United States
Green Chemistry Challenge
Awards Program:
Summary of 2016 Award
Entries and Recipients
           An electronic version of this document is available at:




Introduction [[[1
Awards [[[3
      Academic Award. ........................................... 3
      Small Business Award.	 . 4
      Greener Synthetic Pathways Award	5
      Greener Reaction Conditions Award	6
      Designing Greener Chemicals Award
      Specific Environmental Benefit: Climate Change Award.	 .7
Entries from Academia ............................................9

Entries from Small Businesses ..................................... 11


     Each year chemists, engineers,  and other scientists from across the United States nominate
  their technologies for a Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award. This prestigious award
  highlights and honors innovative green chemistry technologies, including cleaner processes; safer
  raw materials; and safer, better products. These awards recognize and promote the environmental
  and economic benefits of developing and using novel green chemistry.
     The  U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency  (EPA)  celebrates  this  year's  innovative,
  award-winning technologies selected from among  scores of high-quality nominations.  Each
  nomination must represent one or more recently developed chemistry technologies that prevent
  pollution through source reduction. Nominated technologies are also meant to succeed in the
  marketplace: each is expected to illustrate the technical feasibility, marketability, and profitability
  of green chemistry.
     Throughout the 21 years of the awards program, EPA has  received  1,714 nominations and
  presented  awards to 109 winners. By recognizing groundbreaking scientific solutions to real-
  world environmental problems, the Presidential Green  Chemistry Challenge has significantly
  reduced the hazards associated with designing, manufacturing, and using chemicals.
     Each year our 109 winning technologies are together responsible for:
     •     Reducing the use or generation of 826 million pounds of hazardous chemicals
     •     Saving 21 billion gallons of water
     •     Eliminating 7.8  billion pounds of carbon dioxide releases to air
     And adding the benefits from the nominated technologies would greatly increase the program's
  total benefits.
     This booklet summarizes entries submitted for the 2016 awards that  fell within the scope of
  the program. An  independent  panel of technical experts convened by the American Chemical
  Society Green  Chemistry Institute'*' judged the entries for the 2016 awards. Judging  criteria
  included health and environmental benefits, scientific innovation, and  industrial applicability.
  Five of the nominated technologies were selected as  winners and were nationally recognized on
  June 13, 2016, at an awards ceremony in Portland, OR.
     Further information about  the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards and EPA's
  Green Chemistry Program is available at www.epa.gov/greenchemistry.
 Note: The summaries provided in this document were obtained from the entries received for the 2016 Presidential Green Chemistry
 Challenge Awards. EPA edited the descriptions for space, stylistic consistency, and clarity, but they were not written or officially
 endorsed by the Agency. The summaries are intended only to highlight a fraction of the information contained in the nominations.
 These summaries were not used in the judging process; judging was based on all information contained in the entries received.
 Claims made in these summaries have not been verified by EPA.



Catalysis with Earth Abundant Transition Metals
  Innovation and Benefits
  Hydrosilylation is a chemical process that is critical for the production of a wide range of
  consumer goods.  It relies on some of the least abundant elements in the Earth's crust, which
  results in high cost and significant environmental consequences. Professor Chirik discovered
  a new class of hydrosilylation catalysts based on earth abundant transition metals such as iron
  and cobalt that have superior performance to existing platinum catalysts.
   Metal-catalyzed chemical reactions have  enabled many of the technological innovations
of modern society with applications ranging from the synthesis of advanced materials to new
medicines. For decades, catalyst technology has relied on some of the least abundant elements
in the Earth's crust — palladium, platinum,  rhodium, and iridium. In addition to  their high
cost, price volatility, and toxicity, extraction of these elements  has significant environmental
consequences. Obtaining one ounce of a precious  metal, for example,  often  requires  mining
approximately 10 tons of ore which creates a CC>2 footprint that is estimated to be 6,000 times
that of abundant metals such as iron.
   Alkene hydrosilylation is an example of a metal-catalyzed chemical reaction that is used on an
industrial scale in the manufacture of silicones from alkenes and silanes. Silicones are found in a
range of consumer products including adhesives, household utensils, medical devices, health care
products, and low rolling resistance  tires. The platinum catalyst  used in alkene hydrosilylation
reactions is often not recovered, however, which results in a significant environmental footprint
for this commercially important process.
   Professor Chirik and his research  group, in  collaboration with  Momentive Performance
Materials, discovered a new class of hydrosilylation catalysts based on earth-abundant transition
metals such as iron and cobalt that have superior performance to existing platinum catalysts. This
base metal catalyst technology offers the opportunity to enable new chemical processes that provide
the desired product exclusively, eliminate distillation steps, and avoid generation of byproducts
and unnecessary waste.  This technology  is based upon "metal-ligand cooperativity," a broad
catalysis concept pioneered by the Chirik group, where electron changes occur concomitantly
between the metal and the supporting ligand.
   Hydrosilylations to produce various commercial silicone products have been conducted on
multi-gram scales using this new technology. The discovery of these air-stable, readily-synthesized
iron and cobalt catalysts with unprecedented activity and selectivity may ultimately transform the
industrial approach to commercial silicone products.
            Payl J.
Chirik, Princeton


Renewable Nylon  through  Commercialization  of
                                 Innovation and Benefits

                                 Dodecanedioic acid  (DDDA) is used  to manufacture nylon 6,12 for high performing
                                 engineered plastics, as well  as in numerous other applications.  DDDA is traditionally
                                 produced from petrochemicals via a multi-step chemical process using heat and nitric acid.
                                 Verdezyne developed a technology platform for producing BIOLON™ DDDA and other
                                 industrial chemicals from biobased and  renewable raw materials.
                                  Verdezyne developed a yeast fermentation technology platform to provide manufacturers and
                               consumers with renewable alternatives to existing petroleum-based chemical intermediates. This
                               technology focuses on the production of dicarboxylic acid chemical intermediates such as adipic
                               add, sebacic acid and dodecanedioic add  (DDDA). The  first of these to be commercialized
                               will be BIOLON™ DDDA, which will be used primarily in the manufacture of nylon 6,12 for
                               engineered  plastics that require special properties such as high  chemical, moisture, or abrasion
                               resistance. Other uses for  DDDA arc  in  the manufacture of adhesives, coatings, corrosion
                               inhibitors, lubricants, and fragrances.
                                  The current global demand for DDDA is estimated to be 100 million pounds per year. All
                               DDDA currently on the market is produced from fossil-based sources, with the largest volume
                               manufactured via trimerization of butadiene,  followed by hydrogenation and oxidation with
                               nitric acid.  Verdezync's process for production of BIOLON™ DDDA uses fatty acid feedstocks
                               sourced from the co-products of vegetable oil refining as the starting raw material. In addition to
                               providing a renewable alternative, this process offers a higher level of manufacturing safety since
                               high temperature and pressure and concentrated nitric acid are no  longer needed. Moreover,
                               Verdezyne's process also results in reduced greenhouse gas emissions.
                                  Verdezyne's production of BIOLON™ DDDA is an aerobic  fermentation process integrated
                               with downstream product  isolation and crystallization. The fermentation converts the twelve
                               carbon fatty acid, lauric acid, to DDDA through the activity ofVerdezyne's proprietary, genetically
                               engineered  Candida sp. yeast.  The biochemical pathway  involved is the three-step co-oxidation
                               pathway that sequentially oxidizes the terminal end of an alkane (or a fatty acid) to a carboxylic
                               acid. Verdezyne scientists specifically engineered this yeast to enable rapid, high-yield production
                               of DDDA while minimizing the accumulation of pathway intermediates that can be toxic to the
                               organism and detrimental to final product purity.
                                  Verdezyne's  proprietary   method for producing  renewable  BIOLON'" DDDA has  been
                               successfully  demonstrated on a larger scale, enabling the  production of over 70,000 pounds
                               thus far. The product has met all industry quality specifications and has also earned the LJSDA
                               Certified Biobased product label. The company's first commercial production facility is scheduled
                               to open in 2017-

AlkyClean®  Technology: An Inherently Safer Technology
for the Production  of Gasoline Alky late
   Innovation and Benefits

   Alkylate is a clean gasoline component and is produced from light olefins and isobutane. De-
   spite being a cleaner product, traditional alkylate production uses toxic and corrosive liquid
   acid catalysts. CB&I, Albemarle, and Neste developed an inherently safer solid acid catalyst
   alkylation technology that produces gasoline alkylate with a lower environmental impact.
   Alkylate is a highly valued "clean fuels" blending component for motor gasoline. It consists of
clean-combusting isoparaffins that have low vapor pressures and high octane values. Alkylate also
does not contain toxic components such as aromatics, olefins, or sulfur compounds. Alkylate is the
preferred gasoline blending component for compliance with relevant environmental regulations.
   Alkylate is produced  from the reaction of isobutane and light olefins (C3-C5).  Alkylate
production is currently about 30 billion gallons/year worldwide, of which 60% is located in
North America. A challenge  facing refineries today is that alkylate production requires the use of
liquid acid catalyzed processes, typically hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid. Hydrofluoric add, in
particular, is extremely toxic and, upon release, forms clouds that can be lethal for up to five miles.
   For more than 40 years, scientists have been trying  to replace liquid acid technologies with a
greener  solid acid catalyst technology. Prior approaches tailed because of poor product selectivity
and/or  excessively rapid catalyst deactivation, coupled with the lack of an acceptable catalyst
regeneration procedure. In some cases, these catalysts used leachable corrosive components such
as halogens, triflic acid, and boron trifluoride, which could migrate into product streams.
   Albemarle and CB&I developed a catalyst-process combination technology, the AlkyClean'8'
solid  acid alkylation process, which coupled with CB&J's novel reactor scheme, produces high
quality alkylate without the use of liquid acid catalysts.  Additionally, neither acid-soluble oils nor
spent acids are produced, and there is no need tor product post-treatment of any kind.
   Albemarle's AlkyStar"" catalyst was designed for use exclusively with the AlkyClean® alkylation
process. It uses a type of zeolite catalyst that is well-proven in the industry. The strength and the
number of acid sites on the catalyst have been optimized to enhance hydrogen transfer reactions
over multiple alkylation reactions. The catalyst particle size and porosity were also optimized using
a pilot plant and a demo unit that allowed the investigation of regeneration procedures as well.
   The  world's first commercial-scale, solid  catalyst alkylation unit was started up  in August,
2015. The unit employs the AlkyClean'8' technology and has a capacity of 2,700 BPD alkylate
production. The plant has met or exceeded all performance expectations and  is producing an
alkylate product of quality that is on par with existing technologies.


Instinct®  Technology — Making Nitrogen Fertilizers Work
More Effectively for Farmers and the Planet
                                 Innovation and Benefits
                                 Agricultural activity  introduces a significant amount of nitrate into ground and surface
                                 waters.  Dow Agrosciences  developed Instinct'*' nitrogen stabilization  technology which
                                 protects nitrogen fertilizer in the  ammoniacal form, thereby reducing  nitrate leaching to
                                 ground  and surface waters  as well as atmospheric nitrous oxide emissions. Instinct'*' also
                                 results in  longer retention  of applied nitrogen in a plant's root  zone for optimal crop
                                 utilization and yield.
                                 The demand for higher crop yields and agricultural productivity is ever increasing, and so are
                               concerns for the negative impacts on the environment caused by agricultural activities. Human
                               activities related to farming account for a significant percentage of nitrate in ground and surface
                               waters as well as nitrous oxide emissions. An estimated 75% of all nitrous oxide emissions, for
                               example, come from agricultural activities such as applied nitrogen fertilizers and manures.
                                 Crop genetics and precision  application methods have improved the efficiency of applied
                               nitrogen fertilizers, but  losses to the environment are still significant after soil bacteria quickly
                               convert  nitrogen from  the applied urea or ammoniacal form to nitrate.  In  the nitrate form,
                               nitrogen fertilizer is susceptible to losses through leaching or as emissions in the form of nitrous
                               oxide. Furthermore, nitrate fertilizer that leaches out of a plant's root zone is no longer available
                               to provide nutrients to the crop.
                                 Scientists at The Dow Chemical Company discovered a powerful nitrification inhibitor that
                               can inhibit soil bacteria from rapidly converting nitrogen  in the ammoniacal form to nitrate,
                               thereby  retaining more  nitrogen in the more stable ammoniacal form. By keeping nitrogen in
                               the root zone for a longer period during the season, Dow's nitrogen stabilizers improve Nitrogen
                               Use Efficiency and reduce nitrogen loss through leaching and nitrous oxide emissions. N-Serve®
                               was the first commercial product introduced by Dow in  1974, but it is only suitable for use
                               with anhydrous ammonia fertilizer applications due to the limitations of its physical-chemical
                                 In 2010, Dow AgroSciences  launched a novel, aqueous microcapsule suspension  product,
                               Instinct®. This patented technology can be conveniently used with other commonly used nitrogen
                               fertilizer sources, enabling adoption of the product for multiple crops  in the U.S.  and around
                               the world. As an aqueous suspension of a microencapsulated active ingredient, Instinct®, also
                               provides additional environmental benefit by significantly reducing the amount of petroleum-
                               based solvents used per treated acre.
                                 In less than five years, acres treated with stabilized nitrogen have grown more than five-fold.
                               In 2014 alone, based on calculated adoption of Instinct*' in the U.S., it is estimated that use of
                               the technology reduced carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by about 664,000 metric  tons and
                               increased U.S. corn production  by  about 50 million bushels, equating to about $205,500,000
                               additional production revenue for U.S. corn growers.

