on the quality required.3
Water purification system in a laboratory
               When determining the level of treatment needed to supply water of a specific qual-
               ity, there are a number of water purification technologies used in lab and medical
               facilities that can be considered. These include: microporous filtration, carbon filtra-
               tion, deionization, distillation, membrane processes, and water softening. Because no
               single water purification system is able to remove 100 percent of all contaminants, it
               is common for multiple water purification technologies to be installed in sequence
               where only a low level of contaminants can be tolerated.

               Microporous Filtration

               Microporous filtration physically removes solid contaminants by capturing them on
               the surface of the media. Microporous filtration typically occurs at low pressures and
               does not remove any dissolved solids.4 After a period of use, filters will require back-
               washing with water to remove contaminants trapped on the media surface.

               Carbon Filtration

               Carbon filtration uses adsorption to attract particles as water passes through the
               filter. The adsorption process depends upon the physical characteristics of the
               activated carbon; the chemical compositions of the carbon and the contaminants;
3 Millipore. Overview of Lab Water Grades. www.millipore.com/lab_water/clw4/tutorial&tabno=4.
4 Messinger, Stephen. September 2006. "What Makes Water Taste Best?" Water Conditioning & Purification Magazine. www.wcponline.com/TOC.cfm?ISN=110.
7-4
                                          WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                           7.2 Water  Purification
               the temperature and pH of the water; and the amount of time the contaminant is
               exposed to the activated carbon.5 Carbon filters can use either disposable cartridges
               or packed columns. Disposable cartridges are disposed of once the adsorptive capac-
               ity is exhausted. Alternatively, packed columns can be removed and regenerated off
               site.6 Water use is required to regenerate the columns; however, since regeneration is
               typically done off site, no water is used at the facility level.

               Deionization

               Deionization is a physical process similar to water softening that exchanges cations
               and anions present in the untreated water with hydrogen and hydroxide ions. Deion-
               ization is not effective at removing particulates, but because the process is relatively
               fast, it is commonly used in laboratory applications requiring a low level of water
               purification. Regeneration of deionization resins often occurs off site.7 Water use is
               required to regenerate the resin; however, since the regeneration is done off site, no
               water is used at the facility level.

               Distillation

               Distillation functions by boiling water to form steam condensate using either an
               electric or gas still. Solid contaminants are left behind as the steam is generated, then
               the steam is condensed into a purified water stream. Distillers can use large volumes
               of water if once-through cooling water is used in the condenser, or if a reject stream
               is discharged from the boiler to prevent scale buildup.These systems typically reject
               15 to 25 percent of water entering the system.8
               Membrane Processes (Including Reverse Osmosis)

               Membrane processes use a semi-permeable mem-
               brane layer to separate purified water from con-
               taminants. Several types of membranes are used
               for water purification, including (from largest to
               smallest size of particles removed) microfiltration,
               ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis.
               Because reverse osmosis is capable of removing
               the smallest particles, it is used most often by
               laboratory and medical facilities requiring very
               pure water.

               Reverse osmosis units use pressure to reverse os-
               motic pressure and force water with a high solute
               concentration through a membrane filter to create
               purified (i.e., low solute) water. Reverse osmosis is
Reverse osmosis system
5 University of Minnesota Extension. 1992. Treatment Systems for Household Water Supplies: Activated Carbon Filtration (Clean Water Series).
 www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/naturalresources/DD5939.html.
6 East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. PagesTREAT1-6.
www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.
7 Water Online. Deionization. www.wateronline.com/product.mvc/Deionization-0001.
8EBMUD,op.c;f.
October 2012
                                          7-5

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7.2 Water Purification
               able to remove a large portion of contaminants but recovers only a portion of the
               incoming water. The recovery rate, defined as the ratio of the purified water (i.e.,
               permeate) to feed (i.e., incoming) water, is used to depict the efficiency of a reverse
               osmosis system. For commercial and institutional applications, reverse osmosis units
               typically have recovery rates of 50 to 75 percent.9 Thus, the systems reject 25 to 50
               percent of water entering the system.

               Water Softening

               Water softening is used to remove hardness minerals, such as calcium and magne-
               sium, from water. Cation exchange water softeners are the most common type of wa-
               ter softening system, although other water purification technologies, such as reverse
               osmosis and distillation systems, can also soften water.

               In a cation exchange water softener, hard water with positively charged calcium and
               magnesium ions passes through  a mineral tank consisting of positively charged sodium
               ions attached to a bed of negatively charged resin beads. The calcium and magnesium
               ions are exchanged for the sodium ions on the resin beads, which causes the gradual
               depletion of available ion exchange sites. Eventually, the water softener must be re-
               generated to replenish the softening capacity.The regeneration process uses water to
               purge and rinse the system and replenish the sodium ion supply on the resin beads. As
               a result, the system generates sodium-rich wastewater that must be disposed.

               The frequency of regeneration and the amount of water used by the water softening
               process is dictated by the hardness of the incoming water, the rate of water con-
               sumption, and the hardness removal capacity of the cation exchange water softener.
               The most efficient cation exchange water softeners are demand-initiated, which base
               the frequency of regeneration on the incoming water's hardness or the demand for
               softened water rather than a set regeneration schedule.

               Other Technologies

               Several less common technologies are also used to purify water. Chlorine com-
               pounds, ozone, or hydrogen peroxide can be used to chemically disinfect water.
               Ultraviolet light, heat, and extreme mechanical sheer can also be used to treat water
               with contaminants. These technologies might not require the backwash  phase used
               by other water purification technologies, but they can require regular cleaning,
               which can be water-intensive.10 Chemical disinfection can use additional water if
               chemicals are added in liquid or slurry form.
9 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Federal Energy Management
 Program (FEMP). May 2005. Laboratories for the 2 V Century: Best Practices, Water Efficiency Guide for Laboratories. Page 5. wwwl .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/
 Iabs21_bmp.html.
10EBMUD,op.c;f.



7-6                                                                                               October 2012

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                                                                      7.2 Water Purification
              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

              For optimal water purification system efficiency, consider the following operation,
              maintenance, and user education techniques:

                • Use water purification only when necessary and match the process to the actual
                 quality of water required.

                • For filtration processes, base backwash phases upon the pressure differential
                 across the filtration media. A pressure drop will indicate that the filter requires
                 backwashing.

                • For carbon filtration and deionization processes where regeneration occurs off
                 site, work with maintenance professionals to determine an optimal schedule for
                 removing and regenerating units. This can be determined based  on incoming
                 water characteristics and the amount and quality of purified water required daily.
                 Deionization systems should require regeneration based on the volume of water
                 treated or conductivity.

                • For distillation systems, periodically clean the boiling chamber to remove accu-
                 mulated minerals. This will ensure efficient operation of the system.

                • For water softeners, work with a plumbing professional or the product manufac-
                 turer to account for and program regeneration based upon the incoming water
                 hardness and/or flow through the system. Monitor and adjust settings periodically.


              Retrofit Options

              Facilities might choose to install multiple water purification systems in sequence to
              increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the water purification process. When one
              of the later phases of treatment uses a membrane, at a minimum, it might be neces-
              sary to install a pretreatment step to remove larger particles.

              For filtration processes, consider installing pressure gauges, if not already installed.
              Pressure gauges can be used to determine when to initiate a backwash phase.

              Consider reusing water purification system reject water as an alternative onsite water
              source where appropriate and feasible. See Section 8: Onsite Alternative Water Sources
              for more information.


              Replacement Options

              Prior to purchasing a new water purification system or replacing an old one, evalu-
              ate the incoming water supply and assess the quality and quantity requirements of
              the intended use for a period of time. This will help to determine the  level of water
              purification needed and the sizing of the system. Choose the least intensive treat-
              ment needed to achieve the desired quality level and size the system correctly for the
              intended  use. Oversized systems can waste water and energy and lead to degraded
              quality due to of long, inoperable periods.
October 2012                                                                                           7-7

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7.2  Water Purification
               Consider water purification systems that require the least amount of backwashing or
               regeneration. For membrane processes such as reverse osmosis, consider a system
               with a high recovery rate for its size. For deionization systems, consider systems that
               regenerate based on the volume of water treated or conductivity. For distillation
               systems, consider units that use air-cooled coils, rather than water-cooled coils and
               recover at least 85 percent of the feed water." For water softeners, consider demand-
               initiated systems instead of systems with manual or auto-initiated regeneration. In
               addition, consider installing multiple smaller, more efficient cation exchange water
               softeners that can be alternated to minimize the frequency of regeneration and allow
               for a constant, uninterrupted supply of soft water.


               Savings  Potential

               The water use of a water purification system is dependent upon the level of purifica-
               tion required, incoming water quality, volume of use, and purified water demand.
               Water use is also specific to the type of water purification system used.

               Carbon filtration and deionization systems are typically regenerated off site. If regen-
               erated off site, the water use of these systems will not directly affect the water use of
               the facility. However, minimizing the frequency of removal and regeneration will help
               to reduce the water use of these systems.

               The water use of distillers is dependent upon the method of cooling and  the amount
               of reject water used to clear the boiler of scale buildup. Water savings can be maxi-
               mized if air-cooled coils are used rather than water-cooled coils. Additionally, systems
               that produce less reject water will consume less water overall.

               For filtration  processes, water use is determined by the water quality requirements
               and frequency of the backwash phase. Optimizing the frequency of the backwash
               phase by initiating backwash only when a pressure drop occurs across the filter me-
               dia will ensure less water is used overall.

               The water efficiency of a reverse osmosis process can be determined by the recovery
               rate, which is defined as the ratio of permeate to feed. Systems with higher recovery
               rates are considered more efficient, because they are able to produce more purified
               water from the same amount of feed.

               Recovery rates can vary widely depending upon the type of membrane and quality
               of incoming water. Some less efficient reverse osmosis systems, for example, have a
               recovery rate of 33 to 50 percent.12The recovery rate can be maximized by increas-
               ing the number of stages of membrane pressure vessels, which allows for higher
               pressures to be achieved in order to more effectively overcome natural osmosis. A
               one-stage system can achieve a recovery rate of 50 percent, while two- and three-
               stage systems can achieve recovery rates of 75 percent and 90 percent, respectively.13
               For example, the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, installed
               a high-efficiency reverse osmosis system with pretreatment before the membranes.


11 Ibid.
12 Pagliaro,Tony. 1995. "Commercial/Industrial Reverse Osmosis Systems: General Design Considerations." WaterReview. Page 3. www.wqa.org/pdf/Technical/
 cirodes.pdf.
13/Wd. Page 2.


7-8                                                                                             October 2012

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                                                                         7.2 Water Purification
               The facility was able to achieve a 95 percent recovery rate, rejecting only 5 percent of
               the water entering the system.14


               Additional Resources

               East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency
               Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages TREAT1 -6. www.ebmud.com/for-
               customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

               EPA and DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Pro-
               gram. May 2005. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices, Water Efficiency Guide
               for Laboratories. Page 5. www! .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/labs21_bmp.html.

               Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial, Insti-
               tutional and Industrial Users. Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State Engin-
               eer. www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_ici.html.
14 EPA and DOE, EERE, FEMP. August 2009. Microelectronics Plant Water Efficiency Improvements atSandia National Laboratories. Page 2. wwwl .eere.energy.gov/
 femp/program/waterefficien cy_csstudies.html.



October 2012                                                                                              7-9

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7.3 Vacuum Pumps
                                                                     WaterSense
Vacuum pumps at the Kansas City
Science and Technology Center
Overview

Laboratories, medical facilities, and dental offices use vacuum pumps to collect waste
gases, liquids, or debris from a vessel or enclosure.These vacuum pump systems
range in size, depending upon whether they are used to supply a vacuum to several
rooms or for point of use. Dental offices' pumps range from 1.0 to 4.0 horsepower
                (hp), while a central vacuum pump in a medical facility can be 5.0
                to 20.0 hp.15 Vacuum pumps can use water in two ways: to cool
                the pump or to create the vacuum seal in the rotating equipment,
                which generates the vacuum.

                An aspirator is a type of vacuum system that can  consume water
                in the process of creating the vacuum. In an aspirator, fluid (e.g.,
                liquid, gaseous) flows through a narrowing tube. As the tube
                narrows, the velocity of the fluid increases and the static pres-
                sure within the system  decreases due to the Venturi effect, which
                creates a vacuum. The simplest type of aspirator uses water as the
                fluid medium, which is  used once and discharged to the drain,
                making the process very water-intensive. Because of their sim-
                plicity, water aspirators might commonly be found in many high
                school and  college laboratories, but their use can be limited to just
                a few hours each semester. Although water aspirators are available,
                they are not the focus of this section. Instead, this section focuses
                on vacuum pump systems, which are more commonly found in
commercial and institutional facilities. If a facility has a water aspirator that is used
frequently, it should consider the replacement options discussed in this section.
               Generating the Vacuum

               Vacuum pumps can either be "dry" or "wet"—based upon how the vacuum seal is
               generated within the pump. Dry pumps do not use water to generate the seal for the
               vacuum. Instead, they create vacuums with turbines (i.e., fans) or use positive dis-
               placement (e.g., vane pumps, claw pumps, piston pumps). Wet pumps use a closed
               impeller that is sealed with water or other lubricants such as oil to generate the
               vacuum.

               The most common type of wet vacuum pump is a liquid-ring vacuum pump, which
               uses water to form a moving cylindrical ring inside the pump casing. In these pumps,
               the vacuum is created by the changing geometry inside the pump casing as the im-
               peller and liquid ring rotate. As the vacuum seal water rotates with the pump, it gains
               heat and gathers impurities from gases collected by the vacuum system.

               In the most simple liquid-ring vacuum pump systems, the seal and cooling water
               are continuously discharged and  replenished with fresh water to dissipate heat and
5 East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Page MED2.
 www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.
7-10
                          WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                         7.3 Vacuum Pumps
              remove impurities. Water requirements for both creating the vacuum and cooling the
              equipment range from 0.5 to 1.0 gallons per minute (gpm) per hp.16To save water,
              these pumps can be equipped with a partial or full recovery and recirculation system.
              In the full recovery system, all the seal water is recovered from the discharge side of
              the pump, passed through a heat exchanger (if the system configuration allows for
              heat removal), and reused for sealing and cooling. A small amount of recycled water
              is discharged to remove impurities, and the system is replenished  with make-up
              water.This full configuration recirculation system is estimated to reduce water use by
              80 percent.17

              Partial recovery and recirculation systems recirculate part of the sealing water. Make-
              up water is added to ensure that impurity concentration is not too high. In these
              systems, consideration should be made to avoid heat buildup in the pump. Partial
              recovery systems can reduce water use by about 50 percent.

              Cooling the Vacuum Pump

              Vacuum pumps can be water-cooled or air-cooled. Water-cooled vacuum pumps
              use single-pass cooling or recirculated cooling. Either wet or dry vacuum pumps
              can use water to cool the system. In single-pass cooling, water passes through the
              pump only once for cooling, then is discharged directly to the drain. A recirculated
              cooling system, on the other hand, passes the majority of cooling  water through a
              heat exchanger, and the cooling water is reused. If the cooling water does not come
              in contact with the vacuumed gases or other impurities, it can be recirculated by
              connecting the pump to a larger building system chilled water loop or cooling tower
              water loop to remove the heat load. Air-cooled vacuum pumps use ambient air,
              rather than water, to remove the heat load from the vacuum pump.


              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

              For optimal liquid-ring vacuum  pump efficiency, consider the following tips:

               • Turn off the pump when it is not in use or needed.

               • Ensure that the vacuum pump is set at manufacturer specifications to discharge
                 only the amount of water necessary to remove impurities and cool the vacuum
                 pump.

               • Periodically check the vacuum pump's operational control schemes, if available,
                 to ensure optimum efficiency (e.g., timers, float-operated switches, total dis-
                 solved solids controllers that initiate discharge and make-up water).


              Retrofit Options

              If the facility is using a liquid-ring vacuum pump that continuously discharges water,
              the facility can consider equipping the pump with a full recovery and recirculation
16 Ibid.
17 U.S. Air Force Medical Service. Dental Vacuum Systems. Page 5. airforcemedicine.afms.mil/idc/groups/public/documents/afms/ctb_108329.pdf.



October 2012                                                                                        7-11

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7.3  Vacuum Pumps
               system, to reduce total water use by an estimated 80 percent.18 The facility should
               consider the impurities gathered within the pump and other characteristics of the
               waste being removed when evaluating whether a full recovery and recirculation
               system is appropriate. A partial recovery and recirculation system could also be
               considered, and the facility could reduce water use by an estimated 50 percent with
               its installation. If either recovery and recirculation system option is installed, ensure
               that it is properly maintained per manufacturer instructions so that impurities are
               removed and hard water deposits do not remain in the system.

               If the facility has any other type of vacuum pump that is cooled  with single-pass,
               non-contact cooling water, a heat exchanger can be added, or it can be connected to
               a larger building system chilled water loop or cooling tower water loop. See Section
               6.2: Single-Pass Cooling for more information.


               Replacement Options

               When purchasing a new vacuum pump or replacing older equipment, a non-
               lubricated, dry vacuum pump that is air-cooled can eliminate the pump's water use
               altogether. When choosing a vacuum pump, it is important to consider all factors,
               including energy and water use. Although they might be more expensive, dry, air-
               cooled vacuum pumps can be as much as 25 to 50 percent more energy-efficient
               than water-cooled or liquid-ring vacuum pumps.19

               Facilities should note that, in some cases, liquid-ring vacuum pump discharge can
               pose a biohazard risk. Therefore, a non-lubricated, dry vacuum pump that is air-
               cooled could be the best option. However, if explosive or corrosive gases are being
               removed with the vacuum system, the facility might only be able to consider a liquid-
               ring vacuum pump. Dental facilities should note that new vacuum systems—wet
               or dry, and regardless of the type of cooling system—often need to add amalgam
               separators to prevent mercury contamination in water bodies.20


               Savings Potential

               Retrofitting existing liquid-ring vacuum pumps with full or partial recovery and
               recirculation systems can result in significant water savings, while replacing existing
               water-cooled and/or liquid-ring vacuum pumps with air-cooled, dry vacuum pumps
               can entirely eliminate water use.

               To estimate facility-specific water savings and payback, use the following information.

               Vacuum Pump Retrofit

               Liquid-ring pumps that utilize water to create a vacuum can be retrofitted to recircu-
               late sealing and cooling water rather than discharging to the drain.
18 Ibid.
"EBMUD,op.c;f.
20 U.S. Air Force Medical Service, op. cit., Page 1.



