2015 EPA International Decontamination
v Research and Development Conference
Executive Summary
The 2015 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) International Decontamination Research and Development
Conference brought together scientists, practitioners, and policymakers related to chemical, biological, and radiological
(CBR) remediation. For three days at EPA's campus in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, more than 190 national and
international participants representing local, state, and federal government agencies, academia, industry, and public
advocacy groups viewed presentations and actively engaged in discussions and a poster viewing session. This diverse
audience included experts in detection, environmental emergency response, risk communication, sampling, treatment,
decontamination methods, waste management, and decision support tool development related to biological, chemical,
and radiological agents to explore current issues and future directions.
This Executive Summary outlines the events and presentations of the conference, and references more detailed
information in the Conference Report. The information is organized by topic: Plenary Session and General Sessions,
followed by Concurrent Sessions by topic area, and the Poster Session.
Plenary Session
Dr. Lukas Oudejans, Chairperson of EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Conference Organizing
Committee, welcomed participants to the conference and provided opening remarks.
Dr. Shawn Ryan, Division Director of the Decontamination and Consequence Management Division (DCMD) with NHSRC,
provided a brief historical perspective of the advances made in the decontamination field in the last ten years. Dr. Ryan
applauded the role of the Conference in supporting and sharing those advances among scientists and responders to help
with modern decontamination challenges.
Dr. Gregory Sayles, Acting Director of NHSRC, outlined the goals of the Conference, highlighting the importance of bringing
together the scientific, regulatory, and response communities to convey the state of the science and continue to foster
advances through collaboration. Dr. Sayles emphasized the relevance of this effort in light of recent incidents that have
challenged decontamination researchers and practitioners.
September 2015
Executive Summary
This document does not constitute nor should be construed as an EPA endorsement
of any particular product, service, or technology.

General Session 1
Connecting Response and Research Activities
"Deadly bacteria
release sparks
concern at
Louisiana lab"
USA TODAY 6:0 J p.lT
EST March i, 2015
"Officials are investigating how a deadly type of bacteria was
released from a high-security laboratory at theTulane National
Primate Center in Louisiana. Officials say there is no risk to the
EPA Region 6's Two Recent Bio Responses; Slide 4
John Martin | U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
The first section of General Session 1, "Connecting Response and
Research Activities/' consisted of four presentations outlining how
decontamination research can inform response practices. The first
and second presentations, given by invited speakers Erica Canzler
(U.S. EPA) and Joseph Barbera (George Washington University),
focused on relationships and collaborations between researchers and
emergency responders. They discussed how available data can be
quickly and appropriately interpreted to respond to incidents, and
how these data could be incorporated into various testing and
training scenarios to better prepare responders. Both stressed the
importance of leveraging relationships between researchers,
responders, and regulators locally, nationally, and internationally to continueto develop practical applications for research
in real-world CBR scenarios. The third and fourth presentations recounted recent examples of responses to ricin and
Burkholderia pseudomallei incidents in the United States, in which research informed sampling and analysis planning and
practices. Early and consistent communication between all involved parties was underscored as a crucial part of each of
these real-world incident response processes.
CBR Response Activities and Recovery Handbooks
This "CBR Response Activities and Recovery Handbooks" section of General Session 1 summarized recent CBR responses
in two presentations, followed by a third presentation from Public Health England showcasing a UK-developed handbook
that aids in recovery after an incident. The first presentation outlined the development and application of a "field
deployable hydrolysis system" used by the United States Army to safely destroy 600 tons of declared Syrian chemical
agents. The second presentation focused on the continued recovery of the large area affected by the Fukushima, Japan,
nuclear accident in 2011. The presentation explored available data and techniques to model indoor radiological exposure
from various potential sources, and the impact of these findings on the recovery process for the affected regions. The "UK
Recovery Handbook for Biological Incidents" was exhibited in the third presentation of this Session. This handbook follows
the previous handbooks developed for chemical and radiological incidents and focuses primarily on the cleanup and
restoration phases of recovery with the aim of reducing exposure and returning to 'normality.' All handbooks aid decision
makers in the development of a recovery strategy
Field Demonstration and (International) Program Review
The final section of General Session 1, "Field Demonstration and (International) Program Review," consisted of four
presentations. The first presentation outlined the benefits of methyl bromide fumigation versus an approach using
ethylene oxide and vaporized hydrogen peroxide to respond to Bacillus anthracis release. A field demonstration of a
patented method of decontaminating entire structures using methyl bromide fumigation was presented. The remaining
2015 EPA International Decontamination
Research and Development Conference
Executive Summary
This document does not constitute nor should be construed as an EPA endorsement
of any particular product, service, or technology.