AirCarbon:  Greenhouse  Gas  Transformed into High-
Performance Thermoplastic
  Innovation and Benefits
  Fossil fuels are refined, cracked, and then polymerized at high temperature and pressure in
  petro-based processes to make plastics, Newlight Technologies developed a technology that
  produces high performance, carbon-negative AirCarbon'M resins from captured greenhouse
  gases, AirCarbon™ uses a proprietary biocatalyst to produce plastics at lower cost compared
  to plastics from petrochemicals.
   Methane is emitted by natural sources such as wetlands. It is also the second most prevalent
greenhouse gas emitted in the U.S. from human activities, such as leakage from natural gas systems
and the raising ot livestock. Methane's lifetime in the atmosphere is much shorter than carbon
dioxide, but methane is more efficient at trapping radiation. Pound for pound, the comparative
impact of methane on climate change is  more than 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a
100-year period.
   Newlight  Technologies  developed  and commercialized a carbon  capture technology that
combines methane with air to produce AirCarbon™, a high-performance thermoplastic material
that matches the performance ot a wide  range ot petroleum-based plastics while out-competing
on price. Newlight's biocatalyst combines air and methane-based carbon  to produce polymers
at environmentally friendly, ambient conditions. Despite  the conceptual simplicity,  previous
technologies  utilizing carbon capture to  manufacture plastics resulted  in production costs that
were significantly higher than petroleum-based manufacture of plastics,
   To overcome this long-standing cost challenge, Newlight developed a biocatalyst that does not
''turn itself off" based on the amount of polymer being produced. To do this, Newlight developed a
process to disable the negative feedback receptors on polyhydroxyalkanoate polymerase, the central
polymer production enzyme in the biocatalyst. As a result, the biocatalyst  is able to continue to
polymerize significantly beyond previous  maximum limits and generate a yield of nine kilograms
of polymer for every one kilogram of biocatalyst (9:1)  — nine times  more material compared
to previous technologies. Newlight's AirCarbon™ technology also reduces unit operations by a
factor of three and capital cost by a factor of five, resulting in a net operating cost that enables
AirCarbon™ to be cost and performance advantageous  compared to petrochemical incumbents.
   Within 24 months of scaling in 2013, AirCarbon™ was adopted by a range of leading companies
including Dell, Hewlett-Packard, IKEA, Kl, Sprint, The Body Shop, and Virgin to make packaging
bags, containers,  cell phone cases, furniture, and a range  of other products. These products use a
greenhouse gas in a carbon-negative process as a cost-effective replacement for petroleum-based


Catalytic Couplings Mediated by Non-Precious Metal


   This technology involves one of the most important classes of organic reactions used in modern
research:   namely, transition metal-catalyzed coupling reactions. These reactions are amongst
the most effective and widely used means of constructing carbon—carbon (C—C) and  carbon—
heteroatom (C—X) bonds. The importance of cross-coupling methodology is underscored by the
2010 Nobel Prize given ''for palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings in organic synthesis." These
couplings have transformed the landscape of chemical synthesis.
   Despite the impact of palladium chemistry, there has been tremendous interest by academic
and industrial researchers to develop related couplings that utilize non-precious metals. The Garg
laboratory has focused on nickel catalysis, given that nickel is significantly more abundant, much
less expensive, less toxic, and also possesses a much lower CC>2 footprint compared to palladium.
Additionally,  the American Chemical  Society Green Chemistry Institute*^ Pharmaceutical
Roundtable has prompted the development of coupling reactions that proceed in greener solvents.
The use of non-precious metals or the use of greener solvents in popular coupling reactions each
represents contemporary challenges in source reduction.
   The Garg  laboratory has reached  four key milestones in the development of new nickel-
catalyzed methodologies: (1) the nickel-catalyzed Suzuki—Miyaura coupling of aryl pivalate esters,
carbamates, and sulfamates using C—O bond activation; (2) the cross-coupling of a range of aryl
electrophiles using nickel catalysis in greener solvents; (3) the development of an undergraduate
educational laboratory focused on "green" cross coupling reactions; and  (4) the activation of
traditionally "inert" amide C—N bonds for the synthesis of esters and ketones.  In addition to
providing greener alternatives to popular palladium-catalyzed reactions, the methodologies unveil
new avenues of chemical reactivity.

Surface Engineered High-performance Catalysts for Fuel

Cell Applicatio ns

   With exceedingly fast population and economic growth, the 21st century is met by enormous
energy demand and  environmental  challenges.  Meeting these needs is only  possible  with
development of new energy resources, improved utilization efficiency of existing energy resources,
and with reduced environmental  impact. Catalysis has become a key in solving these challenges.
   The operation of fuel cells, for example, relies on the dissociation of covalent bonds of hydrogen
and oxygen on the catalyst surface to enable controlled redox reactions. Proton exchange membrane
fuel cell is a promising clean energy technology for many applications, most notably for replacing
the internal combustion engine in vehicles and generating zero emission. The U.S. Department
of Energy determined an annual revenue of $785 million in 2012 for fuel cell industries and
estimates an increase in the number of fuel cell electric powered vehicles by a factor of ten until
2020. To become competitive with combustion engines, the current cost per kW using fuel cell
technology of $45/kW needs to  be lowered to $30/kW. Major obstacles  towards reaching this
goal are the limited efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the surface of fuel cell
anodes and the low durability and high price of precious metals such as platinum (Pt).
   The Huang laboratory recently demonstrated that by introducing a small amount of a third
transition  metal onto the surface layers of Pt3Ni octahedral nanocatalysts, highly active and
exceptionally stable nanocatalysts (e.g., Mo-Pt3Ni/C) can be created with record high performance
toward ORR, marking an important milestone in fuel cell development. The Huang laboratory
is working closely with automobile companies to commercialize this technology for the broad
applications in fuel cell vehicles with zero emissions and greatly reduced environmental impacts.   _
Professor Neil
of Chemistry
University of
California, Los
Hyang, University
of California, Los

Miller, University
of Florida; U.S.
Tech Uniwersity
 Replacing Packaging Plastics with Sustainable

 Bioplastics from Megacrop  Waste
   This nominated  technology  describes  the polymerization of abundantly available biogenic
 feedstocks—from lignin or lignocellulose—tor the synthesis of novel polyesters suitable to replace
 environmentally unsound commodity  packaging  plastics such as polyethylene  terephthalate
 (PET), polyvinylchloride (PVC),  or polystyrene (PS). With  readily  tunable properties, these
 copolycsters arc sustainable replacements  for a variety of fossil fuel-based and  non-dcgradablc
 commodity plastics. Thus, they decrease reliance on finite petroleum and natural gas feedstocks,
 while ameliorating both the terrestrial trash crisis and the worsening ocean plastics catastrophe.
 This technology improves upon the most successful green polymer,  polylactic acid (PLA), for
 several reasons:  (1) the plastic deformation temperature can be finely tuned in the range of78°C
 to 153°C, easily exceeding the value for PLA (55°C) and the values for PET (67°C), PVC (82°C),
and PS (100°C); (2) these polymers are biodegradable and also water-degradable, affording benign
or even diet-beneficial degradation byproducts; and (3)  the building  blocks are abundant and
scalable bioaromatics (vanillin, fcrulic add, or coumaric add) that  are sourccd from non-edible
forestry or megacrop wastes rather than edible biomass. Commercialization is pursued by U.S.
Bioplastics, LLC,  a start-up company presently designing a pilot plant to valorize the world's
largest point-source of sugarcane bagasse, located in south Florida.

Highly  Efficient and Practical Monohydrolysis of

Symmetric Diesters
   Water is the least expensive solvent and among the most environmentally friendly solvents
 because it generates no hazard during chemical conversion processes unlike organic solvents. Water-
 mediated organic reactions replacing organic solvents thus represent a typical "green chemistry."
 Among various synthetic conversions, dcsymmctrization of symmetric compounds is one of the
 most atom-economical and cost-effective reactions because the starting symmetric compounds are
 typically obtained easily on a large scale from inexpensive sources, or are commercially available
 inexpensively. Therefore, water-mediated desymmetrization of symmetric  organic compounds is
 of tremendous synthetic value, and makes  a significant contribution to creating greener reaction
   Dr. Niwayama pioneered  water-mediated desymmetrization. In  particular, she  has been
 developing monohydrolysis  of  symmetric diesters as the water-mediated desymmetrization
 reaction.  Half-esters, which are produced by such monohydrolysis of symmetric diesters, are
 versatile building blocks in organic synthesis, applied to synthesis of polymers and dendrimers with
 applications to industrial products  of commercial value. Since the two ester groups in symmetric
 diesters are equivalent, the statistically expected yield of half-esters would be a maximum of only
 50%. Classical saponification usually affords  complex mixtures of dicarboxylic acids, half-esters,
and the starting diesters, which arc difficult to separate, yielding a large amount of undesirable
dirty waste. Ring-opening reactions of cyclic acid anhydrides require hazardous organic solvents.
 However,  Dr.  Niwayama discovered a highly efficient and  practical  ester  monohydrolysis
of symmetric diesters. In this reaction,  an aqueous base such as NaOH or KOH is added to
a symmetric diester suspended in water at 0°C. With  this  simple reaction, pure half-esters are
obtained in high to near-quantitative yields without production of dirty waste and without use of
 hazardous organic solvents. This reaction, which is anticipated to significantly contribute to green
chemistry, was licensed by three companies, and several half-esters produced by this  reaction were

New Chemical Impedes Biofilm Formation and the

Adhesion ofFoulers

   Aequor's products are novel, synthesized molecules that mimic natural marine chemicals. They
effectively inhibit the ability of industrial and medical bacteria and fungi to attach to surfaces and
colonize, and also remove the  resulting biofilm and fouling. The molecules in Aequor's portfolio
are all novel, scale-up ready, cost-effective to produce (synthesized in tour steps), and effective at
no or low toxic concentrations. Their molecular structures are simple for easy incorporation in
multiple delivery systems (sprays, washes, pastes, paints, coatings, etc.). They are stable with a
long shelf-life in powder form for reconstitution in liquid when  needed. They  are also potent,
and can be used alone  to replace toxic biocides (antimicrobials, antifouling agents, antiseptics,
antibiotics) or in combination with them at lower concentrations. This can reduce the toxic load
of hundreds of millions of tons of biocides (over 36 million tons  annually of antifouling agents
from the marine paint industry alone) that accumulate and persist in ecosystems and organisms.
Aequor is accepting licensing  proposals from market leaders that  manufacture antibacterial and
antifouling end-use products  in each target  sector:   agro-industrial,  consumer, medical, and
defense. Aequor's new  chemicals promise to save end-users time, manpower,  and money by
reducing:  (1) the quantities and frequency of biocidal applications needed to control bacteria,
micro fouling, and macro fouling; (2)  the costs of HAZMAT protocols for transport, storage,  use
and disposal of toxic agents that are flammable and with  high explosion potential; and (3) up to
50% of fuel consumption and noxious gas emissions in industries  (e.g.,  maritime transportation,
water treatments, energy,  etc.) where current antifouling paints and treatments  have failed. On
the medical side, Aequor's active agents are validated to reduce and eliminate infection caused by
Gram-negative and Gram-positive  bacteria.