7-12                                                                                         October 2012

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                                                                          7.3 Vacuum Pumps
              Current Water Use

              To estimate the current water use of an existing vacuum pump, identify the following
              and use Equation 7-1:

               • Flow rate of the discharged water from the existing vacuum pump.
               • Average daily use time.
               • Days of operation per year.
                        Equation 7-1. Water Use of Vacuum Pump (gallons per year)
                     = Vacuum Pump Discharge Flow Rate x Daily Use Time x Days of
                      Operation

                     Where:

                         •  Vacuum Pump Discharge Flow Rate (gallons per minute)
                         •  Daily Use Time (minutes per day)
                         •  Days of Operation (days per year)


              Water Savings

              Full water recovery and recirculation systems can reduce water use by approximately
              80 percent,21 while partial systems can reduce water use by approximately 50 per-
              cent.22 To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from retrofitting an exist-
              ing vacuum pump, identify the current water use of the vacuum pump as calculated
              using Equation 7-1 and use Equation 7-2, using 80 percent savings for a full system
              and 50 percent for a partial system.


                 Equation 7-2. Water Savings From Vacuum Pump Recovery and Recirculation
                                    System Retrofit (gallons per year)
                     = Current Water Use of Vacuum Pump x Savings (0.80 or 0.50)

                     Where:
                           Current Water Use of Vacuum Pump (gallons per year)
                           Savings (percent)
              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with retrofitting
              an existing vacuum pump, consider the equipment and installation cost of the retro-
              fit recovery and recirculation system, the water savings as calculated using Equation
              7-2, and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.
1 Ibid. Page 5.
2 Estimate based on manufacturer literature.
October 2012                                                                                         7-13

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7.3 Vacuum Pumps
              The facility should also consider the energy impact of the vacuum pump retrofit. The
              recovery systems might use energy, which can affect the payback period and cost-
              effectiveness.

              Vacuum Pump Replacement

              Existing liquid-ring vacuum pumps can be replaced with dry vacuum pumps that are
              air-cooled rather than water-cooled. This replacement entirely eliminates the water
              used to create a vacuum, as well as the water used to cool the vacuum pump.

              Current Water Use

              To estimate the current water use of an existing vacuum pump, use Equation 7-1.

              Water Savings

              Because air-cooled, dry vacuum pumps consume no water to create a vacuum, water
              savings will be equal to the current water use. To calculate the water savings that can
              be achieved from replacing an existing vacuum pump, identify the current water use
              of the vacuum pump as calculated using Equation 7-1 and use Equation 7-3.


               Equation 7-3. Water Savings From Vacuum Pump Replacement (gallons per year)


                     = Current Water Use of Vacuum Pump

                     Where:

                        • Current Water Use of Vacuum Pump (gallons per year)


              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing an
              existing liquid-ring vacuum pump with an air-cooled, dry vacuum pump, consider
              the equipment and installation cost, the water savings as calculated using Equation
              7-3, and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

              By replacing a water-cooled or liquid-ring vacuum pump with an air-cooled, dry
              pump,  facilities should also consider the potential increase or decrease in energy use.
              Some dry vacuum pumps can save energy over the existing water-cooled or liquid-
              ring pump. The energy use  will also affect the payback time and replacement cost-
              effectiveness.
7-14                                                                                        October 2012

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                                                                       7.3 Vacuum Pumps
              Additional Resources

              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency
              Plan Review/Guide for New Businesses. Pages MED1 -2. www.ebmud.com/for-customers/
              conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

              Sydney Water. October 2004. The Liquid Ring Vacuum Pump.
              www.sydneywater.com.au/Water4Life/lnYourBusiness/FactSheets.cfm.

              U.S. Air Force Medical Service. Dental Vacuum Systems.
              airforcemedicine.afms.mil/idc/groups/public/documents/afms/ctb_108329.pdf.
October 2012                                                                                      7-15

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7.4  Steam  Sterilizers
                                                                                        WaterSense
               Overview

               Disinfection/sterilization is common in hospitals and research
               institutions where it is necessary to destroy microorganisms that
               can cause infection or disease. A steam sterilizer (a subcategory
               of autoclaves) is the most common type of system used to dis-
               infect and sterilize laboratory equipment, surgical instruments,
               medical waste, and other materials requiring sterilization.23
               Steam sterilizers can use water in three ways: to generate steam
               (i.e., the disinfecting/sterilizing agent); to cool steam condensate
               to appropriate temperatures before it is discharged down the
               drain; and to draw a vacuum through the sterilization chamber
               to expedite the drying process.
                                                                                        *     IT
                                                                             Steam sterilizer exterior
               Several other types of autoclaves use different modes of sterilization, including dry
               heat, ethylene oxide, and radiation.24 However, these modes of sterilization are not
               typically recommended unless the material being sterilized has special requirements
               that make it adverse to steam or high temperatures.This section focuses on steam
               sterilizers, the type of sterilization equipment that uses water.

               The water-efficiency options discussed in this section do not address the water used
               to generate the steam that is used in the disinfection process and, therefore, do not
               impact the steam sterilizer's ability to disinfect and sterilize equipment. For informa-
               tion on optimizing a central boiler and steam system which may supply steam to
               steam  sterilizers, refer to Section 6.5 Boiler and Steam Systems.

                                          Steam sterilizers are usually operated 24 hours per day
                                          in order for the equipment to remain sterile and ready
                                          to use at any time. Most systems are only actively steril-
                                          izing for eight hours per day or less and are idle for the
                                          remaining time.25 During idle mode, low-pressure steam
                                          is passed into the chamber. During both idle mode
                                          and active sterilization, as the steam in the chamber
                                          condenses, the generated condensate discharges to a
                                          floor drain, where it is tempered with cool water to a
                                          temperature less than HOT before it is discharged to
                                          the sanitary sewer. Most steam sterilizers use temper-
                                          ing water at a flow rate of 1.0 to 3.0 gallons per minute
               (gpm).26 Older steam sterilizers can waste a significant amount of water if they allow
               tempering water to flow continuously.27 Even at a flow rate of 1.0 gpm, the resulting
               tempering water use can range from 400,000 to 500,000 gallons per year.

3 Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE). Steam Sterilizer & Autoclaves Introduction. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/1Column.aspx?id=680.
4/5;d.
5 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Federal Energy Management Pro-
 gram (FEMP). May 2005. Laboratories for the 21a Century: Best Practices, Water Efficiency Guide for Laboratories. Pages5-6.www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/
 Iabs21_bmp.html.
5 Ibid.
7 AWE, op. c/'f.
Steam sterilizer Interior
7-16
                                           WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                             7.4 Steam  Sterilizers
               Newer steam sterilizers can be designed—or older systems retrofitted—with a ther-
               mostatically actuated valve (see Figure 7-3) and/or an uninsulated heat exchange
               tankto significantly reduce the amount of tempering water use.The heat exchange
               tank transfers heat from the condensate to the cooler, ambient atmosphere before it
               is discharged to the sanitary sewer. The tempering valve allows tempering water to
               flow only when the condensate reaches a certain temperature. Major steam sterilizer
               manufacturers in the United States began including water tempering kits on their
               systems in the late 1990s.

                               Figure 7-3. Steam Sterilizer Cooling Water Retrofit

                                                Steam Supply

                                                   I
                                               Jacket
                                             Sterilization
                                              Chamber
                                         Condensate
                                                   ( ) Temperature Sensor
                                           Cooled
                                         Condensate
                                                              Tempering
                                                                Water
                                                     Thermostatically
                                                       Actuated
                                                        Valve
                                                  V
                                               Wastewaterto
                                                  Drain
                                                 <140°F
               Steam sterilizers can also be retrofitted or designed to reduce the amount of water
               necessary to draw a vacuum through the sterilization chamber. In a conventional
               steam sterilizer, the vacuum is generated by passing water at a high velocity through
               an ejector at a flow rate of 5.0 to 15.0gpm and discharging it directly to the sanitary
               sewer.28To reduce this water use, a second pump and water reservoir can be added to
               capture and reuse a portion of the water. New steam sterilizers can also offer an elec-
               tric liquid-ring vacuum pump that reduces water use by about 75 percent compared
               to the water used through the vacuum generation on a conventional steam sterilizer.29

28 Koeller, John, et al. August 2004. A Report on Potential Best Management Practices. Prepared for the California Urban Water Conservation Council. Pages 26.
 www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.
29/Wd. Page 31.
October 2012
7-17

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7.4 Steam  Sterilizers
               While steam sterilizers with dry vacuum pumps are available in Europe, they are still
               not available in the United States at this time.


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               To optimize the water efficiency of a steam sterilizer, consider the following opera-
               tion, maintenance, and user education techniques:

                •  Adjust the tempering water needle valve flow rate to the minimum manufacturer
                  recommendations and periodically review and readjust to ensure no unneces-
                  sary water is discharged to the drain.

                •  Change out the needle valve annually, because they can wear quickly. Worn
                  valves can discharge excess water.

                •  If the steam sterilizer is already equipped with  a thermostatically actuated valve
                  to control tempering water flow, periodically check the valve to ensure it is open-
                  ing and closing properly, so tempering water is not continuously discharged.

                •  Shut off the steam sterilizer unit when not in use.

                •  Use high-quality water to generate steam to improve the efficiency of the steam
                  sterilizer.


               Retrofit Options

               There are two retrofit approaches to reduce the water use associated with steam ster-
               ilizers. One approach addresses the use of tempering water, and the other addresses
               the water used to create the vacuum in the sterilization chamber. Depending upon
               the operational settings, frequency, and timing of sterilizer use and whether the tem-
               pering water flows continuously, retrofitting a conventional steam sterilizer to reduce
               its water use can  be cost-effective.

               Tempering Water Retrofit

               To reduce the amount of tempering water necessary to cool the steam condensate
               that is discharged, replace  the standard needle valve with a thermostatically actu-
               ated valve. This type of valve can monitor the temperature of the condensate and
               will adjust and minimize the flow of cooling water necessary to maintain a discharge
               temperature below 140°F. In addition,  consider diverting the steam condensate into a
               small, uninsulated tank prior to discharge.This tank will allow the condensate to cool
               through heat exchange with the ambient air to the point where little to no additional
               cooling water is required to meet the 140° F temperature discharge requirement.30

               Vacuum Retrofit

               Vacuum units contain an ejector that creates the vacuum in the sterilization chamber.
               Water is typically passed through the ejector at a very high flow rate before it is dis-

30 Ibid. Pages 23-34.


7-18                                                                                          October 2012

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                                                                        7.4 Steam  Sterilizers
              charged down the drain. To capture and reuse a portion of the water passing through
              the ejector, a second, additional ejector with a pump and a water reservoir can be
              added. This modification channels 50 to 75 percent of the water flowing through
              the ejector into an uninsulated tank, where it is allowed to cool below 120°F before
              being reused through the pump and ejector. If the captured water does not cool
              fast enough, a thermostatic valve allows cold  water to flow into the tank, and any
              overflow is sent to the drain. One limitation to this type of system is that it cannot be
              used on sterilizers with a sealing flange or any sterilizer that processes biohazardous
              material.31


              Replacement Options

              When looking to purchase a new steam sterilizer or to replace older equipment, look
              for models that only use tempering water when needed and that have the capability
              to cool the steam condensate prior to discharge. Look for models that have a vacuum
              unit with a second ejector and a  reservoir to capture and reuse a portion of the water
              passing through the ejector or models with an electric liquid-ring vacuum pump.

              In addition, look for models with features that can further reduce water use and
              improve efficiency, such as an automatic shut-off, or a programmable control system
              that shuts down the sterilizer during periods of non-use (e.g., non-business hours)
              and restarts the unit so it is ready for use when needed. Models are also available
              with improved chamber jacket cladding (i.e., insulation) to reduce sterilizer heat loss
              and ambient heat gain.


              Savings Potential

              Water savings can be achieved through steam sterilizer retrofit or replacement in two
              ways: reducing the amount of water required to temper the condensate, or reducing
              the water used to create the vacuum.

              To estimate facility-specific water savings and  payback, use the following information.

              Steam Sterilizer Retrofit or Replacement to Reduce Tempering Water Use

              Existing steam sterilizers can be retrofitted or new steam sterilizers can be purchased
              with a thermostatically actuated valve and a heat exchanger to reduce the amount of
              tempering water used to cool the steam condensate.

              Current Water Use

              To estimate the current tempering water use of an existing steam sterilizer, identify
              the following information and use Equation 7-4:

                •  Flow rate of the sterilizer's tempering water. Most steam sterilizers use tempering
                  water with a flow rate of 1.0 to 3.0 gpm.32
31 Ibid.
32 EPA and DOE, EERE, FEMP, op. at.



October 2012                                                                                         7-19

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7.4 Steam Sterilizers
                   Average daily idle period of the steam sterilizer. Note that some older models
                   have tempering water that flows constantly, even if the unit is turned off and
                   not in idle mode. In this case, the average daily use of 24 hours should be used
                   instead of the daily idle period to calculate daily water use.

                   Days of sterilizer operation per year. If the tempering water is flowing constantly,
                   even when the sterilizer is not in use and the facility is closed, 365 days per year
                   should be used.
                     Equation 7-4. Steam Sterilizer Tempering Water Use (gallons per year)


                      = Tempering Water Flow Rate x Daily Idle Period x Days of Operation

                      Where:

                          • Tempering Water Flow Rate (gallons per minute)
                          • Daily Idle Period (minutes per day)
                          • Days of Operation (days of sterilizer operation per year)


               Water Savings

               A study conducted at the University of Washington showed that a tempering water
               retrofit or installing new equipment that addresses tempering water can reduce
               tempering water use by up to 90 percent, depending upon how long the sterilizer is
               in idle mode.33 To calculate the tempering water savings that can be achieved from
               retrofitting or replacing an existing steam sterilizer, identify the current water use of
               the equipment, as calculated using Equation 7-4, and use Equation 7-5.
                 Equation 7-5. Water Savings From Steam Sterilizer Tempering Water Retrofit or
                                       Replacement (gallons per year)
                      = Current Steam Sterilizer Tempering Water Use x Savings (0.9)

                      Where:
                            Current Steam Sterilizer Tempering Water Use (gallons per year)
                            Savings (percent)
               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with the temper-
               ing water retrofit or replacement, consider the equipment and installation cost of the
               retrofit or replacement, the water savings as calculated using Equation 7-5, and the
33 van Gelder, Roger E. and Leaden, John. University of Washington. 2003. Field Evaluation of Three Models of Water Conservation Kits for Sterilizer Trap Cooling at
 University of Washington. Page 9. www.p2pays.org/ref/50/49036.pdf.



7-20                                                                                             October 2012

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                                                                           7.4 Steam Sterilizers
               facility-specific cost of water and wastewater. A tempering water retrofit typically costs
               $2,900.34 If the steam sterilizer was replaced, use the cost of the new steam sterilizer.

               Steam Sterilizer Retrofit or Replacement With Additional Ejector (Vacuum
               Water Use)

               Sterilizers can consume water to produce a vacuum. To reduce this water use, exist-
               ing steam sterilizer equipment can be retrofitted or new units purchased with an
               additional ejector with a pump and water reservoir to capture and reuse a portion
               of the water passing through the ejector. Purchasing a new steam sterilizer with this
               vacuum configuration would require a longer payback period.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the current water use of an existing steam sterilizer's vacuum, identify
               the following information and  use Equation 7-6:

                • Flow rate of water needed  to pull the required vacuum. This will be dependent
                  upon the size of the unit.

                • Number of sterilization cycles run each day.

                • Duration of the conditioning phase. The average conditioning phase lasts three
                  minutes.35

                • Duration of the exhaust phase. The average exhaust phase lasts 30 minutes.36

                • Days of sterilizer operation per year.


                      Equation 7-6. Steam Sterilizer Vacuum Water Use (gallons per year)


                      = [Vacuum Flow Rate x (Duration of Exhaust Phase + Duration of
                       Conditioning Phase)] x Sterilization Cycles x Days of Operation

                      Where:
                          • Vacuum Flow Rate (gallons per minute)
                          • Duration of Exhaust Phase (minutes per cycle)
                          • Duration of Conditioning Phase (minutes per cycle)
                          • Sterilization Cycles (sterilization cycles per day)
                          • Days of Operation (days of sterilizer operation per year)
4 Escalated from 2004 dollars to 2010 dollars; 2004 dollars from: Koeller, John, et al., op. cit, Page 32.
5 Koeller, John, et al., op. cit. Pages 26-32.
6 Ibid. Page 26.
October 2012                                                                                             7-21

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7.4 Steam  Sterilizers
               Water Savings

               On average, a vacuum retrofit or replacement that modifies the ejector can reduce
               vacuum water use by at least 50 percent.37To calculate the water savings that can be
               achieved from this type of modification, identify the current water use of the equip-
               ment as calculated using Equation 7-6 and use Equation 7-7.
                     Equation 7-7. Water Savings From Steam Sterilizer Vacuum Retrofit or
                           Replacement With Additional Ejector (gallons per year)


                      = Current Steam Sterilizer Vacuum Water Use x Savings (0.5)

                      Where:
                            Current Steam Sterilizer Vacuum Water Use (gallons per year)
                            Savings (percent)
               Payback

               To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with retrofit-
               ting or replacing an existing steam sterilizer vacuum, consider the equipment and
               installation cost of the retrofit or replacement, the water savings as calculated using
               Equation 7-7, and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater. An ejector modi-
               fication vacuum retrofit typically could cost approximately $17,200.38

               By retrofitting an existing steam sterilizer vacuum with an additional ejector, facilities
               should also consider the potential energy impact.The pump and other equipment
               included with the retrofit or replacement can use additional energy. The energy use
               can affect the payback time and cost-effectiveness.

               Steam Sterilizer Replacement With Liquid-Ring Vacuum Pump (Vacuum
               Water Use)

               When replacing a steam sterilizer, facilities can also select models that have an elec-
               tric liquid-ring vacuum pump instead of a high-velocity ejector. Liquid-ring vacuum
               pumps can reduce vacuum water use by 75 percent compared to the water used
               through the vacuum generation on a conventional steam sterilizer.

               Current Water Use

               To estimate the water use of an existing steam sterilizer's vacuum, use Equation 7-6.

               Water Savings

               Purchasing a new steam sterilizer with an  electric liquid-ring vacuum pump can re-
               duce vacuum water use by approximately 75 percent.39To calculate the water savings
7 Ibid. Page 27.
8 Ibid.
9/Wd. Page 31
7-22
October 2012

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                                                                         7.4 Steam  Sterilizers
              that can be achieved from replacing an existing steam sterilizer with one that has an
              electric liquid-ring vacuum pump, identify the current water use of the equipment, as
              calculated using Equation 7-6, and use Equation 7-8.


