PROJECT OF INTEREST	

August 2016

WASTE NOT, WANT NOT:  WATER REUSE AND RECYCLING IN TEXAS

CHALLENGES

It is said that necessity is the mother of invention, a notion which rings true in Texas where a challenging climate has
demanded a pioneering spirit and innovations in water management in order to survive. Water reuse is not new in
Texas.  In fact, one might consider reclaimed and reuse projects as best management practices in a state where strained
water supplies and drought are a part of life. The State has weathered several droughts, including the most recent and
severe 4-year event which began in 201 I and has finally begun to ease.

Communities are still struggling with the multitude of impacts that the drought has brought that include aquifer and
reservoir storage depletion, diminished soil  moisture and erosion, wildfires, and low streamflows. These impacts are felt
not only in the municipal sectors and the challenge of continuing to provide adequate potable water supplies to the
public, but throughout the private economic, agricultural and industrial sectors as well. Luckily reservoir storage in
Texas is recovering and presently holding strong at 85.4% full as compared to 68% just four years ago.

These years have punctuated the importance of water reuse and  recycling, as well as the development of alternative
water supply sources, and Texas communities  have pursued these types of projects vigorously with the help of the
Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) who provides financial assistance in the form of grants and loans.  TWDB's
Clean Water State Revolving Fund Program (CWSRF) funded its first reuse project in 1989 and has since provided more
than $300 million to  over 28 reuse projects of varying types.

SOLUTIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES

Texas has developed a diversified portfolio of water reclamation, reuse and supply development solutions which has
helped augment  community resiliency in the face of severe drought events and the case studies from the following three
communities help to illustrate these laudable efforts.

San Antonio Water System's Water  Recycling Centers (WRCs)
 In 1996, the San Antonio Water System (SAWS)
 unveiled a plan to construct the nation's largest water
 recycling delivery system.  This ambition has been
 realized with nearly 130 miles of pipeline delivering
 high quality treated effluent to parks, golf courses,
 and numerous commercial and industrial customers
 in the SAWS service area. Today, this trend
 continues with the support of more than $27 million
 in CWSRF funding for the development and
 expansion of the San Antonia Water System's
 (SAWS) water recycling program, comprised of three
 major WRCs:  Medio Creek,  Leon Creek and Dos
 Rios (pictured right). Together, these facilities
 produce  130,000 acre feet (AF) of treated
 wastewater annually. The 35,000 AF alone that is
 conserved is equivalent to 20% of the potable
 demand that would otherwise be place on  the
 Edwards Aquifer.
40,000 AF
used for
industrial
cooling at
San
Antonio
gas and
utility
"6,000 AF
 ised to
 naintain
 lows in
 ian
 mtonio
River
35,000 AF
used for
landscaping,
irrigation,
and golf
courses
                                                                      PROJECT OF INTEREST  EPA-832-F-16-012

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Wichita Falls Indirect Potable Reuse (IPR)
Indirect potable reuse is the use of reclaimed water to augment drinking water supplies by discharging to a water body,
either surface or ground, and subsequently treating it for potable consumption. Thus, IPR is limited in its application to
locations with access to a suitable natural water body. Geographically, the City of Wichita Falls is ideally situated and
now in the process of constructing a 17-mile pipeline between the River Road Wastewater Treatment Plant and the
point of outfall at Lake Arrowhead with the capability to produce 8-10 million gallons of treated effluent daily.  This $30
million dollar project funded by the TWDB is considered a permanent IPR system that will supplement the primary
potable water supply source for the community.
       Approximately 7% of Effluent
       is Reused in the United  States
   Source: http://texaslivingwaters.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Bob-Johnsonl.pdf

The project consists of new chemical facilities, phosphorous removal treatment units, pumping facilities, and other
infrastructure improvements. According to Russell Schreiber, Wichita Falls Director of Public Works, this project will
be tremendous boost to the City's overall water supply, and will allow them to be better prepared for the next major
drought event. Though the four-year drought has ended, water challenges for Texas communities remain. Over 84
million acre feet of groundwater stores were lost during the drought, and as of January 2015 there has been only a  10%
recovery.  IPR is an alternative water supply development option that increases community preparedness in times of
uncertainty.

Mastering Innovation with Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) in Big Spring

Direct Potable Reuse is the use of reclaimed water that is piped directly from a wastewater treatment facility to a
drinking water treatment and distribution facility.  Texas built the first DPR facilities in the United States and, although
not funded by the CWSRF program, the TWDB did provide $1 1.9 million in loan assistance to the state's first large-
scale DPR project through a State financing program called the Water Infrastructure Fund.  This groundbreaking project
was spearheaded by the Colorado River Municipal Water District, which was created by the Texas State Legislature for
the specific purpose of developing and financing water resources to the communities of Odessa, Big Spring, and Snyder.
Using 20-year projection models, the District knew that traditional surface water sources like lakes and reservoirs
                                                                       PROJECT OF INTEREST  EPA-832-F-16-012

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would not be viable for adequate supply, so they turned their attention to alternative technologies involving advanced
treatment and capitalizing on an often wasted resource.

Operating since 201 3, the Big Spring plant treats 2 MGD of wastewater effluent using microfiltration, reverse osmosis,
and ultraviolet disinfection.  The "reclaimed" water derived from the wastewater effluent is then added to a raw water
pipeline that is transmitting water from a source water lake. This mixture of treated (reclaimed) water and raw surface
water from the lake is distributed to five drinking water facilities in the region that serve 250,000  people where it is
treated again using conventional drinking water treatment techniques. The blend of raw water from the lake and
treated reclaimed water provides drinking water to customers in Big Spring, Snyder, Midland, Odessa and Stanton.

                                      A key factor in making DPR technology truly successful is securing the
                                      support of the local community and helping customers to understand the
                                      processes and to overcome some of the stereotypes and misinformation
                                      often associated with pursuing this type of water reuse.  The District held a
                                      series of public meetings, shared detailed information in the media, and
                                      reached out to numerous organizations and stakeholder groups and, for the
                                      most part, public reaction has been very positive.

                                      This project represents a significant turning point in the way that water
                                      managers in areas beleaguered by extreme drought and water scarcity can
                                      cultivate a sustainable water supply in times of uncertainty.  Since Texas
                                      pioneered DPR technology, more states have begun to pursue this
                                      approach including California where the State Legislature has mandated a
                                      determination of feasibility  by December 31, 2016 to ensure it can be
                                      implemented safely and reliably.

                                      The CWSRF program supports projects that promote water conservation,
                                      efficiency, and reduced consumption and provides funding for a broad array
                                      of projects that achieve these ends, including DPR technology.
                                          FOR MORE INFORMATION, PLEASE VISIT:
                                          https://www.epa.gov/cwsrf
                                          www.twdb.texas.gov/
                              Clean Water
                              State Revolving Fund
        Texas Water (^
Development Board
                                                                     PROJECT OF INTEREST  EPA-832-F-16-012

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