Plating on Plastic

   The need for plating on plastic was driven by lighter material requirements for use in automotive
industry. Current processes use chromic acids and other toxic  materials. There  were various
patents  awarded tor ABS-PC  (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene-polycarbonate) plastics, however,
still most  use variants of other hazardous/toxic chemicals to achieve the surface modifications
needed  for metallization.  Given the  volumes  of cars produced, along with other industries like
medical, space, aerospace, defense,  and pharmaceutical, the amount of waste streams generated is
enormous. Chemicals such as  chromic acids, permanganates, formaldehydes, solvents, and a host
of others need to be manifested, rendered inert, and  if possible,  stabilized prior to disposal for
landfill, or burned for destruction/elimination.
   Each industry faces its own  unique issues when it comes to plating on plastic. Materials used in
the current process for aerospace, defense, and space face issues with off-gassing. Other industries
like medical devices, automotive, and other high-tech industries encounter issues because many
alternative coatings do not provide the  level  of corrosion resistance as coatings containing
cadmium or nickel.
   Alliance Finishing's  chemistry does not use traditional chemistries  to achieve metallization.
This technology eliminates the need  to remove toxic chemicals from waste streams and results in
safer working conditions and safer  products for the consumer.
Aequor, Inc.
Alliance Finishing

Amyris, Inc.
Partially Hydrogenated f^-Farnesene: A Renewable, Pure

Hydrocarbon Non-VOC Solvent Produced from Plant


   Using a state-of-the-art organism engineering platform, Amyris has  re-engineered ethanol-
producing  baker's yeast to consume sugars and  convert them into a hydrocarbon  rather than
an alcohol. Amyris has also demonstrated industrial-scale production of this hydrocarbon using
its proprietary yeast strains in a commercial fermentation  process, converting any fermentable
sugar,  including those  derived from cellulosic biomass,  into j?-7,ll-dimethyl-3-mer.hylene-
1,6,10-dodccatricnc (p-farncscnc, Biofcnc®). This technology platform can be used  to not only
produce the 2014 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award winning drop-in diesel and
jet fuel blendstock 2,6,10-trimethyldodecane, but it  also provides  an  innovative renewable
building block molecule applicable  in numerous industrial areas, ranging from novel polymers
with unique properties to value-added cosmetic  and fragrance ingredients. In keeping with the
Amyris mission to  address daunting global challenges,  the company has now used  p-farnesene
to manufacture partially hydrogenated farnesene on an industrial scale by a simple, efficient,
and economical catalytic hydrogenation, thus bringing  to market a unique organic solvent that
addresses the environmental, health, and performance issues of existing solvents, both renewable
and petroleum-based. With its regulatory approval in the U.S. and E.U. in 2015, the commercial
launch of this newly designed chemical is expected to  have a significant impact in the solvent
marketplace, where human exposure, health and environmental impacts, and biodegradability
continue to be significant concerns.

Estolides: A Low-Cost, High-Performance Renewable Fluid

Certified for Motor Oil

   This new chemical boasts  superior performance  as a base oil (the majority fluid) in motor
oil and other industrial lubricant applications. This  class of clean lubricant base oils, known as
estolides, are synthesized from fatty acids found in soybeans and  other crop  sources through a
proprietary catalytic process.
   As a vegetable-based specialty fluid, estolides reduce negative impacts on the environment by
displacing the petroleum-derived oils dominating the lubricants market today. Automotive and
industrial lubricants carry a staggering pollution profile. While renewable fuels, clean energy, and
other technologies are advancing to  displace their respective incumbent technologies, no viable
solution has emerged in the motor oil sector. Enormous pollution from motor oil continuously
harms  U.S. waterways. With the introduction of the highly stable  estolidc compound, lubricant
manufacturers finally have a base  oil option that functions impressively across the many severe
applications in which lubricants are used. Estolides conquered the most daunting of these—
motor  oil—in 2014.
   Significant displacement of toxic petrochemicals will occur as estolides are adopted in the
industrial  lubricant industry.  Biosynthetic Technologies has entered into commercialization
partnerships with Valvoline, Infineum (a joint venture between ExxonMobil and Shell), Castrol,
and other major lubricant brands to help bring this technology to market. These companies have
formulated and intend to launch finished products blended with  a significant concentration of
Biosynthetic Technologies' renewable estolide base oil.
   In addition to reduced water pollution, estolides  arc  biodegradable and emit less  greenhouse
gases across their lifecycle. A third-party lifecycle  analysis has confirmed that the emissions
associated with estolides are significantly lower than that of comparably performing, petrochemical
base oils.

   With landmark American Petroleum Institute motor oil certification in hand, an operating
demonstration plant, and a commercial plant on the verge of breaking ground, this technology is
poised to disrupt the petrochemical-dominant industrial lubricant sector and significantly reduce
the environmental harm caused by such oils

Disruptive Methantropic Technology for Sustainable

Food,  Fuel and Products: Green Chemistry Innovation

Enabling U.S.  Global Competitiveness in Low-Carbon,

New Economy

   Calysta creates  high  value industrial and  consumer products by converting methane into
sustainable building blocks for lite, while reducing source pollution. Calysta has developed and is
deploying a proprietary genetic engineering platform for host organisms (methanotrophs) capable
of metabolizing methane to biotuels, biochemical, and bioproducts, such as Feedkind aquaculture
protein. The genetic tools, together with  innovative fermentation and bioprocess approaches,
enable the rapid implementation of well-characterized pathways to use natural gas and biobased
methane as a biological feedstock instead of sugar. Methane's global warming potential (GWP) is
30-times greater than that of CC>2, implying that capturing these sources will have a significant
environmental benefit. Longer term, biomass-to-methane strategies may enable a fully renewable
carbon cycle it "green" methane-based technologies are developed.

 Catalytic Electrolysis for Renewable Fuel Generation

from Organic Waste  Water
   Organic-containing wastewater from manufacturing in the dairy, pharmaceutical, cosmetic,
dye, adhesive,  pesticide, and other  industries are  extremely high volume, hazardous  to the
environment, and energy-intensive to remediate. In many cases, they possess low pH, further
complicating their treatment. Current state-of-the-art technologies to treat organic wastewater
use multi-step  treatment that includes bio-digestion stages that are unstable, energy-intensive,
and costly. This technology offers an alternative method for organic wastewater  treatment using
selective catalytic electrolysis. Using recently discovered surface-bound molecular electrocatalysts,
which possess the stability of heterogeneous oxides and the selectivity of homogeneous molecular
complexes. Catalytic Innovations is able to selectively oxidize harmful organic compounds to
CCb  in aqueous environments. When integrated into a bipolar polymer electrolyte membrane
electrolyzer stack, a concentrated stream of CC>2 is produced at the anode with concomitant
production ot HI via proton reduction at the cathode, while clean, organic-free water with a near-
neutral pH is discharged. The water can be safely discharged or re-used in the manufacturing
process. Due to their concentrated output streams, the resulting H/; can be used as a carbon-tree
renewable fuel, while the CO? is liquefied and sold as a commodity. Proof-of-concept experiments
for these reactions have been completed, and tunctioning lab-scale electrolyzer stacks are in use
for both dairy and pharmaceutical wastewater. Development of a pilot reactor and plant for the
dairy industry is currently underway. The pilot plant alone will prevent 25,000 gallons per day
of hazardous waste water from negatively impacting the environment, and if successful, the first
generation of these electrochemical reactors would displace 15 million gallons per day of aqueous
hazardous waste in the U.S. alone. Across all  industries and worldwide, this number increases
drastically as this technology has  the potential to tackle  the global problem ot organic wastewater.
Innovations, LLC

Clean Chemistry,
Pe roxyMAX™ Oxidant Technology for Pollution Prevention

in Industrial Sectors

   Clean  Chemistry  has  introduced  a  new advanced oxidation  chemical  technology,
PeroxyMAX™, to the marketplace, creating new opportunities to achieve greater efficiency, safety,
water reuse, and pollution prevention in industrial sectors that are historically the largest sources
of pollution including energy, pulp and paper, mining, textiles, and manufacturing. The most
common industrial oxidants and disinfectants produce toxic residuals, are highly corrosive, or
underperform. Some are  shelf-stable liquids (and solids) with  modest activity while others are
highly toxic gases that are hazardous to produce, handle, and store. The PeroxyMAX™ oxidant
activity lies between these extremes as a liquid formulation with  high activity  and selectivity
provided by a mixture of reactive oxygen species (ROS) not available previously in bulk quantities.
This new source of ROS provides high performance in industrial applications while being safer
and less polluting  than ozone, chlorine, or chlorine dioxide gases. PeroxyMAX's performance
and pollution prevention  benefits are greatest in highly contaminated environments where other
oxidation chemistries lose efficiency, damage equipment, produce toxic byproducts, and persist
in the environment. PeroxyMAX'™ avoids the formation of bromate in seawater, groundwater,
and wastewater  and dramatically reduces  organic halide  formation  in  pulp bleaching. The
oxidant is relatively short-lived, leaving behind non-toxic, readily biodegradable residuals. The
PeroxyMAX™ technology has been deployed at full scale in the oil and gas sector and is now
gaining attention in the pulp and paper and natural fiber industries as a safer, less polluting, less
corrosive, and better performing alternative to chlorine chemistries. The high performance of
PeroxyMAX'" allows it to compete aggressively with the direct cost of conventional industrial
oxidants while reducing pollution and increasing safety.

Delta 5"M; An Environmentally Benign and

 Worker Safe Asphalt Rejuvenator

   Delta S™ is a green chemistry technology that rejuvenates recycled  asphalt pavement (RAP) and
recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) in asphalt mix designs. Currently, many additives  used in asphalt
rejuvenation are petroleum-based and pose environmental and worker safety hazards. Delta S™,
developed at the Warner Babcock Institute for Green Chemistry by Collaborative Aggregates, is
an environmentally friendly, biobased product comprising a small molecule dispersion in a carrier
oil. This product is cost-competitive and has been proven to perform as well as, if not better than,
currently available  asphalt additives. Incorporation of Delta S™ in asphalt mix designs has been
shown to increase  the  acceptable amount of recycled material  from 15% to greater than 60%.
Implementation of recycled materials at these levels has the potential to reduce  virgin material
consumption in new mix designs in the U.S. by more than  200 million tons annually.  Delta S™
has a number of additional  functions:  it is a warm mix additive (lowers mixing  temperatures);
compaction aid; binder modifier (changes performance grade  of liquid asphalt); and  anti-strip
(increases bond strength  between liquid asphalt and aggregate). Milestones recently achieved
include starting full-scale production, full patent acceptance, and paving on the National Center
for Asphalt Technology test track using a high RAP and RAS mix design. This application is
supported by extensive third-party laboratory testing along with many large-scale, field trials in
a range of climatic conditions.

Membrane Dehydration for Solvent Recovery and Reuse

   While solvents  are valuable  processing  tools in the chemical and  other  industries, the
environmental impacts from solvents  used  as manufacturing  and processing aids  could  be
significantly reduced if the product life of solvents were  extended beyond single use.
   The Compact Membrane Systems technology can effectively reduce the amount of solvent
produced, consumed, and entering waste streams in the U.S., by effectively enabling solvent users
to recycle and reuse their solvent on site rather than buying large quantities of new solvent and
sending that same spent solvent downstream a short time later. Currently, dehydration of solvents
to high levels of purity and low levels of water is a major economic and technological challenge,
resulting in spent solvent heading downstream to incineration rather than being reused.
   Compact Membrane Systems has developed a novel modular membrane-based technology that
can dry a broad range of solvents to anhydrous levels, enabling solvent recycling in a broad range
of applications where no recycling alternative previously existed. For the first time, solvents can
be cost effectively dried to the level of virgin materials and reused onsite rather than disposed. The
Compact Membrane  Systems technology works effectively with  many commonly used solvents
of all types, including isopropyl and other alcohols as well as solvents with large release volumes,
such as methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, butanol, ethanol, toluene, xylene, and ionic liquids.
Many of the solvents of interest to EPA form mixtures with water that are difficult and/or energy-
intensive to  separate with conventional separation technologies such as distillation. An energy-
efficient, cost-effective, and non-polluting alternative technology like that developed by Compact
Membrane Systems makes solvent recycling more feasible and economically attractive, ultimately
reducing source production of solvents.