                  Equation 7-8. Water Savings From Steam Sterilizer Retrofit With Liquid-Ring
                                     Vacuum Pump (gallons per year)


                     = Current Steam Sterilizer Vacuum Water Use x Savings (0.75)

                     Where:
                           Current Steam Sterilizer Vacuum Water Use (gallons per year)
                           Savings (percent)
              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing a
              steam sterilizer with one with a liquid-ring vacuum pump, consider the equipment
              and installation cost of the replacement, the water savings as calculated using Equa-
              tion 7-8, and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

              By replacing a steam sterilizer with one with a liquid-ring vacuum pump, facilities
              should also consider the potential increase or decrease in energy use. The energy use
              will also affect the payback period and replacement cost-effectiveness.


              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency. Steam Sterilizer & Autoclaves Introduction.
              www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/1Column.aspx?id=680.

              EPA and DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management
              Program (FEMP). May 2005. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices, Water
              Efficiency Guide for Laboratories. Pages 5-6.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/labs21 _bmp.html.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, FEMP. Water Efficiency Improvements at
              Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/waterefficiency_csstudies.html.

              Koeller, John, et al. August 2004. A Report on Potential Best Management Practices.
              Prepared for the California Urban Water Conservation Council. Pages 23-34.
              www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.

              van Gelder, Roger E. and Leaden, John. University of Washington. 2003. Field Evalua-
              tion of Three Models of Water Conservation Kits for Sterilizer Trap Cooling at University of
              Washington, www.p2pays.org/ref/50/49036.pdf.
October 2012                                                                                          7-23

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7.5 Glassware Washers
                                         WaterSense
              Overview

              Glassware washers are automated washing devices that remove chemical or other
              particle buildup on laboratory glassware, such as pipettes, flasks, and graduated cylin-
              ders. Glassware washers are often supplied with both potable and purified water. Puri-
              fied water is typically used in the final rinse stages to ensure that no contaminants are
              left on glassware surfaces. Potable water used during other wash or rinse stages might
              be treated with a water softener to remove hard water, which can cause scale buildup.

              Newer, more efficient glassware washers use pre-
              cise flow control to reduce water use for each wash
              and rinse cycle. Some also offer flexible program-
              ming, allowing the user to adjust the incoming
              water fill according to load size. Glassware washers
              that allow users to choose the number of rinse
              cycles or otherwise customize the washing and
              rinsing program can help reduce water use.

              Glassware washers are almost always a more wa-
              ter-efficient method of washing when compared
              to hand washing and rinsing of lab glassware.


              Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

              For optimum glassware washer efficiency, consider the following operation, main-
              tenance, and user education tips:

               • Only run glassware washers when they are full. Fill each glassware washer rack to
                 maximum capacity.

               • Operate the glassware washer near or at the minimum flow rate recommended
                 by the manufacturer.

               • If the number of rinse cycles can be chosen, select as few rinse cycles as possible,
                 considering the cleanliness requirements of the glassware.


              Retrofit Options

              If appropriate given the intended use of the glassware, consider installing a water
              recycling system that reuses rinse cycle wastewater as wash water in the next load.
              Some systems are capable of treating rinse cycle wastewater before reusing  it. Con-
              sider the level of water quality needed before choosing a recycling option.


              Replacement Options

              When  purchasing a new glassware washer or replacing an existing one, choose mod-
              els with the following features:
7-24
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                                                                     7.5  Glassware Washers
               •  Cycle selection that allows users to optimize rinse cycles for both effective and
                  efficient cleaning.

               •  Reuse of final rinse water as wash water for the next load, if appropriate.

               •  Water intake monitoring to adjust the amount of water used based on load size.


              Savings Potential

              Water savings can be achieved by replacing an existing glassware washer with a
              more efficient one. A glassware washer's water use is dependent upon the amount
              of water used  during wash and rinse cycles, as well as the total number of cycles. A
              replacement glassware washer can use less water per cycle through flow control and
              allow users to select fewer cycles.

              To estimate facility-specific water savings and payback, use the following information.

              Current Water Use

              To estimate the current water use of a glassware washer, identify the following infor-
              mation and use Equation 7-9:

               •  Average volume of water used during a full wash process. This might be provided
                  by the product manufacturer through product literature or the manufacturer's
                  website. The water efficiency will be dependent upon the flow rate of each rinse
                  or wash cycle, duration of each cycle, and number of cycles. If the water use from
                  the full wash process is not available from the manufacturer, add up the water
                  use from each cycle to determine the water use from the full wash process.

               •  Average number of wash processes per day.

               •  Days of operation per year.


                       Equation 7-9. Water Use of Glassware Washer (gallons per year)


                     = Wash Water Use x Wash Processes per  Day x Days of Operation

                     Where:

                         •  Wash Water Use (gallons per wash)
                         •  Wash Processes per Day (washes per day)
                         •  Days of Operation (days of washer operation per year)


              Water Use After Replacement

              To estimate the water use of a more efficient replacement glassware washer, use
              Equation 7-9, substituting the average volume of water used during a full wash
              process of the replacement glassware washer. Efficient models can use less than  15
              gallons during the full wash process. If the number of rinse cycles can be chosen,
October 2012                                                                                          7-25

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7.5  Glassware Washers
              calculate the maximum potential water savings using the water use corresponding
              to the fewest average number of rinse cycles needed at the facility.

              Water Savings

              To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from the replacement of an exist-
              ing glassware washer, identify the following information and use Equation 7-10:

                •  Current water use as calculated using Equation 7-9.
                •  Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 7-9.
                Equation 7-10. Water Savings From Glassware Washer Replacement (gallons per
                                                 year)
                     = Current Glassware Washer Water Use - Water Use After Glassware
                       Washer Replacement
                     Where:
                           Current Glassware Washer Water Use (gallons per year)
                           Water Use After Glassware Washer Replacement (gallons per year)
              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with replacing
              an existing glassware washer, consider the equipment and installation cost of the
              replacement glassware washer, the water savings as calculated using Equation 7-10,
              and the facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

              By reducing water use in a glassware washer, facilities can also save a significant
              amount of energy, since most of the water used during the rinse cycles is hot water.
              This energy savings will further reduce the payback period and increase replacement
              cost-effectiveness.


              Additional Resources

              EPA and DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management
              Program. May 2005. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices, Water Efficiency
              Guide for Laboratories. Pages 6-7.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/labs21 _bmp.html.
7-26                                                                                         October 2012

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7.6 Fume Hood Filtration and
       Wash-Down  Systems
WaterSense
              Overview

              A fume hood is a ventilated enclosure where hazardous materials can be handled
              safely to limit exposure. Fume hoods draw contaminants within the work area away
              from the user to minimize contact and exhaust fumes through a ventilation system
              to remove contaminants from the building.

              As a first step, a facility should determine if treatment is needed prior to exhausting
              fumes through the building ventilation system. Dry exhaust fume hoods use a fan
              to draw in air containing hazardous contaminants before expelling it without provi-
              ding contaminant treatment.These systems might be appropriate depending upon
              the hazard level associated with the exhaust being ventilated. If minor treatment
              of exhausting fumes is necessary, a facility should consider using condensers, cold
              traps, or adsorbents such as activated charcoal, or neutralizing or converting toxic
              substances into other less hazardous species.40

              When dealing with certain hazardous substances requiring more intensive treat-
              ment, a fume hood with a filtration system might be needed. There are two types of
              fume hood filtration systems  typically used to handle hazardous substances: gas-
              phase filtration (includes wet scrubbers) and particulate filtration.41 Wet scrubbers
              require the consumption of water to remove hazardous substances.  Other gas-phase
              filtration or particulate filtration systems might be suitable alternatives to wet scrub-
              bers in certain circumstances, as discussed below. In all cases, laboratories should
              follow manufacturer instructions and facility health and safety guidelines in order to
              ensure safe operation of fume hoods.

              This section focuses on fume  hood filtration systems, including those that use water
              (e.g., wet scrubbers) and fume hood wash-down systems. It also describes systems
              that do not use water that could be considered as an alternative to wet scrubbers.

              Fume Hood Filtration Systems

              Wet Scrubbers

              Fume hoods with wet scrubbers that use water to capture and trap hazardous sub-
              stances are also known as liquid fume hood scrubbers. Contaminated air enters the
              scrubber system from below and passes through a packed bed. The packed bed is
              wetted from above with a liquid spray. As the contaminated air comes into contact
              with the water, water-soluble gases, vapors, aerosols, and particulates become dis-
              solved. The trapped contaminants fall with the water and are discharged into a scrub-
              bing liquor sump. The "scrubbing liquor" is recirculated, with make-up water added as
              needed to replace water that has evaporated.The scrubbing liquor is removed peri-
              odically through a blowdown valve to control total dissolved solids.The treated air is
              released through an exhaust system. See Figure 7-4 for a schematic of this process.
"Hitchings, DaleT. September 1993-January 1994. "Fume Hood Scrubbers—Parts I,II,and III." Laboratory Building Design Update. Page 1. www.safelab.com/
 resources.htm.
1 Ibid. Pages 6-8.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
               7-27

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7.6 Fume Hood Filtration and Wash-Down  Systems
                                    Figure 7-4. Fume Hood Wet Scrubber

                                                             Clean Air Out to
                                                             Exhaust System
                   Make-Up
                    Water -
                    Supply
                   Chemical
                    Supply
                 Blowdown  Recirculation
                             Pump
                                                                 t
                                                                             Mist Eliminator
 Spray Manifold
                                                                             Packing
    Air From
^— Fume
     Hood

Scrubbing
  Liquor
  Sump
               Other Gas-Phase Filtration

               Besides wet scrubbers, there are two other basic types of gas-phase filtration systems
               for fume hoods: inert adsorbents and chemically active adsorbents, which do not
               require water use. Inert adsorbents include activated carbon, activated alumina, and
               molecular sieves. Chemically active adsorbents are simply inert adsorbents impreg-
               nated with a strong oxidizer, such as potassium  permanganate, that react with and
               destroy the organic vapors.42

               Because contaminants build up in the adsorbent and can be desorbed if the concen-
               tration  is too high or if the adsorbent has a higher affinity for another contaminant,
               the adsorbent must be changed or regenerated regularly. Adsorbent systems are
               not effective in removing high concentrations of contaminants (i.e., spills inside the
               hood). Since these systems require a consistent  check on contaminant concentra-
               tions and maintenance of the adsorbent, these factors should be taken into account
               when evaluating alternatives to fume hood wet scrubber systems, keeping in mind
               the contaminant and concentration that needs to  be removed to ensure that the
               hazard  is fully abated.43'44
2 Ibid. Page 6.
3 National Research Council, et al. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory—Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Page
 188. www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=4911&page=188.
4 Hitchings, Dale!., op. cit, Pages 6-7.
7-28
                   October 2012

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                           7.6  Fume Hood Filtration and Wash-Down  Systems
              Paniculate Filtration

              If radioactive or biologically active materials or other hazardous particulates are pres-
              ent, a particulate filter might be necessary. HEPA filters are often used for this pur-
              pose. Proper procedures for changing filters should be taken into account to ensure
              the safety of workers.45 If considering a particulate filtration system instead of a wet
              scrubber system, it's important to evaluate the contaminant and concentration that
              need to be removed to ensure that the hazard is fully abated. HEPA filters are often
              only recommended for highly toxic particulates.46

              The fume hood filtration systems discussed above are summarized in Table 7-2.

                                 Table 7-2. Fume Hood Filtration Systems
Filtering How Does It How Is Contaminant
Mechanism Work? Removed?


Wet
Scrubber

Inert
Adsorbents


Chemically
Active
Adsorbents


Particulate
Filtration
Packed bed system
that is wetted
with recirculated
scrubbing
liquor captures
contaminants from
air and releases
cleaned air.
Inert adsorbents
such as activated
carbon, activated
alumina, and
molecular
sieves, adsorb
contaminants.

Inert adsorbents
impregnated with
a strong oxidizer
such as potassium
permanganate
react with and
destroy organic
vapors.
HEPA or other
filters remove
contaminants.
Scrubbing liquor
with dissolved
contaminants is
blown down and the
liquor is periodically
replenished with
fresh water.

Spent adsorbent
must be changed
or regenerated
regularly.


Spent adsorbent
must be changed
or regenerated
regularly.

Filter must be
changed regularly.
"waterf
Yes



No


No

No

Specialcontid^tions?
None



Adsorbent systems are not
effective in removing high
concentrations of contaminants
(i.e., spills inside the hood).
These systems require a
consistent check on contaminant
concentrations and maintenance
of the adsorbent.
Adsorbent systems are not
effective in removing high
concentrations of contaminants
(i.e., spills inside the hood).
These systems require a
consistent check on contaminant
concentrations and maintenance
of the adsorbent.
This is useful for radioactive or
biologically active materials or
other hazardous particulates.
HEPA filters are often only
recommended for highly toxic
particulates.
45 Ibid. Page 7.
46 National Research Council, op. at.
October 2012
7-29

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7.6  Fume  Hood Filtration  and  Wash-Down Systems


               Fume Hood Wash-Down Systems

               Perchloric Acid Wash-Down Systems

               Perchloric acid wash-down systems are a specialty fume hood used to remove per-
               chloric acid. A laboratory using perchloric acid, a highly corrosive inorganic com-
               pound, requires a specialized fume hood.To prevent corrosion and reduce explosive
               perchlorate buildup, perchloric acid fume hoods use a system of nozzles to wash
               down the fume hood and exhaust system surfaces after each period of use.47 Lab-
               oratories should follow instructions for washdown provided by the manufacturer of
               the fume hood or facility health and safety guidelines, but might be  able to minimize
               perchloric acid wash-down system water use if shut-off valves are used to control the
               flow of water.


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               For optimum fume hood wet scrubber efficiency, consider the following:

                •  Turn off water flow when systems are not in use.

                •  Ensure water flow rate does not exceed manufacturer specifications.

                •  In recirculating systems, make sure the liquid level controller and water supply
                  valve are functioning properly to avoid excess water overflow from the recircula-
                  tion sump.

                •  In recirculating systems, calibrate the blowdown process so that it is sufficient
                  to remove entrained contaminants, without being overly excessive. In general,
                  constant overflows or continuous blowdown wastewater.

                •  Consider using onsite alternative water sources to supply water for use in the
                  fume hood. See Section 8: Onsite Alternative Water Sources for more information.

               For optimum perchloric acid wash-down system efficiency, use systems only when
               necessary for perchloric acid handling.


               Retrofit Options

               There are currently no retrofit options available on the market to increase the effi-
               ciency of fume hood filtration systems.

               For facilities requiring a perchloric acid wash-down system, it might  be feasible to
               retrofit the system with shut-off valves to control  the flow of water. However, facili-
               ties should be sure to follow manufacturer-provided instructions for perchloric acid
               wash-down systems and facility health and safety guidelines to ensure that any
               changes will not affect health and safety or the performance of the system.
47 University of Louisville. 2012. Laboratory Chemical Hood User's Guide. louisville.edu/dehs/ohs/fumehoods/users_guide.html.



7-30                                                                                        October 2012

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                           7.6 Fume Hood Filtration and Wash-Down Systems
              Replacement Options

              When purchasing a new fume hood filtration system or perchloric acid wash-down sys-
              tem or replacing older equipment, consider the replacement options outlined below.

              Fume Hood Filtration System Replacement

              For facilities that need a fume hood filtration system, consider installing a gas-phase
              filtration system, such as activated carbon, that does not require water consump-
              tion. Replacing an existing fume hood wet scrubber system with an adsorbent dry
              filter system will eliminate water used to trap and contain hazardous substances.
              Because these systems require a consistent check on contaminant concentrations
              and maintenance of the adsorbent, these factors should be taken into account as an
              alternative to fume hood wet scrubber systems. Particulate filtration might also be
              considered, depending upon the type of contaminants present. Keep in mind the
              contaminant and concentration that needs to be removed to ensure that the hazard
              is fully abated.48'49

              Keep in mind that a wet scrubber is sometimes necessary for the handling of highly
              toxic contaminants. Adsorbent dry filters should not be used if safety will be compro-
              mised as a result.

              Perchloric Acid Wash-Down Retrofit or Replacement

              For facilities requiring a perchloric acid wash-down system, consider a system with
              automatic shut-off valves, which limit the amount of water used during the wash-
              down process by controlling the duration of the wash-down cycle. Water savings will
              be dependent upon the reduction in wash-down cycle length and the flow rate of
              the wash-down sprayers.


              Savings Potential

              Sufficient information is not available to estimate the savings potential associated
              with these products.


              Additional Resources

              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficien-
              cy Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Page MED4. www.ebmud.com/for-
              customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

              Hitchings, DaleT. September 1993-January 1994."Fume  Hood Scrubbers—Parts I, II,
              and III." Laboratory Building Design Update, www.safelab.com/resources.htm.

              Lab Manager Magazine. Fume Hood Homepage.
              www.labmanager.com/7articles.list/categoryNo/2042/category/Fume-Hoods.
8 National Research Council, op. at.
9 Hitchings, DaleT., op. at, Page 6.
October 2012                                                                                       7-31

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7.6 Fume Hood Filtration and  Wash-Down Systems
             National Research Council, et al. 1995. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory—Handling
             and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Page 188.
             www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=4911 &page=188.

             University of Louisville. 2012. Laboratory Chemical Hood User's Guide.
             louisville.edu/dehs/ohs/fumehoods/users_guide.html.
7-32                                                                                October 2012

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7.7 Vivarium  Washing  and Watering
       Systems
WaterSense
              Overview

              Vivariums, or animal research laboratories, utilize water-using equipment for clean-
              ing and animal watering purposes. This equipment includes cage, rack, bottle, and
              tunnel washers and automatic animal watering systems. Washers can use large
              volumes of water based on the number of rinse cycles and water used during each
              cycle. Animal watering systems can use large volumes of water if constant flows or
              frequent flushing is required.

              Cage, Rack, Bottle, and Tunnel Washers

              Cage, rack, and bottle washers are batch-type washers that are front-loaded with
              washer racks. Traditional cage-and-rack washers are programmed with a pre-rinse,
              wash, and final rinse cycle. During each cycle, the unit can use between 40 and 60
              gallons of hot water. In addition, many washers have optional cold-water tempering
              systems that cool the wastewater from each cycle to ensure that the discharge water
              temperature does not exceed sanitary sewer requirements. Accounting for water use
              in all cycles, traditional cage-and-rack washers can use as much as 320 to 480 gallons
              of water per load.50 More recent models of cage-and-rack washers use less water per
              cycle and allow users to choose the number of rinse cycles to minimize total water
              use. Some units also allow water from the final rinse cycle to be reused in the next
              cycle. More recent units can use less than 50 gallons per cycle, and some use as little
              as 12 gallons per cycle.51

              Tunnel washers are conveyor-type washers that are capable of cleaning a number of
              cages, racks, and other laboratory accessories at once. Tunnel washers are typically
              found only in very high throughput vivarium operations. There are four main cycles
              in the tunnel washer: pre-rinse, wash, first rinse, and final rinse. The final rinse uses
              only fresh water, while the other cycles can use water recycled from the wash, first
              rinse, or final rinse. Starting with the final rinse cycle, water moves countercurrent
              within the tunnel washer and is disposed of after the pre-rinse cycle. Because tunnel
              washers are designed for high throughput, they are not necessarily more efficient
              than batch-type washers for smaller operations.