three presentations focused on programs and international frameworks for defense and response in the United States,
Canada, and the United Kingdom.
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Canadian Safety and Security Program Project for
Infrastructure Mitigation for Rapid Response after a
Radiological Incident; Slide 8
Konstantin Volchek| Environment Canada
The first of these three presentations showed that in the United
States, the Department of Defense is working to improve many
technologies that aid in detection and decontamination of agents,
including improving resistance of response-vehicle coatings to agents
and wide-area anthrax decontamination using germination of spores
as a mitigation approach, among others. In the UK, the Government
Decontamination Service, with input from other suppliers, has
developed a framework process for sampling and analysis,
decontamination, and waste management and disposal in response
to CBR incidents, including provisions for responder health and safety
throughout the process. The fourth and final presentation stressed
the importance of developing mitigation techniques to address
radiological contamination in the short term to facilitate further and
more complete decontamination afterward. Environment Canada,
along with other collaborators, developed and demonstrated a water-
based formulation technology that can be dispersed using fire trucks.
General Session 2 - Data Models, Research Overviews and
Remediation Plans
The first presentation in General Session 2 offered an analysis of the data and models used to inform federal response in
the United States. Data used in the event of hurricanes and earthquakes were organized, characterized, analyzed for data
gaps and compiled into an interactive resource inventory. The second and third presentations provided perspectives on
biological decontamination research and remediation plans from EPA and the New York City Department of Health and
Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH). The EPA's Homeland Security Research Program presentation included recent work in
decontamination, including improving demonstration and implementation of fumigants, new application methods for
liquid sporicides, and progress with emerging decontaminants. The NYC DOHMH outlined their work, in collaboration with
other organizations, to develop a biological incident remediation plan for New York City from incident preparation through
recovery and re-occupation of the affected area. In the process, they also detailed important data gaps and challenges
associated with decontamination of a city the size of New York. The fourth and final presentation in this session provided
an update on available water decontamination strategies, including a report on the progress of the 2008 Critical
Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council Recommendations, resources for water utilities in the event of an incident, an
overview of recent decontamination tabletop exercises, and other projects.
2015 EPA International Decontamination	Executive Summary
^ Research and Development Conference	3
This document does not constitute nor should be construed as an EPA endorsement
of any particular product, service, or technology.

General Session 3 - Biological Agent Reaerosolization
General Session 3 featured a presentation that provided an update on the Scientific Program on Reaerosolization and
Exposure (SPORE), which explores the relationship between reaerosolization and continued exposure to inform risk-
related decision making.
General Session 4 - Decision Support Tools and Guidance
The four presentations given during General Session 4 focused on the
wake of emergencies or incidents. The first presentation focused on
Analysis Tool for All-Hazards/Analyzer for Wide-Area Restoration
Effectiveness (PATH/AWARE), which was developed to address CBR
scenarios involving weapons of mass destruction. There are plans to
expand PATH/AWARE to address hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes
in the future. The second presentation provided an overview and short
demonstration of the GIS-based Waste Estimation Support Tool
(WEST), designed to inform waste management strategies for wide-
area contamination scenarios. The next presentation turned the focus
to recovery after a specific scenario - an incident involving under-
ground transportation. The joint U.S. DHS-EPA Underground
Transportation Restoration (UTR) project goals, including developing
the first federal guidance to decrease subway restoration down time
after a biological event, were outlined. The final presentation explored
the potential applicability of data from historical incidents to modern
urban response and recovery and the challenges involved.