Mg-Rich Primer for Chrome-Free Protection  of Aluminum

and its Alloys
   The  magnesium (Mg)-rich primer wras  invented,  developed,  formulated,  and scaled  up
commercially to  create a protective material for  aluminum alloys that is free of carcinogenic
hexavalent chromium (CrVI).
   CrVI is a very effective corrosion inhibitor for aluminum  and  its  alloys, but it is a known
carcinogen and is banned from many commercial applications.  The U.S. Occupational Safety
and  Health Administration has reduced the allowable  use in the aerospace field and there are
efforts  to eliminate its use within the U.S. Department  of Defense. The Mg-rich primer was
initially developed using grants from the U.S. Air Force at North Dakota State University and
commercialized by AkzoNobel Aerospace Coatings and Elinor in the civil and military markets.
It is currently qualified for use by the U.S. Air Force and there are efforts underway to qualify it
for use by the U.S. Navy and U.S. Army.
   The primer is based on the concept of sacrificial protection, when two metals are in contact
and  exposed to a corrosive environment,  the more active reacts preferentially and protects the
other metal.  Magnesium is more active than aluminum and when they are in contact, aluminum
is protected from corrosion.
   The technology  uses granulated Mg as a pigment and blended with solvents and polymers
in a primer  formulation to develop a sacrificial coating. Many polymeric binders and solvents
were tested to reach the optimized formula that affords long-term, carcinogen-free protection to
aluminum alloys, very common material for the construction of airplanes, ground vehicles, and
marine vessels both for the military and for civil aviation.
   The primer wras  extensively tested in the laboratory, weathered outside in several locations in
the U.S., and outperformed the  commercially-available chromated  primers.  It was successfully
scaled up to commercial quantities and it is currently available commercially through AkzoNobel
Aerospace Coatings and Elinor.
Compact Membrane
Systems, Inc.
Elinor Specialty
Coatings; Professor
Gordon Bierwagen,


       Soil LLC
Technology, Inc.
Technologies, LLC
Floral Soil™: A Green Chemistry Alternative to Phenol

Formaldehyde Foams for Floral ef1 Horticulture


   Floral  Soil,  LLC is a specialty floral  supplier  based  in Bellingham, WA with  a  small
manufacturing operation located in Everett, WA. Floral Soil™ has the potential to disrupt a global
market for synthetic floral foams worth hundreds of millions of dollars. Synthetic floral foams are
made from phenol formaldehyde resins. Floral Soil™ was conceived by CEO and owner Mickey
Blake in her kitchen as a replacement for synthetic floral  foams. First introduced to the floral and
horticulture industry in 1954, the market for floral foams is now global and worth hundreds of
millions of dollars. By modern values, however, floral foams are an unnecessary risk to health and
   Floral Soil™ is a 100% biobased, non-toxic, sustainably-sourced, resin and fiber  composite
useful for a variety of artistic, floral, and horticultural applications. Floral Soil'" is primarily used
as a structural medium for displaying cut flowers, while providing water and nutrients to keep
them fresh and vibrant. Flower delivery services also  use  it as a transport container.  Unlike floral
foams, which persist for decades, Floral Soil™ can be re-used as a growth medium for new plants.
Floral Soil™ was designed for the next life and for future  generations.

 Cooling Tower Water Conservation  & Chemical Treatment


   Properly engineered  electrolytic extraction of calcium carbonate from  recirculating cooling
water has  successfully controlled deposit formation on heat exchange and other surfaces in
practical systems such as industrial and HVAC cooling tower systems. Electrolysis  of ionic-rich
water produces exploitable in situ chemistry requiring no external chemical reagent other than
electricity. A Green Machine consists of a series of steel tubes that are made the cathodic element
of an electrolytic cell where water is reduced to  form molecular hydrogen and hydroxide ion,
and calcium carbonate is subsequently made to accumulate. Centered in each tube typically is
a titanium rod coated with a mixture of ruthenium and iridium oxides, and made  the anode
of the electrolytic cell. The common name for an anode of this type is ''dimensionally stable
anode", or DSA. It is the coating of the anode that  is critical in driving the oxidation of water
to produce molecular oxygen, hydrogen ion and higher oxygen species such as hydroxyl free
radicals and ozone. DSA technology allows for the efficient splitting of water at a low practical
voltage potential above that theoretically required, the difference being termed '"ovcrpotcntial."
DSAs have been responsible for past Green Machine  success. Supplementing DSA's with anodes
coated with boron-doped, ultrananocrystalline diamond now allows control over  troublesome
calcium carbonate deposition as well as more efficient in situ chlorine formation and degradation
of organic contaminants. Microbiological control in cooling water is significantly more efficient.

Evolution Polymerization to Produce Sustainable

Polycarbonate Dendrimers

   This technology demonstrates the cost-effective and environmentally safe  production of
sustainable aliphatic polycarbonate dendrimers,  a type of nanotechnology, for replacing the
7,000,000 tons of unsustainable polyol produced in the  world today for the coatings, adhesives,
and sealants (CASE) markets. Dendrimers are spherical  shaped polymers that branch out from
a central core, like a molecular cell, with a specific core and surface. A proprietary biomimetic
process that Instrumental Polymer Technologies, LLC calls "evolution polymerization" is used to
make these dendrimers, trademarked QUICKSTAR™, at a price competitive to current polyols.

   The unique shape of these dcndrimcrs are being used to minimize the broader environmental
impact of the CASE markets by reducing the volatile organic components (VOCs) of coatings,
improving the performance of water-based coatings, using less energy during manufacturing of
polymers, coatings and finished goods, as well as eliminating the use of toxic and unsustainable
epoxies, isocyanates, and aziridine. The unique chemistry and shape of these dend rimers also have
environmental benefits outside the CASE markets. For example, they are being used to improve
the performance of organic lubricants, and make low density foam  more practical. They are
even being used as a thermosetting thermoplastic, which can ultimately offer a sustainable, and
better performing alternative to unsustainable polycarbonate thermoplastic. The QUICKSTAR™
product line, launched in 2013, reached sales of $130,000 during 2015 and is climbing quickly
in these different markets.
   From the broadest aspect, this technology demonstrates the use of a natural growth process, in
which molecules undergo a dynamic process of tree interaction in a cyclic pattern of growth and
fragmentation to yield a polymeric structure of increasing specific complexity. This is in contrast
to the  step-by-step reactions of classic chemistry  which become  very expensive, for complex

SPLATg) VERB: An Insecticide-Free,  Green Repellent for

Bark Beetle Pests of North American Forestry

   The mountain pine beetle (MPB) is one of the most destructive pests of U.S. forests, causing
billions  of dollars in  losses annually. Recent outbreaks of MPB-related tree mortality have
occurred on an unprecedented scale, and are show no signs of slowing. Warming trends caused
by climate change and shifts in forest structure may favor its spread to even greater areas. Few
chemical options are available to control MPB, limited to drenches of the entire tree using large
amounts of conventional insecticides, which arc  environmentally unsound,  and impractical
to implement on a large scale. SPLAT® Verb is a  novel management  platform that  effectively
protects individual trees and pine stands against MPB, without the need for chemical toxicants.
SPLAT® Verb relies instead on a natural repellent semiochemical:  MPB's own anti-aggregation
pheromone, verbenone, a non-toxic compound approved by FDA as a food additive, presenting
no risk of harm to non-targets. SPLAT*' Verb provides continuous release  of verbenone for 3-6
months at levels  that fully disrupt MPB  mass-attack behavior,  something  no other verbenone-
based repellent has ever been able to achieve consistently under field conditions. SPLAT*1 Verb
was released commercially in 2014,  and has since protected hundreds of  thousands of trees
from MPB, preventing application of more than 60,000 pounds of formulated toxic carbamate
insecticides to national forests, city parks, and backyards. This  impact  is expected to  expand as
SPLAT® Verb continues to penetrate the market, and as mechanized application becomes feasible
on larger scales. Aerial application  of SPLAT® Verb could protect entire tracts of forest, stopping
MPB expansion, reducing tree mortality and associated forest fires, and virtually eliminating the
use of conventional pesticide to manage this pest.
Carbon Engineering Platform
   Kiverdi is currently commercializing replacements for specialty  oils and  oleochemicals
derived  from CC»2 and/or carbon monoxide (CO) using a  proprietary  Carbon Engineering
Platform, which consists of proprietary knallgas bio-catalysts and a gas bio-conversion process.
Kiverdi's technology converts COa, CO, and/or gasified biomass into a diverse range of high
value, renewable oleochcmical and specialty oil intermediates, which are the building blocks for
everyday products such as surfactants, polymers, cleaners, personal care products, and lubricants.
ISCA Technologies,

Lygos, Inc.
   Kiverdi's technology competes on cost and performance. Instead of building larger plants to
 drive economies of scale, Kiverdi's solution fills a "scale gap" to optimize supply chain costs using
 local, low capital plants. The combination of low-cost, flexible feedstock and high-yield CC»2/
 CO bioprocessing enables Kiverdi to produce Carbon Engineered Products with low capital and
 materials costs, driving higher margins and superior cost competitiveness. Kiverdi can customize
 molecules  specific to  its customers' process and business needs,  improving performance  and
 achieving sustainability goals.
   Kiverdi  has secured a commercialization partner and is now in the process of industrializing
 its first product line, PALM+, which can serve as a sustainable replacement to palm oil. Kiverdi's
 second product line is underway - a sustainable, nontoxic, biodegradable cleaner.

 Integrated Production of Sustainable Biobased Malonic Acid

for Significant Source Pollution Reduction, Cost,  and

 Performance Advantages

   Lygos has developed a biological  process to produce malonatcs  (including malonic acid and
its derivative diesters,  dimethyl malonate, and diethyl malonate)  from renewable raw materials,
namely sugars derived from corn, or non-food, biomass  feedstocks. The process is a low pH
yeast fermentation that converts  glucose into malonic acid at high yield and rate. The low pH
fermentation  process  requires minimal addition of base and  enables a near zero waste process
during subsequent purification of malonic acid from the fermentation broth.  Following isolation
of malonic acid, esterification is used  to produce dimethyl or diethyl malonate, articles of
commerce sold in addition to malonic acid itself.
   The total  malonates market is estimated to exceed 50,000  metric tons,  all of which  are
currently produced from chloroacetic acid and sodium cyanide using a synthetic process. Both
monochloroacetic add and sodium cyanide are listed as extremely hazardous substances and their
usage presents substantial environmental and health hazards. Replacement of the  incumbent
petrochemical process with Lygos' biological process eliminates an estimated  48,000 metric tons
of monochloroacetic acid and 27,000 metric  tons of sodium cyanide from use. Additionally,
100% of the material in malonic acid produced using Lygos'  fermentation process is renewably
derived and the fermentation process is performed at atmospheric temperatures and pressures,
characteristics that reduce the energy intensity relative to the petrochemical process.
   At commercial scales,  Lygos' biological process  can produce  malonates  at less than  the
monochloroacetic acid raw  material cost in the current  process,  reducing  both the cost and
environmental concerns that have restricted market growth to date.  If produced at lower cost,
malonates offer additional performance benefits, including low toxicity and biodegradability,
characteristics important for new polymer, resin, and solvent applications. Additionally, when
coupled with existing green  chemistry technologies (e.g., Knoevengal condensation), low-cost
malonates enable commercialization of new routes to various specialty chemicals.

GRANDEVO® Advanced Bioinsecticides

   GRANDEVO® is  an EPA FIFRA-registered  insecticide,  miticide,  and  nematicide. The
technical grade active ingredient is  a Chromobacterium subtsugae bacterium isolated  from a
soil sample collected beneath a hemlock tree in Maryland by Dr.  Phyllis Martin. The current
commercial formulation was registered in 2013- Grandevo*'offers  complex modes of action to
manage a broad spectrum of chewing and sucking insects and mites on a wide range of crops. It
provides a unique combination of long-lasting performance and operational flexibility. Unlike

certain chemicals that are suspected of harming honeybees, extensive testing of Grandevo'8' has
shown no negative effects to honeybee health, activity, or pollination when  applied as directed
on the EPA-approved label. Toxicity testing has shown that Grandevo® presents low risk to key
beneficial insects and is not harmful to earthworms. The product is readily biodegradable and is
exempt from residue tolerances. Similarly, its lack of toxicity to humans is of benefit to farmworker
safety. Grandevo® has minimal farmworker reentry interval and pre-harvest interval requirements.
Crops can be harvested on the same day they are sprayed with Grandevo*1.
   Grandevo'8' serves growers as an effective and  reliable  insecticide/miticide that is  highly
compatible  with both integrated pest management (1PM)  and insect resistance management
(IRM) programs. Naturally-derived from a newly discovered bacterium, Grandevo® is powered
by multiple  compounds with highly-effective insecticidal properties, giving rise to complex modes
of action. These natural compounds are produced by bacterial cells  during  the manufacturing
fermentation process. The  result is a  potent biopesticide  that controls  insects and mites via
ingestion and repellency. When ingested, Grandevo*' controls pests through novel combinations
of reduced feeding, oviposition, and fecundity (i.e., ability of the pest to reproduce). Grandevo is
paving the way for new, innovative uses of advanced microbial insecticides in modern field and
greenhouse  pest management programs while providing many human and environmental safety
benefits.  Used alone or in combination with other pesticides, Grandevo* offers  exceptional control
of labeled pests  along with operational flexibility—making it ideal for use as the foundation or
platform component for highly effective IPM and IRM programs  for both conventional and
organic growers.
    ZEQUANOX* is the industry's only selective and environmentally compatible molluscicidc
 for the control of invasive zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena species) at all stages of maturity—
 from veliger (larvae) to adult. ZEQLJANOX'8' is EPA-approved for both in-pipe and open water
 treatments. It  delivers efficacy comparable  to  chemical  solutions  such as  chlorine, quaternary
 ammonium, potash, and copper, but unlike these compounds, does not endanger employees,
 damage equipment, or result in harmful impacts to the environment or other aquatic organisms
 when used as directed. Composed of dead microbial cells, ZEQUANOX* is classified as a reduced-
 risk aquatic pesticide with minimal  restrictions on usage (e.g., time of year, etc.) and carries
 only minimal  permitting  requirements. The product can be applied  using standard injection
 equipment and applicators need only minimal  personal protective equipment. While traditional
 chemical applications typically require lengthy exposure times, ZEQUANOX*  treatments can
 occur over a brief two to eight hour period (depending on treatment goals), within business hours
 of one workday without disrupting normal operations. The product is noncorrosive to equipment
 and does not require detoxification before being discharged into receiving water bodies. Unlike
 mechanical solutions, ZEQUANOX* can be  employed quickly, without making a significant
 capital investment or undertaking a complicated installation. ZEQUANOX* also does not require
 on-going equipment maintenance to  ensure efficacy. Applied directly into the water system like
 other water treatment products, ZEQUANOX* offers the added benefit of being able to reach
 and treat even  the smallest of crevices where mussels may colonize. With ZEQUANOX*, facility
 operators are armed with an effective,  non-disruptive, and simple solution for controlling invasive
 mussels throughout their facilities.

