Light-Duty Automotive Technology,
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and
Fuel Economy Trends:
1975 Through 2016
tfk	United States
Environmental Protection
mm Agency
EPA-420-S-16-001 November 2016

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	Executive	
Summary
Introduction
This report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (C02) emissions, fuel economy, and
powertrain technology trends for new personal vehicles in the United States. The data supporting this
report were obtained by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), directly from automobile
manufacturers, in support of EPA's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the U.S. Department of
Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Corporate Average Fuel
Economy (CAFE) programs. These data have been collected and maintained by EPA since 1975 and
comprise the most comprehensive database of its kind. This report (the "Trends" report) has been
published annually since 1975 and covers all passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and all but
the largest pickup trucks and vans.
Data for model years (MY) 1975 through 2015 are final. These data are submitted to the EPA and NHTSA
at the conclusion of the model year and include actual production data and the results of emission and
fuel economy testing performed by the manufacturers and EPA. Data for MY 2016 are preliminary and
based on projected production data provided to EPA by automakers for vehicle certification and labeling
prior to MY 2016 sales. MY 2016 values will be finalized in next year's report. All data in this report are
based on production volumes delivered for sale in the U.S. by model year, and may vary from publicized
data based on calendar year sales.
Due to increasing production, data from alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) are integrated into the overall
database, beginning with MY 2011 data. These vehicles include electric, plug in hybridfuel cell, and
compressed natural gas vehicles.
All of the tailpipe (C02) emissions and fuel economy values in this Executive Summary are adjusted
values, which are very similar to new car Fuel Economy and Environment Labels and are EPA's best
estimate of nationwide "real world" (C02) emissions and fuel consumption. This report does not provide
formal compliance values for EPA (C02) emissions standards and NHTSA CAFE standards, which are
based on unadjusted, laboratory values and various credits. The difference between adjusted and
unadjusted values is discussed in detail in Section 10 of the full report.
It is important to note that the Department of Justice, on behalf of EPA, alleged violations of the Clean
Air Act by Volkswagen and certain subsidiaries based on the sale of certain MY 2009-2016 diesel vehicles
equipped with software designed to cheat on federal emissions tests. In this report, EPA uses the C02
emissions and fuel economy data from the initial certification of these vehicles. Should the investigation
and corrective actions yield different C02 and fuel economy data, the revised data will be used in future
reports. For more information on actions to resolve these violations, see www.epa.gov/vw.
The full version of this report and the appendices are available at www.epa.gov/fuel-economy/trends-
report. Information about automaker compliance with EPA's GHG emissions standards is available in
EPA's Manufacturer Performance Report at www.epa.gov/regulations-emissions-vehicles-and-engines/
ghg-emission-standards-light-duty-vehicles-manufacturer. Information about automaker compliance
with NHTSA's CAFE standards is available at NHTSA's CAFE Public Information Center at www.nhtsa.gov/
CAFE_PIC.
ES^

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Highlight	
Average new vehicle C02emissions are at a record low, and
fuel economy is at a record high for MY 2015
The final MY 2015 adjusted, real world C02 emissions rate for all new personal vehicles is
358 g/mi, which is an 8 g/mi decrease from MY 2014 and the lowest level ever. The MY
2015 adjusted fuel economy is 24.8 mpg, which is 0.5 mpg higher than MY 2014 and is a
record high.
Both cars and trucks reached record adjusted fuel economy in MY 2015. The average MY
2015 adjusted fuel economy for cars increased to 28.6 mpg, a 0.7 mpg increase over MY
2014.	MY 2015 trucks also increased 0.7 mpg to 21.1 mpg.
The greatest value of the historical Trends database is the documentation of long-term
trends. C02 emissions and fuel economy have improved in nine out of the last eleven years,
and decreased only once. Based on the final data through MY 2015, C02 emissions have
decreased by 103 g/mi, or 22%, since MY 2004, and fuel economy has increased by 5.5
mpg, or 28%, with an average annual improvement of about 0.5 mpg per year.
Preliminary MY 2016 adjusted C02 emissions are projected to be 347 g/mi and fuel
economy is projected to be 25.6 mpg, which would be a further improvement over MY
2015.	These values are based on production estimates provided by automakers throughout
2015. MY 2016 values will be finalized in next year's report.
Adjusted C02 Emissions for MY 1975-20161 Adjusted Fuel Economy for MY 1975-20161
800 -
aT 700-
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"to
I 600-
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O 500 -
"O
(D
-i
(/)
f. 400-
<
300 -
Model Year	Model Year
1 Adjusted C02 and fuel economy values reflect real world performance and are not comparable to automaker standards compli-
ance levels. Adjusted C02 values are, on average, about 25% higher than the unadjusted, laboratory C02 values that form the
starting point for GHG standards compliance, and adjusted fuel economy values are about 20% lower, on average, than unad-
justed fuel economy values that form the starting point for CAFE standards compliance.