              Animal Watering Systems

              Automatic animal watering systems provide drinking water to laboratory animals.
              These systems are used instead of manually filling bottles. There are two types of ani-
              mal watering equipment, which differ in their method of bacterial buildup prevention:
              flushing animal watering systems and recirculating animal watering systems. Flush-
              ing animal watering systems use a periodic, high-pressure flow to "flush" and remove
              bacteria from piping. Residual chlorination is typically used to further control bacterial
              growth.To control bacteria, recirculating animal watering systems use a constant flow
              of water treated with ultraviolet disinfection or other methods before distribution for

0 Beckinghausen, David. October 1,2006."Energy-Efficient Washing Systems."ALNMagazine, www.alnmag.com/article/energy-efficient-washing-systems.
1 Ibid.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
               7-33

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7.7  Vivarium Washing  and Watering Systems
               animal watering. Flushing systems use more water than recirculating systems because
               water is discharged to the drain after the flushing cycle is complete.52

               Automatic water systems require regular observation of the systems and the animals.
               If not maintained properly, they pose the risk of flooding cages or clogging valves.
               They do not allow for monitoring of animal water intake. Before choosing an auto-
               matic watering system, these issues should be taken into account.53


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               To ensure that cage, rack, bottle, tunnel washers, and animal watering systems are
               using water most efficiently, consider the following operation, maintenance, and user
               education tips for each.

               Cage, Rack, Bottle, and Tunnel Washers

                •  Only run cage, rack, and bottle washers when they are full. For tunnel washers,
                  schedule wash runs to maximize the equipment washed during each run, there-
                  by reducing the amount of tunnel wash runs required per day.

                •  Operate the cage, rack, bottle, and tunnel washers near or at the minimum flow
                  rate recommended by the  manufacturer.

                •  If the number of rinse cycles can be chosen, use the fewest number of rinse
                  cycles necessary to effectively clean equipment.

                •  Fix and repair any leaks. Inspect valves and rinse nozzles for proper operation,
                  and repair worn nozzles.

               Animal Watering Systems

                •  For animal watering systems that use flushing, minimize the number of flushing
                  cycles while ensuring sufficient control of bacterial growth.

                •  Consider collecting and reusing wastewater from animal watering systems for
                  other purposes within the facility, matching the end use with the level of water
                  quality that exists or that can be achieved through water treatment.


               Retrofit Options

               For animal watering systems, consider adding a recirculation system; however, it
               should be noted that for this purpose, piping and a water purification system will  be
               required to treat and return the unused water.
52 Schultz, Carl C. March 1,2006."Re-circulating vs. Flushing: Animal Watering System Alternatives."ALNMagazine, www.alnmag.com/article/re-circulating-vs-
 flushing-animal-watering-system-alternatives.
53 Cosgrove, Chris, et al. July 1,2003. "Vivarium Automation Part 1." ALN Magazine, www.alnmag.com/article/vivarium-automation-part-1 ?page=0,0.



7-34                                                                                          October 2012

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                                    7.7 Vivarium Washing and Watering Systems
              Replacement Options

              When purchasing a new cage, rack, bottle, or tunnel washer or replacing existing
              equipment, look for models that use less water per load with the following features:

               • Cycle selection that allows users to choose fewer rinse cycles
               • Reuse of final rinse water as wash water for the next load
               • Water intake monitoring to adjust the amount of water used based on load size
               • Use of high-quality water only during the final rinse cycle

              As an alternative to automatic animal watering systems, manual bottle fillers use only
              as much water as the animals need for drinking purposes. Where automatic animal
              watering systems are used, consider systems that recirculate treated water when
              purchasing new equipment.


              Savings Potential

              Cage, rack, bottle, or tunnel washers can be replaced with more efficient equipment
              to save water. Retrofitting or replacing existing animal watering equipment will also
              achieve water savings.

              To estimate facility-specific water savings and payback, use the following information.

              Cage, Rack, Bottle, or Tunnel Washer Replacement

              Washers can be replaced with new, more water-efficient technologies that reduce
              the amount of water used during rinse and wash cycles and reuse rinse water in the
              next wash cycle. These more efficient models can use up to 90 percent less water per
              load than older, conventional models.54
              Current Water Use

              To estimate the current water use of an existing cage, rack, bottle, or tunnel washer,
              identify the following information and use Equation 7-11:

               • The washer's water efficiency in gallons per load. This is typically provided by the
                 manufacturer through product literature or a website. The water efficiency will
                 be dependent upon the flow rate of each rinse or wash cycle, duration of each
                 cycle, and number of cycles.

               • Average number of loads per day.

               • Days of operation per year.
54 Beckinghausen, David, op. at.
October 2012                                                                                       7-35

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7.7 Vivarium Washing and Watering Systems
              Equation 7-11. Water Use of Cage, Rack, Bottle, or Tunnel Washer (gallons per year)


                     = Water Efficiency x Number of Loads x Days of Operation

                     Where:

                         •  Water Efficiency (gallons per load)
                         •  Number of Loads (number of loads per day)
                         •  Days of Operation (days of cage, rack, bottle, or tunnel washer opera-
                           tion per year)


              Water Use After Replacement

              To estimate the water use after replacing an existing cage, rack, bottle, or tunnel
              washer, use Equation 7-11, substituting the water efficiency of the replacement
              washer. The water efficiency of the replacement washer should be provided by the
              product manufacturer. More recent models of washers can use up to 90 percent less
              water per load when compared to older, less efficient units by reusing rinse water
              and having shorter rinse and wash cycles. If the number of rinse cycles can be se-
              lected, base the water use on the water efficiency associated with the average fewest
              number of rinse cycles needed for effective washing operations.

              Water Savings

              To calculate the water savings that can be achieved from replacing an existing cage,
              rack, bottle, or tunnel washer, identify the following information and use Equation 7-12:

                • Current water use as calculated using Equation 7-11.
                • Water use after replacement as calculated using Equation 7-11.
                   Equation 7-12. Water Savings From Cage, Rack, Bottle, or Tunnel Washer
                                     Replacement (gallons per year)
                     = Current Water Use of Cage, Rack, Bottle, or Tunnel Washer - Water Use
                       After Cage, Rack, Bottle, or Tunnel Washer Replacement
                     Where:
                           Current Water Use of Cage, Rack, Bottle, or Tunnel Washer (gallons
                           per year)
                           Water Use After Cage, Rack, Bottle, or Tunnel Washer Replacement
                           (gallons per year)
7-36                                                                                        October 2012

-------
                                    7.7 Vivarium Washing and Watering Systems
              Payback

              To calculate the simple payback from the water savings associated with the cage,
              rack, bottle, or tunnel washer replacement, consider the equipment and installation
              cost of the replacement washer, water savings as calculated in Equation 7-12, and the
              facility-specific cost of water and wastewater.

              Because cage, rack, bottle, and tunnel washers use hot water, a reduction in water
              use will also result in energy savings, further reducing the payback period and in-
              creasing replacement cost-effectiveness.

              Animal Watering System Retrofit or Replacement

              Water savings from retrofitting or replacing a flushing automatic animal watering
              system with a recirculating automatic animal watering system will vary based on
              how much water can be recirculated. Facility managers should use their judgment
              when deciding whether potential water savings merit the equipment and installation
              cost of the retrofit or replacement.


              Additional  Resources

              Beckinghausen, David. October 1,2006."Energy-Efficient Washing Systems."ALN
              Magazine, www.alnmag.com/article/energy-efficient-washing-systems.

              Cosgrove, Chris, etal. July 1, 2003. "Vivarium Automation Part 1." ALN Magazine.
              www.alnmag.com/article/vivarium-automation-part-1 ?page=0,0.

              EPA and DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management
              Program. May 2005. Laboratories for  the 21st Century: Best Practices, Water Efficiency
              Guide for Laboratories. Pages 6-7.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/labs21 _bmp.html.
October 2012                                                                                       7-37

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7.8  Photographic  and  X-Ray  Equipment      WaterSense
               Overview

               The traditional process of developing film can be quite water-intensive. Water is used
               during both the image development and printing processes. In X-ray equipment, water
               is sometimes also used for equipment cooling. Some X-ray film processing machines
               require a constant stream of cooling water flowing at a rate from 0.5 to 2.5 gallons
               per minute (gpm)55 to as much as 3.0 to 4.0 gpm56 to ensure acceptable image qual-
               ity. Cooling water with a flow rate as low as 0.5 gpm can discharge more than 250,000
               gallons of water annually. A number of advancements in X-ray technology, including
               digital imaging, however, are reducing the need for this water-intensive process.

                              For more traditional film processing, developing and printing can
                              occur in a self-contained "mini-lab" with very little water use.57
                              These changes also reduce or eliminate the need to use chemicals
                              in film processing. Dry printing processes similar to laser printing
                              are also available that do not use water.

                              Because of recent advances in imaging technology, many facilities
                              have moved to digital photographic or X-ray film processing and
                              computerized viewing and printing. Digital imaging has changed
                              the means by which images are recorded and printed and elimi-
                              nated the use of water entirely. X-ray equipment found at dental of-
                              fices and  other places where small pictures are taken use very little
                              water for development. Atypical dental office "weffilm processor
                              uses under 1.0 gallon of water per day.

               If converting to digital imaging is not feasible, retrofitting existing equipment to recycle
               the final rinse effluent as make-up for the developer/fixer solution can be a cost-effective
               option to significantly reduce photographic or X-ray film processing water use.


               Operation, Maintenance, and User Education

               For optimum traditional photographic  and X-ray equipment efficiency, consider the
               following tips:58

                •  Adjust the water flow to the film processor to flow at the minimum acceptable
                  flow rate specified by the equipment manufacturer. Post minimum flow rates near
                  the processor and educate users on how to adjust and operate the equipment.

                •  Check the  solenoid valve on the X-ray equipment cooling water to ensure  it is
                  working properly and stop flow when the equipment is in standby mode. If nece-
                  ssary, install a flow meter in the supply line to monitor flow from the equipment.

55 East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages PHOTO1-8.
 www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.
56 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Energy Department (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Federal Energy Management
 Program (FEMP). May 2005. Laboratories for the 2 V Century: Best Practices, Water Efficiency Guide for Laboratories. Page 6. wwwl .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/
 Iabs21_bmp.html.
57 EBMUD, op. at.
58 EPA and DOE, EERE, FEMP, op. at.
7-38
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

-------
                                             7.8  Photographic and  X-Ray Equipment
                • For X-ray equipment in particular, turn off the cooling water flow when the unit is
                  not in use.


               Retrofit Options

               To reduce the water use associated with traditional photographic or X-ray equip-
               ment, the primary retrofit option is to install a recycling system, which recycles the
               final rinse effluent as make-up for the developer/fixer solution.59 An automatic shut-
               off valve can also be installed to turn off the flow of water when the unit is not in use.
               For these retrofits, it is essential to follow prescribed maintenance schedules in order
               to maintain water savings.


               Replacement Options

               When looking to purchase new photographic or X-ray equipment or to replace older
               equipment, consider digital X-ray and photography equipment and computerized
               laser or ink-jet printing options.

               If transitioning to digital  equipment is not feasible, look for equipment with a squee-
               gee that removes excess chemicals from the film.The squeegee can reduce chemi-
               cal carryover and the amount of water needed for the wash cycle.60 If replacing a
               traditional wet printing, high-rinse flow system, consider a mini-lab system. Mini-labs
               provide a"washless"or"plumbingless"film development process. In these systems,
               wet chemical solutions are added only as needed for the amount of film being pro-
               cessed. A reservoir captures spent chemical solutions, which can be recovered and
               recycled.61 It should  be noted that mini-labs do not work for large frame X-ray film.
               They are for small camera picture prints only.


               Savings Potential

               Replacing traditional X-ray film processing equipment with digital imaging equip-
               ment will eliminate water use entirely, but it might not be cost-effective for every
               facility due to the high cost of the new equipment. Digital equipment, however,
               provides other advantages in addition to water savings, such as ease of use and im-
               age transfer and storage.62 If converting to digital imaging is not feasible, retrofitting
               existing equipment to recycle the final rinse effluent as  make-up for the developer/
               fixer solution can be a cost-effective option.

               Retrofitting traditional X-ray equipment with a recycling system has been shown to
               save 500,000 to 1,600,000 gallons of water per year per  X-ray film processor,63 based
               on studies conducted by several  water utilities in California.
59 Ibid.
60 Ibid.
61EBMUD,op.c;f.
62 Alliance for Water Efficiency. X-ray Film Processors Introduction. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/X-ray_Film_Processors.aspx.
63 Koeller, John, et al. August 2004. A Report on Potential Best Management Practices. Prepared for the California Urban Water Conservation Council. Pages 16-22.
 www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.



October 2012                                                                                           7-39

-------
7.8 Photographic and X-Ray Equipment
              Additional Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency. X-ray Film Processors Introduction.
              www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/X-ray_Film_Processors.aspx.

              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency
              Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages PHOTO1 -8. www.ebmud.com/for-
              customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

              Koeller, John, et al. August 2004. A Report on Potential Best Management Practices.
              Prepared for the California Urban Water Conservation Council. Pages 16-22.
              www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.

              EPA and DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Pro-
              gram. May 2005. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices, Water Efficiency Guide
              for Laboratories. Page 6. www! .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/labs21_bmp.html.
7-40                                                                                      October 2012

-------
   On site Alternative Water Sources
Root drains
 collect
stormwater
            Outdoor landscape
              faucets
                 Storm drain
                 (for overflow)
                                    EPA
                                    Water Sense

-------
8.  Onsite  Alternative Water  Sources
                                                                                           WaterSense
                After implementing water-efficiency measures through facility modifications or
                efficient technologies, facilities can further reduce potable water use by taking
                advantage of onsite alternative water sources. An onsite alternative water source
                is the water discharge from one application or process that is captured, treated,
                and utilized in another application.1 These onsite alternative water sources can
                vary greatly in quality and must be carefully matched with an appropriate end use.
                The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed comprehensive
                guidelines for water reuse to assist all types of organizations in identifying potential
                sources and uses of reused water.23

                Potential onsite alternative water sources include:4

                 •  Rainwater/stormwater
                 •  Foundation drain water
                 •  Treated gray water
                 •  Condensate from air conditioning equipment
                 •  Filter and membrane (e.g., reverse osmosis system)
                    reject water
                 •  Cooling equipment blowdown

                Although discharge from single-pass cooling systems can
                be a suitable onsite alternative water source, facility manag-
                ers should first consider eliminating single-pass cooling, as
                described in Section 6.2: Single-Pass Cooling. If elimination is
                not feasible, then consider reuse of the discharge water for
                another purpose.

                Potential uses of onsite alternative water sources include:5

                 •  Irrigation
                 •  Cooling tower make-up water
                 •  Toilet and urinal flushing
                 •  Make-up water for decorative ponds, fountains, and waterfalls
                 •  Processes or other uses not requiring potable water
                 •  Fume hood scrubbers

                General considerations for reuse of onsite sources of water include the quality con-
                straints of the source and the potential types of treatment that maybe needed to
                meet the quality needs of the proposed end use. Although every situation is differ-
                ent, Tables 8-16 and  8-27 provide  guidance on typical considerations.

1 U.S. Energy Department (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). February 2011. Methodology for Use
 of Reclaimed Water at Federal Locations, wiv/wl. eere.energy.gov/femp/prog ram/waterefficiency_bmp14.html#resourceswww1. eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/
 reclaimed_water_use.pdf.
2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). October 2012. Guidelines for Water Reuse, water.epa.gov/infrastructure/sustain/availability_wp.cfm.
3 EPA. September 2004. Guidelines for Water Reuse. water.epa.gov/infrastructure/sustain/availability_wp.cfm.
4 East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages ALT1 -8.
 www.ebmud.com/for-customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.
> Ibid.
'" Adapted from Hoffman, H.W. (Bill). P.E. Water Management, Inc. January 25-26,2011. Presentation in Phoenix, Arizona, to the Arizona Municipal Water Users As-
 sociation.
' Ibid.
                                                                           Rainwater collection system
8-2
                                            WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

-------
                                                         8.  Onsite Alternative  Water  Sources
                  Table 8-1. Water Quality Considerations for Onsite Alternative Water Sources*
         Rainwater
  Low/
Medium
  Low
                                                                  Oxygen
                                                              Demand (BO
  Low
  Low
                                                                      ations
  Low
None
         Stormwater
  High
Depends
  Low
Medium
Medium
Pesticides and
fertilizers
         Air Handling
         Condensate
  Low
  Low
  Low
  Low
Medium
May contain
copper when
coil cleaned
         Cooling Tower
         Slowdown
Medium
  High
  High
Medium
Medium
Cooling tower
treatment
chemicals
         Reverse Osmosis
         and Nanofiltration
         Reject Water
  Low
  High
  High
  Low
  Low
High salt
content
         Gray Water
  High
Medium
Medium
  High
  High
Detergents and
bleach
         Foundation Drain
         Water
  Low
Depends
Depends
Medium
Medium
Similar to
stormwater
         Note: The use of single-pass cooling water is also a possible source of clean onsite water, but facility managers should first consider elimi-
         nating single-pass cooling because of its major water-wasting potential. For that reason, it is not included in the list.
         *Key:
         Low: Low level of concern
         Medium: Medium level of concern; may need additional treatment depending on end use
         High: High concentrations possible and additional treatment likely
         Depends: Dependent upon local conditions
         (A): Disinfection for pathogens is recommended for all water used indoors for toilet flushing or other uses
October 2012
                                                                                  8-3

-------
8.  Onsite  Alternative Water Sources
              Table 8-2. Types of Available Treatment Based on Intended End Use Quality Needs*

Sources
Rainwater
Stormwater
Air Handling
Condensate
Cooling Tower
Slowdown
Reverse
Osmosis and
Nanofiltration
Reject Water
Gray Water
Foundation
Drain Water

Filtration
Depends
Yes
No
Depends
No
No
Depends

Sedimentation
Depends
Depends
No
Depends
No
Depends
No

Disinfection
Depends
Depends
Yes
No
No
No
Depends
•Tffff^nTQ
^•^^^T^^
No
Depends
No
No
No
Depends
No
Pother
Treatment
onsiderations
May be used for
irrigation without
additional treatment
For non-potable use
only
Segregate coil cleaning
water
Consider IDS
monitoring
Consider IDS
monitoring
Biologically unstable
for long periods of
storage unless treated;
subsurface drip
irrigation requires the
least treatment
May be hard if in alkaline
soils
*Key
Yes: Level of treatment likely needed
No: Level of treatment not likely needed
Depends: Treatment depends upon ultimate use
              See Figure 8-1 for an example of a facility capturing and using various onsite alterna-
              tive water sources.