Inc.      DaniMer
Nowwi, LLC (a joint
Degradable Polymers for Fracking Applications

   Each year, thousands of wells are hydraulically fracked around the world utilizing millions
of gallons of water per well. The water is treated with many chemicals, a process that has raised
concerns about underground pollution through seepage and the disposal of water after use.
Current methods deploy natural thickeners such as guar gum.  The thickeners must in many
instances be treated after the well is tracked, causing increased water usage and putting a strain on
the production of the guar gum, which is grown mainly in India.
   Steve Wann and his group of scientists at Meredian Holdings Group specialize in the creation
of compostable and biodegradable polymers that help address environmental issues. Seeing the
need for a better solution to the  fracking process, Meredian Holdings Group scientists designed a
broad range of degradable fracking polymers based upon downhole temperatures. The polymers
form viscous gels at a defined viscosity and carry proppant under pressure in fracking operations.
   The polymers are designed to degrade in days to weeks depending on the requirements of
the downhole geology. This property results in little to no post-completion cleanup of the well.
Because these polymers break down into biodegradable acids, such as lactic and glycolic acid, the
potential tor underground pollution through seepage is reduced. The need for safe disposal of
water used in the process is also  reduced.
   Meredian Holdings Group's degradable fracking polymers mitigate the environmental impact
ot hydraulic fracking by reducing water, energy, and chemical usage during the fracking process.
On a broader level, the impact of the degradable fracking polymers arc threefold: (1) the polymers
displace environmentally damaging substances used for the same purpose;  (2) the  polymers
organically decompose after disposal without industrial assistance, leaving no toxic trace; and (3)
use of the polymers reduces water usage and related transportation costs.

Renewable Oils for High Performance  Lubricants
   Nowi has  developed, industrialized, and applied a combination of 21st century advances in
synthetic biology with  traditional petrochemical. Green  chemistry can only succeed if it can beat
the price and performance ot the fossil fuel alternatives and Nowi has provided a product to do
this in a significant market that can have a major impact on the environment. Five years ago,
there were no viable alternatives to fossil fuel-derived oils that could meet automotive original
equipment manufacturer standards. Nowi accepted this challenge and designed high performance
hydrocarbon  oils from plant sugars that are analogues  for the  highest performing petroleum
products. Novvi's oils  reduce carbon emissions in production and use, improve fuel  economy
in automobiles, and reduce the hazards to the environment during  use from its biodegradability
characteristics that can only come from synthetic biology.
   Today, 98% of oils and lubricants are petroleum-based  hydrocarbon  molecules, despite an
increasing call for alternatives. Many technologies have tried  and failed to meet this  need, mainly
oleochemicals from vegetable oils, because they cannot provide the performance necessary. Nowi
recognized the criterion for disrupting the market and designed its  oils to  reduce environmental
impact while competing on performance and cost in order to replace petroleum in a broad and
meaningful way. Nowi is the first to commercially produce renewable oils that offer superior
performance and biodegradability at a competitive price. This is a significant industry achievement
that will drive immense environmental benefit across the $123 billion lubricant market.

Bio-Derived Oligomer Technology to Replace Bis Phenol-A

(BPA)-Based Tbermoset Coatings: A Practical Solution for

BPA-Free Metal Can Coatings for Beer, Beverage, and Food

   Every year, over 0.4 million metric tons of fossil-based BPA-containing  epoxy coatings are
produced in the U.S. The Ohio Soybean Council, Battelle, and Redwood Innovation Partners,
LLC teamed up to develop and market a practical, ready-to-implcment, and safe bio-derived
solution to replace current BPA coatings. The currently targeted applications are beer, beverage,
and food can containers. Battelle performed the initial research for this technology with funding
support from the Ohio  Soybean Council. The joint effort has resulted in a cost-competitive,
highly  marketable  product that has no known health concerns and is compatible with current
industry practice; thus it can serve as  a drop-in replacement for BPA-containing epoxy resins in
metal can coatings. The first product is Soy-PK resin and development is underway for more such
products such as reactive oligomers derived from renewable resources such as plant triglyceride
oils. Production using the replacement coatings has been scaled up successfully, and the resulting
products have been offered to several U.S. and European coating  manufacturers for evaluation.
Laboratory testing and preliminary feedback from the field show the reactive oligomer product,
Soy-PK resin, has properties and performance comparable to current BPA-based can coatings.
Preliminary techno-economic analysis indicates that the reactive  oligomer is competitive with
current BPA-based epoxy resins at less than $1  per pound in large commercial scale.

Breakthrough Catalyst Technology Enables Cost Competitive

Drop-in Bio-Based Nylons and Polyurethanes

   Rennovia has developed new catalysts and  processes for the cost competitive production of
biobased adipic  acid,  1,6-hexanediol (1,6-HDO),  and hexamethylenediamine (HMD) from
sugars.  Lifecycle assessments indicate major reductions  in carbon footprint versus traditional
petrochemical derived products. Combining  Rcnnovia's adipic acid and HMD enables  the
production of 100% biobased nylon-66.
   Combining Rennovia's adipic acid and  1,6-HDO enables  production of 100%  biobased
aliphatic polyester polyols.  Rennovia's biobased  HMD  can  be  converted  to  hexamethylene
diisocyanate with at least 75% biobased carbon  content, which  when combined with 100%)
biobased aliphatic polyester polyols allows production of aliphatic  polyurethanes with very high
(>95%) biobased content.
   All of these key intermediates  are designed to be "drop-in"  replacements for traditional
petrochemical derived products, enabling for the first time commercialization of more sustainable
mainstream nylon and polyurethane polymers without compromising performance or cost.
   Following successful lab  demonstration  of these processes, Rennovia and its partners are
completing  the engineering design packages for commercial scale (>100 kTA) manufacturing
plants via construction and operation of mini-plants.
Ohio Soybean
Rennovia Inc.

Groyp, Inc.
Converting Landfill Wastes to Multi-Functional Green

Poly ok for Coating Applications

   Environmental, health and safety concerns continue to drive rapid growth for environmentally
friendly, low VOC coatings. This growth, further compounded by increased social awareness
of mega trends — including depleting finite resources,  the  growing world population, and
constrained  food  resource — has companies  seeking highly sustainable feedstock solutions.
Although biobased materials have provided feedstock options, which are more sustainable than
fossil petroleum alternatives, use  of recycled content has remained  relatively unexplored. With
this in mind, Resinate Materials Group'*' has developed proprietary technology, which allows the
creation of multi-functional coatings using recycled and biobased raw material streams, including
recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (rPET), recycled aircraft deicing fluids (propylene glycol),
recycled polycarbonate,  post-industrial recycled  dicthylene glycol,  biobased dimer fatty acids,
and  biobased sucdnic acid among others. By harvesting spent materials otherwise destined for
landfills, Resinate scientists have  been able to extend the lifecycle of valuable, finite resources.
Furthermore, studies have shown  recycled PET to have more favorable lifecycle assessment scores
than comparable fossil petroleum-based or biobased PET materials. By harnessing the  inherent
properties of recycled PET,  Resinate  scientists have been able to impart a unique balance of
properties into a variety of functional polyols and coatings, including excellent hardness, good
flexibility,  corrosion resistance as  well  as good chemical and stain resistance. Most of these high
performance polyols arc greater than 90% green, as defined by their recycle and biobased contents.

Rivertop Renewables  -  Sugar Oxidation Process

   Rivertop Renewables has developed an elegantly simple commercial-scale oxidation technology
for converting renewable plant sugars into high  performing, cost-effective sugar acid products.
The  process, designed to minimize waste and maximize product yield, is not only economically
viable but also inherently green. Rivertop's  first commercial production facility  (10 million
pound/year capacity) completed construction and began testing operations in August 2015- The
process was scaled rapidly and at a surprisingly low capital cost.
   Rivertop's platform oxidation technology is now being harnessed for the world's first large-scale
production of glucaric acid and glucarate salts. Rivertop is now producing and  marketing its first
glucaratc-based products: Riose*1  detergent builder,  a high-performing,  biodegradable chelator
for use in  consumer detergents; Headwaters® corrosion inhibitor, which is added to salt brines
used to de-ice roads; and Waterline™ corrosion inhibitors and descalers for use in water treatment
markets where replacement of phosphorus and other environmentally undesirable ingredients is
an ongoing challenge.
   Rivertop's patented process reduces greenhouse gas emissions and land requirements by using
every carbon atom of renewable  sugar feedstocks. One of Rivertop's first products (Riose&!)  is
an alternative to billions of pounds of phosphates found in detergents  that pollute waterways
around  the world. Compared to open  reactor oxidation processes, the company's first closed
reactor production facility can prevent the release  of 5-12 tons of nitrogen dioxide. When used as
corrosion inhibitors, glucarate salts  (Headwaters*') can reduce metal corrosion by 70%, keeping
vehicles, roads, bridges and other  infrastructure safer and maintenance budgets smaller.
   Beyond glucaric acid, Rivertop's process offers sustainable production options  for a variety of
valuable sugar acids, including xylaric, glyceric, mannaric, and corresponding acids of starch and
cellulose. Although Rivertop is at an early stage in market development,  the potential economic
and environmental impact of Rivertop's oxidation process has attracted a growing group of brand
owners and investors.

Input       Waste Associated with  the Isomerization of

Linear Alpha Olefins

   Activelsom® is an alumina-supported sodium oxide catalyst that is used to isomerize olefms for
a variety of industrial applications. Its unique combination of basicity active site concentrations
and ease of use provides chemical manufacturers with a greener isomerization pathway compared
to homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst systems used for the same purpose.
   As a replacement for either heterogeneous  or homogeneous catalysts, Activelsom'*1 delivers
linear alpha olefms that are high purity and offer favorable economics. In 20 1 5 , a pilot production
trial  was completed at Dixie and a new  commercial processing unit was designed. The new
Activelsom® processing unit will be implemented at Dixie in 2016, achieving an 85% reduction
in the generation of toxic byproducts, significant decrease in energy inputs, and a greater than
80%  reduction in manpower requirements. Additional pilot-scale  evaluation projects for this
catalyst are also underway at global ethylidene norbornene producers.

Environmental Protection Reagents from MSW:   One-

Step Quantitative Resourcing Municipal Solid Waste

   Quantitative recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is crucial for environmental protection
and resources  preservation. With a novel catalytic system and special designed reactor, CoDOP
(Catalytic  One-pot Hydrolytic Depolymerization  of All Natural Organic Polymers)  MSW
resourcing technology quantitatively converts  MSW into  five products in a one-step reaction
with no garbage sorting or drying needed: (1) Product A;  (2) Product B; (3) high purity SiO24,
(4) noble metals; and (5) phosphates and nitrogen chemicals.
   High efficacy of Product A in absorbing heavy metals, PHAs, CO, sulfur oxide, and nitrogen
oxide make it an ideal substance for economically cleaning industrial waste gases and heavily
polluted water. The cost of removing mercury from industrial waste gases is less than  1% of
that  using  AC1 (active carbon injection) method. The absorbing ability of Product A for heavy
metals from water is similar to that of Diphonix resin. Product B is an ideal scavenger of carbon
dioxide and excellent green deicer. The other three products are a mixture of noble metals (e.g.,
gold, silver, copper, indium, platinum,  etc.), high purity silicon dioxide, and an aqueous solution
of nitrogen contained  chemicals and phosphates (it can be developed as a fertilizer). For  typical
MSW of the U.S., the yield of Product A is about 12%,  and the yield of Product B is about
70%. The  catalytic system catalyzes  oxygen atom transfer from aromatic polymers of MSW to
carbohydrate components. Neither oxidants nor reductants are used in this one-step reaction. If
all MSW collected after recycling and  composting is treated with this technology, it will  reduce
greenhouse gas emissions by about 328 million tons of carbon dioxide per year.
             Insecticide: First Member of a New Class of
Biopesticides which Shows Efficacy Comparable to
Synthetic Insecticides
   SPEAR™ is a product whose technology is inspired by the most prodigious predator of insects-
spiders. Spiders express peptides intermediate in size between proteins and small molecules and
have enjoyed the beneficial attributes of each to yield insecticides that are both highly effective and
environmentally benign. These peptides arc more stable than proteins for better fit with existing
agronomic practice but readily break down into nutritive amino adds. SPEAR™ is comprised
of an active ingredient that is broadly insecticidal, non-toxic to vertebrates, and is produced by
Inc.; Dixie Chemical
Company, Inc.