Truck
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1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
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Highlight	
Fuel economy continues to increase while weight and power
have leveled off
Vehicle weight and power are two important design parameters that help determine a
vehicle's C02 emissions and fuel economy.
For nearly two decades through MY 2004, on a fleetwide basis, automotive technology
innovation was generally utilized to support vehicle attributes other than C02 emissions
and fuel economy, such as weight, performance, utility, and other attributes. Beginning in
MY 2005, technology has generally been used to increase both fuel economy (which has
reduced C02 emissions) and power, while keeping vehicle weight relatively constant.
The average weight for new vehicles produced in MY 2015 was 4,035 pounds, a decrease
of 25 pounds (less than a 1% change) compared to MY 2014. The weight of an average new
car was flat, while the weight of an average new truck fell by 110 pounds. The 2% increase
in truck share offset the weight reductions in trucks so that overall new vehicle weight was
relatively unchanged.
Average new vehicle horsepower (hp) was also basically unchanged in MY 2015, as the
average vehicle was 1 hp lower than MY 2014. With an average 229 hp, new vehicles are 1
hp below the record set in MY 2014 and MY 2011. Car horsepower was down by 1 hp and
truck horsepower was down by 6 hp. The average 0-to-60 mph acceleration time was down
by about 0.1 seconds in MY 2015.
Preliminary MY 2016 values suggest that average weight will be down about 50 pounds and
horsepower will remain at 229 hp. EPA will not have final MY 2016 data until next year's
report.
Change in Adjusted Fuel Economy, Weight, and Horsepower for MY 1975-2016
100%-
80% -
Adjusted Fuel Economy
LO
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60%-
CD
O
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CD
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40%-
Horse power
20%-
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CD
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Weight
CD
CL
-20% -
-40% -
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year
E54_JJ|

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Highlight	
Sport utility vehicles reached record high market share, while also
achieving record low C02 emissions and record high fuel economy
In this report, vehicles are disaggregated into five vehicle types: car, car SUV, truck SUV,
pickup truck, and minivan/van. Car SUVs are generally smaller 2WD SUVs that are considered
cars for purposes of compliance with the GHG emissions and fuel economy standards.
Truck SUVs had the largest production share increase of any vehicle type in MY 2015, up
4 percentage points to a record 28% of all production. Car SUVs achieved a record market
share of 10%, resulting in a record 38% market share for combined SUVs in MY 2015. Both
car SUVs and truck SUVs achieved record high fuel economy and record low C02 emissions
with car SUVs reaching 25.3 mpg and truck SUVs reaching 22.0 mpg.
Pickup trucks had the largest increase in fuel economy of any vehicle type in MY 2015,
increasing by 0.8 mpg. Pickup trucks are now at their second highest recorded fuel
economy, only slightly behind MY 1986 (when trucks were much smaller and on average
weighed one third less than new trucks today).
All five vehicle types have steadily increased fuel economy in recent years and are at or near
their record high fuel economy. However, the market shift towards SUVs has offset some
of the fleetwide benefits that otherwise would have been achieved due to the increased
fuel economy within each vehicle type. Light trucks, which include pickups, truck SUVs,
and minivans/vans increased market share 2 percentage points in MY 2015, to 43% of
production. This remains below the record light truck share of 48% reached in MY 2004.
Preliminary MY 2016 data suggests that overall truck share will drop in MY 2016; however
this projection is particularly uncertain given market conditions and low gasoline prices.
Production Share and Adjusted Fuel Economy by Vehicle Type for MY 1975-2016
Truck SUV
Truck SUV
Minivan/Van
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020	1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Model Year	Model Year
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Highlight	
I Average new vehicle footprint is relatively stable
Footprint is an important measure of vehicle size that is defined as the area enclosed by
the tires of the vehicle (i.e., wheelbase multiplied by average track width). Both the GHG
emissions and fuel economy standards rely on footprint to determine vehicle GHG and fuel
economy targets. EPA began collecting industry-wide footprint data in MY 2008.
The most notable change in footprint has occurred in pickup trucks. Average new pickup
truck footprint increased nearly 4% between MY 2008 and MY 2015, to an average of 65.3
ft2. Footprint for pickups did decrease slightly in MY 2015, down from the record 66.2 ft2
reached in MY 2014.
The average footprint within each of the four other vehicle types has been relatively
stable between MY 2008 and MY 2015. The average footprint for cars (excluding car SUVs)
increased about 2%, to 46.0 ft2. Truck SUVs increased slightly (1.3%) to 49.4 square feet,
and car SUVs increased very slightly (0.3%) to 46.4 ft2. Minivans/vans also increased slightly
(0.9%) to 54.6 ft2.