              Note: This section concentrates on onsite water sources that might be used or re-
              used.This is in no way intended to diminish the significant potential that the reuse of
              reclaimed water from municipal wastewater treatment facilities has to help reduce
              potable water use. Municipally supplied reclaimed water should always be consid-
              ered for appropriate uses where available.
8-4
October 2012

-------
                                                 8. Onsite  Alternative Water Sources
                           Figure 8-1. Examples of Onsite Alternative Water Use

Cooli
Tow
Roof Drains \ Cooling /Mjfp
_Ejj-p \ Tower /(f 	
>

^^ * V
ig
r
Air Handler Units
i 1 	 II 	 II 	 1
t v r r
Air Handler
Condensate
RO Reject
T T Urinals nnilniK
Pressurized I — I
MnlHinn 1 1 V V
Tank T >I

Outdoor Landscape
A


Tank Tank

Overflow
to
Stormdrain
                 Onsite Alternative Water Sources Case Study

                To learn how the University of Texas at Austin used
                onsite alternative water sources to reduce its po-
                table water use by more than 33 percent, read the
                case study in Appendix A.
              Best Practices

              Following are the first questions to evaluate when planning to use an onsite alterna-
              tive water source:

               • Are there end use(s) that can be substituted or supplemented with the onsite
                 alternative water source?

               • What are the volume requirements of the end use, particularly if the demand is
                 seasonal in nature? Can the onsite alternative water source be matched to meet
                 the demand of the end use in terms of quantity and availability?

               • What are the water quality requirements of the end use? Can the onsite alterna-
                 tive water source meet those requirements?
October 2012
8-5

-------
8. Onsite  Alternative Water Sources
                •  What treatment of the onsite source is necessary? Note that most alternative
                   water sources will require treatment of some kind, ranging from simple filtration
                   to full treatment in compliance with NSF International/American National Stan-
                   dards Institute (NSF/ANSI) 350, Onsite Residential and Commercial Reuse Treatment
                   Systems.

                •  What are the basic design factors for capturing and delivering the onsite alterna-
                   tive water source to the end use? This includes the proximity of the source to the
                   end use and piping, tanks, and construction that may be necessary to convey the
                   water.

               Because facilities'ability to capture and convey onsite alternative water sources var-
               ies, carefully evaluate the feasibility of using each source to determine the cost im-
               plications and payback periods.8 Guidance on the construction, alteration, and repair
               of alternative water source systems for non-potable water applications is provided in
               the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials Green Plumbing
               & Mechanical Code Supplement.9 Specific considerations for certain onsite alternative
               water sources are provided below.

               Rainwater

               Facilities with large areas of impervious cover can capture rainfall for use in non-
               potable applications. Rainwater that runs off of rooftops is typically of high quality,
               making it suitable for many end uses. In most facilities, it is used to supplement or
               replace irrigation water with little treatment or filtering.

               To estimate the amount of rainwater that can be captured for each rain event, a good
               rule of thumb is to assume that 0.62 gallons of water can be collected per square
               foot of collection surface area per inch of rainfall. Most rainwater collection system
               installers will assume a capture  efficiency of 80 percent, because some of the rainwa-
               ter is lost through evaporation,  splashing, or other means.10 Equation 8-1 provides a
               calculation for rainfall capture potential.


                       Equation 8-1. Annual  Rainfall Capture Potential (gallons per year)


                      = Roof Area x Annual Precipitation x Rainfall Capture per Roof Area
                        (0.62) x Collection Efficiency (0.8)

                      Where:

                          • Roof Area (square feet)
                          • Annual Precipitation (inches per year)
                          • Rainfall Capture  per Roof Area (0.62 gallons per square foot per inch of
                            rain)
                          • Collection Efficiency (80 percent)

8EBMUD,op.cit.
9 International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials. February 2010. Green Plumbing & Mechanical Code Supplement. Pages 13-26.
 www.iapmo.org/pages/iapmo_green.aspx.
10EBMUD,op.c;f.


8-6                                                                                               October 2012

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                                                     8.  Onsite Alternative Water Sources
               Rainwater collection systems can be practical in all regions of the country, including
               those that experience frequent precipitation and more arid regions where water sup-
               plies are scarce. The major components of a rainwater collection system include:11

                •  Roofs or surfaces where rainwater can be collected
                •  Gutters and downspouts to transport the rainwater to storage
                •  Gutter screens to remove debris
                •  Storage tanks (cisterns)
                •  Conveyance systems to deliver stored water
                •  Water treatment, depending upon end use quality requirements

               Rainwater that runs off of non-roof surfaces, such as parking lots, hardscapes, and
               landscapes, around a building can also be a good source of water for landscape
               irrigation, provided it can be captured, treated, and stored. Generally, this collected
               water can be captured and distributed from onsite features, such as berms, swales,
               or rain gardens, or can be diverted to a long-term storage detention pond, where
               the water can be pumped for landscape irrigation or other uses.12The quality of
               rainwater collected from the ground is much  more variable than that collected from
               rooftops, because it can pick up pollutants as it travels across the landscape. It is
               important to carefully consider the water quality needs of the end use or provide
               appropriate treatment before rainwater is used.

               Treated Gray Water

               Gray water is wastewater from lavatory sinks, laundries, and bathing. It never con-
               tains wastewater from toilets or urinals and excludes wastewater from kitchen sinks.13
               Gray water can be treated  and  reused for specific onsite applications; however,
               health and safety concerns must be considered. Treated gray water should always be
               used within 24 hours of collection, or otherwise properly disposed, because it can
               foster bacteria and pathogens. If treated gray water is used for irrigation, it should
               only be applied below the surface and should never be used on plants intended for
               human consumption or sprayed through conventional sprinkler heads where it has
               the potential to be inhaled.14

               The use of treated gray water as an onsite alternate water source requires a careful,
               site-specific analysis. Gray water is usually coarsely filtered to remove large, sus-
               pended solids and, when used for indoor purposes, is usually further sanitized with
               chemicals such as chlorine. The lowest level of treatment is typically sufficient for
               subsurface irrigation applications. More intensive treatment is necessary for other
               applications, including toilet and urinal flushing or above-ground irrigation. If con-
               sidering installing a graywater treatment system, consult local health department
               officials first to ensure that the system meets appropriate regulations. Also, consult
               the manufacturers of the fixtures and equipment to which  non-potable water is to be
               delivered to determine under what conditions those items can function with treated
               gray water and what impact such use will have on fixture and equipment warranties.
11 DOE, EERE, FEMP. Best Management Practice: Alternate Water Sources, wwwl .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/waterefflciency_bmp14.html.
12EBMUD,op.c;f.
13 Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE). Graywater Introduction.
"Ibid.



October 2012                                                                                             8-7

-------
8.  Onsite Alternative Water Sources
               NSF/ANSI 350, Onsite Residential and Commercial Reuse Treatment Systems, establishes
               the minimum materials, design and construction, and performance requirements for
               onsite residential and commercial reuse treatment systems. It also encompasses resi-
               dential wastewater treatment systems (i.e., those that treat all the wastewater flow
               from a residence, similar to the scope  of NSF/ANSI Standards  40 and 245) and those
               that treat the gray water portion only. Further, gray water systems can be evaluated
               for treating bathing water only, laundry water only, or both. Reuse applications of the
               treated effluent include indoor restricted urban water use, such as toilet and urinal
               flushing, and outdoor unrestricted urban water use, such as surface irrigation.15

               Condensate From Air Conditioning  Equipment

               Water vapor in the air condenses  as it  comes into contact with an air conditioner's
               cooling coils.This condensate must be removed to prevent water from damaging the
               equipment or building  structure.  Most often, the condensate is captured in a drip
               pan, where it is then discharged to the sewer system.

               The amount of condensate generated depends upon the cooling load, relative
               humidity, and make-up air volumes.16 Condensate generation ranges from three to
               10 gallons per day per 1,000 square feet of air conditioned space, depending on the
               type of building and air conditioning system.17 Condensate is generally high-quality
               and free of minerals and total dissolved solids (TDS). It is also  generated  in highest
               volumes during periods of high cooling loads, making it a good source for cooling
               tower make-up water. For more information on cooling towers, see Section 6.3: Cool-
               ing Towers.

               Condensate is  generally safe  without additional treatment for direct use in cooling
               towers with biocide control, or for subsurface irrigation. However, condensate can
               grow  bacteria removed from the air in the building. If the condensate is used for
               anything where humans can  inhale it  or come into direct contact with it (e.g., spray
               irrigation), it should first be filtered and disinfected.

               Reverse Osmosis System Reject Water

               Water treatment systems, such as reverse osmosis (RO) systems that use filters and
               membranes to remove  impurities, will have a residual stream that remains after the
               purified water has been permeated through the membrane. Most RO systems have
               a recovery rate between 50 and 75 percent, meaning that 25  to 50 percent of the in-
               coming water remains as residual and is rejected from the system.18This reject water
               is less pure than the source water entering the system but may still be useable for
               other purposes.19
5 NSF International. NSF/ANSI Standards. July 2011. NSF/ANSI 350, Onsite Residential and Commercial Reuse Treatment Systems.
 www.nsf.org/business/wastewater_certification/standards.asp?program=WastewaterCer#std350.
6EBMUD,opcit.
7 AWE. Condensate Water Introduction. www.allianceforwatereffkiency.org/Condensate_Water_lntroduction.aspx.
8 EPA and DOE, EERE, FEMP. May 2005. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices, Water Efficiency Guide for Laboratories. Page 5.
 www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/labs21_bmp.html.
9 AWE. RO Discharge Water Introduction. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/RO_Discharge_lntroduction.aspx?terms=alternate+water+source.
                                                                                                 October 2012

-------
                                                    8.  Onsite  Alternative Water Sources
               Reject water is typically sent directly to the sanitary sewer, although it is often suit-
               able for use in other onsite applications. As long as sanitary conditions are main-
               tained for storage and transfer, reject water can be appropriate for end uses requiring
               higher water quality, including: toilet and urinal flushing; cooling tower make-up
               water; above-ground irrigation; make-up water for decorative ponds, fountains, and
               waterfalls; or other processes or uses not requiring potable water.20 If used for irriga-
               tion water, it should only be applied to plants with high salinity tolerances, due to
               elevated levels ofTDS. In addition, if this water is to be used as cooling tower make-
               up water, compare the IDS concentration in the source to the cooling tower IDS set
               point, to make sure that it provides a benefit as make-up water to the system.

               Cooling Equipment Slowdown

               As water is evaporated from cooling equipment, the concentration of IDS builds up.
               If left undiluted, the IDS can cause scaling on equipment surfaces. As a result, some
               of the water remaining in the cooling equipment must be periodically blown down
               and replaced with make-up water. Cooling equipment that requires blowdown can
               include cooling towers, evaporative air condensers, evaporative coolers, and evapo-
               rative cooled air conditioners.21

               Although cooling equipment blowdown is typically discharged to the sanitary sewer,
               it is often of sufficient quality to be used in other onsite applications such as irriga-
               tion. It should be noted that the IDS content is significantly higher than that of the
               original source water, often by two to five times. In addition, the water could con-
               tain algae, bacteria, or pathogens and water treatment chemicals, such as biocides
               or corrosion inhibitors. For these reasons, this water should never be used where it
               can come into contact with humans. In addition, if the cooling equipment is using
               water very efficiently, the IDS content could be too high for use in irrigation, unless
               it is diluted with water from another source.22 Blowdown could be treated through
               nanofiltration or RO to make it suitable for other uses, particularly for recycling as
               make-up water for the cooling equipment. Facility managers should carefully assess
               the possible impacts of using this water on equipment, fixtures, or plants.


               Additional Resources

               Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE). Blow-Down Water Introduction.
               www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/blow_down_water_introduction.aspx.

               AWE. Condensate Water Introduction.
               www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/Condensate_Water_lntroduction.aspx.

               AWE. Graywater Introduction.
               www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/graywater-introduction.aspx.

               AWE. RO Discharge Water Introduction. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/RO_
               Discharge_lntroduction.aspx?terms=alternate+water+source.
20 Ibid.
21 AWE. Blow-Down Water Introduction. www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/blow_down_water_introduction.aspx.
22 Ibid.
October 2012

-------
8.  Onsite Alternative Water Sources
              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program
              (FEMP). Best Management Practice: Alternate Water Sources.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/waterefficiency_bmp 14.html.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, FEMP. February 2011. Methodology for
              Use of Reclaimed Water at Federal Locations.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/waterefficiency_bmp14.html#resources.

              East Bay Municipal Utility District. 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-Use
              Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses. Pages ALT1 -8. www.ebmud.com/for-
              customers/conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

              EPA. October 2012. Guidelines for Water Reuse, water.epa.gov/infrastructure/sustain/
              availability_wp.cfm.

              EPA. September 2004. Guidelines for Water Reuse, water.epa.gov/infrastructure/
              sustain/availability_wp.cfm.

              International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials. February 2010. Green
              Plumbing & Mechanical Code Supplement. Pages  13-26.
              www.iapmo.org/pages/iapmo_green.aspx.

              NSF International. NSF/ANSI Standards. July 2011. NSF/ANSI350, Onsite Residential
              and Commercial Reuse Treatment Systems. www.nsf.org/business/wastewater_
              certification/standards.asp?program=WastewaterCer#std350.
8-10                                                                                         October 2012

-------
Resources
  EPA
  Water Sense

-------
9.  Resources
                                          WaterSense
              Compilation of Water-Efficiency Resources

              Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE), www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org.

              American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers
              (ASHRAE). www.ashrae.org.

              American Society of Landscape Architects, www.asla.org.

              American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). 1994. Consensus Operating
              Practices for Control ofFeedwater/Boiler Water Chemistry in Modern Industrial Boilers.

              American Waterworks Association (AWWA). 1999. Water Meters—Selection, Installa-
              tion, Testing, and Maintenance (AWWA Manual M6, Fourth Edition).
              apps.awwa.org/eBusMAIN/Default.aspx?TablD=401&Productld=28471.

              Arizona Department of Water Resources. Conservation Tools, www.azwater.gov/
              azdwr/StatewidePlanning/Conservation2/Commerciallndustrial/FacilityManagers.htm.

              Arizona Municipal Water Users Association. Regional Water Conservation Committee
              and Black and Veatch. August 2008. Facility Manager's Guide to Water Management
              Version 2.7. www.amwua.org/business.html.

              ASHRAE. Standard 189.1, Standard for the Design of High-Performance, Green Buildings
              Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, www.ashrae.org/publications/page/927.

              ASME. Standards & Certification FAQ. www.asme.org/kb/standards/about-codes—
              standards.

              AWWA. 2004. Sizing Water Service Lines and Meters (AWWA Manual M22, Second
              Edition). apps.awwa.org/eBusMAIN/Default.aspx?TablD=401&Productld=6711.

              AWWA. Water Loss Control Basics.www.awwa.org/Resources/WaterLossControl.
              cfm?ltemNumber=47847.

              Beckinghausen, David. October 1,2006."Energy-Efficient Washing Systems."ALN
              Magazine, www.alnmag.com/article/energy-efficient-washing-systems.

              Brean, Henry. June 8, 2009."UNLV professor targets 'wasteful'dipper wells."Las Vegas
              Review-Journal, www.lvrj.com/news/47195482.html.

              California Urban Water Conservation Council (CUWCC). Potential Best Management
              Practices (PBMP) Report, www.cuwcc.org/products/pbmp-reports.aspx.

              Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and AWWA. 2012. Emergency Water
              Supply Planning Guide for Hospitals and Health Care Facilities. Atlanta: U.S. Department
              of Health and Human Services. www.cdc.gov/healthywater/emergency/drinking_
              water_advisory/index.html#planningguide.
9-2
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

-------
                                                                                     9.  Resources
              Ceres. Ceres Aqua Gauge, www.ceres.org/issues/water/aqua-gauge/aqua-gauge.

              City West Water Limited. Programs and Assistance, www.citywestwater.com.au/
              business/programs_and_assistance_woking_the_way_to_water_savings.aspx.

              Consortium for Energy Efficiency, Inc. www.cee! .org.

              Cooling Technology Institute, www.cti.org.

              Cosgrove, Chris, etal. July 1, 2003."Vivarium Automation Part M'ALNMagazine.
              www.alnmag.com/article/vivarium-automation-part-1 ?page=0,0.

              Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO). November 1997. ClBO Energy Efficiency
              Handbook, www.cibo.org/pubs/steamhandbook.pdf.

              CUWCC. Resource Center, www.cuwcc.org/resource-center/resource-center.aspx.

              Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency. PACE Financing.
              dsireusa.org/solar/solarpolicyguide/?id=26.

              Denver Water. Xeriscape Plans. www.denverwater.org/Conservation/Xeriscape/
              XeriscapePlans.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Federal Energy Management
              Program (FEMP). Water Efficiency, www! .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/
              waterefficiency.html.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, FEMP. April 2008. M&VGuidelines:
              Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy Projects, Version 3.0. Section 11.6.
              mnv.lbl.gov/keyMnVDocs/femp.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, FEMP. July 1999. Steam Trap Performance
              Assessment: Advanced technologies for evaluating the performance of steam traps.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/FTA_SteamTrap.pdf.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. January 2012. Minimize Boiler Blow/down.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/steam9_blowdown.pdf.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. January 2012. Return Condensate to
              Boiler. www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/steam8_boiler.pdf.

              DOE, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. October 2005. Improving Chilled Water
              System Performance: Chilled Water Systems Analysis Tools (CWSAT) Improves Efficiency.
              www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_deployment/pdfs/chiller_tool.pdf.

              East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). 2008. WaterSmart Guidebook—A Water-
              Use Efficiency Plan Review Guide for New Businesses, www.ebmud.com/for-customers/
              conservation-rebates-and-services/commercial/watersmart-guidebook.

              Energy Design Resources. December 2009. Chilled Water Plant Design Guide.
              www.energydesignresources.com/resources/publications/design-guidelines/
              designguidelines-cooltools-chilled-water-plant.aspx.
October 2012                                                                                           9-3

-------
9. Resources
               Environment Agency of the United Kingdom. March 2006. Waterwise—good for
               business, great for the environment, www.energydesignresources.com/resources/
               publications/design-guidelines/design-guidelines-cooltools-chilled-water-
               plant.aspx.

               EPA and DOE, EERE, FEMP. May 2005. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices,
               Water Efficiency Guide for Laboratories, www! .eere.energy.gov/femp/program/
               Iabs21_bmp.html.

               EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR, www.energystar.gov.

               EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. 2007. ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual.
               www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=business.bus_upgrade_manual.

               EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Best Practices—How to Achieve the Most Efficient
               Use of Water in Commercial Food Service Facilities, www.energystar.gov/index.
               cfm?c=healthcare.fisher_nickel_feb_2005.

               EPA and DOE's ENERGY STAR. Portfolio Manager Overview, www.energystar.gov/
               index.cfm?c=evaluate_performance.bus_portfoliomanager.

               EPA. Environmental Management Systems (EMS). www.epa.gov/EMS/.

               EPA. EPA's Water Management Plans. www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/water/epa_plans.htm.

               EPA. Green Infrastructure, water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/index.cfm.

               EPA. GreenScapes Program, www.epa.gov/epawaste/conserve/rrr/greenscapes/
               index.htm.

               EPA. October 2012. Guidelines for Water Reuse, water.epa.gov/infrastructure/sustain/
               availability_wp.cfm.

               EPA. September 2004. Guidelines for Water Reuse, water.epa.gov/infrastructure/sustain/
               availability_wp.cfm.

               EPA's WaterSense program, www.epa.gov/watersense.

               EPA. The Lean and Water Toolkit, www.epa.gov/lean/environment/toolkits/water/
               index.htm.

               Food Service Technology Center (FSTC). www.fishnick.com/.

               FSTC. 2010. Water Conservation Measures for Commercial Food Service.
               www.fishnick.com/savewater/bestpractices.

               Green Building lnitiative.www.thegbi.org.

               Harris, Richard. EBMUD. March 5,2008."Turning up the Heat on Commercial Kitchen
               Water Savings." www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/downloads/meetings/water_
               Richard_Harris.pdf.
9-4                                                                                           October 2012

-------
                                                                                      9.  Resources
               Hitchings, DaleT. September 1993-January 1994."Fume Hood Scrubbers—Parts I, II,
               and III." Laboratory Building Design Update, www.safelab.com/resources.htm.

               International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO). IAPMO
               Green. www.iapmo.org/pages/iapmo_green.aspx.

               International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials. 2010. "2010'sTop-5
               New and Innovative Water Efficient Products." Green Newsletter, forms.iapmo.org/
               newsletter/green/2010/05/2010_Top5.asp.

               International Carwash Association.™ WaterSavers® Environmental Reports.
               www.carwash.org/industryinformation/WaterSavers/Pages/
               WaterSaversEnvironmentalReports.aspx.

               International Code Council. 2012 International Green Construction Code.™
               www.iccsafe.org/Store/Pages/Product.aspx?id=3750S12.

               International Facility Management Association Foundation."Sustainability'How-To'
               Guide" Series, www.ifmafoundation.org/research/how-to-guides.htm.

               Irrigation Association. March 2005. Landscape Irrigation Scheduling and Water Man-
               agement. www.asla.org/uploadedFiles/PPN/Water%20Conservation/Documents/
               LISWM%20Draft.pdf. "

               Irrigation Association. Resources. www.irrigation.org/Resources/Resources_Splash.aspx.

               Lab Manager Magazine. Fume Hood Articles, www.labmanager.com/7articles.list/
               categoryNo/2042/category/Fume-Hoods.

               Marin Municipal Water District. Conservation, www.marinwater.org/controller7action
               =menuclick&id=257.

               National Association of Energy Service Companies. Resources—What is an ESCO7
               www.naesco.org/resources/esco.htm.

               National Research Council; Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and
               Applications; Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology; Committee on Prudent
               Practices for Handling, Storing, and Disposal of Chemicals in Laboratories. 1995.
               Prudent Practices in the Laboratory—Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington,
               DC: National Academy Press. www.nap.edu/openbook.php7record_id=4911 &page=188.

               North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, et al. May 2009.
               Water Efficiency Manual for Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Facilities.
               savewaternc.org/bushome.php.

               North Carolina Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance. May
               2009. Water Efficiency, Water Management Options, Kitchen and Food Preparation.
               infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/04/03103.pdf.

               NSF International. NSF/ANSI Standards. July 2011. NSF/ANSI 350, Onsite Residential
               and Commercial Reuse Treatment Systems. www.nsf.org/business/wastewater_
               certification/standards.asp7program=WastewaterCer#std350.
October 2012                                                                                            9-5

-------
9. Resources
               Pacific Gas and Electric Company. 2009. Hospitality Fact Sheet: Ozonated Laundry
               Systems in Hospital Facilities, www.pge.com/includes/docs/pdfs/mybusiness/energy
               savingsrebates/incentivesbyindustry/hospitality/Ozonated_Laundry_FS_Final.pdf.

               Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Information Brief: Commercial Ice Machines.
               www.pge.com/includes/docs/pdfs/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/
               incentivesbyindustry/hospitality/icemachinetech.pdf.

               Pacific Gas and Electric Company. January 2006. High Performance Data Centers: A
               Design GuidelinesSourcebook. hightech.lbl.gov/datacenters-bpg.html.

               Pacific Institute. August 2012. The CEO Water Mandate: Corporate Water Disclosure
               Guidelines Toward a Common Approach to Reporting Water Issues, pacinst.org/reports/
               corporate_water_disclosure_guidelines/full_report.pdf.

               Poolmanual.com. Pool Manual, www.poolmanual.com/poolmanual.aspx.

               Robert M. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center. Food Technology Fact Sheet:
               Steam Kettle Hookup, www.fapc.okstate.edu/files/factsheets/fapc120.pdf.

               Rosenberg, David E., et al. June 2011. Value Landscape Engineering: Identifying Costs,
               Water Use, Labor, and Impacts to Support Landscape Choice. Journal of the American
               Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 47(3):635-649.

               Rushton, Betty, Ph.D. Southwest Florida Water Management District. May 2002.
               Infiltration Opportunities in Parking Lot Designs Reduce Runoff and Pollution.
               www.p2pays.org/ref/41/40363.pdf.

               Sailor, David J. and Dietsch, Nikolaas. October 3,2005. The Urban Heat Island Mitigation
               Impact Screening Tool (MIST), www.heatislandmitigationtool.com/lntroduction.aspx.

               Schultz Communications. July 1999. A Water Conservation Guide for Commercial,
               Institutional and Industrial Users.  Prepared for the New Mexico Office of the State
               Engineer, www.ose.state.nm.us/wucpjci.html.

               South Florida Water Management District Water Supply Development Section. April
               2012. Water Efficiency Self-Assessment Guide for Commercial and Institutional Building
               Facility Managers, www.sfwmd.gov/portal/page/portal/xweb%20-%20release%20
               3%20water%20conservation/water%20conservation%20businesses#efficiency.

               South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD). SFWMD Library & Multimedia.
               my.sfwmd.gov/portal/pls/portal/portal_apps.repository_lib_pkg.repository_browse?
               p_keywords=waterefficiency&p_thumbnails=no.

               Southern Nevada Water Authority. Conservation, www.snwa.com/consv/
               conservation.html.

               Southern Nevada Water Authority. Landscapes, www.snwa.com/land/landscapes.html.

               Southern Nevada Water Authority. How to Find a Leak, www.snwa.com/3party/
               findjeak/main.html.
9-6                                                                                            October 2012

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                                                                                       9. Resources
               State of California Department of Water Resources. 2012. Commercial, Institutional
               and Industrial Task Force Best Management Practices Report to the Legislature.

               State of California Department of Water Resources. October 1994. Water Efficiency Guide
               for Business Managers and Facility Engineers, www.water.ca.gov/wateruseefficiency.

               Sullivan, G.P., et al. January 2008. Cal-UCONS Commercial Laundry Program Measure-
               ment and Evaluation, Southern California Gas Company and San Diego Gas and Electric
               Company, Final Report. eere.pnnl.gov/building-technologies/pdf/sempra_final.pdf.

               Sydney Water. Fact Sheets. www.sydneywater.com.au/Water4Life/lnYourBusiness/
               FactSheets.cfm.

               Texas Water Development Board. November 2004. Water Conservation Best
               Management Practices Guide, www.twdb.state.tx.us/conservation/municipal/plans/.

               The Northeast Center for Food Entrepreneurship at the New York State Food Venture
               Center, Cornell University. January 2007. Steam Kettles in Food Processing: Fact Sheets
               for the Small Scale Food Entrepreneur, necfe.foodscience.cornell.edu/publications/
               fact-sheets.php.

               U.S. Air Force Medical Service. Dental Vacuum Systems, airforcemedicine.afms.mil/idc/
               groups/public/documents/afms/ctb_108329.pdf.

               U.S. Green Building Council, www.usgbc.org.

               University of Louisville. 2012. Laboratory Chemical Hood User's Guide, louisville.edu/
               dehs/ohs/fumehoods/users_guide.html.

               University of Massachusetts Amherst, Center for Energy Efficiency & Renewable
               Energy, Industrial Assessment Center. Chilled Water Systems Analysis Tool.
               www.ceere.org/iac/iac_assess_tools.html.

               USA Swimming. A Green Initiative Unique to Natatoriums. www.usaswimming.org/
               ViewMiscArticle.aspx?Tabld=1755&Alias=rainbow&Lang=en&mid=7715<emld=3633.

               van Gelder, Roger E. and Leaden, John. University of Washington. 2003. Field Evaluation
               of Three Models of Water Conservation Kits for Sterilizer Trap Cooling at University of
               Washington, www.p2pays.org/ref/50/49036.pdf.

               Vickers, Amy. 2001. Handbook of Water Use and Conservation. WaterPlow Press
October 2012                                                                                             9-7

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                         Table of Contents

                         A.1  Introduction to Case Studies	A-2
                         A.2  Federal Agency Implements
                            Water Management Strategy	A-3
                         A.3  Hotel Installs Water-Efficient
                            Sanitary Fixtures	A-6
                         A.4  Restaurants Install Water-Efficient
                            Commercial Kitchen Equipment	A-9
                         A.5  Office Complex Reduces
                            Outdoor Water Use	A-13
                         A.6  Laboratory Eliminates
                            Single-Pass Cooling	A-15
                         A.7  Hospital Installs Water-Efficient
                            Laboratory and Medical Equipment	A-18
                         A.8  University Makes the Most of
                            Onsite Alternative Water Sources	A-22
             Appendix  A: Case Studies
Demonstrating Best Management
                       Practices  in  Action
                                         EPA
                                         Water Sense

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A.I   Introduction  to Case Studies
                                           WaterSense
               WaterSense at Work provides operation, maintenance, and user education tips, as well
               as retrofit and replacement options to make water-using products, equipment, and
               practices more efficient. To demonstrate how commercial and institutional facilities—
               large and small—translate this information into actual water and cost savings, the
               U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense® program prepared this
               appendix to WaterSense at l/l/or/(.The case studies included in this appendix feature
               several facilities in a variety of sectors and describe how these facilities have imple-
               mented one or more of the specific best management practices described in Water-
               Sense at Work. This includes case studies on the following topics:

                •  A federal agency implementing a comprehensive water management strategy
                •  A hotel installing water-efficient sanitary fixtures
                •  Restaurants installing water-efficient commercial kitchen equipment
                •  An office complex reducing outdoor water use
                •  A laboratory eliminating single-pass cooling
                •  A hospital installing water-efficient laboratory and medical equipment
                •  A university utilizing onsite alternative water sources

               The case studies presented on the pages that follow illustrate how successfully
               implementing the best management practices recommended in WaterSense at Work
               can result in real and significant savings. Additional examples and case studies will be
               added to this collection over time.
Photo on previous page: Uncommon Ground's rooftop organic farm
A-2
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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A.2 Federal  Agency Implements
       Water Management Strategy
          WaterSense
                                      Case Study Highlights

               Facility type: Research laboratories
                                                                4y  ^^^^k  ^
               Location: 29 laboratories nationwide                   ^ _ vw _ «

               Number of occupants: Approximately 5,800

               Building size: 3.9 million gross square feet

               Project overview: EPA began implementing a comprehensive water
               management planning strategy for 29 of its laboratory spaces nationwide in the
               early 2000s and began tracking and reporting water use in 2007. The strategy
               includes: conducting water use and conservation assessments every four years;
               setting facility-specific, annual water reduction goals; and identifying and
               implementing water-efficiency projects.

               Water savings: Among all 29 laboratories, reduced water use intensity (in
               gallons per gross square foot) by 18.7 percent between 2007 and 2010, which is
               equal to 23.4 million gallons of total water saved

               Cost savings: Approximately $200,000 in water and sewer costs over the three-
               year period
             Project Summary

             The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) owns or operates
             30 research laboratories across the country.These laboratories
             encompass more than 3.8 million square feet of conditioned
             space and are occupied  by approximately 5,800 employees. For
             more than a decade, water conservation has been a top priority
             for EPA and the managers of these laboratories.

             In 2002, EPA began conducting facility water assessments at 29 of its
             major laboratories. Consistent with Section 1.2 Water Management
             Planning, EPA's goal during every water assessment is to fully
             understand where all water entering the facility is used and to
             identify ways to reduce that water use. Specifically, the assessments
             focus on:

              • Reviewing historical water use.

              • Identifying  utility cost information.

              • Touring the facility to inventory all water-using equipment
                and processes.

              • Identifying  and fixing apparent leaks.
EPA's Main Laboratory Complex in Research
Triangle Park, North Carolina
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
                         A-3

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A.2 Federal  Agency  Implements Water Management Strategy
               •  Preparing drought contingency plans.

               •  Developing a "water balance" of all water uses in the facility.

               •  Identifying project opportunities to reduce water use.

              Due to its efforts between 2002 and 2007 to assess water use, set water management goals,
              and implement projects, EPA was able to reduce its water use intensity by 8.4 percent.

              With the passage of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) and the signing
              of Executive Order 13423 in 2007, federal agencies were required to: track and reduce
              potable water use 16 percent by 2015, assess their water use in individual facilities,
              and implement projects to reduce water use. Subsequently, Executive Order 13514
              required federal agencies to reduce potable water use intensity by 2 percent per year
              through 2020, from a 2007 baseline, and track and reduce non-potable water use.
              Since EPA had been assessing water use at most of its laboratories, it was easily able to
              establish its 2007 baseline; however, its challenge was to continue to reduce water use
              by identifying additional project opportunities.

              In 2008, EPA developed an Agencywide Water Conservation Strategic Plan.The plan
              was built on the Agency's prior water-efficiency success and EISA and Executive Order
              requirements.The plan's objectives are to:

               •  Conduct water use and conservation assessments at each of its major
                  laboratories every four years.

               •  Establish annual facility-specific water reduction targets.

               •  Identify and implement new water-efficiency projects.

              The plan is updated regularly to document EPA's water reduction successes and
              incorporate plans and goals for the future.
                                                       Figure A-1 .Typical Water Use at EPA Laboratories, 2009
                                                                                             Vivarium Operations
EPA's 2009 aggregated laboratory-wide water balance, taken from its 2010 strategic
plan update, is shown in Figure A-1. Water use for each individual laboratory is tracked
separately and may vary from this
aggregate, depending upon its specific
operations and processes.

Since 2007, EPA has completed a variety of
projects across some or all laboratories in its
portfolio, including:

 •  Installing 1.6 gallon per flush (gpf) or
    dual-flush toilets, WaterSense® labeled
    flushing urinals, and 0.5 gallon per minute
    (gpm) faucet aerators on lavatory faucets.

 •  Contracting with irrigation professionals
    certified through a WaterSense labeled
    certification program to conduct
    irrigation system audits and identify
    areas of improvement.
                                                                          Reverse Osmosis
                                                                              1%
          Boilers/Hot Water
             5%

          Irrigation
           4%
        Single-Pass Cooling
             4%
      Aquatic Culture Water
           3%
   Sterilizers/Autoclaves
       2%
 HVAC/
Mechanical
  2%
A-4
                                                                                 October 2012

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             A.2 Federal Agency Implements Water Management Strategy
               • Closely monitoring cooling towers to ensure that cycles of concentration are
                 maximized.

               • Collecting and reusing air handler condensate as cooling tower make-up water.

               • Eliminating any remaining instances of single-pass cooling, replacing equipment
                 such as water-cooled ice machines and liquid-ring vacuum pumps.

               • Controlling the use of tempering water to cool steam sterilizer discharge water,
                 only allowing the tempering water to flow when the equipment is in use.

              EPA also established annual water reduction targets for each facility. As the targets
              are monitored and the facilities are reassessed, targets are updated and new projects
              are identified so EPA can continue making progress towards Agencywide goals.


              Savings Summary

              EPA's facility-specific approach to water efficiency has resulted in significant savings when
              tallied up among all of the Agency's laboratories. As of the end of 2010, EPA has reduced
              its water use intensity by 18.7 percent from the required 2007 baseline. This amounts
              to approximately 23.4 million gallons in total water savings and water and sewer cost
              savings of more than  $200,000. See Figure A-2 for an illustration of EPA's water savings in
              recent years.

               Figure A-2. Water Use Intensity of All EPA Laboratories (gallons per gross square foot),
                                          2007 through 2010
                   E
                   en
                      40
                      ->r
                      35
                      30
                      25
                      20
                   J=     2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
                   •4—'
                   §     — EPA's Actual Gallons per Gross Square Foot  — Executive Order 13514 Target
              Acknowledgements

              EPA's WaterSense program acknowledges the following individuals for providing
              information for this case study:

               • Dexter Johnson, Water Management Coordinator, EPA
               • Bucky Green, Chief, Sustainable Facilities Practices Branch, EPA
October 2012
A-5

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A.3 Hotel  Installs Water-Efficient
       Sanitary  Fixtures
                                         WaterSense
                                      Case Study Highlights

                Facility type: Hotel

                Location: San Antonio, Texas

                Potential occupancy: 397 guest rooms

                Building size: 236,000 gross square feet

                Projet overview: Through participation in the San Antonio Water System
                (SAWS) WaterSaver Hotel program in 2007, the Holiday Inn San Antonio
                International Airport replaced its toilets and showerheads and installed high-
                efficiency aerators on its faucets in all guest  rooms.

                Water savings: 7 million gallons of water per year

                Energy savings: 330,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity per year

                Cost savings: $68,000 in water, sewer, and energy costs per year

                Simple payback: Less than 2 years
              Project Summary

              As San Antonio continues to grow, water conservation
              has become an important part of the city's water
              management planning. Recognizing that conservation
              is more cost-effective than securing new water
              sources, in 2007, San Antonio Water System (SAWS)
              developed its WaterSaver Hotel program to work with
              select hotels to retrofit bathroom fixtures and fittings.