¥irox Technologies
   The SPEAR'™ line of insecticides is the first example of a new chemical class of insecticides,
cysteine rich peptides. This class of peptides typically adopts a conserved folding structure shared
across multiple genuses of insect predators. They exist at the midpoint in molecular size between
small synthetic  molecules and  typical proteins. As such, they are able to  incorporate the best
properties of each.
   Over the past 20 years, there have been fitful attempts to develop insect predator peptides as
insecticides. Vestaron has surmounted the three key hurdles that have stymied  previous efforts:
(1) development of cost efficient manufacturing; (2) formulation for oral availability; and (3)
EPA regulatory  approval.
   SPEAR™ is produced by fermentation and then processed to remove yeast. The resultant broth
is concentrated  and spray-dried to produce a product relying primarily on renewable feedstocks.
SPEAR™ is exempt from a tolerance for residue as a consequence of its proteinaceous composition
and benign lexicological profile. SPEAR™ operates by a new mode of action and will immediately
address emerging insect resistance to currently marketed synthetic insecticides. As it does so, it
will rotate with or displace synthetic insecticides that have less than optimal toxicological and
environmental fate attributes.

Accel 5 RTU, an Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide® (AHPW)

based cleaner-disinfectant that provides a sustainable and

safer choice for infection prevention        control

   Chemical disinfectants are widely used in infection control. Reliance on  them is increasing
further in preventive strategies because of rampant antibiotic  resistance and mounting threats
from emerging and re-emerging pathogens. An imperative aspect to preventing the spread of these
harmful microorganisms is through disinfection of contaminated surfaces. However, concerns for
human and environmental safety resulting from the widespread use of microbicides highlights the
need for safer substitutes.
   As a technology platform, Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide*'  (AHP*') is available globally for
use as cleaner-disinfectants, instrument reprocessing disinfectants, hand sanidzer, and certified
green cleaners. The Accel 5 RTU formulation is the first hospital disinfectant based on hydrogen
peroxide  to be  certified under the Design for the Environment Antimicrobial Pesticide  Pilot
   Hydrogen peroxide is among the oldest microbicides known, and it is generated naturally
in many settings. However, it  is relatively unstable and somewhat slow-acting when used on
its own. Through  the development  of the AHP'8' technology,  both of these weaknesses have
been  addressed. The patented AHP'*1 technology  is a synergistic blend of  commonly-used
ingredients that, when combined with low levels of hydrogen peroxide, dramatically increases its
germicidal potency and cleaning performance. AHP® contains  only those  ingredients listed on
the CleanGredients list, which  contributes to an unsurpassed health, safety, and environmental
profile. The stabilizers, surfactants, and other cxcipicnts in the Accel 5 RTU formulation have a
high safety and  biodegradability profile and are free from aquatic toxicants such as nonylphenol
ethoxylates or alkylphenyl ethoxylates. Furthermore, its corrosivity has been tamed, thus widening
its materials compatibility allowing for widespread use in hospitals,  educational settings, office,
and governmental buildings.

Atom-Efficient Process for Producing Taurine

   Taurine is an ingredient for human nutrition and animal feed with several applications. Annual
consumption of taurine amounts to 120 million pounds. Taurine is manufactured exclusively by
chemical synthesis from  ethylene oxide and monoethanolamine, two related petrochemicals.
There are three major problems in the current processes: (1) low atom efficiency at 57.6% and
42.7% for ethylene oxide and monoethanolamine,  respectively;  (2)  unsatisfactory molar yield
at 75% and 60% tor ethylene oxide and monoethanolamine, respectively; and (3) a difficult
and complicated separation process. As a result, a large amount of waste, comprised of residual
taurine, organic impurities, inorganic salts is generated in the process. Vitaworks, LLC developed
a cyclic process for producing taurine from ethylene oxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia. The
cyclic process features:  (1) the use of sulfur dioxide as an acidifying agent and a starting material;
(2) cyclic use of alkali; and (3) a newly discovered reaction of ditaurine and tritaurine with
ammonia to yield taurine. This technology produces a valuable compound at a large scale with
an atom efficiency of 100% in nearly quantitative yield. By adopting this technology, a total of
545 million pounds of starting materials, byproducts, and waste will be reduced annually from
the production process. Vitaworks, LLC also  developed an alternate process for producing bio-
taurine  from  ethanol, a biorenewable starting material. The process features near quantitative
yield from ethanol to taurine, no waste stream, and cyclic use of alkali. As an added benefit, the
process  is the most economical among the three processes. Five U.S. patents have been granted
and two U.S. patent applications are pending for the portfolio of taurine technologies.
Vitaworks, LLC



Alternative to Sulfur Hexafluoride Enables up to 99%

 Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction
   Current society revolves  around readily available and  reliable electricity.  Availability  and
reliability is dependent upon highly structured and complex energy generation and distribution
infrastructure (''the grid"). The grid relies upon complex equipment developed over the  past
seven decades using sulfur hexafluoride (SFg) as  a dielectric (insulating) fluid. Over the  past
three decades, the increase in energy density (voltage and amperage) used in the grid has all but
eliminated other dielectric fluids and technologies other than SFg in high voltage equipment.
   The title paragraph from the 2013  EPA SFg Emission Reduction Partnership  report (April
2014) summarizes the critical impact  of  SFg on  the environment and the need  to reduce or
eliminate  SFg.  Identification  of an alternative  to  SFg requires a demanding and  unique
combination of performance, safety, and  environmental attributes. This balance  of properties
has been exceedingly difficult to find so SFg, the most potent greenhouse known, has continued
to be the solution of choice.
   3M now offers an alternative to SFg that will function in many power generation and distribution
applications. Replacing SFg would effectively replace a material having an atmospheric lifetime
of 3,200 years (GWP = 23,500) with a material  that has an atmospheric lifetime of 30 years
(GWP = 2,100), thus reducing its GWP contribution in these applications  and resulting in
significant greenhouse gas emission reductions of up to 99% relative to SFg.  The alternative's
higher dielectric strength provides similar electric insulation at lower use concentration in an
inert gas (e.g., air or  CC>2)  and has significantly lower density compared to  pure SFg. These
characteristics, lower  GWP, reduced use  concentration and lower gas density, combined  will
reduce the total GWP contribution significantly compared to SFg.

 Green  Nano tech no logy Product  and Processes for Cleaning

 Up Contaminated Soil       Ground-water
   This green chemistry innovation involves the successful development, testing, and application
of a new green nanotechnology product for treating  contaminated soil and groundwater. The
product also has applicability as an activator for water and wastewater treatment. As groundwater
quality standards have become  more stringent to ensure a sustainable water supply for future
generations, technologies  developed for  groundwater restoration have become  more energy
intensive,  costly, and often use hazardous chemicals that can potentially create greenhouse
gases or secondary hazardous conditions.  Due to its  high  reactivity, metal nanoparticles have
been shown to be effective for degrading  certain contaminants. Generally, metal nanoparticles
are synthesized  in three ways:  (1) physically by crushing larger particles; (2) chemically by
precipitation; and (3) through gas condensation. The commercial significance of nanoparticles
is limited by the nanoparticle synthesis process, which is generally energy intensive, produces air
pollutants during the  manufacturing processes or requires toxic  chemical solvents, and is costly.
This green environmental nanotechnology process enables manufacturing metal nanoparticles
at ambient temperature and pressure by using certain plant extracts rich in polyphcnols, such
as green tea, as a reducing agent, dissolved metal ions, and a plant-based surfactant blend. The
basic technology can produce a variety of metal nanoparticles that can be used in a variety
of applications including soil and groundwater remediation, water and wastewater treatment,
air  pollution treatment, medical diagnostic testing, medical materials, targeted drug delivery,
catalysis of chemical synthesis reactions, pollution control or monitoring devices, fuel cells, or


Calgon Carbon
electronics. During a recent 2015 application at a contaminated industrial site, the green iron
nanoparticles were injected Into subsurface and safely and effectively reduced chlorinated and
non-chlorinated solvent contamination in soil and groundwater.

Discovery, Development and Implementation  of New

Chemical Technology toward a Novel Commercial Syn-

thesis for the HIV-Attachment Inhibitor, BMS-663068

   BMS-663068 is an investigational, oral, HIV-1 attachment inhibitor and a pro-drug of the
active compound BMS-626529, which interferes with attachment of the HIV virus to the cellular
CD4 receptor. As a first-in-class compound, BMS-663068 has the potential to significantly impact
patients' lives. This important new medication is based on an unusual aromatic heterocycle, a
6-azaind'ole, and contains a phosphonoxymethyl pro-drug moiety. BMS-663068 is a challenging
molecule  to prepare, though its complexity is hidden in the disposition of functionality around
the azaindole nucleus. An existing synthesis, used to support clinical development, was extremely
inefficient and potentially limited the commercial viability of this drug. The synthesis contained
high temperature transformations,  one  being conducted in neat POC13, along with processes
that generated hazardous byproducts and leveraged reagents  dangerous to human health. An
innovative, de novo, green synthesis was conceptualized, demonstrated, and developed, which
obviated all these issues and represents a commercially viable  approach to the drug molecule —
ensuring access to this important medication while minimizing environmental impact. During
the development of this  approach,  newr chemical technologies were discovered for the selective
halogenation of aromatic heterocycles, removal of solubilized metal from process streams, and for
the formation of the phosphonoxymethyl prodrug chemotype. These new technologies increased
the overall yield of BMS-663038 by over 5 fold and eliminated the use of multiple hazardous
reagents, including genotoxic compounds. At potential peak commercial volume, the technology
is annually expected to reduce over a million kilograms of hazardous chemicals, eliminate 2.7
million kilograms of total reactants/solvents,  reduce yearly wrater consumption  by 7.2 million
kilograms  (total consumption  reduced  by  -9-9 million kilograms), reduce  greenhouse gas
emissions by 24 million kilograms of CCb equivalents, and significantly reduce energy use. The
chemistry is in the final stages of being validated for commercialization

FLUEPAC^ Activated Carbon Products for Superior

Mercury  Control from  Flue  Gas and Green Re-Use of

Coal Combustion Residuals

  The federal Mercury and Air Toxics Standards require electric utilities to limit their emissions
of toxic air pollutants (such as mercury)  from the burning of coal. Many utilities have turned to
ACI to help meet these limits. In practice, powdered activated carbon is  injected into the flue gas
at coal-fired power plants where it captures gaseous mercury in a safe and solid form that is usually
comingled with the fly ash from the coal. Given the wide variety of plant configurations and coal
types, some plants were found to be much harder to treat with ACI than others. Furthermore,
initial results with early first generation carbon products indicated that the carbon would render
the fly ash unsuitable for inclusion in ready-mix cement, a  beneficial and green re-use of the ash
that also generates revenue for utilities. Designed to address these issues, the FLUEPAC® line of
activated carbons has evolved from simple commodity-type products, used to control mercury at
waste incinerators, to highly engineered materials that can meet the challenging mercury control
needs of the coal-fired electric utility fleet.  Now in commercial use at power plants across the
U.S., the  superior cement compatibility and  mercury removal performance of these products
enable utilities to control mercury reliably and cost-effectively,  while preserving fly ash sales and

avoiding unnecessary landfill disposal. All of this translates to as much as 70% less activated
carbon and 80% less bromide salts used, fewer truck deliveries, and the prevention of one metric
ton of CO2 emissions for every ton of fly ash sold to the ready mix cement market. Having
hit the milestone of over one million tons of fly ash containing FLUEPAC*1 products sold for
use in cement in 2015 alone, means that over one million metric tons of CO2 emissions were