Concurrent Sessions
resources available to aid decision-makers in the
availability and functionality of the Prioritization
The UTR guidance is being optimized to integrate transit
agency needs with response and recovery options
Transit Agency
Information Gathering Meetings,
BART, WMATA, NYCT (initial), for
key information to develop draft
RRS Strategy
j Develop Olatt RRS Decision Tree(s)
User Interlace Tool Development — RAPID
Add Transit Agency Specific Data
Lawrence Liver more National Laboratory
Optimize Systems Integration:
Generic RRS Guidance
Templates fat transit Agencies
Transit Agency RRi Mans
Guidance document and «.o(twar« tool
Transit agency sptxIlK: guidance/siiategy/look
Developing Biological Operational Response and
Recovery Guidance for Rapid Return to Service of
Underground Transportation; Slide 7
Robert Fischer | Lawrence Livermore National
Sessions were conducted concurrently throughout the duration of the conference to allow broader coverage of topic
areas. The concurrent sessions focused on various aspects of biological, chemical, and radiological contaminants and
decontamination techniques, including sessions specifically covering water and wastewater management. Biological
agents were a recurring theme while other sessions transitioned between radiological, chemical, water, and waste
Biological Agent Decontamination
The first Biological session included five presentations that outlined methodologies used for decontamination of biological
agents, and the experimental evaluation of various factors affecting the efficacy of these methods. The first of these
2015 EPA International Decontamination
Research and Development Conference
Executive Summary
This document does not constitute nor should be construed as an EPA endorsement
of any particular product, service, or technology.

presentations focused on a relatively nontoxic novel micro emulsion decontaminant option for use on chemical as well as
biological agents. Performance of the technique on both chemical and biological agents, detector interference, and
material compatibility of the technique were all evaluated. A second presentation expounded on a novel decontamination
concept involving use of a viscous hydrogel polymer. Some unique advantages of this approach include a reduction in
hazardous waste, preservation of forensic evidence locked in the gel, and multiple application options for complete
coverage of complex surfaces.
Sprayable DeconGel


Novel Bio-decon Approach - DeconGel; Slide 12
Vipin Rastogi ] U.S. Army, Edgewood Chemical
Biological Center
Biological Agent Detection
A new method of generating chlorine dioxide by photochemically
activating chlorite ions was explained in the third presentation. This
method was found to have extended benefit over time and was
presented as a potential consumer product due to its ease of use and
low operator risk. The next presentation examined the advantages
and disadvantages of various wide-area decontamination methods
and presented reason to question the viability of simple "pass/fail"
tests of decontamination methods using only small coupons. The fifth
and final presentation in this session outlined the results of
experimental investigation of the efficacy of methyl bromide
fumigation as a decontamination technique under various ambient
conditions, on various surfaces, and on various potential surrogate
microorganisms for Bacillus anthracis. Each of these presentations
summarized the outcomes of the experimental testing performed.
The second Biological session focused on methods and research associated with detection of biological agents. The first
of these four presentations described efforts to independently and systematically evaluate various hand-portable
biological indicator, immunoassay, and PCR techniques of detection to better inform the first-responder community. The
importance of using the best possible rapid-detection techniques in the event of a "suspicious white powder" incident
was emphasized. The next two presentations explored the development of rapid viability PCR methods for detecting
Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis. The first of these two presentations offered an overview and historical perspective
of rapid viability PCR method development. The second focused on recent efforts to develop a reliable method of
detecting Y. pestis in water samples and on refining sample preparation protocols to optimize Y. pestis cell recovery and
growth. The final presentation in this session explored in more detail the challenges associated with obtaining consistent
"standard samples" from real-world environments. Established methods of sampling were revisited with proposed
revisions that may optimize their use in detection.
Biological Agent Sampling
The third Biological session was dedicated to exploring topics related to bio-sampling, through four presentations. The
first of these focused on efficiency of various sampling methods, regarding the number of samples necessary to clear an
area after decontamination. Various tools and sampling techniques were described and evaluated for efficiency of
detection. The second presentation discussed current research developing and evaluating a composite sampling method
2015 EPA International Decontamination
Research and Development Conference
Executive Summary
This document does not constitute nor should be construed as an EPA endorsement
of any particular product, service, or technology.

using cellulose sponges. The established method of sponge wiping surfaces was compared to a new modified method and
evaluated for collection efficiency and potential for cross-contamination. A third presentation described work to assess
the potential of using commercial robotic vacuums as sampling as well as decontamination tools. Recovery efficiency and
variability due to the sampling pattern were experimentally examined on a variety of flooring materials. The fourth
presentation summarized the various laboratory sampling and analysis capabilities that could provide rapid support for
large scale environmental response.