              The Holiday Inn San Antonio International Airport
              (hereafter referred to as the Holiday Inn) is a 236,000
              square foot hotel with 397 guest rooms. Since its
              construction in 1981, the hotel's bathrooms had not
              undergone major upgrades. When it heard of SAWS'
              WaterSaver Hotel program, it was one of the first to
              volunteer.
                      Exterior of the Holiday Inn San Antonio International Airport
              Through the program, SAWS paid for high-efficiency toilet, faucet, and showerhead
              upgrades in all 397 guest rooms, including the cost of the fixtures and installation.
              SAWS only required that specified toilets, showerheads, and faucet aerators were all
              properly installed.
A-6
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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                            A.3  Hotel  Installs Water-Efficient Sanitary Fixtures
              SAWS used the efficiency and performance criteria from the U.S. Environmental
              Protection Agency (EPA) WaterSense® tank-type toilet and lavatory faucet
              specifications to select water-efficient, high-performing toilets and faucet aerators
              for installation. At the time, WaterSense had not issued its specification for
              showerheads, so the Holiday Inn selected its own showerheads; however, SAWS
              specified that they must have a flow rate less than 1.75 gallons per minute (gpm).
              Table A-1 summarizes the fixtures replaced at the Holiday Inn.
                             Table A-1. Holiday Inn's Fixtures and Fittings Retrofits
                Toilets
                                        Original
                                        •fficienc
3.5 gallons per flush
      (gpf)
    1.1 gpf
                                     /mis Replaced
       297
                Toilets
      5.0 gpf
    1.1 gpf
       100
                Faucet Aerators
     2.2 gpm
   1.5 gpm
       397
                Showerheads
     2.5 gpm
  1.75 gpm
       397
               Holiday Inn undertook additional water-saving measures, including reusing the
               condensate that builds up from heating and cooling equipment to irrigate the
               landscape and planting a rooftop herb garden.The hotel is also reusing backwash
               water from the swimming pool and blowdown water from the cooling tower.


               Savings Summary

               Before the retrofit, the Holiday Inn used approximately 202 gallons of water per
               occupied room per day. After installing the high-efficiency toilets, faucet aerators,
               and showerheads in all of the guest rooms, water use dropped 35 percent to 132
               gallons per occupied room per day. This resulted in savings of about 580,000 gallons
               a month, or 7 million gallons of water each year. Figure A-3 illustrates the savings
               achieved after the retrofits were completed in late 2007.

                 Figure A-3. Holiday Inn San Antonio International Airport Monthly Water Use
                   2,500,000 ,-
                   2,000,000
                   1,500,000
                   1,000,000
                    500,000
        2006
2007
'2010
                              Jan   Feb   Mar  Apr   May   Jun   Jul
                                                      Month
                               Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov  Dec
October 2012
                                                                A-7

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A.3  Hotel Installs Water-Efficient  Sanitary Fixtures
              The Holiday Inn estimates that it saves approximately $35,000 each year in water
              and sewer bills from reducing its water use. Because much of the water saved is hot
              water, the hotel also saves energy from these upgrades. Although the Holiday Inn
              does not currently measure this energy savings, based upon typical hot water use
              from showerheads and faucets, the hotel likely saves an estimated 330,000 kilowatt
              hours of electricity and an additional $33,000 per year in energy savings, for more
              than $68,000 in total savings each year.

              According to SAWS, the utility spent approximately $100,000 retrofitting the 397
              hotel guestroom bathrooms, which would have resulted in a payback period of less
              than two years, had the hotel paid for the upgrades. The hotel has also reported that
              it no longer receives calls for maintenance of the new fixtures or fittings, compared
              to the one to two calls received each day in the past.


              Acknowledgements

              EPA's WaterSense program acknowledges the following individuals for providing
              information for this case study:

               •  Owners and management, Holiday Inn San Antonio International Airport
               •  Brandon Leister, Conservation Planner, San Antonio Water System
               •  Karen Guz, Conservation Director, San Antonio Water System
A-8                                                                                       October 2012

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A.4 Restaurants Install Water-Efficient
       Commercial Kitchen Equipment
         WaterSense
                                  Certified Green Restaurants®

               With social and environmental responsibility
               becoming the norm among restaurateurs and
               consumers, restaurants across the country have
               begun to install water- and energy-efficient
               commercial kitchen equipment for food preparation,
               cooking, and cleaning. Despite measures taken
               to reduce water use, a challenge faced by many
               restaurants is the inability to directly quantify the
               impact of their efforts. In many cases, restaurants might be billed a flat fee for
               water or, if the building is leased or the restaurant is part of a corporate franchise,
               utility bills may be directed to the building owner or corporate headquarters.

               The restaurants highlighted in this case study—Uncommon Ground, The
               Grey Plume, and Founding Farmers—showcase many of the water-efficiency
               best management practices described in WaterSense at Work. Although they
               cannot quantify specific savings, these restaurants are Green Restaurant
               Association (GRA) Certified Green Restaurants,® meaning they have reduced
               their environmental impact from disposables, energy, food, furnishings, building
               materials, pollution, chemicals, waste, and water.1
              Project Summary

              The water-efficiency best management practices implemented at
              each of three restaurants—Uncommon Ground, The Grey Plume,
              and Founding Farmers—are described in this case study.

              Uncommon Ground (Chicago, Illinois)

              When Uncommon Ground first opened, it was a small cafe in a
              converted apartment in Chicago. Twenty years later, Uncommon
              Ground has two 4,000-square-foot restaurants that serve
              approximately 20,000 customers per month. As the restaurants'
              popularity began to grow, the owners sought ways to reduce their
              environmental impact.

              In the first year of its plan to reduce water use, Uncommon Ground
              focused on the"low hanging fruif'and installed water-efficient
              faucet aerators in prep sinks, changed its pre-rinse spray valve to
              a high-efficiency model, and began serving water to customers
Uncommon Ground exterior
1 Green Restaurant Association, www.dinegreen.com/.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
                       A-9

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A.4 Restaurants Install Water-Efficient  Commercial Kitchen Equipment
               only upon request.To take its water conservation efforts to the
               next level, Uncommon Ground replaced the dishwashers at both
               restaurants with ENERGY STAR® qualified models and the ice
               machines (water-cooled models) with air-cooled, ENERGY STAR
               qualified models. In addition, Uncommon Ground uses a self-
               contained steam kettle without an external boiler, which uses less
               water and energy than boiler-based steam kettles.

               Because serving local food is one of Uncommon Ground's
               missions, management installed a rooftop organic farm watered
               by a drip irrigation system.The restaurant also has a rain barrel for
               rainwater collection, and the rainwater is used to water planters
               and wash down patio areas.

               Following these water-efficient retrofits, the two Uncommon
               Ground restaurants became the first restaurants in the country to
               obtain a four-star rating—the highest possible—from GRA.
                              The Grey Plume (Omaha, Nebraska)
ENERGY STAR qualified dishwasher and
high-efficiencypre-rinse spray valve
installed at one of Uncommon Ground's
locations
                              The Grey Plume, located in a LEED® certified building, has
                              embarked on many green initiatives as part of its focus on
                              sustainable food sourcing and operations. In the kitchen, water-
                              efficient aerators are installed on all handwashing and prep sinks,
                              and a high-efficiency pre-rinse spray valve is also used. Both the
                              ice machine and dishwasher are ENERGY STAR qualified. Instead
                              of utilizing a garbage disposal, which can flow between 2.0
                              and 15.0 gallons per minute (gpm) when in use, the restaurant
                              composts food waste, saving water and reducing the waste that
                              is discarded. Water efficiency, along with ongoing operations that
                              facilitate recycling, waste minimization, green cleaning, and energy
                              efficiency, enabled the Grey Plume to become GRA's Greenest
                              Restaurant in America in December 2010 and March 2012.
 The Grey Plume exterior
               Founding Farmers (Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area)

               As a restaurant that tries to mirror the family farmer's traditional protection of air,
               soil, water, and biodiversity, Founding Farmers developed a philosophy focused on
               efficient and environmentally-friendly operations for its two locations in Washington,
               D.C., and Potomac, Maryland. Both restaurants are approximately 9,000 square feet,
               serve between 20,000 and 30,000 customers per month, and have been recognized
               as Certified Green Restaurants® by GRA for their eco-friendly operations. The
               Washington, D.C., restaurant is located in a LEED Gold certified building.

               In both restaurants, water-efficient products and equipment were installed during
               initial construction. The Washington, D.C., kitchen includes a high-efficiency pre-rinse
               spray valve, an ENERGY STAR qualified dishwasher, and an ENERGY STAR qualified
               steam cooker, which uses an average of 3 gallons of water per hour (standard models
               typically use 40 gallons of water per hour).
A-10
                  October 2012

-------
 A.4 Restaurants Install Water-Efficient Commercial Kitchen Equipment
              The Potomac, Maryland, location includes the
              same features; it also incorporated 0.5 gpm
              faucet aerators on prep sinks and does not use
              a garbage disposal for removing food waste
              from dishes. Both locations also use dipper
              wells for utensil cleaning, which are not flowing
              continuously but are operated with an on/off
              mechanism.These features, along with a focus
              on continuous improvement, enabled both
              locations to earn GRA's certification.


              Savings Summary
Founding Farmers exterior
              Because they do not collect water data, these restaurants are not able to cite how
              many total gallons of water they have saved through their efforts. Table A-2 provides
              a summary of the best management practices implemented at each restaurant and
              an indication of how much water the facilities may be saving compared to typical
              restaurant practices.

              The restaurant owners noted that the water- and energy-efficient products and
              practices have not slowed down productivity in their busy operations, and they are
              all very satisfied with the products and equipment they have installed in and out of
              the kitchen.

              Table A-2. Best Management Practices Implemented at Certified Green Restaurants®
Best Percent Savings
Uncommon The Grey Founding
Management Compared to Standard
Ground Plume Farmers
Practice Product/Practice
Commercial Kitchen Best Management Practices
High-Efficiency Faucet
Aerators on Prep Sinks
Manually Operated
Dipper Well
High-Efficiency
Pre-Rinse Spray Valve
ENERGY STAR Qualified
Commercial Dishwasher
ENERGY STAR Qualified
Commercial Ice Machine
ENERGY STAR
Qualified Steam Cooker
Self-Contained
Steam Kettle
Food Composting (no
garbage disposal)
30-75
Significant
20-40
25
10
90
Significant
100
X

X
X
X

X

X

X
X
X


X
X
X
X
X

X


                                                                                   (continued)
October 2012
                                      A-11

-------
A.4 Restaurants Install Water-Efficient Commercial Kitchen Equipment
          able A-2. Best Management Practices Implemented at Certified Green Restaurants® (cont.)
"="'
Percent Savings .. _. _ _
„ . Uncommon The Grey Founding
Compared to Standard _ ...
_ Ground Plume Farmers
Product/Practice
Other Best Management Practices
High-Efficiency Aerators
on Handwashing Sinks
Dual-flush or 1 .28 Gallons
per Flush Toilets
High-Efficiency or Non-
Water-Using Urinals
Drip Irrigation
Rainwater Collection and
Reuse
30-75
20
50-100
20-50
Significant
X
X
X
X
X
X
X



X
X
X


            Acknowledgements

            The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense® program acknowledges the
            following individuals for providing information for this case study:

             • Lara Hardcastle,Vice President, Vucurevich Simons Advisory Group
             • Helen Cameron, Owner, Uncommon Ground
             • Clayton Chapman, Chef/Owner,The Grey Plume
A-12
October 2012

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A.5  Office Complex  Reduces
        Outdoor Water Use
WaterSense
                                       Case Study Highlights

                 Facility type: Office park landscape

                 Location: Dallas,Texas

                 Landscape size: 372,000 square feet

                 Project overview: Following an irrigation audit, an irrigation professional
                 certified through a WaterSense labeled program improved the efficiency of
                 the office park's irrigation system by installing a weather-based irrigation
                 controller, rain sensor, and freeze sensor and performing needed maintenance
                 on the existing irrigation system.

                 Water savings: 12.5 million gallons in 2009

                 Cost savings: $47,000 in 2009

                 Simple payback: Less than 1.5 years
              Project Summary

              The Granite Park office complex in Piano, Texas, has implemented water-efficient
              practices inside and out, including improvements to its landscape and irrigation
              system. As a result, it has significantly decreased its outdoor water use—and is
              winning awards in the process. Two buildings in the complex, Granite Park One and
              Two, have already earned LEED® Gold certification.

              The Granite Park complex landscape is maintained by an irrigation professional
              certified through a program that has earned the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
              (EPA) WaterSense® label.The certified professional, Bruce Birdsong, is the president
              of Precision Landscape Management, and he leads a team of irrigation professionals
              overseeing approximately 372,000 square feet of landscape at the complex,
              maintaining plant health and landscape aesthetics while saving water.

              When Precision Landscape Management took
              over grounds maintenance at the Granite Park
              office complex in 2008, Mr. Birdsong conducted an
              irrigation audit to determine the system's efficiency
              improvement potential. At that time, the system was
              controlled by traditional clock timers and lacked
              proper maintenance. To improve the efficiency of
              the system, the complex upgraded to weather-
              based irrigation controllers, which analyze local
              weather data and landscape conditions to program
              watering schedules based on plants'needs.2
                                                             Granite Park office complex landscape
2 Although not available at the time of installation, the WaterSense label is now available for weather-based irrigation controllers.
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
               A-13

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A.5 Office Complex Reduces Outdoor Water Use
              In addition to installing new controllers, the landscape management firm initiated
              routine maintenance and repairs to the irrigation system: replacing broken sprinkler
              heads; positioning sprinkler heads to ensure adequate coverage; and installing
              pressure regulating nozzles to increase the uniformity of water applied. Rain and
              freeze sensors were also installed to prevent watering at unnecessary times.

              After completing the new installations and repairs, Precision Landscape
              Management continued comprehensive, monthly inspections of irrigation system
              operation. The inspections consist of examining each sprinkler head to ensure it is
              functioning properly, looking for leaks, checking the coverage, and verifying that the
              scheduling technology is programmed properly.


              Savings Summary

              The Granite Park complex reduced irrigation water use by about 40 percent from the
              irrigation system upgrades and improvements in operation. Figure A-4 displays the
              outdoor monthly water usage before and after the irrigation system retrofit.
                            Figure A-4. Granite Park's Monthly Landscape Water Use
                  7,000,000

                  6,000,000

               ~ 5,000,000
                d
                o
               3 4,000,000
               =>
               £ 3,000,000
               I
                  2,000,000

                  1,000,000

                       0
                                              12008
12009
                      1  I  I   I  I
I   I   I   I   I  I  I  I   I  I   I
                           Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May   Jun    Jul   Aug  Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec
                                                     Month
              The Granite Park office complex saved nearly 12.5 million gallons of waterand
              $47,000 in 2009. Based on these savings, the project paid for itself in less than a year
              and a half, and Granite Park earned credits toward its LEED Gold certification. Beyond
              improving the bottom line and saving water, the resulting landscape is now both
              healthier and more attractive.


              Acknowledgements

              EPA's WaterSense program acknowledges Mr. Bruce Birdsong, President, Precision
              Landscape Management, for providing information for this case study.
A-14
                                                                  October 2012

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 A.6  Laboratory Eliminates
I    Single-Pass  Cooling
                                                                               WaterSense
                                       Case Study Highlights

                Facility type: Laboratory

                Location: Duluth, Minnesota

                Number of occupants: 175

                Building size: 88,577 gross square feet

                Project overview: Between 1993 and 2003, the U.S. Environmental Protection
                Agency (EPA) Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory (MED) replaced the use
                of potable water for single-pass cooling of building and process equipment with
                non-potable water from Lake Superior. In addition, MED later replaced a water-
                cooled ice machine with an ENERGY STAR® qualified, air-cooled model.

                Water savings: By replacing most single-pass cooling of building and process
                equipment, MED reduced the building's potable water use by 90 percent, or
                approximately 7.5 million gallons per year. In addition, the replacement of the
                water-cooled ice machine saves MED 283,000 gallons of water per year.

                Cost savings: Approximately $75,000 in water and sewer costs per year from
                replacing potable-water single-pass cooling, and $2,800 in water and sewer costs
                per year from replacing the ice machine
               Project Summary

               EPA's Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory (MED) is located in Duluth,
               Minnesota. MED consists of 10 buildings with 88,577 gross square feet of
                                         conditioned space. The laboratory houses both
                                         biology and chemistry laboratories and a large
                                         aquatic culture unit. Significant features include
                                         50 laboratory rooms, seven constant temperature
                                         rooms, administrative offices, and a library. MED
                                         has used  water from Lake Superior to support its
                                         ecotoxicology research since the laboratory opened
                                         in 1970.

                                         Since 1993, MED has been implementing a
                                         comprehensive program to reduce potable water
                                         use. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, MED was
                                         using up  to 10 million gallons of potable water per
                                         year, mostly for single-pass cooling of the building
                                         or research equipment. Taking advantage of its
EPA's Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory
 WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities
                                                                                             A-15

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A.6 Laboratory Eliminates  Single-Pass Cooling
              proximity to Lake Superior, MED made a concentrated effort to eliminate all uses of
              potable water for non-contact, single-pass cooling and replace it with lake water. As
              a result, MED was able to reduce its total potable water consumption by 90 percent.
              Instead of sending the lake water to the sanitary sewer, however, once the water is
              used, it is sent directly back to Lake Superior. Since the cooling water doesn't come in
              contact with any sources of contamination, it can be returned in the same quantity
              and quality as before without any needed treatment.

              In addition, from a 2009 water assessment at MED (see the discussion in Section
              A.2: Federal Agency Implements Comprehensive Water Management Strategy), EPA
              noted that a significant amount of potable water was still used to supply single-pass
              cooling of an ice machine. At a flow rate of 0.54 gallons per minute (gpm), MED was
              discharging approximately 283,000 gallons of water per year to the sewer just to cool
              the ice machine. As a result of the assessment, MED recalibrated the cooling water
              control valve to only allow water to flow when needed for cooling. Ultimately, MED
              decided to eliminate this single-pass cooling water use by replacing the ice machine
              with an ENERGY STAR® qualified, air-cooled model.This replacement allowed MED to
              completely eliminate the use of potable water for single-pass cooling at the facility,
              and even further reduce its overall potable water consumption.


              Savings Summary

              By shifting to using lake water for non-contact, single-pass cooling, MED was able to
              reduce its potable water use by 90 percent between 1993 and 2003, which resulted in
              a water savings of approximately 7.5 million gallons per year or 55.4 million gallons in
              total, as illustrated in Figure A-5.
                              Figure A-5. MED Potable Water Use, 1987 to 2003
            C71

            O
            o
           •B
            OJ
           fS
12,000


10,000


 8,000


 6,000


 4,000


 2,000
                                                     I  Mill..
                                                                       *—  rsj   on
                                                                       888
                                                Year
A-16
                                                                         October 2012

-------
                                  A.6 Laboratory Eliminates  Single-Pass  Cooling
              Reducing potable water use saved MED both water supply and sewer costs, since the
              lake water used for non-contact, single-pass cooling was sent back to Lake Superior
              instead of the sanitary sewer. This results in savings of approximately $75,000 in water
              and sewer costs per year.