Dream Production - CO2 as a New Building Block for

High- Tech Plastics

  The  incorporation  of CO?  into  a  polyol brings three key benefits to  a former  fully
petrochemical industry: (1) it provides a more sustainable model by incorporating a byproduct
(CO?)  as a valuable resource, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions; (2) it meets the current
requirements for polyol manufacturing and usage in polyurethanes; and (3) it is cost-effective.
Covestro has joined forces with academic and industrial partners to use CO2 as a building block
for plastics. In this technology project, CO2 is incorporated into the molecular chains of polymers
with the help of a new catalytic process  and partially replaces the ubiquitous petroleum-based
raw materials. The resulting technology enables the production of polyols with a CO2 content of
roughly 20%. By reducing the emission of CO? and dependence on petroleum, reducing energy
use, substituting a less hazardous feed stock, and utilizing a catalytic reaction, this process aligns
with several of the principles of green chemistry.
  A production line with a capacity of 5,000 metric tons per year is currently being  built
in Germany and is due to  go on stream in 2016. These polyols can find first applications as
polyurethanes in flexible foams  such as mattresses. A detailed lifecycle analysis of the  CC>2-
containing polyol showed that due to substitution of greenhouse gas emission-intensive epoxidcs
such as propylene oxide, the amount of avoided greenhouse gas emissions is higher than the
amount of CO2 used as feedstock. This production of 5,000 tons of PO/CO2 polyol is estimated
to reduce emissions of approximately 2,700 tons of CO2 compared to the standard  process.
The commissioning of the pilot-scale facility is an important step in the direction of widespread
commercialization of the PO/CO2-polyols.
Dow Polymeric Flame Retardant
   PolyFR is a butadiene styrene brominated copolymer that serves as a polymeric flame retardant
(FR) intended for use in PS insulation foams. PolyFR was developed to meet defined performance
criteria, including inherently low toxicity, through key design decisions related  to molecular
size, molecular architecture, and controlled thermal stability. Developed as a replacement for
hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), which is classified as a  PBT  (persistent, bioaccumulative,
and toxic) material, PolyFR directly aligns with the green chemistry goal of eliminating the use
and generation of hazardous substances.
   HBCD has been used throughout the PS foam insulation industry as the incumbent flame
retardant, effective at very low quantities for delivering required fire safety performance. Despite
the conclusion that the use of HBCD in PS foam insulation applications does not pose health
risks, global  regulatory pressure is driving phase-out of HBCD in all applications.
   PolyFR emerged as the result of a multi-year research program focused on developing a non-
PBT alternative to HBCD for use as a FR in PS insulation foam. Key design criteria included
toxicological profile, foam processing  performance, foam  fire  performance, foam thermal
insulation performance, foam mechanical properties, and economic feasibility.
   The benefits offered by PolyFR include characterization as a non-PBT material, inherently
low toxicity relative to  HBCD and other low molecular weight chemistries, and effective FR
performance. These benefits were confirmed by EPA in its Design for the Environment report
on FR alternatives to HBCD.
Covestro LLC
The Dow Chemical

The Dow Chemical
Dow Microbial
The commercial impact of PolyFR has been significant, as PS foam producers globally are
converting out of HBCD and to PolyFR. PolyFR was first produced at the commercial scale in
2012, and production has grown to 22,500 MT in 2015. As HBCD continues to face regulatory
and market pressure, it is estimated that PolyFR has potential to replace at least 30,000 metric
tons per year of HBCD.

SOLDERON"™ BP Lead-free Solder Plating Chemistry

   SOLDERON™ BP products eliminate lead in advanced semiconductor packaging applications,
such as solder bumping and pillar capping. SOLDERON™ BP tin-silver plating chemistries
provide electrical and mechanical connections equivalent to industry-standard lead-based solder.
   Bumping is an advanced wafer level process technology where solder "bumps" or "balls" are
formed during wafer processing. These bumps, formed before the wafer Is  diced into individual
integrated circuits, will electrically and mechanically connect the die and the substrate together
into a single package.  Solder bumps are deposited using  electroplating, and the process  must
produce very uniform bumps in both size and composition. Manufacturers use them to join
semiconductors together, to a substrate, or directly to a circuit board in flip chip or controlled
collapse chip connection  (C4) packaging.
   Solder is  a  critical  element  in electronics and  must provide connections that  are durable
and reliable. Tin-lead  is an  ideal solder because it is malleable and has a low melting point. Tin
is  combined with lead to provide  greater tensile and  shear  strength and higher conductivity.
This combination resulted  in an ideal balance of electrical and thermal conductivity and cost.
Regulations limiting lead have been enacted due to its high toxidty, especially when electronics
reach end of life and are deposited in landfills or recycled.
   Materials suppliers have spent most of a decade searching for a lead-free chemistry to match the
reliability of tin-lead solders and tin-silver has emerged as the most viable  solution. Technology
is  what differentiates  Dow's  SOLDERON™  BP tin-silver —  patented additives  that provide
manufacturers  with superior performance and low cost of ownership, which will drive wider
adoption of lead-free solders in electronics.

KATHON"™ 7 TL Antimicrobial for Water Treatment

                                 With increasing emphasis on reducing water consumption, cooling water systems have become
                               more efficient using less water for their operation. Perfectly sized for small to medium sized cooling
                               towers, KATHON™ 7TL solid biocide offers a more sustainable and safer product than its liquid
                               counterparts.  This innovation  is the only solid antimicrobial  made with the active ingredients
                               chloromethylisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone (CMIT/MIT)  and is designed to replace the
                               manual dosing of liquid  biocides. The tablet form, wrapped in a water-soluble bag, eliminates
                               the potential for splashes, leaks, improves user safety and handling, and reduces the possibility of
                               accidental environmental release without the need to dispose the wrapper. KATHON'™ 7 TL is a
                               7% active solid, while traditional liquid products are 1.5% active. Therefore, about five times less
                               weight needs to be shipped to treat the same amount of water. The lower level of transportation
                               involved, contributes to the reduction of cost and greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, CMIT/
                               MIT is effective in controlling  biofilm, which improves operating efficiency and energy.
                                 The development of KATHON'™ 7  TL represents a significant advancement in sustainable
                               microbial control and nearly a decade of research in the making. Development of this innovative
                               product was extremely challenging as the CMIT/MIT active ingredients are inherently unstable
                               in solid form. Adding a binder to the  liquid CMIT/MIT to solidify the formulation proved
                               challenging as many binders did not stabilize the active ingredients. In addition, unlike the liquid
                               form of CMIT/MIT, which utilizes copper salts for stabilization, KATHON™ 7 TL was designed

to be free of heavy metal stabilizers. KATHON™ 7 TL is instead stabilized by a unique binder
and its solid form. The water-soluble packaging developed for KATHON'™ 7 TL also represents
a significant technical accomplishment as most water soluble films are incompatible with the
formulated tablet.

Creation, Integration, and Engineering  of the World's

Largest Cellulosic Ethanol BioRefmery Production Platform

   This  technology  integrates  chemistry,  biology  and  process  engineering to  develop  a
commercially  viable, scalable technology platform for the production of cellulosic sugar and
its conversion to ethanol. The work required the integration  of a novel pretreatment process,
the development of improved enzymes for hydrolysis, and the genetic engineering of a novel,
highly efficient fermentation host. The resultant DuPont integrated process is a novel integrated
production platform, with three major technology components, for the production of ethanol
at sufficiently  high yields and liters to achieve commercially viable economics. To optimize the
process it was  necessary  to consider and innovate all three conversion steps holistically. First, a
novel dilute ammonia biomass pretreatment process decouples the carbohydrate polymers from
the lignin matrix with minimal formation of compounds which inhibit subsequent fermentation,
thus eliminating the need for costly "detoxification" steps which are common in other cellulosic
ethanol technologies. Next, an enzymatic hydrolysis step uses a novel suite of high performance
enzymes specifically engineered by DuPont to depolymerize and hydrolyze both  cellulose and
hcmiccllulosc  to high liters of fermentable sugars in a single sugar stream. Thirdly,  DuPont
integrated and optimized the metabolic pathways of a recombinant bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis,
to simultaneously metabolize both 6-carbon (glucose) and 5-carbon (xylose) sugars to efficiently
produce ethanol at high  yields and titers from the hydrolysate. This unique integration of three
technology components  enables a very efficient, ''clean" flowsheet with minimal steps, a reduced
environmental footprint, and reduced  cost and capital  versus other known cellulosic ethanol
processes. DuPont has achieved  commercially viable ethanol yields consistently in its 250,000
gallon per year demonstration facility in Vonore, TN yields of more than 70 gallons per U.S. ton
of biomass and ethanol titers in excess of 70 g/L have been demonstrated. Comprehensive ''Well-
to-Wheel" lifecycle analyses show that this combined process has the potential to achieve more
than a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared  to gasoline, which is substantially
better than current grain-based ethanol greenhouse gas performance.  The DuPont technology
has been demonstrated successfully and the first commercial plant for conversion of corn stover
to ethanol is under construction in Nevada, IA.

A Greener Process for the Fragrance  Veridian

Development/Implementation of IFF s Green Chemistry  Tool

   In conjunction with a dramatic company-wide acceleration in a commitment to sustainability,
IFF now has a very strong focus on green chemistry.  Veridian,  an IFF  fragrance ingredient, was
first introduced in 2008. The original two-step synthesis of this  compound was via a batch
process Grignard addition followed by an Oppcnacur oxidation. As the demand for this product
grew, a greener synthesis of Veridian was developed using a flow process and a novel  catalytic
air oxidation.  The new synthesis boasts a significant reduction of waste,  more efficient use of
resources, use of a renewable resource,  greater energy efficiency and improved worker safety,
along with several economic benefits. In addition, IFF has developed and implemented a Green
Chemistry Assessment Tool tailored to IFF needs. The tool was used for these improvements.
Flavors &
Fragrances Inc. (IFF)

Refrigerants, LLC -
a Missouri Limited
Liability Company
The Recovery of Organic Halides from Waste Streams

by the Chemical Reaction  of Hydrogen and Carbon

   Fluorocarbon   compounds,  including  chlorofluorocarbons,  hydrochlorofluorocarbons,
hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and halons, are used in a wide variety of applications
including air-conditioning, refrigeration, medical, fire protection, and solvent uses. They are
also widely recognized as ozone depleting substances  (ODSs) and/or greenhouse gases. At the
end of the life of such applications, the  chemical is either destroyed, or worse, vented into the
atmosphere. This venting, now prohibited in many countries, has been recognized to contribute
to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and is considered a cause of global warming and
climate change.
   The most common methods of ODS and greenhouse gas destruction are incineration by
thermal  oxidizer,  rotary kiln, and plasma arc. These methods  are costly, create their own waste
streams  and stack emissions, and yield outputs  with little or no economic value. Destruction
capacity around the world is limited or in some countries, non-existent.
   With increased regulation of older fluorocarbon products with  high GWP and with the
economic and environmental challenges  of existing destruction technologies, there is great need
for an alternative approach.
   The Midwest Conversion Technology not only deals with unwanted ODSs and greenhouse
gases, but also can be applied to the waste streams at fluorocarbon manufacturing plants.  The
outputs  are the manufacturing source chemicals, i.e., 99.999% anhydrous hydrogen fluoride,
99-99% anhydrous hydrogen chloride,  plus CO,  all ready  for new use. The technology is
original  and the process is safe, clean, inexpensive, energy efficient, waste tree, and meets almost
all sustainability targets. Pilot plant data and computer  modeling has demonstrated that this
technology can reduce the cost of rotary kiln and plasma arc destruction by 50-60%.

SunCryl HP 114,  an Environmentally Friendly Release

   A release coat is added during the manufacture  of tape to allow tape to be unwound. This release
coat backing can also be used for peel-off labels. Fluorochemicals, silicones, or other solvent-based
polymers are commonly used for release coats because they maintain their performance at  high
temperature and humidity. Tape manufacturers are seeking alternatives to these materials in release
coats that do not have negative environmental impacts. OMNOVA has developed the first water-
based release coat that  is free of formaldehyde, solvents, or VOCs but performs cquivalcntly to
current technologies. Release coats have the most  significant impact on the environmental impact
of the finished paper-based tapes  and labels, while the solvents utilized  in their manufacture
contribute to the carbon footprint of manufacturers and users.
   OMNOVA has commercialized a water-based polymer, using a novel monomer prepared  via a
solvent-free production process. This monomer is dispersed in water with alkylphenol ethoxylate
free surfactants and polymerized. The only volatile compound in the resulting polymer latex is
water. When applied, the  release is comparable  to the incumbent products. When applied to
paper, the finished product is recyclable.