Biological Agent Decontamination Equipment
The three presentations given in the final Biological session focused on equipment used to decontaminate biological
agents. A portable system specially designed to decontaminate vehicles was introduced in the first presentation. The
system, redesigned from an original prototype, is operable by a single person and is entirely self-contained, including all
runoff and reclaimed liquid. The second presentation examined the efficacy of a mobile pressure washer with and without
additional biocides for decontaminating equipment. Many variables, including pressure washing time, presence or
absence of grease on the surface, and type of additive disinfectant used were evaluated. The third and final presentation
offered results of research on efficacy of a variety of nozzle types used for wide-area spray decontamination. Spray
patterns created by different nozzles were evaluated on types of horizontal and vertical surfaces, and results were
Biological Agent Aerosols and Morphology of Spores
The final concurrent session focusing on biological agents examined biological aerosols and spore morphology. The first
of four presentations introduced a reaerosolization study method designed to minimize common errors in these types of
studies. The study itself examined the differences in reaerosolization of anthrax and its surrogates from common outdoor
surfaces, like asphalt, concrete, and glass. A second presentation examined the flaws in the usual assumption associated
with modeling bodily fluid aerosols: that most droplets fall to the ground, with limited evaporation. A more realistic
modeling scenario was presented, taking into account the effects of various conditions on droplet evaporation. The third
presentation expounded on a study designed to test the reproducibility and consistency of methods used to uniformly
deposit bacteria on coupons using aerosol, harvest bacteria, and accurately determine bacterial surface decay. The
methods presented are expected to help generate relevant data for post event planning and response. The final
presentation focused on the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to examine structure-function relationships of
pathogens, specifically the morphology of Bacillus anthracis spores. The in vitro use of AFM could fill an analytical gap in
the characterization of pathogens, and could significantly improve understanding of decontamination methods and
A 2015 EPA International Decontamination	Executive Summary
^ Research and Development Conference	6
This document does not constitute nor should be construed as an EPA endorsement
of any particular product, service, or technology.

Radiological Agent Response and Recovery
Radiological Contaminant Stabilization Technologies;
Slide 2
Mark Sutton | Lawrence Livermore National
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After an intentional radiological release or nuclear power plant accident,
contamination is likely to spread across a large urban area with complex
variety of surfaces.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
This session examined response to and recovery from radiological
incidents. The first of five presentations summarized the guidance
and tools available to radiological first responders. The importance of
identifying responder needs through discussion and stakeholder
input was emphasized. The second presentation examined
technologies designed to contain radiological agents after an
incident, which could allow time and consideration for decision
makers. That work involved grouping available technologies into
tiers, based on their availability and the time needed for deployment.
The third presentation emphasized the importance of exploring gross
mitigation methods, which would reduce first-responder exposure
and reduce resources needed for full decontamination later on.
Various techniques on a variety of surfaces were investigated, with
more research on the topic forthcoming in the future. A summary of
various available radiological mitigation technologies was given in the
fourth presentation. These technologies were to be demonstrated during a DHS/EPA Technology Demonstration for
radiological responders in June 2015. The final presentation in this session focused on the importance of developing and
implementing early-phase waste management plans. Emphasis was placed on including waste management strategies in
the Area Contingency Plan.
This session examined the obstacles and solutions associated with decontamination of water and wastewater
infrastructure through four presentations. The first gave an overview of selected projects exhibiting techniques of water
and wastewater decontamination and restoration and featured a few facilities capable of unique water decontamination
and treatment research, including a new water security test bed (WSTB) in Idaho. The second presentation offered a more
in-depth look at this WSTB, providing background information and status updates of ongoing research. Both of these
presentations stressed the importance of the WSTB and the opportunities it provides to address gaps in water
infrastructure protection. The third presentation experimentally examined the persistence of radioactive particles on
drinking water pipework to better inform responders about the effectiveness of various decontamination methods. The
last presentation also focused on adsorption of particles to sediments that settle in drinking water storage tanks. Samples
were collected and analyzed for adherence of various CBR substances.
Water Infrastructure Decontamination
2015 EPA International Decontamination
Research and Development Conference
Executive Summary
This document does not constitute nor should be construed as an EPA endorsement
of any particular product, service, or technology.