              In 2009, MED spent approximately $3,500 to replace the water-cooled ice machine
              with the ENERGY STAR qualified, air-cooled model. In addition to saving an estimated
              283,000 gallons of water per year, MED saved $2,800 per year in water and sewer bills
              and realized a payback period of less than two years from this installation.

              Overall, MED has reduced its potable water use from approximately 9 million gallons
              per year in the early 1990s to only 884,000 gallons in 2010. In 2011, MED initiated plans
              to install WaterSense® labeled flushing urinals and dual-flush toilets to further reduce
              its potable water use. The facility's commitment to water savings has helped EPA to
              meet its Agencywide water reduction goals.


              Acknowledgements

              EPA's WaterSense program acknowledges the following individuals for providing
              information for this case study:

                • Dexter Johnson, Water Management Coordinator, EPA
                • Bucky Green, Chief, Sustainable Facilities Practices Branch, EPA
                • Rod Booth, Facilities Manager, MED, EPA
October 2012                                                                                       A-17

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A.7 Hospital Installs Water-Efficient
       Laboratory  and Medical  Equipment
                                         WaterSense
                                      Case Study Highlights

                Facility type: Hospital

                Location: Olympia, Washington

                Potential occupancy: 340 beds

                Building size: 750,000 gross square feet

                Project summary: Providence St. Peter Hospital retrofitted its steam sterilizers
                to make them more water-efficient; eliminated water used to cool air
                compressors and waste gas anesthesia pumps; and made other water-efficiency
                improvements to address sanitary fixture, mechanical system, and outdoor
                water use.

                Water savings: 31  million gallons of water in total over 10 years, or
                approximately 5.9 million gallons per year once retrofits were completed

                Cost savings: $1.5 million over 10 years, or approximately $140,000 per year

                Simple payback: Accounting for rebates and incentives, all of the implemen-
                ted projects paid for themselves in less than 2 years
              Project Summary

              Providence St. Peter Hospital in Olympia, Washington, is a 340-bed, 750,000-square-
              foot patient care facility. The hospital logs approximately 95,000 patient days per year
              and employs 2,300 staff.

              In Olympia, water rates increased 40 percent between 2000 and 2011. Realizing the
              potential for saving both water and operating costs, Providence St. Peter Hospital began
              identifying water-efficiency improvement projects as early as 1999. In 2001, the hospital
              partnered with its mechanical contractor to perform a facility water assessment and
              identify sources of water waste, focusing its initial efforts on
              improving operations and maintenance. Providence St. Peter
              maintenance staff analyzed irrigation systems, heating and
              cooling systems, faucets, kitchen equipment, hydrotherapy
              pool operations, and other potential sources of leaks and
              made repairs where necessary.

              Following the initial water assessment and leak detection
              and repair phase, Providence St. Peter began the major
              work of improving the efficiency of some of its medical
              equipment, as well as equipment in restrooms, kitchens,
              and mechanical spaces.
                                                                Providence St. Peter Hospital exterior
A-18
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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A.7  Hospital Installs Water-Efficient Laboratory and  Medical  Equipment


               Like most hospitals, Providence St. Peter uses sterilizer equipment to disinfect and
               sterilize surgical instruments, medical waste, and other materials.The hospital's four
               existing instrument steam sterilizers all are outfitted with orifice venturi equipment,
               which uses water to produce a vacuum. By replacing the venturi equipment with
               electric vacuum pumps, Providence St. Peter was able to eliminate the water use
               associated with the vacuum operation in its sterilizer units. Additionally, piping was
                                           modified so that steam condensate was recovered
                                           from the sterilizer jacket, which is now redirected to
                                           the boiler plant for reuse instead of discharged to
                                           the drain.

                                           Instead of using potable water for single-pass
                                           cooling of its liquid-ring central vacuum pumps,
                                           Providence St. Peter uses recirculating chilled water
                                           from the central chilled water system, although
                                           some fresh water is required to flush the system
                                           clean of any medical fluids. Providence St. Peter has
                                           also replaced its liquid-ring, non-medical (control)
                                           air compressors and waste anesthesia gas pumps
                                           with non-water-using equipment.
Medical air compressors
               In addition to addressing the water efficiency of some of its medical equipment,
               Providence St. Peter has also improved the efficiency of its sanitary fixtures,
               mechanical equipment, and outdoor water including:

                • Installed dual-flush valves on existing flushometer-valve toilets and installed
                  several new high-efficiency toilets, making use of available utility rebates.

                • Installed 1-pint urinals.

                • Installed water-saving showerheads that meet patient expectations of
                  performance.

                • Worked with a manufacturer to design dual-flush bed pan washers.

                • Eliminated single-pass cooling in air conditioning units and ice machines.

                • Maximized the cooling tower's water efficiency; the cooling tower is the largest
                  user of water at the facility, consuming approximately 3.2 million gallons of
                  make-up water even under an efficient control scheme.

                • Installed a weather-based irrigation controller on its irrigation system.

                • Replaced the garbage disposal with a food separator and compost system.

               Providence St. Peter has additional water-efficiency projects that it is considering,
               including: collecting and reusing rainwater; installing submeters to better monitor
               water use; reducing and/or reusing clean dialysis reject water; and collecting and
               using air handler condensate as cooling tower make-up water.
October 2012
                                                                                                    A-19

-------
A.7 Hospital  Installs Water-Efficient Laboratory and Medical Equipment


              Savings Summary

              The upgrade of the existing steam sterilizers was by far the most significant of the
              water-efficiency improvement projects completed at Providence St. Peter Hospital.
              As a result of these improvements alone, the hospital was able to reduce its water use
              by 4,300 gallons per day or approximately 1,600,000 gallons per year. To finance the
              $30,200 retrofit project, the hospital received a 50 percent grant from its wastewater
              utility. With this grant, the payback period for the project was less than two years.

              Table A-3 provides a summary of the water savings from
              all of the projects implemented at Providence St. Peter
              through 2012.

              All of the projects completed at Providence St. Peter
              combined have lowered operating costs and reduced
              the burden on the hospital's budget. Providence St. Peter
              Hospital estimates that it saves approximately $140,000
              each year in water and sewer bills, and at least 3.4 million
              gallons of water.

              Ten years after the hospital began its water-efficiency
              efforts, staff estimated that it had reduced water use 59
              percent compared to its  1998 use. In fact, the hospital
              realized cumulative savings of $1.5 million and 31 million gallons of water between
              1999 and 2011. This savings was achieved despite an expansion of the campus by 17
              percent and an increase  of 22 percent in patient days between 2004 and 2009.
Anesthesia evacuation pumps
                        Table A-3. Retrofit and Replacement Project Water Savings
                                                         rater Savings
                                                            'ons per
        Estimated
         Payback

year) (years)
Medical Equipment Retrofits and Replacements
Steam Sterilizer Pump Replacement and
Condensate Collection
Replacement of Non-Water-Using Medical Air
Compressors (reciprocating system)
Waste Anesthesia Gas Pump Replacement
1,600,000
790,000
530,000
1.9
5.0
5.7
Mechanical System Replacements
Replacement of Single-Pass Cooling Ice
Machines, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration
Equipment
more than
330,000
1.1
Sanitary Retrofits and Replacements
Retrofit of Flushometer-Valve Toilets With Dual-
Flush Valves and Handles
Installation of 1 -Pint Urinals
2,300
10,000
4.8
3.4
                                                                             (continued)
A-20
                         October 2012

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A.7  Hospital Installs Water-Efficient Laboratory and Medical  Equipment
                      Table A-3. Retrofit and Replacement Project Water Savings (cont.)
                               Project
                Installation of Some Dual-Flush Flushometer-
                Valve Toilets
                Installation of 1.5 GPM (gallons per minute)
                Showerheads
                Installation of Reduced Flow Rate Faucets
    9,800
    3,700
    1,500
                Commercial Kitchen Replacements
                Installation of a More Efficient Tunnel
                Dishwasher
                Installation of a Food Separator and Garbage
                Composting System
   660,000
  1,000,000
                Outdoor Replacements
                Installation of a Weather-Based Irrigation
                Controller
                Total
  1,000,000
Approximately
  5,900,000
 6.8
 2.1
 4.5
 18
N/A*
N/A
                *N/A: Information not available
              Acknowledgements
              The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense® program acknowledges the
              following individuals for providing information for this case study:
               •  Geoff Glass, Facility Director, Providence St. Peter Hospital
               •  Troy Aichele, Stirrett Johnsen Mechanical Contractors
               •  Laura Brannen, Senior Environmental Performance Consultant, Mazzetti Nash
                  Lipsey Burch
October 2012
                                        A-21

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A.8 University  Makes  the  Most  of
       Onsite  Alternative Water  Sources
                                         WaterSense
                                       Case Study Highlights

                Facility type: University

                Location: Austin, Texas

                Number of occupants: 51,000 students and nearly 24,000 faculty and staff

                Size: 400-acre campus with 17 million square feet of building space

                Project overview: University of Texas at Austin has focused on recovering
                and reusing water from onsite alternative sources to serve non-potable water
                needs. Retrofits include using air handler condensate, single-pass cooling
                water, rainwater, and foundation groundwater for cooling tower make-up
                water and lawn irrigation.

                Water savings: Reduced potable water use by more than 33 percent and
                saved more than 1.6 billion gallons of water in total since the program began
                in the 1980s.

                Cost savings: $7.5 million  since the program's inception
              Project Summary

              Once the largest water-using entity in the city of Austin, the University of Texas at
              Austin (UT Austin) has been implementing programs to reduce its water use for three
              decades. Although UT Austin continues to expand its campus, its comprehensive
              water conservation program has resulted in declining water use over the years.

              The 400-acre campus, comprised of 17 million square feet of building space, serves
              approximately 51,000 students and nearly 24,000 faculty and staff.The campus
              includes administrative offices, academic lecture buildings, dormitories, research
              laboratories, cafeterias,  museums, libraries, athletic venues, and industrial facilities.
              UT Austin has focused on recovering and reusing onsite alternative water sources in
              these facilities to serve non-potable water needs around the campus.

              Single-Pass Cooling Water Recovery

              Historically, UT Austin used single-pass cooling to supply chilled water for dormitory
              drinking fountains. Water was used to cool the drinking fountain chillers, then sent
              down the drain at a rate of 1 gallon per minute (gpm), 24 hours per day, 365 days per
              year. In addition, several pieces of laboratory equipment used single-pass cooling.
              Recognizing this opportunity for water savings, UT Austin installed a network of PVC
              pipes within existing underground tunneling to send the single-pass cooling water
              as make-up water to the campus' cooling tower. All onsite alternative water sources
              directed to the cooling tower are now collected through this piping system.
A-22
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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     A.8  University  Makes  the Most of Onsite Alternative Water  Sources
              At one point, UT Austin maintained nearly 250 pieces of equipment connected to
              the recovery system. Over time, UT Austin has replaced some of the older single-pass
              cooling equipment with more efficient, air-cooled equipment to eliminate some
              unnecessary water use, including replacing the old drinking fountain chillers with
              air-cooled heat exchangers.
                                            Ground Water Sump Recovery

                                            Some buildings on campus sit two or three stories
                                            below ground level and, as a result, ground water
                                            must be removed from these foundations to prevent
                                            building flooding. Before the mid-1980s, all of the
                                            recovered foundation ground water was pumped to
                                            the storm sewer. However, UT Austin saw this as an
                                            opportunity to use water that otherwise would go
                                            down the drain, as long as the hard water is treated
                                            prior to use in the cooling towers.
A chilling station making chilled water to cool campus buildings
              Air Handler Condensate Recovery

              In 1985, UT Austin began recovering air handler condensate and using it as make-up
              water for the cooling tower. Air handler condensate has relatively low conductivity
              and is cold, so it provides a good source of make-up water for the cooling tower. In
              addition, it is produced during the hot, humid summer months, when the cooling
              towers are running constantly and generate the highest demand for make-up water.

              With the use of air handler condensate as make-up water, UT Austin was able to
              increase the average cycles of concentration of the cooling tower from five to an
              average of nine and a peak of 14 cycles in the hottest summer months. Due to
              the success of air handler condensate recovery, UT Austin now constructs all new
              buildings with air handler condensate recovery systems. Approximately 40 buildings
              recover condensate from 100 air handler units. UT Austin has also been working to
              retrofit existing buildings to recover air handler condensate. Because the generation
              of single-pass cooling water has diminished due to the installation of air-cooled
              equipment, UT Austin now relies primarily on air handler condensate, rainwater
              harvesting, and some recovered foundation ground water to provide cooling tower
              make-up.
               Rainwater Harvesting

               Rainwater harvesting has been a relatively new addition
               to the UT Austin's alternative water source repertoire.
               Over the last five or six years, all newly constructed
               buildings on the campus have been equipped with
               rainwater harvesting capability, some with 5,000-gallon
               storage tanks, which collect rainwater for lawn irrigation.
               The rainwater harvesting system at UT Austin recovers 40
               to 50 million gallons of water per year, depending upon
               the amount of rainfall.
                                                                   Two 2,500-gallon tanks storing air handler
                                                                   condensate and harvested rainwater for irrigation
October 2012
A-23

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A.8  University Makes  the Most  of Onsite  Alternative Water Sources
                                                                   Construction of city-supplied reclaimed water
                                                                   distribution lines
Reclaimed Wastewater

After capturing all feasible sources of onsite alternative
water that would otherwise be wasted, UT Austin is now
preparing to use city-supplied reclaimed water as an addi-
tional source of make-up water to help achieve its goal
of using non-potable water wherever possible. UT Austin
is currently reengineering the campus' infrastructure to
be able to  use reclaimed city water in its processes. This
includes installing water meters, replacing valves where
needed, and installing additional piping at the property
boundary to connect the city-supplied reclaimed water to
the cooling towers.

In addition to water efficiency, UT Austin is focused  on
sustainability as a whole. As of 2007, all new buildings
on the UT Austin campus have received at least LEED
Silver certification, and several are LEED Gold certified.
To continue with its water-efficiency initiatives, UT Austin
has begun focusing on measurement and verification and
has installed submeters on water, steam condensate, and
chilled water lines. Newly constructed buildings have all of these techniques incorpo-
rated into the design phase, while existing buildings are being retrofitted.

Savings Summary

In the early 1980s, UT Austin's facilities were using 1  billion gallons of potable water
per year. In 2010, UT Austin reduced this potable water use to 668 million gallons.
This decrease in total potable water use was achieved despite a 70 percent increase
in overall building square footage. Much of this reduction is attributed to the use of
onsite alternative water sources.

In 2009, UT Austin used approximately 395  million gallons of water for cooling, 11
percent of which was supplied from onsite alternative water sources, including recov-
ered single-pass cooling water, foundation  groundwater, air handler condensate, and
rainwater. The University also recovers rainwater to provide supplemental irrigation.
UT Austin has recovered and reused more than 1.6 billion gallons of water since the
water conservation program began, saving $7.5 million in water and sewer costs.


Acknowledgements

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense® program acknowledges Mr.
Rusty Osborne, Utilities and Energy Management at UT Austin (retired), for providing
information for this case study.
A-24
                                                                              October 2012

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                     Table of Contents
                     Table B-1. Building Water Survey Worksheet	B-3
                     Table B-2. List of Water Meters Worksheet	B-4
                     Table B-3. Water Consumption History
                         Worksheet	B-5
                     Table B-4. Existing Plumbing Equipment
                         Worksheet	B-6
                     Table B-5. Water Use Inventory Worksheet	B-7
 Appendix  B:  Sample Worksheets
for Water Management Planning
                                  LJ i r\
                                  Water Sense

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Appendix B: Sample Worksheets for
Water Management Planning
                                WaterSense
           The sample worksheets for water management planning provided in this Appendix
           were adapted from: Arizona Municipal Water Users Association (AMWUA) Regional
           Water Conservation Committee and Black and Veatch. August 2008. Facility Manag-
           er's Guide to Water Management Version 2.7. www.amwua.org/business.html.
B-2
WaterSense at Work: Best Management Practices for Commercial and Institutional Facilities

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Table B-1. Building Water Survey Worksheet


Building Water Survey
Surveyed by:
Date:
General Information
Name of Building:
Building Contact
Building Dimensions:
Width:
Length:
Address:
Phone:
Building wastewater is currently:
D Treated on site
D Connected to city water system
D Other
Is recycled water currently used in any of the
following areas?
D Toilets
D Urinals
D Cooling Towers
D Irrigation
Number of Floors (height):
Building Occupancy Data
Average Number of Occupants:
Number of Women:
Number of Men:
Occupancy Schedule
Weekdays
Saturdays
Sundays
Holidays
From a.m.
From a.m.
From a.m.
From a.m.
To
To
To
To

p.m.
p.m.
p.m.
p.m.





Appendix B: Sample Worksheets for Water IVIanagement Planning

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O
cr
NJ
o
Table B-2. List of Water Meters Worksheet


List of Water Meters
Water Account Numbers
(for billing)

















Meter Numbers

















Size/Type of Meter

















Meter Locations




















>
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JWS
mdix B: Sample Worksheets for Water IVIanagement Planning

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Table B-3. Water Consumption History Worksheet


Water Consumption History
Year
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total
Average
Monthly Consumption by Billing Units: Thousands of Gallons or ccf1 (by water account number)
Indoor Uses
Account
#














Account
#














Account
#














Account
#














Billed
Days














Average
GPWD2














Landscape Uses
Account
#














Account
#














Account
#














Account
#














Billed
Days














Average
GPWD














The abbreviation ccf represents 1 00 cubic feet, or roughly 748 gallons.
2 The abbreviation GPWD represents gallons per workday, assuming five days per week.




Appendix B: Sample Worksheets for Water IVIanagement Planning

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DO

ON
O
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NJ
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Table B-4. Existing Plumbing Equipment Worksheet


Existing Plumbing Equipment
Use Area



















Location



















Equipment



















# of Units



















Type



















Mounting (floor/
wall)



















Make/Model



















Average
Flow Rate or
Consumption



















Average Uses
per Week per
Unit



















Comments
(leaks,
control, etc.)






















>
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?ndix B: Sample Worksheets for Water IVIanagement Planning

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o
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NJ
o
Table B-5. Water Use Inventory Worksheet


Water Use Inventory
Item




















Location




















Flow
(gallons per minute)




















Operating Time
(minutes per day)




















Flow per Day
(gallons per day)




















Remarks

























Appendix B: Sample Worksheets for Water IVIanagement Planning

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United States Environmental Protection Agency
                 (4204M)

             EPA 832-F-12-034
              October 2012
         www.epa.gov/watersense
         (866) WTR-SENS (987-7367)

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