A Green,  Energy Efficient,  Chemoenzymatic Process to

Manufacture Pregabalin

   Pregabalin (the active ingredient in the drug Lyrica®) is a compound for the successful
treatment of several indications associated with neuropathic pain. The drug is approved in 154
countries around the world including the U.S. Pfizer's new route to pregabalin uses an innovative
biocatalytic reaction to  remove a classical resolution in the final step. The biocatalytic process
eliminates the use of organic solvents in all four reaction steps and operates at a high substrate
concentration thus providing dramatic improvements in environmental performance, worker
safety and process efficiency. The new biocatalytic process has been  successfully implemented
in a production facility  at a 10 metric ton batch size.  Pfizer estimates that the new process will
eliminate 185,000 metric tons of solvent, 4,800 metric tons of mandelic acid, 11,000 metric tons
of the starting cyanodiester, and 2,000 metric tons of Raney® nickel in the years before 2020. The
biocatalytic process also  uses 83% less energy than the classical resolution process and the E factor
of the process has been reduced from 86 to 9-
   Pfizer has implemented exceptional green chemistry innovation by using a biocatalytic
reaction, conducting reactions in water rather than  organic solvents, selectively synthesizing
chirality earlier in the process sequence, recycling the undesired enantiomer using a continuous
process, telescoping reactions  for higher efficiency,  and implementing catalytic  as  opposed
to stoichiomctric reactions. These improvements result in a biocatalytic process  that is more
sustainable than the chemical process it replaced. Key innovations were: (1) overcoming product
inhibition in the biocatalytic step to allow exceptionally high substrate concentrations; and (2)
designing, building and validating a new continuous  plant to allow the recycle of the wrong
   Pfizer has published the chemistry in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and made  the
methodology available to the wide scientific community. Finally pregabalin is one of the very few
small molecule pharmaceutical agents where every chemical step in the manufacturing process is
performed in water.

Cold-Water Enzyme: Reducing the Environmental Foot-

print of Residential Laundry  through Low Temperature

   Each day, Americans do  123 million loads of laundry. They have  become accustomed to a
certain level of cleaning and ease in performing this essential activity of modern living. And
when it comes to stain removal, most choose to set their dials to warm or hot to ensure a quality
clean. The research teams at DuPont and its strategic partner Proctor  & Gamble have invented
an entirely new  enzyme that  allows consumers to wash their clothes  at significantly  lower
temperatures with dramatically improved performance. The enzyme helps reduce energy use by
50% with each load.
   This superior  enzyme technology, cold-water protease, is  available now in Tide ColdwMer
Clean.  Both companies  felt passionate about pursuing the development of this enzyme because
success meant significant environmental benefits due to the sheer scale of use. Current laundry
washing creates 40 million metric tons of emissions of carbon dioxide. If the loads were cleaned
instead in cold water, the energy savings would reduce those emissions by 80%. In  other words,
that is the equivalent of taking 6.3 million cars from the road, based on annual U.S. emissions. Use
of this  cold-water protease has equivalent performance and stability compated to the traditional
technology used. DuPont's Genencor scientists applied novel protein engineering methods to
invent an optimal protease enzyme that at 60°F matches the cleaning performance of the previous
incumbent generation product  at 90°F. Joint commercialization of this breakthrough technology
The Procter &
DyPont Company

       Sabatini, U.S.
means it has the potential to become the largest manufacture of an engineered enzyme in the
world — greening one of the most common household chores on a macro scale. Consumer habit
surveys indicate that low temperature cleaning is on the rise in both North America and Europe,
and that the potential benefits enabled by this technology are becoming a reality. In 2015 DuPont
and Proctor &Gamble took sustainable innovation one step further by introducing renewable,
cellulosic ethanol  made from waste agricultural biomass residue into Tide® Coldwater laundry

Environmentally Friendly Colored Pyrotechnic


   While perchlorates are  ubiquitous in colored pyrotechnic illuminants, they are contaminants
of public groundwater supplies and military training ranges. Perchlorates have been shown to
compete with iodide, inhibiting thyroid gland function. The presence of poly chlorinated organic
materials in green-, red-,  and blue-light-cmitting pyrotechnics are used to effectively color the
flame, but are problematic due to their tendencies to form carcinogenic polychlorinated biphenyls,
polychlorinated dibenzodioxins,  and polychlorinated  dibenzofurans  when  the  pyrotechnic
formulations  are  ignited. The  presence of barium in  green-light-emitting pyrotechnics  is
necessary to achieve an acceptable green color, but the heavy metal nature of barium and negative
health effects associated with barium-containing chemicals is problematic. In an effort to benefit
public health and to adequately address environmental concerns facing the commercial fireworks
industry and  the  U.S.  military,  green-, red-, and blue-light-emitting pyrotechnic illuminants
have been developed that do not contain the aforementioned noxious chemicals. While these
technologies have been developed and tested by the U.S. military for potential soldier use, its
appeal extends to the commercial fireworks industry that is also looking to adopt environmentally
friendly technologies in their fireworks displays. Once implemented, this technology is estimated
to reduce 300 pounds of perchlorates, 1,500 pounds of barium-based chemicals, and 650
pounds of polychlorinated organic materials from being released into the air annually in military
pyrotechnics alone. Due to the large amount of fireworks used commercially, adaptation of these
aforementioned technologies by fireworks companies would lead to very large-scale elimination
of perchlorates, barium-based chemicals, and polychlorinated organic materials.

A Feedstock Flexible Process  to produce Diesel and/or Jet

Fuel from Renewable Resources
   UOP has developed catalysts  and process technology for a novel chemical  route to convert
bioderived  oils to jet fuel and diesel. This is  part of a strategy to sustainably mitigate CO2
emissions from the aviation, marine, and land transportation sectors via biofuels that can utilize
existing fuel infrastructure for delivery, while not requiring modifications to engine technology.
   By in-depth understanding of the underlying chemistry, UOP has developed a practical, proven
and sustainable solution to produce both diesel and jet fuels from a broad range of bio-feedstock
options (including jatropha, camelina, algal oil, animal fats, and  used cooking  oil) utilizing
existing refinery infrastructure, assets and  distribution networks. This breakthrough required
both new catalysts and process flow schemes, endorsed as novel by the U.S. Patent Office, with
25 patents granted to date and recognized  by American Institute of Chemical Engineers' 2010
Sustainable Energy Award.
   This technology has now been successfully commercialized in  multiple locations and has
brought, to date, over 450 million gallons  of renewable fuel to the market. In doing so,  it has
already reduced greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector by an estimated 4  million
tons of CC>2.


Alternative to Sulfur Hexafluoride Enables up to 99% Greenhouse Gas Emission
Reduction	27

Green Nanotechnology Product and Processes for Cleaning Up Contaminated Soil and
Groundwater	27

New Chemical Impedes Biofilm Formation and the Adhesion ofFoulers	11


Mg-Rich Primer for Chrome-Free Protection of Aluminum and its Alloys	15

AlkyCiean® Technology: An Inherently Safer Technology for the Production of Gasoline
Alky late	5

Plating on Plastic	11

Partially Hydrogenated fi-Farnesene: A Renewable, Pure Hydrocarbon Non-VOCSolvent
Produced from Plant Sugars	12


Mg-Rich Primer for Chrome-Free Protection of Aluminum and its Alloys. ........... 15

Estolides: A Low-Cost, High-Performance Renewable Fluid Certified for Motor Oil.  ... 12

Discovery, Development and Implementation of New Chemical Technology toward a
Novel Commercial Synthesis for the HIV-Attachment Inhibitor, BMS-663068	28

FLUEPAC6 Activated Carbon Products for Superior Mercury Control from Flue Gas
and Green Re-Use of Coal Combustion Residuals ............................. 28

   Disruptive Methantropic Technology for Sustainable Food, Fuel and Products: Green
   Chemistry Innovation Enabling U.S.  Global Competitiveness in Low-Carbon, New
   Economy	13

   Catalytic Electrolysis for Renewable Fuel Generation from Organic Waste Water	13

   AlkyClean® Technology: An Inherently Safer Technology! for the Production of Gasoline
   Alkylate [[[ 5

   *Chirikf      J.,
   Catalysis with Earth Abundant Transition Metals	3
   PeroxyMAX"" Oxidant Technology for Pollution Prevention in Industrial Sectors  ...... 14

   Delta 5™: An Eninronmentally Benign and Worker Safe Asphalt Rejuvenator	14
   Membrane Dehydration for Solvent Recovery and Reuse  ........................ 15
   Dream Production — CO2 as a New Building Block for High- Tech Plastics	29
                                 Inc.;                      Inc.
   Input and Waste Associated with the Isomerization of Linear Alpha Olefins	23
   Instinct6 Technology — Making Nitrogen Fertilizers Work More Effectively for Farmers
   and the Planet	6
   Dow Polymeric Flame Retardant	29

   The Dow Chemical
   SOLDEROA^' BP Lead-free Solder Plating Chemistry	30

Creation, Integration, and Engineering of the World's Largest Ceilulosic Ethanoi
Bio Refinery Production Platform......................................... 31

                     The          &
Cold-Water Enzyme: Reducing the Environmental Footprint of Residential Laundry
through Low Temperature Cleaning. ...................................... 33


Mg-Rich Primer for Chrome-Free Protection of Aluminum, and its Alloys	15

       Soil LLC
Floral Soi/M: A Green Chemistry Alternative to Phenol Formaldehyde Foams for Floral &
Horticulture Industries	16

Garg, Neil;               of Chemistry      Biochemistry,
            of California, Los
Catalytic Couplings Mediated by Non-Precious Metal Catalysis. ................... 9

H-O-H         Technology, Inc.
Cooling Tower Water Conservation & Chemical Treatment Elimination ............ 16

         Yu,             of California, Los
Surface Engineered High-performance Catalysts for Fuel Cell Applications. ........... 9

               Polymer Technologies, LLC
Evolution Polymerization to Produce Sustainable Polycarbonate Dendrimers	16

                         &              Inc. (IFF)
A. Greener Process for the Fragrance Veridian and Development/Implementation oflFF's
Green Chemistry Tool................................................. 31

ISCA                 Inc.
SPLAT® VERB: An Insecticide-Free, Green Repellent for Bark Beetle Pests of North
American Forestry. [[[  17

Carbon Engineering Platform ........................................... 17

Integrated Production of Sustainable Bio based Malonic Acid for Significant Source
Pollution Reduction, Cost, and Performance Advantages. .......................  18

   GRANDEVO* Advanced Bioinsecticides	18

  ZEQUANOX®. [[[  19

  Degradable Polymers for'Fracking Applications	20

                             LLC - a                     Liability

   The Recovery of Organic Halides from Waste Streams by the Chemical Reaction of
   Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide	32

                                  of          U.S.               LLC
   Replacing Packaging Plastics with Sustainable Bioplastics from Megacrop Waste ...... .10

   *NewIighl Technologies
  AirCarbon: Greenhouse Gas Transformed into High-Performance TJ-jermoplastic ....... 7


   Highly Efficient and Practical Mono hydrolysis of Symmetric Diesters ............... 10


  Mg-Rich Primer for Chrome-Free Protection of Aluminum and its Alloys	15

  No¥¥if LLC (a joint           of Amyris, Inc.              S.A.
  Renewable Oils for High Performance Lubricants............................ .20

   Bio-Derived Oligomer Technology to Replace Bis Phenol-A (BPA)-Based Thermoset
   Coatings: A Practical Solution for BPA-Free Metal Can Coatings for Beer, Beverage,
   and Food Containers. ................................................ .21

  SunCrylHP 114, an Environmentally Friendly Release Coat	32


*Princelon University,      J. Chirik
Catalysis with Earth Abundant Transition Metals. ............................ .3

The          &
Cold- Water Enzyme: Reducing the Environmental Footprint of Residential Laundry
through Low Temperature Cleaning. ......................................53

Breakthrough Catalyst Technology Enables Cost Competitive Drop-in Bio-Based Nylons
and Polyurethanes	21

Converting Landfill Wastes to Multi-Functional Green Polyolsfor Coating
Applications	22

Rivertop Renewables - Sugar Oxidation Process	22

                   U.S. Army
Environmentally Friendly Colored Pyrotechnic Illuminants	34

                     Inc.;                               Inc.
Input and Waste Associated with the Isomerization of Linear Alpha Olefins	23

Environmental Protection Reagents from MSW: One-Step Quantitative Resourcing
Municipal Solid Waste	23

             Uniwersity, Department of

Highly Efficient and Practical Mono hydrolysis of Symmetric Diesters ............... 10

            of California,                               of

Catalytic  Couplings Mediated by Non-Precious Metal Catalysis. .................. .9

             of California,                 Yu
Surface Engineered High-performance Catalysts for Fuel Cell Applications	9

             of Florida,                    U.S.               LLC
Replacing Packaging Plastics with Sustainable Bioplastics from Megacrop Waste....... 10

      LLC, A
A Feedstock Flexible Process to produce Diesel and/or Jet Fuel from Renewable
Resources	34

   Environmentally Friendly Colored Pyrotechnic Illuminants	34

   U.S.               LLC;                                of
   Replacing Packaging Plastics with Sustainable Bioplastics from Megacrop Waste.......  10

   Renewable Nylon through Commercialization ofBIOLON"*DDDA	4

   SPEAR™ Insecticide: First Member of a New Class of Biopesticides which Shows Efficacy
   Comparable to Synthetic Insecticides ...................................... 23

   Virox                 Inc.
   Accel 5 RTU, an Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide® (AHP6) based cleaner-disinfectant that
   provides  a sustainable and safer choice for infection prevention and control. ......... .24

   Atom-Efficient Process for Producing Taurine ................................ 25