Water and Waste Water Treatment
The subject for this session was treatment of water and waste water. The first of four presentations provided an overview
of selected ongoing research projects designed to make water systems more resilient, to detect and mitigate
contamination, and to treat water and water structures. Highlighted projects included investigation of the fate of
organophosphates in municipal wastewater treatment systems, prediction of hydrolysis rates of organophosphates, and
managing and treating large amounts of CBR-contaminated water and
wastewater residuals. The second presentation shared research on the
inactivation of vegetative Bacillus anthracis in drinking water using
free available chlorine and monochioramine. Various conditions were
tested, and results were presented. The third presentation addressed
the need for development of a deployable CBR water treatment
system that would minimize the volume of contaminated effluent
generated from the decontamination process. An update of the
results, findings, and products developed to accomplish this
minimization to date was given. The fourth presentation focused on
large-volume contamination events and presented findings from
development of a toolbox of strategies for disposal of contaminated
water and exploring the challenges that wastewater utilities face when
accepting water pre-treated with advanced oxidation processes.
Waste Treatment and Disposal
This presentation addressed management and disposal of waste after an event. Specifically, research was presented on
the behavior of biomass-bound cesium in an incinerator environment. Different variables affecting this behavior were
examined, and results were presented.
Chemical Agent Decontamination
The four presentations given during this session focused on various techniques of chemical decontamination. The first of
these presented findings from the site remediation of a penicillin production facility using chlorine dioxide gas. This
successful six-day endeavor, which cost approximately $327,000 USD, was explained in detail from start to finish, including
placement throughout the building of fans, humidity generators, and samplers, and sealing the building in preparation for
gassing. The second presentation in this session examined the potential use of common household materials and cleaning
agents like hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and rubbing alcohol, among others, to decontaminate VX, GD, and HD without
leaving toxic residue on surfaces. These techniques would aid in speeding first response, because necessary materials are
easily accessible in large quantities. The Integrated Decontamination Test and Evaluation System was introduced in the
third presentation. This test facility enables systematic evaluation of the efficacy of decontamination methods under
various experimentally controlled conditions. Survivability of decontamination equipment and gear can also be examined.
The final presentation in this session investigated the ability of four solutions to decontaminate materials in response to
ORD's Homeland Security Research Program
Contaminant Persistence in Waste Water Treatment Systems
Activated sludge experimental set-up: assessing how
contaminants travel through waste w,
Waste water test bed:
assessing persistence of
contaminants on sewer
Management and Treatment of Copious Amounts of
CBR Contaminated Water and Wastewater; Slide 12
Matthew Magnuson | U.S. Environmental Protection
2015 EPA International Decontamination	Executive Summary
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This document does not constitute nor should be construed as an EPA endorsement
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sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and agent yellow contamination. This bench-scale study examined these solutions for wood,
metal, glass, and sealed concrete, and analyzed for efficacy as well as residual byproducts.
Poster Session
An afternoon poster session on the second day of the Conference provided a break between oral sessions with 31 posters
representing a range of remediation-related issues. Topics included techniques for decontamination of various surfaces
and environments, emerging technologies that allow faster and more accurate evaluation of onsite contamination, and
fate and transport studies of various contaminants in environmental and municipal systems.
For more information, visit the EPA Web site at www2.epa.gov/homeland-security-research
Technical Contact: Lukas Oudejans (oudeians.lukas(5)epa.gov)
General Feedback/Questions: Kathy Nickel (nickel.kathy@epa.gov)
U.S. EPA's Homeland Security Research Program (HSRP) develops products based on scientific research and
technology evaluations. Our products and expertise are widely used in preventing, preparing for, and recovering from
public health and environmental emergencies that arise from terrorist attacks or natural disasters. Our research and
products address biological, radiological, or chemical contaminants that could affect indoor areas, outdoor areas, or
water infrastructure. HSRP provides these products, technical assistance, and expertise to support EPA's roles and
responsibilities under the National Response Framework, statutory requirements, and Homeland Security
Presidential Directives.
Contact Information
2015 EPA International Decontamination
Research and Development Conference
Executive Summary
This document does not constitute nor should be construed as an EPA endorsement
of any particular product, service, or technology.