The overall new vehicle average footprint has also been relatively stable between MY 2008
and MY 2015. The overall average is influenced by the trends within each vehicle type, as
well as the mix of new vehicles produced. Since MY 2008, market share has shifted towards
car SUVs and truck SUVs, and away from cars, pickups, and minivans/vans. The result
of this shift, and the accompanying footprint changes within each vehicle type, is that
between MY 2008 and MY 2015 the overall industry footprint increased by 0.5 ft2, or about
1%, to 49.4 ft2.
Preliminary MY 2016 values are essentially unchanged from MY 2015. The overall new
vehicle average footprint is projected to drop by 0.1 ft2, to 49.3 ft2.
Footprint by Vehicle Type for MY 2008-2016
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2008
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2010
2012
Model Year
2014
2016

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Highlight	
Most manufacturers decreased C02 emissions and improved
fuel economy in MY 2015
Nine of the twelve manufacturers shown below increased fuel economy and decreased C02
emissions from MY 2014 to MY 2015, the last two years for which we have final data.
In MY 2015, Mazda had the lowest fleetwide average adjusted C02 emissions and highest
adjusted fuel economy performance, followed closely by Honda, Nissan, Subaru, and
Hyundai. Fiat-Chrysler had the highest C02 emissions and lowest fuel economy, although it
also achieved the largest reduction in adjusted C02 emissions from MY 2014 to MY 2015.
Honda and Nissan had the next largest reductions in adjusted C02 emissions from MY 2014
to MY 2015.
Two manufacturers increased average adjusted C02 emissions between MY 2014 and MY
2015, largely due to increasing truck share. Truck share increased 11 percentage points for
GM and 7 percentage points for Toyota. Both companies actually improved their average
truck C02 emissions, but their overall emissions increased due to increasing truck share.
Preliminary values suggest that most manufacturers will improve in MY 2016 as well,
though these projections are uncertain, and EPA will not have final MY 2016 data until next
year's report.
MY 2014-2016 Manufacturer Adjusted Fuel Economy and Adjusted C02 Emissions1-2
MY2016
MY 2014 Final	MY 2015 Final	Preliminary
Manufacturer
Adj. Fuel
Economy
(MPG)
C02
(g/mi)
Adj. Fuel
Economy
(MPG)
Change
from MY
2014
(MPG)
C02
(g/mi)
Change
from MY
2014
(g/mi)
Adj. Fuel
Economy
(MPG)
C02
(g/mi)
Mazda
29.4
302
29.6
+0.2
300
-2
30.7
290
Honda
27.3
326
28.9
+1.6
308
-18
28.7
310
Nissan
27.0
329
28.3
+1.3
312
-17
29.5
299
Subaru
27.6
321
28.4
+0.8
313
-8
28.7
310
Hyundai
27.5
323
27.8
+0.3
320
-3
28.9
308
Kia
25.9
343
26.3
+0.4
338
-5
26.8
332
BMW
26.4
338
26.3
-0.1
338
0
26.0
342
Toyota
25.6
347
25.2
-0.4
353
+6
25.6
347
Mercedes
23.2
385
23.5
+0.3
379
-6
24.8
359
Ford
22.8
389
23.0
+0.2
387
-2
23.4
379
GM
22.8
389
22.3
-0.5
398
+9
24.0
371
Fiat-Chrysler
20.8
428
21.8
+1.0
407
-21
22.2
402
All
24.3
366
24.8
+0.5
358
-8
25.6
347
1	Adjusted C02 and fuel economy values reflect real world performance and are not comparable to automaker standards
compliance levels. Adjusted C02 values are higher and adjusted fuel economy values are lower than compliance values.
2	Volkswagen is not included in this table due to an ongoing investigation. Based on initial certification data, Volkswagen
values are 26.2 mpg and 347 g/mi C02for MY 2014, 26.8 mpg and 336 g/mifor MY 2015, and 27.3 mpg and 325 g/mifor
preliminary MY 2016. These Volkswagen data are included in industry-wide or "All" values. Should the investigation and cor-
rective actions yield different C02 and fuel economy data, the revised data will be used in future reports.

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Highlight	
Manufacturers continue to adopt a wide array of advanced
technologies
Technological innovation is a major driving force in the industry. The industry overall has
adopted several technologies quickly in recent years, however individual manufacturers
are clearly utilizing different technologies to achieve C02 emissions, fuel economy, and
performance goals. The figure below illustrates projected manufacturer-specific technology
adoption for MY 2016.
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has achieved widespread use by many manufacturers and is
projected to be used on nearly half of all vehicles in MY 2016. This is particularly impressive
since GDI was used in less than 3% of vehicles as recently as MY 2008. All Mazda engines are
projected to use GDI in MY 2016, with several other manufacturers at nearly 100% adoption.
Turbochargers, which are often used in conjunction with GDI, have also increased market
share to about 22% in MY 2016, led by BMW, VW, Mercedes, and Ford.
Transmission technology has also changed rapidly with nearly 20% of MY 2016 vehicles
projected to use transmissions with seven or more speeds, and an additional 21% relying on
continuously variable transmissions (CVT). Subaru, Nissan, and Honda are leading in adoption
of CVTs, while Mercedes, BMW, and Fiat-Chrysler lead in the adoption of transmissions with
seven or more speeds. BMW and Mercedes are the leading manufacturers for non-hybrid
stop/start, and Honda and GM are utilizing cylinder deactivation the most.
Manufacturer Adoption of Emerging Technologies for MY 2016
GDI	Turbo
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Highlight	
Consumers have an increasing number of high fuel economy/
iow C02 vehicle choices
In MY 2016, consumers have many more choices when shopping for vehicles with higher
fuel economy and lower tailpipe C02 emissions compared to MY 2011. These choices
reflect both a more diverse range of technology packages on conventional gasoline and
diesel vehicles as well as an increasing number of alternative fuel vehicle offerings.
There are 18 MY 2016 pickup and minivan/van models for which at least one variant of the
model has a combined city/highway label fuel economy rating of 20 mpg or more, a small
increase over MY 2011. There are more than twice as many SUV models that achieve 25
mpg or more in MY 2016 than there were in MY 2011. The number of car models, where at
least one variant has a combined city/highway label fuel economy of at least 30 mpg, has
grown from 39 models in MY 2011 to more than 70 models in MY 2016, and the number
of car models with 40 mpg or more has more than doubled (comprised of hybrid, electric,
plug-in hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles).
Vehicle Models Meeting Fuel Economy Thresholds in MY 2011 and MY 2016
Includes city/hwy combined
label MPG estimates for
gasoline, diesel and hybrid
vehicles, and MPGe estimates
for EVs, PHEVs, and FCVs
Pickup and	SUV > 25 MPG	Car >30 MPG	Car >40 MPG
Minivan/Van a 20 MPG
In MY 2016 compared to MY 2011, there are also more advanced technology vehicle choices
in most categories, including more than 25 electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicle Models in MY 2011 and MY 2016
tl
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O
CD
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40 -
30 -
20 -
10 -
MY 2011
I MY 2016
Diesel
Hybrid
PHEV
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Highlight	
Manufacturers are producing many vehicles today that can
meet or exceed future C02 emissions targets
EPA evaluated MY 2016 vehicle emissions against future footprint-based C02 regulatory targets to
determine which current vehicles could meet or exceed their future targets. These comparisons assume
future improvements only in air conditioner refrigerants and efficiency, since these improvements are
considered to be among the least expensive methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
It is important to note that there are no C02 emissions standards for individual vehicles. Overall
manufacturer compliance is determined based on the manufacturer specific production-weighted
average footprint and C02 emissions. Because of this averaging, manufacturers will likely be able to
achieve compliance with roughly 50% of their vehicles meeting or exceeding the standards.
The figure below shows that 17% of projected MY 2016 vehicle production already meets or exceeds
the MY 2020 C02 emissions targets, with the addition of expected air conditioning improvements. This
represents more than 2.5 million vehicles being sold today. The number of MY 2016 vehicles meeting
or exceeding the 2020 standards is much higher than projections for earlier model years. In previous
reports, EPA projected that 11% of MY 2015 vehicles and 5% of MY 2012 vehicles could meet or exceed
2020 standards. The MY 2016 vehicles that meet or exceed the MY 2020 standards are largely non-
hybrid gasoline vehicles. This is also a significant change from the MY 2012 projections, where the
majority of the vehicles meeting the MY 2020 standards were hybrids.
Looking ahead, about 3.5% of projected MY 2016 production could meet the MY 2025 C02 emissions
targets. Vehicles meeting the MY 2025 C02 targets are comprised solely of hybrids, plug-in hybrids,
electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Since the MY 2025 standards are nearly a decade away,
there's considerable time for continued improvements in gasoline vehicle technology to occur.
MY2016 Vehicle Production That Meets or Exceeds Future C02 Emissions Targets
20% -
PHEV
HEV
Diesel
Gasoline
2020	2022	2025
Target Year
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NOTICE: This technical report does not necessarily represent final EPA decisions or positions. It is
intended to present technical analysis of issues using data that are currently available. The purpose
in the release of such reports is to facilitate the exchange of technical information and to inform the
public of technical developments.
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